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Full text of "North Carolina manual [serial]"

V 




Library 

OF THE 

University of North Carolina 

Tli is hook was presented by 

me. Hi^stbricaLl Lo rnmi-ssio r\ 






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This book must not 
be taken from the 
Library building. 



THIS TITLE HAS 



BEEN MICROFILMED 



Form No. 471 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE 
NORTH CAROLINA HISTORICAL COMMISSION 



NORTH CAROLINA MANUAL 

1921 



COMPILED AND EDITED 
BY 

R. D. W. CONNOR 

secretary of the north carolina historical 
Commission 



RALEIGH 

EDWARDS & BROUGHTON PRINTING COMPANY 

STATE PRINTERS 

1921 



1921 



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PREFACE. 



This volume is issued by the North Carolina Historical Commis- 
sion in order to furnish in succinct form information about the 
State, its government and institutions, which otherwise would re- 
quire much investigation in many different sources. Unless other- 
wise stated, the data in every case is the latest official data avail- 
able. 

Similar Manuals were issued by the Secretary of State in 1903, 
1905, and 1907, and by the North Carolina Historical Commission 
in 1909, 1911, 1913, 1915, 1917, and 1919. The demand for these 
volumes has been so great that all editions, except that of 1909, have 
been exhausted. 






NORTH CAROLINA HISTORICAL COMMISSION. 



J. Bryan Grimes, Chairman, Raleigh. 

D. H. Hill Raleigh 

M. C. S. Norle .Chapel Hill 

T. M. Pn i max Henderson 

Frank Wood Edenton 

R. P. W. Connor, Secretary, Raleigh. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Official Register for 1921 9 

LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT: 

Officers and Members of the Senate 13 

Senatorial Districts 15 

Rules of the"" Senate 17 

Standing Committees of the Senate 26 

Officers and Members of the House of Representatives 31 

Rules of the House of Representatives 36 

Standing Committees of the House of Representatives 46 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS: 

Department of the Governor 55 

Department of the Secretary of State .• 57 

Treasury Department . : 59 

Auditor's Department 59 

Department of Education 62 

Attorney-General's Department 67 

JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT: 

Court of Impeachment 71 

The Supreme Court 72 

Superior Courts 73 

Other Courts 73 

The Corporation Commission 74 

ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS. BOARDS, COMMISSIONS: 

Department of Agriculture 79 

Department of Labor and Printing !i2 

Department of Insurance !»4 

North Carolina Historical Commission 100 

State Library of North Carolina 104 

Library Commission of North Carolina 105 

State Board of Health 109 

Board of Public Charities 129 

North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 133 

State Highway Commission 147 

Fisheries Commission Board 149 

State Board of Elections 150 

State Standard Keeper 1 50 



Contents 



PAGE 



Firemen's Relief Fund 151 

Audubon Society of /North Carolina 151 

State Educational Oommission 155 

( lommission for Revision of Laws 156 

Board of Internal Improvements 156 

Ninth Carolina National Guard 158 

State Prison 161 

STATE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS: 

University of North Carolina 165 

North Carolina A. and E. College 167 

North Carolina State Normal and Industrial College 170 

Cullowhee Normal and Industrial College 173 

Appalachian Training School 174 

East Carolina Teachers Training School 175 

State School for (White) Blind and for (Colored) Blind and Deaf 176 

State School for the (White) Deaf 179 

Stonewall Jackson Training School 181 

State Normal School for the Colored and Indian Races 183 

State A. and T. College for the Colored Race 185 

Caswell- Training School 187 

STATE CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS: 

Central Hospital for the Insane 191 

Western Hospital for the Insane 193 

Eastern Hospital for the (Colored) Insane 194 

North Carolina Sanatorium for the Treatment of Tuberculosis 194 

North Carolina State Orthopasdic Hospital School 195 

Oxford Orphan Asylum 196 

North Carolina Orphanage for the Colored Race 198 

The Soldiers Home 199 

The Confederate Woman's Home 201 

MISCELLANEOUS: 

The North Carolina Railroad Company 205 

The Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad Company 209 

The North Carolina Agricultural Society 211 

State Capitol 215 

State Administration Building 220 

North Carolina Day 222 

Legal Holidays 223 

The State Flag 225 

The Great Seal 227 

State Motto and Its Origin 231 

Confederate Museum at Richmond 233 



Contexts 7 

PLATFORMS OF POLITICAL PARTIES, 1920: page 

National Democratic Platform 237 

National Republican Platform 257 

National Socialist Platform 276 

National Prohibition Platform 281 

State Democratic Platform 286 

State Republican Platform 298 

State Socialist Platform 300 

ELECTION RETURNS: 

Vote for President 306 

Vote for Governor and Other State Officers 312 

Vote for United States Senator 317 

Vote for Congressmen, 1920 319 

Vote on Constitutional Amendments, 1920 324 

THE HALIFAX RESOLUTION 331 

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 332 

CONSTITUTIONS: 

Constitution of the United States 339 

Constitution of North Carolina 355 

Index to the Constitution of North Carolina 387 

CENSUS: 

Population, area, etc., of the United States and Territories, 1910 and 1920 397 

Estimated Population of North Carolina from 1675 to 1786 399 

Census of North Carolina 1790-1840, 1850-1920 400 

Population of North Carolina towns and cities 404 

Counties and County Seats 412 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES: 

Executive Officials 417 

Justices of the Supreme Court . 422 

Senators and Representatives in Congress 425 

Senators and Representatives in the General Assembly, 1921 432 



OFFICIAL REGISTER FOR 1921-1922. 



LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT. 

W. B. Cooper President of the Senate Wilmington. 

Harry P. Grier Speaker of the House of Representatives. .Statesville. 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS. 

Cameron Morrison Governor Mecklenburg. 

W. B. Cooper Lieutenant-Governor New Hanover. 

J. Bryan Grimes Secretary of State Pitt. 

Baxter Durham Auditor : Wake. 

B. R. Lacy Treasurer Wake. 

E. C. Brooks Superintendent of Public Instruction Durham. 

James S. Manning Attorney-General Wake. 

JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT 

supreme court justices 

Walter Clark Chief Justice Wake. 

Platt D. Walker Associate Justice Mecklenburg. 

William A. Hoke Associate Justice Lincoln. 

William R. Allen Associate Justice Wayne. 

Walter P. Stacy Associate Justice New Hanover. 

SUPERIOR COURT JUDGES 

W. M. Bond First District Chowan — Edenton. 

George W. Connor Second District Wilson — Wilson. 

John H. Kerr Third District Warren — Warrenton. 

Frank A. Daniels Fourth District Wayne — Goldsboro. 

J. Lloyd Horton Fifth District Pitt — Farmville. 

Oliver H. Allen Sixth District Lenoir — Kinston. 

Thomas H. Calvert Seventh District. ...Wake — Raleigh. 

E. H. Cranmer... Eighth District Brunswick — Southport. 

C. C. Lyon : Ninth District Bladen — Elizabethtown. 

William A. Devin Tenth District Granville — Oxford. 

Henry P. Lane Eleventh District Rockingham — Reidsville. 

Thomas J. Shaw Twelfth District Guilford— Greensboro. 

W. J. Adams Thirteenth District. .Moore — Carthage. 

W. F. Harding Fourteenth District Mecklenburg — Charlotte. 

B. F. Long Fifteenth District Iredell— Statesville. 

J. L. Webb Sixteenth District Cleveland — Shelby. 

T. B. Finley Seventeenth District Wilkes— Wilkesboro. 

J. Bis Ray Eighteenth District Yancey — Burnsville. 

P. A. McElroy Nineteenth District Madison — Marshall. 

T. D. Bryson Twentieth District Swain — Bryson City. 

solicitors 

J. C. B. Ehringhaus First District Pasquotank— Elizabeth City. 

R. G. Allsbrook Second District Edgecombe — Tarboro. 

G. E. Midyette Third District Northampton— Jackson. 

Walter D. Siler Fourth District .Chatham — Pittsboro. 

Jesse H. Davis Fifth District Craven — New Bern. 

J. A. Powers Sixth District Lenoir — Kinston. 

H. E. Norris Seventh District Wake— Raleigh. 

Woodus Kellum Eighth District New Hanover— Wilmington. 

S. B. McLean. Ninth District Robeson— Maxton. 

S. M. Gattis Tenth District... .Orange— Hillsboro. 

S. Porter Graves Eleventh District... Surry— Mount Airy. 



10 Official Register, 1921 

.1. C. Bower Twelfth District. Davidson— Lexington. 

W. E. Brock Thirteenth District ..Anson— Wadesboro. 

Geoge \\ . Wilson. Fourteenth District Gaston — Gastonia. 

Hayden Clement ...Fifteenth District Rowan— Salisbury. 

It. L. Huffman Sixteenth District Burke — Morganton. 

.1. J. Hates.. Seventeenth District Wilkes— North Wilkesboro. 

G. D. Bailey Eighteenth District Yancey — Toledo. 

George M. Pritchard Nineteenth District Madison— Marshall. 

George A. Jones Twentieth District Macon — Franklin. 

CORPORATION COMMISSION 

W. T. Lee Chairman .Haywood. 

George P. Pell •___ .Commissioner Forsyth. 

A. J. Maxwell Commissioner.. Craven. 

R. Otis Self Chief Clerk. Jackson. 

ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS, BOARDS, AND COMMISSIONS. 

department of agriculture. 
W. A. Graham Commissioner Lincoln. 

department of labor and printing. 

M. L. Shipman Commissioner Henderson. 

Lawrence E. Nichols Assistant Commissioner Wake. 

insurance department 
Stacey W. Wade Commissioner Carteret. 

SUPERIOR COURT CALENDAR, 1921-1922. 

District. Spring, 1921. Fall, 1921. Spring, 1922. Fall, 1922. 

1 Judge Allen Judge Horton ___Judge Daniels Judge Kerr. 

2 Judge Calvert.. Judge Allen Judge Horton Judge Daniels. 

3 Judge Cranmer Judge Calvert Judge Allen Judge Horton. 

4 Judge Lyon Judge Cranmer Judge Calvert Judge Allen. 

5 Judge Devin Judge Lyon Judge Cranmer Judge Calvert. 

6 Judge Bond Judge Devin Judge Lyon ...Judge Cranmer 

7 Judge Connor Tudge Bond Judge Devin Judge Lyon. 

8 .Judge Kerr Judge Connor Judge Bond Judge Devin. 

9 Judge Daniels ...Judge Kerr Judge Connor Judge Bond. 

10 Judge Horton Judge Daniels ..Judge Kerr... Judge Connor. 

11 .Judge Webb. Judge Long Judge Harding Judge Adams. 

12 Judge Finley Judge Webb Judge Long Judge Harding. 

13... Judge Ray Judge Finley Judge Webb Judge Long. 

14 Judge McElroy Judge Ray Judge Finley Judge Webb. 

15 Judge Bryson Judge McElroy.. Judge Ray Judge Finley. 

16 .Judge Lane Judge Bryson Judge McElroy Judge Ray. 

17 Judge Shaw.. ...Judge Lane Judge Bryson Judge McElroy. 

18 Judge Adams Judge Shaw Judge Lane Judge Bryson. 

19 Judge Harding .Judge Adams Judge Shaw Judge Lane. 

20 ..Judge Long... Judge Harding ..Judge Adams Judge Shaw. 



PART I. 



THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT 



1. Officers of the Senate. 

2. Members of the Senate (Arranged alphabetically). 

3. Members of the Senate (Arranged by districts). 

4. Senatorial Districts. 

5. Rubes of the Senate. 

6. Standing Committees of the Senate. 

7. Officers of the House of Representatives. 

8. Members of the House of Representatives 

(Arranged alphabetically ) . 

9. Members of the House of Representatives 

(Arranged by counties). 

10. Rules of the House of Representatives. 

11. Standing Committees of the House of Representa- 

tives. 



OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF THE SENATE. 



OFFICERS. 

W. B. Cooper President New Hanover. 

W. L. Long President pro fern ..Halifax. ■ 

F. D. Hackett Principal Clerk Wilkes. » 

David Caster .Sergeant-at-Arms. _ _ Cumberland. 

C. C. Broughton Reading Clerk Montgomery. 

Joseph J. Mackay, Jr Engrossing Clerk Wake. 



SENATORS. 
(Alphabetically Arranged) 

(Democrats, 39. Republicans, 11) 



Names 



Blue, L. M 

Brassfield, Leon S 

Brown, W. A 

Bumgarner, L 

Burgwin, Kenneth O 

Burgwvn, W. H. Sumner 

Byrd, W. P 

Cameron, Bennehan 

Carlton, L. M 

Carpenter, Carl E 

Cox, Clifford N 

DeLancey, James L 

Dewar, R. A 

Dunlap, Frank L 

Erwin, Marcus 

Gallert, Solomon 

Griffin, E. J 

Hamilton, Luther 

Hargett, J. S 

Hartsell, Luther T 

Jones, C. M 

Jones, Paul 

Kanipe, J. E 

Kinsland, M. D 

Lambeth, J. Walter 

Long, J. Elmer 

Long, W. Lunsford 

McCoin, R. S 

McCulloch, E. F., Jr 

McGougan, J. Vance 

McKinne, F. B. 

Mendenhall, O. E 

Nash, M. W 

Oates, Robert M 

Outlaw, D. W 

Patton, R. M.__ 

Ramsey, J. Coleman 

Raynor, James 

Reinhardt, W. A 



District 



Twenty-first 

Fifteenth 

Ninth 

Twenty-eighth.. 

Tenth 

Third 

Fourteenth 

Eighteenth 

Seventeenth 

Thirty-first 

Twenty-second . 
Twenty-fourth_. 
Thirty-eighth... 
Twenty-third... 

Thirty-sixth 

Thirty-second. . 

First 

Seventh 

Seventh 

Twenty-fourth.. 
Twenty-seventh 

Fourth 

Thirty-third... 
Thirty-seventh. 
Twenty-third... 

Eighteenth 

Fourth 

Sixteenth 

Eleventh 

Thirteenth 

Sixth 

Twentieth 

Twenty-first 

Thirty-second.. 

Fifth 

Thirty-third... 

Thirty-fifth 

Fourteenth 

Thirtieth 



Politics 



Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Democrat..-. 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Republican. 
Republican. 
Republican. 



Post Office 



Gibson. 

Raleigh. 

Rocky Point. 

Wilkesboro. 

Wilmington. 

Woodland. 

Lillington. 

Stagville. 

Roxboro. 

Gastonia. 

Asheboro. 

Charlotte. 

Andrews. 

Wadesboro. 

Asheville. 

Rutherfordton. 

Edenton. 

Morehead City. 

Trenton. 

Concord. 

Walnut Cove. 

Tarboro. 

Marion. 

Waynesville. 

Thomasville. 

Graham. 

Roanoke Rapids. 

Henderson. 

Elizabethtown. 

Fayetteville. 

Louisburg. 

High Point. 

Hamlet. 

Hendersonville. 

Greenville. 

Morganton. 

Marshall. 

Benson. 

Newton. 



14 



Legislative Department 



SENATORS— Continued. 



Name 


District 


Politics 


Post Office 


Robinson, \Y. J 


Thirty-fourth 

Thirty-sixth 

Twenty-ninth... 
Second.. 


Republican. 
Democrat.. _ 
Democrat... 
Democrat. .. 
Democrat... 
Democrat..- 
Democrat-.- 
Democrat... 
Democrat.-. 
Democrat... 
Democrat. _. 




Sams, A. F 




Scott, John A., Jr 




Stubbs, Harry W 




Swain, H. L 


Second 

Eighth 




Taylor, W. F 




Varser, L. R 


Twelfth 




Walker, W. R 


Nineteenth 

Sixth.... 


Spray. 
Elm City. 


Williams, T. W 


Winborne, Stanley. 


First 


Woodson, Walter H._ 


Twenty-fifth 


Salisbury. 





E. J. 



H. L. 



(D). 

L. Long, Roanoke 



T. W. Williams, 
City (D) 



J. S. 



SENATORS. 
(Arranged by districts) 

First District — Stanley Winborne, Murfreesboro (D); Dr. 
Griffin, Edenton (D). 

Second District — Harry W. Stubbs, Williamston (D); 
Swain, Columbia (D). 

Third District — W. H. • S. Burgwyn, Woodland 

Fourth District — Paul Jones, Tarboro (D); W. 
Rapids (D). 

Fifth District-~N. W. Outlaw, Greenville (D). 

Sixth District — F. B. McKinne, Louisburg (D) 
Elm City (D). 

Seventh District — Lutber Hamilton, Morehead 
Hargett, Trenton (D). 

Eighth District — W. F. Taylor, Goldsboro (D). 

Ninth District — W. A. Brown, Rocky Point (D). 

Tenth District — Kenneth O. Burgwin, Wilmington (D). 

Eleventh District — E. F. McCulloch, Jr., Elizabetown (D). 

Twelfth District — L. R. Varser, Lumberton (D). 

Thirteenth District — Dr. J.^Vance McGougan, Fayetteville (D). 

Fourteenth District — James Raynor, Benson (R) ; W. P. Byrd, 
Lillington (R). 

Fifteenth District — Leon S. Brassfield, Raleigh (D). 

Sixteenth District — R. S. McCoin, Henderson (D). 

Seventeenth District — L. M. Carlton, Roxboro (D). 

Eighteenth District — Bennehan Cameron, Stagville (D) ; J. Elmer 
Long, Graham (D). 

Nineteenth District — Wm. R. Walker, Spray (D). 



Senators, 1921 15 

Tioentieth District— 0. E. Mendenhall, High Point (D). 

Twenty-first District— L. M. Blue, Gibson (D); M. W. Nash, 
Hamlet (D). 

Twenty-second District — Clifford N. Cox, Ashboro (R). 

Twenty-third District — Frank L. Dunlap, Wadesboro (D); J. 
Walter Lambeth, Thomasville (D). 

Twenty-fourth District — L. T. Hartsell, Concord (D); J. L. De- 
Laney, Charlotte (D). 

Twenty-fifth District — Walter H. Woodson, Salisbury (D). 

Twenty-sixth District — A. F. Sams, Winston-Salem (D). 

Twenty-seventh District — C. M. Jones, Walnut Cove (R). 

Tiventy-eighth District — L. Bumgarner, Wilkesboro (R). 

Twenty-ninth District — John A. Scott, Jr.. Statesville (D). 

Thirtieth District — W. A. Reinhardt, Newton (R). 

Thirty-first District — Carl E. Carpenter, Gastonia (D). 

Thirty-second District — Solomon Gallert, Rutherfordton (D); 
R. M. Oates, Hendersonville (D). 

Thirty-third District — J. E. Kanipe, Marion (R) ; N. M. Patton, 
Morganton (R). 

Thirty-fourth District — Dr. W. J. Robinson, Creston (R). 

Thirty-fifth District — J. Coleman Ramsey, Marshall (R). 

Thirty-sixth District — Marcus Erwin, Asheville (D). 

Thirty-seventh District — M. D. Kinsland, Waynesville (D). 

Thirty-eighth District — R. A. Dewar, Andrews (R). 



SENATORIAL DISTRICTS 

First District — Perquimans, Currituck, Chowan, Gates, Pasquo- 
tank, Camden, and Hertford shall elect two Senators. 

Second District — Martin, Washington, Tyrrell, Dare, Beaufort, 
Hyde, and Pamlico shall elect two Senators. 

Third District — Northampton and Bertie shall elect one Senator. 

Fourth District — Halifax and Edgecombe shall elect two Senators. 

Fifth District — Pitt shall elect one Senator. 

Sixth District— Franklin, Nash, and Wilson shall elect two Sena- 
tors. 

Seventh District — Carter<-t, Craven, Greene, Jones, Lenoir, and 
Onslow shall elect two Senators. 

Eighth District — Wayne shall elect one Senator. 

Ninth District — Duplin and Fender shall elect one Senator. 



16 Legislative Department 

Tenth District — New Hanover and Brunswick shall elect one 
Senator. 

Eleventh District — Bladen and Columbus shall elect one Senator. 

Twelfth District — Robeson shall elect one Senator. 

Thirteenth District — Cumberland and Hoke shall elect one Senator. 

Fourteenth District — Harnett, Johnston, Lee and Sampson shall 
elect two Senators. 

Fifteenth District — Wake shall elect one Senator. 

Sixteenth District — Vance and Warren shall elect one Senator. 

Seventeenth District — Granville and Person shall elect one Sen- 
ator. 

Eighteenth District — Caswell, Alamance, Orange, and Durham 
shall elect two Senators. 

Nineteenth District — Rockingham shall elect one Senator. 

Twentieth DisMct — Guilford shall elect one Senator. 

Twenty-first District — Chatham, Moore, Richmond, and Scotland 
shall elect two Senators. 

Twenty-second District — Montgomery and Randolph shall elect 
one Senator. 

Twenty-third District — Anson, Davidson, Stanly, and Union shall 
elect two Senators. 

Tiventy-fourth District — Cabarrus and Mecklenburg shall elect 
two Senators. 

Twenty-fifth District — Rowan shall elect one Senator. 

Twenty-sixth District — Forsyth shall elect one Senator. 

Twenty-seventh District — Stokes and Surry shall elect one Sena- 
tor. 

Twenty-eighth District — Davie, Wilkes, and Yadkin shall elect one 
Senator. 

Twenty-ninth District — Iredell shall elect one Senator. 

Thirtieth District — Catawba and Lincoln shall elect one Senator. 

Thirty-first District — Gaston shall elect one Senator. 

Thirty-second District — Cleveland, Henderson, Polk, and Ruther- 
ford shall elect two Senators. 

Thirty-third District — Alexander, Burke, Caldwell, and McDowell 
shall elect two Senators. 

Thirty-fourth District — Alleghany, Ashe, and Watauga shall elect 
one Senator. 

Thirty-fifth District — Avery, Madison, Mitchell, and Yancey shall 
elect one Senator. 



Senatorial Districts 17 

Thirty -sixth District- — Buncombe shall elect one Senator. 

Thirty-seventh District — Haywood, Jackson, Transylvania, and 
Swain shall elect one Senator. 

Thirty-eighth District — Cherokee, Clay, Graham, and Macon shall 
elect one Senator. 



RULES OF THE SENATE. 



ORDER OF BUSINESS. 



1. The President having taken the chair at the hour to which 
the Senate shall have adjourned, and a quorum being present, the 
Journal of the preceding day shall be read, unless otherwise ordered 
by the Senate, to the end that any mistake may be corrected. 

2. After reading and approval of the Journal, the order of busi- 
ness shall be as follows: 

(1) Reports of standing committees. 

(2) Reports of select committees. 

(3) Announcement of petitions, bills and resolutions. 

(4) Unfinished business of preceding day. 

(5) Special orders. 

(6) General orders. First, bills and resolutions on third read- 
ing; second, bills and resolutions on second reading. But messages 
from the Governor and House of Representatives and communica- 
tions and reports from State officers and reports from the Com- 
mittees on Engrossed Bills and Enrolled Bills may be received and 
acted on under any order of business. 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE PRESIDENT 

3. He shall take the chair promptly at the appointed time and 
proceed with the business of the Senate according to the rules 
adopted. At any time during the absence of the President, the 
President pro tempore, who shall be elected, shall preside, and he 
is hereby vested, during such time, with all powers of the President 
except that of giving a casting vote in case of a tie when he shall 
have voted as a Senator. 

4. He shall assign to doorkeepers their respective duties, and shall 
appoint such pages and laborers as may be necessary, each of whom 
shall receive the same compensation as is now provided by law. 



18 Legislative Department 

op the clerk. 

5. The President and Clerk of the Senate shall see that all bills 
shall be acted upon by the Senate in the order in which they stand 
upon the Calendar, unless otherwise ordered as hereinafter provided. 
The Calendar shall include the numbers and titles of bills and joint 
resolutions which have passed the House of Representatives and 
have been received by the Senate for concurrence. 

6. The Clerk shall certify the passage of bills by the Senate, with 
the date thereof, together with the fact whether passed by a vote 
of three-fifths or two-thirds of the Senate, whenever such vote may 
be required by the Constitution and laws of the State. 

ON THE RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF SENATORS. 

7. Every Senator presenting a paper shall endorse the same; if a 
petition, memorial, or report to the General Assembly, with a brief 
statement of its subject or contents, adding his name; if a resolu- 
tion, with his name; if a report of a committee, a statement of such 
report, with the name of the committee and member making the 
same; if a bill, a statement of its title, which shall contain a brief 
statement of the subject or contents of the bill, with his name; 
and all bills, resolutions, petitions, and memorials shall be delivered 
to the Clerk and by him handed to the President to be by him 
referred, and he shall announce the titles and references of the 
same, which shall be entered on the Journal. 

8. All motions shall be reduced to writing, if desired by the Presi- 
dent or any Senator, delivered at the table, and read by the Presi- 
dent or Clerk before the same shall be debated; but any such motion 
may be withdrawn by the introducer at any time before decision or 
amendment. 

9. If any question contains several distinct propositions it shall 
be divided by the President, at the request of any Senator, provided 
each subdivision, if left to itself, shall form a substantive proposi- 
tion. 

10. When the President is putting a question, or a division by 
counting shall be had, no Senator shall walk out of or across the 
House, nor when a Senator is speaking pass between him and the 
President. 

11. Every Senator wishing to speak or debate, or to present a 
petition or other paper, or to make a motion or to report, shall rise 
from his seat and address the President, and shall not proceed 



Rules of the Senate 19 

further until recognized by him. No Senator shall speak or debate 
more than twice nor longer than thirty minutes on the same day 
on the same subject without leave of the Senate, and when two or 
more Senators rise at once the President shall name the Senator 
who is first to speak. 

12. Every Senator who shall be within the bar of the Senate 
when the question is stated by the chair shall vote thereon, unless 
he shall be excused by the Senate or unless he be directly interested 
in the question; and the bar of the Senate shall include the entire 
Senate Chamber. 

13. When a motion to adjourn or for recess shall be affirmatively 
determined, no member or officer shall leave his place until adjourn- 
ment or recess shall be declared by the President. 

STANDING COMMITTEES. 

14. The following committees shall be named by the Lieutenant- 
Governor: 

On Agriculture. 

On Appropriations. 

On Banks and Currency. 

On Claims. 

On Commerce. 

On Congressional Districts. 

On Constitutional Amendment. 

On Corporation Commission. 

On Corporations. 

On Counties, Cities, and Towns. 

On Distribution of Governor's Message. 

On Education. 

On Election Law. 

On Engrossed Bills. 

On Federal Relations. 

On Finance. 

On Fisheries, and Shell-Fish. 

On Caswell Training School. 

On Game Law. 

On Immigration. 

On Insane Asylums. 

On Institutions for the Blind. 

On Institutions for the Deaf. 



20 Legislative Department 

On Insurance. 

On Internal Improvements. 

On Journal. 

On Judicial Districts. 

On Judiciary, No. 1. 

On Judiciary, No. 2. 

On Manufacturing. 

On Military Affairs. 

On Mining. 

On Penal Institutions. 

On Pensions and Soldiers' Home. 

On Propositions and Grievances. 

On Public Health. 

On Public Roads. 

On Railroads. 

On Rules. 

On Salaries and Fees. 

On Senate Expenditures. 

On Senatorial Districts. 

On Library. 

On Printing. 

On Trustees of the University. 

On Consolidated Statutes. 

16. The Committee on Engrossed Bills shall examine all bills, 
amendments, and resolutions before they go out of the possession 
of the Senate, and make a report when they find them correctly 
engrossed: Provided, that when a bill is typewritten and has no 
interlineations therein, and has passed the Senate without amend- 
ment, it shall be sent to the House without engrossment, unless 
otherwise ordered. 

17. The Committee on Appropriations shall carefully examine 
all bills and resolutions appropriating or paying any moneys out 
of the State Treasury, except bills creating or increasing salaries, 
which shall be referred to the proper committee: Provided, said 
committee shall report to the Appropriation Committee the amount 
allowed, and keep an accurate record of the same and report to 
the Senate from time to time. 

18. Every report of the committee upon a bill or resolution 
which shall not be considered at the time of making the same, 
or laid on the table by a vote of the Senate, shall stand upon the 



Rules of the Senate 21 

general orders with the bill or resolution; and the report of the 
committee shall show that a majority of the committee were 
present and voted. 

19. That no committee shall be composed of more than nine 
members unless the Lieutenant-Governer shall, without objection 
from the Senate, appoint a greater number on any committee. 

on general and special, orders. 

20. Any bill or other matter may be made a special order for 
a particular day or hour by a vote of the majority of the Senators 
voting, and if it shall not be completed on that day it shall be 
returned to its place on the Calendar, unless It shall be made a 
special order for another day; and when a special order is under 
consideration it shall take precedence of any special order or 
subsequent order for the day, but such subsequent order may be 
taken up immediately after the previous special order has been 
disposed of. 

21. Every bill shall receive three readings previous to its being 
passed, and the President shall give notice at each whether it be 
the first, second, or third. After the first reading, unless a motion 
shall be made by some Senator, it shall be the duty of the Presi- 
dent to refer the subject-matter to an appropriate committee. No 
bill shall be amended until it shall have been twice read. 

PROCEEDINGS WHEN THERE IS NOT A QUORUM VOTING 

22. If, on taking the question on a bill, it shall appear that a 
constitutional quorum is not present, or if the bill require a vote 
of a certain proportion of all the Senators to pass it, and it 
appears that such number is not present, the bill shall again be 
read and the question taken thereon; if the bill fail a second time 
for the want of the necessary number being present and voting, 
the bill shall not be finally lost, but shall be returned to the 
Calendar in its proper order. 

PRECEDENCE OF MOTIONS. 

23. When a question is before the Senate no motion shall be 
received except those herein specified, which motions shall have 
precedence as follows, viz.: 

(1) For an adjournment. 

(2) To lay on the table. 

(3) For the previous question. 



22 Legislative Department 

(4) To postpone indefinitely. 

(5) To postpone to a certain day. 

(6) To commit to a standing committee. 

(7) To commit to a select committee. 

(8) To amend. 

(9) To substitute. 

24. The previous question shall be as follows: "Shall the main 
question be now put?" and until it is decided shall preclude all 
amendments and debate. If this question shall be decided in 
the affirmative, the "main question" shall be on the passage of 
the bill, resolution, or other matter under consideration; but 
when amendments are pending the question shall be taken up on 
such amendments, in their order, without further debate or 
amendment. However, any Senator may move the previous ques- 
tion and may restrict the same to an amendment or other matter 
then under discussion. If such question be decided in the nega- 
tive, the main question shall be considered as remaining under 
debate. 

25. When a motion for the previous question is made, pending 
thereto by a majority, debate shall cease, and only a motion to 
adjourn or lay on the table shall be in order, which motion shall 
be put as follows: adjourn, previous question, lay on the table. 
After a motion for the previous question is made, pending a second 
thereto, any member may give notice that he desires to offer an 
amendment to the bill or other matter under consideration; and 
after the previous question is seconded such member shall be en- 
titled to offer his amendment in pursuance of such notice. 

OTHER QUESTIONS TO BE TAKEN WITHOUT DEBATE 

26. The motion to adjourn and lay on the table shall be decided 
without debate, and the motion to adjourn shall always be in 
order when made by a Senator entitled to the floor. 

27. The respective motions to postpone to a certain day, or to 
commit, shall preclude debate on the main question. 

28. All questions relating to priority of business shall be decided 
without debate. 

29. When the reading of a paper is called for, except petitions, 
and the same is objected to by any Senator, it shall be determined 
by the Senate without debate. 



Rules of the Senate 23 

30. Any Senator requesting to be excused from voting may make, 
either immediately before or after the vote shall have been called 
and before the result shall have been announced, a brief statement 
of the reasons for making such request, and the question sjiall then 
be taken without debate. Any Senator may explain his vote on 
any bill pending by obtaining permission of the President before 
the vote is put: Provided, that not more than three minutes shall 
be consumed in such explanation. 

QUESTIONS THAT REQUIRE A TWO-THIRDS VOTE. 

31. No bill or resolution on its third reading shall be acted on 
out of the regular order in which it stands on the Calendar, and 
ho bill or resolution shall be acted upon on its third reading the 
same day in which it passed its second reading unless so ordered 
by two-thirds of the Senators present. 

32. No bill or resolution shall be sent from the Senate on the 
day of its passage except on the last day of the session, unless 
otherwise ordered by a vote of two-thirds of the Senators present. 

33. No bill or resolution, after being laid upon the table upon 
motion, shall be taken therefrom except by a vote of two-thirds of 
the Senators present. 

DECORUM IN DEBATE. 

34. No remark reflecting personally upon the action of any 
Senator shall be in order in debate unless preceded by a motion or 
resolution of censure. 

35. When a Senator shall be called to order he shall take his 
seat until the President shall have determined whether he was in 
order or not; if decided to be out of order, he shall not proceed 
without the permission of the Senate; and every question of order 
shall be decided by . the President, subject to an appeal to the 
Senate by any Senator; and if a Senator is called to order for 
words spoken, the words excepted to shall be immediately taken 
down in writing, that the President or Senate may be better able 
to judge of the matter. 

MISCELLANEOUS RULES. 

36. When a blank is to be filled, and different sums or times shall 
be proposed, the question shall be first taken on the highest sum or 
the longest time. 



24 Legislative Department 

37. When a question has been once put and decided, it shall be 
in order for any Senator who shall have voted in the majority 
to move a reconsideration thereof; but no motion for the recon- 
sideration of any vote shall be in order after the bill, resolution, 
message, report, amendment, or motion upon which the vote was 
taken shall have gone out of the possession of the Senate; nor 
shall any motion for reconsideration be in order unless made on 
the same day or the next following legislative day on which the 
vote proposed to be reconsidered shall have taken place, unless 
the same shall be made by the Committee on Enrolled Bills for 
verbal or grammatical errors in the bills, when the same may be 
made at any time. Nor shall any question be reconsidered more 
than once. 

38. All bills and resolutions shall take their place upon the 
Calendar according to their number, and shall be taken up in 
regular order, unless otherwise ordered. 

39. No smoking shall be allowed on the floor of the Senate 
Chamber during the sessions. 

40. Senators and visitors shall uncover their heads upon enter- 
ing the Senate Chamber while the Senate is in session, and shall 
continue uncovered during their continuance in the Chamber. 

41. No Senator or officer of the Senate shall depart the service 
of the Senate without leave, or receive pay as a Senator or officer 
for the time he is absent without leave. 

42. No person other than the executive and judicial officers 
of the Senate and House of Representatives, and ex-members 
shall be permitted within the Senate Chamber. 

43. No rule of the Senate shall be altered, suspended, or rescinded 
except on a two-thirds vote of the Senators present: Provided, 
that this shall not apply to Rule 55. 

44. In case a less number than a quorum of the Senate shall 
convene, they are authorized to send the doorkeeper, or any other 
person, for any or all absent Senators, as a majority of the Senators 
present shall determine. 

45. The ayes and noes may be called for on any question before 
the vote is taken, and if seconded by one-fifth of the Senators pres- 
ent, the question shall be decided by the ayes and noes, and the 
same shall be entered upon the Journal. 

46. The President of the Senate, whenever it shall appear to him 
to be necessary in order to expedite the public business, shall 



Riles of the Senate 25 

appoint clerks to such Senate committees as may be in need of 
same. 

47. Every bill introduced into the Senate shall be printed or type- 
written. Amendments need not be typewritten. 

48. The Clerk of the Senate shall provide a box of sufficient size, 
with an opening through the top, for the reception of bills; such 
box shall be kept under lock and key and shall be stationed on the 
Clerk's desk. The President of the Senate shall have in his charge 
and keeping the key to such box. All bills which are to be intro- 
duced into the Senate shall be deposited in such box before the 
session begins. At the proper time the President shall open the 
box and take therefrom the bills. Such bills shall be read by 
their titles, which reading shall constitute the first reading of the 
bill, and unless otherwise disposed of shall be referred to the 
proper committee. A bill may be introduced by unanimous con- 
sent at any time during the session. 

49. The Chief Engrossing Clerk of the Senate shall appoint, 
with the approval of the President of the Senate, as his assistants 
not more than four competent stenographers and typewriters. 
Should the public business require more than this number the 
presiding officer may appoint such additional ones as may be 
necessary. Such stenographers and typewriters shall work under 
the direction and supervision of the Engrossing Clerk. They shall 
also make for the members who introduce a bill, without extra 
cost, one original and two carbon copies of all bills. 

50. The Journal of the Senate shall be typewritten in duplicate, 
original and carbon, the original to be deposited in the office of 
the Secretary of State as the record, and the other (carbon) 
copy to be delivered to the State Printer. 

51. All bills and resolutions reported unfavorably by the com- 
mittee to which they were referred, and having no minority report, 
shall lie upon the table, but may be taken from the table and 
placed upon the Calendar at the request of any Senator. 

52. That in case of adjournment without any hour being named, 
the Senate shall reconvene the next legislative day at 11 o'clock 
a. m. 

53. When a bill is materially modified or the scope of its ap- 
plication extended or decreased, or if the county or counties to 
which it applies be changed, the title of the bill shall be changed 
by the Senator introducing the bill or by the committee having 



26 Legislative Department 

it in charge, or by the Engrossing Clerk, so as to indicate the full 
purport of the bill as amended and the county or counties to 
which it applies. 

54. It shall be the duty of the Principal Clerk to furnish to the 
presiding officer and the members of the Senate all necessary 
stationery, which shall be provided for out of the funds set apart 
for the expenses of the General Assembly. 

55. After a bill has been tabled or has failed to pass on any 
of its readings, the contents of such bill or the principal provisions 
of its subject-matter shall not be embodied in any other measure. 
Upon the point of order being raised and sustained by the Chair, 
such measure shall be laid upon the table, and shall not be taken 
therefrom except by a vote of two-thirds of the elected member- 
ship of the Senate: Provided, no local bill shall be held by the 
Chair as embodying the provisions, or being identical with any 
State-wide measure which has been laid upon the table or failed 
to pass any of its readings. 

56. That in the event of the absence of the President of the 
Senate and the President pro tempore, at any time fixed for the 
reconvening of the Senate, the Principal Clerk of the Senate or, 
in his absence also, some member of the Senate Committee on 
Rules shall call the Senate to order and designate some member 
to act as President. 



STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE SENATE. 

Agriculture. — Senators Brown, chairman; Hargett, Cameron, 
Griffin, Blue, McGougan, McKinne, Burgwyn of Northampton, 
Williams, Nash, Kinsland, Taylor, McCulloch, Swain, Jones of 
Edgecombe, Varser, Long of Alamance, Bumgarner, Jones of Stokes. 

Appropriations. — Senators McCoin, chairman; Mendenhall, Brass- 
field, Winborne, Burgwin of New Hanover, Long of Halifax, Dunlap, 
Swain, Varser, McCulloch, Williams, Kinsland, Oates, Carpenter, 
Nash, McGougan, Scott, McKinne, Hargett, Hartsell, Reinhardt, 
Cox, Cameron. 

Banks and Currency. — Senators Oates, chairman; Hartsell, Blue, 
Brown, Carlton, McKinne, Lambeth, Walker, Outlaw, Scott, Varser, 
Nash, Mendenhall, Dunlap, Carpenter, Erwin, Jones of Stokes, 
Byrd. 



Senate Committees 27 

Caswell Training School. — Senators Outlaw, chairman; Erwin, 
Griffin, Burgwyn of Northampton, Jones, Hargett, Hamilton, Taylor, 
McGougan, Dunlap, Kinsland, Cox, Reinhardt. 

Claims. — Senators Swain, chairman; Winborne, Griffin, Burgwyn 
of Northampton, Hamilton, Burgwin of New Hanover, Brassfield, 
Dunlap, Sams, Raynor. 

Commerce. — Senators Lambeth, chairman; Swain, Hamilton, 
Taylor, Burgwin of New Hanover, McCulloch, Carpenter, Gallert, 
Kinsland, Jones of Stokes, Bumgarner. 

Congressional Districts. — Senators Sams, chairman; Swain, Tay- 
lor, McCoin, McCulloch, Dunlap, Erwin, Burgwyn of Northampton, 
Long of Halifax, Winborne, Williams, Gallert, Carpenter, Woodsen, 
Varser, Carlton, Long of Alamance, Nash, Hartsell, Kinsland, Scott, 
Bumgarner. 

Consolidated Statutes.— Senators Dunlap, chairman; Winborne, 
Swain, Jones of Edgecombe, Outlaw, Hargett, Mendenhall, Taylor, 
McCulloch, Erwin, Ramsey. 

Constitutional Amendments. — Senators Nash, chairman; Stubbs, 
Swain, Burgwin of New Hanover, Burgwyn of Northampton, Hamil- 
ton, Brown, McCulloch, McGougan, Carlton, Long of Alamance, 
Dunlap, Kinsland, Ramsey, Cox. 

Corporations. — Senators Carlton, chairman; Lambeth, Varser, 
Burgwin of New Hanover, Jones of Edgecombe, Erwin, Hargett, 
Taylor, Long of Alamance, Mendenhall, Nash, Dunlap, Hartsell, 
DeLaney, Sams, Oates, Kanipe, Ramsey. 

Corporation Commission. — Senators McKinne, chairman; Menden- 
hall, Lambeth, Stubbs, Swain, Burgwyn of Northampton, Outlaw, 
Hamilton, McGougan, Brassfield, Long of Alamance, Walker, Dewar. 

Counties, Cities and Toions. — Senators Burgwin of New Hanover, 
chairman; Varser, Mendenhall, Hartsell, Erwin, Griffin, Burgwyn 
of Northampton, Swain, Outlaw, Hamilton, McCulloch, Brassfield, 
Long of Alamance, Walker, Oates, Dunlap, McGougan, Dewar, 
Raynor. 

Distribution Governor's Message. — Senators Griffin, chairman; 
Stubbs, Burgwyn of Northampton, Brassfield, Gallert, Kinsland, 
Bumgarner. 

Education. — Senators Woodson, chairman; Long of Alamance, 
Carlton, Mendenhall, Hartsell, Blue, Burgwin of New Hanover, 
McKinne, Carpenter, Varser, McGougan, McCoin, Walker, Oates, 
Kinsland, Hargett, Lambeth, Burgwyn of Northampton, Swain, 
Ramsey, Kanipe. 



28 Legislative Department 

Election Laws.— Senators Gallert, chairman; Erwin, Hargelt, 
McCulloch, Lambeth, Dunlap, Taylor, DeLaney, Hamilton, Brown, 
Brassfield, Nash, Kinsland, Griffin, Bumgarner. 

Engrossed Bills.\ — Senators Carpenter, chairman; Brassfield, 
McCulloch, Outlaw, Burgwyn of Northampton, Erwin, Hamilton, 
Taylor, Long, Nash, Scott, Kinsland, Patton, Kanipe. 

Federal Relations. — Senators Jones of Edgecombe, chairman; 
Erwin, Kinsland, Griffin, Stubbs, Outlaw, Hamilton, Burgwyn of 
Northampton, Ramsey, Brassfield, Cameron, Mendenhall, Dunlap, 
Hartsell, Sams, Cox, Ramsey. 

Finance. — Senators Varser, chairman; Woodson, Taylor, McCoin, 
Lambeth, Blue, Sams, Gallert, Cameron, Long of Halifax, Erwin, 
Carlton, Walker, Long of Alamance, Burgwyn of Northampton, 
Dewar, Jones of Edgecombe. 

Fish and Fisheries. — Senators Hamilton, chairman; Winborne, 
Burgwin of New Hanover, Hargett, Jones of Edgecombe, Erwin, 
Griffin, McGougan, Sams, Carpenter, Walker, Mendenhall, Byrd. 

Game Laics. — Senators Blue, chairman; Hargett, Scott, Car- 
penter, Griffin, Williams, Brown, Kinsland, Hamilton, Bryd, Bum- 
garner. 

Immigration. — Senators Williams, chairman; Scott, Oates, Griffin, 
Swain, Hargett, Carlton, Walker, Nash, Brown, Brassfield, Long, 
Dunlap, Reinhardt, Robinson. 

Insane Asylum. — Senators Brassfield, chairman; Taylor, Dunlap, 
Scott, Swain, Burgwyn of Northampton, Jones of Edgecombe, 
McKinne, McGougan, Cameron, Sams, Gallert, Erwin, Kinsland, 
Patton, Byrd. 

Institutions for the Blind. — Senators Walker, chairman; Menden- 
hall, Griffin, Outlaw, Williams, Hargett, Long, Burgwin of New 
Hanover, Hamilton, Brassfield, Carlton, Dunlap, Scott, Cox, Robin- 
son. 

Institutions for the Deaf. — Senators Carpenter, chairman; Blue, 
Dunlap, Burgwyn of Northampton, Hamilton, Taylor, Brown, Brass- 
field, Nash, Gallert, Kanipe, Patterson. 

Insurance.— .Senators Long of Alamance, chairman; Mendenhall, 
Nash, McCoin, Carpenter, McGougan, Outlaw, Hamilton, Hartsell, 
Swain, Gallert, Hargett, Jones of Edgecombe. Burgwyn of Northamp- 
ton, DeLaney, Sams, Oates, Erwin, Dewar, Jones of Stokes. 

Internal Improvements. — Senators Hargett, chairman; Cameron, 
Long of Alamance, Walker, Griffin, Swain, Carlton, Scott, Gallert, 
Oates, Cox, Bumgarner. 



Senate Committees 29 

Journal. — Senators Griffin, chairman; Brassfield, Burgwin of New 
Hanover, Kinsland, Carlton, Swain, Burgwyn of Northampton, Out- 
law, Hamilton, Scott, Ramsey. 

Judicial Districts. — Senators Winborne, chairman; Burgwyn of 
Northampton, Burgwin of New Hanover, Gallert, Long of Alamance, 
Dunlap, Jones, Outlaw, Mendenhall, Erwin, Ramsey. 

Judiciary No. 1. — Senators Stubbs, chairman; Hartsell, Burgwin 
of New Hanover, Varser, Long of Halifax, Burgwyn of Northampton, 
Winborne, Jones, Outlaw, Hamilton, McCulloch, Nash, Sams, Car- 
penter, Raynor, Ramsey. 

Judiciary No. 2. — Senators DeLaney, chairman; Long, McCoin, 
Woodson, Taylor, Brassfield, Dunlap, Scott, Gallert, Swain, Erwin, 
Byrd, Patton, Cox. 

Library. — Senators Lambeth, chairman; Swain, Burgwyn of 
Northampton, Jones of Edgecombe, Taylor, Burgwin of New Han- 
over, McCulloch, Brassfield, Kanipe, Ramsey. 

Manufacturing. — Senators Hartsell, chairman; Long of Alamance, 
Lambeth, Long of Halifax, Walker, McCoin, Oates, Williams, 
McGougan, DeLaney, Reinhardt, Dewar. 

Military Affairs. — Senators Scott, chairman; Dunlap, DeLaney, 
Brassfield, Jones, Hamilton, Taylor, Burgwyn of Northampton, Lam- 
beth, Gallert, Kanipe, Patton. 

Mining. — Senators Erwin, chairman; Kinsland, McGougan, Wil- 
liams, Brassfield, Walker, Mendenhall, Scott, Gallert, Oates, Jones, 
Dewar. 

Penal Institutions. — Senators McCulloch, chairman; Brown, 
Swain, Burgwyn of Northampton, Hamilton, Taylor, Nash, Carpen- 
ter, Erwin, McGougan, Brassfield, Carlton, Dunlap, Lambeth, Byrd, 
Robinson. 

Printing. — Senators Burgwyn of Northampton, Gallert, Swain, 
Taylor, Brown, McGougan, Brassfield, Walker, Oates, Kanipe. 

Propositions and Grievances. — Senators McKinne, chairman; 
Brown, Burgwyn of Northampton, Sams, Hamilton, Varser, Griffin, 
Lambeth, Jones, Carlton, Nash, Mendenhall, Carpenter, Hartsell, 
Walker, Kinsland, Blue, Dewar. 

Public Health. — Senators McGougan, chairman; Erwin, Carlton, 
Sams, Burgwin of New Hanover, Swain, Taylor, Oates, Mendenhall, 
DeLaney, Cameron, Woodson, Winborne, Burgwyn of Northampton, 
Varser, Scott, Robinson. 

Public Roads. — Senators Cameron, chairman; Mendenhall, Griffin, 
Brown, Erwin, DeLaney, Burgwin of New Hanover, Sams, Dewar, 



30 Legislative Department 

Bumgarner, Long of Halifax, Swain, Hamilton, Taylor, Varser, 
McGougan, Brassfield, Kinsland, Hargett, McCoin. 

Railroads. — Senators Mendenhall, chairman; Burgwyn of North- 
ampton, Erwin, Jones, Gallert, Outlaw, Stubbs, Hamilton, Burgwin 
of New Hanover, McCulloch, Varser, Nash, Dunlap, Cox, Raynor. 

Rules. — Senators Long of Halifax, chairman; Winborne, Hartsell, 
Varser, Gallert, McCoin, Patton. 

Salaries and Fees. — Senators Taylor, chairman; McKinnie, Oates, 
Varser, Long of Halifax, Cameron, Long of Alamance, Woodson, 
Sams, Erwin, Byrd. 

Senate Expenditures. — Senators Dunlap, chairman; Stubbs, Long 
of Halifax, DeLaney, Varser, McCulloch, Nash, Oates, Reinhardt. 

Senatorial Apportionment. — Senators Burgwyn of Northampton, 
chairman; Jones, Williams, Taylor, Brassfield, Hartsell, Sams, 
Burgwin of New Hanover, Mendenhall, Nash, Carpenter, Dunlap, 
Kinsland, Lambeth, Long of Halifax, Gallert, Long of Alamance, 
McCoin, Carlton, Winborne, Stubbs. 

Pensions and Soldiers' Home. — Senators Kinsland, chairman; 
Burgwyn of Northampton, Jones, Cameron, Long of Alamance, 
Hargett, Griffin, Brown, McGougan, Brassfield, Gallert, Raynor, 
Reinhardt. 

Trustees University. — Senators Long of Alamance, chairman; 
Burgwyn of Northampton, Cameron, McKinne, Erwin, Burgwin of 
New Hanover, Scott, Long of Halifax, Carlton, Woodson, McCulloch, 
Hamilton, Oates, Sams, DeLaney, Winborne, Carpenter, Hargett, 
Cox. 



OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF THE HOUSE OF 
REPRESENTATIVES. 



OFFICERS. 

Harry P. Gbier, Speaker. 

Alex Lassiter Principal Clerk Wake. 

D. P. Dellinger... Reading Clerk Gaston. 

General Green Sergeant-at-Arms Guilford. 

Otis P. Shell Engrossing Clerk Harnett. 



REPRESENTATIVES. 

(Alphabetically Arranged),.^ 



Democrats, J 



Republicans, 2?' 



Name 



Austin, J. A 

Barnes, D. C 

Barnes, J. W 

Barnhill, M. V.. 

Bell, L. C.— 

Bellamy, E. H 

Bennett, B. E 

Blackwelder, A. A 

Balton, M._ 

Bowie, T. C. 

Bradley, Alex. 

Brown, Julius 

Bryant, C. G 

Bunch, W. W.... 

Burt.E. R 

Butt, W. M 

Byrd, A. W 

Clark, R. C... 

Clement, Miss Exum 

Cline, C. F 

Christopher, F. O.... 

Coffey, Blaine _. 

Coleman, J. M. 

Connor, H. G., Jr 

Cooke, C. A 

Cooper, Jos. B... 

Coughenour, W. C. . 

Cowles, C. H.. 

Cox, R. M 

Crisp, B. G 

Darden, J. H... 

Dawson, J. G 

Dees, Geo. C 

Donnell, D. L 

Doughton, R. A 



County 



Guilford 

Hertford 

Johnston 

Nash 

Hyde 

New Hanover... 

Anson 

Caldwell. 

Northampton. 

Ashe_ 

Clay 

Pitt 

Yadkin 

Chowan 

Montgomery.. 

Beaufort 

Wayne. ._ 

Henderson 

Buncombe 

Rutherford 

Cherokee 

Watauga 

Warren 

Wilson.. 

Pasquotank... 

Burke 

Rowan 

Wilkes 

Forsyth 

Dare 

Halifax 

Lenoir 

Pamlico 

Guilford 

Alleghany 



Politics 



Democrat.. 
Democrat... 
Democrat.. 
Democrat.. 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Republican. 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 



Post Office 



High Point. 

Murfreesboro. 

Clayton. 

Rocky Mount. 

Swan Quarter. 

Wilmington. 

Wadesboro. 

Lenoir. 

Rich Square. 

West Jefferson. 

Hayesville. 

Greenville. 

Jonesville. 

Tyner. 

Biscoe. 

Bonnerton. 

Mount Olive. 

Hendersonville. 

Asheville. 

Gilkey. 

Murphy. 

Shulls Mills. 

Macon. 

Wilson. 

Elizabeth City. 

Connelly Springs. 

Salisbury. 

Wilkesboro. 

Rural Hall. 

Manteo. 

Spring Hill. 

Kinston. 

Grantsboro. 

Oak Ridge. 

Sparta. 



32 



Legislative Department 



REPRESENTATIVES— Continued. 



Name 



Ensley, John B 

Everett, R. O 

Everett, W. N 

Exum, J. T 

Ezzell, Earl.. 

Fisher, Ralph R 

Fountain, R. T 

Fuller, F. L., Jr.... 

Gaston, H. B 

Gatling, R. W 

Gibbs, J. P 

Glover, M. B 

Gosney, C. A 

Grady, Paul D 

Graham, A. H 

Graham, T. J 

Grant, A. T., Jr.... 

Grier, H. P.... 

Hall, W. Gentry.... 

Hamilton, C. E 

Henderson, W. H... 
Hendricks, John A. 

Hicks, T. C._ 

Hill, E. J.. 

Holderby, M. D.... 
Hunneycutt, A. J... 

Jenkins, N. W 

Johnson, E. R 

Johnson, Leslie 

Jones, D. M 

Kennedy, E. J 

King, John B 

Lane, Leon T 

Lawrence, W. P 

Leach, Oscar 

Lee, Ben F 

Limerick, T. F 

Linney, J. T 

McArthur, N. B._._ 

McBee, John C 

McGee, H 

McGuire, S. O 

McSwain, Peyton.. 

Martin, Van B 

Matthews, J. H 

Matthews, W. R.... 

Melvin, L. D 

Monroe, W. A 

Moore, Clayton 

Morrisette, W. J 

Morrison, Reid R... 

Mumford, G. W 

Murphv, Walter 

Neal, W. W 

Owen, T. E... 

Parham, B. W 

Pass, J. C 

Person, R. M 

Pharr, E. W 

Propst, J. A 

Quickel, A. L 




Jackson 

Durham... 

Richmond 

Greene 

L'nion 

Transylvania 

Edgecombe 

Durham 

Gaston 

Gates... 

Yancey. 

Nash 

Wake 

Johnston 

Orange 

Graham 

Davie 

Iredell 

Swain 

Forsyth.. 

Haywood 

Madison 

Avery 

Duplin 

Rockingham 

Stanly.... 

Robeson 

Currituck 

Pender 

Carteret 

Cumberland 

Franklin 

Chatham 

Alamance 

Hoke 

Davidson 

Union.. _ 

Alexander 

Robeson 

Mitchell 

Stokes. 

Surry. 

Cleveland 

Washington 

Bertie 

Mecklenburg 

Bladen 

Lee 

Martin.. _ 

Camden 

Iredell 

Wake.. 

Rowan 

McDowell .. 

Sampson 

Granville. 

Person 

Mecklenburg 

Mecklenburg 

Catawba 

Lincoln.. _. 



Politics 



Republican. 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Republican. 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Republican. 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Democrat... 
Republican . 
Republican. 
Republican. 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Democrat... 
Republican . 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Democrat... 



Post Office 



Dillsboro. 

Durham. 

Rockingham. 

Snow Hill. 

Waxhaw. 

Brevard. 

Rocky Mount. 

Durham. 

Belmont. 

Gatesville. 

Burnsville. 

Bailey. 

Raleigh. 

Kenly. 

Hillsboro. 

Brock. 

Mocksville. 

Statesville. 

Ravensford. 

Winston-Salem. 

Canton. 

Marshall. 

Minneapolis. 

Warsaw. 

Ruin. 

Badin. 

Fairmont. 

Currituck. 

Burgaw. 

Beaufort. 

Fayetteville. 

Youngsville. 

Ore Hill. 

Elon College. 

Raeford. 

Lexington. 

Monroe. 

Hiddenite. 

Red Springs. 

Bakersville. 

Germanton. 

Elkin. 

Shelby. 

Plymouth. 

Windsor. 

Charlotte. 

Parkersburg. 

Sanford. 

Williamston. 

Camden. 

Statesville. 

Raleigh. 

Salisbury. 

Marion. 

Clinton. 

Oxford. 

Roxboro. 

Charlotte. 

Charlotte. 

Con over. 

Lincolnton. 



Members of House of Representatives 



33 



REPRESENTATIVES— Continued 




Name 


County 


Politics 


Post Office 


Ridings, C. O- 


Polk 


Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Democrat. ._ 
Republican. 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat. . . 
Democrat. .. 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat.— 
Democrat.. _ 
Republican. 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat.— 
Democrat... 


Fingerville, S. C, R. F. D. 


Rogers, W. A 


Macon 




Ross, Geo. R 


Moore 


Jackson Springs. 


Shaw, A. E 


Scotland 

Brunswick 

Pitt. . 


Smith, E. H.. 




Smith, R. W 




Spence, J. E 


Randolph... . _ 
Tyrrell.. 




Swain, H. S 




Taylor, F. M..__ 


Halifax 




Taylor, R. B 


Vance 




Templeton, J. M., Jr 


Wake. . 


Raleigh. 


Townsend, N. A 


Harnett 


Tucker, John E 


Caswell 




Uzzell, R. P 


Wayne 




Walker, J. W. 

Walter, E. H 


Rockingham 


Reidsville. 


Ward, W. T 


Craven 




Whitaker, T. C. 


Jones 




White, E. S 


Perquimans 

Cabarrus 

Columbus 

Gaston 




Williams, H. S 




Williamson, J. R 

Waltz, A. E 


Cerro Gordo. 

Gastonia. 


Wright, C. G 


Guilford 


Greensboro. 


Young, Luke H 


Buncombe 


Leicester. 



KEPKESENTATIVES. 

(Arranged by counties) 

Alamance — W. P. Lawrence, Elon College (D). 
Alexander — J. T. Linney, Hiddenite (R). 
Alleghany — R. A. Doughton, Sparta (D). 
Anson — B. E. Bennett, Wadesboro (D). 
Ashe— T. C. Bowie, West Jefferson (D). 
Avery — T. C. Hicks, Minneapolis (R). 
Beaufort— W. M. Butt. Bonnerton (D). 
Bertie — J. H. Matthews, Windsor (D). 
Bladen — L. D. Melvin, Parkersburg (D). 
Brunswick — E. H. Smith, Southport (R). 

Buncombe— Luke H. Young, Leicester (D) ; Miss Exum Clement, 
Asheville (D). 

Burke — Jos. B. Cooper, Connelly Springs (R). 
Cabarrus — H. S. Williams, Concord (R). 
Caldwell — A. A. Blackwelder, Lenoir (R). 
Camden — W. J. Morrisette, Camden (D). 
Carteret— T>. M. Jones, Beaufort (R). 
Caswell— John E. Tucker, Yancey ville (D). 



3 



34 Legislative Department 

Catawba — J. A. Propst, Conover (R). 

Chatham — Leon T. Lane, Ore Hill (D). 

Cherokee— F. O. Christopher, Murphy (R). 

Chowan— -W. W. Bunch, Tyner (D). 

Clay — Alex. 0. Bradley, Hayesville (R). 

Cleveland— Peyton McSwain, Shelby (D). 

Columbus— J. R. Williamson, Cerro Gordo (D). 

Craven— W. T. Ward, New Bern (D). 

Cumberland — E. J. Kennedy, Fayetteville (D). 

Currituck— E. R. Johnson, Currituck (D). 

Dare— B. G. Crisp, Manteo (D). 

Davidson — Ben F. Lee, Lexington (R). 

Davie — A. T. Grant, Jr., Mocksville (R). 

Duplin — E. J. Hill, Warsaw (D). 

Durham— R. O. Everett (D) ; F. L. Fuller, Jr., Durham (D). 

Edgecombe — R. T. Founatin, Rocky Mt. (D). 

Forsyth— R. M. Cox, Rural Hall (D); C. E. Hamilton, Winston- 
Salem (D). 

Franklin — John B. King, Youngsville (D). 

Gaston— A. E. Woltz, Gastonia (D) ; H. B. Gaston, Belmont (D). 

Gates— R. W. Gatling, Gatesville (D). 

Graham — T. J. Graham, Brock (R). 

Granville — B. W. Parham, Oxford (D). 

Greene— J. T. Exum, Snow Hill (D). 

Guilford— J. A. Austin, High Point (D) ; D. L. Donnell, Oak Ridge 
(D); C. G. Wright, Greensboro (D). 

Halifax— J. H. Darden, Spring Hill (D) ; F. M. Taylor, Brinkley- 
ville (D). 

Harnett — N. A. Townsend, Dunn (D). 

Haywood — W. H. Henderson, Canton (D). 

Henderson — R. C. Clark, Hendersonville (R). 

Hertford — D. C. Barnes, Murfreesboro (D). 

Hoke — Oscar Leach, Raeford (D). 

Hyde—C. L. Bell, Swan Quarter (D). 

Iredell— U. P. Grier, Statesville (D) ; Dr. Reid R. Morrison, States- 
ville (D). 

Jackson — John B. Ensley, Dillsboro (R). 

Johnston— Paul D. Grady, Kenly (D) ; J. W. Barnes, Clayton (D). 

Jones— T. C. Whitaker, Trenton (D). 

Lee— Br. W. A. Monroe, Sanford (D). 



Members of House of Representatives 35 

Lenoir — J. G. Dawson, Kinston (D). 

Lincoln — A. L. Quickel, Lincolnton (D). 

Macon — W. A. Rogers, Franklin (D). 

Madison — John A. Hendrix, Marshall (R). 

Martin — Clayton Moore, Williamston (D). 

McDoioell—W. W. Neal, Marion (D). 

Mecklenburg— E. W. Pharr (D); W. R. Matthews (D) ; R. M. 
Person, Charlotte (D). 

Mitchell— John C. McBee, Bakersville (R). 

Montgomery — E. R. Burt, Biscoe (D). 

Moore — Geo. R. Ross, Jackson Springs (D). 

Nash^M. V. Barnhill, Rocky Mount (D) ; M. B. Glover, Bailey (D). 

New Hanover — Emmett H. Bellamy, Wilmington (D). 

Northampton — Dr. M. Bolton, Rich Square (D). 

Onslow — E. H. Walton, Jacksonville (D). 

Orange — A. H. Graham, Hillsboro (D). 

Pamlico — Geo. C. Dees, Grantsboro (D). 

Pasqtootank — C. A. Cooke, Elizabeth City (D). 

Pender — Leslie Johnson, Burgaw (D). 

Perquimans — Dr. E. S. White, Belvidere (D). 

Person — J. C. Pass, Roxboro (R). 

Pitt— Julius Brown, Greenville (D); R. W. Smith, Ayden (D). 

Polk—C. 0. Ridings, Fingerville, R. F. D., S. Car. (D). 

Randolph — J. E. Spence, Bennett (R). 

Richmond — W. N. Everett, Rockingham (D). 

Robeson — N. B. McArthur, Red Springs (D); N. W. Jenkins, 
Fairmont (D). 

Rockingham— M. D. Holderby, Ruffin (D); J. W. Walker, Reids- 
ville (D). 

Rowan — Walter Murphy (D); W. C. Coughenhour, Salisbury (D). 

Rutherford— C. F. Cline, Gilkey (D). 

Sampson — T. E. Owens, Clinton (R). 

Scotland — A. E. Shaw, Wagram (D). 

Stanly — A. I. Huneycutt, Badin (R). 

Stokes— H. McGee, Germanton (R). 

Surry— S. O. McGuire, Elkin (R). 

Swain — W. Gentry Hall, Ravens ford (R). 

Transylvania — Ralph R. Fisher, Brevard (R). 

Tyrrell— n. S. Swain, Columbia (D). 

Union— T. F. Limerick, Monroe (D); Earl Ezzell, Waxhaw (D). 



36 Legislative Department 

Vance — R. B. Taylor, Townsville (D). 

Wake— J. M. Templeton, Jr. (D) ; C. A. Gosney (D), and G. W. 
Mumford, Raleigh, (D). 

Warren — J. M. Coleman, Macon (D). 

Washington — Van B. Martin, Plymouth (D). 

Watauga— Blaine Coffey, Shulls Mills (R). 

Wayne— R. P. Uzzell, Goldsboro (D).; A. W. Byrd, Mt. Olive (D). 

Wilkes— C. H. Cowles, Wilkesboro (R). 

Wilson — H. G. Connor, Jr., Wilson (D). 

Yadkin — Dr. C. G. Bryant, Jonesville (R). 

Yancey — J. P. Gibbs, Burnsville (R). 



RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 

TOUCHING THE DUTIES OF SPEAKER. 

1. It shall be the duty of the speaker to have the sessions of this 
House opened with prayer in accordance with the order of this 
body. 

2. He shall take the chair every day at the hour fixed by the 
House on the preceding legislative day, shall immediately call the 
members to order, and, on appearance of a quorum, cause the jour- 
nal of the preceding day to be read. 

3. He shall preserve order and decorum, may speak to points of 
order in preference to other members, rising from his seat for 
that purpose, and shall decide questions of order, subject to an 
appeal to the House by any member, on which appeal no member 
shall speak more than once, unless by leave of the House. 

4. He shall rise to put a question, but may state it sitting. 

5. Questions shall be put in this form, namely: "Those in favor 
(as the question may be) will say, Aye," and after the affirmative 
voice has been expressed, "Those opposed will say, No." Upon a call 
for a division, the Speaker shall count; if required, he shall appoint 
tellers. 

6. The Speaker shall have a general direction of the hall. He 
shall have a right to name any member to perform the duties of the 
chair, but substitution shall not extend beyond one day, except in 
case of sickness or by leave of the House. 



Rules of House of Representatives 37 

7. All committees shall be appointed by the Speaker, unless other- 
wise specially ordered by the House. 

8. In all elections the Speaker may vote. In all other cases he 
may exercise his right to vote, or he may reserve this right until 
there is a tie; but in no case shall he be allowed to vote twice on 
the same question. 

9. All acts, addresses, and resolutions shall be signed by the 
Speaker, and all warrants and subpoenas issued by order of the 
House shall be under his hand and seal, attested by the Clerk. 

10. In case of any disturbance or disorderly conduct in the gal- 
leries or lobby, the Speaker (or Chairman of the Committee of the 
Whole) shall have the power to order the same to be cleared. 

11. No persons except members of the Senate, officers and clerks 
of the two Houses of the General Assembly, Judges of the Supreme 
and Superior Courts, officers of the State, persons particularly in- 
vited by the Speaker or some member and such gentlemen as have 
been members of either House of the Legislature or of a convention 
of the people of the State, shall be admitted within the hall of the 
House: Provided, that no person except members of the Senate 
and officers of the two Houses of the General Assembly shall be al- 
lowed on the floor of the House or in the lobby in the rear of the 
Speaker's desk unless invited by the Speaker of the House. 

12. Reporters wishing to take down debates may be admitted by 
the Speaker, who shall assign such places to them on the floor or 
elsewhere, to effect this object, as shall not interfere with the con- 
venience of the House. 

13. Smoking shall not be allowed in the hall, the lobbies, or the 
galleries while the House is in session. 

ORDER OF BUSINESS OF THE DAY. 

14. After the reading of the journal of the preceding day, which 
shall stand approved without objection, the House shall proceed to 
business in the following order, viz.: 

(1) The receiving of petitions, memorials, and papers addressed 

to the General Assembly or to the House. 

(2) Reports of standing committees. 

(3) Reports of select committees. 

(4) Resolutions. 

(5) Bills. 

(6) The unfinished business of the preceding day. 



38 Legislative Department 

(7) Bills, resolutions, petitions, memorials, messages, and other 

papers on the Calendar, in their exact numerical order 

unless displaced by the orders of the day; but motion 

and messages to elect officers shall always be in order. 

Every member wishing to present a petition, bill, or other paper 

or make report, shall rise from his seat and address the Speaker 

and shall not proceed further until recognized by him. 

ON DECORUM IN DEBATE. 

15. When any member is about to speak in debate or deliver any 
matter to the House, he shall rise from his seat and respectfully ad- 
dress the Speaker. 

16. When the Speaker shall call a member to order, the member 
shall sit down, as also he shall when called to order by another 
member, unless the Speaker decide the point of order in his favor. 
By leave of the House a member called to order may clear a mat- 
ter of fact, or explain, but shall not proceed in debate so long as the 
decision stands, but by permission of the House. Any member may 
appeal from the decision of the Chair, and if, upon appeal, the de- 
cision be in favor of the member called to order he may proceed; 
if otherwise, he shall not. except by leave of the House; and if 
the case, in the judgment of the House, require it, he shall be 
liable to its censure. 

17. No member shall speak until recognized by the Chair, and 
when two or more members rise at the same time, the Speaker 
shall name the member to speak. 

18. No member shall speak more than twice on the main question, 
nor longer than thirty minutes for the first speech and fifteen min- 
utes for the second speech, unless allowed to do so by affirmative 
vote of the majority of the members present; nor shall he speak 
more than once upon an amendment or motion to commit or post- 
pone, and then not longer than ten minutes. But the House may, by 
consent of a majority, suspend the operation of this rule during 
any debate on any particular question before the House, or the Com- 
mittee on Rules may bring in a special rule that shall be applicable 
to the debate on any bill. 

19. While the Speaker is putting any question, or addressing the 
House, no person shall speak, stand up, walk out of or across the 
House, nor when a member is speaking entertain private discourse, 
stand up, or pass between him and the Chair. 



Rules of House of Representatives 39 

20. No member shall vote on any question when he was not pres- 
ent when the question was put by the Speaker, except by the con- 
sent of the House. Upon a division and count of the House on any 
question, no member without the bar shall be counted. 

21. Every member who shall be in the hall of the House for the 
above purpose when the question is put shall give his vote, upon a 
call of the ayes and noes, unless the House for special reasons shall 
excuse him, and no application to be excused from voting or to ex- 
plain a vote shall be entertained unless made before the call of the 
roll. The hall of the House shall include the lobbies, galleries, and 
offices connected with the hall. 

22. When a motion is made and seconded, it shall be stated by the 
Speaker, or, if written, it shall be handed to the Chair and read 
aloud by the Speaker or Clerk before debate. 

23. Every motion shall be reduced to writing, if the Speaker or 
any two members request it. 

24. After a motion is stated by the Speaker or read by the Clerk, 
it shall be deemed to be in possession of the House, but may be 
withdrawn before decision or amendment, except in case of a 
motion to reconsider, which motion, when made by a member, shall 
be deemed and taken to be in possession of the House, and shall 
not be withdrawn without leave of the House. 

25. When a question is under debate no motion shall he received 
but to adjourn, to lay on the table, to postpone indefinitely, to post- 
pone to a day certain, to commit or amend, which several motions 
shall have precedence in the order in which they stand arranged; 
and no motion to lay on the table, to postpone indefinitely, to post- 
pone to a day certain, to commit or amend, being decided, shall be 
again allowed on the same day and at the same stage of the bill or 
proposition. 

26. A motion to adjourn or lay on the table shall be decided with- 
out debate, and a motion to adjourn shall always be in order, ex- 
cept when the House is voting or some member is speaking; but a 
motion to adjourn shall not follow a motion to adjourn until debate 
or some business of the House has intervened. 

27. When a question has been postponed indefinitely, the same 
shall not be acted on again during the session, except upon a two- 
thirds vote. 

28. Any member may call for a division of the question, when the 
same shall admit of it, which shall be determined by the Speaker. 



40 Legislative Department 

29. When a motion has been once made and carried in the affirma- 
tive or negative, it shall be in order for any member of the majority 
to move for the reconsideration thereof, on the same or succeeding 
day, unless it may have already passed the Senate, and no motion 
to reconsider shall be taken from the table except by a two-thirds 
vote. But unless such vote has been taken by a call of the yeas and 
nays, any member may move to reconsider. 

30. When the reading of a paper is called for, which has been read 
in the House, and the same is objected to by any member, it shall 
be determined by a vote of the House. 

31. Petitions, memorials, and other papers addressed to the House 
shall be presented by the Speaker, or by any member in his place; a 
brief statement of the contents thereof may be verbally made by the 
introducer, and shall not be debated or decided on the day of their 
being first read, unless the House shall direct otherwise, but shall 
lie on the table, to be taken up in the order they were read. 

32. When the ayes and noes are called for on any question, it 
shall be on motion before the question is put; and if seconded by 
one-fifth of the members present, the question shall be decided by 
the ayes and noes; and in taking the ayes and noes, or on a call of 
the House, the names of the members will be taken alphabetically. 

33. Decency of speech shall be observed and personal reflection 
carefully avoided. 

34. Any member, after the expiration of the morning hour, may 
rise to a question of personal privilege; but if the question of per- 
sonal privilege be decided against him he shall not proceed unless 
the ruling of the Speaker be reversed by the House. 

35. Fifteen members, including the Speaker, shall be authorized 
to compel the attendance of absent members. 

36. No member or officer of the House shall absent himself from 
the service of the House without leave, unless from sickness or 
inability. 

37. Any member may excuse himself from serving on any com- 
mittee if he is a member of two standing committees. 

38. If any member shall be necessarily absent on temporary busi- 
ness of the House when a vote is taken upon any question, upon 
entering the House he shall be permitted, on request, to vote, pro- 
vided that the result shall not be thereby affected. 



Rules of House of Representatives 41 

39. No standing rule or order shall be rescinded or altered with- 
out one day's notice given on the motion thereof, and to sustain 
such motion two-thirds of the House shall be required. 

40. The members of this House shall uncover their heads upon 
entering the hall whilst the House is in session, and shall continue 
to be uncovered during their continuance in the hall, except Quakers. 

41. A motion to reconsider shall be determined by a majority vote, 
except a motion to reconsider an indefinite postponement, or a mo- 
tion to reconsider a motion tabling a motion to reconsider, which 
shall require a two-thirds vote. 

STANDING COMMITTEES. 

42. At the commencement of the session a standing committee 
shall be appointed on each of the following subjects, namely: 

On Agriculture. 

On Appropriations. 

On Banks and Currency. 

On Claims. 

On Constitutional Amendment.* 

On Corporation. Commission. 

On Corporations. 

On Counties, Cities, Towns and Townships. 

On Courts and Judicial Districts. 

On Education. 

On Election Law. 

On Engrossed Bills. 

On Expenditures of the House. 

On Federal Relations. 

On Finance. 

On Fish and Fisheries. 

On Game. 

On Health. 

On Immigration. 

On Insane Asylums. 

On Institutions for the Blind. 

On Institutions for the Deaf and Dumb. 

On Insurance. 

On Internal Improvements. 

On Judiciary, No. 1. 

On Judiciary, No. 2. 



42 Legislative Department 

On Manufactures and Labor. 

On Military Affairs. 

On Mines and Mining. 

On Oyster Interests. 

On Penal Institutions. 

On Pensions. 

On Privileges and Elections. 

On Propositions and Grievances. 

On Public Roads and Turnpikes. 

On Regulation of tbe Liquor Traffic. 

On Regulation of Public Service Corporations. 

On Rules. 

On Salaries and Fees. 

JOINT COMMITTEES. 

On Enrolled Bills. 

On Appointment of Justices of the Peace. 

On Library. 

On Printing. 

On Public Buildings and Grounds. 

On Trustees of University. 

On Revision of the Laws. 

To be appointed by the Speaker, and the first announced on each 
committee shall be chairman. 

43. In forming a Committee of the Whole House, the Speaker 
shall leave the chair, and a chairman to preside in committee shall 
be appointed by the Speaker. 

44. Upon bills submitted to a Committee of the Whole House, the 
bill shall be first read throughout by the Clerk, and then again read 
arid debated by sections, leaving the preamble to be last considered. 
The body of the bill shall not be defaced or interlined, but all amend- 
ments, noting the page and line, shall be duly entered by the Clerk 
on a separate paper as the same shall be agreed to by the Com- 
mittee, and so reported to the House. After report, the bill shall 
again be subject to be debated and amended by sections before a 
question on its passage be taken. 

45. The rules of proceeding in the House shall be observed in a 
Committee of the Whole House, so far as they may be applicable,. 



Rules of House of Representatives 43 

except the rule limiting the time of speaking and the previous 
question. 

46. In a Committee of the Whole House a motion that the Com- 
mittee rise shall always be in order, except when a member is speak- 
ing, and shall be decided without debate. 

47. Every bill shall be introduced by motion for leave, or by order 
of the House, or on the report of a committee, unless introduced in 
regular order during the morning hour. 

48. All bills and resolutions shall be reported from the committee 
to which referred, with such recommendation as the committee may 
desire to make. 

49. Every bill shall receive three several readings in the House 
previous to its passage, and the Speaker shall give notice at each 
whether it be its first, second, or third reading. 

50. Any member introducing a bill or resolution shall briefly in- 
dorse thereon the substance of the same. 

51. The Speaker shall refer all bills and resolutions upon their in- 
troduction to the appropriate committee, unless otherwise ordered. 
When the Public bill or resolution has been referred by the Speaker 
to a committee, and after it has remained with such committee for 
the space of five days without being reported to the House, it shall, 
at the option and upon request of the member who introduced 
it, be recalled from such committee by order of the Speaker and by 
him referred to some other regular committee, which shall be indi- 
cated in the House by the introducer thereof, and the request and 
order recalling such bill and the reference thereof shall be entered 
on the journal. 

52. The Clerk of the House shall keep a separate calendar of the 
Public, Local, and Private bills, and shall number them in the order 
in which they are introduced; and all bills shall be disposed of in 
the order they stand upon the Calendar; but the Committee on 
Rules may at any time arrange the order of precedence in which 
bills may be considered. No bill shall be twice read on the same 
day without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members. 

53. All resolutions which may grant money out of the Treasury, 
or such as shall be of a public nature, shall be treated in all re- 
spects in a similar manner with Public bills. 

54. The Clerk of the House shall be deemed to continue in office 
until another is appointed. 



44 Legislative Department 

55. Upon the motion of any member, there shall be a call of the 
House, a majority of the members present assenting thereto, and 
upon a call of the House the names of the members shall be called 
over by the Clerk and the absentees noted, after which the, names 
of the absentees shall again be called over. The doors shall then 
be closed, and those from whom no excuse or sufficient excuses are 
made may, by order of those present, if fifteen in number, be taken 
into custody as they appear, or may be sent for and taken into cus- 
tody wherever to be found by special messenger appointed for that 
purpose. 

PREVIOUS QUESTION. 

56. The previous question shall be as follows: "Shall the main 
question be now put?" and, until it is decided, shall preclude all 
amendments and debate. If this question shall be decided in the 
affirmative, the "main question" shall be on the passage of the bill, 
resolution, or other matter under consideration; but when amend- 
ments are pending, the question shall be taken upon such amend- 
ments, in their order, without further debate or amendment. If such 
question be decided in the negative, the main question shall be con- 
sidered as remaining under debate: Provided, that no one shall 
move the previous question except the member submitting the re- 
port on the bill or other matter under consideration, and the mem- 
ber introducing the bill or other matter under consideration, or 
the member in charge of the measure, who shall be designated by 
the chairman of the committee reporting the same to the House at 
the time the bill or other matter under consideration is reported to 
the House, or taken up for consideration. 

When a motion for the previous question is made, and pending 
the second thereto by a majority, debate shall cease; but if any 
member obtains the floor, he may move to lay the matter under con- 
sideration on the table, or move an adjournment, and when both or 
either of these motions are pending the question shall stand: 

(1) Previous question. 

(2) To adjourn, 

(3) To lay on the table. 

And then upon the main question, or amendments, or the motion to 
postpone indefinitely, postpone to a day certain, to commit, or amend, 
in the order of the precedence, until the main question is reached 



Rules of House of Representatives 45 

or disposed of; but after the previous question has been called by 
a majority, no motion, amendment, or debate shall be in order. 

All motions below the motion to lay on the table must be made 
prior to a motion for the previous question; but, pending and not 
after the second thereof, by the majority of the House, a motion 
to adjourn or lay on the table, or both, are in order. This consti- 
tutes the precedence of the motion to adjourn and lay on the table 
over other motions, in Rule 25. 

Motions stand as follows in order of precedence in Rule 26: 

Lay on the table, 
Previous question, 
Postpone indefinitely, 
Postpone definitely, 
To commit or amend. 

When the previous question is called, all motions below it fall, 
unless made prior to the call, and all motions above it fall after its 
second by a majority required. Pending the second, the motions to 
adjourn and lay on the table are in order, but not after a second. 
When in order and every motion is before the House, the question 
stands as follows: 

Previous question, 

Adjourn, 

Postpone indefinitely, 

Postpone definitely, 

To commit, 

Amendment to amendment, 

Amendment, 

Substitute, 

Bill. 

The previous question covers all other motions when seconded by 
a majority of the House, and proceeds by regular gradation to the 
main question, without debate, amendment, or motion, until such 
question is reached or disposed of. 

57. All committees, other than the Committee on Appropriations, 
when favorably reporting any bill, which carries an appropriation 
from the State, shall indicate same in the report, and said bill shall 
be re-referred to the Committee on Appropriations for a further 
report before being acted upon by the House. 



46 Legislative Department 

58. The Principal Clerk, the Engrossing Clerk, and the Door- 
keeper shall appoint, with the approval of the Speaker, and by af- 
firmative order of the House, such assistants as may be necessary 
to the efficient discharge of the duties of their various offices. 

59. The Speaker shall appoint twelve pages to wait upon the ses- 
sions of the House, and when the pressure of business may require 
he may appoint three additional pages. 

60. The chairman of each of the committees, Judiciary No. 1, 
Judiciary No. 2, Finance, and Appropriations, and the chairmen 
of committees on Constitutional Amendments and Education jointly 
may appoint a clerk with the approval of the majority of said re- 
spective committees; and no other clerks of committees shall be 
appointed except upon motion, which shall first be referred to the 
Committee on Rules, and a favorable report from said committee 
shall not allow the appointment of additional clerks of committees 
unless such report be adopted by two-thirds vote of the House. 

61. The chairman and five other members of any committee shall 
constitute a quorum of said committee for the transaction of business. 

62. The Speaker, on each Monday morning, shall appoint a com- 
mittee of three members, whose duty it shall be to examine daily 
the journal of the House before the hour of convening, and report 
after the opening of the House whether or not the proceedings of 
the previous day have been correctly recorded. 



STANDING C03I3IITTEES OF THE HOI SE OF 
REPRESENTATIVES. 

Agriculture. — Representatives Tucker, chairman; Cox, Ross, Cole- 
man, Taylor of Halifax, Morrison, Young, Henderson, Williamson, 
Jenkins, Whitaker, Barnes of Johnston, Butt, Shaw, Uzzell, 
McArthur, Johnson of Pender, Darden, Gibbs, Lee, Bradley, Hicks, 
Coffey, Cooper, Propst, Owen, King, Bennett, Person, Swain, Dees, 
Smith of Pitt, Melvin, Ezzell, Holderby, Taylor of Vance, Bunch. 

Appropriations. — Representatives Everett of Richmond, chairman; 
Doughton, Wright, Bowie, Dawson, Pharr, Matthews of Bertie, 
Brown, Connor, Parham, Darden, Shaw, Glover, Bolton, Woltz, 
Young, Monroe, Gosney, Hill, Burt, Clement, Cline, Gatling, Fuller, 
Williams, Maguire, Cowles, McBee, Ensley, Glover, Everett of 
Durham. 



Standing Committees op House of Representatives 47 

Banks and Currency. — Representatives Barnes of Hertford, chair- 
man; Doughton, Everett of Richmond, Fountain, Dawson, Tucker, 
Gatling, Coughenour, Coleman, Cline, Gosney, Exum, McArthur, 
Smith of Pitt, Ross, Burt, Barnhill, Limerick, Bunch, Dees, Donnell, 
Clark, McGee, Owen, Jones, Pass. 

Claims. — Representatives Henderson, chairman; Person, Ridings, 
McArthur, Austin, Linney, Christopher, Graham of Graham. 

Congressional Districts. — Representatives Cox, chairman; John- 
eon of Currituck, Parham, Dawson, Lane, Bowie, Bellamy, Gaston, 
Neal, Barnhill, Morrison, Austin, Person, Moore, Taylor of Halifax, 
Gosney, Cowles, Owen, Hendricks, Clark. 

Constitutional Amendments. — Representatives Pharr, chairman; 
Doughton, Murphy, Matthews of Bertie, Barnes of Hertford, Brown, 
Quickel, Everett of Durham, Townsend, Moore, Woltz, Byrd, Bellamy, 
Graham of Orange, Grant, Christopher, Hendricks. 

Corporation Commission. — Representatives Brown, chairman; 
Pharr, Matthews of Bertie, Fountain, Wright, Quickel, Barnhill, 
Townsend, McSwain, Martin, Everett of Richmond, Grady, Bolton, 
Tucker, Williamson, Person, Uzzell, Williams, Smith of Brunswick, 
Grant, Clark. 

Corporations. — Representatives Everett of Durham, chairman; 
Pharr, Matthews of Bertie, Wright, Brown, Fountain, Everett of 
Richmond, Grady, Coughenour, Tucker, Martin, Leach, Hamilton, 
Bolton, Rogers, Gaston, Williamson, Williams, Christopher, Ensley, 
Blackwelder, Pass. 

Counties, Cities and Towns. — Representatives Neal, chairman; 
Matthews of Bertie, Pharr, Barnes of Hertford, Fountain, Lane, 
Kennedy, Grady, Shaw, Bunch, Exum, McArthur, Bennett, Brown, 
Gatling, Mumford, Henderson, Burt, Glover, Grant, Leach, Cowles, 
Christopher. 

Courts and Judicial Districts. — Representatives Fountain, chair- 
man; Murphy, Quickel, Parham, Dawson, Townsend, Barnhill, 
Fuller, Hamilton, McSwain, Grant, Hendricks, Smith of Bruns- 
wick. 

Drainage. — Representatives Walton, chairman; Townsend, Barnes 
of Hertford, Gatling, Bell, Butt, Brown, Whitaker, Walker, White, 
Huneycutt, Fisher, Gibbs. 

Education. — Representatives Matthews of Bertie, chairman; 
Lawrence, Bowie, Barnhill, Pharr, Neal, Everett of Durham, Parham, 
Woltz, McSwain, Lane, Taylor of Halifax, Moore, Tucker, Butt, 



48 Legislative Department 

Bellamy, Graham of Orange, Clement, Hamilton, Glover, Cooke, 
King, Donnell, Whitaker, Byrd, Coughenour, Crisp, Ridings, Swain, 
White, Bennett, Hendricks, Jones, Bryant, Coffey, Cowles, Doughton, 
Holderby, Dawson, Ward. 

Election Laws. — Representatives Grady, chairman; Doughton, 
Neal, Cox, Glover, Quickel, Bowie, Dawson, Lane, Limerick, Shaw, 
Burt, Darden, Cline, Clement, Williams, Cowles, McBee, Hicks, 
Barnes of Hertford, Fountain, Ross. 

Engrossed Bills. — Representatives Templeton, chairman; Graham 
of Orange, Holderby, White, Walton, Cline, Ridings, Bennett, Ezzell, 
Cooper, Hicks, Linney, Darden. 

Expenditures of the House. — Representatives Glover, chairman; 
Exum, Coleman, Dees, Cooke, Crisp, Huneycutt, Coffey, Bryant. 

Federal Relations. — Representatives Townsend, chairman; Dough- 
ton, Murphy, Quickel, Connor, Dawson, Parham, Matthews of Bertie, 
Limerick, Williams, Cowles, Hendricks, Spence. 

Finance. — Representatives Doughton, chairman; Dawson, Connor, 
Everett of Richmond, Parham, Murphy, Williamson, Fountain, Cox, 
Everett of Durham, Bellamy, Graham of Orange, Austin, Coleman, 
Henderson, Quickel, Walton, Matthews of Mecklenburg, Johnson of 
Currituck, Hill, Townsend, Ross, Morrison, Maguire, Pass, Clark, 
Pharr, Fuller, Ward. 

Fish and Fisheries. — Representatives Butt, chairman; Bell, Lim- 
erick, Walton, Gaston, Swain, Johnson of Currituck, Bunch, Crisp, 
Dees, Morrisette, Gibbs, Jones, Smith of Brunswick. 

Game. — Representatives Johnson of Currituck, chairman; John- 
son of Pender, Young, Butt, Matthews of Mecklenburg, Donnell, 
Dees, Walton, Gaston, Gatling, Taylor of Vance, Barnes of Johnston, 
Martin, Bell, Bunch, Cline, Crisp, Morrisette, Walker, McGee, Propst, 
Lee, Maguire, Bradley. 

Health. — Representatives Monroe, chairman; Bolton, Morrison, 
Rogers, White, King, Fuller, Lane, Bellamy, Pharr, Quickel, Wright, 
Leach, Ross, Dees, Henderson, Mumford, Person, Bell, Bunch, 
Johnson of Pender, Melvin, Bryant, Cooper, Fisher, Graham of 
Graham. 

Immigration.- — Representatives Bunch, chairman; Cooke, Ezzell, 
Taylor of Vance. Barnes of Johnston, Uzzell, Walker, Henderson, 
Kennedy, Gibbs, Cooper, Bradley, Spence. 

Insane Asylums. — Representatives Bolton, chairman; Monroe, 
Byrd, Walker, Lawrence, Martin, Austin, Exum, Donnell, McSwain, 
Henderson, Rogers, Swain, Melvin, Jones, Bryant, Cooper. 



Standing Committees of House of Representatives 49 

Institution for the Blind. — Representatives Rogers, chairman; 
Holderby, Whitaker, Ridings, Mumford, Tucker, White, Morrisette, 
Hall, Clark, Propst, Spence. 

Institutions for th§ Deaf and Dumb. — Representatives Clement, 
chairman; Donnell, Jenkins, Glover, Lawrence, Graham of Orange, 
Smith of Pitt, Melvin, Jones, Propst, Spence. 

Insurance. — Representatives Mumford, chairman; Woltz, Connor, 
Quickel, Parham, Whitaker, Cox, Hill, Holderby, Lawrence, Fuller, 
Fountain, Exum, Townsend, Donnell, Lane, Barnes of Hertford, 
Shaw, Young, Johnson of Currituck, Person, Hendricks, Huneycutt, 
Ensley, Pass. 

Internal Improvements. — Representatives Gatling, chairman; 
Ridings, Kennedy, King, Swain, White, Ezzell, Bradley, Christopher, 
McGee, Blackwelder. 

Judiciary A'o. 1. — Representatives Dawson, chairman; Parham, 
Doughton, Murphy, Barnes of Hertford, Grady, Quickel, Moore, 
Townsend, Fuller, Gaston, Limerick, Austin, Graham of Orange, 
Leach, Clement, Templeton, Williams, McBee, Fisher, Christopher, 
Byrd. 

Judiciary No. 2. — Representatives Connor, chairman; Pharr, 
Bowie, Fountain, Matthews of Bertie, Everett of Durham, Brown, 
Crisp, Coughenour, Barnhill, Gosney, Woltz, McSwain, Bellamy, 
Hamilton, Martin, Williamson, Grant, Hendricks, -Smith of Bruns- 
wick. 

Manufacturing and Labor. — Representatives Quickel, chairman; 
Neal, Hamilton, Coleman, Young, Glover, Jenkins, Woltz, Burt, 
Uzzell, Bennett, Donnell, Cline, Henderson, Kennedy, Smith of Pitt, 
Williams, Hall, Huneycutt, Blackwelder. 

Millitary Affairs. — Representatives Gosney, chairman; Graham 
of Orange, Fuller, Morrison, Byrd, Glover, Templeton, Bellamy, 
Leacb, Bell, McSwain, Morrisette, Ridings, Dees, Hall, McBee, 
Fisher, Taylor of Vance, Graham of Graham. 

Mines and Mining. — Representatives Bennett, chairman; Hender- 
son, Cooke, Ezzell, Taylor of Vance, Lee, Linney. 

Oyster Industry. — Representatives Crisp, chairman; Martin, Bell, 
Walton, Swain, Johnson of Currituck, Bunch, Dees, Morrisette, 
Smith of Brunswick, Jones, Owen. 

Penal Institutions. — Representatives Darden, chairman; Dough- 
ton, Matthews of Mecklenburg, Barnes of Johnston, Morrison, Uzzell, 
Melvin, Williamson, Wright, King, Glover, McArthur, Maguire, 
Owen, Hall. 



50 Legislative Department 

Pensions. — Representatives Matthews of Mecklenburg, chairman; 
Henderson, Holderby, Darden, Lane, Tucker, Johnson of Pender, 
Matthews of Bertie, Monroe, Taylor of Vance, Templeton, Walker, 
Williams, Bryant, McBee, Pass, King. 

Private and Public-Local Laws. — Representatives Coughenour, 
chairman; Austin, Leach, Barnhill, Limerick, Gosney, Woltz, Hamil- 
ton, Gaston, Coleman, Exum, Barnes of Johnston, Lane, Grant, 
Hendricks, McBee. 

Propositions and Grievances. — Representatives Mu,rphy, chair- 
man; Taylor of Halifax, Barnes of Hertford, Matthews of Mecklen- 
burg, Parham, Dawson, Gosney, Bolton, Barnhill, Butt, Monroe, 
Brown, Martin, Neal, Hill, Shaw, Uzzell, Barnes of Johnston, 
Rogers, Byrd, Austin, Moore, Clement, Donnell, McSwain, McGee, 
Propst, McBee, Owen, Kennedy, Ward. 

Public Roads and Turnpikes. — Representatives Bowie, chairman; 
Doughton, Pharr, Neal, Barnes of Hertford, Parham, Morrison, 
Lawrence, Moore, Cox, Burt, Everett of Durham, Johnson of Curri- 
tuck, Wright, Bellamy, Taylor of Halifax, Walker, Morrisette, Wal- 
ton, Coleman, Cooke, Templeton, Exum, Byrd, Leach, Hill, Jenkins, 
Ezzell, Smith of Pitt, Matthews of Mecklenburg, Ross, Gaston, 
Hendricks, Christopher, Maguire, McBee, Coffey, Bryant, White, 
Cowles, Ward. 

Regulation of Public Service Corporations. — Representatives 
Woltz, chairman; Neal, Lane, Pharr, Hamilton, Williamson, Johnson 
of Pender, Young, Person, Lee, Blackwelder, Bradley. 

Rules. — Representatives Parham, chairman; Doughton, Bowie, 
Murphy, Barnes of Hertford, Cox, Grant. 

Salaries and Fees.- — Representatives Wright, chairman; Everett 
of Durham, Bowie, Neal, Dawson, Pharr, Crisp, Grady, Everett of 
Richmond, Parham, Doughton, Maguire, Fisher, McBee, Miss 
Clement. 

Senatorial Districts. — Representatives Morrison, chairman; Cox, 
Hill, Glover, Neal, Barnes of Hertford, Connor, Williamson, Grady, 
Johnson of Currituck, Townsend, Matthews of Mecklenburg, Hender- 
son, Burt, McArthur, Monroe, McGee, Coffey. Linney. 

Joint Committees 

Enrolled Bills. — Representatives Barnhill, chairman; Fuller, 
Leach, Gaston, Cook, Exum, Johnson of Pender, Dees, Linney, 
Graham of Graham. 



Standing Committees of House of Representatives 51 

Justices of the Peace. — Representatives Taylor of Halifax, chair- 
man; Grady, King, Neal, Hill, Cox, Lane, Shaw, Person, Walton, 
Spence, Blackwelder, Propst. 

Library. — Representatives Lawrence, chairman; Templeton, Bel- 
lamy, Cline, Graham of Orange, Gaston, Christopher, Cooper, Lee, 
Bradley. 

Piiblic Buildings and Grounds. — Representatives Young, chair- 
man; Hamilton, Kennedy, Bennett, Williamson, Walker, Coffey, 
Gibbs, Hall. 

Printing. — Representatives McSwain, chairman; Byrd, Bell, Mum- 
ford, King, Barnes of Johnston. Linney, Graham of Graham, Ensley, 
Blackwelder. 

Trustees of the University. — Representatives Moore, chairman; 
Doughton, Wright, Everett of Richmond, Murphy, Bowie, Connor, 
Pharr, Dawson, Townsend, Graham of Orange, Exum, Williams, Pass, 
Maguire, Woltz. 



PART II. 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS 



1. Governor. 

2. Secretary of State. 

3. Treasurer. 

4. Auditor. 

5. Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

6. Attorney-General. 



THE GOVERNOR. 

Cameron Morrison, Governor. 

The Governor is the chief executive officer of the State. He is 
elected by the people for a term of four years. He receives a salary 
of $6,500 a year, and in addition is allowed annually $600 for travel- 
ing expenses, and a residence, with domestic servants. 

Article III, Section 2, of the Constitution of North Carolina, pre- 
scribes the following qualifications for the Governor: 

1. He must have attained the age of thirty years. 

2. He must have been a citizen of the United States for five years, 
and a resident of North Carolina for two years next before the 
election. 

3. No person shall be eligible for the office of Governor for more 
than four years in any term of eight years, unless he becomes Gov- 
ernor by having been Lieutenant-Governor or President of the 
Senate. 

The same qualifications apply to the office of Lieutenant-Governor. 
The Constitution prescribes the powers and duties of the Governor 
as follows: 

1. To take the oath of office prescribed for the Governor. 

2. To reside at the seat of government; to keep the General As- 
sembly informed respecting the affairs of the State; and to recom- 
mend to the General Assembly such measures as he deems expedient. 

3. To grant reprieves, commutations and pardons (except in cases 
of impeachment), and to report each case of reprieve, commutation, 
or pardon to the General Assembly. 

4. To receive reports from all officials of the Executive Depart- 
ments and of public institutions, and to transmit the same to the 
General Assembly. 

5. He is commander-in-chief of the militia of the State, except 
when they are called' into the service of the United States. 

6. To call extra sessions of the General Assembly when he thinks 
necessary, by and with the advice of the Council of State. 

7. To appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, 
all officers whose offices are established by the Constitution and 
whose appointments are not otherwise provided for. 

8. To keep "The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina" and 
use the same as occasion shall require. 



56 Executive Departments 

He has no veto power, being the only Governor in the United 
States without such power. 

In addition to these duties the following are prescribed by statute: 

1. To supervise the official conduct of all executive and adminis- 
trative officers, and to visit all State institutions whenever he deems 
such visitation necessary to inquire into their management and 
needs. 

2. To see that all public offices are filled and their duties per- 
formed. 

3. To make appointments and supply vacancies not otherwise pro- 
vided for in all departments. 

4. To be the sole official organ of communication between the gov- 
ernment of this State and other States or the government of the 
United States. 

5. To use the civil and military power of the State to prevent the 
violation of the statute against prize-fighting in North Carolina. 

6. To convene the Council of State for consultation whenever he 
deems it necessary. 

7. To appoint a Private Secretary, who shall keep a record of all 
public letters written by or to the Governor in books provided for 
that purpose. 

8. To cause to be kept the following records: a register of all ap- 
plications for pardon or the commutation of any sentence; an ac- 
count of his official expenses, and the rewards offered by him for 
the apprehension of criminals, which shall be paid upon the warrant 
of the Auditor. 

