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Cbc ILibrarp 

of the 

aniuraitp of Bottb Carolina 




CcIIrrtion of J&ottl) Caroliniana 

C9I1.05" 
NS7 m 






UNIVERSITY OF N.C. AT CHAPEL HILL 



00017482252 



0917. ( 

N87m 

1319 



DATE 



This BOOK may be kept out TWO WEEKS 
ONLY, and is subject to a fine of FIVE 
CENTS a day thereafter. It was taken out 
on the day indicated below: 



Library B. 




NORTH CAROLINA MANUAL 



1919 



PUBLISHED BY THE 



NORTH CAROLINA HISTORICAL COMMISSION 



FOR USE OF 



MEMBERS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY 



SESSION OF 1919 



COMPILED AND EDITED 
BY 

R. D. W. CONNOR 

SECRETARY OF THE NORTH CAROLINA HISTORICAL 
COMMISSION 



RALEIGH 

Edwards & Broughton Printing Company 
state printers 

1918 



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PREFACE. 



This volume is issued by the North Carolina Historical Commis- 
sion in order to furnish to the members of the General Assembly of 
1919, in convenient form, information about the State which other- 
wise would require much investigation in many different sources. It 
is also hoped that it may prove of value and service to others who 
desire to have in succinct form such data about North Carolina. 
Similar Manuals, issued in 1903, 1905, and 1907 by the Secretary of 
State, and in 1909, 1911, 1913, 1915, and 1917 by the North Carolina 
Historical Commission, have proven of very general utility and in- 
terest. Requests for copies have come not only from all over North 
Carolina, but from most of the States of the Union, and the demand 
for them has been so great that all of these editions except those for 
1909 and 1917 have long been exhausted, and it is now extremely 
difficult to secure a copy. 

The Historical Commission trusts that the members of the General 
Assembly of 1919 will find this volume of service to them in their 
work. 






NORTH CAROLINA HISTORICAL COMMISSION. 



J. Bryan Grimes, Chairman, Raleigh. 

W. J. Peele Raleigh 

M. C. S. Noble Chapel Hill 

Thomas M. Pittman Henderson 

D. H. Hill Raleigh 

R. D. W. Connor, Secretary, Raleigh. 
— . — . , Legislative Reference Librarian, Raleigh. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 
Official Register for 1919 9 

LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT: 

Officers and Members of the Senate 19 

Senatorial Districts 20 

Rules of the Senate 22 

Standing Committees of the Senate 31 

Officers and Members of the House of Representatives 35 

Rules of the House of Representatives 38 

Standing Committees of the House of Representatives 48 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS: 

Department of the Governor 57 

Department of the Secretary of State 59 

Treasury Department ^ 61 

Auditor's Department 61 

Department of Education 64 

Attorney-General's Department 69 

JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT: 

Court of Impeachment 73 

The Supreme Court 74 

Superior Courts 75 

Other Courts 75 

The Corporation Commission 76 

ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS, BOARDS, COMMISSIONS: 

Department of Agriculture 83 

Department of Labor and Printing 96 

Department of Insurance 97 

North Carolina Historical Commission 103 

Legislative Reference Library 105 

State Library of North Carolina 107 

Library Commission of North Carolina 108 

State Board of Health 112 

Board of Public Charities 120 

North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 124 

State Highway Commission 136 

Fisheries Commission Board 138 

State Board of Elections 139 

State Standard Keeper 140 



6 Contents. 

PAGE 

Firemen's Relief Fund 141 

Audubon Society of North Carolina 141 

State Educational Commission 145 

Commission for Revision of Laws '. 146 

Board of Internal Improvements 146 

North Carolina National Guard 148 

Prison I 50 

STATE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS: 

University of North Carolina 155 

North Carolina A. and E. College 157 

North Carolina State Normal and Industrial College 160 

Cullowhee Normal and Industrial College ^ 163 

Appalachian Training School 164 

Fast Carolina Teachers Training School 165 

- e School for (White) Blind and for (Colored) Blind and Deaf .... 166 

St it'' School for the (White) Deaf 170 

Stonewall Jackson Training School 172 

State Normal School for the Colored and Indian Races 173 

State A. and T. College for the Colored Race 176 

Caswell Training School I 79 

STATE CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS: 

Central Hospital for the Insane 183 

Western Hospital for the Insane 184 

Eas-ern Hospital for the (Colored) Insane 185 

North Carolina Sanatorium for the Treatment of Tuberculosis 186 

North Carolina State Orthopaedic Hospital School 187 

Oxford Orphan Asylum 187 

North Carolina Orphanage for the Colored Race 189 

The Soldiers Home I 90 

The Confederate Woman's Home I 92 

MISCELLANEOUS: 

The North Carolina Railroad Company 197 

The Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad Company 201 

The North Carolina Agricultural Society 203 

State Capitol 206 

State Administration Building 2J.2 

North Carolina Day 213 

Legal Holidays 214 

The State Flag 217 

The Great Seal 219 

State Motto and Its Origin 223 

Confederate Museum at Richmond 225 



Contents. 7 

PLATFORMS OF POLITICAL PARTIES, 1918: page 

National Democratic Platform 229 

National Republican Platform 242 

National Socialist Platform 249 

National Prohibition Platform 257 

State Democratic Platform 265 

State Republican Platform 270 

State Socialist Platform 275 

ELECTION RETURNS: 

Vote for President 280 

Vote for Governor and Other State Officers 286 

Vote for United States Senator 293 

Vote for Congressmen, 1918 295 

Vote on Constitutional Amendments, 1918 300 

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 297 

CONSTITUTIONS: 

Constitution of the United States 313 

Constitution of North Carolina 329 

Index to the Constitution of North Carolina 359 

CENSUS: 

Population, area, etc., of the United States and Territories, 1910 and 1917 370 

Population, area, etc., of North Carolina by Counties, 1790-1910 372 

Estimated Population of North Carolina from 1675 to 1786 376 

Population of North Carolina towns and cities 377 

Counties and County Seats 385 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES: 

Executive Officials 391 

Justices of the Supreme Court 396 

Senators and Representatives in Congress 399 

Senators and Representatives in the General Assembly, 1919 406 



OFFICIAL REGISTER FOR 1919. 



LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT. 

O. Max Gardner President of the Senate... Shelby. 

D. G. Brummitt Speaker of the House of Representatives.. -Oxford. 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS. 

DEPARTMENT OF THE GOVERNOR. 

Thomas W. Bickett Governor Franklin. 

Santford Martin Private Secretary Forsyth. 

Miss Mamie C., Turner Executive Clerk Wake. 

Mrs. Hattie S. Gay. ...Executive Secretary Wayne. 

council of state. 

Secretary of State. Treasurer. Auditor. Superintendent of Public Instruction . 

department of state. 

J. Bryan Grimes Secretary of State Pitt. 

J. E. Sawyer Automobile Clerk Wake 

F. W. Brown Corporation Clerk .Pitt. 

Miss Minnie Bagwell Grant Clerk Wake. 

M.ss Sarah Edwards.. Stenographer Wake. 

department of the state auditor. 

W. P. Wood Auditor Randolph. 

E. H. Baker Chief Clerk Wake. 

Baxter Durham Tax Clerk Wake. 

Mrs. Fannie Smith Pension Clerk and Stenographer Wake. 

department of the state treasurer. 

Benjamin R. Lacy Treasurer Wake. 

W. F. Moody .Chief Clerk Mecklenburg. 

Homer Peele Teller Martin. 

Henry It. Williamson Institution Clerk Sampson. 

Mrs. W. D. Martin Stenographer Wake. 

department op education. 

E. C. Broops Superintendent of Public Instruction Pitt. 

W. H. Pittman Chief Clerk Edgecombe. 

A. S. Brower. Clerk of Loan Fund Cabarrus. 

E. E. Saiib Supervisor of Teacher Training Madison. 

N. C. Newbold Rural School Agent Beaufort. 

N. W. Walker ...State Inspector Public High Schools Currituck. 

L. C. Brogden Rural School Agent Wayne. 

W. C. Crcsby Secretary Community Service Bureau Mecklenburg. 

Slate Board of Education. — Governor, President; Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
Secretary; Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of State, Auditor, Treasurer, Attorney-General. 

Slate Board of Examiners and Institute Conductors. — E. C. Brooks, Chairman ex officio; 
E. E. Saj s, Secretary ex officio; A. T. Allen, D. F. Giles, J. Henry Highsmith, .Miss 
Susan Fulghum, Mrs. T. E. Johnston, Miss Hattie Parrott. 

department of justice. 

Jamfs S. Manning.. Attorney-General .Wake. 

Frank Nash Assistant Attorney-General Orange. 

Miss Eugenia Herring Stenographer Wake 



Id Official Register, 1919. 

JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT. 

JUSTICES OP THE SUPREME COURT. 

Walter Clark. Chief Justice Raleigh Wake. 

I'i \ r i- I). Walker Associate Justice— -- -Charlotte Mecklenburg. 

G IRQE 11. Brow v Associate Justice --Washington Beaufort. 

William A.. Hoke Associate Justice Lincolnton Lincoln. 

\ i i i •. Associate Justice Goldsboro Wayne. 

officials of the supreme court. 

J. L. Seaweli Clerk Raleigh Wake. 

M ms i ill DeL. Haywood. .Marshal and Librarian.. .Raleigh Wake. 

in ('. Strong Reporter Raleigh Wake. 

JUDGES OF THE SUPERIOR COURTS. 

W. M Bond Edenton Chowan. 

Georc;i U ( !onnor Wilson Wilson. 

John 11. Kerr Warrenton Warren. 

I \. I ) vnieis Goldsboro Wayne. 

\ H. ili ion _ New Pern Craven. 

Oliver H. Allen Kinston !Lenoir. 

Thomas H. < Ialvert Raleigh Wake. 

W. P. St u v Wilmington New Hanover. 

C. C. Lyon Klizabethtown Bladen. 

W. A. Devin Oxford.- Granville. 

H. P. I. \ne Reidsville Rockingham. 

Thomas J. Shaw Greensboro Guilford. 

W. J. Adams Carthage Moore. 

\\ . F. Harding -Charlotte Mecklenburg. 

B. F. Long Statesville Iredell. 

J. L. Webb Shelbv Cleveland. 

T. B. Finley Wilkesboro Wilkes. 

P. A. McElroy Marshall Madison. 

M. H. Justice Rutherfordton.. Rutherford. 

T. D. Brison Bryson City Cherokee. 

solicitors. 

J. C. B. Ehringhaus Elizabeth City Pasquotank. 

Richard ( !. Allsbrook Tarboro Edgecombe. 

Garland Majette. Jackson Northampton. 

Walter D. Siler Siler City Chatham. 

J. Lloyd Horton Farmville Pitt. 

J. A. Powers Kinston Lenoir. 

H. E. Norris Raleigh Wake. 

H. L. Lyon White ville Columbus. 

S. B. McLean Maxton Robeson. 

S. M. Gattis Hillsboro Orange. 

S. P. Gravi s Mount Airy Surry. 

John C. Bower Lexington Davidson. 

W. E. Brock Wadesboro Anson. 

G. W. Wiison Gastonia Gaston. 

Hayden Clement Salisbury Rowan. 

R. L. Huffman Morganton Burke. 

Johnson J. Hayes North Wilkesboro Wilkes. 

Mil hail Schenck Henderson ville Henderson. 

George M. Pritchard Marshall Madison. 

G. L. Jones Franklin ..Macon. 

SALARIES OF THE STATE OFFICERS. 

Governor $ 6,500 

Secretary of State 3,500 

State Auditor. 3,000 

State Treasurer 3,500 

Su- erintendent of Public Instruction 3,000 

Attorney-General... 3,000 

Insurance Commissioner _ 3,500 



Official Register, 1919. 11 

Corporation Commissioner $ 3,500 

Commissioner of Agriculture.. ..... 3,250 

Commissioner of Labor and Printing 3,000 

SALARIES OF THE JUDGES. 

Justices of the Supreme Court $ 4,250* 

Judges of the Superior Court (including 8750 for traveling and other 

necessary expenses incident to rotation) 4,000 

CORPORATION COMMISSION. 

W. T. Lee. Chairman Haywood. 

George P. Pell Commissioner Forsyth. 

A. J. Maxwell Commissioner Craven. 

J. S. Griffin Clerk Guilford. 

Miss E. G. Riddick Assistant Clerk Gates. 

Miss Meta Adams Assistant Clerk Haywood. 

RATE DEPARTMENT. 

W. G. Womble Rate Clerk Wake. 

Wiley G. Barnes Reporter Wilson. 

TAX DEPARTMENT. 

O. S Thomtson Tax Clerk Wake. 

Miss Ila Barnfs Assistant Clerk Harnett. 

Miss Marion Baker Stenographer Wake. 

M;ss Bell Andrews Assistant Clerk Wake. 

Miss Grace Lee Assistant Clerk Haywood. 

BANKING DEPARTMENT. 

S. A. Hubbard State Bank Examiner Rockingham. 

C. W. Cloninger Assistant Examiner Catawba. 

T. H. Bennett Assistant Examiner Craven. 

ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS, BOARDS, AND COMMISSIONS. 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

State Board of Agriculture. 

W. A. Graham .Commissioner, ex officio Chairman Raleigh. 

F. P. Latham First District Belhaven. 

C. W. Mitchell Second District Aulander. 

R. L. Woodard .Third District Pamlico. 

Clarence Poe Fourth District Raleigh. 

R. W. Scott Fifth District Haw River. 

A. T. McCallum Sixth District Red Springs. 

C. C. Wright Seventh District Hunting Creek. 

William Bleesoe Eighth District.. Gale. 

H. Q Alexander Ninth District Matthews. 

A. Cannon Tenth District Horse Shoe. 

Executive Office. 

W. A. Graham ..Commissioner. 

K. W. Barnfs Secretary and Purchasing Agent. 

M ss S. D. Jones ..Bookkeeper and Private Secretary. 

Miss M. H. McKimmon. - __ Stenographer. 

C. W. H. Creighton... Night Watchman. 

Analytical Division. 

B. W. Kilgorb - State Chemist. 

J M. Pickel Feed Chemist. 

W. G. Haywood .Fertilizer Chemist. 

E. S. Dewar .. Assistant Chemist. 

G. L. ARTHURrjR."-------- Assistant Chemist. 



*Each Supreme Court Justice has, in addition to his salary, an allowance of $900 an- 
nually for a stenographer. 



12 ()i in i \i. Register, 1919. 

l; \. Fl T/i i! Assistant Chemist. 

I! \\ ('.>ii in Assistant Test Farm Director. 

Miss M. S. liiKDSOXO Clerk and Stenographer. 

.1 I II \ m n .... - Clerk and Stenographer. 

.1. K. I'ii umer. - Soil Chemist. 

Museum. 

II. II. Brimley Curator. 

T. W Vdii ki 8 Assistant. 

M 188 An NIE Lewis Usher. 

Veterinary Division. 

[AM Moore Veterinarian. 

ii'. Wattb... Assistant. 

I,. J. I'm LHABEB Assistant. 

Miss Margaret Xewsom. Stenographer. 

Division of Animal Husbandry. 

D \x T. Gray* Chief of Animal Industry. 

Earl Hostetler Assistant. 

Alvin I. Reed* Dairy Field Work. 

I ■'. I;. F ui\n \m_. Cheese Work. 

.1. Stanley Combs Assistant. 

J. A. Arey* Assistant. 

.). W. Sli ss Beef Cattle Work. 

15. F. Kiii'i'* Assistant. 

Mis [r a MtJLLiB— Stenograoher. 

M lea Emma Vdixg... Clerk. 

Division of Entomology. 

Franklin Sherman. Entomologist. 

Ii. W. Lei by Assistant. 

.1 ( Eckert '. Field Work. 

C. L. Saks Beekeeping. 

Division of Horticulture. 

C. D. Matthews _i Assistant Horticulturist. 

Miss Elizabeth Griffin Stenographer. 

Food and Oil Division. 

W. M. Allen Pure Food and Oil Chemist. 

C. E. Bell Assistant. 

L. B. Rhodes Assistant. 

W. G. Farror Assistant. 

George Little Oil Clerk. 

Miss S. G. Allen__ Stenographer. 

Mrs. B. T. Branch Stenographer. 

Division Farmers' Institutes. 

T. B. Parker Director Institutes. 

Mrs. Jane S. McKimmon Assistant Director Institutes. 

Mrs. L. P. O'Neal Stenographer. 

Botany and Agronomy. 

.}. L. Burgfss Botanist and Agronomist. 

C. II. Waldron Assistant. 

Miss Mary Knight Assistant, Seed Laboratory. 

Miss Louise Rademacher.. Assistant, Bacteriological Laboratory. 

Co-operative Demonstration. 

C R. Hudson*.. State Demonstration Agent. 

T. E. Browne*.,. In Charge Boys' Corn Clubs. 

H. H. B. Mask Assistant. 

Miss Louise Wright Stenographer. 

Girls' Demonstration Work 

Mrs Jane McKimmon,* In Charge Girls' Demonstration Work 

and Assistant Director of Institutes. 
Miss Minnie Jamison* Assistant in Home Demonstration Work. 

*In cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture. 



Official Register, 1919. 13 

Miss L. Wingfteld Assistant in Home Demonstration Work. 

M ss Carrie Mos' s* Stenographer. 

Mrs. F. E. Thomison Stenographer. 

Drainage Work. 
H. M. Lynde* Drainage Engineer 

Division of Agronomy. 

C. B. Williams* Agronomist in Extension Work. 

W. F. Pate ". Assistant 

E. C. Blair Assistant. 

W. A. Da vis- _ Assistant. 

G. M. Garren Assistant. 

Division of Co-operative Marketing. 

W. R. Camp* Chief, Cooperative Marketing. 

C. S. Jonfs Assistant 

Mrs. A. A. Carlisle Stenographer. 

W. E. Gannett 1 Assistant. 

Office of Information. 

F. II. Jeter _ Agricultural Editor. 

D. G. Conn.... Bulletin Clerk. 

A. O. Alford Mailing Clerk. 

Test Farms. 

W. J. Brockington, Superintendent Pender Test Farm, Willard, N. C. 
F. T. Meacham, Superintendent Iredell Test Farm, Statesville, N. C. 

C. E. Clark, Superintendent Edgecombe Test Farm, Rocky Mount, N. C. 
S. C. Clapp, Superintendent Buncombe Test Farm, Swannanoa, N. C. 

E. G. Moss. Superintendent Granville Test Farm. Oxford, N. C. 
H. Bocker, Superintendent Washington Test Farm, Winona, N. C. 

O. J. McConnell Cotton Grader. 

S. J. Rubinow In Charge of Fairs. 

department of labor and printing. 

M. L. Shipman Commissioner Henderson. 

Lawrence E. Nichols Assistant Commissioner Wake. 

Miss Gladi s Willia* son Stenographer Wake. 

Commercial Printing Co... ] 

Edwar: s & Broughton j- State Printers Wake. 

Printing Co J 

insurance department. 

Jamfs R. Young.. Commissioner Vance. 

S. W. Wade Deputy Carteret. 

Capt. E. T. Burr Actuary = Wake. 

Maj. J. J. Bernard. __ Chief Clerk Wake. 

M ss Ida Montgomery .Cashier and Stenographer Warren. 

M ss Eva Powell License Clerk Wake. 

Miss Mildred C. Wester Stenographer Vance. 

fire marshal department. 

Capt. W. A. Scott Deputy and Investigator Guilford. 

Capt. F. M. Jordan Deputy and Investigator.. Buncombe. 

Capt. Sherwood Brockwell. Deputy and Fire Prevention Expert Wake. 

N. E. Cannady Deputy and State Electrical Inspector Granville. 

W. M. Royster Fire Insurance Expert Edgecombe. 

Miss Pattie Jordan Clerk and Stenographer Caswell. 

historical commission. 

J. Bryan Grimes Chairman Pitt. 

W. J. Peele Commissioner ..Wake. 

Thom/s M. Pittman Commissioner Vance. 

M. C. S. Noble Commissioner Orange. 

D. H. Hill Commissioner Wake. 



*In cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture. 



14 Official Register, 1919. 

It. D. W. Connor.. Secretary.. Wake. 

Legislative Reference Librarian 

Miss Marjory Terrell.. Stenographer Wake. 

F. A. Olis Collector for the Hall of History Wake. 

Mrs. .1 M. Wivfree Restorer of Manuscripts Wake. 

Mrb W. S. WtsT. ..File Clerk .Wake. 

Miss Sophie D. Busbee .Stenographer ..Wake. 

STATE LIBRARY. 

Miss Carrie Broughton ...Librarian Wake. 

Miss Bissie King Assistant Librarian Wake. 

Trustees of the Stale Library. — Governor, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Secre- 
tary of State. 

Purchasing Committee. — Miss Carrie L. Broughton, W. E. Stone, Mrs. E. R. Blan- 
ton, Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

library commission. 

C. C. Wright Chairman Wilkes. 

Annie F. Petty Vice Chairman Guilford. 

Charles Lee Smith Treasurer Wake. 

Carrie L. Broughton Commissioner Wake. 

E. C . BprvoFs Commissioner Durham. 

Mrs. Minnie L. Blanton Secretary and Director Wake. 

Mary S. Yates Librarian. Guilford. 

Etta D. Perry Stenographer and Clerk Wake. 

state board of health. 

Members of the State Board of Health. 

J. Howell Way, M.D ...President. __. Wavnesville. 

R. H. Lewis, M D... Member of Board Raleigh. 

J. L. Ludlow, C.E Member of Board Winston-Salem. 

Thom.-s E. Anderson, M.D Member of Board Statesville. 

Ch s. O'H. Laughinghouse, M.D.__Member of Board Greenville. 

Edward J. Wood, M.D Member of Board Wilmington. 

F. R. Harris, M.D... Member of Board Henderson. 

Cyrus Thomtson, M.D Member of Board Jacksonville. 

E. C. Register, M.D Member of Board.. Charlotte. 

Executive Department. 

W. S. Rankin, M.D Secretary and State Health Officer.. -Cabarrus. 

Miss Mae Reynolds Clerk and Bookkeeper Wake. 

• Bureau of Vital Statistics. 

J. R. Gordon, M.D Chief of Bureau Guilford. 

Miss Ruth Robinson. Stenographer Wake. 

Miss Grayce Reynolds Stenographer Wake. 

Mrs. W. H. Gilbert.. Clerk.^. Wake. 

Miss Helen Batchelor Tabulating Clerk Wake. 

Miss .Minnie Batchelor Bookkeeper Wake. 

Miss Margaret Young Transcribing Clerk Wake. 

Miss Sallie Hulin Clerk Wake. 

M:ss Mattie Woodward Clerk Wake. 

Miss Blanche Henderson Clerk Wake. 

MhB. V. S. Williams Clerk Wake. 

Mrs. L. G. Morrow Clerk Wake. 

Bureau Engineering and Education. 

Warren H. Booker, C.E Chief of Bureau Wake. 

Ronald B. Wilson Director of Publicity Pitt. 

Miss Lucy Hulin Mailing Clerk Wake. 

Miss Elizabeth Faucette Assistant Mailing Clerk.. Wake. 

Bureau of Medical Inspection of Schools. 

George M. Cooper, M.D Director Sampson. 

Miss Nora Pratt ...Nurse Wake. 

Miss Alma Sorrell... .Stenographer and Clerk ..Wake. 



Official Register, 1919. 15 

Bureau of County Health Work. 

B. E. Washburn, M.D ...Director .Rutherford. 

Miss Fannie Washburn .Stenographer Rutherford. 

Bureau of Epidemiology. 

A. McR. Crouch, M.D State Epidemiologist Richmond. 

L. L. Williams, M.D Field Inspector Rutherford. 

Miss Mary Robinson Clerk and Stenographer .Wake. 

Miss Cordelia Tate Clerk Wake. 

Bureau of Infant Hygiene. 

Mrs. Kate Brew Vaughn Director Wake. 

Bureau of Venereal Diseases. 

James A. Keiger, M.D Director Stokes. 

Miss Lillian Turner Stenographer — ..Wake. 

State Laboratory of Hygiene. 

Clarence A. Shore. M.D Director. 

Miss Margaret McKimmon Stenographer and Bookkeeper. 

A. B. Greenwood, M.D Manufacturing Serologist. 

F. W. Temple Bacteriologist. 

H. J. Stock ard Bacteriologist. 

Margaret Hall Bacteriologist. 

Clara Bahret Bacteriologist (Bacterial Vaccines). 

Mary F. Frank, Serologist. 

Susannah B. Jones Chemist. 

Gladys Dewar Stenographer. 

state highway commission. 

T. W. Bickett, Governor Chairman Raleigh. 

Joseph Hyde Pratt Secretary Chapel Hill. 

E. C. Duncan Commissioner. _ Raleigh. 

Bennehan Cameron Commissioner Stagville. 

T. F. Hickerson Commissioner Chapel Hill. 

W. C. Riddick Commissioner West Raleigh. 

Guy V. Rober s Commissioner Marshall. 

W. S. Fallis State Highway Engineer Raleigh. 

D. H. Winslow Maintenance Engineer Raleigh. 

J. B. Clingman District Supervisor Raleigh. 

George Y. Thomason District Supervisor Raleigh. 

H. Hocutt District Supervisor Raleigh. 

A. F. Brown District Supervisor Raleigh. 

J. T. L.'shley District Supervisor Raleigh. 

W. W. Baker District Supervisor Raleigh. 

W. V. Gemmingen District Supervisor .Raleigh. 

W. J. Matthews District Supervisor ." Raleigh. 

Ernest Wilkinson District Supervisor. Raleigh. 

state board of public charities and public welfare. 

Members of Board. 

W. A. Blair, Chairman Winston-Salem. 

Carey J. Hunter, Vice-Chairman Raleigh. 

A. W. McAllister Greensboro. 

Rev. M. L. Kbsler Thomasville. 

Mrs. Walter F. Woodard , Wilson. 

Mrs. Thom. s W. Lingle Chapel Hill. 

J. A. McAulay Mount Gilead. 

R. F. Be.asley Commissioner. Union. 

Miss Daisy Denson Secretary Wake. 

adjutant general's department. 

Beverly S. Royster Adjutant General Granville. 

Miss Lelia M. Dye Secretary Wake. 

Joseph J. Bernard United States Property and Distributing 

Officer Wake. 

Francis A. Macon State Property and Distributing Officer Vance. 



16 Official Register, 1919. 

BOARD OF PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS. 

Governor, Secretary of State, State Treasurer, Attorney-General. 

T. R. Robertson Superintendent. 

Gei irge F. Kennedy Custodian. Administration Building. 

W. I>. Terri _ .Janitor, Capitol Building. 

W. I Bf ks Night Watchman, Capitol Building. 

W. 1 '. Lam bert Gardener, Canitol Grounds. 

C. K. King Engineer, Central Heating Plant. 

\\ . ( '. Horton Assistant Engineer, Central Heating Plant. 

E E. Barrow Custodian. State Departments Building. 

\\ i .si i a, Moseley Janitor, State Departments Building. 

NORTH CAROLINA GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SURVEY. 

T. W. Bickett, Governor Ex officio Chairman Raleigh. 

Frank Hewitt Member of Board Asheville. 

R G. Lassiter Member of Board Oxford. 

John Sprunt Hill Member of Board Durham. 

C. C. Smoot, 3d Member of Board.. No.Wilkesboro. 

Joseph Hyde Pratt. State Geologist Chapel Hill. 

J. S. Holmes State Forester Chapel Hill. 

Miss H. M. Berry Secretary Chapel Hill. 

state prison. 

H. B. Vahner .Chairman Lexington. 

A. E. Smith Director Mount Airy. 

W. M. S \xders Director -.Smithfield. 

B. F. Shelton Director Speed. 

Frank Gough Director Lumberton. 

J. R. Collie Superintendent Raleigh. 

S. J. Busbee Warden Raleigh. 

STATE BOARD OF ELECTIONS. 

Wilson G. Lamb Chairman Williamston. 

R. T. Claywell Secretary Morganton. 

J. W. Pass Member Yadkinville. 

A. B. Freeman Member . Hendersonville . 

Clarence Call.. Member Wilkesboro. 

fisheries commission board. 

E. Chambeks Smith .Chairman Raleigh. 

A. V. Cobb Commissioner Windsor. 

S. P. Hancock Commissioner Beaufort. 

E. H. Freeman. Commissioner Wilmington. 

T. F. Winslow Commissioner Hertford. 

H. L. Gibbs. Fish Commissioner Oriental. 

state standard keeper. 
T. F. Brockwell... Raleigh. 



PART I. 



THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT. 



1. Officers and Members of the Senate. 

2. Senatorial Districts. 

3. Rules of the Senate. 

4. Standing Committees of the Senate. 

5. Officers and Members of the House of 

Representatives. 

6. Rules of the House of Representatives. 

7. Standing Committees of the House of 

Representatives. 



OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF THE SENATE. 



OFFICERS. 

O. Max Gardner President Cleveland 

Lindsay C. Warren President pro tern Beaufort 

R. O. Self Principal Clerk Forsyth 

W. D. Gaster Sergeant-at-arms Cumberland 

C. C. Broughton Reading Clerk Montgomery 

J. W. Hughes Engrossing Clerk Beaufort 



SENATORS, 1919. 

First District— W. T. Cross (D.), Gatesville; M. W. Ferebee (D.), 
Elizabeth City. 

Second District — W. S. Davenport (D.), Mackeys; Lindsay C. War- 
ren (D.), Washington. 

Third District— Dr. W. Mitchell (D.), Lewiston. 

Fourth District — Geo. A. Holderness (D.), Tarboro; W. L. Long 
(D.), Roanoke Rapids. 

Fifth District — F. C. Harding (D.), Greenville. 

Sixth District — T. T. Ross (D.), Nashville; H. G. Connor, Jr. (D.), 
Wilson. 

Seventh District — George V. Cowper (D.), Kinston; F. Brock (D.), 
Trenton. 

Eighth District — Earle A. Humphrey (D.), Goldsboro. 

Ninth District— Dr. R. L. Carr (D.), Rose Hill. 

Tenth District — W. B. Cooper (D.), Wilmington. 

Eleventh District — J. A. Brown (D.), Chadbourn.^ 

Twelfth District — H. E. Stacy (D.), Lumberton. 

Thirteenth District — J. W. Johnson (D.), Raeford. 

Fourteenth District — W. H. Fisher (R.), Clinton; Edward L. 
Gavin, Jr. (R.), Sanford. 

Fifteenth District— E. C. Beddingfield (D.), Raleigh, R. F. D. 1. 

Sixteenth District — M. J. Hawkins (D.), Ridgeway. 

Seventeenth District— T. G. Currin (D.), Oxford, R. F. D. 6. 



20 Legislative Department. 

Eighteenth District — Geo. L. Williamson (D.), Yanceyville; Lyn- 
don Patterson (D.), Chapel Hill R. F. D. 

Nineteenth District— P. W. Glidewell (D.), Reidsville. 

Twentieth District — A. M. Scales (D.), Greensboro. 

Twenty-first District — Robt. L. Burns (D.), Carthage; Wilkins P. 
Horton (D. ), Pittsboro. 

Twenty-second District — N. V. Long (R.), Biscoe. 

Twenty-third District — J. N. Price (D.), Monroe, R. F. D. 5; J. F. 
Shinn (D.), Norwood. 

Twenty-fourth District — J. L. DeLaney (D.), Charlotte; A. B. Pal- 
mer (D.), Concord. 

Twenty-fifth District — R. Lee Wright (D.), Salisbury. 

Twenty-sixth District — James A. Gray, Jr. (D.), Winston-Salem. 

Twenty-seventh District. R. L. Haymore (R.), Mount Airy. 

Twenty-eighth District — James L. Sheek (R.), Mocksville. 

Twenty-ninth District — Dorman Thompson (D.), Statesville. 

Thirtieth District — W. A. Reinhardt (R.), Newton. 

Thirty-first District — A. G. Mangum (D.), Gastonia. 

Thirty-second District— D. Z. Newton (D.), Shelby; E. B. Cloud, 
(D.), Columbus. 

Thirty-third District— E. F. Wakefield (R.), Lenoir; T. Ovid 
Teague (R.), Taylorsville. 

Thirty-fourth District — E. F. Lovill (D.), Boone. 

Thirty-fifth District — James L. Hyath (R.), Burnsville. 

Thirty-sixth District — Henry B. Stevens (D.), Asheville. 

Thirty-seventh District — 0. B. Coward (D.), Webster. 

Thirty-eighth District — R. D. Sisk (R.), Franklin. 



SENATORIAL DISTRICTS 

First District — Perquimans, Currituck, Chowan, Gates, Pasquotank, 
Camden, and Hertford shall elect two Senators. 

Second District — Martin. Washington, Tyrrell, Dare, Beaufort, 
Hyde, and Pamlico shall elect two Senators. 

Third District — Northampton and Bertie shall elect one Senator. 

Fourth District — Halifax and Edgecombe shall elect two Senators. 

Fifth District — Pitt shall elect one Senator. 

Sixth District — Franklin, Nash, and Wilson shall elect two Sena- 
tors. 



Senatorial Districts. 21 

Seventh District — Carteret, Craven, Greene, Jones, Lenoir, and 
Onslow shall elect two Senators. 

Eighth District — Wayne shall elect one Senator. 

Ninth District — Duplin and Pender shall elect one Senator. 

Tenth District — New Hanover and Brunswick shall elect one 
Senator. 

Eleventh District — Bladen and Columbus shall elect one Senator. 

Twelfth District — Robeson shall elect one Senator. 

Thirteenth District — Cumberland and Hoke shall elect one Senator. 

Fourteenth District — Harnett, Johnston, Lee, and Sampson shall 
elect two Senators. 

Fifteenth District — Wake shall elect one Senator. 

Sixteenth District — Vance and Warren shall elect one Senator. 

Seventeenth District — Granville and Person shall elect one Senator. 

Eighteenth District — Caswell, Alamance, Orange, and Durham 
shall elect two Senators. 

Nineteenth District — Rockingham shall elect one Senator. 

Twentieth District — Guilford shall elect one Senator. 

Twenty-first District — Chatham, Moore, Richmond, and Scotland 
shall elect two Senators. 

Twenty-second District — Montgomery and Randolph shall elect 
one Senator. 

Twenty-third District — Anson, Davidson, Stanly, and Union shall 
elect two Senators. 

Twenty-fourth District — Cabarrus and Mecklenburg shall elect two 
Senators. 

Twenty-fifth District — Rowan shall elect one Senator. 

Twenty-Sixth District — Forsyth shall elect one Senator. 

Twenty-seventh District — Stokes and Surry shall elect one Senator. 

Twenty-eighth District— Davie, Wilkes, and Yadkin shall elect one 
Senator. 

Twenty-ninth District — Iredell shall elect one Senator. 

Thirtieth District — Catawba and Lincoln shall elect one Senator. 

Thirty-first District — Gaston shall elect one Senator. 

Thirty-second District — Cleveland, Henderson, Polk, and Ruther- 
ford shall elect two Senators. 

Thirty-third District — Alexander, Burke, Caldwell, and McDowell 
shall elect two Senators. 

Thirty-fourth District — Alleghany, Ashe, and Watauga shall elect 
one Senator. 



22 Legislative Department. 

Thirty-fifth District— Avery, .Madison, Mitchell, and Yancey shall 
elect one Senator. 

Thirty-sixth District — Buncombe shall elect one Senator. 

Thirty-seventh District — Haywood, Jackson, Transylvania, and 
Swain shall elect one Senator. 

Thirty-eighth District — Cherokee, Clay, Graham, and Macon shall 
elect one Senator. 



RULES OF THE SENATE. 

ORDER OF BUSINESS. 

1. The President having taken the chair at the hour to which the 
Senate shall have adjourned, and a quorum being present, the Jour- 
nal of the preceding day shall be read, unless otherwise ordered by 
the Senate, to the end that any mistake may be corrected. 

2. After reading and approval of the Journal, the order of business 
shall be as follows: 

(1) Reports of Standing Committees. 

(2) Reports of Select Committees. 

(3) Announcement of Petitions, Bills and Resolutions. 

(4) Unfinished Business of preceding day. 

(5) Special Orders. 

(6) General Orders: First, bills and resolutions on third reading; 
second, bills and resolutions on second reading; but messages from 
the Governor and House of Representatives, and communications and 
reports from State officers, and reports from the Committees on En- 
grossed Bills and Enrolled Bills may be received and acted on under 
any order of business. 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE PRESIDENT. 

3. He shall take the chair promptly at the appointed time and pro- 
ceed with the business of the Senate according to the rules adopted. 
At any time during the absence of the President, the President pro 
tempore, who shall be elected, shall preside, and he is hereby vested, 
during such time, with all powers of the President, except that of 
giving a casting vote in case of a tie, when he shall have voted as a 
Senator. 



Rules of the Senate. 23 

4. He shall assign to Doorkeepers their respective duties and shall 
appoint such pages and laborers as may be necessary, each of whom 
shall receive the same compensation as is now provided by law. 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE CLERK. 

5. The President and Clerk of the Senate shall see that all bills 
shall be acted upon by the Senate in the order in which they stand 
upon the Calendar, unless otherwise ordered, as hereinafter pro- 
vided. The Calendar shall include the numbers and titles of bills 
and joint resolutions which have passed the House of Representatives 
and have been received by the Senate for concurrence. 

6. The Clerk shall certify the passage of bills by the Senate, with 
the date thereof, together with the fact whether passed by a vote of 
three-fifths or two-thirds of the Senate, whenever such vote may be 
required by the Constitution and laws of the State. 

ON THE RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF SENATORS. 

7. Every Senator presenting a paper shall endorse the same; if a 
petition, memorial, or report to the General Assembly, with a brief 
statement of its subject or contents, adding his name; if a resolution, 
with his name; if a report of a committee, a statement of such re- 
port, with the name of the committee, and member making the same; 
if a bill, a statement of its title, which shall contain a brief state- 
ment of the subject or contents of the bill, with his name; and all 
bills, resolutions, petitions and memorials shall be delivered to the 
Clerk and by him handed to the President, to be by him referred, and 
he shall announce the titles and references of the same, which shall 
be entered on the Journal. 

8. All motions shall be reduced to writing, if desired by the Presi- 
dent or any Senator, delivered at the table and read by the President 
or Clerk, before the same shall be debated; but any such motion may 
be withdrawn by the introducer at any time before decision or 
amendment. 

9. If any question contains several distinct propositions, it shall be 
divided by the President, at the request of any Senator: Provided, 
each subdivision, if left to itself, shall form a substantive proposition. 

10. When the President is putting a question, or a division by 
counting shall be had. no Senator shall walk out of or across the 



24 Legislative Department. 

house, nor, when a Senator is speaking, pass between him and the 
President. 

11. Every Senator wishing to speak or debate, or to present a peti- 
tion or other paper, or to make a motion or report, shall rise from 
his seat and address the President, and shall not proceed further un- 
til recognized by him. No Senator shall speak or debate more than 
twice nor longer than thirty minutes on the same day on the same 
subject without leave of the Senate, and when two or more Senators 
rise at once the President shall name the Senator who is first to 
speak. 

12. Every Senator who shall be within the bar of the Senate when 
the question is stated by the Chair shall vote thereon, unless he shall 
be excused by the Senate, or unless he be directly interested in the 
question; and the bar of the Senate shall include the entire Senate 
Chamber. 

13. When a motion to adjourn, or for recess, shall be affirmatively 
determined, no member or officer shall leave his place until adjourn- 
ment or recess shall be declared by the President. 

STANDING COMMITTEES. 

14. The following committees shall be named by the Lieutenant- 
Governor: 

On Agriculture. 

On Appropriations. 

On Banks and Currency. 

On Claims. 

On Commerce. 

On Congressional Apportionment. 

On Constitutional Amendments. 

On Corporation Commission. 

On Corporations. 

On Counties, Cities, and Towns. 

On Distribution of Governor's Message. 

On Education. 

On Election Law. 

On Engrossed Bills. 

On Federal Relations. 

On Finance. 

On Fish and Fisheries. 



Rules of the Senate. 25 

On Caswell Training School. 

On Game Law. 

On Immigration. 

On Insane Asylums. 

On Institutions for the Blind. 

On Institutions for the Deaf. 

On Insurance. 

On Internal Improvements. 

On Journal. 

On Judicial Districts. 

On Judiciary, No. 1. 

On Judiciary, No. 2. 

On Manufacturing. 

On Military Affairs. 

On Mining. 

On Penal Institutions. 

On Pensions and Soldiers' Home. 

On Propositions and Grievances. 

On Public Health. 

On Public Roads. 

On Railroads. 

On Rules. 

On Salaries and Fees. 

On Senate Expenditures. 

On Shellfish. 

JOINT COMMITTEES. 

15. On Library. 
On Printing. 

On Trustees of University. 
On Revisal. 

16. The Committee on Engrossed Bills shall examine all bills, 
amendments and resolutions before they go out of the possession of 
the Senate, and make a report when they find them correctly en- 
grossed: Provided, that when a bill is typewritten, and has no inter- 
lineations therein, and has passed the Senate without amendment, it 
shall be sent to the House without engrossment, unless otherwise 
ordered. 

17. The Committee on Appropriations shall carefully examine all 
bills and resolutions appropriating or paying any moneys out of the 



26 Legislative Department. 

State Treasury, except bills creating or increasing salaries, which 
shall be referred to the proper committee: Provided, said com- 
mittee shall report to the Appropriation Committee the amount 
allowed, and keep an accurate record of the same and report to the 
Senate from time to time. 

18. Every report of the committee upon a bill or resolution which 
shall not be considered at the time of making the same, or laid on 
the table by a vote of the Senate, shall stand upon the General 
Orders with the bill or resolution; and the report of the committee 
shall show that a majority of the committee were present and voted. 

19. That no committee shall be composed of more than nine mem- 
bers, unless the Lieutenant-Governor shall, without objection from 
the Senate, appoint a greater number on any committee. 

ON GENERAL ORDERS AND SPECIAL ORDERS. 

20. Any bill or other matter may be made a Special Order for a 
particular day or hour by a vote of the majority of the Senators vot- 
ing, and if it shall not be completed on that day it shall be returned 
to its place on the Calendar, unless it shall be made a Special Order 
for another day; and when a Special Order is under consideration it 
shall take precedence of any Special Order or a subsequent order for 
the day, but such subsequent order may be taken up immediately 
after the previous Special Order has been disposed of. 

21. Every bill shall receive three readings previous to its being 
passed, and the President shall give notice at each whether it be 
the first, second, or third. After the first reading, unless a motion 
shall be made by some Senator, it shall be the duty of the President 
to refer the subject-matter to an appropriate committee. No bill 
shall be amended until it shall have been twice read. 

PROCEEDINGS WHEN THERE IS NOT A QUORUM VOTING. 

22. If, on taking the question on a bill, it shall appear that a con- 
stitutional quorum is not present, or if the bill require a vote of a 
certain proportion of all the Senators to pass it, and it appears that 
such number is not present, the bill shall be again read and the 
question taken thereon; if the bill fail a second time for the want of 
the necessary number being present and voting, the bill shall not be 
finally lost, but shall be returned to the Calendar in its proper order. 



Rules of the Senate. 27 

precedence of motions. 

23. When a question is before the Senate, no motion shall be re- 
ceived except those herein specified, which motions shall have prece- 
dence as follows, viz.: 

(1) For an adjournment. 

(2) To lay on the table. 

(3) For the previous question. 

(4) To postpone indefinitely. 

(5) To postpone to a certain day. 

(6) To commit to a standing committee. 

(7) To commit to a select committee. 

(8) To amend. 

(9) To substitute. 

24. The previous question shall be as follows: "Shall the main 
question be now put?" and, until it is decided, shall preclude all 
amendments and debate. If this question shall be decided in the 
affirmative, the "main question" shall be on the passage of the bill, 
resolution or other matter under consideration; but when amend- 
ments are pending, the question shall be taken up on such amend- 
ments, in their order, without further debate or amendment. How- 
ever, any Senator may move the previous question and may restrict 
the same to an amendment or other matter then under discussion. 
If such question be decided in the negative, the main question shall 
be considered as remaining under debate. 

25. When a motion for the previous question is made, and pend- 
ing a second thereto by a majority, debate shall bease, and only a 
motion to adjourn or lay on the table shall be in order, which mo- 
tions shall be put as follows: Adjourn; previous question; lay on 
the table. After a motion for the previous question is made, pend- 
ing a second thereto, any member may give notice that he desires to 
offer an amendment to the bill or other matter under consideration; 
and after the previous question is seconded, such member shall be 
entitled to offer his amendment in pursuance of such notice. 

OTHER QUESTIONS TO BE TAKEN WITHOUT DEBATE. 

26. The motions to adjourn and lay on the table shall be decided 
without debate, and the motion to adjourn shall always be in order 
when made by a Senator entitled to the floor. 



28 Legislative Department. 

27. The respective motions to postpone to a certain day, or to com- 
mit, shall preclude debate on the main question. 

28. All questions relating to priority of business shall be decided 
without debate. 

29. When the reading of a paper is called for, except petitions, 
and the same is objected to by any Senator, it shall be determined 
by the Senate without debate. 

30. Any Senator requesting to be excused from voting may make, 
either immediately before or after the vote shall have been called, 
and before the result shall have been announced, a brief statement 
of the reasons for making such request, and the question shall then 
be taken without debate. Any Senator may explain his vote on any 
bill pending by obtaining permission of the President before the 
vote is put: Provided, that not more than three minutes shall be 
consumed in such explanation. 

questions that require a two-thirds vote. 

31. No bill or resolution on its third reading shall be acted on out 
of the regular order in which it stands on the Calendar, and no bill 
or resolution shall be acted upon on its third reading the same day 
on which it passed its second reading, unless so ordered by two- 
thirds of the Senators present. 

32. No bill or resolution shall be sent from the Senate on the day 
of its passage, except on the last day of the session, unless otherwise 
ordered by a vote of two-thirds of the Senators present. 

33. No bill or resolution, after being laid upon the table upon mo- 
tion, shall be taken therefrom except by a vote of two-thirds of the 
Senators present. 

DECORUM IN DEBATE. 

34. Xo remark reflecting personally upon the action of any Senator 
shall be in order in debate, unless preceded by a motion or resolution 
of censure. 

35. When a Senator shall be called to order he shall take his seat 
until the President shall have determined whether he was in order 
or not; if decided to be out of order, he shall not proceed without 
the permission of the Senate, and every question of order shall be 
decided by the President, subject to an appeal to the Senate by any 
Senator; and if a Senator is called to order for words spoken, the 



Rules op the Senate. 29 

words excepted to shall be immediately taken down in writing, that 
the President or Senate may be better able to judge of the matter. 

MISCELLANEOUS RULES. 

36. When a blank is to be filled, and different sums or times shall 
be proposed, the question shall be first taken on the highest sum or 
the longest time. 

37. When a question has been once put and decided, it shall be in 
order for any Senator who shall have voted in the majority to move 
a reconsideration thereof; but no motion for the reconsideration of 
any vote shall be in order after the bill, resolution, message, report, 
amendment or motion upon which the vote was taken shall have 
gone out of the possession of the Senate; nor shall any motion for 
reconsideration be in order unless made on the same day, or the 
next following legislative day, on which the vote proposed to be 
reconsidered shall have taken place, unless the same shall be made 
by the Committee on Enrolled Bills for verbal or grammatical errors 
in the bills, when the same may be made at any time. Nor shall any 
question be reconsidered more than once. 

38. All bills and resolutions shall take their place upon the Calen- 
dar according to their number, and shall be taken up in regular 
order, unless otherwise ordered. 

39. No smoking shall be allowed within the Senate Chamber dur- 
ing the sessions. 

40. Senators and visitors shall uncover their heads upon entering 
the Senate Chamber while the Senate is in session, and shall con- 
tinue uncovered during their continuance in the Chamber. 

41. No Senator or officer of the Senate shall depart the service of 
the Senate without leave, or receive pay as a Senator or officer for 
the time he is absent without leave. 

42. No person other than the executive and judicial officers of the 
State, members and officers of the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives, and ex-members shall be permitted within the Senate Chamber. 

43. No rule of the Senate shall be altered, suspended or rescinded 
except on a two thirds vote of the Senators present: Provided, that 
this shall not apply to Rule 55. 

44. In case a less number than a quorum of the Senate shall con- 
vene, they are authorized to send the doorkeeper, or any other per- 
son, for any or all absent Senators, as a majority of the Senators 
present shall determine. 



30 Legislative Department. 

45. The ayes and noes may be called for on any question before the 
vote is taken, and if seconded by one-fifth of the Senators present, 
the question shall be decided by the ayes and noes, and the same 
shall be entered upon the Journal. 

46. The President of the Senate, whenever it shall appear to him 
to be necessary in order to expedite the public business, shall appoint 
clerks to such Senate Committees as may be in need of same. 

47. Every bill introduced into the Senate shall be printed or type- 
written. Amendments need not be typewritten. 

48. The Clerk of the Senate shall provide a box of sufficient size, 
with an opening through the top, for the reception of bills. Such box 
shall be kept under lock and key and shall be stationed on the Clerk's 
desk. The President of the Senate shall have in his charge and keep- 
ing the key to such box. All bills which are to be introduced into 
the Senate shall be deposited in such box before the session begins. 
At the proper time the President shall open the box and take there- 
from the bills. Such bills shall be read by their titles, which reading 
shall constitute the first reading of the bill, and unless otherwise dis- 
posed of shall be referred to the proper committee. A bill may be in- 
troduced by unanimous consent at any time during the session. 

49. The Chief Engrossing Clerk of the Senate shall appoint, with 
the approval of the President of the Senate, as his assistants, not 
more than four competent stenographers and typewriters. Should 
the public business require more than this number the presiding offi- 
cer may appoint such additional ones as may be necessary. Such 
stenographers and typewriters shall work under the direction and 
supervision of the Engrossing Clerk. They shall also make for the 
members who introduce a bill, without extra cost, one original and 
two carbon copies of all bills. 

50. The Journal of the Senate shall be typewritten in a duplicate, 
original and carbon, the original to be deposited in the office of the 
Secretary of State as the record, and the other (carbon) copy to be 
delivered to the State Printer. 

51. All bills and resolutions reported unfavorably by the committee 
to which they were referred, and having no minority report, shall lie 
upon the table, but may be taken from the table and placed upon the 
Calendar at the request of any Senator. 

52. That in case of adjournment without any hour being named, 
the Senate shall reconvene the next legislative day at 11 o'clock a. m. 



Senate Committees. 31 

53. When a bill is materially modified or the scope of its applica- 
tion extended or decreased, or if the county or counties to which it 
applies be changed, the title of the bill shall be changed by the Sana- 
tor introducing the bill or by the committee having it in charge, or 
by the Engrossing Clerk, so as to indicate the full purport of the bill 
as amended and the county or counties to which it applies. 

54. It shall be the duty of the Principal Clerk to furnish to the 
presiding officer and the members of the Senate all necessary sta- 
tionery, which shall be provided for out of the funds set apart for 
the expenses of the General Assembly. 

55. After a bill has been tabled or has failed to pass on any of its 
readings, the contents of such bill or the principal provisions of its 
subject-matter shall not be embodied in any other measure. Upon 
the point of order being raised and sustained by the Chair such 
measure shall be laid upon the table, and shall not be taken there- 
from except by a vote of two thirds of the elected membership of the 
Senate: Provided, no local bill shall be held by the Chair as em- 
bodying the provisions, or being indentical with any state-wide 
measure which has been laid upon the table or failed to pass any of 
its readings. 



STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE SENATE. 

Agriculture — Senators Davenport, chairman; Mitchell, Hawkins, 
Holderness, Brock, Beddingfield, Patterson, Brown, Cooper, Johnson, 
Price, DeLaney, Cloud, Teague. 

Appropriations — Senators Holderness, chairman; Gray, Warren, 
Cooper of New Hanover, Cowper of Lenoir, Carr, Horton, Glidewell, 
Johnson, Shinn, Thompson, Newton, Coward, Lovill, Reinhardt, 
Teague. 

Claims — Senators Coward, chairman; Mitchell, Ross, Hawkins, 
Williamston, Haymore. 

Congressional Apportionment — Senators Palmer, chairman; Cross, 
Coward, Brock, Williamson, Wright, Fisher. 

Corporations — Senators Burns, chairman; Long of Halifax, Fere- 
bee, Humphrey, Shinn, Coward, Stephens, Brock, Gavin. 

Corporation Commission — Senators Beddingfield, chairman; Hard- 
ing, Hawkins, Connor, Thompson, Newton, Wakefield. 



32 Legislative Department. 

Constitutional Amendments — Senators Cowper of Lenoir, chair- 
man; Long of Halifax, Glidewell, Scales, Newton, Palmer, Cloud, 
Stevens, Fisher. 

Counties, Cities, and Towns — Senators Cooper of New Hanover, 
chairman; Johnson, Warren, Cross, Mitchell, Mangum, Brock, Con- 
nor, Palmer, Ferebee, Long of Montgomery, Stacy. 

Commerce — Senators Hawkins, chairman; Stacy, Brown, Cooper 
of New Hanover, Carr, Ross, Sisk. 

Banking and Currency — Senators Connor, chairman; Holderness, 
Gray, Beddingfield, Currin, Stacy, Coward, Long of Halifax, Fisher. 

Distribution of Governor's Message — Senators Williamson, chair- 
man; Davenport, Horton, Patterson, Price, Lovill, Sisk. 

Education — Senators Harding, chairman; Cooper of New Hanover, 
Stacy, Currin, Shinn, Cross, Coward, Lovill, Stevens, Cowper of 
Lenoir, Brown, Hyatt. 

Enrolled Bills — Senators Burns, chairman; Cooper, Horton, Pat- 
terson, Brown, Wright, Carr, Ross, Mitchell, Davenport, DeLaney, 
Thompson, Cloud, Wakefield. 

Privileges and Elections — Senators Price, chairman; Burns, Fere- 
bee, Cooper of New Hanover, Glidewell, Mitchell, Patterson, Ross, 
Humphrey, Teague. 

Pensions and Soldiers Home — Senators Lovill, chairman; Haw- 
kins, Williamson, Currin, Johnson, Carr, Davenport, Long of Mont- 
gomery. 

Game Laics — Senators Brock, chairman; Coward, Carr, Price. De- 
Laney, Newton, Thompson, Reinhardt. 

Insane Asylums — Senators Glidewell, chairman; Scales, Hum- 
phrey, Connor, Newton, Horton, Johnson, Coward, Wakefield. 

Institution for the Blind — Senators Beddingfield, chairman; Glide- 
well, Cloud, Mangum, Scales, Harding, Price, Mitchell, Carr, Sheek. 

Fish and Fisheries — Senators Cross, chairman; Warren, Daven- 
port, Ferebee, Cowper of Lenoir, Cooper of New Hanover, Long of 
Halifax, Mitchell, Brown, Fisher. 

Military Affairs — Senators Stacy, chairman; Scales, Horton, War- 
ren. DeLaney, Mangum, Newton, Stevens, Cowper of Lenoir, Ross, 
Shinn, Sheek. 

Internal Improvements — Senators Ross, chairman; Cloud, Thomp- 
son, Wright, Palmer, Horton, Patterson, Davenport, Gavin. 

Journal — Senators Cloud, chairman; Thompson, Wright, Palmer, 
Burns. Harding, Cross, Sisk. 



Senate Committees. 33 

Judicial Districts— Senators Horton, chairman; Stevens, Glide- 
well, Cloud, Wright, Palmer, Burns, Stacy, Harding, Gavin. 

Insurance — Senators DeLaney, chairman; Holderness, Gray, Hard- 
ing, Currin, Scales, Long, Beddingfield, Connor, Haymore. 

Manufacturing — Senators Mangum, chairman; Gray, Shinn, Cur- 
rin, Newton, Palmer, Patterson, Long of Halifax, Holderness, De- 
Laney, Reinhardt. 

Railroads — Senators Wright, chairman; Coward, Lovill, Bedding- 
field, Brown, Cooper of New Hanover, Ross, Ferebee, Holderness, 
Gray, Hyatt. 

Shellfish — Senators Mitchell, chairman; Cooper of New Hanover, 
Cross, Ferebee, Davenport, Carr, Humphrey, Fisher. 

Mining — Senators Patterson, chairman; Coward, Thompson, 
Stevens, Newton, Williamson, DeLaney, Shinn, Teague, Haymore. 

Finance — Senators Gray, chairman; Holderness, Brown, Harding, 
Warren, Connor, Humphrey, Beddingfield, Scales, Stacy, Burns, 
Wright, Mangum, Stevens, Currin, Hyatt. 

Judiciary No. 1 — Senators Scales, chairman; Warren, Humphrey, 
Stacy, Burns, Harding, Thompson, Mangum, Newton, Stevens, Hay- 
more. 

Judiciary No. 2 — .Senators Long of Halifax, chairman; Cowper, 
of Lenoir, Connor, Glidewell, Horton, DeLaney, Wright, Palmer, 
Cloud, Lovill, Sisk, Wakefield. 

Rules — .Senators Warren, chairman; Long of Halifax, Gray, New- 
ton, Coward, Stacy, Currin, Johnson. 

Institution for the Deaf — 'Senators Shinn, chairman; Horton, 
Brown, Carr, Cooper of New Hanover, Ross, Connor, Thompson, 
Lovill, Cloud, Sheek. 

Immigration — Senators Currin, chairman; Mangum, Scales, Burns, 
Patterson, Hawkins, Ross, Gavin. 

Penal Institutions — Senators Thompson, chairman; Scales, Burns, 
Price, Ross, Harding. Stacy, Mitchell, Cross, Johnson of Hoke, Long 
of Halifax, Sheek, Hyatt. 

Propositions and Grievances — Senators Newton, chairman; Stacy, 
Cooper of New Hanover, Warren, Long of Halifax, Lovill, Johnson, 
Mangum, Cowper of Lenoir, Reinhardt. 

Public Roads — Senators Ferebee, chairman; DeLaney, Warren, 
Long of Halifax, Connor, Hawkins, Beddingfield, Currin, Brock, 
Stevens, Mitchell, Scales. Coward, Hyatt, Long of Montgomery. 



34 Legislative Department. 

Federal Relations— Senators Stevens, chairman; Carr, Brown, 
Johnson, Hawkins, Glidewell, Brock, Mitchell, Price, Long of Mont- 
gomery, Hyatt. 

Engrossed Bills— Senators Carr, chairman; Cross, Davenport. 
Harding, Connor, Brock, Humphrey, Brown, Johnson, Beddingfield, 
Long of Montgomery. 

Election Laivs— Senators Lovill, chairman; Palmer, Scales, Cow- 
per of Lenoir, Wright, Newton, Glidewell, Connor, Hyatt. 

Caswell Training School— Senators Cowper of Lenoir, chairman; 
Harding, Davenport, Mitchell, Humphrey, Hawkins, Glidewell, Hor- 
ton, Shinn, Palmer, Thompson, Gavin. 

Senate Expenditures — Senators Johnson, chairman; Cross, Fere- 
bee, Ross, Cowper of Lenoir, Beddingfield, Long of Montgomery. 

Salaries and .Fees— Senators Humphrey, chairman; Burns, Man- 
gum, Newton, Cross, Stacy, Cooper of New Hanover, Hawkins, War- 
ren, Stevens, Currin, Fisher. 

Printing — Senators Cooper of New Hanover, chairman; Ferebee, 
Brock, Patterson, Williamson, Hawkins, Carr, Price, Wright, Palmer, 
Cloud, Lovill, Sisk. 

Health— Senators Brown, chairman; Long of Halifax, Newton, 
Scales, Connor, Cowper of Lenoir, Thompson, Stacy, Ross, Patterson, 
Carr, Reinhardt. 



OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF THE HOUSE OF 
REPRESENTATIVES. 



OFFICERS. 

D. G. Bbummitt Speaker Granville 

Alex. Lassiter Principal Clerk Bertie 

D. P. Dellinger Reading Clerk Gaston 

J. H. Moring Sergeant-at-arms Wake 

E. J. Jenkins Asst. Sergeant-at-arms Granville 

O. P. Shell Engrossing Clerk Harnett 



REPRESENTATIVES, 1910. 

Alamance — W. J. Graham (D.), Burlington. 
Alexander — Edgar W. Moose (R.), Taylorsville. 
Alleghany — R. A. Doughton (D.), Sparta. 
Anson — T. C. Coxe (D.), Wadesboro. 
Ashe — T. A. Farmer (R.), Lansing. 
Avery — J. H. Pritchard (R.), Heaton. 
Beaufort— W. M. Butt (D.), Bonnerton. 
Bertie — J. H. Matthews (D.), Windsor. 
Bladen— A. M. Kelly (D.), Abbottsburg. 
Brunswick — Dempsey L. Hewett (R.), Shallotte. 
Buncombe — J. D. Eckles (D.), Black Mountain; Luke H. Young 
(D.), Leicester, R. F. D. 
Burke — Joseph E. Wilson (R.), Rutherford College. 
Cabarrus — A. St. Clair Williams (R.). Concord. 
Caldwell— -E. G. Suttlemyre (D.), Granite Falls. 
Camden — M. L. Burgess (D.), Old Trap. 
Carteret — David M. Jones (R.), Beaufort. 
Caswell — John E. Tucker (D.), Yanceyville. 
Catawba — J. A. Fropst (R.), Conover. 
Chatham — A. C. Ray (D.), Pittsboro. 
Cherokee— T . C. McDonald (R.), Murphy, R. F. D. 3. 
Chowan — J. H. McMullan, Jr. (D.). Edenton. 
Clay — James Penland (R.), Hayesville. 
Cleveland— O. M. Mull (D.). Shelby. 



36 Legislative Department. 

Columbus— Walter H. Powell (D.), Whiteville. 

Craven — George D. Dail (D.), New Bern. 

Cumberland — George McNeill (D.), Fayetteville. 

Currituck — E. R. Johnson (D.), Currituck. 

Dare — B. G. Crisp (D.), Manteo. 

Davidson — A. Mack Hiatt (R.), Thomasville. 

Davie— John F. Smithdeal (R.), Advance. 

Duplin — Stacy R. Chestnut (D.), Alvin. 

Durham — Victor S. Bryant (D.), Durham; Bennehan Cameron 
(D.), Stagville. 

Edgecombe — R. T. Fountain (D.), Rocky Mount. 

Forsyth— R. M. Cox (D.), Rural Hall, R. F. D. 1; J. Turner Farish 
(D.). Winston-Salem. 

Franklin — William H. Macon (D.), Louisburg. 

Gaston— Dr. S. A. Wilkins (D.), Dallas; M. A. Stroup (D.), Cherry- 
ville. 

Gates— R. W! Gatling (D.), Gates. 

Graham — W. P. Rose (R.), Tapoca. 

Granville— D. G. Brummitt (D.). Oxford. 

Greene— -W. A. Darden (D.), Ayden, R. F. D. 

Guilford— Thomas J. Gold (D.), High Point; W. A. Bowman (D.), 
Liberty. R. F. D. 2; C. G. Wright (D.). Greensboro. 

Halifax— J. H. Darden (D.), Spring Hill; F. M. Taylor (D.), 
Brinkleyville. 

Harnett — Geo. K. Grantham (D.), Dunn. 

Haywood — D. L. Boyd (D.). Waynesville. 

Henderson — Brownlow Jackson (R.), Hendersonville. 

Hertford — Stanley Winborne (D.), Murfreesboro. 

Hoke— J. A. Hodgin (D.). Red Springs. R. F. D. 3. 

Hyde — John M. Clayton (D.), Englehard. 

Iredell — Harry P. Grier (D.), Statesville; W. LaFayette Mathe- 
son (D.), Mooresville. 

Jackson — J. N. Wilson (D.), Cullowhee. 

Johnston— 1. R. Williams (D.), Clayton; Paul D. Grady (D.), 
Kenly. 

Jones — B. B. Collins (D.). Maysville. 

Lee— D. B. Teague (D.), Sanford. 

Lenoir — John G. Dawson (D.), Kinston. 

Lincoln — Edgar Love (D.), Lincolnton. 

Macon — J. Frank Ray (D.), Franklin. 



Members of House of Representatives. 37 

Madison— Geo. W. Wild (R.), Big Pine. 

Martin— Harry W. Stubbs (D.), Williamston. 

McDowell — William W. Neal (D.), Marion. 

Mecklenburg — W. R. Matthews (D.), Charlotte; T. J. Renfrow 
(D.), Matthews; Edgar W. Fharr (D.), Charlotte. 

Mitchell — <S. J. Turner (R.), Bakersville. 

Montgomery — Robert T. Poole (D.), Troy. 

Moore — George W. Wilcox (D.), Carbonton, R. P. D. 

Nash— R. M. Moore (D.), Whitakers, R. P. D. 2; A. F. May (D.), 
Spring Hope. 

New Hanover — L. Clayton Grant (D.), Wilmington. 

Northampton — J. B. Stephenson (D.), Severn. 

Onslow — Edward W. Summersill (D.), Jacksonville. 

Orange — Lueco Lloyd (R.), Chapel Hill. 

Pamlico— R. C. Holton (D.), New Bern, R. F. D. 1. 

Pasquotank — W. 0. Saunders (D.), Elizabeth City. 

Pender— Jeff. D. Hocutt (D.), Ashton. 

Perquimans — W. F. Morgan (D.), Winfall. 

Person — J. C. Pass (R.), Roxboro. 

Pitt — Junius Brown (D.), Greenville; J. C. Galloway (D.), Grimes- 
land. % 

Polk — W. F. Swann (R.), Lynn. 

Randolph — J. Ed. Spence (R.), Coles' Store. 

Richmond — W. N. Everett (D.), Rockingham. 

Robeson — G. B. Sellers (D.), Maxton; J. S. Oliver (D.), Marietta. 

Rockingham — Jesse L. Roberts (D.), Madison; Jeff. E. Garrett 
(D.), Reidsville. 

Rowan — J. C. Kesler (D.), Salisbury; T. D. Brown (D.), Salisbury. 

Rutherford— Plato Gettys (D.), Hollis. 

Sampson — Richard L. Herring (R.), Clinton. 

Scotland — Alexander E. Shaw (D.), Wagram. 

Stanlu — Thomas R. Forrest (D.), Albemarle. 

Stokes — Edwin Kiser (R.), King. 

Surry — S. O. Maguire (R.), Elkin. 

Swain — John Burnett (R.), Bryson City. 

Transylvania — G. T. Lyday (D.), Penrose. 

Tyrrell — H. Seaton Swain (D.), Columbia. 

Union — R. B. Redwine (D.), Monroe; B. H. Griffin (D.), Marshville. 

Vance — R. S. McCoin (D.), Henderson. 



38 Legislative Department. 

Wake— S. Brown Shepherd (D.), Raleigh; W. H. Sawyer (D.), 
Raleigh; R. B. Nichols (D.), Zebulon. 

Warren — John S. Davis (D.), Creek. 

Washington — Benjamin P. Halsey (D.), Roper. 

Watauga — H. McD. Little (R.), Boone. 

Wayne — Fred R. Mintz (D.), Mount Olive; C. R. Aycock (D.). 
Fremont. 

Wilkes — Marcus G. Steelman (R.), Adley. 

Wilson — Nathan Bass (D.), Lucama. 

Yadkin— C. G. Bryant (R.), Yadkinville. 

Yancey — G. Ellis Gardner (D. ), Burasville. 



RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 

TOUCHING THE DUTIES OF SPEAKER. 

1. It shall be the duty of the Speaker to have the sessions of this 
House opened with prayer in accordance with the order of this 
body. 

2. He shall take the chair every day at the hour fixed by the 
House on the preceding legislative day, shall immediately call the 
members to order, and, on appearance of a quorum, cause the jour- 
nal of the preceding day to be read. 

3. He shall preserve order and decorum, may speak to points of 
order in preference to other members, rising from his seat for 
that purpose, and shall decide questions of order, subject to an 
appeal to the House by any member, on which appeal no member 
shall speak more than once, unless by leave of the House. 

4. He shall rise to put a question, but may state it sitting. 

5. Questions shall be put in this form, namely: "Those in favor 
(as the question may be) will say, Aye," and after the affirmative 
voice has been expressed, "Those opposed will say. No." Upon a call 
for a division, the Speaker shall count; if required, he shall appoint 
tellers. 

6. The Speaker shall have a general direction of the hall. He 
shall have a right to name any member to perform the duties of the 
chair, but substitution shall not extend beyond one day, except in 
case of sickness or by leave of the House. 

7. All committees shall be appointed by the Speaker, unless other- 
wise specially ordered by the House. 



Rules of House of Representatives. 39 

8. In all elections the Speaker may vote. In all other cases he 
may exercise his right to vote, or he may reserve this right until 
there is a tie; but in no case shall he be allowed to vote twice on 
the same question. 

9. All acts, addresses, and resolutions shall be signed by the 
Speaker, and all warrants and subpoenas issued by order of the 
House shall be under his hand and seal, attested by the Clerk. 

10. In case of any disturbance or disorderly conduct in the gal- 
leries or lobby, the Speaker (or Chairman of the Committee of the 
Whole) shall have power to order the same to be cleared. 

11. No persons except members of the Senate, officers and clerks 
of the two Houses of the General Assembly, Judges of the Supreme 
and Superior Courts, officers of the State, persons particularly in- 
vited by the Speaker or some member and such gentlemen as have 
been members of either House of the Legislature or of a convention 
of the people of the State, shall be admitted within the hall of the 
House: Provided, that no person except members of the Senate 
and officers of the two Houses of the General Assembly shall be al- 
lowed on the floor of the House or in the lobby in the rear of the 
Speaker's desk, unless invited by the Speaker or the House. 

12. Reporters wishing to take down debates may be admitted by 
the Speaker, who shall assign such places to them on the floor or 
elsewhere, to effect this object, as shall not interfere with the con- 
venience of the House. 

13. Smoking shall not be allowed in the hall, the lobbies, or the 
galleries while the House is in session. 

order of business of the day. 

14. After the reading of the journal of the preceding day, which 
shall stand approved without objection, the House shall proceed to 
business in the following order, viz.: 

(1) The receiving of petitions, memorials, and papers addressed 

to the General Assembly or to the House. 

(2) Reports of standing committees. 

(3) Reports of select committees. 

(4) Resolutions. 

(5) Bills. 

(6) The unfinished business of the preceding day. 



40 Legislative Department. 

(7) Bills, resolutions, petitions, memorials, messages, and other 
papers on the Calendar, in their exact numerical order, 
unless displaced by the orders of the day; but motions 
and messages to elect officers shall always be in order. 

Every member wishing to present a petition, bill, or other paper, 
or make any report, shall rise from his seat and address the Speaker, 
and shall not proceed further until recognized by him. 

ON DECORUM IN DEBATE. 

15. When any member is about to speak in debate or deliver any 
matter to the House, he shall rise from his seat and respectfully ad- 
dress the Speaker. 

16. When the Speaker shall call a member to order, the member 
shall sit down, as also he shall when called to order by another 
member, unless the Speaker decide the point of order in his favor. 
By leave of the House a member called to order may clear a mat- 
ter of fact, or explain, but shall not proceed in debate so long as the 
decision stands, but by permission of the House. Any member may 
appeal from the decision of the Chair, and if, upon appeal, the de- 
cision be in favor of the member called to order he may proceed; 
if otherwise, he shall not, except by leave of the House; and if 
the case, in the judgment of the House, require it, he shall be 
liable to its censure. 

17. No member shall speak until recognized by the Chair, and 
when two or more members rise at the same time, the Speaker 
shall name the member to speak. 

18. No member shall speak more than twice on the main question, 
nor longer than thirty minutes for the first speech and fifteen min- 
utes for the second speech, unless allowed to do so by affirmative 
vote of a majority of the members present; nor shall he speak 
more than once upon an amendment or motion to commit or post- 
pone, and then not longer than ten minutes. But the House may, by 
consent of a majority, suspend the operation of this rule during 
any debate on any particular question before the House, or the Com- 
mittee on Rules may bring in a special rule that shall be applicable 
to the debate on any bill. 

19. While the Speaker is putting any question, or addressing the 
House, no person shall speak, stand up, walk out of or across the 



Rules of House of Representatives. 41 

House, nor when a member is speaking entertain private discourse, 
stand up, or pass between him and the Chair. 

20. No member shall vote on any question when he was not pres- 
ent when the question was put by the Speaker, except by the con- 
sent of the House. Upon a division and count of the House on any 
question, no member without the bar shall be counted. 

21. Every member who shall be in the hall of the House for the 
above purpose when the question is put shall give his vote, upon a 
call of the ayes and noes, unless the House for special reasons shall 
excuse him, and no application to be excused from voting or to ex- 
plain a vote shall be entertained unless made before the call of the 
roll. The hall of the House shall include the lobbies, galleries, and 
offices connected with the hall. 

22. When a motion is made and seconded, it shall be stated by the 
Speaker, or if, written, it shall be handed to the Chair and read 
aloud by the Speaker or Clerk before debate. 

23. Every motion shall be reduced to writing, if the Speaker or 
any two members request it. 

24. After a motion is stated by the Speaker or read by the Clerk, 
it shall be deemed to be in possession of the House, but may be 
withdrawn before a decision or amendment, except in case of a 
motion to reconsider, which motion, when made by a member, shall 
be deemed and taken to be in possession of the House, and shall 
not be withdrawn without leave of the House. 

25. When a question is under debate no motion shall be received 
but to adjourn, to lay on the table, to postpone indefinitely, to post- 
pone to a day certain, to commit or amend, which several motions 
shall have precedence in the order in which they stand arranged; 
and no motion to lay on the table, to postpone indefinitely, to post- 
pone to a day certain, to commit or amend, being decided, shall be 
again allowed on the same day and at the same stage of the bill or 
proposition. 

26. A motion to adjourn or lay on the table shall be decided with- 
out debate, and a motion to adjourn shall always be in order, ex- 
cept when the House is voting or some member is speaking; but a 
motion to adjourn shall not follow a motion to adjourn until debate 
or some business of the House has intervened. 

27. When a question has been postponed indefinitely, the same 
shall not be acted on again during the session, except upon a two- 
thirds vote. 



42 Legislative Department. 

28. Any member may call for a division of the question, when the 
same shall admit of it, which shall be determined by the Speaker. 

29. When a motion has been once made and carried in the affirma- 
tive or negative, it shall be in order for any member of the majority 
to move for the reconsideration thereof, on the same or succeeding 
day, unless it may have already passed the Senate, and no motion 
to reconsider shall be taken from the table except by a two-thirds 
vote. But unless such vote has been taken by a call of the yeas and 
nays, any member may move to reconsider. 

30. When the reading of a paper is called for, which has been read 
in the House, and the same is objected to by any member, it shall 
be determined by a vote of the House. 

31. Petitions, memorials, and other papers addressed to the House 
shall be presented by the Speaker, or by a member in his place; a 
brief statement of the contents thereof may be verbally made by the 
introducer, and shall not be debated or decided on the day of their 
being first read, unless the House shall direct otherwise, but shall 
lie on the table, to be taken up in the order they were read. 

32. When the ayes and noes are called for on any question, it 
shall be on motion before the question is put; and if seconded by 
one-fifth of the members present, the question shall be decided by 
the ayes and noes; and in taking the ayes and noes, or on a call of 
the House, the names of the members will be taken alphabetically. 

33. Decency of speech shall be observed and personal reflection 
carefully avoided. 

34. Any member, after the expiration of the morning hour, may 
rise to a question of personal privilege; but if the question of per- 
sonal privilege be decided against him he shall not proceed unless 
the ruling of the Speaker be reversed by the House. 

35. Fifteen members, including the Speaker, shall be authorized 
to compel the attendance of absent members. 

36. No member or officer of the House shall absent himself from 
the service of the House without leave, unless from sickness or 
inability. 

37. Any member may excuse himself from serving on any com- 
mittee if he is a member of two standing committees. 

38. If any member shall be necessarily absent on temporary busi- 
ness of the House when a vote is taken upon any question, upon 
entering the House he shall be permitted, on request, to vote, pro- 
vided that the result shall not be thereby affected. 



Rules of House of Representatives. 43 

39. No standing rule or order shall be rescinded or altered with- 
out one day's notice given on the motion thereof, and to sustain 
such motion two-thirds of the House shall be required. 

40. The members of this House shall uncover their heads upon 
entering the hall whilst the House is in session, and shall continue 
so uncovered during their continuance in the hall, except Quakers. 

41. A motion to reconsider shall be determined by a majority vote, 
except a motion to reconsider an indefinite postponement, or a mo- 
tion to reconsider a motion tabling, a motion to reconsider, which 
shall require a two-thirds vote. 

STANDING COMMITTEES. 

42. At the commencement of the session a standing committee 
shall be appointed on each of the following subjects, namely: 

On Agriculture. 

On Appropriations. 

On Banks and Currency. 

On Claims. 

On Constitutional Amendment. 

On Corporation Commission. 

On Corporations. 

On Counties, Cities, Towns and Townships. 

On Courts and Judicial Districts. 

On Education. 

On Election Law. 

On Engrossed Bills. 

On Expenditures of the House. 

On Federal Relations. 

On Finance. 

On Fish and Fisheries. 

On Game. 

On Health. 

On Immigration. 

On Insane Asylums. 

On Institutions for the Blind. 

On Institutions for the Deaf and Dumb. 

On Insurance. 

On Internal Improvements. 

On Judiciary, No. 1. 



44 Legislative Department. 

On Judiciary, No. 2. 

On Manufactures and Labor. 

On Military Affairs. 

On Mines and Mining. 

On Oyster Interests. 

On Penal Institutions. 

On Pensions. 

On Privileges and Elections. 

On Propositions and Grievances. 

On Public Roads and Turnpikes. 

On Regulation of the Liquor Traffic. 

On Regulation of Public Service Corporations. 

On Rules. 

On Salaries and Fees. 

JOINT COMMITTEES. 

On Enrolled Bills. 

On Appointment of Justices of the Peace. 

On Library. 

On Printing. 

On Public Buildings and Grounds. 

On Trustees of University. 

On Revision of the Laws. 

To be appointed by the Speaker, and the first announced on each 
committee shall be chairman. 

43. In forming a Committe of the Whole House, the Speaker 
shall leave the chair, and a chairman to preside in committee shall 
be appointed by the Speaker. 

44. Upon bills submitted to a Committee of the Whole House, the 
bill shall be first read throughout by the Clerk, and then again read 
and debated by sections, leaving the preamble to be last considered. 
The body of the bill shall not be defaced or interlined, but all amend- 
ments, noting the page and line, shall be duly entered by the Clerk 
on a separate paper as the same shall be agreed to by the Com- 
mittee, and so reported to the House. After report, the bill shall 
again be subject to be debated and amended by sections before a 
question on its passage be taken. 

45. The rules of proceeding in the House shall be observed in a 
Committee of the Whole House, so far as they may be applicable, 



RtiLES of House of Representatives. 45 

except the rule limiting the time of speaking and the previous 
question. 

46. In a Committee of the Whole House a motion that the Com- 
mittee rise shall always be in order, except when a member is speak- 
ing, and shall be decided without debate. 

47. Every bill shall be introduced by motion for leave, or by order 
of the House, or on the report of a committee, unless introduced in 
regular order during the morning hour. 

48. All bills and resolutions shall be reported from the committee 
to which referred, with such recommendation as the committee may 
desire to make. 

49. Every bill shall receive three several readings in the House 
previous to its passage, and the Speaker shall give notice at each 
whether it be its first, second, or third reading. 

50. Any member introducing a bill or resolution shall briefly in- 
dorse thereon the substance of the same. 

51. The Speaker shall refer all bills and resolutions, upon their in- 
troduction, to the appropriate committee, unless otherwise ordered. 
When a Public bill or resolution has been referred by the Speaker 
to a committee, and after it has remained with such committee for 
the space of five days without being reported to the House, it shall, 
at the option and upon the request of the member who introduced 
it, be recalled from such committee by order of the Speaker and by 
him referred to some other regular committee, which shall be indi- 
cated in the House by the introducer thereof, and the request and 
order recalling such bill and the reference thereof shall be entered 
on the journal. 

52. The Clerk of the House shall keep a separate calendar of the 
Public, Local, and Private bills, and shall number them in the order 
in which they are introduced; and all bills shall be disposed of in 
the order they stand upon the Calendar; but the Committee on 
Rules may at any time arrange the order of precedence in which 
bills may be considered. No bill shall be twice read on the same 
day without the concurrence of two thirds of the members. 

53. All resolutions -which may grant money out of the Treasury, 
or such as shall be of a public nature, shall be treated in all re- 
spects in a similar manner with Public bills. 

54. The Clerk of the House shall be deemed to continue in office 
until another is appointed. 

55. Upon the motion of any member, there shall be a call of the 



46 Legislative Department. 

House, a majority of the members present assenting thereto, and 
upon a call of the House the names of the members shall be called 
over by the Clerk and the absentees noted, after which the names 
of the absentees shall again be called over. The doors shall then 
be closed, and those from whom no excuse or sufficient excuses are 
made may, by order of those present, if fifteen in number, be taken 
into custody as they appear, or may be sent for and taken into cus- 
tody wherever to be found by special messenger appointed for that 
purpose. 

PREVIOUS QUESTION. 

56. The previous question shall be as follows: "Shall the main 
question be now put?" and, until it is decided, shall preclude all 
amendments and debate. If this question shall be decided in the 
affirmative, the "main question" shall be on the passage of the bill, 
resolution, or other matter under consideration; but when amend- 
ments are pending, the question shall be taken upon such amend- 
ments, in their order, without further debate or amendment. If such 
question be decided in the negative, the main question shall be con- 
sidered as remaining under debate: Provided, that no one shall 
move the previous question except the member submitting the re- 
port on the bill or other matter under consideration, and the mem- 
ber introducing the bill or other matter under consideration, or 
the member in charge of the measure, who shall be designated by 
the chairman of the committee reporting the same to the House at 
the time the bill or other matter under consideration is reported to 
the House, or taken up for consideration. 

When a motion for the previous question is made, and pending 
the second thereto by a majority, debate shall cease; but if any 
member obtains the floor, he may move to lay the matter under con- 
sideration on the table, or move an adjournment, and when both or 
either of these motions are pending the question shall stand: 

(1) Previous question, 

(2) To adjourn, 

(3) To lay on the table. 

And then upon the main question, or amendments, or the motion to 
postpone indefinitely, postpone to a day certain, to commit, or amend, 
in the order of their precedence, until the main question is reached 
or disposed of; but after the previous question has been called by 
a majority, no motion, amendment, or debate shall be in order. 



Rules of House of Representatives. 47 

All motions below the motion to lay on the table must be made 
prior to a motion for the previous question; but, pending and not 
after the second therefor, by the majority of the House, a motion 
to adjourn or lay on the table, or both, are in order. This consti- 
tutes the precedence of the motion to adjourn and lay on the table 
"over other motions, in Rule 25. 

Motions stand as follows in order of precedence in Rule 26: 

Lay on the table. 
Previous question, 
Postpone indefinitely, 
Postpone definitely, 
To commit or amend. 

When the previous question is called, all motions below it fall, 
unless made prior to the call, and all motions above it fall after its 
second by a majority required. Pending the second, the motions to 
adjourn and lay on the table are in order, but not after a second. 
When in order and every motion is before the House, the question 
stands as follows: 

Previous question. 

Adjourn, 

Lay on the table, 

Postpone indefinitely, 

Postpone definitely, 

To commit. 

Amendment to amendment, 

Amendment, 

Substitute, 

Bill. 

The previous question covers all other motions when seconded by 
a majority of the House, and proceeds by regular gradation to the 
main question, without debate, amendment, or motion, until such 
question is reached or disposed of. 

57. All committees, other than the Committee on Appropriations, 
when favorably reporting any bill, which carries an appropriation 
from the State, shall indicate same in the report, and said bill shall 
be re-referred to the Committee on Appropriations for a further 
report before being acted upon by the House. 



48 Legislative Department. 

58. The Principal Clerk, the Engrossing Clerk, and the Door- 
keeper shall appoint, with the approval of the Speaker, and by af- 
firmative order of the House, such assistants as may be necessary 
to the efficient discharge of the duties of their various offices. 

59. The Speaker shall appoint twelve pages to wait upon the ses- 
sions of the House, and when the pressure of business may require, 
he may appoint three additional pages. 

60. The chairman of each of the committees, Judiciary No. 1, 
Judiciary No. 2, Finance, and Appropriations, and the chairmen 
of committees on Constitutional Amendments and Education jointly, 
may appoint a clerk with the approval of the majority of said re- 
spective committees; and no other clerks of committees shall be 
appointed except upon motion, which shall first be referred to the 
Committee on Rules, and a favorable report from said committee 
shall not allow the appointment of additional clerks of committees 
unless such report be adopted by two-thirds vote of the House. 

61. The chairman and five other members of any committee shall 
constitute a quorum of said committee for the transaction of business. 

62. The Speaker, on each Monday morning, shall appoint a com- 
mittee of three members, whose duty it shall be to examine daily 
the journal of the House before the hour of convening, and report 
after the opening of the House whether or not the proceedings of 
the previous day have been correctly recorded. 



STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE HOFSE OF 
REPRESENTATIVES. 

Agriculture — Tucker, chairman; Galloway, Cameron, Chesnutt, 
Cox of Forsyth, Davis, Mull, Taylor, Graham, Renfrow, Johnson, 
Darden of Greene, Bowman, Sellars, Oliver, Shaw, Griffin, Brown 
of Rowan, Garrett, Kelly, Wilcox, Moore. Bass. Matheson, Farmer. 
Jones, Propst, Rose. 

Appropriations — McCoin, chairman; Everett, Redwine, Bryant of 
Durham. Doughton. Dawson, Grier, Johnson, Matthews of Bertie, 
Fliarr, Grant, Winborne, Kesler, Mull, Ray of Chatham, Sawyer, 
May, Wright, Wilson of Jackson, Eckles, Mintz, Cameron, Wilkins, 
Swain, Hodgin, Dail, McNeill, Maguire, Kiser, Jackson. 

Banks and Currency — Powell, chairman; Bass, Wright, Matthews 
of Mecklenburg. Sellars, Farish. Winborne. Darden of Greene, Bow- 



Standing Committees of House of Representatives. 49 

man, Kesler, Cameron, Graham, Coxe of Anson, McCoin, Love, Wil- 
son of Burke, McDonald, Propst. 

Caswell Training School — Grantham, chairman; Bryant of Dur- 
ham, Mintz, Halsey, Wilkins, Morgan, Bass, Fountain, Grant, Sut- 
tlemyre, Dawson, Bryant of Yadkin, Hewitt. 

Claims — Oliver, chairman; Macon, Williams of Johnston, Stephen- 
son, Johnson, Collins, Grantham, Young, Garrett, McNeill, Hocutt, 
Saunders, Rose, Pritchard, Smithdeal. 

Constitutional Amendments — Gold, chairman; Redwine, Winborne, 
Matthews of Bertie, 1 Bryant of Durham, Teague, Doughton, Mull, 
Pharr, Grier, Poole, Dawson, Stubbs, Grant, Brown of Pitt. Roberts, 
Williams of Cabarrus, Turner. 

Corporation Commission — Poole, chairman; Stroup, Wilcox, Mathe- 
son. Brown of Rowan, Neal, Farish, Bowman, McNeill, Galloway, Ma- 
guire. Pass, Lloyd. 

Corporations — Redwine, chairman; Gatling, Brown of Rowan, Coxe 
of Anson, Brown of Pitt, Aycock, Bass. Ray of Chatham, Williams 
of Johnston, May, Graham, Gold, Oliver, Stroup, Maguire, Swann, 
Spence. 

Counties, Cities and Totons — Gardner, chairman; Ray of Chatham, 
McNeill, Grantham, Sawyer, Darden of Halifax, Saunders, Aycock, 
Brown of Pitt, Brown of Rowan, Chesnutt, Collins, Farish, Forrest, 
Garrett, Matthews of Mecklenburg, Gatling, Gold, Shaw, Coxe of An- 
son, Grady, Griffin. Hocutt, Hodgin, Kesler, Matheson, Moore, Sel- 
lars, Stroup, Young, Jackson, Bryant of Yadkin, Pritchard, Kiser. 

Courts and Judicial Districts — Ray of Macon, chairman; Roberts, 
Pharr, Aycock, Grant of New Hanover, Winborne, May, Morgan, 
Sawyer, Redwine, Stroup, Davis, Wilcox, Young, Williams of Ca- 
barrus, Turner, Herring. 

Drainage — Fountain, chairman; Clayton, Butt, McMullan, Burgess, 
Swain, Brown of Pitt, Matthews of Bertie, Dail, Steelman, Hiatt, 
Burnett. 

Education — Bryant of Durham, chairman; McCoin, Everett, Mintz, 
Holton, Cox of Forsyth, Dawson, Morgan, Crisp, Darden of Greene, 
Dail, Griffin, Poole, Redwine, Doughton, Suttlemyre, Wilson of Jack- 
son, Davis, Neal, Bass, Pharr, Matheson, Tucker, Eckles, Mull, Love, 
Ray of Macon, Gardner, Nichols. Butt, Bowman, Maguire, Burnett, 
Jones, Swain, Williams of Cabarrus. 

Election Laws — Neal, chairman; Love, Doughton, Everett, Powell. 



50 Legislative Department. 

Gold, McCoin, Collins, Matthews of Bertie, Johnson, Williams of Ca- 
barrus, Turner, Herring. 

Engrossed Bills — Dail, chairman; Collins, Clayton, Gettys, Brown 
of Rowan, Suttlemyre, Chesnutt, Coxe of Anson, Galloway, Darden 
of Halifax, Burnett, Farmer, Moore. 

Expenditures of the House— Taylor, chairman; Dawson, Mull, 
Johnson, Saunders, Boyd, Chesnutt, Coxe of Anson, Davis, Halsey, 
Grantham, Kesler, Wilson of Burke, Propst. 

Federal Relations — Roberts, chairman; Ray of Chatham, Shaw, 
Redwine, Poole, Neal, McNeill, Hocutt, Matthews of Mecklenburg, 
McDonald, Penland, Turner. 

Finance — Doughton, chairman; Bryant of Durham, Ray of Macon, 
Cox of Forsyth, Dawson, Everett. McCoin, Graham, Teague, Tucker, 
Winborne, Wright, Macon, Mull, Powell, Wilson of Jackson, Ray of 
Chatham, Crisp, Boyd, Renfrow, Coxe of Anson, Grier, Forrest, 
Shepherd, Love, Maguire, Jackson, Pass. 

Fish and Fisheries — Galloway, chairman; Butt, Winborne, Gatling. 
Johnson, Grant, Dail, Saunders, Clayton, Crisp, Swain, Burgess, Mc- 
Mullan, Matthews of Bertie. Williams of Johnston, Gettys, Jones, 
Hewitt, Hiatt. 

Game — Kelly, chairman; Johnson, Bryant of Durham, Crisp, 
Stubbs, Morgan, Darden of Halifax, Stephenson, Chesnutt. Collins, 
Holton, Farish, Aycock, May, Moore, Nichols, Shepherd, Cameron, 
Garrett, Griffin, Hodgin, Renfrow, Lyday, Maguire, Jones, Rose. 

Health — Winborne, chairman; Mull, Grant, Mintz, Everett, Halsey. 
Wilkins, Fountain, Macon, Gold, Grantham, Wilcox, Bryant of Yad- 
kin, Little, Steelman. 

Immigration — Nichols, chairman; Sellars, Shaw, Suttlemyre, For- 
rest, Stroup, Love, Moore, Matthews of Mecklenburg, Gardner, Young. 
Lyday, Bowman, Gatling, Galloway, Smithdeal, Swann, Spence, Steel- 
man. 

Insane Asylum — Teague, chairman; Bryant of Durham, Williams 
of Johntson, Shepherd, Burgess, May, Farish, Garrett, Grantham. 
Wilcox, Sellars, Brown of Pitt, Moore, Wilkins, Matheson, Young, 
Hodgin, Gettys, Halsey, Jones, Jackson, Bryant of Yadkin. 

Institution for the Blind — Grant, chairman; Bass, Macon. Summer- 
sill, Darden of Greene, Halsey, Wilkins, Roberts, Hodgin. Love, Pen- 
land, Pass, Wilson of Burke. 

Institution for the Deaf and Dumb — Eckles, chairman; Suttlemyre. 
Wilcox, Kesler, Halsey. Wilkins, Gettys. Lyday, Neal, Powell, Mor- 



Standing Committees of House of Representatives. 51 

gan, Swain, Collins, Moore, Taylor, Maguire, Jackson, Bryant of 
Yadkin. 

Insurance — Mintz, chairman; Everett, "Williams of Johnston, Ray 
of Macon, McCoin, Bass, Darden of Halifax, Roberts, Macon, May, 
McNeill, Nichols, Grady, Farish, Grantham, Coxe of Anson, Gold. 
Stnbbs, Renfrow, Matthews of Mecklenburg, Eckles, Wilkins, Foun- 
tain, Wilson of Burke, Jones, Propst. 

Internal Improvement- — Everett, chairman; Moore, Wilcox, Sel- 
lars, Griffin, Stroup, Young, Hodgin, Crisp, Darden of Halifax, For- 
rest, Shepherd, Bowman, Collins, McDonald, Penland, Hiatt, Smith- 
deal. 

Judiciary No. 1 — Dawson, chairman; Winborne, Stubbs, Redwine. 
Ray of Macon, Mull, Brown of Pitt, Grant, Powell, Matthews of 
Bertie, Eckles, McMullan, Fountain, Williams of Johnston, Sawyer, 
Williams of Cabarrus, Herring. 

Judiciary No. 2 — Grier, chairman; Doughton, Bryant of Durham. 
McCoin, Gold, Wright, Foole, Teague. Shepherd, Ray of Chatham. 
Gardner, Stroup, Pharr, Crisp, Grady, Roberts, Turner. 

Manufacturers and Labor — Love, chairman; Bass, Macon, Mathe- 
son, Farish. Boyd, Forrest, May. Neal, Garrett, Saunders, Sellers, 
Shaw, Matthews of Mecklenburg, Stephenson, Summersill, Suttle- 
myre. Grant, Everett, Kesler, Turner, Lloyd, Pass. 

Military Affairs — McNeill, chairman; Fountain. Galloway, Ray of 
Chatham, Macon, Williams of Johnston, Moore. Sawyer, Cox of 
Forsyth, Roberts, Powell, Sellars, Poole, Matheson. Brown of Pitt, 
Brown of Rowan, Swann, Spence, Herring, Kiser. 

Mines and Mining — Coxe of Anson, chairman; Boyd. Gcttys. Gard- 
ner, Stroup, Suttlemyre, Brown of Rowan, Poole, Griffin, Burnett, 
Little, Steelman. 

Oyster Interest — Saunders, chairman; Clayton, Swain, Burgess, 
Crisp. Grant, Dail, Summersill, Johnson, Holton, Hocutt, Jones, 
Maguire, Hewitt. 

Penal Institutions — Cox of Forsyth, chairman; May, Everett, 
Doughton, Mull, Darden of Halifax, Wright, Neal, Matheson, 
Grantham, Saunders, Mintz, Bryant of Durham, Nichols, Wilson of 
Burke, Suttlemyre, Maguire, Jackson, Jones, Bryant of Yadkin. 

Pensions — Matthews of Mecklenburg, chairman; Boyd, Coxe of An 
son, Hocutt. Burgess, Stubbs, Darden of Halifax, Davis, Bass, Sum- 
mersill, Chesnutt, Young, Aycock, Garrett, Kelly, Renfrow. Shaw. 
Gettys. Bryant of Yadkin, Farmer, Jackson. 



52 Legislative Department. 

Private and Public-Local Laws — Ray of Chatham, chairman; Wil- 
liams of Johnston, Hocutt, Young, Moore, Morgan, Shepherd, Sum- 
mersill, Fountain, Wilson of Jackson, Hodgin, Wilcox, Shaw, Gettys, 
Galloway, Turner, Williams of Cabarrus. 

Privileges and Elections — Brown of Pitt, chairman; Stubbs, Win- 
borne, Matthews of Mecklenburg, Moore, McMullan, Oliver, Shepherd, 
Swain, Darden of Halifax, Wilcox, Wilson of Jackson, Wright, Kes- 
ler, Williams of Cabarrus, Turner, Bryant of Yadkin. 

Propositions and Grievances — Clayton, chairman; Dail, Winborne, 
Butt, Crisp, Johnson, McMullan, Brown of Rowan, Holton, Matthews 
of Bertie, Burgess, Gatling, McNeill, Stephenson, Galloway, Darden 
of Greene, Forrest, Grady, Eckles, Gettys, Wilson of Burke, Moore, 
Lyday, Oliver, Shaw, Summersill, Burnett, Propst, McDonald. 

Public Roads and Turnpikes — Cameron, chairman; Matthews of 
Mecklenburg, Doughton, Taylor, Dail, Nichols, McMullan, Saunders, 
Coxe of Anson, Tucker, Fharr, Sellars, Ray of Macon, Moore, Mc- 
Coin, Bass, Sawyer, Clayton, Kesler, Farish, Boyd. Halsey. Darden 
of Halifax, Davis, Griffin, Wilcox, Wright, Maguire, Herring, Wild. 
Penland, Bryant of Yadkin. 

Regulation of Liquor Traffic — Matthews of Bertie, chairman; 
Mintz, Bryant of Durham, Doughton, Eckles, Farish, Graham, Grier. 
Ray of Macon, Holton, Kelly, Lyday, Macon, Mull, Foole. Renfrow, 
Shaw, Teague, Tucker, Hewitt, Smithdeal, Pass. 

Regulation of Public Service Corporations — Shepherd, chairman; 
Grant, Poole. Matheson, Pharr, Neal, Saunders, Matthews of Bertie, 
Aycock, Nichols, Roberts, Bryant of Yadkin, Wild, Swann. 

Rules — Stubbs. chairman; Doughton, Gold, McCoin, Dawson, Mull, 
Williams of Cabarrus. 

Salaries and Fees — Pharr, chairman; Wright, Stephenson, Bass, 
Graham, Mintz, Cameron. Farish, Kelly, Grant, Dawson, Everett, 
Brown of Rowan, Wilson of Jackson, Stubbs, Davis, Spence, Burnett, 
Pritchard. 

Enrolled Bills — Sellars, chairman; Butt, Matthews of Bertie. 
Grady, Gettys, Chesnutt, Young, Pritchard, Hewitt. 

Justice of the Peace — Forrest, chairman; Burgess, Butt, Chesnutt. 
Ray of Chatham, Hocutt, Matheson, Cox of Forsyth, Brown of Rowan, 
Davis, Griffin, Taylor, Stroup, Pritchard, Spence. 

Library — Grady, chairman; Winborne, Everett. Teague. Pharr. 
Hocutt, Summersill, Gettys, Bowman, Rose, Wild. 

Printing — Sawyer, chairman; Saunders, Mintz. Halsey, Oliver. 



Standing Committees of House of Representatives. 53 

Gettys, McCoin, Moore, Kelly, Grier, Williams of Johnston, Farish, 
Hodgin, Pritchard, Pass, Herring. 

Public Buildings and Grounds — Parish, chairman; Neal, Moore, 
Lyday, Stephenson, Halsey, Swain, Darden of Greene, Gatling, Gard- 
ner, Grady, Penland, Steelman. 

Revision of Laws — Mull, chairman; Powell, Teague, Poole, Grady, 
Williams of Johnston, Eckles, Redwine, Doughton, Grier, Williams 
of Cabarrus, Turner. 

Trustees of the University — Wright, chairman; Bryant of Durham, 
Doughton, McMullan, Winborne, Dawson, Gold, Powell, Everett, 
Grantham, Love, McCoin, Wilson of Jackson, Pharr, Cameron, Grant, 
Jackson, Maguire. 

Committee on Forestry — Young, chairman; Doughton, Suttlemyre, 
Cameron, Gold, Matheson, Wilson of Jackson, Love, Poole, Everett, 
Garrett, Aycock, Pritchard, Penland, Maguire. 

Joint Committee on Code — Mull, Redwine, Teague. 

House Members of Joint Committee Under House Resolution No. 
119, Senate Resolution 44 — Redwine, Foole, Crisp. 

Committee on Woman Suffrage — Everett, chairman; Gold, Ray of 
Macon, Mull, Dawson, McCoin, Jackson. 



PART II. 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS. 



1. Governor. 

2. Secretary of State. 

3. Treasurer. 

4. Auditor. 

5. Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

6. Attorney-General. 



THE GOYEKXOB. 

Thomas W. Bickett, Governor. 