9. Under certain conditions to employ counsel for the State. 

10. To appoint by proclamation one day in each year as a day of 
solemn and public thanksgiving to Almighty God for past blessings 
and of supplication for His continued kindness and care over us as a 
State and a Nation. 

11. To procure a seal for each department of the State govern- 
ment to be used in such manner as may be established by law. 

In addition to the above duties the Governor is, ex officio, chair- 
man of the State Board of Education, of the Board of Public Build- 
ings and Grounds, of the State Board of Pensions, of the State Board 
of Internal Improvements, of the North Carolina Geological Board, 
of the Board of Trustees of the State Library, of the Board of Trus- 
tees of the University of North Carolina, of the State Text-book 
Commission, of the committee to let the contract for State printing, 
and of the State Board of Canvassers. 



Secretary of State 57 

THE SECRETARY OF STATE. 

J. Bryan Grimes, Secretary of State. 

The Secretary of State is at the head of the Department of State. 
He is elected by the people for a term of four years and receives a 
salary of $4,500. He is, ex officio, a member of the Council of State, 
of the State Board of Education, of the State Text-book Commission, 
of the Board of Public Buildings and Grounds, and is a trustee of 
the public libraries. 

The Secretary of State countersigns all commissions issued by 
the Governor, and is charged with the custody of all statutes and 
joint resolutions of the Legislature, all documents which pass under 
the Great Seal, and of all books, records, deeds, parchments, maps 
and papers now deposited in his office or which may hereafter be 
there deposited pursuant to law. 

Through the Secretary of State all corporations for business or 
charitable purposes under the general laws of the State are char- 
tered. This includes mercantile, manufacturing, banking, insurance, 
railroad, street car, electric, steamboat, and other companies. The 
certificates of incorporation are there filed and recorded. In the 
last two years there have been 2,877 certificates for domestic cor- 
porations filed in the office of the Secretary of State on which 
$141,613.52 organization or dissolution taxes have been paid. Six 
hundred and two of these are dissolution and 2,275 are certificates of 
incorporation and amendments. In the last two years 194 banks 
have been incorporated and 18 railroad companies have filed articles 
of association or amendment with the Secretary of State. Foreign 
corporations, before being permitted to do business in North Caro- 
lina, are required to file copies of their charters in the office of the 
Secretary of State. 

All bills passed by the General Assembly are enrolled for ratifi- 
cation under the supervision and direction of the Secretary of State, 
and shall be typewritten or written with pen and ink, in the discre- 
tion of the Secretary of State. All bills are now typewritten, which 
change is very much in the interest of economy and accuracy. 
Copyists in the enrolling office are paid ten cents a copy sheet for 
original and one carbon copy. The carbon copy is sent to the State 
Printer, from which copy are published the laws, resolutions, etc. 
An assistant to the Secretary of State prepares these laws for publi- 



58 Executive Departments 

cation, determines which are "public," "public-local," and which are 
"private"; side-notes them and prepares the captions and indexes 
the laws of the session. This work has grown very much in the 
last few years. 

The Secretary of State is charged with the work of distributing 
the Supreme Court Reports, the Consolidated Statutes, Session Laws, 
Journals, etc. 

The Secretary of State furnishes to the various precincts, coun- 
ties, and boards all books, blanks, forms, and other printed matter 
necessary for holding general elections; prepares blanks for the 
State Board of Canvassers, and issues certificates of election to such 
persons as are declared elected by the State Board of Canvassers. 
He also keeps in his office a permanent roll of the voters of the 
precincts and counties who registered under the "grandfather 
clause" of the Constitution. 

All vacant and unappropriated land in North Carolina is subject 
to entry by residents or citizens of the State. Almost all the vacant 
land in the State has been granted to individuals or is the property 
of the State Board of Education, but small tracts are frequently 
discovered and entries for same made. The warrants, plats, and 
surveys and a record of grants for all lands originally granted by the 
Lord Proprietors, by the Crown of Great Britain, or by the State of 
North Carolina, are preserved in the office of the Secretary of State. 

The General Assembly of 1909 increased the price of these lands 
to $1.50 an acre, and provided "that all lands entered under this 
act for which a grant has been obtained at the price of $1.50 an acre 
shall be free from all claims, title and interest now vested in the 
State of North Carolina or the State Board of Education." 

All automobiles in the State are required to be registered annually 
by the Secretary of State on or before the 1st of July. For the year 
ending June 30, 1921, there have been registered in his office from 
July 1st to November 30th, 139,350 automobiles. There has been 
paid into the State Treasury from this source for the two fiscal 
years ending November 30th, $3,053,345.41. 

For the two years ending November 30. 1920, the collections made 
in the Secretary of State's office, paid into the State Treasury, were 
$3,238,241.59. 



State Treasurer 59 

THE TREASURES. 

B. R. Lacy, Treasurer. 

The State Treasury is one of the Executive Departments of the 
State Government. The State Treasurer is elected hy the people 
for a term of four years. His term of office begins the first day 
of January next after his election and continues until his successor 
is elected and qualified. He is ex officio a member of the Gover- 
nor's Council, the State Board of Education, and the Board of 
Public Buildings and Grounds. He receives a salary of $4,500 
per annum. 

The duties of the State Treasurer as prescribed by law are as 
follows: 

1. To keep his office in the city of Raleigh and attend there be- 
tween the hours of 10 o'clock a. m. and 3 o'clock p. m., except 
Sundays and legal holidays. 

2. To receive all moneys that may be paid into the Treasury of 
the State; to pay interest on State bonds and all warrants legally 
drawn on the Treasury by the Auditor, and to report to the Gov- 
ernor and the General Assembly the financial condition of the 
State, including a summary of the receipts and disbursements for 
each fiscal year. 

3. To make complete revenue bill to cover estimated expenses 
and recommend the tax rate. 

4. To construe revenue when license is paid direct to State 
Treasurer. 



THE STATE AUDITOR. 

Baxter Durham, State Auditor. 

The Department of the State Auditor is one of the Executive De- 
partments of the State Government. The Auditor is elected for a 
term of four years by the qualified voters of the State, at the same 
time and places and in the same manner as members of the General 
Assembly are elected. His term of office begins on the first day of 
January next after his election, and continues until his successor is 
elected and qualified. His salary is $4,500 per annum. (Constitu- 
tion of North Carolina, Article III, section 1.) His duties as pre- 
scribed by law are as follows (Revisal of 1905, section 5365) : 



60 Executive Departments 

1. To superintend the fiscal concerns of the State. 

2. To report to the Governor annually, and to the General As- 
sembly at the beginning of each biennial session thereof, a complete 
statement of the funds of the State, of its revenues and of the 
public expenditures during the preceding fiscal year, and, as far as 
practicable, an account of the same down to the termination of the 
current calendar year, together with a detailed estimate of the ex- 
penditures to be defrayed from the Treasury for the ensuing fiscal 
year, specifying therein each object of expenditure and distinguish- 
ing between such as are provided for by permanent or temporary 
appropriations and such as must be provided for by a new statute, 
and suggesting the means from which such expenditures are to be 
defrayed. 

3. To suggest plans for the improvement and management of the 
public revenue. 

4. To keep and state all accounts in which the State is interested. 

5. To examine and settle the accounts of all persons indebted to 
the State, and to certify the amount of balance to the Treasurer. 

6. To direct and superintend the collection of all moneys due to 
the State. 

7. To examine and liquidate the claims of all persons against the 
State, in cases where there is sufficient provision of law for the 
payment thereof, and where there is no sufficient provision, to ex- 
amine the claim and report the fact, with his opinion thereon, to 
the General Assembly. 

8. To require all persons who have received any moneys belonging 
to the State, and have not accounted therefor, to settle their ac- 
counts. 

9. To have the exclusive power and authority to issue all warrants 
for the payment of money upon the State Treasurer; and it shall be 
the Auditor's duty, before issuing the same, to examine the laws 
authorizing the payment thereof, and satisfy himself of the correct- 
ness of the accounts of persons applying for warrants, and to this 
end he shall have the power to administer oaths; and he shall also 
file in his office the voucher upon which the warrant is drawn and 
cite the law upon said warrant. 

10. To procure from the books of the banks in which the Treasurer 
makes his deposits monthly statements of the moneys received and 
paid on account of the Treasurer. 

11. To keep an account between the State and the Treasurer, and 



State Auditor 61 

therein charge the Treasurer with the balance in the Treasury when 
he came into office, and with all moneys received by him, and credit 
him with all warrants drawn or paid by him. 

12. To examine carefully on the first Tuesday of every month, or 
oftener if he deems it necessary, the accounts of the debits and 
credits in the bank book kept by the Treasurer, and if he discovers 
any irregularity or deficiency therein, unless the same be rectified 
or explained to his satisfaction, to report the same forthwith in 
writing to the Governor. 

13. To require, from time to time, all persons who have received 
moneys or securities, or have had the disposition or management 
of any property of the State, of which an account is kept in his office, 
to render statements thereof to him; and all such persons shall 
render such statements at such time and in such form as he shall 
require. 

14. To require any person presenting an account for settlement to 
be sworn before him and to answer orally as to any facts relating to 
its correctness. 

In addition to the above, the State Auditor is a member of the 
Council of State, of the State Board of Education, of the State Text- 
book Commission, of the State Board of Pensions, and ex officio Sec- 
retary of the Soldiers' Home. All pension matters are managed in 
this department; all applications or pensions examined, and all 
pension warrants issued to more than fifteen thousand pensioners. 
The Auditor keeps the accounts of the Soldiers' Home. 

PENSIONS FOR CONFEDERATE VETERANS. 

The first pension law was passed by the Legislature of 1885. It 
appropriated $30,000 annually for certain classes of disabled Con- 
federate soldiers. This appropriation has been increased from time 
to time, until the annual appropriation now amounts to $650,000. 

We have now on the pension roll of North Carolina in round 
numbers 12,000 pensioners. 

To totally blind and disabled Confederate soldiers the law allows 
$180 each per year. That class received $12,960 in 1920. 

The Soldiers' Home was organized by the Legislature of 1891, and 
there was expended that year $2,250. That has gradually increased 
from year to year until the last Legislature appropriated $43,750 
for maintenance. 



62 Executive Departments 

STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION. 

Eugene C. Brooks, Superintendent. 

The Department of Education is one of the Executive Depart- 
ments of the State Government. The Superintendent of Public In- 
struction, head of the department, is elected by the people for a 
term of four years. His term begins on the first of January next 
after his election, and continues until his successor has been elected 
and qualified. His salary is $5,000 per annum, and in addition he is 
allowed "actual traveling expenses" when engaged in the perform- 
ance of his official duties. 

Section XLI of the Constitution of North Carolina of 1776 is as 
follows: "That a school or schools be established by the Legislature, 
for the convenient instruction of youth, with such salaries to the 
masters, paid by the public, as may enable them to instruct at low 
prices; and all useful learning shall be duly encouraged and pro- 
moted in one or more universities." 

Except for the establishment of the University of North Carolina, 
no attempt was made by the Legislature to carry out this injunc- 
tion of the Constitution until nearly three-quarters of a century had 
elapsed. The first efforts were a failure, and nothing definite was 
accomplished until the creation of a Department of Education by 
the election in 1851 of Calvin H. Wiley, Superintendent of Common 
Schools. He entered upon the duties of his office in January, 1852, 
and was continued in office until October 19, 1865. The following 
figures tell the story of his work: Number of teachers in 1852, 800; 
in 1855, 2,064; in 1860, 2,286. Enrollment in the schools in 1853, 83,- 
373; in 1855, 115,856; in 1860, 116.567. Number of schools taught in 
1855, 1,905; 1860, 2,854. School fund in 1853, $192,250; in 1860, 
$408,566. Expenditures in 1853, $139,865; in 1S60, $255,641. The 
schools were kept open throughout the war, and in 1863 enrolled 
more than 50,000 pupils. In 1865, as one of the results of the war, 
the office of Superintendent of Common Schools was abolished. 

By the Constitution of 1868 the office of Superintendent of Public 
Instruction was created, and the Department of Education made one 
of the Constitutional Departments of the State Government. Since 
that time the following have filled the office: S. S. Ashley, Alexander 
Mclver, Stephen D. Pool, Jobn C. Scarborough, Sidney M. Finger, 
Charles H. Mebane. Thomas F. Toon and James Y. Joyner. 



Superintendent of Public Instruction 63 

The scope and general nature of the work of this department can 
be best understood from the following summary of the general 
powers and duties of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

The Superintendent is required to publish the school law, make a 
biennial report to the Governor, keep his office at the capital, and 
sign all orders for money paid out of State Treasury for educational 
purposes. He has general direction of the school system and the 
enforcement of the school law, all school officers being required to 
obey his instructions and his interpretation of the law. He is re- 
quired to be acquainted with the educational conditions of all sec- 
tions of the State, and he must also keep in touch with the educa- 
tional progress of other States. 

In addition to these general duties, the State Superintendent has 
the following duties: Secretary Text-book Commission, Rev. 1905, 
4057; trustee of State Library, Rev. 1905, 5069; president board of 
directors State Normal and Industrial College, Rev. 1905, 4252; 
chairman of trustees of East Carolina Training School, Laws 1907; 
chairman State Board of Examiners and Institute Conductors, Laws 
1917; prescribes course of study for public high schools; Laws 1907; 
makes rules and regulations for rural libraries, Rev. 1905; member 
board of trustees of Appalachian Training School, Laws 1907; chair- 
man ex officio board of trustees of the Caswell Training School, 
Laws 1911; chairman ex officio Board of Trustees of Cullowhee Nor- 
mal and Industrial School, Laws 1913; member of board of trustees 
of the University of North Carolina, Laws 1909, c. 432; member State 
Board of Vocational Education, Laws 1917; member of Library Com- 
mission. 



64 



Executive Departments 



SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES, 1916-1917 





Rural 


City 


North 
Carolina 


Total expenditures, 1916-'17 

Total expenditures, 1915-'16_ _ ._ 


$4,812,380.84 
4,277,982.81 


$2,609,573.31 
2,283,664.03 


t 7,421,954.15 
6,561,646.84 




$ 534,398.03 

$2,989,642.53 
2,842,665.80 


$ 325,909.28 

$1,299,940.45 
1,211,987.14 


$ 860,307.31 
S 4,289,582 98 


Expenses (Cost of Conducting School System): 
Teaching and supervision, 1916-'17 


Teaching and supervision, 1915-'16 


4,054,652.94 


Increase.- -- _ 

Administration, 1916-'17_ _ 

Administration, 1915-'16 


$ 146,976.73 

$ 175,196.68 
180,492.84 


$ 87,953.31 

$ 30,111.30 
36,276.21 


$ 234,930.04 

$ 205,307.98 
216,769 05 






Increase 

Operation and maintenance of plants, 1916- 
1917 


$ *5,296.16 

$ 144,411.78 
131,253.64 


$ *6,164.91 

$ 189,749.27 
168,858.55 


S *11,461.07 
$ 334,161.05 


Operation and maintenance of plants, 1915- 
1916 


300,112.19 








$ 13,158.14 

$ 812,302.72 
563,089.25 


$ 20,890.72 

$ 548,506.00 
358,428.54 


$ 34,048.86 


Outlays (For Permanent Improvements and 
Repayment of Bonds, Loans, Etc.): 
Outlay payments for new buildings, sites, 
and repairs, 1916-'17. _ 


> 

$ 1,360,808.72 


Outlay payments for new buildings, sites, 
and repairs, 1915-' 16 .. .. 


921,517.79 






Increase ._ ._ . . 


$ 249,213.47 

$ 690,827.13 
560,481.28 


$ 190,077.46 

i 541,266.29 
508,113.59 


$ 439,290.93 


Borrowed money repaid, bonds, etc., 1916- 
1917 


? 1,232,093.42 


Borrowed money repaid, bonds, etc., 1916- 
1917 


1,068,594.87 






Increase. _ _. 


$ 130,345.85 


8 33,152.70 


$ 163,498.55 






Balance on hand, June 30, 1917 


$ 281,003.29 


8 201,414.64 


S 482,417.93 







"Decrease. 



MISCKI.LANEOUS STATISTICS, 1916-l!tl7. 





Rural 


City 


North 
Carolina 


Total school population. 

Total enrollment 


668,782 

.i::o,025 

347,803 

7,825 

12,313 

113.6 

7,723 

$7,092,327.00 

918.34 

:':;:i.09 


168,883 

115,931 

84,593 

2,733 

165.2 

360 

$6,201,069.94 

17,225.19 

423.89 


837,665 
645,956 


Total average daily attendance 


432,396 


Total number rural schools _. 

Total number teachers . 

Average term of all schools in days 

Total number schoolhouses... ._ ... 
Total value of school property 


7,825 

15,046 

123.02 

8,083 

$13,293,396.94 


Average value of all schoolhouses .. 

Average annual salary of teachers. 


1,644.61 
267.67 







Superintendent of Public Instruction 



65 



SCHOOL FUND AND SOURCES, 1916-1917. 





Rural 


City 


North 
Carolina 


Revenue Receipts: 

General county property and poll taxes, 
1916-'17 


$2,066,406.92 
1,946,485.17 


$ 546,271.97 
604,001.79 


$ 2,612,678.89 


General county property and poll taxes, 
1915-'] 6 


2,550,486.96 






Increase 


$ 119,921.75 

$ 750,856.53 
703,600.51 


$ *57,729.82 

$1,061,219.18 
937,385.29 


$ 62,191.93 


Local district taxes, 1916-'17._ 


$ 1,812,075.71 


Local district taxes, 1915-' 16 


1,640,985.80 






Increase 


$ 47,256.02 

$ 157,496.94 
155,144.71 


$ 123,833.89 

$ 1,466 06 
2,093.24 


$ 171,089.91 


Fines, forfeitures, and penalties, 1916-'17 

Fines, forfeitures, and penalties, 1915-'16 


$ 158,963.00 
157,237.95 


Increase 


$ 2,352.23 

$ 236,874.90 
245,514.77 


$ *627.18 
$ 


$ 1,725.05 


State 8250,000 per capita appropriation, 
1916-'17 


$ 236,874.90 


State $250,000 per capita appropriation, 
1915-'16 




245,514.77 








Increase. 


$ *8,639.87 

S 393,775.91 
476,134.69 


$ 


$ *8,639.87 


State equalizing fund appropriation, 1916- 
1917 


$ 


$ 393,775.91 


State equalizing fund appropriation, 1915- 
1916 




476,134.69 








Increase 


$ *82,358.78 

$ 97,000.00 
96,302.72 


$ 


$ *82,358.78 


High schools and farm life schools, 1916-'17. 
High schools and farm life schools, 1915-'16. 


$ 10,750.00 
8,600.00 


$ 107,750.00 
104,902.71 


Increase 


$ 697.28 

$ 15,271.73 
44,971.15 


$ 2,150.00 

$ 312.94 
2,112.44 


$ 3,847.28 


Private donations and State appropria- 
tions for libraries, 1916-'17 


$ 15,584.67 


Private donations and State appropria- 
tions for libraries, 1915-'16 


17,147.57 






Increase 


$ *29, 697.42 

$ 101,877.77 
58,153.52 


$ *1,865.48 

$ 63,159.12 
75,612.85 


$ *31.562.90 


Tuitions and all other revenue sources, 
1916-'17 


$ 165,036.89 


Tuitions and all other revenue sources, 
1915-'16 


133,766.37 






Increase 


$ 43,724.25 

3,819,560.70 
3,726,305.23 


$ *12,453.73 

1,683,179.27 
1,629,871.59 


$ 31,770.52 


Total revenue receipts, 1916-'17 

Total revenue receipts, 1915-'16 


5,502,739.97 
5,356,176.82 






Increase __ 


$ 93,255.47 


$ 53,307.68 


$ 146,563 15 



•Decrease. 



66 



Executive Departments 



SCHOOL FUND AND SOURCES— Continued. 



Non-revenue Receipts: 

Sale of bonds, 1916-'17 

Sale of bonds, 1915-'16 

Increase 

State loan fund, 1916-'17 

State loan fund, 1915-'16 

Increase 

Borrowed from banks (temporary loans) 
1916-'17._ 

Borrowed from banks (temporary 1 oans) 
1915-'16 

Increase 

Sale of school property, insurance and all 
other non-revenue receipts, 1916-'17 

Sale of school property, insurance and all 
other non-revenue receipts, 1915-'16 

Increase 

Balance brought forward, July 1, 1916 

Grand total of all receipts, 1916-'17 

Grand total of all receipts, 1915-'16 

Increase j 

'Decrease. 



Rural 



$ 279,007.99 
67,739.61 



$ 211,268.38 

$ 123,925.00 
76,230.08 



$ 47,694.92 

8 571,111.50 
443,436.46 



8 127,675.04 

8 32,285.73 
46,583.14 



$ *14,297.41 

267,483.21 

$5,093,384.13 
4,573,931.62 



8 519,452.51 



City 



150,309.96 
540,708.66 



$ *390,398.70 

8 6,290.00 
21,378.00 



$ *15, 128.00 

8 503,475.88 
382,931.08 



8 120,544.80 

8 22,024.09 
24,593.97 



8 *2,569.88 

445,748.75 

82,810,987.95 
2,698,956.08 



8 112,031.87 



North 
Carolina 



8 429,317.95 
608,448.27 



8 *179, 130.32 

$ 130,185.00 
97, 608". 08 



8 37,576.92 

$ 1,074,587.38 
826,367.54 



8 248,219.84 

8 54,309.82 
71,177.11 



8 *16,867.29 

713,231.96 

8 7,904,372.08 
7,272,887.70 



$ 631,484.38 



Attorney-General 67 

THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL. 

James S. Manning, Attorney-General, Raleigh. 

The Attorney-General is a member of the Executive Department 
of the State Government. He is elected by the people for a term of 
four years. His term begins the first of January next after his 
election and continues until his successor is elected and qualified. 
He receives a salary of $4,000 per annum. 

It is the duty of the Attorney-General: 

1. To defend all actions in the Supreme Court in which the State 
shall be interested or is a party; and, also, when requested by the 
Governor or either branch of the General Assembly, to appear for 
the State in any other court or tribunal in any cause or matter, civil 
or criminal, in which the State may be a party or interested. 

2. At the request of the Governor, Secretary of State. Treasurer, 
Auditor, Corporation Commissioners, Insurance Commissioner, or 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, he shall prosecute and defend 
all suits relating to matters connected with their departments. 

3. To represent all State institutions, including the State Prison, 
whenever requested so to do by the official head of any such insti- 
tution. 

4. To consult with and advise the solicitors, when requested by 
them, in all matters pertaining to the duties of their office. 

5. To give, when required, his opinion upon all questions of law 
submitted to him by the General Assembly, or either branch thereof, 
or by any official of the State. 

6. To pay all moneys received for debts due or penalties to the 
State immediately after the receipt thereof, into the Treasury. 

The Attorney-General is a member of the State Board of Edu- 
cation, of the State Board of Public Buildings and Grounds, of the 
State Board of Pensions, and of the State Text-book Commission, 
and is the legal adviser of the Council of State; chairman of the 
Municipal Board of Control and of the Board of Parole. 



PART III. 



JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT. 



1. Court of Impeachment. 

2. Supreme Court. 

3. Superior Courts. 

4. Other Inferior Courts. 

5. Corporation Commission. 



JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT. 



The judicial power of the State is vested in: 

1. A Court for the Trial of Impeachments. 

2. A Supreme Court. 

3. The Superior Courts. 

4. Courts of Justices of the Peace. 

5. Such other inferior courts as may be established by the Geneal 
Assembly. 



COUKT OF IMPEACHMENT. 

Article IV, section 3, of the Constitution of North Carolina pro- 
vides that the court for the trial of impeachment shall be the Senate. 
A majority of the members are necessary to a quorum, and the judg- 
ment shall not extend beyond removal from, and disqualification to 
hold, office in North Carolina; but the party shall be liable to in- 
dictment and punishment according to law. The House of Repre- 
sentatives solely has the power of impeaching. No person shall be 
convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the Senators 
present. When the Governor is impeached, the Chief Justice pre- 
sides. The following causes, or charges, are sufficient, when proven, 
to warrant conviction: (1) corruption in office; (2) habitual drunk- 
enness; (3) intoxication while in the exercise of office; (4) drunk- 
enness in any public place; (5) mental or physical incompetence to 
discharge the duties of office; (6) any criminal matter the convic- 
tion whereof would tend to bring the office into public contempt. 

Only once in the history of the State has the High Court of Im- 
peachment been organized for the purpose of impeaching the Gov- 
ernor. This was in 1870, when the House of Representatives im- 
peached Governor W. W. Holden before the Senate, for "high crimes 
and misdemeanors." The trial was conducted on both sides by the 
most eminent lawyers of the State, and resulted in the conviction of 
the Governor and his removal from office. In 1901 similar charges 
of impeachment were preferred against Chief Justice David M. 
Furches and Associate Justice Robert M. Douglas, but both were 
acquitted. 



72 Judicial Department 

THE SUPREME COURT. 

The Supreme Court consists of a Chief Justice and four associate 
justices elected by the qualified voters of the State for a term of 
eight years. 

The Constitution of 1776 required the General Assembly to "ap- 
point Judges of the Supreme Courts of Law and Equity, Judges of 
Admiralty, and Attorney-General," who were commissioned by the 
Governor and held office during good behavior. Acting under this 
authority, the General Assembly in 1776 divided the State into six 
judicial districts. In 1782 a seventh district, and in 1787 an eighth 
district were added. Under the act of 1777 three judges, Samuel 
Ashe, Samuel Spencer, and James Iredell, were chosen. The judges 
rode the circuits separately, but sat together as an appellate court. 
In 1790 the eight judicial districts were divided into an eastern and 
a western riding, and a fourth judge was added, two being assigned 
to each riding. In each riding the two judges sat together as an 
appellate court. In 1797 the General Assembly created an extra- 
ordinary court for the purpose of trying the Secretary of State and 
other officials who had been discovered confederating with others in 
an elaborate scheme for defrauding the State by issuing fraudulent 
land warrants. For trial of these criminals the General Assembly 
deemed it expedient to create a new court to sit- at Raleigh twice a 
year, not exceeding ten days at each term. The court was author- 
ized to hear appeals of causes which had accumulated in the district 
courts. The existence of this court under the act was to expire at 
the close of the session of the General Assembly next after June 10, 
1802; but before the expiration of this time the General Assembly 
continued* the court for three years longer, for the purpose of hear- 
ing appeals from the district courts, and gave to it the name of 
"Court of Conference." By an act of 1804 the court was made a per- 
manent Court of Record. The judges were ordered to reduce their 
opinions to writing and to deliver the same viva voce in open court. 
The next year (1805) the name of the court was changed to the 
Supreme Court. In 1810 the judges were authorized to elect one of 
their members a Chief Justice. John Louis Taylor being chosen to 
that office. The Supreme Court now consisted of six judges, but two 
continued to be a quorum, and all the judges still rode the circuits. 

In 1818 an act was passed establishing the present Supreme Court 
and requiring it to sit in Raleigh for the hearing of appeals. The act 



Supreme and Other Courts 73 

provided for three judges to be elected by the General Assembly. 
John Louis Taylor, Leonard Henderson, and John Hall composed the 
first court, which began its sessions January 1, 1819. The judges 
elected their own Chief Justice, Taylor being continued in that 
office. The number of judges continued to be three until 1868, when 
the Constitution adopted by the convention of that year increased 
the number to a Chief Justice and four Associate Justices. The con- 
vention of 1875 reduced it again to three, but by an amendment 
adopted in 1888 the number was raised to a Chief Justice and four 
Associate Justices, where it has continued until the present time. 
The Supreme Court holds annually two sessions of sixteen weeks, 
one beginning the first Monday in September, the other the first 
Monday in February. 

The court is authorized to choose its own clerk, marshal, reporter, 
and other officers. 



SUPERIOR COURTS. 

There are twenty Superior Court judges, one for each of the twenty 
circuits, or judicial districts, who are elected by the people and hold 
their offices for a term of eight years. The Superior Court has appel- 
late jurisdiction of all issues of law or of fact determined by a clerk 
of the Superior Court or justice of the peace, and of all appeals 
from inferior courts for error assigned in matters of law as pro- 
vided by law. In the matter of original jurisdiction the law is: 

"The Superior Court shall have original jurisdiction of the civil 
actions whereof exclusive original jurisdiction is not given to some 
other court, and of all criminal actions in which the punishment 
may exceed a fine of fifty dollars or imprisonment for thirty days; 
and of all such affrays as shall be committed within one mile of the 
place where and during the time such court is being held." 



OTHER COURTS. 

The Constitution gives to the General Assembly power to estab- 
lish other courts inferior to the Supreme and Superior Courts, and 
to allot and distribute to them such powers and jurisdiction, 
within constitutional limits, as it sees fit. From the decision of 



74 Judicial Department 

these inferior courts the Legislature has power to provide a proper 
6ysfem of appeals. 

The Constitution also requires the General Assembly to provide 
for the establishment of special courts for the trial of misdemeanors 
in cities and towns where the same may be necessary. 

Such courts are the mayors of cities and incorporated towns. 
Their election or appointment is usually provided for in the char- 
ters of incorporation, the acts of the General Assembly prescribing 
how particular towns and cities shall be governed. 

The jurisdiction of such special courts — also called in the law, 
inferior courts — is usually set forth in the charters. 

The general law also provides that "the mayor of every city and 
incorporated town * * * within the corporate limits of his city or 
town, shall have the jurisdiction of a justice of the peace in all 
criminal matters arising under the laws of the State or under the 
ordinances of such city or town." 

Justices of the peace, in their respective counties, try (1) that 
class of civil actions which involve demands for small debts and 
property of little value and (2) that class of criminal actions, called 
petty misdemeanors, which involve only slight punishment. 

They try all cases of contract or promise to pay money where the 
sum demanded does not exceed two hundred dollars. 

They may try certain other civil actions where the value of the 
property in controversy or the amount claimed for damages does 
not exceed fifty dollars. 

They try criminal cases arising within their counties, the punish- 
ment of which fixed by law cannot exceed a fine of fifty dollars or 
imprisonment for thirty days. 



NORTH CAROLINA CORPORATION COMMISSION. 

R. O. Self, Clerk. 

The North Carolina Corporation Commission was established by 
an act of the General Assembly of 1899, superseding the Railroad 
Commission, which was established in 1891. The offices of the Com- 
mission now occupy the entire first floor of the remodeled State 
Departments Building. 

Membership: W. T. Lee, chairman, Haywood County; George P. 
Pell, Forsyth County; A. J. Maxwell, Craven County. 



Corporation Commission 75 

The Commission has general supervision over all railroad, tele- 
graph, telephone, street railway, steamboat, canal, waterworks, and 
all other companies exercising the right of eminent domain, and, 
also, under act of 1913, of electric light, power, water, and gas 
companies. 

It is authorized to hear and adjust complaints, to fix and revise 
tariffs of all railroads and all other transportation companies. 

The Commission is a Board of Appraisers and Assessors for all 
the railroads and other corporations mentioned above, and also 
assess for ad valorem taxation the value of the capital stock of all 
North Carolina corporations. 

The Commission is also a State Tax Commission, having and 
exercising general supervision over the tax listers and assessing 
officers of the State. 

In 1899 the Commission was given supervision of all State banks. 
Since that time there have been very few failures of State banks 
in which creditors lost anything. State banks have increased in 
number during the last ten years from 348 to 559, with a corre- 
sponding increase in resources. The Commission has authority 
to appoint Bank Examiners, whose duties are to examine the 
various banks of the State and report to the Commission. Five 
examiners are now regularly employed in this work. 

COMPLAINTS. 

The Commission has heard 5,590 formal complaints. These com- 
plaints consist principally of overcharges, discriminations, freight 
service, failure of railroad companies to povide cars for transport- 
ing freights, storage charges, petitions for depots and sidings. 

The Commission now has a regular department, in charge of an 
experienced freight rate clerk, for the handling and adjustment of 
all claims by shippers for overcharges in freight rates. 

The Commission is authorized to make rules for the handling of 
freight, and to require the building of depots, etc. 

When the complaint is filed, the attention of the company com- 
plained against is called to the cause of the complaint; and if the 
matter be such that it cannot be settled by correspondence alone, 
the officers of the company complained against are cited to appear. 
In a large majority of cases these claims are amicably settled to 
the entire satisfaction of the parties concerned and without cost 
to the complainant; others have, however, required hearings. The 



76 



Judicial Department 



records of the Commission show that many complaints and claims, 
aggregating thousands of dollars, have been paid to shippers. Union 
and other stations have been established all along the various lines 
of railroads. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

The correspondence of the office has been voluminous — many in- 
quiries touching taxation and matters pertaining to corporations, 
etc. Shippers have found that by applying to this office they can be 
advised of the proper freight rates and of the rules governing the 
transportation of freight to and from all points, and they are taking 
advantage of the opportunity. Much correspondence is necessary 
in the preparation of cases and the gathering of such statistics as 
are contemplated by law. All of this involves a vast amount of 
labor and correspondence. 

ASSESSMENT AND VALUATION OF RAILROAD, TELEGRAPH, TELEPHONE AND 
STREET RAILWAY PROPERTY BY THE CORPORATION COMMISSION. 

In the year 1900 — the year after the Commission was established — 
the railroad properties of the State were valued at $12,321,704; in 
the year 1911 the Commission assessed and valued the properties of 
railroads and other corporations as mentioned below at $131,022,968. 

The valuations are as follows: 



RECAPITULATION OF ASSESSMENT OF PUBLIC SERVICE CORPORATIONS 

FOR THE YEAR 1919. 



Atlantic Coast Line Railroad 
Norfolk Southern Railroad... 
Norfolk Southern Railroad, 

A. & N. C. Div 

Seaboard Air Line Railway... 
Southern Railway , owned lines 
Southern Railway, leased, etc. 
Miscellaneous railroads 



Total, railroads 4,972.331 1,355.00 



Mileage 



MainLine Sidings 



950.80 
694.354 

95 91 

609.918 

590.08 

773.64 

1,257.63 



300.64 
121.46 

27.82 
270.46 
163.51 
254.40 
216.71 



Electric light, street railway and gas companies.. 

Bridge and canal companies 

Private car lines 1 

Steamboat companies.. 

Flume and turnpike companies 

Telephone companies.. 

Water works companies 

Pullman company 

Telegraph companies 



Total 

Grand total. 



Total 
Valuation 



34,645,345 
7,227,255 

1,479,055 
20,125,000 
25,907,719 
23,817,133 
12,216,111 



S 125,417,618 



8,331 

79 

62, 

101, 

19, 

3,476, 

122, 

487, 

997, 



112 
niii) 
950 
Hill) 
300 
257 
160 
226 
287 



$ 13,677,192 



$ 139,094,810 



Local 

Assessment 



1,046,552 
218,496 

96,028 
303,594 
353,346 
147,535 
218,195 



$ 2,383,746 



8 6,596,898 


48 


650 


10 


500 




900 


402 


899 


115 


660 





8 7,175,507 



$ 9,559,253 



Valuation 
Less Local 
Assessment 



8 33*598,793 
7,008,759 

1,383,027 
19,821,406 
25,554,373 
23,669,598 
11,997,916 



8123,033,872 



1,734,214 

30,350 

62,950 

91,400 

18,400 

3,073,358 

6,500 

487,226 

997,287 



8 6,501,685 



8129,535,557 



PART IV. 



ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS, BOARDS, 
COMMISSIONS. 



1. Department of Agriculture. 

2. Department of Labor and Printing. 

3. Department of Insurance. 

4. North Carolina Historical Commission. 

5. State Library. 

6. North Carolina Library Commission. 

7. State Board of Health. 

8. State Board of Charities and Public Welfare. 

9. North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey. 

10. State Highway Commission. 

11. Fisheries Commission Board. 

12. State Board of Elections. 

13. State Standard Keeper. 

14. Firemen's Relief Fund. 

15. Audubon Society of North Carolina. 

16. State Educational Commission. 

17. Commission for Revision of Laws. 

18. Board of Internal Improvements. 

19. North Carolina National Guard and Reserve 

Militia. 

20. State Prison. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

W. A. Graham, Commissioner, Raleigh. 

The Constitution of the State (1876) provides for a Department 
of Agriculture, Immigration, and Statistics. Under this fundamental 
law the General Assembly established the Department of Agriculture 
in 1877. (Chapter 274.) 

Since that time it has been greatly fostered and enlarged by the 
General Assembly, and its field expanded by the enterprise, energy, 
and capacity of its corps of workers. 

At present the Board consists of ten members, one member from 
each Congressional District, who are appointed by the Governor and 
confirmed by the Senate, for terms of six years; and of the Com- 
missioner of Agriculture, who is a member of and ex officio chairman 
of the Board. All members are required by law to be practical 
farmers. 

The Commissioner of Agriculture, who is chief executive officer of 
the Department, was formerly elected by the Board; but the Legis- 
lature of 1899, in order to bring the Department in closer touch with 
the people, especially the farmers of the State, so changed the law 
as to make the Commissioner an elective officer. 

The Department is charged with the following: 

1. Investigations relating to the improvement of agriculture, the 
beneficial use of commercial fertilizers and composts, and to induce 
capital and labor to enter the State. 

2. With investigations for the improvement of milk and beef 
cattle, especially with investigations relating to the diseases of cattle 
and other domestic animals — having power to quarantine infected 
animals and to regulate the transportation of stock within the State. 

3. With investigations of the ravages of insects injuriously affect- 
ing market gardens, fruits, etc., and with dissemination of informa- 
tion essential for their abatement. 

4. With investigations directed to the introduction and fostering 
of new agricultural industries adapted to the various soils and 
climate of the State. 

5. With investigations relative to the subject of drainage and irri- 
gation, and mineral and domestic sources of fertilizers, including 
composting, etc. 



80 Administrative Departments 

6. With the collection of information relating to the subject of 
farm fences, etc. 

7. With the enforcement of the laws enacted for the sale of com- 
mercial fertilizers, seed, food products, and with authority to make 
regulations concerning the same. 

8. With the dissemination of information relative to the ad- 
vantages of soil and climate, and to the natural resources and 
industrial opportunities offered in the State. 

To these have been added: 

The issuing of bulletins. 

The Museum. 

Farmers' Institutes. 

Soil Survey. 

Enforcement by regulations of 

The Pure Food Law; 

Concentrated Commercial Feeding-stuff Law; 

Cotton-seed Meal Law; 

Law regulating the statistics of leaf tobacco; 

Crop-pest Commission; 

Law regulating the standard-weight packages of meal and flour; 

Registration and sale of condimental, patented, proprietary or 
trade-mark stock or poultry tonics, regulators, or conditioners; 

The inspection of illuminating and power oils, fluids and gaso- 
line; 

Law to prevent and punish the sale of adulterated, impure, or 
misbranded agricultural and vegetable seed and those lacking via- 
bility; 

The manufacture and sale of anti-hog-cholera serum, also of inocu- 
lation germs of leguminous crops. • 

The rapid spread of the "stock law" over the State has rendered 
unnecessary any action by the Board as to fences, as this is now 
largely local. A map showing the stock-law and no stock-law, quar- 
antine and free territory in the State has recently been issued. 

The Department is, to a considerable extent, a sub-legislature. 
The Legislature, in committing to its execution specified laws, con- 
fers upon the Board power to make regulations for this purpose, 
which are given the authority of law, and violation of them is made 
a misdemeanor, cognizable by the courts. The power to confer this 
authority has been tested in the courts and approved by decision of 
the Supreme Court. 



Agricultural Department 81 

things that have been done by the agricultural department. 

1. The source of the ingredients in fertilizers is made known. 
Analyses are reported in the Bulletin from each firm so as to have 
those of the same guarantee classed together, and a farmer can tell 
them and not make an extra trip when he can get goods of the com- 
position he wishes although under a different name. 

2. The feed inspection law has been amended to include all feeds 
and the value of feeds much improved. Ground red corn cobs cannot 
be sold as wheat bran nor sawdust or rotten corn used as a filler. 

3. Condimental Feed Lcno. — Analyses are made of each brand and 
published. The people need not pay high prices for many of the 
ingredients, such as charcoal, copperas, saltpetre, salt, salts, etc., 
which can be bought for a few cents a pound of grocers. Drugs for 
either stock or men must have a value corresponding with that 
printed on the container or they can be excluded from sale. 

4. Thirty cheese factories are in operation, and these afford mar- 
kets for milk in our mountain counties which were not available 
three years ago. In 1920, 481,676 pounds of cheese were made. Nine 
creameries are in operation. 

5. Great advance has been made along all lines of animal hus- 
bandry, animal feeding and feeds for animals, including poultry. 
All cases of diseases of animals appearing in the State have been 
suppressed. We have had no epidemic which could not be eliminated. 

6. For the year ending November 30, 1920, there was distributed 
4,370,407 c. c. of serum and 128,093 c. c. of virus, enough serum to 
immunize approximately 75,000 hogs weighing 100 pounds. The re- 
ceipts from the serum amounted to $66,208.85. 

7. Eradication of the Cattle Tick. — There are still left twenty-one 
counties in the extreme Eastern part of the State in which the tick 
has not been eradicated. The Department has prepared and will 
request the Legislature to enact a bill on this subject. This bill is 
now a law in all of the states which were infested with the tick 
except North Carolina and Florida. 

Tuberculosis. — All herds which pass two successive tests without 
reactors are placed on the Accredited # Herd List. There are in North 
Carolina at this time 163 of these Accredited Herds, and 862 herds 
under supervision. One hundred and ninety-six tubercular animals 
were slaughtered and $5,734.63 was paid under the law relating to 
this subject. The State appropriates annually $5,000.00 for this in- 
demnity and for paying for animals slaughtered on account of glan- 

6 



82 Administrative Departments 

ders. When a cow or other animal is affected either with tubercu- 
losis or glanders, the animal is reported to the authorities and killed 
and paid for, thereby preventing spreading of the diseases. 

8. A pure seed law by which the farmers are protected from pur- 
chase of inferior seed either in purity or germination. Seed deficient 
in either are prohibited from sale in the State, and the introduction 
of injurious weeds is prohibited. 

9. Preparation of legume culture which is sold at one-fourth the 
former price. This pays the cost of production and sale. 

10. Great advance in the work in Entomology, especially in spray- 
ing. Many pests have been destroyed and others much curtailed in 
their injurious operations. 

11. Also in Horticulture. The Department has taken highest 
prizes in all exhibits of apples, and the North Carolina apples and 
other fruits are being recognized in the markets of the Nation. The 
pecan culture in the State has also been greatly extended. In many 
sections these plantings are beginning to bear nuts of very superior 
quality. 

12. The State in the value of its farm products has risen from 
the twenty-second to the seventh position, and the value of the agri- 
cultural crops has increased since 1910 at an average of $10,000,000 
a year. 

13. The Women's Work. — Many wives and daughters of farmers 
are earning money for themselves. The girls' and women's clubs are 
carrying on the preserving of vegetables, fruits and meats. The 
women have not lacked ability to do this work, but prior to this they 
lacked opportunity. Several hundred thousand dollars' worth of 
these goods will be produced and prepared this year. This work in 
its incipiency and growth is the product of the Farmers' Institute 
as conducted by the Department. 

14. Home Demonstration Work. — There were enrolled in this work 
in clubs 8,289 girls and 8,343 women, a total of 16,632. Besides the 
clubs, there were 217,143 women who gardened as individuals. 

There were 200,882 pounds of fruits and vegetables dried, 90,913 
gallons brined, and 125 community canneries established. Fifty- 
nine owners of mills have trained agents to direct the work in the 
villages at the mills. Twenty-six thousand six hundred and thirty- 
three home conveniences were placed in -homes, and 29 rest rooms 
were established. 

The Chairman of the Board of Health says that the organizations 



Agricultural Department 83 

established by the home agents were most helpful in the fight 
against influenza. They established 75 community kitchens and in 
many counties they directed the preparation of the food. Miss 
Annie Lee Rankin acted as dietitian at the A. & E. College and at 
Camp Polk, and Mrs. Cornelia Morris at the Raleigh High School 
Emergency Hospital. Citizens in the vicinity furnished supplies at 
many of the kitchens. 

15. Farm demonstrators in 70 counties, whose duty it is to give 
instructions about crops to the farmer in the field. 

16. Boys' corn clubs and pig clubs in all parts of the State. 

17. Cooperative work with the U. S. Department and the A. and 
E. College, especially under the Lever Act. 

18. The Pure Food Law. — The weight or quantity of contents to be 
marked on all containers, with which numbers the contents must 
comply. Adulteration is seldom found in the foods sold in the State. 

19. Inspection of illuminating oils and gasoline, by which the 
quality and safety of the oils have been improved without cost to 
the consumer. 

20. The length and strength of staple is considered in forming 
standards of cotton by the National Department, and expert graders 
are furnished in counties which desire them. This has saved thou- 
sands of dollars to the farmers in the sale of their cotton. 

21. The National Department has been requested to consider the 
question of reduction for tare for bagging and ties on cotton bales, 
which is acknowledged to be unjust. This can be accomplished only 
by an international convention under the auspices of a national 
congress. 

22. Inspection of flour to detect that which is bleached and pre- 
vent the sale of it as unbleached. 

23. In all cases of inspection in the machinery of the Department 
the article which renders the inspection necessary is required to pay 
cost of the work. 

24. More than one-third of the State has been surveyed and a soil 
map issued of each county. 

25. Farmers of the State are not becoming renters. Since 1910. 
204 farmers have lost their farms and about 6,000 renters have 
bought land. 

26. There is corn and wheat enough in the State for its consump- 
tion. There may be a little imported, but enough will be exported to 
offset this. There are 180 pounds of flour to every man, woman and 



84 



Administrative Departments 



child in the State, more per capita than was ever known before, 
and more meat has been cured than heretofore. 

27. A marketing system is being evolved which will acquaint the 
citizens of the State with knowledge of where they can find the 
various articles for sale and accomplish cooperation. 

28. For six years North Carolina has stood first in the production 
of cotton per acre, first in quantity of sweet potatoes and peanuts, 
and second in value of tobacco crop. 

29. Cotton-seed Meal. — No goods are permitted to be branded as 
"meal" unless they contain Qy 2 per cent ammonia, but must be 
branded "cotton-seed feed." 

30. The Bulletin ranks with the highest of its class, and many 
letters of commendation are received from persons within and with- 
out the State. Requests are frequently received for publications of 
these bulletins in those of other States and also from the agricul- 
tural press. It has a circulation of more than 35,000 each month. 
Copies have been requested for use as text-books in the public 
schools of other States and the University of Wisconsin. 

31. The Museum continues to be the most valuable south of Phila- 
delphia, except that at the National Capital. It is the State's great 
object lesson. Additions to the different departments are made each 
year. A representative agricultural exhibit is now being collected. 

STATISTICS. 

The following statistics will show some of the results of the work 
of the Department. 

North Carolina produced in 



Corn (bushels),. 
Wheat (bushels) 
Cotton (bales).. 



1860 



30,000,000 

4,743,706 

145,514 



1910 



34,063,531 

7,433,000 

665,132 



1915 



64,050,000 

10,355,000 

732,000 



1918 



63,000,000 

13,167,000 

732,000 



DRAINAGE. 

The Department has arranged with the National Department for 
an expert in this work, who will give information to the farmers 
concerning the drainage of creeks, cutting ditches, and laying tiles. 



Agricultural Department 85 



VETERINARY DIVISION. 



The Division of Veterinary Science is devoted to giving informa- 
tion as to the care and feeding of farm animals, improvement of 
live stock, treatment of diseases, the gradual extermination of the 
tick. 

Serum for vaccination of hogs to prevent the spread of cholera 
is manufactured by this division. 

ANTI-CHOLERA SERUM. 

Ninety-five per cent of the hogs vaccinated escaped cholera. The 
Department is now prepared to supply all requests for serum, and 
it is expected that the scourge of cholera will be much abated. 

CATTLE QUARANTINE AND ERADICATION OF THE FEVER TICK. 

The United States and State laws concerning the eradication of 
the cattle tick are simply improvements on the act of the Legislature 
of 1795 concerning the driving of cattle from the oak to the long- 
leaf pine sections of the State, which was continued as a statute 
until the Revisal of 1905. The disease was called murrain or dis- 
temper, and its malignity known, but not for a century was the 
cause ascertained and direct effort made for cure and eradication. 

Starting in 1899, with the crest of the Blue Ridge as the location 
of the quarantine line, it has been moved east to the Roanoke River 
in Warren County as the northern boundary, and to the Pee Dee in 
Anson as the southern boundary of the State. This quarantine line 
is established by the United States Agricultural Department. The 
movement of cattle is restricted to a few months each year and 
subject to inspections and regulations, while exempted territory is 
free from impediments. The price of cattle in the exempted section 
(that which is free of the tick) is thought to be one cent per 
pound live weight over that in the quarantine sections. The value 
of exemption is apparent. The stock law tends to destroy the tick, 
and where it has prevailed for several years, few ticks being found, 
the county is soon declared free. At the suggestion of this De- 
partment, infected counties or parts of counties have ben quaran- 
tined, and the clear territory has been given the benefit of exemp- 
tion. 



86 Administrative Departments 



ANIMAL HUSBANDRY. 



This department does much valuable work. The Board has 
granted the use of the Edgecombe County farm as far as needed to 
be used in its operations. 

FARMERS' INSTITUTES. 

Farmers' Institutes have been greatly extended and are now held 
in every county in the State. 

Meetings of farmers to hear matters pertaining to their vocation 
discussed by scientific men and also by practical farmers have met 
with great encouragement in the numbers attending and interest 
shown in the proceedings, and the beneficial results to farming in 
the communities where the institutes are held are very evident. 

Realizing that while "A good farmer without, it is needful there 
be," that "A good housewife within is as needful as he," institutes 
for the benefit of the farmers' wives and daughters were introduced 
in 1907. They have been well attended and have been equally as 
beneficial in the advancement of agricultural conditions as have 
the institutes for the men; usually one joint session is held at each 
institute. 

CHEMISTRY. 

The Division of Chemistry makes analyses of fertilizer, cotton-seed 
meal, feed and foodstuffs, soils, minerals and marls, waters, etc. 

The law as to deficient fertilizers may be found in the Revisal of 
1905, sec. 3949. 

SOIL SURVEY. TEST FARM, AND FARM DEMONSTRATION WORK. 

This is conducted like the cattle quarantine, in conjunction with 
the United States Agricultural Department, the expenses being de- 
frayed by each department. The object is to locate the different 
types of soil in the State. Upon these types it is desired to locate 
test farms for practical and scientific purposes. Test farms have 
been established in Edgecombe County, at Willard Station in Pender 
County, Statesville, near Swannanoa in Buncombe County, and in 
the old tobacco belt at Oxford and in the newly drained black lands 
of Eastern North Carolina in Beaufort County. The effort is to 
conduct these farms for the benefit of the crops grown in each sec- 
tion, first on small plats and then on a large scale, showing results 
of different kinds and amounts of home-made and commercial fer- 



Agricultural Department 87 

tilizers, preparation of land, cultivation and rotation of crops and 
demonstration work. 

As it might be supposed that all children of the same parents 
would be exactly alike, so it might be inferred that all soils com- 
posed from decomposition of the same rocks would be identical; but 
this is known to be true in neither case. 

By demonstration work on different fields in the same locality, or 
type of soil, the variations of each can be ascertained, and the 
manures prepared and cultivation suitable learned. 

The demonstrator of the Department, as requested or as oppor- 
tunity offers, can visit localities of the State, make suggestions upon 
these lines, and gather statistics for promotion of the work. The 
National Department is doing a large amount of work along this 
line and there is hearty cooperation between the two departments. 

ISOTHERMAL BELT. 

The investigational work with Thermal Zones was inaugurated in 
a preliminary way in 1909 at the Blantyre Test Farm by W. N. Hutt, 
to ascertain if possible the conditions underlying the phenomena of 
Thermal Belts or frostless zones in relation to fruit-growing. Two 
years of preliminary investigation furnished such evidence of the 
necessity and value of the work that the cooperation of the U. S. 
Weather Bureau was secured. Special recording stations were estab- 
lished at the State Test Farm at Blantyre, in the orchards of Hon. 
Chas. A. Webb of Asheville, Mr. W. T. Lindsey of Tryon, Mr. Boiling 
Hall of Waynesville, Mrs. Moses Cone of Blowing Rock, and Mr. 
J. B. Sparger of Mount Airy, where a range in elevation from 1,000 
to 4,200 feet was secured 

In 1912 the recording stations were increased to 15. Mr. L. A. 
Denson, Section Director of the Weather Bureau of North Carolina, 
and Prof. H. J. Cox, Special Expert of the U. S. Weather Bureau, 
were detailed to assist in this cooperation. 

The field work and records were completed in 1916. Since- that 
time the vast amount of records collected at the different stations 
are being worked over by the experts of the U. S. Weather Bureau 
under the direction of Professor Cox of the Chicago Station. A topo- 
graphical map of Western North Carolina has been prepared with 
contour lines showing the locations of the observation stations and 
the mountainous nature of the surrounding country. In order to 
make this work of practical as well as of scientific value, a map 



88 Administrative Departments 

showing the location of railroads to available fruit zones of 500-feet 
contours from 1,500 to 3,500 elevations will be prepared. This map, 
in addition to that prepared by the Weather Bureau experts, will be 
of value to people in securing lands at suitable altitudes for com- 
mercial orcharding. 

The results of these investigations are being worked into a publi- 
cation which is expected to be available within a year. 

PURE food division. 

The Pure Food Law passed by the General Assembly of 1899, 
amended in 1905 and redrafted and passed as a new act in 1907, 
forbids the manufacture or sale of adulterated or misbranded food 
or beverages and charges the Department of Agriculture with its 
enforcement. 

Inspections are made throughout the State and samples collected 
for analyses. The samples are examined for adulteration and the 
results published, showing the brand name of the article and the 
name and address of the manufacturer. The first report was pub- 
lished as the Department Bulletin for December, 1909. Since that 
time similar reports have been published annually. 

There are two classes of adulterants found in food: 

1. Substances which are deleterious to health, and 

2. Substances which merely render the food less valuable. 

The use of the first is prohibited, the second can be used provided 
their presence is made known to the purchaser. 

Much of the food and beverages sold in the State is in the hands 
of unintelligent men, who can be imposed upon by shrewd and un- 
scrupulous manufacturers. Owing to various complications the 
enforcement of the Food Law is far more difficult than one not 
familiar with the situation would think. 

The National Government has enacted a food law which requires 
weight of contents to be stamped on all packages or other containers 
of goods. The Legislature has enacted this for the State. 

FEED INSPECTIONS. 

The Legislature of 1903 passed a law which requires the Commis- 
sioner of Agriculture to employ Feed Inspectors, whose duty it is to 
visit the different towns in the State, see that the law is complied 
with as to the branding of bags, weight of bags, and to take samples 
•of all feeds. These samples are examined microscopically in the 



Agricultural Department 89 

towns in which they are found, and if adulterated are immediately 
withdrawn from sale. 

All samples collected are analyzed by the Feed Chemist, and the 
results, along with such additional information as circumstances 
may advise, are published in the bulletins of the Department of 
Agriculture. 

In enforcing the law there are four main objects in view: 

1. To stop the sale of adulterated feeds in North Carolina. 

2. To educate the consumers to buy feed according to the analyses 
on the bags, just as he buys his fertilizer by an analysis. 

3. To teach the dairymen and farmers the best way to combine 
their home-grown feeds with those they are compelled to buy to 
get the greatest benefit from the amount consumed. 

4. To stimulate a desire on the part of the consumers for better 
feeds. 

ENTOMOLOGY. 

The work of this division includes the inspection of fruit trees, 
which are not allowed to be sold in this State unless declared free 
from disease. Experts are sent to examine all nurseries for insect 
pests, and many commercial orchards are inspected. Directions are 
furnished for preparation of material for spraying, and for its ap- 
plication. The San Jose scale is being controlled in many places, 
and further damage prevented by directions sent from this office. 
Other insect pests and diseases have been prevented or cure'd, and 
much valuable information given the people of the State on mat- 
ters pertaining to insects of all kinds. 

HORTICULTURE. 

This division is devoted to promoting the interests of trucking, 
the home and market garden, also the culture, preservation and 
marketing the fruits of the State. 

The test farm in Pender County is used in connection with the 
trucking interests of the eastern part of the State. On this farm 
$1,500 was realized from the sale of the lettuce raised on one and 
one-fourth acres of land. 

In the apple section a short series of institutes is held annually 
to illustrate the proper packing of fruit for shipment. Institutes 
on pruning, spraying, etc., are held in proper season. 

For three successive years the exhibit of apples from North Caro- 
lina has taken the sweepstakes prize at the exhibits at the National 



90 Administrative Departments 

Horticultural Congress, and the western part of the State is now 
regarded as one of the most important apple-growing sections of the 
nation, both in quantity and quality. North Carolina in 1913 re- 
ceived the Wilder prize from the American Pomological Society. 
The section adjacent to Southern Fines is noted for its peaches, 
pears, and plums. 

AGRONOMY AND BOTANY DIVISION. 

Under the direction of this division experiments in plant breeding 
and selection are conducted upon the test farms and the farms of 
individuals in different sections of the State. Inoculation germs 
for legumes are manufactured and sold at cost. 

The inspection prevents the introduction of seeds of noxious 
weeds into the State and enables the farmer to ascertain, before 
purchasing, the quality of the seed as to purity and germination. 

DEMONSTRATION AND INSPECTION OF POWER AND ILLUMINATING OILS 

AND GASOLINE. 

The Pure Food Chemist is also Oil Chemist. The quality of the 
oil has been kept at a good standard and the price has not been 
increased. When the law was enacted there were four firms trans- 
acting business in this State; at the present time there are nineteen. 

, DEMONSTRATION WORK. 

This work gives practical advice to and cooperates with the farm- 
ers upon their farms. It has been extended to eighty-one counties. 
Part of the expenses is borne by the National Department of 
Agriculture. 

boys' corn club. 

In these clubs more than 4,000 boys have been enrolled. The 
Department appropriates $500 annually in premiums. 

women's and girls' work. 

This work in domestic economy has met with a ready response 
from the wives and daughters of the farmers. 

THE BULLETIN. 

The Bulletin is issued monthly, each month's issue being devoted 
to a particular subject. Its value seems to be appreciated both 



Agricultural Department 91 

within and without the State, as is attested by its continually in- 
creasing mail list. Besides the regular monthly Bulletin, special 
papers are issued when deemed of enough importance to justify the 
expense. 

THE MUSEUM. 

The State Geologist has, since the establishment of his department 
in 1850, collected specimens of different kinds, principally of min- 
erals, representing the natural resources of the State. In 1879 the 
care of the Museum and expense of maintenance were transferred to 
the Department of Agriculture. A building has been erected for its 
occupancy, and its contents greatly increased. It is now by far the 
most extensive in its contents of anything of its nature south of 
Philadelphia, save the National Museum at Washington, D. C. To 
it, more than any other source, is attributable the fine displays the 
State has made at international, national, and State expositions. It 
is the State's object lesson, representing its resources in agriculture, 
timber, mineral, fishes, birds, game, animals, and flora and fauna in 
general. 

As articles affected by time become undesirable they are replaced. 
The idea is to keep the Museum constantly growing, with no chance 
for stagnation. 

IMMIGRATION. 

The Legislature in 1909 repealed the act of 1907 concerning immi- 
gration. There are now no agents of the State employed in foreign 
countries; a few young men come from Scotland each year, and 
land and immigration companies bring some people to the State 
each year, but no report is made to the Department; however, it co- 
operates with them as far as practicable. 

The Department has no lands of the State for sale, and can make 
no contracts, warrant titles, or do any work of like nature. It can 
only put parties desiring to purchase property in the State in com- 
munication with citizens who have property to sell, and leave them 
to perfect sales, if it is found desirable. 

Many letters are received from persons from the States of the 
Middle West requesting information as to the resources of the State, 
and several hundred have each year purchased homes. The Depart- 
ment had arranged to place exhibits at the fairs in these States, but 
this was abandoned when the law was repealed. 



92 Administrative Departments 

sales of leaf tobacco. 

Chapter 97, Laws 1907, requires the Department to preserve a 
record of the leaf tobacco sold on the floors of the warehouses of the 
State, and publish it monthly. Each warehouse is required to 
furnish an account of its sales, and is guilty of a misdemeanor for 
failure. 



DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND PRINTING. 

M. L. Siiipman, Commissioner. 

The Department of Labor and Printing was established by the 
Legislature of 1887 as the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Under this 
head its activities had to do with gathering and presenting statis- 
tics of industrial conditions. A high standard was set for this work 
and it has ever since been the policy of the office to improve upon 
its own work from year to year. The biennial report is now recog- 
nized as one of the most succinct examples of statistical work issued 
in the United States. The matter has been boiled down, so to 
speak, and one chief aim has been to present the greatest possible 
information in the least possible space, accomplishing thereby two 
very desirable ends, i. e.. ease of reference and convenience, and 
minimum expense. Its circulation includes every State in the 
Union and many foreign countries. The report is the chief medium 
by which the State's growth and progress is placed before the world. 
The number of requests for copies attests its worth. 

When the public printing had become of such importance that 
the old practice of assumption that it would take care of itself was 
proven inadequate and unsatisfactory, the duty of systematizing and 
superintending this work was added to the duties of the office 
(Chapter 373, Public Laws of 1899). Since that time the growth of 
the State has been great, its progress indeed wonderful. Keeping 
pace with this progress, the Department of Labor and Printing 
shows a record of quality and economy in performance not equaled 
by any other Commonwealth, and approached by but few. 

The Commissioner, Mr. Shipman, and the Assistant, Mr. Nichols, 
place especial emphasis on their invitation to the people of the State 
to make use of the Department. Any questions bearing on subjects 
touched by the report will be gladly answered, whenever possible. 

The handling of the public printing has been brought down to the 
point where figures as to specifications and cost may be given before 



Department of Labor and Printing 93 

or after performance, which information serves well where economy 
enters as largely into any proposition as it does into the public 
printing. Changes in practice are made as often as it is found that 
improvement can be made, and the policy of the office at the 
present time makes impossible any of the abuses obtaining under the 
arrangement in force prior to the placing of the public printing 
under the Department's charge. 

Before a single item of printing expense is paid for by the State 
the account of the printer is examined, accompanied by an inspec- 
tion of the work itself, by a man who knows the printing business. 
Every pound of paper purchased is bought by the State to fit the 
particular need, and is subject to the decision of the expert of the 
Department — himself, according to the provisions of the act, a "prac- 
tical printer." The record of purchases of paper show a great saving 
along this line also. 

The work of the Department of Labor and Printing is necessarily 
done away from the public eye. The watchful auditing of thousands 
of dollars of accounts, the economical purchase of thousands of dol- 
lars of supplies, the skillful exposition and appraisement of indus- 
trial facts is not spectacular labor, but a work of the highest value 
and largest returns. 

Since October 1, 1919, the United States Employment Service, 
operating in this State, has been conducted under the direction and 
supervision of the Commissioner of Labor and Printing, who pro- 
vided office quarters and served as federal director for North Caro- 
lina without additional compensation. Funds were provided by 
the Government for clerical assistance and during the period from 
October 1, 1919, to the present time, between 5,000 and 6,000 appli- 
cants for positions and jobs have been placed in situations satisfac- 
tory to them. Through the means of local financial assistance, the 
service maintained offices in Asheville, Charlotte and Wilmington for 
almost a year. Since the employment office was established in this 
Department more than 20,000 returned soldiers have been commu- 
nicated with in regard to employment and nearly 4,000 placed. It 
was through these communications that hundreds of disabled sol- 
diers were located and reported to the Federal Board for Voca- 
tional Education, which placed them in proper training. 



94 Administrative Departments 

THE DEPARTMENT OF INSURANCE. 

Stacey W. Wade, Commissioner. 

Prior to 1899 the supervision of insurance companies of North 
Carolina was in the hands of the Secretary of State, who received 
certain fees and was allowed $1,000 for clerical help. The Legisla- 
ture of 1899 created the Insurance Department. The insurance laws 
as set forth in the Revisal of 1905, with amendments thereto, are 
looked upon as the best code of insurance laws of any Southern 
State, and are certainly admirably adapted to the conditions prevail- 
ing in this section. As revenue producers the law and Department 
are a success, and while the benefits accruing from a proper super- 
vision of insurance companies in the State cannot be measured in 
dollars and cents, they are, in the opinion of those in a position to 
know, of much more value to the State and her citizens than the 
revenue collected. 

The duties required of the Insurance Commissioner are as impor- 
tant and involve as much work and responsibility as those of any 
other department in the State Government. In addition to this, the 
Insurance Commissioner is taken from his office about one-third of 
the time by official duties. The work of the Department calls for as 
much clerical ability and labor as the work of any other department. 
No part of the work should be neglected, and it is increasing every 
year, and becomes of more and more value to the State and her citi- 
zens. The efficiency of the Department can only be kept up by allow- 
ing sufficient clerical force, and this will call for such help as is 
commensurate with, and demanded by, the development and rapid 
increase of the work of the Department. The Commissioner should 
be relieved, as far as possible, of clerical work. He is worth more 
to the State in discharging the other duties of his office. 

Under the law it is made the duty of the Commissioner to collect 
all licenses, taxes and fees due the State by any company or associa- 
tion under the supervision of his Department. 

The Secretary of State paid into the State Treasury in 1898 
$84,879.28, and this was the largest amount ever reported for any 
one year prior to the creation of the Department. 



Department of Insurance 95 



DEPARTMENT. 



The Department has increased in size, importance, and value be- 
yond the expectation of its most ardent friends. The supervision 
required to be exercised over all companies, associations, and socie- 
ties doing or attempting to do an insurance business in the State 
is the most important work of the Department. The value of this 
supervision to the State and her citizens since the organization of 
the Department can hardly be estimated. As the insurance business 
in the State has increased, this supervision has become the more 
necessary and important for the citizens of the State, and the good 
results accomplished have far exceeded the value of the revenue 
collected by the Department during that time. 

REVENUE. 

The revenue collected and paid into the State Treasury by this 
Department has increased each year, until there was collected and 
paid in for the past fiscal year, $634,076.84. 

The gradual increase of the revenues collected from insurance 
companies through this Department and paid into the State Treas- 
ury is more clearly shown by a comparison with the amount 
($84,879:28) collected for the fiscal year ending April 1, 1899, the 
year prior to the formation of the Department. 

The Department is not run for revenue. Its main work is the 
supervision of the business, but those who have had occasion to 
look into the matter are satisfied more good is being accomplished 
for the State and her citizens by the supervision of the business 
than by the collection of taxes. It is of interest to know the amount 
collected by the Department and paid into the State Treasury each 
year since its formation, as follows: 

For the fiscal years 1899-1900 $ 91,973.49 

For the fiscal year 1900-01 91,072.92 

For the fiscal year 1901-02 132,034.03 

For the fiscal year 1902-03 153,667.12 

For the fiscal year 1903-04 174,633.60 

For the fiscal year 1904-05 197,402.23 

For the fiscal year 1905-06 205,124.07 

For the fiscal year 19.06-07 215,331.56 

For the fiscal year 1907-08 224,680.58 



96 Administrative Departments 

For the fiscal year 1908-09 234,469.63 

For the fiscal year 1910-11 270,300.08 

For the fiscal year 1911-12 285,040.50 

For the fiscal year 1912-13 319,389.67 

For the fiscal year 1913-14 344,546.28 

For the fiscal year 1914-15 352,047.20 

For the fiscal year 1915-16 348,780.90 

For the fiscal year 1916-17 372,044.12 

For the fiscal year 1917-18 415,468.16 

For the fiscal year 1918-19 543,294.02 

For the fiscal year 1919-20 634,076.84 

Total $5,851,943.94 

Under the old law, prior to the organization of this Department, 
certain fees were allowed to the Secretary of State as compensation 
for the supervision of insurance companies. These fees are now 
paid into the State Treasury, and amount to more than double the 
whole cost of the Department, including salaries and every other 
expense. But there is no question but that the State should, with a 
collection of over $415,000 annually from insurance companies, spend 
more money for the enlargement and efficiency of the Insurance 
Department. This certainly can be done to advantage. 

One great benefit that has accrued from the North Carolina insur- 
ance laws and the work of the Department has been the organiza- 
tion of home insurance companies and the placing of considerable 
insurance in them, thus keeping at home much of home money 
spent for insurance. 

The North Carolina or home companies continue to show marked 
improvement each year, not only in the amount of business trans- 
acted, but in a steady and solid growth in financial ability and 
safety. It is gratifying, or should be, to every citizen of the State 
to know that he cannot only keep his money in the State for invest- 
ment by patronizing home companies, but that he is fully protected 
by the financial standing of the companies in so doing. 

BUILDING AND LOAN ASSOCIATIONS. 

The Legislature of 1905 placed all building and loan associations 
under the supervision of the Insurance Commissioner. There were 
then 43 associations doing business in the State. There are now 



Department of Insurance 97 

over 150 associations working in the State and no class of cor- 
porations is doing more in building up our cities and towns and pro- 
viding homes for our citizens, especially the working classes. Asso- 
ciations are being organized rapidly throughout the State. The 
ownership of homes is very conducive to good citizenship and prog- 
ress. At the close of business in 1917, 146 associations reported in 
assets $17,774,915.62 and loaned out to build or pay for homes, 
$16,845,109.53, and with receipts during the year of $11,970,833.38. 
This is a remarkable showing, and speaks well for our State and her 
people. 

The Insurance Commissioner represents the State in all its deal- 
ings with the insurance companies, associations, and orders. He 
must pass upon applications of companies under his Department and 
decide whether to license them, and then supervise them and see that 
they comply with the law and treat the citizens of the State right 
or revoke their license to do business in the State. 

He must collect all licenses and taxes due the State by companies 
and associations under his Department. 

He must collect reports of all fires in the State and investigate all 
suspicious ones and have all persons suspected of incendiarism prose- 
cuted where the evidence justifies it. An average of fifteen persons 
a year have been convicted under this law since it was passed, and 
served their sentences in prisons. 

He must see that the laws regulating the erection and inspection 
of buildings are observed. Better buildings mean fewer fires and 
lower fire insurance rates. Seventy-five thousand dollars annually 
is now saved in fire premiums by this law. He must look into all 
violations of the insurance law and hear all complaints made by the 
citizens of the State against companies under his supervision and 
see that the citizen is protected in his rights. 

He must keep all State property insured as provided by law, and 
annually inspect all State institutions and buildings, with a view to 
the protection from fire of them and their inmates. He is also 
charged with the execution of the "Blue Sky" law governing sale 
of stock. This is most important and valuable to our people, having 
saved them millions of dollars. 

SUPERVISION. 

It is very important and valuable to the State to have the collec- 
tion of the licenses and taxes from insurance companies above re- 



98 A».\i i .\ i stbative Departments 

ferred to, but by far tbe most important work of the Department, 
and that of greatest benefit to the citizens of the State, is the proper 
supervision of insurance companies, societies, and orders, as well as 
their representatives operating in the State. The gradual improve- 
ment in the practices of the companies and their agents shows the 
work accomplished in this respect. This supervision takes in: 

1. The admission and regulation of all companies doing or pro- 
posing to do any kind of insurance in the State. There are about 
four hundred companies, associations, and societies doing the fol- 
lowing classes of insurance: Life, health, accident, casualty, fire, 
marine, credit, burglary, plate-glass, liability, steam boiler, automo- 
bile, etc. 

2. Fire Marshal. — The Commissioner is also ex officio Fire Mar- 
shal, and has charge of the investigation of all suspicious fires, and 
the prosecution of those thought to be responsible for the same. 
There have been many of these prosecutions, which have been very 
valuable in their results. 

3. Building and Inspection Laws. — The Commissioner is charged 
with the enforcement of the building and inspection laws, also the 
law in regard to the erection of fire-escapes and proper exits from 
buildings. This involves not only having inspection made through- 
out the State by men sent from the Department, but also in seeing 
that the work is kept up and the laws enforced by the officers of 
the different cities and towns. 

4. Publication of Statements. — The Commissioner is required to 
make an abstract of the financial statements filed with him by the 
different companies operating in the State; to collect the fees for 
the publication of same and have them published in the newspapers 
of the State. 

5. Firemen's Relief Fund. — The Commissioner is also required to 
collect from insurance companies operating in the State the taxes 
for the benefit of our firemen and to distribute these taxes among 
the firemen of seventy-odd towns of the State. 

6. Complaints and Violations.- — It is also the duty of the Insur- 
ance Commissioner to seek out and prosecute all violations of the 
insurance law, and to look into all complaints made to him by the 
citizens of the State, and to give them such information as they 
may desire at his hands in regard to companies and associations 
under his supervision. 



Department of Insurance 99 

7. Give Rates. — It is also the duty of the Insurance Commissioner 
to receive and file all fire insurance rates promulgated on property- 
situate in this State and to pass upon all complaints as to discrim- 
ination in or unfairness of rates. 

8. A great educational work is being done by the Commissioner 
under the slogan "Make North Carolina Safe for Life and Property." 
The annual fire waste with the loss of over $4,000,000 in property 
and over 325 lives each year certainly calls for a more active and 
determined effort. The present conditions are a menace and little 
less than criminal. 

9. Building and Loan Associations. — The Commissioner is now 
charged with the supervision of building and loan associations, and 
the great work being done by these associations, the organization 
of new associations almost continually, as well as the suggestion that 
these associations can be adapted to and made of great benefit to 
the farmers of the State, as well as to those living in cities and 
towns who have received their benefits, makes this a most important 
part of the work of the Department. 

Since the formation of this Department in 1899 and the adoption of 
the present insurance laws there has been a gradual but decided 
improvement in the insurance conditions of the State. Better 
practices prevail and there is less friction between the people and 
this class of corporations. Contracts have been improved and rates 
reduced, and will, no doubt, be still further reduced under the present 
insurance laws and their strict enforcement, although the citizens 
of the State are now paying over $225,000 annually for their fire 
insurance less than they would pay at the rates prevailing in any 
other Southern State. 

The Insurance Department has now for the first time since its 
formation permanent and adequate quarters in which to transact 
its rapidly increasing business. This has always hampered the 
Commissioner and his force in carrying on their work, and should 
have been remedied before. The large business being yearly trans- 
acted demands proper and adequate files, that the business may be 
efficiently done, while the value and importance of the Department 
records and statistics are such as to demand their safe-keeping and 
filing for ready reference by the Department and citizens of the 
State. 

Any further information about the Department or its work will 
be furnished upon application to the Commissioner. 



100 Administrative Departments 

NORTH CAROLINA HISTORICAL COMMISSION. 

R. D. W. Connor, Secretary, Raleigh. 

The North Carolina Historical Commission was created by an act 
of the Legislature of 1903. It consists of five members appointed 
by the Governor for terms of six years. They receive no salary or 
per diem, but are allowed their actual expenses when, attending to 
their official duties. 

The offices of the Commission are in the State Administration 
Building, a new fireproof structure erected under an act of the Gen- 
eral Assembly in 1911. 

The duties of the Commission are as follows: 

1. To have collected historical data pertaining to the history of 
North Carolina and the territory included therein from the earliest 
times. 

2. To have such material properly edited, published by the State 
Printer as other State printing, and distributed under the direction 
of the Commission. 

3. To care for the proper marking and preservation of battle-fields, 
houses, and other places celebrated in the history of the State. 

4. To diffuse knowledge in reference to the history and resources 
of North Carolina. 

5. To encourage the study of the history of North Carolina in 
the schools of the State, and to stimulate and encourage historical 
investigation and research among the people of the State. 

6. To make a biennial report of its receipts and disbursements, its 
work and needs, to the Governor, to be by him transmitted to the 
General Assembly. 

The powers of the Commission are as follows: 

1. To adopt a seal for use in official business. 

2. To adopt rules for its own government not inconsistent with 
the provisions of the law. 

3. To fix a reasonable price for its publications and to devote the 
revenue arising from such sales to extending the work of the Com- 
mission. 

4. To employ a secretary. 

5. To control the expenditures of such funds as may be appropriate 
for its maintenance. 



Historical Commission 101 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 



Following is a general summary of the work of the Historical 
Commission: 

1. The Commission has saved from destruction, classified and filed 
many thousands of letters and other documents of the Executive 
and Legislative Departments from colonial times to the present. 

2. It has made an extensive collection, numbering more than 
100,000 pieces of material bearing on North Carolina's part in the 
World War. 

3. It has secured for the State the following private collections, 
numbering many thousands of valuable manuscripts: Letters and 
papers of Zebulon B. Vance, James Iredell, Bryan Grimes, Mrs. 
Cornelia P. Spencer, David L. Swain, E. J. Hale, Calvin H. Wiley, 
John H. Bryan, Jonathan Worth, William L. Saunders, William A. 
Graham, William R. Davie, the Pettigrew Family, Charles B. Aycock, 
Archibald D. Murphey, John Steele, W. H. S. Burgwyn, Nathaniel 
Macon, Thomas Ruffin, David S. Reid, Willie P. Mangum, and several 
small collections. 

4. It has issued the following publications: "Public Education 
in North Carolina, 1790-1840: A Documentary History," 2 vols.; 
"Schools and Academies in North Carolina, 1790-1840: A Docu- 
mentary History"; "The Correspondence of Jonathan Worth," 2 
vols.; Papers of Archibald D. Murphey, 2 vols.; Papers of Thomas 
Ruffin, vols. I, II, III; "Literary and Historical Activities in North 
Carolina, 1900-1905"; "A Legislative Manual of North Carolina" for 
1909, 1911, 1913, 1915, 1917, 1919, 1921, and twenty-seven bulletins. 

5. It recovered for the State, through the gift of the Italian 
Government, Canova's famous statue of Washington. 

6. It has erected in the rotunda of the Capitol a marble bust of 
William A. Graham; and obtained, without cost to the State, simi- 
lar busts of Matt. W. Ransom, Samuel Johnston, John M. Morehead, 
Calvin H. Wiley, and W. S. Ashe. 

7. The Commission maintains in its Hall of History one of the 
most extensive historical museums in America. It contains about 
12,000 objects, illustrative of every period of the history of North 
Carolina from the earliest colonial times to the present. 

8. It has assisted a large number of students in their investiga- 
tions into North Carolina history, given information about the 
history of the State wherever it was possible, and has encouraged 
in many ways the study of our history in the schools of the State. 



102 Administrative Departments 

9. It maintains a Legislative Reference Library for supplying in- 
formation to members of the General Assembly and others interested 
in the affairs of the State. 

THE LEGISLATIVE REFERENCE LIBRARY. 

The Legislative Reference Library idea is not a new one. For 
twenty-five years such departments in other States have been ren- 
dering valuable service. They have been provided for in thirty 
States, and in more than fifty cities of the United States. Recently 
there has been established a Legislative Reference Bureau in the 
Congressional Library which is rendering similar aid to the Na- 
tional Government. 

For ten years progressive citizens have urged the establishment 
of such a department in North Carolina. In response to that de- 
mand the Legislature of 1915, by a unanimous vote in the Senate 
and House of Representatives, passed a bill entitled "An act to 
establish a Legislative Reference Library," under the supervision 
of the North Carolina Historical Commission. 

Among the duties of the Librarian set forth in this act are the 
following: "To collect, tabulate, annotate and digest information 
for the use of the members and committees of the General Assembly, 
and the officials of the State," and of the various counties and cities 
included therein, upon all questions of State, county, and municipal 
legislation." 

As indicated by the caption as well as the subject-matter of the 
act, this Department is created primarily for the benefit of the 
members and committees of the General Assembly. 

These representatives of the people serve practically without com- 
pensation and in most cases make considerable personal sacrifice 
in order to be of service to the State. During the short sessions 
of the General Assembly they do not have time to study and thus 
secure for themselves information about the hundreds of measures 
they are called upon to consider. Heretofore there has been no 
agency to collect and classify the sort of information needed by the 
busy legislator. 

To fill this want is the particular field of service of the Legisla- 
tive Reference Library. For that purpose more than ten thousand 
books, laws, pamphlets, and clippings have been gathered and 
classified so that they are instantly available for use by interested 



Historical Commission 103 

persons. Additional material is received daily, and an attempt is 
made to procure as full information as is obtainable about all 
legislation in other States and countries. 

Information relating to the following subjects, which are taken 
from a list of more than fifteen hundred headings, will serve to 
illustrate the scope of service which is rendered: Agriculture, Appro- 
priations, Automobiles, Banks, Bill Drafting, Budgets, Campaign 
Expenses, Capital Punishment, Charities, Child Labor, Civil Serv- 
ice, Constitutions, Contracts, Convicts, Cooperative Buying and 
Marketing, Corporations, Courts, Credit, Crime and Crimlinals, 
Democratic Party, Drainage, Education, Elections, Employment, 
Factories, Farm Problems, Finance, Fires, Fish and Game, Food, 
Forests, Freight Rates, Health, Immigration, Initiative and Referen- 
dum, Insane, Insurance, Judges, Juries, Labor, Lawyers, Liens, 
Legislation, Loans, Manufacturers, Marriage and Divorce, Medicine, 
Militia, Municipalities, Negroes, Newspapers, Pardons, Parole, Pas- 
senger Rates, Pensions, Pharmacy, Platforms, Primaries, Prisons, 
Procedure, Prohibition, Public-Service Corporations, Railroads, Re- 
publican Party, Roads, Rural Credits, Schools, State Government, 
Statutes, Strikes, Taxation, Trusts, Universities and Colleges, Vital 
Statistics, Vocational Education, Wages, Woman Suffrage, Women 
Workmen's Compensation. 

The province of the Legislative Reference Library is not to pro- 
mote legislation, but to furnish data and information so that the 
best and most widely approved laws may be enacted. 

With the cooperation and assistance of the persons for whose 
benefit the Legislative Reference Library was created, it hopes to 
achieve the same measure of success that similar agencies have 
had in other states. 

Members of the Historical Commission: 

W. J. Peele % 1903-1919 

J. D. Hufham 1903-1905 

F. A. Sondley 1903-1905 

Richard Dillard 1903-1905 

R. D. W. Connor 1903-1907 

Charles L. Raper 1905-1907 

Thomas W. Blount 1905-1911 

J. Bryan Grimes 1905- 



104 Administrative Departments 

M. C. S. Noble 1907- 

D. H. Hill 1907- 

T. M. Pittman 1911- 

Frank Wood 1919- 

SECRETART. 

R. D. W. Connor 1903- 



THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE LIBRARY. 

Cakrie L. Bkoughton, Librarian. 

The personnel of the State Library consists of three workers, the 
Librarian and her two assistants. The Library occupies the first 
floor of the State Administration Building, is a fireproof structure, 
and was erected under the Act of the General Assembly in 1911. 
The Legislature of 1840 passed a bill appropriating five hundred 
dollars for the purchase of books for the Library. This amount has 
not been increased since that time. 

A striking development of the past years has been the increase of 
reference and research work over that of previous years. Not only 
are more inquiries being brought to the Library, but they are of 
a more serious character and cover a wider range of subjects than 
formerly. 

Possibly the largest piece of work that has been done during the 
past two years has been the indexing of the bound newspapers, all 
missing numbers and mutilated copies being noted. This is only 
a partial bibliography of the newspapers in the Library, but the 
list will be added to year by year in our biennial report. 

All works written by or about North Carolinians or about North 
Carolina are purchased. The North Carolina collection of our 
books now forms one of the most interesting and valuable features 
of the Library. A complete bibliography of these books has been 
made in alphabetical arrangement by authors of the titles of books 
which relate to North Carolina and North Carolinians, the titles 
of books written by native North Carolinians and North Caro- 
linians by adoption, including editions and translations of the 
classics, etc. 



Library Commission 105 



SUMMARY. 



Total number of volumes in the Library 35,997 

Total number of Government books 6,670 

Total number of bound newspapers 4,093 

Total number of bound magazines 2,347 



LIBRARY COMMISSION OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Mary B. Palmer, Secretary and Director. 

The Library Commission of North Carolina was created by the 
General Assembly of 1909, and active work was begun September 
15th of the same year. The Commission consists of five members, 
two of whom are appointed by the North Carolina Library Associa- 
tion and one by the Governor; the State Librarian and the Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction complete the membership. 

The purpose of the Commission, as expressed in the law, is to 
"give assistance, advice, and counsel to all libraries in the State, to 
all communities which may propose to establish libraries, and to all 
persons interested, as to the best means of establishing and admin- 
istering such libraries, as to the selection of books, cataloging, main- 
tenance and other details of library management as may be prac- 
ticable." 

The following are the important lines of activity: 

1. Establishment of Public Libraries. — The Commission endeavors 
to secure the establishment of public libraries in localities able to 
support them, and gives advice and assistance in arousing public 
interest. After preliminary correspondence, communities proposing 
to establish libraries are visited by the Secretary, and the practical 
details of organization explained. In many instances she classifies 
the books, starts the accession record and shelf-list, installs a proper 
charging system, and teaches the librarian how to keep the neces- 
sary records. The service is rendered without cost to the Library, 
except that, when the Secretary remains more than one day in a 
place, the local expense is borne by the library aided. 

2. Reorganization of Old Libraries. — The Secretary visits libraries 
already established to confer with the Librarian and Library Board 
regarding methods of work and plans for further development. 



106 Administrative Departments 

While much information and advice may be given by letters and 
circulars, personal visits are much more effective, as they invariably 
give new impulse to the local work and enable the Secretary to 
become familiar with library conditions in all parts of the State. 

3. Library Statistics. — Every public library in the State, includ- 
ing free public libraries, subscription libraries, school, college and 
university libraries, Young Men's Christian Association, legal asso- 
ciation, medical association, Supreme Court and State libraries, is 
required by law to make an annual report to the Commission. 
From the data thus secured the Commission compiles an annual 
report of library conditions in North Carolina. 

4. The North Carolina Libr'ary Bulletin. — This is a magazine of 
12 pages, published quarterly. It is sent free to every library in 
the State, and upon application, to library trustees and to others 
interested in library extension. The first issue appeared in De- 
cember, 1909. Each number contains important library articles, 
book lists, editorial notes, and general library news. It is intended 
to serve as a means of communication with each and every library, 
to bring the libraries into closer relation with one another, and, 
in general, to increase the interest in libraries throughout the 
State, and to improve the quality of their service to the public. 

5. Traveling Libraries. — 'For the benefit of communities without 
library facilities the Library Commission maintains a system of 
free traveling libraries. A library contains from thirty-five to 
forty volumes, about fifteen being fiction, fifteen children's books, 
avid the remaining volumes popular and attractive books of biog- 
raphy, travel, science, etc. The books are shipped in a stout case 
equipped with shelves so that it may be used as a bookcase when 
it reaches its destination. The rules governing the loan of libra- 
ries are as few and simple as possible. The application may be 
signed by the president and secretary of a local library association, 
by five taxpayers, or by the officers of a Farmer's Union Local, a 
Woman's Betterment Association, or a Community Service League. 
Borrowers agree to pay the freight both from and to Raleigh, to 
take good care of the books and to return them promptly, to make 
good any loss or damage beyond reasonable wear and tear, and to 
lend the books without charge to all responsible persons in the 
community. 

Traveling libraries containing only children's books have been 
prepared especially for the use of schools. They contain books for 



Library Commission 107 

youngest readers, books for intermediate grades, and books for more 
advanced students. 

6. Package Libraries. — Package libraries are of three kinds: The 
Debate libraries, the Farmers' library, and the Study Club libraries. 
The Debate libraries are carefully prepared collections on the polit- 
ical, social, and economic questions which are being debated by 
schools and societies throughout the State. They consist of books, 
pamphlets, and magazine and newspaper articles. These little 
libraries contain the best material available on a subject and as 
much as the ordinary library would be able to furnish. Hence they 
are not lent to individuals, but to schools and debating societies, and 
on condition that all taking part in the debate have the use of the 
material. Libraries are now available on ninety-six different sub- 
jects. These Debate libraries not only furnish the best material 
available to schools and societies which otherwise would have little 
or no material of any kind, but they are also a very effective means 
of bringing the Commission into close touch with the schools, and in 
many cases the Commission is able to awaken interest in the im- 
provement of the school library or in the establishment of a trav- 
eling library station in the community. 

The Farmers' Library is a collection of 12 books on Agriculture 
and Country Life. The collections were purchased with an appro- 
priation made for the purpose by the State Board of Agriculture and 
are lent for a period of two months to Farmers' Union locals or 
other groups of farmers. The Commission also maintains a special 
collection of books on agriculture and country life from which 
small collections of six to ten volumes are made up and lent in 
the same way as the Farmers' Library. 

7. The General Loan Collection. — This is a miscellaneous collec- 
tion of books on all subjects and it enables the Commission to send 
books to individuals and to supplement the various fixed collections 
so that they will meet the needs of each community and organiza- 
tion to which they are lent. In order that citizens may secure books 
as easily and as promptly as possible, they are sent in response to 
applications signed by a teacher, minister, postmaster, county or 
town official, or the officers of a book club, society, or other organi- 
zation. The books from this section are lent for four weeks, and 
the borrower pays the postage both from and to Raleigb. 

8. Distribution of Library Literature. — In addition to the North 



108 Administrative Departments 

Carolina Library Bulletin, the following publications have been is- 
sued and distributed by the Commission: 

The Public Library. 

Free Traveling Libraries. 

Debating: list of books for libraries, high schools and debating 
societies. 

Work of the North Carolina Library Commission. 

Agriculture and Country Life. 

North Carolina Package Libraries: Material for debate. 

Select Bibliography of North Carolina, by Stephen B. Weeks. 

The Farmers' Library. 

North Carolina Package Libraries. 

How to Start a Public Library. 

Material for Study Clubs. 

Free Debate Libraries. 

Other library literature, including tracts of the American Library 
Association, book lists, building plans, etc., is sent out as required. 

9. School Libraries. — The development of school libraries is a 
special feature of the work. A close connection has been established 
with the schools by giving advice on the care and use of school 
libraries, assistance in starting the necessary records, and help in 
the selection and purchase of books. A bulletin on school libraries, 
prepared by the Secretary, has been published and distributed by 
the Superintendent of Public Instruction to all schools in the State. 
Other literature on the subject is distributed by the Commission, 
and talks are given at teachers' meetings to arouse the interest of 
superintendents and teachers in building up good school libraries. 
A special effort is made to bring the public schools and the public 
libraries into close cooperation. 

MEMBERS OF THE LIBRARY COMMISSION. 

Annie F. Petty, Chairman Guilford. 

Charles Lee Smith, Y ice-Chairman Wake. 

Carrie L. Broughton, Treasurer Wake. 

Alfred M. Scales Guilford. 

Eugene C. Brooks Wake. 

Mary B. Palmer, Secretary and Director Wake. 



State Board of Health 109 

THE STATE BOARD OF HEALTH 

W. S. Rankin, M.D., Secretary and Treasurer, Raleigh. 

We assume that the people in North Carolina are interested espe- 
cially in two things with respect to the work of the State Board 
of Health: (1) what the Board spends; (2) what it gets for the 
expenditure. This statement, therefore, will deal in a manner as 
brief as clearness permits with the debit and credit side of the 
State's account with public health. 

DEBITS. 

During the biennial period of 1919-20 the average annual expendi- 
ture of the State Board of Health, including the Laboratory but not 
the Sanatorium, was $202,592.80. 

CREDITS -COST VALUES. 

Item 1. The work of the State Laboratory of Hygiene may be 
stated briefly and in the terms of its financial equivalents in the 
table as set forth below. That is to say, if there had been no 
State Laboratory of Hygiene in existence the work done would 
have cost the citizens of the State the amount shown in the table. 

19,707 Wasserman and gonorrheal fixation tests @ $5.. $ 98.535.00 

4,910 examinations of water @ $5.00 24,550.00 

799 examinations of urine @ $5.00 3,995.00 

16,567 other examinations, averaged @ $2.50 41,417.50 

755,135 doses typhoid vaccine @ 50c 377,567.50 

15,210 doses whooping cough vaccine @ 50c 7,605.00 

179,815 doses smallpox vaccine @ 15c 26,972.25 

Diphtheria antitoxin distributed: 

6,525 1,000 unit packages @ $2.00 $13,050.00 

1,931 3,000 unit packages @ 3.50 6,758.50 

8,245 5,000 unit packages @ 5.00 41,225.00 

10,622 10,000 unit packages @ 7.50 79,695.00 

140,728.50 

Tetanus antitoxin @ $3.50 2,338.00 

815 Pasteur treatments distributed (low estimate) 16,300.00 

Total $740,008.75 

Item 2. The State Board of Health, through its officers, during 
the past two years has given complete anti-typhoid vaccinations 
to 165,000 citizens of the State. Without this activity of the Board 



110 Administrative Departments 

this work would have cost our people $2 per vaccination, a total 
of $230,000. During the same time, through our officers and agents, 
31,550 people have been vaccinated against smallpox, a piece of 
work which would have cost not less than $30,000. The vaccina- 
tions, then, carried out under the direction of the Board of Health 
during the past two years would have cost $260,000. 

Item 3. During the past two years, largely during the last 14 
months, 28,000 open-back, disease-spreading, unsanitary privies have 
been replaced, either with closed sanitary privies or sewer con- 
nections. In the building of tens of thousand of sanitary privies 
throughout the rural South the experience of the International 
Health Board, largely interested and instrumental in this phase of 
sanitation, is that it costs about $2.50 to reach and persuade the 
average rural resident to build a sanitary privy. Applying this cost 
figure of $2.50 to the privies built within the State during the 
last two years this piece of work would have a financial equivalent 
of $70,000. 

Item .',. During the last two years 25,587 public school children 
have been given dental treatment, 44,092 permanent fillings having 
been made, and the mouths of 9,000 other school children were 
examined and they and their parents given professional advice. 
This work, if done at prevailing dental rates, would have cost the 
parents of these children $117,275. 

Item 5. During the last two years, largely during the last 14 
months, 150,000 school children have been examined by their teach- 
ers in accordance with instructions from the Board of Health. Of 
these, 60,700 have been examined by school nurses, especially trained 
in this work and working under the direction of the State Board 
of Health; and of these, 2,500 have been operated on for diseased 
tonsils and adenoids at a cost to their parents of a little less than 
$10. The ordinary price for these operations is $35. The saving 
here to the citizens of the State on cost is $62,500. 

Item 6. During the last two years 60,000 persons suffering from 
venereal diseases have been treated in clinics under the supervi- 
sion of the State Board of Health. The cost of these treatments 
at regular rates would have been $120,000. 

Item 7. The State Board of Health has succeeded in interesting 
other agencies, including the International Health Board, the Fed- 
eral Government, the American Red Cross, the American Social 
Hygiene Association, and the counties of the State, to the extent 
of securing during the past two years $11 from outside agencies for 



State Board of Health 111 

State health work for every $17 the State appropriates, or in a 
gross sum, for health work additional to that provided for by the 
State appropriation $273,633.42. 

In conclusion, the total saving in cost values alone to our people, 
as above stated (and this does not include many minor items which 
might have been given) amounts to $1,580,908.42. 

VITAL VALUES. 

By the term "vital value," as distinguished from "cost value," 
we mean to indicate the value in earning capacity of health and 
life saved through such measures as those enumerated above. For 
example, the Laboratory work has a cost value to our people, that 
is, saves them $740,000 in work which the Laboratory does, and 
the vaccinations done by the State Board of Health and its agents 
have a cost value of $260,000, but the number of days of sickness 
prevented, the deaths postponed, the increase both in quantity 
and quality of earning capacity, that is, the vital value far ex- 
ceeds the cost values. 

Another point which is not to be lost sight of here is that had 
not the State done this work most of the cost value and vital value 
could not be credited to the State — the work would not have been 
done. 

Item 1. The typhoid death rate in North Carolina in 1914, the 
first year in which deaths and their causes were recorded under the 
Vital Statistics Law in this State, was 35.8 per hundred thousand 
population. It is now, in 1920, 10.6. The significance of this reduc- 
tion perhaps is more clearly appreciated by giving the number of 
deaths and number of cases per year since 1914. In 1914 there 
were 839 deaths and 8,390 cases; in 1915 there were 744 deaths and 
7,440 cases; in 1916 there were 700 deaths and 7,000 cases; in 1917 
(the year of mobilization when the general death rate and special 
death rates for the entire country increased) there were 726 
deaths and 7,260 cases; in 1918 there 549 deaths and 5,490 cases; 
in 1919 there were 427 deaths and 4,270 cases; in 1920 there will be 
slightly less than 275 deaths and 2,750 cases. Here is a saving of 
564 lives and the prevention of 5,640 cases of typhoid fever that 
would be occurring annually in this State, would have occurred 
this year, had the reduction in this disease since 1914 not been 
brought about. A minimum cost in physicians' bills, nursing, and 
druggists' bills and loss of productive labor for each case of 



112 Administrative Departments 

typhoid fever is $200. The prevention, therefore, of 5,640 cases 
means the saving of $1,128,000. The earning capacity of the aver- 
age person who dies from typhoid fever is $2,000 and the saving, 
therefore, of 564 lives is equivalent to another $1,128,000. The 
saving to the State on this one item alone amounts, therefore, to 
more than ten times the total cost of the health work of the State, 
that is, to $2,256,000. 

Item. 2. The death rate from diphtheria has been reduced dur- 
ing the last five years from 22.3 deaths per hundred thousand 
population to 9.5 deaths for the same population, or in actual figures 
from 525 deaths to 242 deaths, a saving of 282 lives and -the pre- 
vention of 3,300 cases of the disease. The cost in doctors', drug- 
gists', and nursing bills, and loss of time from labor for the aver- 
age case of diphtheria is not less than $25. The prevention, 
therefore, of 3,300 cases means the saving of $72,500. The eco- 
nomic values of the 282 lives saved, on account of most of these 
lives being children, may be safely considered at not less than 
$1,000 per capita, or a total saving of $282,000, a grand total in 
the prevention of sickness and deaths from this disease of $354,500. 

Item 3. A total of 52,472 cases of contagious diseases have been 
quarantined and reasonable restrictions placed about these foci 
of infection. If we assume that but ten per cent prevention has 
been effected this would mean the prevention of 5,246 cases of 
contagious disease and a saving of not less than 250 lives. Again 
giving the cost of the average case of these diseases prevented at 
the censurably low figure of $25 and the economic value of the 250 
lives saved at $1,000 apiece, we have here another saving of $281,- 
150. 