The Governor is the chief executive officer of the State. He is 
elected by the people for a term of four years. He receives a salary 
of $6,500 a year, and in addition is allowed annually $600 for travel- 
ing expenses, and a residence, with domestic servants. 

Article III, section 2, of the Constitution of North Carolina, pre- 
scribes the following qualifications for the Governor: 

1. He must have attained the age of thirty years. 

2. He must have been a citizen of the United States for five years, 
and a resident of North Carolina for two years next before the 
election. 

3. No person shall be eligible for the office of Governor for more 
than four years in any term of eight years, unless he becomes Gov- 
ernor by having been Lieutenant-Governor or President of the 
Senate. 

The same qualifications apply to the office of Lieutenant-Governor. 
The Constitution prescribes the powers and duties of the Governor 
as follows: 

1. To take the oath of office prescribed for the Governor. 

2. To reside at the seat of government; to keep the General As- 
sembly informed respecting the affairs of the State; and to recom- 
mend to the General Assembly such measures as he deems expedient. 

3. To grant reprieves, commutations and pardons (except in cases 
of impeachment) , and to report each case of reprieve, commutation, 
or pardon to the General Assembly. 

4. To receive reports from all officials of the Executive Depart- 
ments and of public institutions, and to transmit the same to the 
General Assembly. 

5. He is commander-in-chief of the militia of the State, except 
when they are called into the service of the United States. 

6. To call extra sessions of the General Assembly when he thinks 
necessary, by and with the advice of the Council of State. 

7. To appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, 
all officers whose offices are established by the Constitution and 
whose appointments are not otherwise provided for. 



58 Executive Departments. 

8. To keep "The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina," and 
use the same as occasion shall require. 

He has no veto power, being the only Governor in the United 
States without such power. 

In addition to these duties the following are prescribed by statute: 

1. To supervise the official conduct of all executive and adminis- 
trative officers, and' to visit all State institutions whenever he deems 
such visitation necessary to inquire into their management and 
needs. 

2. To see that all public offices are filled and their duties per- 
formed. 

3. To make appointments and supply vacancies not otherwise pro- 
vided for in all departments. 

4. To be the sole official organ of communication between the gov- 
ernment of this State and other States or the government of the 
United States. 

5. To use the civil and military power of the State to prevent the 
violation of the statute against prize fighting in North Carolina. 

6. "To convene the Council of State for consultation whenever he 
deems it necessary. 

7. To appoint a Private Secretary, who shall keep a record of all 
public letters written by or to the Governor in books provided for 
that purpose. 

8. To cause to be kept the following records: a register of all ap- 
plications for pardon or the commutation of any sentence; an ac- 
count of his official expenses, and the rewards offered by him for 
the apprehension of criminals, which shall be paid upon the warrant 
of the Auditor. 

9. Under certain conditions to employ counsel for the State. 

10. To appoint by proclamation one day in each year as a day of 
solemn and public thanksgiving to Almighty God for past blessings 
and of supplication for His continued kindness and care over us as a 
State and a Nation. 

11. To procure a seal for each department of the State govern- 
ment to be used in such manner as may be established by law. 

In addition to the above duties the Governor is, ex officio, chair- 
man of the State Board of Education, of the Board of Public Build- 
ings and Grounds, of the State Board of Pensions, of the State Board 
of Internal Improvements, of the North Carolina Geological Board, 
of the Board of Trustees of the State Library, of the Board of Trus- 



Secretary of State. 59 

tees of the University of North Carolina, of the State Text-book 
Commission, of the committee to let the contract for State printing, 
and of the State Board of Canvassers. 



THE SECRETARY OF STATE. 

J. Bryan Grimes, Secretary of State. 

The Secretary of State is at the head of the Department of State. 
He is elected by the people for a term of four years and receives a 
salary of $3,500. He is, ex officio, a member of the Council of State, 
of the State Board of Education, of the State Text-book Commission, 
of the Board of Public Buildings and Grounds, and is a trustee of 
the public libraries. 

The Secretary of State countersigns all commissions issued by 
the Governor, and is charged with the custody of all statutes and 
joint resolutions of the Legislature, all documents which pass under 
the Great Seal, and of all books, records, deeds, parchments, maps 
and papers now deposited in his office or which may hereafter be 
there deposited pursuant to law. 

Through the Secretary of State all corporations for business or 
charitable purposes under the general laws of the State are char- 
tered. This includes mercantile, manufacturing, banking, insurance, 
railroad, street car, electric, steamboat, and other companies. The 
certificates of incorporation are there filed and recorded. In the 
last two years there have been 1.915 certificates for domestic cor- 
porations filed in the office of the Secretary of State on which 
$48,954.30 organization or dissolution taxes have been paid. In the 
last two years 49 banks have been incorporated and 8 railroad com- 
panies have filed articles of association or amendment with the Sec- 
retary of State. Foreign corporations, before being permitted to do 
business in North Carolina, are required to file copies of their char- 
ters in the office of the Secretary of State. 

All bills passed by the General Assembly are enrolled for ratifi- 
cation under the supervision and direction of the Secretary of State, 
and shall be typewritten or written with pen and ink, in the discre- 
tion of the Secretary of State. All bills are now typewritten, which 
change is very much in the interest of economy and accuracy. 



60 Executive Departments. 

Copyists in the enrolling office are paid ten cents a copy sheet for 
original and one carbon copy. The carbon copy is sent to the State 
Printer, from which copy are published the laws, resolutions, etc. 
An assistant to the Secretary of State prepares these laws for publi- 
cation, determines which are "public," "public-local," and which are 
"private"; side-notes them and prepares the captions and indexes 
the laws of the session. This work has grown very much in the 
last few years. 

The Secretary of State is charged with the work of distributing 
the Supreme Court Reports, The Revisal, Session Laws, Journals, etc. 

The Secretary of State furnishes to the various precincts, coun- 
ties, and boards all books, blanks, forms, and other printed matter 
necessary for holding general elections; prepares blanks for the 
State Board of Canvassers, and issues certificates of election to such 
persons as are declared elected by the State Board of Canvassers. 
He also keeps in his office a permanent roll of the voters of the 
precincts and counties who registered under the "grandfather clause" 
of the Constitution. 

All vacant and unappropriated land in North Carolina is subject 
to entry by residents or citizens of the State. Almost all the vacant 
land in the State has been granted to individuals or is the property 
of the State Board of Education, but small tracts are frequently 
discovered and entries for same made. The warrants, plats, and 
surveys and a record of grants for all lands originally granted by the 
Lords Proprietors, by the Crown of Great Britain, or by the State of 
North Carolina, are preserved in the office of the Secretary of State. 

The General Assembly of 1909 increased the price of these lands 
to $1.50 an acre, and provided "that all lands entered under this 
act for which a grant has been obtained at the price of $1.50 an acre 
shall be free from all claims, title and interest now vested in the 
State of North Carolina or the State Board of Education." 

All automobiles in the State are required to be registered annually 
by the Secretary of State on or before the 1st of July. For the year 
ending June 30, 1919, there have been registered in his office from 
July 1st to November 30th, 72,313 automobiles. There has been 
paid into the State Treasury from this source for the two fiscal 
years ending November 30th, $744,485.79. 

For the two years ending November 30, 1918, the collections made 
in the Secretary of State's office, paid into the State Treasury, were 
$833,428.80. 



State Treasurer. 61 

In the last few years the work in this office has been greatly in- 
creased, everything has been indexed and systematically filed, and 
the dangerous and unsightly paper boxes and files in wooden cup- 
boards have been replaced with steel, fireproof cases. 



THE TREASURER. 

B. R. Lacy, State Treasurer. 

The State Treasury is one of the Executive Departments of the 
State Government. The State Treasurer is elected by the people for 
a term of four years. His term of office begins the first day of Jan- 
uary next after his election, and continues until his successor is 
elected and qualified. He receives a salary of $3,500 per annum. 

The duties of the State Treasurer as prescribed by law are as 
follows: 

1. To keep his office in the city of Raleigh and attend there be- 
tween the hours of 10 o'clock a. m. and 3 o'clock p. m., except Sun- 
days and legal holidays. 

2. To receive all moneys that may be paid into the Treasury of 
the State; to pay interest on State bonds and all warrants legally 
drawn on the Treasury by the Auditor, and to report to the Gov- 
ernor and the General Assembly the financial condition of the State, 
including a summary of the receipts and disbursements for each 
fiscal year. 

3. To make complete revenue bill to cover estimated expenses and 
recommend the tax rate. 

4. To construe Revenue and Machinery Acts. 



THE STATE AUDITOR. 

W. P. Wood, State Auditor. 

The Department of the State Auditor is one of the Executive De- 
partments of the State Government. The Auditor is elected for a 
term of four years by the qualified voters of the State, at the same 
time and places and in the same manner as members of the General 



62 Executive Departments. 

Assembly are elected. His term of office begins on the first day of 
January next after his election, and continues until his successor is 
elected and qualified. (Constitution of North Carolina, Article III, 
section 1.) His duties as prescribed by law are as follows (Revisal 
of 1905, section 5365) : 

1. To superintend the fiscal concerns of the State. 

2. To report to the Governor annually, and to the General As- 
sembly at the beginning of each biennial session thereof, a complete 
statement of the funds of the State, of its revenues and of the 
public expenditures during the preceding fiscal year, and, as far as 
practicable, an account of the same down to the termination of the 
current calendar year, together with a detailed estimate of the ex- 
penditures to be defrayed from the Treasury for the ensuing fiscal 
year, specifying therein each object of expenditure and distinguish- 
ing between such as are provided for by permanent or temporary 
appropriations and such as must be provided for by a new statute, 
and suggesting the means from which such expenditures are to be 
defrayed. 

3. To suggest plans for the improvement and management of the 
public revenue. 

4. To keep and state all accounts in which the State is interested. 

5. To examine and settle the accounts of all persons indebted to 
the State, and to certify the amount of balance to the Treasurer. 

6. To direct and superintend the collection of all moneys due to 
the State. 

7. To examine and liquidate the claims of all persons against the 
State, in cases where there is sufficient provision of law for the 
payment thereof, and where there is no sufficient provision, to ex- 
amine the claim and report the fact, with his opinion thereon, to 
the General Assembly. 

8. To require all persons who have received any moneys belonging 
to the State, and have not accounted therefor, to settle their accounts. 

9. To have the exclusive power and authority to issue all warrants 
for the payment of money upon the State Treasurer; and it shall be 
the Auditor's duty, before issuing the same, to examine the laws 
authorizing the payment thereof, and satisfy himself of the correct- 
ness of the accounts of persons applying for warrants, and to this 
end he shall have the power to administer oaths; and he shall also 
file in his office the voucher upon which the warrant is drawn and 
cite the law upon said warrant. 



State Auditor. 63 

10. To procure from the books of the hanks in which the Treasurer 
makes his deposits, monthly statements of the moneys received and 
paid on account of the Treasurer. 

11. To keep an account between the State and the Treasurer, and 
therein charge the Treasurer with the balance in the Treasury when 
he came into office, and with all moneys received by him, and credit 
him with all warrants drawn or paid by him. 

12. To examine carefully on the first Tuesday of every month, or 
oftener if he deems it necessary, the accounts of the debits and 
credits in the bank book kept by the Treasurer, and if he discovers 
any irregularity or deficiency therein, unless the same be rectified or 
explained to his satisfaction, to report the same forthwith in writing 
to the Governor. 

13. To require, from time to time, all persons who have received 
moneys or securities, or have had the disposition or management of 
any property of the State, of which an account is kept in his office, 
to render statements thereof to him; and all such persons shall 
render such statements at such time and in such form as he shall 
require. 

14. To require any person presenting an account for settlement to 
be sworn before him and to answer orally as to any facts relating to 
its correctness. 

In addition to the above, the State Auditor is a member of the 
Council of State, of the State Board of Education, of the State Text- 
book Commission, of the State Board of Pensions, and ex officio Sec- 
retary of the Soldiers' Home. All pension matters are managed in 
this department; all applications for pensions examined, and all 
pension warrant issued to more than fifteen thousand pensioners. 
The Auditor keeps the accounts of the Soldiers' Home. 

PENSIONS FOR CONFEDERATE VETERANS. 

The first pension law was passed by the Legislature of 1885. It 
appropriated $30,000 annually for certain classes of disabled Con- 
federate soldiers. This appropriation has been increased from time 
to time, until the annual appropriation now amounts to $575,000. 

We have now on the pension roll of North Carolina in round 
numbers l^.OOO pensioners. 

To totally blind and disabled Confederate soldiers the law allows 
$120 each per year. That class received $13,440 in 1917. 



64 Executive Departments. 

The Soldiers' Home was organized by the Legislature of 1891, and 
there was expended that year $2,250. That has gradually increased 
from year to year until the last Legislature appropriated $42,500 for 
maintenance. 



DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION. 

Eugene C. Brooks, Superintendent. 

The Department of Education is one of the Executive Departments 
of the State Government. The Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
head of the department, is elected by the people for a term of four 
years. His term begins on the first of January next after his elec- 
tion, and continues until his successor has been elected and qualified. 
His salary is $3,000 per annum, and in addition he is allowed "actual 
traveling expenses" when engaged in the performance of his official 
duties. 

Section XLI of the Constitution of North Carolina of 1776 is as 
follows: "That a school or schools be established by the Legisla- 
ture, for the convenient instruction of youth, with such salaries to 
the masters, paid by the public, as may enable them to instruct at 
low prices; and all useful learning shall be duly encouraged and 
promoted in one or more universities." 

Except for the establishment of the University of North Carolina, 
no attempt was made by the Legislature to carry out this injunction 
of the Constitution until nearly three-quarters of a century had 
elapsed. The first efforts were a failure, and nothing definite was 
accomplished until the creation of a Department of Education by the 
election in 1851 of Calvin H. Wiley. Superintendent of Common 
Schools. He entered upon the duties of his office in January, 1852. 
and was continued in office until October 19, 1865. The following 
figures tell the story of his work: Number of teachers in 1852, 800; 
in 1855, 2.064; in 1860, 2.286. Enrollment in the schools in 1853, 
83.373; in 1855, 115,856; in 1860, 116.567. Number of schools taught 
in 1855. 1,905; 1860, 2,854. School fund in 1853, $192,250; in 1860, 
$408,566. Expenditures in 1853, $139,865; in 1860 $255,641. The 
schools were kept open throughout the war, and in 1863 enrolled 
more than 50.000 pupils. In 1865, as one of the results of the war, 
the office of Superintendent of Common Schools was abolished. 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 65 

By the Constitution of 1868 the office of Superintendent of Public 
Instruction was created, and the Department of Education made one 
of the Constitutional Departments of the State Government. Since 
that time the following have filled the office: S. S. Ashley, Alexander 
Mclver, Stephen D. Pool, John C. Scarborough, Sidney M. Finger, 
Charles H. Mebane, Thomas F. Toon, and James Y. Joyner. 

The scope and general nature of the work of this department can 
be best understood from the following summary of the general powers 
and duties of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

The Superintendent is required to publish the school law, make a 
biennial report to the Governor, keep his office at the capital, and 
sign all orders for money paid out of State Treasury for educational 
purposes. He has general direction of the school system and the 
enforcement of the school law, all school officers being required to 
obey his instructions and his interpretation of the law. He is re- 
quired to be acquainted with the educational conditions of all sec- 
tions of the State, and he must also keep in touch with the educa- 
tional progress of other States. 

In addition to these general duties, the State Superintendent has 
the following duties: Secretary Text-book Commission, Rev. 1905, 
4057; trustee of State Library, Rev. 1905, 5069; president board of 
directors State Normal and Industrial College, Rev. 1905, 4252; 
chairman of trustees of East Carolina Training School, Laws 1907; 
chairman State Board of Examiners and Institute Conductors, Laws 
1917; prescribes course of study for public high schools, Laws 1907; 
makes rules and regulations for rural libraries, Rev. 1905; member 
board of trustees of Appalachian Training School, Laws 1907; chair- 
man ex officio board of trustees of the Caswell Training School. 
Laws 1911; chairman ex officio board of trustees of Cullowhee Nor- 
mal and Industrial School, Laws 1913; member of board of trustees 
of the University of North Carolina, Laws 1909, c. 432; member State 
Board of "Vocational Education, Laws 1917; member of Library 
Commission. 



66 



Executive Department. 



SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES, 1916-1917. 





Rural 


City 


North 
Carolina 


Total expenditures, 1916-'17 


$4,812,380.84 
4,277,982.81 


$2,609,573.31 
2,283,664.03 


$ 7,421.954.15 

6,561,646.84 


Increase 


$ 534,398.03 S 325.909.28 


$ 860,307.31 


Expenses (Cost of Conducting School System): 


§2,989,642.53 
2,842,665.80 


$1,299,940.45 
1,211,987.14 


$ 4,289.582.98 




4,054,652.94 






Administration, 1916-'17 


$ 146,976.73 

$ 175,196.68 
180,492.84 


$ 87,953.31 

$ 30,111.30 
36,276.21 


S 234,930.04 

$ 205,307.98 
216,769.05 




S *5,296.16 


$ *6,164.91 $ *11, 461.07 


Operation and maintenance of plants, 1916- 
1917 


S 144,411.78 
131,253.64 


$ 189,749.27 S 334.161.05 


Operation and maintenance of plants, 1915— 
1916 


168,858.55 I 300,112.19 








S 13,158.14 

$ 812,302.72 
563,089.25 


$ 20,890.72 $ 34,048.86 


Outlays (For Permanent Improvements and 
Repayment of Bonds, Loans, Etc.): 
Outlay payments for new buildings, sites, 


$ 548,506.00 
358,428.54 


$ 1,360,808.72 


Outlay payments for new buildings, sites, 


921,517.79 








$ 249,213.47 
$ 690,827.13 


$ 190,077.46 $ 439,290.93 


Borrowed money repaid, bonds, etc., 1916- 
1917 -- -- 


S 541,266.29 $ 1,232,093.42 


Borrowed money repaid, bonds, etc., 1916- 
1917 


560,481.28 508,113.59 1,068,594.87 




S 130,345.85 S 33,152.70 |$ 163,498.55 








Balance on hand, June 30, 1917 --- 


$ 281,003.29 


$ 201,414.64 $ 482,417.93 



'Decrease. 



MISCELLANEOUS STATISTICS, 1916-1917. 



Total school population 

Total enrollment 

Total average daily attendance 

Total number rural schools. -- 

Total number teachers 

Average term of all schools in days. 

Total number schoolhouses 

Total value of school property 

Average value of all schoolhouses... 
Average annual salary of teachers... 



Rural 



668,782 

530,025 

347,803 

7,825 

12,313 

113.6 

7.723 

$7,092,327.00 

918.34 

233 .09 



City 



North 
Carolina 



lt,s.ss:5 

115,931 

84,593 



2,733 

165.2 

360 

$6,201,069.94 

17,225.19 

423 .89 



$13 



837.665 

645,956 

432,396 

7,825 

15,046 

123 .02 

8,083 

293,396.94 

1,614.61 

267.67 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 



67 



SCHOOL FUND AND SOURCES, 1916-1917. 



Revenue Receipts: 

General county property and poll taxes, 

1916-*17 

General county property and poll taxes, 
1915-16 



Rural 



•52,066,406.92 
1,946,485.17 



Increase S 119,921 .75 



Local district taxes, 1916-'17. 
Local distiict taxes, 1915-'16_ 



Increase, 



Fines, forfeitures, and penalties, 1916-'17_. 
Fines, forfeitures, and penalties, 1915-'16__ 



$ 750,856.53 
703,600.51 



Increase. 



State £250,000 per capita appropriation, 
1916-'17 

State S250.000 per capita appropriation, 
1915-16 



Increase. 



State equalizing fund appropriation, 1916- 
1917 

State equalizing fund appropriation, 1915- 
1916. 



$ 47,256.02 

$ 157,496.94 
155,144.71 



S 2,352.23 

$ 236,874.90 
245,514.77 



$ *8,639.87 

S 393,775.91 
476,134.69 



Increase. 



High schools and farm life schools, 1916-'17. 
High schools and farm life schools, 1915-'16. 

Increase 



Private donations and State appropria- 
tions for libraries, 1916— *17 .... 

Private donations and State appropiia- 
tions for libraries, 1915-'16 



Increase. 



Tuitions and all other revenue sources, 
1916-'17 

Tuitions and all other revenue sources, 
1915-16 



S *82,358.78 

S 97,000.00 
96,302.72 



City 



S 546,271.97 
604,001.79 



S *57,729.82 

SI, 061, 219. 18 
937,385.29 



North 
Carolina 



S 2,612,678.89 
2,550,486.96 



S 62,191.93 

$ 1.812.075.71 
1,640,985.80 



i 123,833.89 S 171,089.91 

1,466.06 '$ 158,963.00 
2,093.24 157,237.95 



*627.18 



10,750.00 
8,600.00 



$ 



697 .28 



S 15,271.73 
44,971.15 



$ 2,150.00 

$ 312.94 

2,112.44 



Increase. 



Total revenue receipts, 1916— 117. 
Total revenue receipts, 1915— '16- 



i '29,697.42 

$ 101,877.77 
58.153.52 



$ 43,724.25 



Increase. 



83,819,560.70 
3,726,305.23 



$ '1,865.48 

$ 63,159.12 
75,612.85 



$ '12,453.73 



$ 93,255.47 



51,683,179.27 
1,629,871.59 



$ 53,307.68 



S 1,725.05 

$ 236,874.90 
245,514.77 

3 *S,639.87 

5 393,775.91 
476,134.69 



5 *82,358.78 

I 107,750.00 
104,902.71 



3,847.28 

15,584.67 
17,147.57 



$ '31,562.90 

? 165,036.89 

133,766.37 

S 31,770.52 



S 5,502,739.97 
5, 356, 176. sj 



S 146,563.15 



'Decrease. 



68 



Executive Department. 



SCHOOL FUND AND SOURCES— Continued. 





Rural 


City 


North 

Carolina 


Non-HIV 5 NIK Hi ' 1 HTS. 

Sale of honds, 1916-U7 - 

Sale of bonds, 1915-'16 


S 279,007.99 
67,739.61 


S 150,309.96 
540,708.66 


S 429.317.95 
608,448.27 




$ 211,268.38 

$ 123,925.00 
76,230.08 


S *390,398.70 

$ 0,290.00 
21,378.00 


S '179,130.32 


State loan fund, 1916-'17 


? 130, 185.00 




97, 608. OS 







Increas 



S 47,694.92 « *15, 128.00 S 37,576.92 



Borrowed from banks (temporary loans) 

1916-'17. S 571,111.50 

Borrowed from banks (temporary loans) 

1915-U6 443,436.46 



S 503,475.88 S 1,074.587.38 



3S2.931.0S 



, 



Increase. S 127,675.04 S 120,544.80 



Sale of school property, insurance and all 
other non-revenue receipts, 1916— '17 S 

Sale of school property, insurance and all 
other non-revenue receipts, 1915-' 16 



S26.367.54 



S 248, 219 .S4 



Increase. 



Balance brought forward, July 1, 1916. 



Grand total of all receipts, 1916-'17. 
Grand total of all receipts, 1915-'16. 

Increase.. 



32,285.73 \i 22,024.09 S 54.C09.82 
24,593.97 I 71,177.11 



14,297.41 

267,483.21 

,093,384.13 
,573,931.62 



S 519,452.51 



■3 *2,569.88 

445,748.75 

S2.S10.987.95 
2,698,956.08 



8 *16,867.29 

713,231.96 

$ 7.904,372.08 
7,272.887.70 



S 112,031.87 8 631,484.38 



'Decrease. 



Attorney-General. 69 



THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL. 

James S. Manning, Attorney-General, Raleigh. 

The Attorney-General is a member of the Executive Department 
of the State Government. He is elected by the people for a term of 
four years. His term begins the first of January next after his 
election and continues until his successor is elected and qualified. 
He receives a salary of $3,000 per annum. 

It is the duty of the Attorney-General: 

1. To defend all actions in the Supreme Court in which the State 
shall be interested or is a party; and, also, when requested by the 
Governor or either branch of the General Assembly, to appear for 
the State in any other court or tribunal in any cause or matter, civil 
or criminal, in which the State may be a" party or interested. 

2. At the request of the Governor, Secretary of State, Treasurer, 
Auditor, Corporation Commissioners, Insurance Commissioner, or 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, he shall prosecute and defend 
all suits relating to matters connected with their departments. 

3. To represent all State institutions, including the State Prison, 
whenever requested so to do by the official head of any such insti- 
tution. 

4. To consult with and advise the solicitors, when requested by 
them, in all matters pertaining to the duties of their office. 

5. To give, when required, his opinion upon all questions of law 
submitted to him by the General Assembly, or either branch thereof, 
or by any official of the State. 

6. To pay all moneys received for debts due or penalties to the 
State immediately after the receipt thereof, into the Treasury. 

The Attorney-General is also a member of the State Board of Edu- 
cation, of the State Board of Public Buildings and Grounds, of the 
State Board of Pensions, and of the State Text-book Commission, 
and is the legal adviser of the Council of State. 



PART 



JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT. 



1. Court of Impeachment. 

2. Supreme Court. 

3. Superior Courts. 

4. Other Inferior Courts. 

5. Corporation Commission. 



JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT. 



The judicial power of the State is vested in: 

1. A Court for the Trial of Impeachments. 

2. A Supreme Court. 

3. The Superior Courts. 

4. Courts of Justices of the Peace. 

5. Such other inferior courts as may be established by the General 
Assembly. 



COURT OF IMPEACHMENT. 

Article IV, section 3. of the Constitution of North Carolina pro- 
vides that the court for the trial of impeachment shall be the Senate. 
A majority of the members are necessary to a quorum, and the judg- 
ment shall not extend beyond removal from, and disqualification to 
hold, office in North Carolina; but the party shall be liable to in- 
dictment and punishment according to law. The House of Repre- 
sentatives solely has the power of impeaching. No person shall be 
convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the Senators 
present. When the Governor is impeached, the Chief Justice pre- 
sides. The following causes, or charges, are sufficient, when proven, 
to warrant conviction: (1) corruption in office; (2) habitual drunk- 
enness; (3) intoxication while in the exercise of office; (4) drunk- 
enness in any public place; (5) mental or physical incompetence to 
discharge the duties of office; (6) any criminal matter the conviction 
whereof would tend to bring the office into public contempt. 

Only once in the history of the State has the High Court of Im- 
peachment been organized for the purpose of impeaching the Gov- 
ernor. This was in 1870, when the House of Representatives im- 
peached Governor W. W. Holden before the Senate, for "high crimes 
and misdemeanors." The trial was conducted on both sides by the 
most eminent lawyers of the State, and resutled in the conviction of 
the Governor and his removal from office. In 1901 similar charges 
of impeachment were preferred against Chief Justice David M. 
Furches and Associate Justice Robert M. Douglas, but both were 
acquitted. 



74 Judicial Department. 

THE SUPEEME COURT. 

The Supreme Court consists of a Chief Justice and four associate 
justices elected by the qualified voters of the State for a term of 
eight years. 

The Constitution of 1776 required the General Assembly to "ap- 
point Judges of the Supreme Courts of Law and Equity, Judges of 
Admiralty, and Attorney-General," who were commissioned by the 
Governor and held office during good behavior. Acting under this 
authority, the General Assembly in 1776 divided the State into six 
judicial districts. In 1782 a seventh district, and in 1787 an eighth 
district were added. Under the act of 1777 three judges, Samuel 
Ashe, Samuel Spencer, and James Iredell, were chosen. The judges 
rode the circuits separately, but sat together as an appellate court. 
In 1790 the eight judicial districts were divided into an eastern and 
a western riding, and a fourth judge was added, two being assigned 
to each riding. In each riding the two judges sat together as an 
appellate court. In 1797 the General Assembly created an extra- 
ordinary court for the purpose of trying the Secretary of State and 
other officials who had been discovered confederating with others in 
an elaborate scheme for defrauding the State by issuing fraudulent 
land warrants. For trial of these criminals the General Assembly 
deemed it expedient to create a new court to sit at Raleigh twice a 
year, not exceeding ten days at each term. The court was author- 
ized to hear appeals of causes which had accumulated in the district 
courts. The existence of this court under the act was to expire at 
the close of the session of the General Assembly next after June 10, 
1802; but before the expiration of this time the General Assembly 
continued the court for three years longer, for the purpose of hearing 
appeals from the district courts, and gave to it the name of "Court 
of Conference." By an act of 1804 the court was made a permanent 
Court of Record. The judges were ordered to reduce their opinions 
to writing and to deliver the same viva voce in open court. The next 
year (1805) the name of the court was changed to the Supreme 
Court. In 1810 the judges were authorized to elect one of their 
members a Chief Justice, John Louis Taylor being chosen to that 
office. The Supreme Court now consisted of six judges, but two 
continued to be a quorum, and all the judges still rode the circuits. 

In 1818 an act was passed establishing the present Supreme Court 
and requiring it to sit in Raleigh for the hearing of appeals. The act 



Supreme and Other Courts. 75 

provided for tnree judges to be elected by the General Assembly. 
John Louis Taylor, Leonard Henderson, and John Hall composed the 
first court, which began its sessions January 1, 1819. The judges 
elected their own Chief Justice, Taylor being continued in that 
office. The number of judges continued to be three until 1868, when 
the Constitution adopted by the convention of that year increased 
the number to a Chief Justice and four Associate Justices. The Con- 
vention of 1875 reduced it again to three, but by an amendment 
adopted in 1888 the number was raised to a Chief Justice and four 
Associate Justices, where it has continued until the present time. 
The Supreme Court holds annually two sessions of sixteen weeks, 
one beginning the first Monday in September, the other the first 
Monday in February. 

The court is authorized to choose its own clerk, marshal, reporter, 
and other officers. 



SUPERIOR COURTS. 

There are twenty Superior Court judges, one for each of the twenty 
circuits, or judicial districts, who are elected by the people and hold 
their offices for a term of eight years. The Superior Court has appel- 
late jurisdiction of all issues of law or of fact determined by a clerk 
of the Superior Court or justice of the peace, and of all appeals from 
inferior courts for error assigned in matters of law as provided by 
law. In the matter of original jurisdiction the law is: 

"The Superior Court shall have original jurisdiction of the civil 
actions whereof exclusive original jurisdiction is not given to some 
other court, and of all criminal actions in which the punishment may 
exceed a fine of fifty dollars or imprisonment for thirty days; and 
of all such affrays as shall be committed within one mile of the place 
where and during the time such court is being held." 



OTHER COURTS. 

The Constitution gives to the General Assembly power to establish 
other courts inferior to the Supreme and Superior Courts, and to 
allot and distribute to them such powers and jurisdiction, within 
constitutional limits, as it sees fit. From the decision of these 



76 Judicial Department. 

inferior courts the Legislature has power to provide a proper system 
of appeals. 

The Constitution also requires the General Assembly to provide 
for the establishment of special courts for the trial of misdemeanors 
in cities and towns where the same may be necessary. 

Such courts are the mayors of cities and incorporated towns. 
Their election or appointment is usually provided for in the charters 
of incorporation, the acts of the General Assembly prescribing how 
particular towns and cities shall be governed. 

The jurisdiction of such special courts — also called in the law, 
inferior, courts — is usually set forth in the charters. 

The general law also provides that "the mayor of every city and 
incorporated town * * * within the corporate limits of his city or 
town, shall have the jurisdiction of a justice of the peace in all 
criminal matters arising under the laws of the State or under the 
ordinances of such city or town." 

Justices of the peace, in their respective counties, try (1) that 
class of civil actions which involve demands for small debts and 
property of little value and (2) that class of criminal actions, called 
petty misdemeanors, which involve only slight punishment. 

They try all cases of contract or promise to pay money where the 
sum demanded does not exceed two hundred dollars. 

They may try certain other civil actions where the value of the 
property in controversy or the amount claimed for damages does not 
exceed fifty dollars. 

They try criminal cases arising within their counties the punish- 
ment of which fixed by law cannot exceed a fine of fifty dollars or 
imprisonment for thirty days. 



NORTH CAROLINA CORPORATION COMMISSION. 

J. S. Griffin, Clerk. 

The North Carolina Corporation Commission was established by 
an act of the General Assembly of 1899, superseding the Railroad 
Commission, which was established in 1891. The offices of the Com- 
mission now occupy the entire first floor of the remodeled State De- 
partments Building. 

Membership: W. T. Lee, chairman, Haywood County; George P. 
Pell, Forsyth County; A. J. Maxwell, Craven County. 



Corporation Commission. 77 

The Commission has general supervision over all railroad, tele- 
graph, telephone, street railway, steamboat, canal, waterworks, and 
all other companies exercising the right of eminent domain, and, 
also, under act of 1913, of electric light, power, water, and gas 
companies. 

It is authorized to hear and adjust complaints, to fix and revise 
tariffs of all railroads and all other transportation companies. 

The Commission is a Board of Appraisers and Assessors for all the 
railroads and other corporations mentioned above, and also assesses 
for ad valorem taxation the value of the capital stock of all North 
Carolina corporations. 

The Commission is also a State Tax Commission, having and 
exercising general supervision over the tax listers and assessing 
officers of the State. 

In 1899 the Commission was given supervision of all State banks. 
Since that time there have been very few failures of State banks in 
w r hich creditors lost anything. State banks have increased in num- 
ber during the last ten years from 285 to 461. with a corresponding 
increase in resources. The Commission has authority to appoint 
Bank Examiners, whose duties are to examine the various banks of 
the State and report to the Commission. Three examiners are now 
regularly employed in this work. 

COMPLAINTS. 

The Commission has heard 5,307 formal complaints. These com- 
plaints consist principally of overcharges, discriminations, freight 
service, failure of railroad companies to provide cars for transport- 
ing freights, storage charges, petitions for depots and sidings. 

The Commission now has a regular department, in charge of an 
experienced freight rate clerk, for the handling and adjustment of 
all claims by shippers for overcharges in freight rates. 

The Commission is authorized to make rules for the handling of 
freight, and to require the building of depots, etc. 

When the complaint is filed, the attention of the company com- 
plained against is called to the cause of the complaint; and if the 
matter be such that it cannot be settled by correspondence alone, the 
officers of the company complained against are cited to appear. In a 
large majority of cases these claims are amicably settled to the 
entire satisfaction of the parties concerned and without cost to the 
complainant; others have, however, required hearings. The records 



78 Judicial Department. 

of the Commission show that many complaints and claims, aggre- 
gating thousands of dollars, have been paid to shippers. Union and 
other stations have been established all along the various lines of 
railroads. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

The correspondence of the office has been voluminous — many in- 
quiries touching taxation and matters pertaining to corporations, etc. 
Shippers have found that by applying to this office they can be 
advised of the proper freight rates and of the rules governing the 
transportation of freight to and from all points, and they are taking 
advantage of the opportunity. Much correspondence is necessary in 
the preparation of cases and the gathering of such statistics as are 
contemplated by law. All of this involves a vast amount of labor 
and correspondence. 

ASSESSMENT AND VALUATION OF RAILROAD, TELEGRAPH, TELEPHONE AND 
STREET RAILWAY PROPERTY BY THE CORPORATION COMMISSION. 

In the year 1900 — the year after the Commission was established— 
the railroad porperties of the State were valued at $12,321,704; in 
the year 1911 the Commission assessed and valued the properties of 
railroads and other corporations as mentioned below at $131,022,968. 

The valuations are as follows: 



Corporation Commission. 



79 



ASSESSMENT AND VALUATION OF RAILROAD, TELEGRAPH, TELEPHONE 
STREET RAILWAY, STEAMBOAT, AND OTHER PROPERTY. 



■ 


Mileage 


i 


Total 


Companies 


Main 
Line 


Sidings 


Valuation 


Atlantic Coast Line Bailroad 


950 .80 

694 .326 

95 .91 

• 609 .918 
590 .08 
773 .98 

1,238.52 


308 .92 
129 00 
27 .31 
247 .33 
157 .94 
223 .04 
216.71 


$ 


34,645,345 


Norfolk Southern Railroad . . . ._ 


7,227,255 


Norfolk Southern Railroad — A. and N. C. Division. 
Seaboard Air Line Railway . 


'1,479.055 
20,125.000 


Southern Railway — owned lines 


25,907.719 


Southern Railway- leased lines . 


23,817,133 


Miscellaneous Railroads ._ 


12,185,911 






Totals.. 


4,953.534 


1,310.25 




125,387,418 






Electric light, street railway, and gas companies 






* 


11,281,591 




93,920 


Private car lines. . 


62.750 


Steamboat companies. 


90,500 




20,747 


Telephone companies . . 


3,253,293 




117,260 




70,246 


Pullman Company, The ... 


487,226 


Telegraph companies - 


997,287 










Total 


$ 
8 


16,474,820 










Grand total 


141,862,238 







TAXES PAID. 



Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. 
Norfolk Southern Railroad... 
Seaboard Air Line Railway... 

Southern Railway 

Miscellaneous railroads 

Total 



487,028.01 
126,362.80 
309,975.41 
655,200.38 
176,058.14 



$1,754,624.74 



EARNING 3 , AND OPERATING: EXPSN3ES. 





Earnings 


Operating 
Expenses 


Atlantic Coast Line Railroad 


811,584,617.49 

5,299,909.01 

8,772,875.70 

19,505,515 29 

7,583,209.31 


8 7,827,881.00 


Norfolk Southern Railway.. 


3,680,364 65 


Seaboard Ail Line Railway _ 


5, 310,467. 75 


Southern Railway . . . . 


12,122,732.44 


Miscellaneous railroads 


4,776,563.15 






Totals . 


$43,746,126.70 


8 33,718,008.99 







80 Judicial Department. 



RAILROAD COM M LSSIONERS. 



1891-1894— James W. Wilson, Chairman, Burke County; Thomas 
W. Mason, Northampton County; E. C. Beddingfleld, Wake County. 

1895-1896— James W. Wilson, Chairman, Burke County; E. C. Bed- 
dingfield, Wake County; S. Otho Wilson, Wilson County. 

1897-1898— L. C. Caldwell, Chairman, Iredell County; John H. Pear- 
son, Burke County; D. H. Abbott, Pamlico County. 

CORPORATION COMMISSIONERS. 

1899-1902 — Franklin McNeill. Chairman, New Hanover County; 
Sam L. Rogers, Macon County; D. H. Abbott. Pamlico County. 

1903-1908 — Franklin McNeill, Chairman, New Hanover County; 
Sam L. Rogers, Macon County; E. C. Beddingfleld, Wake County. 

1909— Franklin McNeill, Chairman, New Hanover County; Sam L. 
Rogers. Macon County; B. F. Aycock, Wayne County. 

1910 — Franklin McNeill, Chairman, New Hanover County; Sam L. 
Rogers, Macon County; H. C. Brown. Surry County. 

1911 — Franklin McNeill. Chairman, New Hanover County; W. T. 
Lee, Haywood County; E, L. Travis, Halifax County. 

1911-1916 — E. L. Travis, Chairman, Halifax County; W. T. Lee, 
Haywood County; George P. Pell, Forsyth County. 

1916-1919— W. T. Lee, Chairman, Haywood County; George P. Pell, 
Forsyth County; A. J. Maxwell, Craven County. 



PART IV. 

ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS, BOARDS, 
COMMISSIONS. 



1. Department of Agriculture. 

2. Department of Labor and Printing. 

3. Department of Insurance. 

4. North Carolina Historical Commission. 

5. State Library. 

6. North Carolina Library Commission. 

7. State Board of Health. 

8. State Board of Charities and Public Welfare. 

9. North Carolina Geological and Economic 

Survey. 

10. State Highway Commission. 

11. Fisheries Commission Board. 

12. State Board of Elections. 

13. State Standard Keeper. 

14. Firemen's Relief Fund. 

15. Audubon Society of North Carolina. 

16. State Educational Commission. 

17. Commission for Revision of Laws. 

18. Board of Internal Improvements. 

19. North Carolina National Guard and Reserve 

Militia. 

20. State Prison. 



THE DEPARTMENT OE AGRICULTURE. 

W. A. Graham, Commissioner, Raleigh. 

The Constitution of the State (1876) provides for a Department 
of Agriculture, Immigration, and Statistics. Under this fundamental 
law the General Assembly established the Department of Agriculture 
in 1877. (Chapter 274.) 

Since that time it has been greatly fostered and enlarged by the 
General Assembly, and its field expanded by the enterprise, energy, 
and capacity of its corps of workers. 

At present the Board consists of ten members, one member from 
each Congressional District, who are appointed by the Governor and 
confirmed by the Senate, for terms of six years; and of the Com- 
missioner of Agriculture, who is a member of and ex officio chairman 
of the Board. All members are required by law to be practical 
farmers. 

The Commissioner of Agriculture, who is chief executive officer of 
the Department, was formerly elected by the Board; but the Legis- 
lature of 1899, in order to bring the Department in closer touch with 
the people, especially the farmers of the State, so changed the law 
as to make the Commissioner an elective officer. 

The Department is charged with the following: 

1. Investigations relating to the improvement of agriculture, the 
beneficial use of commercial fertilizers and composts, and to induce 
capital and labor to enter the State. 

2. With investigations for the improvement of mijk and beef 
cattle, especially with investigations relating to the diseases of cattle 
and other domestic animals — having power to quarantine infected 
animals and to regulate the transportation of stock within the State. 

3. With investigations of the ravages of insects injuriously affect- 
ing market gardens, fruits, etc., and with dissemination of informa- 
tion essential for their abatement. 

4. With investigations directed to the introduction and fostering 
of new agricultural industries adapted to the various soils and 
climate of the State. 

5. With investigations relative to the subject of drainage and irri- 
gation, and mineral and domestic sources of fertilizers, including 
composting, etc. 



84 Administrative Departments. 

6. With the collection of information relating to the subject of 
farm fences, etc. 

7. With the enforcement of the laws enacted for the sale of com- 
mercial fertilizers, seed, food products, and with authority to make 
regulations concerning the same. 

8. With the dissemination of information relative to the ad- 
vantages of soil and climate, and to the natural resources and 
industrial opportunities offered in the State. 

To these have been added: 

The issuing of bulletins. 

The Museum. 

Farmers' Institutes. 

Soil Survey. 

Enforcement by regulations of 

The Pure Food Law; 

Concentrated Commercial Feeding-stuff Law; 

Cotton-seed Meal Law; 

Law regulating the statistics of leaf tobacco; 

Crop-pest Commission; 

Law regulating the standard-weight packages of meal and flour; 

Registration and sale of condimental, patented, proprietary or 
trade-mark stock or poultry tonics, regulators, or conditioners; 

The inspection of illuminating and power oils, fluids and gasoline; 

Law to prevent and punish the sale of adulterated, impure, or 
misbranded agricultural and vegetable seed and those lacking 
viability; 

The manufacture and sale of anti-hog-cholera serum, also of inocu- 
lation germs of leguminous crops. 

The rapid spread of the "stock law" over the State has rendered 
unnecessary any action by the Board as to fences, as this is now 
largely local. A map showing the stock-law and no stock-law, quar- 
antine and free territory in the State has recently been issued. 

The Department is. to a considerable extent, a sub-legislature. 
The Legislature, in committing to its execution specified laws, con- 
fers upon the Board power to make regulations for this purpose, 
which are given the authority of law. and violation of them is made 
a misdemeanor, cognizable by the courts. The power to confer this 
authority has been tested in the courts and approved by decision of 
the Supreme Court. 



Agricultural Department. 85 

things that have been done by the agricultural department 
during the past eight years. 

1. The source of the ingredients in fertilizers is made known. 
Analyses are reported in the Bulletin from each firm so as to have 
those of the same guarantee classed together, and a farmer can tell 
them and not make an extra trip when he can get goods of the com- 
position he wishes although under a different name. 

2. The feed inspection law has been amended to include all feeds 
and the value of feeds much improved. Ground red corn cobs cannot 
be sold as wheat bran nor sawdust or rotten corn used as a filler. 

3. Condimental Feed Law. — Analyses are made of each brand and 
published. The people need not pay high prices for many of the 
ingredients, such as charcoal, copperas, saltpetre, salt, salts, etc., 
which can be bought for a few cents a pound of grocers. Drugs for 
either stock or men must have a value corresponding with that 
printed on the container or they can be excluded from sale. 

4. Twenty-six cheese factories are in operation, and these afford 
markets for milk in our mountain counties which were not available 
three years ago. In 1918, 411,000 pounds of cheese were made. 
Nine creameries are in operation. 

5. Great advance has been made along all lines of animal hus- 
bandry, animal feeding and feeds for animals, including poultry. 
All cases of diseases of animals appearing in the State have been 
suppressed. We have had no epidemic which could not be eliminated. 

6. The manufacture of anti-hog-cholera serum. More than a mil- 
lion cubic centimeters of anti-hog-cholera serum have been made for 
the use of farmers, and while the cholera is not eradicated, every 
outbreak has been abated. Preparations are being made at the 
serum plant to purify the serum by application of electricity. This 
may add a small amount to the cost, but it may make the serum 
more potent so that a smaller dose will be required. 

7. The eradication of the cattle tick from the territory beginning 
with the crest of the Blue Ridge Mountains to the east so as to 
leave only eighteen counties in the extreme east infected. Eradica- 
tion is now to be undertaken in "free-range" territory when the 
counties will construct the vats for dipping; prior to this operations 
have been confined to stock-law boundaries. 

8. A pure seed law by which the farmers are protected from pur- 
chase of inferior seed either in purity or germination. Seed deficient 



86 Administrative Departments. 

in either are prohibited from sale in the State, and the introduction 
of injurious weeds is prohibited. 

9. Preparation of legume culture which is sold at one-fourth the 
former price. This pays the cost of production and sale. 

10. Great advance in the work in Entomology, especially in spray- 
ing. Many pests have been destroyed and others much curtailed in 
their injurious operations. 

11. Also in Horticulture. The Department has taken highest 
prizes in all exhibits of apples, and the North Carolina apples and 
other fruits are being recognized in the markets of the Nation. The 
pecan culture in the State has also been greatly extended. In many 
sections these plantings are beginning to bear nuts of very superior 
quality. 

12. The State in the value of its farm products has risen from 
the twenty-second to the seventh position, and the value of the agri- 
cultural crops has increased since 1910 at an average of $10,000,000 
a year. 

13. The Women's Work. — Many wives and daughters of farmers 
are earning money for themselves. The girls' and women's clubs are 
carrying on the preserving of vegetables, fruits, and meats. The 
women have not lacked ability to do this work, but prior to this they 
lacked opportunity. Several hundred thousand dollars' worth of 
these goods will be produced and prepared this year. This work in 
its incipiency and growth is the product of the Farmers' Institute 
as conducted by the Department. 

14. Home Demonstration Work. There were enrolled in this work 
in clubs 8.289 girls and 8,343 women, a total of 16,632. Besides the 
clubs, there were 217,143 women who gardened as individuals. 

There were 200,882 pounds of fruits and vegetables dried, 90,913 
gallons brined, and 125 community canneries established. Fifty- 
nine owners of mills have trained agents to direct the work in the 
villages at the mills. 26,633 home conveniences were placed in 
homes, and 29 rest rooms were established. 

The Chairman of the Board of Health says that the organizations 
established by the home agents were most helpful in the fight against 
influenza. They established 75 community kitchens and in many 
counties they directed the preparation of the food. Miss Annie Lee 
Rankin acted as dietitian at the A. & E., and at Camp Polk, and Mrs. 



Agricultural Department. 87 

Cornelia Morris at the Raleigh High School emergency hospital. 
Citizens in the vicinity furnished supplies at many of the kitchens. 

15. Farm demonstrators in seventy counties, whose duty it is to 
give instructions about crops to the farmer in the field. 

16. Boys' corn clubs and pig clubs in all parts of the State. 

17. Cooperative work with the U. S. Department and the A. and 
E. College, especially under the Lever Act. 

18. The Pure Food Laiv. — The weight or quantity of contents to be 
marked on all containers, with which numbers the contents r-ust 
comply. Adulteration is seldom found in the foods sold in the State. 

19. Inspection of illuminating oils and gasoline, by which the 
quality and safety of the oils have been improved without cost to 
the consumer. 

20. The length and strength of staple is considered in .forming 
standards of cotton by the National Department, and expert graders 
are furnished in counties which desire them. This has saved thou- 
sands of dollars to the farmers in the sale of their cotton. 

21. The National Department has been requested to consider the 
question of reduction for tare for bagging and ties on cotton bales, 
which is acknowledged to be unjust. This can be accomplished only 
by an international convention under the auspices of a national 
congress. 

22. Inspection of flour to detect that which is bleached and pre- 
vent the sale of it as unbleached. 

23. In all cases of inspection in the machinery of the Department 
the article which renders the inspection necessary is required to pay 
cost of the work. 

24. More than one-third of the State has been surveyed and a soil 
map issued of each county. 

25. Farmers of the State are not becoming renters. Since 1910, 
204 farmers have lost their farms and about 6,000 renters have 
bought land. 

26. There is corn and wheat enough in the State for its consump- 
tion. There may be a little imported, but enough will be exported to 
offset this. There are 180 pounds of flour to every man, woman, and 
child in the State, more per capita than was ever known before, 
and more meat has been cured than heretofore. 

27. A marketing system is being evolved which will acquaint the 



88 



Administrative Departments. 



citizens of the State with knowledge of where they can find the 
various articles for sale and accomplish cooperation. 

28. For six years North Carolina has stood first in the production 
of cotton per acre, first in quantity of sweet potatoes and peanuts, 
and second in value of tobacco crop. 

29. Cotton-seed Meal. — No goods are permitted to be branded as 
"meal" unless they contain 6i/> per cent ammonia, but must be 
branded "cotton-seed feed." 

30. The Bulletin ranks with the highest of its class, and many 
letters of commendation are received from persons within and with- 
out the State. Requests are frequently received for publications of 
these bulletins in those of other States and also from the agricul- 
tural press. It has a circulation of more than 35,000 each month. 
Copies have been requested for use as text-books in the public schools 
of other States and the University of Wisconsin. 

31. The Museum continues to be the most valuable south of Phila- 
delphia, except that at the National Capital. It is the State's great 
object lesson. Additions to the different departments are made each 
year. A representative agricultural exhibit is now being collected. 



statistics. 



The following statistics will show some of the results of the work 
of the Department. 

North Carolina produced in 



I860 



Corn (bushels) 30,000,009 

Wheat (bushels) 4,743,706 

Cotton (bales) 145,514 



1910 



34,063,531 

7,433,000 

665,132 



1915 



1918 



64,050,000 63,000,000 

10,355,000 | 13,167,000 

732,000 732,000 



DRAINAGE. 



The Department has arranged with the National Department for 
an expert in this work, who will give information to the farmers 
concerning the drainage of creeks, cutting ditches, and laying tiles. 



VETERINARY DIVISION. 

The Division of Veterinary Science is devoted to giving informa- 
tion as to the care and feeding of farm animals, improvement of 



Agricultural Department. 89 

live stock, treatment of diseases, the gradual extermination of the 
tick. • 

Serum for vaccination of hogs to prevent the spread of cholera is 
manufactured by this division. 

ANTI-CHOLERA SERUM. 

Ninety-five per cent of the hogs vaccinated escaped cholera. The 
Department is now prepared to supply all requests for serum, and it 
is expected that the scourge of cholera will be much abated. 

CATTLE QUARANTINE AND ERADICATION OF THE FEVER TICK. 

The United States and State laws concerning the eradication of 
the cattle tick are simply improvements on the act of the Legislature 
of 1795 concerning the driving of cattle from the oak to the long- 
leaf pine sections of the State, which was continued as a statute 
until the Revisal of 1905. The disease was called murrain or dis- 
temper, and its malignity known, but not for a century was the 
cause ascertained and direct effort made for cure and eradication. 

Starting in 1899, with the crest of the Blue Ridge as the location 
of the quarantine line, it has been moved east to the Roanoke River 
in Warren County as the northern boundary, and to the Pee Dee in 
Anson as the southern boundary of the State. This quarantine line 
is established by the United States Agricultural Department. The 
movement of cattle is restricted to a few months each year and sub- 
ject to inspections and regulations, while exempted territory is free 
from impediments. The price of cattle in the exempted section (that 
which is free of the tick) is thought to be one cent per pound live 
weight over that in the quarantine sections. The value of exemption 
is apparent. The stock law tends to destroy the tick, and where it 
has prevailed for several years, few ticks being found, the county is 
soon declared free. At the suggestion of this Department, infected 
counties or parts of counties have been quarantined, and the clear 
territory has been given the benefit of exemption. 

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY. 

This department does much valuable work. The Board has granted 
the use of the Edgecombe County farm as far as needed to be used 
in its operations. 



90 Administrative Departments. 



FARMERS INSTITUTES. 



Farmers' Institutes have been greatly extended and are now held 
in every county in the State. 

Meetings of farmers to hear matters pertaining to their vocation 
discussed by scientific men and also by practical farmers have met 
with great encouragement in the numbers attending and interest 
shown in the proceedings, and the beneficial results to farming in 
the communities where the institutes are held are very evident. 

Realizing that while "A good farmer without, it is needful there 
be," that "A good housewife within is as needful as he," institutes 
for the benefit of the farmers' wives and daughters were introduced 
in 1907. They have been well attended and have been equally as 
beneficial in the advancement of agricultural conditions as have 
the institutes for the men; usually one joint session is held at each 
institute. 

CHEMISTRY. 

The Division of Chemistry makes analyses of fertilizer, cotton-seed 
meal, feed and foodstuffs, soils, minerals and marls, waters, etc. 

The law as to deficient fertilizers may be found in the Revisal of 
1905, sec. 3949. 

SOIL SURVEY, TEST FARM, AND FARM DEMONSTRATION WORK. 

This is conducted like the cattle quarantine, in conjunction with 
the United States Agricultural Department, the expenses being de- 
frayed by each department. The object is to locate the different 
types of soil in the State. Upon these types it is desired to locate 
test farms for practical and scientific purposes. Test farms have 
been established in Edgecombe County, at Willard Station in Pender 
County, Statesville, near Swannanoa in Buncombe County, and in 
the old tobacco belt at Oxford and in the newly drained black lands 
of Eastern North Carolina in Beaufort County. The effort is to 
conduct these farms for the benefit of the crops grown in each sec- 
tion, first on small plats and then on a large scale, showing results 
of different kinds and amounts of home-made and commercial fer- 
tilizers, preparation of land, cultivation and rotation of crops and 
demonstration work. 

As it might be supposed that all children of the same parents 
would be exactly alike, so it might be inferred that all soils com- 



Agricultural Department. 91 

posed from decomposition of the same rocks would be identical; but 
this is known to be true in neither case. 

By demonstration work on different fields in the same locality, or 
type of soil, the variations of each can be ascertained, and the 
manures prepared and cultivation suitable learned. 

The demonstrator of the Department, as requested or as oppor- 
tunity offers, can visit localities of the State, make suggestions upon 
these lines, and gather statistics for promotion of the work. The 
National Department is doing a large amount of work along this 
line and there is hearty cooperation between the two departments. 

ISOTHERMAL BELT. 

The investigational work with Thermal Zones was inaugurated in 
a preliminary way in 1909 at the Blantyre Test Farm by W. N. Hutt, 
to ascertain if possible the conditions underlying the phenomena of 
Thermal Belts or frostless zones in relation to fruit-growing. Two 
years of preliminary investigation furnished such evidence of the 
necessity and value of the work that the cooperation of the U. S. 
Weather Bureau was secured. Special recording stations were estab- 
lished at the State Test Farm at Blantyre, in the orchards of Hon. 
Chas. A. Webb of Asheville, Mr. W. T. Lindsey of Tryon, Mr. Boiling 
Hall of Waynesville, Mrs. Moses Cone of Blowing Rock, and Mr. 
J. B. Sparger of Mount Airy, where a range in elevation from 1,000 
to 4,200 feet was secured. 

In 1912 the recording stations were increased to 15. Mr. L. A. 
Denson, Section Director of the Weather Bureau for North Carolina, 
and Prof. H. J. Cox, Special Expert of the U. S. Weather Bureau, 
were detailed to assist in this cooperation. 

The field work and records were completed in 1916. Since that 
time the vast amount of records collected at the different stations 
are being worked over by the experts of the U. S. Weather Bureau 
under the direction of Professor Cox of the Chicago Station. A topo 
graphical map of Western North Carolina has been prepared with 
contour lines showing the locations of the observation stations and 
the mountainous nature of the surrounding country. In order to 
make this work of practical as well as of scientific value, a map 
showing the location of railroads to available fruit zones of 500-feet 
contours from 1,500 to 3.500 elevation will be prepared. This map, 
in addition to that prepared by the Weather Bureau experts, will be 



92 Administrative Departments. 

of value to people in securing lands at suitable altitudes for com- 
mercial orcharding. 

The results of these investigations are being worked into a publi- 
cation which is expected to be available within a year. 

PUKE FOOD DIVISION. 

The Pure Food Law passed by the General Assembly of 1899, 
amended in 1905 and redrafted and passed as a new act in 1907, 
forbids the manufacture or sale of adulterated or misbranded food 
or beverages and charges the Department of Agriculture with its 
enforcement. 

Inspections are made throughout the State and samples collected 
for analyses. The samples are examined for adulteration and the 
results published, showing the brand name of the article and the 
name and address of the manufacturer. The first report was pub- 
lished as the Department Bulletin for December, 1909. Since that 
time similar reports have been published annually. 

There are two classes of adulterants found in food: 

1. Substances which are deleterious to health, and 

2. Substances which merely render the food less valuable. 

The use of the first is prohibited, the second can be used provided 
their presence is made known to the purchaser. 

Much of the food and beverages sold in the State is in the hands 
of unintelligent men, who can be imposed upon by shrewd and un- 
scrupulous manufacturers. Owing to various complications the en- 
forcement of the Food Law is far more difficult than one not familiar 
with the situation would think. 

The National Government has enacted a food law which requires 
weight of contents to be stamped on all packages or other containers 
of goods. The Legislature has enacted this for the State. 

FEED INSPECTIONS. 

The Legislature of 1903 passed a law which requires the Commis- 
sioner of Agriculture to employ Feed Inspectors, whose duty it is to 
visit the different towns in the State, see that the law is complied 
with as to the branding of bags, weight of bags, and to take samples 
of all feeds. These samples are examined microscopically in the 
towns in which they are found, and if adulterated are immediately 
withdrawn from sale. 



Agricultural Department. 93 

All samples collected are analyzed by the Feed Chemist, and the 
results, along with such additional information as circumstances 
may advise, are published in the bulletins of the Department of 
Agriculture. 

In enforcing the law there are four main objects in view: 

1. To stop the sale of adulterated feeds in North Carolina. 

2. To educate the consumers to buy feed according to the analyses 
on the bags, just as he buys his fertilizer by an analysis. 

3. To teach the dairymen and farmers the best way to combine 
their home-grown feeds with those they are compelled to buy to get 
the greatest benefit from the amount consumed. 

4. To stimulate a desire on the part of the consumers for better 
feeds. 

ENTOMOLOGY. 

The work of this division includes the inspection of fruit trees, 
which are not allowed to be sold in this State unless declared free 
from disease. Experts are sent to examine all nurseries for insect 
pests, and many commercial orchards are inspected. Directions are 
furnished for preparation of material for spraying, and for its appli- 
cation. The San Jose scale is being controlled in many places, and 
further damage prevented by directions sent from this office. Other 
insect pests and diseases have been prevented or cured, and much 
valuable information given the people of the State on matters per- 
taining to insects of all kinds. 

HORTICULTURE. 

This division is devoted to promoting the interests of trucking, the 
home and market garden, also the culture, preservation and market- 
ing the fruits of the State. 

The test farm in Pender County is used in connection with the 
trucking interests of the eastern part of the State. On this farm 
$1,500 was realized from the sale of the lettuce raised on one and 
one-fourth acres of land. 

In the apple section a short series of institutes is held annually to 
illustrate the proper packing of fruit for shipment. Institutes on 
pruning, spraying, etc., are held in proper season. 

For three successive years the exhibit of apples from North Caro- 
lina has taken the sweepstakes prize at the exhibits at the National 



94 Administrative Departments. 

Horticultural Congress, and the western part of the State is now 
regarded as one of the most important apple-growing sections of the 
nation, both in quantity and quality! North Carolina in 1913 received 
the Wilder prize from the American Pomological Society. The sec- 
tion adjacent to Southern Pines is noted for its peaches, pears, and 
plums. 

AGRONOMY AND BOTANY DIVISION. 

Under the direction of this division experiments in plant breeding 
and selection are conducted upon the test farms and the farms of 
individuals in different sections of the State. Inoculation germs for 
legumes are manufactured and sold at cost. 

The inspection prevents the introduction of seeds of noxious weeds 
into the State and enables the farmer to ascertain, before purchasing, 
the quality of the seed as to purity and germination. 

DEMONSTRATION AND INSPECTION OF POWER AND ILLUMINATING OILS 

AND GASOLINE. 

The Pure Food Chemist is also Oil Chemist. The quality of the 
oil has been kept at a good standard and the price has not been in- 
creased. When the law was enacted there were four firms transact- 
ing business in this State; at the present time there are nineteen. 

DEMONSTRATION WORK. 

This work gives practical advice to and cooperates with the farm- 
ers upon their farms. It has been extended to eighty-one counties. 
Part of the expenses is borne by the National Department of Agri- 
culture. 

boys' corn clubs. 

In these clubs more than 4,000 boys have been enrolled. The 
Department appropriates $500 annually in premiums. 

women's and girls' work. 

This work in domestic economy has met with a ready response 
from the wives and daughters of the farmers. 



Agricultural Department. 95 



THE BULLETIN. 

The Bulletin is issued monthly, each month's issue being devoted 
to a particular subject. Its value seems to be appreciated both 
within and without the State, as is attested by its continually in- 
creasing mailing list. Besides the regular monthly Bulletin, special 
papers are issued when deemed of enough importance to justify the 
expense. 

THE MUSEUM. 

The State Geologist has, since the establishment of his department 
in 1850, collected specimens of different kinds, principally of min- 
erals, representing the natural resources of the State. In 1879 the 
care of the Museum and expense of maintenance were transferred to 
the Department of Agriculture. A building has been erected for its 
occupancy, and its contents greatly increased. It is now by far the 
most extensive in its contents of anything of its nature south of 
Philadelphia, save the National Museum at Washington, D. C. To 
it, more than any other source, is attributable the fine displays the 
State has made at international, national, and State expositions. It 
is the State's object lesson, representing its resources in agriculture, 
timber, minerals, fishes, birds, game animals, and flora and fauna in 
general. 

As articles affected by time become undesirable they are replaced. 
The idea is to keep the Museum constantly growing, with no chance 
for stagnation. 

IMMIGRATION. 

The Legislature in 1909 repealed the act of 1907 concerning immi- 
gration. There are now no agents of the State employed in foreign 
countries; a few young men come from Scotland each year, and 
land and immigration companies bring some people to the State 
each year but no report is made to the Department; however, it co- 
operates with them as far as practicable. 

The Department has no lands of the State for sale, and can make 
no contracts, warrant titles, or do any work of like nature. It can 
only put parties desiring to purchase property in the State in com- 
munication with citizens who have property to sell, and leave them 
to perfect sales, if it is found desirable. 



96 A KM I MMIIATIVE DEPARTMENTS. 

% 

Many letters are received from persons from the States of the 
Middle West requesting information as to the resources of the State, 
and several hundred have each year purchased homes. The Depart- 
ment had arranged to place exhibits at the fairs in these States, but 
this was abandoned when the law was repealed. 

SALES OF LEAF TOBACCO. 

Chapter 97, Laws 1907, requires the Department to preserve a 
record of the leaf tobacco sold on the floors of the warehouses of the 
State, and publish it monthly. Each warehouse is required to 
furnish an account of its sales, and is guilty of a misdemeanor for 
failure. 



DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AM) PRINTING. 

M. L. Shipmax, Commissioner. 

The Department of Labor and Printing was established by the 
Legislature of 1887 as the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Under this 
head its activities had to do with gathering and presenting statistics 
of industrial conditions. A high standard was set for this work, and 
it has ever since been the policy of the office to improve upon its 
own work from year to year. The annual report is now recognized 
as one of the most succinct examples of statistical work issued in 
the United States. The matter has been boiled down, so to speak, 
and one chief aim has been to present the greatest possible informa- 
tion in the least possible space, accomplishing thereby two very de- 
sirable ends, i. e., ease of reference and convenience, and a minimum 
expense. Its circulation includes every State in the Union and 
many foreign countries. The report is the chief medium by which 
the State's growth and progress is placed before the world. The 
number of requests for copies attests its worth. 

When the public printing had become of such importance that the 
old practice of assumption that it would take care of itself was 
proven inadequate and unsatisfactory, the duty of systematizing 
and superintending this work was added to the duties of the office 
(Chapter 373, Public Laws of 1899). Since that time the growth of 
the State has been great, its progress indeed wonderful. Keeping 
pace with this progress, the Department of Labor and Printing 



Department of Insurance. 97 

shows a record of quality and economy in performance not touched 
by any other Commonwealth, and approached by but few. 

The Commissioner, Mr. Shipman, and the 'assistant, Mr. Nichols, 
place especial emphasis on their invitation to the people of the State 
to make use of the Department. Any questions bearing on subjects 
touched by the report 'will be gladly answered, wherever possible. 

The handling of the public printing has been brought down to the 
point where figures as to specifications and cost may be given before 
or after performance, which information serves well where economy 
enters as largely into any proposition as it does into the public 
printing. Changes in practice are made as often as it is found that 
improvement can be made, and the policy of the office at the present 
time makes impossible any of the abuses obtaining under the arrange- 
ment in force prior to the placing of the public printing under the 
Department's charge. 

Before a single item of printing expense is paid for by the State 
the account of the printer is examined, accompanied by an inspection 
of the work itself, by a man who knows the printing business. 
Every pound of paper purchased is bought by the State to fit the 
particular need, and is subject to the decision of the expert of the 
Department — himself, according to the provisions of the act, a "prac- 
tical printer." The records of purchases of paper show a great 
saving along this line also. 

The work of the Department of Labor and Printing is necessarily 
done away from the public eye. The watchful auditing of thousands 
of dollars of accounts, the economical purchase of thousands of dol- 
lars of supplies, the skillful exposition and appraisement of indus- 
trial facts is not spectacular labor, but a work of the highest value 
and largest returns. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF INSIRAM E. 

James R. Young, Commissioner. 

Prior to 1899 the supervision of insurance companies of North 
Carolina was in the hands of the Secretary of State, who received 
certain fees and was allowed $1,000 for clerical help. The Legisla- 
ture of 1899 created the Insurance Department and "placed the pres- 
ent Commissioner in charge of it. The insurance laws as set forth 
7 



98 Administrative Departments. 

in the Revisal of 1905, with amendments thereto, are looked upon 
as the best code of insurance laws of any Southern State, and are 
certainly admirably adapted to the conditions prevailing in this sec- 
tion. As revenue producers the law and Department are a success, 
and while the benefits accruing from a proper supervision of insur- 
ance companies in the State cannot be measured in dollars and 
cents, they are, in the opinion of those in a position to know, of 
much more value to the State and her citizens than the revenue 
collected. 

The duties required of the Insurance Commissioner are as impor- 
tant and involve as much work and responsibility as those of any 
other department in the State Government. In addition to this, the 
Insurance Commissioner is taken from his office about one-third of 
the time by official duties. The work of the Department calls for as 
much clerical ability and labor as the work of any other department. 
No part of the work should be neglected, and it is increasing every 
year, and becomes of more and more value to the State and her citi- 
zens. The efficiency of the Department can only be kept up by allow- 
ing sufficient clerical force, and this will call for such help as is 
commensurate with, and demanded by, the development and rapid 
increase of the work of the Department. The Commissioner should 
be relieved, as far as possible, of clerical work. He is worth more 
to the State in discharging the other duties of his office. 

Under the law it is made the duty of the Commissioner to collect 
all licenses, taxes and fees due the State by any company or associa- 
tion under the supervision of his Department. 

The Secretary of State paid into the State Treasury in 1898 
184,879.28, and this was the largest amount ever reported for any 
one year prior to the creation of the Department. 

department. 

The Department has increased in size, importance, and value be- 
yond the expectation of its most ardent friends. The supervision 
required to be exercised over all companies, associations, and socie- 
ties doing or attempting to do an insurance business in the State 
is the most important work of the Department The value of this 
supervision to the State and her citizens since the organization of 
the Department"can hardly be estimated. As the insurance business 
in the State has increased, this supervision has become the more 
necessary and important for the citizens of the State, and the good 



Department of Insurance. 99 

results accomplished have far exceeded the value of the revenue 
collected by the Department during that time. 

REVENUE. 

The revenue collected and paid into the State Treasury by this 
Department has increased each year, until there was collected and 
paid in for the past fiscal year, $415,468.16. 

The gradual increase of the revenues collected from insurance 
companies through this Department and paid into the State Treas- 
ury is more clearly shown by a comparison with the amount 
($84,879.28) collected for the fiscal year ending April 1, 1899, the 
year prior to the formation of the Department. 

The Department is not run for revenue. Its main work is the 
supervision of the business, but those who have had occasion to 
look into the matter are satisfied more good is being accomplished 
for the State and her citizens by the supervision of the business 
than by the collection of taxes. It is of interest to know the amount 
collected by the Department and paid into the State Treasury each 
year since its formation, as follows: 

For the fiscal year 1899-1900 $ 91,973.49 

For the fiscal year 1900-01 91,072.92 

For the fiscal year 1901-02 132,034.03 

For the fiscal year 1902-03 153,667.12 

For the fiscal year 1903-04 174,633.60 

For the fiscal year 1904-05 197,402.23 

For the fiscal year 1905-06 205,124.07 

For the fiscal year 1906-07 215,331.56 

For the fiscal year 1907-08 224,680.58 

For the fiscal year 190S-09 234,469.63 

For the fiscal year 1910-11 270.300.08 

For the fiscal year 1911-12 285,040.50 

For the fiscal year 1912-13 319,389.67 

For the fiscal year 1913-14 344.546. 2S 

For the fiscal year 1914-15 352,047.20 

For the fiscal year 1915-16 348,780.90 

For the fiscal year 1916-17 372,044.12 

For the fiscal year 1917-18 415,468.16 

Total $ 4.674,573.08 



100 Administrative Departments. 

Under the old law, prior to the organization of this Department, 
certain fees were allowed to the Secretary of State as compensation 
for the supervision of insurance companies. These fees are now 
paid into the State Treasury, and amount to more than double the 
whole cost of the Department, including salaries and every other 
expense. But there is no question but that the State should, with a 
collection of over $415,000 annually from insurance companies, spend 
more money for the enlargement and efficiency of the Insurance 
Department. This certainly can be done to advantage. 

One great benefit that has accrued from the North Carolina insur- 
ance laws and the work of the Department has been the organiza- 
tion of home insurance companies and the placing of considerable 
insurance in them, thus keeping at home much of home money 
spent for insurance. 

The North Carolina or home companies continue to show marked 
improvement each year, not only in the amount of business trans- 
acted, but in a steady and solid growth in financial ability and 
safety. It is gratifying, or should be, to every citizen of the State 
to know that he cannot only keep his money in the State for invest- 
ment by patronizing home companies, but that he is fully protected 
by the financial standing of the companies in so doing. 

BUILDING AND LOAN ASSOCIATIONS. 

The Legislature of 1905 placed all building and loan associations 
under the supervision of the Insurance Commissioner. There were 
then forty-three associations doing business in the State. There are 
now over 150 associations working in the State and no class of cor- 
porations is doing more in building up our cities and towns and pro- 
viding homes for our citizens, especially the working classes. Asso- 
ciations are being organized rapidly throughout the State. The 
ownership of homes is very conducive to good citizenship and prog- 
ress. At the close of business in 1917, 146 associations reported in 
assets $17,774,915.62 and loaned out to build or pay for homes. 
$16,845,109.53, and with receipts during the year of $11,970,833.38. 
This is a remarkable showing, and speaks well for our State and her 
people. 

The Insurance Commissioner represents the State in all its deal- 
ings with the insurance companies, associations, and orders. He 
must pass upon applications of companies under his Department and 
decide whether to license them, and then supervise them and see that 



Department op Insurance. 101 

they comply with the law and treat the citizens of the State right 
or revoke their license to do business in the State. 

He must collect all licenses and taxes due the State by companies 
and associations under his Department. 

He must collect reports of all fires in the State and investigate all 
suspicious ones and have all persons suspected, of incendiarism prose- 
cuted where the evidence justifies it. An average of fifteen persons 
a year have been convicted under this law since it was passed, and 
served their sentences in prisons. 

He must see that the laws regulating the erection and inspection 
of buildings are observed. Better buildings mean fewer fires and 
lower fire insurance rates. Seventy-five thousand dollars annually 
is now saved in fire premiums by this law. He must look into all 
violations of the insurance law and hear all complaints made by the 
citizens of the State against companies under his supervision and 
see that the citizen is protected in his rights. 

He must keep all State property insured as provided by law, and 
annually inspect all State institutions and buildings, with a view to 
the protection from fire of them and their inmates. He is also 
charged with the execution of the "Blue Sky" law governing sale 
of stock. This is most important and valuable to our people, having 
saved them millions of dollars. 

supervision. 

It is very important and valuable to the State to have the collec- 
tion of the licenses and taxes from insurance companies above re- 
ferred to, but by far the most important work of the Department, 
and that of greatest benefit to the citizens of the State, is the proper 
supervision of insurance companies, societies, and orders, as well as 
their representatives operating in the State. The gradual improve- 
ment in the practices of the companies and their agents shows the 
work accomplished in this respect. This supervision takes in: 

1. The admission and regulation of all companies doing or pro- 
posing to do any kind of insurance in the State. There are about 
four hundred companies, associations, and societies doing the fol- 
lowing classes of insurance: Life, health, accident, casualty, fire, 
marine, credit, burglary, plate-glass, liability, steam boiler, automo- 
bile, etc. 

2. Fire Marshal. — The Commissioner is also ex officio Fire Mar- 
shal, and has charge of the investigation of all suspicious fires, and 



102 Administrative Departments. 

the prosecution of those thought to be responsible for the same. 
There have been many of these prosecutions, which have been very 
valuable in their results. 

3. Building and Inspection Laws. — The Commissioner is charged 
with the enforcement of the building and inspection laws, also the 
law in regard to the erection of fire-escapes and proper exits from 
buildings. This involves not only having inspections made through- 
out the State by men sent from the Department, but also in seeing 
that the work is kept up and the laws enforced by the officers of 
the different cities and towns. 

4. Publication of Statements. — The Commissioner is required to 
make an abstract of the financial statements filed with him by the 
different companies operating in the State; to collect the fees for 
the publication of same and have them published in the newspapers 
of the State. 

5. Firemen's Relief Fund. — The Commissioner is also required to 
collect from insurance companies operating in the State the taxes 
for the benefit of our firemen and to distribute these taxes among 
the firemen of seventy-odd towns of the State. 

6. Complaints and Violations. — It is also the duty of the Insur- 
ance Commissioner to seek out and prosecute all violations of the 
insurance law, and to look into all complaints made to him by the 
citizens of the State, and to give them such information as they 
may desire at his hands in regard to companies and associations 
under his supervision. 

7. Give, Rates. — It is also the duty of the Insurance Commissioner 
to receive and file all fire insurance rates promulgated on property 
situate in this State and to pass upon all complaints as to discrim- 
ination in or unfairness of rates. 

8. A great educational work is being done by the Commissioner 
under the slogan "Make North Carolina Safe for Life and Property." 
The annual fire waste with the loss of over $4,000,000 in property 
and over 325 lives each year certainly calls for a most active and 
determined effort. The present conditions are a menace and little 
less than criminal. 

9. Bxiilding and Loan Associations. — The Commissioner is now 
charged with the supervision of building and loan associations, and 
the great work being done by these associations, the organization 
of new associations almost continually, as well as the suggestion that 
these associations can be adapted to and made of great benefit to 



Historical Commission. 103 

the farmers of the State, as well as to those living in cities and 
towns who have received their benefits, makes this a most im- 
portant part of the work of the Department. 

Since the formation of this Department in 1899 and the adoption 
of the present insurance laws there has been a gradual but decided 
improvement in the insurance conditions of the State. Better prac- 
tices prevail and there is less friction between the people and this 
class of corporations. Contracts have been improved and rates re- 
duced, and will, no doubt, be still further reduced under the present 
insurance laws and their strict enforcement, although the citizens 
of the State are now paying over $225,000 annually for their fire 
insurance less than they would pay at the rates prevailing in any 
other Southern State. 

The Insurance Department has now for the first time since its 
formation permanent and adequate quarters in which to transact its 
rapidly increasing business. This has always hampered the Com- 
missioner and his force in carrying on the work, and should have 
been remedied before. The large business being yearly transacted 
demands proper and adequate files, that the business may be effi- 
ciently done, while the value and importance of the Department 
records and statistics are such as to demand their safe-keeping and 
filing for ready reference by the Department and citizens of the 
State. 

Any further information about the Department or its work will 
be furnished upon application to the Commissioner. 



NORTH CAROLINA HISTORICAL COMMISSION. 

R. D. W. Connor, Secretary, Raleigh. 

The North Carolina Historical Commission was created by an 
act of the Legislature of 1903. It consists of five members appointed 
by the Governor for terms of six years. They receive no salary or 
per diem, but are allowed their actual expenses when attending to 
their official duties. 

The offices of the Commission are in the State Administration 
Building, a new fireproof structure erected under an act of the Gen- 
eral Assembly in 1911. 

The duties of the Commission are as follows: 



104 Administk \tivi; Departments. 

1. To have collected historical data pertaining to the history of 
North Carolina and the territory included therein from the earliest 
times. 

2. To have such material properly edited, published by the State 
Printer as other State printing, and distributed under the direction 
of the Commission. 

3. To care for the proper marking and preservation of battle-fields, 
houses, and other places celebrated in the history of the State. 

4. To diffuse knowledge in reference to the history and resources 
of North Carolina. 

5. To encourage the study of the history of North Carolina in 
the schools of the State, and to stimulate and encourage historical 
investigation and research among the people of the State. 

6. To make a biennial report of its receipts and disbursements, its 
work and needs, to the Governor, to be by him transmitted to the 
General Assembly. 

The powers of the Commission are as follows: 

1. To adopt a seal for use in official business. 

2. To adopt rules for its own government not inconsistent with 
the provisions of the law. 

3. To fix a reasonable price for its publications and to devote the 
revenue arising from such sales to extending the work of the Com- 
mission. 

4. To employ a secretary. 

5. To control the expenditure of such funds as may be appropriate 
for its maintenance. 

GEXEIi A I. SUM MARY. 

Following is a general summary of the work of the Historical 
Commission : 

1. The Commission has saved from destruction, classified and filed 
many thousands of letters and other documents of the Executive 
and Legislative Departments from colonial times to the present. 

2. It has secured for the State the following private collections, 
numbering many thousands of valuable manuscripts: Letters and 
papers of Zebulon B. Vance, James Iredell, Bryan Grimes, Mrs. 
Cornelia P. Spencer, David L. Swain, E. J. Hale, Calvin H. Wiley, 
John H. Bryan, Jonathan Worth, William L. Saunders, William A. 
Graham, William R. Davie, the Pettigrew Family, Charles B. Aycock, 
Archibald D. Murphey, John Steele, W. H. S. Burgwyn, Nathaniel 



Historical Commission. 105 

Macon, Thomas Ruffin, David S. Reid, Willie P. Mangum, and several 
small collections. 

3. It has issued the following publications: "Public Education 
in North Carolina, 1790-1S40: A Documentary History," 2 vols.; 
"Schools and Academies in North Carolina, 1790-1840: A Docu- 
mentary History"; "The Correspondence of Jonathan Worth," 2 
vols.; Papers of Archibald D. Murphey, 2 vols.; Papers of Thomas 
Ruffin, 1 vol.; "Literary and Historical Activities in North Carolina, 
1900-1905"; "A Legislative Manual of North Carolina" for 1909, 1911, 
1913, 1915, 1917, 1919, and twenty-three bulletins. 

4. It recovered for the State, through the gift of the Italian Gov- 
ernment, Canova's famous statue of Washington. 

5. It has erected in the rotunda of the Capitol a marble bust of 
William A. Graham; and obtained, without cost to the State, simi- 
lar busts of Matt. W. Ransom, Samuel Johnston, John M. Morehead, 
Calvin H. Wiley, and W. S. Ashe. 

6. The Commission maintains in its Hall of History one of the 
most extensive historical museums in America. It contains about 
12,000 objects, illustrative of every period of the history of North 
Carolina from the earliest colonial times to the present. 

7. It has assisted a large number of students in their investiga- 
tions into North Carolina history, and gave information about the 
history of the State wherever it was possible, and has encouraged in 
many ways the study of our history in the schools of the State. 

8. It maintains a Legislative Reference Library for supplying in- 
formation to members of the General Assembly and others interested 
in the affairs of the State. 

THE LEGISLATIVE REFERENCE LIBRARY. 

The Legislative Reference Library idea is not a new one. For 
twenty-five years such departments in other States have been render- 
ing valuable service. They have been provided for in thirty States, 
and in more than fifty cities of the United States. Recently there has 
been established a Legislative Reference Bureau in the Congressional 
Library which is rendering similar aid to the National Government. 

For ten years progressive citizens have urged the establishment 
of such a department in North Carolina. In response to that de- 
mand the Legislature of 1915, by a unanimous vote in the Senate 
and House of Representatives, passed a bill entitled "An act to estab- 



106 Administrative Departments. 

lish a Legislative Reference Library," under the supervision of the 
North Carolina Historical Commission. 

Among the duties of the Librarian set forth in this act are the 
following: "To collect, tabulate, annotate and digest information 
for the use of the members and committees of the General Assembly, 
and the officials of the State," and of the various counties and cities 
included therein, upon all questions of State, county, and municipal 
legislation." 

As indicated by the caption as well as the subject-matter of the 
act, this Department is created primarily for the benefit of the mem- 
bers and committees of the General Assembly. 

These representatives of the people serve practically without com- 
pensation and in most cases make considerable personal sacrifice 
in order to be of service to the State. During the short sessions 
of the General Assembly they do not have time to study and thus 
secure for themselves information about the hundreds of measures 
they are called upon to consider. Heretofore there has been no 
agency to collect and classify the sort of information needed by the 
busy legislator. 

To fill this want is the particular field of service of the Legisla- 
tive Reference Library. For that purpose more than ten thousand 
books, laws, pamphlets, and clippings have been gathered and classi- 
fied so that they are instantly available for use by interested persons. 
Additional material is received daily, and an attempt is made to 
procure as full information as is obtainable about all legislation 
in other States and countries. 

Information relating to the following subjects, which are taken 
from a list of more than fifteen hundred headings, will serve to 
illustrate the scope of service which is rendered: Agriculture, Appro- 
priations, Automobiles, Banks, Bill Drafting, Budgets, Campaign 
Expenses, Capital Punishment, Charities, Child Labor, Civil Serv- 
ice, Constitutions, Contracts, Convicts, Cooperative Buying and 
Marketing, Corporations, Courts, Credit. Crime and Criminals. Demo- 
cratic Party, Drainage, Education, Elections, Employment, Factories. 
Farm Problems, Finance, Fires, Fish and Game, Food, Forests, 
Freight Rates, Health, Immigration, Initiative and Referendum, 
Insane, Insurance, Judges. Juries, Labor, Lawyers, Liens, Legisla- 
tion, Loans, Manufactures, Marriage and Divorce, Medicine, Militia. 
Municipalities, Negroes, Newspapers, Pardons, Parole, Passenger 
Rates, Pensions, Pharmacy, Platforms, Primaries, Prisons, Proce- 



State Library. 107 

dure, Prohibition, Public-Service Corporations, Railroads, Republican 
Party, Roads, Rural Credits, Schools, State Government, Statutes, 
Strikes, Taxation, Trusts, Universities and Colleges, Vital Statistics, 
Vocational Education, Wages, Woman Suffrage, Women, Workmen's 
Compensation. 

The province of the Legislative Reference Library is not to pro- 
mote legislation, but to furnish data and information so that the 
best and most widely approved laws may be enacted. 

With the cooperation and assistance of the persons for whose 
benefit the Legislative Reference Library was created, it hopes to 
achieve the same measure of success that similar agencies have had 
in other States. 

MEMBERS OF THE HISTORICAL COMMISSION. 

W. J. Peele 1903- 

J. D. Hufham 1903-1905 

P. A. Soxdley 1903-1905 

Richard Dillard 1903-1905 

R. D. W. Connor 1903-1907 

Charles L. Raper 1905-1907 

Thomas W. Blount 1905-1911 

J. Bryan Grimes 1905- 

M. C. S. Noble 1907- 

D. H. Hill 1907- 

Thomas M. Pittman 1911- 

SECRETARY. 

R. D. W. Connor 1903- 



THE STATE LIBRARY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Miss Carrie L. Broughton, Librarian. 

During the last two years the library has made substantial prog- 
ress. The patronage has grown considerably and each day during 
the winter months finds almost every chair occupied by school girls 
and boys, members of the women's clubs, professional men, etc. 

The greater liberty given the visitors and pupils in the use of the 
reference room and stack room by keeping all cases unlocked has 
largely increased the popularity of the library. Pupils debating in 



108 Administrative Departments. 

the various high schools draw largely upon the library for their 
material. The library tries each year to collect all useful material 
on debatable subjects from magazines, newspapers, pamphlets and 
Congressional records, and arrange it in such a manner that it will 
be readily accessible to the student. This patronage is not confined 
to any particular school or race. It comes from the schools and col- 
leges of Raleigh, of the State at large, from universities such as 
Johns Hopkins, Columbia, Harvard, and from students who are not 
connected with educational institutions at all. The practical poli- 
tician studying modern problems comes along with the historian 
whose researches are among records centuries old. 

To meet all these various needs, the Trustees are directing their 
efforts to the building up of a great reference library. No works 
of fiction, unless they be by North Carolina authors, or portray 
North Carolina life, are purchased. The meager appropriation is 
better expended, in the judgment of the Trustees, in the purchase of 
works of reference, history, biographies, treatises on problems of 
modern life, etc., etc. 

All works written by or about North Carolinians, or about North 
Carolina, are purchased. The North Carolina collection now forms 
one of the most interesting and valuable features of the library. 

Another peculiarly valuable feature of the Library is the collec- 
tion of bound newspapers. This now contains 3,845 volumes. There 
is no other such collection of North Carolina newspapers in exist- 
ence. Ranging from 1791 to date, they contain history of the State 
during the most important periods of her existence. 

SUMMARY. 

Total number of volumes in Library 34.972 

Total number of Government books 6,348 

Total number of bound newspapers 3.845 

Total number of bound magazines 2,102 



LIBRARY COMMISSION OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Mrs. Minnie L. Blanton, Secretary. 

The Library Commission of North Carolina was created by the 
General Assembly of 1909, and active work was begun September 15th 
of the same year. The Commission consists of five members, two of 



Library Commission. 109 

whom are appointed by the North Carolina Library Association and 
one by the Governor; the State Librarian and the Superintendent 
of Public Instruction complete the membership. 

The purpose of the Commission, as expressed in the law, is to 
"give assistance, advice, and counsel to all libraries in the State, to 
all communities which may propose to establish libraries, and to all 
persons interested, as to the best means of establishing and admin- 
istering such libraries, as to the selection of books, cataloging, main- 
tenance and other details of library management as may be prac- 
ticable." 

The following are the important lines of activity: 

1. Establishment of Public Libraries. — The Commission endeavors 
to secure the establishment of public libraries in localities able to 
support them, and gives advice and assistance in arousing public 
interest. After preliminary correspondence, communities proposing 
to establish libraries are visited by the Secretary, and the practical 
details of organization explained. In many instances she classifies 
the books, starts the accession record and shelf-list, installs a proper 
charging system, and teaches the librarian how to keep the neces- 
sary records. The service is rendered without cost to the Library, 
except that, when the Secretary remains more than one day in a place 
the local expense is borne by the library aided. 

2. Reorganization of Old Libraries. — The Secretary visits libraries 
already established to confer with the Librarian and Library Board 
regarding methods of work and plans for further development. While 
much information and advice may be given by letters and circulars, 
personal visits are much more effective, as they invariably give new 
impulse to the local work and enable the Secretary to become familiar 
with library conditions in all parts of the State. 

3. Library Statistics. — Every public library in the State, including 
free public libraries, subscription libraries, school, college and uni- 
versity libraries, Young Men's Christian Association, legal associa- 
tion, medical association, Supreme Court and State libraries, is 
required by law to make an annual report to the Commission. From 
the data thus secured the Commission compiles an annual report of 
library conditions in North Carolina. 

4. The North Carolina Library Bulletin. — This is a magazine of 12 
pages, published quarterly. It is sent free to every library in the 
State, and upon application, to library trustees and to others inter- 
ested in library extension. The first issue appeared in December, 



110 Administrative Departments. 

1909. Each number contains important library articles, book lists, 
editorial notes, and general library news. It is intended to serve as a 
means of communication with each and every library, to bring the 
libraries into closer relation with one another, and, in general, to 
increase the interest in libraries throughout the State, and to improve 
the quality of their service to the public. 

5. Traveling Libraries. — For the benefit of communities without 
library facilities the Library Commission maintains a system of free 
traveling libraries. A library contains from thirty-five to forty vol- 
umes, about fifteen being fiction, fifteen children's books, and the 
remaining volumes popular and attractive books of biography, travel, 
science, etc. The books are shipped in a stout case equipped with 
shelves so that it may be used as a bookcase when it reaches its 
destination. The rules governing the loan of libraries are as few 
and simple as possible. The application may be signed by the presi- 
dent and secretary of a local library association, by five taxpayers, 
or by the officers of a Farmer's Union Local, a Woman's Betterment 
Association, or a Community Service League. Borrowers agree to 
pay the freight both from and to Raleigh, to take good care of the 
books and" to return them promptly, to make good any loss or dam- 
age beyond reasonable wear and tear, and to lend the books without 
charge to all responsible persons in the community. 

Traveling libraries containing only children's books have been 
prepared especially for the use of schools. They contain books for 
youngest readers, books for intermediate grades, and books for more 
advanced students. 

6. Package Libraries. — Package libraries are of three kinds: The 
Debate libraries, the Farmers' library, and the Study Club libraries. 
The Debate libraries are carefully prepared collections on the polit- 
ical, social, and economic questions which are being debated by 
schools and societies throughout the State. They consist of books, 
pamphlets, and magazine and newspaper articles. These little 
libraries contain the best material available on a subject and as 
much as the ordinary library would be able to furnish. Hence they 
are not lent to individuals, but to schools and debating societies, and 
on condition that all taking part in the debate have the use of the 
material. Libraries are now available on ninety-six different sub- 
jects. These Debate libraries not only furnish the best material 
available to schools and societies which otherwise would have little 
or no material of any kind, but they are also a very effective means 



Library Commission. Ill 

of bringing the Commission into close touch with the schools, and in 
many cases the Commission is able to awaken interest in the improve- 
ment .,r the school library or in the establishment of a traveling 
library station in the community. 

The Farmers' Library is a collection of 12 books on Agriculture 
and Country Life. The collections were purchased with an appro- 
priation made for the purpose by the State Board of Agriculture and 
are lent for a period of two months to Farmers' Union Locals or 
other groups of farmers. The Commission also maintains a special 
collection of books on Agriculture and Country Life from which small 
collections of six to ten volumes are made up and lent in the same 
way as the Farmers' Library. 

7. The General Loan Collection. This is a miscellaneous collec- 
tion of books on all subjects and it enables the Commission to send 
books to individuals and to supplement the various fixed collections 
so that they will meet the needs of each community and organiza- 
tion to which they are lent. In order that citizens may secure books 
as easily and as promptly as possible, they are sent in response to 
applications signed by a teacher, minister, postmaster, county or 
town official, or the officers of a book club, society, or other organiza- 
tion. The books from this section are lent for four weeks, and the 
borrower pays the postage both from and to Raleigh. 

8. Distribution of Library Literature. In addition to the North 
Carolina Library Bulletin, the following publications have been is- 
sued and distributed by the Commission: 

The Public Library. 

Free Traveling Libraries. 

Debating: list of books for libraries, high schools, and debating 
societies. 

Work of the North Carolina Library Commission. 

Agricultural and Country Life. 

North Carolina Package Libraries: Material for debate. 

Select Bibliography of North Carolina, by Stephen B. Weeks. 

The Farmers' Library. 

North Carolina Package Libraries. 

How to Start a Public Library. 

Material for Study Clubs. 

Free Debate Libraries. 

Other library literature, including tracts of the American Library 
Association, book lists, building plans, etc., is sent out as required 



112 Administrative Departments. 

9. School Libraries. The development of school libraries is a 
special feature of the work. A close connection has been established 
with the schools by giving advice on the care and use of school 
libraries, assistance in starting the necessary records, and help in 
the selection and purchase of books. A bulletin on school libraries, 
prepared by the Secretary, has been published and distributed by 
the Superintendent of Public Instruction to all schools in the State. 
Other literature on the subject is distributed by the Commission, and 
talks are given at teachers' meetings to arouse the interest of super- 
intendents and teachers in building up good school libraries. A 
special effort is made to bring the public schools and the public 
libraries into close cooperation. 

MEMBERS OF THE LIBRARY COMMISSION. 

C. C. Wright, Chairman Wilkes 

Annie F. Petty Guilford 

Charles Lee Smith, Treasurer Wake 

James Y. Joyner Wake 

Carrie L. Broughtox Wake 

Mrs. Minnie L. Blanton, Secretary Wake 



THE STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 

W. S. Rankin, Secretary and Treasurer, Raleigh. 

We assume that the members of the General Assembly, to whom 
the North Carolina Manual is addressed, are interested more par- 
ticularly in just two things with respect to the work of the State 
Board of Health: (1) What the Board spends; (2) What the Board 
gets for the expenditure. This statement, therefore, will deal, in as 
brief a manner as is consistent with clearness, with the debit and 
credit side of the State's account with public health. 

Just one additional introductory statement needs to be made — a 
statement in no sense intended as an apology but as simple justice 
to the Board of Health. The work of the State Board of Health, 
during the last biennium, has been seriously interfered with by two 
things: (1) the war; (2) the epidemic of influenza. The war called 
for a mobilization of medical men and health officers. The State 
Board of Health lost a. number of its officers to the military service 
of the country, and it was not only impossible to replace our losses, 



State Hoard of Health. 113 

but impossible to secure health officers for extensions in the health 
work that would have been made but for the war. The epidemic 
of influenza necessitated the cessation of much public health work 
for the reason that public health forces were concentrated on the 
epidemic. 

EXPENSES OF THE STATE FOB PUBLIC HEALTH. 

During the biennial period of 1917-1918^ the annual income of the 
State Board of Health, including the Laboratory but not the Sana- 
torium, has been $86,991.13. 

DIVIDENDS ON INVESTMENTS IN PUBLIC HEALTH. 

Item 1. The State Laboratory of Hygiene has examined annually 
for the last two years 8,652 microscopic specimens, which would 
have cost the people and the physicians of this State, if examined 
in other laboratories, a minimum of $1.50 per specimen, or a total 
of $12 978. This $12,978 is one dividend that is paid on the State's 
investment of $86,991.13 in the health of her people. 

Item 2. The State Laboratory of Hygiene has examined annually 
for the last two years 2,100 samples of drinking water. These 
analyses, if made by other laboratories, would have cost the State 
$5 apiece, or a total of $10,500. This $10,500 is a second dividend 
paid on the State's investment of $86,991.13 in the health of her 
people. 

Item 3. The State Laboratory of Hygiene has treated annually 
for the last two years 336 citizens of North Carolina who had been 
bitten by rabid animals. It would have cost these citizens a mini- 
mum of $15,000 to have secured this treatment outside the State. 
This $15,000, then, may be regarded as a third dividend paid on the 
State's investment of $86,991.13 in the health of her people. 

Item .'/. The State Laboratory of Hygiene has distributed an- 
nually for the last two years 248 876 doses of typhoid vaccine, 
7,896 doses of whooping cough vaccine, and 29,580 doses of small- 
pox vaccine, which vaccines, if purchased at the ordinary retail 
price, would have cost a minimum of $100,000. This $100,000 is, 
then, a fourth dividend paid on the State's investment of $86,- 
991.13 in the health of her people. 

Item 5. The State Laboratory of Hygiene has distributed an- 
nually for the last two years 2,412 doses, or 12.060,000 units, of 
diphtheria antitoxin. The antitoxin, distributed free of cost to 
8 



114 Administrative Departments. 

the people in 1918, at the old retail price would have cost $12,060. 
The antitoxin distributed in 1917, at about one fourth the previous 
retail price of antitoxin, saved our people an additional $9 000, mak- 
ing a total saving on diphtheria antitoxin of $21,000 for the last two 
years, or an annual saving of at least $10,000. But this by no means 
represents the total amount saved under this item to the citizens of 
North Carolina. Commercial manufacturers of antitoxin, in order 
to sell their product at all in North Carolina in competition with 
the State's free antitoxin, have had to cut their original price to 
one-third of what it was. The people are now paying only one-third 
of what they otherwise would have to pay for the anitoxin of pri- 
vate manufacturers. The arrangement of the State Board of Health 
for supplying antitoxin to the people of North Carolina saves our 
State not less than $20,000 a year. This $20,000 is, then, a fifth 
dividend paid on the State's investment of $86,991.13 in public 
health. 

Item 6. The State Board of Health has interested the Inter- 
national Health Board and the United States Public Health Service 
in opportunities for successful public health work in North Carolina 
to the extent of obtaining from these agencies, during the past two 
years, a total appropriation of $43,757.19. In addition to this direct 
appropriation, we have secured from the above agencies the loan of 
health officials for work in North Carolina, without cost to the State, 
whose combined salaries during the time of their work in this 
State has amounted to over $16,000. In short, we have been instru- 
mental in ^securing from outside sources, without cost to the State, 
during the last two years, $60,000 worth of health work. 

Item 7. A silver nitrate solution has been supplied to all the phy- 
sicians and midwives of the State, with instructions as to the law 
requiring the application of this solution to the eyes of all new- 
born children for the prevention of gonorrheal ophthalmia, or blind- 
ness in the new-born. 

There occurs in North Carolina annually about one hundred cases 
of gonorrheal ophthalmia, or blindness in the new-born — a form of 
blindness that is prevented in 98 per cent of the births, where it 
otherwise would occur, by the use of the silver nitrate solution; in 
other words, there are 12V> cases of this preventable blindness for 
every 10.000 births. The State Epidemiologist believes that he is 
conservative in assuming that in at least half of the births occurring 
in the State, 40,000 births, the law requiring the application of silver 



State Board of Health. 11 i 

nitrate is complied with. If this estimate is correct, and if the 
prophylactic is 98 per cent efficient in preventing blindness, .49 cases 
of blindness are prevented each year through this law. Let us 
assume, however, that less than half of this amount of blindness is 
prevented — 20 cases. It costs the State of North Carolina $185 a 
year per blind child to give it an education with the hope^of making 
it self-supporting. It requires at least ten years at the Blind Insti- 
tution for the child to receive this education. This would make a 
total cost to the State for educating the blind child, as an effort to 
make it self-supporting, ten times $185, or $1,850; for twenty blind 
children this would be $37,000. While estimates of the amount 
saved by this law will vary with the individual viewpoint, it will be 
admitted by all that this law is saving the State each year many 
thousands of dollars, and saving some of the State's citizens a loss 
that is incalculable. 

Item 8. The Board of Health was successful in securing the ap- 
pointment of all the officers — State and county — concerned with 
quarantine work in North Carolina to the position of collaborating 
epidemiologist of the Federal Government. While the Federal Gov- 
ernment pays these officials only $1 per year in accordance with an 
act of Congress, the position of an official in the Federal Government 
permits the State and county quarantine officers to use the franking 
privilege, which saves to the State and the counties not less than 
$5,000 a year postage. 

Item 9. Several years ago the State Board of Health was re- 
sponsible for a change in the management of outbreaks of smallpox. 
The change effected was shifting the responsibility of protecting 
the unvaccinated (the only susceptibles) from the community to the 
unvaccinated individual. In making this change, the State Board 
of Health did away with a system of smallpox quarantine and isola- 
tion which, according to reports from counties for the year preced- 
ing the change in the method of control, was costing the State 
$66,000. Smallpox is one of the least significant factors in the State's 
death rate. As a result of the change in the method of control, 
there has been, apparently, no increase in either cases or deaths. It 
appears, therefore, that the Board of Health, through this policy of 
making the individual responsible for his susceptibility to smallpox 
instead of his community, is saving the State annually something 
like $50,000. 



116 Administrative Departments. 

Item W. In 1914. for the first time in the history of the State, 
deaths from all causes were accurately recorded. In that year there 
were 839 deaths from typhoid fever; in 1915, 744; in 1916, 700; in 
1917, 628. and in 1918. 502. There were saved, therefore, 839 less 628, 
or 211 lives from typhoid fever during the year 1917. There were 
saved 8S9 .less 502, or 337 lives during the year 1918, or, during the 
two years, there have been saved 548 lives from typhoid fever. 

The fatality from typhoid fever is 10 per cent; that is, 100 cases 
of the disease cause 10 deaths. A decrease of 548 deaths, therefore, 
was necessarily associated with the prevention of 5.480 cases of the 
disease. Taking the estimates of the value of the average life at the 
average age at death from typhoid fever, made by political econo- 
mists of national reputation and based upon the life expectancy and 
earning capacity, the 548 lives saved were worth $4,000 each, a total 
of $2,192,000 of vital conservation. 

The prevention of 5,480 cases of typhoid fever associated with this 
saving of 548 lives also has a money equivalent. The average case 
of typhoid fever lasts six weeks. The cost of treating an average 
case of typhoid fever, estimating the amount paid physicians, drug- 
gists and nurses, and losses of salary or per diem on account of 
sickness, may be conservatively estimated at $100 a case (usually 
estimated at $200 each case), which amounts to a total of $584,000 
saved from sickness. 

In this item it appears, therefore, that through the work of typhoid 
prevention as organized, directed, and carried on by the Board, and 
through the Board's previous efforts there is a vital saving to the 
State of North Carolina estimated at $2,740,000. 

Item. II. The State law which requires that all plans and specifi- 
cations for waterworks and sewerage systems shall be submitted to 
and approved by the State Board of Health, before being accepted 
by the municipalities for which the plans and specifications are 
designed, safeguards our towns and cities against the work of cheap 
engineers and contractors. To illustrate: A town in this State, 
before this law went into operation, let a contract for the installa- 
tion of a public water supply. The water supply was found danger- 
ous on account of its location and had to be moved. The location of 
the water supply, bad it been passed upon by the State Board of 
Health, would never have been approved. To change the location 
of the supply cost the town somewhere between $10,000 and $15,000. 



State Board of Health. 117 

Many such losses have been saved the municipalities of the State by 
this law which requires that all plans and specifications for water 
supplies and sewerage systems be examined and approved by the 
engineers of the State Board of Health before being accepted by the 
towns and cities for which they are intended. 

Item 12. The State Board of Health, in its direction of the man- 
agement of the influenza epidemic, believes and claims that when the 
epidemic has passed and the records are available comparisons with 
the other States will show that the influenza cases and deaths per 
thousand population in North Carolina compare favorably with the 
incidence of the disease elsewhere, and that in attaining these re- 
sults the cost of handling the epidemic to this State was small, 
comparatively speaking. In the work of medical relief, sixty-four 
communities were served with seventy emergency doctors and 
sixty-one emergency nurses at a total cost to the State of $1,266.37. 
We claim now, leaving the verification of the claim to the future, 
that in this work we saved many thousands of dollars to the State 
of North Carolina. 

Item l.i. Over 160,000 school children have been given a prelimi- 
nary physical examination by school teachers in accordance with 
instructions and under the direction of the State Board of Health. 
About 48,700 of these school children have been given a second or 
complete physical examination by physicians and specially trained 
nurses in accordance with instructions and under the direction of 
the State Board of Health. It is officially recorded that $10,670 
of these school children have been treated. As a result of the above 
examinations and treatments, thousands of other school children of 
which we have no record have received much-needed and proper 
treatment. 

Item l.'i. During the first full year, 1918. of its existence, the 
Bureau of Epidemiology of the State Board of Health prescribed the 
method and supervised the quarantine of 29,785 cases of communi- 
cable diseases. As a further precaution against the unnecessary 
spread of communicable diseases, the teachers, pupils and patrons 
of 3,598 public schools were notified, through a well developed sys- 
tem, of the existence of communicable disease in the school com- 
munity, of the dangers of the disease, its methods of spread, and 
the means for its control. In this way, many thousands of cases of 
contagions that would have occurred otherwise, causing many deaths, 
have been prevented. 



IIS Administrative Departments. 

Item 15. Probably the most important, certainly the most funda- 
mental, health law that any State may enact is a vital statistics law. 
The vital statistics law of North Carolina requires the State to 
secure, and permanently preserve in a fire-proof vault, a complete 
record of the two principal events in the life of each citizen — the 
birth and the death of the citizen. The State holds that not one of 
its citizens is so humble that his coming and his going should not be 
taken official note of. An annual average of 77,000 births and 34,000 
deaths are registered, card-indexed and classified by race, sex. age, 
county, township, town or city, and by cause of death. 

For the individual, these records mean that each child may be 
enabled to keep track of its ancestors — father, mother, grandparents, 
great-grandparents, collateral kin. Each individual will be enabled 
to prove his or her age in the courts, his or her right to suffrage, 
the right to marriage, the right to insurance, the right to enter 
various industries, the right to inheritance, etc. 

For the State, this law means that the number of deaths per thou- 
sand of the population occurring in North Carolina, or in any county 
or township, or town or city of the State, shall be known; it means 
that the number of births per thousand of the population in the 
State, in the counties, in any part or subdivision of the State, shall 
be known; that by comparing such figures with similar figures from 
the other States of the Union the people of this State, the people of 
other States and of the world, may know, not guess, what health 
conditions in North Carolina are. 

Best of all, this law has shown and caused to be published on the 
authority of the United States Government, the fact that the State 
of North Carolina is one of the healthiest in the Union. This is the 
meaning of our death rate of 13.0 per thousand of the population 
per year, and our birth rate of 31.9 per thousand of the population 
per year as compared with the average death rate of 13.9 and birth 
rate of 24.8 of the registration States of the Union for the same 
year — the last year for which the figures are available. 

Item 16. A continuous and extensive educational campaign has 
been waged against unhygienic and insanitary conditions in the 
homes and communities of the State. This has been carried on in 
the following manner: The Health Bulletin has been mailed to an 
average of 48,000 people monthly; specially prepared leaflets, pam- 
phlets and placards have been distributed upon request to an extent 



State Hoard of Health. 119 

exceeding 30,000 monthly; daily articles have been supplied to the 
newspapers of the State for publication, these having been used in 
publications having a circulation in excess of 1.125,000; a total of 
12,816 letters have been written; motion pictures featuring health 
subjects in an entertaining manner have been witnessed by approxi- 
mately 58,298 people; approximately 19.971 people have witnessed 
illustrated health lectures; approximately 52,285 people have wit- 
nessed special health exhibits. The value of the results attained by 
these efforts is something that cannot be estimated in dollars and 
cents. The value of any educational movement is an intangible 
quantity. The Bible, the work of the ministers and the churches, 
the school system, the press, all are vital agencies upon which no 
exact value can be placed, but of such tremendous importance that 
no sane person would argue for the suppression of any. In like 
manner the educational work along health lines cannot be valued 
exactly. It has carried information and instruction to the people 
of the State, reaching directly at least one-half of the population. 
"Line upon line, precept upon precept," the prevention of disease 
has been preached, and the deaths from preventable diseases have 
been materially reduced. 

Item 11. The State Board of Health, by its educational activities, 
has fostered, strengthened, and directed an interest on the part of 
the counties in local health work so that today North Carolina has 
sixteen counties, embracing a total population of 687,634, or 28% 
per cent of the population of the State, under whole-time county 
health officers. No State in the Union has developed its county 
health work to a like extent. 

Item IS. In nine of the sixteen counties referred to in Item 17, 
the State Board of Health has had direction of the county health 
work for a period of fourteen months, and in that time the amount 
of work accomplished is indicated in the following tabulation: 

1. 969 public health meetings were held with a total attendance of 
87,450. 

2. 815 health articles were published in the county papers. 

3. 7.364 homes constructed sanitary privies. 

4. 20.834 people were examined for hookworm disease, and 3,928 
were treated. 

5. 479 schools were visited by health officers. 



120 Administrative Departments. 

6. 38.969 school children were examined by the teachers working 
under the direction of the health officers. 

7. 12,699 school children were examined by the health officers, 
these children bsing referred by the teachers. 

8. 6,171 defective children were treated. 

9. 1,528 adults were given physical examinations by the health 
officers. 

10. 37,234 people were vaccinated against typhoid fever. 

11. 6.450 people were vaccinated against smallpox. 

12. 4,356 cases of infectious diseases were quarantined. 

Item 19. The executive office of the State Board of Health ren- 
dered considerable assistance, possibly amounting altogether to two 
months' full time service, to the Council of National Defense, the 
Surgeon General of the Army, and the Medical Aide to the Governor 
in the preparedness program of the country. 

Item 20. To indicate the general business handled by the State 
Board of Health, the official correspondence, during the last two 
years, has amounted to a receipt of 92,550 letters and 104,120 replies. 
This is equivalent to a daily correspondence of 126 letters received 
and 142 replies. This does not include the preparation and mailing 
of 110,704 multigraph letters. 



STATE BOARD OF CHARITIES AM) ITRLK WELFARE. 

R. P. Beasley, Commissioner of Public Welfare. Raleigh. 

This board was made mandatory by section 7, Article XI of the 
Constitution of North Carolina as follows: 

Sec. 7. Beneficent provision for the poor, the unfortunate and 
orphan being one of the first duties of a civilized and Christian 
State, the General Assembly shall, at its first session, appoint and 
define the duties of a Board of Public Charities, to whom shall be 
entrusted the supervision of all charitable and penal State institu- 
tions, and who shall annually report to the Governor upon their 
condition, with suggestions for their improvement. 

Under the legislative provision, in conformity with the above 
mandate, the Board and the several members have done a vast 
amount of work in promoting the establishment of various institu- 
tions, in aiding in the development of the State's charitable and 
philanthropic growth and in social progress generally. Its mem- 



State Board of Charities. 121 

bers do not and never have received any salary or pay whatever, 
and are allowed only necessary traveling expenses. 

While it has been a guiding, stimulating, and developing agency. 
it was seen that its possibilities and usefulness could be largely 
increased to meet both the old and new needs of modern conditions 
by enlarging its powers and giving it a more adequate support. This 
enlargement was provided for by the Legislature of 1917, and the 
law governing its operation is now as follows: 

There are seven members, two of whose terms expire each two 
years. The Board meets quarterly or when called in special sessions. 
Its powers and duties as enumerated by the statute are: 

"(a) To investigate and supervise through and by its own mem- 
bers or its agents or employees the whole system of the charitable 
and penal institutions of the State and to recommend such changes 
and additional provisions as it may deem needful for their economi- 
cal and efficient administration. 

"(b) To study the subjects of nonemployment, poverty, vagrancy, 
housing conditions, crime, public amusement, care and treatment of 
prisoners, divorce and wife desertion, the social evil and kindred 
subjects and their causes, treatment, and prevention, and the pre- 
vention of any hurtful social condition. 

"(e) To study and promote the welfare of the dependent and delin- 
quent child and to provide either directly or through a bureau of the 
board for the placing and supervision of dependent, delinquent, and 
defective children. 

"(d) To inspect and make report on private orphanages, institu- 
tions, and persons receiving or placing children, and all such persons, 
institutions, and orphanages shall, before soliciting funds from the 
public, submit to the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare 
an itemized statement of the moneys received and expended and of 
the work done during the preceding year, and shall not solicit other 
funds until licensed by the State Board, said statement of moneys 
received and expended and work done to be made each year as 
ordered by the State Board, and said Board shall have the right to 
make all such information public. 

"(e) To issue bulletins and in other ways to inform the public as 
to social conditions and the proper treatment and remedies for social 
evils. 

"(/) To issue subpoenas and compel attendance of witnesses, ad- 
minister oaths, and to send for persons and papers whenever it deems 



122 Administrative Depaktments. 

it necessary in making the investigations provided for herein or in 
the other discharge of its duties, and to give such publicity to its 
investigations and findings as it may deem best for the public welfare. 

"(g) To employ a trained investigator of social service problems 
who shall be known as the Commissioner of Public Welfare, and to 
employ such other inspectors, officers, and agents as it may deem 
needful in the discharge of its duties. 

"(h) To recommend to the Legislature social legislation and the 
creation of necessary institutions. 

"(i) To encourage employment by counties of a county superin- 
tendent of public welfare and to cooperate Avith the county superin- 
tendent of public welfare in every way possible. 

"(i) To attend, either through its members or agents, social service 
conventions and similar conventions and to assist in promoting all 
helpful publicity tending to improve social conditions of the State, 
and to pay out of the funds appropriated to the State Board, office 
expenses, salaries of employees, and all other expenses incurred in 
carrying out the duties and powers hereinbefore set out. 

"Section 3916. The Board shall also give special attention to the 
causes of insanity, defect or loss of the several senses, idiocy, and 
the deformity and infirmity of the physical organization. They shall, 
besides their own observation, avail themselves of correspondence 
and exchange of facts of the labors of others in these departments, 
and thus be able to afford the General Assembly data to guide them 
in future legislation for the amelioration of the condition of the 
people, as well as to contribute to enlighten public opinion and direct 
it to interests so vital to the prosperity of the State. The State 
Board shall keep and report statistics of the matters hereinbefore 
referred to and shall compile these reports and analyze them with 
a view of determining and removing the cause in order to prevent 
crime and distress. 

"Sec. 3917. The State Board shall have power to inspect county 
jails, county homes, and all prisons and prison camps and other 
institutions of a penal or charitable nature, and to require reports 
from sheriffs of counties and superintendents of public welfare and 
other county officers in regard to the conditions of jails and alms- 
houses, or in regard to the number, sex, age, physical and mental 
condition, criminal record, occupation, nationality and race of in- 
mates, or such other information as may be required by said State 
Board. The plans and specifications of all new jails and almshouses 



State Board of Charities. 123 

shall, before the beginning of the construction thereof, be submitted 
for approval to the State Board. 

"Sec. 3918. The State Board shall biennially prepare and submit 
to the General Assembly a complete and full report of its doings 
during the preceding two years, showing the actual condition of all 
the State institutions under its supervision with such suggestions 
as it may deem necessary and pertinent, which shall be printed by 
the State Printer, and shall report such other matters as it may 
think for the benefit of the people of the State. 

"Sec. 3919. Whenever the Board shall have reason to believe that 
any insane person, not incurable, is deprived of proper remedial 
treatment, and is confined in any almshouse or other place, whether 
such insane person is a public charge or otherwise, it shall be the 
duty of the said Board to cause such insane person to be conveyed 
to the proper State hospital for the insane, there to receive the best 
medical attention. So also it shall be their care that all the unfor- 
tunate shall receive benefit from the charities of the State. 

"Sec. 3920. The Board may require the superintendents or other 
officers of the several charitable and penal institutions of the State 
to report to them of any matter relating to the inmates of such insti- 
tutions, their manner of instruction and treatment, with structure 
of their buildings, and to furnish them any desired statistics upon 
demand. No person shall be appointed to any place or position in 
any of the State institutions under the supervision of the State 
Board who is related by blood or marriage to any member of the 
State Board or to any of the principal officers, superintendents, or 
wardens of State institutions." 

The law also provides that county commissioners may create 
County Boards of Public Welfare, to consist of three persons known 
to be interested in social welfare, who shall assist the State Board 
in carrying out plans in the counties. The Commissioners may also 
appoint a County Superintendent of Public Welfare and pay him 
such salary as they deem wise, and whose duties are enumerated as 
follows: 

"(a) To have, under control of the County Commissioners, the care 
and supervision of the poor and to administer the poor funds. 

"(b) To act as agent of the State Board in relation to any work 
to be done by the State Board within the county. 

"(c) Under the direction of the State Board to look after and 
keep up with the condition of persons discharged from hospitals 
for the insane and from other State institutions. 



124 Administrative Departments. 

"(d) To have oversight of prisoners in the county on parole from 
penitentiaries, reformatories, and all parole prisoners in the county. 

"(e) To have oversight of dependent and delinquent children, and 
especially those on parole or probation. 

"(/) To have oversight of all prisoners in the county on probation. 

"(g) To promote 'wholesome recreation in the county and to en- 
force such laws and regulate commercial amusement. 

"(h) Under the direction of the State Board to have oversight of 
dependent children placed in said county by the State Board. 

"(i) To assist the State Board in finding employment for the un- 
employed. 

"(j) To investigate into the cause of distress, under the direction 
of the State Board, and to make such other investigations in the 
interest of social welfare as the State Board may direct. 

"The State Board shall have power and right at any time to re- 
move any member of the county board." 

PRESENT MEMBERSHIP AND OFFICERS OF THE BOARD. 

William A. Blair, Chairman Winston-Salem 

Caret J. Hunter, Vice-Chairman Raleigh 

A. W. McAllister Greensboro 

J. A. McAilay Mt. Gilead 

Rev. M. L. Kesler. . . Thomasville 

Mrs. Thomas W. Lingle Chapel Hill 

Mrs. Walter F. Woodward Wilson 

Miss Daisy Denson, Secretary Raleigh 

R. F. Beasley, Comr. of Public Welfare Raleigh 



NORTH CAROLINA GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SURVEY. 

Joseph Hyde Fratt, State Geologist, Chapel Hill. N. C. 

The act establishing the North Carolina Geological and Economic 
Survey was passed by the Legislature of 1905, and outlines in detail 
the phases of work to be carried out by this Department, as follows: 

(1) The examination of the mineral, forest, fishery, and other 
resources of the State. 

(2) The examination of the geological formations of the State 
with reference to their economic products. 

(3) The examination of the road-building materials and the best 
methods of utilizing same. 

(4) The examination and classification of the soils and forests and 



Geological and Economic Survey. 125 

other physical features of the State, with special reference to their 
bearing upon the occupations of the people. 

(5) The examination of the streams and waterpowers of the State, 
with special reference to their development in manufacturing enter- 
prises and the preservation of the sources of these streams through 
the protection of the forests. 

(6) The examination of the water supplies of the State, with 
special reference to sinking deep artesian wells. 

(7) The preparation of reports regarding these investigations. 
To carry on all the lines of work outlined as being the objects of 

the Geological Survey at one time, with the small annual appropria- 
tion at present allotted for this work, would be an impossibility; 
but the State Geologist, with the advice and consent of the Geo- 
logical Board, undertakes and carries out such of these investigations 
as seem to be most urgent and as can be accomplished with the said 
appropriation, supplemented by the heartiest cooperation on the 
part of the various Federal bureaus, such as the United States 
Geological Survey, the United States Office of Public Roads and 
Rural Engineering, the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 
the United States Forest Service, the United States Fisheries Com- 
mission, the National Association of Audubon Societies, the American 
Association of State Highway Officials, and various State associa- 
tions such as the North Carolina Good Roads Association, the North 
Carolina Drainage Association, and the North Carolina Forestry 
Association. 

The Survey not only examines into the present conditions of these 
various natural resources and conditions affecting the State's ad- 
vancement, but, where there seems to be a crying need for the con- 
servation and perpetuation of certain of our resources, such as our 
forests and the commercial fisheries, it seeks to acquire all possible 
information and to give such publicity as will acquaint the citizens 
of the State with the great necessity for conserving and perpetuating 
the wealth with which nature has so abundantly endowed us. No 
attempt is made on the part of the Survey to cloak any adverse con- 
ditions, but an effort is made to reveal the true state of affairs with 
the idea that by making a correct diagnosis a cure can sooner be 
reached. It is believed by those familiar with the work of this 
department that many of the great economic problems of the present 
and future are involved in its work. Every effort has been made to 



126 Administrative Departments. 

educate and arouse the people of the State to the importance of 
proper methods of conservation of not only our so-called natural 
resources, but of our time, labor, and money in the construction of 
better roads. Such educational work is carried on by means of 
addresses, bulletins, correspondence, newspaper articles, conventions, 
exhibits, demonstration work, etc. 

One of the greatest handicaps to the work of the Survey during 
the past two years has been the lack of funds for printing its reports. 
As outlined above, the work of the Survey consists mainly in study- 
ing conditions and making reports to the people as to the results of 
these investigations. To render their full value to the State, these 
reports should be distributed at the time when they would have the 
most value, either in conserving the interests of the people or adver- 
tising our resources at the time when these resources are in most 
demand. Delay in publication may mean, and often does mean, the 
withholding of information which costs the State many dollars be- 
cause of delayed action which may have resulted through the publi- 
cation and distribution of the information compiled from a given 
investigation. The people of North Carolina have a right to the 
results of the work which they have authorized. 

Below is given in some detail the work of the Survey. 

GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY. 

The geological work carried on by the Survey during the past two 
years has consisted principally of an investigation of the limestone 
and marl deposits of the State with the specific purpose of assembling 
such data as will be useful in locating commercial deposits of these 
materials and determining their adaptability for certain commercial 
purposes, such as fertilizer, portland cement, lime, etc. Another 
investigation has been on the clay deposits. The report on the gen- 
eral study of the Coastal Plain geology has been completed and a 
volume entitled "Cretaceous Deposits of North Carolina" has been 
compiled. 

During the field season of 1917 a general investigation was carried 
out to locate commercial deposits of minerals which had become of 
special interest because of war conditions, such as iron ores, man- 
ganese, copper, graphite, coal, pyrite. clays, mica, talc, etc. 

Statistics relating to the production of the various minerals and 
ores of the State were collected in cooperation with the United 



Geological and Economic Survey. 127 

States Geological Survey. Mineral specimens from various sections 
of the State have been tested and reported on. While the majority 
of these specimens are of little value commercially, occasionally one 
is sent in which either has a commercial value or is of scientific 
interest. Through this means deposits of commercial minerals 
have been located which have proved to be of considerable value. 

The following publications have been printed and distributed dur- 
ing the past two years relating to mineral subjects: 

Press Bulletin : 

1G3. North Carolina's Mineral Industry during 1917. 

There is now in preparation a report on the mining industry of 
the State during 1913-1917, inclusive. 

KOAD WORK. 

The road work of the Survey during the past two years has been 
carried on principally in conjuction with the work of the State 
Highway Commission, the State Geologist having acted as Secretary 
of the Commission up until the time he went into military service. 

During this period the work done by the Survey has been along the 
following lines: 

Legislative work, in which the State Geologist assisted the mem- 
bers of the Legislature of 1917 in the preparation of county road bills 
and in drafting State road legislation. Of the latter, the following 
are the bills which were passed by the Legislature of 1917: 

(1) A State-wide County Road Law. 

(2) An Act Relating to the Use of the Funds Derived from the 
Tax on Motor-driven Vehicles in the Maintenance of State High- 
ways. 

(3) An Act to Regulate the Treatment, Handling and Work of 
Prisoners. 

In connection with his work as Secretary of the State Highway 
Commission and Secretary of the American Association of State 
Highway Officials, the State Geologist assisted in various confer- 
ences at Washington in helping to work out rules and regulations 
for the distribution and administration of the Federal aid road funds. 

In cooperation with the State University and the State Highway 
Commission, the Survey has arranged for and conducted two Road 
Institutes at the University at Chapel Hill; the Fourth Road Insti- 
tute being held on February 12-16, 1917, which was attended by 129 



128 Administrative Departments. 

men from 41 counties; and the Fifth Road Institute, which was held 
February 19-22. 1918, with a registration of 124, representing 47 
counties. 

The Survey has also cooperated with the State Good Roads Asso- 
ciation in holding its annual conventions: in July, 1917, at Asheville, 
and August. 1918, at Wrightsville. 

The Survey was called upon by the Council of National Defense at 
Washington to prepare for transmission to the War Department, a 
report for North Carolina on "Available Material for Rapid High- 
way and Railway Construction Behind the Front." This report 
gave in considerable detail information relating to the physiography, 
topography and climate of the State; general geology of North Caro- 
lina and its relation to highway construction; quarries, their location, 
character of rock, capacity and availability; and a final chapter on 
road equipment and men available for road work in North Carolina; 
this latter chapter having been prepared by Mr. W. S. Fallis. State 
Highway Engineer. The report was accompanied by maps showing 
the location of quarries, location of water-powers, etc. 

The Survey has cooperated with the State Highway Commission 
and the United States Office of Public Roads and Rural Engineering 
in collecting statistics relating to the road work in various counties 
and townships during 1916-1917. The assembling of such data in 
regard to the amount of money being expended, cost of various types 
of road, mileage built, administrative boards, etc., is of considerable 
value to the road work, inasmuch as it gives us a basis on which to 
intelligently plan for future work, and brings us to a realization of 
the tremendous cost of the poor work which has been done. The 
Survey has also carried on considerable educational work through 
lectures, exhibits, etc. 

During the past two years the Survey has issued the following 
publications relating to roads: 

Econom ic Papers : 

44. Highway Work in North Carolina during the Calendar Year ending 
December 31. 1914. Compiled by Joseph Hyde Pratt, State Geologist, 
and Miss H. M. Berry. Secretary, 1916. 

The Fifth Road Institute and other Papers relating to Road Problems. Ex- 
tension Series No. 28, No. 155 of the Publications of the University 
of North Carolina Record. 

Numerous Press Notices and newspaper articles. 



Geological and Economic Survey. 129 



FORESTRY DIVISION. 

The forestry work of the Survey is to examine, study/ and report 
on the forest resources of the State in their relation to the life and 
activities of the people. Through the action of the 1915 Legislature, 
there has been added the duty of protecting the forests from fire and 
of making experiments in forestry practice for the benefit of the 
people of the State. Studies of the forest resources of the various 
counties, of the wood-using industries of the State, and of various 
other features have been made. Many private woodland tracts have 
been examined and advice for their conservative management given 
to the owners. Illustrated lectures have been given at the public 
schools and talks on practical forest management made at Farmers' 
Institutes and on many other occasions. 

The most important work of the Survey has been in connection 
with the prevention of forest fires. With the idea of securing relia- 
ble information on the damage done by fires and at the same time 
inttresting leaders of thought in each township in fire prevention, 
annual inquiries by correspondence have been carried on for the 
past nine years. The results show an average annual loss of $960,000 
reported from about half of the townships of the State. 

The Forestry Law, enacted by the Legislature of 1915, provided 
for the extinguishment and prevention of forest fires through the 
employment of competent forest wardens, payment for fire fighting, 
and penalties for setting illegal fires. Unfortunately, the enforce- 
ment of this law has been postponed owing to lack of funds. It was 
hoped that the last General Assembly would remedy that defect, but 
the bill to provide a small appropriation failed to become a law. 
It is believed that the Legislature of 1919 will make necessary pro- 
vision for carrying it out. 

The Survey has, with its own inadequate funds, done what was 
possible to enforce many important provisions of the Forestry Law. 
It has continued to have printed and distributed posters warning 
against fire, and has circulated copies of the new law. A few forest 
wardens have been appointed, where their services could be secured 
without direct payment, but such arrangement is ineffective and 
unfair, both to the wardens and to the public. No general advan- 
tage can be taken of this law until the State can pay the wardens 
adequately for all services rendered. 

9 



130 Administrative Departments. 

By reason of the enactment of this law, the State Geologist has 
been enabled to secure from the Federal Government a sum not ex- 
ceeding $2,000 a year for the purpose of employing Federal patrol- 
men under the Weeks Law. Several of these patrolmen have been 
appointed each spring and fall to cooperate with organizations of 
landowners, such as the Tryon Forestry Club, the Mt. Mitchell Forest 
Protective Association, and the Linville Forest Protective Associa- 
tion, or to cover a larger district independently, as is intended by 
the Federal Government. These men have done good work, not only 
by actually preventing and extinguishing fires, but by forming cen- 
ters of information and activity which will bear good fruit in the 
future. 

Recently the Government offered to appoint some patrolmen to 
cover entire counties or other large districts, even though active 
local cooperation was not obtained, with the idea of assisting in an 
educational campaign to interest the people in forest protection. 
There has been great difficulty, however, in securing suitable men for 
this work, chiefly because of its temporary nature. 

Under the law of 1915 (Chapter 253), the General Assembly recog- 
nized the duty of the State to experiment in and demonstrate prac- 
tical methods of forestry. One of the most pressing needs at the 
present time are experiments to determine the best ways of reforest- 
ing the non-agricultural lands of the different regions of the State. 
A start has been made on the State property at Sanatorium in the 
sandhill region and on the spruce lands in Mitchell Park, but a 
definite appropriation is needed to put these experiments on a practi- 
cal basis. 

In order to interest the people of North Carolina in better forest 
protection and to educate the young people and especially the chil- 
dren in a better understanding and wiser use of our natural re- 
sources, the Survey has cooperated with a number of organizations 
where such cooperation would help. A third Arbor and Bird Day 
manual was prepared by the State Forester in cooperation with the 
Department of Conservation of the State Federation of Women's 
Clubs. A double edition of this was printed by the State Department 
of Education, half of which was distributed to the schools in the fall 
of 1917, and the other half in the fall of 1918. Much of our most 
effective work in education has been accomplished through the Con- 
servation Department of the State Federation. 



Geological and Economic Survey. 131 

Following the purchase of Mitchell State Park by a Corumission 
appointed by Governor Craig, under the authority of the Legislature 
of 1915, which Commission secured 500 acres of spruce land, includ- 
ing the summit of Mt. Mitchell, Governor Bickett, in the summer of 

1917, requested the Survey to take charge of this park. A forest 
warden was appointed to open up trails, inform and look after the 
large number of visitors, and protect the park from fire. As this 
work was essential to the proper administration of the property, it 
was fortunate that a small fund derived from the sale of dead timber 
was available to pay the salary of this warden. This fund is now 
nearly exhausted, so it will be necessary for the Legislature to pro- 
vide for the future administration of the park. 

Realizing that the greater part of the forest area of North Carolina 
is included in farms, the Survey has devoted a great deal of atten- 
tion to the study of farm forestry and the assistance of farmers in 
the better management of their woodlands. Following the reiterated 
recommendation of the Survey, the State Director of the Agricultural 
Extension Service appointed a Farm Forestry Specialist in March, 

1918. Through a mutual arrangement between the Survey, the Fed- 
eral Government, and the State Agricultural Department, this man 
is to work under the joint direction of the State Forester, the Direc- 
tor of Extension, and the United States Forest Service. He will deal 
with all forestry questions connected with the woodlands included in 
the farms of the State. 

The Survey has assisted the North Carolina Forestry Association 
very materially by helping to organize and hold its annual meetings, 
which, besides their interest for the delegates who attend, have a 
wide influence on public opinion throughout the State. 

The Forestry Division of the Survey has before it a large and 
increasing field of usefulness. Reconstruction following the war 
must take into consideration the adjustment of supply and demand 
as regards our forest resources. The study of the timber conditions 
of the various counties, which, up to the present, included all the 
mountain and piedmont counties, must be extended to the coastal 
plain counties, to which our returning soldiers are now invited to 
come and settle. 

The children of our schools and students of our colleges should 
understand the problems with which they will eventually have to 
deal. The Survey must continue to furnish speakers, publications, 



132 Administrative Departments. 

articles for the press, and other information, and be ready at all 
times to assist its citizens and those who would become so in the 
forestry problems confronting them. Experiments must be con- 
ducted in order to have definite and practical information available; 
and, for these, the State should have at least one Experiment Forest 
in each of the forest regions. The planting of trees along our im- 
proved highways will become an important public activity, and 
State nurseries should be maintained to furnish at cost planting 
stock both for shade trees and for farm planting. The protection of 
the forest lands of the State from fire, authorized by the law of 1915, 
must be carried out with efficiency and economy. For these purposes 
a suitable appropriation should be made by the next General As- 
sembly. 

During the past two years the Survey has prepared and distributed 
the following publications relating to forestry: 

Economic Papers: 

48. Forest Fires in North Carolina during 1915, 1916 and 1917, and Present 
Status of Forest Fire Prevention in North Carolina, by J. S. Holmes, 
State Forester, 1918. 

Press Bulletins Relating to Forestry : 

156. The Ash in North Carolina, January 10, 1917. 8 pages. 

157. Farm Forestry, April 6, 1917. 6 pages. 

160. Cordwood for Fuel, January 30, 1918. 8 pages. 

161. Maple Syrup and Sugar Making As a Farm Activity, January 30, 1918. 

4 pages. 

162. Roadside Trees in North Carolina, April 10, 1918. 8 pages. 

164. Timber Resources of Stanly County, October 28, 1918. 5 pages. 

165. Timber Resources of Anson County. 

166. Timber Resources of Montgomery County. 

167. Timber Resources of Richmond County, 
Special Publications : 

Report of the Seventh Annual Convention of the North Carolina Forestry 
Association, held at Raleigh, N. C, January 24-25, 1917. Published 
by North Carolina Forestry Association. 

DRAINAGE WORK. 

One of the undertakings of the North Carolina Geological and 
Economic Survey has been the promotion of the reclamation of the 
swamp lands of the coastal plain region and the overflowed regions 



Geological and Economic Survey. 133 

of piedmont and western North Carolina through drainage. The 
object of this reclamation is three-fold: First, to increase the health- 
fulness of the section of country in which the swamp or overflowed 
areas exist; second, to make an unproducing area productive, thus 
increasing the revenue of the commonwealth; and, third, to facili- 
tate intercourse between communities adjacent to these swamp areas 
through the construction of good roads, which always follow the 
drainage of any swamp area. 

The work of the Survey in this connection has consisted of: 
Helping to organize and foster the work of the North Carolina Drain- 
age Association, which has been largely instrumental in drafting and 
securing the passage of the North Carolina Drainage Law by the 
Legislature of 1909, together with amendments by successive Legis- 
latures; approving the appointment of drainage engineers and the 
expenditures on preliminary examinations of drainage districts; 
publishing and distributing circulars giving the briefs and decisions 
regarding cases taken to the Supreme Court for ultimate decision on 
points affecting the workings of the drainage district; publishing 
the drainage law with subsequent amendments; and a set of forms 
for the organization of drainage districts. 

The Survey has cooperated with the North Carolina Drainage 
Association in holding annual conventions for the discussion of 
drainage problems by experts, and the exchange of experiences and 
ideas by those actually engaged in drainage work. At the last of 
these conventions, held in 1916, a tile drainage contest was inaugu- 
rated among corn-club boys and farmers which has awakened con- 
siderable interest in the installation and benefits to be derived from 
tile drainage. A similar contest was conducted by the officers of the 
Association in the fall of 1917 with very gratifying results. 

While there has not been as much district drainage work carried 
on in this State during the past two years as in former years, due 
to unsettled labor and financial conditions, there is still a great deal 
of interest in the State at the present time in drainage, particularly 
in tile drainage. 

The Secretary of the Interior has conceived the plan of utilizing 
certain of these swamp areas for homesteading returning soldiers 
and sailors, and the Survey has been in conference with the Recla- 
mation Service in regard to working out a plan for developing such 
an area in eastern North Carolina. 



134 Administrative Departments. 

The following publications have been issued during the past two 
years regarding drainage: 

Economic Papers : 

45. Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Drainage Convention, held under the 
auspices of the North Carolina Drainage Association and the North 
Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, Belhaven, N. C November 
29, 30 and December 1, 1915. Compiled by Joseph Hyde Pratt, State 
Geologist, and Miss H. M. Berry, Secretary. 
47. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Drainage Convention of the North 
Carolina Drainage Association, held at Greensboro, N. C, November 
22-23, 1916. Compiled by Joseph Hyde Pratt, State Geologist, and 
Miss H. M. Berry, Secretary. 

Press Bulletins : 

154. Decision of the Supreme Court Regarding the North Carolina Drainage 

Law, May 16, 1916. 19 pages. 

155. Decision of Supreme Court Relating to Drainage Work, September 15, 

1916. 28 pages. 
158. Amendments to the Drainage Law by the General Assembly of 1917. 
April 10, 1917. 18 pages. 

FISHING INDUSTRIES. 

While the former work done by the Geological Survey in connec- 
tion with the fisheries has been transferred to the State Fisheries 
Commission, the Survey is still doing everything in its power to 
further the work of this Commission. The Survey has been inter- 
ested in stimulating the use of fish and oysters as a food and as a 
means for reducing the cost of living and adding very materially to 
our food supply during the recent national emergency. 

Through a series of experiments it has been ascertained that cer- 
tain shellfish, such as the oyster, clam, diamond-back terrapin, etc., 
can be economically cultivated in North Carolina waters; and. as a 
result of this investigation, a company has been organized in Beau- 
fort for raising the diamond-back terrapin commercially. During 
1917 this company reported a hatch of approximately 25,000 terra- 
pins during this season. There is also great possibility in the cul- 
tivation of the oyster, and with the proper State protection of the 
oyster grounds, this should grow into a flourishing industry. 

MAPPING. 

Owing to lack of appropriation, the State Survey has not been able 
to carry on any topographic mapping in cooperation with the 



Geological and Economic Survey. 135 

United States Geological Survey. In this the State is the loser, 
because there is such a fund which has to be met by an equal 
amount on the part of the State, if the State is to receive the bene- 
fits from it. These topographic maps are of tremendous value to 
the State in connection with its geological, highway, drainage, for- 
estry, water-powers, and agricultural work; and they are of inesti- 
mable value to engineers engaged in various lines of engineering 
work throughout the State. They are of vital necessity in defense 
work in time of war. The State could well afford to spend $10,000 
a year on this work until the whole State is covered by these topo- 
graphic maps. 

WATER-POWERS. 

Closely akin to the forests in their abundance, importance and 
methods of conservation are the water-powers of the State. It has 
been estimated that we have available about 450,000 horsepower, 
and in 1916 it was estimated that approximately 223,000 horse- 
power have been developed, so that practically half of the State's 
available water-powers arfe now under harness. 

Water-powers cannot well be utilized beyond their minimum 
capacity without auxiliary power. The problem with companies is 
to raise the maximum flow during the two or three summer months. 
This may be done by building impounding reservoirs or improving 
the land-covers of the watersheds. An unburned forest cover pre- 
vents erosion and regulates the flow of streams, making them higher 
in dry weather and lower in flood times. It will then be seen that 
the conservation of water-powers involves the prevention of forest 
fires. 

As the water-powers constitute one of our chief sources of wealth, 
the State could well afford to employ, in connection with the Geo- 
logical Survey work, a hydrographic engineer to assist in the best 
utilization and conservation of our available water-powers. 

HOW THE SURVEY COULD SERVE THE STATE. 

It is believed that the State Geological and Economic Survey 
could render the State very effective and much needed service along 
the following lines with the expenditures as estimated below: 

(1) For the inauguration of a system of forest fire patrol, which 
should save the State at least $500,000 per year in the prevention of 
forest fires— $10,000 per annum. 



136 Administrative Departments. 

(2) For topographic and traverse mapping (such maps being of 
great service in all geological, road, forestry, drainage, hydrographic, 
and agricultural work), to be carried out in cooperation with the 
Federal Survey — $10,000 per annum. 

(3) For carrying out experiments in reforesting devastated and 
unproductive areas (of which there are vast areas in North Carolina) 
and furnishing assistance to farmers in tree-planting and coopera- 
tion with highway authorities in roadside tree-planting — $5,000 per 
annum. 

(4) For the employment and expenses of a drainage engineer for 
work in connection with the reclamation and development of swamp 
and overflowed lands of the State — $5,000 per annum. 

(5) For the employment and maintenance of a hydrographic engi- 
neer for work in connection with the development and conservation 
of our water-powers, one of our chief sources of wealth — $5,000 per 
annum. 

GEOLOGICAL BOARD. 

Governor T. W. Bickett, ex officio Chairman. .Franklin. 

F. R. Hewitt Buncombe. 

John Spkunt Hill Durham. 

C. C. Smoot, III Wilkes. 

R. G. Lassiter Granville. 



STATE HIGHWAY COMMISSION. 

W. S. Fallis, State Highway Engineer, Raleigh. 

By an act of the General Assembly of 1915, Chapter 113, there was 
created a North Carolina State Highway Commission. The duties 
of this Commission are to assist the counties in developing a State 
and county system of highways. 

The State Highway Commission consists of the Governor, three 
citizens of the State who are appointed by the Governor — one from 
the eastern, one from the central, and one from the western portion 
of the State, one of whom shall be a member of the minority political 
party — the State Geologist, a Professor of Civil Engineering of the 
University of North Carolina, and a Professor of the North Carolina 
State College of Agriculture and Engineering, said professors to be 
designated by the Governor. Such assistants and clerks as may be 
needed are to be appointed by the State Highway Engineer. 



State Highway Commission. 137 

The first meeting of the Commission was held March 31, 1915, at 
which time the Commission was fully organized and a discussion 
entered into as to the law and future work of the Commission. 

The work of the Commission ranges from advice and cooperation 
to taking complete charge of engineering work in the different coun- 
ties and townships of the State. The Commission has constructed 
concrete and steel bridges at a number of places and the records 
show the value of this work to the State to exceed in money saved 
(in less than five counties) more than the State's entire appropria- 
tion for the use of the Commission for the two years the Commission 
has been at work. 

Since the organization of the Commission it has worked out for 
the counties many methods by which the road work can be done 
more economically and successfully than heretofore. The State 
Highway Engineer has arranged with the different railroads for a 
special low rate on road material, which arrangement has to come 
through the State Highway Commission, and this is proving of value 
in much of the road work in the State. 

The Federal Aid Road Fund will come through the State Highway 
Commission, and the Commission is now having surveys made for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1917. The approximate amount for 
the year 1918 is $228,763.84; for 1919, $343,145.76; for 1920, 457,- 
527.68; and for 1921 the sum of $571,909.60, making a total of $1,- 
715,728.80 for the five-year period for which Federal aid is available. 

The Federal aid used in the State during the past year had been 
the result of a great advance in road construction and proposed road 
construction. Plans and surveys have been prepared for consider- 
ably over a million dollars for roads to be built in cooperation with 
the Federal Government. The State's standing in Federal aid work 
is fifth of all the States in the United States, both on an average and 
for the following activities: Number of project statements submit- 
ted; number of project statements approved; number of contracts 
between the State and Government; number of miles proposed to be 
improved; amount of money received by the State and percentage 
of amount approved for payment to the State by the Federal De- 
partment. 

The maintenance, under the Automobile License Tax, has been 
fairly satisfactory. In organization and execution, this, as well as 
construction work, has been very much hampered by war conditions, 
the influenza epidemic, and high prices, and the scarcity of labor 



138 Administrative Departments. 

and material. In spite of this, however, the general condition of 
the roads comprising the State Highway System on which State 
maintenance is being carried out, the roads are in better condition 
as a whole than they ever have been in the history of the State. 

The cooperation of the counties, in a general way, has been very 
satisfactory. There is, of course, a great deal yet to be desired 
before we are fully satisfied with the organization and results. 
Equipment, of course, has not yet been secured to a satisfactory 
extent. The men operating and handling the patrol gang in each 
county need a great deal of training to make them efficient. The 
scarcity of labor and material has been a decided handicap in this 
work. We feel sure, however, from the results obtained under such 
adverse conditions that the system is going to result eventually in 
giving our State a decided advantage over the surrounding States 
whose maintenance work is not systematized and carried out as will 
be the case under this organization. 

COMMISSION. 

T. W. Bickett, ex officio Chairman. 

Joseph Hyde Pratt, Secretary. 
Benehan Cameron. T. P. Hickerson. 

E. C. Duncan. W. C. Riddick. 

Guy V. Roberts. 



FISHERIES C03DIISSION BOARD. 

The Fisheries Commission Board was created by the General 
Assembly of 1915 for the purpose of enforcing the laws relating 
to fish. It consists of five members appointed by the Governor, 
at least three of whom must be from the several fishing districts of 
the State, and have a practical knowledge of the fishing industry. 
The Board appoints a fisheries commissioner who is responsible to 
it for carrying out the duties of his office. The term of his office 
is four years. He is authorized to appoint two assistants by and 
with the consent of the Fisheries Commission Board. • He also 
appoints, with the approval of the Board, inspectors in each county, 
under his jurisdiction. The Fisheries Commission Board is given 
jurisdiction over and control of all the fisheries of the State, which 
is construed by the act creating the Board to include porpoises and 



State Board of Elections. 139 

other marine mammals, fishes, mollusca and crustaceans, and all 
operations involved in using, setting, or operating apparatus em- 
ployed in killing or taking said fish or in transporting or preparing 
them for market. The Board also has authority and power to regu- 
late, prohibit, or restrict in time, place, character, and dimensions 
the use of nets, appliances, apparatus, or other means employed in 
taking or killing fish, and to regulate seasons at which the various 
species of fish may be taken in the several waters of the State, and 
to prescribe the minimum size of fish which may be taken. It has 
general supervision of the acts of its officers and employees. The 
Fisheries Commissioner is responsible to the Board for his acts in 
carrying out and enforcing all the laws, rules, and regulations of 
the Board pertaining to the fishing industry in the State. He must 
also see that all licenses and other taxes are collected and paid to 
the Treasurer. 

The State owns four boats, and in July, 1917, the Fisheries Board, 
through its Commissioner made a contract with the United States 
Navy Department, permitting it to use these boats, the Department 
agreeing to enlist and pay the crews, and certain other expenses. 
These boats and crews were to do certain work for the United 
States Government and at the same time do the required work for 
the State in the fishing industry. Except in cases of extreme emer- 
gency they operate under the orders and directions of the Fisheries 
Commission. This was an opportunity for the State to perform a 
patriotic duty to the government and at the same time carry on the 
work of the fishing industry practically without interruption. 

MEMBERS OF THE FISHERIES COMMISSION BOARD. 

En. Chambers Smith, Chairman Raleigh 

A. V. Cobb Windsor. 

S. P. Hancock Beaufort. 

E. H. Freeman Wilmington. 

T. F. Winslow Hertford. 

H. L. Gibbs, Fisheries Commissioner Oriental. 



STATE BOARD OF ELECTIONS. 

The State Board of Elections consists of five electors appointed by 
the Governor for a term of two years. Not more than three of them 
may be of the same political party. Vacancies occurring in the 



140 Administrative Departments. 

Board are filled by the Governor. Members of the State Hoard of 
Elections receive, in full compensation for their services, $4 per day 
for the time they are actually engaged in the discharge of their 
duties together with their actual traveling expenses, and such other 
expenses as are necessary and incident to the discharge of the duties 
imposed upon them relating to elections. 

MEMBERS OF THE BOARD. 

Wilson G. Lamb, Chairman Williamston. 

R. T. Claywell, Secretary Morganton. 

J. W. Pass Yadkinville. 

A. B. Freeman Hendersonville. 

Clarence Call Wilkesboro. 



STATE STANDARD KEEPER. 

The State Standard Keeper is appointed by the Governor to take 
care of the balances, weights, and measures prescribed by law, and 
perform such other duties as the Governor may prescribe touching 
said balances, weights, and measures. It is his duty to procure and 
furnish, at prime cost, to any of the counties, upon an order of the 
Board of County Commissioners, any of the standard sealed weights 
and measures required by law to be kept, and he is authorized, by 
and with the approval of the Governor, to contract for the manufac- 
ture of plain sealed weights substantially made of iron, steel or 
brass, as the county ordering may direct; yardstick made of sub- 
stantial wood, each end neatly covered with metal, sealed, marked 
and stamped "N. C"; half bushel, peck, half peck, quarter peck, and 
one eighth peck, made of substantial, well-seasoned wood, with se- 
cure metallic binding and casing; gallon, half gallon, quart, pint, 
half pint, and gill measure, made of light sheet copper with iron 
handles. He must procure and furnish, as herein provided, to the 
Board of Commissioners of any county ordering the same, dry and 
liquid sealed measures and yardstick made of brass or copper. 

State Standard Keeper, T. F. Brockwell. Raleigh, N. C. 



Audubon Society of North Carolina. 141 



FIREMEN'S RELIEF FUND. 

The State of North Carolina pays $2,500 a year to the North Caro- 
lina State Volunteer Firemen's Association and to the North Caro- 
lina State Firemen's Association, which fund is known as the Fire- 
men's Relief Fund. 

The purpose of the fund is for the relief of firemen, members of 
such associations, who may be injured or made sick by disease con- 
tracted in the actual discharge of duty as firemen, and for the relief 
of widows, children or dependent mothers of such firemen who may 
be killed or die from disease contracted in the discharge of their 
duty. Such duty must be performed in the service of the fire de- 
partment from the time of the fire alarm until the members are 
dismissed by the company officers at roll call, or in service connected 
with the fire department which is directed to be performed by the 
officer in charge. 

Any fireman of good, moral character in North Carolina, and be- 
longing to an organized fire company, who will comply with the 
requisitions of the constitution and by-laws of the North Carolina 
State Firemen's Association may become a member of this Associa- 
tion, and be eligible to relief from this fund. 



THE AUDUBON SOCIETY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Miss Placide H. Underwood, Raleigh. Secretary. 

The Audubon Society of North Carolina was incorporated in 1903, 
with J. Y. Joyner, T. Gilbert Pearson, R. H. Lewis, A. H. Boyden, 
H. H. Brimley. P. D. Gold, Jr., J. F. Jordan, and R. N. Wilson as 
incorporators. (Rev. 1905, Sec. 1862.) 

The officers of The Audubon Society of North Carolina are a Presi- 
dent, Vice-President, Secretary and Treasurer, and such other officers 
as may be fixed by the by-laws. (Rev. 1905, Sec. 1863.) 

The objects for which the corporation is formed are to promote 
among the citizens of North Carolina a better appreciation of the 
value of the song and insectivorous birds to man and the State; to 
encourage parents and teachers to give instruction to children on 
the subject; to stimulate public sentiment against the destruction 



142 Administrative Depabtments. 

of wild birds and their eggs; to secure the enactment and the en- 
forcement of proper and necessary laws for the protection and 
preservation of the birds and game of North Carolina. Its further 
office is, through the appointment of game wardens, to rigidly en- 
force the laws for game and bird protection. 

The funds received by the Treasurer of the State from the license 
tax on nonresident hunters constitutes a fund known as the Bird 
and Game Fund. This fund is paid out by the Treasurer of the 
State on the order of the Treasurer of The Audubon Society of 
North Carolina, who makes an annual report to the Governor of the 
receipts and expenditures of the society for each year.^ 

The Governor, upon the recommendation of The Audubon Society, 
appoints bird and game wardens and the Treasurer of the Society, 
whose terms of office, unless otherwise provided for, are during good 
behavior, or until their successors are appointed. The Governor 
issues to the Treasurer of The Audubon Society and to each person 
appointed as warden, a commission. These commissions are trans- 
mitted to the clerk's office of the Superior Court for the county from 
which the prospective treasurer or bird and game warden is ap- 
pointed. 

Every person appointed as game warden, before entering upon the 
duties of the office, is required to take oath before the cierk of the 
Superior Court of the county in which he resides that he will faith- 
fully perform the duties of said office, and execute a bond in the sum 
of one hundred dollars for the faithful discharge of his duties. 

The compensation of wardens is fixed and paid by the society. 
There are thirty-three counties of the State under the jurisdiction 
of The Audubon Society and there are sixty-one game wardens in 
the various counties, each county having one or more wardens. 

Any nonresident of the State who desires to hunt in any of the 
counties under the jurisdiction of The Audubon Society is required 
to make application to the clerk of the Superior Court of any of 
the counties under Audubon control, and the clerk of the Court 
issues such license upon the payment of a fee of ten dollars and 
clerk's fee. A nonresident hunting license issued by the clerk of 
the Superior Court of any one of the counties under the jurisdiction 
of The Audubon Society is valid in all the Audubon counties, while 
a nonresident hunting license issued in a county not under the 
jurisdiction of The Audubon Society can be used only in the county 
in which it is issued. 



Audubon Society of North Carolina. 



143 



In 1909 the General Assembly of North Carolina passed an act 
withdrawing certain counties from Audubon protection. Subsequent 
to 1909 other counties have been withdrawn, so that at the present 
time there are only thirty-three counties under the jurisdiction of 
The Audubon Society of North Carolina. The following counties 
are under the jurisdiction of The Audubon Society: 



Alamance 

Alleghany 

Ashe 

Avery 

Bladen 

Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Caldwell 

Chatham 

Columbus 



Cumberland 

Durham 

Edgecombe 

Greene 

Haywood 

Iredell 

Lee 

Lenoir 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Moore 



New Hanover 

Northampton 

Orange 

Person 

Rockingham 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Surry 

Wake 

Watauga 

Yancey 



In its efforts towards education. The Audubon Society has expended 
part of its funds towards the publication of a book on North Carolina 
birds. The Society has had prepared and has had paid for the plates 
presenting pictures of bird life in North Carolina. Owing to the 
fire which destroyed the printing establishment of E. M. Uzzell & 
Company, the publication of this book on North Carolina birds has 
been delayed. 

The Audubon Society owns two small islands in Pamlico Sound 
which are patrolled by a game warden during the nesting season. 
These islands are Leggett Lump and Royal Shoal. 

In an attempt to increase a state-wide interest in bird and game 
conservation, the secretaries of the Society have given illustrated 
bird lectures and talked on bird study to Teacher's Institutes, Com- 
munity Clubs, Women's Clubs and to many of the schools in the 
State, and a great many Junior Audubon Societies have been organ- 
ized and several schools and clubs have held "Bird Days" as a result 
of this work. 

A bill providing for the enactment of a state-wide game commis- 
sion to take over the work of The Audubon Society was introduced 
into the Senate by Senator Kelly, Chairman of the Senate Committee 
on Game at the last session of the General Assembly (1917). This 
bill, amended several times so as to exempt certain counties from 
its provisions, passed its first reading. On its second reading, there 
were so many amendments offered that the bill was referred to the 



144 Administrative Departments. 

committee. The committee stripped the bill of all amendments and 
reported it back to the Senate with a substitute amendment. When 
the bill came up for passage, however, there were several more 
amendments offered and a parliamentary wrangle followed, during 
which the bill was tabled. It was then so near the end of the session 
of the General Asembly that there was not sufficient time to take 
the matter up in the House and the matter was dropped. 

When The Audubon Society was organized the office of the Secre- 
tary was at Greensboro, N. C, Mr. T. Gilbert Pearson, now Secre- 
tary of The National Association of Audubon Societies, being Sec- 
retary. In 1913, upon the election of Mr. James W. Cheshire, Sec- 
retary, the office was moved to Raleigh, N. C., and since that time 
the work of the Society has been carried on by the various secre- 
taries in Raleigh, N. C. 

Officers of The Audubon Society of North Carolina: 

OFFICERS. 

Dr. R. H. Lewis, President Raleigh. 

H. H. Brimley, Vice-President Raleigh. 

P. H. Underwood, Secretary Raleigh. 

R. A. Brown, Treasurer Raleigh. 

board of directors. 

Rev. Melton W. Clark : Greensboro. 

Brook G. Empie Wilmington. 

B. F. Siielton Speed. 

W. H. Swift .Greensboro. 

Franklin Sherman, Jr Raleigh. 

secretaries. 

T. Gilbert Pearson 1903-1911. 

P. D. Gold, Jr Nov. 22. 1912-June 1, 1913. 

J. W. Cheshire June 1, 1913-Mar. 20, 1915. 

R. E. Parker June 1, 1915-Juhe 1, 1917. 

G. A. Martin June 1. 1917-Oct. 10, 1917. 

Miss Placide H. Underwood Oct. 10, 1917. 



State Educational Commission. 145 

STATE EDUCATIONAL COMMISSION. 

Robert H. Wright, Chairman, Greenville, N. C. 

By an act of the General Assembly of 1917, chapter 197, there was 
created a State Educational Commission of five members to be ap- 
pointed by the Governor for the term of office of two years. "It 
shall be the duty of the said commission to make a thorough study 
of the school laws of the entire public school system of the State, a 
careful survey of existing educational conditions and a comparative 
study and investigation of the educational systems of other states. 
Said Commission shall codify the public school laws of the State 
and make recommendations of such amendments, changes, and addi- 
tions to the school law as in its opinion may be needed."' The com- 
mission shall also investigate the methods and cost of supplying 
text books to the public schools and also the advisability of estab- 
lishing a printing plant for the purpose of printing text-books and 
doing other State printing, and shall investigate the matter of public 
school teachers pensions and report its finding and recommendations 
to the General Assembly. 

The Governor named the commission in December, 1917, and called 
the members together for the purpose of organizing said commission 
March 6, 1918. The commission consists of: 

Robert H. Wright, Chairman, Greenville, N. C. 
E. C. Brooks, Vice-Chairman, Durham, N. C. 
L. J. Bell, Secretary, Rockingham, N. C. 
C. C. Wright, Hunting Creek, N. C. 
Chas. E. Brewer, Raleigh, N. C. 

At the first meeting held March 6, 1918, the commission was fully 
organized and proceeded at once to outline the work to be done and 
appointed different members to gather data. The commission met 
June 20, October 16, and December 17, and will make a partial re- 
port to the General Assembly of 1919. 

The appropriation made for this work by the General Assembly 
of 1917 is $1,000. 



10 



146 Administrative Departments. 



COMMISSION FOR REVISION OF LAWS. 

The General Assembly of 1917 created a joint committee of five 
members, two from the Senate and three from the House to provide 
for "compiling, collating and revising the Public Statutes of North 
Carolina." The committee as appointed and organized consists of 
Representative Harry W. Stubbs, Chairman; Senators Lindsay C. 
Warren and Stahle Linn and Representatives Carter Dalton and 
H. P. Grier. Under the powers conferred in the act, the committee 
appointed Mr. Thomas H. Calvert, as revision commissioner to take 
charge of the actual task of the revision. Upon Mr. Calvert's appoint- 
ment as Judge of the Superior Court, Professor L. P. McGehee of 
the State University was appointed commissioner. The work of the 
compilation and revision has been done by Mr. McGehee, Messrs. 
Carter Dalton, Lindsay C. Warren, A. C. Mcintosh, and Thomas E. 
Didlake. The result submitted to the General Assembly of 1919 is 
comprised in the two large volumes of "The Consolidated Statutes 
of North Carolina." 

The act creating the committee and providing for the revision ap- 
propriated $10,000 for the work, out of which the expenses have 
been defrayed. 



BOARD OF INTERNAL DIPROVEMENTS. 

B. C. Beckwith, Former Member of the Board, Raleigh* 

The State Board of Internal Improvements was created and made 
a body corporate by chapter 982, Acts of the General Assembly of 
North Carolina, 1819. In 1836 the Board was made to consist of 
the Governor of the State, president ex officio, and two commis- 
sioners, to be biennially appointed by the Governor with the advice 
of the Council of State. 

Chapter 101 of the Revisal of 1905 provides that the two commis- 
sioners be now appointed biennially by the Governor with "the ad- 
vice of the Senate." The private secretary of the Governor is secre- 
tary ex officio of the Board, which meets in the Governor's office, 
or at any other place in the State, as it may see fit. 



*This artiole is brought forward from the Manual of 1913. The editor reerets 
that he has been unable to get a revised -statement of the duties, powers, and work 
of the Board up to date. 



Board of Internal Improvements. 147 

The Board has charge of all the State's interest in all railroads, 
canals, and other works of internal improvement; and the Legis- 
lature of 1905 added, "also all public institutions in which the State 
has an interest, excepting the higher educational institutions that 
are not also charitable." 

The Board shall biennially report to the General Assembly the 
condition of all public or State institutions and buildings in their 
charge, railroads, roads and other works of internal improvements 
in which the State has an interest; shall suggest such improve- 
ments, enlargements, or extensions of such works as they shall 
deem proper, and such new works of similar nature as shall seem 
to them to be demanded by the growth of trade or the general pros- 
perity of the State; the amount, condition, and character of the 
State's interest in railroads, roads, and other works of internal 
improvements in which the State has stock or whose bonds she 
holds as security; the condition of such roads or other corporate 
bodies and State institutions in detail, financial condition, receipts 
and disbursements, etc. 

The Board may require of the president or chief officer of any 
railroad or other works of public improvement or any public in- 
stitution in which the State has an interest, a written report, under 
oath, of the affairs of his company or institution for the year, and 
a failure on the part of such chief officer of any public institution 
or company in which the State has an interest to make a true re- 
port is made a misdemeanor, punishable by fine or imprisonment. 

Provision is also made for the appointment of a special auditor 
to audit the accounts and books of all institutions, corporate bodies 
and State departments whenever the Governor and the Board may 
deem it necessary. 

"When the Board, as it is authorized to do, is making an investi- 
gation of the affairs of any public institution or company in which 
the State has an interest, or of the official conduct of any official 
thereof, if any person shall refuse to obey any summons of, or 
shall refuse to answer any question when requested so to do, by a 
member of the Board, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and may 
be fined and imprisoned. And upon report of the Board, the Gov- 
ernor may suspend or remove from office any of said officials, if in 
the opinion of the Board and the Governor the interest of the State 
demands it. 

The Legislature of 1909 amended chapter 101 of the Revisal so 



148 Administrative Departments. 

that whenever the General Assembly shall direct or authorize di- 
rectly or indirectly the erection or alteration of any building or 
buildings at any State institution, charitable, educational, or penal, 
the Board of Internal Improvements shall let the same out by con- 
tract, and take from the contractor a bond with sufficient security 
payable to the State, in such sum as the Board may deem sufficient, 
with the condition that he will faithfully perform his contract ac- 
cording to plans or specifications agreed upon. And chapter 101 
of the Revisal was also amended by the Legislature of 1911, pro- 
viding that no corporation, company, or institution in which the 
State has an interest shall lease, mortgage, or otherwise encumber 
its property except by and with the consent of the Board of In- 
ternal Improvements and the Council of State. 



NORTH CAROLINA NATIONAL GUARD AND RESERVE 

3IILITIA. 

Beverly S. Roystep., Adjutant General, Oxford, N. C. 
(Office: Raleigh, N. C.) 

The Militia of the State is divided into three classes, the National 
Guard, the Naval Militia and the unorganized militia. 

The General Assembly (session. 1917), passed an act to revise mili- 
tary laws of the State and to increase the efficiency of the militia. 
Immediately after the passage of this act, steps were taken to in- 
crease the strength of the National Guard and to promote its effi- 
ciency. This work was being vigorously prosecuted when war was 
declared against Germany, and from that time until the National 
Guard was drafted into the Federal service, every energy was put 
forth to bring the National Guard to a high state of efficiency. 

Pursuant to the Proclamation of the President of July 3, 1917, the 
following organizations, units and detachments of the National 
Guard of North Carolina were drafted into the Federal service on 
August 5. 1917: 

1st Brigade 

1st Infantry 

2d Infantry 

3rd Infantry 

Field Hospital No. ] 



National Guard. 149 

Ambulance Company No. 1 

Veterinary Corps 

Radio Company Signal Corps 

1st Regiment Field Artillery 

1st Squadron Cavalry 

1 Machine Gun Troop 

1st Battalion Engineers 

1 Engineer Train 

1 Motor Truck Company 

Field and Staff 

Sanitary Detachment and 

Six Companies Coast Artillery 

Quartermaster's Corps 

Being a total of 277 officers, 7.454 enlisted men, grand total of 7.731. 
Of the Naval Militia 18 officers, and 197 men (total 215) were called 
into Federal service April 6, 1917, as National Naval Volunteers. 

Shortly after reaching Camp Sevier the status of the 1st North 
Carolina Infantry was changed and its officers and men were assigned 
and transferred to other organizations. This change of status was 
no reflection upon the officers and men of this splendid regiment but 
it was made to carry out the plans of the War Department with 
respect to the National Guard organizations and divisions'. Our 
National Guard Troops were trained at Camp Sevier, South Caro- 
lina, from August, 1917, until May, 1918. when they were sent over- 
seas for service on the battle front. How splendidly these troops 
acquitted themselves on every occasion and what bravery and hero- 
ism were manifested by officers and men are known far and wide. 
They have won for themselves, and the State as well, on the battle- 
fields of France and Belgium an imperishable glory. The National 
Guard of this State has kept the faith and it has fulfilled in the 
largest degree the hopes and aspirations of its friends throughout 
the State. 

The State has no National Guard troops at this time and there 
will be no steps taken to reorganize the National Guard until the 
return to the State of the troops now on oversea duty. 

During the absence of the National Guard it became necessary to 
maintain a military force in the State, and pursuant to a Proclama- 
tion of the Governor, dated September 23, 1917, the unorganized 
militia of the State between the ages of thirty-one and forty-five were 
called into the active service of the State and organized and desig- 



150 Administrative Departments. 

nated as the North Carolina Reserve Militia. There are now fifty- 
four companies of the Reserve Militia, and these companies are dis- 
tributed throughout the various sections of the State, so as to meet 
as nearly as possible any urgent need for troops. It has been im- 
possible to get full equipment for the Reserve Militia; indeed only 
a limited number of rifles have been available, which have been 
issued to forty-two of the companies. These companies w r ill be 
continued until the National Guard troops now in the Federal 
service return to the State. 

Complete rosters are being prepared in the office of the Adjutant 
General of all the National Guard troops, and rosters will also be 
prepared showing the names and rank of those who served on the 
Mexican border and in the war w r ith Germany. 

ADJUTANT GENERALS OF NORTH CAROLINA SINCE 1861. 

J. G. Martin 1861- 

Abial G. Fisher 186S-1871 

John G. Gorman 1871-1876 

Johnstone Jones 1877-1888 

James D. Glenn 1889-1892 

Francis H. Cameron 1893-1896 

A. D. Cowles 1897-1898 

Beverly S. Royster 1899-1904 

Thomas H. Rodertson 1905-1909 

Joseph F. Armfield 1910-1911 

Roy L. Leinster 1911-1912 

Gordon Smith 1912-1913 

Laurence W. Young 1913-1916 

Beverly S. Royster 1916- 



STATE PRISON. 

J. R. Collie, Superintendent, Raleigh. 

This institution w r as founded by an act of the General Assembly, 
ratified the 12th day of April, A. D. 1869, entitled "An Act to Pro- 
vide for the Erection of a Penitentiary." Reference is made to the 
act cited, and also to the Report of the Commission to Erect a Peni- 
tentiary, Document No. 18. Legislative Documents, 1868-70. 

The prison building is a magnificent brick structure, erected upon 
granite foundation. The prison wall is of granite, and is twenty feet 
in height and six feet broad at the top, and its base is said to extend 



State Prison. 151 

sixteen feet below the surface. The building and wall are estimated 
to have cost the State more than a million and a quarter dollars. 

The institution is situated about one mile west of the Capitol on 
the extension of Morgan Street and near Hillsboro road. 

The affairs of the prison are administered by a board of five di- 
rectors appointed by the Governor. 

The Dangerous Insane Department is maintained out of the State 
prison earnings. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1869 

Number of buildings* 1 

Cost (estimated by prison authorities) $1,225,000 

Number of acres of land 7,300 

Number of employees 134 

Number of inmates 825 

Liabilities None 

SUPERINTENDENTS. 

W. T. Hicks Wake 

Paul F. Faison Wake 

A. Leazar Iredell 

John R. Smith Wayne 

J. M. Mewborne Lenoir 

W. H. Day Wake 

J. S. Mann Hyde 

J. J. Laughinghouse Pitt 

J. S. Mann Hyde 

J. R. Collie Franklin 

board of directors. 

H. B. Varner, Chairman Lexington 

Frank Gough Lumberton 

W. M. Sanders Smithfield 

B. F. Shelton Speed 

A. E. Smith Mount Airy 

*Two cimps on State farm; each have living quarters and many farm buildings 
of commodious size. 



PART V. 



STATE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 



1. University of North Carolina. 

2. North Carolina State College of Agriculture and 

Engineering. 

3. North Carolina State Normal and Industrial 

College. 

4. Cullowhee Normal and Industrial School. 

5. Appalachian Training School. 

G. East Carolina Teachers' Training School. 

7. North Carolina Schools for the [White] Blind 

AND FOR THE [NeGRo] BlIND AND DEAF. 

8. North Carolina School for the [White] Deaf. 

9. Stonewall Jackson Manual Training and 

Industrial School. 

10. North Carolina Normal Schools for the Colored 

Race and for the Cherokee Indians of Robeson 
County. 

11. North Carolina Negro Agricultural and Techni- 

cal College. 

12. Caswell Training School. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA 

The University of North Carolina is located at Chapel Hill. Its 
charter was granted in 1789; the corner-stone of the first building 
was laid in 1793, and it was opened for students in 1795. The cam- 
pus of 48 acres and about 550 acres of forest contiguous to it were 
given by the citizens of Orange County. Its first buildings were 
also given by friends of the University, the Legislature granting a 
loan of $10,000 in 1793, which was afterwards converted into a gift, 
and making the first direct appropriation for building in 1905, 
when $50,000 was given for a chemical laboratory. Of the total 
amount received by the University from all sources, one-half has 
been contributed by alumni and friends. 

The State made no appropriation for the maintenance of the Uni- 
versity for the first eighty years of its existence. In 1875 the in- 
terest from the Land Scrip Fund ($7,500) was paid over to the Uni- 
versity, and withdrawn in 1887. In 1881 the annual sum of $5,000 
was appropriated for the maintenance and support of the Univer- 
sity. This annual appropriation is now $165,000. 

In 1861-65 and the following Reconstruction period the Univer- 
sity was stripped of its funds, landed property, and much of its 
equipment. From 1871 to 1875 its doors were closed. It was re- 
opened in 1875 with practically nothing but empty halls and the 
contribution of its friends amounting to about $20,000 for the 
purchase of new equipment. 

Its property now consists of 

Campus — 48 acres, and woodland 550 acres.... $ 125,500.00 
Equipment — books, apparatus, furniture, etc... 344.700.00 
Buildings — 27, and 3 faculty houses 786,500.00 

$ 1.256,700.00 
Its endowment, including loan funds, amounts to 267,281.46 

Total ? .$ 1,523,981.46 

The income of the University was derived from the following 
sources for the year 1917-1918: 



156 State Educational Institutions. 

State appropriation $165,000.00 

Students fees 57,496.71 

Invested funds 12,318.96 

Gifts 2,159.12 

Other sources 30,225.47 

Total $267,200.26 

The University is comprised of the following departments: Col- 
legiate, applied science, teachers' training, graduate, law, medicine, 
and pharmacy. There are 35 professors, 10 associate professors, 8 
assistant professors, 16 instructors, 32 assistants. A number of 
the assistants help in the laboratories and library and do no actual 
teaching. The number of students for the session, 1917-18, was 
1,062. There were 1,050 students in attendance upon the summer 
school. Of the students attending the regular session 95 per cent 
are from North Carolina. 

The parents of the students represent all professions, creeds and 
parties in the State. The leading professions represented are farm- 
ers, merchants, lawyers, physicians, manufacturers, ministers, teach- 
ers. The leading churches are: Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, 
Episcopal. 

Over one-half of the students earn or borrow, in part or in whole, 
the money for their education. Some 60 of them earn their board 
by waiting at the table. Few of the families from which these stu- 
dents come are able to stand the strain of the support of a son at 
college without stringent economy or even many sacrifices. About 
one half of the graduates start out as teachers. 

There is a splendid spirit of democracy about the institution which 
opens the doors of achievement to all alike and places attainment 
upon merit alone. It is emphatically a place "where wealth is no 
prejudice and poverty is no shame." 

SUMMARY. 

Charter granted 1789 

Opened 1795 

Acres of land owned 598 

Value of buildings, equipment, and land. . . .$1,256,700.00 

Invested funds $267,281.46 

Number of volumes in library 77.000 

Number of students 1,162 

Number of faculty 88 

Income from State $165,000.00 

Income from students $57,496.71 

Invested funds $12,318.96 



College of Agriculture and Engineering. 157 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 

No president 1795-1804 

Joseph Caldwell 1804-1835 

David L. Swain 1835-1868 

Solomon Pooi 1869-1870 

University closed 1870-1876 

Kemp P. Battle 1876-1891 

George T. Winston 1891 1896 

Edwin A. Alderman 1896 1900 

Francis P. Venarle 1900-1914 

Edward K. Graham 1914-1918 



NORTH CAROLINA STATE COLLEGE OE AGRICULTURE 
AND ENGINEERING. 

W. C. Riddick, President, West Raleigh. 

During the years in which North "Carolina was slowly emerging 
from the economic havoc wrought by Civil War and Reconstruction, 
some far-sighted men began to see the necessity of rearing indus- 
trially equipped men. They felt keenly the need of competent men 
to build and dirct new industries, and to restore the land which 
had been impoverished by slave labor. They recognized that men 
capable of doing what was needed would have to be educated in in- 
dustrial schools and technical colleges. This recognition came 
slowly, because the Southern people up to that period had been 
wedded to classical education. 

The first organized body to take steps for the establishment of an 
industrial institution in North Carolina was the Watauga Club. 
This Club, composed of bright young men, explained its mission by 
declaring that it was "an association in the city of Raleigh designed 
to find out and make known information on practical subjects that 
will be of public use." In 1885 this club presented to the Legisla- 
ture the following memorial: 

"We respectfully memorialize your honorable body: 
"First. To establish an industrial school in North Carolina which 
shall be a training place for young men who wish to acquire skill in 
the wealth-producing arts and sciences. 

"Second. To establish this school in Raleigh in connection with 
the State Agriculture Department. 

"Third. To make provision for the erection of suitable buildings 
and for their equipment and maintenance. 

(Signed) Arthur Winslow, Chairman : 

W. J. Peele, 
Walter H. Page." 



158 State Educational Institutions. 

This memorial quickened general interest in the proposed school, 
and several bills looking to its foundation were introduced in the 
Legislature of 1885. On March 7th, one of these bills, introduced by 
Hon. Augustus Leazar of Iredell County, became a law. This law 
provided that the Board of Agriculture should seek proposals from 
the cities and towns of the State, and that the school should be 
placed in the town offering most inducements. The Board of Agri- 
culture finally accepted an offer from the city of Raleigh. 

Meantime, the ideas of the advocates of the school have been some- 
what broadened as to the character of the proposed institution. They 
saw that Congress was about to supplement the original land grant 
by an additional appropriation for agricultural and mechanical col- 
leges in each State. The originators of the conception then sought 
the aid of progressive farmers in order to change the school into 
an Agricultural and Mechanical College. Col. L. L. Polk, the editor 
of the newly established Progressive Farmer, threw the weight of his 
paper heartily into the new idea. Meetings were held in various 
places, and two very large meetings in Raleigh considered the 
proposition. As a result, the school already provided for was by 
action of the Legislature of 1887 changed into an Agricultural and 
Mechanical College, and the Land Scrip Fund was given the newly 
formed institution. In addition, the law directed that any surplus 
from the Department of Agriculture should go into the treasury of 
the college. Mr. R. Stanhope Pullen, one of Raleigh's most broad- 
minded citizens, gave the institution eighty-three acres of land in a 
beautiful suburb of Raleigh. The first building was completed in 
1889 and the doors of the college were opened for students in Octo- 
ber, 1889. Seventy-two students, representing thirty-seven counties, 
were enrolled the first year. The faculty consisted of six full pro- 
fessors and two assistants. 

From this small beginning in 1889 the college has grown to be the 
second in size in students and faculty among the colleges for men in 
the State. 

The Legislature of 1917 changed the name of the college to North 
Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engineering. 

The college confines its curriculum entirely to technical and in- 
dustrial education. No general or academic courses are offered. 

The courses of study are as follows: 

First, Agriculture, including under this general term Agronomy, 



Normal and Industrial College. 159 

Horticulture, Trucking, Animal Husbandry, Dairying, Veterinary 
Science, Poultry Science, and a course in Agricultural Education. 

Second, Engineering. These courses include Civil, Electrical, Me- 
chanical, and Mining Engineering. The equipment for field and for 
laboratory work in these courses makes them very practical, as well 
as scientific. 

Third, Textile Industry. Students in Textiles have an entire mill 
building for their use. In addition to carding, spinning, weaving 
and designing, they have a thoroughly practical course in dyeing 
and in the chemistry of dyes. 

Fourth, Industrial Chemistry. Four-year courses in Agricultural 
Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, and Textile Chemistry and Dyeing. 

In all these courses, mathematics. English, physics, chemistry and 
one modern language are required. 

For young men who have not time or means to spend four years 
in college, and yet who want to fit themselves as far as possible for 
industrial employments, short courses of one and two years are 
offered in Agriculture, and two years in Mechanic Arts and Textiles. 

In January of each year, a three-weeks practical course for farm- 
ers is given. 

During the summer there is conducted at the college a two-weeks 
course for Home Demonstration Agents, a Summer School for 
Teachers, a short course for Club Eoys and Girls, a course for 
Farm Demonstration Agents and the Farmers' Convention. 

These activities, in addition to the regular college session, keep 
the plant in active service every day in the year. 

The college, in cooperation with the State Department of Agricul- 
ture, conducts the North Carolina Experiment Station and the North 
Carolina Extension Service, which employ more than two hundred 
men and women, and touch the lives of at least three-fourths of the 
people of the State. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1889 

Number of buildings 30 

Number of acres of land 485 

Value of buildings and equipment $848,352 

Value of land $108 310 

Number of volumes in library 8.000 

Number of students 947 

Number of faculty 65 

State appropriation per annum $122,500 



160 State Educational Institutions. 



PRESIDENTS. 

Alexander Q. Holladay 1889-1899 

George Tayloe Winston 1899-1908 

Daniel Harvey Hill 1908-1916 

Wallace Carl Riddick 1916- 



THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE NORMAL AND INDUSTRIAL 

COLLEGE. 

Julius I. Foust, President, Greensboro. 

The North Carolina State Normal and Industrial College was es- 
tablished by an act of the General Assembly of 1891. The purpose 
for which the institution was created, as stated in section 5 of the 
act establishing it, is as follows: 

"The object of this institution shall be (1) to give young women 
such education as shall fit them for teaching; (2) to give instruc- 
tion to young women in drawing, telegraphy, typewriting, stenog- 
raphy, and such other industrial arts as may be suitable to their 
sex and conducive to their support and usefulness. Tuition shall 
be free to those who signify their intention to teach upon such con- 
ditions as may be prescribed by the board of directors." 

In 1892 the Institution began with $30,000 donated by the city of 
Greensboro and ten acres of land, the gift of Mr. R. S. Pullen, Mr. 
R. T. Gray, Mr. E. P. Wharton, and others, with an annual ap- 
propriation of $10,000 from the State. In addition to the State ap- 
propriation and tuition fees, the institution received during the 
first few years about $3,000 annually from the Peabody Fund and for 
three years received $2,500 annually from the General Education 
Board. It also received about $11,000 from the faculty and students, 
and a small amount from Mr. George Foster Peabody, and a library 
building from Mr. Andrew Carnegie. The plant is now worth more 
than $700,000, the annual State appropriation is $100,000, and the 
loan and scholarship funds received from various sources in the 
State and out of it now amount to $25,000. The faculty numbers 
89, and there were enrolled during the past session 786 students, and 
during the summer session 484 students. Total, 1,270. 

The chief mission of the institution lies in furnishing the public 
school system of the State well-equipped teachers who are capable 



Normal and Industrial College. 161 

of rendering the State intelligent and useful service. It provides 
regular degree courses, whose admission requirements, curriculum 
of instruction, and standards of scholarship are in keeping with 
the requirements of our best Southern colleges for men and women. 

Special industrial and commercial courses are open to those who 
do not have free tuition and are not under contract to teach. Pro- 
vision is also made for teachers who may wish to take brief courses 
in pedagogy and in the subjects taught in the public schools. For 
those who cannot remain longer, a one-year course is offered. For 
various reasons a number of ambitious teachers are not able to avail 
themselves of the one-year course, and to meet the demands of these 
a regular summer session has been inaugurated. The advantages 
of the institution are thus open to every worthy young white woman 
who has availed herself of the opportunities offered in the public 
schools of the State. 

The patronage of the institution has justified the wisdom of the 
founders. During the twenty-six years of its life, beginning Octo- 
ber, 1892, and closing with the session of May, 1918, the college has 
had an average enrollment of about 625 students. These students 
have come from all the 100 counties of the State, and in their 
political and religious faith, their financial condition, their profes- 
sional and social life, their intellectual ability and previous educa- 
tional opportunities, are representative of the people of North Caro- 
lina. Of the more than 7.500 young women who have sought the 
help and strength thus provided, more than 80 per cent received 
their training in the rural public schools, one third defrayed their 
own expenses, and two-thirds, according to their own written state- 
ment, would not have attended any other North Carolina college. In 
brief, one of the strongest forces of the college, and a prime source 
of its usefulness, has been the representative character of its pat- 
ronage. This coming together of all classes from all sections of the 
State necessarily results in creating an atmosphere of wholesome 
democracy and equal opportunity. The spirit of the State College 
for Women, is. therefore, what the spirit of every State college 
should be, and, as a result, its representatives acquire that larger 
sympathy, that breadth of vision, and that intelligent insight into 
the needs of their State that no text-books or lectures or mere aca- 
demic training can ever hope to give. 

Some indication of the serviceableness of the college is suggested 

11 



162 Bdxj< ational Institutions. 

by what has been said of the scope and character of its patronage. 
It has, since its establishment, been an open door of opportunity 
for the white women of North Carolina. Through it the State has 
added to its resources over 7,000 educated women, who have taught 
lessons of patriotism and right living to at least 350.000 North Caro- 
lina children. Two-thirds of all the students enrolled and nine- 
tenths of all who graduate become teachers in North Carolina. No 
large movement for the uplift of the State has failed to have sup- 
port from its faculty and students, and today there is not a county 
in the State where representatives of the colleges are not to be 
found actively engaged in public service. 

SUMMER SESSION. 

The special purpose of the State Normal and Industrial College in 
organizing the Summer Session was to offer the advantages of its 
instruction to those women in the State, whose occupation during 
other months of the year prevent their attendance upon the regular 
session. In the selection and arrangement of its summer courses 
the college has in view the needs of the following classes: 

1st. Teachers wishing special work in the principles and methods 
of teaching (Primary. Grammar, and High School), with opportuni- 
ties for practice and observation work under experienced super- 
visors. 

2d. Teachers desiring advanced or collegiate courses in Philoso- 
phy, Science, Psychology, and the History of Education. 

3d. Teachers of special subjects, such as Agriculture. Domestic 
Science. Vocal Music, Drawing, and Manual Arts. 

4th. High school teachers who desire advanced or extra work 
along the line of their specialties with free use of good department 
libraries and well-equipped laboratories. 

5th. College students who wish to earn advanced credit or to re- 
move conditions. 

6th. Students preparing for college. 

7th. Mothers, wives, and home-makers who feel the need of prac- 
tical help in such subjects as food and food values, cookery, kitchen 
conveniences, home nursing, sanitation, and household decoration. 

SUMMARY OF ENROLLMENT DURING THE SESSION OF 1917-1918. 

Enrolled during the regular session, 786 students. 
Enrolled during the summer session, 484 students. 



Cullowhee Normal School. 163 

Total number taught at the college during the session 1917-1918, 
1,528 students, including the Training School. 
Pupils enrolled in Training School, 337. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1891 

Number of buildings used 15 

Number of acres of land 100 

Value of buildings and land $800,000 

Number of volumes in library 8,000 

Number of pupils in training school 337 

Number of students in college, regular session 786 

Number of students in college, summer session 484 

Total number of regular students enrolled during 

sessions 1917-1918 1,270 

Number of faculty 89 

Annual State appropriation (maintenance) $125,000 

PRESIDENTS. 

Charles D. McIver '. 1891-1906 

Julius I. Foust, Dean 1906-1907 

Julius I. Foust 1907- . 



CULLOWHEE NORMAL AND INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 

A. C. Reynolds, President, Culloiohee, N. C. 

The Cullowhee Normal and Industrial School is a State coeduca- 
tional institution for the training of teachers. The school was 
chartered in 1891 as a private institution, and in 1905 became a 
State institution. It has trained more than 600 teachers for public 
school work and has furnished ten county superintendents. The 
institution is equipped with steam heat, electric lights, and a 
gravity water line. It is built to accommodate about 200 board- 
ing students. The organization of the school embraces: Practice 
School, High School, Normal Collegiate School, Domestic Science 
School, Domestic Arts School, and Music School. 

SUMMARY. 

Number of buildings 8 

Number of acres of land owned 27.5 

Number of instructors 10 

Value of buildings and lands $110,000 

Annual appropriation $10,00 

.presidents. 

R. L. Madison 1891-1912 

A. C. Reynolds 1912- 



164 Educational Institutions. 

THE APPALACHIAN TRAINING SCHOOL.* 

B. B. Dougherty, Superintendent, Boone. 

The Appalachian Training School for Teachers was established 
by act of the Legislature of 1903. The school is located at Boone, 
Watauga County, North Carolina, in the midst of North Carolina's 
unsurpassed mountain scenery. It is the center of education for the 
northwestern section of North Carolina, embracing some of the best 
of her mountainous counties. 

The institution makes no pretension to being a college. It is a 
normal school, and its mission is to give a high school and profes- 
sional education to hundreds of young people who cannot go else- 
where. 

During the years 1913-1914 there were 453 students in the school. 
It supplies a large proportion of the public school teachers for the 
surrounding counties, and has had a marked influence upon the 
improvement of scholarship and professional training of these teach- 
ers. In addition to this, the school has opened a way to the State 
University and the State Normal College to a large number of stu- 
dents who otherwise would not have entered those institutions. 

The first appropriation made by the Legislature was $2,000 for 
maintenance, voted by the Legislature of 1903. The Legislature of 
1907 increased this to $4,000, and made an additional appropriation 
of $10,000 for the enlargement of the plant. In 1909 the Legisla- 
ture appropriated $6,000 a year for maintenance, and $8,000 per year 
for general improvements. The Legislature of 1911 appropriated 
$10,000 per annum for maintenance and $10,000 for improvements. 
The Legislature of 1913 appropriated $15,000 for a new dormitory 
and $12,500 for maintenance. 



*This article is brought forward from the Manual of 1917. The editor regrets 
that he has been unable to secure a revised statement bringing the data up to date. 



East Carolina Teachers Training School. 165 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1903 

Number of buildings 7 

Number of acres of land owned 450 

Value of buildings and equipment $200,000 

Value of land $25,000 

Number of students 556 

Number of faculty 13 

Income from State appropriation for maintenance 

per annum $20,000 

SUPERINTENDENT. 

B. B. Dougherty 19C3- 



EAST CAROLINA TEACHERS TRAINING SCHOOL. 

Robert H. Wright, President. Greenville. 

The East Carolina Teachers Training School was established by 
act of the General Assembly of 1907. The school is located at Green- 
ville. The site contains 50 acres of land, a large part of which is 
natural forest. 

Eight buildings have been erected; two dormitories with a capac- 
ity for 240 students; an administration building containing the 
offices, auditorium, and classrooms; a building for the kitchen and 
dining-room (this building contains storerooms for supplies and a 
refrigerating plant) ; an infirmary, a building containing the power 
plant and laundry, an eight room Model School and a residence for 
the President. 

The buildings and equipment are modern in every sense and are 
valued at $270,000. The town of Greenville and county of Pitt voted 
$100,000 in bonds for this school, and the State has made an appro- 
priation of $154,332.57 for buildings and equipment. These build- 
ings, for lack of funds have not yet been thoroughly equipped, but 
enough equipment has been installed to enable the school to do 
efficient work. The equipment installed is of the best type pro- 
curable. 

Section 3 of the charter reads: "That the said school shall be 
maintained by the State for the purpose of giving to young white 
men and women such education and training as shall fit and qualify 
them to teach in the public schools of North Carolina." This clearly 
sets forth the purpose of this school. To those students who agree 



166 Educational Institutions. 

to teach there is no charge for tuition. Practically all of the stu- 
dents sign this agreement to teach. This shows that the manage- 
ment is adhering rigidly to the purpose of the school as stated in 
its charter. 

The school first opened its doors for students October 5, 1909. 
During the past nine years, including the summer terms, there 
have been enrolled 5,671 students. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1907 

Number of buildings 8 

Number of acres of land 50 

Value of buildings and grounds $270,000 

Number of students 1907-1918 5,671 

Annual appropriation $60,000 

Other income $3,196.25 

PRESIDENT. 

Robert H. Wright 1907- 



NORTH CAROLINA SCHOOL FOR THE BLIND AM) 

THE DEAF.* 

G. E. Lineberry, Stiperintendent, Raleigh. 

This institution was established by act of the General Assembly 
passed January 12, 1845, while Hon. W. A. Graham was Governor 
of North Carolina. On the first day of May following the school 
opened with seven pupils, which number increased to seventeen 
during the session. The first appropriation amounted to $5,000 an- 
nually. Two years later it was made $10,000. W. D. Cooke, of Vir- 
ginia, was elected first principal, and for .some years the school was 
conducted in a building on Hillsboro Street, rented for the purpose. 

On April 14, 1849, the corner-stone of the present main building 
on Caswell Square was laid by the Grand Lodge of Masons. At first 
deaf children only were received, but later blind children were also 
admitted. 

In 1868 a department for the education of the negro deaf and 
blind children of the State was established on Bloodworth Street, 



*The State schools for Wind white children and for the blind and deaf negro 
children, though separate institutions, in separate buildings located in different 
parts of the city, are under the same supervision. — Editor. 



School for the Blind and the Deaf. 167 

in the southeastern part of the city. This has grown to be the 
largest and best equipped school for the negro deaf and blind in 
the South. 

In 1894 the white deaf children were removed to their elegant 
new school at Morganton. The old school continued to grow until 
there were 186 pupils actually present in both departments, and the 
annual appropriation was $40,000. It has now grown to be one of 
the largest of its kind in America, and North Carolina has the proud 
distinction of doing more for its deaf and blind children, in pro- 
portion to its population, than any State in the Union. 

The auditorium building furnishes dormitories for the boys, with 
all modern conveniences, and a good auditorium, but it is now far 
too small to accommodate the number of students already in at- 
tendance. 

The school has a small library and a partially equipped gym- 
nasium which have aided much in the work to be done, but it has 
almost no school room, or scientific apparatus, and but slight dormi- 
tory furniture. 

The industrial building furnishes room for the broom, mattress, 
and cane-seating department of the school. Similar buildings are 
at the colored department. 

The increased attendance has made it necessary to increase the 
appropriation for maintenance, and the Legislature has made addi- 
tions from time to time until the annual income is now $72,500. 

This is equivalent to only about $240 per child — an amount far 
less than that used by any school for the blind in the United States. 
Seventeen years ago the allowance per child was more than $214. 
With the increased cost of living, one can readily see how cramped 
must be the financial condition. 

A distinguished visitor to the State said recently in a public ad- 
dress made at the annual meeting of the State Association of the 
Blind held at Fayetteville: "Your school for the blind at Raleigh 
* * * needs, and should have, more funds. In many respects it 
is the best of the forty State schools for the blind in this country. 
It has more pupils than any other State. It fits more of them for 
independence than any other school. Between 80 and 90 per cent 
of the pupils of your school for the blind become self-supporting. 
No other State makes such a showing, and no other of the forty 
schools have so little money provided for the pupils as your State 
school. The money spent in your State school for the blind is the 
best investment your State ever made. Through its influence doubt- 



168 Educational Institutions. 

less many blind are now self-supporting, useful and happy citizens 
of your State, who otherwise would be dependent on their family 
or friends or be inmates of almshouses at the expense of the State. 

"When I asked Dr. Fraser, the great educator of the blind, at 
Halifax (Nova Scotia), after his recent visit to the schools for the 
blind of this country, which he considered the best, he replied that 
none was better than the school at Raleigh, and that he could not 
understand how such a school could be run for such a small amount 
of money. * * * I am sure, when your people realize your needs 
and the great work you are doing, they will come liberally to your 
aid." 

The school is now seriously handicapped for lack of room and of 
funds. The present quarters are entirely too circumscribed. There 
is no room for exercise ground, and if any children need exercise, it 
is the blind; nor is there any place for additional buildings. The 
overcrowded condition of the buildings demands serious attention. 
His Excellency, the Governor, recommended in his message to the 
General Assembly of 1911 the purchase of 100 acres in the suburbs 
of the city upon which to erect new buildings upon the cottage 
system. This suggestion was emphasized by the State Board of 
Internal Improvements, the State Board of Health, and the Board 
of Charities. 

Six years ago, the General Assembly provided for the purchase of 
about 75 acres of land adjacent to other State property and Pullen 
Park, and hence most admirably located; but unfortunately made 
no provision for buildings nor even for repairs to the old buildings. 
Two years ago, the General Assembly, by special act, appropriated 
$150,000 for buildings to be erected on the new site. Contracts are 
out for administration building, one typical cottage and a kinder- 
garten cottage. The contract calls for the completion of this by 
January 1, 1919, but war conditions have hindered the work so that 
they will not be completed until spring. It is hoped that the neces- 
sary appropriations will be made so that other necessary buildings 
may be put up at once for moving the white department to the new 
site. 

The literary work of the school may be well understood when it 
is known that the course of study pursued is modeled after the re- 
port made by the "Committee of Ten" appointed by the General 
Government several years ago. and covers a thorough course in 
kindergarten, primary, grammar, and high school work, as good as 
that done in the very best schools in the State. 



School foe the Blind and the Deaf. 169 

One naturally wants to know what comes of all this. In general 
terms 85 per cent of the graduates of the school are self-supporting, 
and a good many of them have accumulated a good competency. 
Time and space will not permit a detailed statement. Let a few 
suffice. Two of the former students are employed as telephone 
operators in their respective homes, and one is a successful tele- 
graph operator. The musical directors of Salemburg Academy and 
of Anniston (Alabama) Seminary are graduates of our school, and 
both totally blind. A substantial merchant and mill man of Glass 
is another; a very successful farmer of Alexander County is another; 
until recently one of the leading teachers in Caldwell County was 
another. Another is a successful church organist in Wilmington; 
the principal of one of the high schools in Union County is another; 
one is a successful merchant in West Virginia; one a newsdealer 
in New Bern; one a band master and music teacher in Winston- 
Salem. There are many more of the graduates who are filling hon- 
orable positions as public school teachers, music teachers, piano 
tuners, band masters, merchants, etc., etc. — men and women who are 
a credit to the State and an honor to the school. 

The handicraft exhibits made at the State Fair for the past few 
years have not only received universal praise, but have been awarded 
the first premium over all schools exhibiting. The band of the 
school also makes music at the Fair each year. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1845 

Number of buildings 7 

Number of acres of land 122 

Value of buildings and equipment $200,000 

Value of land $80,000 

Number of volumes in library (ink print) 1,900 

Number of volumes in library (Tactile print) 5,250 

Number of students 144 

Number of faculty 21 

State appropriation (including both departments) . $72,500 

Income from other sources None 

NAMES AND TERMS OF SERVICE OF ALL PRINCIPALS. 

W. D. Cooke 1845-1860 

Willey J. Palmer 1860-1869 

John Nichols 1869-1871 

S. F. Tomlinson 1871-1873 

John Nichols 1873-1877 

Hezekiah A. Gudcer 1877-1883 



170 Educational Institutions. 

William J. Young 1883-1896 

Frederick R. Place June, 1896-September, 1896 

John E. Ray 1896-1918 

John T. Alderman January, 1918-August, 1918 

G. E. LlNEBERRY 1918- 

I OLORED DEPARTMENT. 

Founded ; 1869 

Number of buildings 4 

Value of buildings and equipment $75,000 

Number of volumes in library (ink print) 500 

Number of volumes in library (Tactile print) 1.600 

Number of students 156 

Number of faculty • 17 



THE NORTH CAROLINA SCHOOL FOR THE (WHITE) HEAF. 

E. McK. Goodwin, Superintendent, Morganton. 

In 1845 this State first attempted the education of her deaf and 
dumb children, being the ninth State in the Union to undertake the 
education of this class of children. The first year, seven pupils were 
admitted. Soon thereafter the blind children of the State were pro- 
vided for under the same management, and the institution became 
the Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb and the 
Blind. Both classes were admitted into the institution at Raleigh 
till the Legislature of 1891 was made to realize that there was only 
a small part of either class being educated, for up to that time 
only about 25 per cent were being even partially educated. 

In 1891 the General Assembly passed an act creating and estab- 
lishing the North Carolina School for the Deaf and Dumb for the 
white race only, and located it at Morganton. The school was 
opened for the reception of pupils in 1894. All the white deaf chil- 
dren then in school at Raleigh were admitted to the new school, 
which had very limited support. There were only 102 present the 
first year, but as soon as the Legislature made provision, the school 
admitted 162. and the attendance has increased steadily till 303 
were admitted last year. But there are still, perhaps, 25 per cent 
of the eligible deaf children not in school, and there are many 
adult deaf in North Carolina now entirely uneducated. It is a 
significant fact, however, that this State has the largest attendance 



School for the Deaf. 171 

in proportion to her population of any Southern State, and, indeed, 
compares favorably with the Northern States in this respect. 

The statute prescribes the public school course of the State, and 
allows high school work for those who want to go to college. 

In addition to the regular school work, we have four industrial 
departments for the boys, where they are given, as far as possible, 
the knowledge of handicraft in the elementary branches. The four 
departments for the boys are farming and gardening, woodwork and 
carpentry, typesetting and printing, and shoemaking and tailoring. 
The girls are taught general domestic work, including cooking, plain 
sewing and dressmaking. Primary handicraft is taught to the small 
children. 

America leads the world in her provision for the education of the 
deaf. From 1817, when the first school was established in America, 
till about 1868, all the schools used the French system, which is the 
manual or sign method; but in 1868 the German or oral method was 
introduced, and while the progress has been slow, the proportion has 
constantly increased till at present about 85 per cent of all the deaf 
children in the United States, now in school, are being taught by 
the oral method. Many of these children learn to speak and read 
speech of others sufficiently to become invaluable to themselves and 
to the great convenience of the members of their families. But even 
if their speech is not natural nor good, the written language of the 
orally taught deaf is more natural and smoother in expression than 
that of the deaf taught manually. 

The North Carolina School has two departments to meet the de- 
mands, and is known in the profession as a "combined school." Our 
orally taught pupils become as adept "sign makers" as the manually 
taught. They acquire the manual language by association with those 
who sign and spell on their fingers. The orally taught get all the 
manually taught get, and also what speech and speech-reading they 
get from the oral system, beyond what those manually taught even 
claim to get. Some of the largest and best schools for the deaf in 
America are "pure oral" schools. 

The North Carolina School has prepared a number of students for 
Gallaudet College, where they have graduated with distinction. Many 
of our former students have done well in the race of life, making a 
good living and good citizens. 

Our school plant is worth at least $600,000, and our greatest needs 
today are a hospital building and industrial equipments. The school 



172 Educational Institutions. 

from its creation has had a broad and liberal-minded board of direc- 
tors of practical business men. The present board is composed of 
J. L. Scott, Jr., president; A. C. Miller, Mrs. I. P. Jeter, W. W. Neal, 
W. R. Whitson, Archibald Johnson, and Dr. J. 0. Atkinson, and 
E. McK. Goodwin has been superintendent since its establishment. 

The school has now a staff of twenty-seven regular grade teachers 
and an educational principal, a supervising teacher in Goodwin 
Hall, our new primary school, and five industrial teachers. 

Over 1,000 pupils have been enrolled since opening in 1894. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded ~. 1894 

Number of buildings 4 

Number of acres of land 327 

Value of buildings and equipment $600,000 

Value of land $60,000 

Number of volumes in library. . 3.700 

Number of faculty (including one principal) 35 

State appropriation $70,500 

Income from other sources, about $5,000 



THE STONEWALL JACKSON MANUAL TRAINING AND 
INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 

Charles E. Boger, Siiperintendent. Concord. 

In accordance with an act of the Legislature of 1907, the Stonewall 
Jackson Manual Training and Industrial School was established. 
The law permits the school to receive donations, and it is largely due 
to several liberal-minded people that the school has made such won- 
derful progress for the few years it has been in existence. Mr. 
Ceasar Cone, of Greensboro, has furnished the material to make the 
work uniforms for the boys since the opening of the school. Since 
the death of Mr. Ceasar Cone, Mr. Barnard M. Cone, in memory of 
his brother continues this contribution. General Julian S. Carr of 
Durham, N. C, recently gave the school $200 to supply a pressing 
and urgent need. In January, 1909, the first cottage was completed, 
wihch was the gift of the King's Daughters of North Carolina; it was 
erected on a 298-acre tract of land, which was donated by the city 
of Concord. Since that time many additions have been made: Mr. 
and Mrs. W. N. Reynolds, of Winston-Salem, contributed $1,000 to- 



Normal "Schools for Negroes and Indians. 173 

wards the building of a barn; Mr. and Mrs. G. T. Roth, of Elkin, fur- 
nished $3,500 to erect the Industrial Building, in which is located the 
school department, printing office, woodworking shop, engine room, 
and space for the storage of lumber and supplies; the Administration 
Building and two more cottages have been constructed. A beautiful 
Chapel has been built of rough granite, which cost $6,500. It is 
another gift of the King's Daughters. A thousand dollar legacy 
from the estate of Mr. Ceasar Cone is now in the hands of the school, 
waiting a proper and appropriate disposition of same. A fourth 
cottage is now practically complete, giving room for thirty addi- 
tional boys. 