Item '/. The death rate of North Carolina for 1919, the last 
figures available, was 12.4 deaths per thousand of the population. 
For the entire registration of the United States for the same year 
the rate was 12.9. During the last five years the death rate in 
North Carolina has been lower than that of any of the older States 
of the Union. The newer states in the West, with a larger emi- 
grant population from foreign countries than the older Eastern 
State and, therefore, with a larger proportion of the middle-aged 
healthy group and without the liabilities of a large infant or a 
large old-age population, have lower death rates than this State, 
but North Carolina's death rate is the lowest of any of the old 
States and the lowest of any known death rate on the coast from 



State Board of Health 113 

Maine to Texas. This favorable index of the general health con- 
ditions in North Carolina is maintained notwithstanding an ex- 
tensive prevalence of malaria and the milder types of hookworm 
disease, and, what is much more important in its bearing upon 
the death rate, the highest birth rate of any State in the Union. 
The birth rate in North Carolina for the last five years has aver- 
aged about 31 births per thousand population, and promises in 1920 
to reach 33 per thousand population. The average rate of the 
United States would probably not exceed 25 or 26 per thousand of 
the population. High birth rates, in contributing to a large 
infant population which age group has naturally a high mortality, 
tends to increase the death rate. This State, however, has the 
distinction of maintaining the highest birth rate and one of the 
lowest death rates. The fluctuation of the death rate in North 
Carolina one point, that is, one less death or one more death per 
thousand of the population means 2,500 less deaths or that many 
more deaths per year, the population of the State being 2,500,000. 
As there are 700 days of sickness for each death a decrease in 
the general death rate of one per thousand would mean, in addi- 
tion, the prevention of 1,750,000 days of illness, or the saving of 
57,000 persons one month's illness during the year, or preventing 
the illness of 4,800 persons for an entire year. It seems a most 
reasonable assumption to say that the general effect of public 
health work in North Carolina amounts to at least the reduction 
of one death per thousand of the population and its coincident 
saving in time lost from sickness. This much human life, 2,500 
whole lives saved, and 1,750,000 persons saved from a day's illness 
during the year, has, if we take $2,000 as the value in earning 
capacity of the average life saved and $2 as the cost per day of 
sickness, losses in productive labor, cost of doctors, druggists, etc., 

a total value of $8,500,000. 

i 

INTANGIBLE VALUES. 

There are many important activities of the State Hoard of 
Health that cannot be reduced to terms in dollars and cents 
which express their value or indicate the essential part which 
they play in health work. As such, the following activities or 
items may be mentioned: 

Item 1. The Bureau of Vital Statistics during the past two years 
has supervised and directed the work of 1,419 local registrars; 



114 Administrative Departments 

has kept in close touch through reports and correspondence with 
2,500 physicians, 4,000 midwives, and 600 casket dealers, that is, 
those concerned in a professional and business way with births and 
deaths; has recorded and classified, according to location, county, 
town, and township, according to race, age and according to 189 
causes of deaths, 64,000 deaths and 153,000 births. This work 
has required a considerable and an experienced clerical force of 
14 persons. The activity of this Bureau is indicated by the elab- 
orate system of card indexing and tabulating necessary to keep 
the aforementioned data regarding deaths and births, and by the 
volume of correspondence of this bureau to wit: 43,250 individual 
letters and 25,000 form letters. To know the natural increase of 
the population, how many people die each year, in what counties, 
towns, and townships they die, and from what causes of death, 
to know what deaths, with respect to causes, are on the increase, 
and what are on the decrease, and how deaths from various causes 
are responding to public remedies — this information is as neces- 
sary to intelligent health work as bookkeeping is to a business. 
Moreover, such records have important legal value. Then there 
is the sentimental value for what it is worth of the State's per- 
mitting no baby to be born or no decrepit and humble citizen to 
depart without its taking official note and making permanent rec- 
ord of these two principal events in life, the beginning and the 
end. 

Item 2. During the past two years the State Board of Health 
has examined, passed upon with its approval or required certain 
alterations to be made in the plans and specifications for 73 public 
water supplies and sewerage systems. In doing this it has (1) 
protected the towns installing these public utilities against finan- 
cial waste resulting from the purchase or installation of imperfect 
work; and (2) it has safeguarded municipalities taking water 
supplies from streams against possible pollutions of sewerage 
discharge by municipalities either up the stream or on some tribu- 
tary thereof. The saving in money and the saving in lives from 
this work is considerable, but to attempt to state it in definite 
terms would be nothing better than a mere guess. 

Item. 3. A total of 5,000 expectant mothers and 6,000 mothers 
with infants, a total of 11,000 women, have been aided through 
a system of correspondence and with carefully prepared litera- 
ture in protecting themselves and their unborn children against 



State Board of Health 115 

the dangers of pregnancy and labor, and advised as to the rearing 
of their infants. The need of this work is indicated by the facts 
that every year 600 women die in childbirth in North Carolina, and 
that of the 33,000 deaths occurring annually in this State 11,000 
are within the first five years of life. 

Item J t . The State Board of Health is now operating a county 
educational unit for informing our people on the subjects of the 
importance of chastity and its bearing on health and character 
and the dangers of venereal diseases. The unit equipment consists 
of a large one and one-half ton truck of the type used in France 
for similar purposes, and a staff of five persons: (1) a physician 
to visit the county where the campaign is to be carried on in antici- 
pation of the truck, and to arrange the itinerary of showings and 
lectures and through wide publicity to acquaint the people with 
the character of the undertaking and to encourage them to take 
advantage of the lectures and shows; (2) an expert mechanic who 
drives the truck and operates the moving picture machine; (3) a 
male lecturer for white audiences; (4) a woman lecturer for women; 
and (5) a male colored physician to lecture to negroes. Seven 
moving picture films, accurate in their teaching and most enter- 
taining in the way of presenting the subjects, are shown. During 
the three months that this outfit has been in operation 38,500 
persons have seen it, a total of 12,000 persons per month, or 400 
per day. This work, though just beginning, will be continued dur- 
ing the next two years until all the people of North Carolina have 
been instructed by the visual method, films, on the importance of 
continence and the dangers of incontinence. 

Item 5. An educational campaign against preventable diseases 
has been carried on during the last biennium to the following ex- 
tent: (1) a 48,000 monthly edition of The Health Bulletin, which 
invites comparison with that of any other State or city, has been 
distributed on request to the people of the State. The general repu- 
tation of the Bulletin makes further comment on it unnecessary; 
(2) the distribution, on request, of 1,175,000 pamphlets and leaflets 
on various health subjects. This is equivalent to a daily distribu- 
tion of 1.600 pieces of literature. This demand for information 
on the subject of health, together with a daily correspondence of 
135 letters, more than anything else, indicates the interest that 
the citizenship of this State has in the problem of health. The 
value of educational work cannot be stated in dollars and cents, 



116 Administrative Departments 

any more than one may so estimate the value of the Bible, the 
work of the churches, the value of the public press, or public schools. 
In conclusion, we believe that the public health program of the 
State justifies itself when considered from a viewpoint of cost 
values, vital values, or intangible values. And perhaps the great- 
est of these values are the intangible ones. The intangible values 
are more closely associated with and more a part of the immaterial 
than the material life; they are the imponderable and spiritual 
values, or the values of mind and impulse and motive and ideals; 
they cannot be transmuted into currency. We may measure in- 
creases in the quanity of life, decreased death rates and lessened 
sickness, but it is impossible to weigh the value of improvements 
in vital quality, and after all, the State's interest, its ultimate 
object is not mere quantity of life, increase in the length of days 
of the average citizen, but a happier, more efficient citizenship, a 
higher and finer quality of- life. 

"We live in deeds, not years; in thoughts, not breaths; 
In feelings, not in figures on a dial; 
We should count time by heart throbs. He most lives 
Who thinks most, feels the noblest, acts the best." 

WORK OF THE EXECUTIVE OFFICE CHARACTEB OF WORK DIXIES. 

The duties of the executive office are: (1) to assume primary 
responsibility for the enforcement of the more important State 
health laws; (2) to consider and determine, with the advice and 
consent of the Board, what should be the more important public 
health policies of the State; (3) to secure the needed legislation 
that will make possible the adoption of desirable health policies; 
(4) to supervise and assist in the execution of established policies. 
More fully and analytically stated, the duties of the executive office 
are: 

1. Public Health Law Enforcement. The enforcement of law 
rests, in a general way and broadly, upon the judicial machinery 
of the State. On the other hand, it is not only the privilege, but 
the duty, of any citizen to see that the violation of any law is 
brought to the attention of the courts and dealt with. The more 
thorough understanding of the purposes and the character of the 
public health laws and the keener appreciation of their importance 
imposes in a special way upon the executive office of the State 



State Board of Health 117 

Board of Health the duty of seeing that these particular laws are 
fully complied with. 

2. Determination of Policies. The duty of considering and formu- 
lating for the action of the Board what should be the more im- 
portant public health policies of the State rests largely with the 
executive office of the Board on account of its primary and general 
responsibility for the development of an effective program for 
human conservation. 

3. Obtaining Legislative Adoption of Policies. After the Board 
has considered and definitely decided upon a course of action it 
becomes the duty of the executive office to bring to the attention 
of the people the need of the course of action approved by the 
Board, and to so inform, interest, and appeal to the public and 
reflexively and directly to the General Assembly as to secure legis- 
lative approval and provision for the public health policies which 
have been adopted by the State Board of Health. 

4. The Selection of an Executive Staff. The efficiency of any 
agency is conditioned largely upon the personnel who are employed 
in its activities. The responsibility of finding and securing per- 
sons properly qualified by native endowments, training and experi- 
ence to direct the special bureaus or divisions entrusted with 
carrying out the established policies of the Board rests largely 
with the executive office. 

5. Supervision and Co-ordination of the Special Bureaus. As has 
been pointed out heretofore the organization of the executive work 
of the Board embraces a number of special bureaus which are held 
responsible for some definite State health policy, and which are 
so organized as to be independent of each other. Naturally, these 
bureaus and divisions in the character of their work are closely 
related and some means of co-ordinating their activities is neces- 
sary, and this means the executive office supplies. In the develop- 
ment of new bureaus entrusted with recently adopted policies 
a considerable amount of supervision by the executive office is 
called for. 

6. Taking Care of the General Problems of the Board. The ma- 
jority of calls by letter or person upon the Board for service can 
be and are referred to the special bureaus of the Board concerned 
directly with the sort of service called for in the letter or by the 
visitor; however, there are a number of calls made on the Board 
for service that are general in character, or not yet provided for 



US Administrative Departments 

by some special agency, and these services, necessarily, have to 
be supplied by the executive office. 

7. The Educational Work, of the Board. The interest and support 
of the people in public health is in proportion to their understand- 
ing of the problem. To reach the people, therefore, with informa- 
tion as to what the public health needs of the State are and how 
the Board proposes to meet these needs is, of all the Board's duties, 
the most fundamental and the most important; moreover, the edu- 
cational work of the Board is of a general character, dealing with 
the interests of all the special bureaus or divisions and, therefore, 
belongs largely to the executive office; the interest of which is not 
particular but general with respect to health problems. 

8. Accounting. Receiving, disbursing and accounting for public 
monies is a duty that rests upon the executive office because of its 
primary and general responsibility for the interests of the Board. 

methods. 

The methods of work which are followed depend largely upon the 
character of the duty which the executive office seeks to dis- 
charge. For this reason it is well in the discussion of methods 
to relate them to the special duties of the executive office as above 
set forth. 

1. Methods of Law Enforcement. Investigations as to violations 
of the more important health laws of the State and the bringing 
of prosecutions where violations are found are carried out largely 
as a part of the special activities of the bureaus of Vital Statistics, 
Epidemiology, and Inspection. These three bureaus maintain a 
field force of inspectors which varies at different times, but which 
is equivalent to ten full-time officers. Law enforcement will, there- 
fore, be more fully discussed in connection with the work of 
these special bureaus. The responsibility falls, however, to the 
executive office to see that the bureaus fearlessly and without 
discrimination enforce the important laws entrusted to their ex- 
ecution. The larger work of the executive office in law enforce- 
ment, however, concerns itself with bringing to public attention, 
more especially through the Bulletin, the principal State health 
laws and the need of their careful observance, and in this way 
building up a public sentiment favorable to the observance of 
the public health laws and sympathetic with the judicial ma- 
chinery in imposing penalties upon those who violate them. 



State Boabd of Health 119 

2. Methods for Determining Policy. In determining the public 
health policies of the State it is necessary (a) that the executive 
office secure information through special and regular reports on 
the vital statistics of the State, and in this way be fully cognizant 
at all times of the vital conditions of the State as shown by the 
State's birth rate, the Safe's general death rate, the State's special 
death rates for certain diseases, the death rates in the State by 
counties, by races, and by reasons; (b) that the executive office 
secure information, through public health literature, books and 
periodicals, as to the more recent developments and discoveries 
in public health work; (c) that the executive office, by keeping in 
touch through conferences with other State health officers and 
Federal health officers, be thoroughly conversant with the methods 
and accomplishments of other State departments of health, and 
that the executive office be alert to those larger interstate move- 
ments, especially those related to action by the central govern- 
ment, in order that whenever and wherever possible these larger 
movements may be influenced to the advantage of the State. 

3. Methods for Securing Legislative Action. To secure the neces- 
sary measures and appropriations for the development of the State 
health policies, the following methods are pursued: (a) the people 
of the State are informed, through bulletins, exhibits, the press, 
and public addresses, as to vital conditions and as to necessary 
measures and appropriations for favorably influencing the vitality 
and physical efficiency of North Carolina people. In this way the 
executive office seeks to develop a favorable public sentiment for 
the development of its more important public health policies; (b) 
the executive office seeks to find and to interest certain individuals 
qualified by heart and head and position, for influencing, intro- 
ducing, and supporting needed legislation. 

4. Methods for Selecting the Executive Staff. To find and secure, 
with the available means, a personnel for the bureau, division, or 
agency of the Board that is to be relied upon for carrying into 
successful execution some special and important public health 
policy, calls for (1) an acquaintance with those who are in touch 
with men qualified for such positions, and (2) a judgment of men. 
This judgment of men by which an administrative officer selects 
his assistants is, of course, basic in the success or failure of an 
administration. 



120 Administrative Departments 

5. Methods for Supervising and Co-ordinating the Work of the 
Board. In giving assistance to members of the executive staff 
charged with carrying out certain special health policies, the ex- 
ecutive office attempts to keep in touch with the work of each 
division or agency through regular monthly reports, special re- 
ports and conferences from time to time. Consideration for the 
right amount of assistance — not too much and not too little — is 
regarded as important. Too much supervision tends to smother 
individuality, to stifle the pride of accomplishment, to break down 
the self-confidence of a bureau; while, on the other hand, too little 
supervision not infrequently results in a useless expenditure of 
funds. 

6. Methods for Caring for General Work of the Board. The gen- 
eral work of the Board is a matter largely of correspondence and 
conferences, the details of which are indicated in the following sec- 
tion of this statement on routine work. As will be observed in the 
detailed statement the general business of the Board consists of 
a very extensive correspondence, and a considerable amount of 
time devoted to conferences. 

7. Methods of Popular Education. For reaching the public with 
information on the health problem which they need and which is 
necessary to secure their interest in and their support of the 
policies of the Board, several means are in use. These include 
popular addresses, information through the press, the preparation 
and distribution of special pamphlets on the more important health 
problems and last and most important of all, the publication of a 
48,000 monthly edition of a regular Bulletin, or popular magazine. 
Popular addresses, on account of the high cost of railway and auto- 
mobile transportation and hotel expenses, and more especially on 
account of the small numbers reached, is, relatively speaking, too 
expensive a method for informing and interesting the people gen- 
erally in the question of public health. The tremendous demands, 
the multiple requests of various agencies interested in some special 
propaganda, on the press, generous and sympathetic as the press 
unquestionably is, have overreached the capacity of the press to 
supply space for this sort of material or to furnish personnel to 
examine and discriminate between propaganda articles worthy and 
unworthy of newspaper attention, so that it is becoming more and 
more difficult to use the newspapers for popular health education. 
It is only just to state, however, in this connection, that our State 



State Board of Health 121 

press has been extremely partial to material sent out by the 
State Board of Health, and has so assisted in the health movement 
in North Carolina as to place this Board and the people generally 
under lasting obligations. The use of popular pamphlets on special 
subjects, like the pamphlets on typhoid fever, diphtheria, malaria, 
tuberculosis, sanitary privies, etc., which are supplied only on 
special request, affords perhaps the most economical means of 
popular public health education, for the reason that only those with 
some special interest receive the pamphlets and most of them are 
used. These pamphlets, however, would not be used, would remain 
in the office, unasked for, were it not for other means, particularly 
the press and the Bulletin, for reaching the general population and 
informing them of the existence of these special pamphlets and 
their value. The State Board of Health Bulletin, founded shortly 
after the Board started, the Bulletin making its first appearance 
in 1886, has been steadily growing with the development of a 
more extensive popular interest in the health problem until, from 
an edition of a few hundred monthly Health bulletins, it has now 
become one of the best known periodic publications existing in 
North Carolina, reaching 48,000 homes every month, and coming 
in contact with at least one-tenth of the population of the State. 
The Bulletin is by all odds the most important educational 
means which the State Board of Health has. It not only develops 
but it serves to maintain the public interest in the undertakings 
of the State for the conservation of human life and health. 

8. Methods of Accounting. The bookkeeping of the executive 
office is entrusted to a thoroughly reliable, careful, and bonded 
clerk, whose system of accounting has been devised by an expert 
accountant and whose work is audited at regular intervals. 

ROUTINE WORK. 

The routine work of the executive office is shown in the tabulation 
on page 122. 

RESULTS OBTAINED. 

Organization of Bureaus. (1) The executive office planned in 
general, not in detail, and assisted in inaugurating the work of the 
Bureau of Engineering and Inspection. The work of this bureau 
is largely in the nature of a pioneer undertaking, no other State in 
the Union having, by State enactment, attempted to regulate the 
privy problem by prescribing the construction and manner of 



122 Administrative Departments 

maintaining privies. The work of this bureau involved the study 
of all existing types of family toilet arrangement, with the selection 
of those types best suited to the economic, educational, climatic 
and geographic conditions existing in this State. The work of 
organizing this bureau included, further, the drafting of proper 
rules and regulations for the maintenance of closets and the em- 
ployment and training of a corps of ten sanitary inspectors for 
giving the law effect. 

Letters received 18,197 

Magazines and bulletins received and reviewed 12,777 

Letters written: 

Individual 9,365 

Multigraph 18,274 

Total 27,369. 

Articles written: 

Newspaper (107) words 39,400 

Bulletin (41 words) 53,150 

Official publication (6) words 

Special (8) words 29,051 

Forms and placards prepared (16) words 4,900 

Telegrams sent 707 

Telegrams received 564 

Jail reports received and examined (1919) 85 

Jail score cards copied and mailed (1919) 45 

Convict camp reports received and examined (1919) 98 

Convict camp score cards copied and mailed (1919) 23 

State institution inspection reports copied and mailed ('19) 68 

Hotel certificates copied and mailed (1919) 37 

Hotel certificates mailed (1919) 118 

Vouchers issued 4,939 

Sanatorium vouchers examined and mailed 2,153 

Receipts issued 569 

Financial reports prepared 137 

Miscellaneous reports prepared 34 

Multigraph forms and letters executed for various bureaus. . 311 

Number of pieces 334,477 

Requisitions for printing 506 

Number of pieces 5,808,379 

Pamphlets, leaflets and placards distributed 668,187 

Monthly health bulletins mailed 1,152,000 

Hours spent in conference 326 1-3 

Days out of office on official business 204 3-4 

(2) During the last two years it became necessary, on account 
of the desire of the Red Cross to participate in the public health 
work of the State and on account of the resignation of Mrs. Kate 
Brew Vaughn, director of the Bureau of Infant Hygiene, to reor- 



State Board of Health 123 

ganize that bureau and to enlarge the scope of its activities so as to 
include public health nursing. The executive office had to give con- 
siderable time in arranging the terms of co-operation with the Red 
Cross and to the reorganization of the bureau. 

(3) After eighteen months experience it was found that the 
Bureau of Venereal Diseases had followed a plan of work originally 
suggested and outlined by the Bureau of Venereal Diseases of the 
United States Public Health Service, and which plan was conceived 
for cities and was suitable to a State with a large urban population, 
should be considerably reorganized in such a way as to make it 
reach more effectively our large rural population. The general plan 
of attack on venereal diseases as promulgated by the Federal au- 
thorities consisted largely in the maintenance of public dispensaries 
in cities of 10,000 population and over. Along with this dispensary 
plan of attack on venereal disease an extensive educational cam- 
paign carried out through bulletins and special pamphlets had been 
under way. Recognizing the inadequacy of the dispensary plan for 
reaching rural people the executive office succeeded in interesting 
and in gaining the co-operation and financial participation of the 
American Social Hygiene Association and the Bureau of Venereal 
Diseases of the United States Public Health Service in an intensive 
educational plan for the rural sections of the State. The revised 
plan included the use of a large truck, electrically equipped, mov- 
ing picture outfit, exceptionally entertaining and instructive films 
on venereal diseases and a competent corps of lecturers for reach- 
ing all the people, urban and rural, including the remote country 
districts. This effort is another pioneer undertaking, this being 
the first carefully considered attempt to reach in a large way the 
rural sections with the campaign against venereal diseases. At this 
time this work has been carried on in Cumberland, Harnett, and 
Robeson counties, and many reports from those counties are con- 
vincing that this rural educational unit, organized as a part of 
the Bureau of Venereal Diseases, will prove a decidedly successful 
undertaking. 

Maintenance of Personnel. The high cost of living, the deprecia- 
tion of the purchasing power of the dollar, have made it very dif- 
ficult during the past two years to maintain efficient men in 
salaried positions. This difficulty has been augmented by the fact 
that for the last six or eight years there has been a decreasing out- 
put by the medical colleges of medical graduates and the fees 



124 Administrative Departments 

charged in medical practice have been advanced, the practice of 
medicine thereby having become more remunerative than here- 
tofore. As a result of these economic conditions we lost from the 
executive staff within the last biennium the following officers who 
resigned their positions with us to accept positions of greater 
remuneration elsewhere: Dr. A. McRae Crouch, Mrs. Kate Brew 
Vaughn, Dr. Jas. A. Keiger, and Dr. A. J. Warren. In addition to 
the above resignations Dr. J. R. Gordon resigned as Director of 
Bureau of Vital Statistics on account of impaired health, and Dr. 
B. E. Washburn, who was loaned by the International Health Board, 
was withdrawn for assignment to work in Jamaica. To fill these 
vacancies Dr. F. M. Register has succeeded Dr. Gordon as Director 
of the Bureau of Vital Statistics; Dr. J. S. Mitchener has succeeded 
Dr. Crouch as Director of the Bureau of Epidemiology; Miss Rose 
M. Ehrenfeld has replaced Mrs. Vaughan in charge of the Bureau 
of Public Health Nursing and Infant Hygiene; Dr. Millard Knowlton 
has taken over the work of Dr. Keiger as Director of the Bureau 
of Venereal Diseases, and Dr. K. E. Miller was detailed by the 
Public Health Service to assist the State in the development of its 
county health work and to replace Dr. Washburn. Mr. H. E. 
Miller, C.E., was appointed early in 1919 as Director of the Bureau 
of Engineering and Inspection. The significant fact in this state- 
ment of changes in personnel is this: that of several bureaus rep- 
resented in the general work of the Board there is now only one 
of the bureau directors, Dr. George M. Cooper, who has been with 
the Board as long as two years. It is respectfully submitted that 
any business with a labor turnover similar to that which the 
executive staff has sustained within the last two years would be 
in serious danger of bankruptcy. One of the most difficult results 
which the executive office is to be credited with has been to main- 
tain a working staff under the conditions mentioned, and it may 
be said, without fear of contradiction, that notwithstanding these 
conditions, the present staff is as efficient as the staff has been at 
any past time, and will be better appreciated when compared with 
similar organizations in other States. 

Securing Valuable Outside Co-operation and Financial Assistance. 
The executive office has succeeded in interesting and securing the 
financial participation, during the past two years, of the Inter- 
national Health Board, the United States Public Health Service, 
the Interdepartmental Social Hygiene Board, the American Red 



State Board of Health 125 

Cross, and the American Social Hygiene Association. During this 
biennial period these agencies have contributed to health work in 
North Carolina a total of $273,633.42, while the State expended a 
total of $280,015.52 — an expenditure from the cooperating agencies 
of dollar for dollar with the State. 

Participating in the Direction of the Larger Volunteer Health 
Movements. During the past year the executive officer of the 
Hoard, as a recognition of the part that this State was taking in 
dealing with the public health problem, was elected President of 
the American Public Health Association. Any position with the 
opportunity for participating in and influencing national health 
movements which concern the State in many ways, especially 
through Federal legislation and channels of influence for reaching 
the masses of the people, is not without direct value to our people. 
As President of the American Public Health Association the execu- 
tive officer of the Board has necessarily had to give a great deal 
of time to these larger outside interests; moreover, it could be 
easily shown if details were in order, that the time spent in this 
outside work is more than justified by benefits to the health work 
of our own State. 

The Educational Work, of the Board. The executive office assumes 
charge and directs the large educational activities of the Board of 
Health. During the year 1919 this work included the issuance of a 
48,000 edition of the monthly Health Bulletin, the preparation, 
printing and distribution of 375,380 pamphlets on special subjects. 
For the year 1920 the monthly edition of the Bulletin of 48,000 
copies was continued and 292,807 pamphlets on special subjects 
were supplied the people. In addition to the above enucational 
activities of the Board, 62,412 pamphlets on social hygiene and 
venereal diseases were distributed in 1919 and in 1920 this class 
of educational material rose to 444,367 pamphlets. Tins piece of 
work, as has been suggested elsewhere, is the most important of 
all the work of the Board, for all else depends upon the interest 
and intelligent co-operation of the people with the public health 
officials, and such interest and co-operation is secured, at least 90 
per cent of it, through the educational work of the executive office. 

Accounting. During 1919 the executive office received $198,549.14, 
2.285 checks having been issued. During the last year these figures 
were: Total receipts from all sources, $359,605.83; total number of 
checks written, 2,633. Funds are received from many sources 



126 Administrative Departments 

including the State Treasury, International Health Board, American 
Red Cross, United States Public Health Service, Interdepartmental 
Social Hygiene Board, Bureau of the Census, and some thirty or 
forty counties, and fees from sanitary inspectors of privies. An 
elaborate double entry system of books is necessary. In reporting 
upon a recent audit of the books a certified accountant, among 
other things, says: 

"I certify without hesitation that I do not believe there is a more 
complete set of books or a more efficient bookkeeper in any State 
Department." 

Routine Work of the Office. The executive office has handled an 
official correspondence during the last two years amounting to the 
receipt of 18,197 letters and 9,365 replies. This does not include 
18,274 multigraph letters. In addition to this correspondence the 
executive officer spends 25 per cent of his time in conferences with 
persons coining to the Board on official business. The executive 
officer of the Board spent 79 days on official work out of the office 
in 1919, and 102 days out of the office in 1920. 

1919. 

RECEIPTS. 

Balance from preceding year $ 8,211.45 

State appropriations 102,301.98 

Federal Government 27.084.95 

U. S. Public Health Service 741.47 

International Health Board 10.227.62 

Counties 38,480.42 

Bureau of the Census 3,531.57 

License Fees 5,338.21 

Miscellaneous 2,631.47 

Total $198,549.14 

DISTRIBUTION. 

Executive Department $ 40,262.39 

Bureau County Health Work 63,833.31 

Bureau Engineering and Inspection 9,521.74 

Bureau Epidemiology 18.811.01 

Bureau Infant Hygiene 6.608.73 

Bureau Medical Inspection of Schools 8,587.44 

Bureau Venereal Diseases 33,809.08 

Bureau Vital Statistics 17,115.44 

Total $198,549.14 



State Board of Health 127 



1920. 



RECEIPTS. 

State appropriations $177,713.61 

Federal Government 25,374.98 

U. S. Public Health Service 3,157.32 

International Health Board 18,346.15 

American Red Cross 4,792.48 

Counties 102,556.78 

Bureau of the Census 3,265.05 

License Fees 23,288.90 

Miscellaneous 1,110.56 

Total $359,605.83 

DISTRIBUTION. 

Executive Department $ 32,184.78 

Bureau County Health Work 150,155.03 

Bureau Engineering and Inspection 29,319.90 

Bureau Epidemiology 13,009.29 

Bureau Medical Inspection of Schools 60,702.18 

Bureau Public Health Nursing and Infant 

Hygiene 9,584.99 

Bureau Venereal Diseases 49,363.59 

Bureau Vital Statistics 15,295.07 

Total $359,605.83 



128 Administrative Departments 



MEMBERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE BOARD OF HEALTH 

J. Howell Way, M.D., President Waynesville 

Richard H. Lewis, M.D., LL.D., Raleigh 

J. L. Ludlow. C.E Winston-Salem 

Thomas E. Anderson, M.D Statesville 

A. J. Crowell, M.D Charlotte 

Chas. O'H. Laughinghouse, M.D Greenville 

Cyrus Thompson, M.D Jacksonville 

F. R. Harris, M.D Henderson 

E. J. Tucker, D.D.S Roxboro 

executive staff 

W. S. Rankin. M.D., Secretary State Board of Health and State 

Health Officer. 
Ronald B. Wilson, Director Public Health Education. 
C. A. Shore, M.D., State Laboratory of Hygiene. 
L. B. McBraykr. M.D.. Superintendent of the State Sanatorium for 

Treatment of Tuberculosis and Chief of Bureau of Tuberculosis. 

G. M. Cooper, M.D., Chief of Bureau of Medical Inspection of Schools. 
K. E. Miller. M.D., Director of County Health Work. 

Miss Rose M. Ehrenfeld, R.N., Chief of Bureau of Public Health 

Nursing and Infant Hygiene. 
Millard Knowlton, M.D., Chief of Bureau of Engineering and 

Inspection. 
H. E. Miller, C.E., Chief of Bureau of Engineering and Inspection. 

F. M. Register. M.D., Deputy State Registrar of Vital Statistics. 
J. S. Mitchener, M.D., Chief of Bureau of Epidemiology. 



State Board of Charities 129 

STATE BOARD OF CHARITIES AND PUBLIC WELFARE. 

R. F. Beasley, Commissioner of Public Welfare, Raleigh. 

This board was made mandatory by section 7, Article XI of the 
Constitution of North Carolina, as follows: 

Section 7. Beneficent provision for the poor, the unfortunate, and 
orphan being one of the first duties of a civilized and Christian 
State, the General Assembly shall, at its first session, appoint and 
define the duties of a Board of Public Charities, to whom shall be 
entrusted the supervision of all charitable and penal State institu- 
tions, and who shall annually report to the Governor upon their con- 
dition, with suggestions for their improvement. 

Under the legislative provision, in conformity with the above 
mandate, the Board and the several members have done a vast 
amount of work in promoting the establishment of various insti- 
tutions, in aiding in the development of the State's charitable and 
philanthropic growth and in social progress generally. Its mem- 
bers do not and never have received any salary or pay whatever, 
and are allowed only necessary traveling expenses. 

While it has been a guiding, stimulating, and developing agency, 
it was seen that its possibilities and usefulness could be largely 
increased to meet both the old and new needs of modern conditions 
by enlarging its powers and giving it a more adequate support. This 
enlargement was provided for by the Legislature of 1917, and the 
law governing its operation is now as follows: 

There are seven members, two of whose terms expire each two 
years. The Board meets quarterly or when called in special sessions. 
Its powers and duties as enumerated by the statute are: 

"(a) To investigate and supervise through and by its own mem- 
bers or its agents or employees the whole system of the charitable 
and penal institutions of the State and to recommend such changes 
and additional provisions as it may deem needful for their economi- 
cal and efficient administration. 

"(b) To study the subjects of nonemployment, poverty, vagrancy, 
housing conditions, crime, public amusement, care and treatment of 
prisoners, divorce and wife desertion, the social evil and kindred 
subjects and their causes, treatment, and prevention, and the pre- 
vention of any hurtful social condition. 

"(c) To study and promote the welfare of the dependent and delin- 
quent child and to provide either directly or through a bureau of the 

9 



130 Administrative Departments 

board for placing and supervision of dependent, delinquent, and 
defective children. 

"((/) To inspect and make report on private orphanages, institu- 
tions, and persons receiving or placing children, and all such persons, 
institutions, and orphanages shall, before soliciting funds from the 
public, submit to the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare 
an itemized statement of the moneys received and expended and of 
the work done during the preceding year, and shall not solicit other 
funds until licensed by the State Board, said statement of moneys 
received and expended and work done to be made each year as 
ordered by the State Board, and said Board shall have the right to 
make all such information public. 

"(e) To issue bulletins and in other ways to inform the public as 
to social conditions and the proper treatment and remedies for social 
evils. 

"(/) To issue subpoenas and compel attendance of witnesses, ad- 
minister oaths, and to send for persons and papers whenever it deems 
it necessary in making the investigation provided for herein or in 
the other discharge of its duties, and to give such publicity to its 
investigations and findings as it may deem best for the public welfare. 

"(g) To employ a trained investigator of social service problems 
who shall be known as the Commissioner of Public Welfare, and to 
employ such other inspectors, officers, and agents as it may deem 
needful in the discharge of its duties. 

"(h) To recommend to the Legislature social legislation and the 
creation of necessary institutions. 

"(0 To encourage employment by counties or a county superin- 
tendent of public welfare and to cooperate with the county superin- 
tendent of public welfare in every way possible. 

"(j) To attend, either through its members or agents, social service 
conventions and similar conventions and to assist in promoting all 
helpful publicity tending to improve social conditions of the State, 
and to pay out of the funds appropriated to the State Board, office 
expenses, salaries of employees, and all other expenses incurred in 
carrying out the duties and powers hereinbefore set out. 

"Section 3916. The Board shall also give special attention to the 
causes of insanity, defect or loss of the several senses, idiocy, and 
the deformity and infirmity of the physical organization. They shall, 
besides their own observation, avail themselves of correspondence 
and exchange of facts of the labors of others in these departments, 



State Board of Charities 131 

and thus be able to afford the General Assembly data to guide them 
in future legislation for the amelioration of the condition of the 
people, as well as to contribute to enlighten public opinion and direct 
it to interests so vital to the prosperity of the State. The State 
Board shall keep and report statistics of the matters hereinbefore 
referred to and shall compile these reports and analyze them with 
a view of determining and removing the cause in order to prevent 
crime and distress. 

"Sec. 3917. The State Board shall have power to inspect county 
jails, county homes, and all prisons and prison camps and other 
institutions of a penal or charitable nature, and to require reports 
from sheriffs of counties and superintendents of public welfare and 
other county officers in regard to the conditions of jails and alms- 
houses, or in regard to the number, sex, age, physical and mental 
condition, criminal record, occupation, nationality and race of in- 
mates, or such other information as may be required by said State 
Board. The plans and specifications of all new jails and almshouses 
shall, before the beginning of the construction thereof, be sub- 
mitted for approval to the State Board. 

"Sec. 391K. The State Board shall biennially prepare and submit 
to the General Assembly a complete and full report of its doings 
during the preceding two years, showing the actual condition of all 
the State institutions under its supervision with such suggestions 
as it may deem necessary and pertinent, which shall be printed by 
the State Printer, and shall report such other matters as it may 
think for the benefit of the people of the State. 

"Sec. 3919. Whenever the Board shall have reason to believe that 
any insane person, not incurable, is deprived of proper remedial 
treatment, and is confined in any almshouse or other place, whether 
such insane person is a public charge or otherwise, it shall be the 
duty of the said Board to cause such insane person to be conveyed 
to the proper State hospital for the insane, there to receive the best 
medical attention. So also it shall be their care that all the unfor- 
tunate shall receive benefit from the charities of the State. 

"Sec. 3920. The Board may require the superintendents or other 
officers of the several charitable and penal institutions of the State 
to report to them of any matter relating to the inmates of such in- 
stitutions, their manner of instruction and treatment, with struc- 
ture of their buildings, and to furnish them any desired statistics 
upon demand. No person shall be appointed to any place or posi- 



132 Administrative Departments 

tion in any of the State institutions under the supervision of the 
State Hoard who is related by blood or marriage to any member 
of the State Board or to any of the principal officers, superintend- 
ents, or wardens or State institutions." 

The law also provides that the Board shall appoint County Boards 
of Public Welfare, to consist of three persons known to be inter- 
ested in social welfare, who shall assist the County Superintendent 
of Public Welfare in carrying out plans in the counties. The Com- 
missioners and the County Board of Education shall appoint 
a County Superintendent of Public Welfare and pay him such 
salary as they deem wise, and whose duties are enumerated as 
follows: 

"(a) To have, under control of the County Commissioners, the 
care and supervision of the poor and to administer the poor funds. 

"(b) To act as agent of the State Board in relation to any work 
to be done by the State Board within the county. 

"(c) Under the direction of the State Board to look after and 
keep up with the condition of persons discharged from hospitals 
for the insane and from other State institutions. 

"(d) To have oversight of prisoners in the county on parole from 
penitentiaries, reformatories, and all parole prisoners in the county. 

"(e) To have oversight of dependent and delinquent children, 
and especially those on parole or probation. 

"(/) To have oversight of all prisoners in the county on proba- 
tion. 

"(g) To promote wholesome recreation in the county and to en- 
force such laws and regulate commercial amusement. 

"(h) Under the direction of the State Board to have oversight of 
dependent children placed in said county by the State Board. 

"(i) To assist the State Board in finding employment for the 
unemployed. 

"(;) To investigate into the cause of distress, under the direction 
of the State Board, and to make such other investigations in the 
interest of social welfare as the State Board may direct. 

" (k) To act as chief school attendance officer. 

"(7) To act as chief probation officer of the juvenile courts of 
the county. 

"The State Board shall have power and right at any time to re- 
move any member of the county board." 



Geological and Economic Survey 133 

present membership of the board. 

William A. Blair, Chairman Winston-Salem 

Carey J. Hunter, Vice-Chairman .Raleigh 

A. W. McAllister Greensboro 

J. A. McAulay Mt. Gilead 

Rev. M. L. Kesler Thomasville 

Mrs. Thomas W. Lingle Chapel Hill 

Mrs. Walter F. Woodward Wilson 



NORTH CAROLINA GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SURVEY. 

Joseph Hyde Pratt, Director and State Geologist, Chapel Hill, N. C. 

The act establishing the North Carolina Geological and Economic 
Survey was passed by the General Assembly of 1905. This act, with 
subsequent acts, outlines in considerable detail the work with which 
this department is charged. Briefly, the Survey is responsible for 
carrying out the following work: 

(1) The examination of the mineral, forest, fishery and other 
resources of the State. 

(2) The examination of the geological formations of the State 
with reference to their economic products. 

(3) The examination of road-building materials and the best 
methods of utilizing same. 

(4) The examination and classification of the soils and forests 
and other physical features of the State, with special reference to 
their bearing upon the occupations of the people. 

(5) The examination of the streams and waterpowers of the 
State, with special reference to their development in manufacturing 
enterprises and the preservation of the sources of these streams 
through the protection of the forests. 

(6) The examination of the water supplies of the State, with 
special reference to sinking deep artesian wells. 

(7) Enforcement of all laws relating to the prevention of forest 
fires and the protection of forests. 

(8) The supervision of drainage districts organized under the 
North Carolina Drainage Law, and approval of drainage engineers. 

(9) To make such recommendations as may be considered advisa- 
ble in regard to the conservation, protection and utilization of the 
several natural resources of the State. 



134 Administrative Departments 

(10) To cooperate with the various Federal and State departments 
and bureaus. 

(11) The preparation of reports giving the results of investiga- 
tions conducted according to the above. 

The Survey has been organized into divisions, with a competent 
engineer in charge of each, who has detailed supervision of its work. 
These divisions and the chiefs of each are as follows: 

Administrative and Records Division, Joseph Hyde Pratt, director. 

Geological and Mining Division, Joseph Hyde Pratt, State Geolo- 
gist. 

Forestry Division, J. S. Holmes, State Forester. 

Water Resources Division, Thorndike Saville, Hydraulic Engineer. 

Drainage and Reclamation Division, Joseph Hyde Pratt, State 
Geologist. 

Mapping Division, Prof. T. F. Hickerson, Topographic Engineer. 

Biological Division, . 

State Forests and Parks Division, J. S. Holmes. 

On account of limited appropriations of the Survey only a few of 
the engineers and scientists can be "employed for their full time, 
many of them devoting only a few months in the year to the work. 
The Survey has had the most hearty cooperation with the various 
Federal bureaus, such as the United States Geological Survey, the 
United States Bureau of Public Roads, the United States Coast and 
Geodetic Survey, the United States Forest Service, the United States 
Fisheries Commission, the National Association of Audubon Socie- 
ties, the American Association of State Highway Officials, and 
various State associations, such as the North Carolina Good Roads 
Association, the North Carolina Drainage Association, and the 
North Carolina Forestry Association. 

GEOLOGICAL AND MINING DIVISION. 

The geological work carried on by this division during the past 
two years has consisted principally of investigations of the iron 
ores and deposits of structural materials, such as stone, gravel, sand 
and clay. Preliminary reports have been prepared on these mate- 
rials which have been furnished to the Highway Commission and to 
individuals and others interested in their production. The Survey 
tries in every way possible to bring together the producer and con- 
sumer of the various minerals of the State. 



Geological a.\d Economic Survey 135 

The report on the cretaceous formations of the Coastal Plain 
region has been completed and is ready for the printer. This will 
be published as Volume V of the Survey's publications. This report, 
together with Volume III on the genereal geology of the Coastal 
Plain region, is of special interest to those who are interested in 
the water resources of Eastern North Carolina, in its lime and 
marl deposits, and to those interested in the supposed occurrence 
of oil. 

Statistics relating to the production of the various minerals and 
ores of the State were collected in cooperation with the United 
States Geological Survey. Mineral specimens from various sections 
of the State have been tested and reported on. While the majority 
of these specimens are of little value commercially, occasionally 
one is sent in which either has a commercial value or is of scientific 
interest. Through this means deposits of commercial minerals 
have been located which have proved to be of considerable value. 

The following publications have been printed and distributed 
during the past two years relating to mineral subjects: 

Economic Paper No. 49, "The Mining Industry in North Carolina 
During 1913-1917, Inclusive." 

Press Bulletin No. 170, "The Mining Industry in North Carolina 
During 1918." 

An investigation has been made of methods of mining and treat- 
ment for the Cherokee and Clay County limonite iron ores and the 
magnetic iron ores of Ashe and Avery Counties. 

The State Geologist has been assisted in this work by Prof. W. S. 
Bayley, Geologist; Prof. Wm. F. Prouty, Geologist; Mr. Jasper L. 
Stuckey, Assistant Geologist, and Mr. Stanley C. Sears, Metallurgical 
Engineer. 

FORESTRY DIVISION. 

The forestry work of the Survey is to examine, study, and report 
on the forest resources of the State in their relation to the life and 
activities of the people. Through the action of the 1915 legislature, 
there has been added the duty of protecting the forests from fire 
and of making experiments in forestry practice for the benefit 
of the people of the State. Studies of the forest resources of the 
various counties, of the wood-using industries of the State, and of 
various other features have been made. Many private woodland 



1156 Administrative Departments 

tracts have been examined and advice for their conservative manage- 
ment given to the owners. Illustrated lectures have been given at 
the public schools and talks on practical forest management made 
at Farmers' Institutes and on many other occasions. 

The most important work of the Survey has been in connection 
with the prevention of forest fires. With the idea of securing re- 
liable information on the damage done by fires and at the same time 
interesting leaders of thought in each township in Are prevention, 
annual inquiries by correspondence have been carried on for the 
past eleven years. The results show an average annual loss of 
$960,000 reported from about half the townships of the State. 

The Forestry Law, enacted by the legislature of 1915, provided for 
the extinguishment and prevention of forest fires through the em- 
ployment of competent forest wardens, payment for fire fighting, 
and penalties for setting illegal fires. Unfortunately, the enforce- 
ment of this law has been postponed owing to lack of funds. It 
was hoped that the last General Assembly would remedy that defect, 
but the bill to provide a small appropriation failed to become a law. 
It is believed that the legislature of 1921 will make necessary pro- 
vision for carrying it out. 

The Survey has, with its own inadequate funds, done what was 
possible to enforce many importance provisions of the Forestry 
Law. It has continued to have printed and distributed posters 
warning against fire, and has circulated copies of the new law. 
A few forest wardens have been appointed, where their services 
were most needed, but it is impossible to make this work as 
effective as it should be on account of lack of sufficient funds to 
employ the necessary number of wardens. No general advantage 
can be taken of this law until the State makes a sufficient appro- 
priation to adequately meet the provisions of it. 

By reason of the enactment of this law, the State Geologist has 
been enabled to secure from the Federal Government a sum not 
exceeding $2,300 a year for the purpose of employing Federal Patrol- 
men under the Weeks Law. Several of these patrolmen have been 
appointed each spring and fall to cooperate with organizations of 
landowners, such as the Tryon Forestry Club, the Mt. Mitchell 
Forest Protective Association, and the Linville Forest Protective 
Association, or to cover a larger district independently, as is in- 
tended by the Federal Government. These men have done good 
work, not only by actually preventing and extinguishing fires, but 



Geological and Economic Survey 137 

by forming centers of information and activity which will bear 
good fruit in the future. 

The Government now appoints through the Survey some patrol- 
men to cover entire counties or other large districts, even though 
active local cooperation was not obtained, with the idea of assisting 
in an educational campaign to interest the people in forest pro- 
tection. There has been some difficulty, however, in securing suit- 
able men for this work, chiefly because of its temporary nature. 

An item in the Agricultural Bill recently introduced into Con- 
gress calls for an appropriation of $1,000,000 for cooperating with 
the States in forest fire prevention, forest investigation and forest 
planting. This measure has the endorsement of the Secretary of 
Agriculture, the U. S. Forest Service, and several of the leading 
timber-using industries. Should this measure pass the Forest 
Service proposes under it to make apportionments to the States 
on a percentage basis of what it would cost to adequately protect 
all the forests of the State from fire. After some one-half of the 
total annual appropriation had been apportioned in this way, addi- 
tional amounts up to 25 per cent of the total cost might be secured 
on condition that the State should require by law measures neces- 
sary to insure the replacement of the forest. The restrictions of 
the present Weeks Law would probably be removed. Under such 
an arrangement North Carolina should be able to secure from the 
Federal Government $25,000 at once, provided the State would ap- 
propriate that much, and eventually as much as $50,000 to $75,000. 

Under the law of 1915 (Chapter 253), the General Assembly 
recognized the duty of the State to experiment in and demonstrate 
practical methods of forestry. One of the most pressing needs at 
the present time is experiments to determine the best ways of 
reforesting the non-agricultural lands of the different regions of 
the State. A start has been made on the State property at Sana- 
torium in the Sandhill region and on the spruce lands in Mitchell 
Park, but a definite appropriation is needed to put these experi- 
ments on a practical basis. 

In order to interest the people of North Carolina in better forest 
protection and to educate the young people, and especially the 
children, in a better understanding and wiser use of our natural 
resources, the Survey has cooperated with a number of organiza- 
tions where such cooperation would help. Much of our most effec- 
tive work in education has been accomplished through the Con- 



138 Administrative Departments 

servation Department of the State Federation of Women's Clubs. 

Following the purchase of Mitchell State Park by a Commission 
appointed by Governor Craig, under the authority of the Legis- 
lature of 1915, which Commission secured 500 acres of spruce land, 
including the summit of Mt. Mitchell, Governor Bickett, in the 
summer of 1917, requested the Survey to take charge of this park. 
The Survey accepted the commission and has had charge of the 
park since that time. A forest warden was appointed to open up 
trails, inform and look after the large number of visitors, and 
protect the park from fire. This work was essential to the proper 
administration of the property, and a fund derived from the sale 
of dead timber, supplemented by Survey funds and a loan from 
General Julian S. Carr, was available to pay the salary of this 
warden and his assistants. 

Realizing that the greater part of the forest area of North 
Carolina is included in farms, the Survey has devoted a great deal 
of attention to the study of farm forestry and the assisting of 
farmers in the better management of their woodlands. Following 
the reiterated recommendation of the Survey, the State Director 
of the Agricultural Extension Service appointed a Farm Forestry 
Specialist in March, 1918. Through a mutual arrangement between 
the Survey, the Federal Government, and the State Agricultural 
Department, this man is to work under the joint direction of the 
State Forester, the Director of Extension, and the United States 
Forest Service. He will deal with all forestry questions connected 
with the woodlands included in the farms of the State. This 
cooperative work has been very satisfactorily carried on. 

The Survey has assisted the North Carolina Forestry Association 
very materially by helping to organize and hold its annual meetings, 
which, besides their interest for the delegates who attend, have a 
wide influence on public opinion throughout the State. 

The Forestry Division of the Survey has before it a large and 
increasing field of usefulness. Reconstruction following the war 
must take into consideration the adjustment of supply and demand 
as regards our forest resources. The study of the timber condi- 
tions of the various counties, which up to the present include all 
the mountain and Piedmont counties, must be extended to the 
coastal plain counties. 

The children of our schools and students of our colleges should 
understand the problems with which they will eventually have 



Geological and Economic Survey 



139 



to deal. The Survey must continue to furnish speakers, publica- 
tions, articles for the press, and other information, and be ready 
at all times to assist the citizens of the State and those who would 
become so in the forestry problems confronting them. Experi- 
ments must be conducted in order to have definite and practical 
information available; and, for these, the State should have at least 
one Experiment Forest in each of the forest regions. The planting 
of trees along our improved highways will become an important 
public activity, and State nurseries should be maintained to fur- 
nish at cost planting stock both for shade trees and for farm 
planting. The protection of the forest lands of the State from 
fire, authorized by the law of 1915, must be carried out with 
efficiency and economy. For these purposes a suitable appropria- 
tion should be made by the next General Assembly. 

In order to emphasize the value of the forests of North Carolina 
and their need of protection by the State and the necessity of the 
General Assembly passing adequate legislation and making sufficient 
appropriations for protecting this valuable natural resource, there 
is given below an estimated amount and value of standing timber, 
young forest growth in North Carolina, and the damage from 
forest fires during the past ten years. 



ESTIMATED AMOUNT AND VALUE OF STANDING TIMBER IN NORTH 
CAROLINA SUITABLE FOR SAW TIMBER, 1920 





Mountain 
Region 


Piedmont 
Region 


Coastal 
Plain Region 


Total 
State 


Total areas, acres 


4,150,000 
3,130,000 

a2, 800, 000 

8,500,000 

$42,000,000 

b300,000 

600,000 

S 6,000,000 

9,100,000 

$48,000,000 


12,850,000 
7,200,000 

c4, 200, 000 

2,930,000 

$14,650,000 

d2, 400, 000 
4,160,000 

$20,800,000 
7,090,000 

$35,450,000 


14,190,000 
10,800,000 

2,500,000 

6,000,000 

$ 24,000,000 

f8, 300, 000 
12,000,000 

$ 60,000,000 
18,000,000 

S 84,000,000 


31,190,000 


Area forested 


21,130,000 


Hardwood forest: 
Total stand, 1,000-ft 


9,500,000 
17,430,000 


Value 


$ 80,650,000 


Softwood forest: 
Area .. _. 


11,000,000 


Total stand, 1,000-ft 


16,760,000 


Value 


$ 86,800,000 


Total stand, 1,000-ft 


34,190,000 


Total value 


$167,450,000 



Note: 

a. Includes mixed hardwood and softwood forests. 

b. Spruce forests only. 

c. Includes mixed hardwood and pine forests. 

d. Second growth or old field pine forests. 

e. Chiefly hardwood swamps. 

f. Includes both longleaf and shortleaf pine forests. 



140 



Administrative Departments 



ESTIMATED VALUE OF YOUNG FOREST GROWTH IN NORTH CAROLINA 1920 



Total area, in acres in region. 

Forested area 

Hardwood forest area 

Area not producing 

Merchantable timber area 

Area young growth 

Value young growth 

Softwood forest area 

Area not producing 

Merchantable timber area 

Area young growth 

Value young growth 

Total value young growth 



Mountain 
Region 



4. 
3 
2, 

1 

a2. 
$37, 



150,000 
130,000 
800,000 
300,000 
000,000 
500,000 
500,000 
300,000 
260,000 
in. iiiiii 



$37,500,000 



Piedmont 
Region 



12,800,000 

7,200,000 

4,200,000 

200,000 

1,000,000 

a4, 000, 000 

$60,000,000 

2,400,000 

160,000 

240,000 

2,000,000 

$40,000,000 

$100,000,000 



Coastal 
Plain Region 



14,000,000 

10,800,000 

2,500,000 



1,200,000 

1,300,000 

13,000,000 

8,300,000 

3,300,000 

2,900,000 

2,100,000 

42,000,000 

55,000,000 



State 



30,950,000 

21,1311,0110 

9,500,000 

500,000 

3,200,000 

7,800,000 

$110,500,000 

11,000,000 

3,720,000 

3,180,000 

4,100,000 

$ 82,000,000 

8192,500,000 



a. Includes some areas on which there is mature timber. 

STATEMENT OF DAMAGE BY FOREST FIRES 

throughout State for ten-year period, 1910-1919, inclusive, as reported annually by township 

correspondents 

Total forested area of State 20,000,000 

Total number acres forest land burnt over 3,949,000 

Total value timber destroyed $ 2,140,000 

Total value young growth destroyed 3,591,000 

Total value forest products destroyed 3,856,000 

Total value improvements destroyed 1,023,000 

Grand total value of all damage reported 10,610,000 

During the past two years the Survey has prepared and distrib- 
uted the following publications relating to forestry: 

Press Bulletins: 

169. Timber Resources of Moore County, Julv 15, 1919 

171. Our Future Hardwood Supply, March 20, 1920. 

172. The Relation of Water Resources to Forestry, July 10. 1920. 

173. A Minimum Forest Policv for the Southern Appalachians, July 25, 1920. 

174. Forest Taxation, August 1, 1920. 

Special Publications: 

Forest Protection or Devastation? Published by the North Carolina Forestry 
Association, August, 1920. 

The Forester has been assisted in this work by Mr. W. D. Clark, Chief Fire Warden, 
and Mr. H. A. Carroll, Special Agent. 



WATER RESOURCES 

The work of this division consists 
under the following heads: 

1. Water Powers 

Gauging Stations. 

2. Water Supply for Cities and Towns 

Mountain Region. 
Piedmont Region. 
Coastal Plain Region. 

3. Protection of Watersheds. 



DIVISION. 

of investigations carried on 



Geological and Economic Survey 141 

Water Powers. — Notwithstanding the larger developments that 
have been made by the Southern Power Company, Aluminum Com- 
pany of America, and the Carolina Light and Power Company, there 
is still a very much larger demand for power in the various cities 
and towns of the State than can be supplied by these companies. 

After the preliminary investigations have been made and it has 
been ascertained whether or not a certain amount of power can be 
developed, the final examination or preparation of plans for its de- 
velopment are not made by the Survey, but the city or corporation 
is referred to competent hydraulic engineers in private life to take 
up this work for them. 

The State Survey is cooperating with the Federal Survey in oper- 
ating gauging stations and in making discharge measurements on 
several streams and rivers in Western and Piedmont North Caro- 
lina. The Federal Government. is cooperating heartily with the Sur- 
vey in this work. 

Water Supply for Cities and Towns: — Special investigations have 
been made of water supplies for Carthage, Moore County, and High 
Point, Guilford County; an investigation of the sewerage and water 
supply problem of Wadesboro, Anson County; complete water re- 
sources surveys of Wilkes and Surry Counties; investigation of 
available water power for Fayetteville, Cumberland County; and an 
investigation of water power on Deep River, near Glendon. Tenta- 
tive requests have been received for water resources surveys of 
Buncombe and Moore Counties. 

There have been two field parties at work a part of the time, 
one consisting of Mr. Sheldon C. Austin, of Richfield, N. C, and Mr. 
E. S. Teague, of Taylorsville, N. C, both students of the university; 
and the other consisting of Messrs. A. Y. Cottrell and Hall E. Cobb, 
both of Lenoir, N. C. 

Protection of Watersheds. — The protection of watersheds from a 
sanitary standpoint is worked out by Professor Saville, and the pro- 
tection of the forest areas on the watersheds or their reforestation 
is carried on under the supervision of Mr. Holmes, the Forester. 

A map is bing prepared showing the transmission lines of the 
various power companies. The power companies have been very 
generous in supplying the Survey with information regarding their 
transmission lines and the character of the power development of 
their several sites. 



142 Administrative Departments 

In order to obtain the information and data desired as early as 
possible and also to be able to give to the counties and municipali- 
ties information they need regarding their water powers and water 
supplies the Survey, in carrying out its water resources survey of 
the State, is cooperating with the counties and municipalities in 
making the survey of their areas on a 50 per cent basis. 

The following figures regarding water powers in North Carolina 
and the amount that is being utilized illustrate strikingly the need 
for this water power survey of the several counties: 

The total developed hydro-electric power in the State is now dis- 
tributed about as follows: 

Horsepower, 

Southern Power Company and subsidiaries 65,000 

Carolina Power and Light Company 36,000 

Aluminum Company of America (Badin Plant) 118,000 

Aluminum Company of America (Cheoah Plant) 72,000 

Blue Ridge Power Company 8,000 

Roanoke Rapids Power Company ' 6,000 

Other developments, about 25,000 



330,000 



Of this power, the 8,000 horsepower at Tuxedo by the Blue Ridge 
Power Company is transmitted for use in Spartansburg, South 
Carolina. The 118,000 at Badin is used in the local reduction of 
aluminum, and the 72,000 horsepower at Cheoah is transmitted for a 
similar use in Tennessee. Thus, only some 131,000 horsepower, or 
about 40 per cent of all the power developed in the State, is avail- 
able for general industrial and commercial use. 

There is still undeveloped water powers in the Stat6 that will 
aggregate at least one million horsepower, and it is to bring 
about the development of this water power and its utilization that 
the Survey is urging sufficient appropriations for making the water 
resources survey of the State. 

The following publications relating to water resources have been 
issued during the past two years: 

Press Bulletins: 

173. The Relation of Water Resources to Forestry, July 10, 1920. 
175. The Water Powers of North Carolina, August 10, 1920. 



Geological and Economic Survey 143 

drainage and reclamation division 

Since the passage of the North Carolina Drainage Act by the 
General Assembly of 1909 there have been 142 projects organized or 
proposed under this Act. Of this number 51 were districts embracing 
overflowed lands of Burke, Cabarrus, Catawba, Cleveland, Davidson, 
Forsyth, Gaston, Guilford, Iredell, Lincoln, Mecklenburg, Moore, 
Rockingham and Rowan Counties of the Piedmont region, and 
Henderson County of the Mountain region; and 91 projects have in- 
cluded the swamp lands of Beaufort, Bladen, Camden, Carteret, 
Chowan, Columbus, Craven, Cumberland, Currituck, Duplin, Edge- 
combe, Hartnett, Hyde, New Hanover, Onslow, Pamlico, Pender, 
Perquimans, Pitt, Robeson, Sampson, Tyrrell, Washington, Wayne 
and Wilson Counties of the Coastal Plain region. Of these 142 
projects, 75 districts, representing 615,000 acres, have been completed 
and the lands drained; 15 districts have been approved; 59 districts 
have been proposed and are either in the preliminary stages of 
organization or are held up for one cause or another; 9 projects 
have been abandoned as not feasible at the present time. 

Of this reclaimed acreage, approximately 30,000 acres is reclaimed 
overflowed lands of the Piedmont region which before its reclamation 
was not worth, as producing land, over $25 per acre, but is now 
worth from $100 to $200 per acre. At an average value of $100 
per acre it would make the value of this land now $300,000, or an 
increase of $225,000. The market value of the 585,000 acres of re- 
claimed swamp lands is at least $50 per acre, making the total 
minimum value of these reclaimed swamp lands $29,250,000. Be- 
fore their reclamation these lands were not valued at more than 
$2 per acre and a great deal of the land was on the tax books at 50 
cents or less per acre. Estimating its previous value at $2 per acre, 
or a total of $1,170,000, this makes a gain to the State in the value 
of the reclaimed swamp lands of $28,080,000, at a cost of not over 
$75,000 to the State. 

There are still approximately 2,000,000 acres of swamp lands in 
the Coastal Plain region of North Carolina, of which at least 1,250,- 
000 acres represents land that can be drained and when drained 
will make very productive agricultural land. The soil of the balance 
of the swamp areas is more peaty in character and not so susceptible 
to profitable drainage at the present time. 

The Survey has cooperated and organized the work of the North 
Carolina Drainage Association and has arranged for its annual 



144 Administrative Departments 

meeting, which was held at Washington, N. C, March 31, and April 
1, 1920. This is the first meeting held by the Association since the 
beginning of the war. 

On account of lack of funds the Survey has not been able to carry 
out as full a program as it is desired in connection with the exam- 
ination of proposed drainage districts, and assisting the districts 
in developing the reclaimed lands and bringing settlers to take up 
these lands. The Survey is also cooperating with the National 
Drainage Congress, and it is proposed to hold, in connection with the 
next meeting of this Congress in 1921, a drainage exposition which 
will illustrate what has been accomplished in reclamation work 
in the several States. At this exposition the districts will be able 
to advertise pretty thoroughly their reclaimed lands. The Survey 
has kept in touch with all legislation relating to drainage and has 
published and distributed widely copies of the North Carolina 
Drainage Law and amendments, together with a book of forms to be 
used in the organization of drainage districts. During the past 
two years the following publications have been issued relating to 
drainage: 

Economic Paper No. 50. — Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Drainage Congestion. 

MAPPING MVISION 

The work of this Division includes the preparation of the various 
maps of the State, and can be summarized as follows: 

1 — Base Map 
2 — Topographic Map 
3 — Traverse Map 
4 — Geological May. 

(1) Base Map. — The base map of the State has already been pre- 
pared by the Survey in cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey. 
This is used in the preparation of all the other maps and also used 
for special maps which are to show transmission lines of power 
companies, railroad lines; forest areas; highways, etc. This base 
map has to be corrected from time to time as new railways are 
constructed, county lines changed, canals constructed, etc. A 
revision of this base map is now being made and the new map 
will show forest areas, the principal canals constructed in con- 
nection with drainage districts, new railways, etc. 



Geological and Economic Survey 145 

(2) Topographic Map. — The most valuable map to the State is 
the topographic map. This is also the most expensive to prepare. 
This map is being made in cooperation with the U. S. Geological 
Survey, but only as rapidly as the State will cooperate with the 
Federal Survey. The States that cooperate will be the first to be 
mapped, and in a recent communication from the Chairman of the 
Board of Surveys and. Maps of the Federal Government he states: 

"I am advised by the Geological Survey that the least workable 
appropriation which should be asked for is $5,000, for the reason 
that, on a dollar for dollar basis, such an appropriation, matched 
by an equal amount from the Government, will serve to survey 
one regular quadrangle; and further, that probably they would not 
be able to use annually more than $25,000. in view of the fact that 
it is anticipated a large number of States will secure appropriations 
this year." 

The State should, if possible, provide for a sufficient amount 
so that it can cooperate to the limit of $25,000 a year with the 
Federal Survey. Such a topographic map of the whole State would 
be of inestimable value to the State Highway Commission in its 
highway work; to the Survey and power companies in water power 
investigations; to railway corporations in their location Avork; 
and to the Survey and mining companies in preparation of geologi- 
cal maps of different areas. 

(3) Traverse Map. — There is a continual demand for traverse 
maps of the various counties which would be on a much larger 
scale than the State map and would show in more detail certain 
conditions of the county and location of houses than can be shown 
on the smaller scale maps. The traverse maps would not show 
the topography unless this had already been prepared in con- 
nection with the topographic map, but would show township 
lines, county lines, railways, streams, swamp areas, forest areas, 
cities and towns, schoolhouses, churches, and all houses in the 
country. These maps are somewhat expensive to prepare as all 
the roads and streams are actually traversed as in the prepara- 
tion of a topographic map. The map, however, when completed, 
is of inestimable value to county commissioners, county road com- 
missioners, and county superintendents of schools. The traverse 
map is also necessary in preparing the county soil maps which are 
made by the Department of Agriculture. 

10 



146 Administrative Departments 

(4) Geological Map.— The Survey is preparing a new geological 
map of the State which will show in considerable detail the vari- 
ous geological formations. Several special geological maps have 
been published of different portions of the State, as the Coastal 
Plain region, mountain region, and certain sections of the Pied- 
mont area. 

BIOLOGICAL DIVISION. 

The work that comes under this Division is investigations relat- 
ing to fish and oysters, birds, plants, mushrooms, etc. 

Through a series of investigations it has been ascertained that 
certain shellfish, such as the oyster, clam, diamond-back terrapin, 
etc., can be economically cultivated in North Carolina waters; and, 
as a result of this investigation, a company was organized in 
Beaufort for raising the diamond-back terrapin commercially, and 
this venture has proved successful. There is also great possibility 
in the cultivation of the oyster, and with the proper State pro- 
tection of the oyster grounds, this should grow into a flourishing 
industry. 

There is a great need for adequate legislation for the protection 
of our fish and game, and as soon as such legislation is passed 
there will be many problems that should be investigated by the 
State in connection with the use and propagation of fish and 
game. Very little effort has been made to determine what is the 
actual value to the State of North Carolina of its waters from a 
standpoint of the game fish that they contain, and the Survey is 
now investigating this question. It is expected that some very 
interesting data can be presented to the next General Assembly 
in regard to the actual commercial value to the State of this 
natural resource. From the tourist standpoint fishing in mountain 
streams is a very great asset, and it is thought that with very 
little effort the Federal Government can be induced to establish a 
large hatchery in Western North Carolina, provided the State 
had adequate laws for the protection of the fish. 

Dr. W. C. Coker has prepared for the Survey an elaborate manu- 
script, thoroughly illustrated, on "The Mushrooms of North Caro- 
lina." It has been impossible to publish this report on account of 
lack of funds. Portions of this have been published in the Journal 
of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, but it is not available to 
the people of the State as it should be, and therefore the people 
are losing the value of this work. Dr. Coker and his assistants 



Geological and Economic Survey 147 

are now at work investigating and preparing for publication a 
volume on the plants of North Carolina. The plan of the Survey 
in the preparation of this volume is to have it so arranged that 
it can be used as a textbook of Botany of North Carolina. 

STATE FOREST AND PARKS DIVISION. 

Mount Mitchell Park. — When the Mount Mitchell Park Commis- 
sion was created by the General Assembly of 1919 no appropriation 
was made for carrying on the work of protection and administra- 
tion. The work was finally, at the request of Governor Bickett, 
taken over by the Survey and the Survey has advanced the neces- 
sary funds to carry on the work, these funds supplementing moneys 
received from the sale of dead timber and a loan. The State For- 
ester is a member of the Commission and has had general super- 
vision of the work. The principal work done has been to protect 
the forests on the park from fire, and in connection with this the 
Survey is having constructed a fire line between the slash left by 
the logging operations and the green timber. 

The park, which cost originally $18,600, has undoubtedly doubled 
in value since its purchase. 

The Survey, in cooperation with the Sanatorium officials, has been 
carrying on some experimental work in replanting part of the area 
around the Sanatorium. The Survey also hopes to cooperate with 
other institutions in looking after forest areas belonging to these 
institutions. 

GEOLOGICAL BOARD. 

Gov. T. W. Bickett, ex officio, Chairman Raleigh 

John Spbtjnt Hill Durham 

R. G. Lassiter Oxford 

F. R. Hewitt Asheville 

C. C. Smoot. Ill North Wilkesboro 

Joseph Hyde Pratt, Director and State Geologist, Chapel Hill. 



STATE HIGHWAY COMMISSION. 

W. S. Fai.lis, State Highway Engineer, Raleigh, N. C. 

By an act of the General Assembly of 1915, Chapter 113, there was 
created a North Carolina State Highway Commission. The duties 



148 Administrative Departments 

of this Commission are to assist the counties in developing a state 
and county system of highways. 

Under that act, the State Highway Commission consisted of the 
Governor, three citizens of the State who were appointed by the 
Governor, one from the eastern, one from the central and one from 
the western portion of the State (one of whom shall be a member of 
the minority political party), the State Geologist, a professor of 
civil engineering of the University of North Carolina, and a pro- 
fessor of the North Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engi- 
neering, said professors to be designated by the Governor. Such 
assistants and clerks as might be needed were to be appointed by 
the State Highway Engineer. 

The General Assembly of 1919 changed the law and provided 
that the Commission should consist of four members to be appointed 
by the Governor and confirmed by the Senate. One member must 
reside in the eastern section of the State, one in the central section, 
and one in the western section. The fourth may be appointed with- 
out regard to his residence. The Chairman of the Commission 
is the State Highway Commissioner and is required to give all of 
his time to the duties of his office. 

The first meeting of the Commission was held March 31, 1915, at 
which time the Commission was fully organized and a discussion 
entered into as to the law and future work of the Commission. 

The work of the Commission ranges from advice and cooperation 
to taking complete charge of engineering work in the different 
counties and townships of the State. 

Since the organization of the Commission it has worked out for 
the counties many methods by which the road work can be done 
more economically and successfully than heretofore. The State 
Highway Engineer has arranged with the different railroads for a 
special low rate on road material, which arrangement has to come 
through the State Highway Commission, and this is proving of value 
in much of the road work in the State. 

The Federal Aid Road Fund comes through the State Highway 
Commission. 



Fisheries Commission Board 149 

FISHERIES COMMISSION BOARD. 

The Fisheries Commission Board was created by the General 
Assembly of 1915 for the purpose of enforcing the laws relating to 
fish. It consists of five members appointed by the Governor, at 
least three of whom must be from the several fishing districts of 
the State, and have a practical knowledge of the fishing industry. 
The Board appoints a fisheries commissioner who is responsible 
to it for carrying out the duties of his office. The term of his office 
is four years. He is authorized to appoint two assistants by and 
with the consent of the Fisheries Commission Board. He also ap- 
points, with the approval of the Board, inspectors in each county, 
under his jurisdiction. The Fisheries Commission Board is given 
jurisdiction over and control of all the fisheries of the State, which 
is construed by the act creating the Board to include porpoises 
and other marine mammals, fishes, mollusca and crustaceans, and 
all operations involved in using, setting, or operating apparatus 
employed in killing or taking said fish or in transporting or pre- 
paring them for market. The Board also has authority and power 
to regulate, prohibit, or restrict in time, place, character, and dimen- 
sions, the use of nets, appliances, apparatus, or other means em- 
ployed in taking or killing fish, and to regulate seasons at which 
the various species of fish be taken in the several waters of the 
State, and to prescribe the minimum size of fish which may be 
taken. It has general supervision of the acts of its officers and 
employees. The Fisheries Commissioner is responsible to the Board 
for his acts in carrying out and enforcing all the laws, rules, and 
regulations of the Board pertaining to the fishing industry in the 
State. He must also see that all license and other taxes are col- 
lected and paid to the Treasurer. The State owns five boats, which 
are used for patrolling the waters and enforcing the laws. 

MEMBERS OF THE FISHERIES COMMISSION BOARD 

Ed. Chambf.hs Smith, Chairman Raleigh 

A. V. Cobb Windsor 

S. P. Hancock Beaufort 

E. H. Freeman Wilmington 

J. C. Baum Poplar Branch 

John A. Nelson, Fisheries Commissioner. . . .Gloucester 

Theo. S. Meekins, Assistant Commissioner Manteo 

W. G. Dixon, Assistant Commissioner. Oriental 



150 Administrative Departments 



STATE BOARD OF ELECTIONS. 

The State Board of Elections consists of five electors appointed by 
the Governor for a term of two years. Not more than three of them 
may be of the same political party. Vacancies occurring in the 
Board are filled by the Governor. Members of the State Board of 
Elections receive, in full compensation for their services, $4 per day 
for the time they are actually engaged in the discharge of their 
duties together with their actual traveling expenses, and such other 
expenses as are necessary and incident to the discharge of the duties 
imposed upon them relating to elections. 

MEMBERS OF THE BOARD 

Wilson G. Lamb, Chairman Williamston 

R. T. Claywell, Secretary Morganton 

W. J. Dams Hendersonville 

B. S. Roystek Oxford 

Clarence Call Wilkesboro 



STATE STANDARD KEEPER. 

The State Standard Keeper is appointed by the Governor to take 
care of the balances, weights, and measures prescribed by law, and 
perform such other duties as the Governor may prescribe touching 
said balances, weights, and measures. It is his duty to procure and 
furnish, at prime cost, to any of the counties, upon an order of the 
Board of County Commissioners, any of the standard sealed weights 
and measures required by law to be kept, and he is authorized, by 
and with the approval of the Governor, to contract for the manufac- 
ture of plain sealed weights substantially made of iron, steel or 
brass, as the county ordering may direct; yardstick made of sub- 
stantial wood, each end neatly covered with metal, sealed, marked 
and stamped "N. C"; half bushel, peck, half peck, quarter peck, and 
one-eighth peck, made of substantial, well-seasoned wood, with se- 
cure metallic binding and casing; gallon, half gallon, quart, pint, 
half pint, and gill measure, made of light sheet copper with iron 
handles. He must procure and furnish, as herein provided, to the 
Board of Commissioners of any county ordering the same, dry and 
liquid sealed measures and yardstick made of brass or copper. 

State Standard Keeper, T. F. Brockwell, Raleigh, N. C. 



Audubon Society of North Carolina 151 

FIREMEN'S RELIEF FUND. 

The State of North Carolina pays $2,500 a year to the North 
Carolina State Volunteer Firemen's Association and to the North 
Carolina State Firemen's Association, which fund is known as the 
Firemen's Relief Fund. 

The purpose of the fund is for the relief of firemen, members of 
such associations, who may be injured or made sick by disease 
contracted in the actual discharge of duty as firemen, and for the 
relief of widows, children or dependent mothers of such firemen 
who may be killed or die from disease contracted in the discharge 
of their duty. Such duty must be performed in the service of the 
fire department from the time of the fire alarm until the mem- 
bers are dismissed by the company officers at roll call, or in service 
connected with the fire department which is directed to be per- 
formed by the officer in charge. 

Any fireman of good, moral character in North Carolina, and be- 
longing to an organized fire company, who will comply with the 
requisitions of the constitution and by-laws of the North Carolina 
State Firemen's Association may become a member of this Asso- 
ciation, and be eligible to relief from the fund. 



THE AUDUBON SOCIETY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Miss Placide H. Underwood, Raleigh, Secretary. 

The Audubon Society of North Carolina was incorporated in 1903, 
with J. Y. Joyner, T. Gilbert Pearson, R. H. Lewis, A. H. Boyden, 
H. H. Brimley, P. D. Gold, Jr., J. F. Jordan, and R. N. Wilson as 
incorporators. (Rev. 1905, Sec. 1863.) 

The officers of The Audubon Society of North Carolina are a Presi- 
dent, Vice-P'resident, Secretary and Treasurer, and such other officers 
as may be fixed by the by-laws. (Rev. 1905, Sec. 1863.) 

The objects for which the corporation is formed are to promote 
among the citizens of North Carolina a better appreciation of the 
value of the song and insectivorous birds to man and the State; to 
encourage parents and teachers to give instruction to children on 
the subject; to stimulate public sentiment against the destruction 
of wild birds and their eggs; to secure the enactment and the en- 
forcement of proper and necessary laws for the protection and 
preservation of the birds and game of North Carolina. Its further 



152 Administrative Departments 

office is, through the appointment of game wardens, to rigidly en- 
force the laws for game and bird protection. 

The funds received by the Treasurer of the State from the license 
tax on nonresident hunters constitutes a fund known as the Bird 
and Game Fund. This fund is paid out by the Treasurer of the 
State on the order of the Treasurer of The Audubon Society of 
North Carolina, who makes an annual report to the Governor of the 
receipts and expenditures of the society for each year. 

The Governor, upon the recommendation of The Audubon Society, 
appoints bird and game wardens and the Treasurer of the Society, 
whose term of office, unless otherwise provided for, are during good 
behavior, or until their successors are appointed. The Governor 
issues to the Treasurer of the Audubon Society and to each person 
appointed as warden, a commission. These commissions are trans- 
mitted to the clerk's office of the Superior Court for the county from 
which the prospective treasurer or bird and game warden is ap- 
pointed. 

Every person appointed as game warden, before entering upon the 
duties of the office, is required to take oath before the clerk of the 
Superior Court of the county in which he resides that he will faith- 
fully perform the duties of said office, and execute a bond in the 
sum of one hundred dollars for the faithful discharge of his duties. 

The compensation of wardens is fixed and paid by the society. 
There are thirty-two counties of the State under the jurisdiction 
of The Audubon Society and there are sixty-one game wardens in 
the various counties, each county having one or more wardens. 

Any nonresident of the State who desires to hunt in any of the 
counties under the jurisdiction of The Audubon Society is required 
to make application to the clerk of the Superior Court of any of 
the counties under Audubon control, and the clerk of the court 
issues such license upon the payment of a fee of ten dollars and 
clerk's fee. A nonresident hunting license issued by the clerk of 
the Superior Court of any one of the counties under the jurisdiction 
of The Audubon Society is valid in all the Audubon counties, while 
a nonresident hunting license issued in a county not under the 
jurisdiction of The Audubon Society can be used only in the county 
in which it is issued. 

In 1909 the General Assembly of North Carolina passed an act 
withdrawing certain counties from Audubon protection. Subsequent 
to 1909 other counties have been withdrawn so that at the present 



Audubon Society of North Carolina 



153 



time there are only thirty 
The Audubon Society of N 
are under the jurisdiction 

Alamance 

Alleghany 

Ashe 

Avery 

Bladen 

Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Caldwell 

Chatham 

Columbus 



two counties under the jurisdiction of 
orth Carolina. The following counties 
of The Audubon Society: 



Durham 

Edgecombe 

Greene 

Haywood 

Iredell 

Lee 

Lenoir 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Moore 

New Hanover 



Northampton 

Orange 

Person 

Rockingham 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Surry 

Watauga 

Wake 

Yancey 



In its efforts towards education, The Audubon Society has ex- 
pended part of its funds towards the publication of a book on North 
Carolina birds. The Society has had prepared and has had paid for 
the plates presenting pictures of bird life in North Carolina. During 
the year 1919 The Book on North Carolina Birds, by T. Gilbert 
Pearson, C. S. Brimley, and H. H. Brimley, was published after a 
period of several years, the material for this book having been de- 
stroyed by fire when the establishment of E. M. Uzzle & Co. was 
burned in November, 1915. This is a joint publication of the North 
Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, the State Audubon So- 
ciety and the State Museum. Copies of this publication can be se- 
cured either from the office of the Secretary of the Audubon Society, 
Raleigh, or from the North Carolina Geological and Economic Sur- 
vey, Chapel Hill, upon the payment of $2.75 for cloth bound copies 
and $2.00 paper bound. 

The Audubon Society owns two small islands in Pamlico Sound 
which are patrolled by a game warden during the nesting season. 
These islands are Leggett Lump and Royal Shoal. 

In an attempt to increase a state-wide interest in bird and game 
conservation, the secretaries of the Society have given illustrated 
bird lectures and talked on bird study to Teacher's Institutes, Com- 
munity Clubs, Women's Clubs and to many of the schools in the 
State, and a great many Junior Audubon Societies have been organ- 
ized and several schools and clubs have held "Bird Days" as a result 
of this work. 



154 Administrative Departments 

A bill providing for the enactment of a state-wide game commis- 
sion to take over the work of The Audubon Society was introduced 
into the Senate by Senator Kelly, Chairman of the Senate Committee 
on Game at the last session of the General Assembly (1917). This 
bill, amended several times so as to exempt certain counties from 
its provisions, passed its first reading. On its second reading, there 
were so many amendments offered that the bill was referred to the 
committee. The committee stripped the bill of all amendments and 
reported it back to the Senate with a substitute amendment. When 
the bill came up for passage, however, there were several more 
amendments offered and a parliamentary wrangle followed, during 
which the bill was tabled. It was then so near the end of the ses- 
sion of the General Assembly that there was not sufficient time to 
take the matter up in the House and the matter was dropped. 

When The Audubon Society was organized the office of the Secre- 
tary was at Greensboro, N. C, Mr. T. Gilbert Pearson, now Presi- 
dent of The National Association of Audubon Societies, being Sec- 
retary. In 1913, upon the election of Mr. James W. Cheshire, Sec- 
retary, the office was moved to Raleigh, N. C, and since that time 
the work of the Society has been carried on by the various secre- 
taries in Raleigh, N. C. 

Officers of The Audubon Society of North Carolina: 

OFFICERS. 

Dr. R. H. Lewis, President Raleigh. 

H. H. Brumley, Vice-President . Raleigh. 

P. H. Underwood, Secretary Raleigh. 

R. A. Brown, Treasurer Raleigh. 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 

Rev. Melton W. Clark Greensboro. 

Brook G. Empie Wilmington. 

B. F Siielton Speed. 

W. H. Swift Greensboro. 

Franklin Sherman, Jr Raleigh. 

secretaries. 

T. Gilbert Pearson 1903-1911. 

P. D. Gold. Jr Nov. 22, 1912-June 1, 1913. 

J. W. Cheshire June 1, 1913-March 20, 1915. 

R. E. Parker June 1, 1915-June 1, 1917. 

G. A. Martin June 1, 1917-Oct. 10, 1917. 

Miss Placide H. Underwood Oct. 10, 1917. 



State Educational Commission 155 

STATE EDUCATIONAL COMMISSION. 

Robert H. Weight, Chairman, Greenville, N. C. 

By an act of the General Assembly of 1917, chapter 197, there was 
created a State Educational Commission of five members to be ap- 
pointed by the Governor for the term of office of two years. "It 
shall be the duty of the said commission to make a thorough study 
of the school laws of the entire public school system of the State, a 
careful survey of existing educational conditions and a comparative 
study and investigation of the educational systems of other states. 
Slid Commission shall codify the public school laws of the State 
and make recommendations of such amendments, changes, and addi- 
tions to the school law as in its opinion may be needed." The Com- 
mission shall also investigate the methods and cost of supplying 
text books to the public schools and also the advisability of estab- 
lishing a printing plant for the purpose of printing text-books and 
doing other State printing, and shall investigate the matter of public 
school teachers' pensions and report its finding and recommenda- 
tions to the General Assembly. 

The Governor named the commission in December, 1917, and 
called the members together for the purpose of organizing said 
commission March 6, 1918. The commission consists of: 

Robert H. Wright, Chairman, Greenville, N. C. 

N. W. Walker, Chapel Hill, N. C. 

L. J. Bell, Secretary, Rockingham, N. C. 

C. C. Wright, Hunting Creek, N. C. 

Chas. E. Brewer, Raleigh, N. C. 

At the first meeting held March 6, 1918, the Commission was fully 
organized and proceeded at once to outline the work to be done and 
appointed different members to gather data. The Commission met 
June 20, October 16 and December 17, and made a partial report to 
the General Assembly of 1919. 

The appropriation made for this work by the General Assembly 
of 1917 was $1,000. 

The General Assembly of 1919 continued the Commission until 
1921 and made an appropriation of $1,000 for the work. 

When Dr. Ei C. Brooks became Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion, he resigned from the Commission and the Governor appointed 
Mr. N. W. Walker in his place. 

The survey of our public schools has been made and published 
under the caption of "Public Education in North Carolina." 



156 Administrative Departments 

COMMISSION FOR REVISION OF LAWS. 

The General Assembly of 1917 created a joint committee of five 
members, two from the Senate and three from the House, to pro- 
vide for "compiling, collating and revising the Public Statutes of 
North Carolina." The committee, as appointed and organized, con- 
sists of Representative Harry W. Stubbs, chairman; Senators Lind- 
say C. Warren and Stahle Linn, and Representatives Carter Dalton 
and H. P. Grier. Under the powers conferred in the act, the com- 
mittee appointed Mr. Thomas H. Calvert, as revision commissioner, 
to take charge of the actual task of the revision. Upon Mr. Cal- 
vert's appointment as Judge of the Superior Court, Prof. L. P. 
McGehee, of the State University, was appointed commissioner. The 
work of the compilation and revision has been done by Professor 
McGehee, Messrs. Carter Dalton, Lindsay C. Warren. A. C. Mc- 
intosh and Thomas E. Didlake. The result, submitted to the Gen- 
eral Assembly of 1919, was comprised in the two large volumes of 
"The Consolidated Statutes of North Carolina." 

The Commission was continued by the General Assembly of 1919 
and charged with the duty of annotating the "Consolidated Statutes" 
and bringing forward in them the Acts of 1919. 



BOARD OF INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS. 

The State Board of Internal Improvements was created and made 
a body corporate by Chapter 982, Acts of the General Assembly of 
1819. The Board has been continued to date with varying modi- 
fications. Its present status as defined in Chapter 107 of the Con- 
solidated Statutes of 1920 is as follows: 

The Board consists of the Governor of the State, who is ex offi- 
cio, president, and two commissioners who are appointed biennially 
by the Governor, with the advice of the Senate. Any two members 
of the Board constitute a board for the transaction of business. The 
Board, moreover, has power to fill any vacancies that may occur in 
its membership. The private secretary of the Governor is ex officio, 
secretary to the Board. Whenever it is deemed necessary, how- 
ever, the Board may appoint a special clerk. 

Meetings of the Board are held whenever and wherever the Gov- 
enor may direct. Members of the Board receive five dollars per day 



Board of Internal Improvements 157 

and their traveling expenses for the time they are employed in the 
public service. Rules, by-laws and regulations for the conduct of 
the Board are made by the Board itself so long as they are not 
inconsistent with the laws of the State. A true record of its pro- 
ceedings must be kept, and at all times be open to inspection by the 
members of the General Assembly and others interested therein. 

Whenever the State makes an appropriation for any work of in- 
ternal improvements conducted by a corporation the State, unless 
otherwise directed, becomes a stockholder in such corporation and 
holds as many shares as may correspond with the amount of money 
appropriated. It is the Board's duty to have charge of all the 
State's interest in all works of internal improvements. Therefore, 
the Board must require of the president and chief official of any 
work of internal improvement a written report of its affairs, cov- 
ering in detail the number of shares of stock owned by the State; 
number owned otherwise; face value of such shares; market value 
of such shares; amount of bonded debt and for what purpose con- 
tracted; amount of other debt and how incurred; if interest on 
bonded debt has been punctually paid as agreed, and, if not, 
how much in arrears; amount of gross receipts for past year 
and from what sources derived; an itemized account of expendi- 
tures for past year; any lease or sale of property of said 
company, or any part thereof, to whom made, for what considera- 
tion and for what length of time; suits at law pending against his 
company concerning its bonded debt, or in which title to whole or 
any part of such road or canal is concerned; any sales of stock 
owned by the State, by whose order made, and disposition of the 
proceeds. Failure to make such a report is a misdemeanor punish- 
able by law. 

The Board of Internal Improvements must report biennially to 
the General Assembly the condition of all railroads, canals, or other 
works of internal improvements in which the State has an interest, 
together with suggestions as to improvements, enlargements, or 
extensions of such works, and recommendations of new works of a 
similar nature, as they may deem desirable; the amount, condition, 
and character of the State's interest in other railroads, roads, canals 
or other works of internal improvements in which the State has 
taken stock, to which she has loaned money, or whose bonds she 
holds as security; the condition of such roads or other corporate 
bodies, in detail, over whose affairs the Board has any jurisdiction, 



158 Administrative Departments 

and the names of all persons failing or refusing to report as re 
quired by law. 

The Board, moreover, must approve any incumbrance on the 
State's interest in corporations of internal improvements. Whenever 
it deems it necessary the Board may appoint proxies to act for the 
State's interest in the meetings of stockholders in any company 
whose affairs are in any way subject to the jurisdiction of the Board 
of Internal Improvements. 

Whenever the Governor deems it necessary to the public interest, 
he may direct a member of the Board to investigate the affairs of or 
the official conduct of any official of any corporation of internal im- 
provements, and he is empowered to take such action concerning 
any matter reported upon pertaining to the affairs of the corpora- 
tion as the Board may deem to the interest of the State. The Gov- 
ernor may suspend or remove from office any of said officials, if in 
his opinion the interest of the State demands it. The member of 
the Board appointed to make such special investigation has all 
powers granted to a committee of investigation appointed by the 
General Assembly and receives as compensation such sum as the 
Governor, by and with the advice of the Council of State, shall deem 
just. Sheriffs must execute writs of such member of the Board of 
Internal Improvements as they would for a judicial officer of the 
State, and shall be allowed the same compensation therefor. 

It is the duty of the Board also to investigate the affairs of all 
State departments and to make reports on them to the Governor of 
the expenses and the necessity therefor, together with recommenda- 
tions for such changes as in its opinion will improve the public 
service. For the purpose of performing the above duties, the Board 
is authorized to employ an expert accountant or other agency, upon 
the approval of the Governor. 



NORTH CAROLINA NATIONAL GUARD AND RESERVE 3IILITIA. 

J. Van B. Metts, Adjutant-General. 
(Office—Raleigh, N. C.) 

The Militia of the State is divided into three classes, the National 
Guard, the Naval Militia and the unorganized militia. 

The General Assembly (session 1917) passed an act to revise 
military laws of the State and to increase the efficiency of the 



National Guard 159 

militia. Immediately after the passage of this act steps were 
taken to increase the strength of the National Guard and to 
promote its efficiency. This work was being vigorously prosecuted 
when war was declared against Germany, and from that time until 
the National Guard was drafted into the Federal service every 
energy was put forth to bring the National Guard to a high state 
of efficiency. 

Pursuant to. the Proclamation of the President of July 3, 1917, 
the following organizations, units and detachments of the National 
Guard of North Carolina were drafted into the Federal service on 
August 5, 1917: 

1st Brigade 1st Squadron Cavalry 

1st Infantry 1 Machine Gun Troop 

2d Infantry 1st Battalion Engineers 

3d Infantry 1 Engineer Train 

Field Hospital No. 1. 1 Motor Truck Company 

Ambulance Company No. 1 Field and Staff 

Veterinary Corps Sanitary Detachment and 

Radio Company Signal Corps Six Companies Coast Artillery 

1st Regiment Field Artillery Quartermaster's Corps, 

Being a total of 277 officers, 7,454 enlisted men, grand total of 7.731. 
Of the Naval Militia 18 officers and 197 men (total 215) were called 
into Federal service April 6, 1917, as National Naval Volunteers. 
Shortly after reaching Camp Sevier the status of the 1st North 
Carolina Infantry was changed and its officers and men were assigned 
and transferred to other organizations. This change of status was 
no reflection upon the officers and men of this splendid regiment but 
it was made to carry out the plans of the War Department with 
respect to the National Guard organizations and divisions. Our 
National Guard Troops were trained at Camp Sevier, South Caro- 
lina, from August, 1917, until May, 1918, when they were sent over- 
seas for service on the battle front. How splendidly these troops 
acquitted themselves on every occasion and what bravery and hero- 
ism were manifested by officers and men are known far and wide. 
They have won for themselves, and the State as well, on the battle- 
fields of France and Belgium, an imperishable glory. The National 
Guard of this State has kept the faith and it has fulfilled in the 
largest degree the hopes and aspirations of its friends throughout 
the State. 



160 Administrative Departments 

During the absence of the National Guard it became necessary to 
maintain a military force in the State, and pursuant to a Proclama- 
tion of the Governor, dated September 23, 1917, the unorganized 
militia of the State between the ages of thirty-one and forty-five 
were called into the active service of the State and organized and 
designated as the North Carolina Reserve Militia. There are now 
fifty-four companies of the Reserve Militia, and these companies 
are distributed throughout the various sections of the State, so as 
to meet as nearly as possible any urgent need for troops. It has 
been impossible to get full equipment for the Reserve Militia; 
indeed only a limited number of rifles have been available, which 
have been issued to forty-two of the companies. These companies 
will be continued until the National Guard troops now in the 
Federal service return to the State. 

Complete rosters are being prepared in the office of the Adjutant 
General of all the National Guard troops, and rosters will also be 
prepared showing the names and rank of those who served on the 
Mexican border and in the war with Germany. 

ADJUTANT GENERALS OF NORTH CAROLINA SINCE 1861. 

J. G. Martin 1861- 

Abial G. Fisher 1S68-1S71 

John G. Gorman 1871-1876 

Johnstone Jones 1877-1888 

James D. Glenn 18S9-1892 

Francis H. Cameron 1893-1S96 

A. D. Cowles 1S97-1S9S 

Beverly S. Royster 1899-1904 

Thomas H. Robertson 1905-1909 

Joseph F. Armfield 1910-1911 

Roy L. Leinster 1911-1912 

Gordon Smith 1912-1913 

Laurence W. Young 1913-1916 

Beverly S. Royster 1916- 

J. V. B. Metts 1920- 

When the National Guard Troops which entered the Federal 
service were discharged from the U. S. Army, the individuals went 
back to civil life. There was, therefore, no National Guard of the 
State. 



State Prison 161 

Under the Act of Congress, approved June 4, 1920, the reorganiza- 
tion of the National Guard has been progressing satisfactorily. The 
following units have been organized and have been extended Fed- 
eral recognition by the W. D. 

Machine Gun Company Durham. 

Company A, Infantry Burlington. 

Company B, Infantry Winston. 

Company C, Infantry Plymouth. 

Company D, Infantry Concord. 

Company E, Infantry Waynesville. 

Second Company Coast Artillery Corps Wilmington. 

Troop A, Cavalry Lincolnton. 

Troop B, Cavalry Asheville. 

Troop C, Cavalry Hickory. 



STATE PRISON. 

J. R. Collie, Superintendent, Raleigh. 

This institution was founded by an act of the General Assembly, 
ratified the 12th day of April, A. D. ( 1869, entitled "An Act to Pro- 
vide for the Erection of a Penitentiary." Reference is made to the 
act cited, and also to the Report of the Commission to Erect a Peni- 
tentiary, Document No. 18, Legislative Documents, 1868-70. 

The prison building is a magnificent brick structure, erected upon 
granite foundation. The prison wall is of granite, and is twenty feet 
in height and six feet broad at the top, and its base is said to extend 
sixteen feet below the surface. The building and wall are estimated 
to have cost the State more than a million and a quarter dollars. 

The institution is situated about one mile west of the Capitol on 
the extension of Morgan Street and near Hillsboro road. 

The affairs of the prison are administered by a board of five di- 
rectors appointed by the Governor. 

The Dangerous Insane Department is maintained out of the State 
prison earnings. 



ll 



162 Administrative Departments 



summary. 

Founded 1869 

Number of buildings* 1 

Cost (estimated by prison authorities) $1,225,000 

Number of acres of land 7,300 

Number of employees 134 

Number of inmates 825 

Liabilities None 

SUPERINTENDENTS. 

W. T. Hicks Wake 

Paul F. Faison Wake 

A. Leazar Iredell 

John R. S mith Wayne 

J. M. Mewborne Lenoir 

W. H. Day Wake 

J. S. Mann Hyde 

J. J. Laugiiinghouse Pitt 

J. S. Mann Hyde 

J. R. Collie Franklin 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 

H. B. Varner, Chairman Lexington 

Frank Gough Lumberton 

W. M. Sanders Smithfleld 

B. F. Shelton Speed 

A. E. Smith Mount Airy 



*Two camps on State farm; each have living quarters and many farm buildings of 
commodious size. 



PART V. 



STATE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 



1. University of North Carolina. 

2. North Carolina State College of Agriculture and 

Engineering. 

3. North Carolina State Normal and Industrial 

College. 

4. Cullowiiee Normal and Industrial School. 

5. Appalachian Training School. 

6. East Carolina Teachers Training School. 

7. North Carolina Schools for the (White) Blind 

and for the (negro) blind and deaf. 

8. North Carolina School for the (White) Deaf. 

9. Stonewall Jackson Manual Training and Indus- 

trial School. 

10. North Carolina Normal Schools for the Colored 

Race and for the Cherokee Indians of Robeson 
County. 

11. North Carolina Negro Agricultural and Techni- 

cal College. 

12. Caswell Training School. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

H. W. Chase, President, Chapel Hill. 

The University of North Carolina is located at Chapel Hill. Its 
charter was granted in 1789; the cornerstone of the first building 
was laid in 1793, and it was opened for students in 1795. The cam- 
pus of 48 acres and about 550 acres of forest contiguous to it were 
given by the citizens of Orange County. Its first buildings were also 
given by friends of the University, the Legislature granting a loan 
of $10,090 in 1793, which was afterwards converted into a gift, and 
making the first direct appropriation for buildings in 1905, when 
$50,000 was given for a chemical laboratory. Of the total amount 
received by the University from all sources, one-half has been con- 
tributed by alumni and friends. 

The State made no appropriation for the maintenance of the 
University for the first eighty years of its existence. In 1875 the 
interest from the Land Script Fund ($7,500) was paid over to the 
University, and withdrawn in 1887. In 1881 the annual sum of 
$5,000 was appropriated for the maintenance and support of the 
University. This annual appropriation is now $165,000. 

In 1861-65 and the following Reconstruction period the Univer- 
sity was stripped of its funds, landed property and much of its 
equipment. From 1871 to 1875 its doors were closed. It was re- 
opened in 1875 with practically nothing but empty halls and the 
contribution of its friends, amounting to about $20,000, for the pur- 
chase of new equipment. 

Its property now consists of: 

Campus, 48 acres, and woodland, 550 acres.... $ 125,500.00 
Equipment, books, apparatus, furniture, etc. 489,250.00 
Buildings, 28, and 13 faculty houses 1,927,500.00 

$2,542,250 
Its endowment, including loan funds, amount to 270,348.46 

Total $2,812,598.46 

The income of the University was derived from the following 
sources for the year 1920-1921: 

State appropriation $235,000.00 

Student fees 95,428.66 

Invested funds 13,499.16 

Gifts 4,831.97 

Other sources 34,187.55 

$382,947.34 



166 State Educational Institutions 

The University is comprised of the following departments: Col- 
legiate, applied science, teachers' training, graduate, law, medicine, 
pharmacy, and the bureau of extension. There are 49 professors, 
12 associate professors, 18 assistant professors, 15 instructors, 48 
assistants. A number of the assistants help in the laboratories and 
library and do no actual teaching. The number of students for the 
session of 1920-21 was 1,406. There were 921 students in attendance 
upon the summer school. Of the students attending the regular ses- 
sion 95 per cent are from North Carolina. 

The parents of the students represent all professions, creeds and 
parties in the State. The leading professions represented are farm- 
ers, merchants, lawyers, physicians, manufacturers, ministers, 
teachers. The leading churches are: Methodist, Baptist, Presby- 
terian, Episcopal. 

Over one-half of the students earn or borrow, in part or in whole, 
the money for their education. Some 87 of them earn their board 
by waiting at the table. Few of the families from which these 
students come are able to stand the strain of the support of a son 
at college without stringent economy or even many sacrifices. About 
one-half of the graduates start out as teachers. 

There is a splendid spirit of democracy about the institution 
which opens the doors of achievement to all alike and places attain- 
ment upon merit alone. It is emphatically a place "where wealth 
is no prejudice and poverty is no shame." 

SUMMARY. 

Charter granted 1789 

Opened 1795 

Acres of land owned 598 

Value of buildings, equipment and land $2,542,250.00 

Invested funds 382,947.34 

Number of volumes in library 88,316 

Number of students 2,327 

Number of faculty 100 

Income from State 

Income from students 95,428.66 

Invested funds 13.499.16 

PRESIDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 

No president 1795-1804 

Joseph Caldwell 1804-1835 

Davtd L. Swatn 1835-1868 

Solomon Poot 1869-1870 



College of Agriculture and Engineering 167 

University closed 1870-1876 

Kemp P. Battle 1876-1891 

George T. Winston 1891-1896 

Edwin A. Alderman 1896-1900 

Francis P. Venable 1900-1914 

Edward K. Graham 1914-1918 

Harry W. Chase 1919- 



NORTH CAROLINA STATE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 
AND ENGINEERING. 

W. C. Riddick, President, West Raleigh. 

During the years in which North Carolina was slowly emerging 
from the economic havoc wrought by Civil War and Reconstruction, 
some far-sighted men began to see the necessity of rearing indus- 
trially equipped men. They felt keenly the need of competent men 
to build and direct new industries, and to restore the land which 
had been impoverished by slave labor. They recognized that men 
capable of doing what was needed would have to be educated in in- 
dustrial schools and technical colleges. This recognition came 
slowly, because the Southern people up to that period had been 
wedded to classical education. 

The first organized body to take steps for the establishment of an 
industrial institution in North Carolina was the Watauga Club. 
This Club, composed of bright young men, explained its mission by 
declaring that it was "an association in the city of Raleigh designed 
to find out and make known information on practical subjects that 
will be of public use." In 1885 this club presented to the Legisla- 
ture the following memorial: 

"We respectfully memorialize your honorable body: 
"First. To establish an industrial school in North Carolina which 
shall be a training place for young men who wish to acquire skill in 
the wealth-producing arts and sciences. 

"Second. To establish this school in Raleigh in connection with 
the State Agriculture Department. 

"Third. To make provision for the erection of suitable buildings 
and for their equipment and maintenance. 

(Signed) Arthur Winslow, Chairman; 

W. J. Peele, 
Walter H. Page." 



168 State Educational Institutions 

This memorial quickened general interest in the proposed school, 
and several hills looking to its foundation were introduced in the 
Legislature of 1885. On March 7th, one of these bills, introduced by 
Hon. Augustus Leazar of Iredell County, became a law. This law 
provided that the Board of Agriculture should seek proposals from 
the cities and towns of the State, and that the school should be 
placed in the town offering most inducements. The Board of Agri- 
culture finally accepted an offer from the city of Raleigh. 

Meantime, the ideas of the advocates of the school have been some- 
what broadened as to the character of the proposed institution. They 
saw that Congress was about to supplement the original land grant 
by an additional appropriation for agricultural and mechanical col- 
leges in each State. The originators of the conception then sought 
the aid of progressive farmers in order to change the school into 
an Agricultural and Mechanical College. Col. L. L. Polk, the editor 
of the newly established Progressive Farmer, threw the weight of his 
paper heartily into the new idea. Meetings were held in various 
places, and two very large meetings in Raleigh considered the 
proposition. As a result, the school already provided for was by 
action of the Legislature of 1887 changed into an Agricultural and 
Mechanical College, and the Land Scrip Fund was given the newly 
formed institution. In addition, the law directed that any surplus 
from the Department of Agriculture should go into the treasury of 
the college. Mr. R. Stanhope Pullen, one of Raleigh's most broad- 
minded citizens, gave the institution eighty-three acres of land in a 
beautiful suburb of Raleigh. The first building was completed in 
1889 and the doors of the college were opened for students in Octo- 
ber, 1889. Seventy-two students, representing thirty-seven counties, 
were enrolled the first year. The faculty consisted of six full pro- 
fessors and two assistants. 

From this small beginning in 1889 the college has grown to be the 
second in size in students and faculty among the colleges for men in 
the State. 

The Legislature of 1917 changed the name of the college to North 
Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engineering. 

The college confines its curriculum entirely to technical and in- 
dustrial education. No general or academic courses are offered. 

The courses of study are as follows: 

First, Agriculture, including under this general term Agronomy, 
Horticulture, Trucking, Animal Husbandry, Dairying, Veterinary 
Science, Poultry Science, and a course in Agricultural Education. 



College of Agriculture and Engineering 169 

Second, Engineei'ing. These courses include Civil, Electrical, Me- 
chanical, and Mining Engineering. The equipment for field and for 
laboratory work in these courses makes them very practical, as well 
as scientific. 

Third, Textile Industry. Students in Textiles have an entire mill 
building for their use. In addition to carding, spinning, weaving 
and designing, they have a thoroughly practical course in dyeing 
in the chemistry of dyes, and in textile engineering. 

Fourth, Itidustrial Chemistry. Four-year courses in Agricultural 
Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, and Textile Chemistry and Dyeing. 

In all these courses, mathematics, English, physics, chemistry and 
one modern language are required. 

For young men who have not time or means to spend four years 
in college, and yet who want to fit themselves as far as possible for 
industrial employments, short courses of one and two years are 
offered in Agriculture, and two years in Mechanic Arts and Textiles. 

In January of each year, a three-weeks practical course for farm- 
ers is given. 

During the summer there is conducted at the college a two-weeks 
course for Home Demonstration Agents, a Summer School for 
Teachers, a short course for Club Boys and Girls, a course for 
Farm Demonstration Agents and the Farmers' Convention. 

These activities, in addition to the regular college session, keep 
the plant in active service every day in the year. 

The college, in cooperation with the State Department of Agri- 
culture, conducts the North Carolina Experiment Station and the 
North Carolina Extension Service, which employ more than two 
hundred men and women, and touch the lives of at least three- 
fourths of the people of the State. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1889 

Number of buildings 32 

Number of acres of land 485 

Value of buildings and equipment $1,250,000.00 

Value of land 250,000.00 

Number of volumes in library 10,000 

Number of students 1,056 

Number of faculty 80 

State appropriation per annum 150,000.00 

PRESIDENTS. 

Alexander Q. Holladay 1889-1899 

George Tayloe Winston 1899-1908 

Daniel Harvey Hill 1908-1916 

Wallace Carl Riddick 1916- 



170 State Educational Institutions 

THE NORTH CAROLINA COLLEGE EOK W03IEN. 

Julius I. Foust, President, Greensboro, N. C. 

The State Normal and Industrial College was established by an 
act of the General Assembly of 1891. The General Assembly of 
1919 changed the name of this institution to The North Carolina 
College for Women. The purpose of the College, as stated in chap- 
ter 199 of the Public Laws of North Carolina, session 1919, amend- 
ing the charter, is as follows: 

"The objects of the institution shall be (1) to teach young white 
women all branches of knowledge recognized as essential to a liberal 
education, such as will familiarize them with the world's best 
thought and achievement and prepare them for intelligent and useful 
citizenship; (2) to make special provision for training in the science 
and art of teaching, school management, and school supervision; 
(3) to provide women with such training in the arts, sciences, and 
industries as may be conducive to their self-support and community 
usefulness; (4) to render to the people of the State such aid and 
encouragement as will tend to the dissemination of knowledge, the 
fostering of loyalty and patriotism, and the promotion of the general 
welfare. Tuition shall be free, upon such conditions as may be pre- 
scribed by the board of directors, to those who signify their inten- 
tion to teach in the schools of North Carolina; and also, in the dis- 
cretion of said board, to those who signify their intention to enter 
other fields of public service. 
***** *##* *#** 

* * * That it shall be the duty of the f aci ji ty of tne North Caro- 
lina College for Women to extend its influence and usefulness as 
far as possible to the persons of the State who are unable to avail 
themselves of its advantages as resident students, by extension 
courses, by lectures, and by such other means as may seem to them 
most effective." 

In 1892 the institution began with $30,000 donated by the city of 
Greensboro and ten acres of land, the gift of Mr. R. S. Pullen, Mr. 
R. T. Gray, Mr. E. P. Wharton, and others, with an annual appro- 
priation of $10,000 from the State. In addition to the State ap- 
propriation and tuition fees, the institution received during the first 
few years about $3,000 annually from the Peabody Fund and for 
three years received $2,500 annually from the General Education 



North Carolina College for Women 171 

Board. It also received about $11,000 from the faculty and students, 
and a small amount from Mr. George Foster Peabody, and a library 
building from Mr. Andrew Carnegie. The plant is now worth more 
than $1,500,000; the annual State appropriation is $165,000, and the 
loan and scholarship funds received from various sources in the 
State and out of it now amount to $25,000. The faculty numbers 
92, and there were enrolled during the past session 784 students, and 
during the summer session 665 students; total, 1,449. 

The chief mission of the institution lies in furnishing the public 
school system of the State well-equipped teachers who are capable 
of rendering the State intelligent and useful service. It provides 
regular degree courses, whose admission requirements, curriculum of 
instruction, and standards of scholarship are in keeping with the 
requirements of our best Southern colleges for men and women. 

Special industrial and commercial courses are open to those who 
do not have free tuition and are not under contract to teach. Pro- 
vision is also made for teachers who may wish to take brief courses 
in pedagogy and in the subjects taught in the public schools. For 
those who cannot remain longer, a two-year course is offered. For 
various reasons a number of ambitious teachers are not able to avail 
themselves of the two-year course, and to meet the demands of these 
a regular summer session has been inaugurated. The advantages of 
the institution are thus open to every worthy young white woman 
who has availed herself of the opportunities offered in the public 
schools of the State. 

The patronage of the institution has justified the wisdom of the 
founders. During the twenty-eight years of its life, beginning Oc- 
tober, 1892, and closing with the session of May, 1920, there have 
been enrolled more than 10,000 young women as students. These 
students have come from all the 100 counties of the State, and in 
their political and religious faith, their financial condition, their 
professional and social life, their intellectual ability and previous 
educational opportunities, are representative of the people of North 
Carolina. Of the more than 10,000 young women who have sought 
the help and strength thus provided, more than 80 per cent received 
their training in the rural public schools, one-third defrayed their 
own expenses, and two-thirds, according to their own written state- 
ment, would not have attended any other North Carolina college. 
In brief, one of the strongest forces of the college, and a prime 
source of its usefulness, has been the representative character of 
its patronage. This coming together of all classes from all sections 



172 State Educational Institutions 

of the State necessarily results in creating an atmosphere of whole- 
some democracy and equal opportunity. The spirit of the State Col- 
lege for Women is, therefore, what the spirit of every State college 
should be, and, as a result, its representatives acquire that larger 
sympathy, that breadth of vision, and that intelligent insight into 
the needs of their State that no text-books or lectures or mere aca- 
demic training can ever hope to give. 

Some indication of the serviceableness of the college is suggested 
by what has been said of the scope and character of its patronage. 
It has, since its establishment, been an open door of opportunity 
for the white women of North Carolina. Through it the State has 
added to its resources over 10,000 educated women, who have taught 
lessons of patriotism and right living to at least 500,000 North Caro- 
lina children. Two-thirds of all the students enrolled and nine- 
tenths of all who graduate become teachers in North Carolina. No 
large movement for the uplift of the State has failed to have sup- 
port from its faculty and students, and today there is not a county 
in the State where representatives of the college are not to be found 
actively engaged in public service. 

SUMMER SESSION. 

The special purpose of the North Carolina College for Women in 
organizing the Summer Session was to offer the advantages of its 
instruction to those women in the State whose occupation during 
other months of the year prevent their attendance upon the regular 
session. In the selection and arrangement of its summer courses 
the college has in view the needs of the following classes: 

First. — Teachers wishing special work in the principles and methods 
of teaching (Primary, Grammar, and High School), with opportuni- 
ties for practice and observation work under experienced supervisors. 

Second. — Teachers desiring advanced or collegiate courses in 
Philosophy, Science, Psychology, and the History of Education. 

Third. — Teachers of special subjects, such as Domestic Science, 
Vocal Music, Drawing, and Manual Arts. 

Fourth. — High school teachers who desire advanced or extra work 
along the line of their specialties with free use of good department 
libraries and well-equipped laboratories. 

Fifth. — College students who wish to earn advanced credit or to 
remove conditions. 

Sixth. — Students preparing for college. 



Cullowhee Normal and Industrial School 173 

Seventh.— Mothers, wives, and home-makers who feel the need of 
practical help in such subjects as food and food values, cookery, 
kitchen conveniences, home nursing, sanitation, and household 
decoration. 

SUMMARY OF ENROLLMENT DURING THE SESSION OF 1919-1920. 

Enrolled during the regular session, 784 students. 
Enrolled during the summer session, 665 students. 
Total number taught at the college during the session 1919-1920, 
1,449 students. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1891 

Number of buildings used 17 

Number of acres of land 100 

Value of buildings and land $1,500,000.00 

Number of volumes in library 8,000 

Number of students in college (regular session) 784 
Number of students in college (summer ses- 
sion ) 665 

Total number of students enrolled during ses- 
sions of 1919-1920 1,449 

Number of faculty 92 

Annual state appropriation (maintenance).... $165,000 

PRESIDENTS. 

Charles D. McIver 1891-1906 

Julius I. Foust (Dean) 1906-1907 

Julius I. Foust 1907- 



CULLOWHEE NORMAL AND INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 

R. L. Madison, President, Cullowhee, N. C. 

The Cullowhee Normal and Industrial School is a State co- 
educational institution mainly for the training of teachers. The 
school was chartered in 1891 as a private institution, and in 1905 
became a State institution. It has trained more than 1,000 teachers 
for public school work and has furnished ten county superintend- 
ents. The institution is equipped with steam heat, electric lights, 
and a gravity water line. It is built to accommodate about 200 



174 State Educational Institutions 

boarding students. The organization of the school embraces: Prac- 
tice School, High School, Normal Collegiate School, Domestic Science 
School, Domestic Arts School, and Music School. 

SUMMARY. 

Number of buildings 8 

Number of acres of land owned 27.5 

Number of instructors 10 

Value of buildings and lands $123,500 

Annual appropriation $16,000 

PRESIDENTS. 

R. L. Madison 1889-1912 

A. C. Reynolds 1912-1920 

R. L. Madison ^. 1920- 



THE APPALACHIAN TRAINING SCHOOL. 

B. B. Dougherty, Superintendent, Boone. 

The Appalachian Training School for Teachers was established 
by act of the Legislature of 1903. The school is located at Boone, 
Watauga County, North Carolina, in the midst of North Carolina's 
unsurpassed mountain scenery. It is the center of education for the 
northwestern section of North Carolina, embracing some of the best 
of her mountainous counties. 

The institution makes no pretension to being a college. It is a 
normal school, and its mission is to give a high school and profes- 
sional education to hundreds of young people who cannot go else- 
where. 

During the years 1919-1920 there were 433 students in the school. 
It supplies a large proportion of the public school teachers for the 
surrounding counties, and has had a marked influence upon the 
improvement of scholarship and professional training of these teach- 
ers. In addition to this, the school has opened a way to the State 
University and the State Normal College to a large number of ski- 
dents who otherwise would not have entered those institutions. 

The first appropriation made by the Legislature was $2,000 for 
maintenance, voted by the Legislature of 1903. The Legislature of 
1907 increased this to $4,000, and made an additional appropriation 



East Carolina Training School 175 

of $10,000 for the enlargement of the plant. In 1909 the Legisla- 
ture appropriated $6,000 a year for maintenance, and $8,000 per year 
for general improvements. The Legislature of 1911 appropriated 
$10,000 per annum for maintenance and $10,000 for improvements. 
The Legislature of 1913 appropriated $15,000 for a new dormitory 
and $12,500 for maintenance. 

In 1917 the maintenance fund was raised to $20,000 and $50,000 to 
improve the plant. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1903 

Number of buildings . . . , 9 

Number of acres of land owned 450 

Value of buildings and equipment $500,000 

Value of land $50,000 

Number of students 435 

Number of faculty 15 

Income from State appropriation for maintenance, 

per annum $20,000 

SUPERINTENDENT. 

B. B. Dougherty 1903- 



EAST CAROLINA TEACHERS TRAINING SCHOOL. 

R. H. Wright, President, Greenville. 

The East Carolina Teachers Training School was established by 
act of the General Assembly of 1907. The school is located at Green- 
ville. The site contains 50 acres of land, a large part of which is 
natural forest. 

Eight buildings have been erected; two dormitories with a capac- 
ity for 300 students; an administration building containing the 
offices, auditorium, and classrooms; a building for the kitchen and 
dining-room (this building contains storerooms for supplies and a 
refrigerating plant) ; an infirmary, a building containing the power 
plant and laundry, an eight-room Model School and a residence for 
the President. 

The buildings and equipment are modern in every sense and are 
valued at $834,000. The town of Greenville and county of Pitt 
voted $100,000 in bonds for this school, and the State has made an 
appropriation of $354,332.57 for buildings and equipment. These 



176 State Educational Institutions 

buildings, for lack of funds, have not yet been thoroughly equipped, 
but enough equipment has been installed to enable the school to do 
efficient work. The equipment installed is of the best type pro- 
curable. 

Section 3 of the charter reads: "That the said school shall be 
maintained by the State for the purpose of giving to young white 
men and women such education and training as shall fit and qualify 
them to teach in the public schools of North Carolina." 

This clearly sets forth the purpose of this school. To those stu- 
dents who agree to teach there is no charge for tuition. Practically 
all of the students sign this agreement to teach. This shows that 
the management is adhering rigidly to the purpose of the school 
as stated in its charter. 

The school first opened its doors for students October 5, 1909. 
During the past nine years, including the summer terms, there 
have been enrolled 6,869 students. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1907 

Number of buildings 8 

Number of acres of land 50 

Value of buildings and grounds $834,000 

Number of students 1907-1920 6,869 

Annual appropriation $65,000 

Other income 3,125 

president. 
R. R. Wright 1907- 



NORTH CAROLINA SCHOOL FOR THE BLIND 
AND THE DEAF. 1 

G. E. Lineberry, Superintendent, Raleigh. 

This institution was established by act of the General Assembly 

passed January 12, 1845, while Hon. W. A. Graham was Governor 

of North Carolina. On the first day of May following the school 

opened with seven pupils, which number increased to seventeen 



iThe State schools for the blind white children and for the blind and the deaf negro 
children, though separate institutions, in separate buildings located in different parts of 
the city, are under the same supervision.— Editor. 



School for the Blind and the Deaf 177 

during the session. The first appropriation amounted to $5,000 an- 
nually. Two years later it was made $10,000. W. D. Cooke, of Vir- 
ginia, was elected first principal, and for some years the school was 
conducted in a building on Hillsboro Street, rented for the purpose. 

On April 14, 1849, the corner-stone of the present main building 
on Caswell Square was laid by the Grand Lodge of Masons. At first 
deaf children only were received, but later blind children were ad- 
mitted. 

In 1868 a department for the education of the negro deaf and 
blind children of the State was established on Bloodworth Street, 
in the southeastern part of the city. This has grown to be the 
largest and best equipped school for the negro deaf and blind in 
the South. 

In 1894 the white deaf children were removed to their new school 
at Morganton. 

The auditorium building furnishes dormitories for the boys and 
a good auditorium, but it is now too small to accommodate the num- 
ber of students in attendance. 

The school has a small library and a partially equipped gymnasium 
which have aided much in the work it is doing. 

The industrial building furnishes room for the broom, mattress, 
and cane-seating department of the school. Similar buildings are 
at the colored department. 

The increased attendance has made it necessary to increase the 
appropriation for maintenance, and the Legislature has made addi- 
tions from time to time until the annual income is now $85,000. 

This is equivalent to only about $280 per child — an amount far less 
than that used by any school for the blind in the United States. 
Seventeen years ago the allowance per child was more than $214. 
With the increased cost of living, one can readily see how cramped 
must be the financial condition. 

The school is now seriously handicapped for lack of room and 
of funds. The present quarters are entirely too circumscribed. There 
is no room for exercise ground, and if any children need exercise, 
it is the blind; nor is there any place for additional buildings. The 
overcrowded condition of the buildings demands serious attention. 
His Excellency, the Governor, recommended in his message to the 
General Assembly of 1911 the purchase of 100 acres in the suburbs 
of the city upon which to erect new buildings upon the cottage sys- 
tem. This suggestion was emphasized by the State Board of Internal 
Improvements, the State Board of Health, and the Board of Charities. 

12 



17S State Educational Institutions 

Six years ago the General Assembly provided for the purchase of 
about 75 acres of land adjacent to other State property and Pullen 
Park, and hence most admirably located; but unfortunately made 
no provision for buildings nor even for repairs to the old buildings. 
Four years ago the General Assembly, by special act, appropriated 
$150,000 for buildings to be erected on the new site. Also two years 
ago another appropriation of $150,000 was made. The first appro- 
priation and a part of the second has been used in the erection of an 
administration building and two cottages. These buildings are com- 
plete except floors, heating and plumbing. It is hoped that the neces- 
sary appropriation will be made at the coming session of the legis- 
lature to put up the needed buildings so that the white department 
may be moved next fall. 

The literary work of the school begins with kindergarten and 
continues up through the grades and full four years' high school 
course paralleling in this work the courses approved by the State 
Board of Education. 

We also give thorough courses in piano, pipe organ, violin, and 
voice, and have an excellent orchestra. 

All of the girls in the white department take fancy work, also 
work in the sewing department. The boys take work in the 
broom and mattress shops or piano tuning. 

We have similar departments for the colored blind. The deaf 
are also trained in the shoe shops, the carpenter shops and in agri- 
cultural work on the school farms. 

It is the aim of the school not only to give each child a good 
literary training, but vocational training as well, so that each one 
will be fitted for making a good living. 

Those who have made a careful study of the former students 
claim that 85 per cent of the graduates of the school are making a 
good living. In their chosen professions and business a large num- 
ber are leaders in their communities. 

SUMMARY. 

Pounded 1845 

Number of buildings 7 

Number of acres of land 122 

Value of buildings and equipment $200,00 

Value of land $S0,000 

Number of volumes in library (ink print) 1,900 

Number of volumes in library (tactile print) 5,425 

Number of students 116 



School fob the Blind axd the Deaf 179 

Number of faculty 21 

State appropriation (including both departments) $85,000 
Income from other sources None 

NAMES AND TERMS OF SERVICE OF ALL PRINCIPALS. 

W. D. Cooke 1845-1860 

Willey J. Palmer 1860-1869 

John Nichols 1869-1871 

S. F. Tomlinson 1871-1873 

John Nichols 1873-1877 

Hezekiah A. Gudger 1877-1883 

William J. Young 1883-1896 

Frederick R. Place June, 1896-September, 1896 

John E. Ray 1896-1918 

John T. Alderman Jan., 1918-August, 1918 

G. E. LlNEBERRY 1918- 

COLORED DEPARTMENT. 

Founded 1869 

Number of buildings 4 

Value of buildings and equipment $75,000 

Number of volumes in library (ink print) 500 

Number of voumes in library (tactile print) 1,700 

Number of students 145 

Number of faculty 17 



THE NORTH CAROLINA SCHOOL FOR THE (WHITE) DEAF. 

E. McK. Goodwin. Superintendent, Morganton. 

In 1845 this State first attempted the education of her deaf and 
dumb children, being the ninth State in the Union to undertake 
the education of this class of children. The first year, seven pupils 
were admitted. Soon thereafter the blind children of the State 
were provided for under the same management, and the institution 
became the Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb and 
the Blind. Both classes were admitted into the institution at 
Raleigh till the Legislature of 1891 was made to realize that there 
was only a small part of either class being educated, for up to that 
time only about 25 per cent were being even partially educated. 

In 1891 the General Assembly passed an act creating and establish- 
ing the North Carolina School for the Deaf and Dumb for the whife 
race only, and located it at Morganton. The school was opened for 
the reception of pupils in 1894. All white deaf children then in 



180 State Educational Institutions 

school at Raleigh were admitted to the new school, which had very 
limited support. There were only 102 present the first year, but as 
soon as the Legislature made provision, the school admitted 162, and 
the attendance has increased steadily till 303 were admitted last 
year. But there are still, perhaps, 25 per cent of the eligible deaf 
children not in school, and there are many adult deaf in North 
Carolina now entirely uneducated. It is a significant fact, however, 
that this State has the largest attendance in proportion to her 
population of any Southern State, and, indeed, compares favorably 
with the Northern States in this respect. 

The statute prescribes the public school course of the State, and 
allows high school work for those who want to go to college. 

In addition to the regular school work, we have four industrial 
departments for the boys, where they are given, as far as possible, 
the knowledge of handicraft in the elementary branches. The four 
departments for the boys are farming and gardening, woodwork and 
carpentry, typesetting and printing, and shoemaking and tailoring. 
The girls are taught general domestic work, including cooking, plain 
sewing and dressmaking. Primary handicraft is taught to the small 
children. 

America leads the world in her provision for the education of the 
deaf. From 1817, when the first school was established in America, 
till about 1868, all the schools used the French system, which is the 
manual or sign method ; but in 1868 the German or oral method was 
introduced, and while the progress has been slow, the proportion has 
constantly increased till at present about 85 per cent of all the deaf 
children in the United States, now in school, are being taught by 
the oral method. Many of these children learn to speak and read 
speech of others sufficiently to become invaluable to themselves and 
to the great convenience of the members of their families. Hut even 
if their speech is not natural nor good, the written language of the 
orally taught deaf is more natural and smoother in expression than 
that of the deaf taught manually. 

The North Carolina School has two departments to meet the de- 
mands, and is known in the profession as a "combined school." Our 
orally taught pupils become as adept "sign makers" as the manually 
taught. They acquire the manual language by association with those 
who sign and spell on their fingers. The orally taught get all the 
manually taught get, and also what speech and speech-reading they 
get from the oral system, beyond what those manually taught even 



Manual Training and Industrial School 181 

claim to get. Some of the largest and best schools for the deaf in 
America are "pure oral" schools. 

The North Carolina School has prepared a number of students for 
Gallaudet College, where they have graduated with distinction. 
Many of our former students have done well in the race of life, 
making a good living and good citizens. 

Our school plant is worth at least $700,000, and our greatest needs 
today are a hospital building and industrial equipments. The school 
from its creation has had a broad and liberal-minded board of direc- 
tors of practical business men. The present board is composed of 
J. L. Scott, Jr., president; A. C. Miller, Mrs. I. P. Jeter, W. W. Neal, 
W. R. Whitson, Archibald Johnson, and Dr. J. O. Atkinson, and 
E. McK. Goodwin has been superintendent since its establishment. 

The school has now a staff of twenty-five regular grade teachers 
and an educational principal, a supervising teacher in Goodwin 
Hall, our new primary school, and five industrial teachers. 

Over 1,000 pupils have been enrolled since opening in 1894. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1894 

Number of buildings 5 

Number of acres of land 327 

Value of buildings and equipment $700,000 

Value of land $60,000 

Number of volumes in library 3,700 

Number of faculty (including one principal) 33 

State appropriation $80,500 

Income from other sources, about $5,000 



THE STONEWALL JACKSON MANUAL TRAINING AND 
INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 

Charles E. Koger, Superintendent, Concord. 

In accordance with an act of the Legislature of 1907, the Stone- 
wall Jackson Manual Training and Industrial School was established. 
The law permits the school to receive donations, and it is largely 
due to several liberal-minded people that the school has made such 
wonderful progress for the few years it has been in existence. Mr. 
Caesar Cone, of Greensboro, has furnished the material to make 



182 State Educational Institutions 

the work uniforms for the boys since the opening of the school. 
Since the death of Mr. Cone, Mr. Barnard M. Cone, in memory of 
his brother, continues this contribution. General Julian S. Carr of 
Durham, N. C, recently gave the school $200 to supply a pressing 
and urgent need. In January, 1909, the first cottage was completed, 
which was the gift of the King's Daughters of North Carolina; it 
was erected on a 298-acre tract of land, which was donated by the 
city of Concord. Since that time many additions have been made: 
Mr. and Mrs. W. N. Reynolds of Winston-Salem contributed $1,000 
towards the building of a barn; Mr. and Mrs. C. T. Roth, of Elkin, 
furnished $3,500 to erect the Industrial Building, in which is located 
the school department, printing office, woodworking shop, engine 
room, and space for the storage of lumber and supplies; the Ad- 
ministration Building and two more cottages have been constructed. 
A beautiful Chapel has been built of rough granite, which cost 
$6,500. It is another gift of the King's Daughters. 

Four cottages are now in operation, giving room for 120 boys. 
One hundred and thirty-two are crowded into them at present. 

SUMMARY. 

Opened 1909 

Buildings 12 

Value of buildings and equipment $249,000 

Value of land $30,000 

Number of acres of land 298 

Pupils 132 

STATE APPROPRIATION. 

Maintenance $30,600 

Permanent improvements 4,300 

Another cottage to be known as the Mecklenburg Cottage is in 
course of erection. This building is being erected by funds secured 
from citizens of the town and county. 

A new school building has been erected. This building contains, 
in addition to school rooms, an auditorium, gymnasium room, society 
hall, barber shop, band room, etc. 



Normal Schools foe Negroes and Indians 183 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOLS FOR THE COLORED RACE AND FOR 
THE CHEROKEE INDIANS OF ROBESON COUNTY. 

A. T. Allen, Supervisor, Raleigh. 

The State maintains three normal schools for the training of 
negro teachers, and one for the training of teachers for the Chero- 
kee Indians of Robeson County. The normal schools for the negroes 
are located in Fayetteville, Elizabeth City, and Winston-Salem; the 
school for the Cherokee Indians of Robeson County is located at 
Pembroke. 

The first superintendent of these schools was Charles L. Coon, 
elected in 1904. In January, 1907, he was succeeded by John Duckett, 
who died November 16, 1908. J. A. Bivins was superintendent from 
January, 1909, until his death, March 2, 1913. E. E. Sams was 
superintendent from March, 1913, to June 1, 1919. A. T. Allen has 
been superintendent since June 1, 1919. 

Most of the negro teachers in the section where these schools are 
located have received their training in these schools. Industrial 
training, especially in domestic science, is required in all of them. 
In the Slater School at Winston-Salem shop and farm work are 
taught. 

In 1917 the Legislature made an appropriation of $10,000 out of 
the bond issue for the improvement of the colored normals. This 
fund was restricted to fireproof constructions, and we have been 
unable to use it as it was only $3,300 per school, and no fireproof 
construction could be erected for that amount of money. 

The General Assembly of 1919 made an appropriation of $90,000 
for the improvement and enlargement of the three normal schools 
for the colored teachers, and $1,250 for* the repair of the buildings 
at Pembroke for the Cherokee Indians, and increased the mainte- 
nance fund for the four institutions, making the following distribu- 
tion: 

Slater Normal $15,000.00 

Elizabeth City Normal 11,000.00 

Fayetteville Normal 9,000.00 

Pembroke Normal 3,600.00 

This makes a total for maintenance of $38,600 and a total for 
building purposes of $91,250. 

The $1,250 for the repair of the Pembroke Normal School has been 
spent and the buildings have been repaired, but very little of the 



184 State Educational Institutions 

$90,000 available for building at the negro normal schools has been 
used, for the reason that building has been so expensive in the last 
two years, and it was thought wise to hold this fund in reserve until 
such time as the cost of building would be reduced. 

The General Education Hoard has made a conditional offer of 
$20,000 to the Elizabeth City Normal School for the purpose of 
building a practice school in connection with the normal school. 

All of the property of these normal schools is held by the State 
Board of Education. 

FAYETTEVILLE COLORED NORMAL SCHOOL. 
E. E. Smith, Principal. 

Founded 1877 

Number of buildings 3 

Number of acres of land 39 

Value of buildings $32,000 

Value of land $4,000 

Value of furniture and equipment $3,000 

Number of students below seventh grade 276 

Number of students above seventh grade 226 

State appropriation (maintenance) $9,000 

State appropriation (buildings and permanent 

provements) $33,333.33 

ELIZABETH CITY COLORED NORMAL SCHOOL. 

P. W. Moore, Principal. 

Founded 1892 

Number of buildings 2 

Number of acres of land 41 

Value of buildings $35,000 

Value of land $15,000 

Number of students below seventh grade 297 

Number of students above seventh grade 253 

State appropriation (maintenance) $11,000 

State appropriation (buildings and permanent 

improvements) $33,333.33 

STATE INDUSTRIAL AND NORMAL SCHOOL AT WINSTON- 
SALEM. 
S. G. Atkins, Principal. 

Founded 1895 

Number of acres of land 17 

Number of buildings 4 

Value of buildings $60,000 

Value of land $20,000.00 

Other property, including furniture and fixtures $14,699.87 



Normal Schools for Negroes and Indians 185 

Number of students below seventh grade 401 

Number of students above seventh grade 231 

State appropriation (maintenance) $16,000 

State appropriation (buildings and permanent 

provements) $43,333.33 

INDIAN NORMAL SCHOOL AT PEMBROKE. 

T. C. Henderson, Principal. 

Founded 1887 

Number of buildings 2 

Number of acres of land 10 

Value of buildings $7,000 

Value of land $500 

Number of students from first to ninth grades.. 150 

State appropriation (maintenance) $3,600 

superintendents. 

Charles L. Coon 1904-1907 

John Duckett 1907-1908 

J. A. Bivins 1908-1913 

E. E. Sams 1913-1919 

A. T. Allen 1919- 

THE NEGRO AGRICULTURAL AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE. 
James B. Dudley, President, Greensboro, N. C. 

The Negro Agricultural and Technical College is located at Greens- 
boro. Its charter was granted March 9, 1891; the first building was 
completed in 1893, and the school opened in the fall of the same 
year. The citizens of Greensboro donated fourteen acres of land 
and $11,000 to be used in the construction of buildings. In 1893 
the General Assembly supplemented this gift with an appropriation 
of $11,000. 

The financial support of the college comes from the United States 
Government under an act of Congress known as the Morrill Act, 
passed August 2, 1890; and from the State of North Carolina, which 
makes appropriations for maintenance and for improvements. 

The management of the institution and the care of its property is 
vested in a board of trustees, consisting of fifteen members. The 
trustees, by an act of the Legislature, have power to elect the presi- 
dent, teachers, and as many other officers and servants as they 
think necessary. 

This institution has four brick buildings, one brick-veneered build- 
ing, three barns, a small dairy building, two greenhouses, a broom 
shop, a blacksmith shop, a poultry plant, and a few smaller build- 
ings. 



186 State Educational Institutions 

The college confines its courses of study entirely to agricultural 
and mechanical education. No purely academic courses are offered. 

The Agricultural Department of this institution is one of the 
best to be found in any negro school in the country. Its aim is to 
train practical farmers and teachers of agriculture. It offers four 
courses. 

(1) A Four-year Course for those who want a well-rounded agri- 
cultural education combined with technical and practical training. 

(2) A Two-year Course for those who have little time to spend 
in school and want to get only such information as bears directly 
on their chosen vocation. 

(3) A Winter-short Course for farm boys who are unable to get 
into school until after harvesting their crop, and who must leave 
before the close of school in order to prepare for another crop. 

(4) A One-week Course for farmers and others who can spend 
only a limited time away from their business. 

Throughout the State and the South may be seen the splendid 
work of the men who have completed their courses. Some of the 
finest farms in the State are managed by its graduates, and the 
leading negro institutions seek them as teachers of agriculture. 
The Farm Demonstration work in this State is, to a large extent, 
being done by the graduates of this department. 

9 

Through farmers' meetings and short courses this department is 
endeavoring to stimulate the negro farmers in every section of the 
State. A vocational course for training teachers of agriculture was 
established by the Smith-Hughes Fund in 1917. The object of this 
department is to prepare agricultural teachers for the Rural High 
Schools of this State. 

The work of the Agricultural Department is greatly handicapped 
because of the lack of sufficient classrooms, laboratories, equipment, 
and teachers. 

The courses in the Mechanical Arts Department are designed to 
give the student a thorough knowledge of the trades offered in this 
department. Aside from the technical skill of his particular trade, 
the student is given a course in Mechanical Drawing and a working 
knowledge of at least two kindred trades. Students and graduates 
of this department are leading useful and thrifty lives in this and 
other States as carpenters, bricklayers, auto-mechanics, machinists, 
plumbers, electricians, broom and mattress makers, blacksmiths, 
architects, contractors, and teachers. 



Caswell Training School 187 

Some indications of the usefulness of the college may be suggested 
by the scope and character of its work. Ever since this institution 
was established, it has been the open door of industrial opportunity 
for the negro boys of this State. It has added to the industrial re- 
sources of the State more than 500 trained workers who have taught 
the lessons of patriotism, thrift, and right living to more than a 
hundred thousand negro men, women, and children in this State. 

It is hoped that the General Assembly will see its way clear to 
give this institution an appropriation sufficiently adequate to meet 
its growing demands, and to enable it to take first rank among the 
negro land-grant colleges of this country. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1891 

Number of buildings 11 

Number of acres of land owned 128% 

Value of buildings and equipment $200,000 

Value of land 49,000 

Number of volumes in library 27,000 

Number of regular students (1920) 401 

Number of Summer School students (1920).. 365 

Total number of students (1920) 766 

Number of faculty 24 

Income from State Appropriation 16,000 

Income from Federal Appropriation 16,500 

PRESIDENTS. 

John O. Crosby 1892-1896 

James B. Dudley 1896- 



THE CASWELL TRAINING SCHOOL. 

C. Banks McNairy, M.D., Superintendent, Kinston. 
On July 1, 1914, the institution was opened and fifteen girls re- 
ceived. Since then the enrollment has steadily increased until the 
total number now has reached 326. At the close of the last biennial 
period, November 30, 1918, we had present 198 children. Two dis- 
astrous fires since then have destroyed two of the three dormitories. 
Both fires were the results of cunning and well-guarded schemes 
by a few of the criminally inclined to destroy the entire institution. 
This left us with a population of 198 and a capacity for only 60. 
We sent quite a number to their homes, 44 were sent to the State 



188 State Educational Institutions 

Hospital at Raleigh for temporary care, and those who could not 
be sent anywhere else were crowded into the remaining dormitory 
and in every corner where a bed could be placed. We have in this 
way been able to care for something over a hundred since the fires. 

The Legislature of 1919 appropriated $300,000 for rebuilding and 
enlarging this institution. 

The purpose of the institution as it relates to the child himself 
is identical with that of the home, the school, and the community; 
to establish wholesome conditions in which the child may find his 
fullest happiness, and to train and educate to the extent of his 
mental ability and to throw around him such protection and safe- 
guards as will prevent him from being overcome by the things he 
is unable to meet, and also prevent him as far as possible from 
being a burden or nuisance to those by whom he is surrounded. 
Then the institution goes further and seeks to educate the people 
to the alarming increase of the number of this class and to initiate 
methods for cutting off this increase and thus saving our homes, 
our communities, and our State from the ever present burden and 
responsibility of the care of these who all admit are a heavy liability 
to any community. 

Our aim is to inaugurate and keep up such an educational propa- 
ganda that will create public sentiment sufficient to cause the State 
to make adequate appropriations to segregate, care for, train and 
educate, as their mentality will permit, the State's mental defec- 
tives; to disseminate knowledge concerning the extent and menace 
of mental deficiency; and to suggest and initiate methods for its 
control and ultimate eradication from our people. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1911 

Number of buildings 2 

Number of acres of land 900 

Value of buildings and equipment $150,000 

Value of land $30,000 

Number of pupils 155 

Number of employees 20 

Income from State (1920) $75,000 

superintendents. 

Dr. Ira M. Hardy 1911-1913 

Dr. C. Banks McNairy 1914-1920 



PART VI. 



STATE CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS. 



1. Central Hospital for the Insane. 

2. Western Hospital for the Insane. 

3. Eastern Hospital for the (Negro) Insane. 

4. North Carolina Sanatorium for the Treatment of 

Tuberculosis. 

5. North Carolina State Orthopaedic Hospital-School. 

6. Oxford Orphan Asylum for White Children. 

7. North Carolina Orphanage for the Colored Race. 

8. The Soldiers' Home. 

9. Confederate Woman's Home. 



CENTRAL HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE. 

Albert Axderson, M. D., Superintendent, Raleigh. 

The State Hospital at Raleigh is situated in the city of Raleigh. 
The house was erected on the apex of the watershed between Wal- 
nut Creek on the south and Rocky Branch on the north, and is 
drained in the best natural sanitary manner possible. 

Every one knows that this institution was built for the unfortu- 
nate of North Carolina by the unceasing and persistent efforts of 
Miss Dorothy Dix, who appeared before the Legislature in 1848 and, 
with the effective help and eloquent plea of Hon. James C. Dobbin, 
of Fayetteville, secured the passage of the bill by a vote of 101 
yeas to 10 nays. 

The act provided for the appointment of six commissioners, John 
M. Morehead, of Guilford; Calvin Graves, of Caswell; T. N. Cam- 
eron, of Cumberland; G. W. Mordecai, of Wake; C. L. Hinton, of 
Wake, and G. 0. Watson, of Johnston, to select and purchase a tract 
of land upon which to erect a building for the purpose of providing 
for the insane. These commissioners did their work without com- 
pensation, and that they did it well is manifested by the elegant 
and substantial structure upon this site. 

In 1856 the building was near enough to completion for the first 
board of directors to instruct Dr. E. C. Fisher to order in 40 
patients, Dr. Fisher having been elected superintendent by the 
board. Dr. Fisher held this office until July 7, 1868, when he was 
superseded by Dr. Eugene Grissom. Dr. Grissom held the office 
until succeeded by Dr. William K. Wood, of Halifax County, who 
remained in office but a short while, and was succeeded by Dr. 
George L. Kirby, who died of pneumonia in February, 1901. Dr. 
James McKee was elected the following March as his successor. 
He died in office in 1912 and was succeeded by Dr. J. L. Picot, who 
was elected to fill the unexpired term of one year. On May 14, 1913, 
Dr. Albert Anderson, of Raleigh, N. C, was elected for a term of 
six years and re-elected 1919 for a second term. 

The Legislatures have gradually awakened to the necessity of 
providing for the insane. The Legislature of 1907 enacted a law 
providing for a Hospital Commission, and gave them $500,000 to 
add to the building of all State Hospitals and erect upon the 



192 State Charitable Institutions 

grounds such structures as would be conducive to the comfort and 
restoration of the health of the insane.* A storehouse was the first 
building put up by the Commission, at a cost of $4,200; then a 
carpenter shop at a cost of $3,800. Next an annex for 100 men at a 
cost of $48,265. 

In 1908 the Commission disbursed the following amounts: In 
February, $11,405.75 for heating, plumbing, sewer pipes, sewers, and 
an addition to complete storeroom; in October, 1908, one building 
for women, $21,900; three groups of buildings, making nine, at 
$14,831 a piece, one of these groups being for male convalescent pa- 
tients and the other two for male and female epileptics, respect- 
ively, and with a cost of sewer and pipe connection with the A. and 
M. College, costing $500, aggregating $66,919. 

The Legislature of 1915 gave $5,000 for repairing and improving 
the heating plant, and $35,000 for erecting a receiving building. Out 
of the receipt account of the institution our board ordered a nurses' 
home built, costing $23,000, and the equipment of the above two 
buildings with plumbing fixtures and heating outfit at a cost of 
several thousand dollars. 

The Legislature of 1917 appropriated two hundred thousand dol- 
lars to this Hospital. This amount has been spent in building a 
new boiler house and overhauling and repairing the heating plant, 
costing about one hundred thousand dollars. The other hundred 
thousand dollars has been used in overhauling and repairing G 
ward building and female congregated dining room and erecting a 
laundry building which was lost by fire. 

The Legislature of 1919 appropriated eighty thousand dollars for 
building a kitchen. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1S56 

Number of buildings 17 

Number of acres of land 1,305 

Total number patients under treatment last two 

years 1,416 

Number of attendants and nurses 75 

Annual Appropriation $265,000 



*$53,500 of this amount was specially appropriated for the purchase of land. 



Hospital for White Insane 193 

STATE HOSPITAL AT MORGANTON. 

John McCampbell, M.D., Superintendent. 

The appropriation for maintenance for the past two years was 
$325,000 annually. Owing to the steady advance in the price of all 
commodities and wages, this amount was insufficient and a debt of 
approximately $80,000 will be incurred. Money to meet this deficit 
was provided by the General Assembly in extra session 1920. "We 
have requested through our budget an annual appropriation of 
$425,535.80 annually for the next two years. It is hoped that this 
sum will enable us to care for a 10 per cent increase in population, 
bringing our total population up to 1,450. 

Upon the recommendation of the State Euilding Commission, we 
are asking for $1,000,000 for permanent improvements less $200,000 
which has previously been appropriated but as yet unexpended. These 
permanent improvements are itemized as follows: 

1. Building to House Refrigerating Plant $ 65,000.00 

2. Receiving Building for Men 100,000.00 

3. Men's Dormitory 100,000.00 

4. Industrial Building 25,000.00 

5. Remodeling Power House 50,000.00 

6. New Kitchen and Equipment 100,000.00 

7. Refrigerator Plant and Cold Storage Equip- 

ment 45,000.00 

8. Reconstruction of Heating and Power Plant 250,000.00 

9. General Repairs to Building and Plumbing.. 100,000.00 

10. Water Mains and Fire Hydrants 21,000.00 

11. Sprinkler System Main Building, Laundry, 
Mattress Factory, Shoe Shop, Storage Build- 
ing, Fire Escapes, Fire Doors and Fire 
Shutters 92,000.00 

12. Repairs to Electric Wiring 2,000.00 

13. Furniture and Equipment 50,000.00 

SUMMARY. 

Institution founded 1875 

Number of buildings 14 

Number of acres of land 900 

Number of inmates 1,330 

Number of attendants 100 

Annual appropriation $325,000 



SUPERINTENDENTS. 

Dr. P. L. Murphy 1882-1907 

Dr. John McCampbell 1907- 

13 



194 State Charitable Institutions 

STATE HOSPITAL AT GOLDSBORO. 

W. W. Faison, M.D., Superintendent, Goldsboro, N. C. 
This institution was opened for the reception of patients August 
1st, 1880. The number of patients received since its beginning is 
6,386. Number discharged, 5,386. Number of patients remaining 
on roll, 1,000. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 18S0 

Number of buildings 13 

Number of acres of land 720 

Value of Buildings and Equipments $700,000.00 

Value of land $100,000.00 

Number of inmates 1,000 

Number of attendants 36 

State Appropriation for 1919 and 1920 $375,000.00 

SUPERINTENDENTS. 

W. H. Moore ■ • • .1880-1882 

J. D. Roberts 1882-1888 

J. F. Miller 1888-1906 

W. W. Faison 1906- 



NORTH CAROLINA SANATORIUM FOR TREATMENT OF 

TUBERCULOSIS. 

L. B. McBrayer, M.D., F.A.C.P., Superintendent, Sanatorium, N. G. 

The North Carolina Sanatorium for Treatment of Tuberculosis 
was established by an act of the General Assembly in 1907, which 
appropriated for the purpose $15,000 for construction and $5,000 
for annual maintenance. 

summary. 

Number of buildings 30 

Value of buildings $500,000 

Number of acres of land 1,200 

Value of land 72,000 

Number of patients 130 



North Carolina Orthopaedic Hospital 195 

Appropriations 1919 and 1920: 

Permanent improvements $2,000 

Maintenance, 1919 60,000 

Maintenance, 1920 50,000 

Extension, 1919 14,000 

Extension, 1920 15,000 

superintendents. 

J. E. Brooks, M. D 1907-1912 

M. E. Street, M. D 1912-1914 

L. B. McBrayer, M. D., F. A. C. P 1914- 



NORTH CAROLINA ORTHOPAEDIC HOSPITAL 

Robert B. Babington, President, Gastonia, N. C. 

The North Carolina Orthopaedic Hospital, erected in 1920 for the 
scientific treatment and healing of crippled children, was chartered 
April, 1914, and was created a State institution by an act of the 
General Assembly of 1917, which appropriated $20,000 for perma- 
nent improvements and $7,500 annually for maintenance. The Gen- 
eral Assembly of 1919 made a like appropriation for permanent 
improvements and also for maintenance, however, as the institution 
is not completed as yet, owing to insufficient funds, and as no pa- 
tients have been received, therefore none of the $30,000 appropriation 
above cited, as made for maintenance, has been asked for nor ap- 
propriated by the State. 

The completion and opening of the North Carolina Orthopaedic 
Hospital will supply the State of North Carolina with one of the 
most needed charities of the day, and will be the fifth such State 
institution in the United States. 

The aim and purpose of the institution is to scientifically treat, 
heal and teach the orphaned, poor and neglected crippled and de- 
formed children of sound mind of North Carolina. 

The institution is located in Gaston County on a 28.5 acre tract 
of land, two miles east of Gastonia on the New Hope asphalt road, 
beautifully situated on a high elevation of more than 1,000 feet. 
The land is well watered, also beautiful groves on it. 

The Trustees hope to be able to open its doors by June 1st, 1921. 

All buildings are under the supervision of the North Carolina 
Building Commission and the State Architect, and are fireproof and 
beautiful in architectural design. 



196 State Charitable Institutions 

The institution is under the management of a board of nine trus- 
tees, appointed from time to time by the Governor, of which the 
Governor is ex officio Chairman. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1909 

Chartered 1914 

Created a State Institution 1917 

Number of acres of land 28.5 

Value of land $28,500.00 

Value of buildings and improvements $77,000.00 



OXFORD ORPHAN ASYLUM.* 

. R. L. Brown, Superintendent, Oxford. 

In the year 1872 the Oxford Orphan Asylum was established by 
the Grand Lodge of Ancient, Free and Accepted Order of Masons 
of North Carolina. 

It was the first institution of its character established in the 
State and one of the first in the South. 

This property was originally the old St. John's College, and was 
established in 1855 by the Grand Lodge of North Carolina for edu- 
cational purposes. After being tried for a number of years and 
proving a failure financially, the Grand Lodge in 1872 decided to 
turn the property into a home for the orphan children of the State. 

This was accomplished largely through the instrumentality of 
John H. Mills, wmo offered the resolution at the meeting of the 
Grand Lodge, and worked for its adoption without very great en- 
couragement. It was, therefore, quite fitting that he should have 
been chosen to be the first superintendent of the Orphanage. 

This action of the Grand Lodge brought into existence the first 
orphanage in North Carolina. 

The purpose of the institution is to provide a temporary home 
and training school for the homeless boys and girls of the State. 

The conditions of admission of the white children of North Caro- 
lina are: That they are really destitute and homeless; that they are 
of sound mind and body; and they are not over twelve years of age. 



*For white children. 



Oxford Orphan Asylum 197 

The benefits of Oxford Orphan Asylum have never been restricted 
to the children of Masons alone. Only about 22 per cent of its chil- 
dren had fathers who were Masons. 

Three thousand four hundred and twenty-two children have re- 
ceived the care and training of the institution since 1872 to October 
31, 1920. 

The institution is providing the necessities of life for these chil- 
dren, the opportunity to acquire an English education, industrial 
training in cottages, kitchen, sewing room, domestic science, laundry, 
shoe shop, printing office, telegraphy and typewriting, woodworking 
shop, dairy, and on farm. Each child is in school at least the half 
of each school day during the school term of nine and a half months. 
Moral and religious instruction is prominent in the work. 

In recognition of the services of the Oxford Orphan Asylum, its 
value to our commonwealth in its work, the State of North Carolina 
appropriates $20,000 annually to aid in its maintenance and ex- 
tension. 

Annually a report of the operations of the institution is made to 
the Governor of the State and to the State Board of Public Charities, 
and to the Grand Lodge. 

At the request of the Grand Lodge of Masons, the State of North 
Carolina is represented by three members on the board of directors of 
the Orphanage. These are appointed by the Governor of the State. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1872 

Number of buildings 26 

Number of acres of land 242 

Value of land, buildings, and equipment $500,000 

Number of volumes in library 1,800 

Number of children in institution (Nov. 1, 1918).. 376 

Number of officers and teachers 44 

Annual income (State appropriation) $20,000.00 

Annual income (other sources) $131,480.73 

SUPERINTENDENTS. 

J. H. Mills 1872-1882 

B. F. Dixon 1883-1S90 

Julius T. Harris (Sept. 1-Nov. 21) -1890 

B. F. Dixon (Nov. 21-Dec. 31) -1890 

W. S. Black 1891-1894 

N. M. Lawrence 1894-1898 

W. J. Hicks 1898-1911 

R L. Brown 1911 



198 State Charitable Institutions 

NORTH CAROLINA ORPHANAGE FOR THE COLORED RACE. 

Henry P. Cheatham, Superintendent, Oxford, N. C. 

The North Carolina Orphanage for the Colored Race was founded 
in 1883 as the result of the joint efforts of Rev. Augustus Shepard, 
then pastor of the colored Baptist Church in Henderson, and Henry 
P. Cheatham, then a teacher in the Henderson public schools. Their 
plans contemplated the establishment of an orphanage in North 
Carolina for the fatherless and homeless children of the colored race 
without regard to religious sects. Calling together certain leaders 
of the colored race, they laid their plans before them. The plans 
were adopted, a board of directors elected, and a site purchased for 
the orphanage about a mile and a half south of the town of Oxford. 
Upon this site were two old and dilapidated buildings, which were 
repaired and put into immediate use. During the first ten years of 
its existence the Orphanage was entirely dependent upon the 
churches, Sunday schools, and sympathetic individuals for support, 
together with what the children could earn by cultivating the six 
acres of land then belonging to the Orphanage. In 1892 the Grand 
Lodge of Masons of North Carolina adopted a provision allowing the 
Orphanage annually ten per cent of its gross receipts, and in 1893 
the General Assembly began to make a small annual appropriation, 
which now amounts to $8,000. 

summary 

Founded 1883 

Number of buildings 10 

Number of acres of land 234 

Value of land, buildings and equipment. . . .~ $60,000 

Number of children in institution 185 

Number of officers, teachers and helpers 9 

Annual appropriation from State $10,000 

Other sources (for 1918) $4,578 

Annual per capita cost $112 

superi n ten den ts 

Rev. Joshua Perry 1883-1884 

Miss Bessie Hackins 1884- 

Rev. Walter A. Patillo 1886-1887 

Rev. Rorert Shepherd 1887-1907 

Henry P. Cheatham 1907- 



Soldier's Home 199 

SOLDIERS' HOME.* 

J. A. Wigg, Superintendent. 

So far as can be ascertained from the records on file in the office 
of the Soldiers' Home, a home for indigent Confederate soldiers was 
first established in a rented house at the corner of Polk and Blood- 
worth streets, in the city of Raleigh, and declared to be opened on 
October 15, 1890, with five inmates. W. C. Stronach, under the 
auspices of the Daughters of the Confederacy, acted as Superintend- 
ent and looked after the personal comforts of the men. 

The General Assembly of 1891, chapter 60, Private Laws, incor- 
porated Gen. Robert F. Hoke, Col. William L. Saunders, Col. A. B. 
Andrews, Capt. S. A. Ashe, Gen. Rufus Barringer, Gen. A. M. Scales, 
Gen. Robert B. Vance, Gen. Thomas Clingman, Gen. W. P. Roberts, 
Gen. Julian S. Carr, Capt. Thomas J. Jarvis, Col. W. P. Wood, Gen. 
Matt. W. Ransom and other members of the Confederate Veterans' 
Association, under the name and style of "The Soldiers' Home Asso- 
ciation," and conferred upon this association the usual corporate 
powers. The act gave to the Soldiers' Home Association a tract of 
land near the eastern section of the city of Raleigh, known as Camp 
Russell, to be used for the purpose of a soldiers' home, and, if it 
should cease to be so used, to revert to and belong to the State. The 
same act appropriated $3,000 for the maintenance of the Soldiers' 
Home and the support of its inmates. Section 6 of the act is as 
follows: 

"The directors shall cause to be kept a minute-book of the home, 
in which full entries shall be kept concerning memorable incidents 
in the lives of its inmates. They shall also take steps to form a 
museum of Confederate relics and to perpetuate such historical 
records of the Confederate soldiers of North Carolina as they shall 
find it practicable to do.' 

The act was ratified February 14, 1901. 

On April 27, 1891, the number of inmates of the Soldiers Home 
having increased to nine, they were removed to an old building at 
Camp Russell which had been fitted up for the purposes of the home. 
Miss Mary Williams was appointed matron, and served in that ca- 
pacity until February 15, 1893, when Capt. J. H. Fuller was made 



•This article was prepared for the Manual by Capt. W. F. Drake. 



200 Static Charitable Institutions 

resident superintendent. On February 1, 1898, Superintendent 
Fuller resigned. Feebleness of age and the increase in number of 
inmates had made the duties too arduous for one of his strength. 

Capt. R. H. Brooks was elected to succeed Captain Fuller, and 
served until his death on June 14, 1910. The number of inmates 
continued to increase during his term, and the necessity for new and 
larger buildings became urgent. A dormitory was built to accommo- 
date 70 inmates, and furnished by liberal donations from the Daugh- 
ters of the Confederacy and others. A large hospital was built, 
medical attention given, nurses employed, water, sewerage, and elec- 
tric lights provided, and the grounds made attractive. Such heavy 
expense exceeded the appropriation made by the State, and at the 
close of Captain Brooks' term the books showed the home to be in 
arrears to the extent of $6,000; but all felt confident that the Legis- 
lature would provide for the deficiency. 

Capt. W. S. Lineberry was elected to succeed Captain Brooks, and 
entered upon his duties July 20, 1910. 

Colonel D. H. Milton, who was elected to succeed Capt. W. S. Line- 
berry, September 26, 1916, took charge October 1, 1916. Colonel 
Milton resigned October 1, 1920, and was succeeded by J. A. Wigg. 

An appropriation of $35,000 was made by the Legislature of 1915 
for the support of the home. The home is now out of debt; the 
buildings bright with new paint; the grounds ornamented with trees 
and shrubbery, and the walks clean. The comrades are, as a rule, 
contented. The fare is good, the rooms comfortable, the regulations 
reasonable, and an air of cheerfulness pervades. All this has come 
from the humble beginning of October, 1890. 

SUMMARY 

Founded '. 1890 

Number of comrades received since its founding. . . 1,310 

Number received since last report 105 

Number of comrades died since its founding 616 

Number died since last report 55 

Number of comrades in the Home, December 1, 1920 150 

SUPERINTENDENT 

Miss Mary Williams 1891-1893 

Capt. J. H. Fuller 1893-1898 

Capt. R. H. Brooks . 1898-1910 

Capt. W. S. Lineberry 1910-1916 

Col. D. H. Milton 1916-1920 

J. A. Wigg 1920- 



Confederate Woman's Home 201 

THE CONFEDERATE WOMAN'S HOME. 

Miss Fannie C. Waiters, Superintendent, Fayetteville. 

The Confederate Woman's Home of North Carolina was estab- 
lished by chapter 62 of the Public Laws of 1913. The act incorpo- 
rated the Confederate Woman's Home Association, with Julian S. 
Carr, John H. Thorpe, Robert H. Ricks, Robert H. Bradley, E. R. 
Preston, Simon B. Taylor, Joseph B. Spainhour, A. D. McGill, M. 
Leslie Davis, T. T. Thorne, and W. A. Grier, as incorporators. The 
object of the Association was "to establish, maintain, and govern 
a home for deserving, needy and dependent wives and widows of 
North Carolina Confederate soldiers, and other worthy dependent 
women of the Confederacy who are bona fide residents of this State." 
Ample power for carrying out this purpose was conferred by the 
act upon the Association. The act 'authorized the Governor to 
appoint a board of directors of seven members who should be the 
governing board of the institution. The board appointed by the 
Governor consisted of J. A. Turner, James A. Bryan, W. H. Bahnson, 
Haywood Parker, A. G. McGill and Ashley Home. Upon the death 
of Colonel Home, the Governor appointed T. T. Thorne to the 
vacancy. An advisory board of women managers was established to 
assist the board of directors in the equipment and management of 
the Home. The State appropriates $5,000 annually for its main- 
tenance. 

directors 

J. A. Bryan, Chairman New Bern, N. C. 

Geo. M. Rose, Vice-Chairman Fayetteville, N. C. 

W. H. White Oxford, N. C. 

T. T. Thorne . Rocky Mount, N. C. 

J. S. Carr Durham, N. C. 

J. W. McLaughlin Raeford, N. C. 

E. R. McKethan Fayetteville, N. C. 

advisory board 

Mrs. Hunter Smith Mrs. Hari.ee Townsend 

Mrs. Felix Harvey Mrs. W. O. Win mi ah 

Mrs. T. B. Reynolds Mrs. B. H. Griffin 

Mrs. R. E. Little. Mrs. Herbert McCullers 

Mrs. E. R. McKethan Mrs. T. W. Thrash 

Mrs. T. W. Bickett Mrs. Marshall Williams 



PART VII. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



1. The North Carolina Railroad Company. 

2. The Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad 

Company. 

3. The North Carolina Agricultural Society. 

4. North Carolina State Capitol. 

5. State Administration Building. 

6. North Carolina Day. 

7. Legal Holidays in North Carolina. 

8. State Flag. 

9. The Great Seal. 

10. State Motto and Its Origin. 

11. The Confederate Museum at Richmond. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA RAILROAD COMPANY.* 

A. H. Eller, Secretary and Treasurer.^ 

The greatest of all enterprises so far attempted by the State of 
North Carolina in the nature of a public or internal improvement 
was the building of the North Carolina Railroad from Goldsboro by 
way of Raleigh, Greensboro and Salisbury, to Charlotte. 

Considering the experimental state of railroading at that time, the 
dread of public or private indebtedness, and the limited resources, 
the movement was a monumental enterprise — and one in advance of 
anything attempted by almost any other State in the Union. The 
success, however, which has crowned the labors and sacrifices of our 
fathers has established beyond all question that their wisdom was 
equal to. or superior to, any displayed before or since their day. 

In 1833 the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad Company and the Wil- 
mington and Raleigh, afterwards known as the Wilmington and Wel- 
don Railroad Company, were chartered, and later these roads were 
built. In 1848 the former was in the hands of the State, and was in 
a bankrupt condition for the want of patronage. It was necessary 
to give it some connection, or to extend it. At the session of Novem- 
ber, 184S, the western counties urged a charter for a road from 
Charlotte to Danville, asking no State aid; but the eastern members 
opposed that project. The finances of the State were in such an 
impoverished condition that it was generally deemed impracticable 
for the State to give any considerable aid to any railroad; but Wil- 
liam S. Ashe, the Democratic Senator from New Hanover, intro- 
duced a bill to construct a road from Goldsboro to Charlotte, under 
the name of the North Carolina Railroad, and appropriating two mil- 
lions of dollars for that purpose, on condition, however, that private 
parties would subscribe one million, and to secure the payment of 
the State bonds, when issued, a lien was given on the State's stock. 

When the western men brought up the Charlotte and Danville bill 
in the House, Stanley and other eastern men opposed it so bitterly 
that it could not pass, and then in a dramatic scene, the friends of 
internal improvement agreed to send to the Senate and take the 



•This article is brought forward from the Manual of 1913. The editor regrets that he 
has been unable to secure from the present secretary of the company a revised statement 
bringing it up to date. 

fThe writer acknowledges his indebtedness to Capt. S. A. Ashe for his historical data 
contained in this sketch. 



206 Miscellaneous 

Ashe bill from the files and offer it as a substitute. After a great 
and prolonged struggle the bill passed the House of Commons. In 
the Senate it failed by an adverse majority of one; but the Senator 
from Cumberland was led to support it by passing the bill for the 
State to build the plank road from Fayetteville to Salem; and then 
the vote in the Senate was a tie. Speaker Graves, who had up to 
that moment maintained an impenetrable silence as to the measure, 
broke the tie in favor of building the road by State aid; and the 
measure was passed. Speaker Graves was never again elected to 
any office by the vote of his people. 

To secure the needed one million of private stock, Speaker Graves, 
Governor Morehead and Mr. William Boylan made great exertions, 
and by their efforts, aided by Joseph Caldwell, Governor W. A. Gra- 
ham, Paul C. Cameron and others, the necessary stock was eventu- 
ally raised. On January 29, 1856, the railroad was ready for passage 
of trains from Goldsboro to Charlotte, and charters had been granted 
for two other roads — from Goldsboro to Morehead City and from 
Salisbury to the Tennessee line. 

By act ratified 14th of February, 1855, the General Assembly in- 
creased the capital stock to $4,000,000, and subscribed for the State 
the whole of the added capital. From that time till now the State 
has owned three-fourths and individuals one-fourth of this road. 

The first president of the company was Governor John M. More- 
head, to whom so much was due for securing the subscription of the 
private stock, and under his direction the road was constructed. His 
successors were Charles F. Fisher, of Rowan; Paul C. Cameron, 
Josiah Turner, Jr., of Orange, and William A. Smith, of Johnston. 
During the administration of Mr. Smith the road was, on the 11th 
day of September, 1871, leased to the Richmond and Danville Rail- 
road Company for thirty years, at a rental of 6 per cent per annum. 
The subsequent presidents of the company have been: Thomas M. 
Holt, Lee S. Overman, S. B. Alexander, J. F. Kornegay, R. M. Nor- 
ment, J. L. Armstrong, H. G. Chatham, Charles M. Stedman and 
Benehan Cameron. 

On the 16th day of August, 1895, in view of the approaching termi- 
nation of the lease, the property was leased to the Southern Railway 
Company for a term of ninety-nine years at an annual rental of 
6M: per cent for six years and 7 per cent for the remaining ninety- 
three years, and the stock of the company was selling at $186 per 
share until the panic of 1907. 



North Carolina Railroad Company 207 

On the readjustment of the debt of the State, the State renewed 
the bonds issued for the purchase of the North Carolina Railroad 
stock, pledging the original lien on the stock for the payment of the 
debt. 

Col. Peter EC. Ruffin for more than thirty years was the faithful 
and efficient secretary and treasurer of the company. 

The secretaries of the company in the order of their election and 
service are as follows: Cyrus P. Mendenhall, Julius B. Ramsey, R. 
M. Mills, F. A. Stagg, J. A. McCauley, W. F. Thornburg, P. B. Ruffin, 
H. B. Worth, Spencer B. Adams, D. H. McLean, A. H. Eller, J. P. 
Cook and R. B. White. 

The State, as is well known, has continued to own its $3,000,000 of 
the original capital stock, and has acquired two (2) additional 
shares, thus giving it 30,002 shares, at par value amounting to 
$3,000,200, which, however, at the recent market value aggregates 
$5,580,372. And it is confidently believed that if the State desired 
to part with a controlling interest in the company, its stock would 
command a much greater price, and those who have watched the 
constant advance in the price of this stock expect it to go to $200 
per share at an early day. 

Under the lease of 1871 to the Richmond and Danville Railroad 
Company, the company could not have claimed the betterments made 
by the lessee; but under the present lease the company is not only 
amply secured by bond for the prompt payment of its lease money 
and organization expenses, to wit, $143,000, on the first day of Janu- 
ary and July of each year, but upon the termination of said lease 
for any cause the company acquires the betterments made thereon. 

In addition to the railroad and rolling stock leased to the South- 
ern Railway Company, the company still owns valuable land in and 
about Company Shops, now known as the city of Burlington. 

When the board of directors appointed by Governor Aycock took 
charge of the company's affairs, there was a floating indebtedness of 
$10,000. The May balance, 1912, of the secretary and treasurer 
shows that said indebtedness has been paid and a special divi- 
dend of one-half of one per cent, amounting to $20,000, and the com- 
pany has to its credit in the bank the sum of $21,128.64, all of which, 
except a small balance, is drawing 4 per cent interest. Again, on 
August 1, 1912, an extra one-half of one per cent dividend, amounting 
to $20,000, was paid. Promptly upon the payment of the lease 
money on the first of January and July in each year, the directors 



208 Miscellaneous 

declare a dividend, and the secretary and treasurer pay to the State 
Treasurer immediately $105,000, and a like dividend is paid to the 
private stockholders on the first day of February and August of each 
year. The present board of directors, as appointed by Governor 
Kitchin on the part of the State, are given below. The State's 
proxy is Jo. M. Reese; the expert is John W. Thompson, and the 
company's attorney is Frank R. McNinch.* 

A true sketch of this company would be incomplete without calling 
attention to the long and invaluable services of Gen. R. F. Hoke as 
director. His experience and great knowledge of affairs, and life- 
long devotion to the best interest of the company, entitle him to the 
gratitude of the State, as well as the private stockholders. His 
death on July 3, 1912, was deeply and universally lamented. 

The question is sometimes asked why the organization of the 
North Carolina Railroad Company is kept up, and what particular 
functions it performs. 

This company, as some people think, does not belong to the State 
of North Carolina. It is a quasi-public corporation like all other 
railroad companies, in which the State owns three-fourths of the 
stock. It is managed practically as any private corporation would 
be managed, the principal difference being that the Governor has 
the appointment of eight of the directors, while the private stock- 
holders have the election of four of the directors. 

The organization is maintained for the purpose of enforcing the 
terms of the lease to the Southern Railway Company, and, in case 
of the termination of that lease for any cause, to resume the opera- 
tion of the road. 

It is required to see that the bonds given for the prompt payment 
of the rent, and also the bond to maintain the rolling stock in good 
condition, are kept in force. It receives the rent money of $280,000 
per year, payable semi-annually, and declares a dividend and pays 
the same to the stockholders of record. It transfers stock like other 
corporations. 

In leasing its property to the Southern Railway Company it re- 
served its office building, which is the residence of the secretary and 
treasurer, containing its vault and records, at Burlington, N. C. It 
owns certain real estate in and about the city of Burlington, which 
is sold by its land committee from time to time. 



•This article was written in 1912. 



Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad 209 

The secretary and treasurer is required to give a bond in the sum 
of $50,000, and his books and accounts are audited by a finance com- 
mittee at stated times. It is required to file a report annually with 
the State Corporation Commission and one with the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, as other railroad companies must do. It also 
reports its income for Federal taxation like other corporations. Its 
stock is the most valuable holding that the State of North Carolina 
has amongst its assets, and whether it will be the policy of the State 
to hold its stock perpetually or to dispose of the same is a matter 
for the Legislature of the future. 



THE ATLANTIC AND NORTH CAROLINA RAILROAD C03IPANT. 

[Reprinted from the North Carolina Manual of 1915. The editor regrets that he has 
not been able to get the data necessary to bring the article up to date.] 

The Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad was chartered by the 
General Assembly of North Carolina in 1852, duration of the charter 
being ninety-nine years. The charter was amended in 1854 and 1855. 
Work on the railroad was begun shortly afterwards, and pushed to 
completion from Goldsboro to a point on the seacoast now known 
as Morehead City, a distance of 95 miles, in 1858. 

Not having the necessary data at hand, I state from memory, and 
from information gained from other sources, the names of the differ- 
ent presidents of the railroad company, in the order of their service 
from the beginning up to the time when the railroad was leased to 
the Howland Improvement Company, during the administration of 
Hon. C. B. Aycock as Governor of North Carolina, on September 1, 
1904, as follows: John D. Whitford, Charles R. Thomas, John D. 
Whitford, E. R. Stanley, R. W. King, L. W. Humphrey, John 
Hughes, John D. Whitford, Washington Bryan, W. S. Chadwick, 
Robert Hancock, D. W. Patrick, James A. Bryan. 

The road was capitalized at $1,800,000; the par value of the stock 
was fixed at $100 per share. The State of North Carolina owns 
12,666 shares of the stock. The county of Craven owns 1,293 shares, 
the county of Lenoir owns 500 shares,* the county of Pamlico owns 
202 shares. The balance of the stock of the road is owned by private 
individuals. The equipment of the road was by no means complete 



*Sold to private individuals. 
14 



210 Miscellaneous 

when the War between the States began (1861), and by reason of 
the fact that a good portion of the road was under the control 
of the Federal arms from the fall of New Bern in 1862 to the 
close of the war in 1865, the road when turned over to its rightful 
owners was little more, if any, than a burden to carry, which was 
in part the cause of no returns to the stockholders on their invest- 
ments for thirty-four years after the road was constructed. 

During the administration of the Hon. T. J. Jarvis, Governor of 
North Carolina, the railroad was leased to W. J. Best, who had 
control and operated same for a short time only, and then returned 
it back to its owner. 

There is an outstanding bonded indebtedness against the road of 
$325,000, bearing interest at 6 per cent per annum, the interest 
payable semi-annually. Bonds for same were issued in 1887 and 
will mature in 1917.* During the last year of the presidency of 
James A. Bryan two suits were instituted in the Federal Court for 
the Eastern District of North Carolina for the appointment of 
receivers of the road — first by K. S. Finch of New York, and the 
second by John P. Cuyler of New Jersey. Receivers were appointed 
in both cases, but relief was granted by higher courts. 

The vast amount of unsettled business in which the Atlantic and 
North Carolina Railroad Company was in any way interested at the 
time the Howland Improvement Company, "lessees," assumed con- 
trol of the railroad, was very largely adjusted during the first two 
years. The expiration of the third year of the lease found only a 
small amount of difference to be looked after, which in time was 
settled. Suit was brought in the Superior Court of Craven County, 
in 1906, to annul the lease to the Howland Improvement Company, 
resulting in a decision upholding the lease, which decision was 
affirmed by the Supreme Court, 

The contract for lease with the Howland Improvement Company 
terminates in ninety-one years and four months from the date of 
its execution, and the stipulations contained in same have, up to 
the last meeting of the stockholders of the Atlantic and North Caro- 
lina Railroad Company, in 1912, been largely complied with, as 
will be seen from the annual reports to the stockholders' meeting 
of the president, treasurer and expert of the lessor company. The 
Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad has, with some other short 



♦Written in 1914. 



North Carolina Agricultural Society 211 

lines in Eastern North Carolina, been merged into and now forms 
part of the Norfolk Southern Railway system. 

The following have been presidents of the company: James A. 
Bryan, J. W. Grainger, S. W. Ferrebee, L. P. Tapp, H. H. Grainger 
and Thomas D. Warren. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Joseph E. Pogue. Secretary, Raleigh. 

The North Carolina Agricultural Society, which operates the 
State Fair annually in Raleigh during the third week in October, 
was chartered by special act of the Legislature more than half a 
century ago "to provide a place for the holding of annual fairs, in 
order that the citizens may be encouraged by exhibitions, premiums 
and other means to develop and improve the productions of agri- 
culture and every species of native industry; and to this end, and 
for these great and valuable purposes, and to no other, shall the 
corporation apply all the funds which by any means it may acquire." 

No capital stock was provided for in that charter. Various public- 
spirited citizens loaned to the Society a sum of money sufficient to 
purchase grounds and erect buildings for the purposes of an annual 
fair, taking therefor the bonds of the Society. The real property 
pledged to secure this bonded debt is held in trust. The bonded 
debt was originally $26,550, but was reduced in 1905 to $22,600, and 
refunded for twenty years at five per cent instead of six per cent, 
the former rate. These bonds are now generally held at par value. 
In 1917 ten thousand dollars more was borrowed from the Citizens 
National Bank of Raleigh, at six per cent, to build the Woman's 
Building. This is payable in annual installments of $1,000 each, 
$4,000 of which has been paid. 

Any profits made in the operation of the Fair go into a surplus 
fund, which is spent in permanent improvements of all kinds at 
the Fair Grounds, for increased premiums, and other betterments 
that go toward making the Fair more efficient. 

The present Fair Grounds are just west of the city of Raleigh, at 
the terminus of the electric street car line. They were purchased 
about forty years ago, and cover more than sixty acres of land 
in one of the most desirable of Raleigh's suburbs. The Society has 
twelve large buildings on these grounds. Some of these buildings 



212 Miscellaneous 

were erected when the site was acquired, but most of them have 
gradually been added from annual profits of the Fair. Most of 
them have been put up in recent years. The three live-stock 
buildings were erected in 1913. The "Sandhills" Building was 
donated through President Leonard Tufts in 1916, and the Woman's 
Building was built in 1917. A new sheep building was erected, 
25 x 162 feet in dimension. Modern bleacher seats to accommodate 
1,500 persons and many changes and improvements on the grounds 
were made in 1920. Nearly all of the old buildings have been re- 
modeled and practically rebuilt out of the current income. 

A few years ago a Machinery Shed, 48 x 200 feet, with metal roof, 
was erected for the accommodation of exhibits of heavy farm 
machinery. This has proved a boon to these exhibitors and is 
greatly appreciated by the public. A modern reinforced concrete 
building 60 x 150 feet has been put up for the exhibitors of agri- 
cultural and horticultural products. This is well arranged and 
equipped with a concrete floor. The State Board of Agriculture 
usually occupies about one-half of this building with a most attrac- 
tive exhibit of the various activities of the Department of Agri- 
culture. A modern fireproof poultry house has been erected and 
gives 9,000 square feet of space to exhibits of this valuable and 
growing industry of the State, which the Society strenuously seeks 
to encourage in every possible way. 

Among other improvements might be mentioned the widening 
three times of the "Midway" within the last dozen years, to afford 
room for the ever increasing crowds, and the macadamizing of this 
thoroughfare; the overhauling and remodeling of the Arts and 
Crafts Building, known as "Floral Hall"; a large increase in the 
number of box stalls for exhibition and race horses, the wiring of 
the buildings for electric lights, the extension of the city water 
pipe to the Fair Grounds, providing running water throughout. 
The live-stock buildings are as good as could be built, and cost 
nearly $10,000; the swine building has a concrete floor. And all of 
these improvements, with the exception of the Woman's Building, 
have been erected and paid for out of the current revenues, with- 
out adding one dollar of bonded debt. This is an achievement of 
which the management feels proud. 

In addition to this, the present management found the Society 
heavily in debt and facing the possibility of a foreclosure of the 
mortgage. All floating debts have been paid. Nearly $13,000 has 
been paid for past-due interest and in reducing the bonded debt. 



North Carolina Agricultural Society 213 

It may be said in the most conservative terms that the Fair has 
grown from modest beginnings, until in recent years, just as the 
Old North State is taking her proper place among the foremost 
States of the Union, her State Fair is taking rank with the leading 
institutions of the kind in the country. Moreover, it has been 
gaining more and more the enthusiastic support, cooperation and 
advice of men in all industries of the State, a thing that is abso- 
lutely necessary for the making of a larger and greater fair. 

It is the intention of the management to continue to put up new 
permanent buildings as fast as the profits from the fair will permit, 
or the public policy of the State towards her agricultural and indus- 
trial interests as expressed at the State Fair will make possible, 
replacing all of the old wooden structures with buildings that are 
adapted to the rapidly increasing needs of the more representative 
exhibitors that are year by year demanding larger and better ac- 
commodations. 

Some definite idea of the growth of the Fair during the last few 
years may be gathered from the fact that in one year the number of 
solid carloads of exhibits jumped from 42 to 83, and the number of 
separate entries from 1,201 in 1909 to 3,501 in 1910, and 4,136 in 
1911, and each year since has shown a healthy growth, 1920 wit- 
nessing the most successful fair in the long history of the Society. 

No other occasion in North Carolina draws anything like the 
throngs that visit the State Fair each year. The railroads for years 
have been putting on special rates and extra trains to handle the 
crowds, and thousands come by automobile. 

Keeping pace with the most modern methods of stimulating the 
efforts to produce better and better crops of all kinds, the manage- 
ment during the last few years has instituted the corn contest fea- 
ture for boys, cotton contests for men and boys, the tomato contest 
for girls, the Pig Clubs for boys and girls, and the Poultry Clubs 
for boys and girls, and still more and larger prizes for individual 
and county exhibits and agricultural products. The Girls' and Hoys' 
Poultry Clubs were invited to enter our poultry show free of entry 
fees, and they made a fine showing and won a large percentage of 
the prize money in this department. 

The Fair of 1920, by common consent, was pronounced the best in 
its long history of fifty-seven years. Especially did the exhibits in 
cattle, horses, swine and sheep excel anything yet seen at the State 
Fair or anywhere else in our Fair Zone. 



214 Miscellaneous 

The list of national live-stock associations offering their special 
premiums at the Fair keeps growing larger as the years go by, and 
in the case of one of the most prominent of these associations the 
North Carolina State Fair is honored among only four Southern 
fairs. It is thus apparent that our State Fair is recognized as one 
of the greatest gathering points for pure-bred live stock in the South. 

For years the management has been working away from the big- 
midway and little-exhibit condition of a fair back to the funda- 
mental purpose of its existence, the competition of the best to make 
better, and all questionable shows and doubtful games are abso- 
lutely forbidden in the grounds, and a clear field is given to the 
best shows offering legitimate amusement as well as educational 
features. The management is working for the ideal State Fair, 
ichieh shall be the meeting place of agriculture and industry, a de- 
lightful outing for all the members of the family, a short school 
for men and women, boys and girls, the best short course in agri- 
culture in the State, a great industrial exchange, a university of 
experience and experiment, an annual advertisement of the great- 
ness of a great State. 

In August, 1918, after great preparations had been made for the 
1918 State Fair, and when practically everything was in readiness 
for the event, the United States Government sent representatives 
of the War Department to Raleigh, looking for a site for a Tank 
Training Camp. They found an ideal situation at the Fair Grounds 
— water, electric lights, street cars, a railroad spur track, and ten 
large buildings. Upon the urgent request of the War Department 
and upon the representation that the War Work of the Government 
would be advanced at least three months by the turning over of 
this property without delay, the North Carolina Agricultural Society 
unanimously voted to turn over the property for the purpose. This 
meant the abandonment of the Fair for 1918, but it meant that the 
Society could and would meet the test of patriotism, and save the 
Government three months of invaluable time and thousands of 
dollars in money. 



North Carolina State Capitol 215 

THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE CAPITOL. 

On the morning of June 21. 1831, the State Capitol of North Caro- 
lina was destroyed by fire. Though the public records of the State 
were saved, the State Library, containing many valuable books and 
manuscripts, was lost. 

The citizens of Raleigh naturally bemoaned the destruction of the 
building, but Governor Stokes did not regard it as a great loss. In 
his opinion there were some mitigating circumstances. In his mes- 
sage to the General Assembly, when it met the following November, 
he said that the calamity was not so great, because the old State- 
house, built in 1794, was almost ready to tumble down of its own 
accord, and that perhaps many valuable lives had been saved by its 
being destroyed by fire instead of tumbling down on the Legislature 
while in session. 

At once Senator Seawell of Wake brought forward a bill providing 
for the erection of a new Capitol on the site of the old one. At the 
same time a similar bill was introduced in the House of Commons. 
As there was a strong sentiment in the State favorable to the re- 
moval of the capital from Raleigh to Fayetteville, these two bills to 
rebuild at Raleigh met with vigorous opposition. Accordingly, Sen- 
ator Seawell's bill was quickly disposed of. Senator Wilson of Edge- 
combe moved to table it, and it was tabled. The House bill was 
longer discussed. The discussion was prolonged for two days, but 
on a yea and nay vote the bill failed, 65 to 68. The Assembly of 
1831 refused to rebuild. 

A year passed, and the ruins of the old Statehouse still marked 
the site of the former Capitol. But the Constitution, or rather the 
Ordinance, of 1789, located the capital at Raleigh, and the Legisla- 
ture had no power to move it. It was even questioned with great 
seriousness whether the Assembly could hold its sessions in the 
Governor's Mansion, at the end of Fayetteville Street, as that was 
outside of the limits of the town. To move the capital a con- 
vention was necessary, and a majority of the Legislature was not 
favorable to a convention. 

At the session of November, 1832, the Assembly, by a vote of 
35 to 28 in the Senate and 73 to 60 in the House, resolved to rebuild 
on the old site, and $50,000 was appropriated for the purpose. 

William Boylan, Duncan Cameron, Henry Seawell, Romulus M. 
Saunders and William S. Mhoon were appointed commissioners to 



216 Miscellaneous 

have the work done. The commissioners, with $50,000 at their com- 
mand, did not dally. The rubbish was cleared away, the excava- 
tions made and the foundations were laid. On July 4, 1833, the 
corner-stone was set in place. Up to that time W. S. Drummond 
was the superintendent and chief architect, and he was one of the 
principal persons in the ceremony of laying the corner-stone. 

After the foundations were laid the work progressed more slowly, 
and it was so expensive that the appropriation was exhausted. The 
Legislature at its next session appropriated $75,000 more. To do 
the stone and finer work many skilled artisans had been brought 
from Scotland and other countries. Part of the work was con- 
ducted under the supervision of W. S. Drummond and another part 
under Colonel Thomas Bragg, but these arrangements did not prove 
satisfactory, and a year later, in September, 1834, Mr. I. Theil Town 
of New York, acting for the commissioners, contracted with David 
Paton to come to Raleigh and superintend the work. 

Mr. Paton was an architect who had come from Scotland the year 
before. He was then thirty-three years of age. He was the son of 
John Paton of Edinburgh, who was an extensive builder in that city 
and vicinity and who had built the greater part of the new town and 
constructed the famous Dean Bridge across the water of Leith, and 
he ranked high in his profession. Having received a liberal educa- 
tion at the University of Edinburgh, David Paton took up the pro- 
fession of his father and was regularly bred as an architect and 
builder under his father and under Sir John Sloan, R.A., professor 
of architecture to the Royal Academy of London. He soon demon- 
strated his capacity. When he first came to Raleigh the cost of over- 
seeing the work on the Capitol was $25 a day. He reduced that cost 
to $9. Twenty-eight stonecutters were paid $81 a day. This he 
reduced to $56. He made a saving in these two items alone of $42 
a day. He found himself to be not merely supervisor of the work, 
but the superintendent; not merely the superintendent, but the 
bookeeper and paymaster. He had every detail of the work on his 
shoulders. And then he had to make the working drawings. He 
was the builder, the architect, the designer. 

Both the commissioners and the architect had large ideas. The 
former were wise enough to expend the original $50,000, which the 
General Assembly expected would complete the structure, on its 
foundation. Their work being severely criticised, they resigned 
January 1, 1835. Their successors were Beverly Daniel, chairman, 



North Carolina State Capitol 217 

Samuel F. Patterson, Charles Manly and Alfred Jones. The Legis- 
lature was compelled to make appropriations for the work from 
time to time. The following is a table of the several appropriations 
made: 

Session of 1832-33 $ 50,000.00 

Session of 1833-34 75,000.00 

Session of 1834-35 75,000.00 

Session of 1835 75,000.00 

Session of 1836-37 120,000.00 

Session of 1838-39 105,300.00 

Session of 1840-41 31,374.46 

Total $531,674.46 

It must be remembered that the stone with which the building 
was erected was the property of the State. Had the State been 
compelled to purchase this material the cost of the Capitol would 
have been considerably increased. 

The following is a description of the Capitol, written by David 
Paton, the architect: 

"The State Capitol is 160 feet in length from north to south by 
140 feet from east to west. The whole height is 97% feet in the 
center. The apex of pediment is 64 feet in height. The stylobate 
is 18 feet in height. The columns of the east and west porticos 
are 5 feet 2% inches in diameter. An entablature, including block- 
ing course, is continued around the building, 12 feet high. 

"The columns and entablature are Grecian Doric, and copied 
from the Temple of Minerva, commonly called the Parthenon, which 
was erected in Athens about 500 years before Christ. An octagon 
tower surrounds the rotunda, which is ornamented with Grecian 
cornices, etc., and its dome is decorated at top with a similar orna- 
ment to that of the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, commonly 
called the Lanthorn of Demosthenes. 

"The interior of the Capitol is divided into three stories: First, 
the lower story, consisting of ten rooms, eight of which are appro- 
priated as offices to the Governor, Secretary, Treasurer, and Comp- 
troller, each having two rooms of the same size — the one contain- 
ing an area of 649 square feet, the other 528 square feet — the two 
committee rooms, each containing 200 square feet, ~~d four closets; 
also the rotunda, corridors, vestibules, and piazzas, Ci^tain an area of 
4,370 square feet. The vestibules are decorated with columns and 
antae, similar to those of the Ionic Temple on the Ilissus, near the 



218 Miscellaneous 

Acropolis of Athens. The remainder is groined with stone and 
brick, springing from columns and pilasters of the Roman Doric. 

"The second story consists of Senatorial and Representatives' 
chambers, the former containing an area of 2,545 and the latter 
2,849 square feet. Four apartments enter from Senate Chamber, two 
of which contain each an area of 169 square feet, and the other two 
contain each an area of 154 square feet; also, two rooms enter from 
Representatives' chamber, each containing an area of 170 square 
feet; of two committee rooms, each containing an area of 231 feet; 
of four presses and the passages, stairs, lobbies, and colonnades, 
containing an area of 3,204 square feet. 

"The lobbies and Hall of Representatives have their columns 
and antae of the Octagon Tower of Andronicus Cyrrhestes and the 
plan of the hall is of the formation of the Greek theater and the 
columns and antae in the Senatorial chamber and rotunda are of 
the Temple of Erectheus, Minerva Polias, and Pandrosus, in the 
Acropolis of Athens, near the above named Pathenon. 

"Third, or attic story, consists of rooms appropriated to the Su- 
preme Court and Library, each containing an area of 693 square 
feet. Galleries of both houses have an area of 1,300 square feet; 
also two apartments entering from Senate gallery, each 169 square 
feet, of four presses and the lobbies' stairs, 988 square feet. These 
lobbies, as well as rotunda, are lit with cupolas, and it is proposed 
to finish the court and library in the florid Gothic style." 

In the summer of 1840 the work was finished. The Assembly had, 
in December, 1832, appropriated $50,000 for the building. Mr. Boy- 
Ian, Judge Cameron and State Treasurer Mhoon and their associates 
spent that sum in the foundation. They proposed to have a Capitol 
worthy of the State. At every subsequent session the Assembly 
made additional appropriations. There was some caviling, and the 
commissioners resigned; but the Legislature and the new commis- 
sioners took no step backwards. Year by year they pressed on the 
work as it had been begun, until at last, after more than seven 
years, the sum of $531,674.46 was expended. As large as that sum 
was for the time, when the State was so poor and when the entire 
taxes for all State purposes reached less than $100,000, yet the 
people were satisfied. The building had been erected with rigorous 
economy, and it was an object of great pride to the people. Indeed, 
never was money better expended than in the erection of this noble 
Capitol. 



North Carolina State Capitol 219 

Speaking of this structure, Samuel A. Ashe, in an address on 
David Paton, delivered in 1909, says: 

"Not seventy years have passed since the completion of this build- 
ing, yet it has undying memories. It was finished the year Henry 
Clay was set aside and his place as the Whig leader given to General 
Harrison. Four years later Clay spoke from the western portico; 
but, like Webster and Calhoun, the prize of the presidency was 
denied him. The voices of other men of large mould also have been 
heard within this Capitol. Here, too, our great jurists — Gaston, 
Ruffin, Pearson and their associates — held their sessions and brought 
renown to North Carolina. Here Badger, Mangum, Dobbin and 
scores of men known to fame held high debates. Here was brought 
forth in great travail our system of internal improvements, and of 
education, ramifying the State, disseminating enlightenment and 
opening the pathways to prosperous, contented and happy homes for 
our people. 

"Here Ellis and Clark and the mighty Vance directed the affairs 
of State in the trying days of war and suffering and desolation, the 
glories mingled with pain and sorrow, and fading away in heart- 
rending defeat; but through it all the women and men, alike heroes, 
worthy the poets' loftiest strains. Then, when the people were still 
bowed in anguish, Carolinians turned their faces to the future, 
and, with resolution and intelligence, themselevs modified their 
laws and institutions to meet the new conditions; but in vain, for 
these mute walls are the witnesses of the. saturnalia of Reconstruc- 
tion, still awaiting some Dante to portray the scenes with realistic 
power. Yet the dark cloud had its silver lining, and the courageous 
devotion of Jarvis, John Graham and their Spartan band adds 
historic interest to that time of fearful storm. 

"Later, here was the scene of the great State trial, the impeach- 
ment of the Chief Magistrate of the Commonwealth and the contest 
between the intellectual giants of that generation, Governor Graham 
and Bragg and Merrimon, contesting with Smith and Conigland 
and Richard Badger. 

"And these walls have witnessed the reversal of that State policy 
forced on an unwilling people by the mailed hand of the conquering 
power, and the full restoration of Anglo-Saxon control. Never in 
history has a people been so clearly and effectually vindicated as 
those gallant souls of North Carolina, who, emulating the constancy 
of Hamilcar, swore their children to undying opposition to those 



220 Miscellaneous 

who would destroy their civilization. Let the oppressed of future 
ages gaze on the scene and take courage. Already hallowed are the 
memories that these chambers evoke. What grand occasions yet 
await them! We may not lift the veil of the future, but experience 
warns us that history constantly repeats itself, and as the web 
woven by destiny unrolls itself there will yet occur within these 
enduring walls occasions of surpassing magnitude affecting the 
weal and woe of our posterity." 



STATE ADMINISTKATION BUILDING. 

Mindful of the fact that only a little more than a generation ago 
the State Capitol of North Carolina was destroyed by Are, entailing 
the loss of many valuable records and papers, for some years prior 
to the convening of the 1911 session of the. General Assembly the 
demand has been insistent for a safer housing of several depart- 
ments of the State Government at Raleigh, notably the books and 
records of the North Carolina Historical Commission, which has 
now grown to be one of the most important branches of the work at 
the seat of government. 

Early in the session a movement was started for the building of 
a State administration building at the capital, and after numerous 
conferences and compromises of differences as to the amount that 
should be appropriated for that purpose a bill was at length unani- 
mously passed by both houses, appropriating the sum of $250,000 
for this purpose and conferring upon the Government the appoint- 
ment of a State Building Commission for the consummation of this 
worthy undertaking. Soon after the adjournment of the Legislature 
Governor W. W. Kitchin named as the members of the Commission 
Ashley Home of Clayton, William E. Springer of Wilmington, 
Julian S. Carr of Durham, W. L. Parsons of Rockingham, A. S. 
Rascoe of Windsor, J. A. Long of Roxboro, and J. Elwood Cox of 
High Point, men of affairs and recognized business ability in the 
State. 

The State Building Commission held its first meeting in the office 
of the State Auditor at 12:30 p. m., May 9, 1911, and organized by 
the election of Ashley Home, of Clayton, as chairman, and William 
E. Springer, of Wilmington, as secretary. Following organization a 
conference was held with the Board of Public Buildings and 



State Administration Building 221 

Grounds, composed of the Governor, Secretary of State, Treasurer, 
and Attorney-General. It was stated as the purpose of the General 
Assembly to provide ample room for the Supreme Court, all valu- 
able State records, the State Library, offices for the Atttorney- 
General, and several of the other State departments. The grounds 
were carefully gone over, the situation canvassed, and a subcom- 
mittee composed of Chairman Home, Secretary Springer, and 
Commissioner Cox was appointed to go further into the matter of 
a building and site. 

At a subsequent meeting, on May 19, 1911, the committee reported 
that it had secured an option on three sites, and recommended the 
purchase of the Grimes tract for $45,000. This recommendation was 
accepted by the Commission as a whole, and on June 6, 1911, 
plans as prepared by P. Thornton Marye, of Atlanta, were accepted 
after hearing a number of others and after several conferences. 
These plans were later reviewed by Glenn Brown, of Washington, 
D. C, another expert in building construction, and were declared 
eminently proper and in order in every respect. The plans call 
for a modern fireproof building four stories in height and admirably 
adapted to the purpose to which it will be put. 

On November 1, 1911, the Commission met again in Raleigh, after 
proposals had been invited for the building, and after considering a 
number of bids for the construction, the contract was at length 
awarded to the John T. Wilson Company, of Richmond, Va., at a 
cost of $188,000, the building to be completed and ready for occu- 
pancy by January 19, 1913. 

How well the State Building Commission wrought is attested by 
the splendid building, which now stands opposite the Capitol 
grounds and which was occupied in January, 1914, by the several 
departments of government as agreed upon after the numerous 
conferences of the Commission. The departments occupying the 
building are as follows: First floor, State Library; second floor, 
North Carolina Historical Commission and the Library Commis- 
sion; third floor, the Supreme Court and Attorney-General; fourth 
floor, Supreme Court Library. 



222 Miscellaneous 



NORTH CAROLINA DAY. 

The following act, entitled "An Act to Provide for the Celebration 
of North Carolina Day in the Public Schools,'" is chapter 164 of the 
Public Laws of 1901: 

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

Section 1. That the 12th day of October in each and every year, 
to be called "North Carolina Day" may be devoted, by appropriate 
exercises in the public schools of the State, to the consideration of 
some topic or topics of our State history, to be selected by the Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction. Provided, that if the said day shall 
fall on Saturday or Sunday, then, the celebration shall occur on the 
Monday next following: Provided, further, that if the said day shall 
fall at a time when any such schools may not be in session, the 
celebration may be held within one month from the beginning of the 
term, unless the Superintendent of Public Instruction shall desig- 
nate some other time. 

Sec. 2. This act shall be in force from and after its ratification. 
In trie General Assembly read three times, and ratified this the 
9th day of February, A. D. 1901. 

October 12th, the date selected for North Carolina Day, is the 
anniversary of the laying of the cornerstone of the University of 
North Carolina, October 12, 1793. In accordance with the pro- 
visions of this act, the Superintendent of Public Instruction has 
had prepared and distributed to the schools of the State each year 
a program of exercises devoted to the study of some phase of North 
Carolina history. 

Since the creation of North Carolina Day the following subjects 
have been studied each year (back numbers of the programs can 
be secured from the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
Raleigh. N. C.) : 

1901. The Roanoks Island Colonies. Prepared by Fred A. Olds. 

1902. The Albemarle Section. Prepared by a Committee. 

1903. The Lower Cape Fear Section. Prepared by R.D. W. Connor. 

1904. The Pamlico-Neuse Section. Prepared by Charles L. Coom 

1905. The Scotch Highlanders in North Carolina. Prepared by R. D. W. Connor. 

1906. Charles D. Mclver Memorial Day. Prepared by R^D. W. Connor. 

1907. The Scotch-Irish in North Carolina. Prepared by Charles H. Jlebane. 

1908. The German Settlements in North Carolina. \ 

1909. Western North Carolina. [ _ , . . 

1910. North Carolina Poets and Poetry. > Each prepared by 

1911. Local and County History. \ R- D. W. Connor. 

1912. Charles B. Aycock Memorial Day. w f w«,i, n W 

1913. North Carolina Rural Life and Knapp Memorial Day. Edited by N. C. New bold. 

1914. Community Service. 

1915. School and Neighborhood Improvement Day. T -„;„kt 

1916. Murphy Dav: Archibald DeBow Murphy. Prepared by Edgar W. Knight. 

1917. Thrift.'Conservation, Patriotism. 



Legal Holidays in North Carolina 223 



LEGAL HOLIDAYS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

Although certain great days in each year — such as New Year's 
Day, Fourth of July, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day — have 
long been observed as general holidays, there were no "legal" holi- 
days in North Carolina prior to 1881. The Legislature of that year, 
in the interest of commercial transactions, passed an act to make 
these customary holidays "legal" holidays. It is chapter 294, Public 
Laws of 1881, and was brought forward in The Code of 1883 as 
sections 3784-3786 of chapter 61. It provides: 

"That the first day of January, twenty-second day of February, 
tenth day of May, twentieth day of May, fourth day of July, and a 
day appointed by the Governor of- North Carolina as a thanksgiving 
day, and the twenty-fifth day of December of each and every year be, 
and the same are hereby declared to be public holidays; and that 
whenever any such holiday shall fall upon Sunday, the Monday next 
following shall be deemed a public holiday, and papers due on such 
Sunday shall be payable on the Saturday next preceding, and papers 
which would otherwise be payable on said Monday shall be payable 
on the Tuesday next thereafter. 

"Sec. 2. Be it further enacted. That whenever either of the above 
named days shall fall on Saturday, the papers due on the Sunday 
following shall be payable on the Monday next succeeding. 

"Sec. 3. Be it further enacted. That whenever the above named 
days shall fall on Monday, the papers which should otherwise be 
payable on that day shall be payable on Tuesday next succeeding." 

Ten years later, the nineteenth of January was made a "legal" 
holiday, by chapter 58, Public Laws of 1891, which provides: 

"That the nineteenth day of January, the birthday of the peerless 
Robert E. Lee, in each and every year hereafter, shall be a public 
holiday." 

In 1899, the first Thursday in September was designated as Labor 
Day and made a "legal" holiday. The Legislature of 1901 amended 
this Act by changing the holiday from the first Thursday to the 
first Monday in September. The reason for this change was re- 
cited in the preamble of the act as follows: 

"Whereas it is desirable that the same date should be set aside by 
both State and Federal statutes for the observance of the same holi- 
day; 

"And whereas the first Monday in September is designated by stat- 
utes in various States and also by Federal Statute as Labor Day, 



224 Miscellaneous 

while the first Thursday in September is designated as Labor Day by 
statute of this State, thereby causing confusion and annoyance in 
mercantile transactions, therefore," etc. 

These several Acts were all brought forward in the Revisal of 
1905 as section 2838. 