SUMMARY. 

Opened 1909 

Buildings 11 

Value of buildings and equipment $110 000 

Value of land $25,000 

Number of acres of land 298 

Pupils 97 

STATE APPROPRIATION. 

Maintenance $22,500 

Permanent improvements $7,000 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOLS FOR THE COLORED RACE AND FOR 
THE CHEROKEE INDIANS OF ROBESON COUNTY. 

E. E. Sams, Supervisor, Raleigh. 

The State maintains three normal schools for the training of 
negro teachers, and one for the training of teachers for the Cherokee 
Indians of Robeson County. The normal schools for the negroes are 
located at Fayetteville, Elizabeth City, and Winston-Salem; the 
school for the Cherokee Indians of Robeson County is located at 
Pembroke. 

The first superintendent of these schools was Charles L. Coon, 
elected in 1904. In January, 1907, he was succeeded by John Duckett, 
who died November 16, 1908. J. A. Bivins was superintendent from 
January, 1909, until his death, March 2, 1913. E. E. Sams has been 
superintendent since March, 1913. 

Most of the negro teachers in the sections where these schools are 
located have received their training in these schools. Industrial. 



174 Educational Institutions. 

training, especially in domestic science, is required in all of them. 
In the Slater School at Winston-Salem shop and farm work are 
taught. 

Two years ago the State made an appropriation of $10,000 for an 
industrial building for this school on the condition that a like sum 
be raised from other sources. The General Education Board made 
a donation of $5,000 for this purpose and the citizens of Winston- 
SaJem raised $10,371 in addition thereto. This building is now un- 
der construction. 

At Fayetteville shop and farm work are taught to a limited extent. 
These industrial features are not as successful as they should be, 
owing to lack of funds. 

Eight years ago a dormitory was erected at Fayetteville at a cost 
of about $10,000; six years ago one was erected at Elizabeth City 
costing about $20,000, including equipment, and four years ago a 
new dormitory at Winston-Salem was built at a cost of about $19,000. 
The State has one dormitory and one administration building at each 
of these schools. At each there is great need for a dormitory for 
boys. At present the boys at Winston-Salem are cared for in the 
administration building, formerly occupied by the girls. At the 
other two schools there is no provision whatever for dormitories 
for the boys. This is the greatest present need. In the lack of such 
adequate provisions is the greatest moral menace and danger. 

The trustees of the Indian Normal School at Pembroke by deed, 
made and executed in the year 1911, conveyed the title and owner- 
ship of their property to the State Board of Education. This prop- 
erty had formerly belonged to the trustees of the Croatan Normal 
School, as it was then styled. A dormitory costing about $4,000 was 
erected three years ago, but because of insufficient funds has not 
been equipped. It is hoped that an appropriation of $1,000 may be 
made for equipment of dormitory and repairs to the school building. 



FAYETTEVILLE COLORED NORMAL SCHOOL. 

E. E. Smith, Principal. 

Founded 1877" 

Number of buildings 3 

Number of acres of land 39 

Value of buildings $26,000 



Normal Schools for Negroes and Indians. 175 

Value of land f $4,000 

Value of furniture and equipment $3,000 

Value of livestock and vehicles $250 

Number of students (primary) 83 

Number of students (preparatory) 107 

Number of students (normal and preparators) 285 

Summer School students 231 

Number of faculty 11 

State appropriation (maintenance) $5,900 

State appropriation (building and permanent im- 
provements) $3,333.33 



ELIZABETH CITY COLORED NORMAL SCHOOL. 
P. W. Moore, Principal. 

Founded 1892 

Number of buildings 2 

Number of acres of land 41 

Value of buildings $35 000 

Value of land $8,000 

Number of students (primary) 119 

Number of students (preparatory) 182 

Number of students (normal) 99 

Summer School students 236 

Number of faculty 12 

State appropriation (maintenance) $6,600 

State appropriation (building and permanent im- 
provements) $3,333.33 



STATE INDUSTRIAL AND NORMAL SCHOOLS AT 
WINSTON-SALEM. 

S. G. Atkins, Principal. 

Founded 1895 

Number of buildings 4 

Number of acres of land 17 

Value of buildings $51,644.87 

Value of land $10 000 

Other property, including furniture and fixtures. .$14,699.87 

Number of volumes in library 1,000 

Number of students (preparatory) 366 

Number of students (normal) 211 



176 Educational Institutions. 

Number of students (summer school) 150 

State appropriation (maintenance) $7,300 

State appropriation for building and permanent 

improvement $13,333.33 



INDIAN NORMAL SCHOOL AT PEMBROKE. 
H. A. Neal, Principal. 

Founded 1887 

Number of buildings 2 

Number of acres of land 10 

Value of buildings $7,000 

Value of land $500 

Number of students (primary) 31 

Intermediate and normal 100 

Number of faculty 4 

State appropriation (maintenance) $2,750 

SUPERINTENDENTS. 

Charles L. Coon 1904-1907 

John Duckett 1907-1908 

J. A. Bivins 1908-1913 

E. E. Sams 1913- 



NEGRO AGRICULTURAL AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE. 

Jas. H. Dudley, President, Greensboro. 

The Negro Agricultural and Technical College is located at Greens- 
boro. Its charter was granted March 9, 1891; the first building was 
completed in 1893, and the school opened in the fall of the same year. 
The citizens of Greensboro donated fourteen acres of land, and 
$11,000 to be used in the construction of buildings. In 1893 the 
General Assembly supplementel this gift with an appropriation 
of $10,000. 

The financial support of the college comes from the United States 
Government under an act of Congress, known as Morrill Act, passed 
August 2, 1890; and from the State of North Carolina which makes 
appropriations for maintenance and for improvements. 

The management of the institution and the care of its property 
is vested in a board of trustees, consisting of fifteen members elected 



Negro Agricultural and Technical College. 177 

by the State Legislature or appointed by the Governor, for a term 
of six years. The trustees by an act of the Legislature have power 
to elect the president, teachers and as many other officers and 
servants as they think necessary. 

This institution has four brick buildings, one brick veneered 
building, three barns, a small dairy building, two greenhouses, a 
broom shop, a blacksmith shop, a poultry plant and a few smaller 
buildings. 

The college confines its course of study entirely to agricultural 
and mechanical education. No purely academic courses are offered. 

The Agricultural Department of this institution is one of the best 
to be found in any Negro school in the country. Its aim is to train 
practical farmers and teachers of agriculture. It offers four courses: 

(1) A Four- Year Course for those who want a well-rounded agricul- 
tural education combined with technical and practical training; 

(2) A Two-Year Course for those who have little time to spend in 
school and want to get only such information as bear directly on 
their chosen vocation; (3) A Winter Short Course for farm boys 
who are unable to get in school until after harvesting their crop, 
and who must leave before the close of school in order to prepare 
for another crop; (4) A One-Week Course for farmers and others 
who can spend only a limited time away from their business. 

Throughout the State and the South may be seen the splendid 
work of the men who have completed these courses. Some of the 
finest farms in this State are managed by its graduates and the 
leading negro institutions seek them as teachers of agriculture. 
The farm demonstration work in this State is to a large extent be- 
ing done by the graduates of this department. 

Through farmers' meetings and short courses this department is 
endeavoring to stimulate the negro farmers in every section of the 
State. 

In accordance with the Smith-Hughes Act of 1917. the State and 
Federal authorities offered this institution $1,000 to establish a 
course in vocational agriculture here on condition that the college 
furnish the same amount. As the depleted treasury of the college 
was not in position to furnish the amount required, the new depart- 
ment could not have been established had not the loyal faculty, 
students, alumni, and friends of the college raised the $1,000 to 
meet the requirements of the Government. The department was 

12 



178 Educational Institutions. 

established in September, and a well trained teacher has been se- 
cured to take charge of it. With the exception of a class room, this 
department has no equipment of its own, but works in cooperation 
with the other departments. Its aim is to train teachers of agricul- 
ture for the rural schools. A building and equipment for the teach- 
ing of agriculture are greatly needed to increase the effectiveness 
of the work of this department. Money invested by the State for 
this purpose will, in course of time, revert to the State in the form 
of taxes from increased agricultural productions. 

The graduates of the Department of Mechanic Arts have been un- 
usually successful in establishing reputations for excellent work 
and in consequence have reflected credit upon the work done by the 
college in vocational instruction. Concrete evidences of the splendid 
results that may be obtained by completing one of the courses in 
mechanic arts can be seen in all parts of this State and in many 
other sections of the country. A number of our graduates, because 
of the training received here, were admitted to the Mobile Ordnance 
Repair Shop at Camp Funston, Kansas, and are now serving with 
the colors in Prance. Another graduate is serving as a skilled 
mechanic in the United States Arsenal at Watervliet, New York. 
The only licensed negro plumber in Raleigh, and the only licensed 
negro architect in the State are graduates from this department. 

More shop room is needed so that the work of this department 
may be enlarged and made more effective. 

Some indications of the usefulness of the college may be sug- 
gested by the scope and character of its work. Ever since this 
institution was established, it has been the open door of industrial 
opportunity for the negro boys of this State. It has added to the 
industrial resources of the State more than 500 trained workers who 
have taught the lessons of patriotism, thrift and right living to 
more than a hundred thousand negro men, women and children in 
this State. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1891 

Number of buildings 11 

Number of acres of land owned 128 1 /> 

Value of buildings and equipment $131,000 

Value of land $31 000 

Number of volumes in library 2,500 

Number of regular students 388 

Number of S. A. T. C. students 293 

Total number of students 681 



Caswell Training School. 179 

Number of faculty 20' 

Income from State appropriation $15,000 

Income from Federal appropriation 16,500 

PRESIDENTS. 

John O. Crosby 1892 1896 

James K. Dudley 1896- 



THE CASWELL TRAINING SCHOOL.* 

C. B. McNairy, M.D., Superintendent, Kinston. 

The Legislature of 1915 changed the name of this institution from 
the North Carolina School for the Feeble-minded to the Caswell 
Training School, and appropriated $14,000 for a new dormitory for 
girls, and $2,500 for repairs. A building was erected which accom- 
modates 80 pupils; the first floor is used exclusively for low-grade 
idiots, the second floor for imbeciles. The institution has now en- 
rolled 60 boys, and 119 girls, with 4 regular teachers, 10 matrons, 
and 12 other helpers, including those in charge of the different de- 
partments inside the building and out. 

Owing to the advance in the price of everything and the lack of 
proper equipment for carrying on the school work as planned, the 
authorities were compelled to take the wood-carving and carpenter 
shop building for rooms for help. 

In order that we may carry out the purpose of the institution, 
segregate, care for, train, and educate these mental defectives along 
such lines as their mentality will permit, and disseminate knowledge 
concerning the extent and menace of mental defectiveness and sug- 
gest and initiate methods for its control and ultimate eradication 
from our people, our necessities are: better equipment along all 
lines, more school room, industrial building, mechanical equipment, 
cold storage, extra boiler for heating, more water, more room for 
matrons and attendants, extra team, farm machinery, motor truck, 
etc. 

Our Opportunity : We have 300 applicants now asking for admis- 
sion, that they may have the care, protection, and training of the 
institution. This will necessitate a new building which will cost 
approximately $250 to $275 per bed. 



*Brought forward from the Manual of 1017. The editor regrets that he has 
been unable to secure a revised statement bringing the data up-to-date. 



180 Educational Institutions. 

summary. 

Founded 1911 

Number of buildings *4 

Number of acres of land 900 

Value of buildings and equipment $110,000 

Value of land $30,000 

Number of pupils 179 

Number of faculty 26 

Income from State (1916) $40,000 

SUPERINTENDENTS. 

Dr. Ira M. Hardy 1911-1913 

Dr. C. Banks McNairy 1914-1916 



*Besides cottages and outbuildings, barns, etc. 



PART VI. 



STATE CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS. 



1. Central Hospital foe the Insane. 

2. Western Hospital for the Insane. 

3. Eastern Hospital for the [Negro] Insane. 

4. North Carolina Sanatorium for the Treatment of 

Tuberculosis. 

5. North Carolina State Orthopedic Hospital- 

School. 

6. Oxford Orphan Asylum for White Children. 

7. North Carolina Orphanage for the Colored Race. 

8. The Soldiers' Home. 

9. Confederate Woman's Home. 



CENTRAL HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE. 

Albert Anderson, M.D., Superintendent, Raleigh. 

The State Hospital at Raleigh is situated in the city of Raleigh. 
The house was erected on the apex of the watershed between Walnut 
Creek on the south and Rocky Branch on the north, and is drained 
in the best natural sanitary manner possible. 

Every one knows that this institution was built for the unfortu- 
nate of North Carolina by the unceasing and persistent efforts of 
Miss Dorothy Dix, who appeared before the Legislature in 1848 and, 
with the effective help and eloquent plea of Hon. James C. Dobbin 
of Fayetteville, secured the passage of the bill by a vote of 101 yeas 
to 10 nays. 

The act provided for the appointment of six commissioners, John 
M. Morehead, of Guilford; Calvin Graves, of Caswell; T. N. Cameron, 
of Cumberland; G. W. Mordecai, of Wake; C. L. Hinton, of Wake, 
and G. 0. Watson, of Johnston, to select and purchase a tract of land 
upon which to erect a building for the purpose of providing for the 
insane. These commissioners did their work without compensa- 
tion, and that they did it well is manifested by the elegant and sub- 
stantial structure upon this site. 

In 1856 the building was near enough to completion for the first 
board of directors to instruct Dr. E. C. Fisher to order in 40 patients, 
Dr. Fisher having been elected superintendent by the board. Dr. 
Fisher held this office until July 7, 1868, when he was superseded by 
Dr. Eugene Grissom. Dr. Grissom held the office until succeeded by 
Dr. William K. Wood, of Halifax County, who remained in office but 
a short while and was succeeded by Dr. George L. Kirby, who died 
of pneumonia in February, 1901. Dr. James McKee was elected the 
following March as his successor. He died in office in 1912 and was 
succeeded by Dr. J. L. Picot, who was elected to fill the unexpired 
term of one year. On May 14, 1913, Dr. Albert Anderson, of Raleigh, 
N. C, was elected for a term of six years. 

The Legislatures have gradually awakened to the necessity of pro- 
viding for the insane. The Legislature of 1914 gave the Hospital 
$40,000, and with it a more commodious fireproof building was 
erected, with a capacity of 80 additional female patients. The Legis- 
lature of 1907 enacted a law providing for a Hospital Commission, 



184 State Charitable Institutions. 

and gave them $500,000 to add to the building and erect upon the 
grounds such structures as would be conducive to the comfort and 
restoration of the health of the insane.* A storehouse was the first 
building put up by the Commission, at a cost of $4,200; then a car- 
penter shop at a cost of $3,800. Next an annex for 100 men at a 
cost of $48,265. 

In 1908 the Commission disbursed the following amounts: In 
February, $11,405.75 for heating, plumbing, sewer pipes, sewers, and 
an addition to complete storeroom; in October, 1908, one building for 
women, $21,900; three groups of buildings, making nine, at $14,813 
apiece, one of these groups being for male convalescent patients and 
the other two for male and female epileptics, respectively, and with 
the cost of sewer and pipe connections with the A. and M. College, 
costing $500, aggregating $66,919. 

The Legislature of 1915 gave $5,000 for repairing and improving 
the heating plant, and $35,000 for erecting a receiving building. 
Out of the receipt account of the institution our board ordered a 
nurses' home built, costing $23,000, and the equipment of the above 
two buildings with plumbing fixtures and heating outfit at a cost of 
several thousand dollars. 

SUMMARY. 

' Founded 1856 

Number of buildings 17 

Number of acres of land 1,311 

Total number patients under treatment last 2 years. 1,450 

Number of attendants and nurses 70 

Annual appropriation $207,500 



STATE HOSPITAL AT MORGANTON. 

John McCamtbell, M.D., Superintendent. 

The appropriation for maintenance for the past two years was 
$237,500. This amount was insufficient and was $25,000 annually 
less than the estimate set forth in the Biennial Report two years 
ago. As a consequence, we have been enforced to incur a debt of 
$75,000 in our maintenance account. 

The cost of living has advanced from 50 to 100 per cent, and we 
will need for support during 1919 $331,200 and for 1920 $354,200. 



t $53,500 of this amount was specifically appropriated for the purchase of land. 



Hospital for Negro Insane. 185 

This estimate is based upon a capacity of 1,440 and 1,540 patients for 
1919 and 1920, respectively. 

The appropriation made for enlargement and improvement two 
years ago, amounting to $200,000, distributed over six years, will 
meet our needs in the way of increased capacity and improvements. 

SUMMARY. 

Institution founded 1875 

Number of buildings 14 

Number of acres of land 900 

Number of inmates 1,330 

Number of attendants 100 

Annual appropriation $237,500 

SUPERINTENDENTS. 

Dr. P. L. Murphy 1882-1907 

Dr. John McCampbell 1907- 



EASTERN HOSPITAL FOR THE [NEGRO] INSANE. 

W. W. Faison, M.D., Superintendent, Goldsboro, N. C. 

December 2, 1918. 
This institution was opened for the reception of patients August 
1, 1880. The number of patients received since its beginning is 
5,783. Number discharged, 4,789. Number of patients remaining on 
roll, 994. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1880 

Number of buildings 13 

Number of acres of land 720 

Value of buildings and equipment $421,700 

Value of land $75,000 

Number of inmates 994 

Number of attendants 40 

State appropriation per annum $125,000 

superintendents. 

W. H. Moore 1880-1882 

J. D. Roberts 1882-1888 

J. F. Miller 1888-1906 

W. W. Faison 1906- 



186 State Charitable Institutions. 

NORTH CAROLINA SANATORIUM FOR TREATMENT OF ' 

TUBERCULOSIS. 

L. B. McBrayer, M.D., Superintendent, Sanatorium, N. C. 

The North Carolina Sanatorium for Treatment of Tuberculosis 
was established by an act of the General Assembly in 1907, which 
appropriated for the purpose $15,000 for construction and $5,000 for 
annual maintenance. Since then the annual maintenance fund has 
been increased to $25,000, while the General Assembly of 1913 appro- 
priated $20,000, and the General Assembly of 1915 $60,000, for per- 
manent improvements. The control of the sanatorium is vested in 
a board of directors composed of twelve members who are appointed 
by the Governor, and the Secretary of the State Board of Health, 
who is ex officio a member of the board. The board of directors are 
authorized to prescribe the duties of the Superintendent, who must 
be a skilled physician, of good moral character and good business 
habits, and otherwise qualified to discharge the duties of the office. 
His term of office is two years. He has authority to emply subordi- 
nate officials and employees. 

All of the old buildings have recently been repaired, repainted, 
and screened, the kitchen equipped with a new tile floor and mod- 
ern cooking utensils. Water is supplied from artesian wells. All 
buildings are heated and lighted from a central power plant. 

SUMMARY. 

Number of buildings 25 

Value of buildings $200,000 

Number of acres of land 1,200 

Value of land $24,000 

Number of patients 130 

Annual appropriation for maintenance $40,000 

Receipts from patients' fees $42,843.75 

SUPERINTENDENTS. 

J. E. Brooks, M.D 1907-1912 

M. E. Street, M.D 1912-1914 

L. B. McBrayer, M.D 1914- 



Oxford Orphan Asylum. 187 

NORTH CAROLINA STATE ORTHOPAEDIC HOSPITAL-SCHOOL. 

Robert B. Babington, President, Gastonia, N. C. 

The North Carolina State Orthopaedic Hospital-School for the 
conservation, maintenance, and saving of the crippled, deformed, and 
diseased orphans and poor children of North Carolina of sound 
mind, was chartered in April, 1914. It was created a State institu- 
tion by an act of the General Assembly of 1917, which appropriated 
$20,000 for permanent improvements, and $7,500 annually for main- 
tenance. The site of the institution is in the center of a twenty- 
eight acre block, two miles west of Gastonia, on the Newhope asphalt 
road, beautifully situated" on a high hill, at an elevation of 1,000 
feet. It is well watered and surrounded by a beautiful grove. No 
permanent buildings have yet been erected, as the authorities of the 
institution deemed it wise not to attempt the erection of any build- 
ings until after the war with Germany. The institution is managed 
by a Board of Trustees consisting of seven members appointed by the 
Governor, of which the Governor is ex officio chairman. 

SUMMARY. 

Chartered 1910 

Number of acres of land 28.5 

Value of land $14,500 

Annual maintenance fund $7,500 



OXFORD ORPHAN ASYLUM, (For White Children.) 

R. L. Brown, Superintendent, Oxford. 

In the year 1872 the Oxford Orphan Asylum was established by 
the Grand Lodge of Ancient, Free and Accepted Order of Masons of 
North Carolina. 

It was the first institution of its character established in the State 
and one of the first in the South. 

This property was originally the old St. John's College, and was 
established in 1855 by the Grand Lodge of North Carolina for edu- 
cational purposes. After being tried for a number of years and 
proving a failure financially, the Grand Lodge in 1872 decided to turn 
the property into a home for the orphan children of the State. 



188 State Charitable Institutions. 

This was accomplished largely through the instrumentality of John 
H. Mills, who offered the resolution at the meeting of the Grand 
Lodge and worked for its adoption without very great encourage- 
ment. It was, therefore, quite fitting that he should have heen 
chosen to be the first superintendent of the Orphanage. 

The purpose of the institution is to provide a temporary home and 
training school for the homeless boys and girls of the State. 

The conditions of admission of the white children of North Caro- 
lina are: That they are really destitute and homeless; that they are 
of sound mind and body; and they are not over twelve years of age. 

The benefits of Oxford Orphan Asylum have never been restricted 
to the children of Masons alone. Only about 22 per cent of its chil- 
dren had fathers who were Masons. 

About 3,300 children have received the care and training of the 
institution since 1872. 

The institution is providing the necessities of life for these chil- 
dren, the opportunity to acquire an English education, industrial 
training in cottages, kitchen, sewing room, domestic science, laundry, 
shoe shop, printing office, telegraphy and typewriting, woodworking 
shop, dairy, and on farm. Each child is in school at least the half 
of each school day during the school term of nine months. Moral 
and religious instruction is prominent in the work. 

In recognition of the services of the Oxford Orphan Asylum, its 
value to our commonwealth in its work, the State of North Carolina 
appropriates $20,000 annually to aid in its maintenance and ex- 
tension. 

Annually a report of the operations of the institution is made to 
the Governor of the State and to the State Board of Public Charities, 
and to the Grand Lodge. 

At the request of the Grand Lodge of Masons, the State of North 
Carolina is represented by three members on the board of directors of 
the Orphanage. These are appointed by the Governor of the State. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded • 1872 

Number of buildings 26 

Number of acres of land 242 

Value of land, buildings, and equipment $300,000 

Number of volumes in library 1,800 

Number of children in institution (Nov. 1, 1918) . . . 340 

Number of officers and teachers 36 



Orphanage for Negro Race. 189 

Annual income (State appropriation) $20,000 

Annual income (other sources) $53,248.34 

Annual per capita cost $123.60 

SUPERINTENDENTS. 

J. H. Mills 1872-1882 

B. F. Dixon 1883-1890 

Julius T. Harris (Sept. 1-Nov. 21) 1890- 

B. P. Dixon (Nov. 21-Dec. 31) 1890- 

W. S. Black 1891-1894 

N. M. Lawrence 1894-1898 

W. J. Hicks 1898-1911 

R. L. Brown 1911- 



NORTH CAROLINA ORPHANAGE FOR THE COLORED PACE. 

Henry P. Cheatham, Superintendent, Oxford, N. C. 

The North Carolina Orphanage for the Colored Race was founded 
in 1883 as the result of the joint efforts of Rev. Augustus Shepard, 
then pastor of the colored Bapitst Church in Henderson, and Henry 
P. Cheatham, then a teacher in the Henderson public schools. Their 
plans contemplated the establishment of an orphanage in North 
Carolina for the fatherless and homeless children of the colored race 
without regard to religious sects. Calling together certain leaders 
of the colored race, they laid their plans before them. The plans 
were adopted, a board of directors elected, and a site purchased for 
the orphanage about a mile and a half south of the town of Oxford. 
Upon this site were two old and dilapidated buildings, which were 
repaired and put into immediate use. During the first ten years of 
its existence the Orphanage was entirely dependent upon the 
churches. Sunday schools, and sympathetic individuals for support, 
together with what the children could earn by cultivating the six 
acres of land then belonging to the Orphanage. In 1892 the Grand 
Lodge of Masons of North Carolina adopted a provision allowing the 
Orphanage annually .ten per cent of its gross receipts, and in 1893 
the General Assembly began to make a small annual appropriation, 
which now amounts to $8,000. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1883 

Number of buildings 10 

Number of acres of land 234 



190 State Charitable Institutions. 

Value of land, buildings and equipment $60,000 

Number of children in institution 185 

Number of officers, teachers and helpers' 9 

Annual appropriation from State $8,000 

Other sources (for 1918) $4,578 

Annual per capita cost $112 

superintendents. 

Rev. Joshua Perry 1883-1884 

Miss Bessie Hackins 1884- 

Rev. Walter A. Patillo 1886-1887 

Rev. Robert Shepherd 1887-1907 

Henry P. Cheatham 1907- 



THE SOLDIERS' HOME.* 

Col. D. H. Milton, Superintendent, High Point. 

So far as can be ascertained from the records on file in the office 
of the Soldiers' Home, a home for indigent Confederate soldiers was 
first established in a rented house at the corner of Polk and Blood- 
worth streets, in the city of Raleigh, and declared to be opened on 
October 15, 1890, with five inmates. W. C. Stronach, under the 
auspices of the Daughters of the Confederacy, acted as Superintend- 
ent and looked after the personal comforts of the men. 

The General Assembly of 1891, chapter 60, Private Laws, incor- 
porated Gen. Robert F. Hoke, Col. William L. Saunders, Col. A. B. 
Andrews, Capt. S. A. Ashe, Gen. Rufus Barringer, Gen. A. M. Scales, 
Gen. Robert B. Vance, Gen. Thomas L. Clingman, Gen. W. P. Roberts, 
Gen. Julian S. Carr, Capt. Thomas J. Jarvis, Col. W. P. Wood, Gen. 
Matt. W. Ransom and other members of the Confederate Veterans' 
Association, under the name and style of "The Soldiers' Home Asso- 
ciation," and conferred upon this association the usual corporate 
powers. The act gave to the Soldiers' Home Association a tract of 
land near the eastern section of the city of Raleigh, known as Camp 
Russell, to be used for the purposes of a soldiers' home, and, if it 
should cease to be so used, to revert to and belong to the State. The 
same act appropriated $3,000 for the maintenance of the Soldiers' 
Home and the support of its inmates. Section 6 of the act is as 
follows: 



*This article was prepared for the Manual by Capt. W. F. Drake. 



Soldiers' Home. 191 

"The directors shall cause to be kept a minute-book of the home, 
in which full entries shall be kept concerning memorable incidents 
in the lives of its inmates. They shall also take steps to form a 
museum of Confederate relics and to perpetuate such historical 
records of the Confederate soldiers of North Carolina as they shall 
find it practicable to do." 

The act was ratified February 14, 1901. 

On April 27, 1891, the number of inmates of the Soldiers' Home 
having increased to nine, they were removed to an old building at 
Camp Russell which had been fitted up for the purposes of the home. 
Miss Mary Williams was appointed matron, and served in that capac- 
ity until February 15, 1893, when Capt. J. H. Fuller was made resi- 
dent superintendent. On February 1, 1898, Superintendent Fuller 
resigned. Feebleness of age and the increase in number of inmates 
had made the duties too arduous for one of his strength. 

Capt. R. H. Brooks was elected to succeed Captain Fuller, and 
served until his death on June 14, 1910. The number of inmates 
continued to increase during his term, and the necessity for new and 
larger buildings became urgent. A dormitory was built to accommo- 
date 70 inmates, and furnished by liberal donations from the Daugh- 
ters of the Confederacy and others. A large hospital was built, medi- 
cal attention given, nurses employed, water, sewerage, and electric 
lights provided, and the grounds made attractive. Such heavy ex- 
pense exceeded the appropriation made by the State, and at the close 
of Captain Brooks' term the books showed the home to be in arrears 
to the extent of $6,000; but all felt confident that the Legislature 
would provide for the deficiency. 

Capt. W. S. Lineberry was elected to succeed Captain Brooks, and 
entered upon his duties July 20, 1910. 

Col. D. H. Milton, who was elected to succeed Capt. W. S. Line- 
berry, September 26, 1916. took charge October 1, 1916. 

An appropriation of $35,000 was made by the Legislature of 1915 
for the support of the home. The home is now out of lebt; the 
buildings bright with new paint; the grounds ornamented with trees 
and shrubbery, and the walks clean. The comrades are, as a rule, 
contented. The fare is good, the rooms comfortable, the regulations 
reasonable, and an air of cheerfulness pervades. All this has come 
from the humble beginning of October, 1890. 



192 State Charitable Institutions. 



summary. 

Founded 1890 

Number of comrades received since its founding... 1,310 

Number received since last report 105 

Number of comrades died since its founding 616 

Number died since last report 55 

Number of comrades in the Home, December 1, 1918 138 

superintendents. 

Miss Mary Williams 1891-1893 

Capt. J. H. Fuller 1893-1898 

Capt. R. H. Brooks 1898-1910 

Capt. W. S. Lineberry 1910-1916 

Col. D. H. Milton 1916-1918 



THE CONFEDERATE WOMAN'S HOME. 

Miss Fannie C. Watters, Superintendent, Fayetteville, N. C. 

The Confederate Woman's Home of North Carolina was established 
by chapter 62 of the Public Laws of 1913. The act incorporated the 
Confederate Woman's Home Association, with Julian S. Carr, John 
H. Thorpe. Robert H. Ricks, Robert H. Bradley, E. R. Preston, 
Simon B. Taylor, Joseph F. Spainhour. A. D. McGill, M. Leslie Davis, 
T. T. Thorne and W. A. Grier as incorporators. The object of the 
Association was "to establish, maintain and govern a home for 
deserving, needy and dependent wives and widows of North Carolina 
Confederate soldiers, and other worthy dependent women of the Con- 
federacy who are bona fide residents of this State." Ample power 
for carrying out this purpose was conferred by the act upon the 
Association. The act authorized the Governor to appoint a board 
of directors of seven members who should be the governing board 
of the institution. The board appointed by the Governor consisted 
of J. A. Turner. James A. Bryan, W. H. Bahnson, Haywood Parker, 
A. G. McGill and Ashley Home. Upon the death of Colonel Home, 
the Governor appointed T. T. Thorne to the vacancy. An advisory 
board of women managers was established to assist the board of 
directors in the equipment and management of the Home. The 
State appropriates $5,000 annually for its maintenance. 



Confederate Woman's Home. 193 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 

J. A. Bryan, Chairman New Bern. 

J. A. Turner, Secretary Louisburg. 

J. S. Carr, Durham. A. D. McGill, Fayetteville. 

W. H. White, Oxford. T. T. Thorne, Rocky Mount. 

George M. Rose, Fayetteville. 

advisory board. 

Mrs. Hunter G. Smith. Mrs. Eugene Little. 

Mrs. Harllee Townsend. Mrs. Marshall Williams. 

Mrs. M. O. Winstead. Mrs. Herbert McCullers. 

Mrs. B. H Griffin. Mrs. T. W. Bickett. 

Mrs. T. B. Reynolds. Mrs. T. W. Thrash. 

Mrs. E. R. McKeithan. 



13 



PART VII. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



1. The North Carolina Railroad Company. 

2. The Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad 

Company. 

3. The North Carolina Agricultural Society. 

4. North Carolina State Capitol. 

5. State Administration Building. 

6. North Carolina Day. 

7. Legal Holidays in North Carolina. 

8. State Flag. 

9. The Great Seal. 

10. State Motto and Its Origin. 

11. The Confederate Museum at Richmond. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA RAILROAD COMPANY.* 

A. H. Ellee, Secretary and Treasurer.^ 

The greatest of all enterprises so far attempted by the State of 
North Carolina in the nature of a public or internal improvement 
was the building of the North Carolina Railroad from Goldsboro by- 
way of Raleigh, Greensboro and Salisbury, to Charlotte. 

Considering the experimental state of railroading at that time, the 
dread of public or private indebtedness, and the limited resources, 
the movement was a monumental enterprise — and one in advance of 
anything attempted by almost any other State in the Union. The 
success, however, which has crowned the labors and sacrifices of our 
fathers has established beyond all question that their wisdom was 
equal to, or superior to, any displayed before or since their day. 

In 1833 the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad Company and the Wil- 
mington and Raleigh, afterwards known as the Wilmington and Wel- 
don Railroad Company, were chartered, and later these roads were 
built. In 1848 the former was in the hands of the State, and was in 
a bankrupt condition for the want of patronage. It was necessary to 
give it some connection, or to extend it. At the session of Novem- 
ber, 1848, the western counties urged a charter for a road from 
Charlotte to Danville, asking no State aid; but the eastern members 
opposed that project. The finances of the State were in such an 
impoverished condition that it was generally deemed impracticable 
for the State to give any considerable aid to any railroad; but Wil- 
liam S. Ashe, the Democratic Senator from New Hanover, intro- 
duced a bill to construct a road from Goldsboro to Charlotte, under 
the name of the North Carolina Railroad, and appropriating two mil- 
lions of dollars for that purpose, on condition, however, that private 
parties would subscribe one million, and to secure the payment of the 
State bonds, when issued, a lien was given on the State's stock. 

When the western men brought up the Charlotte and Danville bill 
in the House, Stanley and other eastern men opposed it so bitterly 
that it could not pass, and then in a dramatic scene, the friends of 
internal imporvement agreed to send to the Senate and take the 



*This article is brought forward from the Manual of 1913. The editor regrets 
that he has been unable to secure from the present secretary of the company a re- 
vised statement bringing it up to date. 

fThe writer acknowledges his indebtedness to Capt. S. A. Ashe for the historical 
data contained in this sketch. 



198 Miscellaneous. 

Ashe bill from the files and offer it as a substitute. After a great 
and prolonged struggle the bill passed the House of Commons. In 
the Senate it failed by an adverse majority of one; but the Senator 
from Cumberland was led to support it by passing the bill for the 
State to build the plank road from Fayetteville to Salem; and then 
the vote in the Senate was a tie. Speaker Graves, who had up to 
that moment maintained an impenetrable silence as to the measure, 
broke the tie in favor of building the road by State aid; and the 
measure was passed. Speaker Graves was never again elected to any 
office by the vote of his people. 

To secure the needed one million of private stock, Speaker Graves, 
Governor Morehead and Mr. William Boylan made great exertions, 
and by their efforts, aided by Joseph Caldwell, Governor W. A. Gra- 
ham, Paul C. Cameron and others, the necessary stock was eventu- 
ally raised. On January 29, 1856, the railroad was ready for passage 
of trains from Goldsboro to Charlotte, and charters had been granted 
for two other roads — from Goldsboro to Morehead City and from 
Salisbury to the Tennessee line. 

By act ratified 14th of February, 1855. the General Assembly in- 
creased the capital stock to $4,000,000, and subscribed for the State 
the whole of the added capital. From that time till now the State 
has owned three-fourths and individuals one-fourth of this road. 

The first president of the company was Governor John M. More- 
head, to whom so much was due for securing the subscription of the 
private stock, and under his direction the road was constructed. His 
successors were Charles F. Fisher, of Rowan; Paul C. Cameron, 
Josiah Turner, Jr., of Orange, and William A. Smith, of Johnston. 
During the administration of Mr. Smith the road was, on the 11th 
day of September, 1871, leased to the Richmond and Danville Rail- 
road Company for thirty years, at a rental of 6 per cent per annum. 
The subsequent presidents of the company have been: Thomas M. 
Holt, Lee S. Overman, S. B. Alexander, J. F. Kornegay, R. M. Nor- 
ment, J. L. Armstrong, H. G. Chatham, Charles M. Stedman and 
Benehan Cameron. 

On the 16th day of August, 1895, in view of the approaching termi- 
nation of the lease, the property was leased to the Southern Railway 
Company for a term of ninety-nine years at an annual rental of 
6y 2 per cent for six years and 7 per cent for the remaining ninety- 
three years, and the stock of the company was selling at $186 per 
share until the panic of 1907. 



North Carolina Railroad Company. 199 

On the readjustment of the debt of the State, the State renewed 
the bonds issued for the purchase of the North Carolina Railroad 
stock, pledging the original lien on the stock for the payment of the 
debt. 

Col. Peter B. Ruffin for more than thirty years was the faithful 
and efficient secretary and treasurer of the company. 

The secretaries of the company in the order of their election and 
service are as follows: Cyrus P. Mendenhall, Julius B. Ramsey, R. M. 
Mills, F. A. Stagg, J. A. McCauley, W. F. Thornburg, P. B. Ruffin, 
H. B. Worth, Spencer B. Adams, D. H. McLean, and A. H. Filer. 

The State, as is well known, has continued to own its $3,000,000 of 
the original capital stock, and has acquired two (2) additional shares, 
thus giving it 30,002 shares, at par value amounting to $3,000,200, 
which, however, at the recent market value aggregates $5,580,372'. 
And it is confidently believed that if the State desired to part with a 
controlling interest in the company, its stock would command a 
much greater price, and those who have watched the constant ad- 
vance in the price of this stock expect it to go to $200 per share at an 
early day. 

Under the lease of 1871 to the Richmond and Danville Railroad 
Company, the company could not have claimed the betterments made 
by the lessee; but under the present lease the company is not only 
amply secured by bond for the prompt payment of its lease money 
and organization expenses, to wit, $143,000, on the first day of Janu- 
ary and July of each year, but upon the termination of said lease 
for any cause the company acquires the betterments made thereon. 

In addition to the railroad and rolling stock leased to the Southern 
Railway Company, the company still owns valuable lands in and 
about Company Shops, now known as the city of Burlington. 

When the board of directors appointed -by Governor Aycock took 
charge of the company's affairs, there was a floating indebtedness of 
$10,000. The May balance, 1912, of the secretary and treasurer 
shows that said indebtedness has been paid and a special divi- 
dend of one-half of one per cent, amounting to $20,000, and the com- 
pany has to its credit in the bank the sum of $21,128.64, all of which, 
except a small balance, is drawing 4 per cent interest. Again, on 
August 1, 1912, an extra one-half of one per cent dividend, amounting 
to $20,000, was paid. Promptly upon the payment of the lease 
money on the first of January and July in each year, the directors 
declare a dividend, and the secrtary and treasurer pays to the State 



200 Miscellaneous. 

Treasurer immediately $105,000, and like dividend is paid to the 
private stockholders on the first day of February and August of each 
year. The present board of directors, as appointed by Governor 
Kitchin on the part of the State, are given below. The State's 
proxy is Jo. M. Reese; the expert is John W. Thompson, and the 
company's attorney is Frank R. McNinch.* 

A true sketch of this company would be incomplete without calling 
attention to the long and invaluable services of Gen. R. F. Hoke as 
director. His experience and great knowledge of affairs, and lifelong 
devotion to the best interest of the company, entitle him to the 
gratitude of the State, as well as the private stockholders. His 
death on July 3, 1912, was deeply and universally lamented. 

The question is sometimes asked why the organization of the 
North Carolina Railroad Company is kept up, and what particular 
functions it performs. 

This company, as some people think, does not belong to the State 
of North Carolina. It is a quasi-public corporation like all other 
railroad companies, in which the State owns three-fourths of the 
stock. It is managed practically as any private corporation would be 
managed, the principal difference being that the Governor has the 
appointment of eight of the directors, while the private stockholders 
have the election of four of the directors. 

The organization is maintained for the purpose of enforcing the 
terms of the lease to the Southern Railway Company, and, in case 
of the termination of that lease for any cause, to resume the opera- 
tion of the road. 

It is required to see that the bonds given for the prompt payment 
of the rent, and also the bond to maintain the rolling stock in good 
condition, are kept in force. It receives the rent money of $280,000 
per year, payable semi-annually, and declares a dividend and pays 
the same to the stockholders of record. It transfers stock like other 
corporations. 

In leasing its property to the Southern Railway Company it re- 
served its office building, which is the residence of the secretary and 
treasurer, containing its vault and records, at Burlington. N. C. It 
owns certain real estate in and about the city of Burlington, which is 
sold by its land committee from time to time. 

The secretary and treasurer is required to give a bond in the sum 
of $50,000, and his books and accounts are audited by a finance com- 



*This article was written in 1912. 



Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad. 201 

mittee at stated times. It is required to file a report annually with 
the State Corporation Commission and one with the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, as other railroad companies must do. It also 
reports its income for Federal taxation like other corporations. Its 
stock is the most valuable holding that the State of North Carolina 
has amongst its assets, and whether it will be the policy of the State 
to hold its stock perpetually or to dispose of the same is a matter for 
the Legislature of the future. 



THE ATLANTIC AND NORTH CAROLINA RAILROAD COMPANY. 

[Reprinted from the North Carolina Manual of 1915. The editor regrets that he 
has not been able to get the data necessary to bring the article up to date. ] 

The Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad was chartered by the 
General Assembly of North Carolina in 1852, duration of the charter 
being ninety-nine years. The charter was amended in 1854 and 1855. 
Work on the railroad was begun shortly afterwards, and pushed to 
completion from Goldsboro to a point on the seacoast now known 
as Morehead City, a distance of 95 miles, in 1858. 

Not having the necessary data at hand, I state from memory, and 
from information gained from other sources, the names of the differ- 
ent presidents of the railroad company, in the order of their service 
from the beginning up to the time when the railroad was leased to 
the Howland Improvement Company, during the administration of 
Hon. C. B. Aycock as Governor of North Carolina, on September 1, 
1904, as follows: John D. Whitford, Charles R. Thomas, John D Whit- 
ford, E. R. Stanley, R. W. King, L. W. Humphrey, John Hughes. 
John D. Whitford, Washington Bryan, W. S. Chadwick, Robert Han- 
cock, D. W. Patrick. James A. Bryan. 

The road was capitalized at $1,800,000; the par value of the stock 
was fixed at $100 per share. The State of North Carolina owns 12,666 
shares of the stock. The county of Craven owns 1,293 shares, the 
county of Lenoir owns 500 shares,* the county of Pamlico owns 202 
shares. The balance of the stock of the road is owned by private 
individuals. The equipment of the road was by no means complete 
when the War between the States began (1861), and by reason of the 
fact that a good portion of the road was under the control of the 
Federal arms from the fall of New Bern in 1862 to the close of the 
war in 1865, the road when turned over to its rightful owners was 



^old to private individuals. 



202 Miscellaneous. 

little more, if any, than a burden to carry, which was in part the 
cause of no returns to the stockholders on their investments for 
thirty-four years after the road was constructed. 

During the administration of the Hon. T. J. Jarvis, Governor of 
North Carolina, the railroad was leased to W. J. Best, who had con- 
trol and operated same for a short time only, and then returned it 
back to its owner. 

There is an outstanding bonded indebtedness against the road of 
$325,000, bearing interest at 6 per cent per annum, the interest pay- 
able semi-annually. Bonds for same were issued in 1887 and will 
mature in 1917.* During the last year of the presidency of James A. 
Bryan two suits were instituted in the Federal Court for the Eastern 
District of North Carolina for the appointment of receivers of the 
road — first by K. S. Finch of New York, and the second by John P. 
Cuyler of New Jersey. Receivers were appointed in both cases, but 
relief was granted by higher courts. 

The vast amount of unsettled business in which the Atlantic and 
North Carolina Railroad Company was in any way interested at the 
time the Howland Improvement Company, "lessees," assumed control 
of the railroad, was very largely adjusted during the first two years. 
The expiration of the third year of the lease found only a small 
amount of difference to be looked after, which in time was settled. 
Suit was brought in the Superior Court of Craven County, in 1906, to 
annul the lease to the Howland Improvement Company, resulting in 
a decision upholding the lease, which decision was affirmed by the 
Supreme Court. 

The contract for lease with the Howland Improvement Company 
terminates in ninety-one years and four months from the date of its 
execution, and the stipulations contained in same have, up to the last 
meeting of the stockholders of the Atlantic and North Carolina Rail- 
road Company, in 1912 1 , been largely complied with, as will be seen 
from the annual reports to the stockholders' meeting of the president, 
treasurer and expert of the lessor company. The Atlantic and North 
Carolina Railroad has, with some other short lines in Eastern North 
Carolina, been merged into and now forms part of the Norfolk South- 
ern Railway system. 

The following have been presidents of the company: James A. 
Bryan, J. W. Grainger, S. W. Ferrebee, L. P. Tapp, H. H. Grainger 
and Thomas D. Warren. 



♦Written in 1914. 



North Carolina Agricultural Society. 203 

THE NORTH CAROLINA AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Joseph E. Pogue, Secretary, Raleigh. 

The North Carolina Agricultural Society, which operates the State 
Fair annually in Raleigh during the third week in October, was 
chartered by special act of the Legislature more than half a century 
ago "to provide a place for the holding of annual fairs, in order that 
the citizens may be encouraged by exhibitions, premiums and other 
means to develop and improve the productions of agriculture and 
every species of native industry; and to this end, and for these great 
and valuable purposes,* and to no other, shall the corporation apply 
all the funds which by any means it may acquire." 

No capital stock was provided for in that charter. Various public- 
spirited citizens loaned to the Society a sum of money sufficient to 
purchase grounds and erect buildings for the purposes of an annual 
fair, taking therefor the bonds of the Society. The real property 
pledged to secure this bonded debt is held in trust. The bonded 
debt was originally $26,550. but was reduced in 1905 to $22,600, and 
refunded for twenty years at five per cent instead of six per cent, the 
former rate. These bonds are now generally held at par value. In 
1917 ten thousand dollars more was borrowed from the Citizens 
National Bank of Raleigh, at six per cent, to build the Woman's 
Building. This is payable in annual installments of $1,000 each. 

Any profits made in the operation of the Fair go into a surplus 
fund, which is spent in permanent improvements of all kinds at the 
Fair Grounds, for increased premiums, and other betterments that 
go toward making the Fair more efficient. 

The present Fair Grounds are just west of the city of Raleigh, at 
the terminus of the electric street car line. They were purchased 
about thirty-seven years ago, and cover more than sixty acres of land 
in one of the most desirable of Raleigh's suburbs. The Society has 
ten large buildings on these grounds, and a Grand Stand. Some of 
these buildings were erected when the site was acquired, but most 
of them have gradually been added from annual profits of the Fair. 
Most of them have been put up in recent years. The three live-stock 
buildings were erected in 1913. The "Sandhills" Building was do- 
nated through President Leonard Tufts in 1916, and the Woman's 
Building was built in 1917. Nearly all of the old buildings have 
been remodeled and practically rebuilt out of the current income. 



204 MISCELLANEOUS. 

A few years ago a Machinery. Shed, 48x200 feet, with metal roof, 
was erected for the accommodation of exhibitors of heavy farm 
machinery. This has proved a boon to these exhibitors and is 
greatly appreciated by the public. A modern reinforced concrete 
building 60 x 150 feet has been put up for the exhibitors of agri- , 
cultural and horticultural products. This is well arranged and 
equipped with a concrete floor. The State Board of Agriculture 
usually occupies about one-half of this building with a most attrac- 
tive exhibit of the various activities of the Department of Agri- 
culture. A modern fireproof poultry house has been erected and 
gives 9,000 square feet of space to exhibits of this valuable and 
growing industry of the State, which the Society strenuously seeks 
to encourage in every possible way. 

Among other improvements might be mentioned the widening 
three times of the "Midway" within the last dozen years, to afford 
room for the ever increasing crowds, and the macadamizing of this 
thoroughfare; the overhauling and remodeling of the Arts and Crafts 
Building, known as "Floral Hall"; a large increase in the number 
of box stalls for exhibition and race horses, the wiring of the build- 
ings for electric lights, the extension of the city water pipe to the 
Fair Grounds, providing running water throughout. The live-stock 
buildings are as good as could be built and cost nearly $10,000; the 
swine building has a concrete floor. And all of these improvements, 
with the exception of the Woman's Building, have been erected and 
paid for out of the current revenues, without adding one dollar of 
bonded debt. This is an achievement of which the management feels 
proud. 

In addition to this, the present management found the Society 
heavily in debt and facing the possibility of a foreclosure of the 
mortgage. All floating debts have been paid. Nearly $13,000 has 
been paid for past-due interest and in reducing the bonded debt. 

It may be said in the most conservative terms that the Fair has 
grown from modest beginnings, until in recent years, just as the Old 
North State is taking her proper place among the foremost States of 
the Union, her State Fair is taking rank with the leading institu- 
tions of the kind in the country. Moreover, it has been gaining more 
and more the enthusiastic support, cooperation and advice of men in 
all industries of the State, a thing that is absolutely necessary for 
the making of a larger and greater fair. 

It is the intention of the management to continue to put up new 



North Carolina Agricultural, Society. 205 

permanent buildings as fast as the profits from the fair will permit, 
or the public policy of the State towards her agricultural and indus- 
trial interests as expressed at the State Fair will make possible, 
replacing all of the old wooden structures with buildings that are 
adapted to the rapidly increasing needs of the more representative 
exhibitors that are year by year demanding larger and better ac- 
commodations. 

Some definite idea of the growth of the Fair during the last few 
years may be gathered from the fact that in one year the number of 
solid carloads of exhibits jumped from 42 to 83, and the number of 
separate entries from 1,201 in 1909 to 3,501 in 1910, and 4,136 in 
1911, and each year since has shown a healthy growth. 

No other occasion in North Carolina draws anything like the 
throngs that visit the State Fair each year. The railroads for years 
have been putting on special rates and extra trains to handle the 
crowds, and thousands come by automobile. 

Keeping pace with the most modern methods of stimulating the 
efforts to produce better and better crops of all kinds, the manage- 
ment during the last few years has instituted the corn contest feature 
for boys, cotton contests for men and boys, the tomato contest for 
girls, the Pig Clubs for boys and girls, and the Poultry Clubs for 
boys and girls, and still more and larger prizes for individual and 
county exhibits and agricultural products. The Girls' and Boys' 
Poultry Clubs were invited to enter our poultry show free of entry 
fees, and they made a fine showing and won a large percentage of 
the prize money in this department. 

The Fair of 1917, by common consent, was pronounced the best in 
its long history of fifty-seven years. Especially did the exhibits in 
cattle, horses, swine and sheep and in agricultural products excel 
anything yet seen at the Fair. 

The list of national live-stock associations offering their special 
premiums at the Fair keeps growing longer as the years go by, and 
in the case of one of the most prominent of these associations the 
North Carolina State Fair is honored among only four Southern 
fairs. It is thus apparent that our State Fair is recognized as one 
of the greatest gathering points for pure-bred live stock in the South. 

For years the management has been working away from the big- 
midway and little-exhibit condition of a fair back to the fundamental 
purpose of its existence, the competition of the best to make better, 
and all questionable shows and doubtful games 'are absolutely for- 



206 Miscellaneous. 

bidden in the grounds, and a clear field is given to the best shows 
offering legitimate amusement as well as educational features. The 
management is working for the ideal State Fair, which shall be the 
meeting place of agriculture and industry, a delightful outing for all 
the members of the family, a short school for men and women, boys 
and girls, the best short course in agriculture in the State, a great 
industrial exchange, a university of experience and experiment, an 
annual advertisement of the greatness of a great State. 

In August, 1918, after great preparations had been made for the 
1918 State Fair, and when practically everything was in readiness for 
the event, the United States Government sent representatives of the 
War Department to Raleigh, looking for a site for a Tank Training 
Camp. They found an ideal situation at the Fair Grounds — water, 
electric lights, street cars, a railroad spur track, and ten large 
buildings. Upon the urgent request of the War Department and 
upon the representation that the War Work of the Government would 
be advanced at least three months by the turning over of this prop- 
erty without delay, the North Carolina Agricultural Society unani- 
mously voted to turn over the property for the purpose. This meant 
the abandonment of the Fair for 1918, but it meant that the Society 
could and would meet the test of patriotism, and save the Govern- 
ment three months of invaluable time and thousands of dollars in 
money. 

It is the intention of the North Carolina Agricultural Society to 
hold a bigger State Fair than ever in 1919, to be a Peace Jubilee and 
Reunion of Our Soldiers and the People of the State. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE CAPITOL. 

On the morning of June 21, 1831, the State Capitol of North Caro- 
lina was destroyed by fire. Though the public records of the State 
were saved, the State Library, containing many valuable books and 
manuscripts, was lost. 

The citizens of Raleigh naturally bemoaned the destruction of the 
building, but Governor Stokes did not regard it as a great loss. In 
his opinion there were some mitigating circumstances. In his mes- 
sage to the General Assembly, when it met the following November, 
he said that the calamity was not so great, because the old State- 
house, built in 179*4, was almost ready to tumble down of its own 



North Carolina State Capital. 207 

accord, and that perhaps many valuable lives had been saved by its 
being destroyed by fire instead of tumbling down on the Legislature 
while in session. 

At once Senator Seawell of Wake brought forward a bill providing 
for the erection of a new Capitol on the site of the old one. At the 
same time a similar bill was introduced in the House of Commons. 
As there was a strong sentiment in the State favorable to the re- 
moval of the capital from Raleigh to Fayetteville, these two bills to 
rebuild at Raleigh met with vigorous opposition. Accordingly, Sen- 
ator Seawell's bill was quickly disposed of. Senator Wilson of Edge- 
combe moved to table it, and it was tabled. The House bill was 
longer discussed. The discussion was prolonged for two days, but on 
a yea and nay vote the bill failed, 65 to 68. The Assembly of 1831 
refused to rebuild. 

A year passed, and the ruins of the old Statehouse still marked the 
site of the former Capitol. But the Constitution, or rather the 
Ordinance, of 1789 located the capital at Raleigh, and the Legislature 
had no power to move it. It was even questioned with great seri- 
ousness whether the Assembly could hold its sessions in the Gov- 
ernor's Mansion, at the end of Fayetteville Street, as that was out- 
side of the limits of the town. To move the capital a convention was 
necessary, and a majority of the Legislature was not favorable to a 
convention. 

At the session of November, 1832, the Assembly, by a vote of 35 to 
28 in the Senate and 73 to 60 in the House, resolved to rebuild on the 
old site, and $50,000 was appropriated for the purpose. 

William Boylan, Duncan Cameron, Henry Seawell, Romulus M. 
Saunders and William S. Mhoon were appointed commissioners to 
have the work done. The commissioners, with $50,000 at their com- 
mand, did not dally. The rubbish was cleared away, the excavations 
made and the foundations were laid. On July 4, 1833, the corner- 
stone was set in place. Up to that time W. S. Drummond was the 
superintendent and chief architect, and he was one of the principal 
persons in the ceremony of laying the cornerstone. 

After the foundations were laid the work progressed more slowly, 
and it was so expensive that the appropriation was exhausted. The 
.Legislature at its next session appropriated $75,000 more. To do the 
stone and finer work many skilled artisans had been brought from 
Scotland and other countries. Part of the work was conducted under 
the supervision of W. S. Drummond and another part under Colonel 



L'us Miscellaneous. 

Thomas Bragg, but these arrangements did not prove satisfactory, 
and a year later, in September, 1834, Mr. I. Theil Town of New York, 
acting for the commissioners, contracted with David Paton to come 
to Raleigh and superintend the work. 

Mr. Paton was an architect who had come from Scotland the year 
before. He was then thirty-three years of age. He was the son of 
John Paton of Edinburgh, who was an extensive builder in that city 
and vicinity and who had built the greater part of the new town and 
constructed the famous Dean Bridge across the water of Leith, and 
he ranked high in his profession. Having received a liberal educa- 
tion at the University of Edinburgh. David Paton took up the pro- 
fession of his father and was regularly bred as an architect and 
builder under his father and under Sir John Sloan, R.A., professor 
of architecture to the Royal Academy of London. He soon demon- 
strated his capacity. When he first came to Raleigh the cost of over- 
seeing the work on the Capitol was $25 a day. He reduced that cost 
to $9. Twenty-eight stonecutters were paid $81 a day. This he 
reduced to $56. He made a saving in these two items alone of $42 
a day. He found himself to be not merely supervisor of the work, 
but the superintendent; not merely the superintendent, but the book- 
keeper and paymaster. He had every detail of the work on his 
shoulders. And then he had to make the working drawings. He 
was the builder, the architect, the designer. 

Both the commissioners and the architect had large ideas. The 
former were wise enough to expend the original $50,000, which the 
General Assembly expected would complete the structure, on its 
foundation. Their work being severely criticised, they resigned Jan- 
uary 1. 1835. Their successors were Beverly Daniel., chairman, Sam- 
uel F. Patterson. Charles Manly and Alfred Jones. The Legislature 
was compelled to make appropriations for the work from time to 
time. The following is a table of the several appropriations made: 

Session of 1832-33 $ -50,000.00 

Session of 1833-34 75,000.00 

Session of 1834-35 75,000.00 

Session of 1835 75,000.00 

Session of 1836-37 120 000.00 

Session of 1838-39 105,300.00 

Session of 1840-41 31,374.46 

Total $531,674.46 



North Carolina State Capitol. 209 

It must be remembered that the stone with which the building was 
erected was the property of the State. Had the State been compelled 
to purchase this material the cost of the Capitol would have been 
considerably increased. 

The following is a description of the Capitol, written by David 
Paton, the architect: 

"The State Capitol is 160 feet in length from north to south by 140 
feet from east to west. The whole height is 97 1 /o feet in the center. 
The apex of pediment is 64 feet in height. The stylobate is 18 feet 
in height. The columns of the east and west porticoes are 5 feet 
2 x /-2 inches in diameter. An entablature, including blocking course, 
is continued around the building, 12 feet high. 

"The columns and entablature are Grecian Doric, and copied from 
the Temple of Minerva, commonly called the Parthenon, which was 
erected in Athens about 500 years before Christ. An octagon tower 
surrounds the rotunda, which is ornamented with Grecian cornices, 
etc., and its dome is decorated at top with a similar ornament to 
that of the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, commonly called the 
Lanthorn of Demosthenes. 

"The interior of the Capitol is divided into three stories: First, 
the lower story, consisting of ten rooms, eight of which are appro- 
priated as offices to the Governor, Secretary, Treasurer, and Comp- 
troller, each having two rooms of the same size — the one containing 
an area of 649 square feet, the other 528 square feet — the two com- 
mittee rooms, each containing 200 square feet, and four closets; also 
the rotunda, corridors, vestibules, and piazzas, contain an area of 
4.370 square feet. The vestibules are decorated with columns and 
antjag. similar to those of the Ionic Temple on the Ilissus, near the 
Acropolis of Athens. The remainder is groined with stone and 
brick, springing from columns and pilasters of the Roman Doric. 

"The second story consists of Senatorial and Representatives' 
chambers, the former containing an area of 2,545 and the latter 
2.849 square feet. Four apartments enter from Senate Chamber, two 
of which contain each an area of 169 square feet, and the other two 
contain each an area of 154 square feet; also, two rooms enter from 
Representatives' chamber, each containing an area of 170 square feet; 
of two committee rooms, each containing an area of 231 feet; of four 
presses and the passages, stairs, lobbies, and colonnades, containing 
an area of 3.204 square feet. 
14 



210 Miscellaneous. 

"The lobbies and Hall of Representatives have their columns and 
antse of the Octagon Tower of Andronicus Cyrrhestes and the plan 
of the hall is of the formation of the Greek theater and the columns 
and antse in the Senatorial chamber and rotunda are of the Temple 
of Erectheus, Minerva Polias, and Pandrosus, in the Acropolis of 
Athens, near the above named Parthenon. 

"Third, or attic story, consists of rooms appropriated to the Su- 
preme Court and Library, each containing an area of 693 square 
feet. Galleries of both houses have an area of 1,300 square feet; 
also two apartments entering from Senate gallery, each 169 square 
feet, of four presses and the lobbies' stairs, 988 square feet. These 
lobbies, as well as rotunda, are lit with cupolas, and it is proposed 
to finish the court and library in the florid Gothic style." 

In the summer of 1840 the work was finished. The Assembly had, 
in December, 1832, appropriated $50,000 for the building. Mr. Boy- 
Ian, Judge Cameron and State Treasurer Mhoon and their associates 
spent that sum in the foundation. They proposed to have a Capitol 
worthy of the State. At every subsequent session the Assembly 
made additional appropriations. There was some caviling, and the 
commissioners resigned; but the Legislature and the new commis- 
sioners took no step backwards. Year by year they pressed on the 
work as it had been begun, until at last, after more than seven years, 
the sum of $531,674.46 was expended. As large as that sum was for 
the time, when the State was so poor and when the entire taxes for 
all State purposes reached less than $100,000, yet the people were 
satisfied. The building had been erected with rigorous economy, and 
it was an object of great pride to the people. Indeed, never was 
money better expended than in the erection of this noble Capitol. 

Speaking of this structure, Samuel A. Ashe, in an address on 
David Paton. delivered in 1909, says: 

"Not seventy years have passed since the completion of this build- 
ing, yet it has undying memories. It was finished the year Henry 
Clay was set aside and his place as the Whig leader given to General 
Harrison. Four years later Clay spoke from the western portico; 
but, like Webster and Calhoun, the prize of the presidency was 
denied him. The voices of other men of large mould also have been 
heard within this Capitol. Here, too, our great jurists — Gaston, 
Ruffin, Pearson and their associates — held their sessions and brought 
renown to North Carolina. Here Badger, Mangum, Dobbin and 
scores of men known to fame held high debates. Here was brought 



North Carolina State Capitol. 211 

forth in great travail our system of internal improvements, and of 
education, ramifying the State, disseminating enlightenment and 
opening the pathways to prosperous, contented and happy homes for 
our people. 

"Here Ellis and Clark and the mighty Vance directed the affairs of 
State in the trying days of war and suffering and desolation, the 
glories mingled with pain and sorrow, and fading away in heart- 
rending defeat; but through it all the women and men, alike heroes, 
worthy the poets' loftiest strains. Then, when the people were still 
bowed in anguish, Carolinians turned their faces to the future, and, 
with resolution and intelligence, themselves modified their laws 
and institutions to meet the new conditions; but in vain, for these 
mute walls are the witnesses of the saturnalia of Reconstruction, still 
awaiting some Dante to portray the scenes with realistic power. 
Yet the dark cloud had its silver lining, and the courageous devotion 
of Jarvis, John Graham and their Spartan band adds historic interest 
to that time of fearful storm. 

"Later, here was the scene of the great State trial, the impeach- 
ment of the Chief Magistrate of the Commonwealth and the contest 
between the intellectual giants of that generation, Governor Graham 
and Bragg and Merrimon, contesting with Smith and Conigland and 
Richard Badger. 

"And these walls have witnessed the reversal of that State policy 
forced on an unwilling people by the mailed hand of the conquering 
power, and the full restoration of Anglo-Saxon control. Never in 
history has a people been so clearly and effectually vindicated as 
those gallant souls of North Carolina, who, emulating the constancy 
of Hamilcar, swore their children to undying opposition to those 
who would destroy their civilization. Let the oppressed of future 
ages gaze on the scene and take courage. Already hallowed are the 
memories that these chambers evoke. What grand occasions yet 
await them! We may not lift the veil of the future, but experience 
warns us that history constantly repeats itself, and as the web 
woven by destiny unrolls itself there will yet occur within these 
enduring walls occasions of surpassing magnitude affecting the weal 
and woe of our posterity." 



212 Miscellaneous. 



STATE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. 

Mindful of the fact that only a little more than a generation ago 
the State Capitol of North Carolina was destroyed hy fire, entailing 
the loss of many valuable records and papers, for some years prior 
to the convening of the 1911 session of the General Assembly the 
demand has been insistent for a safer housing of several depart- 
ments of the State Government at Raleigh, notably the books and 
records of the North Carolina Historical Commission, which has 
now grown to be one of the most important branches of work at the 
seat of government. m 

Early in the session a movement was started for the building of 
a State administration building at the capital, and after numerous 
conferences and compromises of differences as to the amount that 
should be appropriated for that purpose a bill was at length unani- 
mously passed by both houses, appropriating the sum of $250,000 
for this purpose and conferring upon the Governor the appointment 
of a State Building Commission for the consummation of this worthy 
undertaking. Soon after the adjournment of the Legislature Gover- 
nor W. W. Kitchin named as the members of the Commission Ashley 
Home of Clayton, William E. Springer of Wilmington, Julian S. 
Carr of Durham, W. L. Parsons of Rockingham, A. S. Rascoe of 
Windsor, J. A. Long of Roxboro, and J. Elwood Cox of High Point, 
men of affairs and recognized business ability in the State. 

The State Building Commission held its first meeting in the office 
of the State Auditor at 12:30 p. m.. May 9, 1911, and organized by 
the election of Ashley Home, of Clayton, as chairman, and William 
E. Springer, of Wilmington, as secretary. Following organization a 
conference was held with the Board of Public Buildings and Grounds, 
composed of the Governor, Secretary of State, Treasurer, and Attor- 
ney-General. It was stated as the purpose of the General Assembly 
to provide ample room for the Supreme Court, all valuable State 
records, the State Library, offices for the Attorney-General, and sev- 
eral of the other State departments. The grounds were carefully 
gone over, the situation canvassed, and a subcommittee composed of 
Chairman Home, Secretary Springer, and Commissioner Cox was 
appointed to go further into the matter of a building and site. 

At a subsequent meeting, on May 19. 1911, the committee reported 
that it had secured an option on three sites, and recommended the 
purchase of the Grimes tract for $45,000. This recommendation was 



North Carolina Day. 213 

accepted by the Commission as a whole, and on June 6, 1911, plans 
as prepared by P. Thornton Marye, of Atlanta, were accepted after 
hearing a number of others and after several conferences. These 
plans were later reviewed by Glenn Brown, of Washington, D. C, 
another expert in building construction, and were declared eminently 
proper and in order in every respect. The plans call for a modern 
fireproof building four stories in height and admirably adapted to 
the purpose to which it will be put. 

On November 1, 1911, the Commission met again in Raleigh, after 
proposals had been invited for the building, and after considering a 
number of bids for the construction, the contract was at length 
awarded to the John T. Wilson Company, of Richmond, Va., at a 
cost of $188,000, the building to be completed and ready for occu- 
pancy by January 19, 1913. 

How well the State Building Commission wrought is attested by 
the splendid building which now stands opposite the Capitol grounds 
and which was occupied in January, 1914, by the several depart- 
ments of government as agreed upon after the numerous confer- 
ences of the Commission. The departments occupying the building 
are as follows: First floor, State Library; second floor, North Caro- 
lina Historical Commission and the Library Commission; third floor, 
the Supreme Court and Attorney-General; fourth floor, Supreme 
Court Library. 



NOKTH CAROLI> A DAY. 

The following act, entitled "An Act to Provide for the Celebration 
of North Carolina Day in the Public Schools," is chapter 164 of the 
Public Laws of 1901: 

The General Assembly of 'North Carolina do enact: 

Section 1. That the 12th day of October in each and every year, 
to be called "North Carolina Day " may be devoted, by appropriate 
exercises in the public schools of the State, to the consideration of 
some topic or topics of our State history, to be selected by the Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction. Provided, that if the said day shall 
fall on Saturday or Sunday, then, the celebration shall occur on the 
Monday next following: Provided, further, that if the said day shall 
fall at a time when any such schools may not be in session, the 
celebration may be held within one month from the beginning of the 
term, unless the Superintendent of Public Instruction shall designate 
some other time. 



214 



Miscellaneous. 



Sec. 2. This act shall be in force from and after its ratification. 
In the General Assembly read three times, and ratified this the 
9th day of February, A. D. 1901. 

October 12th, the date selected for North Carolina Day, is the 
anniversary of the laying of the cornerstone of the University of 
North Carolina, October 12, 1793. In accordance with the pro- 
visions of this act, the Superintendent of Public Instruction has 
had prepared and distributed to the schools of the State each year 
a program of exercises devoted to the study of some phase of North 
Carolina history. 

Since the creation of North Carolina Day the following subjects 
have been studied each year (back numbers of the programs can 
be secured from the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
Raleigh, N. C.) : 



1901. The Roanoke Island Colonies. Prepared by Fred A. Olds. 

1902. The Albemarle Section. Prepared by a Committee. 

1903. The Lower Cape Fear Section. Prepared by R. D. W. Connor. 

1904. The Pamlico-Neuse Section. Prepared by Charles L. Coon. 

1905. The Scotch Highlanders in North Carolina. Prepared by R. D. W. Connor. 

1906. Charles D. Mclver Memorial Day. Prepared by R. D. W. Connor. 

1907. The Scotch-Irish in North Carolina. Prepared by Charles H. Mebane. 

1908. The German Settlements in North Carolina. 

1909. Western North Carolina. 

1910. North Carolina Poets and Poetry. 

1911. Local and County. History. 

1912. Charles B. Aycock Memorial Day. 

1913. North Carolina Rural Life and Knapp Memorial Day. Edited by N. C 

Xewbold. 

1914. Community Service. 

1915. School and Neighborhood Improvement Day. 

1916. Murphy Day: Archibald DeBow Murphy. Prepared by Edgar W. Knight. 

1917. Thrift, Conservation, Patriotism. 



Each prepared by 
R. D. W. Connor. 



LEGAL HOLIDAYS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

Although certain great days in each year — such as New Year's 
Day, Fourth of July, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day— have 
long been observed as general holidays, there were no "legal" holi- 
days in North Carolina prior to 1881. The Legislature of that year, 
in the interest of commercial transactions, passed an act to make 



Legal Holidays in North Carolina. 215 

these customary holidays "legal" holidays. It is chapter 294, Public 
Laws of 1881, and was brought forward in The Code of 1883 as sec- 
tions 3784-3786 of chapter 61. It provides: 

"That the first day of January, twenty-second day of February, 
tenth day of May, twentieth day of May, fourth day of July, and a 
day appointed by the Governor of North Carolina as a thanksgiving 
day, and the twenty-fifth day of December of each and every year be. 
and the same are hereby declared to be public holidays; and that 
whenever any such holiday shall fall upon Sunday, the Monday next 
following shall be deemed a public holiday, and papers due on such 
Sunday shall be payable on the Saturday next preceding, and papers 
which would otherwise be payable on said Monday shall be payable 
on the Tuesday next thereafter. 

"Sec. 2. Be it further enacted, That whenever either of the above 
named days shall fall on Saturday, the papers due on the Sunday 
following shall be payable on the Monday next succeeding. 

"Sec. 3. Be it further enacted, That whenever the above named 
days shall fall on Monday, the papers which should otherwise be pay- 
able on that day shall be payable on Tuesday next succeeding." 

Ten years later, the nineteenth of January was made a "legal" 
holiday, by chapter 58, Public Laws of 1891, which provides: 

"That the nineteenth day of January, the birthday of the peerless 
Robert E. Lee, in each and every year hereafter, shall be a public 
holiday." 

In 1899, the first Thursday in September was designated as Labor 
Day and made a "legal" holiday. The Legislature of 1901 amended 
this Act by changing the holiday from the first Thursday to the 
first Monday in September. The reason for this change was re- 
cited in the preamble of the act as follows: 

"Whereas it is desirable that the same date should be set aside by 
both State and Federal statutes for the observance of the same holi- 
day; 

"And whereas the first Monday in September is designated by stat- 
utes in various States and also by Federal Statute as Labor Day, 
while the first Thursday in September is designated as Labor Day by 
statute of this State, thereby causing confusion and annoyance in 
mercantile transactions, therefore," etc. 

These several Acts were all brought forward in the Revisal of 
1905 as section 2838. 

The Legislature of 1907 added another legal holiday to the list 
by setting aside as a holiday "Tuesday after the first Monday in 



216 Miscellaneous. 

November, when a general election is held." This is chapter 996, 
Public Laws of 1907. 

The latest of our legal holidays is the twelfth day of April. This 
was provided for by chapter 888, Public Laws of 1909, which is as 
follows : 

"Whereas the Provincial Congress which met at Halifax, in this 
State, in April, one thousand seven hundred and seventy-six, after 
providing for the military organization of the State, did, on the 
twelfth day of April, one thousand seven hundred and seventy-six. 
adopt the following resolutions, generally known as the 'Halifax 
Resolutions,' to wit: 

" 'Resolved. That the delegates for this colony in the Continental 
Congress be empowered to concur with the delegates of the other 
colonies in declaring independency, and forming foreign alliances, 
reserving to this colony the sole and exclusive right of forming a 
constitution and laws for this colony.' 

"And whereas said resolution is the first declaration in favor of in- 
dependence by the people of the whole State, through their duly 
authorized representatives, and was adopted more than two months 
before the Declaration of Independence by the Continental Congress; 
and whereas an occurrance so momentous in the history of our State 
and Nation, and so illustrative of the patriotism and wisdom of the 
whole people of North Carolina, should be commemorated, therefore. 

''The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

"Section 1. That the twelfth day of April in each and every year 
be, and the same is hereby made a legal holiday in North Carolina." 

Legal holidays in North Carolina, therefore, are as follows: 

January 1 — New Year's Day. 

January 19 — Birthday of General Robert E. Lee. 

February 22 — Birthday of George Washington. 

April 12 — Anniversary of the Resolutions adopted by the Pro- 
vincial Congress of North Carolina at Halifax, April 12, 1776, in- 
structing the delegates from North Carolina to the Continental 
Congress to vote for a Declaration of Independence. 

May 10 — Confederate Memorial Day. 

May 20 — Anniversary of the "Mecklenburg Declaration of Inde- 
pendence." 

July 4 — Independence Day. 

September, first Monday — Labor Day. 

November, Tuesday after first Monday — General Election Day. 

November, last Thursday — Thanksgiving Day. 

December 25 — Christmas Day. 



State Flag. 217 



THE STATE FLAG. 

The first legislation on the subject of a State flag was enacted 
by the Convention of 1861. May 20, 1861, the Convention adopted 
the Ordinance of Secession. 

On that same day Col. John D. Whitford. a member of the Con- 
vention from Craven County, introduced the following ordinance, 
which was passed and referred to a select committee of seven: 

"Be it ordained that the flag of this State shall be a blue field 
with a white V thereon, and a star, incircling which shall be the 
words 'Surgit astrum, May 20th, 1775.' " 

Colonel Whitford was made chairman of the committee to which 
this ordinance was referred. The committee secured the aid and 
advice of William Garl Brown, an artist of Raleigh. Brown pre- 
pared and submitted a model to this committee. And this model 
was adopted by the Convention on the 22d day of June, 1861. It 
will be observed that the Brown model, to be hereafter explained, 
was vastly different from the one originally proposed by Colonel 
Whitford. Here is the ordinance as it appears on the Journal of 
the Convention: 

"an ordinance in relation to a state flag." 

"Be it ordained by this Convention, and it is hereby ordained by 
the authority of the same, That the Flag of North Carolina shall 
consist of a red field with a white star in center, and with the in- 
scription, above the star, in a semi-circular form, of 'May 20th. 1775,' 
and below the star, in a semi-circular form, of 'May 20, 1861.' That 
there shall be two bars of equal width, and the length of the field 
shall be equal to the bar, the width of the field being equal to both 
bars; the first bar shall be blue, and the second shall be white; and 
the length of the flag shall be one-third more than its width. (Rati- 
fied the 22d day of June, 1861.)" 

This State flag, adopted in 1861, is said to have been issued to 
the first ten regiments of State troops during the summer of that 
year, and was borne by them throughout the war, being the only 
flag, except the National and Confederate colors, used by the North 
Carolina troops during the Civil War. This flag existed until 1885. 
when the Legislature of that year adopted a new model. 

The bill, which was introduced by General Johnstone Jones on 
the 5th of February, 1885, passed its final reading one month later 
after little or no debate. This act reads as follows: 



218 Miscellaneous. 

an act to establish a state flag. 

The General Assembly of 'North Carolina do enact: 

Section 1. That the flag of North Carolina shall consist of a blue 
union, containing in the center thereof a white star with the letter 
N in gilt on the left and the letter C in gilt on the right of said 
star, the circle containing the same to be one-third the width of 
the union. 

Sec. 2. That the fly of the flag shall consist of two equally pro- 
portioned bars; the upper bar to be red, the lower bar to be white; 
that the length of the bars horizontally shall be equal to the per- 
pendicular length of the union, and the total length of the flag shall 
be one-third more than its width. 

Sec. 3. That above the star in the center of the union there shall 
be a gilt scroll in semi-circular form, containing in black letters 
this inscription: "May 20th, 1775," and that below the star there 
shall be a similar scroll containing in black letters the inscription: 
"April 12th, 1776." 

In the General Assembly read three times and ratified this 9th 
day of March, A. D. 1885. 

No change has been made in the flag since the passage of this 
act. By an act of 1907 it is provided: 

"That the board of trustees or managers of the several State in- 
stitutions and public buildings shall provide a North Carolina flag, 
of such dimensions and material as they may deem best, and the 
same shall be displayed from a staff upon the top of each and -every 
such building at all times except during inclement weather, and 
upon the death .of any State officer or any prominent citizen the 
flag shall be put at half-mast until the burial of such person shall 
have taken place. 

"That the Board of County Commissioners of the several counties 
in this State shall likewise authorize the procuring of a North Caro- 
lina flag, to be displayed either on a staff upon the top, or draped 
behind the Judge's stand, in each and every courthouse in the 
State, and that the State flag shall be displayed at each and every 
term of court held, and on such other public occasions as the Com- 
misisoners may deem proper." 



Great Seal. 219 



THE GREAT SEAL.* 

The Constitution of North Carolina, Article III, section 16. re- 
quires that 

"There shall be a seal of the State which shall be kept by the 
Governor, and used by him as occasion may require, and shall be 
called 'The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina.' All grants 
and commissions shall be issued in the name and by the authority 
of the State of North Carolina, sealed with 'The Great Seal of the 
State.' signed by the Governor and countersigned by the Secretary 
of State." 

The use of a Great Seal for the attestation of important docu- 
ments began with the institution of government in North Carolina. 
There have been at various times nine different seals in use in the 
colony and State. The first seal was adopted by the Lords Proprie- 
tors of Carolina soon after receiving their charter from the Crown 
in 1665. This seal is to be seen in the Public Record Office in Lon- 
don. It is described as follows: 

"The obverse side has a shield bearing on its face two cornucopias 
crossed, filled with products and having for supporters, on the sin- 
ister side, an Indian chief holding an arrow. On the dexter is an 
Indian squaw with a papoose by her side and one in her arms. 
These natives, I imagine, are supposed to be bringing tribute. The 
crest is a stag upon a wreath above a helmet from which there is a 
mantling. On the scroll below the shield is the motto, Domitus 
Cultoribus Orbis. Around the shield are the words MAGNUM 
SIGILLUM CAROLINAE DOMINORUM. On the reverse side is a 
disc bearing a cross, around which are arranged the coats-of-arms 
of the Lords Proprietors in the following order: Clarendon, Albe- 
marle. Craven, John Berkeley, Cooper, Carteret, William Berkeley, 
and Colleton. The size of this seal is 3% inches in diameter, and 
was made by placing together two wax cakes with tape between 
before being impressed, and was about V± inch thick. This seal 
was used on all the official papers of the Lords Proprietors for 
Carolina, embracing North and South Carolina." 

About 1665 the government of Albemarle County was organized, 
and for a seal the reverse side of the seal of the Lords Proprietors 
was adopted. It bore the word A-L-B-E-M-A-R-L-E, beginning with 
the letter A between the arms of Clarendon and Albermarle, L be- 



*Abridsred from "The Great Seal of North Carolina," by J. Bryan Grimes; Pub- 
lications of the North Carolina Historical Commission, Bulletin No. 5. 



220 Miscellaneous. 

tween the arms of Albemarle and Craven, BE between the arms of 
Craven, Lord John Berkeley, etc. 

This was a small seal 1 7-16 inches in diameter, with one face 
only, and is now frequently to be found attached to colonial papers. 
It was first used for the government of the County of Albemarle, 
and then became the seal of the Province of North Carolina, being 
used until just after the purchase by the Crown. 

In 1730, after the purchase of the colony by the Crown, the Lords 
of Trade proposed to the King a new seal "whereon Liberty is rep- 
resented introducing Plenty to your Majesty with this motto, Qua: 
sera tamen rcspexit, and this inscription round the circumference, 
Sigilhtm Provinciae Xostrae Carolinae, Septentrionalis." The 
background on which the King and these figures stand is a map 
of the coast of North Carolina, and in the offing is a ship. On the 
reverse of this seal are the Royal Arms, Crown, Garter, Supporters 
and Motto, with this inscription round the circumference, Georgius 
Secundus Dei Gratia Magnae Britaniae, Franciae, et Hibemiae, Rex, 
Fidei Defensor, Brunsrici et Lunenbergi Dux, Sacri Romani Im- 
perii Arcni Thesaurarius, et Elector. 

This seal was made by placing two cakes or layers of wax to- 
gether, between which was the ribbon or tape with which the in- 
strument was interlaced and by which the seal was appended. It 
was customary to put a piece of paper on the outside of these cakes 
before they were impressed. The seal complete was 4 3/S inches in 
diameter and from y 2 to % inch thick and weighed about 5% 
ounces. 

In 1767, Governor Tryon received from the King a new Great 
Seal for the Province. The new seal was engraved on the one side 
with the Royal Arms. Garter, Crown, Supporters and Motto, and 
this inscription round the circumference "Georgius III D: G: Mag. 
Bri. Fr. et Hib. Rex, F. D. Brun, et Lun. Dux. S. R. I. ar Thes. et 
El." On the other side are figures of the King and Liberty who is 
introducing Plenty to the King with this Motto, Quae Sera Tamen 
Respexit. Round the circumference is the following legend: Sig- 
illium, Provinciae Xostrae Carolinae, Septentrionalis. This seal 
was 4 inches in diameter, V> to % inches thick, and weighed 4 1 /£ 
ounces. 

Sometimes a smaller seal than the Great Seal was used, as com- 
missions and grants are often found with a small heart-shaped seal 
about one inch wide and a quarter of an inch thick which was 



Great Seal. 221 

impressed with a crown. Also a seal was occasionally used about 
three inches long and two inchts wide and half an inch thick, in 
the shape of an ellipse. These impressions were evidently made by 
putting the wax far enough under the edge of the Great Seal to 
take the impression of the crown. The royal governors also some- 
times used their private seals. 

When the government of the independent State of North Caro- 
lina was organized, the Constitution adopted at Halifax, December 
18, 1776, provided. Section XVII, "That there shall be a seal of this 
State, which shall be kept by the Governor, and used by him as 
occasion may require; and shall be called the Great Seal of the 
State of North Carolina and be affixed to all grants and commis- 
sion." 

The Convention of 1868 changed the section of the Constitution, 
with reference to the seal, to real as it now stands. 

The Assembly of 1778 appointed William Tisdale to cut and en- 
grave the first State seal, under the direction of the Governor. This 
seal was used until 1794. Its actual size was three inches in diame- 
ter and % inch thick. It was made by putting two cakes of wax 
together with paper wafers on the outside and pressed between the 
dies forming the obverse and reverse sides of this seal. 

The seal of 1778 is described as follows: 

"On one side is the figure of Minerva or Liberty holding in the 
right hand the pole with cap and in the left hand with arm ex- 
tended is held a large scroll on which appears in large capital let- 
ters the w r ord 'Constitution.' Under the figure the words, IN LEGT- 
BUS SALUS. Around the circumference are the words. THE 
GREAT SEAL OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA. On the 
other side of the shield is the figure of a woman, probably Plenty. 
The right arm is folded across her breast and in her right hand 
inclining toward her left shoulder is held a distaff. In the left 
hand with arm extended is held an ear of corn. In the distance be- 
yond a tree browses a cow. Under these figures appear the word 
and letters 'INDEPENDENCE— MDCCLXXVI.' Around the cir- 
cumference appear the words 0. FORTUNATOS, NIMIUM. SUA. 
SI. BONA. NORINT, COLONOS." 

In December, 1781. the General Assembly autnorized the Gov- 
ernor to procure a seal that should "be prepared with one side only, 
and calculated to make the impression on the face -of such grant, 
commission, record, or other public act," etc. An artist in Phila- 
delphia submitted a sketch to the Governor as follows: Minerva is 



222 Miscellaneous. 

represented in the act of introducing Ceres with her horn of plenty 
to Liberty, who is seated on a pedestal holding in her right hand 
a book on which is inscribed the word "Constitution." In the 
background are introduced a pyramid, denoting strength and dura- 
bility and a pine tree which relates immediately to the products of 
the State. 

This sketch, omitting Minerva and with some minor changes, 
was accepted by Governor Speight. The new seal was very much 
like the present one. It has two figures, Liberty and Plenty. Lib- 
erty is seated on a pedestal with her pole in her right hand, and 
her cap on the pole; in her left hand is a scroll with the word 
"Constitution" upon it. Plenty is standing to the left and front of 
Liberty; around her head is a circlet of flowers; in her right hand, 
leaning against her shoulder, is her cornucopia, mouth upwards, 
overflowing with fruits and produce. In her left is an ear of corn. 
Around the circumference are the words THE GREAT SEAL OF 
THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

This seal was 2V2 inches in diameter, slightly larger than the 
present one, and was used until about 1835. 

In 1834 the Legislature authorized the Governor to procure a new 
seal. The preamble to the act states that the old seal had been in 
use since the first day of March, 1793. The seal adopted in 1835, 
which was used until 1883, was the very similar to its predecessor. 
On it Liberty and Plenty faced each other. Liberty was standing, 
her pole with cap on it in her left hand, and a scroll with the word 
"Constitution" inscribed thereon in her right hand. Plenty is sit- 
ting down, her right arm half extended towards Liberty, three 
heads of wheat in her right hand, and in her left the small end 
of her horn, the mouth of which is resting at her fett, and the 
contents of her horn rolling out. Around the circumference were 
the words THE GREAT SEAL OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAR- 
OLINA. This seal was 2 1 /! inches in diameter. 

In 1883 an act was passed relative to the seal, which was incor- 
porated in the Code as section 3329. The seal therein provided for 
is described as follows: 

"The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina shall be two and 
one-quarter inches in diameter, and its design shall be a representa- 
tion of the figures of Liberty and Plenty, looking toward each 
other, but not more than half fronting each other, and otherwise 



State Motto. 223 

disposed as follows: Liberty, the first figure, standing, her pole 
with cap on it in her left hand and a scroll with the word 'Consti- 
tution' inscribed thereon in her right hand. Plenty, the second fig- 
ure, sitting down, her right arm half extended towards Liberty, 
three heads of wheat in her right hand, and in her left the small 
end of her horn, the 'mouth of which is resting at her feet, and the 
contents of the horn rolling out." 

In 1893 an act, introduced by Jacob Battle, added at the foot of 
the coat of arms of the State as a part thereof the motto "Esse 
Quam Videri," and required that the words "May 20, 1775," be in- 
scribed at the top of the coat of arms. 

The present Great Seal of the State of North Carolina is de- 
scribed at the top of the coat of arms. 

"The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina is two and one- 
quarter inches in diameter, and its design is a representation of 
the figures of Liberty and Plenty, looking toward each other, but 
not more than half fronting each other, and otherwise disposed as 
follows: Liberty, the first figure, standing, her pole with cap on it 
in her left hand and a scroll with the word 'Constitution' inscribed 
thereon in her right hand. Plenty, the second figure, sitting down, 
her right arm half extended toward Liberty, three heads of wheat 
in her right hand, and in her left the small end of her horn, the 
mouth of which is resting at her feet, and the contents of horn roll- 
ing out. In the exergon is inserted the words May 20, 1775, above 
the coat of arms. Around the circumference is the legend 'The 
Great Seal of the State of North Carolina' and the motto 'Esse 
Quam Videri.' " 



STATE 3IOTTO AND ITS ORIGIN.* 

The General Assembly of 1893 (chapter 145) adopted the words 
"Esse Quam Videri" as the State's motto and directed that these 
words with the date "20 May, 1775," should be placed with our 
Coat of Arms upon the Great Seal of the State. 

The words "Esse Quam Videri" mean "to be rather than to seem." 
Nearly every State has adopted a motto, generally in Latin. The 
reason for their mottoes being in Latin is that the Latin tongue 
is far more condensed and terse than the English. The three 



* Adopted from an article by Chief Justice Walter Clark in The North Carolina 
Booklet, Vol. IX, No. 3. 



224 Miscellaneous. 

words, "Esse Quam Videri," require at least six English words to 
express the same idea. 

Curiosity has been aroused to learn the origin of our State motto. 
It is found in Cicero in his essay on Friendship (Cicero de Ami- 
citia. chap. 26). He says, "Virtute enim ipsa hon tarn multi prediti 
esse quam videri," i. e., "Virtue is a quality which not so many de- 
sire to possess as desire to seem to possess," or, translated literally, 
"For indeed not so many wish to be endowed with virtue as wish 
to seem to be." 

The phrase is a striking one. and Cicero's version of it has been 
caught up and often used as a motto. No less than three houses 
of British nobility have adopted it, to wit: the Earl of Winterton, 
Earl Brownlow and Lord Lurgan. 

It has been adopted by many associations especially literary 
societies. In this State it is the motto of Wilson Collegiate Insti- 
tute and, with some modifications, of one of the societies at Wake 
Forest College. 

The figures on our State Coat of Arms are Liberty and Plenty. 
It has been objected that the motto has no reference or application 
to the figures on the coat of arms. It is very rarely that such is 
the case. The national motto, "E Pluribus Unum," has no refer- 
ance to the Eagle and Shield and the Thunderbolts on the national 
coat of arms. Nor has the "Excelsior" of New York, the "Dirigo" 
of Maine, the "Qui Transtulet, Sustinet" of Connecticut any appli- 
cation to the figures above them. Indeed Virginia's "Sic Semper 
Tyrannis" is one of the very few instances in which the motto 
bears such reference. But, in fact, is our motto so entirely with- 
out reference to the coat of arms as is usually the case? The fig- 
ures are, as just stated. Liberty and Plenty. Is it inappropriate to 
say we prefer to be free and prosperous than seem to be so. There 
have been States that had all the appearance of liberty and pros- 
perity, when in truth having lost the reality of both, they were 
tottering to their fall. 

It is a little singular that until the act of 1893 the sovereign State 
of North Carolina had no motto since its declaration of indepen- 
dence. It was one of the very few States which did not have a 
motto and the only one of the original thirteen without one. 

It may be noted that up to the time it became a "sovereign and 
independent State" the Colony or Province of North Carolina bore 



Confederate Museum at Richmond. 225 

on its great seal "Quae sera tamen respexit." This was taken from 
the first Eclogue of Virgil (line 27) and, referring to the figure of 
Liberty, meant "Which, though late, looked upon me" — the full line 
in Virgil being "Liberty, which though late looked upon me indo.- 
lent." No wonder that this was dropped by the new State. Noth- 
ing could possibly have been more inappropriate. Liberty came 
not to her late; and it came not to a people inert or unseeking 
her rewards. To such, liberty never comes. 

It may be mentioned, to prevent any misunderstanding as to the 
scope of the Act of 1S>93 (now Revisal, sec. 5320), that it does not 
apply to county seals. Each county is authorized to adopt its own 
seal. Revisal, sec. 1318 (24). Many counties now have on their 
county seals the appropriate phrase, "Leges Jaraque Vindicamus." 
Some have adopted the State motto. But this is a matter left to 
the discretion of the county commissioners in each county. 

Note by the Editors [of The Booklet]. — The bill which was 
passed in 1893 to adopt our State motto was introduced by Senator 
Jacob Battle, of Nash, afterwards Judge of the Superior Court. 
We have before us a letter from him in which he states that the 
motto was selected by Judge — since Chief Justice — Walter Clark, 
who also drew the bill and requested him to present it. He adds 
that the words "20 May, 1775," secured the hearty cooperation of 
Senator Brevard McDowell, of Mecklenburg, and by their joint 
efforts the bill passed by the unanimous vote of both houses of the 
General Assembly, and without amendment. 



THE CONFEDERATE MUSEUM AT RICHMOND. 

In the house in Richmond. Virginia, which was the Executive 
Mansion of the Confederate States, and as such was occupied by 
President Jefferson Davis from 1861 to 1865, the United Daughters 
of the Confederacy support a museum of relics of the Confederacy. 
To each of the former Confederate States is assigned a room which 
it supports. To the support of the North Carolina Room, the 
General Assembly appropriates $200 annually. About eight years 
ago it was decided that each room must raise an endowment of 
$2,000. The officials of the North Carolina room increased theirs 
15 



226 Miscellaneous. 

to $3,000, and up to date are the only ones who have completed 
their fund. The North Carolina room contains one of the largest 
collections of relics, and the largest collection of portraits, in the 
museum. Ahout 15,000 persons visit the museum annually. 

The State Regent for North Carolina is, in 1918, Mrs. Latta C. 
Johnson of Charlotte, the Vice-Regent is Mrs. J. Allison Hodges, 
Richmond, Va. 



PART VIII. 



PLATFORMS OF POLITICAL PARTIES, 1916. 



1. National Democratic Platform. 

2. National Republican Platform. 

3. National Socialist Platform. 

4. National Prohibition Platform. 

5. State Democratic Platform. 

6. State Republican Platform. 

7. State Socialist Platform. 



NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC PLATFORM, 1916. 

The Democratic Party, in national convention assembled, adopts 
the following declaration to the end that the people of the United 
States may both realize the achievements wrought by four years 
of Democratic administration and be apprised of the policies to 
which the party is committed for the further conduct of national 
affairs. 

EECOED OF ACHIEVEMENT. 

We indorse the administration of Woodrow Wilson. It speaks 
for itself. It is the best exposition of sound Democratic policy at 
home and abroad. 

We challenge comparison of our record, our keeping of pledges 
and our constructive legislation, with those of any party of any 
time. 

We found our country hampered by special privilege, a vicious 
tariff, obsolete banking laws and an inelastic currency. Our foreign 
affairs were dominated by commercial interests for their selfish 
ends. The Republican Party, despite repeated pledges, was impo- 
tent to correct abuses which it had fostered. Under our adminis- 
tration, under a leadership which has never faltered, these abuses 
have been corrected, and our people have been freed therefrom. 

Our archaic banking and currency system, prolific of panic and 
disaster under Republican administration — long the refuge of the 
Money Trust — has been supplanted by the Federal Reserve Act, a 
true democracy of credit under Government control, already proved 
a financial bulwark in a world crisis, mobilizing our resourcts, 
placing abundant credit at the disposal of legitimate industry and 
making a currency panic impossible. 

We have created a Federal Trade Commission to accommodate 
the perplexing questions arising under the antitrust laws so that 
monopoly may be strangled at its birth and legitimate industry 
encouraged. Fair competition in business is now assured. 

We have effected an adjustment of the tariff, adequate for reve- 
nue under peace conditions, and fair to the consumer and to the 
producer. We have adjusted the burdens of taxation so that swol- 
len incomes bear their equitable share. Our revenues have been 
sufficient in times of world stress, and will largely exceed the ex- 
penditures for the current fiscal year. 



230 Platforms of Political Parties. 

We have lifted human labor from the category of commodities 
and have secured to the workingman the right of voluntary asso- 
ciation for his protection and welfare. We have protected the 
rights of the laborer against the unwarranted issuance of writs 
of injunction, and have guaranteed to him the right of trial by 
jury in cases of alleged contempt committed outside the presence 
of the court. 

We have advanced the parcels post to genuine efficiency, enlarged 
the Postal Savings System, added 10,000 rural-delivery routes and 
extensions, thus reaching 2,500,000 additional people, improved the 
Postal Service in every branch, and for the first time in our history 
placed the postoffice system on a self-supporting basis, with actual 
surplus in* 1913, 1914, and 1916. 

ECONOMIC freedom. 

The reforms which were most obviously needed to clear away 
special privilege, prevent unfair discrimination and release the 
energies of men of all ranks and advantages, have been effected by 
recent legislation. We must now remove, as far as possible, every 
remaining element of unrest and uncertainty from the path of the 
business men of America, and secure for them a continued period 
of quiet, assured and confident prosperity. 

TARIFF. 

We reaffirm our belief in the doctrine of a tariff for the purpose 
of providing sufficient revenue for the operation of the Government 
economically administered and unreservedly indorse the Underwood 
tariff law as truly exemplifying that doctrine. We recognize that 
tariff rates are necessarily subject to change to meet changing con- 
ditions in the world's production and trade. The events of the 
last two years have brought about many momentous changes. In 
some respects their effects are yet conjectural and wait to be dis- 
closed, particularly in regard to our foreign trade. 

Two years of a war which has directly involved most of the chief 
industrial nations of the world and which has indirectly affected 
the life and industry of all nations, are bringing about economic 
changes more varied and far-reaching than the world has ever 
before experienced. In order to ascertain just what those changes 
may be. the Democratic Congres is providing for a nonpartisan 



National Democratic Platform. 231 

tariff commission to make impartial and thorough study of every 
economic fact that may throw light either upon our past or upon 
our future fiscal policy with regard to the imposition of taxes on 
imports or with regard to the changed and changing conditions 
under which our trade is carried on. We cordially indorse this 
timely proposal and declare ourselves in sympathy with the princi- 
ple and purpose of shaping legislation within that field in accord- 
ance with clearly established facts rather than in accordance with 
the demands of selfish interests or upon information provided 
largely., if not exclusively, by them. 

AMERICANISM. 

The part which the United States will play in the new day of in- 
ternational relationships that is now upon us will depend upon our 
preparation and our character. The Democratic Party, therefore, 
recognizes the assertion and triumphant demonstration of the indi- 
visibility and coherent strength of the Nation as the supreme issue 
of this day in which the whole world faces the crisis of manifold 
change. It summons all men of whatever origin or creed who 
would count themselves Americans, to join in making clear to all 
the world the unity and consequent power of America. This is an 
issue of patriotism. To taint it with partisanship would be to defile 
it. In this day of test, America must show itself not a Nation of 
partisans but a Nation of patriots. There is gathered here in 
America the best of the blood, the industry and the genius of the 
world, the elements of a great race and a magnificent society to be 
welded into a mighty and splendid Nation. 

"Whoever, actuated by the purpose to promote the interest of a 
foreign power, in disregard of our own country's welfare or to 
injure this Government in its foreign relations or cripple or destroy 
its industries at home, and whoever by arousing prejudices of a 
racial, religious or other nature creates discord and strife among 
our people so as to obstruct the wholesome process of unification, 
is faithless to the trust which the privileges of citizenship re- 
pose in him and is disloyal to his country. We, therefore, condemn 
as subversive of this Nation's unity and integrity, and as destruc- 
tive of its welfare, the activities and designs of every group or 
organization, political or otherwise, that has for its object the ad- 
vancement of the interest of a foreign power, whether such object 
is promoted by intimidating the Government, a political party, or 



232 Platforms of Political Parties. 

representatives of the people, or which is calculated and tends to 
divide our people into antagonistic groups and thus to destroy that 
complete agreement and solidarity of the people and that unity of 
sentiment and purpose so essential to the perpetuity of the Nation 
and its free institutions. We condemn all alliances and combina- 
tions of individuals in this country of whatever nationality or de- 
scent, who agree and conspire together for the purpose of embar- 
rassing or weakening our Government or of improperly influencing 
or coercing our public representatives in dealing or negotiating 
with any foreign power. We charge that such conspiracies among 
a limited number exist and have been instigated for the purpose 
of advancing the interests of foreign countries to the prejudice and 
detriment of our own country. We condemn any political party 
which, in view of the activity of such conspirators, surrenders' its 
integrity or modifies its policy. 

PREPAREDNESS. 

Along with the proof of our character as a nation must go the 
proof of our power to play the part that legitimately belongs to us. 
The people of the United States love peace. They respect the 
rights and covet the friendship of all other nations. They desire 
neither any additional teritory nor any advantage which cannot 
be peacefully gained by their skill, their industry, or their enter- 
prise; but they insist upon having absolute freedom of national 
life and policy, and feel that they owe it to themselves and to the 
role of spirited independence which it is their sole ambition to 
play, that they should render themselves secure against the hazard 
of interference from any quarter, and should be able to protect 
their rights upon the seas or in any part of the world. We, there- 
fore, favor the maintenance of an Army fully adequate to the re- 
quirements of order, of safety and of the protection of the Nation's 
rights; the fullest development of modern methods of seacoast de- 
fense and the maintenance of an adequate reserve of citizens 
trained to arms and prepared to safeguard the people and territory 
of the United States against any danger of hostile action which 
may unexpectedly arise; and a fixed policy for the continuous de- 
velopment of a Navy worthy to support the great naval traditions 
of the United States and fully equal to the international tasks 
which this Nation hopes and expects to take part in performing. 