The Legislature of 1907 added another legal holiday to the list 
by setting aside as a holiday "Tuesday after the first Monday in 
November, when a general election is held." This is chapter 996, 
Public Laws of 1907. 

The latest of our legal holidays is the twelfth day of April. This 
was provided for by chapter 88S, Public Laws of 1909, which is as 
follows: 

"Whereas the Provincial Congress which met at Halifax, in this 
State, in April, one thousand seven hundred and seventy-six, after 
providing for the military organization of the State, did, on the 
twelfth day of April, one thousand seven hundred and seventy-six, 
adopt the following resolutions, generally known as the 'Halifax 
Resolutions,' to wit: 

" 'Resolved, That the delegates for this colony in the Continental 
Congress be empowered to concur with the delegates of the other 
colonies in declaring independency, and forming foreign alliances, 
reserving to this colony the sole and exclusive right of forming a 
constitution and laws for this colony.' 

"And whereas said resolution is the first declaration in favor of in- 
dependence by the people of the whole State, through their duly 
authorized representatives, and was adopted more than two months 
before the Declaration of Independence by the Continental Congress; 
and whereas an occurrence so momentous in the history of our State 
and Nation, and so illustrative of the patriotism and wisdom of the 
whole people of North Carolina, should be commemorated, therefore, 

"The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

"Section 1. That the twelfth day of April in each and every 
year be, and the same is hereby made a legal holiday in North 
Carolina." 

Legal holidays in North Carolina, therefore, are as follows: 

January 1 — New Year's Day. 

January 19 — Birthday of General Robert E. Lee. 

February 22 — Birthday of George Washington. 

April 12 — Anniversary of the Resolutions adopted by the Pro- 
vincial Congress of North Carolina, at Halifax, April 12, 1776, in- 
structing the delegates from North Carolina to the Continental 
Congress to vote for a Declaration of Independence. 



The State Flag 225 

May 10 — Confederate Memorial Day. 

May 20 — Anniversary of the "Mecklenburg Declaration of Inde- 
pendence." 

July 4 — Independence Day. 

September, first Monday — Labor Day. 

November, Tuesday after first Monday — General Election Day. 

November 11 — Armistice Day. 

November, last Thursday — Thanksgiving Day. 

December 25 — Christmas Day. 



THE STATE FLAG. 

The first legislation on the subject of a State flag was enacted 
by the Convention of 1861. May 20, 1861, the Convention adopted 
the Ordinance of Secession. 

On that same day Col. John D. Whitford, a member of the Con- 
vention from Craven County, introduced the following ordinance, 
which was passed and referred to a select committee of seven: 

"Be it ordained that the flag of this State shall be a blue field 
with a white V thereon, and a star, encircling which shall be the 
words 'Surgit astrum. May 20th, 1775.' " 

Colonel Whitford was made chairman of the committee to which 
this ordinance was referred. The committee secured the aid and 
advice of William Garl Brown, an artist of Raleigh. Brown pre- 
pared and submitted a model to this comittee. And this model 
was adopted by the Convention on the 22d day of June, 1861. It 
will be observed that the Brown model, to be hereafter explained, 
was vastly different from the one originally proposed by Colonel 
Whitford. Here is the ordinance as it appears on the Journal of 
the Convention: 

"an ordinance in relation to a state flag.'' 

"Be it ordained by this Convention, and it is hereby ordained by 
the authority of the same, That the Flag of North Carolina shall 
consist of a red field with a white star in the center, and with the in- 
scription, above the star, in a semi-circular form, of 'May 20th, 1775,' 
and below the star, in a semi-circular form, of 'May 20, 1861.' That 
there shall be two bars of equal width, and the length of the field 
shall be equal to the bar, the width of the field being equal to both 
bars; the first bar shall be blue, and the second shall be white; and 
the length of the flag shall be one-third more than its width. (Rati- 
fied the 22d day of June, 1861.)" 

15 



226 Miscellaneous 

This State flag, adopted in 1861, is said to have been issued to 
the first ten regiments of State troops during the summer of that 
year, and was borne by them throughout the war, being the only 
flag, except the National and Confederate colors, used by the North 
Carolina troops during the Civil War. This flag existed until 1885, 
when the Legislature of that year adopted a new model. 

The bill, which was introduced by General Johnstone Jones on 
the 5th of February, 1885, passed its final reading one month later 
after little or no debate. This act reads as follows: 

AX ACT TO ESTABLISH A STATE FLAG. 

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

Section 1. That the flag of North Carolina shall consist of a blue 
union, containing in the center thereof a white star with the letter 
N in gilt on the left and the letter C in gilt on the right of said 
star, the circle containing the same to be one-third the width of 
the union. 

Sec. 2. That the fly of the flag shall consist of two equally pro- 
portioned bars; the upper bar to be red, the lower bar to be white; 
that the length of the bars horizontally shall be equal to the per- 
pendicular length of the union, and the total length of the flag shall 
be one-third more than its width. 

Sec. 3. That above the star in the center of the union there shall 
be a gilt scroll in semi-circular form, containing in black letters 
this inscription: "May 20th, 1775," and that below the star there 
shall be a similar scroll containing in black letters the inscription: 
"April 12, 1776." 

In the General Assembly read three times and ratified this 9th 
day of March, A. D. 1885. 

No change has been made in the flag since the passage of this 
act. By an act of 1907 it is provided: 

"That the board of trustees or managers of the several State in- 
stitutions and public buildings shall provide a North Carolina flag, 
of such dimensions and material as they may deem best, and the 
same shall be displayed from a staff upon the top of each and every 
such building at all times except during inclement weather, and 
upon the death of any State officer or any prominent citizen the 
flag shall be put at half-mast until the burial of such person shall 
have taken place. 

"That the Board of County Commissioners of the several counties 
in this State shall likewise authorize the procuring of a North Caro- 
lina flag, to be displayed either on a staff upon the top, or draped 
behind the Judges stand, in each and every courthouse in the 
State, and that the State flag shall be displayed at each and every 
term of court held, and on such other public occasions as the Com- 
missioners may deem proper." 



The Great Seal 227 

THE GREAT SEAL.* 

The Constitution of North Carolina, Article III, section 16, re- 
quires that 

"There shall be a seal of the State which shall be kept by the 
Governor, and used by him as occasion may acquire, and shall be 
called 'The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina.' All grants 
and commissions shall be issued in the name and by the authority 
of the State of North Carolina, sealed with 'The Great Seal of the 
State,' signed by the Governor and countersigned by the Secretary 
of State.'" 

The use of a Great Seal for the attestation of important docu- 
ments began with the institution of government in North Carolina. 
There have been at various times nine different seals in use in the 
colony and State. The first seal was adopted by the Lords Proprie- 
tors of Carolina soon after receiving their charters from the Crown 
in 1665. This seal is to be seen in the Public Record Office in Lon- 
don. It is described as follows: 

"The obverse side has a shield bearing on its face two cornucopias 
crossed, filled with products and having for supporters, on the sin- 
ister side, an Indian chief holding an arrow. On the dexter is an 
Indian squaw with a papoose by her side and one in her arms. 
These natives, I imagine, are supposed to be bringing tribute. The 
crest is a stag upon a wreath above a helmet from which there is a 
mantling. On the scroll below the shield is the motto, Domitus 
Cultoribus Orbis. Around the shield are the words MAGNUM 
SIGILLUM CAROLINAE DOMINORUM. On the reverse side is a 
disc bearing a cross, around which are arranged the coats-of-arms 
of the Lords Proprietors in the following order: Clarendon, Albe- 
marle, Craven, John Berkeley, Cooper, Carteret, William Berkeley, 
and Colleton. The size of this seal is 3% inches in diameter, and 
was made by placing together two wax cakes with tape between 
before being impressed, and was about 14 inch thick. This seal 
was used on all the official papers of the Lords Proprietors for 
Carolina, embracing North and South Carolina." 

About 1665 the government of Albemarle County was organized, 
and for a seal the reverse side of the seal of the Lords Proprietors 
was adopted. It bore the word A-L-B-E-M-A-R-L-E, beginning with 
the letter A between the names of Clarendon and Albemarle, L be- 
tween the arms of Albemarle and Craven, BE between the arms of 
Craven, Lord John Berkeley, etc. 



* Abridged from "The Great Seal of North Carolina," by J. Bryan Grimes; 
Publications of the North Carolina Historical Commission, Bulletin No. 5. 



228 Miscellaneous 

This was a small seal 1 7-16 inches in diameter, with one face 
only, and is now frequently to he found attached to colonial papers. 
It was first used for the government of the County of Albemarle, 
and then became the seal of the Province of North Carolina, being 
used until just after the purchase by the Crown. 

In 1730, after the purchase of the colony by the Crown, the Lords 
of Trade proposed to the King a new seal "whereon Liberty is rep- 
resented introducing Plenty to your Majesty with this motto, Qiuc 
sera tamen respexit, and this inscription round the circumference, 
Sigillum Provincae Nostrae Carolinae, Septentrionalis." The 
background on which the King and these figures stand is a map 
of the coast of North Carolina, and in the offing is a ship. On the 
reverse of this seal are the Royal Arms, Crown, Garter, Supporters 
and Motto, with this inscription around the circumference, Georgius 
Secunclus Dei Gratia Magnae Britaniae, Franciae, et Hiberniae, Rex, 
Fidei Defensor, Brunsvici et Lunenbergi Dux, Sacri Romani Im- 
perii Archi Thesaurarius, et Elector. 

This seal was made by placing two cakes or layers of wax to- 
gether, between which was the ribbon or tape with which the in- 
strument was interlaced and by which the seal was appended. It 
was customary to put a piece of paper on the outside of these cakes 
before they were impressed. The seal complete was 4% inches in 
diameter and from % to % inch thick and weighed about 5V 2 
ounces. 

In 1767 Governor Tryon received from the King a new Great 
Seal for the Province. The new seal was engraved on the one side 
with the Royal Arms, Garter, Crown, Supporters and Motto, and 
this inscription round the circumference "Georgius III D: G: Mag. 
Bri. Fr. et Hib. Rex, F. D. Brun, et Lun. Dux, S. R. I. ar Thes. et 
El." On the other side are figures of the King and Liberty who is 
introducing Plenty to the King with this Motto, Quae Sera Tamen 
Respexit. Round the circumference is the following legend: Sig- 
illium, Provinciae Nostrae Carolinae. Septentrionalis. This seal 
was 4 inches in diameter, y 2 to % inches think, and weighed 4% 
ounces. 

Sometimes a smaller seal than the Great Seal was used, as com- 
missions and grants are often found with a small heart-shaped seal 
about one inch wide and a quarter of an inch thick which was 
impressed with a crown. Also a seal was occasionally used about 
three inches long and two inches wide and a half an inch thick, in 



The Great Seal 229 

the shape of an ellipse. These impressions were evidently made by 
putting the wax far enough under the edge of the Great Seal to 
take the impression of the crown. The royal governors also some- 
times used their private seals. 

When the government of the independent State of North Caro- 
lina was organized, the Constitution adopted at Halifax, December 
18, 1776, provided, Section XVII, "That there shall be a seal of this 
State, which shall be kept by the Governor, and used by him as 
occasion may require; and shall be called the Great Seal of the 
State of North Carolina and be affixed to all grants and commis- 
sions." 

The Convention of 1868 changed the section of the Constitution, 
with reference to the seal, to read as it now stands. 

The Assembly of 1778 appointed William Tisdale to cut and en- 
grave the first State seal, under the direction of the Governor. This 
seal was used until 1794. Its actual size was three inches in diame- 
ter and % inch thick. It was made by putting two cakes of wax 
together with paper wafers on the outside and pressed between the 
dies forming the obverse and reverse sides of this seal. 

The seal of 1778 is described as follows: 

"On one side is the figure of Minerva or Liberty holding in the 
right hand the pole with cap and in the left hand with arm ex- 
tended is held a large scroll on which appears in large capital let- 
ters the word 'Constitution.' Under the figure the words, IN LEGI- 
BUS SALUS. Around the circumference are the words, THE 
GREAT SEAL OF THE STATE OP NORTH CAROLINA. On the 
other side of the shield is the figure of a woman, probably Plenty. 
The right arm is folded across her breast and in her right hand 
inclining toward her left shoulder is held a distaff. In the left 
hand with arm extended is held an ear of corn. In the distance be- 
yond a tree browses a cow. Under these figures appear the word 
and letters 'INDEPENDENCE— MDCCLXXVL' Around the cir- 
cumference appear the words O. PORTUNATOS, NIMIUM. SUA. 
SI. BONA. NORINT, COLONOS." 

In December, 1781, the General Assembly authorized the Gov- 
ernor to procure a seal that should "be prepared with one side only, 
and calculated to make the impression on the face of such grant, 
commission, record, or other public act," etc. An artist in Phila- 
delphia submitted a sketch to the Governor as follows: Minerva is 
represented in the act of introducing Ceres with her horn of plenty 
to Liberty, who is seated on a pedestal holding in her right hand 
a book on which is inscribed the word "Constitution." In the 



230 , Miscellaneous 

background are introduced a pyramid, denoting strength and dura- 
bility and a pine tree which relates immediately to the products of 
the State. 

This sketch, omitting Minerva and with some minor changes, 
was accepted by Governor Speight. The new seal was very much 
like the present one. It has two figures, Liberty and Plenty. Lib- 
erty is seated on a pedestal with her pole in her right hand, and 
her cap on the pole; in her left hand is a scroll with the word 
"Constitution" upon it. Plenty is standing to the left and front of 
Liberty; around her head is a circlet of flowers; in her right hand, 
leaning against her shoulder, is her cornucopia, mouth upwards, 
overflowing with fruits and produce. In her left is an ear of corn. 
Around the circumference are the words THE GREAT SEAL OF 
THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

This seal was 2% inches in diameter, slightly larger than the 
present one, and was used until about 1835. 

In 1834 the Legislature authorized the Governor to procure a new 
seal. The preamble to the act states that the old seal had been in 
use since the first day of March, 1793. The seal adopted in 1835, 
which was used until 1883, was very similar to its predecessor. 
On it Liberty and Plenty faced each other. Liberty was standing, 
her pole with cap on it in her left hand, and a scroll with the word 
"Constitution" inscribed thereon in her right hand. Plenty is sit- 
ting down, her right arm half extended towards Liberty, three 
heads of wheat in her right hand, and in her left the small end 
of her horn, the mouth of which is resting at her feet, and the 
contents of her horn rolling out. Around the circumference were 
the words THE GREAT SEAL OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAR- 
OLINA. This seal was 214 inches in diameter. 

Iin 1883 an act was passed relative to the seal, which was incor- 
porated in the Code as section 3329. The seal therein provided for 
is described as follows: 

"The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina shall be two and 
one-quarter inches in diameter, and its design shall be a representa- 
tion of the figures of Liberty and Plenty, looking toward each 
other, but not more than half fronting each other, and otherwise 
disposed as follows: Liberty, the first figure, standing, her pole 
with cap on it in her left hand and a scroll with the word 'Consti- 
tution' inscribed thereon in her right hand. Plenty, the second fig- 
ure, sitting down, her right arm half extended towards Liberty, 



State Motto and Its Origin 231 

three heads of wheat in her right hand, and in her left the small 
end of her horn, the mouth of which is resting at her feet, and the 
contents of the horn rolling out." 

In 1893 an act, introduced by Jacob Battle, added at the foot of 
the coat or arms of the State as a part thereof the motto "Esse 
Quam Videri," and required that the words "May 20, 1775," be in- 
scribed at the top of the coat of arms. 

The present Great Seal of the State of North Carolina is de- 
scribed at the top of the coat of arms. 

"The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina is two and one- 
quarter inches in diameter, and its design is a representation of 
the figures of Liberty and Plenty, looking toward each other, but 
not more than half fronting each other, and otherwise disposed as 
follows: Liberty, the first figure standing, her pole with cap on it 
in her left hand and a scroll with the word 'Constitution' inscribed 
thereon in her right hand. Plenty, the second figure, sitting down, 
her right arm half extended toward Liberty, three heads of wheat 
in her right hand, and in her left the small end of her horn, the 
mouth of which is resting at her feet, and the contents of horn roll- 
ing out. In the exergon is inserted the words May 20, 1775, above 
the coat of arms. Around the circumference is the legend 'The 
Great Seal of the State of North Carolina' and the motto 'Esse 
Quam Videri.' " 



STATE MOTTO A>D ITS ORIGIN.* 

The General Assembly of 1893 (chapter 145) adopted the words 
"Esse Quam Videri" as the State's motto and directed that these 
words with the date "20 May, 1775," should be placed with our 
Coat of Arms upon the Great Seal of the State. 

The words "Esse Quam Videri" mean "to be rather than to seem." 
Nearly every State has adopted a motto, generally in Latin. The 
reason for their mottoes being in Latin is that the Latin tongue 
is far more condensed and terse than the English. The three 
words, "Esse Quam Videri," require at least six English words to 
express the same idea. 

Curiosity has been aroused to learn the origin of our State motto. 
It is found in Cicero in his essay on Friendship (Cicero de Ami- 
citia, chap. 26). He says, "Virtute enim ipsa non tarn multi prediti 



'Adopted from an article by Chief Justice Walter Clark in The North Carolina Booklet 
Vol. IX, No. 3. 



232 Miscellaneous 

esse quam videri," i. e., "Virtue is a quality which not so many de- 
sire to possess as desire to seem to possess," or, translated literally, 
"For indeed not so many wish to be endowed with virtue as wish 
to seem to be." 

The phrase is a striking one, and Cicero's version of it has been 
caught up and often used as a motto. No less than three houses 
of British nobility have adopted it, to wit: the Earl of Winterton, 
Earl Brownlow and Lord Lurgan. 

It has been adopted by many associations, especially literary 
societies. In this State it is the motto of Wilson Collegiate Insti- 
tute and, with some modifications, of one of the societies at Wake 
Forest College. 

The figures on our State Coat of Arms are Liberty and Plenty. 
It has been objected that the motto has no reference or application 
to the figures on the coat of arms. It is very rarely that such is 
the case. The national motto, "E Pluribus Unum," has no refer- 
ence to the Eagle and Shield and the Thunderbolts on the national 
coat of arms. Nor has the "Excelsior" of New York, the "Dirigo" 
of Maine, the "Qui Transtulet, Sustinet" of Connecticut any appli- 
cation to the figures above them. Indeed Virginia's "Sic Semper 
Tyrannis" is one of the very few instances in which the motto 
bears such reference. But, in fact, is our motto so entirely with- 
out reference to the coat of arms as is usually the case? The fig- 
ures are, as just stated, Liberty and Plenty. Is it inappropriate to 
say we prefer to be free and prosperous than seem to be so. There 
have been States that had all the appearance of liberty and pros- 
perity, when in truth having lost the reality of both, they were 
tottering to their fall. 

It is a little singular that until the act of 1S93 the sovereign State 
of North Carolina had no motto since its declaration of independ- 
ence. It was one of the very few States which did not have a 
motto, and the only one of the original thirteen without one. 

It may be noted that up to the time it became a "sovereign and 
independent State" the Colony or Province of North Carolina bore 
on its great seal "Quae sera tamen respexit." This was taken from 
the first Eclogue of Virgil (line 27) and, referring to the figure of 
Liberty, meant "Which, though late, looked upon me" — the full line 
in Virgil being "Liberty, which though late, looked upon me indo- 
lent." No wonder that this was dropped by the new State. Noth- 
ing could possibly have been more inappropriate. Liberty came 



Confederate Museum at Richmond 233 

not to her late; and it came not to a people inert or unseeking 
her rewards. To such, liberty never comes. 

It may be mentioned, to prevent any misunderstanding as to the 
scope of the Act of 1893 (now Revisal, sec. 5320), that it does not 
apply to county seals. Each county is authorized to adopt its own 
seal. Revisal, sec. 1318 (24). Many counties now have on their 
county seals the appropriate phrase, "Leges Jaraque Vindicamus." 
Some have adopted the State motto. But this is a matter left to 
the discretion of the county commissioners in each county. 

Note by the Editors (of The Booklet). — The bill which was 
passed in 1893 to adopt our State motto was introduced by Senator 
Jacob Battle, of Nash, afterwards Judge of the Superior Court. 
We have before us a letter from him in which he states that the 
motto was selected by Judge — since Chief Justice — Walter Clark, 
who also drew the bill and requested him to present it. He adds 
that the words "20 May, 1775," secured the hearty cooperation of 
Senator Brevard McDowell, of Mecklenburg, and by their joint 
efforts the bill passed by the unanimous vote of both houses of the 
General Assembly, and without amendment. 



THE CONFEDERATE MUSEU3I AT RICHMOND. 

In the house in Richmond, Virginia, which was the Executive 
Mansion of the Confederate States, and as such was occupied by 
President Jefferson Davis from 1861 to 1865, the United Daughters 
of the Confederacy support a museum of relics of the Confederacy. 
To each of the former Confederate States is assigned a room which 
it supports. To the support of the North Carolina Room, the 
General Assembly appropriates $200 annually. About eight years 
ago it was decided that each room must raise an endowment of 
$2,000. The officials of the North Carolina room increased theirs 
to $3,000, and up to date are the only ones who have completed 
their fund. The North Carolina room contains one of the largest 
collections of relics, and the largest collection of portraits, in the 
museum. About 15,000 persons visit the museum annually. 

The State Regent for North Carolina is, in 1918, Mrs. Latta C. 
Johnson of Charlotte, the Vice-Regent is Mrs. J. Allison Hodges, 
Richmond, Va. 



PART VIII. 



PLATFORMS OF POLITICAL PARTIES, 1920. 



1. National Democratic Platform. 

2. National Republican Platform. 

3. National Socialist Platform. 

4. National Prohibition Platform. 

5. State Democratic Platform. 

6. State Republican Platform. 

7. State Socialist Platform. 



NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC PLATFORM 1920. 

The Democratic Party, in its national convention now assembled, 
sends greetings to the President of the United States, Woodrow 
Wilson, and hails with patriotic pride the great achievements for 
country and the world wrought by a Democratic administration 
under his leadership. 

It salutes the mighty people of this great republic, emerging 
with imperishable honor, from the severe tests and grievous strains 
of the most tragic war in history, having earned the plaudits and 
the gratitude of all free nations. 

It declares its adherence to the fundamental progressive principles 
of social, economic and industrial justice and advance, and pur- 
poses to resume the great work of translating these principles 
into effective laws, begun and carried far by the demociatic ad- 
ministration and interrupted only when the war claimed all the 
national energies for the single task of victory. 

LEAGUE OF NATIONS. 

The Democratic Party favors the League of Nations as the 
surest, if not the only, practicable means of maintaining the perma- 
nent peace of the world, and terminating the insufferable burden 
of great military and naval establishments. It was for this that 
America broke away from traditional isolation and spent her blood 
and treasure to crush a colossal scheme of conquest. It was upon 
this basis that the President of the United States, in prearrangement 
with our allies, consented to a suspension of hostilities against the 
imperial German government; the armistice was granted and a 
treaty of peace negotiated upon the definite assurance to Germany, 
as well as to the powers pitted against Germany, that "a general 
association of nations must be formed, under specific covenants 
for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political inde- 
pendence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike." 
Hence, we not only congratulate the President on the vision mani- 
fested and the vigor exhibited in the prosecution of the war, but 
we felicitate him and his associates on the exceptional achieve- 
ments at Paris involved in the adoption of a league and treaty 
so near akin to previously expressed American ideals and so in- 
timately related to the aspirations of civilized people everywhere. 



238 Platforms of Political Parties 

We commend the President for his courage and his high con- 
ception of good faith in steadfastly standing for the covenant 
agreed to by all the associated and allied nations at war with 
Germany, and we condemn the Republican Senate for its refusal 
to ratify the treatly merely because it was the product of Democratic 
statesmanship, thus interposing partisan envy and personal hatred 
in the way of peace and renewed prosperity of the world. By every 
accepted standard of international morality the President is justi- 
fied in asserting that the honor of the country is involved in this 
business; and we point to the accusing fact that before it was de- 
termined to initiate political antagonism to the treaty, the now 
Republican chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee 
himself publicly proclaimed that any proposition for separate peace 
with Germany such as he and his party associates thereafter re- 
ported to the Senate, would make us "guilty of the blackest crime." 

On May 15, last, the Knox substitute for the Versailles treaty 
was passed by the Republican Senate, and this convention can 
contrive no more fitting characterization of its obloquy than that 
made in the Forum Magazine of December, 1918, by Henry Cabot 
Lodge, when he said: 

"If we send our armies and young men abroad to be killed and 
wounded in Northern France and Flanders with no result but this, 
our entrance into war with such an intention was a crime which 
nothing can justify." 

The intent of Congress and the intent of the President was that 
there would be no peace until we could create a situation where 
no such war as this could recur. We cannot make peace except in 
company with our allies. It would brand us with everlasting dis- 
honor and bring ruin to us also if we undertook to make a separate 
peace. 

Thus to that which Mr. Lodge, in saner moments, considered 
"the blackest crime" he and his party in madness sought to give 
the sanctity of law, that which eighteen months ago was of "ever- 
lasting dishonor," the Republican Party and its candidates today 
accept as the essence of faith. 

We endorse the President's view of our international obligations 
and his firm stand against reservations designed to cut to pieces 
the vital provisions of the Versailles treaty and we commend the 
Democrats in Congress for voting against resolutions for separate 
peace which would disgrace the nation. We advocate the immediate 



National Democratic Platform 239 

ratification of the treaty without reservations which would impair 
its essential integrity; but we do not oppose the acceptance of any 
reservations making clearer or more specific the obligations of the 
United States in the league associates. Only by doing this may we 
retrieve the reputation of this Nation among the powers of the 
earth and recover the moral leadership which President Wilson 
won and which Republican politicians at Washington sacrificed. 
Only by doing this may we hope to aid effectively in the restoration 
of orders throughout the world, and to take the place which we 
should assume in the front ranks of spiritual, commercial, and in- 
dustrial advancement. 

We reject as utterly vain, if not vicious, the Republican assump- 
tion that ratification of the treaty and membership in the League 
of Nations would in any way impair the integrity or independence 
of our country. The fact that the covenant has been entered into 
by twenty-nine nations, all as jealous of their independence as 
we are of ours, is a sufficient refutation of such charges. The 
President repeatedly has declared, and this convention reaffirms, 
that all our duties and obligations as a member of the league must 
be fulfilled in strict conformity with the Constitution of the United 
States, embodied in which is the fundamental requirement of 
declaratory action by the Congress before this Nation becomes a 
participant in any war. 

CONDUCT OF WAR, 

During the war President Wilson exhibited the very broadest 
conception of liberal Americanism. In his conduct of the war, as 
in the general administration of his high office, there was no sem- 
blance of partisan bias. He invited to Washington as his counsellors 
and coadjutors hundreds of the most prominent and pronounced 
Republicans in the country. To these he committed responsibilities 
of the gravest import and most confidential nature. Many of them 
had charge of vital activities of the Government. 

And yet, with the war successfully prosecuted and gloriously 
ended, the Republican party in Congress, far from applauding 
the masterly leadership of the President and felicitating the country 
on the amazing achievements of the American Government, has 
meanly requited the considerate course of the chief magistrate 
by savagely defaming the commander-in-chief of the army and navy 
and by assailing nearly every public officer of every branch of the 



240 Platforms of Political Parties 

service intimately concerned in winning the war abroad and pre- 
serving the security of the Government at home. 

We express to the soldiers and sailors and marines of America 
the admiration of their fellow countrymen. Guided by the genius 
of such commanders as Gen. John J. Pershing, the armed force 
of America constituted a decisive factor in the victory and brought 
new luster to the flag. 

We commend the patriotic men and women who sustained the 
efforts of their Government in the crucial hours of the war and 
contributed to the brilliant administrative success, achieved under 
the broad-visioned leadership of our President. 

FINANCIAL ACHIEVEMENTS. 

A review of the record of the Democratic Party during the 
administration of Woodrow Wilson presents a chapter of substan- 
tial achievements unsurpassed in the history of the republic. For 
fifty years before the advent of this administration periodical con- 
vulsions had impeded the industrial progress of the American 
people and caused inestimable loss and distress. By the enactment 
of the Federal Reserve act the old system, which bred panics, was 
replaced by a new system, which insured confidence. It was an 
indispensable factor in winning the war. and today it is the hope 
and inspiration of business. Indeed, one vital danger against which 
the American people should keep constantly on guard is the com- 
mitment of this system to partisan enemies who struggled against 
its adoption and vainly attempted to retain in the hands of specu- 
lative bankers a monopoly of the currency and credits of the nation. 
Already there are well defined indications of an assault upon the 
vital principles of the system in the event of Republican success 
in the elections in November. 

Under Democratic leadership the American people successfully 
financed their stupendous part in the greatest war of all time. The 
Treasury wisely insisted upon the meeting of an adequate portion 
of the war expenditure from current taxes and the bulk of the 
balance from popular loans, and, during the first full fiscal year 
after fighting stopped, upon meeting current expenditures from 
current receipts notwithstanding the new and unnecessary burdens 
thrown upon the Treasury by the delay, obstruction and extrava- 
gance of a Republican Congress. 



National Democratic Platform 241 

The nonpartisan Federal Reserve authorities have been wholly 
free of political interference or motive; and, in their own time 
and their own way, have used courageously, though cautiously, 
the instruments at their disposal to prevent undue expansion of 
credit in the country. As a result of these sound Treasury and 
Federal Reserve policies, the inevitable war inflation has been 
held down to a minimum, and the cost of living has been pre- 
vented from increasing here in proportion to the increase in other 
belligerent countries and in neutral countries which are in close 
contact with the world's commerce and exchange. 

After a year and a half of fighting in Europe, and despite another 
year and a half of Republican obstruction at home, the credit of 
the Government of the United States stands unimpaired, the Fed- 
eral Reserve note is the unit of value throughout all the world 
and the United States is the one great country in the world which 
maintains a free gold market. 

We condemn the attempt of the Republican party to deprive the 
American people of their legitimate pride in the financing of the 
war — an achievement without parallel in the financial history of 
this or any other country, in this or any other war. And in par- 
ticular we condemn the pernicious attempt of the Republican party 
to create discontent among the holders of the bonds of the Govern- 
ment of the United States and to drag our public finance and our 
banking and currency system back into the arena of party politics. 

TAX LAW REVISION. 

We condemn the failure of the present Congress to respond to 
the oftrepeated demand of the President and the secretaries of the 
Treasury to revise the existing tax laws. The continuance in 
force in peace times of taxes devised under pressure of imperative 
necessity to produce a revenue for war purposes is indefensible and 
can only result in lasting injury to the people. The Republican 
Congress persistently failed, through sheer political cowardice, 
to make a single move toward readjustment of tax laws which it 
denounced before the last election and was afraid to revise before 
the next election. 

We advocate tax reform and a searching revision of the war 
revenue acts to fit peace conditions so that the wealth of the nation 
may not be withdrawn from productive enterprise and diverted to 
wasteful or nonproductive expenditure. 

16 



242 Platforms of Political Parties 

"We demand prompt action by the next Congress for a complete 
survey of existing taxes and their modification and simplification 
with a view to secure greater equity and justice in tax burden and 
improvement in administration. 

PUBLIC ECONOMY. 

Claiming to have effected great economies in Government ex- 
penditures, the Republican Party cannot show the reduction of 
one dollar in taxation as a corollary of this false pretense. In 
contrast, the last Democratic Congress enacted legislation reducing 
taxes from eight billions, designed to be raised, to six billions for 
the first year after the armistice, and to four billions thereafter; 
and there the total is left undiminished by our political adversa- 
ries. Two years after armistice day a Republican Congress pro- 
vides for expending the stupendous sum of $5,403,390,327.30. 

Affecting great paper economies by reducing departmental esti- 
mates of sums which would not have been spent in any event, and 
by reducing formal appropriations, the Republican statement of 
the expenditures omits the pregnant fact that Congress authorized 
the use of one and a half billion dollars in the hands of various 
departments and bureaus, which otherwise would have been covered 
into the Treasury, and which should be added to the Republican 
total of expenditures. 

HIGH COST OF LIVING 

The high cost of living and the depreciation of bond values in 
this country are primarily clue to war itself, to the necessary gov- 
ernmental expenditures for the destructive purposes of war. to 
private extravagance, to the world shortage of capital, to the in- 
flation of foreign currencies and credits, and, in large degree, to 
conscienceless profiteering. 

The Republican Party is responsible for the failure to restore 
peace and peace conditions in Europe, which is a principal- cause 
of post-armistice inflation the world over. It has denied the de- 
mand of the President for necessary legislation to deal with sec- 
ondary and local causes. The sound policies pursued by the Treas- 
ury and the Federal Reserve System have limited in this country, 
though they could not prevent the inflation which was world-wide. 
Elected upon specific promises to curtail public expenditures and 
to bring the country back to a status of effective economy, the 



National Democratic Platform 243 

Republican Party in Congress wasted time and energy for more 
•than a year in vain and extravagant investigation, costing the tax- 
payers great sums of money, while revealing nothing beyond the 
incapacity of Republican politicians to cope with the problem. 
Demanding that the President, from his place at the peace table, 
call the Congress into extraordinary session for imperative pur- 
poses of readjustment, the Congress when convened spent thirteen 
months in partisan pursuits, failing to repeal a single war statute 
which harassed business or to initiate a single constructive meas- 
ure to help business. It busied itself making a pre-election record 
of pretended thrift, having not one particle of substantial existence 
in fact. It raged against profiteers and the high cost of living 
without enacting a single statute to make the former afraid of 
doing a single act to bring the latter within limitations. 

The simple truth is that the high cost of living can only be 
remedied by increased production, strict governmental economy, 
and a relentless pursuit of those who take advantage of post-war 
conditions and are demanding and receiving outrageous profits. 

We pledge the Democratic Party to a policy of strict economy in 
Government expenditures and to the enactment and enforcement of 
such legislation as may be required to bring profiteers before the 
bar of criminal justice. 

THE TARIFF. 

We reaffirm the traditional policy of the Democratic Party in 
favor of a tariff for revenue only, and to confirm the policy of 
basing tariff revisions upon the intelligent research of a nonparti- 
san commission, rather than upon the demands of selfish interests, 
temporarily held in abeyance. 

BUDGET. 

In the interest of economy and good administration, we favor the 
creation of an effective budget system that will function in accord 
with the principles of the Constitution. The reform should reach 
both the executive and the legislative aspects of the question. The 
supervision and preparation of the budget should be vested in the 
Secretary of the Treasury as the representative of the President. 
The budget, as such, should not be increased by the Congress except 
by a two-thirds vote, each House, however, being free to exercise 
its constitutional privilege of making appropriations through inde- 



244 Platforms of Political Parties 

pendent bills. The appropriation bills should be considered by the 
single committees of the House and the Senate. The audit sys- 
tem should be consolidated, and its powers expanded so as to 
pass upon the wisdom of, as well as the authority for, expenditures. 
A budget bill was passed in the closing days of the second session 
of the sixty-sixth Congress which invalidated by plain constitu- 
tional defects and defaced by consideration of patronage, the Presi- 
dent was obliged to veto. The House amended the bill to meet 
the executive objection. We condemn the Republican Senate for 
adjourning without passing the amended measure, when by devot- 
ing an hour or two more to this urgent public business a budget 
system could have been provided. 

SENATE RULES. 

We favor such alteration of the rules of procedure of the Senate 
of the United States as will permit the prompt transaction of the 
nation's legislative business. 

AGRICULTURAL INTERESTS. 

To the great agricultural interests of the country the Democratic 
Party does not find it necessary to make promises. It already is 
rich in its record of things actually accomplished. For nearly half 
a century of Republican rule not a sentence was written into the 
Federal statutes affording one dollar of bank credits to the farm- 
ing interests of America. In the first term of this Democratic ad- 
ministration the National Bank Act was so altered as to authorize 
loans of five years maturity on improved farm lands. Later was 
established a system of farm loan banks, from which the borrowings 
already exceed $300,000,000, and under which the interest rate to 
farmers has been so materially reduced as to drive out of business 
the farm loan sharks who formerly subsisted by extortion upon the 
great agricultural interests of the country. 

Thus it was a Democratic Congress in the administration of a 
Democratic President which enabled the farmers of America for 
the first time to obtain credit upon reasonable terms and insured 
their opportunity for the further development of the nation's 
agricultural resources. Tied up in Supreme Court proceedings, in 
a suit by hostile interests, the Federal Farm Loan System, origi- 
nally opposed by the Republican candidate for the Presidency, ap- 
pealed in vain to a Republican Congress for an adequate financial 



National Democratic Platform 245 

assistant to tide over the interim between the beginning and the 
ending of the current year, awaiting a final decision of the highest 
court on the validity of the contested act. We pledge prompt and 
consistent support of sound and effective measures to sustain, am- 
plify and perfect the rural credits statutes and thus to check and 
reduce the growth and course of farm tenancy. 

Not only did the Democratic Party put into effect a great farm 
loan system of land mortgage banks, but it passed the Smith-Lever 
agricultural extension act, carrying to every farmer in every sec- 
tion of the country, through the medium of trained experts and 
by demonstration farms, the practical knowledge acquired by the 
Federal Agricultural Department in all things relating to agricul- 
ture, horticulture, and animal life; it established the bureau of 
markets, the bureau of farm management, and passed the cotton 
futures act, the grain grades bill, the cooperative farm administra- 
tion act, and the Federal warehouse act. 

The Democratic Party has vastly improved the rural mail sys- 
tem, and has built up the parcel post system to such an extent 
as to render its activities and its practical service indispensable to 
the farming community. It was this wise encouragement and this 
effective concern of the Democratic Party for the farmers of the 
United States that enabled this great interest to render such essen- 
tial service in feeding the armies of America and the allied nations 
of the war and succoring starving populations since armistice day. 

Meanwhile the Republican leaders at Washington have failed 
utterly to propose one single measure to make rural life more 
tolerable. They have signalized their fifteen months of congres- 
sional power by urging schemes which would strip the farms of 
labor; by assailing the principles of the Farm Loan System and 
seeking to impair its efficiency; by covertly attempting to destroy 
the great nitrogen plant at Muscle Shoals upon which the Govern- 
ment has expended $70,000,000 to supply American farmers with 
fertilizers at reasonable cost; by ruthlessly crippling nearly every 
branch of agricultural endeavor, literally crippling the productive 
mediums through which the people must be fed. 

We favor such legislation as will- confirm to the primary pro- 
ducers of the nation the right of collective bargaining and the right 
of cooperative handling and marketing of the products of the 
workshops and the farm, and such legislation as will facilitate the 
exportation of our farm products. 



246 Platforms of Political Parties 

We favor comprehensive studies of farm production costs and 
the uncensored publication of facts found in such studies. 

LABOR AND INDUSTRY. 

The Democratic Party is now, as ever, the firm friend of honest 
labor and the promoter of progressive industry. It established 
the Department of Labor at Washington and a Democratic Presi- 
dent called to his official council board the first practical working 
man who ever held a cabinet portfolio. Under this administration 
have been established employment bureaus to bring the man and 
the job together; have been peaceably determined many bitter dis- 
putes between capital and labor; were passed the child labor law, 
the workingman's compensation act (the extension of which we 
advocate so as to include laborers engaged in loading and unload- 
ing ships and in interstate commerce), the eight-hour law, the 
act for vocational training, and a code of other wholesome laws 
affecting the liberties and bettering the conditions of the laboring 
classes. In the Department of Labor the Democratic administra- 
tion established a woman's bureau, which a Republican Congress 
destroyed by withholding appropriations. 

Labor is not a commodity, it is human. Those who labor have 
rights and the national security and safety depend upon a just 
recognition of those rights and the conservation of the strength of 
the workers and their families in the interest of sound-hearted 
and sound-headed men, women, and children. Laws regulating 
hours of labor and conditions under which labor is performed, 
when passed in recognition of the conditions under which life 
must be lived to attain the highest development and happiness, are 
just assertions of the national interest in the welfare of the people. 

At the same time the Nation depends upon the products of labor, 
a cessation of production means loss, and, if long continued, dis- 
aster. The whole people, therefore, have a right to insist that 
justice shall be done to those who work, and in turn that those 
whose labor creates the necessities upon which the life of the 
nation depends must recognize reciprocal obligation between the 
worker and the State. They should participate in the formulation 
of sound laws and regulations governing the conditions under which 
labor is performed, recognize and obey the laws so formulated, 
and seek their amendment when necessary by the processes ordi- 
narily addressed to the laws and regulations affecting the other 
relations of life. 



National Democratic Platform 247 

Labor, as well as capital, is entitled to adequate compensation. 
Each has the indefensible right of organization, of collective bar- 
gaining, and of speaking through representatives of their own 
selection. Neither class, however, should at any time nor in any 
circumstances, take action that will put in jeopardy the public 
welfare. Resort to strikes and lockouts which endanger the health 
or lives of the people is an unsatisfactory device for determining 
disputes, and the Democratic Party pledges itself to contrive, if 
possible, and put into effective operation a fair and comprehensive 
method of composing differences of this nature. 

In private industrial disputes, we are opposed to compulsory 
arbitration as a method plausible in theory but a failure in fact. 
With respect to Government service, we hold distinctly that the 
rights of the people are paramount to the right to strike. How- 
ever, we profess scrupulous regard for the conditions of public 
employment and pledge the Democratic Party to be instant inquiry 
into the pay of Government employees and equally speedy regula- 
tions designed to bring salaries to a just and proper level. 

WOMAN SUFFRAGE. 

We endorse the proposed 19th amendment to the Constitution of 
the United States, granting equal suffrage to women. We congratu- 
late the Legislatures of thirty-five States which have already ratified 
said amendment, and we urge the Democratic Governors and Legis- 
latures of Tennessee, North Carolina, and Florida and such States 
as have not yet ratified the Federal suffrage amendment to unite 
in an effort to complete the process of ratification and secure the 
36th State in time for all the women of the United States to partici- 
pate in the fall election. We commend the effective advocacy of the 
measure of President Wilson. 

WOMEN IN INDUSTRY. 

We urge cooperation with the States for the protection of child 
life through infancy and maternity care; in the prohibition of 
child labor and by adequate appropriations for the children's 
bureau and the women's bureau of the Department of Labor. Co- 
operative Federal assistance to the State is immediately required 
for the instruction in citizenship for both native and foreign born; 
increased appropriation for vocational training in home economics; 
re-establishment of joint Federal and State employment service 



248 Platforms of Political Parties 

with women's departments under the direction of technically quali- 
fied women. We advocate full representation of women on all 
commissions dealing with women's interest and a reclassification 
of the Federal Civil Service free from discrimination on the ground 
of sex; a continuance of appropriations for education in sex hygiene; 
Federal legislation which shall insure that American women resi- 
dent in the United States, but married to aliens, shall retain their 
American citizenship, and that the same process of naturalization 
shall be required for women as for men. 

DISABLED SOLDIERS. 

The Federal Government should treat with the utmost considera- 
tion every disabled soldier, sailor and marine of the world war, 
whether his disability be due to wounds received in line of action 
or to health impaired in service, and for the dependents of the 
brave men who died in line of duty the Government's tenderest 
concern and richest bounty should be their requital. The fine 
patriotism exhibited, the heroic conduct displayed by American 
soldiers and sailors and marines at home and abroad constitute 
a sacred heritage of posterity, the worth of which can never be 
recompensed from the treasury and the glory of which must not be 
diminished by any such expedients. 

The Democratic administration wisely established a war risk 
insurance bureau, giving four and a half millions of enlisted men 
insurance at unprecedentedly low rates and through the medium of 
which compensation of men and women injured in service is readily 
adjusted, the hospital facilities for those whose health is impaired 
are abundantly afforded. 

The Federal board of vocational education should be made a 
part of the war risk insurance bureau in order that the task may 
be treated as a whole, and this machinery of protection and assist- 
ance must receive every aid of law and appreciation to fully and 
effective operation. 

We believe that no higher or more valued privilege can be afforded 
to an American citizen than to become a free holder in the soil of 
the United States and to that end we pledge our party to the en- 
actment of soldiers settlements and home aid legislation which 
will afford to the men who fought for America the opportunity to 
become land and home owners under conditions affording genuine 



National Democratic Platform 249 

government assistance unincumbered by needless difficulties of red 
tape or advance financial investment. 

THE RAILROADS. 

The railroads were subjected to Federal control as a war measure 
without other idea than the swift transport of troops, munitions and 
supplies. When human life and national hopes were at stake profits 
could not be considered and were not. Federal operation, however, 
was marked by an intelligence and efficiency that minimized loss 
and resulted in many and marked reforms. The equipment taken 
over was not only grossly inadequate, but shamefully outworn. 
Unification practices overcome the initial handicaps and provided 
additions, betterments and improvements. Economics enabled opera- 
tion without rate raises that private control would have found 
necessary and labor was treated with an exact justice that secured 
the enthusiastic cooperation that victory demanded. The funda- 
mental purpose of Federal control was achieved fully and splendidly, 
and at far less cost to the taxpayer than would have been the case 
under private operation. Investments in railroad properties were 
not only saved by government operation, but government manage- 
ment returning these properties vastly improved in every physical 
and executive detail. A great task flatly discharged. 

The President's recommendation of return to private ownership 
gave the Republican majority a full year in which to enact the 
necessary legislation. The house took six months to formulate 
its ideas and another six months was consumed by the Republican 
Senate in equally vague debate. As a consequence, the Esch- 
Cummings bill went to the President in the closing hours of Con- 
gress, and he was forced to a choice between the chaos of a veto 
and the acquiesence in the measure submitted, however grave may 
have been his objections to it. 

There should be a fair and complete test of the law until careful 
and mature action by Congress may cure its defects and insure a 
thoroughly effective transportation system under private owner- 
ship without government subsidiary at the expense of the taxpayers 
of the country. 

IMPROVED HIGHWAYS. 

Improved roads are of vital importance not only to commerce 
and industry, but also to agriculture and rural life. The Federal 
Road Act for 1916, enacted by the Democratic Congress, represented 



250 Platforms of Political Parties 

the first systematic effort of the government to insure the building 
of an adequate system of roads, in this country. The act, as 
amended, has resulted in placing the movement for improved high- 
ways on a progressive and substantial basis in every state in the 
union and in bringing under actual construction more than 13,000 
miles of roads suited to the traffic of the communities in which 
they are located. 

We favor a continuance of the present federal aid plan under 
existing federal and state agencies, amended so as to include as 
one of the elements in determining the ratio in which the several 
states shall be entitled to share in the fund, the area of any public 
lands therein. 

Inasmuch as the postal service has been extended by the Demo- 
cratic party to the door of practically every producer and every 
consumer in the country (rural free delivery alone having been 
provided for six million additional patrons within the past eight 
years without material added cost), we declare that this instrumen- 
tality can and will be used to the maximum of its capacity to im- 
prove the efficiency of distribution and reduce the cost of living to 
consumers while increasing the profitable operations of producers. 

We strongly favor the increased use of the motor vehicle in the 
transportation of the mails and urge the removal of the restric- 
tions imposed by the Republican Congress on the use of motor 
devices in mail transportation in rural territories. 

MERCHANT MARINE. 

We desire to congratulate the American people on the re-birth of 
our merchant marine, which once more maintains its former place 
in the world. It was under a Democratic administration that this 
was accomplished after seventy years of indifference and neglect, 
thirteen million tons having been constructed since the act was 
passed in 1916. We pledge the policy of our party to the continued 
growth of our merchant marine under proper legislation so that 
American producers will be carried to all ports of the world by 
vessels built in American yards, flying the American flag. 

PORT FACILITIES. 

The urgent demands of the war for adequate transportation of 
war materials as well as for domestic need, revealed the fact that 



National Democratic Platform 251 

our port facilities and rate adjustment were such as to seriously 
effect the whole country in times of peace as well as war. 

We pledge our party to stand for equality of rates, both import 
and export, for the ports of the country to the end that there might 
be adequate and fair facilities and rates for the mobilization of the 
products of the country offered for shipment. 

INLAND WATERWAYS. 

We call attention to the failure of the Republican National Con- 
vention to recognize in any way the rapid development of barge 
transportation on our inland waterways, which development is 
the result of the constructive policies of the Democratic adminis- 
tration. And we pledge ourselves to the further development of 
our inland waterways, and we recognize the importance of con- 
necting the Great Lakes with the sea by way of the Mississippi 
River and its tributaries, as well as by the St. Lawrence River. 
We favor an enterprising foreign trade policy with all nations, and 
in this connection we favor the full utilization of all Atlantic, 
Gulf and Pacific ports, and an equitable distribution of shipping 
facilities between the various ports. 

Transportation remains an increasingly vital problem in the 
continued development and prosperity of the nation. 

Our present facilities for distribution by rail are inadequate, and 
the promotion of transportation by water is imperative. 

We, therefore, favor a liberal and comprehensive policy for the 
development and utilization of our harbors and interior waterways. 

FLOOD CONTROL. 

We commend the Democratic Congress for the redemption of 
the pledge contained in our last platform by the passage of the 
flood control act of March 1, 1917, and point to the successful con- 
trol of the floods of the Mississippi River and the Sacramento 
River, California, under the policy of that law, for its complete 
justification. We favor the extension of this policy to other flood 
control problems wherever the Federal interest justifies the ex- 
penditure required. 

RECLAMATION OF ARID LANDS. 

By wise legislation and progressive administration we have 
transferred the Government reclamation projects rer resenting an 
investment of $100,000,000 from a condition of impending failure 



252 Platforms of Political Parties 

and loss of confidence in the ability of the government to carry' 
through such large enterprises, to a condition of demonstrated 
success, whereby formerly arid and wholly unproductive lands now 
sustain 40,000 prosperous families and have an annual crop produc- 
tion of over $70,000,000, not including the crops grown on a million 
acres outside the projects supplied with storage water for Govern- 
ment works. 

We favor ample appropriations for the continuation and extension 
of this great work of homebuilding and internal improvement 
along the same general lines to the end that all practical projects 
shall be built, and waters now running to waste, shall be made 
to provide homes and add to the food supply proper resources and 
taxable property, with the government ultimately reimbursed for 
the entire outlay. 

THE TRADE COMMISSION. 

The Democratic party heartily endorses the creation and work of 
the Federal Trade Commission in establishing a fair field for com- 
petitive business, free from restraints of trade and monopoly and 
recommends amplification of the statutes governing its activities 
so as to grant it authority to prevent the unfair use of patents in 
restraint of trade. 

LIVE STOCK MARKETS. 

For the purpose of insuring just and fair treatment in the great 
interstate live stock market, and thus instilling confidence in 
growers through which production will be stimulated and the price 
of meats to consumers be ultimately reduced, we favor the enact- 
ment of legislation for the supervision of such markets by the 
national government. 

MEXICO. 

The United States is the neighbor and friend of the nations of 
the three Americas. In a very special sense, our international re- 
lations in this hemisphere should be characterized by good will 
and free from any possible suspicion as to our national purpose. 

The administration, remembering always that Mexico is an in- 
dependent nation and that permanent stability in her government 
and her institutions could come only from the consent of her 



National Democratic Platform 253 

own people to a government of their own making, has heen unwilling 
either to profit by the misfortune of the people of Mexico or to 
enfeeble their future by imposing from the outside a rule upon their 
temporarily distracted councils. As a consequence, order is grad- 
ually reappearing in Mexico; at no time in many years have 
American lives and interests been so safe as they now are; peace 
reigns along the border and industry is resuming. 

When the new government of Mexico shall have given ample 
proof of its ability permanently to maintain law and order, signi- 
fied its willingness to meet its international obligations and written 
upon its statute books just laws under which foreign investors 
shall have rights as well as duties, that government should receive 
our recognition and systematic assistance. Until these proper ex- 
pectations have been met, Mexico must realize the propriety of a 
policy that asserts the rights of the United States to demand full 
protection for its citizens. 

PETROLEUM 

The Democratic party recognizes the importance of the acquisi- 
tion by Americans of additional sources of supply of petroleum 
and other minerals and declares that such acquisition both at home 
and abroad should be fostered and encouraged. 

We urge such action, legislative and executive as may secure to 
American citizens the same rights in the acquirement of mineral 
rights and foreign countries as are enjoyed by the citizens of sub- 
jects of any other nation. 

NEW NATIONS. 

The Democratic party expresses its active sympathy with the 
people of China, Czecho-Slovakia, Finland, Poland, Persia and 
others who have recently established representative government and 
who are striving to develop the institutions of true democracy. 

IRELAND. 

The great principle of national self-determination has received 
constant reiteration as one of the chief objectives for which this 
country entered the war and victory established this principle. 



254 Platforms of Political Parties 

Within the limitations of international comity and usage, this 
convention repeats the several previous expressions of the sympathy 
of the Democratic party of the United States for the aspirations 
of Ireland for self-government. 

ARMENIA. 

We express our deep and earnest sympathy for the unfortunate 
people of Armenia, and we believe that our government consistent 
with its constitution and principles should render every possible 
and proper aid to them in their efforts to establish and maintain 
a government of their own. 

THE PHILIPPINES. 

We favor the granting of independence without unnecessary de- 
lay to the 10,500,000 inhabitants of the Philippine Islands. 

HAWAII. 

We favor a liberal policy of homesteading public lands in Hawaii 
to promote a larger middleclass citizen population, with equal rights 
to all citizens. 

PORTO RICO 

We favor the granting to the people of Porto Rico the traditional 
territorial form of government, with a view to ultimate statehood, 
accorded to all territories of the United States since the beginning 
of our government and we believe that the officials appointed to 
administer the government of such territories should be qualified 
by previous bona fide residence therein. 

ALASKA. 

We commend the Democratic Administration for inaugurating a 
new policy as to Alaska as evidenced by the construction of the 
Alaska railroad and opening of the coal and oil fields. 

We declare for the modification of the existing coal land law, 
to promote development without disturbing the features intended 
to prevent monopoly. 

For such changes in the policy of forestry control as will permit 
the immediate initiation of the paper pulp industry. 



National Democratic Platform 255 

For relieving the territory from the evils of long distance govern- 
ment by authority and interlocking bureaucratic regulation, and to 
that end we urge the speedy passage of a law containing the 
essential features of the Lane-Curry bill now pending coordinating 
and consolidating all Federal control of natural resources under 
one department to be administered by a nonpartisan board perma- 
nently resident in the territory. 

For the fullest measure of territorial self-government with the 
view to ultimate statehood, with jurisdiction over all matters not 
of purely Federal concern, including fisheries and game, and for 
an intelligent administration of Federal control, we believe that 
all officials appointed should be qualified by previous bona fide 
residence in the territory. 

For a comprehensive system of road construction with increased 
appropriations and the full extension of the Federal road act to 
Alaska. 

For the extension to Alaska of the Federal farm loan act. 

ASIATIC IMMIGRATION. 

The policy of the United States with reference to the non-admis- 
sion of Asiatic immigrants in a true expression of the judgment 
of our people and to the several States, whose geographical situa- 
tion or internal conditions make this policy and the enforcement 
of the laws enacted pursuant thereto, of particular concern, we 
pledge our support. 

THE POSTAL SERVICE. 

The efficiency of the Postoffice Department has been vindicated 
against a malicious and designing assault by the efficiency of its 
operation. Its record refutes its assailants. Their voices are 
silenced and their charges have collapsed. 

We commend the work of the joint commission on the reclassi- 
fication of salaries of postal employees, recently concluded, which 
commission was created by a Democratic administration. The 
Democratic party has always favored and will continue to favor the 
fair and just treatment of all government employees. 

FREE SPEECH AND PRESS. 

We resent the unfounded reproaches directed against the Demo- 
cratic administration for alleged interference of the freedom of 
the press and freedom of speech. 



256 Platforms of Political Parties 

No utterances from any quarter have been assailed, and no publi- 
cation has been repressed which has not been animated by the 
reasonable purpose and directed against the nation's peace, order 
and security in time of war. 

"We reaffirm our respect for the great principles of free speech 
and a free press, but assert as an indisputable proposition that 
they afford no toleration of enemy propaganda or the advocacy of 
the overthrow of the government of the State or nation by force 
or violence. 

REPUBLICAN CORRUPTION. 

The shocking disclosure of the lavish use of money by aspirants 
for the Republican nomination for the highest office in the gift of 
the people has created a painful impression throughout the coun- 
try. Viewed in connection with the recent conviction of a Republi- 
can Senator from the State of Michigan for the criminal transgres- 
sion of the law limiting expenditures on behalf of a candidate for 
the United States Senate, it indicates the re-entry, under Republi- 
can auspices, of money as an influential factor in elections, thus 
nullifying the letter and flaunting the spirit of numerous laws, 
enacted by the people to protect the ballot from the contamination 
of corrupt practices. We deplore those delinquencies and invoke 
their stern popular rebuke, pledging our earnest efforts to strength- 
ening of the present statutes against corrupt practices and their 
rigorous enforcement. 

"We remind the people that it was only by the return of a Repub- 
lican Senator in Michigan, who is now under conviction and sen- 
tence for the criminal misuse of money in his election, that the 
present organization of the Senate with a Republican majority 
was made possible. 

CONCLUSION. 

Believing that we have kept the Democratic faith, and resting 
our claims to the confidence of the people not upon grandiose 
promises but upon performances of our duty, we submit our record 
to the nation's Federation and ask that the pledges of this platform 
be appraised in the light of that record. 



National Republican Platform 257 



NATIONAL REPUBLICAN PLATFORM 1920. 

The Republican party, assembled in representative national con- 
vention, reaffirms its unyielding devotion to the Constitution of 
the United States, and to the guarantees of civil, political and 
religious liberty therein contained. It will resist all attempts 
to overthrow the foundations of the government or to weaken the 
force of its controlling principles and ideals, whether these at- 
tempts be made in the form of international policy or domestic 
agitation. 

For seven years the national government has been controlled 
by the Democratic party. During that period a war of unparalleled 
magnitude has shaken the foundations of civilization, decimated 
the population of Europe, and left in its train economic misery 
and suffering second only to the war itself. 

The outstanding features of the Democratic administration have 
been complete unpreparedness for war and complete unpreparedness 
for peace. 

UNPREPAREDNESS FOR WAR. 

Inexcusable failure to make timely preparation is the chief indict- 
ment against the Democratic administration in the conduct of the 
war. Had not our Associates protected us, both on land and sea, 
during the first twelve months of our participation, and furnished 
us to the very day of the Armistice with munitions, planes and 
artillery, this failure would have been punished with disaster. 
It directly resulted in unnecessary losses to our gallant troops, in 
the imperilment of victory itself, and in an enormous waste of 
public funds literally poured into the breach created by gross 
neglect. Today it is reflected in our huge tax burden and in the 
high cost of living. 

UNPREPAREDNESS FOR PEACE. 

Peace found the Administration as unprepared for peace as war 
found it unprepared for war. The vital needs of the country de- 
manded the early and systematic return to a peace-time basis. 

This called for vision, leadership and intelligent planning. All 
three have been lacking. While the country has been left to shift 
for itself, the Government has continued on a war-basis. The 
Administration has not demobilized the army of place holders. It 

17 



258 Platforms of Political Pasties 

continued a method of financing which was indefensible during the 
period of reconstruction. It has used legislation passed to meet 
the emergency of war to continue its arbitrary and inquisitorial 
control over the life of the people in time of peace, and to carry 
confusion into industrial life. Under the despot's plea of necessity 
or superior wisdom, executive usurpation of legislative and judicial 
functions still undermines our institutions. Eighteen months after 
the Armistice, with its war-time powers unabridged, its war-time 
departments undischarged, its war-time army of place holders still 
mobilized, the Administration continues to flounder helplessly. 

The demonstrated incapacity of the Democratic party has de- 
stroyed public confidence, weakened the authority of the govern- 
ment, and produced a feeling of distrust and hesitation so univer- 
sal as to increase enormously the difficulties of readjustment and to 
delay the return to normal conditions. 

Never has our nation been confronted with graver problems. 
The people are entitled to know in definite terms how the parties 
purpose solving these problems. To that end, the Republican party 
declares its policies and program to be as follows: 

CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT. 

We undertake to end executive autocracy and to restore to the 
people their constitutional government. 

The policies herein declared will be carried out by the federal 
and state governments, each acting within its constitutional powers. 

FOREIGN RELATIONS. 

The foreign policy of the Administration has been founded upon 
no principle and directed by no definite conception of our nation's 
rights and obligations. It has been humilitating to America and 
irritating to other nations, with the result that after a period of 
unexampled sacrifice, our motives are -suspected, our moral influence 
impaired, and our Government stands discredited and friendless 
among the nations of the world. 

We favor a liberal and generous foreign policy founded upon 
definite moral and political principles characterized by a clear 
understanding of and a firm adherence to our own rights, and un- 
failing respect for the rights of others. We should afford full 
and adequate protection to the life, liberty, property and all in- 



National Republican Platform 259 

ternational rights of every American citizen, and should require 
a proper respect for the American flag; but we should be equally 
careful to manifest a just regard for the rights of other nations. 
A scrupulous observance of our international engagements when 
lawfully assumed is essential to our own honor and self-respect, 
and the respect of other nations. Subject to a due regard for our 
international obligations, we should leave our country free to de- 
velop its civilization along lines most conducive to happiness and 
welfare of its people, and to cast its influence on the side of justice 
and right should occasion require. 

(a) MEXICO. 

The ineffective policy of the present Administration in Mexican 
matters has been largely responsible for the continued loss of 
American lives in that country and upon our border; for the enor- 
mous loss of American and foreign property; for the lowering 
of American standards of morality and social relations with Mexi- 
cans, and for the bringing of American ideals and justice, national 
honor and political integrity into contempt and ridicule in Mexico 
and throughout the world. 

The policy of wordy, futile written protests against the acts 
of Mexican officials, explained the following day by the President 
himself as being meaningless and not intended to be considered 
seriously, or enforced, has but added in degree to that contempt, 
and has earned for us the sneers and jeers of Mexican bandits, 
and added insult upon insult against our national honor and dignity. 

We should not recognize any Mexican government unless it be 
a responsible government willing and able to give sufficient guar- 
antees that the lives and property of American citizens are re- 
spected and protected; that wrongs will be promptly corrected and 
just compensation will be made for injury sustained. The Republi- 
can party pledges itself to a consistent, firm and effective policy 
towards Mexico that shall enforce respect for the American flag 
and that shall protect the rights of American citizens lawfully in 
Mexico to security of life and enjoyment of property, in accord- 
ance with established principles of international law and our 
treaty rights. 

The Republican party is a sincere friend of the Mexican people. 
In its insistence upon the maintenance of order for the protection 
of American citizens within its borders a great service will be 



260 Platforms of Political Parties 

rendered the Mexican people themselves; for a continuation of 
present conditions means disaster to their interests and patriotic 
aspirations. 

(b) MANDATE FOR ARMENIA. 

We condemn President Wilson for asking Congress to empower 
him to accept a mandate for Armenia. We commend the Republi- 
can Senate for refusing the President's request to empower him 
to accept the mandate for Armenia. The acceptance of such man- 
date would throw the United States into the very maelstrom of 
European quarrels. According to the estimate of the Harbord 
Commission, organized by authority of President Wilson, we would 
be called upon to send 59,000 American boys to police Armenia 
and to expend $276,000,000 in the first year and $756,000,000 in 
five years. This estimate is made upon the basis that we would 
have only roving bands to fight; but in case of serious trouble with 
the Turks or with Russia, a force exceeding 200,000 would be 
necessary. 

No more striking illustration can be found of President Wilson's 
disregard of the lives of American boys or of American interests. 

We deeply sympathize with the people of Armenia and stand 
ready to help them in all proper ways, but the Republican party 
will oppose now and hereafter the acceptance of a mandate for 
any country in Europe or Asia. 

(C) LEAGUE OF NATIONS. 

The Republican party stands for agreement among the nations 
to preserve the peace of the world. We believe that such an 
international association must be based upon international justice, 
and must provide methods which shall maintain the rule of public 
right by the development of law and the decision of impartial 
courts, and which shall secure instant and general international 
conference whenever peace shall be threatened by political action, 
so that the nations pledged to do and insist upon what is just 
and fair may exercise their influence and power for the preven- 
tion of war. 

We believe that all this can be done without the compromise 
of national independence, without depriving the people of the 
United States in advance of the right to determine for them- 
selves what is just and fair when the occasion arises, and with- 



National Republican Platform 261 

out involving them as participants and not as peace-makers in a 
multitude of quarrels, the merits of which they are unable to 
judge. 

The covenant signed by the President at Paris failed signally to 
accomplish this great purpose, and contains stipulations, not only 
intolerable for an independent people, but certain to produce the 
injustice, hostility, and controversy among nations which it pro- 
posed to prevent. 

That covenant repudiated, to a degree wholly unnecessary and 
unjustifiable, the time-honored policies in favor of peace declared 
by Washington, Jefferson, and Monroe, and pursued by all Ameri- 
can administrations for more than a century, and it ignored the 
universal sentiment of America for generations past in favor of 
international law and arbitration, and it rested the hope of the 
future upon mere expediency and negotiation. 

The unfortunate insistence of the President upon having his 
own way, without any change and without any regard to the opin- 
ions of a majority of the Senate, which shares with him in the 
treaty-making power, and the President's demand that the Treaty 
should be ratified without any modification, created a situation 
in which Senators were required to vote upon their consciences 
and their oaths according to their judgment against the Treaty 
as it was presented, or submit to the commands of a dictator in 
a matter where the authority and the resonsibility under the 
Constitution were theirs, and not his. 

The Senators performed their duty faithfully. We approve their 
conduct and honor their courage and fidelity. And we pledge the 
coming Republican administration to such agreements with the 
other nations of the world as shall meet the full duty of America 
to civilization and humanity, in accordance with American ideals, 
and without surrendering the right of the American people to 
exercise its judgment and its power in favor of justice and peace. 

CONGRESS AND RECONSTRUCTION. 

Despite the unconstitutional and dictatorial course of the Presi- 
dent and the partisan obstruction of the Democratic Congressional 
minority, the Republican majority has enacted a program of con- 
structive legislation which in great part, however, has been nulli- 
fied by the vindictive vetoes of the President. 



262 Platforms of Political Parties 

The Republican Congress has met the problems presented by 
the Administration's unpreparedness for peace. It has repealed, 
the greater part of the vexatious war legislation. It has enacted 
a transportation act making possible the rehabilitation of the rail- 
road systems of the country, the operation of which under the pres- 
ent Democratic Administration has been wasteful, extravagant and 
inefficient in the highest degree. The Transportation Act made pro- 
vision for the peaceful settlement of wage disputes, partially nulli- 
fied, however, by the President's delay in appointing the Wage Board 
created by the act. This delay precipitated the outlaw railroad 
strike. 

We stopped the flood of public treasure, recklessly poured into 
the lap of an inept Shipping Board, and laid the foundations 
for the creation of a great merchant marine; we took from the 
incompetent Democratic Administration the administration of the 
telegraph and telephone lines of the country and returned them 
to private ownership; we reduced the cost of postage and in- 
creased the pay of the postal employes — the poorest paid of all 
public servants; we provided pensions for superannuated and retired 
civil servants; and for an increase in pay of soldiers and sailors. 
We reorganized the Army on a peace footing, and provided for the 
maintenance of a powerful and efficient Navy. 

The Republican Congress established by law a permanent Wo- 
man's Bureau in the Department of Labor; we submitted to the 
country the constitutional amendment for woman suffrage, and 
furnished twenty-nine of the thirty-five legislatures which have 
ratified it to date. 

Legislation for the relief of the consumers of print paper, for 
the extension of the powers of the government under the Food 
Control Act, for broadening the scope of the War Risk Insurance 
Act, better provision for the dwindling number of aged veterans 
of the Civil War and for the better support of the maimed and 
injured of the Great War, and for making practical the Vocational 
Rehabilitation Act, has been enacted by the Republican Congress. 

We passed an oil leasing and water power bill to unlock for the 
public good the great pent-up resources of the country; we have 
sought to check the profligacy of the Administration, to realize upon 
the assets of the government and to husband the revenues derived 
from taxation. The Republicans in Congress have been responsible 
for cuts in the estimates for government expenditure of nearly 
$3,000,000,000 since the signing of the armistice. 



National Republican Platform 263 

We enacted a national executive budget law; we strengthened 
the Federal Reserve Act to permit banks to lend needed assistance 
to farmers; we authorized financial incorporations to develop ex- 
port trade; and finally, amended the rules of the Senate and House, 
which will reform evils in procedure and guarantee more efficient 
and responsible government. 

AGRICULTURE. 

The farmer is the backbone of the nation. National greatness 
and economic independence demanded a population distributed be- 
tween industry and the farm, and sharing on equal terms the pros- 
perity which is wholly dependent upon the efforts of both. Neither 
can prosper at the expense of the other without inviting joint 
disaster. 

The crux of the present agricultural condition lies in prices, 
labor and credit. 

The Republican party believes that this condition can be im- 
proved by: practical and adequate farm representation in the ap- 
pointment of governmental officials and commissions; the right to 
form cooperative associations for marketing their products, and pro- 
tection against discrimination; the scientific study of agricultural 
prices and farm production costs, at home and abroad, with a 
view to reducing the frequency of abnormal fluctuations; the un- 
censored publication of such reports; the authorization of asso- 
ciations for the extension of personal credit; a national inquiry 
on the co-ordination of rail, water and motor transportation 
with adequate facilities for receiving, handling and marketing 
food; the encouragement of our export trade; an end to unnecessary 
price-fixing and ill considered efforts arbitrarily to reduce prices of 
farm products which invariably result to the disadvantage both of 
producer and consumer; and the encouragement of the production 
and importation of fertilizing material and its extensive use. 

The Federal Farm Loan Act should be so administered as to 
facilitate the acquisition of farm land by those desiring to be- 
come owners and proprietors and thus minimize the evils of farm 
tenantry, and to furnish such long time credits as farmers may 
need to finance adequately their larger and long time production 
operations. 

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS. 

There are two different conceptions of the relations of capital 
and labor. The one is contractual and emphasizes the diversity 



264 Platforms of Political Parties 

of interests of employer and employee. The other is that of co- 
partnership in a common task. 

We recognize the justice of collective bargaining as a means of 
promoting good will, establishing closer and more harmonious re- 
lations 'between employers and employees, and realizing the true 
ends of industrial justice. 

The strike or the lockout, as a means of settling industrial dis- 
putes, inflicts such loss and suffering on the community as to justify 
government initiative to reduce its frequency and limit its con- 
sequences. 

We deny the right to strike against the government; but the 
rights and interests of all government employees must be safe- 
guarded by impartial laws and tribunals. 

In public utilities we favor the establishment of an impartial 
tribunal to make an investigation of the facts and to render a de- 
cision to the end that there may be no organized interruption 
of service necessary to the lives, health and welfare of the people. 
The decsions of the tribunals should be morally but not legally 
binding, and an informed public sentiment be relied on to secure 
their acceptance. The tribunals, however, should refuse to accept 
jurisdiction except for the purpose of investigation, as long as 
the public service be interrupted. For public utilities we favor the 
type of tribunal provided for in the Transportation Act of 1920. 

In private industries we do not advocate the principle of compul- 
sory arbitration, but we favor impartial commissions and better 
facilities for voluntary mediation, conciliation and arbitration, sup- 
plemented by that full publicity which will enlist the influence 
of an aroused public opinion. The Government should take the 
initiative in inviting the establishment of tribunals or commissions 
for the purpose of voluntary arbitration and of investigation of 
disputed issues. 

We demand the exclusion from interstate commerce of the pro- 
ducts of convict labor. 

NATIONAL ECONOMY. 

A Republican Congress reduced the estimates submitted by the 
Administration almost three billion dollars. Greater economies 
could have been effected had it not been for the stubborn refusal 
of the Administration to cooperate with Congress in an economy 
program. The universal demand for an executive budget is a 



National Republican Platfoeji 265 

recognition of the incontrovertible fact that leadership and sincere 
assistance on the part of the executive departments are essential 
to effective economy and constructive retrenchment. 

The Overman Act invested the President of the United States 
with all the authority and power necessary to restore the Federal 
Government to a normal peace basis and to reorganize, retrench 
and demobilize. The dominant fact is that eighteen months after 
the Armistice, the United States Government is still on a war-time 
basis, and the expenditure program of the Executive reflects 
war-time extravagance rather than rigid peace-time economy. 

As an example of the failure to retrench which has characterized 
the post-war policy of the Administration, we cite the fact that 
not including the War and Navy Departments, the executive de- 
partments and other establishments at Washington actually record 
an increase subsequent to the Armistice of 2,184 employees. The 
net decrease in pay-roll costs contained in the 1921 demands sub- 
mitted by the Administration is only one per cent under that of . 
1920. The annual expenses of the Federal Government can be 
reduced hundreds of millions of dollars without impairing the 
efficiency of the public service. 

We pledge ourselves to a carefully planned readjustment to a 
peace-time basis and to a policy of rigid economy, to the better 
co-ordination of departmental activities, to the elimination of un- 
necessary officials and employees, and to the raising of the standard 
of individual efficiency. 

THE EXECUTIVE BUDGET. 

We congratulate the Republican Congress on the enactment of 
a law providing for the establishment of an Executive Budget as 
a necessary instrument for a sound and business-like administration 
of the national finances; and we condemn the veto of the President 
which defeated this great financial reform. 

REORGANIZATION OF FEDERAL DEPARTMENTS AND BUREAUS. 

We advocate a thorough investigation of the present organization 
of the Federal departments and bureaus, with a view to securing 
consolidation, a more business-like distribution of functions, the 
elimination of duplication, delays and over-lapping of work, and the 
establishment of an up-to-date and efficient administrative organiza- 
tion. 



266 Platforms of Political Parties 

war powers of the president. 

The President clings tenaciously to his autocratic war time 
powers. His veto of the Resolution declaring peace and his refusal 
to sign the bill repealing war-time legislation, no longer necessary, 
evidence his determination not to restore to the Nation and to the 
States the form of government provided for by the Constitution. 
This usurpation is intolerable and deserves the severest condem- 
nation. 

TAXATION 

The burden of taxation imposed upon the American people is 
staggering; but in presenting a true statement of the situation we 
must face the fact that, while the character of the taxes can and 
should be changed, an early reduction of the amount of revenue 
to be raised is not to be expected. The next Republican administra- 
tion will inherit from its Democratic predecessor a floating in- 
debtedness of over three billion dollars, the prompt liquidation of 
which is demanded by sound financial considerations. Moreover, 
the whole fiscal policy of the Government must be deeply influenced 
by the necessity of meeting obligations in excess of five billion 
dollars which mature in 1923. But sound policy equally demands 
the early accomplishment of that real reduction of the tax burden 
which may be achieved by substituting simple for complex tax 
laws and procedure; prompt and certain determination of the tax 
liability for delay and uncertainty; tax laws which do not for tax 
laws which do, excessively mulct the consumer or needlessly repress 
enterprise and thrift. 

We advocate the issuance of a simplified form of income return; 
authorizing the Treasury Department to make changes in regu- 
lations effective only from the date of their approval; empowering 
the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with the consent of the 
taxpayer, to make final and conclusive settlements of tax claims 
and assessments barring fraud, and the creation of a Tax Board 
consisting of at least three representatives of the tax-paying pub- 
lic and the heads of the principal divisions of the Bureau of 
Internal Revenue to act as a standing committee on the simpli- 
fication of forms, procedure and law, and to make recommenda- 
tions to the Congress. 



National Republican Platform 267 

banking and currency. 

The fact is that the war, to a great extent, was financed by a 
policy of inflation through certificate borrowing from the banks, 
and bonds issued at artificial rates sustained by the low discount 
rates established by the Federal Reserve Board. The continuance 
of this policy since the armistice lays the Administration open 
to severe criticism. Almost up to the present time the practices 
of the Federal Reserve Board as to credit control have been frankly 
dominated by the convenience of the Treasury. 

The results have been a greatly increased war cost, a serious 
loss to the millions of people who in good faith bought Liberty 
Bonds and Victory Notes at par, and extensive post-war specula- 
tion, followed today by a restricted credit for legitimate industrial 
expansion. As a matter of public policy, we urge all banks to 
give credit preference to essential industries. 

The Federal Reserve System should be free from political in- 
fluence, which is quite as important as its independence of domi- 
nation by financial combinations. 

THE HIGH COST OF LIVING. 

The prime cause of the "High Cost of Living" has been first 
and foremost a fifty per cent depreciation in the purchasing power 
of the dollar, due to a gross expansion of our currency and credit. 
Reduced production, burdensome taxation, swollen profits, and the 
increased demand for goods arising from a fictitious but enlarged 
buying power have been contributing causes in a greater or less 
degree. 

. We condemn the unsound fiscal policies of the Democratic adminis- 
tration which have brought these things to pass, and their at- 
tempts to impute the consequences to minor and secondary causes. 
Much of the injury wrought is irreparable. There is no short way 
out, and we decline to deceive the people with vain promises or 
quack remedies. But as the political party that throughout its 
history has stood for honest money and sound finance, we pledge 
ourselves to earnest and consistent attack upon the high cost of 
living by rigorous avoidance of further inflation in our govern- 
ment borrowing, by courageous and intelligent deflation of over- 
expanded credit and currency, by encouragement of heightened 
production of goods and services, by prevention of unreasonable 



268 Platforms of Political Parties 

profits, by exercise of public economy and stimulation of private 
thrift and by revision of war-imposed taxes unsuited to peace-time 
economy. 

PROFITEERING. 

ue condemn the Democratic administration for failure impar- 
tially to enforce the anti-profiteering laws enacted by the Republi- 
can Congress. 

RAILROADS. 

We are opposed to government ownership and operation or em- 
ployee operation of the railroads. In view of the conditions prevail- 
ing in this country, the experience of the last two years, and the con- 
clusions which may fairly be drawn from an observation of the 
transportation systems of other countries, it is clear that adequate 
transportation service both for the present and future can be 
furnished more certainly, economically and efficiently through 
private ownership and operation under proper regulation and con- 
trol. 

There should be no speculative profit in rendering the service 
of transportation; but in order to do justice to the capital already 
invested in railway enterprises, to restore railway credit, to in- 
duce future investment at a reasonable rate, and to furnish en- 
larged facilities to meet the requirements of the constantly increas- 
ing development and distribution, a fair return upon actual value 
of the railway property used in transportation should be made 
reasonably sure, and at the same time provide constant employ- 
ment to those engaged in transportation service, with fair hours 
and favorable working conditions, at wages or compensation at 
least equal to those prevailing in similar lines of industry. 

We endorse the Transportation Act of 1920 enacted by the Re- 
publican Congress as a most constructive legislative achievement. 

WATERWAYS. 

We declare it to be our policy to encourage and develop water 
transportation service and facilities in connection with the com- 
merce of the United States. 

REGULATION OF INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE. 

We approve in general the existing Federal legislation against 
monopoly and combinations in restraint of trade, but since the 



National Republican Platform 269 

known certainty of a law is the safety of all, we advocate such 
amendment as will provide American business men with better 
means of determining in advance whether a proposed combination 
is or is not unlawful. The Federal Trade Commission, under a 
Democratic administration, has not accomplished the purpose for 
which it was created. This Commission properly organized and 
its duties efficiently administered should afford protection to the 
public and legitimate business interests. There should be no per- 
secution of honest business, but to the extent that circumstances 
warrant we pledge ourselves to strengthen the law against unfair 
practices. 

We pledge the party to an immediate resumption of trade rela- 
tions with every nation with which we are at peace. 

international trade and tariff. 

The uncertain and unsettled condition of international balances, 
the abnormal economic and trade situation of the world, and the 
impossibility of forecasting accurately even the near future, pre- 
clude the formulation of a definite program to meet conditions a 
year hence. Hut the Republican party reaffirms its belief in the 
protective principle and pledges itself to a revision of the tariff as 
soon as conditions shall make it necessary for the preservation of 
the home market for American labor, agriculture and industry. 

MERCHANT MARINE. 

The national defense and our foreign commerce require a mer- 
chant marine of the best type of modern ship flying the American 
flag, manned by American seamen, owned by private capital, and 
operated by private energy. We endorse the sound legislation 
recently enacted by the Republican Congress that will insure the 
promotion and maintenance of the American merchant marine. 

We favor the application of the Workmen's Compensation Acts 
to the merchant marine. 

We recommend that all ships engaged in coastwise trade and all 
vessels of the American merchant marine shall pass through the 
Panama Canal without payment of tolls. 

IMMIGRATION. 

The standard of living and the standard of citizenship of a 
nation are its most precious possessions, and the preservation 



270 Platforms of Political Parties 

and elevation of those standards is the first duty of our govern- 
ment. The immigration policy of the United States should be such 
as to insure that the number of foreigners in the country at any 
time shall not exceed that which can be assimilated with reason- 
able rapidity, and to favor immigrants whose standards are similar 
to ours. 

The selective tests that are at present applied should be im- 
proved by requiring a higher physical standard, a more complete 
exclusion of mental defectives and of criminals, and a more effec- 
tive inspection applied as near the source of immigration as 
possible, as well as at the port of entry. Justice to the foreigner 
and to ourselves demands provision for the guidance, protection 
and better economic distribution of our alien population. To 
facilitate government supervision, all aliens should be required to 
register annually until they become naturalized. 

The existing policy of the United States for the practical exclu- 
sion of Asiatic immigrants is sound, and should be maintained. 

NATURALIZATION. 

There is urgent need of improvement in our naturalization law. 
No alien should become a citizen until he has become genuinely 
American, and adequate tests for determining the alien's fitness 
for American citizenship should be provided for by law. 

"We advocate, in addition, the independent naturalization of mar- 
ried women. An American woman, resident in the United States, 
should not lose her citizenship by marriage to an alien. 

FREE SPEECH AND ALIEN AGITATION. 

We demand that every American citizen shall enjoy the ancient 
and constitutional right of free speech, free press and free assembly 
and the no less sacred right of the qualified voter to be repre- 
sented by his duly chosen representatives; but no man may advo- 
cate resistance to the law, and no man may advocate violent over- 
throw of the government. 

Aliens within the jurisdiction of the United States are not entitled 
of right to liberty of agitation directed against the government or 
American institutions. 

Every government has the power to exclude and deport those 
aliens who constitute a real menace to its peaceful existence. But 
in view of the large numbers of people affected by the immigra- 



National Republican Platfokm 271 

tion acts and in view of the vigorous malpractice of the Depart- 
ments of Justice and Labor, an adequate public hearing before a 
competent administrative tribunal should be assured to all. 

LYNCHING. 

We urge Congress to consider the most effective means to end 
lynching in this country which continues to be a terrible blot on 
our American civilization. 

PUBLIC ROADS AND HIGHWAYS. 

We favor liberal appropriations in cooperation with the States 
for the construction of highways, which will bring about a reduc- 
tion in transportation costs, better marketing of farm products, 
improvement in rural postal delivery, as well as meet the needs of 
military defense. 

In determining the proportion of Federal aid for road construc- 
tion among the States the sums lost in taxation to the respective 
States by the setting apart of large portions of their area as forest 
reservations should be considered as a controlling factor. 

CONSERVATION. 

Conservation is a Republican policy. It began with the passage 
of the Reclamation Act signed by President Roosevelt. The recent 
passage of the coal, oil and phosphate leasing act by a Republican 
Congress and the enactment of the waterpower bill fashioned in 
accordance with the same principle, are consistent landmarks in 
the development of the conservation of our national resources. We 
denounce the refusal of the President to sign the waterpower bill, 
passed after ten years of controversy. The Republican party has 
taken an especially honorable part in saving our national forests 
and in the effort to establish a national forest policy. Our most 
pressing conservation question relates to our forests. We are using 
our forest resources faster than they are being renewed. The result 
is to raise unduly the cost of forest products to consumers and 
especialy farmers, who use more than half the lumber produced in 
America, and in the end to create a timber famine. The Federal 
Government, the States and private interests must unite in devising 
means to meet the menace. 



272 Platforms of Political Parties 

reclamation. 

We favor a fixed and comprehensive policy of reclamation to in- 
crease national wealth and production. 

We recognize in the development of reclamation through Federal 
action with its increase of production and taxable wealth a safe- 
guard for the nation. 

We commend to Congress a policy to reclaim lands and the 
establishment of a fixed national policy of development of natural 
resources in relation to reclamation through the now designated 
government agencies. 

ARMY AXD NAVY. 

We feel the deepest pride in the fine courage, the resolute en- 
durance, the gallant spirit of the officers and men of our army 
and navy in the World War. They were in all ways worthy of the 
best traditions of the nation's defenders, and we pledge ourselves 
to proper maintenance of the military and naval establishments 
upon which our national security and dignity depend. 

THE SERVICE MEN. 

We hold in imperishable remembrance the valor and the patriot- 
ism of the soldiers and sailors of America who fought in the great 
war for human liberty, and we pledge ourselves to discharge to 
the fullest the obligations which a grateful nation justly should 
fulfill in appreciation of the services rendered by its defenders on 
sea and on land. 

Republicans are not ungrateful. Throughout their history they 
have shown their gratitude toward the nation's defenders. Liberal 
legislation for the care of the disabled and infirm and their de- 
pendents has ever marked Republican policy toward the soldier 
and sailor of all the wars in which our country has participated. 
The present Congress has appropriated generously for the disabled 
of the World War. 

The amounts already applied and authorized for the fiscal year 
1920-21 for this purpose reached the stupendous sum of $1,180,571,- 
893. This legislation is significant of the party's purpose in 
generously caring for the maimed and disabled men of the recent 
war. 



National Republican Platform 273 

civil service. 

We renew our repeated declaration that the civil service law 
shall be thoroughly and honestly enforced and extended wherever 
practicable. The recent action of Congress in enacting a compre- 
hensive civil service retirement law and in working out a com- 
prehensive employment and wage policy that will guarantee equal 
and just treatment to the army of government workers, and in 
centralizing the administration of the new and progressive employ- 
ment policy in the hands of the Civil Service Commission is 
worthy of all praise. 

POSTAL SERVICE. 

We condemn the present Administration for its destruction of 
the efficiency of the postal service, and the telegraph and tele- 
phone service when controlled by the government and for its 
failure to properly compensate employees whose expert knowledge 
is essential to the proper conduct of the affairs of the postal system. 
We commend the Republican Congress for the enactment of legis- 
lation increasing the pay of postal employees, who up to that time 
were the poorest paid in the government service. 

WOMAN SUFFRAGE. 

We welcome women into full participation in the affairs of 
government and the activities of the Republican party. We earnestly 
hope that Republican legislatures in states which have not yet 
acted on the Suffrage Amendment will ratify the amendment, to 
the end that all of the women of the nation of voting age may 
participate in the election of 1920 which is so important to the 
welfare of our country. 

SOCIAL PROGRESS. 

The supreme duty of the nation is the conservation of human 
resources through an enlightened measure of social and industrial 
justice. Although the federal jurisdiction over social problems is 
limited, they affect the welfare and interest of the nation as a whole. 
We pledge the Repubican party to a solution of these problems 
through national and state legislation in accordance with the 
best progressive thought of the country. 



18 



274 Platforms of Political Parties 

education and health. 

We endorse the principle of Federal aid to the States for the 
purposes of vocational and agricultural training. 

Wherever Federal money is devoted to education, such education 
must be so directed as to awaken in the youth the spirit of America 
and a sense of patriotic duty to the United States. 

A thorough system of physical education for all children up to 
the age of 19, including adequate health supervision and instruc- 
tion, would remedy conditions revealed by the draft and would 
add to the economic and industrial strength of the nation. National 
leadership and stimulation will be necessary to induce the States 
to adopt a wise system of physical training. 

The public health activities of the Federal government are 
scattered through numerous departments and bureaus, resulting 
in inefficiency, duplication and extravagance. We advocate a 
greater centralization of the Federal functions, and in addition 
urge the better co-ordination of the work of the Federal, State and 
local health agencies. 

CHILD LABOR. 

The Republican party stands for a Federal child labor law and 
for its rigid enforcement. If the present law be found uncon- 
stitutional or ineffective, we shall seek other means to enable Con- 
gress to prevent the evils of child labor. 

WOMEN IN INDUSTRY. 

Women have special 'problems of employment which make neces- 
sary special study. We commend Congress for the permanent 
establishment of a Women's Bureau in the United States Department 
of Labor to serve as a source of information to the States and 
to Congress. 

The principle of equal pay for equal service should be applied 
throughout all branches of the Federal government in which women 
are employed. 

Federal aid for vocational training should take into consider- 
ation the special aptitudes and needs of women workers. 

We demand Federal legislation to limit the hours of employment 
of women engaged in intensive industry, the product of which 
enters into interstate commerce. 



National Republican Platform 275 

HOUSING. 

The housing shortage has not only compelled careful study of 
ways of stimulating building, but it has brought into relief the 
unsatisfactory character of the housing accommodations of large 
numbers of the inhabitants of our cities. A nation of home owners 
is the best guaranty of the maintenance of those principles of 
liberty, law and order upon which our government is founded. 
Both national and state governments should encourage in all proper 
ways the acquiring of homes by our citizens. The United States 
Government should make available the valuable information on 
housing and town planning collected during the war. This infor- 
mation should be kept up to date and made currently available. 

HAWAII. 

For Hawaii we recommend Federal assistance in Americanizing 
and educating their greatly disproportionate foreign population; 
home rule; and the rehabilitation of the Hawaiian race. 



Pointing to its history and relying on its fundamental principles, 
we declare that the Republican party has the genius, courage and 
constructive ability to end executive usurpation and restore con- 
stitutional government; to fulfill our world obligations without 
sacrificing our national independence; to raise the national stand- 
ards of education, health and general welfare; to re-establish a 
peace-time administration and to substitute economy and efficiency 
for extravagance and chaos; to restore and maintain the national 
credit; to reform unequal and burdensome taxes; to free business 
from arbitrary and unnecessary official control; to suppress dis- 
loyalty without the denial of justice; to repel the arrogant chal- 
lenge of any class and to maintain a government of all the people, 
as contrasted with government for some of the people, and finally 
to allay unrest, suspicion and strife, and to secure the cooperation 
and unity of all citizens in the solution of the complex problems 
of the day; to the end that our country, happy and prosperous, 
proud of its past, sure of itself and of its institutions, may look 
forward with confidence to the future. 



276 Platforms of Political Parties 

NATIONAL SOCIALIST PLATFORM. 

In the national campaign of 1920 the Socialist party calls upon 
all American workers of hand and brain, and upon all citizens 
who believe in political liberty and social justice, to free the 
country from the oppressive misrule of the old political parties, 
and to take the government into their own hands under the ban- 
ner and upon the program of the Socialist party. 

The outgoing administration, like Democratic and Republican 
administrations of the past, leaves behind it a disgraceful record 
of solemn pledges unscrupulously broken and public confidence 
ruthlessly betrayed. 

It obtained the suffrage of the people on a platform of peace, 
liberalism and social betterment, but drew the country into a 
devastating war, and inaugurated a regime of despotism, reaction 
and oppression unsurpassed in the annals of the republic. 

It promised to the American people a treaty which would assure 
to the world a reign of international right and true democracy. 
It gave its sanction and support to an infamous pact formulated 
behind closed doors by predatory elder statesmen of European and 
Asiatic Imperialism. Under this pact territories have been an- 
nexed against the will of their populations and cut off from their 
source of sustenance; nations seeking their freedom in the exer- 
cise of the much heralded right of self-determination have been 
brutally fought with armed force, intrigue and starvation blockades. 

To the millions of young men who staked their lives on the 
field of battle, to the people of the country who gave unstintingly 
of their toil and property to support the war, the Democratic 
administration held out the sublime ideal of a union of the peoples 
of the world organized to maintain perpetual peace among nations 
on the basis of justice and freedom. It helped create a reactionary 
alliance of imperialistic governments, banded together to bully 
weak nations, crush working-class governments and perpetuate strife 
and warfare. 

While thus furthering the ends of reaction, violence and oppres- 
sion abroad, our administration suppressed the cherished and 
fundamental rights and civil liberties at home. 

Upon the pretext of war-time necessity, the Chief Executive of 
the republic, and the appointed heads of his administration, were 
clothed with dictatorial powers (which were often exercised arbi- 



National Socialist Platform 277 

trarily), and Congress enacted laws in open and direct violation of 
the constitutional safeguards of freedom of expression. 

Hundreds of citizens who raised their voices for the maintenance 
of political and industrial rights during the war were indicted 
under the Espionage law, tried in an atmosphere of prejudice and 
hysteria, and many of them are now serving inhumanly long jail 
sentences for daring to uphold the traditions of liberty which once 
were sacred in this country. 

Agents of the Federal Government unlawfully raided homes and 
meeting places and prevented or broke up peaceable gatherings of 
citizens. 

The Postmaster-General established a censorship of the press 
more autocratic than ever tolerated in a regime of absolutism, 
and has harrassed and destroyed publications on account of their 
advanced political and economic views, by excluding them from 
the mails. 

And after the war was in fact long over, the administration has not 
scrupled to continue a policy of repression and terrorism under 
the shadow and hypocritical guise of war-time measures. 

It has practically imposed involuntary servitude and peonage on 
a large class of American workers by denying them the right to 
quit work and coercing them into acceptance of inadequate • wages 
and onerous conditions of labor. It has dealt a foul blow to the 
traditional American right of asylum by deporting hundreds of 
foreign-born workers by administrative order, on the mere sus- 
picion of harboring radical views, and often for the sinister pur- 
pose of breaking labor strikes. 

In the short span of three years our self-styled liberal adminis- 
tration has succeeded in undermining the very foundation of 
political liberty and economic rights, which this republic has built 
up in more than a century of struggle and progress. 

Under the cloak of a false and hypocritical patriotism and under 
the protection of governmental terror the Democratic administra- 
tion has given the ruling classes unrestrained license to plunder 
the people by intensive exploitation of labor, by the extortion of 
enormous 1 profits, and by increasing the cost of all necessities 
of life. Profiteering has become reckless and rampant, billions 
have been coined by the capitalists out of the suffering and misery 
of their fellow men. The American financial oligarchy has be- 
come a dominant factor in the world, while the condition of the 
American workers has grown more precarious. 



278 Platforms of Political Parties 

The responsibility does not rest upon the Democratic party alone. 
The Republican party, through its representatives in Congress and 
otherwise, has not only openly condoned the political misdeeds 
of the last three years, but has sought to outdo its Democratic rival 
in the orgy of political reaction and repression. Its criticism of 
the Democratic administrative policy is that it is not reactionary 
and drastic enough. 

America is now at the parting of the roads. If the outraging of 
political liberty, and concentration of economic power into the 
hands of the few is permitted to go on, it can have only one con- 
sequence, the reduction of the country to a state of absolute capi- 
talist despotism. 

We particularly denonunce the militaristic policy of both old 
parties of investing countless hundreds of millions of dollars in 
armaments after the victorious completion of what was to have 
been the "last war." We call attention to the fatal results of such 
a program in Europe, carried on prior to 1914, and culminating in 
the Great War; we declare that such a policy, adding unbearable 
burdens to the working class and to all the people, can lead only 
to the complete Prussianization of the nation, and ultimately to 
war; and we demand immediate and complete abandonment of this 
fatal program. 

The Socialist party sounds the warning. It calls upon the people 
to defeat both parties at the polls, and to elect the candidates of 
the Socialist party to the end of restoring political democracy and 
bringing about complete industrial freedom. 

The Socialist party of the United States therefore summons 
all who believe in this fundamental .doctrine to prepare for a com- 
plete reorganization of our social system, based upon public owner- 
ship of public necessities; upon government by representatives 
chosen from occupational as well as from geographical groups, in 
harmony with our industrial development; and with citizenship 
based on service; that we may end forever the exploitation of 
class by class. 

To achieve this end the Socialist party pledges itself to the 
following program: 

1. SOCIAL. 

1. All business vitally essential for the existence and welfare 
of the people, such as railroads, express service, steamship lines, 
telegraph lines, oil wells, power plants, elevators, packing houses,. 



National Socialist Platform 279 

cold-storage plants and all industries operating on a national 
scale, should be taken over by the nation. 

2. All publicly owned industries should be administered jointly 
by the government and representatives of the workers, not for 
revenue of profit, but with the sole object of securing just com- 
pensation and humane conditions of employment to the workers 
and efficient and reasonable service to the public. 

3. All banks should be acquired by the government, and incor- 
porated in a unified public banking system. 

4. The business of insurance should be taken over by the gov- 
ernment, and should be extended to include insurance against 
accident, sickness, invalidity, old age and unemployment, without 
contribution on the part of the worker. 

5. Congress should enforce the provisions of the Thirteenth, 
Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments with reference to the 
negroes, and effective Federal legislation should be enacted to 

. secure to the negroes full civil, political, industrial and educational 

rights. 

2. industrial. 

1. Congress should enact effective laws to abolish child labor, 
to fix minimum wages, based on an ascertained cost of a decent 
standard of life, to protect migratory and unemployed workers 
from oppression, to abolish detective and strike-breaking agencies 
and to establish a shorter workday in keeping with increased 
industrial productivity. 

3. political. 

1. The constitutional freedom of speech, press, and assembly should 
be restored by repealing the Espionage Law, and all other repres- 
sive legislation, and by prohibiting the executive usurpation of 
authority. 

2. All prosecutions under the Espionage Law should be discon- 
tinued, and all persons serving prison sentences for alleged offenses 
growing out of religious beliefs, political views or industrial activi- 
ties should be fully pardoned and immediately released. 

3. No alien should be deported from the United States on account 
of his political views or participation in labor struggles, nor in 
any event without proper trial on specific charges. The arbitrary 
power to deport aliens by administrative order should be repealed. 

4. The power of the courts to restrain workers in their struggles 



280 Platforms of Political, Parties 

against employers by the writ of injunction or otherwise, and 
their power to nullify congressional legislation, should be abro- 
gated. 

5. Federal judges should be elected by the people and be subject 
to recall. 

6. The President and the Vice-President of the United States 
should be elected by direct popular election, and be subject to re- 
call. All members of the Cabinet should be elected by Congress 
and be responsible at all times to the vote thereof. 

7. Suffrage should be equal and unrestricted in fact as well as in 
law for all men and women throughout the nation. 

8. Because of the strict residential qualification of suffrage in 
this country, millions of citizens are disfranchised in every elec- 
tion; adequate provision should be made for the registration and 
voting of migratory voters. 

9. The Constitution of the United States should be amended to 
strengthen the safeguards of civil and political liberty, and to 
remove all obstacles to industrial and social reform, and recon- 
struction, including the changes enumerated in this program, in 
keeping with the will and interest of the people. It should be 
made amendable by a majority of the voters of the nation upon 
their own initiative, or upon the initiative of Congress. 

4. FOREIGN RELATIONS. 

1. All claims of the United States against allied countries for 
loans made during the war should be cancelled upon the under- 
standing that all war debts among such countries shall likewise 
be cancelled. The largest possible credit in food, raw material 
and machinery should be extended to the stricken nations of 
Europe in order to help them rebuild the ruined world. 

2. The Government of the United States should initiate a move- 
ment to dissolve the mischievous organization called the "League 
of Nations" and to create an international parliament, composed 
of democratically elected representatives of all nations of the 
world, based upon the recognition of their equal rights, the prin- 
ciples of self-determination, the right to national existence of 
colonies and other dependencies, freedom of international trade 
and trade routes by land and sea, and universal disarmament, and 
be charged with revising the Treaty of Peace on the principles of 
justice and conciliation. 



National Prohibition Platform 281 

3. The United States should immediately make peace with the 
Central Powers and open commercial and diplomatic relations with 
Russia under the Soviet Government. It should promptly recog- 
nize the independence of the Irish Republic. 

4. The United States should make and proclaim it a fixed prin- 
ciple in its foreign policy that American capitalists, who acquire 
concessions or make investments in foreign countries, do so at 
their own risk, and under no circumstances should our govern- 
ment enter into diplomatic negotiations or controversies or resort 
to armed conflicts on account of foreign property claims of Ameri- 
can capitalists. 

5. FISCAL. 

1. All war debts and other debts of the Federal Government 
should immediately be paid in full, the funds for such payment 
to be raised by means of a progressive property tax, whose bur- 
dens should fall upon the rich and particularly upon great fortunes 
made during the war. 

2. A standing progressive income tax and a graduated inheri- 
tance tax should be levied to provide for all needs of the govern- 
ment, including the cost of its increasing social and industrial 
functions. 

3. The unearned increment of land should be taxed, all land 
held out of use should be taxed at full rental value. 



NATIONAL PROHIBITION PLATFORM. 

The Prohibition Party assembled in National Convention in the 
city of Lincoln, Nebraska, on this twenty-second day of July, 1920 
expresses its thanks to Almighty God for the victory over the bever- 
age liquor traffic which crowns fifty years of consecrated effort. 
The principles which we have advocated throughout our history 
have been so far recognized that the manufacture and traffic in 
intoxicating drink have been forever prohibited in the fundamental 
law of the land; Congress has rightly interpreted the Eighteenth 
Amendment in laws enacted for its enforcement; and the Supreme 
Court has upheld both the Amendment and the law. 

Asking that it be clothed with governmental power, the Prohi- 
bition Party challenges the attention of the Nation and requests 
the votes of the people on this Declaration of Principles. 



282 Platforms of Political Parties 

nullification condemned. 

The organized liquor traffic is engaged in a treasonable attempt 
to nullify the amendment by such modification of the enforcement 
act as will increase the alcoholic content of beer and wine and 
thus thwart the will of the people as constitutionally expressed. 

In face of this open threat the Republican and Democratic parties 
refused to make platform declarations in favor of law enforcement, 
though petitioned so to do by multitudes of people. Thus the 
Prohibition party remains the sole political champion of National 
Prohibition. 

The Prohibition party in its platform in 1872 declared: "There 
can be no greater peril to the nation than the existing party com- 
petition for the liquor vote; any party not openly opposed to the 
traffic, experience shows, will engage in this competition, will court 
the favor of the criminal classes, will barter away the public morals, 
the purity of the ballot, and every object of good government for 
party success." Notwithstanding the liquor traffic is now outlawed 
by the Constitution this fitly describes the present political attitude 
of the old parties. 

The issue is not only the enforcement but also the maintenance 
of the law to make the amendment effective. 

The proposed increase in the alcoholic content of beverages would 
be fraught with grave danger in that it would mean the return of 
the open saloon with all its attendant evils. 

THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS. 

The League of Nations is now in existence and is functioning 
in world affairs. We favor the entrance of the United States into 
the League by the immediate ratification of the treaty of peace, not 
objecting to reasonable reservations interpreting American under- 
standing of the covenant. The time is past when the United States 
can hold aloof from the affairs of the world. Such course is short- 
sighted and only invites disaster. 

PEACE. 

We stand for a constitutional amendment providing that treaties 

of peace shall be ratified by a majority of both Houses and Congress. 

We stand by our declaration of 1916 against militarism and uni- 



National Prohibition Platform 283 

versa! military training. Without it our boys were in a short 
time trained to whip the greatest army ever assembled and with 
national prohibition to make sure the most virile manhood in the 
world we should encourage universal disarmament and devotion to 
the acts of peace. 

EDUCATION. 

We stand for compulsory education with instruction in the 
English language, which, if given in private or parochial schools, 
must be equivalent to that afforded by the public schools, and be 
under state supervision. 

SUFFRAGE. 

The Prohibition party has long advocated the enfranchisement of 
women. Suffrage should not be conditioned upon sex. We con- 
gratulate the women upon the freedom which the party has helped 
them to achieve. 

WOMAN AND THE HOME. 

We approve and adopt the program of the National League of 
Women Voters providing for: 

The prohibition of child labor; 

Adequate appropriation for the Children's Bureau; 

Protection for infant life through a federal program for maternity 
and infancy care; 

A Federal department of education, Federal aid for the removal 
of illiteracy and the increase of teachers' salaries; 

Instruction of the youth and the newcomer to our shores in the 
duties and ideals of citizenship; 

Vocational training in home economics; 

Federal supervision of the marketing and distribution of food, 
the enactment and enforcement of such measures as will open the 
channels of trade, prevent excess profits, and eliminate unfair com- 
petition and control of the necessities of life; 

The establishment of a Woman's Bureau in the Department of 
Labor to determine standards and policies which will improve work- 
ing conditions for women and increase their efficiency; 

The appointment of women in the mediation and conciliation 
service and on any industrial commissions and tribunals which 
may be created; 

The establishment of a joint Federal and State employment service 
with women's departments under the direction of qualified women; 



284 Platforms of Political Parties 

The merit system in the Civil Service free from discrimination 
on account of sex with a wage scale determined by skill demanded 
for the work and in no wise below the cost of living as established 
by official investigation; 

Appropriation to carry on a campaign against venereal diseases 
and for public education in sex hygiene; 

Federal legislation permitting an American born woman to 
retain her citizenship while resident in the United States, though 
married to an alien; 

And further that an alien woman who marries an American 
citizen must take the obligation of citizenship before she can be- 
come a citizen. - 

ECONOMY IN ADMINISTRATION. 

We believe in the Budget system and we stand for economy in 
governmental administration. There should be a reduction in 
boards, committees, commissions and offices which consume taxes 
and increase expenses. 

LABOR AND INDUSTRY. 

We stand for Industrial Peace. We believe the time has come for 
the government to assume responsibility for the protection of the 
public against the waste and terror of industrial warfare, and to 
that end we demand legislation defining the rights of labor and the 
creation of industrial courts, which will guarantee to labor and 
employing capital equal and exact justice, and to the general pub- 
lic protection against the paralysis of industry due to this warfare. 

PROFITEERING. 

The Prohibition party pledges the nation to rid it of the profiteer 
and to close the door against his return. It will endeavor to 
eliminate all unnecessary middlemen by the encouragement of or- 
ganizations among producers that will bring those who sell and 
those who use nearer together. It will enact and enforce laws 
needful to effectively prevent excessive charges by such middlemen. 
To this end it will demand legislation subjecting to the penalties 
of the criminal law all corporate officers and employees who give 
or carry out instructions that result in extortion; it will make it 
unlawful for anyone engaged in Interstate Commerce to make a 
sale of one article dependent upon the purchase of another article 



National Prohibition Platform 285 

and it will require such corporation to disclose to customers the 
difference between cost price and selling price or limit the profit 
that can be legally charged as the rate of interest is now limited. 

agriculture. 

We pledge our aid to the farmer in working out a plan to equal- 
ize prices, to secure labor, and to organize a system of cooperative 
marketing, including public terminals, mills and storage for the 
purpose of encouraging agriculture and securing for the farmer 
such return as will tend to increased production. 

We favor such extension of the parcel post as will further 
facilitate the direct traffic between the producer and consumer. 

PRESIDENTIAL QUALIFICATIONS. 

The qualifications for President stated in the Constitution have 
to do with age and citizenship. We call attention to the fact that 
of greater importance are those not so stated referring to moral, 
intellectual and spiritual endowments. The President of the United 
States in his daily life, his home and family relationships and in 
his official career is expected to typify the finest and best the 
country can produce. He is the leader of the nation. The moral 
force and power of his example are immeasurable. No man or 
woman should ever be elected to the high office who is out of har- 
mony with the purposes of the people or who lacks sympathy with 
their highest and holiest ideals, and with the Christian principles 
upon which the nation was founded. 

LAW AND ORDER. 

A crying evil of the day is the general lax enforcement of law. 
Without obedience to law and maintenance of order our American 
institutions must perish. 

The Prohibition party now, as ever, pledges impartial enforce- 
ment of all law. 

CONCLUSION. 

In this national and world crisis the Prohibition party reminds 
the people of its long time faithfulness and its wisdom, proved by the 
many reforms which it was the first to advocate; and on its 
record as the oldest minority party — one which has never sold its 



286 Platforms of Political Parties 

birthright for a mess of pottage but throughout the years has 
stood for the best interests of the country — it asks the favorable 
consideration of the voters, believing that by its support they can 
make it necessary for all political organizations to come up to a 
higher level and to render a finer quality of service. 

It pledges itself resolutely to stand for the right and oppose 
the wrong and dauntlessly to lead in the advocacy of righteous 
and patriotic principles. On its record and on this Declaration 
of Principles it submits its case to the American people. 



STATE DEMOCRATIC PLATF0R3I 1920. 

We, the representatives of the Democratic party in North Caro- 
lina, in State convention assembled, reaffirm our devotion to the 
principles of democratic government, formulated by Thomas Jef- 
ferson, and since his day constantly kept alive and applied in the 
administration of the affairs of our nation by the representatives 
of the Democratic party. 

We endorse the administration of the governmental affairs of 
the United States by the Democratic party under the leadership of 
Woodrow Wilson, and in doing so we direct attention to the fact 
that when the party assumed control on March 4, 1913, it found 
the people of this country hampered by a system of special privi- 
lege, a vicious tariff system, created for the benefit of a favored 
class, an archaic banking and currency system, which fostered a 
money trust in the hands of a few great bankers, and a monopo- 
listic control of many of the great key industries of the country 
upon which the masses of the people depend for their necessary 
existence. 

We endorse the Senators and Representatives in Congress from 
our State, who have so faithfully and ably performed their official 
duties. 

We view with great pride the able and successful administration 
of the affairs of the Navy Department by our distinguished Secre- 
tary of the Navy, and we denounce unjust and unpatriotic efforts 
of the Republican party to discredit the great record of the Navy 
in the war, for purely partisan purposes. 



State Democratic Platform 287 



CONSTRUCTIVE LAWS PASSED. 



For six years the Democratic party was in complete control of 
the Government. During this period a greater number of con- 
structive measures were enacted by Congress than were ever 
enacted in the same length of time by any administration in the 
history of the country. The complete program comprises, among 
many others, laws providing for the following: 

(a) A graduated income tax, which placed the burden of taxa- 
tion upon those most able to bear it. 

(b) The completion of the measures for the election of United 
States Senators by direct vote of the people. 

(c) Providing for publicity of campaign expenditures, for the 
purpose of preventing the scandalous use of money in primaries 
and elections. The imperative need of such laws has recently 
been demonstrated by a notorious example within the ranks of 
the Republican party. 

(d) Federal aid to good roads — thus affording to those who live 
in the rural sections, and who are the mainstay of our nation — 
some of the benefits which arise from constant and easy contact 
with the outside world. 

(e) Vocational education, by which every boy and girl in both 
city and country may enjoy the opportunity of acquiring technical 
training in his or her chosen vocation. 

(f) The Agricultural Extension Act, by means of which the bene- 
fits of science and experimental research are carried to the door of 
the humblest farmer of the land. 

(g) The establishment of a Department of Labor in the Cabinet, 
with a genuine representative of labor at its head. 

(h) A nonpartisan tariff commission, for the purpose of taking 
the tariff out of politics, and relieving American business of the 
injury and uncertainty growing out of the constant tinkering with 
our tariff laws. 

(i) The establishment of a Federal Trade Commission for the 
protection of honest business from monopoly and unfair compe- 
tition. 

(j) The Webb-Pomerene law, and the amendment to the War 
Finance Corporation Act, under the provisions of which our foreign 
commerce is being extended and fostered so that the United States 
may assume its rightful place of leadership in world trade. 



288 Platforms of Political Parties 

(k) The creation of a great merchant marine, which gives us a 
ship tonnage equal to the combined tonnage of all the nations of 
the world, except that of Great Britain, which now exceeds ours 
by a small margin. 

(1) Establishment of the Federal Reserve Bank System, which 
supplanted a system created and promoted by the Republican party, 
under which a small coterie of selfish men had for nearly fifty 
years controlled the financial resources not only of the people of 
this country, but of the government itself. This group, commonly 
known to the people as the "Money Trust," under the monopolistic 
control enjoyed by them, could, and frequently did. create cur- 
rency panics to suit their convenience, and thereby visited upon 
the helpless masses untold misery and financial loss for which they 
were in nowise responsible. 

The Republican party, always the champion of special privilege 
for the favored classes, could not and did not correct these abuses, 
because that party was largely controlled by the recipients of these 
special privileges. 

It is generally conceded by statesmen and financiers, both here 
and abroad, that but for the magnificent functioning of the Federal 
Reserve Banking system the war could not have been financed, and 
therefore victory could not have been won. 

(m) The Federal Farm Loan Banking System, whereby the 
farmers of the country were relieved from the extortions which 
previously existed, and enabled to borrow money freely on long 
time and at as low rates of interest as are available to any other 
class. 

achievements in war. 

When this country was forced into the war against Germany 
in April, 1919, we were without an army of any consequence. 
There were only 82,000 regular soldiers. We had few ships. The 
Democratic Administration raised an army, and raised it quickly. 
It required a fleet of ships to carry food, supplies, and the army 
itself, across the seas to save the liberties of mankind. 

This country under a Democratic administration created, trained, 
transported and put into action 2,000,000 men to fight 3,000 miles 
away from home. It had 2,000,000 more in training in the mili- 
tary camps of the country ready to go when needed. It won the 
war. The army was brought home safely and in good condition. 



State Democratic Platform 289 

When the armistice was signed the United States, under Presi- 
dent Wilson, occupied the chief position of moral leadership of 
the world. 

Every newly liberated people looked to the United States as the 
light of the world. 

Every nation wearied by the long years of war, hoping for a 
revelation of triumphant Democracy, looked to the United States 
for an enduring peace. Every honest man in every country in the 
world looked to the United States as the one nation of modern 
times whose motives were above suspicion, whose achievements in 
the war were great and untainted by greed or the desire for con- 
quest, and saw here the one and only chance for the disinterested 
championship of peace and fair dealing among nations and the 
government of the world by just international laws, instead of by 
brute force. 

REPUBLICAN WAR ON WILSON. 

The Republican leaders, as soon as the armistice was signed, 
entered into a conspiracy to discredit the President in his peace 
negotiations. Personal spite and envy were everywhere discernible. 
Political animosity followed the President to the peace table. Slan- 
der, unjust criticism and threats of Senate opposition were con- 
stantly circulated, and finally the so-called Republican "round 
robin" was signed and communicated to the delegates assembled 
at the Peace Conference. Every unfair device which bitter parti- 
sanship could suggest was resorted to for the sole purpose of 
weakening the influence of the American peace delegates and if 
possible to make their task of negotiating a permanent and ac- 
ceptable peace impossible. 

At the very time when every consideration of fairness, every 
patriotic impulse, called for a whole-hearted and nonpartisan sup- 
port of the American delegation, personal spite and envy and 
political bias characterized the Republican leadership in the Senate, 
in their attitude toward the President and his work at the Peace 
table. 

When the President came back with the treaty, embodying the 
best thought of the world, including the covenant of the League of 
Nations, for the purpose of making future wars impossible, every 
natural impulse of the human heart everywhere was in accord with 
that purpose. But the Republican leaders were determined to 
discredit and embarrass the President, at whatever cost to America 

19 



290 Platforms of Political Parties 

and the world. At the outset they "packed and hand-picked" the 
Senate Committee on Foreign Relations for the express purpose of 
defeating the treaty. 

EFFORT TO DESTROY TREATY. 

Their whole course for the eight months they have been con- 
sidering the treaty has been definitely conceived and relentlessly 
pursued for the sole purpose of destroying that great instrument. 
These Republican leaders, for the time being, have succeeded in 
their unholy purpose. They have repudiated the treaty; they 
have wrecked the League of Nations; they have prevented world 
peace; they have repudiated a world leadership which all the 
civilized nations, including not only our allies, but also those 
who were not engaged in the war, according to America. 

A small number of narrow and prejudiced partisan men, con- 
stituting the Republican leadership in the Senate, have nullified 
what it took 2,000,000 American soldiers on the fields of France 
to accomplish. 

America demanded that the promises made to our soldiers in 
1917 and 1918 be kept — that there should be an end of war; that 
the fruits of victory should be garnered and kept forever. America 
demanded an enduring peace. The Republican leadership in the 
Senate has repudiated these promises. It has caused the United 
States to repudiate its associates in the war. It is now endeavor- 
ing to place this great nation that sacrificed so much for victory, 
in the shameful position of a moral coward, seeking to shirk its 
duty to itself and the oppressed peoples of the world; it is at 
this very moment endeavoring to humilate the country by having 
it go on its knees to Germany begging for a separate peace, upon 
such terms as the defeated War Lords of Germany may see fit to 
impose. 

SENTIMENT FAVORS LEAGUE. 

We believe that the enlightened sentiment of the men and 
women of this country is in favor of the ratification of the treaty 
with the covenant of the League of Nations as a virile part of it. 

We believe that the Democratic party is the only instrumentality 
available through which the American people can repudiate the 
disgraceful action of the Republican leaders; and at the same time 
forever put an end to such a military autocracy as was bred in 
Prussia and hurled upon the democracies of the world at the 
outbreak of the World War. 



State Democratic Platform 291 

We therefore approve the action of our President and our North 
Carolina Senators demanding the ratification of the treaty with 
Germany, including the covenant of the League of Nations, with- 
out destructive or nullifying reservations, or amendments. 

We denounce the Republican majority in Congress for its efforts 
at the present time to criticize the part which the American army 
and navy played in winning the war. The balance of the world, 
including not only our allies, but the enemies, have accorded to 
America the honor of finally turning the scales against the enemy 
and making victory possible. The only denial of our conspicuous 
part in this great achievement has come from the Republican party 
in Congress. 

MERCHANT MARINE. 

We heartily endorse the measure adopted by a Democratic Con- 
gress which has given us a great Merchant Marine, a great ship- 
building industry, and we favor all such additional measures of 
constructive or remedial legislation as may be necessary to main- 
tain and operate, under the American flag, the large tonnage we 
now have, and also to constantly increase that tonnage, until 
the American flag is supreme on the high seas. 

BUILDING UP SOUTH'S PORTS. 

We strongly commend the action of the Director General of 
the Railroad Administration in granting to our South Atlantic 
ports, including those in North Carolina, the same favorable rates 
upon freight for export as have always been enjoyed by the great 
seaports of the North Atlantic States, and thus removing unjust 
discriminations which have for so long hampered and prevented 
us from exporting our own products and those of the Western 
States through our home ports. 

We also endorse the action of the United States Shipping Board 
under President Wilson's administration for allocating to our 
Southern ports, including those of North Carolina, an ample num- 
ber of ships for export traffic, thereby making it possible to estab- 
lish regular shipping lines to and from these ports. 

We glory in the courage and fortitude of our soldiers who fought 
and helped to win the Great War, and we favor a generous policy 
toward them by our National Government. 



292 Platforms of Political Parties 

recommend ratification. 

This convention recommends to the Democratic members of the 
General Assembly of North Carolina that at the approaching ses- 
sion thereof they vote in favor of the ratification of the proposed 
nineteenth amendment to the Federal Constitution. 

STATE GOVERNMENT. 

In State affairs the Democratic party owes to the people re- 
sponsibility for twenty-one years of continuous control of our 
government, and presents its record of stewardship as the surest 
guarantee of its capacity and ambition to measure up to the highest 
standards of public service in solving the problems of the future 
and the greater State. 

The records of State administration headed successfully by Ay- 
cock, Glenn, Kitchen, Craig and Bickett — equaling the best tradi- 
tions of the past in noble purpose, and successfully meeting the 
problems of a rapidly growing and developing State — furnish 
abundant inspiration for those who come after them. 

We endorse the administration of Governor Thomas W. Bickett, 
and of all departments of the State Government. 

ECONOMY IN GOVERNMENT. 

Rigid economy in expenditure of public fu'xds has been a funda- 
mental tenet in Democratic faith and practice. The Democratic 
party came back into legislative control in this State in 1898 upon 
a platform pledging adherence to a policy of rigid economy. How 
well it has kept the faith during these years of continuous control 
is shown by the fact that, while keepiug up with the march of 
progress, Government still costs the people of this State less per 
capita than in any other State in the Union, save one, and exactly 
even with that one, as shown by carefully collected reports of the 
United States Census Department. 

Times have changed and North Carolina is no longer a poor State. 
Wealth has multiplied on every hand. Increased wealth brings 
increased opportunities and responsibilities to the State, but makes 
none the less imperative the fundamental principle, to which we 
declare renewed allegiance, that every dollar of public funds is a 
trust fund, to be administered with the utmost fidelity to the 
public interest. 



State Democratic Platform 293 

budget system. 

Further safeguarding economical expenditure of public funds the 
last General Assembly established the budget system, for future 
appropriations by the General Assembly, requiring that all demands 
for appropriations from the State Treasury, except for emergencies, 
be submitted to the scrutiny and investigation of a Budget Com- 
mission, in advance of the convening of the General Assembly. 

REDUCED TAXES. 

We approve the record of efficiency and economy which enabled 
the last General Assembly to reduce the tax on property for the 
use of the State. State expenditures have necessarily increased, as 
the State has every year enlarged the sphere of its service to the 
people, and with the declining value of money the cost of maintain- 
ing State institutions has necessarily increased but increased 
revenue has been secured by more efficient administration of other 
forms of tax, and the tax on property for the use of the State 
was reduced last year from 23 2-3 cents to 11 2-3 cents, and 
including both State and Pension tax was reduced from 27 2-3 
cents to 15 2-3 cents. Under the higher valuations this year this 
rate will be reduced to about 4 cents on each $100 of property. 

INCOME TAX AMENDMENT. 

We endorse the action of the General Assembly in submitting to 
the voters the Income Tax Amendment, in order to correct the 
inequalities of the present income tax law. 

No less fundamental as a public virtue than economy in expendi- 
ture of public funds is the necessity for equality of the tax burden 
upon every citizen. Careless administration of inadequate laws 
that result in gross inequality is no less vicious, in effect, and 
barely less intolerable, than practiced favoritism. 

We solemnly declare that the one purpose of the Revaluation Act, 
enacted at a time when the State is decreasing its revenue from 
the property tax, and by unanimous vote of the Democratic and 
Republican members of the General Assembly, is to equalize the tax 
burden between all the people of the State as nearly as careful 
administration of just laws can accomplish this great purpose, and 
we solemnly pledge that under Democratic control it will be used 
for this single purpose. We call upon all the people of the State 



294 Platforms of Political Parties 

to cooperate in this great purpose, to remove as far as possible 
all discriminations and inequalities in the listing and valuing of 
every class of property for taxation, to the end that every citizen 
may be required to contribute no more than his just share of the 
public burden, and we pledge the party to the enactment of ap- 
propriate amendatory legislation to correct any injustice to any 
citizen or class of citizens that may develop in the administration 
of our tax laws. 

LIMITATION OF TAX RATES. 

The Revaluation Act has justified its enactment by placing much 
property on the tax lists that has heretofore escaped taxation, and 
by correcting inequalities in revaluation, thereby relieving the 
honest taxpayer from unjust burden. It has for the first time shown 
the people of this and other States the wealth and resources of 
North Carolina, and has enabled the State to take her proper place 
among her sister States, all of which will be incalculable benefit 
to the State if the rate of taxation for State, county and munici- 
pality is properly safeguarded. The pledge of the General Assembly 
to reduce every tax rate levied in the State for any purpose in 
proportion to the revised valuations of property will be and must 
be kept inviolate and we pledge the General Assembly to submit 
an amendment to the Constitution, at its special session, when it will 
have full reports on revaluation sufficient to enable it to name a just 
and equitable rate, limiting the rate of tax that may be levied by 
the State, county and municipality that may not be exceeded ex- 
cept by vote of the people, and based on the principle of reducing 
the rate as the increase in valuation may justify and require. 

The special objects of Democratic management of State affairs 
have been and will continue to be: 

The care of the unfortunate and dependent classes. 

A progressive policy of public education. 

Protection of public health; and 

The development of a modern system of public highways. 

CARE FOR THE LTNFORTTJNATE. 

During this period of Democratic control every hospital in the 
State for the care of the insane has been greatly enlarged, the 
classes of patients received extended, and facilities for proper 
care and treatment improved and modernized. 



State Democratic Platform 295 

Entirely new institutions have been established and maintained 
by the State for the treatment and instruction of those afflicted 
with tuberculosis, the feebleminded, and for delinquent boys and 
wayward girls. A hospital for surgical treatment of deformed 
children is under construction, and a new home for white blind 
children is under contract. In the care of dependent and defective 
classes of her population, and of neglected or erring children, 
North Carolina is now one of the most advanced States in the 
Union. 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

The education of the youth is the State's greatest enterprise, 
and it is imperative that our educational system shall not only 
be maintained, but every means available should be used to 
strengthen every part of the public school system in order that 
it may serve the people most effectively. 

The last General Assembly gave a fine exhibit of the policy of 
the Democratic party to carry education to every class of people 
in every section of the State. It provided for the compulsory 
school term of at least six months, where heretofore it had been 
only four months; it increased the salaries of rural teachers in many 
counties 100 per cent, and in practically all at least 50 per cent; 
it provided ways and means for raising money with which to erect 
school buildings; it greatly improved the methods of teaching 
agriculture, home-making, and trades and industries, and many 
sections of the State are now for the first time giving vocational 
education to many people that can profit most by it; and finally 
recognizing the need of better trained teachers it provided the means 
of training schools for all teachers, thus making it possible to im- 
prove at once the instruction in the school and supply a better 
grade of teachers for the State. 

We recognize that a happy and prosperous citizenship must be 
an educated citizenship. The schools, therefore, must be so equipped 
that the youth may be properly taught and patrons must be en- 
couraged to take advantage of the schools. We favor, therefore, 
such an increase in the salaries of teachers and such a system of 
teacher training as will make it possible to preserve for future 
generations the best of our traditions and give the children of 
all succeeding generations the best instruction that a genuinely 
Christian citizenship can afford. 



296 Platforms of Political Parties 

We favor, also, all efforts to organize rural communities into 
large cooperative units where better school buildings and homes 
for teachers suitable to the needs of all classes may be given. 

Moreover, we favor all patriotic efforts of whatever kind to 
eliminate illiteracy from our State and pledge our best efforts to 
support every wise educational measure, to banish ignorance, to 
promote moral, social, and industrial progress, and to increase 
generally the teaching of true Americanism in our Commonwealth. 

PUBLIC HEALTH. 

As population becomes more dense, and as medical science has 
progressed in knowledge of the causes of disease, a more progres- 
sive policy in measures for protection of public health has become 
imperative. We approve the administration of all departments of 
the State Board of Health, and we particularly endorse the work 
of the Division of Medical Inspection of Schools, especially the 
conduct of the free surgical and dental clinics for treating de- 
fective school children; and we approve the appropriation by the 
State of funds direct to the State Board of Health sufficient for the 
expansion of this important service. 

STATE SYSTEM OF ROADS. 

We recognize that the establishment and maintenance of a 
system of State highways, connecting county seats and other 
principal towns of every county in the State, is a prime necessity 
of the growing demand of our urban and rural transportation. 

This system of highways should not only adequately provide for 
the main lines of travel through cities and centers of population, 
but should also provide easy routes of communication to those 
remote parts of the State that have been too long denied suitable 
means of transportation to our own centers of trade and social 
life, and who have been forced to seek those advantages beyond 
our State lines. 

We recognize that the system of State highways, both as to 
construction and maintenance, should be a State burden, with 
Federal assistance, and that the road funds of the several counties 
should be released for the building and maintaining of the neces- 
sary local roads to connect this State system with several com- 
munities in the counties. 



State Demockatic Platform 297 

We pledge the Democratic party to carry out this program as 
rapidly as possible without undue burden on the taxpayers of the 
. State. 

just freight rates. 

We endorse the efforts that have been made to further equalize 
interstate freight rates, and pledge our continued support of this 
cause until discriminations have been removed and until equal 
and just rates are established on a basis that will be just to shippers 
and that will permit common carriers to pei'form their full duties 
in furnishing adequate and efficient transportation. 

PROSPERITY WITH US. 

We rejoice in the prosperity that has come to all classes of our 
people: 

To the farmers, who have given to North Carolina fourth place 
among all the States of the Union in the total annual value of 
their agricultural products. 

To our manufacturing and commercial interests, that have given 
to North Carolina eighth place among the States in annual pro- 
duction of income. 

To the wage earner, in the higher level of wages and more just 
and universal recognition of rights. 

Under National Democratic administration a distinction has been 
drawn between labor and commodities, and the right of labor 
and producers of agricultural products to organize and bargain 
collectively, has been clearly recognized. 

The Democratic party can never be a class party. Its obligations 
must ever be to the whole people, fostering the harmonious develop- 
ment of every legitimate interest, but the just aspirations of these 
great classes are assured of our cooperation and assistance. 

It stands for, and will seek to promote, a policy of justice, har- 
mony and progress for labor and capital. It seeks not only the 
development of our material resources, but the enrichment of 
life and opportunity for all classes, and the realization of the 
lamented Aycock's ideal — "The equal right of every child born on 
earth to burgeon out all there is within him." 



298 Platforms of Political Parties 

to the new voter. 

With the record of achievement and faithful service, and with 
a constructive program upon every vital subject of State activity, 
we invite the confidence and the cooperation and support of all 
the people of the State, and appeal especially to the thoughtful 
consideration of the new voter, who comes to the polls for the first 
time in November, 1920, to join us in this enlightened program 
of progress and State building. 



STATE REPUBLICAN PLATFORM. 

We, the Republicans of North Carolina, in convention assembled 
at Greensboro, N. C, this March 3d, 1920, through our representa- 
tives, declare as follows: 

We reaffirm our allegiance and devotion to the time-honored prin- 
ciples of the Republican party and pledge ourselves to do all in 
our power to make these effective in the State of North Carolina 
and in the country generally. We are proud of the history of the 
Republican party and of its matchless leaders. 

NATIONAL ISSUES. 

We commend that brave and patriotic band of Republicans in 
the United States Senate who have prevented the confirmation of 
the League of Nations unamended as attempted to be forced upon 
the American people by President Wilson. We reaffirm our al- 
legiance to the principles contained in the warnings of George 
Washington against the American people entering into entangling 
alliances with foreign nations. 

We denounce the Democratic National administration; it has 
demoralized the industries of the country; its lack of foresight, 
want of preparedness and partisan conduct of the affairs of the 
nation during the World War have been inexcusable; it has been 
incompetent, wasteful and extravagant; it has failed to keep its 
promise to reduce the high cost of living. 

STATE ISSUES. 

Taxation. — We condemn in unmeasured terms the unfair methods 
by which the Democratic party in North Carolina is attempting 
to administer the taxation laws. We condemn the policy of basing 



State Republican Platform 299 

revaluation, of real and personal property in most instances upon 
inflated, fictitious or transitory values. The valuation of personal 
property as of the first day of January is unfair to many classes, 
particularly the farmer, and we favor the assessment of personal 
property as well as real property as of the first day of May. Such 
a system as is now being pursued is wholly opposed to a fair, 
honest and equitable system of taxation, which we favor. 

Political Divisions. — We demand such a readjustment of the Con- 
gressional Districts in North Carolina as will make them contigu- 
ous, compact, and in harmony with the principles of a Republican 
form of government, and in conformity with the Federal statutes 
governing the formation of such districts; we also demand such 
readjustments of Judicial and Senatorial Districts as will be in 
harmony with the same principles. 

Elections. — We favor the right of every person, who is a legal 
voter, to cast a ballot and have it duly counted; we stand for 
honest elections based on the Australian ballot, and to this end 
demand the repeal of the home-voting provisions of the Absentee 
Voter's Law. 

We believe that each Judicial District is entitled to not only 
nominate, but elect its own Judge of the Superior Court, and we 
favor legislation to discontinue the present system of election of 
judges by the voters of the entire State. 

Inasmuch as the Democratic practice of indiscriminate appoint- 
ment of justices of the peace by act of the legislature has resulted 
in bringing that ancient and honorable office into disrepute, we 
stand for the election of justices of the peace by the voters of their 
respective townships. 

Woman Suffrage. — We are unqualifiedly in favor of the ratifica- 
tion by the General Assembly of North Carolina of the proposed 
19th Amendment to the Federal Constitution granting the right of 
suffrage to women. 

Labor and Capital. — We stand for the just rights of both labor 
and capital. We believe that capital should be permitted and en- 
couraged, under the protection of just laws, to develop and expand 
our industries and to receive reasonable returns therefrom. We 
likewise believe that labor should be employed under conditions 
honorable to manhood and favorable to life and health, and at a 
rate of wages which, taking into account economic conditions, will 
insure a comfortable living for the working man together with 
the education of his children and that he should have the same 



300 Platforms of Political Parties 

opportunities for advancement and the enjoyment of life as are 
accorded to others; but we oppose any action, by either labor or 
capital, acting either in collusion or in antagonism to each other, 
which militates against the rights of all other American citizens. 
We hold that the interests of both labor and capital are subordi- 
nate to the public welfare and indeed that the public welfare shall 
always be supreme. 

Agriculture. — We pledge ourselves to do all in our power to ad- 
vance the well-being of the farmer; to secure for him a larger share 
of the profits of the product of the farm; to lower his burdens of 
taxation; to aid in construction and maintenance of roads for the 
quicker and cheaper transportation of his products, and for the 
betterment of the conditions of country life in general. 

Roads. — We most heartily favor the encouragement and devel- 
opment of a State-wide system of public roads and to that end 
favor a policy of State and Federal cooperation. 

Education. — We pledge our most hearty support to our public 
schools; we favor enlarging their scope and increasing their 
efficiency; we stand for better schoolhouses; better equipment, ex- 
tended courses of study and the furnishing of school books by the 
State to all public school pupils; we favor a substantial increase 
in the salaries of teachers and a larger equipment for their work; 
and we are unqualifiedly in favor of the election of all school boards 
by popular vote. 

Freight Rate Discrimination. — We denounce the betrayal of our 
State by the Democratic Corporation Commission in permitting con- 
tinuous railroad rate discrimination against the State of such a gross 
character, and of such volume as to drive hundreds of business enter- 
prises to other States and at the same time to levy upon our people 
an unjust and enormous burden of taxes in the form of excessive 
freight rates; and we pledge our members of the Legislature and 
our State officers to support any and all legislation necessary to 
bring about such relief. 



STATE SOCIALIST PLATFORM. 

The political expression of the platforms of all parties voice 
the economic interests of the people or class, which they subserve. 
The Socialist party assumes to represent the interest of the working 
class of field and industry only. 



State Socialist Platform 301 

As between the Democratic and Republican parties there is no 
essential difference, both standing for the competitive system. 
Dominant political parties in the present campaign confine their 
discussions to such issues as "The Capitalist League of Nations," 
and other equally unimportant issues, so far as the common people 
are concerned, unmindful of the fact that a large proportion of our 
population is being robbed by the capitalists system of four-fifths 
of its production, thus bringing destitution and crime as a natural 
correlative of the conditions under which they exist. 

The Socialist party stands for the abolition of the competitive 
system and substitution therefor of the collective, or cooperative, 
ownership of all means of production and distribution, which are 
used for exploitation. The Socialist party of North Carolina 
affirms its allegiance to the principles of International Socialism 
as enunciated in the National Platform of the Socialist party. 

While realizing that only by a complete revolution, or change, of 
the system of government now in vogue can we bring about the 
emancipation of the toiling masses, yet we are sensible to the fact 
that there are present immediate demands for the alleviation of 
conditions which now confront us. 

Therefore, we call upon all workers of industry and farm to 
unite with us for the establishing of a government and industry 
owned and controlled collectively by the workers, and as a means 
to the establishment of these things we make the present demands. 

POLITICAL. 

The right of every citizen whether male or female, without re- 
gard to race or color, to the full use of the ballot. The elimination 
of the poll tax qualification for voting. The full use of the 
Initiative, the Referendum and Recall. The gradual substitution 
of occupational representation for the present territorial representa- 
tion and the Australian ballot. 

INDUSTRIAL. 

The collective ownership and democratic management of all 
the essential, vital industries and natural resources of the State. 
The full right of all labor to organize and bargain collectively. 



302 Platforms of Political Parties 

Complete discontinuance of the use of the writ of the injunction 
and the use of the militia against labor, in the settlement of dis- 
putes. 

The paying of old age pensions and the insurance against in- 
dustrial accidents to an extent adequate to meet the cost of living, 
while keeping the person in his or her own home. 

agriculture. 

The paying into the State as taxes the full rental value of all 
lands held for speculation and investment. State aid to all renting 
and tenant farmers desiring to own land, to the end that all farm- 
ing may be carried on by those owning their own land. 

State aid in the marketing of the farmers product and the sup- 
plying of farm machinery and fertilizer at the lowest possible 
cost. 

SOCIAL. 

The consolidation of the school districts so as to make every 
school a standard high school, giving every child the opportunity 
of securing a high school education. Adequate pay to teachers in 
the schools so as to demand the best possible talent. The furnish- 
ing of free text books by the State. 

The construction and maintenance of a State-wide system of im- 
proved public roads. 

We especially favor that plank in the national platform in re- 
gard to a public banking system. 

The development by the State of natural resources, to the end 
of promoting the industrial and social conditions of the whole 
people. 

REVENUE. 

The taxation of income, inheritances and industry to an extent 
sufficient to meet all the requirements of the State. The exemption 
of all properties or incomes of the amount of $2,000.00 or less of 
any taxation whatever. 

These demands are to be regarded as only of temporary value 
during the period of transformation of the government and industry 
from capitalism to socialism, and the ultimate aims should not 
be lost sight of. The people should move onward to the conquest 
of all the public powers to an entire change of the present system 



State Socialist Platform 



303 



for one which will secure to them collectively all blessings of 
modern civilization, and of that culture hitherto unknown to 
history. 



Note — We extend our congratulations to the women of the State 
on their acquirement of the ballot after so long and courageous 
a fight, and call their attention to the fact that the Socialist party 
has since its inception stood unqualifiedly for the right of women 
to the full use of the ballot. They should realize that the end is 
not merely the acquirement of the use of the ballot, but to complete 
emancipation of all workers from the tyranny of industry and we 
call upon them to unite with us for the securing of these aims. 



PART IX. 



ELECTION RETURNS. 



1. Vote for President by States, 1912-1920. 

2. Vote for President by Counties, 1912-1920. 

3. Vote by Counties for Governor in Democratic Pri- 

maries, 1916-1920. 

4. Vote for State Officers in Democratic Primaries, 

1920. 

5. Vote for Governor by Counties, 1912-1920. 

6. Vote for United States Senator, 1918-1920. 

7. Vote for Members of Congress, 1918-1920. 

8. Vote for Constitutional Amendments by Counties, 

1920. 



20 



306 



Election Retckns 



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Election Returns 



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310 



Election Retubns 



TOTE FOR PRESIDENT BY COUNTIES, 1912-1920. 



Counties 



Alamance 

Alexander 

Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick. __ 
Buncombe... 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell 

Camden 

Carteret. 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 

Cumberland.. 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe... 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell. 

Jackson. 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 



3, 

2 

1, 

2,( 

1,( 



1012 



a 






032 


150 


852 


523 


652 


208 


,487 


125 


,643 


478 


217 


138 


605 


295 


571 


43 


,140 


33 


777 


280 


,716 


426 


,365 


48 


738 


389 


627 


482 


303 


40 


153 


218 


705 


154 


110 


203 


652 


70 


906 


734 


663 


60 


372 


17 


351 


81 


668 


155 


819 


79 


678 


235 


622 


6 


397 


238 


484 


1,509 


823 


810 


,-i, 


33 


197 


124 


851 


102 


042 


1,689 


856 


71 


333 


244 


61S 


95 


416 


261 


561 


192 


894 


124 


830 


460 


300 


42 


364 


14S 


068 


354 


092 


801 


742 


61 


626 


63 


636 


76 


528 


392 


210 


315 


757 


1,335 


635 


35 


862 


451 



1,637 
497 

256 
118 

1,241 
950 
548 
61 
511 
456 

2,285 



,288 

1,584 

1,167 

62 

537 

45 

1,872 

1,343 

477 

77 

387 

943 

892 

190 

,s7ii 

8 

80 

1,143 

345 

1,066 

1,204 

77 

1,262 

346 

1,279 

17(i 

223 

343 

152 

1,979 

135 

1,035 

861 

380 

105 

40 

300 

1,047 

729 

1 , 083 

125 

60 



Q 



10 



1 

2 

61 



101 



10 



10 



3 
1 

49 

325 

1 

46 



43 



22 



2,476 

954 

796 

2,046 

1,898 

360 

1,957 

1,461 

1,261 

810 

4,229 

1,621 

2.0S0 

1 . 725 

368 

1,165 

849 

2,569 

1.S3!I 

1,362 

610 

400 

2,764 

2,143 

1,780 

1,971 

945 

470 

2,675 

910 

1 . 824 

2,463 

2.02S 

4,115 

2,057 

3,019 

826 

476 

1,713 

1,066 

4,616 

2,312 

1,992 

2,403 

1,166 

977 

7m I 

840 

3,335 

1,306 

3, 4 lis 

712 

1,054 



1910 



SB 



2,278 

1,187 

641 

301 

1,930 

1,158 

1.274 

116 

651 

989 

3,830 

1,474 

2.314 

1,659 

86 

1,246 

338 

2,614 

1.501 

1.362 

91 

453 

1,497 

1,327 

542 

1,217 

87 

363 

2,801 



245 

1,527 

1,837 

135 

3,585 

396 

2,542 

309 

460 

648 

294 

3,670 

299 

1,603 

1 , 523 

1,795 

209 

110 

277 

2,073 

1,288 

2,857 

233 

573 



- 



22 



10 



24 
238 



II 



1920 



o 
O 



5,255 
2.045 
1,409 
3,175 
3,431 
397 
3.522 
1,840 
1,939 
1.253 
10,167 
3,262 
4,418 
2,931 
540 
2,070 
1,239 
5,404 
3.1S6 
1,761 
1.091 
755 
5,181 
3,111 
3.413 
3.233 
000 
825 
797 
624 
398 
4,646 
3,343 
8,123 
2,742 
7,148 
796 
644 
2.622 
1.64(1 
9,615 
3,429 
919 
229 
496 
104 
266 
1,134 
6,470 
2,385 
6.030 

(Mil 

2,327 



Vote for President 



311 







VOTE FOR PRESIDENT— Continued 












1912 


1916 


1920 


Counties 


c 
o 

1 


OS 


> 

o 
co 

o 
o 


m 

Q 


c 
a 
O 


c 
o 
m 

1 


X. 
bo 
3 


u 
<B 

ha 

u 

CD 

pq 


3 

- 


o 
O 


M 


Lenoir. 


1,568 

1,280 

1,020 

897 

1,251 

1,037 

3,967 

385 

1,012 

1,167 

1,862 

2,021 

1,625 

901 

997 

694 

972 

967 

647 

820 

2,303 

675 

2,665 

1,319 

2,706 

1,939 

2,748 

2,180 

1,265 

751 

1,702 

1,144 

1,919 

766 

631 

297 

1,786 

1.204 

3,996 

987 

503 

933 

2,293 

1,636 

1,741 

713 

1,112 


122 

49 

134 

430 

229 

343 

284 

203 

144 

252 

172 

140 

57 

66 

172 

74 

77 

19 

228 

784 

347 

153 

370 

82 

154 

694 

280 

82 

84 

9 

105 

1,450 

2,277 

220 

107 

224 

")2 

168 

282 

112 

384 

420 

95 

331 

82 

791 

60 


347 
1,066 

841 
1,320 

34 

773 

533 

716 

846 

678 

576 

107 

53 

550 

821 

329 

184 

268 

44 

184 

433 

501 

1,809 

174 

660 

778 

1,537 

1,553 

2,520 

75 

1,548 

210 

608 

858 

537 

100 

457 

234 

1,517 

46 

149 

819 

1,090 

2,571 

561 

599 

1,336 






1,666 
1,521 
1,146 

972 
1,472 
1,274 
4,508 

462 
1,222 
1,337 
2,189 
2,355 
1,518 
1.197 
1 , 230 

710 
1,177 

970 

645 

953 
2,839 

679 
2,747 
1,553 
2,894 
2,316 
3,053 
2,445 
1,369 

938 
2,110 
1,56.9 
2,029 

829 

821 

416 
2,662 
1,451 
4,627 
1,217 

651 
1,141 
2,625 
1,632 
2,052 

879 
1,273 


667 

1,369 

1,069 

1,965 

281 

1,218 

1,257 

1,298 

1,196 

1,047 

826 

492 

45 

785 

1,158 

527 

270 

400 

288 

917 

719 

750 

3,031 

650 

1,453 

1,957 

2,320 

1,871 

2,727 

137 

1,941 

1,852 

2,977 

1,128 

841 

392 

702 

558 

2,461 

227 

486 

1,352 

1,446 

3,470 

730 

1,721 

1,082 


2 
8 

22 
19 

18 

1 

5 
21 
12 

4 
5 

3 


'] 

2 
4 

"i 

1 

~3 

4 

2 


2,560 
3,331 
2,177 
1,340 
2,561 
2,809 
11,313 
697 
2,321 
2,679 
4,031 
4,102 
2,305 
1,557 
1,993 
1,286 
1,736 
1,580 
1,042 
1,646 
4,196 
1,361 
5,110 
3,341 
6,183 
4,507 
6,421 
5,101 
2,426 
1,705 
3,843 
1,999 
3,547 
1,434 
1,542 
718 
4,168 
2,401 
8,020 
1,865 
1,116 
1,721 
4,794 
2,843 
3,496 
1,350 
2,280 


1,153 


Lincoln.. 

Macon 


3 


12 


3,137 
2,050 


Madison 






3,616 


Martin 






530 


McDowell 

Mecklenburg... 
Mitchell 


10 
38 





2,561 
3,421 
2,153 


Montgomery.. 






2,304 


Moore 


17 
42 





2,279 


Nash 

New Hanover . 


1,556 
712 


Northampton. 






165 








853 


Orange 


4 

20 





1,737 


Pamlico 

Pasquotank 


1,008 
507 


Pender 






699 


Perquimans 






487 


Person 






1,566 


Pitt 


3 
1 
6 
3 


~~8~ 


864 


Polk 


1,326 


Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 


6,297 
1,124 

2,220 


Rockingham.. 
Rowan 


51 

50 

7 


9 
7 
1 


3,605 
4,888 


Rutherford 

Sampson 


4,015 
5,353 


Scotland. 






306 


Stanlv 






4,312 


Stokes 


22 


1 


2,926 
5,170 


Surry 


Swain... . _ 






2,239 


Transylvania.. 
Tyrrell 


1 

4 

19 


.... 


1,680 
532 


Union 


1,404 
816 


Vance 


Wake 


12 


.... 


3,653 


Warren 


295 


Washington 






971 


Watauga 

Wayne. 

Wilkes... 


2 
16 


~9~ 


2,631 
2,822 
6,451 


Wilson... 






1.374 


Yadkin 






3,301 


Yancey 






2,596 










Totals 


144,507 


29,139 


69,130 


1,025 


117 


1 OX, 383 


1 2d, SOU 


509 


:.:: 


305,447 


232, SIX 



Eugene V. Debs (Socialist) Electors, 446. 
Aaron S. Watkins (Prohibitionist) Electors, 17. 



312 



Election Returns 



VOTE BY COUNTIES FOR GOVERNOR IN DEMOCRATIC 
PRIMARIES,* 1916-1920 



Counties 



Alamance 

Alexander... 

Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie. .. 

Bladen 

Brunswick... 
Buncombe... 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay. 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 

Cumberland. 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe.. 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene... 

Guilford. 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 



1916 




1920 




1920 






First Primary 


Second Primary 


43 

+9 


o 

J3 


c 
o 






a 

o 


M 

0) 


CI 


M 










3 


s 


3 

Q 


o 


as 
O 


M 


Eh 

O 
,=5 


O 


386 


67 


134 


488 


182 


358 


488 


214 


14 


187 


183 


14 


375 


203 


124 


18 


131 


60 


60 


320 


200 


1,458 


276 


590 


834 


569 


986 


1,082 


200 


22 


214 


107 


45 


429 


173 


131 


16 


18 


157 


9 


41 


3(R 


708 


376 


438 


1,086 


73 


579 


1,220 


971 


689 


694 


229 


350 


627 


517 


644 


306 


694 


229 


316 


1,037 


334 


216 


247 


91 


306 


172 


209 


445 


1,398 


1,943 


1,873 


1,443 


217 


2,052 


1,967 


398 


531 


633 


146 


55 


737 


359 


295 


89 


303 


149 


284 


532 


321 


347 


181 


270 


262 


31 


361 


443 


368 


84 


161 


277 


106 


142 


158 


710 


123 


449 


427 


136 


382 


273 


509 


161 


89 


219 


• 375 


292 


433 


614 


111 


891 


292 


343 


1,033 


401 


697 


212 


535 


349 


319 


689 


390 


231 


90 


147 


195 


17 


315 


106 


271 


78 


282 


247 


137 


232 


186 


98 


32 


101 


13 


26 


103 


26 


1,012 


671 


46 


2,219 


521 


390 


3,248 


1,081 


826 


806 


699 


420 


1,011 


1,322 


563 


268 


1,263 


718 


124 


1,451 


951 


644 


968 


413 


957 


443 


840 


1,323 


280 


406 


408 


99 


184 


450 


135 


190 


46 


202 


68 


30 


189 


13 


1,115 


237 


553 


281 


833 


886 


752 


316 


39 


160 


50 


237 


277 


211 


662 


436 


265 


697 


133 


741 


757 


968 


605 


752 


608 


410 


1,106 


5S4 


353 


1,181 


1,254 


713 


457 


1,604 


767 


663 


295 


514 


1,094 


510 


936 


1,410 


1,528 


527 


1,323 


715 


547 


1,349 


632 


1,186 


364 


956 


1,258 


279 


1,375 


1,494 


118 


41 


128 


196 


120 


189 


145 


185 


19 


53 




9 


100 




818 


565 


518 


627 


282 


847 


713 


688 


73 


209 


373 


70 


284 


576 


1,212 


1,010 


497 


692 


1,298 


1,031 


1,307 


1,495 


396 


359 


1,177 


607 


915 


999 


640 


375 


368 


595 


542 


783 


682 


1,258 


704 


1,674 


395 


113 


1,162 


553 


261 


313 


378 


228 


22 


478 


257 


5S2 


258 


250 


576 


213 


406 


592 


283 


316 


450 


177 


233 


469 


189 


178 


139 


92 


254 


201 


492 


444 


1,555 1 


915 1 


1,578 


478 


313 


1,959 


1,011 



*The Republican party held no gubernatorial primary. 



Vote for Governor 



313 



VOTE FOR GOVERNOR, 1916-1920— Continued 



Counties 



Jackson 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin.. 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg... 

Mitchell 

Montgomery... 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover. 
Northampton. 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 

Pender 

Perquimans 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham.. 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania- 
Tyrrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington... 

Watauga.. 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 



1916 



3 



Totals 63,121 



479 
980 
238 
480 
599 
559 
280 
148 
197 
237 
742 
93 
558 
516 
619 
813 
267 
458 
374 
238 
746 
586 
306 
363 
869 
191 
811 
294 
830 
940 
800 
,093 
435 
583 
232 
245 
394 
254 
81 
63 
,850 
865 
,483 
888 
172 
201 
,030 
549 
922 
237 
111 



-a 



.a 

M 
3 
03 

Q 



76 
848 
102 
140 
650 

74 

20 

194 

280 

268 

1,207 

42 
114 
486 
1,021 
1,587 
428 
236 
199 

95 
379 
348 
117 
227 
1,052 
174 
311 
394 
669 
376 
755 
530 

73 
300 

76 

39 
148 
121 
209 

20 
303 
536 
1,765 
471 
164 
5 
441 
411 
017 

59 
141 



37.017 



1920 
First Primary 



397 

1,154 
464 
458 
240 
227 
175 
215 
537 
309 

3,022 
108 
205 
298 
953 
615 
398 
418 
85 
201 
188 
215 
69 
62 
896 
177 

1,031 
853 

1,974 
76 
733 
453 
194 
401 
316 
154 
315 
210 
245 
11 
528 
215 

1,090 

485 

36 

92 

690 

915 

1,161 
130 
386 



a 

u 

c3 

o 



297 
577 
251 
230 
900 
543 
73 
226 
274 
421 
496 
160 
49 
69 
521 

1,097 

1,023 
313 
358 
327 
332 
268 
435 
170 

1,392 
138 
147 
274 

2,536 
546 

1,104 

1,158 
183 
205 
333 
103 
294 
98 
91 
146 

1,152 
500 

2,281 
541 
247 
25 
917 
117 
292 
130 
464 



49,070 I 48,983 



03 
Ph 



30 
178 

32 
346 
290 
398 

21 

22 
118 

21 
2,048 

14 
615 
697 
321 
482 
399 

98 
256 

28 
350 
430 
141 
164 
792 
1 
811 
686 
615 
290 
535 

88 
162 
276 
468 
100 
377 

16 

17 

31 
898 
398 
1,593 
315 
137 

43 
462 

61 
354 
140 

11 



30,180 



1920 
Second Primary 



266 

1,924 

453 

788 

530 

364 

350 

269 

632 

422 

3,443 

62 

474 

695 

1,395 

1,167 

957 

431 

181 

246 

420 

691 

112 

180 

1,457 

256 

1,373 

1,077 

1,861 

447 

856 

613 

331 

557 

721 

384 

580 

286 

345 

51 

791 

376 

2,131 

678 

151 

271 

1,106 

1,435 

1,640 

261 

285 



70,332 



03 
O 



339 

1,240 
378 
368 

1,050 
595 
224 
147 
361 
507 

1,506 
182 
304 
202 
873 
735 
835 
298 
440 
220 
279 
235 
219 
277 

1,480 
177 
512 
765 

2,472 
718 



8(8 

1,029 

206 

424 

464 

197 

715 

78 

286 

107 

1,463 

412 

2,585 

542 

124 

24 

955 

186 

823 

195 

392 



61,073 



314 Election Returns 

YOTE FOR STATE OFFICERS IN DEMOCRATIC PRIMARIES, 

1920. 

FOR GOVERNOR— 
First Primary: 

Cameron Morrison 49,070 

O. Max Gardner,. 48,983 

I!. N. Page .30,180 

Second Primary: 

Cameron Morrison 70,332 

O. Max Gardner 61,073 

FOR LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR— 

W. B. Cooper 64,225 

F. C. Harding 51,605 

FOR STATE TREASURER— 
B. R. Lacy 83,914 

B. F. Renfrow 30,686 

FOR COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE— 

W. A. Graham 75,192 

H. E. Thompson 37,845 

FOR COMMISSIONER OF LABOR AND PRINTING— 

M. L. Shifman .73,505 

D. P. De!llinger 35,227 

FOR STATE AUDITOR— 
First Primary: 

Baxter Durham 36,461 

J. P. Cook 27,280 

D. A. McDonald ..18,479 

D. L. Boyd 16,427 

W. T. Woodley -- ..13,042 

Second Primary: 

Baxter Durham '— 64,697 

J. P. Cook.... 52,682 

FOR INSURANCE COMMISSIONER— 

Stacy W. Wade_... 75,810 

John Underwood 25,874 

C. T. McCleneghan 16,792 

FOR ASSOCIATE JUSTICE OF SUPREME COURT— 
First Primary: 

W. A. Hoke 59,749 

W. P. Stacy 34,633 

B. F. Long 33,843 

W. J. Adams... . 33,141 

N. G. Gulley 26,706 

O. H. Guion 

N. J. Rouse 10,710 

Second Primary: 

W. P. Stacy 71,437 

B. F. Long 49,110 

FOR UNITED STATES SENATOR— 

Lee S. Overman ....94,806 

A. L. Brooks 23,869 



YOTE IN REPUBLICAN PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY. 

for president- 
Leonard Wood. 5,603 

Hiram Johnson 15,375 

*Figures not obtainable at time of publication. 



Vote for Governor 



315 



VOTE FOR GOVERNOR BY COUNTIES, 1912 1920. 





1912 


1916 


1920 


Counties 


M 

'3 

u 

O 

0) 

o 
o 

hi 


-tJ 
-+J 

<D 

03 

CO 
03 

s 

o 
.a 
fa 


S- 

M 


w 
cu 

M 
TJ 
O 

w 

H 

W 

10 

"72" 

"78" 

2 

5 

12 

"~2" 

2 

—y 

"3" 

5 
15 

3 

6 

49 

301 

1 
39 

"39" 

"16" 
4 

2 

.... 


-P 

M 


3 

03 

s 



A 

fa 


>> 

<v 

c 

c 

3 
<j 
m 

c 

03 

tH 

fa 


1 

l-H 

3 

"63" 

"3" 

"l§" 
3 

""4" 
13 

"l3" 

8 

""6" 

25 

215 

"47" 

1 

9 
.... 

6 


c 


'C 

O 

a 



s 

03 



5,274 
2,000 
1,417 
3,340 
3,628 

403 
3,559 
1,886 
1,991 
1,311 
10,412 
3,314 
4,394 
2,953 

565 
2,094 
1,250 
5,424 
3,219 
1,762 
1,129 

763 
5,116 
3,313 
3,464 
3,316 

974 

846 
4,907 
1,634 
3,432 
4,706 
3,395 
8,250 
2,786 
7,220 

812 

655 
2,662 
1,664 
!l,f»!ll 
3,540 
3,902 
4,227 
2,525 
1,165 
1,266 
1,170 
6,351 


OJ 
■X 
u 
03 
fa 

t-s 



Alamance 


2,168 

871 

676 

1,513 

1,700 

227 

1,835 

1,636 

1,229 

827 

3,875 

1,375 

1,864 

1,661 

317 

1,165 

830 

2,136 

1,683 

949 

695 

381 

2,398 

1,894 

1,859 

1,788 

629 

391 

2,505 

835 

1,829 

2,264 

1,823 

3,119 

1,941 

2,363 

640 

431 

1,670 

921 

3,874 

2,334 

1,409 

2,087 

1,086 

764 

658 

685 

2,649 


324 

852 

366 

1-35 

1,027 

172 

293 

28 

43 

380 

1,045 

91 

1,094 

593 

29 

222 

202 

300 

155 

1,165 

48 

9 

114 

343 

118 

499 

21 

243 

2,118 

1,082 

46 

349 

93 

2,646 

113 

390 

110 

411 

289 

163 

661 

40 

208 

561 

695 

88 

24 

59 

512 


1,416 

141 

103 

80 

641 

847 

482 

57 

414 

201 

1,493 

1,211 

782 

828 

48 

489 

10 

1,763 

1,219 

74 

60 

386 

845 

424 

135 

480 

4 

14 

567 

68 

970 

932 

43 

312 

202 

1,076 

100 

72 

198 

99 

1,685 

120 

901 

625 

805 

53 

32 

236 

1,000 


2,483 

922 

784 

2,047 

1,889 

324 

1,949 

1,475 

1,269 

825 

4,487 

1,585 

2,091 

1,724 

374 

1,142 

838 

2, 647 

1,813 

1,003 

604 

398 

2,705 

2,192 

1,787 

1,996 

921 

458 

2,647 

901 

1,836 

2,505 

2,018 

4,108 

2,092 

3,019 

80(1 

475 

1,702 

1,062 

4,588 

2,337 

1,979 

2,376 

1,154 

967 

794 

792 

3,290 


2,293 
1,208 

616 

274 

1,950 

1,283 

1,256 

60 

598 

981 
3,835 
1,484 
2,308 
1,707 
64 
1,263 

342 

2,685 

1,514 

1,361 

80 

464 
1,469 
1,245 

507 

1,173 

72 

375 
2,814 
1,259 
1,516 
1,786 

117 
3,629 

381 
2,531 

287 

460 

642 

280 
3,643 

246 
1,624 
1,526 
1,794 

178 
85 

284 
2,076 


4,624 


Alexander 


2,643 


Alleghany 


1,187 


Anson _ .. 


422 


Ashe 


3,800 


Avery.- 


2,497 


Beaufort 

Bertie .. 


2,212 
147 


Bladen 


1,010 


Brunswick 

Buncombe 


1,381 

8,005 


Burke-. . 


3,566 


Cabarrus 


5,226 


Caldwell 

Camden . 


3,222 
116 


Carteret 


2,292 


Caswell 


496 


Catawba 


5,912 


Chatham 


2,895 
2,474 


Cherokee 


Chowan 


162 


Clay 


913 


Cleveland... 


2,978 


Columbus 


1 655 


Craven .... 


604 


Cumberland .. 


1,849 


Currituck 


69 


Dare . 


624 


Davidson 


5,844 
2,583 
2,704 


Davie 


Duplin 


Durham 


3,494 
292 


Edgecombe. ____ 


Forsyth 


6 759 


Franklin ... 


552 


Gaston . . 


5,749 


Gates . 


294 


Graham 


916 


Granville 


793 


Greene 


427 


Guilford 


7,788 


Halifax... 


413 


Harnett 


3,318 
2,962 


Havwood 


Henderson . 


3,604 


Hertford. 


210 


Hoke 


156 


Hyde 


475 


Iredell.. 


4,419 



316 



Election Returns 



VOTE FOR GOVERNOR. 


1912-1920— Continued 










1912 


1916 


1920 


Counties 


bo 

'3 
O 

<a 

o 
o 


0) 

CD 
CO 

Cfi 

a 

a 
o 

H 


en 

o> 

C3 

oj 
-a 

9 
1-5 


CO 

CD 

bD 

-a 
o 


M 

s 

EC 

03 

3 



A 

H 


>> 

CD 

a 

< 

a 

c3 
H 


CD 

S3 


a 


CD 

'u 

s 




s 

03 
O 


U 

"5 

1-3 




1,233 

2,959 

694 

888 

1,666 

1,324 

1,056 

925 

1,264 

1,062 

4,110 

412 

1,132 

1,208 

1,922 

1,990 

1,672 

904 

1,096 

703 

1,011 

988 

686 

847 

2,420 

676 

2,828 

1,357 

3,103 

1,997 

2,839 

2,241 

1,289 

774 

1,742 

1,168 

2,006 

799 

640 

382 

1,724 

1,223 

4,221 

1,044 

509 

981 

2,390 

1,622 

1,877 

774 

1,150 


764 
1,761 

76 

95 
214 

67 
314 
842 
231 
886 
452 
177 
291 
464 
200 
211 

43 

55 
516 
108 

61 

21 
310 
811 
457 
621 
475 
116 
211 
899 
808 
165 
176 
8 
600 
1,585 
2,529 
789 
310 
309 
114 
199 
593 

88 
471 
723 
131 
528 

65 
1,068 

50 


220 

507 

66 

386 

201 

1,015 

614 

900 

18 

189 

342 

717 

668 

410 

426 

69 

42 

444 

468 

279 

117 

234 

42 

62 

239 

5 

1,759 

85 

344 

453 

961 

1,423 

2,366 

48 

1,005 

48 

288 

246 

321 

43 

326 

151 

943 

22 

39 

455 

948 

2,332 

442 

426 

1,028 


4 

"b 

"l 
30 

~18" 
39 

" _ 2" 
17 

"i 

1 

"~4~ 

"57" 
27 

_.__ 

21 

6 

.... 

"19" 

1 
10 

2 


1,302 

3,227 

705 

1,049 

1,696 

1,502 

1,126 

941 

1,463 

1,268 

4,403 

462 

1,225 

1,361 

2,174 

2,499 

1,462 

1,144 

1,213 

700 

1,168 

973 

631 

937 

2,762 

683 

2,761 

1,606 

3,068 

2,288 

3,001 

2,432 

1,326 

944 

2,105 

1,543 

2,022 

794 

821 

410 

2,758 

1,459 

4,719 

1,279 

651 

1,134 

2,627 

1,595 

2,050 

858 

1,263 


1,293 

2,946 

231 

581 

653 

1,386 

1,053 

1,991 

270 

1,234 

1,163 

1,297 

1,188 

1,029 

826 

251 

30 

804 

1,159 

530 

229 

353 

286 

929 

740 

743 

3,037 

593 

1,435 

1,978 

2,454 

1,871 

2,758 

161 

1,945 

1,871 

2,982 

1,141 

836 

388 

635 

537 

2,298 

133 

486 

1,381 

1,425 

3,471 

676 

1,738 

1,101 


19" 

20 

"T 

~~2~ 

"35" 

"2 

13 

20 

9 

"13" 

2 

2 


2,398 
6,076 

999 
2,319 
2,882 
3,326 
2,101 
1,330 
2,577 
2,821 
11,221 

736 
2,305 
2,708 
4,072 
4,342 
2,329 
1,578 
2,081 
1,291 
1,816 
1,611 
1,057 
1,629 
4,156 
1,387 
5,066 
3,219 
6,185 
4,469 
6,427 
5,092 
2,428 
1,671 
3.901 
2,001 
3,569 
1,418 
1.549 

717 
4,025 
2,459 
S,145 
1,891 
1,115 
1,753 
4,847 
2,884 
3,530 
1,355 
2,306 


2,354 




5,336 


Jones 


328 




1,155 




1,024 


Lincoln 


3,127 




2,037 


Madison.. 


3,609 


Martin 


496 


McDowell 


2,563 




3,360 


Mitchell 


2,235 




2,309 




2,242 


Nash . 


1,518 


New Hanover... 

Northampton 

Onslow 


472 
126 
822 




1,786 




1,011 




417 




672 




480 




1,582 


Pitt 


834 


Polk -- 


1,349 




6,243 




1,134 


Robeson 

Rockingham 


2,111 
3,592 




4,853 




4,002 




5,333 




296 


Stanly 


4,273 


Stokes 


2,899 




5,173 




2,252 




1,659 


Tvrrell 


535 




1,499 




804 


Wake . .. 


3,349 


Warren. . . 


244 


Washington 


971 


Watauga. 


2,600 




2,776 


Wilkes 


6,453 


Wilson 


1,296 


Yadkin 


3,295 




2,574 






Totals.. ._ 


149.975 


43,625 


49,930 


944 


167,761 


120,157 


590 


308,151 


230,175 



W. B. Taylor, Socialist, 336. 



Vote for U. S. Senator 



317 



TOTE FOR U. S. SENATOR, 


1918-1920. 








1918 


1920 


Counties 


a 

m 

a 
o 

a 
a 

a 


-a 

cS 
01 

A 
o 

o 

c 
o 

>-5 


cS 

S 

a 

i-l 


c 
o 

"o 

tfl 

H 




2,528 

821 

687 

1,666 

1,778 

198 

1,704 

1,159 

951 

385 

4,104 

1,352 

1,840 

1,670 

305 

1,064 

872 

2,323 

1,716 

903 

608 

370 

2,410 

1,346 

1,561 

1,344 

507 

364 

2,535 

674 

1,672 

2,030 

1,568 

4,027 

1,597 

3,164 

446 

371 

1,474 

720 

3,747 

1,746 

1,865 

2,085 

984 

693 

769 

570 

3,398 


2,241 

1,144 

475 

148 

1,875 

690 

688 

28 

349 

520 

3,281 

1,510 

2,065 

1,542 

58 

992 

228 

2,485 

1,422 

1,120 

46 

428 

1,116 

529 

256 

356 

34 

293 

2,680 

1,216 

1,051 

1,144 

50 

2,917 

188 

2,120 

102 

335 

344 

132 

2,394 

89 

1,373 

1,144 

1,450 

80 

32 

136 

1,664 


5,289 
2,045 
1,426 
3,375 
3,630 

404 
3-, 564 
1,887 
2,000 
1,317 
10,413 
3,311 
4,429 
2,966 

563 
2,094 
1,253 
5,436 
3,229 
1 , 753 
1,133 

763 
5,202 
3,337 
3,463 
3,341 

974 

845 
4,933 
1,636 
3,442 
4,772 
3,413 
8,309 
2,799 
7,236 

812 

653 
2,671 
1,662 
9,808 
3,547 
3,918 
4,225 
2,522 
1,168 
1,274 
1,169 
6,493 


4,604 




2,639 


Alleghany. 


1,182 




423 




3,793 




2,496 




2,214 


Bertie 


145 


Bladen ._ 


1,003 




1,378 




7,914 




3,562 




5,208 


Caldwell 


3,208 




118 


Carteret. 


2,289 


Caswell 


493 




5,907 




2,894 




2,473 




172 


Clay 


913 




2,945 




1,639 


Craven. 


603 




1,836 




67 


Dare . . .. 


624 


Davidson. . 


5,819 


Davie 


2,579 


Duplin .. 


2,699 




3,472 


Edgecombe 


247 


Forsyth . 


6,717 




540 


Gaston.. 


5,743 


Gates 


294 




914 




793 




427 


Guilford 


7,733 




404 


Harnett 


3,312 




2,962 


Henderson . 


3,498 


Hertford 


210 


Hoke. 


154 


Hyde 


476 


Iredell 


4,384 



318 



Election Retubns 



VOTE FOR U. S. SENATOR, 1918-1920— Continued 








1918 


1920 


Counties 


Q 

3 
S 
E 

02 

§ 

fa 

1,040 
3,213 

639 

902 
1 . 295 
1,438 
1,148 

601 
1,313 
1,198 
3,995 

311 
1,116 

1.1 VI 

1,579 

1,177 

1,121 

930 

741 

522 

635 

897 

486 

791 

2,569 

657 

2,655 

1,513 

2,576 

2,001 

2,871 

2,198 

1,026 

803 

1,977 

1,345 

1,815 

647 

790 

308 

2,157 

1 , 230 

3,740 

1,081 

511 

1,005 

2,245 

1,720 

1,416 

607 

1.108 


John M. Morehead 
(R.) 


c 

C3 

S 

'a 
> 

O 

QQ 

o 


a 



O 




915 

2,594 

134 

568 

260 

1,372 

945 

1,378 

230 

1,183 

782 

779 

950 

830 

354 

31 

22 

418 

641 

400 

114 

346 

191 

814 

333 

671 

2,884 

349 

625 

1,733 

2,099 

1,712 

2,418 

84 

1,786 

1,724 

2,577 

949 

7.17 

246 

267 

294 

1,318 

71 

451 

1,274 

963 

2.752 

290 

1,495 

794 


2,399 

li.ll.M 
1,000 
2.364 
2, SSI 
3,337 
2,106 
1 , 335 
2.574 
2,817 
11,542 
737 
2,337 
2,747 

MM 

4,342 

2.330 
1,574 
2,127 
1,291 

1,817 
1,606 
1,060 
1,656 
4,201 
1 . 390 
5.078 
3,368 
6,297 
4.512 
6,438 
5,111 
2, 4:1:; 
1 . 702 
3,911 
2.009 
3,581 
1,419 
1 . 549 
717 
4,203 
2,508 
8,307 
1 . 894 
1,115 
1,757 
4,867 
2,884 
3,539 
1,360 
2,306 


2,354 




5,332 


Jones 


337 




1,124 




1,021 




3,125 




2,033 




3,610 




498 


McDowell -- - 


2,568 




3,253 


Mitchell . -- 


2,554 




2.294 


Moore - - 


2.223 


Nash . . 


1,511 




17.' 




127 




821 


Orange - - -- 


1 . 727 


Pamlico - -- - - - 


1.010 




416 


Pender . . - 


672 




178 




1,565 


Pitt . 


821 


Polk 


1,350 


Randoloh .. - - 


6,238 




1,099 




2,055 




3,587 




4,888 


Rutherford - - - - - 


3,993 




5,289 


Scotland - -- - 


286 


Stanly 


4,275 




2,988 


Surry ... - . .... 


5,153 




2,252 




1,664 


Tyrrell . 


535 




1,365 




768 


Wake.. 


3,278 




240 


Washington _ .. 


970 




2,598 


Wayne . . . . . 


2,766 


Wilkes 


6,458 


Wilson 


1,319 


Yadkin. 


3,290 


Yancey . - 


2,574 






Totals 


143,524 


93,697 


310,504 


229,343 



Votes for Members of Congress 



319 



TOTES FOR MEMBERS OF CONGRESS, 1918-1920. 

FIRST CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 





1918 


1920 


Counties 


Q 

"3 

S 

m 

W 

a 
o 


g 
M 

6 




a 
'-3 

a) 

0) 




1,640 
263 
603 
490 
304 
439 
571 
532 

1,303 
517 
467 

2,518 
306 
474 


698 
108 
53 
66 
346 
106 
108 
183 
221 
240 
204 
375 
231 
462 


3,526 

581 

1,102 

977 

811 

790 

1,143 

1,227 

2,487 

1,759 

1,045 

4,135 

715 

1,116 


2,164 


Camden - 


97 




160 


Currituck -- - - 


48 




520 




305 


Hertford.. - 


184 


Hyde 


441 


Martin .. . _. 


552 




399 


Perquimans -- .- .- 


458 


Pitt 


699 


Tyrrell 


532 


Washington ... 


936 






Totals . .. 


10,427 


3,401 


21,414 


7,495 







SECOND CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 





1918 


1920 


Counties 


Q 

5 
o 

3 
03 

o 




a 

-S 
q 

s 

0) 

3 

o 


g 

c 
o 

K 

O 

c 


Bertie. 


1,139 
1,549 
662 
1,717 
1,307 
1,094 
1,106 
1,412 


1,838 
3,398 
1,648 
3,502 
2,889 
2,293 
1,900 
3,422 


81 


Edgecombe. . 


180 


Greene. .. 


383 




295 


Lenoir. 


808 


Northampton. 


121 


Warren _ . . 


220 


Wilson . .. 


1,279 






Totals 


9,986 


20,890 


3,367 







320 



Election Returns 



VOTES FOR MEMBERS OF CONGRESS, 1918-1920-CWmued 
THIRD CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 



Counties 



Carteret.. 

Craven 

Duplin 

Jones 

Onslow 

Pamlico... 

Pender 

Sampson.. 
Wayne 

Totals 



1918 






3 
B 
CO 



951 

1,527 

1,607 

621 

923 

530 

874 

1,009 

2,163 



10,205 



— 

PT 
a 

■S 
03 

o 



« 



1,070 

278 
1,036 
134 
422 
390 
314 
2,404 
952 



7,000 



1920 



«: 



.Q 



03 
CO 



2,077 
3,454 
3,414 
984 
1,528 
1,289 
1,541 
2,440 
4,820 



21,547 



a 



J« 



03 
o 

s 



2,280 
591 

2,676 
319 
858 
998 
642 

5,296 

2,687 



16,347 



FOURTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 





1918 


1920 


Counties 


Q 


O 

H 


c 
o 

X 

M 

CP 

o 




Q 

o 
CM 

o3 

H 


pj 

CD 

c3 
Ph 

Q 

CD 

o 

.s 

03 
i-s 


Chatham 


1,708 
1,565 
3,141 
1,551 
1,215 
3,673 


1,441 
172 

2,594 
317 
274 

1,230 


3,192 
2,772 
6,066 
3,957 
2,415 
8,068 


2 890 


Franklin 


476 


Johnston 


5 267 


Nash 


1,470 

762 


Vance 


Wake 


3 219 






Totals 


12,853 


6,028 


26,470 


14,084 







Votes for Members of Congress 



321 



VOTES FOR MEMBERS OF CONGRESS, 1918-1920— CWinwed 
FIFTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 





1918 


1920 


Counties 


a 

o3 

S 
-d 

CD 

-±> 

gS 

tn 

o 

O 


CO 

0> 

CD 

a 

O 


c 

a 

EOT 

sS 

cc 

a 

T< 

03 
-S 

o 


a 

1 


Alamance 


2,487 

852 

1,965 

4,004 

1,469 

3,693 

724 

754 

1,997 

1,316 

1,815 


2,239 

216 

1,133 

2,905 

327 

2,373 

640 

786 

1,718 

1,716 

2,582 


5,272 
1,195 
4,604 
8,240 
2,570 
10,000 
2,057 
1,411 
4,479 
1,969 
3,504 


4,566 


Caswell 


506 


Durham 


3,522 


Forsyth 


6,569 


Granville 


822 


Guilford 


7,422 


Orange 


1,685 


Person 


1,753 


Rockingham 


3,585 


Stokes 


2,932 




5,122 






Totals 


21,076 


16,635 


45,301 


38,484 











SIXTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 





1918 


1920 




a 










5 










-a 








Counties 


o 

a 


^ 


a 

o 


« 






^S 


>>" 






^Q 


^Q 


s 




03 


0)^2 


ni w 


A 




,g 


-d^ 


(H 


£ 




a 


03 03 








a 


KU 


a 


m 




03 


Do 


o 






W 




w 


rt 










■X 


Bladen 


923 

359 

1,370 


356 
514 
515 


2,025 
1,357 
3,382 


981 


Brunswick 


1,263 


Columbus. 


1,463 


Cumberland 


1,356 
1,833 
1,156 

2,578 


329 
1,36> 

627 


3,329 
3,918 
3,930 
6,233 


1,813 


Harnett 


3,295 


New Hanover 


406 


Robeson 


1,819 






Totals 


9,575 


3,702 


24,174 


11,040 







21 



322 



Election Returns 



VOTES FOR MEMBERS OF CONGRESS, 1918-1920— Continued 
SEVENTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 





1918 


1920 


Counties 


c3 O 

T2 c 


M 

c 

Q 

DQ 

a 

oj 


o 

s 

E 

o3 

5 

1 


o 
O 

M 

.55 


Anson 


1,678 

2,523 

659 

758 

887 

1,112 

1,194 

2,645 

1,539 

804 

2,163 

1,710 

603 


140 

2,659 

1,204 

32 

560 

949 

812 

2,895 

333 

84 

253 

1,214 

1,417 


3,393 
4,870 
1,627 
1,259 
2,321 
2,310 
2,707 
5,072 
3,343 
1,684 
4,167 
2,972 
1,346 


395 


Davidson. 


5,742 
2 552 


Davie... 


Hoke 


138 


Lee 


1 102 


Montgomery , 


2 274 


Moore 


2,197 


Randolph 


6 183 


Richmond 


1,095 
325 


Scotland... 


Union.. 


1,217 


Wilkes 


6,322 
3,242 


Yadkin 






Totals 


18,275 


14,116 


37,071 


32,784 







EIGHTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 





1918 


1920 




c 




a 


^ 









o 


03 




-C 




-a 




Counties 


3 




3 


"o 




o _ 


3o3 


0_ 


-2 
p. 

a 




•4^ 


< 


A"" 


03 




Lh 


M 


u 






o 


a 

03 


o 


H- 1 




£ 


fc 


03 


1-9 


Alexander 


827 
719 
1,792 
1,863 
1,700 
3,390 
2,.ss.s 
1,955 
971 


1,148 

448 
1,829 
2,042 
1,521 
1,677 
.'.us:, 
1,797 
1,279 


2,052 
1,455 
3,642 
4,380 
3,015 
6,483 
6,283 
3,836 
1,788 


2,613 


Alleghany.. 


1,115 


Ashe.. 


3,686 


Cabarrus 


5,178 


Caldwell 


3,135 


Iredell 


4,378 


Rowan. 


4,515 


Stanly 


4,279 


Watauga 


2,557 






Totals.... 


16,105 


13,826 


32,934 


31,456 







Votes fob Members of Congress 



323 



VOTES FOR MEMEERS OF CONGRESS, 1918-1920— Continued 
NINTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 



Counties 



Avery 

Burke.. 

Catawba 

Cleveland 

Gaston 

Lincoln 

Madison 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Yancey 

Totals... 



1918 






c 

'% 

-a 



279 
1,329 
2,332 
2,406 
3,152 
1,418 

628 
3,969 

365 
1,104 



16,982 



o 

•-5 



03 
O 



607 

1,490 

2,468 

1,134 

2,154 

1,387 

1,271 

770 

773 

776 



12,830 



1920 



a 



« 






417 
3,323 
5,474 
5,143 
7,160 
3,284 
1,337 
11,047 

729 
2,281 



40,195 



>-5 



2,457 
3,511 
6,176 
2,947 
5,696 
3,060 
3,607 
3,494 
2,198 
2,540 



35,686 



TENTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 





1918 


1920 


Counties 


Q 

> 

03 

& 

a 

o 

"3 
.o 
a 


g 

■P 

'fc- 

pq 

55 

s 

oj 

1-5 


Q 

u 
a 

> 

03 

d 

o 

.a 

tSi 


g 

DQ 

a 

'M 

c 

0) 

i-s 

<-i 
hi 


Buncombe 


4,015 

913 

375 

362 

2,090 

976 

1,040 

1,198 

1,085 

645 

2,169 

668 

787 


3,442 

1,188 

431 

351 

1,139 

1,482 

923 

1,183 

998 

717 

1,738 

937 

742 


10,295 
1,745 
771 
648 
4,228 
2,523 
2,395 
2,827 
2,103 
1,379 
5,048 
1,436 
1,525 


8,096 
2,458 


Cherokee 


Clay 


908 


Graham 


923 


Haywood 


2 943 


Henderson 


3 513 


Jackson 


2 359 


McDowell 


2 554 


Macon. 


2 018 


Polk.... 


1 , 367 


Rutherford 


3,585 


Swain. 


2 221 


Transylvania 


1,680 






Totals 


16,323 


15,271 


36,923 


34,625 





324 Election Retubns 



TOTE FOR CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS BY COUNTIES, 

1920. 

THESE AMENDMENTS 

1. Give authority to the State to tax net income from all sources above exemption 

of not less than $2,000 for married man or widow or widower having dependent 
minor child or children, and to all other persons not less than $1,000. 

2. To limit poll tax to not exceeding $2 for State, and for municipalities, $1. 

3. To reduce rate of tax on property for general expenses of State and counties from 

66 2-3 cents to a limit of 15 cents on each $100 worth of property. 

4. To substitute a rule of one instead of two years residence in State and four months 

in precinct, as qualification for voting. 

5. To abolish payment of poll tax as qualification for voting. 



Chapter 5, Public Laws, Extra Session of 1920, is as follows: 

AN ACT TO AMEND CHAPTER 129 OF THE PUBLIC LAWS OF 1919, AND TO 
FURTHER AMEND THE CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF NORTH 
CAROLINA. 

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

Section 1. That chapter one hundred and twenty-nine of the 
Public Laws of nineteen hundred and nineteen be and the same is 
hereby amended so as hereafter to read as follows: 

Section 2. That the Constitution of the State of North Carolina 
be, and the same is hereby, amended in manner and form as 
follows: 

I. Amend article five, section three, by repealing the proviso 
in said section, "that no income shall be taxed when the property 
from which the income is derived is taxed," and substituting in 
lieu thereof the following: "Provided, the rate of tax on incomes 
shall not in any case exceed six per cent (6%), and there shall 
be allowed the following exemptions, to be deducted from the 
amount of annual incomes, to wit: for a married man with a wife 
living with him, or to a widow or widower having minor child or 
children, natural or adopted, not less than $2,000; to all other 
persons not less than $1,000, and there may be allowed other 
deductions (not including living expenses) so that only net in- 
comes are taxed." 

II. By striking out section one of article five and substituting 
therefor the following: 



Vote on Constitutional Amendments 325 

"Section 1. The General Assembly may levy a capitation tax 
on every male inhabitant of the State over twenty-one and under 
fifty years of age, which said tax shall not exceed two dollars, and 
cities and towns may levy a capitation tax which shall not exceed 
one dollar. No other capitation tax shall be levied. The commis- 
sioners of the several counties and of the cities and towns may 
exempt from the capitation tax any special cases on account of 
poverty or infirmity." 

III. By striking out section six of article five and substituting 
therefor the following: "The total of the State and county tax 
on property shall not exceed fifteen cents on the one hundred 
dollars value of property, except when the county property tax is 
levied for a special purpose and with the special approval of the 
General Assembly, which may be done by special or general act: 
Provided, this limitation shall not apply to taxes levied for the 
maintenance of the public schools of the State for the term re- 
quired by article nine, section three, of the Constitution: Provided 
further, the State tax shall not exceed five cents on the one hun- 
dred dollars value of property." 

IV. By striking out that part of the first sentence of section two 
of article six ending with the word "election" before the word 
"provided," and substituting therefor the following: "He shall 
reside in the State of North Carolina for one year and in the 
precinct, ward, or other election district in which he offers to vote 
four months next preceding the election." 

V. By abrogating the following requirement of section four of 
article V: "And before he shall be entitled to vote he shall have 
paid on or before the first day of May of the year in which he 
proposes to vote, his poll tax for the previous year, as prescribed 
by article V, section 1, of the Constitution," and by abrogating the 
following proviso at the end of section 4 of article VI: "Provided 
such person shall have paid his poll tax as above required." 

Sec. 3. That amendments I, II, and III to the Constitution shall 
be considered as one amendment, and amendments IV and V shall 
be considered as one amendment, and shall be submitted to the 
qualified voters of the whole State at the next general election. 

Sec. 4. That the electors favoring the adoption of amendments 
I, II, and III shall vote ballots on which shall be written or printed, 
"For Amendments to Limit Rate of State and County Taxes, and 
Amount of Poll Taxes, and to Authorize Income Tax," and those 



326 Election Returns 

opposed, ballots on which shall be written or printed "Against 
Amendments to Limit Rate of State and County Taxes, and 
Amount of Foil Tax, and to Authorize Income Tax." 

Sec. 5. That the electors favoring the adoption of amendments 
IV and V shall vote ballots on which shall be written or printed, 
"For Amendments to Change Requirement of Two Years Residence 
in the State and Payment of Poll Tax as Qualification for Voting," 
and those opposed, ballots on which shall be written or printed, 
"Against Amendments to Change Requirement of Two Years Resi- 
dence in the State and Payment of Poll Tax as Qualification for 
Voting." 

Sec. 6. That the election upon the amendments shall be conducted 
in the same manner and under the same rules and regulations as 
provided by the laws governing general elections, and if the ma- 
jority of the votes cast be in favor of the amendments, or any of 
them, it shall be the duty of the Governor of the State to certify 
the amendments receiving a majority of votes cast under the seal 
of the State to the Secretary of State, who shall enroll the said 
amendments so certified among the permanent records of his office, 
and the same shall be in force, and every part thereof, from and 
after the date of such certification. 

Sec. 7. This act shall be in force from and after its ratification. 

Ratified this 26th day of August, A. D. 1920. 



Vote on Constitutional Amendments 



327 



VOTE ON FOREGOING AMENDMENTS 



Alamance- 
Alexander. 
Alleghany. 
Anson... 
Ashe. 



Avery 

Beaufort. 
Bertie- 



Bladen 

Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke. 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven _, 

Cumberland. 

Currituck 

Dare. 

Davidson 

Davie. 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe.. 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston. 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Gu ; lford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson... 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 

Johnston 



Counties 







Amendment to Art. 


Amendment to Art. 

V, Sections 1, 3, 4 

and 6: Limiting 

Rate of State and 

County Taxes and 

Poll Taxes, and 

Authorizing Tax 

on Net Income 

from all Sources 


VI, Sections 2 and 
4; Changing Resi- 
dence Require- 
ment for Voting 
from Two to One 
Year in the State, 

and to Four in 
County, and Abol- 
ishing Payment of 
Poll Tax as Requi- 




site for Voting 


For 


Against 


For 


Against 


5,190 


658 


5,703 


818 


1,974 


1,682 


1,974 


1,752 


1,156 


194 


1,124 


301 


1,965 


803 


1,675 


1,241 


2,738 


441 


1,988 


31 


1,395 


15 


884 


15 


3,018 


1,653 


2,625 


1,718 


1,569 


255 


1,508 


254 


2,068 


537 


1,844 


459 


612 


227 


382 


254 


7,707 


1,413 


6,931 


1,803 


3,787 


1,117 


3,848 


467 


3,223 


1,352 


991 


1,219 


1,939 


582 


1,711 


355 


605 


8 


482 


4 


2,618 


124 


2,582 


254 


851 


164 


569 


182 


7,154 


684 


7,187 


699 


2,986 


1,357 


1,922 


770 


1,588 


342 


1,347 


232 


928 


269 


397 


255 


867 


54 


867 


54 


5,305 


656 


4,781 


835 


2,840 


861 


2,922 


713 


3,115 


410 


2,942 


339 


1,942 


1,735 


1,803 


1,587 


931 


50 


93 


50 


868 


36 


868 


36 


4,246 


2,783 


4,246 


2,783 


1,580 


679 


1,431 


472 


2,485 


2,162 


2,384 


1,995 


3,091 


1,954 


2,374 


2,489 


2,185 


797 


2,178 


852 


9,049 


1,228 


9,456 


451 


1,981 


881 


1,547 


792 


2,207 


2,573 


2,038 


2,238 


719 


128 


516 


40 


769 


263 


331 


118 


2,176 


730 


2,107 


716 


1,417 


447 


1,079 


508 


9,707 


2,964 


9,316 


3,259 


1,549 


1,791 


1,032 


1,982 


3,674 


1,475 


2,614 


2,018 


4,172 


648 


4,262 


69 


3,137 


307 


3,662 


479 


1,114 


148 


755 


370 


978 


177 


686 


345 


837 


202 


830 


197 


5,874 


414 


6,557 


761 


2,305 


462 


1,838 


128 


3,822 


2,675 


3,976 


2,400 



328 



Election Returns 



VOTES ON FOREGOING AMENDMENTS— Continued. 



Counties 



Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg... 

Mitchell 

Montgomery... 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover. 
Northampton. 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 

Pender 

Perquimans 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham... 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain. 

Transylvania.. 
Tyrrell 



Union. 

Vance 

Wake.. 

Warren 

Washington. 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 



Amendment to Art 

V, Sections 1, 3, 4 

and 6; Limiting 

Rate of State and 

County Taxes, and 

Authorizing Tax 

on Net Income 

from all Sources 



Totals. 



For 



910 
2,350 
1,602 
2,663 
2,695 
3,027 
2,002 
2,793 
8,912 

437 
1,976 
3,172 
3,446 
2,290 
1,113 
1,455 
1,906 
1,464 
1,786 
1,451 
1,184 
1,296 
1,806 
1,888 
2,485 



,546 
,207 
,046 

. t '.C, 

,504 
,896 
765 
,808 
2,254 
4,337 
1,469 
1,091 
1,022 
3,825 
1,685 
5,798 
1,104 
1,070 
1,141 
3,503 
4,443 
2,310 
1,958 
3,474 



262,873 



Against 



102 
475 
967 
379 
128 
661 
530 
1 

1,410 

84 

687 

368 

877 

1,093 
912 
224 
540 
240 
121 
27 
207 
582 

2,125 
125 

1,952 
231 

2,458 

1,196 
900 
402 

1,052 
789 

2 222 

l',UA 
857 
128 
11 
104 
195 
748 

3,396 
793 
131 
190 

2,200 
513 

1,234 

1,127 
504 



81,109 



Amendment to Art. 
VL Sections 2 and 
and 4; Changing 
Residence Require- 
ment for Voting 
from Two to One 
Year in the State, 

and to Four in 
County, and abol- 
ishing Payment of 
Poll Tax as Requi- 
site for Voting 



For 



813 
2,221 
1,808 
2,665 
2,717 
2,703 
1,402 
3,201 
8,128 

720 
1,714 
3,040 
2,693 
2,064 

944 
1,115 
1,205 
1,038 
1,585 
1,003 
1,163 

610 
1,196 
1,617 
2,014 
2,546 
4,227 
3,100 
5,758 
4,727 
2,181 

736 
1,861 



4,234 
1,892 
1,043 

974 
3,277 

828 
5,165 

800 

936 
1,141 
3,013 
4,447 
2,024 
1,456 
2.69S 



235,608 



Against 



123 
730 
840 
619 
141 
849 
559 



1,160 
189 
435 
279 

1,272 

1,042 
929 
295 

1,222 
228 
54 
636 
189 
324 

2,553 
116 

1,838 
231 

2,458 

1,977 

1,614 
693 

1,040 
730 

2,569 



839 
119 
181 
142 
583 
877 

3,399 
867 
633 
190 

2,265 
509 

1,133 

1,439 
97 



83,366 



PART X. 

1. The Halifax Kesolution of April 12, 1776. 

2. The Declaration of Independence. 



THE HALIFAX RESOLUTION. 

Adopted oy the Provincial Congress of North Carolina 
in session at Halifax, April 12, 1776. 

It appears to your committee that pursuant to the plan concerted 
by the British Ministry for subjugating America, the King and 
Parliament of Great Britain have usurped a power over the per- 
sons and properties of the people unlimited and uncontrouled; 
and disregarding their humble petitions for peace, liberty and 
safety, have made divers legislative acts, denouncing war, famine, 
and every species of calamity, against the Continent in general. 
That British fleets and armies have been, and still are, daily em- 
ployed in destroying the people, and committing the most horrid 
devastations on the country. That Governors in different Colonies 
have declared protection to slaves who should imbrue their hands 
in the blood of their masters. That ships belonging to America 
are declared prizes of war, and many of them have been violently 
seized and confiscated. In consequence of all of which multitudes of 
the people have been destroyed, or from easy circumstances re- 
duced to the most lamentable distress. 

And whereas the moderation hitherto manifested by the United 
Colonies and their sincere desire to be reconciled to the mother 
country on constitutional principles, have procured no mitigation 
of the aforesaid wrongs and usurpations, and no hopes remain of 
obtaining redress by those means alone which have been hitherto 
tried, your committee are of opinion that the House should enter 
into the following resolve, to wit: 

Resolved, That the delegates for this Colony in the Continental 
Congress be impowered to concur with the delegates of the other 
Colonies in declaring Independency, and forming foreign alliances, 
reserving to this Colony the sole and exclusive right of forming 
a Constitution and laws for this Colony, and of appointing dele- 
gates from time to time (under the direction of a general repre- 
sentation thereof,) to meet the delegates of the other Colonies for 
such purposes as shall be hereafter pointed out. 



332 Declaration of Independence 

THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. 

In Congress, July 4, 1776. 

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States 

of America. 

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one 
people to dissolve the political hands which have connected them 
with another, and to assume among the Powers of the earth, the 
separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Na- 
ture's God entitled them, a decent respect to the opinions of man- 
kind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them 
to the separation. 

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created 
equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalien- 
able Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of 
Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted 
among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the 
governed, That whenever any Form of Government becomes destruc- 
tive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish 
it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such 
principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall 
seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, en- 
deed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be 
changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experi- 
ence hath shown, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while 
evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms 
to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and 
usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to 
reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their 
duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for 
their future security. — Such has been the patient sufferance of these 
Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to 
alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the pres- 
ent King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usur- 
pations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute 
Tryanny over these States. To provide this, let Facts be submitted 
to a candid world. 

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and 
necessary for the public good. 



Declaration, of Independence 333 

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and 
pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his 
Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly 
neglected to attend to them. 

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large 
districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right 
of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them 
and formidable to tyrants only. 

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncom- 
fortable, and distant from the depository of their Public Records, 
for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his 
measures. 

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing 
with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people. 

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause 
others to be elected; whereby the Legislative Fowers, incapable of 
Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exer- 
cise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the 
dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within. 

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States; for 
that purpose obstructing the Laws of Naturalization of Foreigners; 
refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and 
raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands. 

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his 
Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers. 

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure 
of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries. 

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms 
of Officers to harass our People, and eat out their substance. 

He has kept among us, in times of peace. Standing Armies with- 
out the Consent of our legislature. 

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior 
to the Civil Power. 

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction 
foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving 
his Assent to their acts of pretended legislation: 

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: 

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any 
Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these 
States: 



334 Declaration of Independence 

For cutting off of Trade with all parts of the world: 

For imposing taxes on us without our Consent: 

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury: 

For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offenses: 

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighboring 
Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarg- 
ing its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit in- 
strument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies: 

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, 
and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments: 

For suspending our own Legislature, and declaring themselves in- 
vested with Power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. 

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his 
Protection and waging War against us. 

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, 
and destroyed the lives of our people. 

He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercena- 
ries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already 
begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in 
the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civi- 
lized nation. 

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high 
Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners 
of their friends and Brethern, or to fall themselves by their' Hands. 

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeav- 
oured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless 
Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished 
destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions. 

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Re- 
dress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been 
answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is 
thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be 
the ruler of a free People. 

Nor have We been wanting in attention to our British brethren. 
We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legis- 
lature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have 
reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settle- 
ment here. We have appealed to their native justice and magna- 
nimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common' kin- 
dred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt 



Declaration of Independence 335 

our connection and correspondence. They too have been deaf to 
the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, ac- 
quiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold 
them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace 
Friends. 

We, therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, 
in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of 
the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by 
Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish 
and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to 
be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all 
Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection 
between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be 
totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they 
have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, 
establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Inde- 
pendent States may of right do. And for the support of this Decla- 
ration, with a firm reliance on the Protection of Divine Providence, 
we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our 
sacred Honor. JOHN HANCOCK. 

New Hampshire — Josiaii Bartlett, Wm. Whipple, Matthew 
Thornton., 

Massachusetts Bay — Saml. Adams, John Adams, Robt. Treat 
Paine, Elbridge Gerry. 

Rhode Island — Step. Hopkins, William Ellery. 

Connecticut — Rodger Sherman, Sam'el Huntington, Wm. Will- 
iams, Oliver Wolcott. 

New York — Wm. Floyd, Phil. Livingston, Frans. Lewis, Lewis 
Morris. 

New Jersey — Richd. Stockton, Jno. Witherspoon, Fras. Hopkin- 
son, John Hart, Abra. Clark. 

Pennsylvania — Robt. Morris, Benjamin Rush, Benja. Franklin. 
John Morton, Geo. Clymer, Jas. Smith, Geo. Taylor, James Wilson, 
Geo. Ross. 

Delaware— Caesar Rodney, Geo. Read, Tho. M'Kean. 



336 Declaration of Independence 

Maryland — Samuel Chase, Wm. Paca, Thos. Stone, Charles Car- 
roll of Carrollton. 

Virginia — George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, Th. Jefferson, 
Benja. Harrison, Thos. Nelson, jr., Francis Lightfoot Lee, Carter 
Braxton. 

North Carolina — Wm. Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn. 

South Carolina — Edward Rutledge, Thos. Heywood, junr., 
Thomas Lynch, junr., Arthur Middleton. 

Georgia — Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, Geo. Walton.* 



* This arrangement of the names is made for convenience. The States are not 
mentioned in the original. 



PART XI. 



CONSTITUTIONS. 



1. Constitution of the United States. 

2. Constitution of North Carolina. 

3. Index to the Constitution of North Carolina. 



■>•> 



CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.* 

We, the People of the United States, in order to form a more per- 
fect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquillity, provide 
for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure 
the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain 
and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. 

Article I. 

Section 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested 
in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate 
and House of Representatives. 

Section 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of 
Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several 
States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications 
requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State 
Legislature. 

No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained 
to the Age of twenty-five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of 
the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabi- 
tant of that State in which he shall be chosen. 

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the 
several States which may be included within this Union, according 
to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding 
to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to 
Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three 
fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made 
within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the 
United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in 
such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The number of Repre- 
sentatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each 
State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enum- 
eration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled 
to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence 
Plantations one. Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, 
Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, 
North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three. 



* Reprinted from the text issued by the State Department. 



340 Constitution of the United States 

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the 
Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such 
vacancies. 

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other 
Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment. 

Section 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of 
two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for 
six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote. 

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the 
first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three 
Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated 
at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the 
Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expira- 
tion of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second 
Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during 
the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereo'f 
may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the 
Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies. 

No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the 
Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United 
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that 
State for which he shall be chosen. 