National Democratic Platform. 233 

The plans and enactments of the present Congress afford substan- 
tial proof of our purpose in this exigent matter. 

international relations. 

The Democratic administration has thoroughout the present war 
scrupulously successfully held to the old paths of neutrality and to 
the peaceful pursuit of the legitimate objects of our national life 
which statesmen of all parties and creeds have prescribed for them- 
selves in America since the beginning of our history. But the cir- 
cumstances of the last two years have revealed necessities of inter- 
national action which no former generation can have foreseen. 
We hold that it is the duty of the United States to use its power, 
not only to make itself safe at home, but also to make secure its 
just interests throughout the world, and, both for this end and 
in the interest of humanity, to assist the world in securing settled 
peace and justice. We believe that every people has the right to 
choose the sovereignty under which it shall live; that the small 
states of the world have a right to enjoy from other nations the 
same respect for their sovereignty and for their tentorial integ- 
rity that great and powerful nations expect and insist upon; and 
that the world has a right to be free from every disturbance of its 
peace that has its origin in aggression or disregard of the rights 
of peoples and nations; and we believe that the time has come 
when it is the duty of the United States to join with the other 
nations of the world in any feasible association that will effectively 
serve those principles, to maintain inviolate the complete security 
of the highway of the seas for the common and unhindered use of 
all nations. 

The present administration has consistently sought to act upon 
and realize in its conduct of the foreign affairs of the Nation the 
principle that should be the object of any association of the nations 
formed to secure the peace of the world and the maintenance of 
national and individual rights. It has followed the highest Ameri- 
can traditions. It has preferred respect for the fundamental rights 
of smaller states even to property interests, and has secured the 
friendship of the people of such states for the United States by 
refusing to make a mere material interest an excuse for the asser- 
tion of our superior power against the dignity of their sovereign 
independence. It has regarded the lives of its citizens and the 



234 Platforms of Political Parties. 

claims of humanity as of greater moment than material rights, 
and peace as the best basis for the just settlement of commercial 
claims. It has made the honor and ideals of the United States its 
standard alike in negotiation and action. 

PAN-AMERICAN COXCORD. 

We recognize now, as we have always recognized, a definite and 
common interest between the United States and the other peopies 
and Republics of the Western Hemisphere in all matters of national 
independence and free political development. We favor the estab- 
lishment and maintenance of the closest relations of amity and 
mutual helpfulness between the United States and the other Repub- 
lics of the American continents for the support of peace and 'the 
promotion of a common prosperity. To that end we favor all 
measures which may be necessary to facilitate intimate intercourse 
and promote commerce between the United States and our neigh- 
bors to the south, and such international understanding as may be 
practicable and suitable to accomplish these ends. 

We commend the action of the Democratic administration in 
holding the Pan-American Financial Conference at Washington in 
May, 1915, and organizing the International High Commission 
which represented the United States in the recent meeting of rep- 
resentatives of the Latin-American Republics at Buenos Aires, 
April, 1916, which have so greatly promoted the friendly relations 
between the people of the Western Hemisphere. 

MEXICO. 

The Monroe doctrine is reasserted as a principle of Democratic 
faith. That doctrine guarantees the Independent Republics of the 
two Americas against aggression from another continent. It im- 
plies, as well, the most scrupulous regard upon our part for the 
sovereignty of each of them. We court their good will. We seek 
not to despoil them. The want of a stable, responsible government 
in Mexico, capable of repressing and punishing marauders and 
bandit bands, who have not only taken the lives and seized and 
destroyed the property of American citizens in that country, but 
have insolently invaded our soil, made war upon and murdered our 
people thereon, has rendered it necessary temporarily to occupy, by 



National Democratic Platform. 235 

our armed forces, a portion of the territory of that friendly state. 
Until by the estoration of law and order therein, a repetition of 
such incursions is improbable, the necessity for their remaining 
will continue. Intervention, implying as it does military subjuga- 
tion, is revolting to the people of the United States, notwithstand- 
ing the provocation to that course has been great and should be 
resorted to, if at all, only as a last recourse. The stubborn resist- 
ance of the President and his advisers to every demand and sug- 
gestion to enter upon it, is creditable alike to them and to the peo- 
ple in whose name he speaks. 

MERCHANT MARINE. 

Immediate provision should be made for the development of the 
carrying trade of the United States. Our foreign commerce has in 
the past been subject to many unnecessary and vexatious obstacles 
in the way of legislation of Republican Congresses. Until the re- 
cent Democratic tariff legislation, it was hampered by unreasonable 
burdens of taxation. Until the recent banking legislation, it had 
at its disposal few of the necessary instrumentalities of interna- 
tional credit and exchange. Until the formulation of the pending act 
to promote the construction of a merchant marine, it lacked even 
the prospect of adequate carriage by sea. We heartily indorse the 
purposes and policy of the pending shipping bill and favor all such 
additional measures of constructive or remedial legislation as may 
be necessary to restore our flag to the seas and to provide further 
facilities for our foreign commerce, particularly such laws as may 
be requisite to remove unfair conditions of competition in the 
dealings of American merchants and producers with competitors 
in foreign markets. 

CONSERVATION. 

For the safeguarding and quickening of the life of our own peo- 
ple, we favor the conservation and development of the natural re- 
sources of the country through a policy which shall be positive 
rather than negative, a policy which shall not withhold such re- 
sources from development but which while permitting and en- 
couraging their use, shall prevent both waste and monopoly in 
their exploitation, and we earnestly favor the passage of acts which 
will accomplish these objects, reaffirming the declaration of the 
platform of 1912 on this subject. 



236 Platforms of Political Parties. 

The policy of reclaiming our arid lands should be steadily ad- 
hered to. 

THE ADMINISTRATION AND THE FARMER. 

We favor the vigorous prosecution of investigations and plans to 
render agriculture more profitable and country life more healthful, 
comfortable and attractive, and we believe that this should be a 
dominant aim of the Nation as well as of the States. With all its 
recent improvement, farming still lags behind other occupations in 
development as a business, and the advantages of an advancing 
civilization have not accrued to rural communities in a fair propor- 
tion. Much has been accomplished in this field under the present 
administration, far more than under any previous administration. 
In the Federal Reserve Act of the last Congress and the Rural 
Credits Act of the present Congress, the machinery has been created 
which will make credit available to the farmer constantly and 
readily, placing him at last upon a footing of equality with the 
merchant and the manufacturer in securing the capital necessary 
to carry on his enterprises. Grades and standards necessary to the 
intelligent and successful conduct of the business of agriculture 
have also been established or are in the course of being established 
by law. The long-needed Cotton Futures Act, passed by the Sixty- 
third Congress, has now been in successful operation for nearly two 
years. A Grain Grades Bill, long needed, and a Permissive Ware- 
house Bill, intended to provide better storage facilities and to en- 
able the farmer to obtain certificates upon which he may secure 
advances of money, have been passed by the Hopse of Representa- 
tives, have been favorably reported to the Senate, and will probably 
become law during the present session of the Congress. Both 
Houses have passed a good-roads measure which will be of far reach- 
ing benefit to all agricultural communities. Above all, the most 
extraordinary and significant progress has been made, under the 
direction of the Department of Agriculture, in extending and per- 
fecting practical farm demonstration work which is so rapidly sub- 
stituting scientific for empirical farming. But it is also necessary 
that rural activities should be better directed through cooperation 
and organization, that unfair methods of competition should be 
eliminated and the conditions requisite for the just, orderly and 
economical marketing of farm products created. We approve the 
Democratic administration for having emphatically directed atten- 



National Democratic Platform. 237 

tion for the first time to the essential interests of agriculture in- 
volved in farm marketing and finance, for creating the Office of 
Markets and Rural Organization in connection with the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, and for extending the cooperative machinery 
necessary for conveying information to farmers by means of demon- 
strations. We favor continued liberal provision, not only for the 
benefit of production, but also for the study and solution of prob- 
lems of farm marketing and finance and for the extension of existing 
agencies for improving country life. 

good roads. 

The happiness, comfort and prosperity of rural life, and the de- 
velopment of the city, are alike conserved by the construction of 
public highways. "We, therefore, favor national aid in the construc- 
tion of post roads and roads for military purposes. 

GOVERNMENT EMPLOYMENT. 

We hold that the life, health and strength of the men, women and 
children of the Nation are its greatest asset, and that in the con- 
servation of these the Federal Government, wherever it acts as the 
employer of labor, should both on its own account and as an exam- 
ple, put into effect the folowing principles of just employment: 

1. A living wage for all employees. 

2. A working day not to exceed eight hours, with one day of rest 
in seven. 

3. The adoption of safety appliances and the establishment of 
thoroughly sanitary conditions of labor. 

4. Adequate compensation for industrial accidents. 

5. The standards of the "Uniform Child Labor Law" wherever 
minors are employed. 

6. Such provisions for decency, comfort and health in the employ- 
ment of women as should be accorded the mothers of the race. 

7. An equitable retirement law providing for the retirement of 
superannuated and disabled employees of the civil service, to the 
end that a higher standard of efficiency may be maintained. 

We believe also that the adoption of similar principles should be 
urged and applied in the legislation of the States with regard to 
labor within their borders and that through every possible agency 
the life and health of the people of the Nation should be conserved. 



238 Platforms of Political Parties. 



labor. 



We declare our faith in the Seamen's Act, passed by the Demo- 
cratic Congress, and we promise our earnest continuance of its en- 
forcement. 

We favor the speedy enactment of an effective Federal Child La- 
bor Law, and the regulation of the shipment of prison-made goods 
in interstate commerce. 

We favor the creation of a Federal Bureau of Safety in the De- 
partment of Labor, to gather facts concerning industrial hazards, 
and to recommend legislation to prevent the maiming and killing 
of human beings. 

We favor the extension of the powers and functions of the Fed- 
eral Bureau of Mines. 

We favor the development upon a systematic scale of the means, 
already begun under the present administration, to assist laborers 
throughout the Union to seek and obtain employment, and the 
extension by the Federal Government of the same assistance and 
encouragement as is now given to agricultural training. 

We heartily commend our newly established Department of Labor 
for its fine records in settling strikes by personal advice and 
through conciliating agents. 

public health. 

We favor a thorough reconsideration of the means and methods 
by which the Federal Government handles questions of public 
health to the end that human life may be conserved by the elimina- 
tion of loathsome diseases, the improvement of sanitation, and the 
diffusion of a knowledge of disease prevention. 

We favor the establishment by the Federal Government of tuber- 
culosis sanitariums for needy tubercular patients. 

SENATE RULES. 

We favor such alteration of the rules of procedure of the Senate 
of the United States as will permit the prompt transaction of the 
Nation's legislative business. 

ECONOMY AND THE BUDGET. 

We demand careful economy in all expenditures for the support 
of the Government, and to that end favor a return by the House of 



National Democratic Platform. 239 

Representatives to its former practice of initiating and preparing 
all appropriation bills through a single committee chosen from its 
membership, in order that responsibility may be centered, expendi- 
tures standardized and made uniform, and waste and duplication 
in the public service as much a spossible avoided. "We favor this as 
a practicable first step toward a budget system. 

CIVIL SERVICE. 

We reaffirm our declaration for the rigid enforcement of the Civil 
Service laws. 

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 

"We heartily indorse the provisions of the bill, recently passed by 
the House of Representatives, further promoting self-government in 
the Philippine Islands as being in fulfillment of the policy declared 
by the Democratic Party in its last National platform, and we reit- 
erate our indorsement of the purpose of ultimate independence for 
the Philippine Islands, expressed in the preamble of that measure. 

WOMAN SUFFRAGE. 

We recommend the extension of the franchise to the women of 
the country by the States upon the same terms as to men. 

PROTECTION OF CITIZENS. 

We again declare the policy that the sacred rights of American 
citizenship must be preserved at home and abroad, and that no 
treaty shall receive the sanction of our Government which does not 
expressly recognize the absolute equality of all our citizens irrespec- 
tive of race, creed or previous nationality, and which does not rec- 
ognize the right of expatriation. The American Government should 
protect American citizens in their rights not only at home, but 
abroad, and any country having a government should be held to a 
strict accountability for any wrongs done them, either to person or 
to property. At the earliest practicable opportunity our country 
should strive earnestly for peace among the warring nations of 
Europe and seek to bring about the adoption of the fundamental 
principle of justice and humanity, that all men shall enjoy equality 
of right and freedom from discrimination in the lands wherin they 
dwell. 



240 Platforms of Political Parties. 



PRISON REFORM. 



We demand that the modern principles of prison reform be ap- 
plied in our Federal Penal System. We favor such work for pris- 
oners as shall give them training in remunerative occupations so 
that they may make an honest living when released from prison; 
the setting apart of the net wages of the prisoner to be paid to his 
dependent family or to be reserved for his own use upon his re- 
lease; the liberal extension of the principles of the Federal Parole 
Law, with due regard both to the welfare of the prisoners and the 
interests of society; the adoption of the probation system, espe- 
cially in the case of first offenders not convicted of serious crimes. 



PENSIONS. 



We renew the declarations of recent Democratic platforms relat- 
ing to generous pensions for soldiers and their widows and call 
attention to our record of performance in this particular. 

WATERWAYS AND FLOOD CONTROL. 

We renew the declarations of recent Democratic platforms relat- 
ing to development of our waterways. The recent devastation of 
the lower Mississippi Valley and several other sections by floods 
accentuates the movement for the regulation of river flow by addi- 
tional bank and levee protection below, and diversion, storage and 
control of the flood waters above, and their utilization for beneficial 
purposes in the reclamation of arid and swamp lands, and develop- 
ment of water power, instead of permitting the floods to continue as 
heretofore agents of destruction. We hold that the control of the 
Mississippi River is a national problem. The preservation of the 
depth of its waters for purposes of navigation, the building of levees 
and works of bank protection to maintain the integrity of its chan- 
nel and prevent the overflow of its valley resulting in the interrup- 
tion of interstate commerce, the disorganization of the mail service, 
and the enormous loss of life and property, impose an obligation 
which alone can be discharged by the National Government. 

We favor the adoption of a liberal and comprehensive plan for 
the development and improvement of our harbors and inland water- 
ways with economy and efficiency so as to permit their navigation 
by vesesls of standard draft. 



National Democratic Platform. 241 

ALASKA. 

It has been and will be the policy of the Democratic Party to 
enact all laws necessary for the speedy development of Alaska and 
its great natural resources. 

territories. 

We favor granting to the people of Alaska, Hawaii and Porto 
Rico the traditional territorial government accorded to all territo- 
ries of the United States since the beginning of our Government, 
and we believe that the officials appointed to administer the gov- 
ernment of these several territories should be qualified by previous 
bona fide residence. 

CANDIDATES. 

We unreservedly indorse our President and Vice-President, 
Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey, and Thomas Riley Marshall of In- 
diana, who have performed the functions of their great offices faith- 
fully and impartially, and with distinguished ability. 

In particular we commend to the American people the splendid 
diplomatic victories of our great President, who has preserved the 
vital interest of our Government and its citizens and kept us out 
of war. 

Woodrow Wilson stands today the greatest American of his gen- 
eration. 

CONCLUSION. 

This is a critical hour in the history of America, a critical hour 
in the history of the world. Upon the record above set forth, which 
shows great constructive achievement in following out a consistent 
policy for our domestic and internal development; upon the record 
of the Democratic administration which has maintained the honor, 
the dignity and the interests of the United States, and at the same 
time, retained the respect and friendship of all the nations of the 
world; and upon the great policies for the future strengthening of 
the life of our country, the enlargement of our national vision and 
the ennobling of our international relations, as set forth above, we 
appeal with confidence to the voters of the country. 



16 



242 Platforms of Political Parties. 

NATIONAL REPUBLICAN PLATFORM. 

Adopted by the 1016 Chicago Convention. 

In 1861 the Republican Party stood for the Union. As it stood for 
the union of States, it now stands for a united people, true to Amer- 
ican ideals, loyal to American traditions, knowing no allegiance ex- 
cept to the Constitution, to the Government and to the flag of the 
United States. We believe in American policies at home and 
abroad. 

PROTECTION OF AMERICAN RIGHTS. 

We declare that we believe in and will enforce the protection of 
every American citizen in all the rights secured to him by the 
Constitution, treaties and the law of nations, at home and abroad, 
by land and by sea. These rights, which in violation of the specific 
promise of their party made at Baltimore in 1912 the Democratic 
President and the Democratic Congress have failed to defend, we 
will unflinchingly maintain. 

FOREIGN RELATIONS. 

We desire peace, the peace of justice and right, and believe in 
maintaining a straight and honest neutrality betwen the belliger- 
ents in the great war in Europe. We must perform all our duties 
and insist upon all our rights as neutrals without fear and without 
favor. We believe that peace and neutrality as well as the dignity 
and influence of the United States cannot be preserved by shifty 
expedients, by phrase-making, by performances in language, or by 
attitudes ever changing in an effort to secure votes of voters. The 
present administration has destroyed our influence abroad and hu- 
miliated us in our own eyes. The Republican Party believes that a 
firm, consistent and courageous foreign policy, always maintained 
by Republican Presidents in accordance with American traditions, 
is the best, as it is the only true way to preserve our peace and 
restore us to our rightful place among the nations. We believe in 
the .pacific settlement of international disputes and favor the estab- 
lishment of a world court for that purpose. 

MEXICO. 

We deeply sympathize with the 15,000,000 people of Mexico who 
for three years have seen their country devastated, their homes de- 



National Republican Platform. 243 

stroyed, their fellow-citizens murdered and their women outraged 
by armed bands of desperadoes led by self-seeking, conscienceless 
agitators, who when temporarily successful in any locality have 
neither sought nor been able to restore order or establish and main- 
tain peace. 

We express our horror and indignation at the outrages which 
have been and are being perpetrated by these bandits upon Ameri- 
can men and women who were or are in Mexico by invitation of the 
laws and of the government of that country, and whose rights to 
security of persons and property are guaranteed by solemn treaty 
obligations. We denounce the indefensible methods of interference 
employed by this administration in the internal affairs of Mexico 
and refer with shame to its failure to discharge the duty of this 
country as next friend to Mexico, its duty to other powers who 
have relied upon us as such friend, and its duty to our citizens in 
Mexico, in permitting the continuance of such conditions, first by 
failure to act promptly and firmly, and second, by lending its in- 
fluence to the continuation of such conditions through recognition 
of one of the factions responsible for these outrages. 

We pledge our aid in restoring order and maintaining peace in 
Mexico. We promise to our citizens on and near our border and to 
those in Mexico, wherever they may be found, adequate and abso- 
lute protection in their lives, liberty and property. 

MONROE DOCTRINE. 

We reaffirm our approval of the Monroe Doctrine, and declare its 
maintenance to be a policy of this country essential to its present 
and future peace and safety and to the achievement of its manifest 
destiny. 

LATIN-AMERICA. 

We favor the continuance of Republican policies, which will re- 
sult in drawing more and more clostly the commercial, financial 
and social relations between this country and the countries of 
Latin-America. 

PHILIPPINES. 

We renew our allegiance to the Philippine policy inaugurated by 
McKinley, approved by Congres and consistently carried out by 
Roosevelt and Taft. Even in this short time it had enormously im- 



244 Platforms of Political Parties. 

proved the material and social conditions of the islands, giving the 
Philippine people a constantly increasing participation in their 
government and if persisted in it will bring still greater benefits in 
the future. 

We accepted the responsibility of the islands as a duty to civiliza- 
tion, and the Filipino people. To leave without the task half done, 
would break our pledges, injure our prestige among nations and im- 
peril what has already been acomplished. 

We condemn the Democratic administration for its attempt to 
abandon the Philippines, which was prevented only by the vigorous 
opposition of Republican members of Congress, aided by a few 
patriotic Democrats. 

BROTHERHOOD AMONG NATIONS. 

We reiterate our unqualified approval of the action taken in 
December. 1911, by the President and Congres to secure with Rus- 
sia, as with other countries, a treaty that will recognize the abso- 
lute right' of expatriation and prevent all discrimination of what- 
ever kind between American citizens, whether native born or alien, 
and regardless of race, religion or previous political allegiance. We 
renew the pledge to observe this principle and to maintain the 
right of asylum which is neither to be surrendered nor restricted, 
and we unite in the cherished hope that the war which is now 
desolating the world may speedily end, with a complete and lasting 
restoration of brotherhood among the nations of the earth and the 
assurance of full equal rights, civil and religious, to all men in 
every land. 

PROTECTION OF THE COUNTRY. 

In order to maintain our peace and make certain the security of 
our people within our own borders, the country must have not only 
adequate, but thorough and complete national defense ready for any 
emergency. We must have a sufficient and efficient regular ar-ny, 
and a provision for ample reserves, already drilled and disciplined, 
who can be called at once to the colors when the hour of danger 
comes. 

We must have a navy so strong and so well proportioned and 
equipped, so thoroughly ready and prepared, that no enemy can 
gain command of the sea and effect a landing in force on either our 
western or our eastern coast. To secure these results we must have 



National Republican Platform. 245 

a coherent continuous policy of national defense, which even in 
these perilous days the Democratic party has utterly failed to de- 
velop, but which we promise to give to the country. 

TARIFF. 

The Republican Party stands now, as always, in the fullest sense 
for the policy of tariffs protection to American industries and 
American labor, and does not regard an antidumping provision as 
an adequate substitute. Such protection should be reasonable in 
amount, but sufficient to protect adequately American industry and 
American labor, and be so adjusted as to prevent undue exactions 
by monopolies or trusts. It should, moreover, give special atten- 
tion to securing the industrial independence of the United States, 
as in the case of dyestuffs. 

Through wise tariffs and industrial legislation our industries can 
be so organized that they will become not only a commercial bul- 
wark, but a powerful aid to national defense. 

The Simmons-Underwood Tariff Act is a complete failure in every 
respect. Under its administration imports have enormously in- 
creased in spite of the fact that the intercourse with foreign coun- 
tries has been largely cut off by reason of the war. while the reve- 
nues of which we stand in such dire need have been greatly re- 
duced. Under the normal conditions which prevailed prior to the 
war it was clearly demonstrated that this act deprived the Ameri- 
can producer and the American wage-earner of that protection 
which entitled them to meet their foreign competitors, and but for 
the adventitious conditions created by the war, would long since 
have paralyzed all forms of American industry and deprived Ameri- 
can labor of its just reward. 

It has not in the least reduced the cost of living, which has con- 
stantly advanced from the date of its enactment. The welfare of 
our people demand its repeal and the subtsitution of a measure 
which in time of peace as well as in war wil produce ample revenue 
and give reasonable protection to all forms of American production 
in mine, forest, field and factory. 

We favor the creation of a tariff commission with complete power 
to gather and compile information for the use of Congress in all 
matters relating to the tariff. 



246 Plateorms of Political Parties. 



business. 



The Republican Party lias long believed in the rigid supervision 
and strict regulation of the transportation and of great corpora- 
tions of the country. It has put its creed into its deeds and all really 
effective laws regulating the railroads and the great industrial cor- 
porations are the work of Republican Congresses and Presidents. 
For this policy of regulation and supervison the Democrats, in a 
stumbling and piecemeal way, are undertaking to involve the gov- 
ernment in business which should be left within the sphere of pri- 
vate enterprise and in direct competition with its own citizens, a 
policy which is sure to result in waste, great expense to the tax- 
payer and in an inferior product. 

The Republican Party firmly believes that all who violate the 
laws in regulation of business should be individually punished. But 
prosecution is very different from persecution, and business success, 
no matter how honestly attained, is apparently regarded by the 
Democratic party as in itself a crime. Such doctrines and beliefs 
choke enterprise and stifle prosperity. The Republican Party be- 
lieves in encouraging American business, as it believes in and will 
seek to advance all American interests. 

RURAL CREDITS. 

We favor an effective system of rural credits as opposed to the in- 
effective law proposed by the present Democratic adminstration. 

RURAL FREE DELIVERY. 

We favor the extension of the rural free delivery system and con- 
demn the Democratic administration for curtailing and crippling it. 

• 

MERCHANT MARINE. 

In view of the policies adopted by all the maritime nations to en- 
courage their shipping interests, and in order to enable us to com- 
pete with them for the ocean-carrying trade, we favor the payment 
to ships engaged in the foreign trade of liberal compensation for 
services actually rendered in carrying the mails, and such further 
legislation as will build up an adequate merchant marine and give 
us ships which may be requisitioned by the government in time of 
national emergency. 



National Republican Platform. 247 

"We are utterly opposed to the government ownership of vessels 
as proposed by the Democratic party, because government-owned 
vessels, while effectively preventing the development of the Ameri- 
can merchant marine by private capital, will be entirely unable to 
provide for the vast volume of American freights and will leave us 
more helpless than ever in the hard grip of foreign syndicates. 

TRANSPORTATION. 

Interstate and intrastate transportation have become so inter- 
woven that the attempt to apply two and often several sets of laws 
to its regulation has produced conflicts of authority, embarrassment 
in operation and inconvenience and expense to the public. 

The entire transportation system of the country has become 
essentially national. We therefore favor such action by legisla- 
tion or, if necesary, through an amendment to the Constitution of 
the United States, as will result in placing it under exclusive fed- 
eral control. 

ECONOMY AND A NATIONAL BUDGET. 

The increasing cost of the National Government and the need for 
the greatst economy of its resources in order to meet the growing 
demands of the people for government service call for the severest 
condemnation of the wasteful appropriatons of this Democratic 
administration, of its shameles raids on the treasury, and of its 
opposition to and rejection of President Taft's oft-repeated proposals 
and earnest efforts to secure economy and efficiency through the 
establishment of a simple business-like budget system to which we 
pledge our support and which we hold to be necessary to effect a 
real reform in the administration of national finances. 

CONSERVATION. 

We believe in a careful husbandry of all the natural resources of 
the nation — a husbandry which means development without waste; 
use without abuse. 

CIVIL SERVICE REFORM. 

The civil service law has always been sustained by the Republi- 
can Party and we renew our repeated declaration that it shall be 
thoroughly and honestly enforced and extended wherever practi- 
cable. The Democratic Party has created since March 4, 1913, 



248 Platforms of Political Parties. 

30.000 offices outside of the civil service law at an annual cost of 
$44,000,000 to the taxpayers of the country. 

We condemn the gross abuse and the misuse of the law by the 
present Democratic administration and pledge ourselves to a reor- 
ganization along lines of efficiency and economy. 

territorial matters. 

Reaffirming the attitude long maintained by the Republican 
Party, we hold that officials appointed to administer the govern- 
ment of any territory should be bona fide residents of the territory 
in which their duties are to be performed. 

LABOR LAWS. 

We pledge the Republican Party to the faithful enforcement of 
all Federal laws passed for the protection of labor. We favor voca- 
tional education; the enactment and rigid enforcement of a Federal 
child labor law; the enactment of a generous and comprehensive 
workmen's compensation law within the commerce power of Con- 
gress, and an accident compensation law covering all government 
employees. We favor the collection and collation under the direc- 
tion of the Department of Labor of complete data relating to indus- 
trial hazards for the information of Congress, to the end that such 
legislation may be adopted as may be calculated to secure the 
safety, conservation and protection of labor from the dangers inci- 
dent to industry and transportation. 

SUFFRAGE. 

The Republican Party, reaffirming its faith in government of the 
people, by the people, for the people, as a measure of justice to one- 
half the adult people of this country, favors the extension of the 
suffrage to women, but recognizes the right of each State to settle 
this question for itself. 

APPEALS TO ALL AMERICANS. 

Such are our principles, such are our purposes and policies. We 
close as we began. The times are dangerous and the future is 
fraught with peril. The great issues of the day have been confused 
by words and phrases. The American spirit, which made the coun- 
try and saved the Union, has been forgotten by those charged with 



National Socialist Platform. 249 

the responsibility of power. We appeal to all Americans, whether 
naturalized or native born, to prove to the world that we are Ameri- 
cans in thought and deed, with one loyalty, one hope, one aspiration. 
We call on all Americans to be true to the spirit of America, to the 
great traditions of their common country, and, above all things, to 
keep the faith. 



NATIONAL SOCIALIST PLATFORM 

In the midst of the greatest crisis and bloodiest struggle of all 
history the Socialist Party of America reaffirms its steadfast adher- 
ence to the principles of international brotherhood, world peace and 
industrial democracy. 

The great war which has engulfed so much of civilization and de- 
stroyed millions of lives is' one of the natural results of the capitalist 
system of production. 

The Socialist Party, as the political expression of the economic in- 
terests of the working class, calls upon them to take a determined 
stand on the question of militarism and war, and to recognize the 
opportunity which the Great War has given them of forcing disarma- 
ment and furthering the cause of industrial freedom. 

An armed force in the hands of the ruling class serves two pur- 
poses; to protect and further the policy of imperialism abroad and 
to silence the protest of the workers against industrial despotism at 
home. Imperialism and militarism plunged Europe into this world- 
war. America's geographical and industrial situation has kept her 
out of the cataclysm. But Europe's extremity has been the oppor- 
tunity of America's ruling class to amass enormous profits. As a 
result, there is a surfeit of capital which demands the policy of 
imperialism to protect and further investments abroad. Hence the 
frenzy of militarism into which the ruling class has made every at- 
tempt to force the United States. 

The workers in Europe were helpless to avert the war because 
they were already saddled with the burden of militarism. The work- 
ers in the United States are yet free from this burden and have the 
opportunity of establishing a working class policy and program 
against war. They can compel the government of the United States 
to lead the way in an international movement for disarmament -and 
to abandon the policy of imperialism which is forcing the conquest of 



250 Platforms of Political Parties. 

Mexico and must, if carried out, eventually plunge the United States 
into a world-war. 

The working class must recognize the cry of preparedness against 
foreign invasion as a mere cloak for the sinister purpose of imperial- 
ism abroad and industrial tyranny at home. The class struggle, like 
capitalism, is international. The proletariat of the world has but 
one enemy, the capitalist class, whether at home or abroad. We 
must refuse to put into the hands of this enemy an armed force even 
under the guise of a "democratic army," as the workers of Australia 
and Switzerland have done. 

Therefore the Socialist Party stands opposed to military prepared- 
ness, to any appropriations of men or money for war or militarism, 
while control of such forces through the political state rests in the 
hands of the capitalist class. The Social Party stands committed 
to the class war, and urges upon the workers in the mines and for- 
ests, on the railways and ships, in factories and fields, the use of 
their economic and industrial power, by refusing to mine the coal, to 
transport soldiers, to furnish food or other supplies for military pur- 
poses, and thus keep out of the hands of the ruling class the control 
of armed forces and economic power, necessary for aggression abroad 
and industrial despotism at home. 

The working class must recognize militarism as the greatest 
menace to all efforts toward industrial freedom, and regardless of 
political or industrial affiliations must present a united front in the 
fight against preparedness and militarism. 

Hideous as they are, the horrors of the far-stretched battlefield of 
the old world are dwarfed by the evil results of the capitalist system, 
even in normal times. Instead of being organized to provide all 
members of society with an abundance of food, clothing and shelter, 
and the highest attainable freedom and culture, industry is at pres- 
est organized and conducted for the benefit of a parasitic class. All 
the powers of government, and all our industrial genius, are directed 
to the end of securing to the relatively small class of capitalist in- 
vestors the largest amount of profits which can be wrung from the 
labor of the ever-increasing class whose only property is muscle and 
brain, manual and mental labor power. 

The dire consequences of this system are everywhere apparent. 
The workers are oppressed and deprived of much that makes for 
physical, mental, and moral well-being. Year by year poverty and 



National Socialist Platform. 251 

industrial accidents destroy more lives than al the armies and navies 
in the world. 

To preserve their privilege and power is the most vital interest of 
the possessing class while it is the most vital interest of the work- 
ing class to resist oppression, improve its position, and struggle to 
obtain security of life and liberty. Hence there exists a conflict of 
interests, a social war within the nation, which can know neither 
truce nor compromise. So long as the few own and control the 
economic life of the nation the many must be enslaved, poverty must 
coexist with riotous luxury, and civil strife prevail. 

The Socialist Party would end these conditions by reorganizing the 
life of the nation upon the basis of Socialism. Socialism would not 
abolish private property, but greatly extend it. We believe that 
every human being should have and own all the things which he can 
use to advantage, for the enrichment of his own life, without impos- 
ing disadvantage or burden upon any other human being. Socialism 
admits the private ownership and individual direction of all things, 
tools, economic processes and functions which are individualistic in 
character, and requires the collective ownership and democratic 
control and direction of those which are social or collectivistic in 
character. 

We hold that this country cannot enjoy happiness and prosperity 
at home and maintain lasting peace with other nations, so long as 
its industrial wealth is monopolized by a capitalist oligarchy. In 
this, as in every other campaign, all special issues arising from tem- 
porary situations, whether domestic or foreign, must be subordinated 
to the major issue — the need of such a reorganization of our eco- 
nomic life as will remove the land, the mines, forests, railroads, mills 
and factories, all the things required for our physical existence, from 
the clutches of industrial and financial freebooters and place them 
securely and permanently in the hands of the people. 

If men were free to labor to satisfy their desires there could be 
in this country neither poverty nor involuntary unemployment. But 
the men in this country are not free to labor to satisfy their desires. 
The great industrial population can labor only when the capitalist 
c^ass, who own the industries, believe they can market their product 
at a profit. The needs of millions are subordinated to the greeds of 
a few. The situation is not unlike that of a pyramid balanced upon 
its apex. Oftentimes this pyramid tumbles and industrial depression 
comes. There was such a crash in 1907. If the capitalist own- 



252 Platforms of Political Parties. 

ers had been willing to get out of the way, industry could have been 
revived in a day. But the capitalist owners are never willing to get 
out of the way. Their greeds come first — the people's needs, if at all, 
afterward. Therefore business did not quickly revive after the in- 
dustrial depression of 1907. Mr. Taft was elected to bring good 
times, but in four years failed to bring them. Mr. Wilson was elected 
to bring good times, but not all of the measures he advocated had 
the slightest effect upon industry. The European war has brought to 
this country tremendous orders for military supplies and has created 
a period of prosperity for the few. For the masses of the people 
there is but an opportunity to work hard for a bare living, which is 
not prosperity, but slavery. As against the boast of the presnt na- 
tional administration that its political program, now fully in force, 
has brought prosperity to the masses, we call attention to the state- 
ment of the Federal Public Health Service that $800 a year is re- 
quired to enable a family to avoid physical deterioration through 
lack of decent living conditions, that more than half of the families 
of working men receive less than that amount, that nearly a third 
receive less than $500 a year, and that one family in twelve receives 
less than $300 a year. 

The capitalist class, for a great many years, has been trying to 
saddle upon this country a greater army and a greater navy. A 
greater army is desired to keep the working class of the United 
States in subjection. A greater navy is desired to safeguard the 
foreign investments of American capitalists and to "back up" Ameri- 
can diplomacy in its efforts to gain foreign markets for American 
capitalists. The war in Europe, which diminished and is still dimin- 
ishing the remote possibility of European attack upon the United 
States, was nevertheles seized upon by capitalists and by unscrupu- 
lous politicians as a means of spreading fear throughout the country, 
to the end that, by false pretenses, great military establishments 
might be obtained. We denounce such "preparedness," as both false 
in principle, unnecessary in character and dangerous in its plain 
tendencies toward militarism. We advocate that sort of social pre- 
paredness which expresses itself in better homes, better bodies and 
better minds, which are alike the products of plenty and the neces- 
sity of effective defense in war. 

The Socialist Party maintains its attitude of unalterable opposi- 
tion to war. 



National Socialist Platform. 253 

We reiterate the statement that the competitive nature of capital- 
ism is the cause of modern war, and, that the cooperative nature of 
Socialism is alone adapted to the task of ending war by removing its 
cause. We assert, however, that, even under the present capitalist 
order, additional measures can be taken to safeguard peace, and to 
this end, we demand: 

MEASURES TO INSURE PEACE. 

1. That all laws and appropriations for the increase of the military 
and naval forces of the United States shall be immediately repealed. 

2. That the power be taken from the President to lead the nation 
into a position which leaves no escape from war. No one man, how- 
ever exalted in official station, should have the power to decide the 
question of peace or war for a nation of a hundred millions. To 
give one man such power is neither democratic nor safe. Yet the 
President exercises such power when he determines what shall be 
the nation's foreign policies and what shall be the nature and tone 
of its diplomatic intercourse with other nations. We, therefore, de- 
mand that the power to fix foreign policies and conduct diplomatic 
negotiations shall be lodged in Congress and shall be exercised pub- 
licly, the people reserving the right by referendum to order Congress 
at any time, to change its foreign policy. 

3. That no war shall be declared or waged by the United States 
without a referendum vote of the entire people, except for the pur- 
pose of repelling invasion. 

4. That the Monroe Doctrine shall be immediately abandoned as a 
danger so great that even its advocates are agreed that it constitutes 
perhaps our greatest single danger of war. The Monroe Doctrine 
was originally intended to safeguard the peace of the United States. 
Though the Doctrine has changed from a safeguard to a menace, the 
capitalist class still defends it for the reason that our great capital- 
ists desire to retain South and Central America as their private 
trade preserve. We favor the cultivation of social, industrial and 
political friendship with all other nations in the western hemisphere, 
as an approach to world confederation of nations, but we oppose the 
Monroe Doctrine because it takes from our hands the peace of 
America and places it in the custody of any nation that would attack 
the sovereignty of any state in the western world. 

5. That the independence of the Philippine Islands be immediately 
recognized as a measure of justice both to the Filipinos and to our- 



254 Platforms of Political Parties. 

selves. The Filipinos are entitled to self-government; we are entitled 
to be freed from the necessity of building and maintaining enough 
dreadnoughts to defend them in the event of war. 

6. The government of the United States shall call a congress of 
all neutral nationas to mediate between the belligerent powers in an 
effort to establish an immediate and lasting peace without indemni- 
ties, or forcible annexation of teritory, and based on a binding and 
enforcible international treaty, which shall provide for concerted dis- 
armament on land and at sea and for an International Congress 
with power to adjust all disputes between nations, and which shall 
guarantee freedom and equal rights to all oppressed nations and 
races. 

WORKING PROGRAM. 

As general measures calculated to strengthen the working class in 
its fight for the realization of its ultimate aim, the Cooperative Com- 
monwealth, and to increase its power of resistance against capitalist 
oppression, we advocate and pledge ourselves and our elected officers 
to the following program: 

Political Demands. 

1. Unrestricted and equal suffrage for men and women. 

2. The immediate adoption of the so-called "Susan B. Anthony 
amendment" to the constitution of the United States granting the 
suffrage to women on equal terms with men. 

3. The adoption of the initiative, referendum and recall and of pro- 
portional representation, nationally as well as locally. 

4. The abolition of the Senate and of the veto power of the Presi- 
dent. 

5. The election of the President and the Vice-President by direct 
vote of the people. 

6. The abolition of the presnt restriction upon the amendment of 
the constitution so that that instrument may be made amenable by a 
majority of the votes in the country. 

7. The calling of a convention for the revision of the constitution 
of the United States. 

8. The abolition of the power usurped by the Supreme Court of the 
United States to pass upon the constitutionality of legislation enacted 
by Congress. National laws to be repealed only by act of Congress 
or by a referendum vote of the whole people. 



National Socialist Platform. . 255 

9. The immediate curbing of the power of the courts to issue in- 
junctions. 

10. The election of all judges of the United States Courts for short 
terms. 

11. The free administration of the law. 

12". The granting of the right of suffrage in the District of Colum- 
bia with representation in Congress and a democratic form of munici- 
pal government for purely local affairs. 

13. The extension of democratic government to all United States 
territory. 

14. The freedom of press, speech and assemblage. 

15. The increase of the rates of the present income tax and corpo- 
ration tax and the extension of inheritance taxes, graduated in pro- 
portion to the value of the estate and to nearness of kin — the pro- 
ceeds of these taxes to be employed in the socialization of industry. 

16. The enactment of further measures for general education and 
particularly for vocational education in useful pursuits. The Bureau 
of Education to be made a department. 

17. The enactment of further measures for the conservation of 
health and the creation of an independent department of health. 

18. The abolition of the monopoly ownership of patents and the 
substitution of collective ownership, with direct rewards to inventors 
by premiums or royalties. 

Collective Ownership. 

1. The collective ownership and democratic management of rail- 
roads, telegraphs and telephones, express service, steamboat lines 
and all other social means of transportation and communication and 
of all large-scale industries. 

2. The immediate acquirement by the municipalities, the states or 
the federal government, of all grain elevators, stock-yards, storage 
warehouses and other distributing agencies, in order to relieve the 
farmer from the extortionate charges of the middlemen and to reduce 
the present high cost of living. 

3. The extension of the public domain to include mines, quarries, 
oil wells, forests and water power. 

4. The further conservation and development of natural resources 
for the use and benefit of all the people: 

(a). By scientic forestation and timber protection. 
(&). By the reclamation of arid and swamp tracts. 



256 Platforms of Political Parties. 

(c). By the storage of flood waters and the utilization of water 

power. 
(d). By the stoppage of the present extravagant waste of the soil 

and the products of mines and oil wells. 
(e). By the development of highway and waterway systems. 

5. The collective ownership of land wherever practicable, and in 
cases where such ownership is impracticable, the appropriation by 
taxation of the annual rental value of all land held for speculation 
or exploitation. 

6. All currency shall be issued by the Government of the United 
States and shall be legal tenders for the payment of taxes and impost 
duties and for the discharge of public and private 'debts. The Gov- 
ernment shall lend money on bonds to counties and municipalities at 
a nominal rate of interest for the purpose of taking over or establish- 
ing public utilities and for building or maintaining public roads and 
highways, and public schools — up to 25 per cent of the assessed valua- 
tion of such counties or municipalities. Said bonds are to be repaid 
in twenty equal and annual installments, and the currency issued 
for that purpose by the Government is to be cancelled and destroyed 
seriatim as the debt is repaid. All banks and banking institutions 
shall be owned by the Government of the United States or by the 
States. 

7. Government relief of the unemployed by the extension of all 
useful public works. All persons employed on such work to be en- 
gaged directly by the Government under a work day of not more than 
eight hours and at not less than the prevailing union wages. The 
Government also to establish employment bureaus; to lend money to 
States and municipalities without interest for the purpose of car- 
rying on public works, to contribute money to unemployment funds 
of labor unions and other organizations of workers, and to take such 
other measures within its power as will lessen the widespread misery 
of the workers caused by the misrule of the capitalist class. 

Industrial Demands. 

The conservation of human resources, particularly of the lives and 
well-being of the workers and their families: 

1. By shortening the work day in keping with the increased pro- 
ductiveness of machinery. 

2. By securing the freedom of political and economical organiza- 
tions and activities. 



National Prohibition Platform. 257 

3. By securing to every worker a rest period of not less than a 
day and a half in each week. 

4. By securing a more effective inspection of workshops, factories 
and mines. 

5. By forbidding the employment of children under eighteen years 
of age. 

6. By forbidding the interstate transportation of the products of 
child labor and of all uninspected factories and mines. 

7. By establishing minimum wage scales. 

8. By abolishing official charity and substituting a non-contribu- 
tory system of old age pensions, a general system of insurance by 
the State of all its mebers against unemployment and invalidism, 
and a system of compulsory insurance by employers of their workers, 
without cost to the latter, against industrial diseases, accidents and 
death. 

9. By establishing mothers' pensions. 



NATIONAL PROHIBITION PLATFORM. 

Adopted at St. Paul, Minn., July 21, 1816. 

The Prohibition Party, assembled in its twelfth national conven- 
tion in the city of St. Paul, Minn., on this 21st day of July, 1916, 
thankful to Almighty God for the blessings of liberty, grateful for 
our institutions and the multiplying signs of early victory for the 
cause for which the party stands, in order that the people may know 
the source of its faith and the basis of its action should it be clothed 
with governmental power, challenges the attention of the Nation and 
asks the vote of the people on this declaration of principles. 

PROHIBITION. 

We denounce the traffic in intoxicating liquors. We believe in its 
abolition. It should be made a crime, not a business, and ought not 
to have governmental sanction. 

We demand, and if given power we will effectuate the demand, that 
the manufacture, importation, exportation, transportation, and sale 
of alholic liquors for beverage purposes shall be prohibited. 

To the accomplishment of this end. we pledge the exercise of all 
governmental power, the enactment of statutes, and the amendment 
17 



258 Platforms of Political Parties. 

of constitutions, State and National. Only by a political party com- 
mitted to this purpose can such a policy be made effective. We call 
upon all voters believing in the destruction of the drink traffic to 
place this Prohibition Party in power on this issue as a necessary 
step in the solution of the liquor problem. 

SUFFRAGE. 

The right of citizens of the United States to vote should not be 
denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account 
of sex. We declare in favor of the enfranchisement of women by 
amendment to State and Federal Constitutions. 

We condemn the Republican and Democratic Parties for their fail- 
ure to submit to the States an equal-suffrage amendment to the 
National Constitution. 

We remind the 4,000,000 women voters that in 1872 we declared 
for their political rights — the first so to do — and we invite their co- 
operation in electing the Prohibition Party to power. 

PEACE AND PREPAREDNESS. 

We are committed to the policy of peace and friendliness to all 
nations. We are opposed unalterably to the wasteful military pro- 
gram of the Democratic and Republican Parties. Militarism pro- 
tects no worthy institution. It endangers them all and violates the 
high principles which have brought us as a Nation to the present 
hour. We are for a constructive program in preparedness for peace. 
We declare for and will promote a world court, to which national 
difference shall be submitted, so maintained as to give its decrees 
binding force. 

We will support a compact among nations to dismantle navies and 
disband armies; but until such world court and compact are estab- 
lished we pledge ourselves to maintain an effective Army and Navy 
and to provide coast defenses entirely adequate for national pro- 
tection. 

We are opposed to universal military service and to participation 
in the rivalry which has brought Europe to the shambles and now 
imperils the civilization of the race. 

Private profit, as far as constitutionally possible, should be taken 
out of the manufacture of war munitions and all war equipment. 

In normal times we favor the employment of the Army in vast 
reclamation plans; in reforesting hills and mountains; in building 



National Prohibition Platform. 259 

State and National highways; in the construction of an inland 
waterway from Florida to Maine; in opening Alaska; and in un- 
numbered other projects which will make our soldiers constructive 
builders of peace. For such service there should be paid an ade- 
quate, industrial wage. 

Those units of our Navy which are capable of being converted 
into merchantmen and passenger vessels should be constructed with 
that purpose in view, and chiefly so utilized in times of peace. 

We condemn the political parties which for more than 30 years 
have allowed munition and war-equipment manufacturers to plunder 
the people and to jeopardize the highest interests of the Nation by 
furnishing honey-combed armor plate and second-rate battleships, 
which the Navy League now declares are wholly inadequate. 

We will not allow the country to forget that the first step toward 
physical, economic, moral, and political preparedness is the enact- 
ment of national prohibition. 

MEXICO AND THE MONROE DOCTRINE. 

Mexico needs, not a conqueror, but a good Samaritan. We are 
opposed to the violation of the severeignty of the Mexican people, 
and we will countenance no war of aggression against them. We 
pledge the help of this country in the suppression of lawless bands 
of marauders and murderers who have taken the lives of American 
citizens on both sides of the border as well of Mexicans in their own 
country. 

The lives and property of our citizens when about their lawful 
pursuits, either in the United States or Mexico, must and will be 
protected. In the event of a breakdown of government across the 
border we would use, in the interests of civilization, the force neces- 
sary for the establishment of law and order. 

In this connection we affirm our faith in the Monroe doctrine, pro- 
claimed in the early days of the Nation's life and unswervingly 
maintained for nearly a hundred years. 

We cannot claim the benefits of the doctrine and refuse to assume 
or discharge the responsibilitiets and the duties which inhere therein 
and flow therefrom. 

These duties have long been unmet in Mexico. We should meet 
them now, acting not for territory, not for conquest or for ourselves 
alone, but for and with the nations of North and South America. 



260 Platforms of Political Parties. 

The Democratic Party has blundered, and four years ago the Re- 
publican Party evaded and passed on the problem it now seeks the 
opportunity to solve. 

THE PHILIPPINES. 

The abandonment of the Philippines at this time would be an 
injustice to them and a violation of our plain duty. As soon as they 
are prepared for self-government by education and training, they 
should be granted their independence on terms just to themselves 
and to us. 

TARIFF AND RECIPROCITY. 

The countries at war are preparing for a fierce industrial struggle 
to follow the cessation of hostilities. As a matter of commercial 
economy, international friendliness, business efficiency, and as a help 
to peace, we demand that reciprocal trade treaties be negotiated with 
all nations with which we have trade relations. 

A commission of specialists free from the control of any party 
should be appointed with power to gather full information on all 
phases of the questions of tariff and reciprocity, and to recommend 
such legislation as it deems necessary for the welfare of American 
business and labor. 

MERCHANT MARINE. 

The necessity of legislation to enable American shipbuilders or 
owners to meet foreign competition on the most favorable terms is 
obvious. 

Materials for construction should be admitted free of duty. 

The purchase of ships abroad when low prices invite should be 
allowed, and when so purchased should be admitted to American 

registry. 

Harbor rules and charges and navigation laws should not be oner- 
ous, but favorable to the highest degree. 

Liberal payment should be made by the Government for carrying 
the mails and for transport service. 

All shipping from the United States to any of our possessions 
should be reserved to ships of American registry. 

The people should not overlook the fact that the effect of nation- 
wide prohibition, on labor and industry generally, will be such as to 
lower the cost of shipbuilding per unit, and at the same time permit 
the payment of higher wages. The increased volume of trade and 



National Prohibition Platform. 261 

commerce which will result when the wastage of the liquor traffic is 
stopped will quicken our shipping on every sea and send our flag on 
peaceful missions into every port. This is urged as an incidental 
effect of wise action on the liquor question, but is none the less to be 
desired, and will aid in the solution of the problem of our merchant 
marine. 

CIVIL SERVICE. 

In order that the public service may be of the highest standard, 
the Government should be a model employer in all respects. To 
enforce the civil service law, in spirit as well as in letter, all pro- 
motions should be nonpolitical, based only upon proven fitness; all 
recommendations for demotions or removals from the service should 
be subjected to the review of a nonpartisan board of commission. 

The merit system should be extended to cover all postmasters, col- 
lectors of revenue, marshals, and other such public officials whose 
duties are purely administrative. 

We reaffirm our allegiance to the principle of secure tenure of 
office during good behavior and capable effort, as the means of 
obtaining expert service. We declare for the enactment of an ade- 
quate retirement law for disabled and superannuated employees, in 
return for faithful service rendered in order to maintain a high 
degree of efficiency in public office. 

LABOR AND CAPITAL. 

Differences between capital and labor should be settled through 
arbitration, by which the rights of the public are conserved, as well 
as those of the disputants. We declare for the prohibition of child 
labor in factories, mines, and workshops; and eight-hour maximum 
day, with one day of rest in seven; more rigid sanitary requirements 
and such working conditions as shall foster the physical and moral 
well-being of the unborn; the protection of all who toil, by the exten- 
sion of employer's liability acts; the adoption of safety appliances 
for the protection of labor and for laws that will promote the just 
division of the wealth which labor and capital jointly produce. 
Provision should be made for those who suffer from industrial acci- 
dents and occupational diseases. 



262 Platforms of Political Parties. 

social justice. 

We stand for justice to humanity and for its rights, safety, and 
development; we believe in the equality of all before the law; in old 
age pensions and insurance against unemployment, and in help for 
needy mothers, all of which could be provided from what is now 
wasted for drink. 

AGRICULTURE. 

While it is admitted tnat grain and cotton are fundamental factors 
in our national life, it can not be denied that proper assistance and 
protection are not given these commodities at terminal markets in 
the course of interstate commerce. 

We favor and pledge our efforts to obtain public grain elevators 
at necessary terminal markets, such elevators to be owned and oper- 
ated by the Federal Government; also to secure Federal grain inspec- 
tion under a system of civil service, and to abolish any board of 
trade, chamber of commerce, or other place of gambling in grain or 
trading in "options" or "futures" or "short selling" or any other 
form of so-called speculation, wherein products are not received or 
delivered, but wherein so-called contracts are settled by the payment 
of "margins" or "differences" through clearing houses or otherwise. 

This party stands committed to free and open markets, based upon 
legitimate supply and demand, absolutely free from questionable 
practices of market manipulation. We favor Government ware- 
houses for cotton at proper terminals where the interests of pro- 
ducers so require; and the absolute divorce of all railroad elevators 
or warehouses owned by railroad companies whether for public or 
private use, from operation or control by private individuals in com- 
petition with the public in mechandising grain, cotton, and other 
farm products. 

We furthermore indorse all proper cooperative methods which tend 
toward broader and better markets for producer and consumer. 

PUBLIC OWNERSHIP. 

Public utilities and other resources which are natural monopolies 
now are exploited for personal gain under a monopolistic system. 
We demand the ownership or control of such utilities by the people 
and the operation and administration in the interest of all. 



National Prohibition Platform. 263 

free institutions. 

We stand for the preservation and development of our free institu- 
tions and for absolute separation of church and state, with the 
guaranty of full religious and civil liberty. 

DEPARTMENTAL DECISIONS. 

Departmental decisions ought not to be final, but the rights of the 
people should be protected by provisions for court review. 

CONSERVATION. 

We reaffirm our declaration in favor of conservation of forests, 
waterpower, and other natural resources. 

EFFICIENCY. 

We pledge a businesslike administration of the Nation's affairs, 
the abolition of useless offices, bureaus, and commissions; economy in 
the expenditure of public funds, efficiency in governmental service, 
and the adoption of the budget system. 

The President should have power to veto any single item or items 
of an appropriation bill. 

We condemn, and agree when in power to remedy, that which is 
known as "pork-barrel" legislation, by which millions of dollars 
have been appropriated for rivers where there is no commerce, har- 
bors where there are no ships, and public buildings where there is 
no need. 

MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE. 

We favor uniform marriage and divorce laws, the extermination of 
polygamy, and the complete suppression of the traffic in girls and 
women. 

SINGLE PRESIDENTIAL TERM. 

We are in favor of a single presidential term of six years. 

RULE OF THE PEOPLE. 

We favor the initiative, referendum, and recall. 

AMERICANISM. 

We stand for Americanism. We believe this country was created 
for a great mission among the nations of the earth. We rejoice in 



264 Platforms of Political Parties. 

the fact that it has offered asylum to the oppressed of other lands 
and to those more fortunately situated who yet wished to improve 
their condition. It is the land of all peoples and belongs not to any 
one; it is the heritage of all. It should come first in the affections 
of every citizen, and he who loves another land more than this is 
not fit for citizenship here; but he is a better citizen who, loving this 
country, has reverence for the land of his fathers and gains from 
its history and traditions that which inspires him to nobler service 
to the one in which he lives-. 

The Federal government should interest itself in helping the new- 
comer into that vocation and locality where he shall most quickly 
become an American. Those fitted by experience and training for 
agricultural pursuits should be encouraged to develop the millions of 
acres of rich and idle land. 

CONCLUSION. 

This is the day of opportunity for the American people. The 
triumph of neither old political party is essential to our safety or 
progress. The defeat of either will be no public misfortune. They 
are one party. By age and wealth, by membership and traditions, 
by platforms and the character of their candidates, they are the con- 
servative party of the United States. 

The Prohibition Party, as the promoter of every important meas- 
ure of social justice presented to the American people in the last two 
generations and as the originator of nearly all such legislation, re- 
mains now the only great progressive party. 

The patriotic voters who compose the Republican and Democratic 
parties can by voting the Prohibition ticket this year elect the issue 
of national prohibition. 

To those of whatever political faith who have the vision of a land 
redeemed from drink, we extend a cordial invitation to join with us 
in carrying the banner of prohibition to Nation-wide victory. 



State Democratic Platform. 265 

STATE DEMOCRATIC PLATFORM. 

Adopted April .27. 1916. 

The Democratic Party welcomes the opportunity to present to our 
people, after three years of power in the Nation and sixteen in the 
State, its record of service and achievement, and it confidently ap- 
peals thereon to them for endorsement and approval. 

REPUBLIC IN HANDS OB" PUBLIC SERVANTS. 

We find it our first duty and highest privilege to endorse the ad- 
ministration of Woodrow Wilson. Under his leadership as President 
more important constructive legislation of benefit to the great body 
of our people has been enacted than in any decade of our history. 
Under him and the Democratic Congress it has been demonstrated 
that our Republic is at last in the hands of public servants who ex- 
ercise their powers in the interest of the whole people as opposed to 
the interest of any class whatsoever. He has maintained the highest 
traditions of his great office and the noblest ideals of the party under 
whose banner he serves. And not only so; this Republic and the 
human race have found him in the supreme crisis of world affairs 
a leader equal to every emergency and worthy of universal confi- 
dence. With a wisdom, patience, and courage that have added lustre 
to his office, he has managed the many complicated international sit- 
uations that have arisen in such a way as to command universal ad- 
miration. And as he labors today to preserve to humanity the fruits 
of centuries of civilization as embodied in international law and at 
the same time to uphold every right dear to the hearts of Americans, 
we commend him to all men and send to him the assurance of our 
unfaltering support. 

Now that our Republic stands alone as the one remaining great 
nation of the earth at peace, while the conditions abroad are so 
fraught with source of alarm and unrest, we feel assured that the 
President who has amidst the confusion of the times held the Repub- 
lic in so safe and wise a course can be trusted more confidently than 
any other to guide our country in its foreign relations and to direct 
our people in all the steps necesary to prepare her against attack 
from any source. We, therefore, commend to our representatives in 
Congress and to our people his program of preparedness. 

We have enacted a revision of the tariff in the Underwood-Sim- 



266 Platforms of Political Parties. 

mons Act in the interest of the whole people and tariff duties are no 
longer levied for the benefit of a favored few. At the same time we 
have given to the nation a system of revenue entirely adequate to its 
necessities. We have supplemented this tariff with an income tax, 
the effect of which is to remove from the rank and file of our people 
the heavier burden of taxation and to place that burden upon those 
who are more able to bear it and who, in common justice, ought to 
bear it. 

CURRENCY SYSTEM PREVENTER OF PANICS. 

In the Federal Reserve Banking Act our party has given to the 
country a currency system that commands universal commendation. 
It has made money monopolies impossible and provided an ela.sticitv 
of the currency that assures to the farmers and other producers a 
supply of money that automatically prevents the depression of prices 
and facilitates the marketing of crops. It has removed the control 
of the money of the country from the financial centres of Wall 
Street, in New York, to the Treasry of the United States at Wash- 
ington, and has thereby made financial stringencies and panics a 
thing of the past. Under the supreme test of a world-war this act 
has served not only to save our people from disaster but to vouch- 
safe to them an unparalleled prosperity. 

In the Clayton antitrust law we have successfully grappled with 
the great problem of trusts and monopolies without injury to any 
lawful industry. 

In a word, throughout this land under the Democratic Party the 
powtrs of government have been exercised now for three years in 
the interest of the whole people resulting in a degree and extent of 
justice, prosperity, and order the like of which no people has ever 
known. 

With so much already done the administration is just now pro- 
ceeding to crown its record of constructive service with a Rural 
Credits Act, under which it is proposed to provide at the lowest 
expense an abundant credit for the farmers of the Nation, and this 
convention gives hearty endorsement to this act. 

We endorse the record of our Senators and Representatives in Con- 
gress; and we view with pride the positions of responsibility, honor, 
and service our sons are so worthily occupying in Congress and 
Cabinet. To few States has fallen the honor of having at once the 
floor leaders in the Senate and the House of Congress. And it should 



State Democratic Platform. 267 

be a matter of pride to every North Carolinian that in the great pro- 
gram of progress achieved by the Democratic Party our State has 
had so large a part. 

STATE ACHIEVEMENTS PLEDGE OF FUTURE. 

In State affairs the achievements of the past furnish the surest 
pledge of the future. We endorse the administration of Governor 
Locke Craig and other State officers for its fidelity to the highest 
ideals of public service and notable achievement in the public inter- 
est. We point to sixteen years of Democratic State administration — 
subjected regularly to the closest scrutiny, investigation, and audit 
without an instance of scandal or unfaithful public service — as a 
record meriting the unlimited approval and good will of the whole 
people of the State. They have covered sixteen years in which con- 
stant progress and development of public education, of temperance, 
of public health laws and administration, and in every branch of pub- 
lic service have kept the pace with agricultural, commercial, and in- 
dustrial progress. Construction of improved public highways has in 
every legitimate way been encouraged, institutions for technical and 
literary education for both sexes have been enlarged and strength- 
ened, the public health service has been developed to a high state of 
efficiency, and public institutions for the care of the diseased and un- 
fortunate have been increased in number and enlarged in capacity 
and equipmtnt. 

Corporations that serve the public have been wisely and justly 
regulated in the public interest, and there is now saved annually to 
the people of the State in their freight bills alone in specific reduc- 
tion of interstate and intrastate freight rates in the last two years 
not less than one and a half million dollars per year — an amount in 
excess of the entire administration of State government. 

LOWEST PER CAPITA TAX IN WHOLE UNION. 

It is not accidental that after sixteen years of the most notable 
progress in the entire history of the State in all these lines of public 
effort the reports of the United States Census Department show that 
our State government is maintained upon a payment of taxes by the 
people of this State less per capita than that of any other State in 
the Union. This result has been achieved by the Democratic Party 
being true to its pledges of the utmost economy in the administra- 



268 Platforms of Political Parties. 

tion of public affairs. Public office in this State is still a public 
trust and must be administered with the utmost fidelity to the pub- 
lic interest. 

We find cause for congratulation that we have passed the period 
of apprehension that the State revenues may not be sufficient to meet 
the necessary increased public needs of a growing State Treasury, 
under a decreased rate of tax levy for solely State purposes, and we 
have a balance in the Treasury; that the demand for an equalized 
basis of taxation has been conservatively met, and that, with a mod- 
ern inheritance tax statute large fortunes, in their transmission, are 
already contributing substantially to the State's revenue and will in 
a large measure take care of the increased needs of the State for 
future progress. We pledge the party to a continuation of the 
policy of strict economy and to turning back into channels of direct 
benefit to the people of the State every dollar of public revenue 
raised by the State that is not essential for State administration, for 
the benefit of public education, for State assistance in public road 
construction, for safeguarding the public health, and in liberal pen- 
sions for the remaining Confederate soldiers and widows, and other 
appropriate channels of serving and conserving the public interest. 
We declare and reiterate our firm belief in the great Democratic 
principle of strict publicity in the receipts and expenditures of all 
public funds by all State and county officials and State institutions, 
so that every citizen of North Carolina can easily and intelligently 
acquaint himself with all reasonable information pertaining to such 
receipts and expenditures of public funds. 

We challenge a comparison of this clean, progressive, Democratic 
record with the Republican record which preceded it — a record too 
well seared into the minds of the people of this State to need review 
— or with any previous or future service that can reasonably come 
from the present leadership of the Republican Party, and declare: 

EDUCATED CITIZENSHIP GOAL. 

1. The development of public education has been the chief pride 
of the Demorcratic Party, and nothing less than an educated citizen- 
ship must be the goal of our continued and untiring efforts. Our 
public school term has been increased to a point much beyond the 
constitutional requirements, and we are building schoolhouses at 
the rate of one for every day that passes. 



State Democratic Platform. 269 

conserve public health. 

2. The conservation of public health is now recognized as a prob- 
lem demanding consideration of all enlightened governments. We 
rejoice in the splendid progres made by our State in combating dis- 
ease among our people, in reducing our death rate, in increasing the 
sum total of health, happiness, and efficiency of our citizens, and 
in establishing a justifiable record of healthfulness as compared with 
other States of the Union. We advocate a continuance and strength- 
ening of the humane policy now in force in this State for the pro- 
tection of the public health and the eradication of preventable dis- 
eases. 

STAND FOR GOOD ROADS. 

3. The construction and maintenance of improved public roads is 
one of the greatest problems in the development of our State, and 
particularly in the development of rural communities. Four years 
ago there were only 5,000 miles of modern roads in the State. To- 
day we have 15,000 miles of such roads, and every day sees the 
mileage extended. We pledge our party to a policy of sympathetic 
aid and encouragement to road building in this State. 

PLEDGE TO RURAL STATE. 

4. We must ever be mindful of the fact that the State derives its 
strength from its toiling citizens and its rural communities, and we 
pledge the party to a continuance of the policy of encouraging the 
best development of the rural community. Under Democratic rule 
the conditions of country life in respect to schools and roads have 
been vastly improved, and by means of the State Department of Agri- 
culture, the A. and E. College, and Farm-Life Schools, intelligent 
and helpful direction has been given to our farmers, the result of 
which is manifest in the tremendous increase in the variety and 
value of the farm products. It is a matter of fact that the value of 
our farm products doubled from 1900 to 1910 and it has again 
doubled in the last six years. We favor legislation providing for the 
incorporation, supervision, and control of warehouses for the storing 
of farm products, in order to facilitate the proper maketing of 
such products. 

MUST FOSTER ENTERPRISE. 

5. Every enterprise looking to the investment of capital and em- 
ployment of labor should be fostered and encouraged by the State. 



270 Platforms of Political Parties. 

We pledge, not only to citizens of this State, but to citizens of other 
States that all capital invested in legitimate enterprises in Norh 
Carolina, whether foreign or domestic, shall have the equal and 
friendly protection of our laws in their observance, and will be held 
equally amenable to our laws in their violation. 

SUFFRAGE AMENDMENT JUST. 

6. We reaffirm our confidence in the wisdom and justice of the 
suffrage amendment to our State Constitution. Under its influence 
we have had freedom from race issues, and both races have enjoyed 
contentment and prosperity. The hazard to its valid continuance 
makes it imperative for the public good that Democratic supremacy 
in the State be maintained. 

We submit that the record shows that the Democratic Party can 
be trusted to conserve all that makes for the welfare of our people. 
So long as the Democratic Party is in power the forces that have 
made for the great progress of the last sixteen years will be main- 
tained. So long as it is in power the people have assurance that 
the State is safe from the designs of those who would inflict upon 
it the payment of the fraudulent bonds issued in its name under a 
Republican regime; and they cannot have that assurance otherwise. 
So long as the Democratic Party is in power the people have assur- 
ance that this State shall be conducted by white men; and they can- 
not have that assurance otherwise. So long as the Democratic party 
is in power the assurance of half a century of faithful service that 
all that makes for peace, the progress, the order and the prosperity 
of this Commonwealth shall be sacredly conserved; and they cannot 
have that assurance otherwise. 



STATE REPUBLICAN PLATFORM. 

March 1, 1916. 

The North Carolina Republican State Convention, duly assem- 
bled in Raleigh on March 1st, 1916, congratulates its voters that all 
internal dissentions are so happily ended and that the calamity of 
a National Democratic administration, coupled with an extravagant 
and inefficient Democratic State administration, has brought about 
a reunion, based upon mutual respect and understanding, which re- 
union is being strengthened daily by the addition of voters who are 



State Republican Platform. 271 

casting aside prejudice and are joining in the advancement of the 
common good. 

We are determined to bring back our Nation to Protection for 
American industry and labor and to the prosperity which follows our 
time-honored protective policies; we are determined to rid our State 
of useless officeholders and official extravagance and scandals to the 
end that the reckless spending of the people's money shall not be 
permitted to increase taxes to the point of confiscation. 

We demand in State affairs: 

1. Fair elections. 

2. Equitable taxation upon a basis of economy. 

3. Auditing of all our financial affairs. 

4. Improved school system and agricultural education. 

5. Convict employment in public works. 

6. General progressive and labor legislation. 

We demand in National affairs: 

(a) Return to Protection. 

(b) Preparedness for peace. 

(c) Honest Civil Service. 

(d) Rural Credit System. 

(e) Restriction of immigration. 

(f) Upholding rights of Americans. 

These demands in our State may be enlarged upon as follows: 

1. Fair Elections: The safety of our State and Nation depends 
upon the free and untrammeled expression of the will of the people 
at the ballot box; we demand an Australian voting system that each 
citizen may vote his choice and sentiments, free from exposure, mo- 
lestation or dangerous influence; frauds at the ballot box must cease. 

2. Equitable Taxation Ui)on a Basis of Economy: We demand tax- 
ation reform in which every citizen, individually or collectively, and 
all property shall bear their just share of the burden of govern- 
mental support, and no more; such a system as will not place a 
premium upon dishonest avoidance of taxes nor leave taxpayers at 
the mercy of unscrupulous and scheming officials, who try to make 
party gains by discrimination against those who will not make polit- 
ical contributions, and by favors to those who do. 

In addition to equitable taxation we demand the strictest business 
economy compatible with efficiency, and to the end that no bond 



272 Platforms of Political Parties. 

issue shall be made or debt incurred beyond the constitutional lim- 
itation, except it be ordered or approved by a majority of at least 
three-fifths of the qualified voters who shall also name those who 
shall control the expenditure of moneys., and we hereby pledge our- 
selves to a reduction of the burdensome taxes now imposed upon our 
people. 

We demand for our educational and other institutions liberality to 
their utmost needs; we denounce the treatment by the Democratic 
party of our old soldiers, who are the most sacred heritage of our 
generation, and we demand for these patriots that care and comfort 
which is theirs by right and ours by duty. 

3. Auditing of All Our Financial Affairs: Our financial affairs 
are in a most desperate condition, as evidenced by reports of commit- 
tees officially appointed, and we demand an expert accounting of 
same from the accounts of the State Treasurer, through all our 
public institutions of education and charity, down to the smallest 
boards or individuals who use the public funds. 

This is demanded that the people may know the whole truth of 
their financial condition, about which they have been kept in igno- 
rance so long; such expert auditing of our affairs would have pre- 
vented the scandals which have become so common in our depart- 
ments and institutions. 

4. Improved School System and Agricultural Education: We 
demand the selection of our superintendents of public instruction 
and of our school boards by the people in every county and thus 
place education in the hands of parents instead of at the. mercy of 
political demagogues; certainly more than fifty years of Democratic 
education and good government should have fitted our people to De 
able to control the education of their own children; we demand a 
school system based upon the evident intents of our Constitution 
which provides for "a general and uniform system" which would 
give equal school advantages to all, wherever located; such a Con- 
stitutional system should be provided that will give a six months' 
school term in every district which can be done with a great saving 
of taxes now wasted under the present scheme of politically governed 
schools with the flagrant extravagance; we demand the extending of 
agricultural education and the encouraging of a movement back 
to the soil; we favor legislation that will assist more direct distri- 
bution of farm products; such education and such legislation as will 
encourage producers, will make our State great and self-supporting. 



State Republican Platform. 273 

5. Convict Employment in Public Works: We demand the employ- 
ment of our convicts on public works for the public good, such as 
great public highways, instead of in lines which will bring them in 
competition with producers and laborers; furthermore, we demand 
just and humane treatment of convicts and punishment of criminal 
guards and overseers who vent their brutal spite upon these helpless 
unfortunates. 

6. General Progressive and Labor Legislation: We demand of the 
General Assembly such progressive legislation as this advanced age 
has proven necessary and we suggest among such attention to the 
following: All precautions of modern science for the preservation 
of health and the protection of life and limb; workmen's compensa- 
tion laws that damages for accidents may be equitably adjusted 
without unnecesary expense or delay; laws for healthful housing and 
for fire protection; an exemption of moderate savings from taxation 
that our savings institutions may be placed upon the same plane 
as the postal savings bank system; some form of mutual or social 
insurance which will protect the home against the hazards of sick- 
ness, irregular employment and old age. Such laws must be so 
formed as not to offer public aid as a substitute for industry and 
frugality. We demand protection and promotion of the fish and 
oyster industry of the State and relief from unjust and burdensome 
laws passed by the last legislature in regard thereto. 

These demands in our nation may be enlarged upon as follows: 
(a). Return to Protection: Protection for American industry and 
labor is the cornerstone of Republican principles. This faith has 
been tried and proven by the present disastrous, near-free-trade tariff 
which had brought this country to the verge of distress and ruin 
before the European war. Spasmodic and scattered war contracts, 
bringing gains from the misfortunes and miseries of others are a 
poor substitute for steady markets and universal prosperity under 
Protection. Desertion of Protection has brought all kinds of direct 
taxation including a so-called war tax in time of peace; has depleted 
our treasury just when Democratic expenditures were the greatest 
In our history; has crippled' our greatest industries, and has thrown 
millions out of regular employment. 

Protection must be reestablished as a right to all and not sold, 
under some other name, as a favor to a few. , 

18 



274 Platforms of Political Parties. 

(b). Preparedness for Peace: We demand a preparedness for this 
country against any aggression from any foreign power. 

The present war has demonstrated that no unprepared nation is 
safe and we cannot permit a noble love for peace to leave us helpless. 

While we will not prepare for war, we must be in a state of pre- 
paredness for peace. 

(c). Honest Civil Service: We stand for honest civil service re- 
form, which has been so dishonestly outraged by the present Demo- 
cratic administration; we denounce the backward step taken in the 
assaults upon the merit system in order to place so-called "deserving 
Democrats" in offices held by those who have stood the test, and we 
denounce the further misuse of power by trying now to "cover under 
civil service" those who have received reward under the spoils sys- 
tem, because they see "the handwriting on the wall" foretelling the 
downfall of their unfaithful party. 

(d). Rural Credit System: We demand a Rural Credit System 
such as was promised in the last national Republican platform and 
such as is now being formulated and perfected by the farmers' or- 
ganization over the State and Nation. 

(e). Restriction of Immigration: It would be but an act of folly 
to protect our products against unfair competition of cheap foreign 
labor and yet permit the pauper and often criminal foreign laborer 
himself to enter our country and lower the plane of living of our 
own people. 

We demand such laws as will forever keep tbe ignorant, the dis- 
eased, and the criminal from our shores. 

(f). Uiiholding Rights of Americans: We demand the protection 
of the live: and property of American citizens wherever such citi- 
zens may be lawfuly abiding or traveling. The national policy to- 
ward Mexico and European countries has been weak and vacillating, 
by turns unduly timid and unwisely pugnacious. 

Americans have been robbed, violated, and slaughtered without 
redress and American prestige lowered in every country on the 
globe; we demand a return to a strictly American policy. 

Upon the principles here enunciated. we appeal to the patriotic 
voters to join us in redeeming the Old North State and in making 
her better, greater, and grander. 



State Socialist Flatforji. 275 



STATE SOCIALIST PLATFORM. 

The Socialist Party of the State of North Carolina again reaffirms 
its allegiance to the principles of international Socialism, and in- 
dorses the national platform of the Socialist Party of the United 
States. 

In entering the campaign of 1916, the Socialist Party presents 
itself as the sole political representative of the working class. It 
maintains that no other political party can be trusted to enact and 
enforce effective labor legislation or otherwise serve the interest of 
the workers of this State. 

We maintain that the evils of the present system will be removed 
only when the working class wholly abolish private ownership in the 
social means of production, collectively assume the management of 
the industries and operate them for use and not for profit, for the 
benefit of all and not for the enrichment of a privileged class. In 
this the Socialist party stands alone in the political field. 

But the Socialist Party also believes that the evils of the modern 
system may be materially relieved and their final disappearance may 
be hastened by the introduction of social, political and economic 
measures which will have the effect of bettering the lives, strength- 
ening the position of the workers and curbing the power and domi- 
nation of the capitalists. 

The Socialist Party therefore supports the struggles of the work- 
ing class against the exploitation and oppression of the capitalist 
class, and is vitally concerned in the efficiency of the parliamentary 
and administrative means for the fighting of the class struggle. 

Therefore, We favor the follotoing measures as immediate de- 
mands: 

POLITICAL. 

We demand the public ownership of all public utilities. 

That any citizen of the United States shall have the right to vote 
in North Carolina after a residence in the State of three months and 
in the county thirty clays; and that the registration books be kept 
open ten days, beginning fifteen days before election. 

That each party having on the ticket a nominee to be voted for 
shall be entitled to representation at the polling precincts to see the 
ballots counted and prevent fraud. 

That stringent laws are to be enacted for the punishment by fine 
or imprisonment in the State prison, or both, of individuals or cor- 



276 Platforms of Political, Parties. 

porations convicted of fraud or intimidation in election or of conniv- 
ance therein. 

We demand the initiative, the referendum and the right of recall. 

That the rights of women shall be co-equal with the rights of men. 

That, since under the present system, poverty is the unavoidable 
condition of the many, therfore we demand the repeal of the law 
requiring the payment of the poll tax before being allowed to vote — 
holding that poverty should be no bar to participation in the gov- 
ernment. 

That the State Senate is an obstructive and unnecessary legislative 
body, and we favor its abolishment. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

That nowhere in the State shall the school year be less than six 
months. 

That sufficient school houses be erected to accommodate all chil- 
dren of school age, and every child under sixteen years of age be 
compelled to attend school one term every year. Widows dependent 
for support upon their children of school age shall be provided for by 
the State. 

That the teeth, eyes, throat and lungs of all public-school children 
be examined on entering public school by a competent physician, and 
where treatment is found necesary, the same to be given at public 
expense. 

Wherever a child is found attending public school, suffering for 
a lack of proper food and clothing, the same shall be reported to the 
superintendent, who shall provide same at public expense, if investi- 
gation proves the report true. 

Women teachers shall be paid the same as men when holding the 
same grade certificates. All teachers shall pass examination on hy- 
giene in addition to their regular examination as teachers. 

• GENERAL. 

A graduated income and inheritance tax. 

We demand the immediate repeal of the delinquent-tax law, known 
as the "Land-Grabbers" law; and that in its place a law be instituted 
designed to perpetually revert to the State all lands seized for delin- 
quent taxes. That said lands shall not be leased to private individ- 
uals or corporations. That five years be allowed the dispossessed 
owner to pay his tax and reclaim his land. 



State Socialist Platform. 277 

A strict employers' liability law. 

That the State provide a suitable pension for public school teachers 
who, after twenty-five years of service, may wish to retire; also for 
all citizens over sixty years of age who may apply for same. 

That the State furnish to the farmers pure seed and fertilizers at 
cost; that the same, as far as possible, be produced in and by the 
State. 

That the State give employment to all its unemployed who, through 
no fault of their own, are out of work; and that, until this be done, 
all vagrancy laws be repealed. 

That on all government and public corporation work the employees 
shall be paid their wages weekly at a legal union rate. Eight hours 
shall be a legal work day. 

That the State provide for a rigid factory and mine inspection. 

That the State establish — 

(a) A State printery, to be conducted under union rules, and that 
the State furnish public school pupils with books free of cost. 

(&) A free State employment bureau. 

(e) Life, fire, accident and industrial insurance at cost. 

We oppose the leasing out of convicts to work in factories, mines 
or on roads in competition with nonconvict labor. All prison-made 
goods shall be so designated; and that all county convicts, whether 
of county, city or State, when at work be paid the wages paid free 
labor for such work, less the cost of their maintenance; that the re- 
mainder be paid their families or dependents, but if without depend- 
ents or families it be paid them upon the expiration of their term of 
imprisonment, or be expended for their comfort during confinement, 
as they may elect. 



PART IX. 



ELECTION RETURNS. 



1. Vote for President. 

2. Vote for Governor and Other State Officers. 

3. Vote for Congressmen. 

4. Vote on Constitutional Amendments. 



280 



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774 

709 

1,856 

1,513 


2,256 
938 
662 
673 

1,937 


38 
26 


1,907 

770 

699 

1,226 

1,254 


1,770 
937 
543 
207 

1.651 


2 




1 


5 

2 


11 
12 








2,316 
2,420 
1,102 

525 
3,724 
1,389 
1,485 
1,111 

498 
1,046 
1,342 
1,612 
1,489 

774 

898 

404 
2,228 
1,623 
2,028 
1,964 

927 

404 
1,823 

831 
1,879 
2,373 
3,009 
2,482 
2,781 
1,931 
1,125 

358 
2,288 
1,385 
3,335 
3,990 
1,342 
1,735 

973 
1,337 


1,799 

1,067 

1,192 

643 

4,140 

1,110 

1,112 

1,317 

535 

767 

1,277 

1,522 

2,240 

1,157 

932 

394 

1,311 

1,237 

1,502 

2,138 

435 

331 

2,329 

1,251 

1,081 

2,026 

1,635 

2,58S 

1,602 

1,626 

564 

387 

1,587 

820 

3,296 

2,174 

1,199 

1,257 

1,482 

732 




1,803 

1,264 

927 

564 

3,181 

1,080 

1,509 

1,169 

389 

1,012 

874 

1,497 

1,551 

663 

573 

336 

2,162 

1,447 

1,555 

1,594 

543 

415 

2,017 

739 

1,386 

1,603 

1,588 

2,301 

2,099 

1,958 

677 

362 

1,595 

949 

2,763 

2,427 

1,169 

1.631 

887 

778 


867 

252 

558 

487 

2,591 

1,001 

1,254 

1,419 

99 

656 

201 

1,309 

1,477 

980 

148 

325 

1..036 

876 

268 

1,129 

33 

350 

2,054 

1,072 

815 

1,080 

126 

2,209 

282 

896 

273 

401 

518 

283 

1,716 

181 

723 

1,125 

1,341 

186 








4 




20 
26 
35 
15 
41 
35 


25 








1 








42 




41 








4 

2 

158 

26 

6 










277 




10 










plq V - 




6 




40 


4 








11 

45 
43 
20 
19 
1 
27 
70 
58 


6 




28 
26 




45 
10 
49 
12 


Oatps - - - 


25 











16 

7 
45 


6 






Guilford - 


21 








1 
19 


31 














a 








Hyde 


867 
2,523 
1,080 
3,154 

714 


798 
2.044 
1,047 
1,997 

602 


2 
17 
20 
17 


614 
2,126 
1,015 
2,572 

638 


318 
1,510 

947 
1,553 

250 






45 




10 








1 









BY COUNTIES. 



1908 


1912 


1916 




+3 

03 


u 
a 

*** 

-^» 

+3 

m 


Q 
O 

•** 


03 


*-> 
> 

CO 

O 

o 


on 

a 

Q 


a 

CO 
03 

O 


a 
o 
a) 


CO 

O 
J) 
tJJ 

w 


M 

5 

K 


>> 
o 

~B 

03 

K 


2,113 
793 


2,184 

1,074 

575 


3 


2,032 

852 

652 

1,487 

1,643 

217 

1,605 

1,571 

1,140 

777 

3,716 

1,365 

1,738 

1,627 

303 


150 
523 
208 
125 
478 
138 
295 
43 
33 
280 
426 
48 
389 
482 
40 
218 
154 
203 
70 
734 
60 
17 
81 
155 
79 
235 
6 
238 
1,509 
810 
33 
124 
102 
1,689 
71 
244 
95 
261 
192 
124 
460 
42 
148 
354 
801 
61 
63 
76 
392 
315 
1,335 
35 
451 


1,637 

497 

256 

118 

1,241 

950 

548 

61 

511 

456 

2,285 

r,288 

1,584 

1,167 

62 

537 

45 

1,872 

1,343 

477 

77 

387 

943 

892 

190 

870 

8 

80 

1,143 

345 

1,066 

1,204 

77 

1,262 

346 

1,279 

179 

223 

343 

152 

1,979 

135 

1,035 

861 

380 

105 

40 

300 

1,047 

729 

1,083 

125 

60 


10 




2.476 
954 
796 
2,046 
1,898 
360 
1,957 
1,461 
1,261 
810 
4,229 
1,621 
2,080 
1,725 
368 
1,165 
849 
2,569 
1,839 
1,362 
610 
400 
2.764 
2,143 
1,780 
1,971 
945 
470 
2,675 
910 
1,824 
2,463 
2,028 
4,115 
2,057 
3,019 
826 
476 
1,713 
1,066 
4,616 
2,312 
1,992 
2,403 
1,166 
977 
780 
840 
3.335 
1,306 
3,468 
712 
1,054 


2,278 

1,187 

641 

301 

1,939 

1,158 

1,274 

116 

651 

989 

3,830 

1,474 

2,314 

1,659 

86 

1,246 

338 

2,624 

1,501 

1,362 

91 

453 

1,497 

1,327 

542 

1,217 

87 

363 

2,801 

1,245 

1,527 

1,837 

135 

3,585 

396 

2,542 

309 

460 

648 

294 

3,670 

299 

1,603 

1,523 

1,795 

209 

110 

277 

2,073 

1,288 

2,857 

233 

573 


5 




633 










1,490 


301 '< 










1.639 


1,674 




1 
2 

61 












2 


1,828 
1,258 


1,304 
360 
660 
841 


2 


1 


1,132 










607 






1 




3,506 


3,572 54 
1,358 


101 






1,310 






1,610 


1,821 

1,745 

164 








22 




1 413 


11 






398 




2 


1 152 


1,060 1-153 








820 


373 ; 2 
2,010 1 
1,497 
1,310 


705 
2,110 
1,652 

906 










1,864 
1,521 

782 


2 


3 


4 
14 


10 


621 


213 : 663 








1 


343 


321 


372 

2,351 

1,668 

1,819 

1,678 

622 

397 

2,484 

823 

1,757 

2,197 

1,851 

3,042 

1,856 

2,333 

618 

416 

1,561 

894 

3,830 

2,300 

1,364 

2,068 

1,092 

742 

626 

636 

2,528 

1,210 

2,757 

635 

862 








2,282 


1,459 
1,381 

449 

1,453 

68 

370 
2,340 
1.185 
1,225 
1,820 

438 
2,876 

561 
1,970 

337 

465 

734 

538 
2,863 

380 
1,047 
1,304 
1,602 

353 


1 

4 

3 
131 

8 

31 

1 

2 










1,845 








2 


1,399 








1 832 


10 








701 




1 


416 








2,126 

780 

1 508 


10 

3 

1 

49 

325 

1 
46 


12 
1 

4 

22 


12 
6 




1 859 






1,753 

2,472 
1 984 


24 
238 


1 


2,398 
653 




11 


418 










1,561 










876 










3,822 
2,165 


43 


26 


44 

1 
8 




1,501 
1 95 9 


5 
6 

2 


1 




917 






839 




1 










662 


223 

1,803 

1,086 

2,827 

315 

562 


1 

2 






4 


3 


2,465 
1 022 


5 


2 








2 593 






585 










832 











284 



Election Returns. 



VOTE FOR PRESIDENT— 





1900 


1904 


Counties 


c 

a 


>> 

a 


bo 

a 

*^ 
-^ 


a 
M 

h 


"3 
> 

to 

O 
O 


C 

OS 
O 

00 


Lenoir 


1,492 

892 

977 

1,268 

1,819 

1,014 

3,786 

491 

1,100 

1,606 

2,600 

2,247 

1.992 

1,322 

1,275 

597 

1.196 

1,137 

830 

1,466 

3,264 

484 

2,264 

1,284 

3,280 

2,652 

2.460 

'2,081 

1,257 

925 

1,265 

1,443 

1,898 

590 

529 

466 

1,790 

1.233 

4,774 

1,573 

834 

923 

3,104 

1,704 

2,816 

950 

954 


1,224 

1,133 

1,035 

2,377 

1.08S 

1,024 

2.234 

1,958 

920 

2,029 

1,337 

60 

1,587 

618 

1,280 

729 

1,282 

543 

S46 

1,274 

2,156 

652 

2,487 

504 

1,144 

2,252 

1,555 

1,981 

2,002 

44 

792 

1,798 

2,451 

782 

622 

383 

864 

881 

3,947 

1,337 

784 

1,439 

1,965 

2,840 

1,194 

1,733 

1,082 




1,386 

1,009 

904 

994 

1,419 

836 

3,142 

408 

937 

1,424 

1,428 

1,254 

1,509 

828 

900 

574 

947 

903 

610 

942 

2,329 

497 

2,334 

927 

2,274 

1,934 

2,424 

1.860 

1,079 

646 

1,024 

1,104 

1,741 

499 

556 

343 

1,181 

1,019 

3,410 

1,060 

450 

773 

2,060 

1,318 

1,363 

691 

1,013 


674 

761 

987 

1,959 

216 

931 

748 

1,384 

858 

1,178 

645 

91 

116 

451 

558 

438 

275 

168 

378 

473 

429 

559 

1,808 

306 

982 

1,276 

1,215 

1,322 

1,777 

65 

1,080 

1,478 

2,475 

828 

526 

• 367 

379 

413 

1,267 

165 

428 

1,113 

1,162 

2,170 

623 

1,433 

864 


1 


Lincoln 


22 

4 


11 


Macon 


4 












McDowell 


17 

78 


25 


Mecklenburg 


43 


Mitchell 




Montgomery 


1 

12 




Moore 


23 


N ash 


6 












Onslow 




56 




10 


25 










2 




7 




Perquimans 


1 




7 
36 

7 
28 

5 




Pitt ... 


17 


Polk 






21 








6 


Rockingham 


3 
275 

1 
155 

2 


19 




20 


Rutherford . . 












Stanly _ 


3 






2 














Transylvania 


3 




Tyrrell 




Union .. 


22 
50 
15 


20 


Vance 


6 


Wake ... 


23 


Warren 


17 


Washington 






Watauga _. 


2 

37 

2 

2 

7 


31 


Wayne. 


34 


Wilkes 




Wilson. 




Yadkin .. 


8 


Yancey 










Totals 


157,733 


132,997 


1,727 


124,121 


82,442 


1,180 







Vote for President. 



285 



BY COUNTIES-Continued. 



1908 


1912 


1916 


d 

03 
>> 

u 

pq 


OS 


a 

a 

a 
a 

02 


a 

o 




"3 

> 

o 

GQ 

o 
o 


OJ 

Q 


el 

c3 

-q 
O 


a 
o 

JO 

1 




u 
M 

O 

pq 


0) 

3 

w 


1,393 


966 

1,217 

1,045 

2,027 

421 

1,000 

1,645 

1,808 

1.0S7 

1,077 

1,334 

511 

186 

710 

1,073 

501 

405 

373 

502 

969 

890 

621 

2,676 

462 

1,300 

2.008 

2,009 

1,766 

2,465 

85 

1,685 

1,711 

2,870 

931 

611 

395 

834 

641 

2,900 

296 

556 

1,313 

1,504 

3,382 

1,014 

1,644 

950 


3 

4 
12 

26 

14 

35 

5 


1.568 

1 , 280 

1,020 

897 

1,251 

1,037 

3,967 

385 

1,012 

1,167 

1,862 

2,021 

1,625 

901 

997 

694 

972 

967 

647 

S20 

2,303 

675 

2,665 

1,319 

2,706 

1,939 

2,748 

2,180 

1,265 

751 

1,702 

1,144 

1,919 

766 

631 

297 

1,786 

1,204 

3,996 

987 

503 

933 

2,293 

1,636 

1,741 

713 

1,112 


122 

49 
134 
430 
229 
343 
284 
203 
144 
252 
172 
140 

57 

66 
172 

74 

77 

19 
228 
784 
347 
153 
370 

82 
154 
694 
280 

82 

84 

9 

105 

1,450 

2,277 

220 

107 

224 

92 
168 
282 
112 
384 
420 

95 
331 

82 
791 

60 


347 

1,066 
841 

1,320 
34 
773 
533 
716 
846 
678 
576 
107 
53 
550 
821 
329 
1S4 
268 
44 
184 
433 
501 

1,809 
174 
660 
778 

1,537 

1,553 

2,520 
75 

1.548 
210 
608 
858 
537 
100 
457 
234 

1,517 

46 

149 

819 

1,090 

2,571 
561 
599 

1,336 






1,666 
1,521 
1,146 

972 
1,472 
1,274 
4,508 

462 
1,222 
1,337 
2,189 
2,355 
1,518 
1,197 
1,230 

710 
1,177 

970 

645 

"953 

2,839 

679 
2,747 
1,553 
2,894 
2,316 
3,053 
2,445 
1 , 369 

938 
2,110 
1,569 
2,029 

829 

821 

416 
2,662 
1,451 
4,627 
1,217 

651 
1,141 
2,625 
1,632 
2,052 

879 
1,273 


667 

1,369 

1,069 

1 , 965 

281 

1,218 

1,257 

1.298 

1,196 

1,047 

826 

492 

45 

785 

1,158 

527 

270 

400 

288 

917 

719 

750 

3,031 

650 

1,453 

1,957 

2,320 

1,871 

2,727 

137 

1,941 

1,852 

2,977 

1,128 

841 

392 

702 

558 

2,461 

227 

486 

1,352 

1,446 

3,470 

730 

1,721 

1,082 


2 
8 




1,222 
927 


3 


12 


1 


862 










1,338 










950 

3,926 

550 


10 

38 




6 


2 


1.008 








1,109 
1,678 
1,857 


17 

42 




22 

19 


1,726 








870 








4 


1,017 


4 
20 






62S 
929 


18 


1 


930 








568 








1 


750 








2,419 


3 

1 
6 
3 


8 






511 

2,472 
1,029 


1 


3 


2.69S 








1,887 


51 
50 

7 


9 

7 

1 






2,392 




• 


1,978 






1,335 






714 










1,491 






5 
21 
12 


4 


1,061 
1,709 


22 


1 




602 








570 


1 








312 


4 - 






2,029 
1,121 


19 




4 




3,713 
1,066 


12 




5 




495 










962 


2 
16 


9 






2,207 
1,559 


3 


2 


1,732 






597 








978 
















136,928 


114,887 


345 


144,507 


29,139 


69,130 


1,025 


117 


168,383 


120.891) 


:,!)<.) 





VOTE BY COUNTIES FOR GOVERNOR IN DEMOCRATIC 
PRIMARY, JUNE 3, 1916. 



Alamance.. 
Alexander.. 
Alleghany. 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort... 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick. 
Buncombe. 

Burke 

Cabarrus... 
Caldwell... 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba... 
Chatham... 
Cherokee... 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland.. 
Columbus.. 
Craven. 



Cumberland. 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe. . 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Giaham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson... 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde. 

Iredell 

Jackson 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 



Counties 



» 



-a 



Q 



386 


67 


214 


14 


124 


18 


1,458 


276 


200 


22 


131 


16 


708 


376 


971 


689 


641 


306 


216 


247 


1 , 398 


1,943 


398 


531 


295 


89 


347 


181 


368 


84 


710 


123 


509 


161 


614 


111 


697 


212 


231 


90 


271 


78 


98 


32 


1,012 


671 


1.081 


826 


563 


268 


644 


968 


280 


406 


190 


46 


1,115 


237 


316 


39 


662 


436 


968 


605 


353 


1.181 


663 


295 


1,528 


527 


1,186 


364 


118 


41 


185 


19 


818 


565 


688 


73 


1,212 


1,010 


1,495 


396 


640 


375 


1,258 


704 


261 


313 


582 


258 


283 


346 


178 


139 


1,555 


915 


479 


76 


980 


848 


238 


102 


480 


140 


599 


650 


559 


74 



Vote for Governor. 



287 



Counties 


Bickett 


o 
bo 

z 

P 


Macon 


280 
148 
197 
237 

1,742 
93 
558 
516 
619 
813 

1,267 
458 
374 
238 
746 
586 
306 
363 
869 
191 
811 

1,294 

1,830 
040 
800 

1,093 

5~S3 
232 
245 
394 
254 
81 
63 

1,850 
865 

2,483 
888 
172 
201 

1,030 
549 
922 
237 
111 


20 




194 




280 


McDowell -_ _ _ _ 


268 




1,207 


Mitchell - 


42 


Montgo mery _ _ 


114 




486 


Nash - ________ 


1,021 




1,587 




428 




236 




199 




95 




379 


Pender _ _ 


348 




117 




227 


Pitt 


1,052 


Polk — 


174 


Randolph -- -_ 


311 








669 




376 




755 


Rutherford - 


530 




73 




300 


Stanly _-_ _______ __. 


76 




39 




148 




121 




209 


Tyrrell 


20 




303 




536 


Wake ._- -_- 


1,765 




471 




164 




5 




441 


Wilkes — - 


411 




647 




59 




141 






Totals - - - - 


63,121 


37.017 







VOTE FOR GOVERNOR, 



Counties 



Alamance 

Alexander 

Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell. 

Camden 

Carteret. 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 

Cumberland. 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edsecombe.. 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson.. 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 

Johnston 



1900 



A4 



< 

PC 



05 

o 



2,488 

892 

784 

2,015 

1,659 



c 

-z 

K 






2,321 

1,027 

607 

522 

1,969 



18 



1904 



a 

d 

3 
w 



o 

K 



1,922 

784 

723 

1,247 

1,278 



S3 

o 



1 , 778 
919 
520 
155 

1,638 






11 



933 


1,525 


075 


996 


589 


1,375 


915 


948 


332 


3,401 


509 


1.171 


915 


1,550 


248 


1,272 


545 


567 


363 


957 


421 


1,313 


008 


1,863 


755 


1,894 


778 


1,080 


,055 


948 


388 


•lis 


,652 


1 , 172 


,178 


1,2111 


fill 




,719 


1 , 629 


,002 


374 


524 


406 


,406 


2,275 


956 


1,367 


,125 


1,297 


,765 


2,170 


,758 


385 


,913 


2,432 


,021 


1,831 


,514 


1,584 


, 232 


603 


396 


343 


,540 


1,527 


,474 


774 


,071 


3,343 


,618 


877 


,515 


1,339 


,736 


1,244 


,121 


1,468 


,368 


429 



2 
13 



4 

2 

14 

2 



1,943 

1,327 

999 

631 

3,253 

1,110 

1,538 

1,222 

412 

1,020 

870 

1,537 

1,616 

673 

625 

346 

2,209 

1,610 



19 

24 

2 

10 
8 
7 
1 

IS 



24 



614 

07s 

548 

429 

2,154 

764 

1 . 156 

1,716 

1 . 632 

2,421 

2,149 

2,029 

736 

373 

1,589 

990 

2,924 

2,478 

1,217 

1 , 650 

906 

804 



770 
Its 
528 
415 

2 , 523 
995 

1,249 

1,372 

36 

608 

195 

1,433 

1.44:; 

989 

95 

320 

1,040 
741 
206 

1,038 

26 

351 

2,002 

1,058 
820 

1,034 
135 

2,152 
266 
816 
218 
397 
502 
262 

1,718 
144 
705 

1,099 

1,320 
143 



27 
3 



12 



23 
1 



19 
3 



12 
~90 
"~9 



971 
,779 

,118 
,777 



905 
2,319 
1,025 
1,750 



686 
2,147 
1.021 
2,586 



228 

507 

950 

1,513 



1 



1900-1916. 



1908 


1912 


1916 


a 














+j 






3 














to 


>> 




• l-t 

M 


M 

O 

O 




M 


-*> 


go 


go 


« 


a 






a 


o 
o 


a 


C3 

o 


CD 
W 
CO 

C3 


C3 


T3 

o 

H 




< 


M 

0) 


.5 


s 




o 


a 

o 




w 


£ 
o 


■a 


§ 


& 


>-> 




o 




u 


K 


Eh 




,4 


2,220 


2,130 


2 


2,168 


324 


1,416 


10 


2,483 


2,293 


3 


793 


1,076 




871 


852 


141 




922 


1,208 




643 


541 




676 


366 


103 




784 


616 




1,538 


263 




1,513 


135 


80 




2,047 


274 




1,700 


1,701 




1,700 


1,027 


641 




1,889 


1,950 










227 
1,825 


172 
293 


847 
482 


72 


324 
1,949 


1,283 
1,256 




1,914 


1,209 


29 


63 


1,328 


274 




1.636 


28 


57 




1,475 


60 




1,213 


599 





1,229 


43 


414 




1,269 


598 




671 


774 




827 


380 


201 




825 


981 


3 


3,629 


3,434 


48 


3,875 


1,045 


1,493 


78 


4,487 


3,835 




1,353 


1,315 


1 


1,375 


91 


1,211 


2 


1.585 


1,484 




1,616 


1,817 




1,864 


1,094 


782 


5 


2,091 


2,308 


18 


1,476 


1,685 




1,661 


593 


828 


12 


1,724 


1,707 


3 


405 


141 


1 


317 


• 29 


48 




374 


64 




1,173 


998 





1,165 


222 


489 


- 


1,142 


1,263 




878 


323 




830 


202 


10 


_. 