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the 
Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided. 

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President 
pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall 
exercise the Office of President of the United States. 

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. 
When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. 
When the President of the United States is tried the Chief Justice 
shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Con- 
currence of two thirds of the Members present. 

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than 
to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any 
Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the 
Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indict- 
ment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to law. 

Section 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections 
for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State 



Constitution of the United States 341 

by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by 
Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of 
causing Senators. 

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such 
Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall 
by Law appoint a different Day. 

Section 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Re- 
turns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each 
shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number 
may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the 
Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such 
Penalties as each House may provide. 

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, Punish 
its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of 
two thirds, expel a member. 

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time 
to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judg- 
ment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of 
either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those 
Present, be entered on the Journal. 

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the 
Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any 
other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting. 

Section 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Com- 
pensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out 
of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, ex- 
cept Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from 
Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective 
Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any 
Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in 
any other Place. 

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he 
was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of 
the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments 
whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person 
holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of 
either House during his Continuance in Office. 

Section 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the 
House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur 
with Amendments as on other Bills. 



342 Constitution of the United States 

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives 
and the Senate, shall, before it becomes a Law, be presented to the 
President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but 
if not he shall return it, with his Objections, to that House in which 
it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on 
their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsid- 
eration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall 
be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which 
it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of 
that House, it shall become a law. But in all such Cases the Votes 
of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the 
Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be en- 
tered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall 
not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays ex- 
cepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be 
a Law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by 
their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not 
be a Law. 

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the 
Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on 
a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of 
the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be 
approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by 
two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives according to 
the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill. 

Section 8. The Congress shall have the Power To lay and collect 
Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for 
the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but 
all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the 
United States; 

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States; 

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the sev- 
eral States, and with the Indian Tribes; 

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform 
Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States; 

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, 
and to fix the Standard of Weights and Measures; 

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the securities 
and current Coin of the United States; 

To establish Post Offices and post Roads; 



Constitution of the United States 343 

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing 
for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to 
their respective Writings and Discoveries; 

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court; 

To define and pjmisb Piracies and Felonies committed on the high 
Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations; 

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make 
Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water; 

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to 
that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years; 

To provide and maintain a Navy; 

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land 
and naval Forces; 

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the 
Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions; 

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, 
and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the 
Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, 
the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the 
Militia according to the dicipline prescribed by Congress; 

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over 
such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of 
particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat 
of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Author- 
ity over all Places purchased by the Consent ,of the Legislature of 
the State in which the same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, 
Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings; — 
And 

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carry- 
ing into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested 
by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in 
any Department or Officer thereof. 

Section 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any 
of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be 
prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight 
hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Im- 
portation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person. 

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be sus- 
pended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public 
Safety may require it. 



344 Constitution of the United States 

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed. 

No Capitation, or other direct Tax, should be laid, unless in Pro- 
portion to the Census or Enumeration hereinbefore directed to be 
taken. 

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State. 

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or 
Revenue to the Forts of one State over those of another; nor shall 
Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or 
pay Duties in another. 

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence 
of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Ac- 
count of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be 
published from time to time. 

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: and no 
Persons holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, with- 
out the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, 
Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince or for- 
eign State. 

Section 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or 
Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; 
emit Bills of Credit; make any thing but gold and silver Coin a 
Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder ex post 
facto Law or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant 
any Title of Nobility. 

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Im- 
posts or Duties on Imports or Exports except what may be absolutely 
necessary for executing its inspection Laws; and the net Produce 
of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, 
shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all 
such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Control of the Con- 
gress. 

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of 
Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into 
any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign 
Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such immi- 
nent Danger as will not admit of Delay. 

Article II. 

Section 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of 
the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the 



Constitution of the United States 345 

Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen 
for the same Term, be elected, as follows: 

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature there- 
of may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of 
Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in 
the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding 
an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be ap- 
pointed an Elector. 

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by 
Ballot for two Persons, of whom One at least shall not be an Inhab- 
itant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List 
of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; 
which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the 
Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the Presi- 
dent of the Senate. The President of the Senate, shall, in the 
Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the 
Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person hav- 
ing the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such 
Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; 
and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an 
equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall 
immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no 
Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the 
said House shall in like manner chuse the President. But in chusing 
the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation 
from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall 
consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and 
a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every 
Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the great- 
est Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But 
if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate 
shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President. 

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, 
and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall 
be the same throughout the United States. 

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the 
United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall 
be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be 
eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of 



346 Constitution of the United States 

thirty-five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the 
United States. 

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his 
Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties 
of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, 
and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, 
Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice 
President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President and 
such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, 
or a President shall be elected. 

The President shall at stated Times, receive for his Services, a 
Compensation, which shall neither be Increased nor diminished dur- 
ing the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not 
receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United 
States, or any of them. 

Eefore he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the 
following Oath or Affirmation: — 

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the 
Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my 
Ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United 
States." 

Section. 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the 
Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the sev- 
eral States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; 
he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in 
each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the 
Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant 
Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except 
in Cases of Impeachment. 

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the 
Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present 
concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and 
Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Min- 
isters and Consuls, Judges of the Supreme Court, and all other 
Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein 
otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law; but 
the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior 
Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts 
of Law, or in the Heads of Departments. 



Constitution of the United States . 347 

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may 
happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions 
which shall expire at the End of their next Session. 

Section. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress Infor- 
mation of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consider- 
ation such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he 
may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either 
of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to 
the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he 
shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public 
Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, 
and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States. 

Section. 4. The President, Vice-president and all civil Officers of 
the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, 
and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Mis- 
demeanors. 

Article III. 

Section. 1. The Judicial Power of the United States, shall be 
vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the 
Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, 
both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices dur- 
ing good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their 
Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during 
their continuance in Office. 

Section. 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law 
and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United 
States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Au- 
thority; — to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers 
and Consuls; — to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction; 
- — to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party; — to 
Controversies between two or more States; — between a State and 
Citizens of another State; — between Citizens of different States, — 
between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of 
different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and 
foreign States, Citizens, or Subjects. 

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and 
Consuls, and those in which a State shall be a Party, the supreme 
Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before 
mentioned the Supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both 



348 Constitution of the United States 

as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such regula- 
tion as the Congress shall make. 

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be 
by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said 
Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within 
any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress 
may by Law have directed. 

Section. 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only 
in levying "War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving 
them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason 
unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or 
on Confession in open Court. 

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of 
Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of 
Blood or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attained. 

Article IV. 

Section. 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to 
the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other 
State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Man- 
ner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, 
and the effect thereof. 

Section. 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all 
Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States. 

A person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other 
Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State 
shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which 
he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Judisdid- 
tion of the Crime. 

No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws 
thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any Law, or 
Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but 
shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or 
Labour may be due. 

Section. 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this 
Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the 
Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the 
Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Con- 
sent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the 
Congress. 



Constitution of the United States 349 

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all need- 
ful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property 
belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution 
shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United 
States, or any particular State. 

Section 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in 
this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each 
of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or 
of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against 
domestic Violence. 

Article V. 

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it 
necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the 
Application of the Legislature of two thirds of the several States, 
shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either 
case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes as part of this Con- 
stitution, when ratified by the Legislature of three fourths of the 
several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one 
or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; 
Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year 
one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect 
the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; 
and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal 
Suffrage in the Senate. 

Article VI. 

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the 
Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United 
States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation. 

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall 
be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall 
be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the 
supreme Law of the land; and the Judges in every State shall be 
bound thereby, any thing in the Constitution or laws of any State 
to the Contrary notwithstanding. 

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Mem- 
bers of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial 
Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall 
be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but 
no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any 
Office or public Trust under the United States. 



350 Constitution of the United States 

Article VII. 

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be suf- 
ficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States 
so ratifying the Same. 

THE AMENDMENTS 



Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of re- 
ligion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the free- 
dom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably 
to assemble, and to petition the Government for redress of griev- 
ances. 

II. 

A well-regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free 
State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be 
infringed. 

III. 

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house, with- 
out the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to 
be prescribed by law. 

IV. 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, 
papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall 
not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable 
cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing 
the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. 



No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise in- 
famous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand 
Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the 
Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; 
nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put 
in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any Criminal 
Case to be witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, 
or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property 
be taken for public use, without just compensation. 



Constitution of the United States 351 

VI. 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a 
speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district 
wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall 
have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the 
nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the wit- 
nesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining Wit- 
nesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his 
defence. 

VII. 

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall ex- 
ceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and 
no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court 
of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law. 

VIII. 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, 
nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. 

IX. 

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not 
be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 



The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution 
nor .prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respec- 
tively, or to the people. 

XI. 

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to 
extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against 
one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens 
or Subjects of any Foreign State. 

XII. 

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by 
ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall 
not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall 



352 Constitution of the United States 

name in their ballots the person voted for as Fresident, and in dis- 
tinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall 
make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all 
persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for 
each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to 
the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the 
President of the Senate; — The President of the Senate shall, in the 
presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the 
certificates and the votes shall then be counted; — The person having 
the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, 
if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors ap- 
pointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the per- 
sons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of 
those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall 
choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the 
President, the vote shall be taken by States, the representation from 
each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist 
of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a ma- 
jority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the 
House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever 
the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day 
of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as Presi- 
dent, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of 
the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as 
Vice-President shall be Vice-President, if such number be a ma- 
jority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person 
have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the 
Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose 
shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a 
majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But 
no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall 
be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States. 

XIII. 

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a 
punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly con- 
victed, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to 
their jurisdiction. 

Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by 
appropriate legislation. 



Constitution of the United States 353 

XIV. 

Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, 
and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United 
States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make 
or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities 
of citizens of the United States: nor shall any State deprive any per- 
son of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor 
deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of 
the laws. 

Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several 
States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole 
number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But 
when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for 
President and "Vice-President of the United States, Representatives 
in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the 
members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male in- 
habitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens 
of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation 
in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall 
be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citi- 
zens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one 
years of age in such State. 

Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Con- 
gress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, 
civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who 
having previously taken an oath as a member of Congress, or as an 
officer of the United States, or as a member of any State Legislature 
or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the 
Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection 
or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies 
thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House 
remove such disability. 

Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, 
authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions 
and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, 
shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State 
shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insur- 
rection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the 
loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and 
claims shall be held illegal and void. 

23 



354 Constitution of the United States 

Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appro- 
priate legislation, the provisions of this article. 

XV. 

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall 
not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on 
account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article 
by appropriate legislation. 

XVI. 

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, 
from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the 
several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration. 

XVII. 

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators 
from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and 
each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall 
have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous 
branch of the State Legislatures. 

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the 
Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of 
election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the Legislature of 
any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary 
appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the 
Legislature may direct. 

XVIII. 

Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the 
manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, 
the importation thereof into, the exportation thereof from the 
United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof 
for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. 

Section 2. The Congress and the several States shall have con- 
current power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

XIX. 

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be 
denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account 
of sex. 

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate 
legislation. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 355 

ratification of the constitution. 

The Constitution was ratified by the thirteen original States in 
the following order: 

Delaware, December 7, 1787; Pennsylvania, December 12, 1787; 
New Jersey, December 18, 1787; Georgia, January 2, 1788; Connecti- 
cut, January 9, 1788; Massachusetts, February 6, 1788; Maryland, 
April 28, 1788; South Carolina, May 23, 1788; New Hampshire, June 
21, 1788; Virginia, June 25, 1788; New York, July 26, 1788; North 
Carolina, November 21, 1789; Rhode Island, May 29, 1790. 

RATIFICATION OF THE AMENDMENTS. 

The First to Tenth, inclusive, were declared in force December 15, 
1781; the Eleventh, January 8, 1798; the Twelfth, September 25, 
1804; the Thirteenth was proclaimed December 18, 1865; the Four- 
teenth, July 28, 1868; the Fifteenth, March 30, 1870; the Sixteenth, 
February 25, 1913; the Seventeenth, May 30, 1913; the Eighteenth, 
January 29, 1919; the Nineteenth, August 26, 1920. 



CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

(revised.) 

PREAMBLE. 

We, the people of the State of North Carolina, grateful to Almighty 
God, the Sovereign Ruler of Nations, for the preservation of the 
American Union, and the existence of our civil, political and re- 
ligious liberties, and acknowledging our dependence upon Him 
for the continuance of those blessings to us and our posterity, 
do for the more certain security thereof, and for the better 
government of this State, ordain and establish this Constitution: 

ARTICLE I. 

DECLARATION OF RIGHTS. 

That the great, general and essential principles of liberty and 
free government may be recognized and established, and that the 
relations of this State to the Union and Government of the United 



356 Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

States, and those of the people of this State to the rest of the 
American people, may be defined and affirmed, we do declare:, 

Section 1. That we hold it to be self-evident that all men are 
created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with cer- 
tain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, the 
enjoyment of the fruits of their own labor, and the pursuit of 
happiness. 

Sec. 2. That all political power is vested in, and derived from, 
the people; all government of right originates from the people, is 
founded upon their will only, and is instituted solely for the good 
of the whole. 

Sec. 3. That the people of this State have the inherent, sole 
and exclusive right of regulating the internal government and 
police thereof, and of altering and abolishing their Constitution 
and form of government whenever it may be necessary for their 
safety and happiness; but every such right should be exercised 
in pursuance of law, and consistently with the Constitution of the 
United States. 

Sec. 4. That this State shall ever remain a member of the 
American Union; that the people thereof are a part of the Ameri- 
can Nation; that there is no right on the part of the State to 
secede, and that all attempts, from whatever source or upon what- 
ever pretext, to dissolve said Union or to sever said Nation, ought 
to be resisted with the whole power of the State. 

Sec. 5. That every citizen of this State owes paramount alle- 
giance to the Constitution and government of the United States, 
and that no law or ordinance of the State in contravention or 
subversion thereof can have any binding force. 

Sec. 6. The State shall never assume or pay, or authorize the 
collection of any debt or obligation, express or implied, incurred 
in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or 
any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; nor shall the 
General Assembly assume or pay, or authorize the collection of 
any tax to pay, either directly or indirectly, expressed or implied, 
any debt or bond incurred or issued by authority of the convention 
of the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty eight, nor any 
debt or bond incurred or issued by the Legislature of the year 
one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, either at its special 
session of the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, 
or at its regular sessions of the years one thousand eight hundred 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 357 

and sixty-eight, and one thousand eight hundred and sixty-nine, 
and one thousand eight hundred and seventy, except the bonds 
issued to fund the interest on the old debt of the State, unless 
the proposing to pay the same shall have first been submitted 
to the people and by them ratified by the vote of the majority of 
all the qualified voters of the State, at a regular election held for 
that purpose. 

Sec. 7. No man or set of men are entitled to exclusive or 
separate emoluments or privileges from the community but in 
consideration of public services. 

Sec. 8. The legislative, executive and supreme judicial powers 
of the government ought to be forever separate and distinct from 
each other. 

Sec. 9. All power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, 
by any authority, without the consent of the representatives of 
the people, is injurious to their rights, and ought not to be exer- 
cised. 

Sec. 10. All elections ought to be free. 

Sec. 11. In all criminal prosecutions, every man has the right 
to be informed of the accusation against him and to confront the 
accusers and witnesses with other testimony, and to have counsel 
for his defense, and not to be compelled to give evidence against 
himself, or to pay costs, jail fees, or necessary witness fees of the 
defense, unless found guilty. 

Sec. 12. No person shall be put to answer any criminal charge, 
except as hereinafter allowed, but by indictment, presentment or 
impeachment. 

Sec. 13. No person shall be convicted of any crime but by the 
unanimous verdict of a jury of good and lawful men in open court. 
The Legislature may, however, provide other means of trial for 
petty misdemeanors, with the right of appeal. 

Sec. 14. Excessive bail should not be required, nor excessive 
fines imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishments inflicted. 

Sec. 15. General warrants, whereby any officer or messenger 
may be commanded to search suspected places, without evidence 
of the act committed, or to seize any person or persons not named, 
whose offense is not particularly described and supported by evi- 
dence, are dangerous to liberty and ought not to be granted. 

Sec. 16. There shall be no imprisonment for debt in this State, 
except in cases of fraud. 



358 Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

Sec. 17. No person ought to be taken, imprisoned, or disseized 
of his freehold, liberties or privileges, or outlawed or exiled, or in 
any manner deprived of his life, liberty or property, but by the 
law of the land. 

Sec. 18. Every person restrained of his liberty is entitled to a 
remedy to inquire into the lawfulness thereof, and to remove the 
same, if unlawful; and such remedy ought not to be denied or 
delayed. 

Sec. 19. In all controversies at law respecting property, the 
ancient mode of trial by jury is one of the best securities of the 
rights of the people, and ought to remain sacred and inviolable. 

Sec. 20. The freedom of the press is one of the great bulwarks 
of liberty, and therefore ought never to be restrained, but every 
individual shall be held responsible for the abuse of the same. 

Sec. 21. The privileges of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be 
suspended. 

Sec. 22. As political rights and privileges are not dependent upon, 
or modified by, property, therefore no property qualification ought 
to affect the right to vote or hold office. 

Sec. 23. The people of the State ought not to be taxed, or made 
subject to the payment of any impost or duty, without the con- 
sent of themselves, or their representatives in General Assembly, 
freely given. 

Sec. 24. A well regulated militia being necessary to the security 
of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms 
shall not be infringed; and, as standing armies in time of peace 
are dangerous to liberty, they ought not to be kept up, and the 
military should be kept under strict subordination to, and gov- 
erned by, the civil power. Nothing herein contained shall justify 
the practice of carrying concealed weapons, or prevent the Legis- 
lature from enacting penal statutes against said practice. 

Sec. 25. The people have a right to assemble together to con- 
sult for their common good, to instruct their representatives, and 
to apply to the Legislature for redress of grievances. But secret 
political societies are dangerous to the liberties of a free people, 
and should not be tolerated. 

Sec. 26. All men have a natural and inalienable right to worship 
Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences, 
and no human authority should, in any case whatever, control or 
interfere with the rights of conscience. 



Constitution of the State of Noktii Carolina 359 

Sec. 27. The people have the right to the privilege of education, 
and it is the duty of the State to guard and maintain that right. 

Sec. 28. For redress of grievances, and for amending and strength- 
ening the laws, elections should be often held. 

Sec. 29. A frequent recurrence to fundamental principles is abso- 
lutely necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty. 

Sec. 30. No hereditary emoluments, privileges or honors ought 
to be granted or conferred in this State. 

Sec. 31. Perpetuities and monopolies are contrary to the genius 
of a free State and ought not to be allowed. 

Sec. 32. Retrospective laws, punishing acts committed before 
the existence of such laws, and by them only declared criminal, 
are oppressive, unjust and incompatible with liberty; wherefore 
no ex jjost facto law ought to be made. No law taxing retrospec- 
tively sales, purchases, or other acts previously done, ought to be 
passed. 

Sec. 33. Slavery and involuntary servitude, otherwise than for 
crime, whereof the parties shall have been duly convicted, shall be 
and are hereby forever prohibited within the State. 

Sec. 34. The limits and boundaries of the State shall be and 
remain as they now are. 

Sec. 35. All courts shall be open; and every person for an injury 
done him in his lands, goods, person or reputation, shall have 
remedy by due course of law, and right and justice administered 
without sale, denial or delay. 

Sec. 36. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any 
house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war but 
in a manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 37. This enumeration of rights shall not be construed to 
impair or deny others retained by the people; and all powers not 
herein delegated remain with the people. 

ARTICLE II. 
legislative department. 

Section 1. The legislative authority shall be vested in two dis- 
tinct branches, both dependent on the people, to wit, a Senate and 
House of Representatives. 

Sec. 2. The Senate and House of Representatives shall meet 
biennially on the first Wednesday after the first Monday in Janu- 
ary next after their election; and, when assembled, shall be denomi- 



360 Constitution of the State of Noktii Carolina 

nated the General Assembly. Neither house shall proceed upon 
public business unless a majority of all the members are actually 
present. 

Sec. 3. The Senate shall be composed of fifty Senators, biennially 
chosen by ballot. 

Sec. 4. The Senate Districts shall be so altered by the General 
Assembly, at the first session after the return of every enumera- 
tion by order of Congress, that each Senate District shall contain, 
as near as may be, an equal number of inhabitants, excluding 
aliens and Indians not taxed, and shall remain unaltered until 
the return of another enumeration, and shall at all times consist 
of contiguous territory; and no county shall be divided in the 
formation of a Senate District, unless such county shall be equit- 
ably entitled to two or more Senators. 

Sec. 5. The House of Representatives shall be composed of one 
hundred and twenty Representatives, biennially chosen by ballot, 
to be elected by the counties respectively, according to their popu- 
lation, and each county shall have at least one Representative in 
the House of Representatives, although it may not contain the 
requisite ratio of representation; this apportionment shall be 
made by the General Assembly at the respective times and periods 
when the districts of the Senate are hereinbefore directed to be 
laid off. 

Sec. 6. In making the apportionment in the House of Repre- 
sentatives, the ratio of representation shall be ascertained by 
dividing the amount of the population of the State, exclusive of 
that comprehended within those counties which do not severally 
contain the one hundred and twentieth part of the population of 
the State, by the number of Representatives, less the number 
assigned to such counties; and in ascertaining the number of the 
population of the State, aliens and Indians not taxed shall not be 
included. To each county containing the said ratio and not twice 
the said ratio there shall be assigned one Representative; to each 
county containing two but not three times the said ratio there 
shall be assigned two Representatives, and so on progressively, 
and then the remaining Representatives shall be assigned sever- 
ally to the counties having the largest fractions. 

Sec. 7. Each member of the Senate shall not be less than twenty- 
five years of age, shall have resided in the State as a citizen two 
years, and shall have usually resided in the district for which he 
is chosen one year immediately preceding his. election. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 361 

Sec. 8. Each member of the House of Representatives shall be 
a qualified elector of the State, and shall have resided in the 
county for which he is chosen for one year immediately preceding 
his election. 

Sec. 9. In the election of all officers, whose appointment shall 
be conferred upon the General Assembly by the Constitution, the 
vote shall be viva voce. 

Sec. 10. The General Assembly shall have the power to pass 
general laws regulating divorce and alimony, but shall not have 
power to grant a divorce or secure alimony in any individual case. 

Sec. 11. The General Assembly shall not have power to pass 
any private law to alter the name of any person, or to legitimate 
any person not born in lawful wedlock, or to restore to the rights 
of citizenship any person convicted of an infamous crime, but shall 
have power to pass general laws regulating the same. 

Sec. 12. The General Assembly shall not pass any private law, 
unless it shall be made to appear that thirty days' notice of appli- 
cation to pass such a law shall have been given, under such direc- 
tion and in such manner as shall be provided by law. 

Sec. 13. If vacancies shall occur in the General Assembly by 
death, resignation or otherwise, writs of election shall be issued 
by the Governor under such regulations as may be prescribed by 
law. 

Sec 14. No law shall be passed to raise money on the credit 
of the State, or to pledge the faith of the State, directly or in- 
directly, for the payment of any debt, or to impose any tax upon 
the people of the State, or allow the counties, cities or towns to 
do so, unless the bill for the purpose shall have been read three 
several times in each House of the General Assembly and passed 
three several readings, which readings shall have been on three 
different days, and agreed to by each House respectively, and 
unless the yeas and nays on the second and third readings of the 
bill shall have been entered on the journal. 

Sec 15. The General Assembly shall regulate entails in such 
manner as to prevent perpetuities. 

Sec 16. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, 
which shall be printed and made public immediately after the 
adjournment of the General Assembly. 

Sec 17. Any member of either House may dissent from and 
protest against any act or resolve which he may think injurious 



362 Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

to the public, or any individual, and have the reasons of his dis- 
sent entered on the journal. 

Sec. 18. The House of Representatives shall choose their own 
Speaker and other officers. 

Sec. 19 The Lieutenant-Governor shall preside in the Senate, but 
shall have no vote unless it may be equally divided. 

Sec. 20. The Senate shall choose its other officers and also a 
Speaker (pro tempore) in the absence of the Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor, or when he shall exercise the office of Governor. 

Sec. 21. The style of the acts shall be: "The General Assembly 
of North Carolina do enact." 

Sec. 22. Each House shall be judge of the qualifications and 
election of its own members, shall sit upon its own adjournment 
from day to day, prepare bills to be passed into laws; and the two 
Houses may also jointly adjourn to any future day or other place. 

Sec. 23. All bills and resolutions of a legislative nature shall 
be read three times in each House before they pass into laws, and 
shall be signed by the presiding officers of both Houses. 

Sec. 25. Each member of the General Assembly, before taking 
his seat, shall take an oath or affirmation that he will support the 
Constitution and laws of the United States, and the Constitution 
of the State of North Carolina, and will faithfully discharge his 
duty as a member of the Senate or House of Representatives. 

Sec. 25. The terms of office for Senators and members of the 
House of Representatives shall commence at the time of their 
election. 

Sec. 26. Upon motion made and seconded in either House by 
one-fifth of the members present, the yeas and nays upon any 
question shall be taken and entered upon the journals. 

Sec. 27. The election for members of the General Assembly 
shall be held for the respective districts and counties, at the places 
where they are now held, or may be directed hereafter to be held, 
in such manner as may be prescribed by law, on the first Thursday 
in August, in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy, 
and every two years thereafter. But the General Assembly may 
change the time of holding the elections. 

Sec. 28. The members of the General Assembly for the term 
for which they have been elected shall receive as a compensation 
for their services the sum of four dollars per day for each day of 
their session, for a period not exceeding sixty days; and should 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 363 

they remain longer in session they shall serve without compensa- 
tion. They shall also be entitled to receive ten cents per mile, 
both while coming to the seat of government and while return- 
ing home, the said distance to be computed by the nearest line 
or route of public travel. The compensation of the presiding 
officers of the two Houses shall be six dollars per day and mileage. 
Should an extra session of the General Assembly be called, the 
members and presiding officers shall receive a like rate of com- 
pensation for a period of not exceeding twenty days. 

Sec, 29. The General Assembly shall not pass any local, pri- 
vate, or special act or resolution relating to the establishment of 
courts inferior to the Superior Court; relating to the appointment 
of justices of the peace; relating to health, sanitation, and the 
abatement of nuisances; changing the names of cities, towns and 
townships; authorizing the laying out, opening, altering, main- 
taining, or discontinuing of highways, streets, or alleys; relating 
to ferries or bridges; relating to non-navigable streams; relating to 
cemeteries; relating to the pay of jurors; erecting new townships, 
or changing township lines, or establishing or changing the lines of 
school districts; remitting fines, penalties, and forfeitures, or re- 
funding moneys legally paid into the public treasury; regulating 
labor, trade, mining, or manufacturing; extending the time for 
the assessment or collection of taxes or otherwise relieving any 
collector of taxes from the due performance of his official duties 
or his sureties from liability; giving effect to informal wills and 
deeds; nor shall the General Assembly enact any such local, pri- 
vate or special act by the partial repeal of a general law, but the 
General Assembly may at any time repeal local, private, or special 
laws enacted by it. Any local, private, or special act or resolution 
passed in violation of the provisions of this section shall be void. 
The General Assembly shall have power to pass general laws 
regulating matters set out in this section. 

ARTICLE III. 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 

Section 1. The Executive Department shall consist of a Gov- 
ernor, in whom shall be vested the supreme executive power of 
the State, a Lieutenant-Governor, a Secretary of State, an Au- 
ditor, a Treasurer, a Superintendent of Public Instruction, and an 



364 Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

Attorney-General, who shall be elected for a term of four years 
by the qualified electors of the State, at the same time and places 
and in the same manner as members of the General Assembly are 
elected. Their term of office shall commence on the first day of 
January next after their election, and continue until their suc- 
cessors are elected and qualified: Provided, that the officers first 
elected shall assume the duties of their office ten days after the 
approval of this Constitution by the Congress of the United States, 
and shall hold their offices four years from and after the first day 
of January. 

Sec. 2. No person shall be eligible as Governor or Lieutenant- 
Governor unless he shall have attained the age of thirty years, 
shall have been a citizen of the United States five years, and shall 
have been a resident of this State for two years next before the 
election; nor shall the person elected to either of these two offices 
be eligible to the same office more than four years in any term of 
eight years, unless the office shall have been cast upon him as 
Lieutenant-Governor or President of the Senate. 

Sec. 3. The returns of every election for officers of the Execu- 
tive Department shall be sealed up and transmitted to the seat of 
government by the returning officers, directed to the Speaker of 
the House of Representatives, who shall open and publish the 
same in the presence of a majority of the members of both Houses 
of the General Assembly. The persons having the highest number 
of votes respectively shall be declared duly elected; but if two or 
more be equal and highest in votes for the same office, one of 
them shall be chosen by joint ballot of both Houses of the Gen- 
eral Assembly. Contested elections shall be determined by a joint 
ballot of both Houses of the General Assembly in such manner 
as shall be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 4. The Governor, before entering upon the duties of his 
office shall, in the presence of the members of both branches of 
the General Assembly, or before any Justice of the Supreme Court, 
take an oath or affirmation that he will support the Constitution 
and laws of the United States, and of the State of North Carolina, 
and that he will faithfully perform the duties appertaining to the 
office of Governor, to which he has been elected. , 

Sec. 5. The Governor shall reside at the seat of government 
of this State, and he shall, from time to time, give the General 
Assembly information of the affairs of the State, and recommend 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 365 

to their consideration such measures as he shall deem expedient. 

Sec. 6. The Governor shall have power to grant reprieves, com- 
mutations and pardons, after conviction, for all offenses (except 
in cases of impeachment), upon such conditions as he may think 
proper, subject to such regulations as may he provided by law 
relative to the manner of applying for pardons. He shall biennially 
communicate to the General Assembly each case of reprieve, com- 
mutation or pardon granted, stating the name of each convict, the 
crime for which he was convicted, the sentence and its date, the 
date of the commutation, pardon or reprieve and the reasons 
therefor. 

Sec. 7. The officers of the Executive Department and of the 
public institutions of the State shall, at least five days previous 
to each regular session of the General Assembly, severally report 
to the Governor, who shall transmit such reports with his mes- 
sage to the General Assembly, and the Governor may, at any time, 
require information in writing from the officers in the Executive 
Department upon any subject relating to the duties of their 
respective offices, and shall take care that the laws be faithfully 
executed. 

Sec. 8. The Governor shall be Commander in Chief of the mili- 
tia of the State, except when they shall be called into the service 
of the United States. 

Sec. 9. The Governor shall have power, on extraordinary occa- 
sions, by and with the advice of the Council of State, to convene 
the General Assembly in extra session by his proclamation, stat- 
ing therein the purpose or purposes for which they are thus 
convened. 

Sec. 10. The Governor shall nominate and, by and with the 
advice and consent of a majority of the Senators-elect, appoint all 
officers whose offices are established by this Constitution and whose 
appointments are not otherwise provided for. 

Sec. 11. The Lieutenant-Governor shall be President of the 
Senate, but shall have no vote unless the Senate is equally divided. 
He shall, whilst acting as President of the Senate, receive for his 
services the same pay which shall, for the same period, be allowed 
to the Speaker of the House of Representatives; and he shall 
receive no other compensation except when he is acting as Gov- 
ernor. 



366 Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

Sec. 12. In case of the impeachment of the Governor, his fail- 
ure to qualify, his absence from the State, his inability to dis- 
charge the duties of his office, or, in case the office of Governor 
shall in any wise become vacant, the powers, duties and emolu- 
ments of the office shall devolve upon the Lieutenant-Governor 
until the disability shall cease or a new Governor shall be elected 
and qualified. In every case in which the Lieutenant-Governor 
shall be unable to preside over the Senate, the Senators shall elect 
one of their own number President of their body; and the powers, 
duties and emoluments of the office of Governor shall devolve 
upon him whenever the Lieutenant-Governor shall, for any reason, 
be prevented from discharging the duties of such office as above 
provided, and he shall continue as acting Governor until the dis- 
abilities are removed, or a new Governor or Lieutenant-Governor 
shall be elected and qualified. Whenever, during the recess of the 
General Assembly, it shall become necessary for the President of 
the Senate to administer the government, the Secretary of State 
shall convene the Senate, that they may select such President. 

Sec. 13. The respective duties of the Secretary of State, Audi- 
tor, Treasurer, Superintendent of Public Instruction, and Attor- 
ney-General shall be prescribed by law. If the office of any of 
said offices shall be vacated by death, resignation or otherwise, 
it shall be the duty of the Governor to appoint another until the 
disability be removed or his successor be elected and qualified. 
Every such vacancy shall be filled by election at the first general 
election that occurs more than thirty days after the vacancy has 
taken place, and the persons chosen shall hold the office for the 
remainder of the unexpired term fixed in the first section of this 
article. 

Sec. 14. The Secretary of State, Auditor, Treasurer, and Su- 
perintendent of Public Instruction shall constitute, ex officio, the 
Council of State, who shall advise the Governor in the execution 
of his office; any three of them shall constitute a quorum. Their 
advice and proceedings in this capacity shall be entered in a jour- 
nal to be kept for this purpose exclusively, and signed by the 
members present, from any part of which any member may enter 
his dissent; and such journal shall be placed before the General 
Assembly when called for by either House. The Attorney-Gen- 
eral shall be, ex officio, the legal adviser of the Executive Depart- 
ment. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 367 

Sec. 15. The officers mentioned in this article shall, at stated 
periods, receive for their services a compensation to be estab- 
lished by law, which shall neither be increased nor diminished 
during the time for which they shall have been elected, and the 
said officers shall receive no other emolument or allowance what- 
ever. 

Sec. 16. There shall be a seal of the State, which shall be kept 
by the Governor, and used by him as occasion may require, and 
shall be called "The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina." 
All grants and commissions shall be issued in the name and by 
the authority of the State of North Carolina, sealed with "The 
Great Seal of the State," signed by the Governor and counter- 
signed by the Secretary of State. 

Sec. 17. The General Assembly shall establish a Department 
of Agriculture, Immigration and Statistics, under such regula- 
tions as may best promote the agricultural interests of the State, 
and shall enact laws, for the adequate protection and encourage- 
ment of sheep husbandry. 

ARTICLE IV. 

JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT. 

Section 1 . The distinction between actions at law and suits 
in equity, and the forms of all such actions and suits, shall be 
abolished; and there shall be in this State but one form of action 
for the enforcement or protection of private rights or the redress 
of private wrongs, which shall be denominated a civil action; and 
every action prosecuted by the people of the State as a party 
against a person charged with a public offense, for the punish- 
ment of the same, shall be termed a criminal action. Feigned 
issues shall also be abolished, and the fact at issue tried by order 
of court before jury. 

Sec. 2. The judicial power of the State shall be vested in a 
Court for the Trial of Impeachments, a Supreme Court, Superior 
Courts, Courts of Justices of the Peace, and such other courts in- 
ferior to the Supreme Court as may be established by law. 

Sec. 3. The Court for the Trial of Impeachments shall be the 
Senate. A majority of the members shall be necessary to a 
quorum, and the judgment shall not extend beyond removal from 
and disqualification to hold office in this State; but the party shall 
be liable to indictment and punishment according to law. 



368 Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

Sec. 4. The House of Representatives solely shall have the 
power of impeaching. No person shall be. convicted without the 
concurrence of two-thirds of the Senators present. When the 
Governor is impeached, the Chief Justice shall preside. 

Sec. 5. Treason against the State shall consist only in levying 
war against it, or adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and 
comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the 
testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession 
in open court. No eonviction of treason or attainder shall work 
corruption of blood or forfeiture. 

Sec. 6. The Supreme Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and 
four Associate Justices. 

Sec. 7. The terms of the Supreme Court shall be held in the 
city of Raleigh, as now, unless otherwise provided by the General 
Assembly. 

Sec. 8. The Supreme Court shall have jurisdiction to review, 
upon appeal, any decision of the courts below, upon any matter 
of law or legal inference. And the jurisdiction of said Court over 
"issues of fact" and "questions of fact" shall be the same exer- 
cised by it before the adoption of the Constitution of one thousand 
eight hundred and sixty-eight, and the Court shall have the power 
to issue any remedial writs necessary to give it a general super- 
vision and control over the proceedings of the inferior courts. 

Sec. 9. The Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction to 
hear claims against the State, but its decisions shall be merely 
recommendatory; no process in the nature of execution shall issue 
thereon; they shall be reported to the next session of the General 
Assembly for its action. 

Sec. 10. The State shall be divided into nine judicial districts, 
for each of which a judge shall be chosen, and there shall be held 
a Superior Court in each county at least twice in each year, to 
continue for such time in each county as may be prescribed by 
law. But the General Assembly may reduce or increase the num- 
ber of districts. 

Sec. 11. Every judge of the Superior Court shall reside in the 
district for which he is elected. The judges shall preside in the 
courts of the different districts successively, but no judge shall 
hold the courts in the same district oftener than once in four 
years; but in case of the protracted illness of the judge assigned 
to preside in any district, or of any other unavoidable accident 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 369 

to him, by reason of which he shall be unable to preside, the 
Governor may require any judge to hold one or more specified 
terms in said district, in lieu of the judge assigned to hold the 
courts of the said district; and the General Assembly may by gen- 
eral laws provide for the selection of special or emergency judges 
to hold the Superior Courts of any county or district, when the 
judge assigned thereto by reason of sickness, disability, or other 
cause, is unable to attend and hold said court, and when no other 
judge is available to hold the same. Such special or emergency 
judges shall have the power and authority of regular judges of 
the Superior Courts, in the courts which they are so appointed 
to hold; and the General Assembly shall provide for their reason- 
able compensation. 

Sec. 12. The General Assembly shall have no power to deprive 
the Judicial Department of any power or jurisdiction which right- 
fully pertains to it as a coordinate department of the govern- 
ment; but the General Assembly shall allot and distribute that 
portion of this power and jurisdiction which does not pertain to 
the Supreme Court among other courts prescribed by this Consti- 
tution or which may be established by law, in such manner as it 
may deem best; provide also a proper system of appeals, and 
regulate by law, when necessary, the methods of proceeding in 
the exercise of their powers of all the courts below the Supreme 
Court, so far as the same may be done without conflict with other 
provisions of this Constitution. 

Sec. 13. In all issues of fact, joined in any court, the parties 
may waive the right to have the same determined by a jury, in 
which case the finding of the judge upon the facts shall have the 
force and effect of a verdict by a jury. 

Sec. 14. The General Assembly shall provide for the establish- 
ment of special courts, for the trial of misdemeanors, in cities 
and towns where the same may be necessary. 

Sec. 15. The Clerk of the Supreme Court shall be appointed by 
the Court, and shall hold his office for eight years. 

Sec. 16. A Clerk of the Superior Court for each county shall 
be elected by the qualified voters thereof, at the time and in the 
manner prescribed by law for the election of members of the 
General Assembly. 

Sec. 17. Clerks of the Superior Courts shall hold their offices 
for four years. 

24 



370 Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

Sec. 18. The General Assembly shall prescribe and regulate 
the fees, salaries, and emoluments of all officers provided for in 
this article; but the salaries of the judges shall not be diminished 
during their continuance in office. 

Sec. 19. The laws of North Carolina, not repugnant to this 
Constitution, or the Constitution and laws of the United States, 
shall be in force until lawfully altered. 

Sec. 20. Actions at law and suits in equity pending when this 
Constitution shall go into effect shall be transferred to the courts 
having jurisdiction thereof, without prejudice by reason of the 
change; and all such actions and suits commenced before, and 
pending the adoption by the General Assembly of the rules of 
practice and procedure herein provided for, shall be heard and 
determined according to the practice now in use, unless otherwise 
provided for by said rules. 

Sec. 21. The Justices of the Supreme Court shall be elected by 
the qualified voters of the State, as is provided for the election of 
members of the General Assembly. They shall hold their offices 
for eight years. The judges of the Superior Courts, elected at 
the first election under this amendment, shall be elected in like 
manner as is provided for Justices of the Supreme Court, and 
shall hold their offices for eight years. The General Assembly 
may, from time to time, provide by law that the judges of the 
Superior Courts, chosen at succeeding elections, instead of being 
elected by the voters of the whole State, as is herein provided for, 
shall be elected by the voters of their respective districts. 

Sec. 22. The Superior Courts shall be at all times open for the 
transaction of all business within their jurisdiction, except the 
trial of issues of fact requiring a jury. 

Sec 23. A solicitor shall be elected for each judicial district, 
by the qualified voters thereof, as is prescribed for members of 
the General Assembly, who shall hold office for the term of four 
years, and prosecute on behalf of the State, in all criminal actions 
in the Superior Courts, and advise the officers of justice in his 
district. 

Sec. 24. In each county a sheriff and coroner shall be elected 
by the qualified voters thereof, as is prescribed for members of 
the General Assembly, and shall hold their offices for two years. 
In each township there shall be a constable elected in like man- 
ner by the voters thereof, who shall hold his office for two years. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 371 

When there is no coroner in a county, the clerk of the Superior 
Court for the county may appoint one for special cases. In case 
of a vacancy existing for any cause in any of the offices created 
by this section, the commissioners of the county may appoint to 
such office for the unexpired term. 

Sec. 25. All vacancies occuring in the offices provided for by 
this article of the Constitution shall be filled by the appointment 
of the Governor, unless otherwise provided for, and the appointees 
shall hold their places until the next regular election for members 
of the General Assembly, when elections shall be held to fill such 
offices. If any person, elected or appointed to any of said offices, 
shall neglect and fail to qualify, such offices shall be appointed 
to, held and filled as provided in case of vacancies occurring 
therein. All incumbents of said offices shall hold until their suc- 
cessors are qualified. 

Sec. 26. The officers elected at the first election held under this 
Constitution shall hold their offices for the terms prescribed for 
them respectively, next ensuing after the next regular election 
for members of the General Assembly. But their terms shall be- 
gin upon the approval of this Constitution by the Congress of the 
United States. 

Sec. 27. The several justices of the peace shall have jurisdic- 
tion, under such regulations as the General Assembly shall pre- 
scribe, of civil actions, founded on contract, wherein the sum de- 
manded shall not exceed two hundred dollars, and wherein the 
title to real estate shall not be in controversy; and of all criminal 
matters arising within their counties where the punishment can- 
not exceed a fine of fifty dollars or imprisonment for thirty days. 
And the General Assembly may give to the justices of the peace 
jurisdiction of other civil actions wherein the value of the prop- 
erty in controversy does not exceed fifty dollars. When an issue 
of fact shall be joined before a justice, on demand of either party 
thereto, he shall cause a jury of six men to be summoned, who 
shall try the same. The party against whom judgment shall be 
rendered in any civil action may appeal to the Superior Court 
from the same. In all cases of a criminal nature the party against 
whom judgment is given may appeal to the Superior Court, where 
the matter shall be heard anew. In all cases brought before a 
justice, he shall make a record of the proceedings and file same 
with the clerk of the Superior Court for his county. 



372 Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

Sec. 28. When the office of justice of the peace shall become 
vacant otherwise than by expiration of the term, and in case of 
a failure by the voters of any district to elect, the clerk of the 
Superior Court for the county shall appoint to fill the vacancy for 
the unexpired term. 

Sec. 29. In case the office of clerk of a Superior Court for a 
county shall become vacant otherwise than by the expiration of 
the term, and in case of a failure by the people to elect, the judge 
of the Superior Court for the county shall appoint to fill the 
vacancy until an election can be regularly held. 

Sec. 30. In case the General Assembly shall establish other 
courts inferior to the Supreme Court, the presiding officers and 
clerks thereof shall be elected in such manner as the General 
Assembly may from time to time prescribe, and they shall hold 
their offices for a term not exceeding eight years. 

Sec. 31. Any judge of the Supreme Court or of the Superior 
Courts, and the presiding officers of such courts inferior to the 
Supreme Court as may be established by law, may be removed 
from office for mental or physical inability, upon a concurrent 
resolution of two-thirds of both Houses of the General Assembly. 
The judge or presiding officer against whom the General Assembly 
may be about to proceed shall receive notice thereof, accompanied 
by a copy of the causes alleged for his removal, at least twenty 
days before the day on which either House of the General Assem- 
bly shall act thereon. 

Sec. 32. Any clerk of the Supreme Court or of the Superior 
Courts, or of such courts inferior to the Supreme Court as may 
be established by law, may be removed from office for mental or 
physical inability; the Clerk of the Supreme Court by the judges 
of said Court, the clerks of the Superior Courts by the judge 
riding the district, and the clerks of such courts* inferior to the 
Supreme Court as may be established by law by the presiding 
officers of said courts. The clerk against whom proceedings are 
instituted shall receive notice thereof, accompanied by a copy of 
the causes alleged for his removal, at least ten days before the 
day appointed to act thereon, and the clerk shall be entitled to an 
appeal to the next term of the Superior Court, and thence to the 
Supreme Court as provided in other cases of appeals. 

Sec. 33. The amendments made to the Constitution of North 
Carolina by this Convention shall not have the effect to vacate 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 373 

any office or term of office now existing under the Constitution of 
the State and filled or held by virtue of any election or appoint- 
ment under the said Constitution and the laws of the State made 
in pursuance thereof. 

ARTICLE V. 

REVENUE AND TAXATION. 

Section 1. The General Assembly may levy a capitation tax on 
every male inhabitant of the State over twenty-one and under 
fifty years of age, which said tax shall not exceed two dollars, and 
cities and towns may levy a capitation tax which shall not exceed 
one dollar. No other capitation tax shall be levied. The commis- 
sioners of the several counties and of the cities and towns may 
exempt from the capitation tax any special cases on account of 
poverty or infirmity. 

Sec. 2. The proceeds of the State and county capitation tax 
shall be applied to the purpose of education and the support of 
the poor, but in no one year shall more than twenty-five per cent 
thereof be appropriated to the latter purpose. 

Sec. 3. Laws shall be passed taxing, by a uniform rule, all 
moneys, credits, investments 'in bonds, stocks, joint-stock companies, 
or otherwise; and, also, all real and personal property, according to 
its true value in money: Provided, notes, mortgages, and all other 
evidence of indebtedness given in good faith for the purchase price 
of a home, when said purchase price does not exceed three thousand 
dollars, and said notes and mortgages and other evidence of indebt- 
edness shall be made to run for not less than five nor more than 
twenty years, shall be exempt from taxation of every kind: Pro- 
vided, that the interest carried by such notes and mortgages shall 
not exceed five and one-half per cent. The General Assembly may 
also tax trades, professions, franchises and income: Provided, the 
rate of tax on incomes shall not in any case exceed six per cent 
(6%) and there shall be allowed the following exemptions, to be 
deducted from the amount of annual incomes, to wit: for a mar- 
ried man with a wife living with him, or to a widow or widower 
having minor child or children, natural or adopted, not less than 
$2,000; to all other persons not less than $1,000, and there may be 
allowed other deductions (not including living expenses) so that 
only net incomes are taxe"d. 

Sec. 4. Until the bonds of the State shall be at par, the General 
Assembly shall have no power to contract any new debt or pecu- 



374 Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

niary obligation in behalf of the State, except to supply a casual 
deficit, or for suppressing invasions or insurrections, unless it 
shall in the same bill levy a special tax to pay the interest an- 
nually. And the General Assembly shall have no power to give 
or lend the credit of the State in aid of any person, association 
or corporation, except to aid in the completion of such railroads 
as may be unfinished at the time of the adoption of this Constitu- 
tion, or in which the State has a direct pecuniary interest, unless 
the subject be submitted to a direct vote of the people of the 
State, and be approved by the majority of those who shall vote 
thereon. 

Sec. 5. Property belonging to the State, or to municipal corpo- 
rations, shall be exempt from taxation. The General Assembly 
may exempt cemeteries and property held for educational, scien- 
tific, literary, charitable or religious purposes; also wearing ap- 
parel, arms for muster, household and kitchen furniture, the me- 
chanical and agricultural implements of mechanics and farmers, 
libraries and scientific instruments, or any other personal prop- 
erty, to a value not exceeding three hundred dollars. 

Sec. 6. The total of the State and county tax on property shall 
not exceed fifteen cents on the one hundred dollars value of prop- 
erty, except when the county property tax is levied for a special 
purpose and with the special approval of the General Assembly, 
which may be done by special or general act: Provided, this limi- 
tation shall not apply to taxes levied for the maintenance of the 
public schools of the State for the term required by article nine, 
section three, of the Constitution: Provided further,' the State tax 
shall not exceed five cents on the one hundred dollars value of 
property. 

Sec. 7. Every act of the General Assembly levying a tax shall 
state the special object to which it is to be applied, and it shall 
be applied to no other purpose. 

ARTICLE VI. 

SUFFRAGE AND ELIGIBILITY TO OFFICE. 

Section 1. Every male person born in the United States, and 
every male person who has been naturalized, twenty-one years of 
age, and possessing the qualifications set out in this article, shall 
be entitled to vote at any election by the people in the State, 
except as herein otherwise provided. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 375 

Sec. 2. He shall reside in the State of North Carolina for one 
year and in the precinct, ward, or other election district in which 
he offers to vote four months next preceding the election: Provided, 
that removal from one precinct, ward or other election district to 
another in the same county shall not operate to deprive any person 
of the right to vote in the precinct, ward or other election district 
from which he has removed until four months after such removal. 
No person who has been convicted, or who has confessed his guilt 
in open court, upon indictment, of any crime the punishment of 
which now is or may hereafter be imprisonment in the State's 
Prison, shall be permitted to vote unless the said person shall be 
first restored to citizenship in the manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 3. Every person offering to vote shall be at the time a 
legally registered voter as herein prescribed and in the manner 
hereafter provided by law, and the General Assembly of North 
Carolina shall enact general registration laws to carry into effect 
the provisions of this article. 

Sec. 4. Every person presenting himself for registration shall 
be able to read and write any section of the Constitution in the 
English language. But no male person who was on January 1, 
1867, or at any time prior thereto, entitled to vote under the laws 
of any State in the United States wherein he then resided, and no 
lineal descendant of any such person, shall be denied the right to 
register and vote at any election in this State by reason of his 
failure to possess the educational qualifications herein prescribed: 
Provided, he shall have registered in accordance with the terms of 
this section prior to December 1, 1908. The General Assembly shall 
provide for the registration of all persons entitled to vote without 
the educational qualifications herein prescribed, and shall, on or 
before November 1, 1908, provide for making a permanent record 
of such registration, and all persons so registered shall forever 
thereafter have the right to vote in all elections by the people in 
this State, unless disqualified under section 2 of this article. 

Sec. 5. That this amendment to the Constitution is presented 
and adopted as one indivisible plan for the regulation of the 
suffrage, with the intent and purpose to so connect the different 
parts and to make them so dependent upon each other that the 
whole shall stand or fall together. 

Sec. 6. All elections by the people shall be by ballot, and all 
elections by the General Assembly shall be viva voce. 



376 Constitution of the State of North Carolina" 

Sec. 7. Every voter in North Carolina, except as in this article 
disqualified, shall be eligible to office, but before entering upon the 
duties of the office he shall take and subscribe the following oath: 

"I , do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support 

and maintain the Constitution and laws of the United States, and 
the Constitution and laws of North Carolina not inconsistent 
therewith, and that I will faithfully discharge the duties of my 
office as So help me, God." 

Sec. 8. The following classes of persons shall be disqualified 
for office: Fi7st, all persons who shall deny the being of Almighty 
God. Second, all persons who shall have been convicted or con- 
fessed their guilt on indictment pending and whether sentenced 
or not, or under judgment suspended, of any treason or felony, 
or of any other crime for which the punishment may be imprison- 
ment in the penitentiary, since becoming citizens of the United 
States, or of corruption or malpractice in office, unless such per- 
son shall be restored to the rights of citizenship in a manner pre- 
scribed by law. 

Sec. 9. That this amendment to the Constitution shall go into 
effect on the first day of July, nineteen hundred and two, if a 
majority of votes cast at the next general election shall be cast in 
favor of this suffrage amendment. 

ARTICLE VII. 

MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS. 

Section 1. In each county there shall be elected biennially by 
the qualified voters thereof, as provided for the election of mem- 
bers of the General Assembly, the following officers: A treasurer, 
register of deeds, surveyor, and five commissioners. 

Sec. 2. It shall be the duty of the commissioners to exercise a 
general supervision and control of the penal and charitable insti- 
tutions, schools, roads, bridges, levying of taxes, and finances of 
the county, as may be prescribed by law. The register of deeds 
shall be, ex officio, clerk of the board of commissioners. 

Sec. 3. It shall be the duty of the commissioners first elected 
in each county to divide the same into convenient districts, and 
to report the same to the General Assembly before the first day 
of January, 1869. 

Sec. 4. Upon the approval of the reports provided for in the 
foregoing section by the General Assembly, the said districts shall 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 377 

have corporate powers for the necessary purposes of local govern- 
ment, and shall be known as townships. 

Sec. 5. In each township there shall be biennially elected by 
the qualified voters thereof a clerk and. two justices of the peace, 
who shal-1 constitute a board of trustees and shall, under the 
supervision of the county commissioners, have control of the 
taxes and finances, roads and bridges of the townships, as may be 
prescribed by law. The General Assembly may provide for the 
election of a larger number of justices of the peace in cities 
and towns and in those townships in which cities and towns are 
situated. In every township there shall also be biennially elected 
a school committee, consisting of three persons, whose duties shall 
be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 6. The township board of trustees shall assess the taxa- 
ble property of their township and make returns to the county 
commissioners for revision, as may be prescribed by law. The 
clerk shall be ex officio treasurer of the township. 

Sec. 7. No county, city, town or other municipal corporation 
shall contract any debt, pledge its faith or loan its credit, nor 
shall any tax be levied or collected by any officers of the same 
except for the necessary expenses thereof, unless by a vote of the 
majority of the qualified voters therein. 

Sec. 8. No money shall be drawn from any county or township 
treasury except by authority of law. 

Sec. 9. All taxes levied by any county, city, town or township 
shall be uniform and ad valorem, upon all property in the same, 
except property exempted by this Constitution. 

Sec. 10. The county officers first elected under the provisions 
of this article shall enter upon their duties ten days after the ap- 
proval of this Constitution by the Congress of the United States. 

Sec. 11. The Governor shall appoint a sufficient number of 
justices of the peace in each county, who shall hold their places 
until sections four, five and six of this article shall have been 
carried into effect. 

Sec. 12. All charters, ordinances and provisions relating to 
municipal corporations shall remain in force until legally changed, 
unless inconsistent with the provisions of this Constitution. 

Sec. 13. No county, city, town or other municipal corporation 
shall assume to pay, nor shall any tax be levied or collected for 
the payment of any debt, or the interest upon any debt, contracted 
directly or indirectly in aid or support of the rebellion. 



378 Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

Sec. 14. The General Assembly shall have full power by stat- 
ute to modify, change or abrogate any and all of the provisions 
of this article and substitute others in their place, except sections 
seven, nine, and thirteen. 

ARTICLE VIII. 

CORPORATIONS OTHER THAN MUNICIPAL. 

Section 1. No corporation shall be created nor shall its char- 
ter be extended, altered, or amended by special act, except cor- 
porations for charitable, educational, penal, or reformatory pur- 
poses that are to be and remain under the patronage and con- 
trol of the State; but the General Assembly shall provide by 
general laws for the chartering and organization of all corpora- 
tions and for amending, extending, and forfeiture of all charters, 
except those above permitted by special act. All such general 
laws and special acts may be altered from time to time or re- 
pealed; and the General Assembly may at any time by special 
act repeal the charter of any corporation. 

Sec. 2. Dues from corporations shall be secured by such in- 
dividual liabilities of the corporations and other means as may 
be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 3. The term corporation, as used in this article, shall be 
construed to include all associations and joint-stock companies 
having any of the powers and privileges of corporations not pos- 
sessed by individuals or partnerships. And all corporations shall 
have the right to sue and shall be subject to be sued in all courts 
in like cases as natural persons. 

Sec 4. It shall be the duty of the Legislature to provide by 
general laws for the organization of cities, towns, and incor- 
porated villages, and to restrict their powers of taxation, assess- 
ment, borrowing money, contracting debts, and loaning their credit, 
so as to prevent abuses in assessment and in contracting debts 
by such municipal corporations. 

ARTICLE IX. 

EDUCATION. 

Section 1. Religion, morality and knowledge being necessary 
to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and 
the means of education shall forever be encouraged. 

Sec 2. The General Assembly at its first session under this 
Constitution shall provide by taxation and otherwise for a gen- 



Constitution of the State of Nokth Carolina 379 

eral and uniform system of public schools, wherein tuition shall be 
free of charge to all the children of the State between the ages 
of six and twenty-one years. And the children of the white race 
and the children of the colored race shall be taught in separate 
public schools; but there shall be no discrimination in favor of 
or to the prejudice of either race. 

Sec. 3. Each county of the State shall be divided into a con- 
venient number of districts, in which one or more public schools 
shall be maintained at least six months in every year; and if the 
commissioners of any county shall fail to comply with the afore- 
said requirements of this section they shall be liable to indict- 
ment. 

Sec. 4. The proceeds of all lands that have been or hereafter 
may be granted by the United States to this State and not other- 
wise appropriated by this State or the United States, also all 
money, stocks, bonds and other property now belonging to any 
State fund for purposes of education, also the net proceeds of all 
sales of the swamp lands belonging to the State, and all other 
grants, gifts or devises that have been or hereafter may be made 
to the State and not otherwise appropriated by the State or by 
the terms of the grant, gift or devise, shall be paid into the State 
treasury, and, together with so much of the ordinary revenue 
of the State as may by law be set apart for that purpose, shall 
be faithfully appropriated for establishing and maintaining in 
this State a system of free public schools, and for no other uses 
or purposes whatsoever. 

Sec. 5. All moneys, stocks, bonds and other property belonging 
to a county school fund, also the net proceeds from the sale of 
estrays, also the clear proceeds of all penalties and forfeitures 
and of all fines collected in the several counties for any breach 
of the penal or military laws of the State, and all moneys which 
shall be paid by persons as an equivalent for exemption from 
military duty, shall belong to and remain in the several counties, 
and shall be faithfully appropriated for establishing and main- 
taining free public schools in the several counties of this State: 
Provided, that the amount collected in each county shall be an- 
nually reported to the Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

Sec. 6. The General Assembly shall have power to provide for 
the election of trustees of the University of North Carolina, in 
whom, when chosen, shall be vested all the privileges, rights, fran- 
chises and endowments thereof in any wise granted to or con- 
ferred upon the trustees of said University, and the General As- 



380 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 



sembly may make such provisions, laws and regulations from 
time to time as may be necessary or expedient for the mainte- 
nance and management of said University. 

Sec. 7. The General Assembly shall provide that the benefits 
of the University, as far as practicable, be extended to the youth 
of the State free of expense for tuition; also that all the property 
which has heretofore accrued to the State or shall hereafter accrue 
from escheats, unclaimed dividends or distributive shares of the 
estates of deceased persons shall be appropriated to the use of 
the University. 

Sec. 8. The Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Secretary of State, 
Treasurer, Auditor, Superintendent of Public Instruction, and 
Attorney-General shall constitute a State Board of Education. 

Sec. 9. The Governor shall be president and the Superintendent 
of Public Instruction shall be secretary of the Board of Education. 

Sec. 10. The Board of Education shall succeed to all the pow- 
ers and trusts of the president and directors of the Literary Fund 
of North Carolina, and shall have full power to legislate and 
make all needful rules and regulations in relation to free public 
schools and the educational fund of the State; but all acts, rules 
and regulations of said board may be altered, amended, or re- 
pealed by the General Assembly, and when so altered, amended 
or repealed, they shall not be .^-enacted by the board. 

Sec. 11. The first session of the Board of Education shall be 
held at the capital of the State within fifteen days after the organi- 
zation of the State government under this Constitution; the time 
of future meetings may be determined by the board. 

Sec. 12. A majority of the board shall constitute a quorum tor 
the transaction of business. 

Sec. 13. The contingent expenses of the board shall be provided 
by the General Assembly. 

Sec. 14. As soon as practicable after the adoption of this Con- 
stitution the General Assembly shall establish and maintain in 
connection with the University a department of agriculture, of 
mechanics, of mining, and of normal instruction. 

Sec. 15. The General Assembly is hereby empowered to enact 
that every child of sufficient mental an physical ability shall 
attend the public schools during the period between the ages of 
six and eighteen years for a term of not less than sixteen months, 
unless educated by other means. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 381 

ARTICLE X. 

HOMESTEADS AND EXEMPTIONS. 

Section 1. The personal property of any resident of this State 
to the value of five hundred dollars, to be selected by such resi- 
dent, shall be and is hereby exempted from sale under execution 
or other final process of any court issued for the collection of any 
debt. 

Sec. 2. Every homestead, and the dwellings and buildings used 
therewith, not exceeding in value one thousand dollars, to be 
selected by the owner thereof, or in lieu thereof, at the option 
of the owner, any lot in a city or village, with the dwellings and 
buildings used thereon, owned and occupied by any resident of 
this State, and not exceeding the value of one thousand dollars, 
shall be exempt from sale under execution or other final process 
obtained on any debt. But no property shall be exempt from 
sale for taxes or for payment of obligations contracted for the 
purchase of said premises. 

Sec. 3. The homestead, after the death of the owner thereof, 
shall be exempt from the payment of any debt during the minority 
of his children or any one of them. 

Sec. 4. The provisions of sections one and two of this article 
shall not be so construed as to prevent a laborer's lien for work 
done and performed for the person claiming such exemptions, or a 
mechanic's lien for work done on the premises. 

Sec. 5. If the owner of a homestead die, leaving a widow but 
no children, the same shall be exempt from the debts of her hus- 
band, and the rents and profits thereof shall inure to her benefit 
during her widowhood, unless she be the owner of a homestead 
in her own right. 

Sec. 6. The real and personal property of any female in this 
State acquired before marriage, and all property, real and per- 
sonal, to which she may, after marriage, become in any manner 
entitled, shall be and remain the sole and separate estate and 
property of such female, and shall not be liable for any debts, 
obligations or engagements of her husband, and may be devised 
and bequeathed, and, with the written assent of her husband, 
conveyed by her as if she were unmarried. 

Sec. 7. The husband may insure his own life for the sole use 
and benefit of his wife and children, and in case of the death 
of the husband the amount thus insured shall be paid over to the 



382 Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

wife and children, or to the guardian if under age, for her or 
their own use, free from all the claims of the representatives of 
her husband or any of his creditors. 

Sec. 8. Nothing contained in the foregoing sections of this 
article shall operate to prevent the owner of a homestead from 
disposing of the same by deed; but no deed made by the owner 
of a homestead shall be valid without the voluntary signature 
and assent of his wife, signified on her private examination accord- 
ing to law. 

ARTICLE XL 

PUNISHMENTS, PENAL INSTITUTIONS AND PUBLIC CHARITIES. 

Section 1. The following punishments only shall be known to 
the laws of this State, viz., death, imprisonment with or without 
hard labor, fines, removal from office, and disqualification to hold 
and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under this State. 
The foregoing provision for imprisonment with hard labor shall 
be construed to authorize the employment of such convict labor 
on public works or highways, or other labor for public benefit, 
and the farming out thereof, where and in such manner as may be 
provided by law; but no convict shall be farmed out who has been 
sentenced on a charge of murder, manslaughter, rape, attempt to 
commit rape, or arson: Provided, that no convict whose labor 
may be farmed out shall be punished for any failure of duty as 
a laborer except by a responsible officer of the State; but the 
convicts so farmed out shall be at all times under the supervision 
and control, as to their government and discipline, of the peniten- 
tiary board or some officer of the State. 

Sec. 2. The object of punishment being not only to satisfy 
justice, but also to reform the offender, and thus prevent crime, 
murder, arson, burglary and rape, and these only, may be punish- 
able with death, if the General Assembly shall so enact. 

Sec. 3. The General Assembly shall, at its first meeting, make 
provision for the erection and conduct of a State's Prison or 
penitentiary at some central and accessible point within the State. 

Sec. 4. The General Assembly may provide for the erection of 
a house of correction, where vagrants and persons guilty of mis- 
demeanors shall be restrained and usefully employed. 

Sec. 5. A house or houses of refuge may be established when- 
ever the public interests may require it, for the correction and 
instruction of other classes of offenders. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 383 

Sec. 6. It shall be required by competent legislation that the 
structure and superintendence of penal institutions of the State, 
the county jails and city police prisons secure the health and 
comfort of the prisoners and that male and female prisoners be 
never confined in the same room or cell. 

Sec. 7. Beneficent provisions for the poor, the unfortunate and 
orphan being one of the first duties of a civilized and Christian 
State, the General Assembly shall, at its first session, appoint and 
define the duties of a Board of Public Charities, to whom shall 
be entrusted the supervision of all charitable and penal state 
institutions, and who shall annually report to the Governor upon 
their condition, with suggestions for their improvement. 

Sec. 8. There shall also, as soon as practicable, be measures 
devised by the State for the establishment of one or more orphan 
houses where destitute orphans may be cared for, educated and 
taught some business or trade. 

Sec. 9. It shall be the duty of the Legislature, as soon as prac- 
ticable, to devise means for the education of idiots and inebriates. 

Sec. 10. The General Assembly may provide that the indigent 
deaf-mute, blind and insane of the State shall be cared for at the 
charge of the State. 

Sec 11. It shall be steadily kept in view by the Legislature 
and the Board of Public Charities that all penal and charitable 
institutions should be made as nearly self-supporting as is con- 
sistent with the purposes of their creation. 

ARTICLE XII. 

MILITIA. 

Section 1. All able-bodied male citizens of the State of North 
Carolina, between the ages of twenty-one and forty years, who are 
citizens of the United States, shall be liable to do duty in the 
militia: Provided, that all persons who may be averse to bearing 
arms, from religious scruples, shall be exempt therefrom. 

Sec 2. The General Assembly shall provide for the organizing, 
arming, equipping and discipline of the militia, and for paying 
the same when called into active service. 

Sec 3. The Governor shall be Commander in Chief, and shall 
have power to call out the militia to execute the law, suppress 
riots or insurrections, and to repel invasion. 



384 Constitution oi the State of North Carolina 

Sec. 4. The General Assembly shall have power to make such 
exemptions as may be deemed necessary, and enact laws that may 
be expedient for the government of the militia. 

ARTICLE XIII. 

AMENDMENTS. 

Section 1. No convention of the people of this State shall ever 
be called by the General Assembly, unless by the concurrence of 
two-thirds of all the members of each House of the General As- 
sembly, and except the proposition, Convention or No Convention, 
be first submitted to the qualified voters of the whole State, at 
the next general election in a manner to be prescribed by law. 
And should a majority of the votes be cast in favor of said con- 
vention, it shall assemble on such day as may be prescribed by 
the General Assembly. 

Sec. 2. No part of the Constitution of this State shall be altered 
unless a bill to alter the same shall have been agreed to by three- 
fifths of each House of the General Assembly. And the amend- 
ment or amendments so agreed to shall be submitted at the next 
general election to the qualified voters of the whole State, in such 
a manner as may be prescribed by law. And in the event of their 
adoption by a majority of the votes cast, such amendment or 
amendments shall become a part of the Constitution of the State. 

ARTICLE XIV. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Section 1. All indictments which shall have been found, or may 
hereafter be found, for any crime or offense committed before this 
Constitution takes effect may be proceeded upon in the proper 
courts, but no punishment shall be inflicted which is forbidden 
by this Constitution. 

Sec. 2. No person who shall hereafter fight a duel, or assist in 
the same as a second, or send, accept, or knowingly carry a chal- 
lenge therefor, or agree to go out of the State to fight a duel, shall 
hold any office in this State. 

Sec. 3. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in con- 
sequence of appropriations made by law; and an accurate account 
of the receipts and expenditures of the public money shall be 
annually published. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 385 

Sec. 4. The General Assembly shall provide, by proper legisla- 
tion, for giving to mechanics and laborers an adequate lien on 
the subject-matter of their labor. 

Sec. 5. In the absence of any contrary provision, all officers of 
this State, whether heretofore elected, or appointed by the Gov- 
ernor, shall hold their positions only until other appointments are 
made by the Governor, or, if the officers are elective, until their 
successors shall have been chosen and duly qualified according to 
tne provisions of this Constitution. 

Sec. 6. The seat of government of this State shall remain at 
the city of Raleigh. 

Sec. 7. No person who shall hold any office or place of trust 
or profit under the United States, or any department thereof, or 
under this State, or under any other State or government, shall 
hold or exercise any other office or place of trust or profit under 
the authority of this State, or be eligible to a seat in either House 
of the General Assembly: Provided, that nothing herein con- 
tained shall extend to officers in the militia, justices of the peace, 
commissioners of public charities, or commissioners for special 
purposes. 

Sec. 8. All marriages between a white person and a negro, or 
between a white person and a person of negro descent to the third 
generation inclusive, are hereby forever prohibited. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 387 



INDEX TO CONSTITUTION. 

Abuses in assessments and contracting debts by municipal corporations, General Assem- 
bly to prevent, A. 8, S. 4. 
Actions at law and equity suits, no distinction, A. 4, S. 1. 
Pending when Constitution took effect, A. 4, S. 20. 
Acts of General Assembly, style of, A. 2, S. 21. 

Levying taxes, must state object, A. 5, S. 7. 
Agricultural Department, A. 3, S. 17. 

In connection with University, A. 9, S. 14. 
Alimony, General Assembly does not secure, A. 2, S. 10. 
Allegiance to United States Government, A. 1, S. 5. 
Amendments, A. 13. 

Do not vacate existing office, A. 4, S. 33. 
Answer to criminal charge, A. 1, S. 12. 

Apportionment of Senators and Representatives, A. 2, SS. 4, 5, 6. 
Arms, right to bear, A. 1, S. 24. 

Article seven, General Assembly may modify or repeal certain sections, A. 7, S. 14. 
Assemblage, right of, A. 1, S. 25. 
Attorney-General advises Executive, A. 3, S. 14. 

Duties of, A. 3, S. 13. 
Auditor, duties of, A. 3, S. 13. 
Bail, excessive, A. 1, S. 14. 
Ballot, elections to be by, A. 6, S. 3. 
Bills of General Assembly, read three times, A. 2, S. 23. 
Blind provided for, A. 11, S. 10. 
Board of Charities, A. 11, S. 7. 
Boundaries of State, A. 1, S. 34. 
Capitation tax, application of proceeds from, A. 5, S. 2. 

Exempts, A. 5, S. 1. 
Capital punishment, A. 11, S. 2. 
Charities, public, A. 11. 

Deaf-mutes and the blind, A. 11, S. 10. 

Idiots and inebriates, A. 11, S. 9. 

Provisions for orphans and the poor, A. 11, S. 7. 

Self-supporting, as far as possible, A. 11, S. 14. 
Cities organized by legislation, A. 8, S. 4. 
Citizenship, restoration to, A. 2, S. 11. 
Civil and criminal actions, A. 4, S. 1. 
Claims against the State, A. 4, S. 9. 
Clerk of Superior Court, election of, A. 4, S. 10. 

Removal for inability, A. 4, S. 32. 
Clerk of Supreme Court, A. 4, S. 15. 

Removal of, A. 4, S. 32. 

Terms of office of, A. 4, S. 17. 
Commutations, A. 3, S. 6. 

Compulsory education, General Assembly may provide, A. 9, S. 15. 
Concealed weapons, carrying not justified, A. 1, S. 24. 
Constitution, how changed, A. 13, S. 2. 
Controversies at law about property, A. 1, S. 19. 
Convention, how called, A. 13. 
Convict labor, A. 11, S. 1. 
Coroner and sheriff, A. 4, S. 24. 
Corporations, municipal, A. 7. 

Charters remain in force till legally changed, A. 7, S. 12. 

Power of General Assembly over, A. 7, S. 12. 
Corporations other than municipal, A. 8. 

Debts of, how secured, A. 8, S. 2. 

Special charters prohibited, A. 8, S. 1. 
Correction, houses of, A. 11, S. 4. 
Council of State, A. 3, S. 14. 
Counsel allowed defendant, A. 1, S. 11. 
County commissioners, election and duty of, A. 7, SS. 1, 2. 



3S8 Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

Counties, commissioners divide into districts, A. 7, S. 3. 

Districts have corporate powers a3 townships, A. 7, S. 4. 
Majority of voters necessary to levy taxes, etc., A. 7, S. 7. 
Money, how drawn from treasury, A. 7, S. 8. 
Officers enter on duty, when, A. 7, S. 10. 

Of townships, A. 7, S. 5. 
School districts, A. 9, S. 3. 

Fund, A. 9, S. 5. 
Taxes to be ad vulorem, A. 7, S. 9. 
Township trustees assess property, A. 7, S. 6. 
County Treasurer, A. 7, S. 1. 
Courts to be open, A. 1, S. 35. 

Kinds of, A. 4, S. 2. 
Criminal charges, answer to, A. 1, S. 12. 
Criminal and civil actions, A. 4, S. 1. 

Courts for cities and towns, A. 4, S. 14. 
Prosecutions, A. 1, S. 11. 
Deaf-mutes provided for, A. 11, S. 10. 
Death punishment, A. 11, S. 2. 
Debt does not affect homestead, A. 10, S. 3. 

County, city or town cannot contract, except by majority of qualified voters, A. 7, S. 7. 
Imprisonment for, A. 1, S. 16. 
In aid of rebellion, void, A. 7, S. 13. 
Debt, restrictions upon increase of public, etc., A. 5, S. 4. 

What bonds declared invalid, A. 1, S. 6. 
Declaration of rights, A. 1. 
Department of Agriculture, A. 3, S. 17. 
Divorce, General Assembly does not grant, A. 2, S. 17. 
Disqualification for office, A. 6, S. 5; A. 14, S. 7. 

Dueling disqualifies, A. 14, S. 2. 
Education, Board of, A. 9, S. 8. 
Officers, A. 9, S. 9. 
Expenses, A. 9, S. 13. 
County school fund, A. 9, S. 5. 
Encouraged, A. 9, S. 1; A. 1, S. 27. 
First session of , A. 9, S. 11. 
Power of, A. 9, S. 10. 
Property devoted to, A. 9, SS. 4, 5. 
Quorum, A. 9, S. 12. 
Election of officers by General Assembly, iittra voce, A. 2, S. 9. 
Elections, by people and General Assembly, A. 6, S. 3. 
Contested, returns of, A. 3, S. 3. 
Free, A. 1, S. 10. 
Frequent, A. 1, S. 28. 
Electors, oath of office of , A. 6, S. 4. 
Qualifications of, A. 6, S. 1. 
Registration of, A. 6, S. 2. 
Eligibility to office, A. 6. 
Emergency judges, A. 4, S. 11. 
Emoluments, exclusive, none, A. 1, S. 7. 

Hereditary, A. 1, S. 30. 
Entails to be regulated, A. 2, S. 15. 

Enumeration of rights not to impair others retained by people, A. 1, S. 37. 
Equity suits and actions at law, distinction abolished, A. 4, S. 1. 

Pending when Constitution took effect, A. 4, S. 20. 
Evidence against himself, criminal not compelled to give, A. 1, S. 11. 
Executive, Attorney-General advises, A. 3, S. 14. 
Department of, A. 3. 

Distinct, A. 1, S. 8. 
Officers, A. 3, S. 1. 

Compensation, A. 3, S. 15. 
Duties, A. 3, S. 13. 
Reports of, A. 3, S. 7. 
Terms of office of, A. 3, S. 1. 
. Seal of State, A. 3, S. 16. 

Vacancy in, how filled, A. 3, S. 13. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 389 

Exemption, A. 10, S. 1. 

By reason of military duty, etc., A. 12, S. 4. 

Property of feme covert not liable for husband's debts, A. 10, S. 6. 
Ex post facto laws, A. 1, S. 32. 
Extra session of General Assembly, A. 3, S. 9. 
Feigned issues abolished, A. 4, S. 1. 

Feme sole, property of, not liable for husband's debts, A. 10, S. 6. 
Fines, excessive, A. 1, S. 14. 
Freedom of the press, A. 1, S. 20. 

Fundamental principles, frequent recurrence to, A. 1, S. 29. 
General Assembly, acts, style of, A. 2, S. 21. 

Article seven may be modified or repealed by, A. 7, S. 14. 

Bills and resolutions read three times, A. 2, S. 23. 

Compulsory education may be enforced by, A. 9, S. 15. 

Election by, A. 6, S. 3. 

Entails regulated by, A. 2, S. 15. 

Extra session, A. 2, S. 28; A. 3, S. 9. 

Journals kept, A. 2, S. 16. 

Protests entered on, A. 2, S. 17. 
Members of, A. 2, S. 24. 

Assemble, when, A. 2, S. 2. 
Election for, when, A. 2, S. 27. 
Office a disqualification, A. 14, S. 7. 
Terms commence with election, A. 2, S. 25. 
Vacancies, how filled, A. 2, S. 13. 
Municipal corporations controlled by, A. 7, S. 11. 
Names, personal, not changed by, A. 2, S. 11. 
Officers of, election, viva voce, A. 2, S. 9. 
Pay of, A. 2, S. 28. 
President of Senate, A. 2, S. 19. 
Speaker of House, A. 2, S. 18. 
Powers of, A. 2, S. 22. 

In relation to divorce and alimony, A. 2, S. 10. 
Representation apportioned by, A. 2, SS. 4, 5. 
Revenue, A. 2, S. 14. 
Schools provided by, A. 9, S. 2. 
University to be maintained by, A. 9, SS. 6, 7. 
Yeas and nays, A. 2, SS. 14, 26. 
Government, allegiance to United States, A. 1, S. 5. 
Internal, of State, A. 1, S. 3. 
Origin of, A. 1, S. 2. 
Seat of, remains in Raleigh, A. 14, S. 6. 
Governor, commands militia, A. 3, S. 8. 

Commutations, pardons, reprieves, A. 3, S. 6. 
Gompensation, A. 3, S. 15. 
Duties of, A. 3, S. 12. 
Extra sessions called by, A. 3, S. 9. 
Impeachment of, A. 3, S. 12. 

Justices of peace appointed by, when, A. 7, S. 11. 
Lieutenant, qualification of, A. 3, S. 2. 
Oath of office, A. 3', S. 4. 
Officers appointed by, A. 3, S. 10; A. 14, S. 5. 
Qualification of, A. 3, S. 2. 
Resident of, A. 3, S. 5. 
Vacancy in office of, A. 3, S. 12. 
Habeas corpus, A. 1, S. 21. 
Hereditary emoluments, A. 1, S. 30. 
Homestead and exemption, A. 10, S. 2. 
Benefit of widow in, A. 10, S. 5. 
Exempted from debt, A. 10, S. 3. 
Laborer's lien attaches, A. 10, S. 4. 
Privy examination of wife to dispose of, A. 10, S. 8. 
House of correction, A. 11, S. 4. 
Orphans, A. 11, S. 8. 
Refuge, A. 11, S. 5. 



390 Constitution of the State of North Carolina 



House of Representatives, representatives, apportionment, A. 2, S. 5. 

Officers of, A. 2, S. 18. 

Term begins when, A. 2, S. 25. 

Qualification for, A. 2, S. 8. 

Ratio of, A. 2, S. 6. 
Husband can insure life for benefit of family, A. 10, S. 7. 
Idiots provided for, A. 11, S. 9. 
Immigration, Department of, A. 3, S. 17. 
Impeachment, A. 4, S. 4. 

Court of, A. 4, S. 3. 

Of Governor, A. 3, S. 12. 
Imprisonment for debt, A. 1, S. 16. 

Except by law, wrong, A. 1, S. 17. 
Indictments for crime committed before Constitution took effect, A. 14, S. 1. 
Inebriates, A. 11, S. 9. 
Inferior courts, A. 4, S. 12. 

Officers of, A. 4, S. 30. 
Insane provided for, A. 11, S. 10. 
Institutions, charitable, A. 11. 

Penal, A. 11. 

Public, annual reports from, A. 3, S. 7. 

Self-supporting as far as possible, A. 11, S. 11. 

Sexes to be separated, A. 11, S. 6. 
Instruction, superintendent of public, A. 3, S. 13. 
Intermarriage of whites and negroes prohibited, A. 14, S. 8. 
Internal government of State, A. 1, S. 3. 
Issues of fact, by whom tried and how waived, A. 4, S. 13. 
Judges, election, terms of, etc., A. 4, S. 21. 

Fees, salaries, emoluments, A. 4, S. 18. 

Removal of for inability, A. 4, S. 31. 

Residence of, A. 4, S. 11. 
Judicial department, A. 4. 

Districts for superior courts, A. 4, S. 10. 

General Assembly not to deprive of jurisdiction, A. 4, S. 12. 

Powers, division of, A. 4, S. 2. 

Term of first officers under Constitution, A. 4, S. 26. 

Vacancies, A. 4, S. 25. 
Judicial remedy, allowed all, A. 1, S. 35. 
Judiciary distinct, A. 1, S. 8. 
Jurisdiction, courts inferior to Supreme, A. 4, S. 12. 

Justices of the peace, A. 4, S. 27. 

Supreme Court, A. 4, S. 8. 
Jury, right of, A. 1, S. 13. 

Sacred and inviolable, A. 1, S. 19. 

Trial by, waived, A. 4, S. 13. 
Justices of the peace, Governor appoints, when, A. 7, S. 11. 

Jurisdiction of, A. 4, S. 27. 

Vacancies in office, A. 4, S. 28. 
Laborers' and Mechanics' lien, A. 14, S. 4. 

Attaches homestead, A. 10, S. 4. 
Law of the land, no person imprisoned, or deprived of life, etc., but by, A. 1, S. 17. 
Laws, ex post facto and retrospective, A. 1, S. 32. 

Private, thirty davs notice before passage, A. 2, S. 12. 

What in force, A. 4, S. 19. 
Legislative Department, distinct, A. 1, S. 8. 
Legislature, two branches of, A. 2, S. 1. 

Provide for organizing towns, etc., A. 8, S. 4. 

Trials other than jury, A. 1, S. 13. 
Legitimation, General Assembly can pass general laws for, A. 2, S. 11. 
Libertv, deprivation of, except by law, A. 1, S. 17. 

Religious, A. 1, S. 26. 

Restraint of, remedied, A. 1, S. 18. 

Warrants without evidence, dangerous to, A. 1, S. 15. 
Lien of laborers and mechanics, A. 14, S. 4. 
Lieutenant-Governor, President of Senate, duties of, A. 3, S. 11. 

When Governor, A. 3, S. 12. 
Literary Fund, Board of Education to succeed to rights of, A. 9, S. 10. 
Local legislation prohibited, A. 2, S. 29. 



Constitution of the State of Noeth Carolina 391 

Marriages between whites and negroes forbidden, A. 14, S. 8. 
Married woman, husband can insure life for benefit of, A. 10, S. 7. 

Privy examination of, to dispose of homestead, A. 10, S. 8. 

Property of, not liable for husband's debts, A. 10, S. 6. 
Mechanics, lien, A. 14, S. 4. 
Men, equality, rights of, A. 1, S. 1. 
Militia, A. 1, S. 24; A. 12. 

Exemptions from duty, A. 12, S 4. 

Governor commands, A. 3, S. 8; A. 12, S. 3. 

Organization of, A. 12, S. 2. 

Who liable to bear arms, A. 12, S. 1. 
Money, how drawn from State Treasury, A. 4, S. 1. 

County or township treasury, A. 7, S. 8. 
Monopolies are injurious, A. 1, S. 31. 
Municipal corporations, A. 7. 

Cannot contract debt except by majority of qualified voters, A. 7,[S. 7. 

Charters remain in force till changed, A. 7, S. 12. t& 

General Assembly to provide for organization of, taxation, etc., by,^A.[8, S. 4. 

Power of General Assembly over, A. 7, S. 14. 

Special charters prohibited, A. 8, S. 4. 
Names, personal, how changed, A. 2, S. 11. 

Normal School, to be maintained by General Assembly at University, A. 9, S. 14. 
Oath of Governor, A. 3, S. 4. 

Oath of member of General Assembly, A. 2, S. 24. 
Oath of office, A. 6, S. 4. 
Office, cannot hold two, A. 14, S. 7. 

Disqualification, A. 6, S. 5. 

Dueling disqualifies for, A. 14, S. 2. 

Eligibility to, A. 6. 

Qualification, property, none, A. 1, S. 22. 
Officers, county, A. 7, S. 1; A. 7, S. 10. 

First elected, A. 4, S. 26. 

What, appointed by Governor, A. 3, S. 10; A. 4, S. 5. 
Orphans, houses for, A. 11, S. 8. 

Provision for, A. 11, S. 7. 
Pardons, A. 3, S. 6. 

Peace, soldiers quartered in time of, A. 1, S. 36. 
Penitentiary, A. 11, S. 3. 

Convict labor, A. 11, S. 1. 

Self-supporting as far as possible, A. 11, S. 11. 

Sexes separated, A. 11, S. 6. 
People, right of, to assemble together, A. 1, S. 25. 
Perpetuities, injurious, A. 1, S. 31. 

General Assembly shall prevent, A. 2, S. 15. 
Political power and government, A. 1, S. 2. 

Societies in secret dangerous, A. 1, S. 25. 
Poor, provision for, A. 11, S. 7. 
Power of General Assembly, A. 2, S. 22. 

To suspend laws injurious, A. 1, S. 9. 
Powers, executive, judicial and legislative, distinct, A. 1, S. 8. 

Judicial, division of, A. 4, S. 2. 
Press, freedom and abuse of, A. 1, S. 20. 
Principles, recurrence to, fundamental, A. 1, S. 29. 
Prisoners, health and comfort secured, A. 11, S. 6. 
Private laws, A. 2, SS. 11, 12. 
Privileges, exclusive, none, A. 1, S. 7. 
Property, controversies at law about, A. 1, S. 19. 

Deprivation of, except bylaw, wrong, A. 1, S. 17. 

Devoted to education, A. 9, S. 4. 

Exemptions from taxation, A. 5, S. 5. 

Feme sole not liable for husband's debts, A. 10, S. 6. 

Qualifications, none, A. 1, S. 22. 
Prosecution, criminal, A. 1, S. 11. 
Protest, by whom and when made, A. 2, S. 17. 
Public debt, increase of, restricted, etc., A. 5, S. 4. 

What bonds declared invalid, A. 1, S. 6. 
Public money, how drawn, A. 14, S. 3. 
Public Schools, General Assembly to provide for, A. 9, S. 2. 



392 Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

Punishments, penal institutions and public charities, A. 11. 

Cruel or unusual, A. 1, S. 14; A. 14, S. 1. 
Qualification and election of Members of General Assembly, each house judge of, A. 2, S. 22. 
Rebellion, debt in aid of, not to be paid, A. 7, S. 13. 
Recurrence to fundamental principles, A. 1, S. 29. 
Refuge, houses of, A. 11, S. 5. 
Register of deeds, A. 7, S. 1. 
Registration of electors, A. 6, S. 2. 
Religious liberty, A. 1, S. 26. 

Scruples against bearing arms, A. 12, S. 1. 
Removal of judges, A. 4, S. 31. 

Of clerks, A. 4, S. 32. 
Representation and taxation, A. 1, S. 23. 
Reprieves, A. 3, S. 6. 
Retrospective laws, A. 1, S. 32. 
Revenue, A. 2, S. 14; A. 5. 
Right of assemblage, A. 1, S. 25. 

Jury, A. 1, S. 13. 
Right of secession, none, A. 1, S. 4. 

To bear arms, A. 1, S. 24. 

To suspend laws, injurious, A. 1, S. 9. 
Rights, declaration of, A. 1. 

Of men, A. 1, S. 1; A. 1, S. 37. 
Salaries and fees, General Assembly to regulate, A. 4, S. 18. 
Schools, attendance of children, A. 9, S. 15. 

County, divided into districts, A. 9, S. 3. 

Fund, A. 9, S. 5. 

Provided by legislation, A. 9, S. 2. 

Races separate, A. 9, S. 2. 
Seal of State, A. 3, S. 16. 

Search warrants without evidence, wrong, A. 1, S. 15. 
Seat of government at Raleigh, A. 14, S. 6. 
Secession, no right of, A. 1, S. 4. 
Secretary of State, duties of, A. 3, S. 13. 
Senate, presiding officer, A. 2, S. 19. 

Fro tern. Speaker, when elected, A. 2, S. 20. 
Senators, number of, A. 2, S. 3. 

Other senatorial officers, A. 2, S. 20. 

President of, A. 2, S. 19. 

Qualifications for, A. 2, S. 7. 

Regulating senatorial districts, A. 2, S. 4. 
Sexes separated in confinement, A. 11, S. 6. 
Sheriff and coroner, A. 4, S. 24. 
Slavery prohibited, A. 1, S. 33. 
Societies, secret political, dangerous, A. 1, S. 25. 
Soldiers, how quartered, A. 1, S. 36. 
Solicitor, ho'w elected, A. 4, S. 23. 
Special courts, A. 4, S. 14. 
State boundaries, A. 1, S. 34. 

Claims against, A. 4, S. 9. 

Internal government, A. 1, S. 3. 
Statistics, department of, A. 3, S. 17. 
Suffrage and eligibility to office, A. 6. 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, A. 3, S. 13. 

Reports of county school fund to be made, A. 9, S. 5. 
Superior Court, open at all times except for jury trials, A. 4, S. 22. 

Clerk, his election, A. 4, S. 16. 

Districts, A. 4, S. 10. 

Judges, election and term, A. 4, S. 21. 
Residence, A. 4, S. 11. 
Rotation, A. 4, S. 11. 

Solicitor for each district, A. 4, S. 23. 

Special term, A. 4, S. 12. 

Term, A. 4, S. 17. 

Vacancy, A. 4, S. 29. 

Transaction of business, A. 4, S. 22. 



Constitution of the State of Noeth Carolina 393 

• 

Supreme Court, clerk, A. 4, S. 15. 

Jurisdiction, A. 4, SS. 8, 9. 

Justices, A. 4, S. 6. 

Election and terms of, A. 4, S. 21. 

Terms of, A. 4, S. 7. 
Surveyor, A. 7, S. 1. 

Suspending laws without consent of representatives, not to be exercised, A. 1, S. 9. 
Taxation, ad valorem and uniform, A. 5, S. 3. 

And revenue, A. 5; A. 1, S. 23. 

Except for necessary expenses, not levied by county, city or town without assent of 
majority of voters, A. 7, S. 7. 

Income, A. 5, S. 3. 

Limitation, A. 5, S. 6. 

Of county to be ad valorem, A. 7, S. 9. 

Of purchases and sales retrospectively not to be passed, A. 1, S. 32. 

Property, exemptions from, A. 5, S. 5. 
Taxes, acts to levy, to state object, A. 5, S. 7. 
Towns, etc., organized by legislation, A. 8, S. 4. 
Townships, officers of, A. 7, S. 5. 
Treason against State, A. 4, S. 5. 
Treasurer, duties of, A. 3, S. 13. 

University, agricultural department of, mechanics, mining'and'normal instruction con- 
nected with, A. 9, S. 14. 

Benefits of, A. 9, S. 7. 

Election of trustees, A. 9, S. 6. 

General Assembly shall maintain, A. 9, S. 7. 

Maintenance of, A. 9, S. 6. 

Property devoted to, A. 9, S. 7. 
Vacancies in General Assembly, A. 2., S. 13. 

Other, A. 3, SS. 12, 13; A. 4, SS. 25, 28, 29. 
Vagrants, houses of correction for, A. 11, S. 4. 
Warrants without evidence injurious, A. 1, S. 15. 
Whites and negroes cannot intermarry, A. 14, S. 8. 

Separated in schools, A. 9, S. 2. 
Widow, homestead benefits, A. 10, S. 5. 
Yeas and nays, when entered, A. 2, SS. 14, 26. 



PART XII 

CENSUS 

1. Population and Area of the Several States and 

Territories, 1910 and 1920. 

2. Population (Estimated) of North Carolina, 1675- 

1786. 

3. Census of North Carolina, 1790-1840. 

4. Census of North Carolina, 1850-1920. 

5. Population of North Carolina Cities and Towns, 

1900-1920. 

6. North Carolina Counties and County Seats. 



United States 



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Nobth Carolina 399 



POPULATION (Estimated) OF NORTH CAROLINA, 1675-1786. 

1675 4,000 

1701 5,000 

1707 7,000 

1715 11,000 

1729 35,000 

1752 100,000 

1765 200,000 

1771 250,000 

1786 350,000 



400 



Census 



CENSUS OF NORTH CAROLINA, 1790-1840. 



Counties 


Date of 
Forma- 
tion 


1790 


1800 


1810 


1820 


1830 


1840 


1 Alamance 


1840 
1847 
1859 
1749 
1799 














2 Alexander 














3 Alleghany 

4 Anson 














5,133 


8,146 

2,783 


8,831 
3,694 


12,534 
4,335 


14,095 
6,987 


15,077 


5 Ashe 


7,467 


6 Avery 






7 Beaufort 


1705 
1722 
1734 
1764 
1791 
1777 
1792 
1841 
1777 
1722 
1777 
1842 
1770 
1839 
1672 
1861 
1841 
1808 
1712 
1754 
1672 
1870 
1822 
1836 
1749 
1881 
1732 
1849 
1779 
1846 
1779 
1872 
1746 
1799 
1770 
1758 
1855 
1808 
1838 
1759 


5,462 

12,606 

5,084 

3,071 


6,242 
11,249 
7,028 
4,110 
5,812 
9,929 
5,094 


7,203 
11,218 
5,671 
4,778 
9,277 
11,007 
6,158 


9,850 
10,805 

7,276 

5,480 
10,542 
13,411 

7,248 


10,969 

12,262 

7,811 

6,516 

16,281 

17,888 

. 8,810 


12,225 


8 Bertie 


12,175 


9 Bladen 


8,022 


10 Brunswick 

11 Buncombe 


5,265 
10,084 


12 Burke 


8,118 


15,799 


13 Cabarrus. 


9,259 


14 Caldwell .. 






15 Camden 


4,033 

3,732 

10,096 


4,191 
4,399 
8,701 


5,347 

4,823 

11,757 


6,347 

5,609 

13,253 


6,733 

6,597 

15,785 


5,663 


16 Carteret 


6,591 


17 Caswell 


14,693 


18 Catawba 




19 Chatham 


9,221 


11,861 


12,977 


12,661 


15,405 


16,242 


20 Cherokee. 


3,427 


21 Chowan 


5,011 


5,132 


5,297 


6,464 


6,697 


6,690 


22 Clay . 




23 Cleveland... 














24 Columbus 






3,022 

12,676 

9,382 

6,985 


3,912 
13,394 
14,446 

8,098 


4,141 
13,734 
14,834 

7,655 


3,941 


25 Craven 


10,469 
8,671 
5,219 


10,245 

9,264 
6,928 


13,438 


26 Cumberland 

27 Currituck 


15,284 
6,703 


28 Dare 




29 Davidson 










13,389 


14,606 


30 Davie.. 










7,574 


31 Duplin 


5,662 


6,796 


7,863 


9,744 


11,291 


11,182 


32 Durham 




33 Edgecombe 

34 Forsyth 


10,225 


10,421 


12,423 


13,276 


14,935 


15,708 


35 Franklin.. 


7,559 


8,529 


10,166 


9,741 


10,665 


10,980 


36 Gaston 




37 Gates 


5,392 


5,881 


5,965 


6,837 


7.S66 


8,161 


38 Graham 




39 Granville 


10,982 
6,893 
7,191 

13,965 


14,015 
4,218 
9,442 

13,945 


15,576 

4,867 

11,420 

13,620 


18,222 

4,533 

14,511 

17,237 


19,355 

6,413 

18,737 

17,739 


18,817 


40 Greene* 


6,595 


41 Guilford 


19,175 


42 Halifax 


16,865 


43 Harnett 




44 Haywood 






2,780 


4,073 


4,578 


4,975 


45 Henderson... 






5,129 


46 Hertford 


5,828 


6,701 


6,052 


7,712 


S.537 


4,484 


47 Hoke... 




48 Hvde 


1705 
1788 
1851 
1746 
1779 
1907 
1791 
1779 
1842 
1828 
1851 
1774 


4,120 
5,435 


4,829 
8,856 


6,029 
10,972 


4,967 
13,071 


6,184 
14,918 


6,458 


49 Iredell 


15,685 


50 Jackson 




51 Johnston 


5,634 
4,822 


6,301 
4,339 


6,867 
4,968 


9,607 
5,216 


10,938 
5,608 


10,599 


52 Jones 


4,945 


53 Lee .. 




54 Lenoir 




4,005 
12,660 


5,572 
16,359 


6,799 
18,147 


7,723 
22,455. 


7,605 


55 Lincoln 


9,224 


26,160 


56 McDowell 




57 Macon 










5,333 


4,869 


58 Madison 












59 Martin 


6,080 


5,629 


5,987 


6,320 


S,539 


7,637 



North Carolina 



401 



CENSUS OF NORTH CAROLINA, 1850-1920. 