838 


342 




1,961 


2,012 


2 


2,136 


300 


1,763 


2 


2,547 


2,685 


4 


1,594 


1,428 


3 


1,683 


155 


1,219 


2 


1,813 


1,514 


13 


823 


1,273 




949 


1,165 


74 




1,003 


1,361 




658 


176 




695 


48 


60 




604 


80 




348 


318 


1 


381 


9 


386 




398 


464 




2,304 


1,452 




2,398 


114 


845 




2,705 


1,469 




2,056 


1,192 




1,894 


343 


424 




2,192 


1,245 




1,520 


340 




1,859 


118 


135 




1,787 


507 




2,019 


1,250 




1,788 


499 


480 


7 


1,996 


1,173 




734 


49 




629 


21 


4 




921 


72 




443 


354 




391 


243 


14 


3 


458 


375 




2,231 


2,481 


1 


2,505 


2,118 


567 


5 


2,647 


2,814 


13 


802 


1,163 




835 


1,082 


68 


15 


901 


1,259 


8 


1,642 


1,139 




1,829 


46 


970 


3 


1,836 


1,516 




1,962 


1,693 


1 


2,264 


349 


932 


6 


2,505 


1,786 


6 


1,839 


392 




1,823 


93 


43 


49 


2,018 


117 


25 


2,653 


2,782 


118 


3,119 


2,646 


312 


301 


4,108 


3,629 


215 


2,093 


432 




1,941 


113 


202 


1 


2,092 


381 




2,568 


1,820 


5 


2,363 


390 


1,076 


39 


3,019 


2,531 




700 


278 




640 


110 


100 




800 


287 




422 


461 




431 


411 


72 




475 


460 




1,746 


592 




1,670 


289 


198 




1,702 


642 




915 


504 




921 


163 


99 




1,062 


286 




3,948 


2,765 


37 


3,874 


661 


1,685 


39 


4,588 


3,643 


47 


2,285 


276 


1 


2,334 


40 


120 




2,337 


246 


1 


1,550 


1,012 


1 


1,409 


208 


901 


10 


1,979 


1,624 


9 


1,983 


1,253 




2,087 


561 


625 


4 


2,376 


1,526 




998 


1,497 




1,086 


695 


805 


2 


1,154 


1,794 


1 


880 


291 




764 


88 


53 




967 


178 










658 


24 


32 




794 


85 




701 


i77 


j 685 


59 


236 




792 


284 




2,533 


1,746 


1 1 2,649 


512 


1,000 


1 


3,290 


2,076 


6 


1,028 


1,073 


3 1,233 


764 


220 


4 


1 , 302 


1,293 




2,816 


2,596 





2,959 


1,761 


507 




3.227 


2,946 





19 



290 



Election Returns. 





1900 


1904 


Counties 


a 
o 
o 

>> 

< 

DQ 

a 

M 

o 


s 

S3 

< 

m 

u 

O 

c 

a 
m 


.5 

03 

o 


a 

a 

a 
O 

PQ 

-p 

M 
O 
& 

o 


.2 

03 
K 

m 

o 
,— , 
t- 
03 

O 


to 

"C 

<u 
•*> 

03 
o 
W 


Jones 


906 


694 




662 


228 




I.ee 






Lenoir 


2,101 
1,341 
1,044 
1,176 
2,002 
1,174 
5,095 

413 
1,341 
1,890 
2,957 
2,963 
2,438 
1,548 
1,471 

657 
1,502 
1,260 

959 
1,607 
3,433 

534 
2,468 
1,645 
4,100 
2,913 
3,157 
2,389 
1,356 
1,065 
1,453 
1,519 
2,154 

540 

596 

591 
2,379 
1,304 
5,732 
2,133 

976 
1,055 
3,828 
1,435 
2,916 
1,011 

986 


1,123 

1,288 

1,059 

2,374 

990 

1,034 

1,627 

1,940 

868 

1,875 

1,360 

3 

1,096 

637 

1,469 

599 

926 

276 

732 

1,286 

2,096 

650 

2,513 

185 

557 

1,946 

1,519 

2,092 

1,954 

25 

837 

1,944 

2,594 

816 

607 

410 

660 

944 

4,448 

1,069 

571 

1,411 

1,878 

2,257 

1,430 

1,821 

1,081 




1,471 

1,062 

924 

1,012 

1,446 

856 

3,229 

417 

967 

1,487 

1,489 

1,284 

1,539 

908 

952 

612 

1,001 

972 

663 

949 

2,298 

502 

2,409 

955 

2,449 

2.023 

2,497 

1.873 

1,046 

662 

1,016 

1,117 

1,833 

521 

587 

392 

1,233 

1,042 

3,647 

1,185 

500 

898 

2,091 

1,360 

1,387 

703 

1,035 


631 
711 

963 

1,929 

179 

917 

668 

1,361 

824 

1,127 

577 

56 

103 

439 

556 

397 

211 

124 

311 

558 

439 

552 

1,894 

274 

846 

1,214 

1,198 

1,294 

1,776 

54 

1,060 

1,483 

2,408 

804 

500 

274 

297 

428 

1,091 

134 

354 

1,233 

1,114 

2,437 

586 

1,411 

938 


1 






2 


Macon 




1 














McDowell 




10 






5 


Mitchell 






Montpnrppry 




4 


Moore . 


1 


4 


Nash 




New Hanover 






Northampton . . 
























Pasquotank 




1 




6 






1 








Pitt - - - 


2 


1 


Polk .- - 






30 


22 












Rockingham . 








87 


11 








2 


1 
















1 






6 














Tyriell 


















Wake 


4 


7 




2 












5 


Wavne 


12 


26 


Wilkes 


1 








Yadkin 


9 


4 












Totals 


186,650 


126,296 


367 


128,761 


79,505 


349 







Vote for Governor. 



291 



1908 


1912 


1916 


g 














oj 


>> 




5 


o 






01 


CD 


02 

O 


s 


a 
a 






O 




tt 


-p 




&0 










o 
o 


fcX 
.S 


3 

o 


o 
CO 

DO 




-a 
a 

w 


03 

03 


►J 

< 




.2 


2 


03 


o 


a 

o 


-d 


W 


a 

o 


C3 


% 


£ 


1-5 


m 


1-1 


H 


t— i 


w 


H 


s 


ij 


631 


272 




694 


76 


66 




705 


231 




912 


501 




888 


95 


386 




1,049 


581 




1,490 


896 




1,666 


214 


201 




1,696 


653 




1,286 


1,180 




1,324 


67 


1,015 


5 


1,502 


1,386 




940 


1,017 


2 


1,056 


314 


614 




1,126 


1,053 




878 


2,001 




925 


842 


900 




941 


1,991 




1.385 


360 




1,264 


231 


18 




1,463 


270 




973 


984 




1,062 


8S6 


189 


7 


1,268 


1,234 




4,233 


1,385 


2 


4,110 


452 


342 


30 


4,403 


1,163 


7 


575 


1,797 




412 


177 


717 




462 


1,297 




1,047 


1,047 




1,132 


291 


668 




1.225 


1,188 




1,219 


976 


11 


1,208 


464 


410 


18 


1,361 


1,029 


19 


1,848 


1,222 


1 


1,922 


200 


426 


39 


2,174 


826 


20 


2,110 


283 




1,990 


211 


69 




2,499 


251 




1,691 


121 




1,672 


43 


42 




1,462 


30 




988 


559 


1 


904 


55 


444 




1,144 


804 




1,077 


1,014 


2 


1,096 


516 


468 


2 


1,213 


1,159 




671 


478 


18 


703 


108 


279 


17 


700 


530 


8 


1,048 


265 




1,011 


61 


117 




1,168 


229 




1,019 


294 




988 


21 


234 




973 


353 




598 


427 




686 


310 


42 




631 


286 




890 


847 




847 


811 


62 




937 


929 




2,500 


811 




2,420 


457 


239 


4 


2,762 


740 




536 


594 




676 


621 


5 


1 


683 


743 




2.546 


2,647 


4 


2,828 


475 


1,759 




2,761 


3,037 


2 


1,106 


366 




1,357 


116 


85 


4 


1,606 


593 




3,005 


1,115 




3,103 


211 


344 




3,068 


1,435 




2,039 


1,883 


10 


1,997 


899 


453 


57 


2,288 


1,978 




2,719 


1,723 




2,839 


808 


961 


27 


3,001 


2,454 


35 


2,011 


1,739 




2,241 


165 


1,423 




2,432 


1,871 




1,400 


2,423 




1,289 


176 


2,366 




1,326 


2,758 




752 


47 




774 


8 


48 




944 


161 


2 


1,537 


1,630 




1,742 


600 


1,005 


1 


2,105 


1,945 


13 


1,123 


1,671 


5 


1,168 


1,585 


48 


21 


1,543 


1,871 


20 


1,820 


2,781 


2 


2,006 


2,529 


288 


6 


2,022 


2,982 


9 


614 


902 




799 


789 


246 




794 


1,141 




600 


579 




640 


310 


321 


1 


821 


836 




357 


345 




382 


309 


43 




410 


388 




2,086 


701 




1,724 


114 


326 


19 


2,758 


635 


13 


1,187 


587 




1,223 


199 


151 


1 


1,459 


537 




4,149 


2,583 




4,221 


593 


943 


10 


4,719 


2,298 


2 


1,171 


191 




1,044 


88 


22 




1,279 


133 




534 


526 




509 


471 


39 




651 


486 




998 


1,279 




981 


723 


455 




1,134 


1,381 




2,274 


1,450 




2,390 


131 


948 


2 


2,627 


1,425 




1,599 


3,331 




1,622 


528 


2,332 




1,595 


3,471 


2 


1,905 


831 




1,877 


65 


442 




2,050 


676 




718 


1,619 




774 


1.06S 


426 




858 


1,738 




1,002 


912 




1,150 


50 


1,028 




1,263 


1,101 




145,102 


107,760 


313 


149,975 


43,625 


49,930 


944 


167,761 


120,157 


590 



2!t2 Election Returns. 



VOTE FOR STATE OFFICERS IN DEMOCRATIC PRIMARY, 

JUNE 3, 1916. 

For GOVERNOR: 

T. W. Bickett 63,121 

E. L. Daughtridge 37,017 

For SECRETARY OF STATE: 

J. Bryan Grimes 53.811 

J. A. Hartness 27,300 

Haywood Clark 16,231 

For STATE TREASURER: 

B. R. Lacy 60,008 

J. S. Mann. 34,548 

For ATTORNEY-GENERAL: 

J. S. Manning 43,332 

Edmund Jones 18,902 

N. A. Sinclair 18,036 

T. H. Calvert 12,847 

For COMMISSIONER OF LABOR AND PRINTING: 

M. L. Shipman 62,817 

D. P. Dellinger 25,559 

For CORPORATION COMMISSIONER: 

W. T. Lee 61,943 

D. L. Boyd 27,619 

For COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE: 

W. A. Graham 50,250 

A. J. McKinnon 33,596 

S. H. Hobbs 8,971 

For INSURANCE COMMISSIONER: 

J. R. Young 69,998 

C. T. McClenaghan 22,24 



Vote fob United States Senator. 



293 



VOTE FOR UNITED STATES SENATOR, 1918. 



Counties 




Alamance 

Alexander... 
Alleghany... 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick.. 
Buncombe.. 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell.... 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland.. - 
Columbus.-- 

Craven 

Cumberland 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson... 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe.. 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Huilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson.. 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde. 

Iredell 



a 
<u 

J3 
<U 

u 

c 

S' 



a 
.a 

o 



2,528 


2,241 


821 


1,144 


687 


475 


1,666 


148 


1,778 


1,875 


198 


690 


1,704 


688 


1,159 


28 


951 


349 


385 


520 


4,104 


3,281 


1,352 


1.510 


1,840 


2,065 


1,670 


1,542 


305 


58 


1,064 


992 


872 


228 


2,323 


2,485 


1,716 


1,422 


903 


1,120 


608 


46 


370 


428 


2,410 


1,116 


1,346 


529 


1,561 


256 


1,344 


356 


507 


34 


364 


293 


2,535 


2,680 


674 


1,216 


1,672 


1,051 


2,030 


1,144 


1,568 


50 


4,027 


2,917 


1,597 


188 


3,164 


2,120 


446 


102 


371 


335 


1,474 


344 


720 


132 


3,747 


2,394 


1,746 


89 


1,865 


1,373 


2,085 


1,144 


984 


1,450 


693 


80 


769 


32 


570 


136 


3,398 


1,664 



294 



Election Returns. 



Counties 



Jackson.. 
Johnston. 

Jones 

Lee 



Lenoir 

Lincoln.. 
Macon... 
Madison. 
Martin. 



McDowell 

Mecklenburg. 

Mitchell. 

Montgomery. 
Moore 



Nash 

New Hanover. 
Northampton. 
Onslow. 



Oran<re 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank. 
Pender 



Perquimans. . 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk.... - 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham.. 

Rowan. 

Rutherford — 

Sampson. 

Scotland 

Stanly -■ 

Stokes ■ 

Surry. ■ 

Swain _--■ 

Transvlvania. 

Tyrrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake -. 

Warren 

Washington... 

Watauga. 

Wavne— 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin... 

Yancey 




\<A 



915 

2,594 

134 

568 

260 

1,372 

945 

1,378 

230 

1,183 

782 

779 

950 

830 

354 

31 

22 

418 

641 

400 

114 

346 

191 

814 

333 

671 

2,884 

349 

625 

1,733 

2,099 

1,712 

2,418 

84 

1,786 

1,724 

2,577 

949 

737 

246 

267 

294 

1,318 

71 

451 

1,274 

963 

2,752 

290 

1,495 

794 



Totals. 



93,697 



Vote fob Congress. 



295 



VOTES FOR MEMBERS OF CONGRESS, 1918. 

FIRST CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 



Counties 


John H. Small (D.) 


ja 

M 

3 

6 




1,640 
263 
603 
490 
304 
439 
571 
532 

1,303 
517 
407 

2,518 
306 
474 


698 




108 




53 




66 




346 




106 




108 


Hvde --- 


183 




221 




240 




204 


Pitt .- -- 


375 


Tyrrell . ... 


231 




462 






Totals . . 


10,427 


3,401 







SECOND CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 



Counties 


P 

•** 
M 

t5 

o 




1,139 




1,549 




662 




1,717 




1,307 






1,094 






1,106 




1,412 








Total 


9,986 







296 



Election Returns. 



THIRD CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 



Counties 



Carteret 

Craven 

Duplin 

Jones 

Onslow 

Pamlico 

Pender 

Sampson 

Wayne 

Totals 





.- 




Ib 










c 


CJ 




I1J 


f- 


XI 


CQ 


£_ 


Sq 


tf« 












"3 


s 


3 


C3 




T. 


O 


951 


1,070 


1,527 


278 


1,607 


1,036 


621 


134 


923 


422 


530 


390 


874 


314 


1,009 


2.404 


2,163 


952 


10,205 


7,000 



FOURTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 



Counties 


Edward W. Pou 
(D.) 


a 

o 

X 

.»- 

G_ 

Kd 

Q 

o 

<A 




1,708 
1 , 565 
3,141 
1,551 
1,215 
3,673 


1,441 




172 




2.594 




317 




274 




1,230 










12,853 


6,028 









Vote fob Congeess. 



297 



FIFTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 






Counties 


a 

a 

w ^ 

CO ^-' 
0) 
h 
03 
A 

o 


John W. Kurfeea 
(R.) 




2,487 

852 

1,965 

4,004 

1,469 

3,693 

724 

754 

1,997 

1,316 

1,815 


2,239 




216 




1,133 




2,905 




327 


Guilford -.- --- 


2,373 




640 




786 




1,718 




1,716 




2,582 








Totals 


21,076 


16,635 









SIXTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 



Counties 


^5 
Is 
a * 

03 o 

WO 


G in 

c! c3 




923 
359 
1,370 
1,356 
1,833 
1,156 
2,578 


356 




514 




515 




329 




1,361 








627 








Totals 


9,575 


3,702 









298 



Election Returns. 



SEVENTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 



Counties 


00 - 

03 O 

"3-H 

o o 


en 
9 

u 

CO 

s 




1,678 

2,523 

659 

758 

887 

1,112 

1,194 

2,645 

1,539 

804 

2,163 

1,710 

603 


140 




2,659 


Davie . . 


1,204 


Hoke - 


32 


Lee 


560 




949 




812 


Randolph 


2,895 


Richmond 


333 




84 




253 


Wilkes 


2,714 




1,481 






Totals 


18,275 


14,116 







EIGHTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 









>. 






■■■ * 


o 






P 


13 

a 












Counties 


. a 


*— i *■? 






^S 


<£ 














oo 


a 

c3 






tfG 


£ 


A lexander 


827 
719 


1,148 


Alleghany 


448 


Ashe 


1,792 
1,863 
1,700 
3,390 

2,888 
1,955 


1,829 


Cabarrus 


2,042 


Caldwell - 


1,521 


Iredell 


1,677 


Rowan 


2,085 


Stanly 


1,797 


Watauga -- ------ --------- 


971 


1,279 








Totals 


16,105 


13,826 









Vote for Congress. 



299 



NINTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 









ta 






J2 


ea 






,fl 


a 






<0 


o 






P^ 


1-5 




Counties 




■ ^- 






>^S 


<oi 






a 


a. 






% 


03 






T3 


J3 






H 


o 




279 


607 


Burke 


1,329 


1,490 




2,332 


2,468 




2,406 


1,134 


Gaston 


3,152 

1,418 

628 

3,969 


2 154 




1 387 


Madison 


1 271 


Mecklenburg . . 


770 


Mitchell 


365 
1,104 


773 


Yancey -------- 


776 








Totals 


16,982 


12,830 







TENTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 



Counties 


u 

o 

> 

03 

ail 
o 

.a 

0J 

tS5 


■Pi 

00 

s 

03 
1-5 


Buncomoe 


4,015 

913 

375 

362 

2,090 

976 

1,040 

1,198 

1,085 

045 

2,169 

668 

787 


3,442 


Cherokee 


1,188 


Clay „ 


431 


Graham 


351 


Havwood 


1,139 


Henderson 


1,482 


Jackson 


923 


McDowell 


1,183 


Macon . 


998 


Polk 


717 


Rutherford 


1,738 


Swain 


937 


Transylvania 


712 






Totals 


18,323 


15,271 







300 



Election Returns. 



VOTE ON CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS, 1918 



Counties 


Amendment to Sec. 3, 

Art. V: For Exemption 

from Taxation of 

Homestead Notes 


Amendment to Sec. 3, 

Art. IX: To Insure a 

Six-months School 

Term 


• 


For 


Against 


For 


Against 




1,933 

594 

30 

798 
424 
535 

1,050 
517 
861 
223 

3,514 
948 
656 
393 
276 

1,248 
444 

1,176 

1,061 
698 
306 
257 

1,160 

1,100 
942 

1,281 
294 
235 


189 

195 

605 

476 

205 

23 

324 

228 

122 

76 

71 

183 

101 

172 

15 

70 

110 

333 

700 

13 

195 

120 

213 

304 

185 

159 

80 

16 


2,259 

334 

335 

1,031 

1,911 

636 

1,421 

824 

861 

412 

3,514 

1,297 

2,406 

1,344 

317 

1,248 

619 

1,613 

1,438 

1,051 

480 

421 

1,790 

1,200 

1,298 

1,326 

492 

457 

2,649 

738 

1,245 

1,451 

1,142 

3,398 

1,106 

2,467 

277 

288 

- 1,178 

410 

3,541 

1,677 

1,405 

1,957 

1,395 

593 

468 

615 

3,103 

1,066 

1,797 

523 

661 


20 




302 


Alleghanv 


109 




393 




51 




16 




310 




195 




122 




44 




71 




321 




116 


Caldwell 


373 




32 




70 




134 




593 




663 




118 




44 


Clay 


23 




531 




403 




98 




183 




4 




8 




160 




. 350 

874 

696 

953 

1,826 

1,015 

1,422 

192 

122 

862 

74 

2,389 

1,438 

1,162 

85 

1,369 

178 

468 

362 

2,602 

537 

1,867 

492 

486 


89 
456 
312 
252 
132 
340 
266 

70 


103 




481 




232 




242 




245 




417 




105 




129 




38 




189 
284 
407 
243 
457 
'30 

22 
151 

23 

48 
234 

63 
626 

22 
162 


133 




242 


Guilford . 


389 




36 




580 




191 




30 




22 


Hoke 


23 


Hvde - - - 


21 




184 




201 




909 




26 




272 



Vote on Constitutional Amendments. 



301 



Counties 


Amendment to Sec. 3, 

Art. V: For Exemption 

from Taxation of 

Homestead Notes 


Amendment to Sec. 3, 

Art. IX: To Insure a 

Six-months School 

Term 




For 


Against 


For 


Against 


Lenoir . 


1,021 

1,162 
942 
318 
977 
255 

2,669 
181 
321 
474 
732 

1,088 
641 
434 
554 
231 
402 
563 
253 
345 

1,516 
428 
497 
870 


224 

127 

68 

14 

138 

11 

413 

23 

86 

196 

327 

33 

256 

168 

206 

125 

58 

87 

58 

102 

213 

57 

171 

104 


1,021 

1,177 

1,229 

837 

878 

587 

3,165 

654 

742 

1,028 

1,242 

1,159 

972 

698 

711 

373 

653 

869 

515 

653 

1,962 

813 

1,616 

1,542 

2,404 

2,372 

2,5U 

1,672 

1,335 

742 

1,425 

682 

1,491 

811 

557 

41S 

1,186 

1,072 

2,451 

704 

755 

486 

1,173 

1,960 

1,211 

590 

1,443 


224 
1 9 9 


Lincoln . . 


Macon _ . _ 


75 

80 


Madison . . 


Martin . _ 


210 

69 

157 


McDowell . . 


Mecklenburg . 


Mitchell 


12 


Montgomery . . 


156 


Moore - 


266 


Nash _ ... 


164 


New Hanover .... 


11 




58 


Onslow ..... 


122 


Orange _ _ 


224 




104 


Pasquotank ..... 


41 


Pencier .... 


57 


Perquimarjs . . 


34 


Person _ 


131 


Pitt 


228 


Polk 


47 


Randolph . _ 


168 




58 




1,937 218 


194 




1,264 

1,627 

1,124 

754 

519 

277 

228 

827 

811 

163 

264 

1,166 

631 

2.174 

453 

576 

168 

1,122 

834 

639 

390 

613 


343 
302 
174 
411 

21 
195 

38 

339 

133 

4 

72 
424 
208 
914 
301 
126 
122 
574 
410 
451 
474 

38 


132 


Rowan . 


292 




345 




604 


Scotland .... 


21 


Stanly... 


3S7 




231 




593 




133 


Transvlvania__ 


9 


Tyrrell 


26 


Union ...... 


351 


Vance .. . 


69 


Wake 


1,111 


Warren . 


226 


Washington . 


2:< 


Watauga 


1st 


Wayne.. 


104 


Wilkes 


614 


Wilson 


166 


Yadkin 


665 


Yancey 


30 






Totals 


79,946 


19,846 


122,062 


20,095 







PART X. 



THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. 



THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. 

In Congress, July 4, 1776. 

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of 

America. 

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one 
people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them 
with another, and to assume among the Powers of the earth, the 
separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Na- 
ture's God entitled them, a decent respect to the opinions of man- 
kind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them 
to the separation. 

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created 
equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalien- 
able Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of 
Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted 
among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the 
governed, That whenever any Form of Government becomes destruc- 
tive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish 
it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such 
principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall 
seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, in- 
deed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be 
changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experi- 
ence hath shown, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while 
evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms 
to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and 
usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to 
reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their 
duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for 
their future security.- — Such has been the patient sufferance of these 
Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to 
alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the pres- 
ent King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usur- 
pations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute 
Tyranny over these States. To provide this, let Facts be submitted 
to a candid world. 
20 



306 Declaration of Independence. 

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and neces- 
sary for the public good. 

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and 
pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his 
Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly 
neglected to attend to them. 

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large 
districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of 
Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and 
formidable to tyrants only. 

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncom- 
fortable, and distant from the depository of their Public Records, for 
the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his meas- 
ures. 

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing 
with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people. 

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause 
others to be elected; whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of 
Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; 
the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of 
invasion from without, and convulsions within. 

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States; for 
that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; 
refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and rais- 
ing the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands. 

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his 
Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers. 

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of 
their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries. 

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms 
of Officers to harass our People, and eat out their substance. 

He has kept among us, in times of peace. Standing Armies without 
the Consent of our legislature. 

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior 
to the Civil Power. 

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign 
to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his 
Assent to their acts of pretended legislation: 

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: 

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any 



Declaration of Independence. 307 

Murders which they should commit ou the Inhabitants of these 
States: 

For cutting off of Trade with all parts of the world: 

For imposing taxes on us without our Consent: 

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury: 

For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offenses: 

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring 
Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarg- 
ing its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit in- 
strument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies: 

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, 
and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments: 

For suspending our own Legislature, and declaring themselves in- 
vested with Power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. 

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his 
Protection and waging War against us. 

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, 
and destroyed the lives of our people. 

He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercena- 
ries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already 
begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in 
the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civi- 
lized nation. 

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high 
Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners 
of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands. 

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeav- 
oured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless 
Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished 
destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions. 

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Re- 
dress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been 
answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is 
thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be 
the ruler of a free People. 

Nor have We been wanting in attention to our British brethren. 
We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legis- 
lature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have 
reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settle- 
ment here. We have appealed to their native justice and magna- 



308 Declaration of Independence. 

nimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kin- 
dred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt 
our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to 
the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, ac- 
quiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold 
them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace 
Friends. 

We, therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, 
in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of 
the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by 
Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish 
and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to 
be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all 
Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection 
between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be 
totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they 
have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, 
establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Inde- 
pendent States may of right do. And for the support of this Decla- 
ration, with a firm reliance on the Protection of Divine Providence, 
we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our 
sacred Honor. JOHN HANCOCK. 

Ncio Hampshire — Josiaii Bartlett, Wm. Whipple, Matthew 
Thornton. 

Massachusetts Bay — Saml. Adams, John Adams, Robt. Treat 
Paine, Elbridge Gerry. 

Rhode Island — Step. Hopkins, William Ellery. 

Connecticut — Roger Sherman, Sam'el Huntington, Wm. Will- 
iams, Oliver Wolcott. 

Neiv York — Wm. Floyd, Phil. Livingston, Frans. Lewis, Lewis 
Morris. 

New Jersey — Riciid. Stockton, Jxo. Witherspoon, Fras. Hopkin- 
son, John Hart, Abra. Clark. e 

Pennsylvania — Robt. Morris, Benjamin Rush, Benja. Franklin. 
John Morton, Geo. Clymer, Jas. Smith, Geo. Taylor, James Wilson, 
Geo. Ross. 

Delaware — Cesar Rodney, Geo. Read, Tho. M'Kean. 

Maryland — Samuel Chase, Wm. Paca, Thos. Stone, Charles Car- 
roll of Carrollton. 



Declaration of Independence. 309 

Virginia — George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, Th. Jefferson, 
Benja. Harrison, Thos. Nelson, jr., Francis Lightfoot Lee, Carter 
Braxton. 

North Carolina — Wm. Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn. 

South Carolina — Edward Rutledge, Thos. Heyward, Junr., 
Thomas Lynch, Junr., Arthur Middleton. 

Georgia — Button Gwinxett, Lyman Hall, Geo. Walton.* 



*This arrangement of the names is made for convenience. The States are not 
mentioned in the original. 



PART XI. 



CONSTITUTIONS. 



1. Constitution of the United States. 

2. Constitution of North Carolina. 

3. Index to the Constitution of North 

Carolina. 



CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.* 

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more per- 
fect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquillity, provide 
for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure 
the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain 
and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. 

Article I. 

Section 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested 
in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate 
and House of Representatives. 

Section 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of 
Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several 
States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications 
requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State 
Legislature. 

No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained 
to the Age of twenty-five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of 
the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabi- 
tant of that State in which he shall be chosen. 

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the 
several States which may be included within this Union, according 
to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding 
to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to 
Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three 
fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made 
within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the 
United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in 
such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The number of Repre- 
sentatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each 
State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enum- 
eration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled 
to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence 
Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, 
Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North 
Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three. 



*Reprmk'd from the text issued by the State Department. 



314 United States Constitution. 

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the 
Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such 
Vacancies. 

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other 
Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment. 

iSection 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of 
two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for 
six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote. 

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the 
first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three 
Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated 
at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the 
Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expira- 
tion of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second 
Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during 
the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof 
may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the 
Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies. 

No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the 
Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United 
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that 
State for which he shall be chosen. 

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the 
Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided. 

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President 
pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall 
exercise the Office of President of the United States. 

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. 
When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. 
When the President of the United States is tried the Chief Justice 
shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Con- 
currence of two thirds of the Members present. 

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than 
to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any 
Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the 
Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indict- 
ment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to law. 

Section 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections 
for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State 
by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by 



United States Constitution. 315 

Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of 
chusing Senators. 

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such 
Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall 
by Law appoint a different Day. 

Section 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Re- 
turns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each 
shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number 
may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the 
Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such 
Penalties as each House may provide. 

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, Punish 
its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of 
two thirds, expel a member. 

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time 
to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judg- 
ment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of 
either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those 
Present, be entered on the Journal. 

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the 
Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any 
other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting. 

Section 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Com- 
pensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out 
of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, ex- 
cept Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from 
Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective 
Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any 
Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in 
any other Place. 

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he 
was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of 
the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments 
whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person 
holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of 
either House during his Continuance in Office. 

Section 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the 
House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur 
with Amendments as on other Bills. 



316 United States Constitution. 

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives 
and the Senate, shall, before it becomes a Law, be presented to the 
President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but 
if not he shall return it, with his Objections, to that House in which 
it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on 
their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsid- 
eration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall 
be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which 
it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of 
that House, it shall become a law. But in all such Cases the Votes 
of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the 
Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered 
on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be 
returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after 
it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a Law, in like 
manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjourn- 
ment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law. 

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the 
Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on 
a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of 
the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be ap- 
proved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by 
two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to 
the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill. 

Section 8. The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect 
Taxes, Duties, Imports and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for 
the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but 
all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the 
United States; 

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States; 

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the sev- 
eral States, and with the Indian Tribes; 

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws 
on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States; 

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, 
and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures; 

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the securities and 
current Coin of the United States; 

To establish Post Offices and post Roads; 



United States Constitution. 317 

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing 
for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to 
their respective Writings and Discoveries; 

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court; 

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high 
Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations; 

To declare War, giant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make 
Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water; 

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to 
that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years; 

To provide and maintain a Navy; 

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and 
naval Forces; 

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the 
Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions; 

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, 
and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the 
Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, 
the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the 
Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress; 

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over 
such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of 
particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat 
of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Author- 
ity over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of 
the State in which the same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, 
Magazines, Arsenals, dock- Yards, and other needful Buildings; — And 

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carry- 
ing into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested 
by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in 
any Department or Officer thereof. 

Section 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any 
of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be 
prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight 
hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Im- 
portation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person. 

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, 
unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may 
require it. 

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed. 



318 United States Constitution. 

No Capitation, or other direct, Tax, shall be laid, unless in Pro- 
portion to the Census or Enumeration hereinbefore directed to be 
taken. 

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State. 

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or 
Revenue to the Forts of one State over those of another: nor shall 
Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or 
pay Duties in another. 

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence 
of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Ac- 
count of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be 
published from time to time. 

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: and no 
Persons holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, with- 
out the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, 
Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince or for- 
eign State. 

Section 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or 
Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; 
emit Bills of Credit; make any thing but gold and silver Coin a 
Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder ex post facto 
Law or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any 
Title of Nobility. 

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Im- 
posts or Duties on Imports or Exports except what may be absolutely 
necessary for executing its inspection Laws; and the net Produce 
of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, 
shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all 
such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Control of the Con- 
gress. 

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of 
Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into 
any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign 
Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such immi- 
nent Danger as will not admit of Delay. 

Article II. 

Section 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of 
the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the 



United States Constitution. 319 

Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen 
for the same Term, be elected, as follows: 

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature there- 
of may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of 
Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in 
the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding 
an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be ap- 
pointed an Elector. 

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by 
Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhab- 
itant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List 
of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; 
which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the 
Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the Presi- 
dent of the Senate. The President of the Senate, shall, in the 
Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the 
Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person hav- 
ing the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such 
Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; 
and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an 
equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall 
immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no 
Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the 
said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing 
the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation 
from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall 
consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and 
a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every 
Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the great- 
est Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But 
if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate 
shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President. 

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, 
and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall 
be the same throughout the United States. 

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the 
United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall 
be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be 
eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of 



320 United States Constitution. 

thirty-five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the 
United States. 

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his 
Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties 
of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, 
and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, 
Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice 
President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President and 
such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, 
or a President shall be elected. 

The President shall at stated Times, receive for his Services, a 
Compensation, which shall neither be Increased nor diminished dur- 
ing the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not 
receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United 
States, or any of them. 

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the 
following Oath or Affirmation: — 

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the 
Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my 
Ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United 
States." 

Section 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the 
Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the sev- 
eral States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; 
he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in 
each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the 
Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant 
Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except 
in Cases of Impeachment. 

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the 
Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present 
concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and 
Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Min- 
isters and Consuls, Judges of the Supreme Court, and all other 
Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein 
otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law; but 
the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior 
Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts 
of Law, or in the Heads of Departments. 

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may 



United States Constitution. 321 

happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions 
which shall expire at the End of their next Session. 

Section. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress Infor- 
mation of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consider- 
ation such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he 
may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either 
of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to 
the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he 
shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public 
Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, 
and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States. 

Section. 4. The President, Vice-president and all civil Officers of 
the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, 
and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Mis- 
demeanors. 

Article. III. 

Section. 1. The judicial Power of the United States, shall be 
vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the 
Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, 
both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices dur- 
ing good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their 
Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during 
their continuance in Office. 

Section. 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law 
and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United 
States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Au- 
thority; — to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers 
and Consuls; — to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction; 
— to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party; — to 
Controversies between two or more States; — 'between a State and 
Citizens of another State; — between Citizens of different States, — 
between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of 
different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and 
foreign States, Citizens, or Subjects. 

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and 
Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme 
Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before 
mentioned the Supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both 
as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such regula- 
tions as the Congress shall make. 
21 



322 United States Constitution. 

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be 
by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said 
Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within 
any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress 
may by Law have directed. 

Section. 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only 
in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving 
them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason 
unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or 
on Confession in open Court. 

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of 
Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of 
Blood or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted. 

AlM'lOLE. IV. 

Section. 1. Pull Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to 
the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other 
State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Man- 
ner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, 
and the effect thereof. 

Section. 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Priv- 
ileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States. 

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other 
Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State 
shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which 
he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdic- 
tion of the Crime. 

No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws 
thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any Law, or 
Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but 
shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or 
Labour may be due. 

Section. 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this 
Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the 
Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the 
Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Con- 
sent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the 
Congress. 

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all need- 
ful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property 



United States Constitution. 323 

belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall 
be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or 
of any particular State. 

Section. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in 
this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each 
of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or 
of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against 
domestic Violence. 

Article. V. 

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it 
necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the 
Application of the Legislature of two thirds of the several States, 
shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either 
case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes as part of this Con- 
stitution, when ratified by the Legislature of three fourths of the 
several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one 
or the. other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; 
Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year 
one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect 
the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; 
and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal 
Suffrage in the Senate. 

Article. VI. 

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the 
Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United 
States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation. 

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall 
be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall 
be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the 
supreme Law of the land; and the Judges in every State shall be 
bound thereby, any thing in the Constitution or laws of any State 
to the Contrary notwithstanding. 

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Mem- 
bers of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial 
Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall 
be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but 
no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any 
Office or public Trust under the United States. 



324 United States Constitution. 

Akticle. VII. 

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be suf- 
ficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States 
so ratifying the Same. 

THE AMENDMENTS. 

I. 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of re- 
ligion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the free- 
dom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably 
to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of griev- 
ances. 

II. 

A well-regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free 
State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be 
infringed. 

III. 

No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, with- 
out the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to 
be prescribed by law. 

IV. 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, 
papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall 
not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable 
cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing 
the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. 



No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise in- 
famous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand 
Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the 
Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor 
shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in 
jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any Criminal 
Case to be witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, 
or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property 
be taken for public use, without just compensation. 



United States Constitution. 325 

VI. 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a 
speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district 
wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall 
have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the 
nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the wit- 
nesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining Wit- 
nesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his de- 
fence. 

VII. 

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall ex- 
ceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and 
no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise reexamined in any Court 
of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law. 

VIII. 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, 
nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. 

IX. 

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not 
be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 

X. 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution 
nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respec- 
tively, or to the people. 

XI. 

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to 
extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against 
one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens 
or Subjects of any Foreign State. 

XII. 

The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by 
ballot for President and Vice President, one of whom, at least, shall 
not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall 
name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in (lis- 



326 United States Constitution. 

tinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall 
make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all 
persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for 
each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to 
the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the 
President of the Senate;— The President of the Senate shall, in the 
presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the 
certificates and the votes shall then be counted; — The person having 
the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, 
if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors ap- 
pointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the per- 
sons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of 
those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall 
choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the 
President, the vote shall be taken by states, the representation from 
each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist 
of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a ma- 
jority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the 
House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever 
the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day 
of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as Presi- 
dent, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of 
the President. The person having the greatest number of voles as 
Vice-President, shall be Vice-President, if such number be a ma- 
jority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person 
have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the 
Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose 
shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of senators, and a 
majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But 
no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall 
be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States. 

XIII. 

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a 
punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly con- 
victed, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to 
their jurisdiction. 

Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by 
appropriate legislation. 



United States Constitution. 327 



XIV. 



Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, 
and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United 
States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make 
or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities 
of citizens of the United States: nor shall any State deprive any per- 
son of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor 
deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of 
the laws. 

Sfxtion 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several 
states according to their respective numbers, counting the whole 
number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But 
when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for 
President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives 
in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the 
members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male in- 
habitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens 
of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation 
in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall 
be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citi- 
zens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one 
years of age in such State. 

Sectiox 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Con- 
gress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, 
civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who 
having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an 
officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature 
or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the 
Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection 
or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies 
thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House 
remove such disability. 

Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, 
authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions 
and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, 
shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State 
shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insur- 
section or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the 
loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and 
claims shall be held illegal and void. 



328 United States Constitution. 

Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appro- 
priate legislation, the provisions of this article. 

XV. 

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall 
not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on 
account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article 
by appropriate legislation. 

XVI. 

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, 
from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the 
several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration. 

XVII. 

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators 
from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and 
each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall 
have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous 
branch of the State Legislatures. 

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the 
Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of 
election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the Legislature of 
any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary 
appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the 
Legislature may direct. 

ratification of the constitution. 

The Constitution was ratified by the thirteen original States in the 
following order: 

Delaware, December 7, 1787; Pennsylvania, December 12, 1787; 
New Jersey, December 18, 17S7; Georgia, January 2, 17SS; Connecti- 
cut, January 9, 1788; Massachusetts, February 6, 1788; Maryland, 
April 28, 1788; South Carolina, May 23, 1788; New Hampshire, June 
21, 1788; Virginia, June 25, 1788; New York, July 26, 1788; North 
Carolina, November 21, 1789; Rhode Island, May 29, 1790. 



State Constitution. 329 

ratification of the amendments 

The First to Tenth, inclusive, were declared in force December 15, 
1781; the Eleventh, January 8, 1798; the Twelfth, September 25, 
1804; the Thirteenth was proclaimed December 18, 1865; the Four- 
teenth, July 28, 186S; the Fifteenth, March 30, 1870; the Sixteenth, 
February 25. 1913; the Seventeenth, May 30, 1913. 



CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

PREAMBLE. 

We, the people of the State of North Carolina grateful to Al- 
mighty God, the Sovereign Ruler of Nations, for the preservation of 
the American Union, and the existence of our civil, political and re- 
ligious liberties, and acknowledging our dependence upon Him for 
the continuance of those blessings to us and our posterity, do for 
the more certain security thereof, and for the better government of 
this State, ordain and establish this Constitution. 

ARTICLE I. 

DECLARATION OF RIGHTS. 

That the great, general and essential principles of liberty and free 
government may be recognized and established, and that the rela- 
tions of this State to the Union and Government of the United States, 
and those of the people of this State to the rest of the American 
people, may be defined and affirmed, we do declare: 

Section 1. That we hold it to be self-evident that all men are 
created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain 
inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, the enjoyment 
of the fruits of their own labor, and the pursuit of happiness. 

Sec. 2. That all political power is vested in, and derived from, the 
people; all government of right originates from the people, is founded 
upon their will only, and is instituted solely for the good of the 
whole. 



330 State Constitution. 

Sec. 3. That the people of this State have the inherent, sole, and 
exclusive right of regulating the internal government and police 
thereof, and of altering and abolishing their Constitution and form 
of government whenever it may be necessary for their safety and 
happiness; but every such right should be exercised in pursuance of 
law, and consistently with the Constitution of the United States. 

Sec. 4. That this State shall ever remain a member of the Ameri- 
can Union; that the people thereof are a part of the American 
nation; that there is no right on the part of the State to secede, and 
that all attempts, from whatever source or upon whatever pretext, 
to dissolve said Union, or to sever said nation, ought to be resisted 
with the whole power of the State. 

Sec. 5. That every citizen of this State owes paramount allegiance 
to the Constitution and Government of the United States, and that 
no law or ordinance of the State in contravention or subversion 
thereof can have any binding force. 

Sec. 6. The State shall never assume or pay, or authorize the col- 
lection of any debt or obligation, express or implied, incurred in aid 
of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim 
for the loss or emancipation of any slave; nor shall the General 
Assembly assume or pay, or authorize the collection of any tax to 
pay, either directly or indirectly, expressed or implied, any debt or 
bond incurred, or issued, by authority of the Convention of the 
year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, nor any debt or 
bond incurred or issued by the Legislature of the year one thousand 
eight hundred and sixty-eight, at its special session of the year one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, or at its regular sessions 
of the years one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight and one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty-nine and one thousand eight hun- 
dred and seventy, except the bonds issued to fund the interest on the 
old debt of the State, unless the proposing to pay the same shall 
have first been submitted to the people and by them ratified by the 
vote of a majority of all the qualified voters of the State, at a regular 
election held for that purpose. 

Sec. 7. No man or set of men are entitled to exclusive or separate 
emoluments or privileges from the community but in consideration 
of public services. 

Sec 8. The legislative, executive, and supreme judicial powers of 
the government ought to be forever separate and distinct from each 
other. 



State Constitution. 331 

Sec. 9. All power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, by 
any authority, without the consent of the representatives of the 
people, is injurious to their rights, and ought not to be exercised. 

Sec. 10. All elections ought to be free. 

Sec. 11. In all criminal prosecutions, every man has the right to 
be informed of the accusation against him and to confront the ac- 
cusers and witnesses with other testimony, and to have counsel for 
his defense, and not to be compelled to give evidence against himself 
or to pay costs, jail fees, or necessary witness fees of the defense, 
unless found guilty. 

Sec. 12. No person shall be put to answer any.criminal charge, 
except as hereinafter allowed, but by indictment, presentment, or 
impeachment. 

Sec. 13. No person shall be convicted of any crime but by the 
unanimous verdict of a jury of good and lawful men in open court. 
The Legislature may, however, provide other means of trial for petty 
misdemeanors, with the right of appeal. 

Sec. 14. Excessive bail should not be required, nor excessive fines 
imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishments inflicted. 

Sec. 15. General warrants, whereby any officer or messenger may 
be commanded to search suspected places, without evidence of the 
act committed, or to seize any person or persons not named, whose 
offense is not particularly described and supported by evidence, are 
dangerous to liberty and ought not to be granted. 

Sec. 16. There shall be no imprisonment for debt in this State, 
except in cases of fraud. 

Sec. 17. No person ought to be taken, imprisoned, or disseized of 
his freehold, liberties or privileges, or outlawed or exiled, or in any 
manner deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by the law of 
the land. 

Sec. 18. Every person restrained of his liberty is entitled to a 
remedy to inquire into the lawfulness thereof, and to remove the 
same, if unlawful; and such remedy ought not to be denied or 
delayed. 

Sec. 19. In all controversies at law respecting property, the 
ancient mode of trial by jury is one of the best securities of the rights 
of the people, and ought to remain sacred and inviolable. 

Sec. 20. The freedom of the press is one of the great bulwarks of 
liberty, and therefore ought never to be restrained, but every indi- 
vidual shall be held responsible for the abuse of the same. 



332 State Constitution. 

Sec. 21. The privileges of the writ of habeas corpus shall not he 
suspended. 

Sec. 22. As political rights and privileges are not dependent upon, 
or modified, hy property, therefore no property qualification ought to 
affect the right to vote or hold office. 

Sec. 23. The people of the State ought not to be taxed, or made 
subject to the payment of any impost or duty, without the consent 
of themselves, or their representatives in General Assembly, freely 
given. 

Sec. 24. A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of 
a free State, the light of the people to keep and bear arms shall not 
be infringed; and, as standing armies in time of peace are dangerous 
to liberty, they ought not to be kept up, and the military should be 
kept under strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power. 
Nothing herein contained shall justify the practice of carrying con- 
cealed weapons, or prevent the Legislature from enacting penal stat- 
utes against said practice. 

Sec. 25. The people have a right to assemble together to consult 
for their common good, to instruct their representatives, and to 
apply to the Legislature for redress of grievances. But secret politi- 
cal societies are dangerous to the liberties of a free people, and 
should not be tolerated. 

Sec. 26. All men have a natural and inalienable right to worship 
Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences, 
and no human authority should, in any case whatever, control or 
interfere with the rights of conscience. 

Sec. 27. The people have the right to the privilege of education, 
and it is the duty of the State to guard and maintain that right. 

Sec. 28. For redress of grievances, and for amending and strength- 
ening the laws, elections should be often held. 

Sec. 29. A frequent recurrence to fundamental principles is abso- 
lutely necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty. 

Sec. 30. No hereditary emoluments, privileges, or honors ought to 
be granted or conferred in this State. 

Sec. 31. Perpetuities and monopolies are contrary to the genius of 
a free State, and ought not to be allowed. 

Sec. 32. Retrospective laws, punishing acts committed before the 
existence of such laws, and by them only declared criminal are op- 
pressive, unjust, and incompatible with liberty; wherefore no ex 
post facto law ought to be made. No law taxing retrospectively 
sales, purchases, or other acts previously done, ought to be passed. 



State Constitution. 333 

Sec. 33. Slavery and involuntary servitude, otherwise than for 
crime, whereof the parties shall have been duly convicted, shall be 
and are hereby forever prohibited within the State. 

Sec. 34. The limits and boundaries of the State shall be and re- 
main as they now are. 

Sec. 35. All courts shall be open; and every person for an injury 
done him in his lands, goods, persons, or reputation shall have 
remedy by due course of law, and rights and justice administered 
without sale, denial, or delay. 

Sec 36. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any 
house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war but in 
a manner prescribed by the law. 

Sec 37. This enumeration of rights shall not be construed to im- 
pair or deny others retained by the people; and all powers not herein 
delegated remain with the people. 

ARTICLE II. 

LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT. 

Section 1. The legislative authority shall be vested in two dis- 
tinct branches both dependent on the people, to wit, a Senate and 
House of Representatives. 

Sec 2. The Senate and House of Representatives shall meet bien- 
nially on the first Wednesday after the first Monday in January next 
after their election; and, when assembled, shall be denominated the 
General Assembly. Neither house shall proceed upon public busi- 
ness unless a majority of all the members are actually present. 

Sec 3. The Senate shall be composed of fifty Senators, biennially 
chosen by ballot. 

Sec 4. The Senate Districts shall be so altered by the General 
Assembly, at the first session after the return of every enumeration 
by order of Congress that each Senate District shall contain, as 
near as may be, an equal number of inhabitants, excluding aliens 
and Indians not taxed, and shall remain unaltered until the return 
of another enumeration, and shall at all times consist of contiguous 
territory; and no county shall be divided in the formation of a 
Senate District unless such county shall be equitably entitled to two 
or more Senators. 

Sec 5. The House of Representatives shall be composed of one 
hundred and twenty Representatives, biennially chosen by ballot, to 



334 State Constitution. 

be elected by the counties respectively, according to their population, 
and each county shall have at least one representative in the House 
of Representatives, although it may not contain the requisite ratio of 
representation. This apportionment shall be made by the General 
Assembly at the respective times and periods when the districts of 
the Senate are hereinbefore directed to be laid off. 

Sec. 6. In making the apportionment in the House of Representa- 
tives, the ratio of representation shall be ascertained by dividing 
the amount of the population of the State, exclusive of that compre- 
hended within those counties which do not severally contain the one 
hundred and twentieth part of the population of the State, by the 
number of Representatives, less the number assigned to such coun- 
ties; and in ascertaining the number of the population of the State, 
aliens and Indians not taxed shall not be included. To each county 
containing the said ratio and not twice the said ratio, there shall 
be assigned one Representative; to each county containing two but 
not three times the said ratio, there shall be assigned two Repre- 
sentatives, and so on progressively, and then the remaining Repre- 
sentatives shall be assigned severally to the counties having the 
largest fractions. 

Sec. 7. Each member of the Senate shall not be less than twenty- 
five years of age, shall have resided in the State as a citizen two 
years, and shall have usually resided in the district for which he is 
chosen one year immediately preceding his election. 

Sec. 8. Each member of the House of Representatives shall be a 
qualified elector of the State, and shall have resided in the county 
for which he is chosen for one year immediately preceding his 
election. 

Sec. 9. In the election of all officers whose appointments shall be 
conferred upon the General Assembly by the Constitution, the vote 
shall be viva voce. 

Sec. 10. The General Assembly shall have the power to pass gen- 
eral laws regulating divorce and alimony, but shall not have power 
to grant a divorce or secure alimony in any individual case. 

Sec. 11. The General Assembly shall not have power to pass any 
private laws to alter the name of any person, or to legitimate any 
person not born in lawful wedlock, or to restore to the rights of 
citizenship any person convicted of an infamous crime, but shall 
have power to pass general laws regulating the same. 



State Constitution. 335 

Sec. 12. The General Assembly shall not pass any private law, 
unless it shall be made to appear that thirty days notice of appli- 
cation to pass such law shall have been given, under such direction 
and in such manner as shall be provided by law. 

Sec. 13. If vacancies shall occur in the General Assembly by 
death, resignation or otherwise, writs of election shall be issued by 
the Governor under such regulations as may be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 14. No law shall be passed to raise money on the credit of 
the State, or to pledge the faith of the State, directly or indirectly, 
for the payment of any debt, or to impose any tax upon the people 
of the State, or allow the counties, cities or towns to do so, unless 
the bill for the purpose shall have been read three several times in 
each house of the General Assembly and passed three several read- 
ings, which readings shall have been on three different days, and 
agreed to by each house, respectively, and unless the yeas and nays 
on the second and third readings of the bill shall have been entered 
on the journal. 

Sec. 15. The General Assembly shall regulate entails in such man- 
ner as to prevent perpetuities. 

Sec. 16. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, which 
shall be printed and made public immediately after the adjournment 
of the General Assembly. 

Sec. 17. Any member of either house may dissent from and pro- 
test against any act or resolve which he may think injurious to the 
public, or any individual, and have the reasons of his dissent entered 
on the journal. 

Sec. 18. The House of Representatives shall choose their own 
Speaker and other officers. 

Sec. 19. The Lieutenant Governor shall preside in the Senate, but 
shall have no vote unless it may be equally divided. 

Sec. 20. The Senate shall choose its other officers and also a 
Speaker (pro tempore) in the absence of the Lieutenant Governor, 
or when he shall exercise the office of Governor. 

Sec. 21. The style of the acts shall be: "The General Assembly 
of North Carolina do enact." 

Sec. 22. Each house shall be judge of the qualifications and elec- 
tion of its own members, shall sit upon its own adjournment from 
day to day, prepare bills to be passed into laws; and the two houses 
may also jointly adjourn to any future day or other place. 

Sec. 23. All bills and resolutions of a legislative nature shall be 



336 State Constitution. 

read three times in each house before they pass into laws, and shall 
be signed by the presiding officers of both houses. 

Sec. 24. Each member of the General Assembly, before taking his 
seat, shall take an oath or affirmation that he will support the Con- 
stitution and laws of the United States, and the Constitution of the 
State of North Carolina, and will faithfully discharge his duty as a 
member of the Senate or House of Representatives. 

Sec. 25. The terms of office for Senators and members of the 
House of Representatives shall commence at the time of their 
election. 

Sec. 26. Upon motion made and seconded in either house by one- 
fifth of the members present, the yeas and nays upon any question 
shall be taken and entered upon the journals. 

Sec. 27. The election for members of the General Assembly shall 
be held for the respective districts and counties at the places where 
they are now held, or may be directed hereafter to be held, in such 
manner as may be prescribed by law, on the first Thursday in 
August, in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy, and 
every two years thereafter. But the General Assembly may change 
the time of holding the elections. 

Sec. 28. The members of the General Assembly for the term for 
which they have been elected shall receive as compensation for their 
services the sum of four dollars per day for each day of their ses- 
sion, for a period not exceeding sixty days; and should they remain 
longer in session they shall serve without compensation. They shall 
also be entitled to receive ten cents per mile, both while coming to 
the seat of government and while returning home, the said distance 
to be computed by the nearest line or route of public travel. The 
compensation of the presiding officers of the two houses shall be 
six dollars per day and mileage. Should an extra session of the 
General Assembly be called, the members and presiding officers 
shall receive a like rate of compensation for a period not exceeding 
twenty days. 

Sec. 29. The General Assembly shall not pass any local, private, or 
special act or resolution: Relating to the establishment of courts 
inferior to the Superior Court; relating to the appointment of jus- 
tices of the peace; relating to health, sanitation, and the abatement 
of nuisances; changing the names of cities, towns, and townships; 
authorizing the laying out, opening, altering, maintaining, or discon- 
tinuing of highways, streets, or alleys; relating to ferries or bridges; 



State Constitution. 337 

relating to nonnavigable streams; relating to cemeteries; relating 
to the pay of jurors; erecting new townships, or changing township 
lines, or establishing or changing the lines of school districts; re- 
mitting fines, penalties, and forfeitures, or refunding moneys legally 
paid into the public treasury; regulating labor, trade, mining, or 
manufacturing; extending the time for the assessment or collection 
of taxes or otherwise relieving any collector of taxes from the due 
performance of his official duties or his sureties from liability; 
giving effect to informal wills and deeds; nor shall the General As- 
sembly enact any such local, private, or special act by the partial 
repeal of a general law, but the General Assembly may at any time 
repeal local, private, or special laws enacted by it. Any local, private 
or special act or resolution passed in violation of the provisions of 
this section shall be void. 

ARTICLE III. 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 

Section 1. The Executive Department shall consist of a Governor, 
in whom shall be vested the supreme executive power of the State; 
a Lieutenant Governor, a Secretary of State, an Auditor, a Treasurer, 
a Superintendent of Public Instruction, and an Attorney-General, 
who shall be elected for a term of four years by the qualified electors 
of the State, at the same time and places and in the same manner as 
members of the General Assembly are elected. Their term of office 
shall commence on the first day of January next after their election, 
and continue until their successors are elected and qualified: Pro- 
vided, that the officers first elected shall assume the duties of their 
office ten days after the approval of this Constitution by the Con- 
gress of the United States, and shall hold their offices four years 
from and after the first day of January. 

Sec. 2. No person shall be eligible as Governor or Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor unless he shall have attained the age of thirty years, shall 
have been a citizen of the United States five years, and shall have 
been a resident of this State for two years next before the election; 
nor shall the person elected to either of these two offices be eligible 
to the same office more than four years in any term of eight years, 
unless the office shall have been cast upon him as Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor or President of the Senate. 

Sec. 3. The return of every election for officers of the Executive 
Department shall be sealed up and transmitted to the seat of gov- 
22 



338 State Constitution. 

ernment by the returning officers, directed to the Speaker of the 
House of Representatives, who shall open and publish the same in 
the presence of a majority of the members of both houses of the 
General Assembly. The persons having the highest number of votes 
respectively shall be declared duly elected; but if two or more be 
equal and highest in votes for the same office, the one of them shall 
be chosen by joint ballot of both houses of the General Assembly. 
Contested elections shall be determined by a joint ballot of both 
houses of the General Assembly in such manner as shall be pre- 
scribed by law. 

Sec. 4. The Governor, before entering upon the duties of his office, 
shall, in the presence of the members of both branches of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, or before any Justice of the Supreme Court, take an 
oath or affirmation that he will support the Constitution and laws 
of the United States, and of the State of North Carolina, and that he 
will faithfully perform the duties appertaining to the office of Gov- 
ernor, to which he has been elected. 

Sec. 5. The Governor shall reside at the seat of government of this 
State, and he shall, from time to time, give the General Assembly 
information of the affairs of the State, and recommend to their con- 
sideration such measures as he shall deem expedient. 

Sec. 6. The Governor shall have power to grant reprieves, commu- 
tations, and pardons, after conviction, for all offenses (except in 
cases of impeachment), upon such conditions as he may think 
proper, subject to such regulations as may be provided by law rela- 
tive to the manner of applying for pardons. He shall biennially 
communicate to the General Assembly each case of reprieve, commu- 
tation, or pardon granted, stating the name of each convict, the 
crime for which he was convicted, the sentence and its date, the 
date of the commutation, pardon, or reprieve, and the reasons 
therefor. 

Sec. 7. The officers of the Executive Department and of the public 
institutions of the State shall, at least five days previous to each 
regular session of the General Assembly, severally report to the 
Governor, who shall transmit such reports with his message to the 
General Assembly; and the Governor may, at any time, require in- 
formation in writing from the officers in the Executive Department 
upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, 
and shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed. 

Sec. 8. The Governor shall be Commander-in-Chief of the militia 



State Constitution. 339 

of the State, except when they shall be called into the service of the 
United States. 

Sec. 9. The Governor shall have power, on extraordinary occasion, 
by and with the advice of the Council of State, to convene the 
General Assembly in extra session by his proclamation, stating 
therein the purpose or purposes for which they are thus convened. 

Sec. 10. The Governor shall nominate and, by and with the advice 
and consent of a majority of the Senators-elect, appoint all officers 
whose offices are established by this Constitution and whose appoint- 
ments are not otherwise provided for. 

Sec. 11. The Lieutenant Governor shall be President of the Senate, 
but shall have no vote unless the Senate be equally divided. He 
shall, whilst acting as President of the Senate, receive for his serv- 
ices the same pay which shall, for the same period, be allowed to 
the Speaker of the House of Representatives; and he shall receive 
no other compensation except when he is acting as Governor. 

Sec. 12. In case of the impeachment of the Governor, his failure 
to qualify, his absence from the State, his inability to discharge the 
duties of his office, or, in case the office of Governor shall in any- 
wise become vacant, the powers, duties, and emoluments of the office 
shall devolve upon the Lieutenant Governor until the disability shall 
cease or a new Governor shall be elected and qualified. In every 
case in which the Lieutenant Governor shall be unable to preside 
over the Senate, the Senators shall elect one of their own number 
President of their body; and the powers, duties, and emoluments of 
the office of Governor shall devolve upon him whenever the Lieuten- 
ant Governor shall, for any reason, be prevented from discharging 
the duties of such office as above provided, and he shall continue 
as acting Governor until the disabilities are removed, or a new Gov- 
ernor or Lieutenant Governor shall be elected and qualified. When- 
ever, during the recess of the General Assembly, it shall become 
necessary for the President of the Senate to administer the govern- 
ment, the Secretary of State shall convene the Senate, that they 
may select such. President. 

Sec. 13. The respective duties of the Secretary of Stale, Auditor, 
Treasurer, Superintendent of Public Instruction, and Attorney-Gen- 
eral shall be prescribed by law. If the office of any of said ofii 
shall be vacated by death, resignation, or otherwise, it shall be the 
duty of the Governor to appoint another until the disability be re- 
moved or his successor be elected, and qualified. Every such vacancy 



340 State Constitution. 

shall be filled by election at the first general election that occurs 
more than thirty days after the vacancy has taken place, and the 
person chosen shall hold the office for the remainder of the unex- 
pired term fixed in the first section of this article. 

Sec. 14. The Secretary of State. Auditor, Treasurer, and Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction shall constitute, ex officio, the Council 
of State, who shall advise the Governor in the execution of his office, 
any three of whom shall constitute a quorum. Their advice and pro- 
ceedings in this capacity shall be entered in a journal to be kept for 
this purpose exclusively, and signed by the members present, from 
any part of which any member may enter his dissent; and such jour- 
nal shall be placed before the General Assembly when called for by 
either house. The Attorney-General shall be, ex officio, the legal 
adviser of the Executive Department. 

Sec. 15. The officers mentioned in this article shall, at stated 
periods, receive for their services a compensation to be established 
by law, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the 
time for which they shall have been elected, and the said officers 
shall receive no other emolument or allowance whatever. 

Sec. 16. There shall be a seal of the State, which shall be kept by 
the Governor and used by him as occasion may require, and shall 
be called "The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina." All 
grants and commissions shall be issued in the name and by the 
authority of the State of North Carolina, sealed with "The Great 
Seal of the State," signed by the Governor and countersigned by 
the Secretary of State. 

Sec. 17. The General Assembly shall establish a Department of 
Agriculture, Immigration, and Statistics, under such regulations as 
may best promote the agricultural interests of the State, and shall 
enact laws for the adequate protection and encouragement of sheep 
husbandry. 

ARTICLE IV. 

JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT. 

Section 1. The distinction between actions at law and suits in 
equity, and the forms of all such actions and suits shall be abol- 
ished; and there shall be in this State but one form of action for 
the enforcement or protection of private rights or the redress of 
private wrongs, which shall be denominated a civil action, and every 
action prosecuted by the people of the State as a party against a 



State Constitution. 341 

person charged with a public offense, for the punishment of the 
same, shall be termed a criminal action. Feigned issues shall also 
be abolished, and the fact at issue tried by order of court before a 
jury. 

Sec. 2. The judicial power of the State shall be vested in a Court 
for the Trial of Impeachments, a Supreme Court, Superior Courts, 
Courts of Justices of the Peace and such other courts inferior to the 
Supreme Court as may be established by law. 

Sec. 3. The Court for the Trial of Impeachments shall be the Sen- 
ate. A majority of the members shall be necessary to a quorum, 
and the judgment shall not extend beyond removal from, and dis- 
qualification to hold, office in this State; but the party shall be liable 
to indictment and punishment according to law. 

Sec. 4. The House of Representatives solely shall have the power 
of impeaching. No person shall be convicted without the concur- 
rence of two-thirds of the Senators present. When the Governor is 
impeached, the Chief Justice shall preside. 

Sec. 5. Treason against the State shall consist only in levying war 
against it, or adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort. 
No person shall be' convicted of treason unless on the testimony of 
two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. 
No conviction of treason or attainder shall work corruption of blood 
or forfeiture. 

Sec. 6. The Supreme Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and 
four Associate Justices. 

Sec. 7. The terms of the Supreme Court shall be held in the city 
of Raleigh, as now, unless otherwise provided by the General As- 
sembly. 

Sec. 8. The Supreme Court shall have jurisdiction to review upon 
appeal any decision of the courts below, upon any matter of law or 
legal inference. And the jurisdiction of said court over "issues of 
fact" and "questions of fact" shall be the same exercised by it before 
the adoption of the Constitution of one thousand eight hundred and 
sixty-eight, and the court shall have the power to issue any remedial 
writs necessary to give it a general supervision and control over the 
proceedings of the inferior courts. 

Sec. 9. The Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction to hear 
claims against the State, but its decisions shall be merely recom- 
mendatory; no process in the nature of execution shall issue thereon; 



342 State Constitution. 

they shall be reported to the next session of the General Assembly 
for its action. 

Sec. 10. The State shall be divided into nine judicial districts, for 
each of which a Judge shall be chosen; and there shall be held a 
Superior Court in each county at least twice in each year, to con- 
tinue for such time in each county as may be prescribed by law. 
But the General Assembly may reduce or increase the number of 
districts. 

Sec. 11. Every Judge of the Superior Court shall reside in the 
district for which he is elected. The judges shall preside in the 
courts of the different districts successively, but no judge shall hold 
the courts in the same district oftener than once in four years; 
but in case of the protracted illness of the Judge assigned to pre- 
side in any district, or of any other unavoidable accident to him, by 
reason of which he shall be unable to preside, the Governor may 
require any Judge to hold one or more specified terms in said dis- 
trict, in lieu of the Judge assigned to hold the courts of the said 
district; and the General Assembly may by general laws provide 
for the selection of special or emergency judges to hold the Superior 
Courts of any county or district when the Judge assigned thereto, 
by reason of sickness, disability, or other cause, is unable to attend 
and hold said court, and when no other Judge is available to hold 
the same. Such special or emergency judges shall have the power 
and authority of regular judges of the Superior Courts, in the courts 
which they are so appointed to hold ; and the General Assembly shall 
provide for their reasonable compensation. 

Sec. 12. The General Assembly shall have no power to deprive the 
Judicial Department of any power or jurisdiction which rightfully 
pertains to it as a coordinate department of the Government; but 
the General Assembly shall allot and distribute that portion of this 
power and jurisdiction which does not pertain to the Supreme Court 
among the other courts prescribed in this Constitution or which 
may be established by law, in such manner as it may deem best, 
provide, also, a proper system of appeals, and regulate by law. when 
necessary, the methods of proceeding, in the exercise of their powers, 
of all the courts below the Supreme Court, so far as the same may 
be done without conflict with other provisions of this Constitution. 

Sec. 13. In all issues of fact, joined in any court, the parties may 
waive the right to have the same determined by a jury, in which 



State Constitution. 343 

case the finding of the Judge upon the facts shall have the force and 
effect of a verdict by a jury. 

Sec. 14. The General Assembly shall provide for the establishment 
of special courts, for the trial of misdemeanors, in cities and towns 
where the same may be necessary. 

Sec. 15. The Clerk of the Supreme Court shall be appointed by the 
Court and shall hold his office for eight years. 

Sec. 16. A Clerk of the Superior Court for each county shall be 
elected by the qualified voters thereof, at the time and in the manner 
prescribed by law for the election of members of the General As- 
sembly. 

Sec. 17. Clerks of the Superior Courts shall hold their offices for 
four years. 

Sec. IS. The General Assembly shall prescribe and regulate the 
fees, salaries and emoluments of all officers provided for in this 
article; but the salaries of the judges shall not be diminished during 
their continuance in office. 

Sec. 19. The laws of North Carolina, not repugnant to this Con- 
stitution, or the Constitution and laws of the United States, shall be 
in force until lawfully altered. 

Sec. 20. Actions at law, and suits in equity, pending when this 
Constitution shall go into effect, shall be transferred to the courts 
having jurisdiction thereof, without prejudice by reason of the 
change; and all such actions and suits commenced before, and pend- 
ing at the adoption by the General Assembly of the rules of practice 
and procedure herein provided for, shall be heard and determined 
according to the practice now in use, unless otherwise provided for 
by said rules. 

Sec. 21. The Justices of the Supreme Court shall be elected by the 
qualified voters of the State, as is provided for the election of mem- 
bers of the General Assembly. They shall hold their offices for 
eight years. The judges of the Superior Courts, elected at the first 
election under this amendment, shall be elected in like manner as 
is provided for Justices of the Supreme Court, and shall hold their 
offices for eight years. The General Assembly may, from time to 
time, provide by law that the judges of the Superior Coui'ts, chosen 
at succeeding elections, instead of being elected by the voters of the 
whole State, as is herein provided for, shall be elected by the voters 
of their respective districts. 

Sec. 22. The Superior Courts shall be at all times open for the 



344 State Constitution. 

transaction of all business within their jurisdiction, except the trial 
of issues of fact requiring a jury. 

Sec. 23. A solicitor shall be elected for each judicial district by 
the qualified voters thereof, as is prescribed for members of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, who shall hold office for the term of four years, and 
prosecute on behalf of the State, in all criminal actions in the Supe- 
rior Courts, and advise the officers of justice in his district. 

Sec. 24. In each county a sheriff and coroner shall be elected by 
the qualified voters thereof, as is prescribed for members of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, and shall hold their offices for two years. In each 
township there shall be a constable elected in like manner by the 
voters thereof, who shall hold his office for two years. When there 
is no coroner in a county, the clerk of the Superior Court for the 
county may appoint one for special cases. In case of a vacancy 
existing for any cause in any of the offices created by this section, 
the commissioners of the county may appoint to such office for the 
unexpired term. 

Sec. 25. All vacancies occurring in the offices provided for by this 
article of the Constitution shall be filled by the appointment of the 
Governor, unless otherwise provided for, and the appointees shall 
hold their places until the next regular election for members of the 
General Assembly, when elections shall be held to fill such offices. If 
any person, elected or appointed to any of said offices, shall neglect 
and fail to qualify, such offices shall be appointed to, held, and filled 
as provided in case of vacancies occurring therein. All incumbents 
of said office shall hold until their successors are qualified. 

Sec. 26. The officers elected at the first election held under this 
Constitution shall hold their offices for the terms prescribed for 
them respectively, next ensuing after the next regular election for 
members of the General Assembly. But their terms shall begin 
upon the approval of this Constitution by the Congress of the United 
States. 

Sec. 27. The several justices of the peace shall have jurisdiction, 
under such regulations as the General Assembly shall prescribe, of 
civil actions, founded on contract, wherein the sum demanded shall 
not exceed two hundred dollars, and wherein the title to real estate 
shall not be in controversy; and of all criminal matters arising 
within their counties where the punishment cannot exceed a fine of 
fifty dollars or imprisonment for thirty days. And the General 
Assembly may give to justices of the peace jurisdiction of other civil 



State Constitution. 345 

actions wherein the value of the property in controversy does not 
exceed fifty dollars. When an issue of fact shall be joined before 
a justice, on demand of either party thereto, he shall cause a jury 
of six men to be summoned, who shall try the same. The party 
against whom judgment shall be rendered in any civil action may 
appeal to the Superior Court from the same. In all cases of a crim- 
inal nature, the party against whom judgment is given may appeal 
to the Superior Court, where the matter shall be heard anew. In 
all cases brought before a justice, he shall make a record of the pro- 
ceedings and file same with the clerk of the Superior Court for his 
county. 

Sec. 28. When the office of justice of the peace shall become vacant 
otherwise than by expiration of the term, and in case of a failure by 
the voters of any district to elect, the clerk of the Superior Court 
for the county shall appoint to fill the vacancy for the unexpired 
term. 

Sec. 29. In case the office of clerk of a Superior Court for a county 
shall become vacant otherwise than by the expiration of the term, 
and in case of a failure by the people to elect, the Judge of the Supe- 
rior Court for the county shall appoint to fill the vacancy until an 
election can be regularly held. 

Sec. 30. In case the General Assembly shall establish other courts 
inferior to the Supreme Court, the presiding officers and clerks 
thereof shall be elected in such manner as the General Assembly 
may from time to time prescribe, and they shall hold their offices 
for a term not exceeding eight years. 

Sec. 31. Any Judge of the Supreme Court, or of the Superior 
Courts, and the presiding officers of such courts inferior to the 
Supreme Court as may be established by law, may be removed from 
office for mental or physical inability, upon a concurrent resolution 
of two-thirds of both houses of the General Assembly. The Judge or 
presiding officer, against whom the General Assembly may be about 
to proceed, shall receive notice thereof, accompanied by a copy of 
the causes alleged for his removal, at least twenty days before the 
day on which either house of the General Assembly shall act thereon. 

Sec. 32. Any clerk of the Supreme Court or of the Superior 
Courts, or of such courts inferior to the Supreme Court as may be 
established by law, may be removed from office for mental or physi- 
cal inability; the Clerk of the Supreme Court by the Judges of said 
Court, the clerks of the Superior Courts by the Judge riding the 



346 State Constitution. 

district, and the clerks of such courts inferior to the Supreme Court 
as may be established by law by the presiding officers of said courts. 
The clerk against whom the proceedings are instituted shall receive 
notice thereof, accompanied by a copy of the causes alleged for his 
removal, at least ten days before the day appointed to act thereon, 
and the clerk shall be entitled to an appeal to the next term of the 
Superior Court, and thence to the Supreme Court as provided in 
other cases of appeals. 

Sec. 33. The amendments made to the Constitution of North Caro- 
lina by this Convention shall not have the effect to vacate any office 
or term of office now existing under the Constitution of the State 
and filled or held by virtue of any election or appointment under the 
said Constitution and the laws of the State made in pursuance 
thereof. 

ARTICLE V. 

REVENUE AND TAXATION. 

Section 1. The General Assembly shall levy a capitation tax on 
every male inhabitant in the State over twenty-one and under fifty 
years of age, which shall be equal on each to the tax on property 
valued at three hundred dollars in cash. The commissioners of the 
several counties may exempt from capitation tax in special cases, 
on account of poverty and infirmity, and the State and county capi- 
tation tax combined shall never exceed two dollars on the head. 

Sec. 2. The proceeds of the State and county capitation tax shall 
be applied to the purposes of education and the support of the poor, 
but in no one year shall more than twenty-five per cent thereof be 
appropriated to the latter purpose. 

Sec. 3. Laws shall be passed taxing, by a uniform rule, all moneys, 
credits, investments in bonds, stocks, joint-stock companies, or other- 
wise; and, also, all real and personal property, according to its true 
value in money: Provided, notes, mortgages, and all other evidence 
of indebtedness given in good faith for the purchase price of a home, 
when said purchase price does not exceed three thousand dollars, 
and said notes, mortgages, and other evidence of indebtedness shall 
be made to run for not less than five nor more than twenty years, 
shall be exempt from taxation of every kind: Provided, that the 
interest carried by such notes and mortgages shall not exceed five 
and one-half per cent. The Genei-al Assembly may also tax trades, 
professions, franchises, and incomes: Provided, that no income shall 



State Constitution. 347 

be taxed when the property from which the income is derived is 
taxed. 

Sec. 4. Until the bonds of the State shall be at par, the General 
Assembly shall have no power to contract any new debt or pecuniary 
obligation in behalf of the State, except to supply a casual deficit, 
or for suppressing invasions or insurrections, unless it shall in the 
same bill levy a special tax to pay the interest annually. And the 
General Assembly shall have no power to give or lend the credit of 
the State in aid of any person, association, or corporation, except to 
aid in the completion of such railroads as may be unfinished at the 
time of the adoption of this Constitution, or in which the State has 
a direct pecuniary interest, unless the subject be submitted to a 
direct vote of the people of the State, and be approved by the ma- 
jority of those who shall vote thereon. 

Sec. 5. Property belonging to the State, or to municipal corpora- 
tions, shall be exempt from taxation. The General Assembly may 
exempt cemeteries and property held for educational, scientific, liter- 
ary, charitable, or religious purposes; also wearing apparel, arms 
for muster, household and kitchen furniture, the mechanical and 
agricultural implements of mechanics and farmers, libraries and 
scientific instruments, or any other personal property, to a value not 
exceeding three hundred dollars. 

Sec. 6. The taxes levied by the commissioners of the several coun- 
ties for county purposes shall be levied in like manner with the State 
taxes, and shall never exceed the double of the State tax, except for 
a special purpose, and with the special approval of the General 
Assembly. 

Sec. 7. Every act of the General Assembly levying a tax shall 
state the special object to which it is to be applied, and it shall be 
applied to no other purpose. 

ARTICLE VI. 

SUFFRAGE AND ELIGIBILITY TO OFFICE. 

Section 1. Every male person born in the United States, and 
every male person who has been naturalized, twenty-one years of 
age, and possessing the qualifications set out in this article, shall be 
entitled to vote at any election by the people in the State, except as 
herein otherwise provided. 

Sec. 2. He shall have resided in the State of North Carolina for 
two years, in the county six months, and in the precinct, ward, or 



348 State Constitution. 

other election district in which he offers to vote, four months next 
preceding the election: Provided, that removal from one precinct, 
ward, or other election district, to another in the same county, shall 
not operate to deprive any person of the right to vote in the precinct, 
ward, or other election district from which he has removed until 
four months after such removal. No person who has been convicted, 
or who has confessed his guilt in open court upon indictment, of any 
crime, the punishment of which now is or may hereafter he imprison- 
ment in the State's Prison, shall be permitted to vote unless the 
said person shall be first restored to citizenship in the manner pre- 
scribed by law. 

Sec. 3. Every person offering to vote shall be at the time a legally 
registered voter as herein prescribed and in the manner hereafter 
provided by law, and the General Assembly of North Carolina shall 
enact general registration laws to carry into effect the provisions of 
this article. 

Sec. 4. Every person presenting himself for registration shall be 
able to read and write any section of the Constitution in the Eng- 
lish language; and before he shall be entitled to vote he shall have 
paid, on or before the first day of May of the year in which he pro- 
poses to vote, his poll tax for the previous year as prescribed by 
Article V, section 1, of the Constitution. But no male person who 
was on January 1, 1867, or at any other time prior thereto, entitled to 
vote under the laws of any State in the United States wherein he 
then resided, and no lineal descendant of any such person, shall be 
denied the right to register and vote at any election in this State 
by reason of his failure to possess the educational qualifications 
herein prescribed: Provided, he shall have registered in accordance 
with the terms of this section prior to December 1, 1908. The Gen- 
eral Assembly shall provide for the registration of all persons en- 
titled to vote without the educational qualifications herein pre- 
scribed, and shall, on or before November 1, 1908, provide for the 
making of a permanent record of such registration, and all persons 
so registered shall forever thereafter have the right to vote in all 
elections by the people in this State, unless disqualified under section 
2 of this article: Provided, such person shall have paid his poll tax 
as above required. 

Sec. 5. That this amendment to the Constitution is presented and 
adopted as one indivisible plan for the regulation of the suffrage, 
with the intent and purpose to so connect the different parts and to 



State Constitution. 349 

make them so dependent upon each other that the whole shall stand 
or fall together. 

Sec. 6. All elections by the people shall be by a ballot, and all elec- 
tions by the General Assembly shall be viva voce. 

Sec. 7. Every voter in North Carolina, except as in this article 
disqualified, shall be eligible to office, but before entering upon the 
duties of the office he shall take and subscribe the following oath: 

"I, , do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will sup- 
port and maintain the Constitution and laws of the United States 
and the Constitution and laws of North Carolina not inconsistent 
therewith, and that I will faithfully discharge the duties of my 
office as So help me, God." 

Sec. 8. The following classes of persons shall be disqualified for 
office: First, all persons who shall deny the being of Almighty God. 
Second, all persons who shall have been convicted or confessed their 
guilt on indictment pending, and whether sentenced or not, or under 
judgment suspended, of any treason or felony, or of any other crime 
for which the punishment may be imprisonment in the penitentiary, 
since becoming citizens of the United States, or of corruption or mal- 
practice in office, unless such persons shall be restored to the rights 
of citizenship in a manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 9. That this amendment to the Constitution shall go into 
effect on the first day of July, nineteen hundred and two, if a ma- 
jority of votes cast at the next general election shall be cast in favor 
of this suffrage amendment. 

ARTICLE VII. 
MUNICIPAL corporations. 

Section 1. In each county there shall be elected biennially by the 
qualified voters thereof, as provided for the election of members of 
the General Assembly, the following officers: A treasurer, register 
of deeds, surveyor, and five commissioners. 

Sec. 2. It shall be the duty of the commissioners to exercise a 
general supervision and control of the penal and charitable institu- 
tions, schools, roads, bridges, levying of taxes, and finances of the 
county, as may be prescribed by law. The register of deeds shall 
be, ex officio, clerk of the board of commissioners. 

Sec. 3. It shall be the duty of the commissioners first elected in 
each county to divide the same into convenient districts, and to 



350 State Constitution. 

report the same to the General Assembly before the first day of 
January, 1869. 

Sec. 4. Upon the approval of the reports provided for in the fore- 
going section by the General Assembly, the said districts shall have 
corporate powers for the necessary purposes of local government, 
and shall be known as townships. 

Sec. 5. In each township there shall be biennially elected by the 
qualified voters thereof a clerk and two justices of the peace, who 
shall constitute a board of trustees, and shall, under the supervision 
of the county commissioners, have control of the taxes and finances, 
roads and bridges of the townships, as may be prescribed by law. 
The General Assembly may provide for the election of a larger num- 
ber of the justices of the peace in cities and towns and in those 
townships in which cities and towns are situated. In every town- 
ship there shall also be biennially elected a school committee, con- 
sisting of three persons, whose duties shall be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 6. The township board of trustees shall assess the taxable 
property of their townships and make returns to the county commis- 
sioners for revision, as may be prescribed by law. The clerk shall 
be, ex officio, treasurer of the township. 

Sec. 7. No county, city, town, or other municipal corporation shall 
contract any debt, pledge its faith or loan its credit, nor shall any 
tax be levied or collected by any officers of the same except for the 
necessary expenses thereof, unless by a vote of the majority of the 
qualified voters therein. 

Sec. 8. No money shall be drawn from any county or township 
treasury except by authority of law. 

Sec. 9. All taxes levied by any county, city, town, or township 
shall be uniform and ad valorem upon all property in the same, ex- 
cept property exempted by this Constitution. 

Sec. 10. The county officers first elected under the provisions of 
this article shall enter upon their duties ten days after the approval 
of this Constitution by the Congress of the United States. 

Sec. 11. The Governor shall appoint a sufficient number of justices 
of the peace in each county, who shall hold their places until sec- 
tions four, five, and six of this article shall have been carried into 
effect. 

Sec. 12. All charters, ordinances, and provisions relating to mu- 
nicipal corporations shall remain in force until legally changed, 
unless inconsistent with the provisions of this Constitution. 



State Constitution. 351 

Sec. 13. No county, city, town, or other municipal corporation 
shall assume to pay, nor shall any tax be levied or collected for the 
payment of any debt, or the interest upon any debt, contracted 
directly or indirectly in aid or support of the rebellion. 

Sec. 14. The General Assembly shall have full power by statute 
to modify, change, or abrogate any and all of the provisions of this 
article and substitute others in their place, except sections seven, 
nine and thirteen. 

ARTICLE VIII. 

CORPORATIONS OTHER THAN MUNICIPAL. 

Sectio.v 1. No corporation shall be created nor shall its charter be 
extended, altered, or amended by special act, except corporations for 
charitable, educational, penal, or reformatory purposes that are to be 
and remain under the patronage and control of the State; but the 
General Assembly shall provide by general laws for the chartering 
and organization of all corporations, and for amending, extending, 
and forfeiture of all charters, except those above permitted by 
special act. All such general laws and special acts may be altered 
from time to time or repealed; and the General Assembly may at any 
time by special act repeal the charter of any corporation. 

Sec. 2. Dues from corporations shall be secured by such individual 
liabilities of the corporations and other means as may be prescribed 
by law. 

Sec. 3. The term corporation, as used in this article, shall be con- 
strued to include all associations and joint-stock companies having 
any of the powers and privileges of corporations not possessed by 
individuals or partnerships. And all corporations shall have the 
right to sue and shall be subject to be sued in all courts in like cases 
as natural persons. 

Sec. 4. "It shall be the duty of the Legislature to provide by gen- 
eral laws for the organization of cities, towns, and incorporated vil- 
lages, and to restrict their power of taxation, assessment, borrowing 
money, contracting debts, and loaning their credit, so as to prevent 
aliases in assessment and in contracting debts by such municipal 
corporations." 



352 State Constitution. 

ARTICLE IX. 

EDUCATION. 

Section 1. Religion, morality, and knowledge being necessary to 
good government and to the happiness of mankind, schools and the 
means of education shall forever be encouraged. 

Sec. 2. The General Assembly, at its first session under this Con- 
stitution, shall provide by taxation and otherwise for a general and 
uniform system of public schools, wherein tuition shall be free of 
charge to all the children of the State between the ages of six and 
twenty-one years. And the children of the white race and the chil- 
dren of the colored race shall be taught in separate public schools; 
but there shall be. no discrimination in favor of or to the prejudice 
of either race. 

Sec. 3. Each county of the State shall be divided into a convenient 
number of districts, in which one or more public schools shall be 
maintained at least six months in every year; and if the commis- 
sioners of any county shall fail to comply with the aforesaid require- 
ments of this section they shall be liable to indictment. 

Sec. 4. The proceeds of all lands that have been or hereafter may 
be granted by the United States to this State and not otherwise 
appropriated by this State or the United States, also all moneys, 
stocks, bonds, and other property now belonging to any State fund 
for purposes of education, also the net proceeds of all sales of the 
swamp lands belonging to the State, and all other grants, gifts, or 
devises that have been or hereafter may be made to the State and 
not otherwise appropriated by the State or by the terms of the grant, 
gift, or devise, shall be paid into the State Treasury, and, together 
with so much of the ordinary revenue of the State as may be by law 
set apart for that purpose, shall be faithfully appropriated for estab- 
lishing and maintaining in this State a system of free public schools 
and for no other uses or purposes whatsoever. 

Sec. 5. All moneys, stocks, bonds, and other property belonging to 
a county school fund, also the net proceeds from the sale of estrays, 
also the clear proceeds of all penalties and forfeitures and of all 
fines collected in the several counties for any breach of the penal 
or military laws of the State, and all moneys which shall be paid 
by persons as an equivalent for exemption from military duty, shall 
belong to and remain in the several counties, and shall be faithfully 
appropriated for establishing and maintaining free public schools in 



State Constitution. 353 

the several counties in this State: Provided, that the amount col- 
lected in each county shall he annually reported to the Superintend- 
ent of Public Instruction. 

Sec. 6. The General Assembly shall have power to provide for the 
election of trustees of the University of North Carolina, in whom, 
when chosen, shall be vested all the privileges, rights, franchises, 
and endowments thereof in any wise granted to or conferred upon 
the trustees of said University; and the General Assembly may make 
such provisions, laws, and regulations from time to time as may be 
necessary and expedient for the maintenance and management of 
said University. 

Sec. 7. The General Assembly shall provide that the benefits of 
the University, as far as practicable, be extended to the youth of the 
State free of expense for tuition; also that all the property which 
has heretofore accrued to the State or shall hereafter accrue from 
escheats, unclaimed dividends, or distributive shares of the estates 
of deceased persons, shall be appropriated to the use of the Uni- 
versity. 

Sec. 8. The Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of State, 
Treasurer, Auditor, Superintendent of Public Instruction, and At- 
torney-General shall constitute a State Board of Education. 

Sec. 9. The Governor shall be president and the Superintendent 
of Public Instruction shall be secretary of the Board of Education. 

Sec. 10. The Board of Education shall succeed to all the powers 
and trusts of the president and directors of the literary fund of 
North Carolina, and shall have full power to legislate and make all 
needful rules and regulations in relation to free public schools and 
the educational fund of the State; but all acts, rules and regulations 
of said board may be altered, amended, or repealed by the General 
Assembly, and when so altered, amended, or repealed they shall not 
be reenacted by the board. 

Sec. 11. The first session of the Board of Education shall be held 
at the capital of the State within fifteen days after the organization 
of the State Government under this Constitution; the time of future 
meetings may be determined by the board. 

Sec. 12. A majority of the board shall constitute a quorum for the 
transaction of business. 

Sec. 13. The contingent expenses of the board shall be provided by 
the General Assembly. 

23 



354 State Constitution. 

Sec. 14. As soon as practicable after the adoption of this Constitu- 
tion the General Assembly shall establish and maintain in connec- 
tion with the University a department of agriculture, of mechanics, 
of mining, and of normal instruction. 

Sec. 15. The General Assembly is hereby empowered to enact that 
every child of sufficient mental and physical ability shall attend the 
public schools during the period between the ages of six and eighteen 
years for a term of not less than sixteen months, unless educated by 
other means. 

ARTICLE X. 

HOMESTEADS AND EXEMPTIONS. 

Section 1. The personal property of any resident of this State to 
the value of five hundred dollars, to be selected by such resident, 
shall be and is hereby exempted from sale under execution or other 
final process of any court issued for the collection of any debt. 

Sec. 2. Every homestead, and the dwellings and buildings used 
therewith, not exceeding in value one thousand dollars, to be selected 
by the owner thereof, or in lieu thereof, at the option of the owner, 
any lot in a city, town, or village, with the dwellings and buildings 
used thereon, owned and occupied by any resident of this State, and 
not exceeding the value of one thousand dollars, shall be exempt 
from sale under execution or other final process obtained on any 
debt. But no property shall be exempt from sale for taxes or for 
payment of obligations contracted for the purchase of said premises. 

Sec. 3. The homestead, after the death of the owner thereof, shall 
be exempt from the payment of any debt during the minority of his 
children or any one of them. 

Sec. 4. The provisions of sections one and two of this article shall 
not be so construed as to prevent a laborer's lien for work done and 
performed for the person claiming such exemption, or a mechanic's 
lien for work done on the premises. 

Sec. 5. If the owner of a homestead die, leaving a widow but no 
children, the same shall be exempt from the debts of her husband, 
and the rents and profits thereof shall inure to her benefit during 
her widowhood, unless she be the owner of a homestead in her own 
right. 

Sec. 6. The real and personal property of any female in this State 
acquired before marriage, and all property, real and personal, to 
which she may, after marriage, become in any manner entitled, shall 



State Constitution. 355 

be and remain the sole and separate estate and property of such 
female, and shall not be liable for any debts, obligations, or engage- 
ments of her husband, and may be devised and bequeathed, and, with 
the written assent of her husband, conveyed by her as if she were 
unmarried. 

Sec. 7. The husband may insure his own life for the sole use and 
benefit of his wife and children, and in case of the death of the 
husband the amount thus insured shall be paid over to the wife and 
children, or to the' guardian if under age, for her or their own use, 
free from all the claims of the representatives of her husband or 
any of his creditors. 

Sec. 8. Nothing contained in the foregoing sections of this article 
shall operate to prevent the owner of a homestead from disposing 
of the same by deed; but no deed made by the owner of a home- 
stead shall be valid without the voluntary signature and assent of 
his wife, signified on her private examination according to law. 

ARTICLE XI. 

PUNISHMENTS, PENAL INSTITUTIONS AND PUBLIC CHARITIES. 

Section 1. The following punishments only shall be known to the 
laws of this State, viz., death, imprisonment with or without hard 
labor, fines, removal from office, and disqualification to hold and 
enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under this State. The fore- 
going provision for imprisonment with hard labor shall be con- 
strued to authorize the employment of such convict labor on public 
works or highways, or other labor for public benefit, and the farm- 
ing out thereof, where and in such manner as may be provided by 
law; but no convict shall be farmed out who has been sentenced on 
a charge of murder, manslaughter, rape, attempt to commit rape, or 
arson: Provided, that no convict whose labor may be farmed out 
shall be punished for any failure of duty as a laborer except by a 
responsible officer of the State; but the convicts so farmed out shall 
be at all times under the supervision and control, as to their govern- 
ment and discipline, of the penitentiary board or some officer of the 
State. 

Sec. 2. The object of punishment being not only to satisfy justice, 
but also to reform the offender, and thus prevent crime, murder, 
arson, burglary, and rape, and these only may be punishable with 
death, if the General Assembly shall so enact. 



356 State Constitution. 

Sec. 3. The General Assembly shall, at its first meeting, make pro- 
vision for the erection and conduct of a State's prison or peniten- 
tiary at some central and accessible point within the State. 

Sec. 4. The General Assembly may provide for the erection of a 
house of correction, where vagrants and persons guilty of misde- 
meanors shall be restrained and usefully employed. 

Sec. 5. A house or houses of refuge may be established whenever 
the public interests may require it, for the correction and instruc- 
tion of other classes of offenders. 

Sec. 6. It shall be required by competent legislation that the struc- 
ture and superintendence of penal institutions of the State, the 
county jails and city police prisons secure the health and comfort of 
the prisoners, and that male and female prisoners be never confined 
in the same room or cell. 

Sec. 7. Beneficent provisions for the poor, the unfortunate and 
orphan being one of the first duties of a civilized and Christian 
State, the General Assembly shall, at its first session, appoint and 
define the duties of a board of public charities, to whom shall be 
intrusted the supervision of all charitable and penal State institu- 
tions, and who shall annually report to the Governor upon their 
condition, with suggestions for their improvement. 

Sec. 8. There shall also, as soon as practicable, be measures de- 
vised by the State for the establishment of one or more orphan 
houses, where destitute orphans may be cared for, educated, and 
taught some business or trade. 

Sec. 9. It shall be the duty of the Legislature, as soon as practi- 
cable, to devise means for the education of idiots and inebriates. 

Sec. 10. The General Assembly may provide that the indigent deaf- 
mute, blind, and insane of the State shall be cared for at the charge 
of the State. 

Sec. 11. It shall be steadily kept in view by the Legislature and 
the Board of Public Charities, that all penal and charitable institu- 
tions should be made as nearly self-supporting as is consistent with 
the purposes of their creation. 

ARTICLE XII. 

MILITIA. 

Section 1. All able-bodied male citizens of the State of North 
Carolina, between the ages of twenty-one and forty years, who are 
citizens of the United States, shall be liable to do duty in the militia: 



State Constitution. 357 

Provided, that all persons who may he averse to bearing arms, from 
religious scruples, shall be exempt therefrom. 

Sec. 2. The General Assembly shall provide for the organizing, 
arming, equipping, and discipline of the militia, and for paying the 
same when called into active service. 

Sec. 3. The Governor shall be commander-in-chief, and shall have 
power to call out the militia to execute the law, suppress riots or 
insurrection, and to repel invasion. 

Sec. 4. The General Assembly shall have power to make such ex- 
emptions as may be deemed necessary, and enact laws that may be 
expedient for the government of the militia. 

ARTICLE XIII. 

AMENDMENTS. 

Section 1. No convention of the people of this State shall ever be 
called by the General Assembly, unless by the concurrence of two- 
thirds of all the members of each house of the General Assembly, 
and except the proposition, Convention, or No Convention, be first 
submitted to the qualified voters of the whole State, at the next 
general election in manner to be prescribed by law. And should a 
majority of the votes cast be in favor of said convention, it shall 
assemble on such day as may be prescribed by the General Assembly. 

Sec. 2. No part of the Constitution of this State shall be altered 
unless a bill to alter the same shall have been agreed to by three- 
fifths of each house of the General Assembly. And the amendment 
or amendments so agreed to shall be submitted at the next general 
election to the qualified voters of the whole State, in such a manner 
as may be prescribed by law. And in the event of their adoption 
by a majority of the votes cast, such amendment or amendments 
shall become part of the Constitution of the State. 

ARTICLE XIV. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Section 1. All indictments which shall have been found, or may 
hereafter be found, for any crime or offense committed before this 
Constitution takes effect, may be proceeded upon in the "proper courts, 
but no punishment shall be inflicted which is forbidden by this 
Constitution. 



358 State Constitution. 

Sec. 2. No person who shall hereafter fight a duel, or assist in 
the same as a second, or send, accept, or knowingly carry a challenge 
therefor, or agree to go out of the State to fight a duel, shall hold 
any office in this State. 

Sec. 3. No money shall he drawn from the Treasury but in con- 
sequence of appropriations made by law; and an accurate account of 
the receipts and expenditures of the public money shall be annually 
published. 

Sec 4. The General Assembly shall provide, by proper legislation, 
for giving to mechanics and laborers an adequate lien on the subject- 
matter of their labor. 

Sec 5. In the absence of any contrary provision, all officers of 
this State, whether heretofore elected or appointed by the Governor, 
shall hold their positions only until other appointments are made by 
the Governor, or, if the offices are elective, until their successors 
shall have been chosen and duly qualified according to the provisions 
of this Constitution. 

Sec 6. The seat of government of this State shall remain at the 
city of Raleigh. 

Sec 7. No person who shall hold any office or place of trust or 
profit under the United States, or any department thereof, or under 
this State, or under any other State or Government, shall hold or 
exercise any other office or place of trust or profit under the author- 
ity of this State, or be eligible to a seat in either house of the Gen- 
eral Assembly: Provided, that nothing herein contained shall ex- 
tend to officers in the militia, justices of the peace, commissioners 
of public charities, or commissioners for special purposes. 

Sec 8. All marriages between a white person and a negro, or 
between a white person and white person of negro descent to the 
third generation, inclusive, are hereby forever prohibited. 



State Constitution. 359 



INDEX TO STATE CONSTITUTION. 

A. Article. S. Section. 

Abuses in assessments and contracting debts by municipal corporations, General 

Assembly to prevent, A. 8, S. 4. 
Actions at law and equity suits, no distinction, A. 4, S. 1. 

Pending when Constitution took effect, A. 4, S. 20. 
Acts of General Assembly, style of, A. 2, S. 21. 

Levying taxes, must state object, A. 5, S. 7. 
Agriculture, Department of, A. 3, S. 17. 

In connection with University, A. 9, S. 14. 
Alimony, General Assembly does not secure, A. 2, S. 10. 
Allegiance to U. S. Government, A. 1, S. 5. 
Amendments, A. 13. 

Do not vacate existing offices, A. 4, S. 33. 
Answer to criminal charge, A. 1, S. 12. 

Apportionment of Senators and Representatives, A. 2, SS. 4, 5, 6. 
Arms, right to bear, A. 1, S. 24. 

Article VII, General Assembly may modify or repeal certain sections. A. 7, S. 14. 
Assemblage, right of, A. 1, S. 25. 
Attorney-General advises executive, A. 3, S. 14. 

Duties of, A. 3, S. 13. 
Auditor, duties of, A. 3, S. 13. 
Bail, excessive, A. 1. S. 14. 
Ballot, elections to be by, A. 6, S. 3. 
Bills of General Assembly read three times, A. 2, S. 23. 
Blind provided for, A. 11, S. 10. 
Board of Charities, A. 11, S. 7. 
Boundaries of State, A. 1, S. 34. 
Capitation tax, application of proceeds from, A. 5, S. 2. 

Exempts, A. 5, S. 1. 
Capital punishment, A. 11, S. 2. 
Charities, public, A. 11. 

Deaf-mutes and the blind, A. 11, S. 10. 

Idiots and inebriates, A. 11, S. 9. 

Provision for orphans and the poor, A. 11, S. 7. 

Self-supporting, as far as possible, A. 11, S. 11. 
Cities organized by legislation, A. 8, S. 4. 
Citizenship, restoration to, A. 2, S. 11. 
Civil and criminal actions, A. 4, S. 1. 
Claims against the State, A. 4, S. 9. 
Clerk of the Superior Court, election of, A. 4, S. 10. 

Removal for inability, A. 4, S. 32. 

Term of office of, A. 4, S. 17. 

Supreme Court, A. 4, S. 15. 



360 State' Constitution. 

Clerks, removal of, A. 4. S. 32. 

Commutations, A. 3, S. 6. 

Compulsory education, General Assembly may provide, A. 9, S. 15. 

Concealed weapons, carrying not justified, A. 1, S. 24. 

Constitution, how changed, A. 13, S. 2. 

Controversies at law about property, A. 1, S. 19. 

Conventions, how called, A. 13. 

Convict labor, A. 11, S. 1. 

Coroner and sheriff, A. 4, S. 24. 

Correction, house of, A. 11, S. 4. 

Corporations, municipal, A. 7. 

Charters remain in force till legally changed, A. 7, S. 12. 

Power of General Assembly over, A. 7, S. 12. 
Corporations other than municipal, A. 8. 

Debts of, how secured, A. 8, S. 2. 

Definition of, A. 8, S. 3. 

Under general laws, A. 8, S. 1. 
Correction, houses of, A. 11, S. 4. 
Council of State, A. 3, S. 14. 
Counsel allowed defendant, A. 1, S. 11. 
County commissioners, election and duty of, A. 7, SS. 1, 2. 

Commissioners divide into districts, A. 7, S. 3. 

Districts have corporate powers as townships, A. 7, S. 4. 

Majority of voters necessary to levy taxes, etc., A. 7, S. 7. 

Money, how drawn from its treasury, A. 7, S. 8. 

Officers enter on duty, when, A. 7, S. 10 ; of townships, A. 7, S. 5. 

School districts, A. 9, S. 3 ; fund, A. 9, S. 5. 

Taxes to be ad valorem, A. 7, S. 9. 

Township trustees assess property, A. 7, S. 6. 
County treasurer, A. 7, S. 1. 
Courts to be open, A. 1, S. 35. 
Kinds of, A. 4, S. 2. 

Criminal charges, answers to, A. 1, S. 12. 
Criminal and civil actions, A. 4, S. 1. 

Courts for cities and towns, A. 4, S. 14. 

Prosecutions, A. 1, S. 11. 
Deaf-mutes provided for, A. 11, S. 10. 
Death punishment, A. 11, S. 2. 
Debt does not affect homestead, A. 10, S. 3. 

County, city, or town cannot contract, except by majority of qualified voters, 
A. 7, S. 7. 

Imprisonment for, A. 1, S. 16. 

In aid of rebellion, void, A. 7, S. 13. 
Debt, restrictions upon increase of public, etc., A. 5, S. 4. 

What bonds declared invalid, A. 1, S. 6. 
Declaration of rights, A. 1. 
Department of Agriculture, A. 3, S. 17. 
Divorce, General Assembly does not grant, A. 2, S. 17. 



State Constitution. 361 

Disqualification for office, A. 6, S. 5 ; A. 14, S. 7. 

Dueling disqualifies, A. 14, S. 2. 
Education, board of, A. 9, S. 8 ; officers, A. 9, S. 9 ; expenses, A. 9, S. 13. 

First session of, A. 9, S. 11; power of, A. 9, S. 10. 

Quorum, A. 9, S. 12. 

County school fund, A. 9, S. 5. 

Encouraged, A. 9, S. 1 ; A. 1, S. 27. 

Property devoted to, A. 9, SS. 4, 5. 
Election of officers by General Assembly, viva voce, A. 2, S. 9. 
Elections, by people and General Assembly, A. 6, S. 3. 

Contested, returns of, A. 3, S. 3. 

Free, A. 1, S. 10; frequent, A. 1, S. 28. 
Electors, oath of office of, A. 6, S. 4. 
Eligibility to office, A. 6. 

Qualification of, A. 6, S. 1. 
Electors, registration of, A. 6, S. 2. 
Emoluments, exclusive, none, A. 1, S. 7. 

Hereditary, A. 1, S. 30. 
Entails to be regulated, A. 2, S. 15. 

Enumeration of rights, not to impair others retained by people, A. 1, S. 37. 
Equity suits and actions at law, distinction abolished, A. 4, S. 1. 

Pending when Constitution took effect, A. 4, S. 20. 
Evidence against himself, criminal not compelled to give, A. 1, S. 11. 
Executive, Attorney-General advises, A. 3, S. 14. 

Department of, A. 3; distinct, A. 1, S. 8. 

Officers, A. 3, S. 1 ; compensation, A. 3, S. 8. 

Duties, A. 3, S. 13; reports of, A. 3, S. 7. 

Terms of office of, A. 3, S. 1. 

Seal of State, A. 3, S. 16. 

Vacancy in, how filled, A. 3, S. 13. 
Exemption, A. 10. S. 1. 

By reason of military duty, etc., A. 12, S. 4. 

Property of feme covert not liable for husband's debts, A. 10, S. 6. 
Ex post facto laws, A. 1, S. 32. 
Extra session of General Assembly, A. 3, S. 9. 
Feigned issues abolished, A. 4, S. 1. 

Feme sole, property of, not liable for husband's debts, A. 10, S. 6. 
Fines, excessive, A. 1, S. 14. 
Freedom of the press, A. 1, S. 20. 

Fundamental principles, frequent recurrence to, A. 1, S. 29. 
General Assembly, acts, style of, A. 2, S. 21. 

Article VII may be modified or repealed by, A. 7, S. 14. 

Bills and resolutions read three times, A. 2, S. 23. 

Compulsory education may be enforced by, A. 9, S. 15.. 

Election by, A. 6, S. 3. 

Entails regulated by, A. 2, S. 15. 
General Assembly, extra sessions, A. 2, S. 28 ; A. 3, S. 9. 

Journals kept, A. 2, S. 16; protests entered on, A. 2, S. 17. 



362 State Constitution. 

General Assembly, members of, A. 2, S. 24. 
Assemble when, A. 2, S. 2. 
Election for, when held, A. 2, S. 27. 
Office a disqualification, A. 14, S. 7. 
Terms commence with election, A. 2, S. 25. 
Vacancies, how filled, A. 2, S. 13. 
Municipal corporations controlled by, A. 7, S. 14. 
Names, personal, not changed by, A. 2, S. 11. 
Officers of, election viva voce. A. 2, S. 9. 
Pay of, A. 2, S. 28. 
President of Senate, A. 2, S. 19. 
Speaker of House, A. 2, S. 18. 
Powers of, A. 2, S. 22. 

In relation to divorce and alimony, A. 2, S. 10. 
Representation apportioned by, A. 2, SS. 4, 5. 
Revenue, A. 2, S. 14. 
Schools provided by, A. 9, S. 2. 
University to be maintained by, A. 9, SS. 6, 7. 
Yeas and nays, A. 2, SS. 14, 27. 
Government, allegiance to U. S., A. 1, S. 5. 
Internal, of'state, A. 1, S. 3. 
Origin of, A. 1, S. 2. 

Seat of, remains in Raleigh, A. 14, S. 6. 
Governor commands militia, A. 3, S. 8. 

Commutations, pardons, reprives, A. 3, S. 6. 
Justices of peace appointed by, when, A. 7, S. 11. 
Governor, compensation, A. 3, S. 15. 
Duties of, A. 3, S. 12. 
Extra session called by, A. 3, S. 9. 
Impeachment of, A. 3, S. 12. 
Lieutenant, qualification of, A. 3, S. 2. 
Oath of office, A. 3, S. 4. 

Officers appointed by, A. 3, S. 10; A. 14, S. 5. 
Residence of, A. 3, S. 5. 
Qualification of, A. 3, S. 2. 
Vacancy in office of, A. 3, S. 12. 
Habeas corpus, A. 1, S. 21. 
Hereditary emoluments, A. 1, S. 30. 

Homestead and exemption, A. 10, S. 2. 
Benefit of widow in, A. 10, S. 5. 
Exempted from debt, A. 10, S. 3. 
Laborer's lien attaches, A. 10, S. 4. 
Privy examination of wife to dispose of, A. 10, S. 8. 
House of correction, A. 11, S. 4. 

Orphans, A. 11, S. 8. 
House of refuge, A. 11, S. 5. 
House of Representatives, apportionment, A. 2, S. 5. 

Officers of, A. 2, S. 18 ; term begins when A. 2, S. 25 ; qualification for, A. 2, 
S. 8; ratio of, A. 2, S. 6. 



State Constitution. 363 

Husband can insure life for benefit of family, A. 10, S. 7. 
Idiots provided for, A. 11, S. 9. 
Immigration, Department of, A. 3, S. 17. 
Impeachment, A. 4, S. 4. 

Court of, A. 4, S. 3. 

Of Governor, A. 3, S. 12. 
Imprisonment, for debt, A. 1, S. 16. 

Except by law, wrong, A. 1, S. 17. 
Indictments for crimes committed before Constitution took effect, A. 14, S. 1. 
Inebriates, A. 11, S. 9. 
Inferior courts, A. 4, S. 12. 

Officers of, A. 4, S. 30. 
Insane provided for, A. 11, S. 10. 
Institutions, charitable, A. 11. 

Penal, A. 11. 

Public, annual reports from, A. 3, S. 7. 

Self-supporting, as far as possible, A. 11, S. 11. 

Sexes to be separated, A. 11, S. 6. 
Instruction, Superintendent of Public, A. 3, S. 13. 
Intermarriage of whites and negroes prohibited, A. 14, S. 8. 
Internal government of State, A. 1, S. 3. 

Issues of fact, by whom tried and how waived, A. 4, S. 13. 
Judges, election, terms of, etc., A. 4, S. 21. 

Fees, salaries, emoluments, A. 4, S. 18. 
Judges, removal of, for inability, A. 4, S. 31. 

Residence of, A. 4, S. 11. 
Judicial Department, A. 4. 

Districts for Superior Courts, A. 4, S. 10. 

General Assembly not to deprive of jurisdiction, A. 4, S. 12. 

Powers division of, A. 4, S. 2. 

Term of first officers under Constitution, A. 4, S. 26. 

Vacancies, A. 4, S. 25. 
Judicial remedy allowed all, A. 1, S. 35. 
Judiciary distinct, A. 1, S. 8. 
Jurisdiction, courts inferior to Supreme, A. 4, S. 12. 

Justices of the peace, A. 4, S. 27. 

Supreme Court, A. 4, S. 8. 
Jury, right of, A. 1, S. 13. 

Trial by, waived, A. 4, S. 13. 

Sacred and inviolable, A. 1, S. 19. 
Justices of the peace, Governor appoints, when, A. 7, S. 11. 

Jurisdiction of, A. 4, S. 27. 

Vacancies in office, A. 4, S. 28. 
Laborers' and mechanics' lien, A. 14, S. 4. 

Attaches homestead, A. 10, S. 4. 
Law of the land, no person imprisoned or deprived of life, etc., but by, A. 1, S. 17. 
Laws, ex post facto and retrospective, A. 1, S. 32. 

Private, thirty days notice before passage, A. 2, S. 12. 

What in force, A. 4, S. 19. 



364 State Constitution. 

Legislature distinct, A. 1, S. 8. 

Two branches of, A. 2, S. 1. 
Legislature provides for organizing towns, etc., A. 8, S. 4. 

Trials other than jury, A. 1, S. 13. 
Legitimation, General Assembly can pass general laws for, A. 2, S. 11. 
Liberty, deprivation of, except by law, A. 1, S. 17. 

Religious, A. 1, S. 26. 

Restraint of, remedied, A. 1, S. 18. 

Warrants without evidence, dangerous to, A. 1, S. 15. 
Lien of laborers and mechanics, A. 14, S. 4. 
Lieutenant-Governor, President of Senate, duties of, A. 3, S. 11. 

When Governor, A. 3, S. 12. 
Literary fund, Board of Education to succeed to rights of, A. 9, S. 10. 
Marriages between whites and negroes forbidden, A. 14, S. 8. 
Married woman, husband can insure life for benefit of, A. 10, S. 7. 

Privy examination of, to dispose of homestead, A. 10, S. 8. 

Property of, not liable for husband's debts, A. 10, S. 6. 
Mechanics' lien, A. 14, S. 4. 
Men, equality, rights of, A. 1, S. 1. 
Militia, A. 1, S. 24; A. 12. 

Exemptions from duty, A. 12, S. 4. 

Governor commands, A. 3, S. 8; A. 12, S. 3. 

Organization of, A. 12, S. 2. 

Who liable to bear arms, A. 12, S. 1. 
Money, how drawn from State Treasury, A. 4, S. 1. 

County or township treasury, A. 7, S. 8. 
Monopolies are injurious, A. 1, S. 31. 
Municipal corporations, A. 7. 

Cannot contract debt except by majority of qualified voters, A. 7, S. 7. 

Charters remain in force till changed, A. 7, S. 12. 
Municipal corporations, General Assembly to provide for organization of, taxation, 
etc., by, A. 8, S. 4. 

Power of General Assembly over, A. 7, S. 14. 
Names, personal, how changed, A. 2, S. 11. 

Normal school to be maintained by General Assembly at University, A. 9, S. 14. 
Oath of member of General Assembly, A. 2, S. 24. 
Oath of Governor, A. 3, S. 4. 
Oath of Office, A. 6, S. 4. 
Office, cannot hold two, A. 14, S. 7. 

Disqualification, A. 6, S. 5. 

Dueling disqualifies for, A. 14, S. 2. 
Office, eligibility to, A. 6. 

Qualification, property, none, A. 1, S. 22. 
Officers, county. A. 7, SS. 1, 10. 

First elected, A. 4, S. 26. 

What, appointed by Governor, A. 3, S. 10 ; A. 14, S. 5. 
Orphans, houses for, A. 11, S. 8. 

Provisions for, A. 11, S. 7. 
Pardons, A. 3, S. 6. 



State Constitution. 365 

Peace, soldiers quartered in time of, A. 1, S. 36. 
Penitentiary, A. 11, S. 3. 

Convict labor, A. 11, S. 1. 

Self-supporting, as far as possible, A. 11, S. 11. 

Sexes separated, A. 11, S. 6. 
People, right of, to assemble together, A. 1, S. 25. 
Perpetuities injurious, A. 1, S. 31. 

General Assembly shall prevent, A. 2, S. 15. 
Political power and government, A. 1, S. 2. 

Societies in secret dangerous, A. 1, S. 25. 
Poor, provisions for, A. 11, S. 7. 
Power of General Assembly, A. 2, S. 22. 

To suspend laws injurious, A. 1, S. 9. 
Powers, executive, judicial, and legislative, distinct, A. 1, S. 8. 

Judicial, division of, A. 4, S. 2. 
Press, freedom and abuse of, A. 1, S. 20. 
Principles, recurrence to fundamental, A. 1, S. 29. 
Prisoners, health and comfort secured, A. 11, S. 6. 
Private laws, A. 2, SS. 11, 12. 
Privileges, exclusive, none, A. 1, S. 7. 
Property, controversies at law about, A. 1, S. 19. 

Deprivation of, except by law, wrong, A. 1, S. 17. 

Devoted to education, A. 19, S. 4. 

Exemptions from taxation, A. 5, S. 5. 

Feme sole not liable for husband's debts, A. 10, S. 6. 

Qualifications, none, A. 1, S. 22. 
Prosecution, criminal, A. 1, S. 11. 
Protest, by whom and when made, A. 2, S. 17. 
Public debt, increase of, restricted, etc., A. 5, S. 4. 

What bonds declared invalid, A. 1, S. 6. 
Public money, how drawn, A. 14, S. 3. 

Public schools, General Assembly to provide for, A. 9, S. 2. 
Punishments, penal institutions and public charities, A. 11. 

Cruel or unusual, A. 1, S. 14; A. 14, S. 1. 
Qualification and election of members of General Assembly, each house judge of, 

A. 2, S. 22. 
Rebellion, debt in aid of, not to be paid, A. 7, S. 13. 
Recurrence to fundamental principles, A. 1, S. 29. 
Refuge, houses of, A. 11, S. 5. 
Register of Deeds, A. 7, S. 1. 
Registration of electors, A. 6, S. 2. 
Religous liberty, A. 1, S. 26. 

Scruples against bearing arms, A. 12, S. 1. 
Removal of judges, A. 4, S. 31; of clerks, A. 4, S. 32. 
Representation and taxation, A. 1, S. 23. 
Reprives, A. 3, S. 6. 
Retrospective laws, A. 1, S. 32. 
Revenue, A. 2, S. 14; A. 5. 



366 State Constitution. 

Right of assemblage, A. 1, S. 25. 

Jury, A. 1, S. 13. 

Secession, none, A. 1, S. 4. 

To bear arms, A. 1, S. 24. 

To suspend laws, injurious, A. 1, S. 9. 
Rights, declaration of, A. 1. 

Of men, A. 1, S. 1 ; A. 1, S. 37. 
Salaries and fees, General Assembly to regulate, A. 4, S. 18. 
Schools, attendance of children, A. 9, S. 15. 

County divided into districts, A. 9, S. 3. 

Fund, A. 9, S. 5. 

Provided by legislation, A. 9, S. 2. 
Schools, races separate, A. 9, S. 2. 
Seal of State, A. 3, S. 16. 

Search warrants without evidence, wrong, A. 1, S. 15. 
Seat of government at Raleigh, A. 14, S. 6. 
Secession, no right of, A. 1, S. 4. 
Secretary of State, duties of, A. 3, S. 13. 
Senate, presiding officer, A. 2, S. 19. 

Pro tern. Speaker, when elected, A. 2, S. 20. 
Senators, number of, A. 2, S. 3. 

Other senatorial officers, A. 2, S. 20. 

President of, A. 2, S. 19. 

Qualifications for, A. 2, S. 7. 

Regulating senatorial districts, A. 2, S. 4. 
Sexes separated in confinement, A. 11, S. 6. 
Sheriff and coroner, A. 4, S. 24. 
Slavery prohibited, A. 1, S. 33. 
Societies, secret political, dangerous, A. 1, S. 25. 
Soldiers, how quartered, A. 1, S. 36. 
Solicitor, how elected, A. 4, S. 23. 
Special courts, A. 4, S. 14. 
State boundaries, A. 1, S. 34. 

Claims against, A. 4, S. 9. 

Internal government of, A. 1, S. 3. 
Statistics, department of, A. 3, S. 17. 
Suffrage and eligibility to office, A. 6. 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, A. 3, S. 13. 

Reports of county school fund to be made to, A. 9, S. 5. 
Superior Court clerk, his election, A. 4, S. 16. 

Term, A. 4, S. 17; vacancy, A. 4, S. 29. 

Districts, A. 4, S. 10. 

Judges, election and term, A. 4, S. 21. 
Superior Court judges, residence, A. 4, S. 11; rotation, A. 4, S. 11. 

Open at all times except for jury trials, A. 4, S. 22. 

Solicitor for each district, A. 4, S. 23. 

Special term, A. 4, S. 12. 

Transaction of business, A. 4, S. 22. 



State Constitution. 367 

Supreme Court clerk, A. 4, S. 15 ; jurisdiction, A. 4, SS. 8, 9. 

Justices, A. 4, S. 6 ; election and terms of, A. 4, S. 21. 

Terms of, A. 4, S. 7. 
Surveyor, A. 7, S. 1. 

Suspending laws without consent of Representatives, not to be exercised, A. 1, S. 9. 
Taxation, ad valorem and uniform, A. 5, S. 3. 

And revenue, A. 5 ; A. 1, S. 23. 

Property, exemptions from, A. 5, S. 5. 

Of purchases and sales retrospectively not to be passed, A. 1, S. 32. 
Taxes, acts to levy, to state object, A. 5, S. 7. 

Except for necessary expenses, not levied by county, city, or town without as- 
sent of majority of voters, A. 7, S. 7. 

Levied by county commissioners, A. 5, S. 6. 

Of county to be ad valorem, A. 7, S. 9. 
Towns, etc., organized by legislation, A. 8, S. 4. 
Townships, officers of, A. 7, S. 5. 
Treason against State, A. 4, S. 5. 
Treasurer, duties of, A. 3, S. 13. 

University, agricultural department of, mechanics, mining, and normal instruction 
connected with, A. 9, S. 14. 

Benefits of, A. 9, S. 7. 

Election of trustees, A. 9, S. 6. 

General Assembly shall maintain, A. 9, S. 7. 

Maintenance of, A. 9, S. 6. 

Property devoted to, A. 9, S. 7. 
Vacancies in General Assembly, A. 2, S. 13. 
Vacancies, other, A. 3, SS. 12, 13; A. 4, SS., 25, 28, 29. 
Vagrants, house of correction for, A. 11, S. 4. 
Warrants without evidence injurious, A. 1, S. 15. 
Whites and negroes cannot intermarry, A. 14, S. 8. 

Separated in Schools, A. 9, S. 2. 
Widow, homestead benefits, A. 10, S. 5. 
Yeas and nays, when entered, A. 2, SS. 14, 26. 



PART XII. 



CENSUS. 



1. Population, Area, etc., of the United States and 

Territories, 1910 and 1917. 

2. Population, Area, etc., of North Carolina by 

Counties, 1790 to 1910. 

3. Estimated Population of North Carolina, 1675-1786. 

4. Population of North Carolina Towns and Cities, 

1910, 1900, 1890. 

5. Counties and County Seats. 



24 



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Census. 



CENSUS OF NORTH 



Counties 


Date of 
Forma- 
tion 


1790 


1800 


1810 


1820 


1830 


1840 


1 Alamance 


1840 
1847 
1859 
1749 
1799 
1705 
1722 
1734 
1764 
1791 
1777 
1792 
1841 
1777 
1722 
1777 
1842 
1770 
1839 
1672 
1861 
1841 
1808 
1712 












2 Alexander 












3 Alleghany 














5,133 


8,146 
2,783 
6,242 
11,249 
7.02S 
4,110 
5,812 
9,929 
5,094 


8,831 
3,694 
7,203 

11,218 
5,671 
4,778 
9,277 

11,007 
6,158 


12,534 
4,335 
9,850 

10.S05 
7,276 
5,480 

10.542 

13,411 
7.248 


14,095 

6,987 

10,969 

12.262 

7,811 

6,516 

16,281 

17,sss 

8,810 


15,077 


5 Ashe 


7,467 




5,462 

12,606 

5,084 

3,071 


12,225 


7 Bertie 


12,175 


8 Bladen 


8.022 


9 Brunswick 

10 Buncombe., 


5,265 
10,084 


11 Burke 


8,118 


15,799 


12 Cabarrus -- 


9,259 


13 Caldwell 








4,033 

3,732 

10,096 


4,191 
4,399 
8,701 


5,347 

4,823 

11,757 


6,347 

5,609 

13,253 


6,733 

6,597 
15,785 


5,663 


15 Carteret 


6,591 


16 Caswell 


14,693 


17 Catawba 




18 Chatham 


9,221 


11,861 


12,977 


12,661 


15,405 


16,242 


19 Cherokee 


3,427 


20 Chowan 


5,011 


5,132 


. 5,297 


6,464 


6,697 


6,690 


21 Clay 




22 Cleveland 














23 Columbus - 






3,022 

12,676 

9,382 

6,985 


3.912 
13,394 
14,446 

8,098 


4,141 
13,734 
14,834 

7,655 


3,941 




10.469 


10,245 
9,264 
6,928 


13,438 


25 Cumberland 

26 Currituck 


1754 8,671 
1672 5.219 


15,284 
6,703 


27 Dare 


1870 
1822 






28 Davidson .. 










13,389 


14.606 


29 Davie 


1836 
1749 
1881 
1732 
1849 
1779 










7,574 


30 Duplin 


5,662 




6,796 


7,863 


9,744 


11,291 


11,182 






32 Edgecombe 


10,225 


10,421 


12,423 


13,276 


14,935 


15, 70S 




7,559 


8,529 


10,166 


9,741 


10,665 


10,980 




1S46 
1779 
1872 






36 Gates 


5,392 


5,881 


5,965 


6,837 


7,866 


8,161 






38 Granville 


1746 
1799 
1770 
1758 
1855 
1808 
1838 
1759 
1705 
1788 
1851 


10,982 
6,893 
7,191 

13,965 


14,015 
4,218 
9.442 

13,945 


15,576 

4,867 
11,420 
13,620 


18,222 

4,533 

14,511 

17,237 


19,355 

6,413 

18,737 

17,739 


18,817 


39 Greene* 


6,595 


40 Guilford 


19,175 


41 Halifax 


16,865 


42 Harnett 










2,780 


4,073 


4,578 


4,975 








5,129 


45 Hertford .. .... 


5,828 
4,120 
5,435 


6,701 
4.829 
8.856 


6,052 

6,029 

10,972 


7,712 

4,967 

13,071 


8.537 

6,184 

14,918 


4,484 


46 Hvde 


6,458 


47 Iredell 


15,685 








1746 


5.634 


6.301 
4,339 


6,867 
4,968 


9,607 
5,216 


10,938 
5,608 


10,599 


50 Jones 


1779 ! 4.822 


4,945 


51 Lee 


1907 
1791 











4,005 
12,660 


5,572 
16.359 


6,799 
IS, 147 


7,723 

22,455 

5,333 


7,605 


53 Lincoln 


1779 
1828 
1851 


9,224 


26,160 




4,869 


55 Madison 













North Carolina. 



373 



CAROLINA, 1790-1910.* 

















Land Area 




1850 


1860 


1870 


1880 


1890 


1900 


1910 


in Square 
Miles 




11,444 


11.852 


11.874 


14,613 


18,271 


25,665 


2S.712 


494 


1 


5,220 


6,022 


6,868 


8,355 


9,430 


10,960 


11,592 


297 


2 




3,598 


3,691 


5,486 


6,523 


7,759 


7,745 


223 


3 


13,489 


13,664 


12,428 


17,994 


20,027 


21,870 


25,465 


551 


4 


8.777 


7,956 


9,573 


14,437 


15,628 


19,581 


19.074 


399 


5 


13,816 


14,766 


13,011 


17,474 


21,072 


26,404 


30,877 


819 


6 


12,851 


14,310 


12,950 


16.399 


19,176 


20,538 


23,039 


712 


7 


9,767 


11,995 


12,831 


16,158 


16,763 


17,677 


18,006 


1,013 


8 


7,272 


8,406 


7,754 


9,389 


10,900 


12,657 


14,432 


812 


9 


13.425 


12,654 


15,412 


21,909 


35,266 


44,288 


49,798 


624 


10 


7,772 


9,237 


9,777 


12,809 


14,939 


17,699 


21,408 


534 


11 


9,747 


10,546 


11,954 


14,964 


18,142 


22,456 


26,240 


387 


12 


6,317 


7,497 


8,476 


10,291 


12,298 


15,694 


20,579 


507 


13 


6.049 


5,343 


5,361 


6,274 


5,667 


5,474 


5,640 


218 


14 


6.939 


8,186 


9,010 


9,784 


10,825 


11,811 


13,776 


538 


15 


15,269 


16,215 


16,081 


17,825 


16,028 


15.028 


14,858 


396 


16 


8,862 


10,729 


10,984 


14,946 


18,689 


22,123 


27,918 


408 


17 


18.449 


19,101 


19,723 


23,453 


25,413 


23,912 


22,635 


785 


18 


6,838 


9,166 


8,080 


8,182 


9,976 


11.860 


14,136 


451 


19 


6,721 


6,842 


6,450 


7,900 


9,167 


10,258 


11,303 


161 


20 






2,461 
12,696 


3,316 
16,571 


4,197 
20,394 


4,532 
25,078 


3,909 
29,494 


185 
485 


21 


10,396 


12,348 


22 


5,909 


8,597 


8,474 


14,439 


17,856 


21,274 


28,020 


937 


23 


14.709 


16,268 


20,516 


19,729 


20,533 


24,164 


25.594 


685 


24 


20,010 


16,369 


17,035 


23,836 


27,321 


29,249 


35,284 


1,008 


25 


7,236 


7,415 


5,131 


6,476 


6,747 


6,529 


7,693 


273 


26 






2,778 


3.244 


3,768 


4,757 


4,841 


405 


27 


15,320 


16,601 


17,414 


20,333 


21,702 


23,403 


29,404 


563 


28 


7,866 


8,494 


9,820 


11,096 


11,621 


12,115 


13.394 


264 


29 


13,514 


15,784 


15,542 


18,773 


18,690 


22,405 


25,442 


830 


30 










18,141 
24,113 


26,233 
26,591 


35,276 
32,010 


284 
515 


31 


17,189 


17,376 


22,970 


26,181 


32 


11,108 


12,692 


13,050 


18,078 


28,434 


35,261 


47,311 


369 


33 


11,713 


14,107 


14,135 


20,829 


21,098 


25,116 


24,692 


471 


34 


8,173 


9,307 


12,602 


14,254 


17,764 


27,903 


37,063 


359 


35 


8,426 


8,443 


7,724 


8,897 


10,252 


10,413 


10,455 


356 


36 


.. 






2,335 
31,286 


3,313 
24,484 


4,343 
23,263 


4,749 
25,102 


302 
504 


37 


21,249 


23,396 


24,831 


38 


6,619 


7,925 


8,687 


10,037 


10,039 


12,038 


13,083 


258 


39 


19,754 


20,056 


22,736 


23,585 


28,052 


39,074 


60,497 


674 


40 


15,589 


19,442 


20,408 


30,300 


28,908 


30,793 


37,646 


681 


41 




8,039 
5,081 


8,895 
7,921 


10,862 
10,271 


13,700 
13,346 


15,988 
16,222 


22,174 
21,020 


596 
541 


42 


7,074 


43 


6,853 


10,448 


7,706 


10,281 


12,589 


14,104 


16,262 


362 


44 


8,142 


9,504 


9,273 


11,843 


13,851 


14,294 


15,436 


339 


45 


7,636 


7,732 


6,445 


7,765 


8,903 


9,278 


8,840 


596 


46 


14,719 


15,347 


16,931 


22,675 


25,462 


29,004 


34,315 


592 


47 




5,515 


6,683 


7,343 


9,512 


11,853 


12,998 


494 


48 


13,726 


15,656 


16,897 


23,461 


27,239 


32,250 


41,401 


688 


49 


5,038 


5,730 


5,002 


7,491 


7,403 


8,226 


8,721 
11,376 
22,769 


403 


50 
51 


7,828 


10.220 


10,434 


15,344 


14,879 


18,639 


436 


52 


7,746 


8,195 


9,573 


11,061 


12,586 


15,498 


17,132 


296 


53 


6,389 


6,004 


6,615 


8,064 


10,102 


12,104 


12,191 


531 


54 




5,908 


8,192 


12,810 


17,805 


20,644 


20,132 


431 


55 



374 



Census. 



CENSUS OP NORTH 



Counties 


Date of 
Forma- 
tion 


1790 


1800 


1810 


1820 


1830 


1840 




1774 
1842 
1762 
1861 
1779 
1784 
1777 
1729 
1741 
1734 
1752 
1872 
1672 
1875 
1672 
1791 
1760 
1855 
1779 
1779 
1786 
1785 
1753 
1779 
1784 
1899 
1841 
1789 
1771 
1871 
1861 
1729 
1842 
1881 
1770 
1779 
1799 
1849 
1779 
1777 
1855 
1850 
1833 


6,080 


5,629 


5,987 


6,320 


8,539 


7,637 


57 McDowell 




58 Mecklenburg. 

59 Mitchell 


11,395 


10,439 


14,272 


16,895 


20,073 


18,273 


60 Montgomery 

61 Moore 


4,725 
3,770 
7,393 
6,831 
9,981 
5,387 
12,216 


7.677 
4,767 
6,975 
7,060 

12.353 
5,623 

16,362 


8,430 

6,367 

7,268 

11,465 

13,082 

6,669 

20,135 


8,693 

7,128 

8,125 

10,866 

13,242 

7,016 

23,492 


10.919 
7.745 
8,490 

10,959 

13,391 
7,814 

23,908 


10.780 
7,988 


62 Nash -- 


9,047 


63 New Hanover 

64 Northampton 


13,312 

13,369 

7,527 


66 Orange.. 


24,356 






68 Pasquotank 

69 Pender 


5,497 


5,379 


7,674 


8,008 


§,641 


8,514 


70 Perquimans 


5,440 


5,708 
6,402 
9,084 


6,052 
6.642 
9,169 


6,857 

9,029 

10,001 


7,419 
10,027 
12,093 


7,346 
9,790 


72 Pitt 


8,275 


11,805 


73 Polk 




74 Randolph 


7,276 
5,055 
5,326 
6,187 
15,828 
7,808 
6,065 


9,234 
5,623 
6,839 
8,277 
20,064 
10,753 
6,719 


10,112 

6,695 

7,528 

10,316 

21,543 

13,202 

6,620 


11,331 

7,537 

8,204 

11,474 

26,009 

15,351 

8,908 


12,406 
9,396 
9,433 
12,935 
20,786 
17,557 
11,634 


12,875 


75 Richmond 

76 Robeson 


8,909 
10,370 


77 Rockingham 

78 Rowan 


13,442 
12,109 


79 Rutherford 


19,202 
12,157 


81 Scotland 




82 Stanlv 














83 Stokes 


8,528 
7,191 


11,026 

9,509 


11,645 
10,366 


14,033 
12,320 


16,196 
14,504 


16,265 




15,079 


















87 Tvrrell 


4,744 


3,395 


3,364 


4,319 


4,732 


4,657 


88 Union 




89 Vance 














90 Wake 


10,192 
9,397 


13,437 

11,284 

2,422 


17,086 

11,004 

3,464 


20,102 

11,158 

3,986 


20,398 

11,877 

4,552 


21,118. 


91 Warren 


12,919 




4,525 


93 Watauga 






94 Wavne 


6,133 
8,143 


6,772 
7,247 


8,687 
9,054 


9,040 
9,967 


10,331 
11,968 


10,891 


95 Wilkes .. 


12,577 


96 Wilson 




97 Yadkin 














98 Yancey 












5,962 














Totals 




393,751 


478,103 


555,500 


638,829 


737,987 


753,409 









*In 1758 Dobbs County was formed from part of Johnston. In 1791 Dobbs was divided 
into Lenoir and Glasgow. In 1799 the name of Glasgow was changed to Greene. 



Nortii Carolina. 



375 



CAROLINA, 1790-1910* — Continued. 

















Land Area 




1850 


1860 


1870 


1880 


1890 


1900 


1910 


in Square 
Miles 




8,307 


10,195 


9,647 


13,140 


15,221 


15,383 


17,797 


438 


56 


6,246 


7,120 


7,592 


9,836 


10,939 


12,567 


13,538 


437 


57 


13,914 


17,374 


24,299 


34,175 


42,673 


55,268 


67,031 


590 


58 






4,705 


9,435 


12,807 


15,221 


17,245 


362 


59 


6,872 


7,649 


7,487 


9,374 


11,239 


14,197 


14,967 


489 


60 


9,342 


11,427 


12,048 


16.821 


20,479 


23,622 


17,010 


798 


61 


10,657 


11,687 


11,077 


17,731 


20,707 


25,478 


33,727 


584 


62 


17,668 


21,715 


27,978 


21,376 


24,026 


25.785 


32.037 


199 


63 


13,335 


13,372 


14,749 


20,032 


21,242 


21,150 


22,323 


523 


64 


8,283 


8,856 


7,569 


9,829 


10.303 


11,940 


14,125 


645 


65 


17,055 


16,947 


17,507 


23,698 


14,948 


14,690 


15,064 


386 


66 








6,323 


7,146 


8,045 


9,966 


358 


67 


8,950 


8,940 


8,131 


10,369 


10,748 


13,660 


16,693 


231 


68 








12,468 


12,514 


13,381 


15,471 


883 


69 


7,332 


7,238 


7,745 


9,466 


9,293 


10,091 


11,054 


251 


70 


10,781 


11,221 


11,170 


13,719 


15,151 


16,685 


17,356 


386 


71 


13,397 


16,080 


17,276 


21,794 


25,519 


30,889 


36.340 


644 


72 




4,043 


4,319 


5,062 


5,902 


7,004 


7,640 


258 


73 


15,832 


16,793 


17,551 


20,836 


25,195 


28,232 


29,491 


795 


74 


9,818 


11,009 


12,882 


18,245 


23,948 


15,855 


19,673 


466 


75 


12,826 


15,489 


16,262 


23,380 


31,483 


40,371 


51,945 


1,043 


76 


14,495 


16,746 


15,718 


21,744 


25,363 


33,163 


36,442 


573 


77 


13,870 


14,589 


16,810 


19,965 


24.123 


31,066 


37,521 


483 


78 


13,550 


11,573 


13,121 


15,198 


18,770 


25,101 


28,385 


547 


79 


14,585 


16,624 


16,436 


22,894 


25,096 


26,380 
12,553 


29,982 
15.363 


921 
387 


80 
81 


6,922 


7,801 


8.315 


10,505 


12,136 


15,220 


19,909 


413 


82 


9,206 


10,402 


11,208 


15,353 


17,199 


19,866 


20.151 


472 


83 


18,443 


10,380 


11,252 


15,302 


19,281 


25,515 


29,705 


531 


84 








3,784 


6,577 


8,401 


10,403 


560 


85 






3,536 
4,173 


5,340 
4,545 


5.881 
4.225 


6,620 
4,980 


7,191 
5,219 


371 
397 


86 


5,133 


4,944 


87 


10,151 


11,202 


12,217 


18,056 


21,259 


27,150 


33,277 


561 


88 










17,581 


16,684 


19,425 


276 


89 


24,888 


28,627 


35,617 


47,939 


49,207 


54,626 


63,229 


841 


90 


13,912 


15,726 


17,768 


22,619 


19,360 


19,151 


20,266 


432 


91 


5,664 


6,357 


6,516 


8,928 


10.200 


10,608 


11,062 


334 


92 


3,400 


4,957 


5,287 


8,160 


10,611 


13,417 


13,556 


330 


93 


13,486 


14,905 


18,144 


24,951 


26,100 


31,356 


35,698 


597 


94 


12,899 


14,749 


15,539 


19,181 


22,675 


26,872 


30,282 


718 


95 




9,720 


12,258 


16,064 


18,644 


23,596 


28,269 


392 


96 




10,714 


10,697 


12,420 


13,790 


14,083 


15,428 


334 


97 


8,204 


8,655 


5,909 


7,694 


9,490 


11,464 


12,072 


302 


98 


869,039 


992,622 


1,071,361 


1,399,750 


1,617,947 


1,893,810 


2,206,287 


48,580 





376 Census. 



ESTIMATED POPULATION OF NORTH CAROLINA, 1675-1786. 

1675 4,000 

1701 5,000 

1707 7,000 

1715 11,000 

1729 35,000 

1752 100,000 

1765 200,000 

1771 250,000 

1786 350,000 



North Carolina. 



377 



POPULATION OF NORTH CAROLINA CITIES AND TOWNS 1910, 

1900, 1890. 



City or Town 


County 


1910 


1900 


1890 


Abbottsburg 


Bladen 

Moore 

Davie 


159 

794 
283 
924 

2,116 
118 
98 
936 
221 
48S 
681 
145 
151 

1,865 

18.762 

115 

524 

543 

440 

77 

990 

195 

416 

283 

21! 

370 

56 

2,483 

2,863 

1,176 
800 

1,529 
469 
162 
173 
697 
219 
311 
276 
261 
796 
85 
179 
282 
209 
919 
50 
348 
149 
725 
612 
66 
249 
956 

4,808 








559 

273 

302 

1,382 


227 


Advance 




Ahoskie 


Hertford 




Albemarle 


Stanly 


248 


Alexander 






Almond 


Swain 






Andrews- . 


Cherokee 








Anson __ 

Wake. ... 






Anson ville 






Apex . _ 


349 
182 
137 
992 
14,694 


269 


A rchdale 


2 9 4 


Arden 


229 


Asheboro 


Randolph _. 


510 


Ashe ville 




10,235 


Atkinson 


Pender . 


Atlantic . . 


Carteret.. 








Bertie . 


342 

314 

61 

557 


163 


Aurora . _. 


Beaufort .. 


251 


Autrvville 








Pitt ... 




Bailey . 


Nash 






Mitchell 


511 
400 
229 
292 




Bath 


Beaufort .. 






Edgecombe and Nash 






252 




Martin 




Beaufort 




2,195 
383 
145 
384 

1,100 

457 

132 

71 


2,007 




Beaufort 




Belmont 










191 


Bessemer Citv ._ 






Bethel 


Pitt 


377 


Big Lick . 




69 








Biscoe 


Montgomery....... 




Black Creek 


196 
200 


191 


Black Mountain 








Bladen 






Watauga 


331 
604 




Boardman 






Bonsai 


Chatham and Wake 




Boone, 


Watauga 


155 
183 

97 
584 

42 


144 


Boonville 


Yadkin 




Bostic 


Rutherford 




Brevard 


Transylvania 


327 


Bridgersville . 


Wilson 




Bridgeton 


Craven 




Broadway 


Lee 






Brookford 


Catawba . 






Brvson 


Swain 


417 




Buie 


Robeson . 




Buies Creek 


Harnett 






Burgaw 


Pender 


387 
3,692 


366 


Burlington 


Alamance 


1,716 



37S 



Census. 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS— Continued. 



City or Town 



Burns ville 

Cameron 

Candor 

Canton 

Carthage 

Cary__ 

Castalia 

Catawba 

Cerro Gordo. 

Chadbourn_ 

Chapel Hill.. 

Charlotte 

Cherry 

Cherry ville 

China Grove 

Chocowinity 

Claremont 

Clarendon 

Clarkton 

Clayton 

Cleveland 

Clinton 

Clyde 

Coats 

Colerain 

Collettsville 

Columbia.. -. 

Columbus 

Concord 

Conetoe 

Conover 

Contentnea 

Cornelius.. 

Council 

Cove City 

Creedmoor 

Creswell 

Cronly 

Crouse 

Cumberland.. 

Dallas.. 

Davidson 

Denton 

Denver 

Dillsboro 

Dobson 

Dover 

Dudley 

Dunn 

Durham 

East Bend 

East Kings Mountain. 

East Laurinburg 

East Lumberton 

East Spencer 

Edenton 

Edwards 



County 



Yancey 

Moore 

Montgomery. 

Haywood 

Moore 

Wake. 

Nash 

Catawba 

Columbus 

Columbus 

Orange 

Mecklenburg. 
Washington.. 

Gaston 

Rowan 

Beaufort 

Catawba 

Columbus 

Bladen 

Johnston 

Rowan 

Sampson 

Haywood 

Harnett 

Bertie 

Caldwell 

Tyrrell 

Polk 

Cabarrus 

Edgecombe... 

Catawba 

Greene 

Mecklenburg. 

Bladen 

Craven 

Granville 

Washington.. 

Columbus 

Lincoln 

Cumberland.. 

Gaston 

Mecklenburg.. 

Davidson 

Lincoln 

Jackson 

Surry. 

Craven 

Wayne. 

Harnett 

Durham 

Yadkin 

Gaston 

Scotland 

Robeson.. 

Rowan 

Chowan 

Beaufort 



1910 


1900 


1890 


422 


207 
218 




259 
160 


236 


1,393 


230 
605 
333 
163 
169 
123 
243 
1,099 
18,091 




863 

383- 

219 

222 

323 

1,242 

1,149 

34,014 

76 


485 
423 
159 
196 
129 
156 
1,017 
11,557 


1,153 


1,008 
887 




852 
127 


174 


297 


160 




147 




276 






1,441 
426 


754 
19S 
958 
244 


478 


1,101 
344 

169 


839 
90 


189 


207 
57 
382 
334 
7,910 
132 
413 




80 




848 
122 


209 


8,715 
158 
421 
246 


4,339 

88 

337 


833 






74 






308 






324 






329 
289 
175 


224 

78 


202 
122 


300 
1,065 
1,056 

320 


343 
514 
904 


242 
441 
481 


282 
277 


199 
279 
327 


185 


360 




737 




164 






1,823 

18,241 

522 


1,072 

6,679 

444 


419 
5,485 


383 




577 






881 






1,729 






2,789 
171 


3,046 
99 


2,205 
62 



North Carolina. 



379 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS— Continued. 



City or Town 


County 


1910 


1900 


1890 


Elizabeth City 


Pasquotank 


8,412 
117 
377 
886 
293 
200 

1,167 
81 
162 
146 
248 
441 
730 
519 
352 
132 
816 

7,045 

1,592 
137 
189 
329 
379 
809 
951 
127 
284 
169 

5,759 
203 
154 

1,162 
308 
119 
102 
304 
126 

6,107 
240 

2,504 

381 

363 

15,895 

4,101 
291 
330 
209 
314 
452 

2,173 
205 
230 
140 
90 
162 
428 

4,503 

2,818 


6,348 
144 
498 
860 
172 
638 
361 
93 
123 
127 


3,251 


Elizabethtown 


Bladen 


Elk Park 


Mitchell 


313 

288 


Elkin 


Surry 












Enfield 




568 
























Fair Bluff 




328 
432 
308 


243 










256 


Faith 




Falkland 


Pitt 


139 

262 

4,670 

1,090 

157 


61 
140 

4 999 




Pitt 










419 
















171 
335 
761 
435 


62 
281 
583 














377 


Fuquay Springs 


Wake - 




Wake 


"269" 
4,610 
200 
129 
521 
137 














1 033 






232 








Alamance-Guilford 








252 
















Gold Hill - 




514 
124 

5,877 


335 


Gold Point 










4,017 










2,052 
277 


991 




Caldwell 


207 


Granite Quarry 








Guilford 


10,035 
2,565 
229 
277 
174 
306 
493 
639 


3 317 




Pitt 


1 937 


Grifton 


Pitt 


121 




Pitt - 






Cleveland 


126 






361 






781 














Hardin Mills 




205 
109 






Hertf 01 d 


110 


Hassell . 


Martin 






Chatham 






Hazelwood 


Haywood 










3,746 
1,917 


4,191 


Hendersonville 


Henderson 


1,216 



380 



Census. 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS— Continued. 



City or Town 



Hertford 

Hickory 

High Point 

Highland 

Highlands 

Hildebran 

Hillsboro 

Hobgood 

Hoffman 

Holly Spiings 

Hollyville 

Hookerton 

Hope Mills 

Hot Springs 

Hudson 

Hunters ville 

Icemorlee 

Indian Trail 

Ingold 

Iron Station 

Jackson 

Jacksonville 

Jamesville 

Jasor 

Jefferson 

Jonesboro 

Jonesville 

Jupitei 

Kelford., — 

Kenansville 

Kenly.... 

Kemersville 

Keyser --- 

Kings Mountain. 

Kinston 

Kittrell. 

LaGrange 

Landis 

Lasker 

Lattimore 

Laurinburg 

Lawndale 

Leaksville 

Leechville 

Leicester 

Lenoir 

Lewarae 

Lewiston 

Lexington 

Liberty 

Lilesville 

Lillington 

Lincolnton 

Littleton 

Longview 

Louisbuig — 

LowelL _- 

Lucama 



County 



Perquimans 

Catawba-- -- 

Guilford 

Catawba 

Macon 

Burke 

Orange 

Halifax 

Richmond 

Wake .... 

Pamlico 

Greene 

Cumberland 

Madison — 

Caldwell 

Mecklenburg 

Union 

Union 

Sampson 

Lincoln 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Martin 

Greene 

Ashe 

Lee_ 

Yadkin 

Buncombe 

Bertie 

Duplin 

Johnston — 

Forsyth 

Moore 

Cleveland-Gaston. 

Lenoir 

Vance 

Lenoir 

Rowan — 

Cleveland 

Cleveland 

Scotland 

Cleveland 

Rockingham 

Beaufort 

Buncombe 

Caldwell 

Richmond 

Bertie 

Davidson 

Randolph 

Anson 

Harnett 

Linccln 

Halifax-Warren 

Catawba 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Wilson 



1910 



1,841 

3,716 

9.525 
487 
267 
140 
857 
165 
175 
261 
126 
204 
964 
443 
411 
591 
398 
154 
124 
107 
527 
505 
398 
60 
184 
799 
621 
111 
316 
270 
726 

1,128 
170 

2,218 

6.995 
242 

1,007 
437 
203 
297 

2,322 
568 

1,127 
151 
153 

3,364 
279 
262 

4,163 
474 
386 
380 

2,413 

1 , 152 
243 

1,775 
876 
266 



1900 



1,382 
2,535 
4,163 



219 
109 
707 
122 
184 
219 



127 
167 
271 
260 
652 
180 
2,062 
4,106 
168 
853 



121 

108 
1,334 



688 

100 

126 

1,296 



1890 



163 
,234 
304 
213 
65 
828 



1,178 
290 
236 



733 
2,023 



233 

"662 



218 



139 

881 
445 


173 
456 
695 


533 


431 






86 


78 


441 
309 
235 


750 
170 
346 


230 
640 


413 
541 



291 
137 
900 
295 
429 
1,726 
317 
775 



1,357 
"726 



673 



373 

1,440 

366 

222 



957 
534 



667 



North Carolina. 



381 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS— Continued. 



City or Town 



Lumber Bridge. 

Lumberton 

McAdenville 

McFarland 

Macon... 

Madison 

Magnolia 

Maiden 

Manlv 



County 



Robeson 

Robeson 

Gaston 

Anson 

Warren 

Rockingham, 

Duplin 

Catawba 

Moore 



1910 



Marteo Dare. 

Mapleton 

Margarettsville. 

Marion. 

Marlboro 

Mars Hill 

Marshall. 

Marshville 

Matthews 

Maur.in 

Maxton 

Mayodan 

Maysville 

Mebane 

Merry Oaks. 



Hertford 

Northampton 

McDowell 

Pitt. 

Madison 

Madison — 

Union 

Mecklenburg 

Pitt 

Pobeson 

Rockingham 

Jones 

Alamance-Orange. 
Chatham 



Micro Johnston. 



Middleburg 

Middlesex 

Milton 

Mineral Springs 

Mint Hill 

Mocksville 

Moncure 

Monroe 

Montezuma 

Mooresboro 

Mooresville 

Morehead City. 

Morranton 

Morrisvillc 

Mortimer 

Morven.. 

Mount Airy 

Mount Gilead... 

Mount Holly 

Mount Olive 

Mount Pleasant 

Mountain Island ] Gaston 

Murf reesboro ! Hertf old 



Vance. 

Nash 

Caswell 

Union 

Mecklenburg. 

Davie 

Chatham 

Union 

Mitchell. 

Cleveland 

Iredell 

Caiteret 

Burke 

Wake 

Caldwell 

Anson 

Surry 

Montgomery. 

Gaston 

Wayne 

Cabarrus 



Murphy 

Nashville 

Nebo 

New Hill 

New London... 

New Bern 

Newport 

Newton 

Newton Grove 

North Wilkesboro. 



Cherokee.. 

Nash 

McDowell- 
Wake 

Stanly 

Craven 

Carteret... 
Catawba.. 
Sampson.. 
Wilkes 



1900 



165 

2,230 
983 
186 
189 

1.033 
653 
664 
220 
408 
52 
107 

1,519 
225 
301 
802 
499 
396 
141 

1,321 

874 

345 

693 

88 

74 

117 

467 

419 

86 

194 

1,063 
100 

4,082 
254 
198 

3,400 

2,039 

2,712 
151 
261 
498 

3,844 
723 
526 

1,071 
753 
347 
809 
977 
750 
160 
95 
312 

9,961 
321 

2,316 
73 

1.902 



181 
849 
1,144 
112 
157 
813 
454 
614 
176 
312 



1890 



584 



450 
460 
264 
192 



123 


63 


1,116 


799 


111 


92 


289 
337 




203 


349 




378 


335 


935 


694 


904 

98 

218 










61 
169 








490 


705 


192 
745 








2,427 


1,866 


219 




144 


197 


1,533 


886 


1,379 


1,064 


1,928 


1,557 


100 


149 


447 
2,680 




1,768 


395 
630 




472 


617 


393 


444 


375 


450 


376 


657 


674 


604 


803 


479 


401 






299 


317 


9,090 


7,843 


328 


218 


1,583 


1,038 


75 


63 


918 





582 



Census. 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS— Continued. 



City or Town 



Norwood 

Oak City 

Oakley 

Old Fort 

Ore Hill 

Oriental. 

Orrum 

Oxfoid.. 

Pactolus 

Palmyra 

Pantego 

Parkersburg 

Park ton 

Parmele. 

Patteison 

Peachland 

Pee Dee 

Pembroke 

Pendleton 

Pikeville 

Pjlot Mountain 

Pine Level. 

Pine Bluff 

Pinetops 

Pineville 

Pink Hill 

Pittsboro... --. 

Plymouth 

Polkton 

Pollocksville 

Powellsville. 

Princeton 

Prince ville 

Raeford 

Raleigh 

Ramseur 

Randleman 

Red Springs 

Reidsville 

Rennert 

Rhodhiss 

Rich Square 

Richfield 

Richlands 

Ringwood 

Roanoke Rapids 

Robbins ville 

Roberdel 

Roberso ville 

Rockingham 

Rockwell 

Rocky Mount 

Rocky Mount Mills. 

Roles ville 

Roper 

Rose Hill 

Roseboro 

Rosman 



County 



Stanly.. 

Martin 

Pitt 

McDowell 

Chatham 

Pamlico 

Robeson 

Granville 

Pitt... 

Halifax 

Beaufort 

Sampson 

Robeson 

Martin 

Caldwell 

Anson -- 

Richmond 

Robeson -- 

Northampton 

Wayne 

Surry 

Johnston 

Moore 

Edgecombe 

Mecklenburg 

Lenoir 

Chatham 

Washington 

Anson 

Jones 

Beitie 

Johnston — 

Edgecombe 

Cumberland 

Wake 

Randolph 

Randolph 

Robeson 

Rockingham 

Robeson — 

Caldwell 

Northampton 

Stanly -- 

Onslow 

Halifax 

Halifax... - 

Graham 

Richmond 

Martin 

Richmond 

Rowan 

Edgecombe-Nash 

Nash 

Wake 

Washington 

Duplin 

Sampson.. ._ 

Transylvania 



1910 



19, 
1, 
1, 
1, 
4, 



928 
251 

57 
778 

94 

645 

214 

,018 

154 

94 
324 

67 
219 
272 

86 
232 
628 
258 

62 
210 
652 
394 

92 
211 
688 

58 

502 

,165 

287 

227 

75 
354 
627 
580 
218 
022 
950 
089 
828 
179 
370 
367 
210 
445 
147 
,670 
122 
422 
616 
,155 
249 
,051 
480 
170 
819 
364 
183 
145 



1900 



1890 



663 
115 



253 
"§66" 



2,059 

52 

131 

253 

57 



336 
"156" 



86 
168 
710 
266 



585 



424 
1,011 
276 
198 
44 
281 
552 



13,643 
769 

2,190 
858 

3,262 
133 



232 
73 

160 

98 

1,009 



275 
1,507 



2,937 
605 
155 



159 

"249 



2,907 
105 
114 
151 



58 



264 



1,212 
247 
143 

"""248 
428 



12,678 
"~L754 
"~2~969 



643 

"198 
92 



228 



816 
"150 



63 . 



Nobth Carolina. 



383 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS— Continued. 



City or Town 


County 


1910 


1900 


1890 


Rowland 


Robeson 


787 

1,425 
491 
437 
229 

1,062 
419 

5,533 

7,153 
235 

2,282 
136 

1,726 
280 

1,331 
139 
121 

3,127 
315 
308 
895 

1,347 
450 
238 
390 
202 
542 

1,484 
199 

1,915 

1,246 
321 
204 
239 

4,599 
79 
159 
404 
161 
82 
305 
185 
390 
698 
418 

4,129 
662 
154 

3,877 
269 
590 
331 
332 
230 

1,055 

700 

13 

139 


357 

1,021 

227 


72 


Roxboro 


Person 


421 


Roxobel... 


Bertie 




Rovall Cotton Mills. 


Wake 




Rutherford College 


Burke 






Rutherf ordton 


Rutherford 


880 




St. Pauls - -.- 


Robeson 






Forsvth - 


3,642 

6,277 
211 

1,044 
123 

1,348 
287 
816 
149 


2,711 






4,418 


Saluda 


Polk 




Sanford . 


Lee 


367 


Saratoga 


Wilson 


102 


Scotland Neck 


Northampton 


778 


Seaboard 


201 


Selma 


527 


Shallotte .- . 




Sharpsburg . 


Nash 

Cleveland - 




Shelby 


1,874 


1,394 


Shelmerdine 


Pitt 




Shore . 


Yadkin 






Siler City. 


Chatham 


440 
764 
405 
312 


254 


Smithfield 




550 


Snow Hill - 




283 








South Mills 






South Wadesboro 




154 

517 

1,336 

501 










Southport . _ 




1,207 


Sparta .. . . 


Alleghany 


95 








Spring Hope 


Nash 


666 
441 


248 














Star . . 


Montgomery 


211 
3,141 




Statesville 


Iredell 


2,318 




Pitt 






Guilford - - 












115 






168 


196 


















Hyde 










265 
281 


233 










Edgecombe 






2,499 
413 


1,924 








Teacheys - - 




52 






751 
258 
560 

274 


590 


Tillery 










482 






207 


Trinitv 


Randolph 


380 








Troy 




878 
324 






Polk 




Tunis 










176 


102 



384 



Census. 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS— Continued. 



City or Town 



Union Mills 

Vanceboro 

Vandemere... . 

Vass-_ ..- 

Vaughan 

Waco 

Wadesboro 

Wake Forest 

Wakefield 

Wallace 

Walnut 

Walnut Cove 

Walstonburg 

Warrenton 

Warsaw... 

Washington 

Watha 

Waxhaw. 

Waynes ville 

Weaver ville__ 

Webster 

Weldon 

Wendell 

West Hickory 

West Lumberton___ 

Westray 

Whitakers 

Whitehall 

White ville 

Whittier. 

Wilbanks 

Wilkesboro 

Williams 

Williamston 

Wilmington 

Wilson 

Windsor 

Winfall 

Wingate 

Winston 

Winterville - 

Winton 

Woodland 

Woodleaf 

Worthville 

Wrightsville Beach. 

Yadkin College 

Yadkinville 

Yancey ville 

Younesville 

7-ebuion 



County 



Rutherford 

Craven 

Pamlico 

Moore 

Warren 

Cleveland — 

Anson 

Wake 

Wake 

Duplin... 

Madison 

Stokes — 

Greene 

Warren 

Duplin.. 

Beaufort 

Pender - 

Union 

Haywood 

Buncombe 

Jackson 

Halifax 

Wake 

Catawba 

Robeson 

Nash 

Edgecombe-Nash. 

Wayne 

Columbus.—. 

Jackson-Swain 

Wilson - 

Wilkes 

Yadkin. 

Martin 

New Hanover 

Wilson 

Bertie 

Perquimans 

Union 

Forsvth 

Pitt 

Hertford 

Northampton 

Rowan 

Randolph 

New Hanover 

Davidson 

Yadkin. __ 

Caswell 

Franklin 

Wake 



1910 



1, 



155 
392 
296 
273 
420 
185 

2,376 

1,443 
287 
444 
215 
480 
127 
807 
723 

6,211 

169 

602 

,008 

442 

227 

,999 

759 

846 

231 

46 

755 

179 

,368 

216 

45 

799 

53 

1,574 
25,748 

6,717 
684 
289 
353 
17,167 
484 
624 
312 
187 
393 
54 
130 
432 
338 
431 
483 



1, 



111(10 



291 
169 



1890 



160 
1,546 
823 
142 
218 



336 



836 

576 

4,842 



46 



345 



90 



105 

1,198 

853 



119 
"320 



740 

401 

3,545 



752 

1,307 

329 


455 
216 


1,433 


1,286 


213 










388 
114 
643 


372 



635 


336 


912 


751 


20,976 


20,056 


3,525 


2,126 


597 


522 


222 





10,008 


8,018 


243 




688 


419 


242 


247 


467 


328 


22 
210 
292 






175 



205 



North Carolina. 



385 



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PART XIII. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



1. Executive Officials. 

2. Justices of the Supreme Court. 

3. Senators and Representatives in Congress. 

4. Senators and Representatives in the Generaj . 

Assembly. 



EXECUTIVE OFFICIALS. 



THOMAS WALTER BICKETT. 

GOVERNOR. 

Thomas W. Bickett, Democrat, of Franklin County, was born at 
Monroe, N. C, February 28, 1869. Son of T. W. and Mary A. (Cov- 
ington) Bickett. Educated at Wake Forest College, A.B., 1890. 
Studied law at University of North Carolina, 1892-1893. Lawyer. 
Representative in General Assembly, 1907. Attorney-General of 
North Carolina, 1909-1916. Elected Governor of North Carolina in 
1916. LL.D. (University of N. C). Mason. Episcopalian. Married 
Miss Fannie Yarborough, November 29, 1898. One child. Address: 
Raleigh, N. C. 



JOHN BRYAN GRIMES. 

SECRETARY OF STATE. 

J. Bryan Grimes, Democrat, of Pitt County, was born in Raleigh, 
N. C, June 3, 1868. Son of Bryan and Charlotte Emily (Bryan) 
Grimes. Educated at private schools; Raleigh Male Academy; Trin- 
ity School (Chocowinity, N. C); Lynch's High School (High Point, 
N. C); University of North Carolina; Bryant & Stratton Business 
College (Baltimore, Md.). Planter. Member of State Farmers Alli- 
ance. Member of North Carolina Agricultural Society. Member 
State Board of Agriculture, 1899-1900. Was elected Secretary of 
State in 1900, reelected in 1904, 1908, 1912, and 1916. Term expires 
1920. Ex-President Tobacco Growers Association of North Carolina. 
Chairman North Carolina Historical Commission. Member State 
Literary and Historical Association. President of the North Caro- 
lina Society of Sons of the Revolution. Member Executive Com- 
mittee, Trustees University of North Carolina; member of the 
Farmers Cooperative and Educational Union. Aide-de-camp on staff 
of Governor Elias Carr, with rank of Colonel. Fraternal orders: 
Masons, Knights of Pythias, Jr. O. U. A. M. Episcopalian. Married, 
November 14, 1894, Miss Mary Octavia Laughinghouse; February 3, 
1904, Miss Elizabeth Forest Laughinghouse. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



392 Biographical Sketches. 

BENJAMIN RICE LACY. 

STATE TREASURER. 

Benjamin R. Lacy, Democrat, of Wake County, was born in Ra- 
leigh, N. C. June 19, 1854. Son of Rev. Drury and Mary Richie 
(Rice) Lacy. Educated at Preparatory School of R. H. Graves (Gra- 
ham, N. C), 1868: Bingham School (Mebane, N. C), 1869-1870. Fif- 
teen years a locomotive engineer. Member of Brotherhood of Loco- 
motive Engineers. Delegate to three Grand Conventions of B. of L. 
E. Alderman of City of Raleigh. State Commissioner of Labor and 
Printing for six years. Elected State Treasurer in 1900; reelected in 
1904, 1908, 1912, 1916. Term expires 1920. Mason, Odd Fellow, Jr. 
O. U. A. M. Presbyterian, deacon. Married, June 27, 1882, Miss 
Mary Burwell. Seven children. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



WILLIAM PENN WOOD. 

STATE AUDITOR. 

William Penn Wood, Democrat, of Randolph County, was born at 
Asheboro, N. C, May 2, 1843. Son of Penuel and Calista (Birkhead) 
Wood. Educated in common schools of Randolph County, 1850-1861. 
Merchant. Member Randolph Business Men's Club. Town Treas- 
urer, 1880-18S8; County Treasurer, 1890-1894. Represented Randolph 
and Moore counties in State Senate, 1901; Representative in General 
Assembly from Randolph County, 1905, 1907. Nominated State 
Auditor in October, 1910, by the Democratic State Executive Com- 
mittee, to fill vacancy caused by the death of Dr. B. F. Dixon, and 
was elected in the general election in November, 1910; reelected 1912 
and 1916. Term expires 1920. Sergeant in Confederate Army. Fra- 
ternal orders: Knights of Pythias, Mason, Royal Arch Mason, 
I. O. O. F., Jr. O. U. A. M. Methodist; steward since 1866. Mar- 
ried, September 4, 1872, Miss Etta Gunter. Three children. Address: 
Raleigh, N. C. 

EUGENE CLYDE BROOKS. 

SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 

Eugene Clyde Brooks, Democrat, of Durham County, was born in 
Greene County, December 3, 1871. He is a son of Eugene J. and 



Executive Officials. 393 

Martha Eleanor (Brooks) Brooks. He was prepared for college at 
Bethel Academy in Lenoir County in 1881-1890, and was graduated 
at Trinity College in 1894. In 1913-1914 he was a student at Teach- 
ers' College, Columbia University. Dr. Brooks has been a teacher 
all of his life. He was principal of the Kinston graded schools in 
1900; superintendent of the Monroe graded schools in 1900-1903; 
Rural School Supervisor and Secretary to the Educational Cam- 
paign Committee (in the North Carolina State Department of Edu- 
cation), 1903-1904; superintendent of the Goldsboro graded schools, 
1904-1907; and Professor of Education in Trinity College, 1907-1918. 
In 1906 he became editor of "North Carolina Education." He was 
president of the North Carolina Teachers' Assembly in 1913-1914; 
and a member of the State Educational Commission, 1917-1918. In 
1918 he was appointed State Director of the National Educational 
Association. Davidson College conferred upon him the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Literature in 1918. Mr. Brooks has always taken 
an active interest in civic matters. In 1913 he was a member of the 
Board of Aldermen of the city of Durham; vice-president of the 
Durham Chamber of Commerce in 1918; vice-president of the Dur- 
ham Building and Loan Association, 1916-1918; member of the Execu- 
tive Committee of the Durham Public Library, 1914-1918; and a 
member of the Board of Education of the Durham City Schools, 
1914-1918. Mr. Brooks is the author of "Story of Cotton," "Story 
of Corn," "Life of Braxton Craven," "Woodrow Wilson as President," 
and "Education for Democracy," and coauthor of "North Carolina 
Geography," "Agricultural Arithmetic," and "History in the Ele- 
mentary Schools," and editor of "Agriculture and Rural Life Day" 
and "North Carolina Poems." He is a member of the Durham Rotary 
Club. Methodist. Married Miss Ida Myrtle Sapp. Three children. 
Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



JAMES SMITH MANNING. 

ATTORNEY-GENERAL. 

James Smith Manning, Democrat, of Durham County, was born 
June 1, 1859. Son of John and Louisa Jones (Hall) Manning. Edu- 
cated at Pittsboro Female Academy (Dr. Sutton) and A. H. Merritt's 
school; University of North Carolina, A.B., 1879; University of 
North Carolina Law School. Lawyer. Nominated for Superior 



394 Biographical Sketches. 

Court Judge, 1896. Attorney for City of Durham, 1886-1887. Repre- 
sentative from Durham County in General Assembly of 1907. State 
Senator from Nineteenth District in 1909. Associate Justice of the 
Supreme Court, 1909-1910. In 1912 moved to Raleigh and joined a 
partnership with former Governor W. W. Kitchin under the firm 
name of Manning and Kitchin. Elected Attorney-General in 1916. 
Trustee University of North Carolina. Episcopalian. Married. De- 
cember 12, 1888, Miss Julia Tate Cain. Six children. Address: 
Raleigh, N. C. 

WILLIAM ALEXANDER GRAHAM. 

COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

William A. Graham, Democrat, of Lincoln County, was born De- 
cember 26, 1839, at Hillsboro, N. C. Son of William A. and Susan 
(Washington) Graham. Educated at private schools, 1847-1848; 
Caldwell Institute (Hillsboro, N. C); Union Academy (Washington, 
D. C); University of North Carolina, 1856-1859; Princeton College, 
A.B., 1860. Farmer. President North Carolina Farmers' Alliance 
two terms; State Senator, 18741875, 1879; Representative, 1905. 
Member of North Carolina Board of Agriculture, 1899-1908. Elected 
Commissioner of Agriculture in 1908, and reelected in 1912, and 
1916. Term expires 1920. Captain Co. K, 2d N. C. Cavalry, C. S. A. 
Major and Assistant Adjutant General of North Carolina State 
Troops. Baptist. Moderator of South Fork Association. Thirty 
years Chairman of Executive Committee. President Baptist State 
Convention. Author: Gen. Joseph Graham and His Revolutionary 
Papers; History of South Fork Association; Life and Services of 
Gen. William L. Davidson; Battle of Ramsaur's Mill; History of 
Second Regiment North Carolina Cavalry, and North Carolina Adju- 
tant General's Department (North Carolina Regiments), 1861-1865. 
Walter Clark, Editor. Married, first, Miss Julia R. Lane, June 9, 
1864; second. Miss Sallie Clark, November, 1914. Eleven children. 
Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



MITCHELL LEE SHIPMAN. 

COMMISSIONER of labor and printing. 

M. L. Shipman, Democrat, of Henderson County, was born at Bow- 
man's Bluff, Henderson County, December 31, 1866. Son of F. M. 



Executive Officials. 395 

and Martha A. (Dawson) Shipman. Educated in public schools and 
private high schools. Editor. Teacher. Superintendent Public In- 
struction Transylvania County, 1892-1895. Twice First Vice-Presi- 
dent, twice Historian, and once President North Carolina Press 
Association. Member National Editorial Association. Chairman 
Henderson County Democratic Executive Committee, 1898-1906; 
Chairman Senatorial and Congressional District committees; mem- 
ber State Democratic Executive Committee; Calendar Clerk, State 
Senate, 1899-1905; Assistant Commissioner of Labor and Printing, 
1905-1908. Elected Commissioner of Labor and Printing, 1908; re- 
elected 1912 and 1916. Term expires 1920. Second Vice-President 
International Association of Labor Commissioners and Chairman of 
the Executive Committee. Fraternal orders: Odd Fellows (Past 
Grand Master), Knights of Pythias (Past Chancellor), Royal Ar- 
canum, Jr. O. U. A. M. Baptist; Clerk of North Carolina Associa- 
tion, 1902. Married Miss Lula Osborne, of Brevard, July 12, 1896. 
Four children. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



JAMES R. YOUNG. 

INSURANCE COMMISSIONER. 

James R. Young, Democrat, of Vance County, was born February 
13, 1853, in Granville County, N. C. Son of Dr. P. W. and Jane 
Eliza (Cooper) Young. Educated at Horner's Military School (Ox- 
ford, N. C); Hampden-Sidney College (Va.). Insurance agent. 
Clerk Vance County Superior Court, 1881-1890. State Insurance Com- 
missioner since 1899. Fraternal orders: Masons, Elks, Odd Fellows. 
Presbyterian. Elder. Married Miss Virginia Nichols. Address: 
Raleigh, N. C. 



JUSTICES OF THE SUPREME COURT. 



WALTER CLARK. 

CHIEF JUSTICE. 

Walter Clark, Democrat, of Wake County, was born in Halifax 
County, N. C, August 19, 1846. Son of David and Anna M. (Thorne) 
Clark. Graduated from University of North Carolina 1864. Lieu- 
tenant Colonel, C. S. A. Admitted to the bar, 1868. Judge of Supe- 
rior Court, 1885-1889. Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, 1889- 
1902. Chief Justice since January 1, 1903. Frequent contributor to 
periodical literature. Author: Clark's Annotated Code of Civil Pro- 
cedure. Translator from the French: Constant's Memoirs of Na- 
poleon (3 vols.). Editor: The State Records of North Carolina (16 
vols.); The North Carolina Regiments, 1861-1865 (5 vols.); Reprints 
of North Carolina Supreme Court Reports, with annotations (132 
vols.). President North Carolina Literary and Historical Associa- 
tion, 1900-1901. LL.D. (University of N. C). Methodist. Married 
Miss Susan W., daughter of William A. Graham, January 28, 1874. 
Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



PLATT DICKINSON WALKER. 

ASSOCIATE JUSTICE. 

Platt D. Walker, Democrat, of Mecklenburg County, was born in 
Wilmington, N. C. Son of Thomas D. and Mary Vance (Dickinson) 
Walker. Educated at George W. Jewett's School, Wilmington, and 
James H. Horner's School, Oxford, N. C; University of North Caro- 
lina, Class of 1869. Finished collegiate course at University of Vir- 
ginia and studied law there under Prof. John B. Minor and Prof. 
Southall, received LL.B. diploma in 1869. Obtained his license to 
practice law at June Term, 1870, of Supreme Court; admitted to the 
Bar of North Carolina and settled at Rockingham, 1870, and prac- 
ticed law with the late Hon. Walter L. Steele, afterwards member of 
Congress. Representative from Richmond County in General As- 
sembly of North Carolina, 1874-1875. Removed to Charlotte, 1876, 



Justices of Supreme Court. 397 

and entered into partnership with the late Hon. Clement Dowd 
(afterwards member of Congress) for the practice of the law, and in 
November, 1880, with Hon. Armistead Burwell, afterwards Justice 
of the Supreme Court, and in 1892 with E. T. Cansler, Esq. Has 
been Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina since 
January 1, 1903. First President of the North Carolina Bar Asso- 
ciation, 1899. President State Literary and Historical Association, 
1909-10. Trustee of the University of North Carolina, 1901-1905. 
Director of the Highland Park Manufacturing Company of Charlotte. 
LL.D. (Davidson College, 1903, and University of North Carolina, 
1908). Episcopalian. Married Miss Nettie Settle Covington, June 
5, 1878, at Reidsville, N. C; Miss Alma Locke Mordecai, June 8, 1910. 
Residence: Charlotte, N. C. Office: Raleigh, N. C. 



GEORGE H. BROWN, 

ASSOCIATE JUSTICE. 

George H. Brown, Democrat, of Beaufort County, was born in 
Washington, N. C, May 3, 1850. Son of Sylvester T. and Elizabeth 
(Bonner) Brown. Educated at Horner's Military School (Oxford, 
N. C). Studied law and was admitted to the Bar, and engaged in 
the practice at Washington, N. C, from 1872 to 1889. Judge of the 
Superior Court of North Carolina, 1889-1904. Elected Associate Jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court, 1904; reelected, 1912. LL.D. (University 
of N. C). Term expires, 1920. On December 17, 1874, was married 
to Mrs. Laura Ellison. Residence: Washington, N. C. Office: 
Raleigh, N. C. 



WILLIAM ALEXANDER HOKE. 

ASSOCIATE JUSTICE. 

William A. Hoke, Democrat, of Lincoln County, was born at Lin- 
colnton, N. C, October 25, 1851. Son of Col. John Franklin and 
Catherine Wilson (Alexander) Hoke. Educated at private schools. 
Studied law under Chief Justice Richmond Pearson, at Richmond 
Hill, N. C. Admitted to Bar, 1872. Practiced law at Shelby and 
Lincolnton, N. C, until 1891. Representative in Legislature of North 
Carolina in 1889. Judge of the Superior Court, 1891-1904. Elected 



398 Biographical Sketches. 

Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina, 1904; re- 
elected, 1912. Member Society of the Cincinnati. LL.D. (University 
of N. C). Episcopalian. At Lincolnton, December 16, 1897, married 
to Miss Mary McBee. Residence: Lincolnton, N. C. Office: Raleigh, 
N. C. 



WILLIAM REYNOLDS ALLEN. 

ASSOCIATE JUSTICE. 

William Reynolds Allen, Democrat, of Wayne County, was born 
at Kenansville, North Carolina, March 26, 1860. Son of William A. 
and Maria Goodwin (Hicks) Allen. Educated at R. W. Millard's 
and Samuel Clement's schools, Kenansville, 1868-1876, and at Trinity 
College, 1876-1877. Studied law under his father. Lawyer. Repre- 
sentative from Wayne County in General Assembly, 1893, 1899, 1901. 
Chairman Board of Education Wayne County. Judge Superior Court, 
1894-1895; 1903-1911. Elected Associate Justice of the Supreme Court 
of North Carolina, 1910. LL.D. (University of N. C). Methodist. 
Has been a member Board of Stewards and now Trustee Methodist 
Orphanage. Married, November 3, 1886, Miss Mattie M. Moore. Five 
children. Address: Goldsboro, N. C. 



MEMBERS OF CONGRESS. 



SENATOKS. 



FURNIFOLD M. SIMMONS. 

F. M. Simmons, Democrat, of Trenton (R. F. D.), Jones County, 
was born January 20, 1854, in the county of Jones, N. C. Graduated 
at Trinity College with the degree of A.B., in June, 1873; was ad- 
mitted to the Bar in 1875, and has practiced the profession of law 
since then. In 1886 was elected a member of the Fiftieth Congress 
from the Second Congressional District of North Carolina. In 1893 
was appointed Collector of Internal Revenue for the Fourth Collec- 
tion District of North Carolina, and served in that office during the 
term of Mr. Cleveland. In the campaigns of 1892, 1898, 1900, 1902, 
1904, and 1906, was Chairman of the Democratic Executive Com- 
mittee of the State. LL.D. (Trinity College, N. C, 1901; University 
of N. C, 1916). He was elected to the United States Senate to suc- 
ceed Marion Butler, Populist, for the term beginning March 4, 1901, 
and reelected in 1907, and again in 1913, having been chosen in the 
Democratic primary, November 5, 1912, over two opponents, Governor 
W. W. Kitchin and Chief Justice Walter Clark. Chairman of Finance 
Committee in the Sixty-fourth and Sixty-fifth Congresses. In 1918 
reelected, for term March 4, 1919-March 3, 1925. 



LEE SLATER OVERMAN. 

Lee Slater Overman, Democrat, of Salisbury, was born January 
3, 1854, in Salisbury, Rowan County. Graduated Trinity College, 
North Carolina, with the degree of A.B., June, 1874; the degree of 
M.A. was conferred upon him two years later; taught school two 
years; was Private Secretary to Governor Z. B. Vance in 1877-1878, 
and Private Secretary to Governor Thomas J. Jarvis in 1879. Began 
the practice of law in his native town in 1880; has had a leading 
practice; was five times a member of the Legislature, sessions of 
1883, 1885, 1887, 1893, and 1899; was the choice of the Democratic 



400 Biographical Sketches. 

caucus for Speaker in 1887, and was defeated by one vote, through 
a combination of Independents and Republicans; was the unanimous 
choice of his party and elected Speaker of the House of Repi-esenta- 
tives, session of 1893; was President of the North Carolina Railroad 
Company in 1894; was the choice of the Democratic caucus for 
United States Senator in 1895, and was defeated in open session by 
Hon. Jeter C. Pritchard, through a combination of Republicans and 
Populists; was Chairman of Democratic State Conventions, 1900- 
1910; Trustee of the University of N. C, 1885-1911; is also a Trustee 
of Trinity College; was chosen Presidential Elector for the State at 
large in 1900. Married Miss Mary P., the eldest daughter of United 
States Senator, afterwards Chief Justice, A. S. Merrimon, October 
31, 1878. Was elected to the United States Senate to succeed Jeter C. 
Pritchard, Republican, for the term beginning March 4, 1903. His 
first term expired March 3, 1909. By unanimous choice of the Demo- 
cratic caucus, he was reelected January 19, 1909, for a second term. 
November 3, 1914, he was elected for a third term, being the first 
Senator elected in North Carolina by a direct vote of the people. 



REPRESENTATIVES. 



JOHN HUMPHREY SMALL. 

(First District. — Counties: Beaufort, Camden, Chowan, Currituck, 
Dare, Gates, Hertford, Hyde, Martin, Pasquotank, Perquimans, Pitt, 
Tyrrell, and Washington. Population (1910), 193,250.) 

John Humphrey Small, Democrat, of Beaufort County, was born 
in Washington, N. C. Educated in the schools of Washington and at 
Trinity College, North Carolina. Is a lawyer in active practice. 
Left college in 1876 and taught school from 1876 to 1880. Licensed 
to practice law in January, 1881. Elected Reading Clerk of the State 
Senate in 1881. Elected Superintendent of Public Instruction of 
Beaufort County in the latter part of 1881. Elected and continued 
to serve as Solicitor of the Inferior Court of Beaufort County from 

1882 to 1885. Proprietor and editor of the Washington Gazette from 

1883 to 1886. Attorney of the Board of Commissioners of Beaufort 
County from 1888 to 1896. A member of the City Council from May, 
1887, to May, 1890, and for one year, during that period, was Mayor 



Members of Congress. 401 

of Washington. Chairman of the Democratic Executive Committee 
of the First Congressional District in 1888. Chairman of the Demo- 
cratic Executive Committee of Beaufort County from 1889 to 1898. 
Democratic Presidential Elector in the First Congressional District 
in 1896. Has been for several years, and is now, Chairman of the 
Public School Committee of Washington. Elected to the Fifty-sixth, 
Fifty-seventh, Fifty-eighth, Fifty-ninth, Sixtieth, Sixty-first, Sixty- 
second, Sixty-third, Sixty-fourth, Sixty-fifth, and Sixty-sixth Con- 
gresses. Address: Washington, N. C. 



CLAUDE KITCHIN. 

(Second District. — Counties: Bertie, Edgecombe, Greene, Halifax, 
Lenoir, Northampton, Warren, and Wilson. Population (1910), 
199,405.) 

Claude Kitchin, Democrat, of Halifax County, was born in Hali- 
fax County, N. C, near Scotland Neck, March 24, 1869. Graduated 
from Wake Forest College, June, 1888, and was married to Miss Kate 
Mills, November 13th of the same year. Admitted to the Bar, Sep- 
tember, 1890, and has since been engaged in the practice of the law 
at Scotland Neck. Elected to Fifty-seventh, Fifty-eighth, Fifty-ninth, 
Sixtieth, Sixty-first, Sixty-second, Sixty-third, Sixty-fourth, Sixty- 
fifth, and Sixty-sixth Congresses. Majority leader in the Sixty-fourth 
and Sixty-fifth Congresses. Address: Scotland Neck, N. C. 



SAMUEL MITCHELL BRINSON. 

(Third District. — Counties: Carteret, Craven. Duplin, Jones, Ons- 
low, Pamlico, Pender, Sampson, and Wayne. Population (1910), 
178,775.) 

Samuel Mitchell Brlnson, Democrat, from the Third District, 
was born in New Bern, N. C, March 20, 1870. He is a son of William 
George and Kitty (Chestnut) Brinson. He was prepared for college 
at the New Bern College, 1878-1888, and was graduated from Wake 
Forest College in 1891. In 1895 he read law at the University of 
North Carolina Law School, and upon receiving his license, practiced 
law at New Bern until he was elected County Superintendent of 
Public Instruction in 1902. Since that time he has devoted his entire 
26 



402 Biographical Sketches. 

time to the school work of the county. He was at one time an ensign 
in the New Bern Division in the Naval Reserves. In 1918, upon the 
death of Hon. W. T. Dortch, democratic nominee for Congress, he 
was chosen by the Democratic Executive Committee a few days before 
election to fill the vacancy, and was elected over Claude R. Wheatley, 
Republican, by 3,205 majority. He is a Mason, and a member of the 
Royal Arcanum. He is a member of the Baptist Church. On Janu- 
ary 16, 3901, he was married to Miss Ruth Martin Scales. Address: 
New Bern, N. C. 



EDWARD WILLIAM POU. 

(Fourth District. — Counties: Chatham, Franklin, Johnston, Nash, 
Vance, and Wake. Population (1910), 205,109.) 

Edward William Pou, Democrat, of Johnston County, was born at 
Tuskegee, Ala., September 9, 1863. Presidential Elector in 1888. 
Elected Solicitor of the Fourth Judicial District of North Carolina 
in 1890, 1894, and 1898. Elected to the Fifty-seventh, Fifty-eighth, 
Fifty-ninth, Sixtieth, Sixty-first, Sixty-second, Sixty-third, Sixty- 
fourth, Sixty-fifth, and Sixty-sixth Congresses. Address: Smith- 
field, N. C. 

CHARLES MANLY STEDMAN. 

(Fifth District.— -Counties: Alamance, Caswell, Durham, Forsyth, 
Granville, Guilford, Orange, Person, Rockingham, Stokes. Surry. 
Population (1910), 330,474.) 

Charles Manly Stedman, Democrat, of Greensboro, was born Janu- 
ary 29, 1841, in Pittsboro, Chatham County; moved with his father's 
family to Fayetteville when he was 12 years of age. Prepared for 
college at the Pittsboro Academy, and at the Donaldson Academy in 
Fayetteville. Graduated from the University of North Carolina in 
1861. In response to the call for volunteers, he left the University 
before the commencement exercises and volunteered as a private in 
the Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry Company, which was 
in the first North Carolina (or Bethel) Regiment. Upon the dis- 
banding of this regiment, he joined a company from Chatham 
County; was lieutenant, then captain, and afterwards its major. 
This company belonged to the Forty-fourth North Carolina Regi- 
ment. He served with Lee's Army during the entire war; was three 



Members of Congress. 403 

times wounded, and surrendered at Appomattox. He is one of the 
twelve soldiers who were engaged in the battle at Bethel and who 
surrendered with Lee at Appomattox. At the close of the Civil 
War he returned to Chatham County, where he taught school for a 
year; while there he studied law under Hon. John Manning and 
procured his license to practice. Married Miss Catherine de Rosset 
Wright, January 8, 1866. In 1867 he moved to Wilmington, where 
he practiced law for many years; he was a member of the firm of 
Wright & Stedman. Delegate to the Democratic National Conven- 
tion, 1880. Elected Lieutenant Governor, 1884. In 1898 he moved to 
Greensboro and formed a copartnership with A. Wayland Cooke, 
under the firm name of Stedman & Cooke. Since residing in Greens- 
boro he has served as President of the North Carolina Bar Associa- 
tion. In 1909 he was appointed by Governor Kitchin a director of 
the North Carolina Railroad Company, representing the State's in- 
terest, and was afterwards elected its president. For many years he 
was trustee of the University of North Carolina. He is a director 
of the Guilford Battle Ground Company; was elected to the Sixty- 
second, Sixty-third, Sixty-fourth, Sixty-fifth, and Sixty-sixth Con- 
gresses. 



HANNIBAL LAFAYETTE GODWIN. 

(Sixth District. — Counties: Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus, Cum- 
berland, Harnett, New Hanover, and Robeson. Population (1910), 
201,898.) 

Hannibal Lafayette Godwin, Democrat, of Harnett County, was 
born November 3, 1873, on a farm near Dunn, in Harnett County, 
N. C. Educated in the schools of Dunn and at Trinity College, Dur- 
ham, N. C. Read law at the University of North Carolina and was 
admitted to the Bar in September, 1896. Married Miss Mattie Barnes, 
December 23, 1896. Member of the State Senate of the North Caro- 
lina Legislature in 1903. Elected in 1904 Democratic Presidential 
Elector for the Sixth Congressional District of North Carolina. Mem- 
ber of the State Democratic Executive Committee from 1904 to 1906. 
Elected to the Sixtieth, Sixty-first, Sixty-second, Sixty-third, Sixty- 
fourth, Sixty-fifth, and Sixty-sixth Congresses. Address: Dunn. N. C. 



404 Biographical Sketches. 

LEONIDAS D. ROBINSON. 

(Seventh District. — Counties: Anson, Davidson, Davie, Hoke, Lee, 
Montgomery, Moore, Randolph, Richmond, Scotland, Union, Wilkes, 
and Yadkin. Population (1910), 224,448.) 

Leonidas D. Robinson, Democrat, of Anson County, was born on 
a farm in Anson County, North Carolina, April 22, 1867. He was 
educated in the public schools and at Anson Institute at Wadesboro, 
and also at Carolina College at Ansonville. After reading law under 
Judge R. T. Bennett of Wadesboro he was admitted to the Bar in 
1889. and settled at Wadesboro for the practice of his profession. 
In 1890 he was elected Mayor of Wadesboro, serving three terms. 
He represented his county in the General Assembly of 1895 and 
1901. In 1916 he was elected to the Sixty-fifth and Sixty-sixth Con- 
gresses. Address: Wadesboro, N. C. 



ROBERT LEE DOUGHTON. 

(Eighth District. — Counties: Alexander, Alleghany, Ashe, Cabar- 
rus, Caldwell, Iredell, Rowan, Stanly, and Watauga. Population 
(1910), 220,813.) 

Robert L. Doughton, Democrat, Laurel Springs, N. C, was born 
at Laurel Springs, N. C, November 7, 1863; was educated in the 
public schools and at Laurel Springs and Sparta High schools; is 
a farmer and stock raiser; was appointed a member of the Board 
of Agriculture in 1903; elected to the State Senate from the Thirty- 
fifth District of North Carolina in 1908; served as a director of the 
State Prison from 1909 to 1911; elected to the Sixty-second, Sixty- 
third. Sixty-fourth, Sixty-fifth, and Sixty-sixth Congresses. 



EDWIN YATES WEBB. 

(Ninth District. — Counties: Avery, Burke, Catawba, Cleveland, 
Gaston, Lincoln, Madison, Mecklenburg, Mitchell, and Yancey. Popu- 
lation (1910), 249,495.) 

Emvi>- Yates Webb, Democrat, of Cleveland County, was born in 
Shelby, N. C, May 23, 1872. Attended Shelby Military Institute; 
graduated at Wake Forest College, 1893. Studied law at University 



Members of Congress. 405 

of North Carolina. Received license from the Supreme Court to 
practice, in February, 1894. Took post-graduate course in law at 
University of Virginia, 1896. Began practice of law February, 1894, 
forming partnership with his brother, J. L. Webb, then Solicitor of 
the Twelfth Judicial District, which partnership existed until De- 
cember, 1904, when it was dissolved by the appointment of his 
brother to the Superior Court Judgeship. Elected State Senator in 
1900. Temporary Chairman of the State Democratic Convention in 
1900. Chairman of the Senatorial District in 1S96. Chairman of 
the County Democratic Executive Committee, 1S98-1902. Married 
Miss "Willie Simmons, daughter of Dr. W. G. Simmons, of Wake 
Forest, N. C, November 15, 1894. Elected to the Fifty-eighth, Fifty- 
ninth, Sixtieth, Sixty-first, Sixty-second, Sixty-third, Sixty-fourth, 
Sixty-fifth, and Sixty-sixth Congresses. Address: Shelby, N. C. 



ZEBULON WEAVER. 

(Tenth District. — Counties: Cherokee, Buncombe, Clay, Graham, 
Haywood, Henderson, Jackson, McDowell, Macon, Polk, Rutherford, 
Swain, Transylvania. Population (1910), 202,220.) 

Zebulon Weaver, Democrat, of Buncombe County, was born in 
Weaverville, N. C, May 12, 1872. He is the son of W. E. and Hannah 
E. (Baird) Weaver. A.B. of Weaverville College, 1889. Studied law 
at the University of North Carolina, 1894. Lawyer. Represented 
Buncombe County in the General Assembly of North Carolina in 
1907, and 1909. State Senator, 1913 and 1915. After a close con- 
test with James J. Britt, Republican, in 1916, he was declared elected 
Representative in the Sixty-fifth and Sixty-sixth Congresses. Metho- 
dist. Married Miss Anna Hyman. Five children. Address: Ashe- 
ville, N. C. 



MEMBERS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, 1919. 



OFFICERS OF THE SENATE. 



OLIVER MAX GARDNER. 

PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE. 

Oliver Max Gardner, of Cleveland County, Democrat, Lieutenant 
Governor, was born at Shelby, N. C, March 22, 1882. Son of Dr. 
O. P. and Margaret (Young) Gardner. B.S. of the N. C. A. and M. 
College, 1903. Studied law at the University of North Carolina, 
1905-1906. Captain football teams, N. C. A. and M. College and Uni- 
versity of North Carolina. Won debater's and orator's medal; two 
years Instructor in Chemistry at N. C. A. and M. College. Lawyer. 
In 1908, was State Organizer of Democratic Clubs; County Chair- 
man Cleveland County, 1908-1910. Member of the State Democratic 
Executive Committee; member of the Board of Trustees of the N. C. 
A. and M. College; member of the North Carolina Bar Association; 
State Senator, 1911-1915. President pro tempore of Senate, 1915. 
Lieutenant Governor; term expires, 1920. Odd Fellow; Jr. O. U. A. 
M.; Sigma Nu Fraternity and Gorgon's Head (college fraternities). 
Baptist. Married, November 6, 1908, Miss Fay Lamar Webb, daugh- 
ter of Judge James L. Webb, Shelby, N. C. Three children. Address: 
Shelby, N. C. 



ROBERT OTTIS SELF. 

Robert Ottis Self, Democrat, was born at Webster, N. C, July 2, 
1884. Son of Dr. William and Octavia (Cowan) Self. Educated at 
Cullowhee Normal and Industrial School, 1897-1902. Superintendent 
of Public Instruction of Jackson County, 1909-1911. Calendar Clerk 
of the State Senate. 1905, 1908 (special session), 1909. Principal 
Clerk of the Senate, 1911, 1913, 1915. 1917. 1919. Appointed United 
States Deputy Collector, November 1, 1913; resigned December 1, 
1914. Mason, Odd Fellow, K. of P. Baptist. Address: Hickory, 
N. C. 



State Senators. 407 

SENATORS. 



EUGENE C. BEDDINGFIELD. 

(Fifteenth District. — County: Wake. One Senator.) 
Eugene C. Beddingfield, Democrat, of Wake County, Senator from 
Fifteenth District, was born near Raleigh, N. C, October 10, 1862. 
Son of Alexander H. and Palmyra LaFayette (Chappell) Bedding- 
field. Was educated in private schools; Forestville Academy, 1876. 
Parmer. Representative in the General Assembly, 1889, 1901. Mem- 
ber of N. C. R. R. Commission, 1S'91-1S99; N. C. Corporation Commis- 
sion, 1902-1909. County Commissioner of Wake County. 1912-1916. 
Member of Farmers' Union; Mason. Baptist. Married Miss Nannie 
Peebles, November 24, 1881. Eight children. Address: Raleigh, 
N. C, R. F. D. 1. 

FURNIFOLD BROCK. 

(Seventh District. — Counties: Carteret, Craven, Greene, Jones, 
Lenoir, and Onslow. Two Senators.) 

Furnifold Brock, Democrat, of Jones County, Senator from the 
Seventh District, was born at Trenton, N. C. Son of Furnifold and 
Susan C. (Koonce) Brock. Attended Trenton High School; Trinity 
College, 1892; University of Ohio, 1894, C.E. Farmer. Register of 
Deeds, 1900-1904. Chairman Board of County Commissioners, 1904- 
1908. State Senator, 1917. Mason. In 1898 married to Miss Myrtle 
Foscue. Eight children. Address: Trenton, N. C. 



JOSEPH ADDISON BROWN. 

(Eleventh District. — Counties: Bladen and Columbus. One 
Senator.) 

Joseph Addison Brown, Democrat, of Columbus County, Senator 
from the Eleventh District, was born at Rockingham, N. C, July 9, 
1861. Attended commercial school one year. Merchant. Farmer. 
State Senator in 1893, 1899, 1901, 1903, 1911. Member State's Prison 
Board in 1902. Mason. Odd Fellow. K. of P. Presbyterian. Mar- 
ried, June 25, 1897, Miss Minnie Mclver. One child. Address: Chad- 
bourn, N. C. 



J"* Biographical Sketches. 



ROBERT LEE BURNS. 



(Twenty-first District. — Counties: Chatham, Moore, Richmond, 
and Scotland. Two Senators.) 

Robert Lee Burns, Democrat, of Moore County, Senator from 
Twenty-first District, was born in Moore County, January 29, 1867. 
Son of J. F. and Ann R. (Brown) Burns. Was educated at Robin- 
son's School at Pleasant Lodge and at Liberty, N". C, 1885-1887. B.A. 
of Wake Forest College, 1891. University of North Carolina, 1893- 
1894. Mason. Methodist. Married Miss Emma Lee Muse, April 22, 
1896. Five children. Address: Carthage, N. C. 



ROBERT LEE CARR. 

(Ninth District. — Counties: Duplin and Pender. One Senator.) 
Robert Lee Carr, Democrat, of Duplin County, Senator from Ninth 
District, was born near Wallace, N. C, September 3, 1S78. Son of 
Gabriel Boney and Isabella Catherine (Johnson) Carr. Educated in 
the public schools, Rockfish Academy, Davidson College, Medical 
College of Virginia, graduating in medicine at the University of 
Maryland, May 21, 1907. Physician. Member Duplin County Medi- 
cal Society; Third District Medical Society; State Medical, Society. 
Delegate to the State Medical Society, 1907 and 1912. Modern W. of 
W. ; K. of P. Presbyterian. Representative in the General Assembly, 
1911 and 1915. Married (first) Miss Victoria Patterson, (second) 
Miss Estelle Moore. Three children. Address: Rose Hill, N. C. 



EDGAR BURGESS CLOUD. 

(Thirty-second District. — Counties: Cleveland, Henderson, Polk, 
and Rutherford. Two Senators.) 

Edgar Burgess Cloud, Democrat, of Polk County, Senator from 
Thirty-second District, was born at Columbus, N. C, February 22, 
1872. Was educated in public schools; Wake Forest Summer Law 
School, 1905. Lawyer. State Senator, 1915. Knights of Pythias. 
Presbyterian. Married Miss Ada Walker, April 19, 1914. Address: 
Columbus, N. C. 



State Senators. 409 

HENRY GROVES CONNOR, JR. 

(Sixth District. — Counties: Franklin, Nash, and Wilson. Two 
Senators.) 

Henry Groves Connor, Jr., Democrat, of Wilson County, Senator 
from Sixth District, was horn at Wilson, N. C, July 19, 1876. Son 
of Henry Groves and Kate (Whitfield) Connor. Was educated at 
Wilson Graded Schools; Private Schools in Wilson; B.S. of Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, 1897. Law School, University of North 
Carolina, 1898. Lawyer. Chairman County Democratic Executive 
Committee; Delegate National Democratic Conventions. 1912-1916. 
Sigma Alpha Epsilon (college fraternity). Married Miss Elizabeth 
Clark, April 17, 1901. One child. Address: Wilson, N. C. 



WILLIAM BRYANT COOPER. 

(Tenth District. — Counties: New Hanover and Brunswick. One 
Senator.) 

William Bryant Cooper, Democrat, of New Hanover County, 
Senator from the Tenth District, was born January 22, 1867, at Cool 
Spring, S. C. Son of Noah B. and Lucina (Jennette) Cooper. At- 
tended Mullins (S. C.) Graded Schools, 1877-1887. Cotton exporter. 
Alderman and Mayor pro tern, of the city of Wilmington, 1902-1903. 
Member Board of Audit and Finance. President Produce Exchange, 
Wilmington, 1900. President Merchants' Association, Wilmington, 
1905. State Senator, 1915. Mason. Methodist. Married Miss 
Frances Ada Gore. Three sons. Address: Wilmington, N. C. 



OSCAR BOWMAN COWARD. 

(Thirty-seventh District. — Counties: Haywood, Jackson, Transyl- 
vania, and Swain. One Senator.) 

Oscar Bowman Coward, Democrat, of Jackson County, Senator 
from Thirty-seventh District, was born in Jackson County. January 
20, 1869. Son of Nathan and Jane (Rogers) Coward. Was educated 
at private school at East Laport, 1876-1878. Farmer. Chairman 
County Democratic Executive Committee. Mason. Married (first) 
Miss Emma Long, July 1, 1885; (second) Miss Nora Zachary, Sep- 
tember 27, 1898. Five children. Address: Webster, N. C. 



410 Biographical Sketches. 

GEORGE VERNON COWPER. 

(Seventh District. — Counties: Carteret, Craven, Greene, Jones, 
Lenoir, and Onslow. Two Senators.) 

George Vernon Cowper, Democrat, of Lenoir County, Senator from 
Seventh District, was born in Hertford County, N. C. Son of George 
and Rebecca Jane (Riddick) Cowper. Was educated at Winton High 
School, 1893-1897. University of North Carolina, 1897-1900. Law 
Sohool of University of North Carolina, 1900-1901. County Attorney, 
Lenoir County, since 1906. Member Executive Committee of North 
Carolina Bar Association. Chairman County Democratic Executive 
Committee, 1912-1918. Trustee of Kinston Graded Schools, 1915- 
1917. Chairman County Board of Education, 1917-1918. Presidential 
Elector Third Congressional District, 1917. Member Legal Advisory 
Board of Lenoir County, 1917-1918; Government Appeal Agent, 1918. 
K. A. (college fraternity); Mason; Woodmen of the World. Episco- 
palian. Married November 21, 1906. Three children. Address: 
Kinston, N. C. 



WILLIAM T. CROSS. 

(First District. — Counties: Perquimans, Currituck, Chowan, Gates, 
Pasquotank, Camden, Hertford. Two Senators.) 

William T. Cross, Democrat, of Gates County, Senator from First 
District, was born in Gates County, N. C, March 25, 1862. Son of 
Thomas E. and Martha E. (Gatling) Cross. Was educated in private 
schools in Gatesville, 1872-1875. Farmer. Clerk of the Superior 
Court of Gates County, 1886-1918. Chairman County Democratic 
Executive Committee, 1880-1918; Chairman Board of Trustees Gates- 
ville High School; President Bank of Gates. Mason; Odd Fellow. 
Baptist. Married Miss Elizabeth C. P. Hunter, June 22, 1899. Four 
children. Address: Gatesville, N. C. 



TITUS GRANDY CURRIN. 

(Seventeenth District. — Counties: Granville and Person. One 
Senator.) 

Titus Grandy Ctjrrin, Democrat, of Granville County, Senator 
from Seventeenth District, was born at Oxford, N. C, August 1, 1873. 



State Senators. 411 

Son of Joseph F. and Henrietta (Hobgood) Currin. Was educated 
at Horner's Military School, 1891-1892. Farmer. State Senator, 
1915. Chairman Local Exemption Board, 1917-1918. Odd Fellow; 
Mason. Baptist. Married Miss Mary Blalock, December 21, 1898. 
Four children. Address: Oxford, N. C. 



WILLIAM S. DAVENPORT. 

(Second District. — Counties: Martin, Washington, Tyrrell, Dare, 
Beaufort, Hyde, and Pamlico. Two Senators.) 

William S. Davenport, Democrat, of Washington County, Senator 
from the Second District, was born in Tyrrell County, August 16, 
1859. Son of Tully and Eliza (Nonnan) Davenport. Educated in 
the public schools. Farmer. Clerk Superior Court, 1S82-1886. Mem- 
ber Board of County Commissioners, 1911-1916. Chairman Demo- 
cratic County Executive Committee, 1912-1916. State Senator, 1917. 
Mason. Married, November 14, 1883, to Miss Henrietta E. Blount. 
Seven children. Address: Mackeys, N. C. 



JAMES LESTER DeLANEY. 

{Twenty-fourth District. — Counties: Cabarrus and Mecklenburg. 
Two Senators.) 

James Lester DeLaney, Democrat, of Mecklenburg County, Sena- 
tor from Twenty-fourth District, was born in Union County, N. C. 
Son of James Stanhope and Margaret E. (Matthews) DeLaney. Was 
educated at Weddington Academy, 1896-1900. University of North 
Carolina, 1900-1902. University of North Carolina Law School, 1904. 
Lawyer. Prosecuting attorney for city of Charlotte, 1911-1913. 
Mason; Odd Fellow; Knight of Pythias. Presbyterian. Married 
Miss Cora Martha Matthews, March 2, 1905. Two children. Ad- 
dress: Charlotte, N. C. 



MILES WHITEHURST FEREBEE. 

(First District. — Counties: Perquimans, Currituck, Chowan, 
Gates, Pasquotank, Camden, and Hertford. Two Senators.) 

Miles WniTEnrRST Ferebee, Democrat, of Camden County, Senator 
from the First District, was born in Camden County, June 27, 1878. 



412 Biographical Sketches. 

Son of Willis G. and Minnie (Whitehurst) Ferebee. Received his 
education in the public schools and in Bayboro Collegiate Institute. 
Farmer and automobile dealer. Register of Deeds of Camden County, 
1910-1916. Representative in General Assembly, 1917. Mason; Odd 
Fellow. Married, November, 1906. to Miss Florence Gregory. Ad- 
dress: Camden, N. C. 



WALTER HARRISON FISHER. 

(Fourteenth District. — Counties: Harnett, Johnston, Lee, and 
Sampson. Two Senators.) 

Walter Harrison Fisher, Republican, of Sampson County, Senator 
from Fourteenth District, was born at Roseboro, N. C, October 22, 
1889. Son of A. F. and Mary (Owen) Fisher. Was educated at 
Roseboro Graded School until 1910; Buie's Creek Academy, 1910- 
1911. BA. of Wake Forest College, 1915. Lawyer. Teacher, 1911, 
1913. County Attorney of Sampson County since 1916; Editor of 
Nexcs Dispatch, 1916-1917. State Senator, 1915. Government Appeal 
Agent for Sampson County, 1917-1918. Member of Legal Advisory 
Board, 1918. Baptist. Married Miss Lossie S. Herring, March 27, 
1917. Address: Clinton, N. C. 



EDWARD L. GAVIN. 

(Fourteenth District. — Counties: Harnett, Johnston, Lee, and 
Sampson. Two Senators.) 

Edward L. Gavin, Republican, of Lee County, Senator from Four- 
teenth District, was born at Giddensville, Sampson County, N. C, 
August 17, 1888. Son of Edward Lewis and Minnie Irene (Darden) 
Gavin. Was educated at Roseboro Graded School, 1906. Law School 
of University of North Carolina, 1907-1909; LL.B. of Indianapolis 
College of Law, 1910-1911. Lawyer. Mayor of Roseboro, 1913-1914. 
Jr. O. U. A. M.; Knights of Pythias; Modern Woodmen of the World. 
Baptist. Married Miss Mamie Florence Caudle, March 6, 1912. Three 
children. Address: Sanford, N. C. 






State Senators. 413 

POWELL WATKINS GLIDEWELL. 

{Nineteenth District. — County: Rockingham. One Senator.) 
Powell Watkins Glidewell, Democrat, of Rockingham County, 
Senator from Nineteenth District, was born at Meadows, Stokes 
County, N. C, June 11, 1S80. Son of C. W. and Amanda (Rierson) 
Glidewell. Was educated at public schools, 1887-1891; Dalton Insti- 
tute, 1891-1893; Wake Forest College Law School, 1899-1901. Lawyer. 
Presidential Elector, Fifth Congressional District, 1908 and 1912. 
City Solicitor of Reidsville, 1911-1913. Royal Arcanum; Modern 
Woodmen of America; Jr. 0. U. A. M.; Odd Fellow. Baptist. Mar- 
ried Miss Lilly Terry, August 31, 1904. Three children. Address: 
Reidsville, N. C. 



JAMES A. GRAY. 



(Tiventy-sixth District. — County: Forsyth. One Senator.) 

James A. Gray, Democrat, of Forsyth County, Senator from the 
Twenty-sixth District, was born in Winston-Salem, August 21, 1889. 
Son of James A. and Aurelia (Bowman) Gray. Graduated from the 
Winston-Salem High School in 1904; A.B. of the University of North 
Carolina, 1908. Vice-President and Treasurer of Wachovia Bank 
and Trust Company. President North Carolina Bankers' Association. 
Chairman of Forsyth County Board of Road Commissioners, 1915- 
1916. Trustee of the University of North Carolina. Methodist. 
Married, April 18, 1918, to Miss Pauline Bahnson. Address: Winston- 
Salem, N. C. 



FORDYCE CUNNINGHAM HARDING. 

(Fifth District. — County: Pitt. One Senator.) 

Fordyce Cunningham Harding, Democrat, of Pitt County, Senator 
from the Fifth District, was born at Aurora, N. C, February 12, 
1879. Son of Henry and Susan Harding. Fh.B. (1893), LL.B. 
(1894), University of North Carolina. Lawyer. Chairman Demo- 
cratic County Executive Committee, 1906-1915. Chairman Board of 
Trustees Greenville Graded Schools. State Senator, 1915, 1917. 
President pro tempore of the State Senate, 1917. Royal Arch Mason; 
K. of P.; Odd Fellow. Methodist. Married Miss Mary Harding. 
Address: Greenville, N. C. 



414 Biographical Sketches. 

MARMADUKE J. HAWKINS. 

(Sixteenth District. — Counties: Warren and Vance. One Senator.) 
Marmaduke J. Hawkins, Democrat, of Warren County, Senator 
from the Sixteenth District, was born in Warren County, N. C, Sep- 
tember 9, 1850. Son of Dr. William J. and Alethia Clark Hawkins. 
Educated at Dr. Wilson's School, Alamance County, 1865-1867; Bing- 
ham's School, Mebane; University of Virginia; Professor Minor's 
Law School, University of Virginia, B.L., 1870-1871. Manufacturer. 
Lawyer. Trustee University of North Carolina. Chief deputy reve- 
nue officer for four years. Twenty years Chairman County Com- 
missioners of Warren County. State Senator, 1911. Mason. Episco- 
palian. Married, June 20, 1878, Miss Rebecca B. Davis. Three chil- 
dren. Address: Ridgeway, N. C. 



RUPUS LAFAYETTE HAYMORE. 

(Twenty-seventh District. — Counties: Stokes and Surry. One 
Senator.) 

Rtjftjs Lafayette Haymobe, Republican, of Surry County, Senator 
from the Twenty-seventh District, was born in that county in 1851. 
Lawyer. County Commissioner, 1883. Mayor of Mount Airy. N. C, 
1897. Representative in the General Assembly of 1909, 1913, 1917. 
State Senator in 1911, 1915. Baptist. Address: Mount Airy, N. C. 



GEORGE ALLAN HOLDERNESS. 

(Fourth District. — Counties: Halifax and Edgecombe. Two Sena- 
tors.) 

George Allan Holderness, Democrat, of Edgecombe County, Sena- 
tor from the Fourth Senatorial District, was born in Caswell County, 
June 15, 1867. Son of William Henry and Sarah (Foreman) Holder- 
ness. Educated in the public schools. Banker and farmer. Presi- 
dent of North Carolina Bankers' Association 1914. Member of the 
Board of Directors of the State Prison under Governor Kitchin. 
State Senator, 1917. County Food Administrator, 1917-18. Married 
Hattie Howard. Seven children. Address: Tarboro, N. C. 



State Senators. 415 

WILKINS PERRYMAN HORTON. 

(Twenty-first District. — Counties: Chatham, Moore, Richmond, 
and Scotland. Two Senators.) 

Wilkins Ferryman Horton, Democrat, of Chatham County, Sena- 
tor from Twenty-first District, was born at Kansas City, Kansas, 
September 1, 1889. Son of Thomas B. and Mary E. (Wilkins) Hor- 
ton. Was educated at Holly Oak Graded School, 1900-1908, Draughn's 
Business College, 1910-1911. University of North Carolina 1912 1914. 
Lawyer. County Attorney since 1916. Government Appeal Agent 
for Chatham County, 1917-1918. Mason. Methodist. Married Miss 
Cassandra C. Mendenhall. June 12, 1918. Address: Pittsboro, N. C. 



EARLE AMBROSE HUMPHREY. 

{Eighth District. — County: Wayne. One senator.) 

Earle Ambrose Humphrey, Democrat, of Wayne County, Senator 
from Eighth District, was born at Goldsboro, N. C. June 21. 1872. 
Son of Lotte W. and Ida (Clingman) Humphrey. Was educated at 
Goldsboro Graded Schools; B\L. of Columbia University, Washing- 
ton, D. C, 1892-1895. Lawyer. County Attorney Wayne County; 
Solicitor of County Court. Government Appeal Agent. Attorney 
for Exemption Board of Wayne County, 1918. Married Miss Eliza- 
beth Ridout, April, 1903. One child. Address: Goldsboro, N. C. 



JAMES LEE HYATH. 

(Thirty-fifth District. — Counties: Avery, Madison, Mitchell, and 
Yancey. One senator.) 

James Lee Hyatii. Republican, of Yancey County, Senator from 
Thirty-fifth District, was born at Burnsville, N. C, March 14. 1S65. 
Son of Jason L. and Sarah Eliza (McClelland) Hyath. Was edu- 
cated at Burnsville Academy, 1889. Real Estate Dealer. County 
Superintendent of Schools. State Senator. 1899, 1911. Mason; Odd 
Fellow; Knight of Pythias. Methodist. Married Miss Margarite C. 
Griffith, June 12, 1892. Four children. Address: Burnsville, N. C. 



416 Biographical Sketches. 



J. W. JOHNSON. 



(Thirteenth District. — Counties: Cumberland and Hoke. One 
senator.) 

J. W. Johnson, Democrat, of Hoke County, Senator from Thir- 
teenth District. Address: Raeford, N. C. 



NORWOOD VANCE LONG. 

(Twenty-second District. — Counties: Montgomery and Randolph. 
One senator.) 

Norwood Vance Long, Republican, of Montgomery County, Senator 
from Twenty-second District, was born at Rockingham, N O, April 
10. 1871. Son of Elisha T. and Martha (McKinnon) Long. Attended 
Public Schools. Farmer and Lumber Manufacturer. Appointed 
Postmaster at Biscoe, 1900-1908. Jr. O. U. A. M.; Woodman of the 
World. Methodist. Married Miss Minerva V. McCaskill, April 5. 
1896. Eight children. Address: Biscoe, N. C. 



WILLIAM LUNSFORD LONG. 

(Fourth District. — Counties: Halifax and Edgecombe. Two sena- 
tors.) 

William Lunsford Long, Democrat, of Halifax County. Senator 
from the Fourth District, was born February 5, 1890, at Garysburg. 
Son of Lemuel McKinney and Bettie Gray (Mason) Long. A.B. of 
the University of North Carolina, 1909. Lawyer. Director First 
National Bank of Roanoke Rapids, N. C. Secretary-Treasurer Roa- 
noke Rapids Building and Loan Association. Director and Vice- 
President of the Northampton & Hertford Railroad Company. Rep- 
resentative in the General Assembly, 1915. State Senator, 1917. 
S. A. E. (College Fraternity). Gimghoul. Phi Beta Kappa of Uni- 
versity of North Carolina. Mason; K. of F. Married Miss Rosa 
Arrington Heath. Two children. Address: Roanoke Rapids. N. C. 



State Senators. 417 

EDWARD FRANCIS LOVILL. 

(Thirty-fourth District. — Counties: Alleghany, Ashe, and Wa- 
tauga. One Senator.) 

Edward Francis Lovill. Democrat, of Watauga County, Senator 
from Thirty-fourth District, was born at Siloam, Surry County, N. C, 
February 10, 1842. Son of William R. and Eliza G. (Reeves) Lovill. 
Was educated at East Bend Academy, 1856-1857. Lawyer and 
Farmer. Chairman Board of Directors of Appalachian Training 
School since its organization in 1903. State Senator, 1883, 1907; 
Representative in the General Assembly, 1885, 1893; Commissioner 
to Chippewa Indians, 1893-18'97, for the purpose of classifying lands 
ceded by them to the United States Government; Director, Oxford 
Orphan Asylum; Confederate soldier, serving from 1861 to 1865; 
volunteered as a private. Captain Co. A, 28th N. C. Reg. C. S. A. 
Mason; Odd Fellow. Methodist. Married Miss Josephine L. Marion, 
February 15, 1866. Four children. Address: Boone, N. C. 



ADDISON GOODLOE MANGUM. 

(Thirty-first District. — County: Gaston. One Senator.) 
Addison Goodloe Mangum, Democrat, of Gaston County, Senator 
from Thirty-first District, was born in Orange County, N. C, Janu- 
ary 24, 1868. Son of Addison and Nannie Taylor (Speed) Mangum. 
Was educated at Horner Military School, 1887-1888. University of 
North Carolina, 1890-1891; Trinity College, 1892-1893. Lawyer. City 
Attorney of Gastonia. County Attorney since 1908. Representative 
in the General Assembly, 1907. Mason; Knight of Pythias; Red 
Men; Jr. O. U. A. M.; Phi Delta Theta (college fraternity). Episco- 
palian. Married Miss Annie Walton, July 29, 1902. Two children. 
Address: Gastonia, N. C. 



WAYLAND MITCHELL. 

(Third District. — Counties: Northampton and Bertie. One Sen- 
ator.) 

Wayland Mitchell, Democrat, of Bertie County, Senator from 
Third District, was born in Bertie County, N. C, September 9, 1871. 
Son of James Washington and Laura E. (Perry) Mitchell. Was 
27 



418 Biographical Sketches. 

educated at Aulander High School; B.A. of Wake Forest College, 
1891. University of Virginia, 1892-1893. M.D. University of Mary- 
land, 1895. Farmer. Practiced medicine at Lewiston, N. C, from 
1896 to 1914, when retired from practice on account of failing health. 
Member Board of Commissioners Bertie County, 1908-1912. Member 
Board of Education Bertie County, 1917-1918. Baptist. Married Miss 
Julia H. Nowell, November 23, 1898. Address: Lewiston, N. C. 



DAVID Z. NEWTON. 

(Thirty-second District. — Counties: Cleveland, Henderson, Polk, 
and Rutherford. Two senators.) 

David Z. Newton, Democrat, of Cleveland County, Senator from 
Thirty-second District, was born in Cleveland County, N. C, April 
10, 1884. Son of George and Huldah (White) Newton. Was edu- 
cated at Piedmont High School, Lawndale, N. C, 1903-1904. A.B. 
of University of North Carolina, 1904-1908. University of North 
Carolina Law School, 1910. Lawyer. Member Democratic Congres- 
sional Executive Committee, Ninth District; Chairman County 
Democratic Executive Committee, 1916-1918. Odd Fellow. Metho- 
dist. Address: Shelby, N. C. 



ALBERT BALLARD PALMER. 

(Twenty-fourth District. — Counties: Cabarrus and Mecklenburg. 
Two Senators.) 

Albert Ballard Palmer, Democrat, of Cabarrus County, Senator 
from Twenty-fourth District, was born at Port Republic, Rockingham 
County, Va., February 16, 1885. Son of John Waller and Mary 
Catherine (Funkhouser) Palmer. Was educated at Mt. Vernon 
Academy, Port Republic, 1902. Piedmont Business College, Lynch- 
burg, Va., 1905. Elon College, 1905-1906. LL.B. of Baltimore Uni- 
versity School of Law, 1911. Lawyer. Judge of Recorder's Court. 
1916-1918. Elk; Loyal Order of Moose; Knight of Pythias. Metho- 
dist. Address: Concord, N. C. 



State Senators. 419 

LYNDON CALDWELL PATTERSON. 

(Eighteenth District. — Counties: Caswell, Alamance, Orange, and 
Durham. Two Senators.) 

Lyndon Caldwell Patterson, Democrat, of Orange County, Sena- 
tor from Eighteenth District, was born in Orange County, N. C, 
September 9, 1882. Son of Robert Donnell and Annie Olymphia 
(Donnell) Patterson. Was educated in public schools of Orange 
County; Bingham Military School; Guilford College. Parmer. Mem- 
ber of County Board of Education, 1912-1918. Presbyterian. Mar- 
ried Miss Bessie Murray, December 31, 1912. Address: Durham, 
N. C, R. F. D. 1. 



JAMES NEWTON PRICE. 

(Twenty-third District. — Counties: Anson, Davidson, Stanly, and 
Union. Two Senators.) 

James Newton Price, Democrat, of Union County, Senator from 
the Twenty-third District, was born in Union County, September 
26, 1866. Son of Andrew Joseph and Emily (Howey) Price. Re- 
ceived his preparatory education in the public schools from 1872 
to 1880, and Monroe High School, 1880-1882. Attended Rutherford 
College in 1884 and in 1887. Farmer and merchant. Justice of the 
peace for Union County for about twenty years. Member of Town- 
ship Road Commission. Member of County Board of Education. 
Representative in General Assembly, 1897, 1907, and 1917. W. O. W. 
Presbyterian. Married, July 4, 1888, to Miss Nancy C. Winchester. 
Nine children. Address: Monroe, N. C, R. F. D. 5. 



WALLACE ALEXANDER REINHARDT. 

(Thirtieth District. — Counties: Catawba and Lincoln. One Sena- 
tor.) 

Wallace Alexander Retnhardt, Republican, of Catawba County, 
Senator from Thirtieth District, was born in Catawba County, N. C, 
September 23, 1869. Son of Robert P. and Susan (Ramseur) Rein- 
hardt. Was educated in public schools. Two years at Catawba Col- 
lege. Farmer and dairyman. Chairman County Republican Execu- 
tive Committee. 1916-1918. Treasurer of Catawba County, 1914-1918. 



420 Biogkapiiicai, Sketches. 

Mason. Reformed. Married Miss Iva I. I. Kerd, December 18, 1890. 
Eight children. Address: Newton, N. C. 



TERRELIUS THEODORE ROSS. 

(Sixth District. — Counties: Franklin, Nash, and Wilson. Two 
Senators.) 

Terrelius Theodore Ross, Democrat, of Nash County, Senator 
from the Sixth District, was born at Pleasant Garden, October 5, 
1855. Son of A. S. and Nannie (Hendrick) Ross. Attended Pleasant 
Garden Academy. Dentist and Farmer. Member of State Dental 
Association; National Dental Association. State Senator, 1917. 
Mason; Knight Templar, and Pythian. Baptist. Married, 1880, to 
Miss Minnie Scott. Four children. Address: Nashville, N. C. 



ALFRED MOORE SCALES. 

(Twentieth District. — County: Guilford. One Senator.) 
Alfred Moore Scales, Democrat, of Guilford County, Senator from 
the Twentieth District, was born in Greensboro, August 20, 1870. 
Son of Col. Junius Irving and Effie Hamilton (Henderson) Scales. 
Educated at Greensboro Graded Schools, Raleigh Male Academy; 
University of North Carolina; Law School of the University of North 
Carolina, 1892. Lawyer and farmer; General Counsel and Vice- 
President of Southern Life and Trust Company; North Carolina 
Trust Company; Southern Underwriters; Underwriters of Greens- 
boro; Southern Stock Fire Insurance Company; Southern Real 
Estate Company; Irving Park Company, and Greensboro Securities 
Company; General Counsel and member Finance Committee Ameri- 
can Exchange National Bank. Member North Carolina Bar Associa- 
tion; City Attorney of Greensboro, 1894 to 1904; State Senate, 1897, 
1905, 1917; President Commission on Constitutional Amendments, 
1913; Visitor to U. S. Naval Academy, 1910. Member Royal Arcanum, 
Odd Fellows, and K. of P. Regent, North Carolina Royal Arcanum. 
Presbyterian; Elder since 1896; Moderator Orange Presbytery and 
Synod of North Carolina. Trustee University of North Carolina 
since 1897; Chairman Finance Committee. President North Caro- 
lina Children's Home Society; member Board Regents, Barium 



State Senators. 421 

Springs Orphans Home; Trustee Union Theological Seminary. Rich- 
mond, Va.; Peace Institute; Flora Macdonald College, and Glade 
Valley High School. Chairman of Boards of Instruction for Western 
District of North Carolina. Chairman Board of Instruction for Guil- 
ford County. Married, November, 1895, to Miss Bessie Taylor; Sep- 
tember, 1914, to Miss Mary Leigh Pell. Six living children. Address: 
Greensboro, N. C. 



JAMES L. SHEEK. 

{Twenty- eighth District. — Counties: Davie, Wilkes, and Yadkin. 
One Senator.) 

James L. Sheer, Republican, of Davie County, Senator from the 
Twenty-eighth District, was born at Smith Grove, Davie County, 
N. C, December 1, 1866. Son of Daniel S. and" Martha (Williams) 
Sheek. Educated in public schools. Sheriff of Davie County. 1898- 
1910. Representative in General Assembly, 1913 Mason. Methodist. 
Married Miss Rena Kimbrough in 1889. One son. Address: Mocks- 
ville, N. C. 

JAMES FRANKLIN SHINN. 

(Twenty-third District. — Counties: Anson, Davidson, Stanly, and 
Union. Two Senators.) 

James Franklin Shixn, Democrat, of Stanly County, Senator 
from Twenty-third District, was born in Cabarrus County, N. C, 
1867. Son of Thomas Jefferson and Mary Charlotte (Smith) Shinn. 
Was educated at Union Institute, 1889. Monroe High School, 1890- 
1891. B.A. of Trinity College, 1893. Manager manufacturing plant. 
Superintendent Concord Graded School, 1893-1897. Chairman Stanly 
Board of Education since 1906. Jr. O. U. A. M.; Knight of Pythias; 
Mason. Methodist. Married Miss Annette Corinne Harris, 1S98.' 
Four children. Address: Norwood, N. C. 



RAY DEAN SISK. 

(Thirty-eighth District. — Counties: Cherokee, Clay, Graham, and 
Macon. One Senator.) 

Ray Dean Sisk, Republican, of Macon County, Senator from 
Thirty-eighth District, was born in Jackson County, N. C, May 2, 



422 Biographical Sketches. 

1S76. Son of R. F. and Laura (Hooper) Sisk. Was educated at 
Cullowhee Normal School, 1892-1893; Franklin High School, 1894. 
University of North Carolina, 1895-1896. Studied law under Hon. 
J. Frank Ray, 1896-1897. Lawyer. Town Attorney of Franklin; 
County Attorney for two years. Deputy Collector, Internal Revenue, 
Fifth District, 1905-1906. Odd Fellow; Knight of Pythias; Jr. O. 
U. A. M. Episcopalian. Married Miss Emma Guy, September, 1897. 
Two children. Address: Franklin, N. C. 



HORACE EDNEY STACY. 

(Twelfth District. — County: Robeson. One Senator.) 
Horace Edney Stacy, Democrat, of Robeson County, Senator from 
Twelfth District, was born at Gibson, N. C, February 4, 1887. Son 
of Lucius E. and Rosa (Johnson) Stacy. Was educated in public 
schools. A.B. of University of North Carolina, 1910. Law School of 
North Carolina, 1911-1913. Lawyer. Methodist. Married Miss Hal- 
lie Lytch, April 28, 1914. One child. Address: Lumberton, N. C. 



HENRY BUIST STEVENS. 

(Thirty-sixth District.- — County: Buncombe. One Senator.) 
Henry Buist Stevens, Democrat, of Buncombe County, Senator 
from Thirty-sixth District, was born in Buncombe County, N. C, 
May 23, 1869. Son of Samuel Norman and Martha (Buist) Stevens. 
Was educated at Asheville Male Academy; Asheville Military Acad- 
emy; University of North Carolina Law School, 1889-1890; Uni- 
versity of Virginia Law School, 1893. Lawyer. Judge Criminal Cir- 
cuit Court, 1S9S-1S99; Judge Criminal Court, Western District, 
1899-1901. Knight of Pythias. Episcopalian. Married Miss Kathe- 
rine Millard, June 6, 1894. One child. Address: Asheville, N. C. 



T. OVID TEAGUE. 

(Thirty-third District. — Counties: Alexander, Burke, Caldwell, 
McDowell. Two Senators.) 

T. Ovid Teague, of Alexander County, Republican, Senator from 
the Thirty-third District. Address: Taylorsville, N. C. 



State Senators. 423 

DORMAN THOMPSON. 

(Tioenty-ninth District. — County: Iredell. One Senator.) 

Dorman Thompson, Democrat, of Iredell County, Senator from the 
Twenty-ninth. District, was born at Denver, N. C, November 3, 1878. 
Son of D. Matt and Mary Elizabeth (Rice) Thompson. Prepared 
for college in the private school of his father at Lincolnton, N. O, 
and in graded schools of Statesville, N. C. Ph.B. of the University 
of North Carolina, 1901. Lawyer. City Attorney of Statesville since 
1907. State Senator, 1913 (special session), 1915. Methodist. Dele- 
gate to the General Conference of Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, at Oklahoma City in 1914, and at Atlanta in 1918. Married, 
January 17, 1906, to Miss Luda Morrison. Three children. Ad- 
dress: Statesville, N. C. 



EDMUND F. WAKEFIELD. 

(Thirty-third District. — Counties: Alexander, Burke, Caldwell, and 
McDowell. Two Senators.) 

Edmond F. Wakefiled, Republican, of Caldwell County, Senator 
from Thirty-third District, was born at Lenoir, N. C, June 22, 1859. 
Son of Robert R. and Rebecca Louisa (Ballew) Wakefield. Was 
educated at Finley High School, 1874-1876; Trinity College, 1879- 
1881. Farmer. High school teacher, 1882-1896. Deputy Collector 
of Internal Revenue, 1898 1905. Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion. Caldwell County, 1884. State Senator, 1897. Mayor of Lenoir, 
1910. Methodist. Married (first) Miss Sallie C. Kent, 1887 (second) 
Miss Annie E. Proffitt, 1913. Two children. Address: Lenoir, N. C. 



LINDSAY CARTER WARREN. 

(Second District. — Counties: Martin, Washington, Tyrrell, Dare, 
Beaufort, Hyde, and Pamlico. Two Senators.) 

Lin ns ay Carter Warren, Democrat, of Beaufort County, Senator 
from the Second District, was born in Washington, N. C, December 
16, 1889. Son of Charles Frederick and Elizabeth Mutter (Blount) 
Warren. Received his preparatory education at Bingham School, 
Asheville, 1903-1906. Attended University of North Carolina, 1906- 
1908; Law School of University of North Carolina, 1911-1912. At- 



424 Biographical Sketches. 

torney at law; member of North Carolina Bar Association. Alter- 
nate Delegate to American Bar Association, 1916. Chairman Demo- 
cratic Executive Committee of Beaufort County since 1912. County 
Attorney of Beaufort County since 1912. State Senator, 1917. Mem- 
ber of Code Commission, 1917; Chairman Legal Advisory Board of 
Beaufort County and Government Appeal Agent. Member Alpha 
Tau Omega Fraternity; B. P. O. E. Episcopalian. Married, Jan- 
uary, 1916, to Miss Emily D. Harris. Address: Washington, N. C. 



GEORGE LEA WILLIAMSON. 

(Eighteenth District. — Counties: Caswell, Alamance, Orange, and 
Durham. Two Senators.) 

George Lea Williamson, Democrat, of Caswell County, Senator 
from Eighteenth District, was born at Danville, Va„ May 26. 1857. 
Son of George and Marion Wallace (Hill) Williamson. Was edu- 
cated at Yanceyville private schools, 1866-1872; Hughes Academy 
(Cedar Grove), 1874-1876; Horner and Graves school (Hillsboro), 
1876-1878. Farmer. Member Farmers' Union. Presbyterian. Mar- 
ried Miss Lucy Owen, January 20, 1886. Address: Blanch, N. C, 
R. F. D. 1. 



ROBERT LEE WRIGHT. 

(Tiventy-fifth District. — County: Rowan. One Senator.) 
Robert Lee Wright, Democrat, of Rowan County, Senator from 
Twenty-fifth District, was born in Wilkes County, N. C, September, 
16, 1867. Son of J. L. and Mary M. (Shoafe) Wright. Was educated 
at Presbyterian High School; John Hopkins University Lawyer. 
Alderman of Salisbury for eight years. Has been Director of Wa- 
chovia Banking and Trust Co., Peoples Bank, and Rockwell Bank. 
Representative in the General Assembly, 1901; State Senator, 1905; 
Judge of County Court, 1916-1918. Royal Arcanum; Woodmen of 
the World; Odd Fellow; Jr. O. U. A. M. Presbyterian. Married Miss 
Sallie B. Oakes. Address: Salisbury, N. C. 



OFFICERS OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 



DENNIS GARFIELD BRUMMITT. 

SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 

Dennis Garfield Brummitt, Democrat, Representative from Gran- 
ville County, was born in Granville County, February 7, 1881. Son 
of Tbomas Jefferson and Caroline (Bradford) Brummitt. LL.B. of 
Wake Forest College, 1907. Secretary of Granville County Demo- 
cratic Executive Committee, 1908-1910; Chairman, 1910-1914. Mem- 
ber State Democratic Executive Committee since 1913. Mayor of 
Oxford. 1909-1913. Member of Board of Town Commissioners, 1913- 
1915. Representative in General Assembly, 1915 and 1917. Mason; 
Odd Fellow; W. O. W.; M. W. A.; Jr. O. U. A. M. Baptist. Married, 
June 25, 1912, to Miss Kate Hays Fleming. Address: Oxford, N. C. 



ALEXANDER LASSITER. 

PRINCIPAL CLERK. 

Alexander Lassiter, Principal Clerk in the House of Representa- 
tives, was born August 19, 1874. Son of George W. and Sarah J. 
(Doughtie) Lassiter. Educated in public schools of Aulander, N. C, 
and Davis Military School, Winston, N. >C, 1890-1891. Won orator's 
medal at Davis Military School in 1891; one of the declaimers at 
International Y. M. C. A. Convention. Studied law at University of 
North Carolina. Admitted to the Bar in 1895. Clerk in House of 
Representatives since 1899. Mason. Baptist. Married in 1898 to 
Miss Lizzie C. Minton. Five children. Address: Aulander, N. C. 



REPRESENTATIVES. 



CLARENCE RICHARD AYCOCK. 

Clarence Richard Aycock, Democrat, Representative from Wayne 
County, was born at Fremont, N. C, January 17, 1884. Son of 
Benjamin F. and Sallie (Farmer) Aycock. Was educated at Fre- 



426 Biographical Sketches. 

mont High School; Goldsboro Graded Schools; North Carolina Agri- 
cultural and Mechanical College. Merchant. Knight of Pythias; 
Elk; Mason. Married Miss Lucy J. Earnhardt, December 25, 1905. 
Three children. Address: Fremont, N. C. 



NATHAN BASS. 

Nathan Bass, Democrat, Representative from Wilson County, was 
born in Wilson County, N. C, in 1851. Son of Elisha and Sallie 
Bass. Was educated in public schools; the Fremont Academy, 1873. 
Farmer and banker. Public school teacher, 1873-1879. President of 
Bank of Lucama, since 1916. Representative in the General Assem- 
bly, 1889 and 1891. Member of the County Board of Education, 
1897. and 1905-1917, and Chairman, 1911-1917. Member of the Board 
of County Commissioners, 1898-1904. Married first, Miss Priscilla 
Daniel; second, Miss Nancy Howell; third, Miss Patsie Barnes. 
Seven children. Address: Lucama, N. C. 



WILLIAM ALBERT BOWMAN. 

W. Albert Bowman, Democrat, Representative from Guilford 
County, was born at Liberty, N. C. January 7, 1864. Son of N. R. 
and Hannah (Kime) Bowman. Received his education at Mt. Pleas- 
ant High School, and Lowe's Boarding School. 1886-1888. Farmer. 
Justice of the Peace since 1906. Represented Guilford County in 
Legislature of 1915 and 1917. Woodman of the World. Methodist. 
Married August 1. 1889, to Miss Martha Elizabeth Greason. Three 
children. Address: Liberty. N. C. 



D. L. BOYD. 



D. L. Boyd, Democrat, Representative from Haywood County. Ad- 
dress: Waynesville, N. C. 



JULIUS BROWN 

Julius Brown, Democrat. Representative from Pitt County, was 
born at Bethel. N. C, November 18, 1879. Son of Fernando and 



Representatives in General Assembly. 427 

Ann M. (Martin) Brown. Was educated at Bethel High School; 
Law School of University of North Carolina, 1901-1902. Lawyer., 
Odd Fellow; Mason. Married Miss Estell Thigpen, August 13, 1913. 
One child. Address: Greenville, N. C. 



THEODORE D. BROWN. 

Theodore D. Brown, Democrat, Representative from Rowan 
County, was born near Salisbury, N. O, January 23, 1881. He is a 
son of Adam M and Mary (Fesperman) Brown. Educated at Mul- 
berry Academy. Secretary Salisbury Chamber of Commerce. State 
Senator, 1913; Representative in General Assembly, 1915. Member 
of Knights of Pythias; Jr. 0. U. A. M.; Patriotic Order of the Sons 
of America (first State President); Uniformed rank P. 0. S. of A.; 
Farmer's Union. Address: Salisbury, N. C. 



CHARLES G. BRYANT. 

Charles G. Bryant, Republican, Representative from Yadkin 
County, was born in Yadkin County, February 26, 1866. Son of 
Stephen H. and Deborah (Farrington) B r yant. Was educated at 
Moravian Falls Academy, 1888-1889; Tray Hill Institute, 1890-1892; 
M.D. of Louisville Medical College, 1893-1894; M.D. Richmond Uni- 
versity Medical College, 1911. Physician. Representative in General 
Assembly, 1907. Served in the Spanish-American War in Cuba and 
in Philippine Islands, 1898-1902. Mason; Odd Fellow; Knight of 
Pythias. Baptist. Married Miss Maggie Cowles Hampton, April 16, 
1902. Address: Yadkinville, N. C. 



VICTOR SILAS BRYANT. 

Victor Silas Bryant, Democrat, Representative from Durham 
County, was born in Mecklenburg County, N. C, December 10, 1867. 
Son of Henry and Julia (Parks) Bryant. Graduate of University 
of North Carolina, 1890. Lawyer. Trustee of city schools of Dur- 
ham. Trustee of University of North Carolina since 1901. State 
Senator, 1913. Married Miss Matilda Heartt. Address: Durham. 
N. C. 



428 Biographical Sketches. 

.MARSHALL LEARY BURGESS. 

Marshall Leaby Burgess, Democrat, Representative from Camden 
County, was born at Old Trap, Camden County, N. C, November 15, 
1859. Was educated at Tbree Brancli School, 1875. Farmer. Local 
preacher for twenty years. Mason; Odd Fellow; Woodman of the 
World. Methodist. Married Miss Lydia Ann Sanderlin, May 20, 
1883. Six children. Address: Old Trap, N. C. 



JOHN BURNETT. 

John Burnett, Republican, Representative from Swain County, 
was born in Macon County (now Swain), January 11, 1862. Son of 
Henry Clay and Matilda (DeHart) Burnett. Was educated in com- 
mon schools and Franklin Normal School. Merchant and farmer. 
Representative in the General Assembly from Swain County, 1901, 
from Macon County, 1907. Mayor of Bryson City, 1915-1916. Mem- 
ber County Board of Education of Swain County, 1897-1898. Odd 
Fellow. Baptist. Married Miss Emma Dean, December 29, 1887. 
Three children. Address: Bryson City, N. C. 



WILLIAM MILES BUTT. 

William Miles Butt, Democrat, Representative from Beaufort 
County, was born at Bonnerton, August 26, 1860. Son of Horace 
James and Olivia Ann (Creekmur) Butt. Attended Richland Acad- 
emy.1879-1880. Farmer. Member of Board of Education of Beau- 
fort County since 1903. Representative in the General Assembly, 
1915. Episcopalian. Married Miss Annie V. Robason in April, 1890. 
Five children. Address: Bonnerton, N. C. 



BENNEHAN CAMERON. 

Bennehan Cameron, Democrat, Representative from Durham 
County, was born September 9, 1854, at "Fairntosh," Stagville, then 
Orange, now Durham County. Son of Paul Carrington and Anne 
(Ruffinl Cameron. Prepared for college at Horner Military Acad- 
emy. 1868-1871; Eastman National Business College, 1871; graduated 



Representatives in General Assembly. 429 

at Virginia Military Institute, 1875; Captain Co. C. Admitted to 
the Bar in 1877. Farmer. Director of the Morehead Banking Com- 
pany. Durham, N. C. Took an active part in organizing the First 
National Bank of Durham, and in the building of the Lynchburg 
and Durham Railroad, the Oxford and Clarksville Railroad, the 
Durham and Northern Railroad, and the Oxford and Dickerson 
branch. Director in the Raleigh and Augusta Air Line Railroad. 
One of the organizers of the Seaboard Air Line Railroad Company; 
president of the same, 1911-1913. Director and vice-president of 
the Rocky Mount Mills. President of the North Carolina State 
Agricultural Society, 1896-1897. Vice-president of the Southern 
Cotton Growers Protective Association, 1904-1906. Vice-president of 
the Farmers' National Congress, 1901-1907; president, 1907-1909. 
Member of Royal Agricultural Society of England, 1908-1914. Cap- 
tain of Orange County Guards, 18751876. Captain of the staffs of 
Governors Vance, Jarvis, and Scales. Colonel on the staffs of Gov- 
ernors Fowle, Holt, and Carr. Represented North Carolina on the 
staff of General Phil Sheridan at the centennial celebration of the 
adoption of the Federal Constitution, 1887, and on the staff of Gen- 
eral Schofield at the centennial celebration of the inauguration of 
President George Washington, 1889. Organizer and director of the 
Quebec-Miami International Highway. Organizer and vice-president 
of the Southern National Highway. Director of the American Auto- 
mobile Association. President of the Scottish Society of America. 
Assistant treasurer of the North Carolina Society of the Cincinnati. 
Vice-president of the North Carolina Sons of the Revolution. Chair- 
man of the Committee on the Cooperation of Patriotic Organizations 
under the American Committee for the Celebration of the Century of 
Peace among English speaking Peoples under the Treaty of Ghent. 
Representative in the General Assembly, 1915; State Senator, 1917. 
Episcopalian. Married Miss Sallie P. Mayo. Two children. Ad- 
dress: Stagville, N. C. 



STACY R. CHESNUTT. 

Stacy R. Chesntjtt, Democrat, Representative from Duplin 
County, was born in Duplin County, January 10, 1889. Son of C. D. 
and Sarah Susan (Kornegay) Chesnutt. Was educated in public 
schools. Farmer. Mason. Methodist. Address: Albertson, N. C. 



430 Biographical Sketches. 

JOHN MONROE CLAYTON. 

John Monroe Clayton, Democrat, Representative from Hyde 
County, was born at Engelhard, N. O, October 18, 1851. Son of 
William P. and Susan Jane (Henry) Clayton. Educated at Amity 
Academy, Lake Landing, N. C. Farmer, school teacher, telegraph 
operator, chairman of Board of Shellfish Commissioners. Represen- 
tative in the Legislature, 1913, 1915, 1917. Mason; Jr. O. U. A. M. 
President of Farmers' Union. President of United Sons of Hyde. 
Methodist. Married Miss Mary R. Midyette. Address: Engelhard, 
N. C. 



BRAXTON BRAGG COLLINS. 

Braxton Bragg Collins, Democrat, Representative irom Jones 
County, was born in Mayesville, October 17, 1866. Son of John and 
Marinda (Mattocks) Collins. Educated in the Pollocksville High 
School. 1885-1887. Farmer. Representative in the General Assem- 
bly. 1915 and 1917. Married to Miss Katie Bell Gillette, March, 1894. 
Seven children. Address: Maysville, N. C. 



ROBERT MARTIN COX. 

Robert Martin Cox. Democrat, Representative from Forsyth 
County, was born in that county, July 9, 1876. Son of Romulus L. 
and Susan E. (Barrow) Cox. Attended Oak Ridge Institute, 1894- 
1895. Farmer. Representative in the General Assembly, 1907-1917. 
Methodist. Address: Rural Hall. N. C. 



THOMAS C. COXE. 

Thomas C. Coxe, Democrat, Representative of Anson County, was 
born at Lilesville, N. C. July 15, 1875. Son of William J. and Pattie 
(Barringer) Coxe, Farmer and lumberman. Representative in Gen- 
eral Assembly from Anson County, 1909-1911. County Democratic 
Chairman, 1916-1918. Methodist. Steward. Married, January 2, 
1901, Miss Armantine McAlister. Four children. Address: Wades- 
boro, N. C. 



Representatives in General Assembly. 431 

BURGESS GAITHER CRISP. 

Burgess Gaither Crisp, Democrat, Representative from Dare 
County, was born at Lenoir, N. C, July 9, 1864. Son of James C. 
and Jane Caroline (Hayes) Crisp. Was educated at Lenoir High 
School. 1878-1879; Trinity College, 1879-1883. Studied law at the 
Law School of Judge Clinton A. Cilley, at Lenoir, 1879-1880, 1885. 
Lawyer. Teacher, 1883-1896. County Superintendent of Dare County, 
1902-1905, 1911-1915. Mayor of Manteo, 1909-1910. 1917-1918. Mason; 
Jr. O. U. A. M. Universalist. Married Miss Maggie Hayes, Feb- 
ruary 5, 1893. Three children. Address: Manteo, N. C. 



GEORGE DENVER DAIL. 

George Denver Dail, Democrat, Representative from Craven 
County, was born in New Bern. October 17, 1872. Son of George 
F. M. and Amy J. (Exum) Dail. Educated in New Bern private 
schools and New Bern Graded Schools, and Sadler's Bryant and 
Stratton Business College, Baltimore, 1891-1892. Farmer and real 
estate dealer. Member of New Bern Chamber of Commerce. B. P. 
O. E. Representative in the General Assembly of 1917. Address: 
New Bern, N. C. 



JOHN H. DARDEN. 

John H. Darden, Democrat, Representative from Halifax County, 
was born February 21, 1850, in Washington County. Son of John 
J. and Hester (Everett) Darden. Attended common schools, 1861- 
1865. Moved from Washington County to Halifax County in 1871. 
Justice of the Peace since 1885. Member of House of Representatives 
in 1915-1917. A. F. and A. M. Episcopalian. Married Miss Mollie E. 
Pittman. Two children, one living. Address: Spring Hill, N. C. 



WILLIAM ALLEN DARDEN. 

William Allen Darden. Democrat. Representative from Greene 
County, was born in Greene County, N. C, December 20, 1856. Son 
of William S. and Margaret (Allen) Darden. Was educated at La- 
Grange Academy, 1876-1877; Sadler's Bryant and Stratton Business 



432 Biographical Sketches. 

College, Baltimore. 1883. Farmer. Member of County Board of Edu- 
cation. Trustee of A. & M. College for Negro Race at Greensboro. 
Methodist. Married Miss Olivia Carr. Two children. Address: 
Ayden, N. C, R. F. D. 1. 



JOHN SHAKESPEARE DAVIS. 

John Shakespeare Davis, Democrat, Representative from Warren 
County, was born in Warren County, N. C, August 19, 1871. Son of 
James A. and Mary (Cheek) Davis. Was educated in public schools, 
1880-1890. Farmer. Member County Board of Education, 1915-1917. 
Baptist. Married Miss Mary Allen Davis, February 8. 1893. Five 
children. Address: Creek, Warren County. N. C. 



JOHN GILMER DAWSON. 

John Gilmer Dawson, Democrat, Representative from Lenoir 
County, was born in Lenoir County, April 19, 1882. Son of John 
Henry and Annie (Daly) Dawson. Was educated at Kinston Public 
Schools; University of North Carolina Law School. Lawyer. Ma- 
son; Odd Fellow; Jr. 0. U. A. M.; Kappa Sigma (college fraternity). 
Married Miss Margaret Regina Weyher, November 23, 1911. One 
child. Address: Kinston, N. C. 



RUFUS A. DOUGHTON. 

Rufus A. Doughton, Democrat. Representative from Alleghany 
County, was born in that county. January 10, 1857. Son of J. Hor- 
ton and Rebecca (Jones) Doughton. Educated at Independence 
(Va.) High School, 1S76-1877; University of North Carolina. Studied 
law at University of North Carolina, 1880. Lawyer, farmer and 
banker. President of Bank of Sparta. Representative in the Gen 
eral Assembly, 1887, 1889. 1891, 1909, 1911, 1913, 1915. 1917. Lieu- 
tenant Governor, 1893-1897. Speaker of the House. 1891. Mason. 
Methodist. Married, January 3. 1883, Miss Sue B. Parks. Two chil- 
dren. Address: Sparta. N. C. 



Representatives in General Assembly. 433 

JAMES DIXON ECKLES. 

James Dixon Eckles, Democrat, Representative from Buncombe 
County, was born at Petersburg, Virginia, August 19, 1874. Son of 
Robert Stith and Elizabeth Bennette (Tucker) Eckles. Was edu- 
cated in public schools (including High School) of Petersburg, Vir- 
ginia, 1881-1890; Emory and Henry College; Washington and Lee 
University; B.L. of Washington and Lee University, 1902. Lawyer. 
Practiced law in Norfolk, Virginia, 1902-1907, and in Buncombe 
County, N. C, since 1909. Mayor of Black Mountain, 1917-1918. 
Methodist. Married Miss Elizabeth Catterall Many, April 8, 1912. 
Two children. Address: Black Mountain, N. C. 



WILLIAM NASH EVERETT. 

William Nash Everett, Democrat, Representative of Richmond 
County, was born in Rockingham, December 29, 1864. Son of Wil- 
liam I. and Eannie (LeGrand) Everett. Attended Rockingham High 
School, 1882; University of North Carolina, 1886. Farmer and mer- 
chant. Member of the Hardware Association of the Carolinas; Presi- 
dent, 1907. Mayor of Rockingham, 1896-1913, except one year when 
he was Chairman of Finance Committee. Chairman of Board of 
Education of Richmond County, since 1912. Chairman Board of 
Trustees Rockingham Graded School. Trustee of University of 
North Carolina. Vice-President Bank of Pee Dee. President Rich- 
mond Insurance & Realty Co. President Rockingham Hotel Com- 
pany. County Food Administrator. State Senator, 1917. Methodist. 
Married Miss Lena Payne in 1888. Three children. Address: Rock- 
ingham, N. C. 



JAMES TURNER PARISH. 

James Turner Farisii, Democrat, Representative from Forsyth 
County, was born in Caswell County, February 8, 1868. Son of 
Thomas W. and Cornelia T. (Harris) Farish. Attended high 
schools at Jonesboro, Pittsboro, Haywood. Broker. Director of Im- 
perial Tobacco Company of Canada. 1911-1913. President of Granby, 
Quebec, Board of Trade, 1910-1913. President of the Protective 
Association of Canada, since its organization, 1907. Private in 
Forsyth Riflemen, 1887-1890. Representative in the General Assem- 
28 



434 Biographical Sketches. 

bly of 1917. Mason. In November, 1890, married Miss Lily Blanche 
Bitting. Three children. Address: Winston-Salem, N. C. 



THOMAS A. FARMER. 

Thomas A. Farmer, Republican, Representative from Ashe County, 
was born at Fig, Ashe County. April 30, 1875. Son of Hilton A. and 
Martetia (Roten) Farmer. Was educated at Creston High School, 
1892-1893. Farmer and preacher. Treasurer of Ashe County, 1902- 
1904. Methodist. Married Miss Cyntha Hampton, December 23, 
1894. Two children. Address: Lansing, N. C. 



THOMAS R. FORREST. 

Thomas R. Forrest, Democrat, Representative from Stanly County, 
was born in that county. Son of James D. and Katherine (Mann) 
Forrest. Educated in the Albemarle High School, 1894-1896. Farmer 
and merchant. Sheriff of Stanly County, 1911-1914. Representative 
in the General Assembly in 1917. Mason; Royal Arcanum. Metho- 
dist. Married, January, 1899, to Miss Daskie E. Pennington. Five 
children. Address: Albemarle, N. C. 



RICHARD TILLMAN FOUNTAIN. 

Richard Tillman Fountain, Democrat, Representative from Edge- 
combe County, was born in Edgecombe County. Son of Almon L. 
and Louisa (Eagles) Fountain. Was educated in public schools and 
Tarboro Male Academy; University of North Carolina, 1905-1907. 
Lawyer. Judge of Recorders Court, Rocky Mount. 1911-1918. Trus- 
tee Rocky Mount Graded Schools since 1917. Knight of Pythias. 
Presbyterian. Married Miss Susie Rankin, October 3, 1918. Ad- 
dress: Rocky Mount, N. C. 



JAMES CLEVELAND GALLOWAY. 

James Cleveland Galloway, Democrat, Representative from Pitt 
County, was born January 9, 1885, at Grimesland. Son of John 
Bryant and Alice Lillian (Rives) Galloway. Attended Winterville 



Representatives in General Assembly. 435 

High School, 1899-1903; University of North Carolina, 1904-1905. 
Farmer. Representative in the General Assembly, 1915 and 1917. 
Mason; Red Man. Farmers' Union. Methodist. Married Miss Lena 
Mae Johnson. Two children. Address: Grimesland, N. C. 



GASTON ELLIS GARDNER. 

Gaston Ellis Gardner, Democrat, Representative from Yancey 
County, was born at Burnsville. March 22, 1858. Son of William 
and Nancey (Anderson) Gardner. Attended Burnsville Academy, 
1878-1881. Judge A. C. Avery's Law School at Morganton, 1897-1898. 
Lawyer. Solicitor Criminal Court for Yancey County, 1899-1900. 
Democratic Elector, Ninth North Carolina District, 1908; Elector at 
large for the State, 1912; Assistant District Attorney for Fourth 
Judicial Division of Alaska, at Fairbanks, 1914-1915. Chairman 
Democratic County Executive Committee, 1896-1912. Representative 
in the General Assembly of 1917. Odd Fellow; Knight of Pythias. 
Methodist. Married Miss Mollie C. Williams in 1882. Address: 
Burnsville, N. C. 



JEFFERSON EDWARD GARRETT. 

Jefferson Edward Garrett, Democrat, Representative from Rock- 
ingham County, was born at Lenox Castle, November 11, 1888. Son 
of Thomas Jefferson and Lucy (Watson) Garrett. Was educated at 
Bingham Military School, 1905-1908. Farmer. Knights of Pythias; 
Loyal Order of Moose. Married Miss Lucile Blackwell, October 11, 
1916. Address: Mclver, N. C. 



RIDDICK WAVERLY GATLING. 

Riddick Waverly Gatling, Democrat, Representative from Gates 
County, was born in Gates County, October 4, 1871. Son of John J. 
and Emiley G. (Willey) Gatling. Was educated at Reynoldson Male 
Institute; Horner Military School, 1887-1888. Farmer. Treasurer 
of Gates County, 1898 1914. Woodman of the World. Episcopalian. 
Married Miss Nancy D. Langstun, who died November 12, 1909. Four 
children. Address: Gates, N. C. 



436 Biographical Sketches. 

PLATO GETTYS. 

Plato Gettys, Democrat, Representative from Rutherford County, 
was born at Hollas, Rutherford County, N. C, March 15, 1869. Son 
of Alexander and Elizabeth (Chitwood) Gettys. Was educated at 
Forest City High School, 1883-1886. Farmer and dairyman. Mem- 
ber of County Board of Education, 1903-1909. Baptist. Married 
Miss Amanda Stroud, January 24, 1894. Eight children. Address: 
Hollis, N. C, R. F. D. 1. 



THOMAS JACKSON GOLD. 

Thomas Jackson Gold, Democrat, Representative from Guilford 
County. Graduate University of North Carolina, 1903; University 
Law School, 1904. Lawyer. Judge Recorder's Court of High Point. 
1911-1912. Representative in the General Assembly, 1913. Presi- 
dential Elector Fifth Congressional District, 1916. Chairman High 
Point Chapter American Red Cross. President of Commercial Club 
of High Point. Member of the City Council of Defense, High Point. 
Chairmen of Four Minute Men of High Point. Trustee University 
of North Carolina. Elk; Shriner. Address: High Point, N. C. 



PAUL DAVIS GRADY. 

Paul Davis Grady, Democrat, Representative from Johnston 
County, was born at Seven Springs, Wayne County. N. C. September 
5, 1890. Son of James Calhoun and Ella Smith (Outlaw) Grady. 
Was educated at Kenly High School; Tennessee Military Institute, 
1906-1907; Oak Ridge Institute, 1907-1908; Washington and Lee 
University. 1909-1910; Wake Forest, 1910-1911. Lawyer and farmer. 
Attorney for town of Kenly. Mayor of Kenly, 1918. Jr. 0. U. A. M.; 
Mason. Presbyterian. Married Miss Lelia Grace Swink, June 10, 
1909. Three children. Was Chief Registrar for all military regis- 
trations. 1918; member Johnston County Legal Advisory Board: 
Chairman War-Savings Committee; Food Administrator; Vice-Chair- 
man Red Cross Drives; Chairman Local Civilian Relief Committee; 
member United States Public Health Committee; Legal Counsel for 
soldiers and families of Beulah Township; member Liberty Loan 
Committees. Address: Kenly, N. C. 



Representatives in General Assembly 437 

WILLIAM JAMES GRAHAM. 

William James Graham, Democrat, Representative from Alamance 
County, was born at Union Ridge, Alamance County, N. C, June 9, 
1872. Son of Albert and Lillie J. (Cooper) Graham. Was educated 
in public schools; Elon College, 1890-1894; Eastman Business Col- 
lege, 1896. Farmer and Real Estate Dealer. President of Piedmont 
Trust Company since 1914. Member Couty Board of Education, 
1901-1905. County Commissioner, 1916-1918. Representative in the 
General Assembly, 1905. Christian. Married Miss Alice M. Motley, 
April 2, 1901. Two children. Address: Burlington, N. C, R. F. D. 2. 



L. CLAYTON GRANT. 

L. Clayton Grant, Democrat, Representative from New Hanover 
County. Lawyer. Representative in the General Assembly of 1917. 
Address: Wilmington, N. C. 



GEORGE KENNETH GRANTHAM. 

George Kenneth Grantham, Democrat, Representative from Har- 
nett County, was born in Smithfield, May 24, 1862. Son of Michael 
K. and Caroline Easter (Bridgers) Grantham. Educated at Davis 
and Turlington High School, 1884-1886, in Smithfield. Public school 
teacher, 1883-1886. Druggist. Member of the North Carolina Phar- 
maceutical Association, of which he has been President and Treas- 
urer. Chairman County Board of Commissioners, 1908. Mayor of 
Dunn. 1913. Representative in the General Assembly of 1917. 
I. O. O. F. Methodist. Editor of Central Times. 1889-1891. Married, 
February 19, 1893, to Miss Florence Woodall. Four children. Ad- 
dress: Dunn, N. C. 



HARRY P. GRIER. 

Harry P. Grier, Democrat, Representative from Iredell County, 
was born in Yorkville, S. C, March 20, 1871. Son of William L. and 
Mary (Barron) Grier. Received academic education in Statesville, 
N. C. Read law under Major Harvey Bingham, of Statesville, and 
was licensed by the Supreme Court of North Carolina at September 



438 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

Term, 1893. Lawyer. Chairman of County Board of Elections from 
the creation of that office until May, 1907, when he was elected Mayor 
of Statesville for a term of two years. Again elected Mayor of 
Statesville, May, 1909. without opposition. Representative in the 
Legislature, 1913, 1915 and 1917. Trustee University of North Caro- 
lina. Associate Reformed Presbyterian. Married Miss Marietta 
Leinster. Three children. Address: Statesville, N. C. 



BAXTER HENRY GRIFFIN. 

Baxter Henry Griffin, Democrat, Representative from Union 
County, was born in Anson County, N. C, May 27, 1871. Son of 
James Hampton and Margaret (Caudle) Griffin. Was educated 
at Peachland Academy, 1892; Marshville High School, 1893-1895. 
Farmer and teacher. Mason; AVoodman of the World. Baptist. Mar- 
ried Miss Ophelia Greene, April 18, 1900. Four children. Address: 
Marshville, N. C. 



BENJAMIN FOSTER HALSEY. 

Benjamin Foster Halsey, Democrat, Representative from Wash- 
ington County, was born at Tarboro. N. C, May 17, 1S63. Son of 
Robert S. and Sarah E. (Alexander) Halsey. Was educated at Wil- 
liamston and Plymouth High School; University of Maryland, Medi- 
cal School, 1885; Vanderbilt University, Medical School. 1893. Phy- 
sician. Coroner of Washington County. Mayor of Roper. Chari- 
table Brotherhood. Married Miss Ida M. Chesson, October 4, 1889. 
Address: Roper, N. C. 



RICHARD LEE HERRING. 

Richard Lee Herring, Republican, Representative from Sampson 
County, was born in Sampson County. N. C, October 27, 1887. Son 
of A. R. and Katherine Folsom (Davis) Herring. Was educated at 
Dell School (Delway, Sampson County, N. C), 1902-1905. LL.B. of 
Wake Forest College, 1913. Lawyer. Knight of Pythias. Baptist. 
Married Miss Emma Grace Carlton, December 28, 1916. One child. 
Address: Clinton, N. C. 



Representatives in General Assembly. 439 

DEMSEY L. HEWETT. 

Demsey L. Hewett, Republican, Representative from Brunswick 
County, was born October 18, 1868, in Brunswick County, N. C. Son 
of Llewellyn and Sarah Carolina (Mintz) Hewett. Attended Wake 
Forest College, 1904. Preacher. Representative in the General As- 
sembly, 1915 and 1917. Mason; Jr. O. U. A. M.; W. 0. W.; Farmers' 
Union. Baptist. Married to Miss Mattie D. Mintz. Eight children. 
Address: Shallotte, N. C. 



ALFRED M. HIATT. 

Alfred M. Hiatt, Republican, Representative from Davidson 
County, was born at Lexington, N. C. Son of Willis and Sarah 
(Brinkley) Hiatt. Was educated at Bethany High School. Farmer. 
County Commissioner, 1912-1918. Methodist. Married Miss Sarah 
G. Spurgeon. August 27, 1871. Five children. Address: Thomas- 
ville, N. C. 



JEFFERSON D. HOCUTT. 

Jefferson D. Hocutt, Democrat. Representative from Pender 
County, was born near Clayton, N. C, July 30, 1861. Son of Lemuel 
and Lucy Olif (Ligon) Hocutt. Minister and farmer. Baptist. 
Married Miss Katie Murray. Fourteen children. Address: Ash- 
ton. N. C. 



JOHN A. HODGIN. 

Johm A. Hodgin, Democrat, Representative from Hoke County, 
was born at Antioch, N. C, April 27, 1867. Son of Henry H. and 
Sarah M. (McPhaul) Hodgin. Was educated at private schools at 
Antioch, 1874-1880; Red Springs, 1880-1884; Oakdale Academy, 1885. 
Merchant and farmer. County Commissioner of Robeson County, 
1905-1906; member Board of Education of Hoke County, 1912-1918. 
Mason; Knight of Pythias. Presbyterians Married Miss Harriet 
C. Conoly, September 1, 1892. Eleven children. Address: Red 
Springs, N. C, R. F. D. 1. 



440 Biographical Sketches. 

ROLANDO CLARENCE HOLTON. 

Rolando Clarence Holton, Democrat, Representative from Pam- 
lico County, was born at Olympia, N. C, August 15. 1873. Son of 
Barzillai and Mary H. (Tunstall) Holton. Was educated at Grants- 
boro High School, 1892-94; Morehead City High School, 1895-96; 
Peabody Normal College, Nashville, Tenn., 1898; graduate of Uni- 
versity North Carolina, 1904. Attended Columbia University, sum- 
mer term, 1910. Parmer and surveyor. Principal of Pantego Acad- 
emy, 1898-1900; Principal Arapahoe High School, 1900-01; Principal 
Oriental High School, 1904-05; Principal Atlantic (State) High 
School. 1905-08; Principal Wakelon High School, Zebulon, N. C, 
1908-10; Superintendent Newton Graded Schools, 1910-13. Insurance 
agent, 1913-15. Jr. O. U. A. M.; Mason. Christian (Disciples). Mar- 
ried Miss Miranda T. Spencer, May 24, 1905. Three children. Ad- 
dress: New Bern, N. C, R. F. D. 1. 



BROWNLOW JACKSON. 

Brownlow Jackson, Republican, Representative from Henderson 
County, was born at Fruitland, N. C, August 14, 1874. Son of James 
and Jane Jackson. Attended Fruitland and Dewitt schools. Banker 
and real estate agent. President Peoples National Bank of Hender- 
sonville. Vice-President Citizens National Bank of Hendersonville. 
Representative in the General Assembly of 1917. Mason; Odd Fel- 
low; K. of P.; W. O. W. Baptist. Married, November, 1905, to Miss 
Gertrude Williams. Address: Hendersonville, N. C. 



EDWIN R. JOHNSON. 

Edwin R. Johnson, Democrat, Representative of Currituck County, 
was born in Currituck County, N. C. Son of Silas P. and Carolina 
M. (Coulter) Johnson. Educated at Atlantic Collegiate Institute 
(Elizabeth City, N. C). Merchant. Chairman Democratic Execu- 
tive Committee of Currituck County, 1897-1916. Chairman Board of 
County Commissioners, 1905-190S. State Senator, 1909, 1917. Chair- 
man Currituck Highway Commission. 1916. Address: Currituck, 
N. C. 



Representatives in General Assembly. 441 

DAVID MORSE JONES. 

David Morse Jones, Republican, Representative from Carteret 
County, was born at Beaufort, N. C, February 27, 1881. Son of John 
B. and Hannah J. (Delamar) Jones. Was educated at Beaufort 
public and private schools, 1888-1899. Merchant. Member City 
Council, 1914-1916. Odd Fellow; Knights of Harmony; Charitable 
Brotherhood. Methodist. Married Miss Ruby E. Stevens, May 3, 
1905. Two children. Address: Beaufort, N. C. 



ARCHIBALD M. KELLY. 

Archibald M. Kelly, Democrat, Representative from Bladen 
County, was born at Bladenboro, October 21, 1S5S. Son of John A. 
and Abigail (Lennon) Kelly. Educated in Ashpole Institute, Robe- 
son County, 1S86-1888. Farmer. Member of the County Board of 
Education, 1912-1916. Taught in public schools of Robeson, Colum- 
bus, and Bladen counties for fifteen years. State Senator, 1917. 
Baptist. Married (first) to Miss Hilbrun; (second) Miss Nye, in 
1912. Ten children. Address: Abbottsburg, N. C, R. F. D. 1. 



JOSEPH CALVIN KESLER. 

Joseph Calvin Kesler, Democrat, Representative from Rowan 
County, was born in Rowan County, N. C, March 14, 1869. Son of 
Henry Roland and Julia Elizabeth (Lentz) Kesler. Was educated 
at public schools, 1877-1890; Albemarle Academy, 1891-1893; Illinois 
State Normal College, 1895-1897; Smithdeal's Business College. 
Farmer. County Treasurer since 1912. Alderman of Salisbury, 
1907-1909, 1911-1912. Mayor pro tern., 1907-1909, 1911-1912. Royal 
Arcanum; Red Men; Jr. O. U. A. M.; Order of Eagles; Patriotic 
Order Sons of America; Sons and Daughters of Liberty; Order of 
Moose. Methodist. Married Miss Mary Elizabeth Kesler, September 
26, 1897. Three children. Address: Salisbury, N. C. 



EDWIN KISER. 

Edwin Kiser, Republican, Representative from Stokes County, was 
born in that county, November 19, 1868. Son of James M. and Re- 
becca (Tuttle) Kiser. Attended Dalton Institute in 1887, L888, and 



442 Biographical Sketches. 

1889. Farmer. Treasurer of Stokes County, 1897 and 1898. Taught 
in free schools for nine years. Representative in the General As- 
sembly in 1917. Member of Church of Christ. Married, September, 
1893, to Miss Amy Florence Butner. Four children. Address: 
King. N. C. 

HANNIBAL McDUFFY LITTLE. 

Hannibal McDuffy Little, Republican, Representative from 
Watauga County, was born in Catawba County, January 11, 1857. 
Son of Joshua B. and Susan (Smith) Little. Was educated at New- 
ton High School. 1874-1875. M.D. of College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons, Baltimore. Physician and farmer. Practiced medicine in 
Alexander and Watauga counties since 1878. Practicing medicine 
and farming in Watauga County since 1902. Married Miss Harriet 
Adelaide Bogle, March 16, 18S1. Two children. Address: Boone, 
N. C. 



LUECO LLOYD. 

Lveco Lloyd, Republican, Representative from Orange County, was 
born at Chapel Hill. Son of William R. and Harriett (Cutes) Lloyd. 
Farmer. Member of Chapel Hill Board of Trade. A. F. and A. M.; 
Jr. 0. U. A. M. Farmers' Union. Representative in the General 
Assembly, 1917. Baptist. Married in 1883 to Miss Ella Phipps. Ten 
children. Address: Chapel Hill, N. C. 



EDGAR LOVE. 

Edgar Love, Democrat, Representative from Lincoln County, was 
born in Gaston County, March 19, 1869. Son of R. C. G. and Susan 
(Rhyne) Love. Educated at Kings Mountain High School, 1881- 
1883; Gastonia High School, 1883-1885; Catawba College, 1885; and 
University of North Carolina. Cotton manufacturer. Alderman of 
Gastonia, 1897; Alderman of Lincolnton, 1903-1905; Mayor of Lin- 
colnton, 1907-1909, 1915-1916. Chairman Democratic Executive Com- 
mittee, Lincoln County, 1913. Member State Democratic Executive 
Committee, 1911. Representative in the General Assembly, 1917. 
Knights of Pythias. Presbyterian. Married Miss Katie McLean in 
1890. Four children. Address: Lincolnton, N. C. 



Representatives in General Assembly. 443 

GEORGE THOMAS LYDAY. 

George Thomas Lyday, Democrat, Representative from Transyl- 
vania County, was born near Brevard, N. C, December 3, 1856. Son 
of Andrew Jackson and Elizabeth Louisa (Clayton) Lyday. Was 
educated in common schools, 1866-1875. Farmer. County Commis- 
sioner of Transylvania County 1908-1918. Chairman of Board for 
four years. Chairman of County Board of Education for two years. 
Baptist. Married Miss Elizabeth Arthur Surrette, February 15, 
1880. Six children. Address: Brevard, N. C. R. 2. 



RUFUS SIDNEY McCOIN. 

Rufvs Sidney MoCoin, Democrat, Representative of Vance County, 
was born in Forsyth County, June 29, 1872. Son of George N. and 
Elizabeth (Newsom) McCoin. Attended Pinnacle Academy; Salem 
Boys' School; Guilford College; Dick and Dillard Law School; lawyer 
and business man. Charter member of North Carolina Bar Associa- 
tion. President Gold Leaf Publishing Company, Henderson Furni- 
ture Company; Vice-President Mixon Jewelry Company; Secretary- 
Treasurer Henderson Loan and Real Estate Company; Chairman 
Vance County Democratic Executive Committee, 1900-1906; Director 
Eastern State Hospital for the Insane at Goldsboro, 1903-1908; Presi- 
dential Elector, 1908; Director Central State Hospital for the Insane 
at Raleigh, 1909-1910; City Alderman and Mayor pro tern, of Hen- 
derson, 1911-1912; State Senator, 1917. Presbyterian. Mason; K. of 
P. Married, June 14, 1900, Miss Emma M. Freeborn. Address: 
Henderson, N. C. 



THOMAS CLINGMAN McDONALD. 

Thomas Clingman McDonald, Republican, Representative from 
Cherokee County, was born at Murphy, N. C, July 29, 1856. Son of 
Jonathan and Harriet (Smith) McDonald. Was educated at com- 
mon schools and private high schools; North Georgia Agricultural 
College, 1876-1880. Merchant and farmer. Teacher, 1S77-1889. 
Register of Deeds of Cherokee County, 1889-1907. County Commis- 
sioner, 1913-1916. Auditor of Cherokee County, 1916-1918. Repre- 
sentative in General Assembly, 1909. Knights of Pythias. Baptist. 
Married Miss Louisa White. Ten children. Address: Murphy, N. C. 



444 Biographical Sketches. 



SAMUEL OSCAR MAGUIRE. 



Samuel Oscar Magurie, Republican, Representative from Surry 
County, was born at Madison, Dorchester County, Maryland. Son 
of Edward Oscar and Julia Prances (Williams) Maguire. Attended 
country school from 1889-1897; Shaftsbury College of Expression. 
Traveling salesman. Mason. Married Miss Rebecca Emeline Bracy, 
August 20, 1910. Four children. Address: Elkin, N. C. 



JOHN HENRY McMULLAN, Jr. 

John Hexry McMullan, Jr., Democrat, Representative from 
Chowan County, was born at Hertford, N. C, August 13, 1882. Son 
of John Henry and Lina (Tucker) McMullan. Was educated at 
Edenton Academy, 1891-1899; University of North Carolina; Uni- 
versity of North Carolina Law School, 1906. Automobile business. 
Mayor of Edenton. 1907. Town Attorney, 1910-1912. Chairman 
County Democratic Executive Committee, 1909-1915. Councilman 
and Mayor pro tern., Edenton, 1916-1918. D. K. E. Episcopalian. 
Address: Edenton, N. C. 



GEORGE McNEILL. 

George McNeill, Democrat, Representative from Cumberland 
County, was born at Fayetteville, N. C, April 3, 1882. Son of James 
D. and Elizabeth (Strange) McNeill. Was educated at Fayetteville 
Graded Schools, 1892-1897; Fayetteville Military Academy, 1898-1899. 
Miller. Manager of the McNeill Milling Company since 1903. Mem- 
ber of North Carolina National Guard, 1901-1905. Colonel on Gov- 
ernor Craig's Staff, 1912-1917. Elk; Woodman; Jr. O. U. A. M. Epis- 
copalian. Married Miss Mary MacPherson, October 17, 1906. Five 
children. Address: Fayetteville, N. C. 



WILLIAM H. MACON. 

Whliam H. Macon, Democrat, Representative from Franklin 
County, was born at Ingleside, Franklin County, June 1, 1862. Son 
of Sebastian and Sallie (Thomas) Macon. Was educated at Louis- 
burg Academy. Merchant. Commissioner and Treasurer of Louis- 



Representatives in General Assembly. 445 

burg, 1892-1900. Mayor of Louisburg, 1900-1908. Chairman Demo- 
cratic County Executive Committee, 1896. Mason. Methodist. Mar- 
ried Miss Lizzie Jones. Five children. Address: Louisburg, N. C. 



JOHN HILARY MATTHEWS. 

John Hilary Matthews, Democrat, Representative from Bertie 
County, was born in Hertford County, November 2, 1873. Son of 
George M. and Lavenia C. (Taylor) Matthews. Attended Littleton 
Male Academy, 1S91-1892; Scotland Neck Military Academy, 1892- 
1893; Bryant and Stratton Business College, Baltimore, 1894; Uni- 
versity of North Carolina Law School, 1904. Lawyer. Member 
North Carolina Bar Association. Trustee Chowan College and Chair- 
man of the Board of Trustees. Chairman County Council of De- 
fense, 1917-18; County Food Administrator, 1917-18; Government 
Appeal Agent and Chairman of County War Savings Stamp Com- 
mittee, 1917-18. Representative in the General Assembly, 1917. Bap- 
tist. Married February 20, 1895, to Miss Minnie Watford. Five 
children. Address: Windsor, N. C. 



WILLIAM ROBERT MATTHEWS. 

William Robert Matthews, Democrat, Representative from Meck- 
lenburg County, was born in Rockingham County, November 30, 
1857. Son of J. T. and Ruth F. (Price) Matthews. Attended Oak 
Ridge Institute, 1878-1879. Real estate dealer. Mayor of Madison, 
1880. Alderman and School Commissioner in Charlotte, 1911-1912, 
1915-1916. W. O. W.; Jr. O. U. A. M. Representative in the General 
Assembly of 1917. Married Miss Sallie E. Melton, May 23, 1888. 
Eight children. Address: Charlotte, N. C. 



ALBERT FRANKLIN MAY. 

Albert Franklin May, Democrat, Representative from Nash 
County, was born near Spring Hope, Nash County, N. C. Son of 
Theophilus C. and Bettie (Edwards) May. Was educated at Spring 
Hope. Merchant and banker. County Commissioner, 1909-1913. 



446 Biographical Sketches. 

Mason; Knight of Pythias; Modern Woodmen of America. Married 
Miss Naomi Gertrude Griffin, June 23, 1897. Two children. Address: 
Spring Hope, N. C. 



FREDERICK RANDOLPH MINTZ. 

Frederick Randolph Mintz, Democrat, Representative from Wayne 
County, was born at Southport, N. C, May 11, 1883. Son of J. W. 
and Emma (Grissom) Mintz. Attended the public schools of Bruns- 
wick County, Southport High School, and private schools. Editor 
Mount Olive Tribune. President Mount Olive Merchants' Associa- 
tion; member Mount Olive Chamber of Commerce; Representative 
in General Assembly, 1913 and 1915. Knights of Pythias. Metho- 
dist. Married Miss Carrie McGee. One son. Address: Mount 
Olive, N. C. 



RICHARD McLEAN MOORE. 

Richard McLean Moore, Democrat, Representative from Nash 
County, was born near Whitakers, August 1, 1867. Son of Moses and 
Esther (Peele) Moore. Attended Horner Military School, 1885; 
Davis Military School, 1886-1887. Farmer. Representative in the 
General Assembly of 1915. Episcopalian. Married, November 22, 
1893, to Miss Pattie Braswell. Six children. Address: Whitakers, 
N. C. 



EDGAR W. MOOSE. 

Edgar W. Moose, Republican, Representative from Alexander 
County, was born in Alexander County, N. C, June 11, 1866. Son of 
David W. and Sophia (Kivett) Moose. Was educated at Taylors- 
ville Collegiate Institute, 1886. University of Tennessee, 1896-1899. 
Dentist. Jr. O. U. A. M. ; Woodman of the World. Baptist. Married 
Miss Cordelia C. White, October 17, 1902. Seven children. Address: 
Taylorsville. N. C. 



WILLIAM FOWLER MORGAN. 

William Fowler Morgan, Democrat, Representative from Perqui- 
mans County, was born in that county, August 9, 1885. Son of 



Representatives in General Assembly. 447 

Thomas C. and Addie (Speight) Morgan. Farmer. Member of 
North Carolina National Guard, 1909-1912; enlisted as private dis- 
charged as first quartermaster. Member of Farmers' Educational 
and Cooperative Union of America. Jr. O. U. A. M.; member of 
State Council, 1914, 1917. Representative in the General Assembly, 
1917. Baptist. Married, October, 1907, to Miss Neva Clyde Osborne. 
Five children. Address: Winfall, N. C. 



O. M. MULL. 



O. M. Mull, Democrat, Representative from Cleveland County, was 
born in Cleveland County. Son of H. E. and Margaret A. Mull. Was 
educated at Piedmont High School and Belwood Institute. B.A. of 
Wake Forest College, 1899-1903. LL.B. of Wake Forest Law School, 
1903. Lawyer. Representative in the General Assembly, 1907. Chair- 
man Democratic Executive Committee for Cleveland County. Bap- 
tist. Married Miss Montrose Pallen McBryar, 1907. One child. 
Address: Shelby, N. C. 



WILLIAM WEAVER NEAL. 

William Weaver Neal, Democrat, Representative from McDowell 
County, was born at Marion, N. C, February 15, 1874. Son of Joseph 
Grayson and Rowena (Weaver) Neal. Hosiery Manufacturer. Clerk, 
War Department, Washington, 1894-1900. Claim agent, Louisville 
and Nashville Railroad to 1908. Traveling passenger agent. Northern 
Pacific Railway. Division Deputy Internal Revenue to 1917. Metho- 
dist. Married Miss Addie Malone, November 10, 1898. Three chil- 
dren. Address: Marion, N. C. 



ROBERT B. NICHOLS. 

Robert B. Nichols, Democrat, Representative from Wake County, 
was born in Durham County. Son of D. B. and Rebecca (Suitt) 
Nichols. Was educated at Leesville High School, 1902-1904. Mer- 
chant. Mason; Woodmen of the World. Baptist. Married Miss 
Effie Lee Sorrell, 1904. Two children. Address: Zebulon, N. C. 



448 Biographical Sketches. 

JAMES SHEPARD OLIVER. 

James Siiepard Oliver, Democrat, Representative from Robeson 
County, was born in Marietta, N. C, August 6, 1855. Son of Wil- 
liam G. and Sybil (Page) Oliver. Attended Olivet School near 
Marietta, 1864-1874; Trinity College, 1876-1878. Farmer and mer- 
chant. County Commissioner of Robeson County, 1889-1890; Repre- 
sentative in the General Assembly, 1891, 1893, 1899, 1901, 1917; mem- 
ber Robeson County Council of Defense, 1918. Methodist. Married 
Miss Annie McDuffie, April 19, 1882. Seven children. Address: 
Marietta, N. C. 



JOHN CAMPBELL PASS. 

Joirx Campbell Pass, Republican, Representative from Person 
County, was born in that county, June 1, 1852. Son of James M. 
and Harriet (Chambers) Pass. Parmer. Clerk Superior Court, 
1882-1890. Treasurer of County, 1894-1898. Representative in the 
General Assembly, 1917. Married Miss Ella Winstead. Address: 
Roxboro, N. C. 



JAMES PENLAND. 

James Penland, Republican, Representative from Clay County, was 
born at Shooting Creek, N. C, April 11, 1888. Son of Charles Newton 
and Margaret (McClure) Penland. Was educated at the State School 
for the Blind, Raleigh, N. C, 1901-190S. Dealer in musical instru- 
ments. General Manager Clay County Telephone Company. Dealer 
in general merchandise from 1908-1912. Traveling representative 
for a publishing house in Philadelphia from 1912-1913. Piano and 
organ salesman from 1913-1915. Treasurer of Clay County, 1912- 
1914. Methodist. Married Miss Iola Phillips, July 30, 1908. Three 
children. Sight lost by accident in 1900. Address: Hayesville, N. C. 



EDGAR WALKER PHARR. 

Edgar Walker Pharr, Democrat, Representative from Mecklen- 
burg County, was born near Charlotte. March 4, 1889. Son of Walter 
S. and Jennie E. (Walker) Pharr. Attended rural public schools 



Representatives in General Assembly. 449 

until 1905; Charlotte University School, 1905-1906; A.B. Erskine Col- 
lege, Due West, S. C, 1909. Studied law at the University of North 
Carolina. Lawyer. Member of Charlotte Bar Association. W. O. W.; 
Knights of Pythias; Mason. Chairman, War Savings Committee for 
Mecklenburg County, 1918. Representative in the General Assembly, 
1917. Associate Reformed Presbyterian. Married in 1914 to Alta 
Ruth Knox. One child. Address: Charlotte, N. C. 



ROBERT T. POOLE. 

Robert T. Poole, Democrat, Representative from Montgomery 
County, was born in Montgomery County, N. C, September 30, 1872. 
Son of J. C. and Elizabeth (Bruton) Poole. Educated at Ramseur, 
N. C, 1891-1892; Trinity College. A.B., 1898; University of North 
Carolina, 1899. Lawyer. Chairman Board of Education of Mont- 
gomery County, 1906; Superintendent of Education of Montgomery 
County, 1901-1902, 1907-1908. Mayor of Troy, N. C, 1915-18. County 
Attorney of Montgomery County. Representative in General As- 
sembly from Montgomery County, 1909. K. of P.; Mason; W. O. W.; 
Jr. O. U. A. M. Methodist. Married, May 20, 1908, Miss Bessie 
Pulliam. Address: Troy, N. C. 



WALTER HOGUE POWELL. 

Walter Hogue Powell, Democrat, Representative from Columbus 
County, was born at Whiteville, N. C, September 9, 1887. Son of 
Robert Henry and Nott (McKinnon) Powell. Was educated at 
Whiteville High School; Horner's Military School, 1907; University 
of North Carolina, 1907-1911. Lawyer. Vice-President of the Bank 
of Columbus. Mason; Kappa Alpha. Baptist. Married Miss Toccoa 
Caine, October 20, 1915. One child. Address: Whiteville, N. C. 



JAMES HENRY PHILO PRITCHARD. 

James Henry Philo Pritciiard, Republican, Representative from 
Avery County, was born in Caldwell County, September 3, 1860. Son 
of John and Sarah (Pierce) Pritchard. Educated at Bakersville, 
29 



450 Biographical Sketches. 

1878-79; and Milligan College. Farmer and lumber manufacturer. 
Register of Deeds for Avery County, 1913-1914. Odd Fellow; Jr. O. 
U. A. M. Free Will Baptist. Married Miss Julia Oakes, July 18, 
1885. Fifteen children. Address: Heaton, N. C. 



JAMES A. PROPST. 

James A. Propst, Republican, Representative from Catawba 
County, was born at Newton, N. C, March 29, 1859. Son of George 
and Amanda (Punch) Propst. Attended country schools, 1867-1877. 
Farmer. Director Citizens Bank of Conover. Director Farmers' 
Union Warehouse Company of Newton. Business agent for farmers 
of Catawba County. Farmers' Union. Reformed Church. Married 
Miss Mary L. Simmons, January 11, 1883. Three children. Address: 
Hickory, N. C. 



ARCHIBALD CORNELIUS RAY. 

Archibald Cornelius Ray, Democrat, Representative from Chat- 
ham County, was born at Jackson Springs, N. C, in January, 1868. 
Son of John and Nancy (Brown) Ray. Graduate of Wake Forest 
Law School, 1912. Lawyer. Representative in the General As- 
sembly, 1917. Presbyterian. Married in 1899 to Miss Ida Cooper 
Cole. Seven children. Address: Pittsboro, N. C. 



J. FRANK RAY. 

J. Frank Ray, Democrat, Representative from Macon County, was 
born in Maeon County, N. C, in 1S56. Son of John and Nancy (Sum- 
ner) Ray. Educated in free schools of the county and at Franklin 
Academy. Lawyer. Representative in General Assembly, 1SS1, 1883, 
1891, 1893, 1896, 1897, 1899, 1911, 1913, and in 1917. In the session 
of 1S95 he was nominated for Speaker by the Democratic minority 
of the House and was defeated by the Fusionists by a very small 
vote. State Senator, 1897. Trustee of North Carolina A. and M. 
College many years. Baptist in principle. Married, in 1S89, Miss 
Josephine Fouts. Five children. Address: Franklin, N. C. 



Representatives in General Assembly. 451 

ROBERT BURWELL REDWINE. 

Robert Burwell Redwine, Democrat, Representative from Union 
County, was born July 12, 1860. Son of T. W. and Mary Ann (Clark) 
Redwine. Was educated at Bingham Military School, 1887-1889; 
University of North Carolina, 1889-1891; B.L. of Law School, Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, 1891. Lawyer, farmer, and banker. Rep- 
resentative in the General Assembly, 1905; State Senator, 1907. 
Methodist. Married Miss Sallie Wall McAlister, April 17, 1895. 
Eight children. Address: Monroe, N. C. 



THOMAS JEFFERSON RENFROW. 

Thomas Jefferson Renfrow, Democrat, Representative from Meck- 
lenburg County, was born in Davidson County in 1849. Son of Wil- 
liam and Catharine (Greer) Renfrow. Educated in the common 
schools of Davidson and Guilford counties. Merchant and farmer. 
Chairman Board of Trustees Matthews State High School. Director 
of the Bank of Matthews. Member of State Prison Board, 1909-1913. 
Representative in the General Assembly, 1917. Baptist. Married 
in 1870 to Miss Mary A. Kirkman. Eight children. Address: Mat- 
thews, N. C. 



JESSE L. ROBERTS. 

Jesse L. Roberts, Democrat, Representative from Rockingham 
County, was born in Wentworth, May 25, 1888. Son of Tony J. and 
Mary (Williams) Roberts. Attended Sharp Institute, 1906-1907; 
Reidsville Seminary, 1908-1910; University of North Carolina, 1911- 
1914. Lawyer. Representative in the Gerueral Assembly, 1915, 1917. 
Address: Madison, N. C. 



W. P. ROSE. 



W. P. Rose, Republican, Representative from Graham County 
Address: Tapoca, N. C. 



452 Biographical Sketches. 

WILLIAM OSCAR SAUNDERS. 

William Oscae Saunders, Democrat, Representative from Pasquo- 
tank County, was born in Perquimans County, May 24, 1884. Son 
of John R. and Mary Ella (Byrd) Saunders. Was educated at pub- 
lic schools. Editor. Has had newspaper experience in Norfolk; 
New York, and New Orleans. Established The Independent at Eliza- 
beth City, June 9, 1908. Methodist. Married Miss Columbia Bal- 
lance, March 2, 1905. Four children. Address: Elizabeth City, N. C. 



WILLIAM HAMILTON SAWYER. 

William Hamilton Sawyer, Democrat, Representative from Wake 
County, was born at Raleigh. N. C, January 8, 1887. Son of Mann- 
lieff Dixon and Henrietta Elizabeth (Walker) Sawyer. Was edu- 
cated at Raleigh Public Schools, 1895-1903. Lawyer. Financial 
secretary of Robert G. Lassiter & Co., 1917; Record Clerk, Selective 
Service Bureau, 1918; Register of Deeds of Wake County, 1904-1912; 
City Clerk of Raleigh, 1913-1917. Baptist. Married Miss Ida Mar- 
garet Cates, June 29, 1910. Three children. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



GILBERT BETHEA SELLERS. 

Gilbert Bktiika Sellers, Democrat, Representative from Robe- 
son County, was born near Maxton, June 4, 1864. Son of William 
A. and Julia (Bethea) Sellers. Educated in Maxton public schools, 
1878-1884; Oak Ridge Institute, 1887. Farmer and miller. Mem- 
ber Farm Loan Association. President of Bank of Robeson. Chair- 
man Drainage Commission since organization in 1911. Town Com- 
missioner of Maxton for several terms. Chairman Water Company 
of Maxton, 1915-1916. Representative in the General Assembly, 
1915, 1917. Captain, Maxton Co.. State Guards, 1898-1899. Major 
3d Battalion, N. C. N. G., 1899-1903. K. of P. Presbyterian. Mar- 
ried in December, 1895, to Miss Flora McKay. One child. Address: 
Maxton, N. C. 

ALEXANDER EDWIN SHAW. 

Alexander Edwin Shaw. Democrat, Representative from Scotland 
County, was born in that county. July 16, 1862. Son of Daniel and 



Representatives in General Assembly. 453 

Mary Eliza (Purcell) Shaw. Educated at Spring Hill Academy. 
Farmer. Justice of the Peace since 1886. Representative in the 
General Assembly, 1917. Presbyterian. Married first to Miss Helen 
Russell, 1886; second to Miss Addie Elizabeth Rone, 1912. Three 
children. Address: Laurinburg, N. C. 



SYLVESTER BROWN SHEPHERD. 

Sylvester Brown Shepherd, Democrat, Representative from Wake 
County, was born at Washington, N. C, August 6, 1876. Son of 
James E. and Elizabeth B. (Brown) Shepherd. Was educated at 
Bronson's School, Warrenton, 1889; Bingham Military School, Ashe- 
ville, 1890; Raleigh Male Academy, 1890-1892; University of North 
Carolina, 1893-1897; University of North Carolina, Law School, 1897- 
1898. Lawyer. Acted in 1899 as Attorney-General by appointment 
of Governor during absence of Attorney-General Gilmer. Trustee 
St. Augustine School at Raleigh; Trustee of Olivia Raney Library 
of Raleigh. Delta Kappa Epsilon; Order of Gimghoul. Episco- 
palian. Married Miss Lilla May Vass, October 11, 1900. Four chil- 
dren. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



JOHN F. SMITHDEAL. 

John F. Smithdeal, Republican, Representative from Davie 
County, was born at Advance, N. C, December 31,. 1877. Son of 
Henry and Fanny L. Smithdeal. Attended Advance Public School 
up to 1894. Real estate dealer and farmer. Methodist. Married 
Miss Lula Smith, December 5, 1897. Six children. Address: Ad- 
vance, N. C. 



JAMES EDMUND SPENCE. 

James Edmund Spence, Republican, Representative from Ran- 
dolph County, was born near Raleigh, January 17, 1866. Was edu- 
cated at Liberty Academy and Wake Forest College. Farmer and 
merchant. Private secretary to Congressman W. F. Strowd, 1894- 
1896. Address: Coles Store, N. C. 



454 Biographical Sketches. 



MARCUS GREEN STEELMAN. 



Marcus Green Steelman, Republican, Representative from Wilkes 
County, was born at Adley, N. C, April 17, 1886. Son of H. J. and 
Nancy (Pardue) Steelman. Was educated at Moravian Falls Acad- 
emy, 1906; North Wilkesboro Graded School, 1907. Farmer. Teacher, 
1907-191S. Baptist. Married Miss Delia Johnson, December 29, 
1915. Two children. Address: Adley, N. C. 



JOSEPH BURTON STEPHENSON. 

Joseph Burton Stephenson, Democrat, Representative from 
Northampton County, was born in Northampton County, December 
24, 1861. Son of E. J. A. and Mary E. (White) Stephenson. Was 
educated at Buckhorn Academy, 1874-1875; Murfreesboro Academy, 
1875-1876. Farmer. President of Bank of Severn, 1917-1918. Mem- 
ber County Board of Education, 1905-1911, and 1916-1918. Repre- 
sentative in General Assembly, 1913. Mason; Woodmen of the 
World. Methodist. Married Miss Fannie Hoggard, December 16, 
1884; Miss Nannie Clement, February 9, 1905. Five children. Ad- 
dress: Severn, N. C. 

MATTHEW AUGUSTUS STROUP. 

Matthew Augustus Stroup, Democrat, Representative from Gas- 
ton County, was born near Cherryville, N. C, August 27, 1890. Son 
of E. D. and A.' J. (Hicks) Stroup. Was educated at Boiling Springs 
High School, 1908-1911. B.L. of the University of North Carolina, 
1915. City Attorney, Cherryville, 1916-1917. Knights of Pythias; 
Jr. O. U. A. M. Baptist. Married Miss Vera Mae Howell, January 
16, 1917. One child. Address: Cherryville, N. C. 



HARRY W. STUBBS. 

Harry W. Stubbs, Democrat, Representative from Martin County, 
was born in Williamston, N. C, February 16, 1860. Received his 
education at Wilson Academy, Horner Military School, and Univer- 
sity of North Carolina. Lawyer. State Senator in 18S9, 1905, 1907, 
1913, 1915; Representative from Martin County in 1899, 1901, 1903, 
1909, 1911, 1917. Address: Williamston, N. C. 



Representatives in General Assembly. 455 

EDWARD WHITE SUMMERSILL. 

Edward White Summersill, Democrat, Representative from Ons- 
low County, was born in Onslow County, N. C, November 3, 1878. 
Son of R. N. and Caroline (White) Summersill. Was educated at 
Oak Ridge Institute, 1S96-1898. Dealer in mules and horses. Treas- 
urer of Onslow County, 1903-1907. Sheriff, 1908-1912. Married Miss 
Estelle Mills, June 19, 1902. Two children. Address: Jackson- 
ville, N. C. 



E. GARLAND SUTTLEMYRE. 

E. Garland Suttlemyre, Democrat, Representative from Caldwell 
County, was born in July, 1878. Son of Philip and Frances (Deal) 
Suttlemyre. Preparatory education was received at Granite Falls 
High School. A.B. of Lenoir College, 1898. Farmer. Principal of 
Wi'lkesboro High School, 1904-1910. County Commissioner of Cald- 
well County, 1914-1916. Representative in the General Assembly of 
1917. Member of Farmers' Union. Lutheran. Married Miss Julia 
Miller, 1910. Address: Granite Falls, N. C. 



HENRY SEATON SWAIN. 

Henry Seaton Swain, Democrat, Representative from Tyrrell 
County, was born in Tyrrell County, N. C. Son of Charlie William 
and Indiana (Bateman) Swain. Was educated at Columbia High 
School, 1906-1908; Creswell Academy, 1909. Farmer. Register of 
Deeds for Tyrrell County, 1912-1913; member County Board of Edu- 
cation since 1916. Jr. O. U. A. M.; Charitable Brotherhood. Free 
Will Baptist. Married Miss Delia Alexander, December 28, 1902. 
Two children. Address: Columbia, N. C. 



WILLIAM F. SWANN. 

William F. Swann, Republican, Representative from Polk County, 
was born at Riceville, Buncombe County, June 13, 1869. Son of 
David H. and Mary E. (Clark) Swann. Attended Riceville Academy, 
1877-1890. Liveryman. Member of Tryon Forestry Association; 
Tryon Board of Trade. General Superintendent of Tryon Hosiery 



456 Biographical Sketches. 

Company, 1899-1913. Alderman of town of Lynn two terms; member 
of County Republican Executive Committee for several years. Rep- 
resentative in the General Assembly, 1917. K. of P.; I. O. O. F.; Jr. 
O. U. A. M. Presbyterian. Married, April, 1891, to Miss Helena E. 
Westall. Three children. Address: Lynn, N. C. 



FRANCIS M. TAYLOR. 

Francis M. Taylor, Democrat, Representative from Halifax 
County, was born in that county. Son of John R. and Martha 
(Marks) Taylor. Attended private and public schools of Halifax 
County, 18S4-189'5. Farmer, .merchant, and real estate dealer. Direc- 
tor of Bank of Enfield. Director of Halifax County Tobacco Ware- 
house Company. Justice of the Peace, since 1S99. Member of School 
Committee for last ten years. Tax Collector, 1906-1907. A. F. and 
A. M.; M. W. 0. A. Member of General Assembly of 1917. Methodist. 
Married Miss Mattie E. Moore, January, 1902. Six children. Ad- 
dress: Brinkleyville, N. C. 



DORSEY BATTLE TEAGUE. 

Dorsey Battle Teagce, Democrat, Representative from Lee County, 
was born in Randolph County, N. C, October 1, 1881. Son of Samuel 
E. and Sarah E. (Mofntt) Teague. Was educated at Buie's Creek 
Academy, 1903-1906. A.B. of the University of North Carolina; Uni- 
versity of North Carolina Law School, 1912-1913. Lawyer. County 
Food Administrator of Lee County, 1918; Chairman Lee County 
Chapter, American Red Cross, 1918; Trustee of Sanford Graded 
School; President, Sanford Commercial Club, 1915-1916. Jr. O. U. 
A. M. Baptist. Married Miss Beatrice MacNeill, December 28, 1915. 
One child. Address: Sanford, N. C. 



JOHN EDWARD TUCKER. 

John Edward Tuckek, Democrat, Representative from Caswell 
County, was born in Charlotte County, Virginia, July 1, 1862. Son 
of John Archibald and Mary (Tatum) Tucker. Farmer. Jr. O. U. 



Representatives in General Assembly. 457 

A. M.; Odd Fellow. Baptist. Married, December 27, 1899, Miss 
Dorabelle Graves, who died November 17, 1918. One child. Address: 
Yanceyville, N. C. 



SAMUEL J. TURNER. 

Samuel J. Turner, Republican, of Mitchell County, was born in 
McDowell County, N. C, January 13, 1852. Son of Richard and 
Nancy S. (England) Turner. Educated in common schools; Acad- 
emy at Marion (N. C. ), and the University of North Carolina; Law 
School of University of North Carolina, B.L. 1882. Lawyer. Mayor 
of Bakersville. Chairman Board of Education of Mitchell County. 
Representative in the General Assembly, 1887, 1895, 1909. Mason. 
Baptist. Married, in 1887, Miss Martha A. Stewart. One child. 
Address: Bakersville, N. C. 



GEORGE WILLIAM WILLCOX. 

George William Willcox, Democrat, Representative from Moore 
County, was born at Carbonton, N. C, April 15, 1882. Son of George 
and Isabella (Palmer) Willcox. Was educated at Carbonton Schools, 
1889-1895. Asheville Graded School, 1895-1898. Graduate of Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, 1903. Farmer. Was in lumber business 
at Timmonsville, S. C. 1906. Member of Council of Defense of 
Moore County. Mason. Presbyterian. Married Miss Lula A. McLeod, 
December 9, 1909. Three children. Address: Carbonton, N. C. 



GEORGE W. WILD. 

George W. Wild, Republican, Representative from Madison County, 
was born in Madison County, December 22, 1862. Son of Jacob R. 
and Mary (Tillery) Wild. Farmer and merchant. Postmaster of 
Big Pine for fifteen years. Highway and Road Commissioner for 
four years. Mason. Baptist. Married Miss Laura C. Ratcliff, Oc- 
tober 4, 1883. Ten children. Address: Big Pine, Madison Co., N. C. 



458 Biographical Sketches. 

SAMUEL AUSTELL WILKINS. 

Samuel Austell Welkins, Democrat, Representative from Gaston 
County, was born at Columbia, S. C, February 2, 1877. Son of Wil- 
liam T. and Mary (Hemphill) Wilkins. Was educated at Rutherford 
Military Institute, 1894-1895. M.D. of Kentucky University, 1902. 
Physician. Private 2d North Carolina Regiment, Spanish-American 
War, 1898. Mason; Red Men. Methodist. Married Miss Mabel Gray 
Craig, June 26, 1907. Two children. Address: Dallas, N. C. 



HIETTE SINCLAIR WILLIAMS. 

Hiette Sinclair Williams, of Cabarrus County, was born at East 
Bend, Yadkin County, N. C, March 3, 1872. Son of J. Franklin and 
Sarah L. (Patterson) Williams. Received preparatory education 
at Union High School, at East Bend, N. C, 1891-1892; B.S. of Guil- 
ford College, 1895. Wake Forest Law School, 1899. Lawyer. Rep- 
resentative in the General Assembly from Yadkin County, 1899; from 
Cabarrus County, 1909, 1913. and 1915. Attorney for Board of Com- 
missioners of Cabarrus County, 1909-1910 and 1913-1914. Member 
Society of Friends, called "Quakers." Married Miss Ethel Reavis. 
Three children; two living. Address: Concord, N. C. 



J. R. WILLIAMS. 

J. R. Williams, Democrat, Representative from Johnston County. 
Address: Clayton, N. C. 



JOHN NELSON WILSON. 

John Nelson Wilson, Democrat, Representative from Jackson 
County, was born at Cullowhee, N. C, January 2, 1873. Son of 
William and Margaret A. (Mashburn) Wilson. Was educated in 
public schools prior to 1S90; Cullowhee High School. 1891-1895; 
University of North Carolina. Teacher. County Superintendent of 
schools, 1901-1903, 1916-1918; Teacher Cullowhee Normal and Indus- 
trial School. 1903-1916. Mason; Knight of Pythias; Odd Fellow. 
Baptist. Married Miss Eddie W. Richards, June 30, 1906. Two chil- 
dren. Address: Cullowhee, N. C. 



Representatives in General Assembly. 459 

JOSEPH EDWARD WILSON. 

Joseph Edward Wilson, Republican, Representative from Burke 
County, was born in Rutberford County, N. C, 1869. Son of Athen 
and Mary C. (Edwards) Wilson. A.B. of Rutherford College, 1898. 
Merchant and farmer. Baptist. Address: Rutherford College, N. C. 



STANLEY WINBORNE. 

Stanley Winborne, Democrat, Representative from Hertford 
County, was born August 25, 1886, at Murfresboro. Son of Benjamin 
B. and Nellie (Vaughan) Winborne. Ph.B., University of North 
Carolina, 1907. Studied law at the University of North Carolina, 
1907-1908. Lawyer. Vice-president of the Citizens Bank of Murfrees- 
boro since 1911. Member North Carolina Bar Association. Mayor 
of Murfreesboro, 1909-1910. Chairman of the Democratic County Ex- 
ecutive Committee, 1912. County Attorney since 1909. Commis- 
sioner of the town of Murfreesboro since 1910. Representative in the 
General Assembly, 1915-1917. Pi Kappa Alpha (college) Fraternity; 
Mason. Methodist. Married Miss Frances Sharpe Jernigan. Three 
children. Address: Murfreesboro, N. C. 



CLEM G. WRIGHT. 

Clem G. Wright, Democrat, Representative from Guilford County. 
Capitalist. Was educated at the University of North Carolina, class 
of 1886. Representative in the General Assembly of 1917. Trustee 
of the University of North Carolina since 1917. Address: Greens- 
boro, N. C. 



LUKE HERMAN YOUNG. 

Luke Herman Young, Democrat, Representative from Buncombe 
County, was born in Madison County, N. C, December 23, 1891. Son 
of Joshua and Jane (Anderson) Young. Was educated at Mars Hill 
Academy, 1907-1908; Fruitland Institute, 1912-1913. Farmer. Jr. O. 
U. A. M.; Odd Fellow. Baptist. Married Miss Cora Lee Miller. 
March 15, 1913. Address: Asheville, N. C, R. F. D. 4. 



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