1850 


1860 


1870 


1880 


1890 ' 


1900 


1910 


1920 


Land Area 
in Square 
Miles 




11,444 


11,852 


11,874 


14,613 


18,271 


25,665 


28,712 


32,718 


494 


1 


5,220 


6,022 


6,868 


8,355 


9,430 


10,960 


11,592 


12,212 


297 


2 




3,598 


3,691 


5,486 


6,523 


7,759 


7,745 


7,403 


223 


3 


13,489 


13,664 


12,428 


17,994 


20,027 


21,870 


25,465 


28,334 


551 


4 


8,777 


7,956 


9,573 


14,437 


15,628 


19,581 


19,074 


21,001 
10,33.5 
31,024 


399 
819 


5 
6 


13,816 


14,766 


13,011 


17,474 


21,072 


26,404 


30,877 


7 


12,851 


14,310 


12,950 


16,399 


19,176 


20,538 


23,039 


23,993 


712 


8 


9,767 


11,995 


12,831 


16,158 


16,763 


17,677 


18,006 


19,761 


1,013 


9 


7,272 


8,406 


7,754 


9,389 


10,900 


12,657 


14,432 


14,876 


812 


10 


13,425 


12,654 


15,412 


21,909 


35,206 


44,288 


49,798 


64,148 


624 


11 


7,772 


9,237 


9,777 


12,809 


14,939 


17,699 


21,408 


23,297 


534 


12 


9,747 


10,546 


11,954 


14,964 


18,142 


22,456 


26,240 


33,730 


387 


13 


6,317 


7,497 


8,476 


10,291 


12,298 


15,694 


20,579 


19,984 


507 


14 


6,049 


5,343 


5,361 


6,274 


5,667 


5,474 


5,640 


5,382 


218 


15 


6,939 


8,186 


9,010 


9,784 


10,825 


11,811 


13,776 


15,384 


538 


16 


15,269 


16,215 


16,081 


17,825 


16,028 


15,028 


14,858 


15,759 


396 


17 


8,862 


10,729 


10,984 


14,946 


18,689 


22 123 


27,918 


33,839 


408 


18 


18,449 


19,101 


19,723 


23,453 


25,413 


23^912 


22, 635 


23,814 


785 


19 


6,838 


9,166 


8,080 


8,182 


9,976 


11,860 


14,136 


15,242 


451 


20 


6,721 


6,842 


6,450 


7,900 


9,167 


10,258 


11,303 


10,649 


161 


21 






2,461 
12,696 


3,316 
16,571 


4,197 
20,394 


4,532 
25,078 


3,909 
29,494 


4,646 
34,272 


185 
485 


22 


10,396 


12,348 


23 


5,909 


8,597 


8,474 


14,439 


17,856 


21,274 


28,020 


30,124 


937 


24 


14,709 


16,268 


20,516 


19,729 


20,533 


24,164 


25,594 


29,048 


685 


25 


20,610 


16,369 


17,035 


23,836 


27,321 


29,249 


35,284 


35,064 


1,008 


26 


7,236 


7,415 


5,131 


6,476 


6,747 


6,529 


7,693 


7,268 


273 


27 






2,778 
17,414 


3,244 
20,333 


3,768 
21,702 


4,757 
23,403 


4,841 
29,404 


5,115 
35,201 


405 
563 


28 


15,320 


16,601 


29 


7,866 


8,494 


9,620 


11,096 


11,621 


12,115 


13,394 


13,578 


264 


30 


13,514 


15,784 


15,542 


18,773 


18,690 


22,405 


25,442 


30,223 


830 


31 










18,141 
24,113 


26,233 
26,591 


35,276 
32,010 


42,219 
37,995 


284 
515 


32 


17,189 


17,376 


22,970 


26,181 


33 


11,168 


12,692 


13,050 


18,078 


28,434 


35,261 


47,311 


77,269 


369 


34 


11,713 


14,107 


14,135 


20,829 


21,098 


25,116 


24,692 


26,667 


471 


35 


8,173 


9,307 


12,602 


14,254 


17,764 


27,903 


37,063 


51,242 


359 


36 


8,426 


8,443 


7,724 


8,897 


10,252 


10,413 


10,455 


10,537 


356 


37 








2,335 
31,286 


3,313 
24,484 


4,343 
23,263 


4,749 
25,102 


4,872 
26,846 


302 
504 


38 


21,249 


23,396 


24,831 


39 


6,619 


7,925 


8,687 


10,037 


10,039 


12,038 


13,083 


16,212 


258 


40 


19,754 


20,056 


22,736 


23,585 


28,052 


39,074 


60,497 


79 272 


674 


41 


16,589 


19,442 


20,408 


30,300 


28,908 


. 30,793 


37,646 


43 ! 766 


681 


42 




8,039 


8,895 


10,862 


13,700 


15,988 


22,174 


28,313 


596 


43 


7,074 


5,081 


7,921 


10,271 


13,346 


16,222 


21,020 


23,496 


541 


44 


6,853 


10,448 


7,706 


HI, I'M 


12,589 


14,104 


16,262 


18,248 


362 


4.5 


8,142 


9,504 


9,273 


11,843 


13,851 


14,294 


15,436 


16,294 

11,722 

S.3S6 


339 
596 


46 

47 


7,636 


7,732 


6,44.5 


7,765 


8,903 


9,278 


8,840 


48 


14,719 


15,347 


16,931 


22,675 


25,462 


29,064 


34,315 


37,956 


592 


49 




5,515 


6,683 


7,343 


9,512 


11,853 


12,998 


13,396 


494 


50 


13,726 


15,656 


16,897 


23,461 


27,239 


32,250 


41,401 


48,998 


688 


51 


5,038 


5,730 


5,002 


7,491 


7,403 


8,226 


8,721 
11,370 
22,769 


9,912 
13,400 
29,555 


403 
436 


52 
53 


7,828 


10,220 


10,434 


15,344 


14,879 


18,639 


54 


7,746 


8,195 


9,573 


11,061 


12,586 


1.5,498 


17,132 


17,862 


296 


55 


6,246 


7,120 


7,592 


9,836 


10,939 


12,567 


13,538 


16,763 


437 


56 


6,389 


6,004 


6,615 


8,064 


10,102 


12,104 


12,191 


12,887 


531 


57 




5,908 


8,192 


12,810 


17,805 


20,644 


20,132 


20,083 


431 


58 


8,307 


10,195 


9,647 


13,140 


15,221 


15,383 


17,797 


20,826 


438 


59 



26 



402 



Census 



CENSUS OF NORTH CAROLINA, 


1790-1840- 


Continued 






Counties 


Date of 
Forma- 
tion 


1790 


1800 


1810 


1820 


1830 


1840 


60 Mecklenburg 

61 Mitchell 


1762 
1861 
1779 
1784 
1777 
1729 
1741 
1734 
1752 
1872 
1672 
1875 
1672 
1791 
1760 
1855 
1779 
1779 
1786 
1785 
1753 
1779 
1784 
1899 
1841 
1789 
1771 
1871 
1861 
1729 
1842 
1881 
1770 
1779 
1799 
1849 
1779 
1777 
1855 
1850 
1833 


11,395 


10,439 


14,272 


16,895 


20,073 


18,273 


62 Montgomery 

63 Moore 


4,725 
3,770 
7,393 
6,831 
9,981 
5,387 
12,216 


7,677 
4,767 
6,975 
7,060 

12,353 
5,623 

16,362 


8,430 

6,367 

7,268 

11,465 

13,082 

6,669 

20,135 


8,693 

7,128 

8,125 

10,866 

13,242 

7,016 

23,492 


10,919 
7,745 
8,490 

10,959 

13,391 
7,814 

23,908 


10,780 
7,988 


64 Nash 


9,047 


65 New Hanover 

66 Northampton 

67 Onslow 


13,312 

13,369 

7,527 




24,356 






70 Pasquotank 

71 Pender 


5,497 


5,379 


7,674 


8,008 


8,641 


8,514 


72 Perquimans 

73 Person :.. 


5,440 


5,708 
6,402 
9,084 


6,052 
6,642 
9,169 


6,857 

9,029 

10,001 


7,419 
10,027 
12,093 


7,346 
9,790 


74 Pitt 


8,275 


11,806 


75 Polk 




76 Randolph 


7,276 
5,055 
5,326 
6,187 
15,828 
7,808 
6,065 


9,234 
5,623 
6,839 
8,277 
20,064 
10,753 
6,719 


10,112 

6,695 

7,528 

10,316 

21,543 

13,202 

6,620 


11,331 

7,537 

8,204 

11,474 

26,009 

15,351 

8,908 


12,406 
9,396 
9,433 
12,935 
20,786 
17,557 
11,634 


12,875 


77 Richmond . 


8,909 
10,370 


79 Rockingham 

80 Rowan 


13,442 
12,109 


81 Rutherford 

82 Sampson 


19,202 
12,157 


83 Scotland 




84 Stanly 














85 Stokes 


8,528 
7,191 


11,026 
9,509 


11,645 
10,366 


14,033 
12,320 


16,196 
14,504 


16,265 


86 Surry -. 


15,079 






88 Transylvania 

89 Tyrrell 














4,744 


3,395 


3,364 


4,319 


4,732 


4,657 


90 Union 


















92 Wake 


10,192 
9,397 


13,437 

11,284 

2,422 


17,086 

11,004 

3,464 


20,102 

11,158 

3,986 


20,398 

11,877 

4,552 


21,118 


93 Warren.. 


12,919 


94 Washington 


4,525 








96 Wayne 


6,133 
8,143 


6,772 
7,247 


8,687 
9,054 


9,040 
9,967 


10,331 
11,968 


10,891 


97 Wilkes 


12,577 


98 Wilson 




99 Yadkin 














lOOYancey 












5,962 
















Totals 




393,751 


478,103 


555,500 


638,829 


737,987 


753,409 









*In 1758 Dobbs County was formed from part of Johnston. In 1791 Dobbs was divided 
into Lenoir and Glasgow. In 1799 the name of Glasgow was changed to Greene. 



North Carolina 



403 







CENSUS OF NORTH CAROLINA, 1850-1920-CWin 


ued. 






1850 


1860 


1870 


1880 


1890 


1900 


1910 


1920 


Land Area 
in Square 
Miles 




13,914 


17,374 


24,299 


34,175 


42,673 


55,268 


67,031 


80,695 


590 


60 






4,705 


9,435 


12,807 


15,221 


17,245 
14,967 


11 278 


362 


61 


6,872 


7,649 


7,487 


9,374 


11,239 


14,197 


14,607 


489 


62 


9,342 


11,427 


12,048 


16,821 


20,479 


23,622 


17,010 


21,388 


798 


63 


10,657 


11,687 


11,077 


17,731 


20,707 


25,478 


33,727 


41,061 


584 


64 


17,668 


21,715 


27,978 


21,376 


24,026 


25,785 


32,037 


40,620 


199 


65 


13,335 


13,372 


14,749 


20,032 


21,242 


21,150 


22,323 


23,184 


523 


66 


8,283 


8,856 


7,569 


9,829 


10,303 


11,940 


14,125 


14,703 


645 


67 


17,055 


16,947 


17,507 


23,698 


14,948 


14,690 


15,064 


17,895 


386 


68 








6,323 


7,146 


8,045 


9,966 


9,060 


358 


69 


8,950 


8,940 


8,131 


10,369 


10,748 


13,660 


16,693 


17,670 


231 


70 








12,468 


12,514 


13,381 


15,471 


14,788 


883 


71 


7,332 


7,238 


7,745 


9,466 


9,293 


10,091 


11,054 


11,137 


251 


72 


10,781 


11,221 


11,170 


13,719 


15,151 


16,685 


17,356 


18,973 


386 


73 


13,397 


16,080 


17,276 


21,794 


25,519 


30,889 


36,340 


45,569 


644 


74 




4,043 


4,319 


5,062 


5,902 


7,004 


7,640 


8,832 


258 


75 


15,832 


16,793 


17,551 


20,836 


25,195 


28,232 


29,491 


30,856 


795 


76 


9,818 


11,009 


12,882 


18,245 


23,948 


15,855 


19,673 


25,567 


466 


77 


12,826 
14,495 


15,489 
16,746 


16,262 
15,718 


23,380 
21,744 


31,483 


40,371 


51,945 


54,674 


1,043 


78 


25,363 


33,163 


36,442 


44,149 


573 


79 


13,870 


14,589 


16,810 


19,965 


24,123 


31,066 


37,521 


44,062 


483 


80 


13,550 


11,573 


13,121 


15,198 


18,770 


25,101 


28,385 


31,426 


547 


81 


14,585 


16,624 


16,436 


22,894 


25,096 


26,380 


29,982 


36,002 


921 


82 












12,553 


15,363 


15,600 


387 


83 


8,922 


7,801 


8,315 


10,505 


12,136 


15,220 


19,909 


27,429 


413 


84 


9,206 


10,402 


11,208 


15,353 


17,199 


19,866 


20,151 


20,575 


472 


85 


18,443 


10,380 


11,252 


15,302 


19,281 


25,515 


29,705 


32,464 


531 


86 








3,784 


6,577 


8,401 


10,403 


13,224 


560 


87 






3,536 


5,340 


5,881 


6,620 


7 191 


9,303 


371 


88 


5,133 


4,944 


4,173 


4,545 


4,225 


4,980 


5J219 


4^849 


397 


89 


10,151 


11,202 


12,217 


18,056 


21,259 


27,150 


33,277 


36,029 


561 


90 










17,581 


16,684 


19,425 


22,799 


276 


91 


24,888 


28,627 


35,617 


47,939 


49,207 


54,626 


63,229 


75,155 


841 


92 


13,912 


15,726 


17,768 


22,619 


19,360 


19,151 


20,266 


21,593 


432 


93 


5,664 


6,357 


6,516 


8,928 


10,200 


10,608 


11,062 


11,429 


334 


94 


3,400 


4,957 


5,287 


8,160 


10,611 


13,417 


13,556 


13,477 


330 


95 


13,486 


14,905 


18,144 


24,951 


26,100 


31,356 


35,698 


43,640 


597 


96 


12,899 


14,749 


15,539 


19,181 


22,675 


26,872 


30,282 


32,644 


718 


97 




9,720 


12,258 


16,064 


18,644 


23,596 


28,269 


36,813 


392 


98 




10,714 


10,697 


12,420 


13,790 


14,083 


15,428 


16,391 


334 


99 


8,204 


8,655 


5,909 


7,694 


9,490 


11,464 


12,072 


15,093 


302 


100 


869,039 


992,622 


1,071,361 


1,399,750 


1,617,947 


1,893,810 


2,206,287 


2,559,123 


48,580 





404 



Census 



POPULATION OF NORTH CAROLINA CITIES AND TOWNS, 

1900-1920. 



City or Town 


County 


1920 


1910 


1900 


Abbottsburg 


Bladen 

Moore 

Columbus 

Davie 

Hertford 

Stanly 

Buncombe 


78 

858 

183 

280 

1,429 

2,691 


159 
794 




Aberdeen 


559 


Acme 




Advance 


283 

924 

2,116 

118 

98 

936 

221 

486 

681 

145 

151 

1,865 

18,762 

115 

524 

543 

440 

77 

990 

195 

416 


273 


Ahoskie 


302 


Albemarle 


1,382 








Swain 


146 
1,634 
375 
486 
926 
178 




Andrews 


Cherokee 






Harnett... 




Ansonville . 


Anson 




Apex 


Wake* 


349 




Randolph 


182 




Buncombe 


137 


Asheboro 


Randolph 


2,559 

28,504 

296 


992 


AshevLlle 


Buncombe 


14,694 


Atkinson 


Pender 






Carteret 






Bertie. 


803 
524 
351 
1,673 
518 


342 




Beaufort 


314 


Autryville. 


Sampson 


61 




Pitt 


557 




Nash 




Bakersville 


Mitchell 


511 






162 

274 

309 

349 

108 

2,968 

1,816 

2,941 

1,123 

2,176 

800 

282 

172 

755 

274 

531 

459 

338 

828 

199 

178 

374 

162 

206 

1,658 




Bath 


Beaufort 


283 

211 

370 

56 

2,483 

2,863 

1,176 

800 

1,529 

469 

162 

173 

697 

219 

311 

276 

261 

796 


400 


Battleboro 


Edgecombe and Nash 

Pamlico 


229 




292 




Martin 






Carteret 


2,195 




Beaufort 


383 




Gaston 


145 




Johnston 


384 




Gaston 


1,100 


Bethel 


Pitt. .. 


457 




Stanly 


132 




Buncombe 


71 




Montgomery 






Wilson 


196 




Buncombe 


200 




Bladen 






Watauga 


331 




Columbus 


604 




Brunswick- 






Chatham and Wake 


85 
179 
282 
209 
919 

50 
348 
149 
725 
612 

66 
249 






Watauga 


155 




Yadkin... 


183 




Rutherford 


97 




Transylvania 


584 






42 




Craven 


548 
250 
709 
882 
78 
291 






Lee 






Catawba 




Brvson 


Swain. 


417 




Robeson _ 











Towns marked * are not reported to date. 



North Carolina 



405 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS-CWmued. 



City or Town 


County 


1920 


1910 


1900 


Burgaw 


Pender 


1,040 
5,952 


956 

4,808 
422 


387 


Burlington 


Alamance- 


3,692 


Burnsville* 


Yancey 


207 


Calypso . 


Duplin 


405 

241 

267 

2,584 

1,129 

962 

645 

263 

250 

262 

904 

1,483 

46,338 

99 

1,884 

1,027 




Cameron 


Moore 


259 

160 

1,393 


218 


Candor 


Montgomery 




Canton 


Haywood 

Orange 


230 


Carrboro . 




Carthage.. 


Moore. 


863 
383 
219 
222 
323 

1,242 

1,149 

34,014 

76 

1,153 
852 
127 
297 
147 
276 

1,441 
426 

1,101 
344 
160 
189 
80 
848 
122 

8,715 
158 
421 
246 
833 
74 
308 
324 
329 
289 
175 
300 

1,065 

1,056 


605 


Cary 


Wake 


333 


Castalia 


Nash 


163 


Catawba 


Catawba 

Columbus 

Columbus 

Orange 

Mecklenburg 

Washington 


169 


Cerro Gordo 


123 


Chadbourn 


243 


Chapel Hill 


1,099 


Charlotte 


18,091 


Cherry 


Cherryville 


Gaston 


1,008 


China Grove 


Rowan 


887 


Chocowinity* 


Beaufort 




Claremont 


Catawba. 


435 
135 
368 

1,423 
366 

2,110 
363 
526 
215 
123 
738 
168 

9,903 
160 
681 


160 


Clarendon 


Columbus 




Clarkton 


Bladen 




Clayton 


Johnston 


754 


Cleveland 


Rowan . 


198 


Clinton 


Sampson 


958 


Clyde. 


Haywood 


244 


Coats 


Harnett 




Colerain . 

Collettsville 


Bertie 

Caldwell.... 


207 
57 


Columbia 


Tyrrell. 


382 


Columbus _ . 


Polk 


334 


Concord . 




7,910 
132 


Conetoe 


Edgecombe 


Conover. 


Catawba.. . 


413 


Contentnea 


Greene 




Cornelius 


Mecklenburg . 


1,141 
92 

258 
392 
393 




Council.. 


Bladen . 




Cove City 






Creedmoor 


Granville 




Creswell 


Washington 


224 


Cronly* 




78 


Grouse 




209 

80 

1,397 

1,156 

210 

559 

243 

528 

368 

67(1 

392 

240 

2,805 

21,719 

508 




Cumberland- 


Cumberland 


343 


Dallas 




514 


Davidson 


Mecklenburg- 


904 


Delco 


Columbus 




Denton 


Davidson- 


320 

282 
277 
360 
737 




Denver 


Lincoln 


199 


Dillsboro 


Jackson 


279 


Dobson 


Surry 


327 


Dover 


Craven . 




Drexel 


Burke 




Dudley 


Wayne 


164 
1,823 
18,241 
522 
383 
577 
881 




Dunn 


Harnett 


1,072 


Durham 




6,679 


East Bend- 


Yadkin 


444 


East Kings Mountain* 


Gaston 




East Laurinburg 


Scotland 


541 
1,011 






Robeson 





Towns marked * are not reported to date. 



406 



Census 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS— Continued. 



City or Town 


County 


1920 


1910 


1900 


East Spencer 


Rowan 


2,239 
2,777 

153 
8,925 

335 


1,729 
2,789 
171 
8,412 
117 
377 
886 
293 




Edenton 


Chowan 


3,046 
99 


Edwards 


Beaufort . 


Elizabeth City 




6,348 
144 




Bladen _ 


Elk Park* 


Mitchell 


498 


Elkin 




1,195 
383 
473 
653 
248 

1,648 


860 


Ellenboro 


Rutherford 


179 


Ellerbee. 


Richmond 




Elon College 




200 


638 


East Mondos 


Iredell 




Enfield 




1,167 
81 
162 
146 
248 
441 
730 
519 
352 


361 


Enoehsville* 


Rowan 


93 


Eureka 


Wayne 




123 


Everetts 


Martin 


230 

139 

397 

1,000 

477 

348 

200 

198 

1,780 

8,877 

2,312 


127 


E ver green 


Columbus 




Fair Bluff.-- 


Columbus 


328 




Robeson . 


432 


Faison _. 


Duplin . 


308 


Faith. 


Rowan. , 




Falcon 


Cumberland... .. . 




Falkland 


Pitt 


132 
816 

7,045 

1,592 
137 
189 
329 
379 
809 
951 
127 
284 
169 

5,759 
203 
154 

1,162 
308 
119 
102 
304 
126 

6,107 
240 

2,504 

381 

363 

15,895 

4,101 
291 
330 
209 
314 
452 

2,173 

205 

230 

140 

90 


139 


Farmville. 


Pitt 


262 


Fayetteville . 




4,670 
1 090 


Forest City 


Rutherford 


Forest ville* 


Wake . 


157 


Fountain . - 


Pitt. 


243 

583 

773 

1,058 

1,294 

555 

376 

263 

12,871 




Four Oaks 


Johnston 


171 


Franklin 


Macon . 


335 


Franklinton . _ 


Franklin 


761 


Fremont 


Wayne 


435 


Fuquay Springs 


Wake 




Garner 


Wake 








269 


Gastonia 


Gaston.. 


4 610 


G ates ville*. 


Gates 


200 


Germanton 


Stokes.- 


132 

1,385 

346 

132 

90 

261 

130 

11,296 

239 

2,366 

1,101 

466 

19,861 

5,772 

375 

463 

296 

299 

474 

3,659 

175 


129 


Gibson ville 


Alamance-Guilford 


521 


Glen Alpine 


Burke... 


137 


Glenwood 


McDowell 




Godwin 


Cumberland 




Gold Hill 


R owan 


514 


Gold Point.. 


Martin 


124 


Goldsboro . 


Wayne 


5,877 


Goldston 


Chatham 




Graham 


Alamance 


2,052 


Granite Falls 


Caldwell.... 


277 


Granite Quarrv 


Rowan 




Greensboro 


Guilford. 


10,035 


Greenville 


Pitt 


2,565 


Grifton 


Pitt 


229 


Grimesland.. 


Pitt 


277 


Grover 


Cleveland.. 


174 


Halifax . 


Halifax 


306 


Hamilton 


Martin 

Richmond 


493 


Hamlet 


6: 9 


Hampton 


Rutherford 

Gaston 




Hardin Mills* 


205 


Harrellsville 


Hert f ord 


131 

85 


109 


Hassell 


Martin.. 





Towns marked * are not reported to date. 



North Carolina 



407 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS— Continued. 




City or Town 


County 


1920 


1910 


1900 


Hayesville 


Clay._ 


257 

141 

484 

5,222 

3,720 

1,704 

5,076 

14,303 

1,062 

504 

172 

1,180 

336 

385 

333 

107 

294 

783 

495 

403 

833 

447 

224 






Haywood 


Chatham. 


162 

428 

4,503 

2,818 

1,841 

3,716 

9,525 

487 

267 

140 

857 

165 

175 

261 

126 

204 

964 

443 

411 

591 

398 

154 

124 

107 

527 

505 

398 

60 

184 

799 

621 

111 

316 

270 

726 

1,128 

170 

2,218 

6,995 

242 

1,007 

437 

203 

297 

2,322 

568 

1,127 

151 

153 

3,364 

279 

262 

4,103 

171 

386 

i'.SII 

2,413 




Hazelwood 


Haywood 




Henderson 


Vance. 


3 746 


Hendersonville 


Henderson.. 


1 917 


Hertford. 


Perquimans 


1 382 


Hickory 


Catawba.. 


2 535 


High Paint 


Guilford 


4 163 


Highland 


Catawba 




Highlands 


Macon 


249 


Hildebran 


Burke . . 


109 


Hillsboro ". 


Orange 


707 


Hobgood 


Halifax 


122 


Hoffman 


Richmond 


184 


Holly Springs 


Wake 


219 


Hollyville 


Pamlico 




Hookerton 


Greene 


139 


Hope Mills 


Cumberland - 


881 


Hot Springs 


Madison 


445 


Hudson 


Caldwell. 




Hunters ville 


Mecklenburg 


533 


Icemorlee ._ 


Union 




Indian Trail 


Union 




Ingold* 


Sampson 


86 


Iron Station... 


Lincoln 


223 
579 
656 
389 




Jackson 


Northampton 


441 


Jacksonville 


Onslow 


309 


Ja mesville 


Martin .. 


235 


Jason* 


Greene 




Jefferson 


Ashe 


196 
886 
787 
87 
223 
302 
827 

1,219 
113 

2,800 

9,771 
223 

1,399 
972 
196 
262 

2,643 
774 

1,606 


230 


Jonesboro 


Lee 


640 


Jonesville 


Yadkin 




Jupiter 


Buncombe.. 


127 


Kelford.. 


Bertie 


167 


Kenansville 


Duplin 


271 


Kenlv. . 


Johnston ._ 


260 


Kerners ville 


Forsyth 


652 


Keyser. - 


Moore 


180 


Kings Mountain 


Cleveland-Gaston 


2,062 


Kinston 


Lenoir . 


4,106 


Kittrell 


Vance .. 


168 


LaGrange 


Lenoir 


853 


Landis 


Rowan 

Northampton 




Lasker 


121 


Lattimore. 


Cleveland 


108 


Laurinburg 


Scotland 

Cleveland 

Rockingham 


1,334 


Lawndale . 




Leaksville 


tiss 


Leechville* . 




100 


Leicester* 






126 


Lenoir 


Caldwell- 


3,718 
4121 
244 

5,254 
636 
440 
593 

3,390 
191 
760 


1,296 


Lewarae 


Richmond 




Lowiston 


Bertie 

Davidson 


163 


Lexington 


1,234 


Liberty 


Randolph.. 

Anson 


804 


Lilesville 


213 


Lillington 




65 


Lincolnton. 




S2S 


Linden 


Cumberland 

Halifax-Warren 




Littleton. 


1,152 





Towns marked * are not reported to date. 



408 



('K.NSl'K 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS— Continued. 



City or Town 


County 


1920 


1910 


1900 


Lon g vie w 


Catawba 


755 

1,954 

1,154 

516 

202 

2,691 

1,162 

219 

149 

1,247 

694 

1,266 

141 

394 

99 

166 

147 

1,784 


243 

1,775 

876 

266 

165 

2,230 

983 

186 

189 

1,033 

653 

664 

220 

408 

52 




Louisburg 


Franklin 


1,178 


Lowell 


Gaston 


290 


Lucama 


Wilson _ 


236 


Lumber Bridge . 


Robeson 


181 


Lumberton 




849 


Mc Adenville 


Gaston . 


1,144 


McFarland... 


Anson .. 


112 


Macon. .. .. 




157 


Madison 




813 


Magnolia 




454 


Maiden 


Catawba.. . . 


614 


Manly 




176 


Manteo 


Dare . 


312 


Mapleton . 


Hertford . . 




Marble 


Cherokee 




Margarettsville 


Northampton 


107 
1,519 
225 
301 
802 
499 
396 
141 


123 


Marion.. 


McDowell 


1,116 


Marlboro* 


Pitt 


111 


Mars Hill 


Madison . 


364 
748 
828 
310 


289 


Marshall. 




337 


Marshville 




349 


Matthews 


Mecklenburg 


378 


Maupin 


Pitt. 




Maury 


Greene 


61 

1,397 

1 . ssii 

536 

1,341 

118 

183 

104 

697 

375 

84 




Maxton . 


Robeson 


1,321 

874 

345 

693 

88 

74 

117 

467 

419 

86 

194 

1,063 
100 

4,082 
254 
198 

3,400 

2,039 

2,712 
151 
261 
498 

3,844 
723 
526 

1,071 
753 
347 
809 
977 
750 
160 
95 


935 


Mayodan 




904 


Maysville ._ . 




98 


Mebane. 




218 


Merry Oaks... 


Chatham 




Micro. . 


Johnston . 


61 


Middleburg 


Vance . 


169 


Middlesex 


Nash 




Milton 




490 


Mineral Springs __ 


Union.. 




Mint Hill* 


Mecklenburg.. 


192 


Mocks ville 


Davie . 


1,146 

136 

4,084 


745 


Moncure... 


Chatham 




Monroe.. __ __ 


Union . 


2,427 


Montezuma* 


Mitchell 


219 




Cleveland . 


228 
4,315 
2,958 
2,867 

166 
83 

631 
4,752 

975 
1,160 
2,297 

770 


144 


Mooresville 


Iredell 


1,533 


Morehead City .. 


Carteret . 


1,379 


Morganton.. __ 


Burke . 


1,928 




Wake 


100 


Mortimer 


Caldwell 




Morven.. 


Anson 


447 


Mount Airy 


Surry 


2,680 


Mount Gilead. 




395 


Mount Holly 


Gaston . . 


630 


Mount Olive 




617 


Mount Pleasant... 




444 


Mountain Island* 


Gaston .. 


450 


Murf reesboro 




602 

1,314 

939 

243 


657 


Murphv 


Cherokee 


604 


Nashville 


Nash 


479 


Nebo 


McDowell . 




New Hill 


Wake... 




Newland. 


Avery 


289 

228 

12,198 

404 




New London 


Stanly . .. 


312 

9,961 

321 


299 


New Bern 


Craven . 


,090 


Newport . 


Carteret 


328 



Towns marked * not reported to date. 



North Carolina 



409 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS— Continued. 



City or Town 



Newton 

Newton Grove 

North Wilkesboro... 

Norwood 

Oakboro 

Oak City.. 

Oakley.— - 

Old Fort 

Ore Hill* 

Oriental 

Orrum 

Oxford - 

Pactolus 

Palmyra 

Pantego 

Parkersburg 

Parkton 

Parmele 

Patterson 

Peachland 

Pee Dee* 

Pembroke 

Pendleton* 

Pikeville 

Pilot Mountain 

Pine Level 

Pine Bluff 

Pinetops 

Pineville 

Pink Hill 

Pittsboro 

Plymouth 

Polkton 

Polloeksville 

Powellsville. 

Princeton 

Princeville 

Raeford 

Raleigh 

Ramseur. 

Randleman 

Red Springs 

Reidsville... 

Rennert 

Rhodhiss 

Rich Square 

Richfield 

Richlands 

Ringwood*... 

Roanoke Rapids 

Robbinsville 

Roberdel 

Robersonville 

Rockingham 

Rockwell 

Rocky Mount 

Rocky Mount Mills. 

Rolesville* 

Roper.. 

Rose Hill 

Roseboro. 



County 



Catawba 

Sampson 

Wilkes 

Stanly 

Stanly 

Martin 

Pitt 

McDowell 

Chatham 

Pamlico 

Robeson. 

Granville 

Pitt... 

Halifax 

Beaufort 

Sampson 

Robeson 

Martin 

Caldwell.. 

Anson 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Northampton 

Wayne 

Surry 

Johnston 

Moore 

Edgecombe 

Mecklenburg 

Lenoir 

Chatham 

Washington 

Anson 

Jones.. 

Bertie 

Johnston 

Edgecombe 

Hoke 

Wake. 

Randolph. 

Randolph 

Robeson 

Rockingham 

Robeson 

Caldwell 

Northampton 

Stanly 

Onslow 

Halifax. 

Halifax... 

Graham 

Richmond 

Martin 

Richmond 

Rowan 

Edgecombe-Nash. 

Nash... 

Wake ..... 

Washington. . .. 

Duplin 

Sampson 



1920 



021 
125 
363 
221 
282 
397 
49 
931 



607 

86 

,606 

210 

103 

335 

76 

382 

355 

183 

196 



329 



333 
707 
373 
165 
465 
689 
166 
584 
847 
575 
339 
157 
403 
562 
235 
076 
014 
967 
018 
333 
292 
835 
475 
177 
548 



369 
119 
476 
199 
509 
453 
742 
833 



1910 



043 
516 
749 



2,316 

73 

1,902 

928 



251 

57 

778 

94 

645 

214 

3,018 

154 

94 

324 

67 

219 

272 

86 

232 

628 

258 

62 

210 

652 

394 

92 

211 

688 

58 

502 

2,165 

287 

227 

75 

354 

627 

580 

19,218 

1,022 

1,950 

1,089 

4,828 

1,179 

370 

367 

210 

445 

147 

1,670 

122 

422 

616 

2, 155 

249 

8,051 

480 

170 

819 

364 

183 



1900 



1,583 

75 

918 

663 



115 

""253 

"166 

~2~059 

52 

131 

253 

57 

""§36 
""156 



86 
168 
710 
266 



585 

"""424 
1,011 
276 
198 
44 
281 
552 

"l3~643 

769 

2,190 

858 

3,262 

133 

"""232 

73 

160 

98 

1,009 



275 
1,507 

"2^937 
605 
155 



63 



Towns marked * are not reported to date. 



410 



Census 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS-CWinM«d. 



City or Town 



Rosman 

Rowland... 

Roxboro 

Roxobel 

Royall Cotton Mills 
Rutherford College. 

Rutherfordton 

St. Pauls 

Salemf 

Salisbury 

Saluda 

Sanford 

Saratoga 

Scotland Neck 

Seaboard* 

Selma 

Shallotte 

Sharpsburg 

Shelby.... 

Shelmerdine 

Shore* 

Siler City 

Smithfield 

Snow Hill 

Spruce Pine. 

South Biltmore 

South Mills 

South Wadesboro... 

Southern Pines 

Southport 

Sparta 

Spencer. 

Spring Hope 

Stanley Creek 

Stantonsburg 

Star 

Statesville 

Stedman 

Stem 

Stokes 

Stokesdale 

Stoneville 

Stonewall.. 

Stouts* 

Stovall 

Swan Quarter 

Swansboro 

Sylva 

Tabor 

Tarboro 

Taylorsville 

Teacheys 

Thomas ville 

Tillery* 

Todd 

Toisnott- --. 

Towns ville 

Trenton 

Trinity 

Trout man 



County 



Transylvania.. 

Robeson.. 

Person .. 

Bertie 

Wake 

Burke 

Rutherford 

Robeson.. 

Forsyth 

Rowan 

Polk 

Lee 

Wilson 

Halifax 

Northampton. 

Johnston 

Brunswick 

Nash 

Cleveland 

Pitt 

Yadkin 

Chatham 

Johnston 

Greene.. 

Mitchell 

Buncombe 

Camden 

Anson 

Moore 

Brunswick 

Alleghany 

Rowan... 

Nash 

Gaston 

Wilson. 

Montgomery.. 

Iredell 

Cumberland... 

Granville 

Pitt 

Guilford 

Rockingham.. 

Pamlico 

Union 

Granville 

Hyde 

Onslow 

Jackson 

Columbus 

Edgecombe 

Alexander 

Duplin 

Davidson 

Halifax 

Ashe 

Wilson 

Vance 

Jones v.. 

Randolph 

Iredell 



Towns marked * are not reported to date. 
tReported under Winston-Salem 
JReported under Elm City 



1920 



527 
767 
,214 
,207 
442 
275 
,693 
,147 



,884 

549 

,977 



061 



,601 
174 
334 

,609 
93 



,253 

,895 

700 

717 

245 

373 

293 

743 

,664 

159 

,510 

,221 

584 

424 

467 

,895 

121 

245 

138 

179 

472 

218 



414 

184 
420 
863 
782 
568 
122 
164 
676 



82 



206 
488 
400 
342 



1910 



145 
787 

1,425 
491 
437 
229 

1,062 
419 

5,533 

7,153 
235 

2,282 
136 

1,726 
280 

1,331 
139 
121 

3,127 
315 
308 
895 

1,347 
450 



238 
390 
202 
542 

1,484 
199 

1,915 

1,246 
321 
204 
239 

4,599 



79 
159 
404 
161 
82 
305 
185 
390 
698 
418 

,129 
662 
154 

,877 
269 



590 



331 
332 
230 



North Carolina 



411 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOW^S— Continued. 



City or Town 


County 


1920 


1910 


1900 


Troy .. 


Montgomery 


1,102 

1,067 
142 
147 
156 
540 
308 
467 
273 
189 
190 

2,648 
174 

1,425 


1,055 
700 
43 
139 
155 
392 
296 
273 
420 
185 


878 


Try on... 


Polk 


324 


Tunis 


Hertford 




Union 


Hertford 


176 


Union Mills 


Rutherford. 




Vanceboro 


Craven 


291 




Pamlico 


169 


Vass 


Moore 




Vaughan 


Warren 




Waco.. _- 


Cleveland 


160 


Wade. 


Cumberland 




Wadesboro - 


Anson 


2,376 


1,546 


Wagram 


Scotland 


Wake Forest 


Wake ... 


1,443 

287 
444 
215 
480 
127 
807 
723 

6,211 
169 
602 

2,008 
442 
227 

1,999 
759 
846 


823 


Wakefield* 


Wake 


142 


Wallace 


Duplin 


648 


218 


Walnut* 


Madison 




Walnut Cove 


Stokes 


651 

158 

927 

1,108 

6,166 

181 

750 

1,942 

606 

74 

1,861 

1,239 

1,266 

462 


336 


Walstonburg . 


Greene 




Warrenton 


Warren. 


836 


Warsaw 


Duplin 


576 






4,842 


Watha 


Pender 


Waxhaw 


Union. 


752 


Waynesville 


Haywood 


1,307 


Weaverville 


Buncombe 


329 


Webster 






Weldon 


Halifax 1 


1,433 


Wendell 


Wake 




West Hickory 


Catawba 


213 


West Jefferson 


Ashe . 




West Lumberton 


Robeson 


231 

46 

755 

179 

1,368 

216 

45 

799 

53 

1,574 

25,748 

6,717 

684 

289 

353 

17,167 

484 

624 

312 

187 




Westray 


Nash 


48 

723 

164 

1,664 

261 




Whitakers.. 


Edgecombe-Nash 


388 


Whitehall . 




114 


Whiteville . 




643 


Whittier 


Jackson-Swain 




Wilbanks 


Wilson 


46 


Wilkesboro 


Wilkes 


814 


635 


Williams* 


Yadkin 




Williamston... 


Martin 


1,800 

33,372 

10,612 

1,210 

288 

470 

48,395 

650 

489 

400 


912 


Wilmington 


New Hanover 


20,976 


Wilson 


Wilson 


3,525 


Windsor 


Bertie 


597 


WinfalL. 




222 


Wingate. 


Union 




Winston-Salem _ 


Forsyth 


10,008 


Winterville -- 


Pitt 


243 


Winton 


Hertford 


liss 


Woodland 


Northampton 


242 


Woodleaf*... 


Rowan 




Woodville 


Bertie 


381 
367 
20 
254 
445 




Worthville 


Randolph 


393 
54 
130 
432 
338 
431 
483 


467 


Wrightsville Beach .. 


New Hanover 


22 


Yadkin College 


Davidson 


210 


Yadkinville 


Yadkin 


292 


Yancey ville* 


Caswell 






Franklin 


370 
953 


345 




Wake... 











Towns marked * not reported to date. 



412 



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PART XIII 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



1. Executive Officials. 

2. Justices of the Supreme Court. 

3. Senators and Representatives in Congress. 

4. Senators and Representatives in the General 

Assembly. 



EXECUTIVE OFFICIALS 



CAMERON MORRISON. 

Governor. 

Cameron Morrison, Democrat, of Richmond County, was born in 
Richmond County, North Carolina, October 5th, 1869. Son of Daniel 
M. Morrison and his wife, Martha Cameron Morrison. Educated in 
the private schools of M. C. McCaskill at Ellerbe Springs, N. C, 
and Dr. William Carroll of Rockingham. Lawyer. Member of Sen- 
ate Branch of the General Assembly in 1900. Mayor of the town of 
Rockingham in 1893. Elected Governor of North Carolina in 1920. 
Presbyterian. Married Miss Lottie May Tomlinson of Durham, N. 
C, who died Nov. 12, 1919. One child, a daughter, Angelia. Ad- 
dress: Raleigh, N. C. 



JOHN BRYAN GRIMES 

SECRETARY OF STATE 

J. Bryan Grimes, Democrat, of Pitt County, was born in Raleigh, 
N. C, June 3, 1868. Son of Bryan and Charlotte Emily (Bryan) 
Grimes. Educated at private schools; Raleigh Male Academy; 
Trinity school (Chocowinity, N. C); Lynch's High School (High 
Point, N. C); University of North Carolina; Bryant and Stratton 
Business College (Baltimore, Md.) Planter. Member of State 
Farmers Alliance. Member Executive Committee North Carolina 
Agricultural Society. Member State Board of Agriculture, 1899-1900. 
Was elected Secretary of State in 1900, re-elected in 1904, 1908, 
1912, 1916 and 1920. Term expires 1925. Ex-President Tobacco 
Growers Association of North Carolina 1899-1900. Chairman North 
Carolina Historical Commission 1907-1921. Member State Literary 
and Historical Association. President of the North Carolina 
Society of Sons of the Revolution 1911-1921. Member Executive 
Committee, Trustees University of North Carolina. Chairman of 
Committee of Trustees for the Extension and Development of the 
University Buildings and Grounds. Member of the Farmers Co- 

27 



418 Biographical Sketches 

operative and Education Union. President Scottish Society of 
America 1918-1919. Member Executive Committee of North Caro- 
lina Council of Defense. Aide-de-camp on staff of Governor Elias 
Carr, with rank of Colonel. Fraternal orders: Masons, Knights 
of Pythians, Jr. O. U. A. M. Episcopalian. Married November 14, 
1894, Miss Mary Octavia Laughinghouse; February, 1904, Miss 
Elizabeth Forest Laughinghouse. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



BENJAMIN RICE LACY. 

STATE TREASURER. 

Benjamin R. Lacy, Democrat, of Wake County, was born in 
Raleigh, N. C, June 19, 1854. Son of Rev. Drury and Mary Richie 
(Rice) Lacy. Educated at Preparatory School of R. H. Graves 
(Graham, N. C). 1868; Bingham School (Mebane, N. C), 1869-1870. 
Served regular apprentice as machinist in old R. & G. shops, was 
general foreman for four years. Fifteen years a locomotive en- 
gineer. Member of Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers. Delegate 
to three Grand Conventions of B. of L. E. Alderman of City of 
Raleigh. State Commissioner of Labor and Printing for six years. 
Elected State Treasurer in 1900; re-elected in 1904, 1908, 1912, 1916 
and 1920. Term expires 1924. Grand Treasurer of Grand Lodge 
A. F. & A. M., Odd Fellow, Jr. O. U. A. M. Presbyterian, elder. 
Married, June 27, 1882, Miss Mary Burwell. Seven children. Ad- 
dress: Raleigh, N. C. 



BAXTER DURHAM 

STATE AUDITOR. 

Baxter Durham, Democrat, was born in Durham, N. C, August 
20, 1878. Son of Columbus and Lila (Walters) Durham. At- 
tended public schools of Durham and Raleigh 1884-1892; Raleigh 
Male Academy, 1892-1894; Wake Forest College. 1894-1895. Travel- 
ing Auditor, Department of State Auditor. Served as private, 
Sergeant, Captain and Major in National Guard, 1907-1919. B. P. 
O. E. Elected State Auditor November 2, 1920. Baptist. Address: 
Raleigh, N. C. 



Executive Officials 419 

EUGENE CLYDE BROOKS 

SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 

Eugene Clyde Brooks, Democrat, of Durham County, was born in 
Greene County, December 3, 1871. He is a son of Edward J. and 
Martha Eleanor (Brooks) Brooks. He was prepared for college at 
Bethel Academy in Lenoir County in 1881-1890, and was graduated 
at Trinity College in 1894. In 1913-1914 he was a student at Teach- 
ers' College, Columbia University. Dr. Brooks has been a teacher 
all his life. He was principal of the Kinston graded schools in 
1900; Superintendent of the Monroe graded schools in 1900-1903; 
Rural School Supervisor and Secretary to the Educational Cam- 
paign Committee (in North Carolina State Department of Educa- 
tion), 1903-1904; Superintendent of the Goldsboro graded schools, 
1904-1907; and Professor of Education in Trinity College, 1907-1919. 
In 1906 he became editor of "North Carolina Education." He was 
president of the North Carolina Teachers' Assembly in 1913-1914; 
and a member of the State Educational Commission, 1917-1918. In 
1918 he was appointed State Director of the National Educational 
Association. Davidson College conferred upon him the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Literature in 1918, and in 1920 Trinity College 
conferred upon him the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws. Mr. 
Brooks has always taken an active interest in civic matters. In 
1913 he was a member of the Board of Alderman of the city of 
Durham; vice-president of the Durham Chamber of Commerce in 
1918; vice-president of the Durham Building and Loan Association, 
1916-1918; member of the Executive Committee of the Durham 
Public Library, 1914-1918; and a member of the Board of Education 
of the Durham City Schools, 1914-1919. Mr. Brooks is the author 
of "Story of Cotton," "Story of Corn," "Life of Braxton Craven," 
"Woodrow Wilson as President," "Agriculture and Rural Life 
Day," and "Education for Democracy," and coauthor of "North 
Carolina Geography," "Agricultural Arithmetic," and "History in 
the Elementary Schools," and editor of "North Carolina Poems." 
He was a member of the Durham Rotary Club and is a member of 
Phi Beta Kappa. Methodist. Married Miss Ida Myrtle Sapp. Ad- 
dress: Raleigh, N. C. 



420 Biographical Sketches 

JAMES SMITH MANNING. 

ATTORNEY- GENERAL. 

James Smith Manning, Democrat, of Durham County, was born 
June 1, 1859. Son of John and Louisa Jones (Hall) Manning. 
Educated at Pittsboro Female Academy (Dr. Sutton) and A. H. 
Merritt's school; University of North Carolina, A. B., 1879; Univer- 
sity of North Carolina Law School. Lawyer. Nominated for 
Superior Court Judge, 1896. Attorney for city of Durham, 1886- 
1887. Representative from Durham County in General Assembly 
of 1907. State Senator from Nineteenth District in 1909. Associate 
Justice of the Supreme Court, 1909-1910. In 1913 moved to Raleigh 
and joined a partnership with former Governor W. W. Kitchin 
under the firm name of Manning and Kitchin. Elected Attorney- 
General in 1916. Trustee of University of North Carolina. Episco- 
palian. Married, December 12, 1888, Miss Julia Tate Cain. Ad- 
dress: Raleigh, N. C. 



WILLIAM ALEXANDER GRAHAM. 

COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

William A. Graham, Democrat, of Lincoln County, was born 
December 26, 1839, at Hillsboro, N. C. Son of William A. and 
Susan (Washington) Graham. Educated at private schools, 1847- 
1848; Caldwell Institute (Hillsboro, N. C); Union Academy (Wash- 
ington, D. C); University of North Carolina, 1S56-1859; Princeton 
College, A. B. 1860. Farmer. President North Carolina Farmers' 
Alliance, three terms; State Senator, 1874-1875 and 1878-1879; 
Representative 1905. Member North Carolina Board of Agriculture, 
1899-1908. Elected Commissioner of Agriculture in 190S, and re- 
elected in 1912, and 1916, and 1920. Term expires 1921. Captain 
Co. K, 2nd N. C. Cavalry, C. S. A. Major and Assistant Adjutant 
General of North Carolina State Troops. Baptist. Moderator of 
South Fork Association. Thirty years Chairman of Executive 
Committee. President Baptist State Convention. Author: General 
Joseph Graham and His Revolutionary Papers; History of South 
Fork Association; Life and Services of General William L. David- 
son; Battle of Ramsaur's Mill; History of Second Regiment North 
Carolina Cavalry, and North Carolina Adjutant General's Depart- 
ment (North Carolina Regiments) 1861-1S65. Walter Clark, Editor. 
Married Miss Julia R. Lane, June 9, 1864. Eleven children. Ad- 
dress: Raleigh, N. C. 



Executive Officials 421 

MITCHELL LEE SHIPMAN. 

COMMISSIONER OF LABOR AND PRINTING. 

M. L. Shipman, Democrat, of Henderson County, was born at 
Bowman's Bluff, Henderson County, December 31, 1866. Son of 
F. M. and Martha A. (Dawson) Shipman. Educated in public 
schools and private schools. Editor. Teacher. Superintendent 
Public Instruction Transylvania County, 1892-1895. Twice First 
Vice-President, six times Historian, and once President North 
Carolina Press Association. Member National Editorial Association. 
Chairman Henderson County Democratic Executive Committee, 
1898-1906; Chairman Senatorial and Congressional District Com- 
mittees; member State Democratic Executive Committee; Calendar 
Clerk, State Senate, 1899-1905; Assistant Commissioner of Labor 
and Printing, 1905-1908. Elected Commissioner of Labor and Print- 
ing, 1908; re-elected 1912-1916 and 1920. Term expires 1924. First 
Vice-President International Association of Labor Commissioners 
and Chairman of the Executive Committee. Fraternal orders: Odd 
Fellows (Past Grand Master, now Grand Treasurer), Knights of 
Pythias (Past Chancellor), Royal Arcanum, Jr. O. U. A. M. Sec- 
Treas. North Carolina Orphans' Association and Chairman Pub- 
licity Committee. Baptist; Clerk of North Carolina Association, 
1902. Married Miss Lula Osborne, of Brevard, July 12, 1896. Four 
children. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



STAGEY W. WADE. 

INSURANCE COMMISSIONER. 

Stacey W. Wade, Democrat, was born at Morehead City, N. C, 
August 18, 1875. Son of David B. and Sarah (Royal) Wade. At- 
tended public and private schools of home town. Insurance Com- 
missioner. Assistant Principal Clerk of the State Senate, 1903, 
5, 7, 8, and 9; Vice-President Carteret Ice Company, 1904-1906; 
City Clerk, 1906-1908; Director of the Bank of Carteret, 1907-1909; 
Auditor and Member Finance Committee Atlantic and North Caro- 
lina Railroad Company, 1911-1921; Chief Deputy Insurance Commis- 
sioner, 1909-1921. Mason, Knights Templar, Shrine. Methodist. 
Married Miss Clyde Mann, December, 1905. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



JUSTICES OF THE SUPREME COURT 



WALTER CLARK, 

OHIIDF JUSTIOK. 

Walter Clark, Democrat, of Wake County, was born in Halifax 
County, N. ('., Augusi L9, I sir, Son of David and Anna ;\i. (Thorne) 
Clark. Graduated from University <>r North Carolina L864. Lieu 
tenanl Colonel, C. S. A. Admitted to the bar L868, Judge of Supe 
rlor Court, L885 L889. Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, L889 
idol!. Chief Justice since January L, 1903. Frequenl contributor to 
periodical Literature. Author: ('lurk's Annotated ('ode of <'ivii Pro 
ceudre. Translator from the French: Constant's Memoirs of Na- 
poleon ( 3 vols.). Editor: The State Records of North Carolina (16 
vol:: |; The North Carolina Regiments, ixiii L865 (5 vols >; Reprints 
of Noriii Carolina Supreme Courl Reports, with annotations (164 
vols.). President North Carolina Literary and Historical Assocla 
lion, L900-1901. LL.D. (University <>r N. C). Methodist. Married 
MIhh Susan W., daughter or William A. Graham, January lis, L874. 
Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



PLATT DICKINSON WALKER. 

AHSIKI VI I .1 UHT1CII . 

Platl I ». Walker, Democrat, of Mecklenburg County, was born in 
Wilmington, N. <'. Son of Thomas t». and Mary Vance (Dickinson) 
Walker. Educated ;ii George vv. Jewett's School, Wilmington, ;m<i 
James it Horner's School, Oxford, N. ('.; University of North Caro 
Una, Class of L869. Finished collegiate course ;ii University or vir 
glnla and studied law there under Prof. John B. Minor and Prof 
Southall, received LL.D. diploma in L869. Obtained his license to 
practice law ;it June Term, L870, or Supreme Court; admitted to the 
Bar of North Carolina and settled :it Rockingham, L870, and prac 
ticod law with the late lion Walter L. Steele, afterwards member or 
Congress. Representative Prom Richmond County in General As 
sembly or Norib Carolina, L874 L875. Removed i<> Charlotte 1876, 



Justices ot i he Supreme <'m rt •I-:! 

,ind entered Into partnership with the Late lion. Clement Dowd 
(afterwards member of Congress) Cor the practice of law, and In 
November, L880, with Hon, Armlstead Burwell, afterwards Justice of 
the Supreme Court, and in 1 x : i ii with E. T, Cansler, Esq, Has 
been Associate Justice of the Supreme Courl of North Caroline 
since January, L903. Flrsl President of the North Carolina Bar 
Association, L899. President of ih<' State Literary and Historical 
Association, L909-1910. Trustee <>r the University of North Caro 
Una, 190] L905. LL.D. (Davidson College, L903, and University of 
North Carolina L908). Episcopalian. Married Miss Nettie Settle 
Covington, June 5, L878, al Reldsville, N. C; Miss Alma Locke 
Mordecal, June 8, L910. Residence: Charlotte, N. c. Office: 
Raleigh, N. C. 



WILLIAM ALEXANDER HOKE. 
Asson \i k .i USTICE. 

William A. Hoke, Democrat, of Lincoln County, w;is born ;ii Lin 
colnton, N. C, October 25, L851. Son of Col. John Franklin and 
Catherine Wilson (Alexander) Hoke. Educated ;ii private schools. 
Studied i.'iw under chirr Justice Richmond Pearson, ;ii Richmond 
Hill, N. C. Admitted to Bar L872. Practiced law al Shelby and 
Lincolnton, N. C, until L891. Representative in Legislature or North 
Carolina in L889. Judge of the Superior Court, L891 L904. Elected 
Associate Justice or the Supreme Courl of North Carolina, L904; re 
elected, L912 and again in L920. Member Society of the Cincinnati. 
LL.D. (University or N, ('.). Episcopalian. Al Lincolnton, Decern 
hoi- L6, is!»7, married to Miss Mary McBee. Residence: Lincolnton, 
N. (!. Office: Raleigh, N. C. 



WILLIAM REYNOLDS ALLEN. 

AS: 101 I VI I .1 I STICK. 

William Reynolds Allen, Democrat, of Wayne County, was horn 
,-,! Kenansville, North Carolina, March ii*i, L860. Son of William A. 
;iikI Maria Goodwin (Hicks) Allen. Educated al R. W. Millard 
and Samuel Clement's schools, Kenansville, 1868 L876, and ;ii Trlnltj 
College I x 7 < ; L877. Studied law under his father. Lawyer. Repre 



424 Biographical Sketches 

sentative from Wayne County in General Assembly, 1893, 1899, 1901. 
Chairman Board of Education Wayne County. Judge Superior Court, 
1S94-1895; 1903-1911. Elected Associate Justice of the Supreme 
Court of North Carolina, 1910. Re-elected Associate Justice 1918. 
LL.D. (University of N. C.) Methodist. Has been a member Board 
of Stewards and now Trustee Methodist Orphanage. Married, No- 
vember 3, 1886, Miss Mattie M. Moore. Five children. Address: 
Goldsboro, N. C. 



WALTER PARKER STACY. 

ASSOCIATE JUSTICE. 

Walter Parker Stacy, Democrat, was born in Ansonville, Decem- 
ber, 18S4. Son of Rev. L. E. and Rosa (Johnson) Stacy. Attended 
Weaverville College, 1895-1898; Morven High School, 1899-1902; 
University of North Carolina, degree of A. B., 1908; University 
Law School, 1908-1909. Lawyer. Member of North Carolina Bar 
Association. Represented New Hanover County in General As- 
sembly of 1915. Judge Superior Court, Eighth Judicial District, 
1916-1920. Elected Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of 
North Carolina, 1920. Methodist. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



MEMBERS OF CONGRESS 



FURNIFOLD McLENDEL SIMMONS. 

F. M. Simmons, Democrat, of New Bern, Craven County, was born 
January 20, 1854, in the County of Jones, N. C. Educated at Wake 
Forest College and at Trinity College, graduating at Trinity Col- 
lege with the degree of A.B., in June, 1873; was admitted to the 
Bar in 1875, and practiced the profession of law until his election 
to the United States Senate in 1901. In 1886 was elected a member 
of the Fiftieth Congress from the Second Congressional District 
of North Carolina. In 1893 was appointed Collector of Internal 
Revenue for the Fourth (the Eastern) Collection District of North 
Carolina, and served in that office during the term of Mr. Cleveland. 
In the campaigns of 1892, 1898, 1900, 1902, 1904, and 1906, was 
Chairman of the Democratic Executive Committee of the State. 
LL.D. of Trinity College, N. C, 1901; University of North Caro- 
lina, 1915. He was elected to the United States Senate to succeed 
Marion Butler, Populist, for the term beginning March 4, 1901, 
and re-elected in 1907, and again in 1913, having been chosen in 
the Democratic primary November 5, 1912, over two opponents, 
Governor W. W. Kitchin and Chief Justice Walter Clark. Chairman 
of Finance Committee in the Sixty-fourth and Sixty-fifth Congresses 
during Democratic control of the United States Senate. One of the 
authors of the Underwood-Simmons Tariff Act of 1913, still in effect, 
and of the Revenue Measures which provided for the financing 
of the World War on the part of America. In 1918 re-elected to 
the Senate for term March 4, 1919-March 3, 1925. Is now Chairman 
of the Democratic Patronage and the Library Committees of the 
Senate, ranking Democratic (minority) member of the Committee 
on Finance, member of the Steering Committee, the Committee on 
Commerce, and of other committees of the Senate. 



LEE SLATER OVERMAN. 

Lee Slater Overman, Democrat, of Salisbury, was born January 
3, 1854, in Salisbury, Rowan County. Graduated Trinity College, 
North Carolina, with the degree of A.B., June, 1874; the degree of 



426 Biographical Sketches 

M.A. was conferred upon him two years later, the degree of LL.D. 
has since been conferred both by the University of North Carolina 
and Trinity College; taught school two years; was Private Secretary 
to Governor Z. B. Vance in 1877-1878, and Private Secretary to 
Governor Thomas J. Jarvis in 1879. Began the practice of law in 
his native town in 1880; has had a leading practice; was five times 
a member of the Legislature, sessions of 1883, 1885, 1887, 1893, and 
1899; was the choice of the Democratic caucus for Speaker in 18S7, 
and was defeated by one vote, through a combination of Indepen- 
dents and Republicans; was the unanimous choice of his party 
and elected Speaker of the House of Representatives, session of 
1893; was President of the North Carolina Railroad Company in 
1S94; was the choice of the Democratic caucus for United States 
Senator in 1895, and was defeated in open session by Hon. Jeter 
C. Pritchard, through a combination of Republicans and Populists; 
was Chairman of the Democratic State Conventions, 1900-1910; 
Trustee of the University of N. C, 1885-1911; is also a Trustee of 
Trinity College; was chosen Presidential Elector for the State at 
large in 1900. Married Miss Mary P., the eldest daughter of United 
States Senator, afterwards Chief Justice, A. S. Merrimon, October 
31, 1878. Was elected to the United States Senate to succeed Jeter C. 
Pritchard, Republican, for the term beginning March 4, 1903. His 
first term expired March 3, 1909. By unanimous choice of the Demo- 
cratic caucus, he was re-elected January 19, 1909, for a second term. 
November 3, 1914, he was elected for a third term, being the first 
Senator elected in North Carolina by a direct vote of the people. 
Re-elected November 2, 1920, for a fourth term beginning March 4, 
1921, by a majority over his opponent of 81,000. 



HALLETT S. WARD. 

(First District. — Counties: Currituck, Camden. Dare, Pasquotank, 
Perquimans, Chowan, Gates, Hertford, Washington, Tyrrell, Mar- 
tin, Beaufort, Hyde, Pitt. Population, 206,137.) 

Hallett S. Ward. Democrat, of Beaufort County, was born in Gates 
County August 31st, 1870. Attended only the public schools of the 
county and a short period at the Como Academy in Hertford County 
under the great teacher of that day, Capt. Julian H. Picot. Studied 
law at the University in the summer of 1893. Located in Plymouth, 



Members of Congress 427 

N. C. Married Aileen Latham. Elected to State Senates of 1899 
and 1901. Elected Solicitor of the First Judicial District in 1904; 
served six years. Elected to 67th Congress in 1920. 



CLAUDE KITCHIN. 

(Second District. — Counties: Bertie, Edgecombe. Greene, Hali- 
fax, Lenoir, Northampton, Warren, and Wilson. Population, 233,111.) 

Claude Kitchin, Democrat, of Halifax County, was born in that 
county, near Scotland Neck, March 24, 1869. Graduated from Wake 
Forest College June, 1888, and was married to Miss Kate Mills, 
November 13th of the same year. Admitted to the Bar Septem- 
ber, 1890, and has since been engaged in the practice of law at 
Scotland Neck. Elected to Fifty-seventh, Fifty-eighth, Fifty-ninth, 
Sixtieth, Sixty-first, Sixty-second, Sixty-third, Sixty-fourth, Sixty- 
fifth, Sixty-sixth, and Sixty-seventh Congresses. Majority leader 
in the Sixty-fourth and Sixty-fifth Congresses. Address: Scotland 
Neck, N. C. 



SAMUEL MITCHELL BRINSON. 

(Third District. — Counties: Carteret, Craven, Duplin, Jones, Ons- 
low, Pamlico, Pender, Sampson, and Wayne. Population, 202,760.) 

Samuel M. Brinson, Democrat, from the Third District, was 
born in New Bern, N. C, March 20, 1870. He is a son of William 
George and Kitty (Chestnut) Brinson. He was prepared for 
college in the New Bern city school, 1878-1888, and was graduated 
from Wake Forest College in 1891. In 1895 he read law at the 
University of North Carolina Law School, and upon receiving his 
license, February, 1896, practiced law at New Bern until he was 
elected County Superintendent of Public Instruction in 1902. Since 
that time he has devoted his entire time to the school work of the 
county. He was at one time an ensign in the New Bern Division 
in the Naval Reserves. In 1918, upon the death of Hon. W. T. 
Dortch, Democratic nominee for Congress, he was chosen by the 
Democratic Executive Committee a few days before election to 
fill the vacancy, and was elected over Claude R. Wheatley, Re- 
publican, by 3,205 majority. Was re-elected to Congress (1920) over 



428 Biographical Sketches 

R. L. Herring by 5,200 majority. He is a Mason, and a member 
of the Royal Arcanum, an Elk, and member of Jr. O. U. A. M. He 
is a member of the Baptist Church. On January 16, 1901, he 
was married to Miss Ruth Martin Scales, of Salisbury, N. C. Ad- 
dress: New Bern, N. C. 



EDWARD WILLIAM POU. 

(Fourth District.— Counties: Chatham, Franklin, Johnston, Nash, 
Vance, and Wake. Population, 238,494.) 

Edward William Pou, Democrat, of Johnston County, was born at 
Tuskegee, Ala., September 9, 1863. Presidential Elector in 1888. 
Elected Solicitor of the Fourth Judicial District of North Carolina 
in 1890, 1894, and 1898. Elected to the Fifty-seventh, Fifty-eighth, 
Fifty-ninth, Sixtieth, Sixty-first, Sixty-second, Sixty-third, Sixty- 
fourth, Sixty-fifth, Sixty-Sixth, and Sixty-Seventh Congresses. 
Address: Smithfield, N. C. 



CHARLES MANLY STEDMAN. 

(Fifth District.— Counties: Alamance, Caswell, Durham, Forsyth, 
Granville, Guilford, Orange, Person, Rockingham, Stokes, Surry. 
Population, 408,138.) 

Charles Manly Stedman, Democrat, of Greensboro, was born Jan- 
uary 29, 1841, in Pittsboro, Chatham County; moved with his 
father's family to Fayetteville when he was 12 years of age. Pre- 
pared for college at the Pittsboro Academy, and at the Donaldson 
Academy in Fayetteville. Graduated from the University of North 
Carolina in 1861. In response to the call for volunteers, he left 
the University before the commencement exercises and volunteered 
as a private in the Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry Com- 
pany, which was in the first North Carolina (or Bethel) Regiment. 
Upon the disbanding of this regiment he joined a company from 
Chatham County; was lieutenant, then captain, and afterwards its 
major. This company belonged to the Forty-fourth North Carolina 
Regiment. He served with Lee's Army during the entire war; was 
three times wounded, and surrendered at Appomattox. He is one 
of the twelve soldiers who were engaged in the battle at Bethel 
and who surrendered with Lee at Appomattox. At the close of the 



Members of Congress 429 

Civil War he returned to Chatham County, where he taught school 
for a year; while there he studied law under Hon. John Manning 
and procured his license to practice. Married Miss Catherine de 
Rosset Wright, January 8, 1866. In 1867 he moved to Wilmington, 
where he practiced law for many years; he was a member of the 
firm of Wright & Stedman. Delegate to the Democratic National 
Convention, 1880. Elected Lieutenant Governor, 1884. In 1898 he 
moved to Greensboro and formed a copartnership with A. Wayland 
Cooke, under the firm name of Stedman & Cooke. Since residing 
in Greensboro he has served as President of the North Carolina 
Bar Association. In 1909 he was appointed by Governor Kitchin 
a director of the North Carolina Railroad Company, representing 
the State's interest, and was afterwards elected its president. For 
many years he was trustee of the University of North Carolina. He 
is a director of the Guilford Battle Ground Company; was elected 
to the Sixty-second, Sixty-third, Sixty-fourth, Sixty-fifth, Sixty-Sixth 
and Sixty-seventh Congresses. 



HOMER LeGRAND LYON. 

(Sixth District. — Counties: Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus, Cum- 
berland, Harnett, New Hanover and Robeson. Population, 223,434.) 

Homer LeGrand Lyon, Democrat, of Whiteville, N. C, was born 
March 1st, 1879, in Elizabethtown, N. C; was educated at Davis 
Military School and the University of North Carolina; was licensed 
to practice law in September, 1900. Had been Solicitor of the 8th 
Judicial District for seven years preceding his election to Congress. 
Married Miss Kate M. Burkhead in 1904. Received 24,174 votes in 
the last election against 11.040 cast for his opponent, Hon. R. S. 
White, Republican. 



WILLIAM C. HAMMER. 

(Seventh District. — Counties: Anson, Davidson, Davie, Hoke, Lee, 
Montgomery, Moore, Randolph, Richmond, Scotland, Union, Wilkes, 
and Yadkin. Population, 295,917.) 

William C. Hammer, Democrat, was born in Randolph County, 
March 24, 1864. Son of William C. and Hannah Jane (Burrows) 
Hammer. Educated in the public schools, Yadkin College, Western 



430 Biographical Sketches 

Maryland College, University of North Carolina Law School. 
Lawyer. Member American Bar Association; North Carolina Bar 
Association; National Educational Association; North Carolina 
Press Association. Mayor of Asheboro; Town Commissioner; 
School Commissioner; County Superintendent of Schools; Solicitor 
10th and 15th Judicial Districts of North Carolina; United States 
Western District of North Carolina; Delegate from Fourth North 
Carolina District Democratic National Convention, 1896, at Chicago 
Delegate at large to Democratic National Committee at Baltimore, 
1912; President North Carolina Press Association, 1914-1915. Mason. 
Odd Fellow, Jr. 0. U. A. M. t Woodman of the World. Methodist. 
Married Miss Minnie Lee Hancock, 1893. Address: Asheboro, N. C. 



ROBERT LEE DOUGHTON. 

(Eighth, District. — Counties: Alexander, Alleghany, Ashe, Cabar- 
rus, Caldwell, Iredell, Rowan, Stanly, and Watauga, Population 
217,254.) 

Robert L. Doughton, Democrat, Laurel Springs, N. C, was born 
at Laurel Springs, N. C, November 7, 1863; was educated in the 
public schools and at Laurel Springs and Sparta High Schools; is 
a farmer and stock raiser; was appointed a member of the Board 
of Agriculture in 1903; elected to the State Senate from the Thirty- 
fifth District of North Carolina in 190S; served as a director of the 
State Prison from 1909 to 1911; elected to the Sixty-second, Sixty- 
third, Sixty-fourth, Sixty-fifth, Sixty-sixth, and Sixty-seventh Con- 
gresses. 



ALFRED LEE BULWINKLE. 

(Ninth District. — Counties: Mecklenburg, Gaston, Cleveland, Lin- 
coln, Catawba, Burke, Madison, Mitchell, Yancey and Avery. Popu- 
lation, 297,996.) 

Alfred Lee Bulwinkle, Democrat, Gastonia, Gaston County, was 
born in Charleston, S. C, April 21, 1883; moved to Dallas, North 
Carolina, 1891; attended school in Dallas; studied law at the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina. Lawyer; member of the law firm of 
Bulwinkle & Cherry, Gastonia. Prosecuting Attorney in the Mu- 
nicipal Court of the City of Gastonia, 1913-1916; nominated for the 



Members of Congress 431 

State Senate by the Democratic Primary of 1916, but withdrew on 
account of being in the military service on the Mexican Border; 
Captain, 1st Infantry, N. C. N. G., 1909-1917; Major, commanding 
2nd Battalion, 113 F. A., 55th F. A. Brigade, 30th Div., 1917-1919, and 
served with the regiment in the A. E. F. Married Miss Bessie 
Lewis, 1911; two children; was elected to the Sixty-seventh Congress 
by a vote of 40,195 to 35,686 for Jake F. Newell, Republican. 



ZEBULON WEAVER. 

(Tenth District. — Counties: Cherokee, Buncombe, Clay, Graham, 
Haywood, Henderson, Jackson, McDowell, Macon, Polk, Rutherford, 
Swain, Transylvania. Population, 231,483.) 

Zebulon Weaver, Democrat, of Buncombe County, was born in 
Weaverville, N. C, May 12, 1872. He is the son of W. E. and 
Hannah E. (Baird) Weaver. A.B. of Weaverville College, 1889. 
Studied law at the University of North Carolina, 1894. Lawyer. 
Represented Buncombe County in the General Assembly of North 
Carolina in 1907 and 1909. State Senator, 1913 and 1915. After 
a close contest with James J Britt, Republican, in 1916, was de- 
clared elected Representative in the Sixty-fifth and Sixty-sixth 
Congresses. Methodist. Married Miss Anna Hyman. Address: 
Asheville, N. C. 



MEMBERS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY 



OFFICERS OF THE SENATE. 



WILLIAM BRYANT COOPER. 

PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE, 

William Bryant Cooper, New Hanover County, Democrat, Lieu- 
tenant Governor, was born at Cool Springs, S. C, Jan. 22, 1867. 
Son of Noah Bryant and Lucinda Jennette Cooper. Attended 
public schools of Mullins, S. C. Banker. Member of the Chamber 
of Commerce of Wilmington; president in 1900; member of Board 
of Trade in 1910; Mason; president of Masonic Temple Corpora- 
tion. Methodist; steward; Sunday school Superintendent, 1905- 
1910. Married Miss Ala Francis Gore, 1893. Address: Wilmington, 
N. C. 



FRANK DOBBIN HACKETT. 

Frank D. Hackett, Democrat, Principal Clerk of the Senate, was 
born at Maizefield, Wilkes County, June 14, 1857. Son of Charles 
Carroll and Jane Cuthbert (Sturgis) Hackett. Attended Jonesville 
Academy, 1866-1870; Swansboro Academy, 1870; private tuition, 
1870; H. Bingham's Law School, Statesville, N. C, 1888-1889; 
Licensed in February, 1890. Lawyer. Member North Carolina 
Bar Association; Wilkes County Bar Association; President Wilkes 
County Bar Association, 1914-1915; Secretary Treasurer North 
Wilkesboro Building and Loan Association, 1908-1915. Special Dep- 
uty Collector Internal Revenue, 1895-1896. Assistant Clerk North 
Carolina House of Representatives, 1899-1901. State Bank Examiner, 
1902. Mayor of North-Wilkesboro, 1903-1904. Supervisor for Wilkes 
County Revaluation Work, 1919-1920. Elected Principal Clerk of 
Senate Special Session, 1920. I. O. O. F.; Grand Warden, Grand 
Lodge, 1908-1919; Peputy Grand Master, 1909-1910; Grand Master, 
1910 and 1911; Grand Representatives from North Carolina to 
Sovereign Grand Lodge World, 1912-1913. Methodist; Sunday 
school superintendent; chairman Board of Stewards for about ten 
years. Married, April, 1883, to Miss Alice Phillips. Address: 
North Wilkesboro, N. C. 



State Senators 433 

SENATORS (STATE) 



LAUGHLIN McLAURIN KLUE. 

(Tiventy-first District. — Counties: Chatham, Moore, Richmond, 
and Scotland. Two Senators.) 

Laughlin McLaurin Blue, Democrat, Senator from the Twenty- 
first District, was born in South Carolina in 1865. Son of Angus 
and Mary Ann (McLaurin) Blue. Educated at Laurinburg High 
School, 1878-82; Davidson College, 1886, with degree of A.B. 
Farmer. Cashier Bank of Gibson, 1904-1918. Mayor of Gibson; 
Superintendent of Schools, Scotland County; member House of 
Representatives, 1893, 1915; Senate, 1917. Elder in Presbyterian 
Church. Married Miss Mattie James Mason in 1893. Address: 
Gibson, N. C. 



LEON S. BRASSFIELD. 

(Fifteenth District. — County: Wake. One Senator.) 

Leon S. Brassfield, Democrat, Senator from the Fifteenth Sena- 
torial District, born in Wake County, June, 1892. Son of James S. 
and Mary Elizabeth (Bailey) Brassfield. Attended Bay Leaf High 
School, 1908-1910; Horner's Military School, 1910-1911; Wake Forest 
College, B.A., 1915; Columbia University Law School (post-graduate 
work), 1915. Attorney. Member North Carolina Bar Association. 
Served as 2d Lieutenant in 317th Field Artillery, 1917-1918; 2d 
Corps Artillery Park, 1918-1919; American Expeditionary Forces, 
1918-1919. Baptist. Married Miss Callie Hunter, March, 1920. Ad- 
dress: Raleigh, N. C. 



WILLIAM A. BROWN. 

(Ninth District. — Counties: Duplin and Pender. One Senator.) 

William A. Brown, Democrat, Senator from the Ninth Senatorial 
District, was born at Rocky Point, November, 1875. Son of Bryan 
and Annie (James) Brown. Was educated at public schools of 
Pender County 1882-1895; Davis Military School; and Southern 
Business College, Atlanta, Ga., 1896. Farmer and Banker. Presi- 



434 Biographical Sketches 

dent Planters' Bank & Trust Company, Burgaw, N. C. Member 
Board of County Commissioners, 1908. Member and Chairman of 
Board of Education, 1919; and Chairman of Local Draft Board dur- 
ing war. Mason and Shriner. Married Miss George Emmett. Ad- 
dress: Rocky Point, N. C. 



LINVILLE BUMGARNER. 

(Tiventy -eighth District. — Counties: Davie, Wilkes, and Yadkin. 
One Senator.) 

Linville Bumgarner, Republican, Senator from the Twenty-eighth 
Senatorial District, born at Miller's Creek, Wilkes County, July, 
1867. Son of Rev. James L. and Phcebe Ann (Hincher) Bumgarner. 
Attended public schools until seventeen years old; Moravian Falls 
Academy, 1885-1888. Farmer. Coroner of Wilkes County, 1892-1894. 
Clerk of the Superior Court, 1898-1902. Alderman for town of 
Wilkesboro, 1907-1912. Member of Legislature, 1913, 1915. Metho- 
dist; steward, 1894-1896. Married Miss Bessie Ryan McNeill in 
1889. Justice of the Peace of Reddies River Township, 1896-1898. 
Taught in the public schools, 1885-1898. Address: Wilkesboro, N. C. 



KENNETH OGDEN BURGWIN. 

{Tenth District. — Counties: New Hanover, and Brunswick. One 
Senator.) 

Kenneth Ogden Burgwin, Democrat, Senator from the Tenth 
Senatorial District, was born at Tarboro, March, 1S90. Son of 
Hill and Susan (Nash) Burgwin. Attended Woodbury Forest, Vir- 
ginia, 1901-1904; St. Lukes School, Pennsylvania, 1904-1907; Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, 1911. Lawyer. Member North Carolina 
Bar Association. Knights of Pythias, Jr. O. U. A. M., Red Men. 
Episcopalian. Address: Wilmington, N. C 



WILLIAM HYSLOP SUMNER BURGWYN. 

{Third District. — Counties: Northampton, and Bertie. One Sena- 
tor.) 

W. H. S. Burgwyn, Democrat, Senator from the Third senatorial 
district, was born at Jackson, January 22, 1886. Son of George Pol- 



State Senators 435 

lock and Emma Wright (Ridley) Burgwyn. Attended Warrenton 
High School, 1898-1900; Episcopal High School, Alexandria, Va., 
1900-1902; Georgetown University; University of North Carolina 
Law School 1906-1908. Attorney at Law. Parmer. Mayor of 
Jackson, 1917-1918. State Senator from Third District, 1918; 
County Attorney Northampton County; Trustee of the University 
of North Carolina since 1914. Mason, Royal Arch, Knight Templar, 
32nd Degree, Shriner. A. T. O., College Fraternity. Episcopalian; 
vestryman. Married Miss Josephine Griffin, January 2, 1911. Ad- 
dress: Woodland, N. C. 



WALTER PIERCE BYRD. 

{Fourteenth District. — Counties: Harnett, Johnston, Lee, and 
Sampson. Two Senators.) 

Walter Pierce Byrd, Republican, Senator from the Fourteenth 
senatorial district, was born in Harnett County. Son of A. J. 
and Caroline (Shaw) Byrd. Attended Buie's Creek Academy 1888- 
1889; Davis Military School, 1891; University of North Carolina 
Law School, 1908-1909. Lawyer. Member of North Carolina Bar 
Association. Clerk of the Superior Court of Harnett County, 1914- 
1918. Served as private in Company A, 2nd North Carolina "Volun- 
teers in Spanish American War. Methodist; Lay Elder of Fayette- 
ville District. Married, November 3rd, 1909, to Miss Zula Tomlin- 
son. Address: Lillington, N. C. 



BENNEHAN CAMERON. 

{Eighteenth District. — Counties: Caswell, Alamance, Orange, and 
Durham. Two Senators.) 

Bennehan Cameron, Democrat, Senator from the Eighteenth Sena- 
torial district, was born September 9, 1854, at "Fairntosh," Stag- 
ville, N. C, then Orange, now Durham County. Son of Paul Car- 
rington and Anne (Ruffin) Cameron. Prepared for college at Horner 
Military School, 1868-1871; Eastman National Business College, 
1871; graduated at Virginia Military Institute, 1875; Captain Co. C. 
Admitted to the Bar in 1877. Farmer. Director of the Morehead 



436 Biographical Sketches 

Banking Company, Durham, N. C. Took an active part in organizing 
the First National Bank of Durham, and in the building of the 
Lynchburg and Durham Railroad, the Oxford and Clarksville Rail- 
road, the Durham and Northern Railroad, and the Oxford and 
Dickerson branch. Director in the Raleigh and Augusta Air Line 
Railroad. One of the organizers of the Seaboard Air Line Railroad 
Company; president of the same, 1911-1913. Director and vice- 
president of the Rocky Mount Mills. President of the North Caro- 
line State Agricultural Society, 1896-1897. Vice-president of the 
Southern Cotton Growers Protective Association, 1904-1906. Vice- 
president of the Farmers' National Congress, 1901-1907; president, 
1907-1909. Member of Royal Agricultural Society of England, 
1908-1914. Captain of Orange County Guards, 1875-1876. Captain of 
the staffs of Governors Vance, Jarvis, and Scales. Colonel on the 
staffs of Governors Fowle, Holt, and Carr. Represented North 
Carolina on the staff of General Phil Sheridan at the centennial 
celebration of the adoption of the Federal Constitution, 1887, and 
on the staff of General Schofield at the centennial celebration of 
the inauguration of President George Washington, 1889. Organizer 
and director of the Quebec-Miami International Highway. Organ- 
izer and vice-president of the Southern National Highway. Director 
of the American Automobile Association. President of the Scottish 
Society of America. Assistant treasurer of the North Carolina 
Society of the Cincinnati. Vice-president of the North Carolina 
Sons of the Revolution. Chairman of the Committee on the Co- 
operation of Patriotic Organizations under the American Committee 
for the Celebration of the Century of Peace among English-speaking 
Peoples under the Treaty of Ghent. Representative in the General 
Assembly, 1915; State Senator, 1917. Episcopalian. Married Miss 
Sallie P. Mayo. Address: Stagville, N. C. 



LUTHER MONTROSE CARLTON. 

(Seventeenth District. — Counties: Granville, and Person. One 
Senator.) 

Luther Montrose Carlton, Democrat, Senator from the Seventeenth 
senatorial district, was born at Durham, March 27th, 1877. Son 
of Marcus L. and Betty (Groome) Carlton. Attended Durham 
Graded and High Schools 1882-1892; Trinity College, 1897; Univer- 



State Senators 437 

sity of North Carolina 1899 and 1900; Law School. Lawyer. County 
attorney for Person County, 1901-1903. Chairman Democratic 
Executive Committee for Person County 1901-1908. Mayor of Rox- 
boro in 1915; resigned. Town attorney for Roxboro for past two 
years. Chairman Board Graded School Trustees 1915-1920. Knights 
of Pythias. Mason. Jr. O. U. A. M. Modern Woodmen. Baptist. 
Married, 1905, to Miss Mary Graves Hines. Address: Roxboro, N. C. 



CARL EDWARD CARPENTER. 

{Thirty-first District. — County: Gaston. One Senator.) 

Carl Edward Carpenter, Democrat, Senator from the Thirty-first 
Senatorial District, was born at Stanley, Gaston County, N. C, on 
October 9th, 1888. He is a son of B. F. and Fannie (Mason) Car- 
penter. Received his preparatory education at Stanley High School. 
Attended Roanoke College, Salem, Va.; Lenoir College, Hickory, N. 
C. Attended University of North Carolina Law School 1909-1910. 
Lawyer. Member of North Carolina Bar Association and Gaston 
County Bar Association. Mason, K. of P.. Jr. O. U. A. M., Red Men. 
Chancellor Commander Gastonia Lodge K. of P., 1919 Lutheran; 
Superintendent of Sunday School. Married in 1912 to Miss Ruth 
Spencer. Address: Gastonia, N. C. 



CLIFFORD NEWTON COX. 

(Twenty-second District. — Counties: Montgomery, and Randolph. 
One Senator.) 

Clifford Newton Cox, Republican, Senator from the Twenty-second 
Senatorial District, was born in Randolph County, July 15, 1891. 
Son of N. C. and Catherine (Burrow) Cox. Received his elemen- 
tary education in Asheboro Graded and Asheboro High Schools 
1902-1910. Attended University of North Carolina 1910-1912; Uni- 
versity of Virginia 1912-1916, LL.B. Attorney at Law. County 
Attorney for Randolph 1917 to present time. Republican candidate 
for Solicitor from 15th Judicial District in 1918. Delta Sigma Rho 
Fraternity; Secretary 1915-16. Methodist. Married Miss Nelle F. 
Smith, in April, 1917. Address: Asheboro, N. C. 



438 Biographical Sketches 

JAMES LESTER DeLANEY. 

(Twenty-fourth District. — Counties: Cabarrus and Mecklenburg. 
Two Senators.) 

James Lester DeLaney, Democrat, of Mecklenburg County, Sena- 
tor from Twenty-fourth District, was born in Union County, N. C. 
Son of James Stanhope and Margaret E. (Matthews) DeLaney. Was 
educated at Weddington Academy, 1896-1900. University of North 
Carolina, 1900-1902. University of North Carolina Law School, 1904. 
Lawyer. Prosecuting attorney for city of Charlotte, 1911-1913. 
State Senator 1919. Mason; Odd Fellow; Knight of Pythias; Jr. 
O. U. A. M. Presbyterian. Married Miss Cora Matthews, March 2, 
1905. Two children. Address: Charlotte, N. C. 



ROGER ALEXANDER DEWAR. 

(Thirty-eighth District. — Counties: Cherokee, Clay, Graham, and 
Macon. One Senator.) 

Roger Alexander Dewar, Republican, Senator from the Thirty- 
eighth Senatorial District, born in New York City 1885; reared in 
Georgia. Son of Harry and Alice (Rice) Dewar. Attended public 
schools 1894-1901. Dr. Wilmer's Preparatory School, Annapolis, 
Md., 1901. Two years at U. S. Naval Academy. Studied Mechani- 
cal Drawing in Reno, Nevada University, 1905. Lumber dealer. 
Mayor and Postmaster at Nelson, Ga. State Chairman of the Pro- 
gressive Republican Party in Georgia, 1912-1916. Managed Roosevelt's 
campaign in Georgia, 1912; Hughes' campaign in Georgia, 1916. 
Served with the 88th Division in France 1918-1919 as 1st Lieutenant 
in Red Cross, as Casualty Searcher. Mason. Episcopalian; Vestry- 
man, 1914-1916; president St. Luke's Men's Club. Married Miss 
Sally Brumby, November, 1906. Address: Andrews, N. C. 



FRANK LEMUEL DUNLAP. 

(Twenty-third District. — Counties: Anson, Davidson, Stanly, and 
Union. Two Senators.) 

Frank Lemuel Dunlap, Democrat, Senator from the Twenty-third 
Senatorial District, was born in Anson County, May 5, 1887. Son 
of Joseph I. and Charlotte F. (Bennett) Dunlap. Received his 



State Senators 439 

preparatory education in the common schools of Anson County and 
at Horner's Military School. LL.B. of the University of North 
Carolina, class of 1908. Lawyer and farmer. Clerk of the Superior 
Court of Anson County, 1910; Solicitor of Recorder's Court, Anson 
County, 1911-1914. Commissioned 2nd Lieutenant in United States 
Army, August 1917; 1st Lieutenant, December, 1917; honorably dis- 
charged June, 1919. Episcopalian. Address: Wadesboro, N. C. 



MARCUS ERWIN. 

(Thirty-sixth District. — County: Buncombe. One Senator.) 

Marcus Erwin, Democrat, Senator from the Thirty-sixth Sena- 
torial District. Address: Asheville, N. C. 



SOLOMON GALLERT. 

(Thirty-second District. — Counties: Cleveland, Henderson, Polk, 
and Rutherford. Two Senators.) 

Solomon Gallert, Democrat, Senator from the Thirty-second Dis- 
trict, was born at Waterville, Maine, October 17, 1868. Son of 
David and Rosalie Gallert. Received his preparatory education at 
Waterville Classical Institute, Me., 1881-1884. Attended Colby Col- 
lege, 1888, A.B. and A.M. Lawyer. Member North Carolina General 
Assembly 1907. Commissary General North Carolina 1902-1908, 
with rank of colonel. Member of Phi Delta Theta College Fratern- 
ity; Jr. O. U. A. M.; K. of P.; A. P. and A. M.; Scottish Rite 32° 
Mason; Royal Arch Chapter; Shriner. Has been District Deputy 
Grand Lodge of Masons; Past Master of Masons; Jr. Past Councillor 
Jr. O. U. M. M.; Past Chancellor K. of P.; of Jewish Religion. Ad- 
dress: Rutherfordton, N. C. 



E. JORDAN GRIFFIN. 

(First District. — Counties: Perquimans, Currituck, Chowan, 
Gates, Pasquotank, Camden, and Hertford. Two Senators.) 

E. Jordan Griffin, Democrat, Senator from the First District, was 
born at Woodland, Northampton County, February, 1867. Son of 
E. O. and Anne E. (Baughm) Griffin. Attended public schools* 



440 Biographical Sketches 

Woodland Academy 1881; Westtown, Penn., 1887-1888; Philadelphia 
Dental College 1893-1896, receiving D.D.S. Dentist. Member of 
National and State Dental Association. Represented Chowan 
County, Legislature of 1917. Quaker. Married in 1904 to Miss 
Imogen Vernon Story. Address: Edenton, N. C. 



LUTHER HAMILTON. 

(Seventh District. — Counties: Carteret, Craven, Greene, Jones, 
Lenoir, and Onslow. Two Senators.) 

Luther Hamilton, Democrat, Senator from the Seventh Senatorial 
District, was born in Atlantic, N. C, February, 1894. Son of Samuel 
E. and Rebecca W. (Fulcher) Hamilton. Attended Atlantic High 
School, 1905-1909; Oak Ridge Institute, 1910-1911; University of 
North Coralina 1911-1912, 1914-1915, (Law School). Lawyer. 
Chairman Democratic Executive Committee of Carteret County, 
1920; Member Judicial Committee Fifth District, 1920-1922. Com- 
missioned 2nd Lieutenant at Fort Oglethorpe, 1917; eight months' 
service on the Border and nine months' service in France. Metho- 
dist; steward, 1919-1920. Married Miss Marie Emma Long, July, 
1918. Address: Morehead City, N. C. 



J. S. HARGETT. 

(Seventh District. — Counties: Carteret, Craven, Greene, Jones, 
Lenoir, and Onslow. Two Senators.) 

J. S. Hargett, Democrat, Senator from the Seventh Senatorial 
District. Address: Trenton, N. C. 



LUTHER THOMPSON HARTSELL. 

(Twenty-fourth District. — Counties: Cabarrus, and Mecklenburg. 
Two Senators.) 

Luther Thompson Hartsell, Democrat, Senator from the Twenty- 
fourth Senatorial District, was born in Cabarrus County, October 
13th, 1870. He is a son of McDonald J. and Sarah C. (Boger) Hart- 



State Senators 441 

sell. Attended Union Institute, Union County, 1888-1890. Graduated 
from Trinity College, Durham, N. C, with degree of Ph.B., in 1894. 
Received degree of LL.B. from University of North Carolina in 
1896. Attorney at Law. Member North Carolina Bar Association. 
County Attorney of Cabarrus County 1900-1908, 1910-1912. Attorney 
for City of Concord, N. C, 1905-1913. Member of Legislature of 
North Carolina 1899-1911. Chairman of Cabarrus County Demo- 
cratic Executive Committee, 1900-1908. J. O. U. A. M., State Coun- 
sellor 1910-1911, National Representative 1912-1920; B. P. O. E., 
Exalted Ruler three terms; Mason, Royal Arch, Shrine; Excellent 
High Priest Royal Arch 1918-1920. Presbyterian, elder since 1919; 
assistant teacher of Young Men's Bible Class. Married, December, 
1901, to Miss Janie W. Erwin. Address: Concord, N. C. 



CHARLES MATTON JONES. 

(Ticenty-seventh District. — Counties: Stokes, and Surry. One 
Senator.) 

Charles Matton Jones, Republican, Senator from the Twenty- 
seventh Senatorial District. Born at Walkertown, N. C, December 
2, 1870. Son of James G. and Susan C. (Idol) Jones. Attended 
Pinnacle High School 1899. Parmer. Postmaster at Pinnacle 1897- 
1904. Register of Deeds for Stokes County, 1904-1908. Sheriff of 
Stokes County 1908-1912. I. O. O. F.; Mason; Knight of Pythias; 
Jr. O. U. A. M.; Modern Woodmen. Baptist; church clerk since 1919. 
Married to Miss Flora V. Wall, 1894. Address: Walnut Cove, N. C. 



PAUL JONES 

(Fourth District. — Counties: Halifax, and Edgecombe. Two 
Senators.) 

Paul Jones, Democrat, Senator from the Fourth Senatorial Dis- 
trict, was born at Tarboro, N. C, June 22, 1867. Son of John Wesley 
and Eugenia Helen (Jeffreys) Jones. Received his preparatory 
education at Tarboro Male Academy. 1875-1881. Attended Wake 
Forest College 1882-1883; Trinity College 1883-1885; graduated 
from Trinity 1885; University of North Carolina Law School. 
Planter. Director in Edgecombe County Chamber of Commerce. 



442 Biographical Sketches 

Mayor of Tarboro for six years. Captain Company A, Edgecombe 
Guards, 2nd N. C. Infantry, 1906-1916. Jr. O. U. A. M.; State Coun- 
cellor of Junior Order. Methodist; chairman Board of Stewards; 
Trustee; Superintendent of Sunday School. Editor North Carolina 
Law Journal for State Bar Association. Married Miss Ida McClure 
Adams. Address: Tarboro, N. C. 



JOSEPH EDGAR KANIPE. 

{Thirty-third District. — Counties: Alexander, Burke, Caldwell, 
and McDowell. Two Senators.) 

Joseph Edgar Kanipe, Republican, Senator from the Thirty-third 
Senatorial District, was born at Marion, N. C, June, 1890. Son of 
Daniel A. and Missouri Annie (Wycoff) Kanipe. Attended Marion 
High School, 1909-1910; Rutherford College, 1910-1912; and grad- 
uated from Trinity College, A.B. degree, in 1915. Manufacturer. 
Volunteered at outbreak of war; commissioned 2nd Lieutenant, 
August, 1917; promoted to 1st Lieutenant in September, 1918; hon- 
orably discharged December, 1918. Sigma Phi Epsilon Fraternity. 
A. F. and A. M.; American Legion. Methodist. Married, in Decem- 
ber, 1917, to Miss Martha Decker. Address: Marion, N. C. 



MARION D. KINSLAND. 

(Thirty-seventh District. — Counties: Haywood, Jackson, Transyl- 
vania, and Swain. One Senator.) 

Marion D. Kinsland, Democrat, Senator from the Thirty-seventh 
District; born in Haywood County, April 30th, 1855. Son of Joshua 
and Mary (Rhodomer) Kinsland. Educated at Bethel Academy 
1870-1876. Farmer. Served on Board of Education. Member of 
House of Representatives 1903; engrossing Clerk of House from 
1905 to 1915. Mason. Methodist. Married Miss Mary A. Hart- 
grove April 28, 1876. Read law in the years 1876 to 1877. Address: 
Waynesville, N. C, R. F. D. No. 3. 



State Senators 443 

JOHN WALTER LAMBETH, Jr. 

(Tiventy-third District. — Counties: Anson, Davidson, Stanly, and 
Union. Two Senators.) 

John Walter Lambeth, Jr., Democrat, Senator from the Twenty- 
third district; born in Thomasville. He is the son of John W. 
and Daisy (Sumner) Lambeth. Received his preparatory education 
at Trinity Park School; A.B. degree from Trinity College in 1916; 
took post graduate courses at Harvard, Columbia, and the University 
of London. At present he is engaged in the manufacture of furni- 
ture. Sergeant in the First Army, serving with the A. E. F. Mem- 
ber of the Kappa Sigma Fraternity and of the Masonic Lodge. 
Methodist. Address: Thomasville, N. C. 



JACOB ELMER LONG. 

{Eighteenth District. — Counties: Caswell, Alamance, Orange, and 
Durham. Two Senators.) 

Jacob Elmer Long, Democrat, Senator from the Eighteenth Dis- 
trict, was born in Yanceyville, N. C, July 31, 1889. Son of Jacob 
A. and Esta T. Long. Educated at Graham College, 1888-1890; Elon 
College, 1891-1895; Horner Military School, 1896-1898; University of 
North Carolina, 1900-1903. LL.B. University of North Carolina, 
1903. Lawyer. Chairman Township Executive Committee, Fifth 
District, 1912-1917. Private Secretary to Charles M. Stedman, mem- 
ber of Congress from Fifth North Carolina District, ^.912-1916. 
Representative in General Assembly, 1911-1913. Fraternal Orders: 
Sigma Nu Fraternity (college) ; Omega Tau Legal Fraternity (col- 
lege) ; Order of Sphinx (college). Presbyterian. Married, Novem- 
ber 10, 1909, Miss Lessie Ermine Peay. Address: Graham, N. C. 



WILLIAM LUNSFORD LONG. 

{Fourth District. — Counties: Halifax, and Edgecombe. Two Sena- 
tors.) 

William Lunsford Long, Democrat, of Halifax County, Senator 
from the Fourth District, was born February 5, 1890, at Garysburg. 
Son of Lemuel McKinney and Bettie Gray (Mason) Long. A.B. of 



444 Biographical Sketches 

the University of North Carolina, 1909. Lawyer. Director First 
National Bank, Roanoke Rapids, N. C; Rosemary Banking & Trust 
Co., Rosemary, N, C; Carolina & Northeastern Railroad Co.; Vice- 
President Schlichter Lumber Company; Roanoke Mills Company; 
Rosemary Mfg. Co. Representative in the General Assembly, 3915. 
State Senator, 1917-1919. S. A. E. (College Fraternity), Gimghoul, 
Phi Beta Kappa of University of North Carolina. Mason; K. of P. 
Married Miss Rosa Arrington Heath, of Petersburg, Va. Address: 
Roanoke Rapids, N. C. 



R. S. McCOIN. 
(Sixteenth District. — Counties: Warren and Vance. One Senator.) 

Rufus Sidney McCoin, Democrat, Senator from the Sixteenth 
Senatorial District, was born in Forsyth County, June 29. 1872. 
Son of George N. and Elizabeth (Newsom) McCoin. Attended Pin- 
nacle Academy; Salem Boys' School; Guilford College; Dick and 
Dillard Law School. Lawyer. Charter member of North Carolina 
Bar Association. President Gold Leaf Publishing Company, Hen- 
derson Furniture Company; Vice-president Mixon Jewelry Com- 
pany; Secretary-treasurer Henderson Loan and Real Estate Com- 
pany; Chairman Vance County Democratic Executive Committee, 
1900-1906; Director Eastern State Hospital for the Insane at Golds- 
boro, 1903-1908; Presidential Elector, 1908; Director Central State 
Hospital for the Insane at Raleigh, 1900-1910; City Alderman and 
Mayor pro tern of Henderson, 1911-1912; State Senator, 1917; 
Representative from Vance County in the General Assembly of 
1919. Presbyterian. Mason; K. of P. Married June, 1900, Miss 
Emma M. Freeborn. Address: Henderson, N. C. 



EDGAR FRANKLIN McCULLOCH. 

(Eleventh District. — Counties Bladen and Columbus. One Sen- 
ator.) 

Edgar Franklin McCulloch, Democrat, Senator from the Eleventh 
Senatorial District, was born at White Oak, N. C, August, 1888. 
Son of E. F. and Viola (Sykes) McCulloch. Received his prepara- 
tory education at White Oak Academy, 1901-1906. University of 



State Senators 445 

North Carolina, A.B., 1911. University of North Carolina Law 
School, 1912-1913. Lawyer. Member of the North Carolina Bar 
Association. Postmaster, Elizabethtown, 1917-1920. County At- 
torney, 1916-1920; Chairman County Democratic Executive Com- 
mittee. B. P. 0. E.; Knight of Pythias; Woodmen of the World; 
Mason; Alpha Tau Omega Fraternity. Methodist; steward. Mar- 
ried December, 1915, to Mrs. Jessie Lee Clark (nee Sugg). Address: 
Elizabethtown, N. C. 



JAMES VANCE McGOUGAN. 

(Thirteenth District .—Counties: Cumberland and Hoke. One 
Senator.) 

James Vance McGougan, Democrat, Senator from the Thirteenth 
Senatorial District, was born at Lumber Bridge, N. C, July, 1870. 
Son of Duncan B. and Catherine (White) (McGougan) McGougan. 
Attended Lumber Bridge High School; Wake Forest College, 1888- 
1889; University of North Carolina, 1890-1891, graduating from the 
Medical Department; University of Maryland, graduating with 
M.D., 1893. Physician and surgeon. Member North Carolina State 
Medical Society; American Medical Association; Fifth District 
Medical Society; Cumberland Medical Society; Vice President 
North Carolina State Medical Society; President Fifth District 
Medical Society; Ex-president Cumberland Medical Society. 
President Fayetteville Rotary Club; Vice-president La F'ayette Bank- 
ing and Trust Company; Director National Bank of Fayetteville. 
Coroner Cumberland County for last fourteen years. Vice-president 
Chamber of Commerce. District surgeon Atlantic Coast Line Rail- 
way; Norfolk and Southern Railway; and Aberdeen and Rockfish 
Railway. Ranking surgeon 2nd N. C. State Guard; rank of Major 
from 1910-1914; placed in reserve corps on account of physical dis- 
ability. B. P. O. E. Baptist. Address: Fayetteville, N. C. 



FRANK BROTHERS McKINNE. 

(Sixth District.— Counties: Franklin, Nash, and Wilson. Two 
Senators.) 

Frank Brothers McKinne, Democrat, Senator from the Sixth Dis- 
trict, was born at Goldsboro, November 20, 1872. He is a son of 
David E. and Sarah E. (Brothers) McKinne. Attended preparatory 



446 Biographical Sketches 

school at Princeton, N. C, 18S8; Horner Military School at Oxford, 
1891; and the University of North Carolina, 1894. Banker and 
Farmer. Methodist; District Steward, 1910-1920; Local Steward 
and Church Treasurer 1907-1920. Chairman Fourth Liberty Loan 
Drive, Chairman County Council of Defense; Member of Fuel Ad- 
ministration, Franklin County. Married Miss Fearl Simpson Octo- 
ber 19, 1898. Address: Louisburg, N. C. 



OTTIS EARL MENDENHALL. 

(Twentieth District. — County: Guilford. One Senator.) 

Ottis Earl Mendenhall, Democrat, Senator from the Twentieth 
Senatorial District, was born at Jamestown, N. C, June, 1875. 
Son of James Nathan and Martha Fiorina (Wheeler) Mendenhall. 
Received his preparatory education at Lexington High School. A.B. 
from Guilford College in 1895; A.B. from Haverford College, Haver- 
ford, Pa., in 1897; A.M. from Haverford College in 189S. Real 
Estate, Insurance, and Banking. Member Rotary Club, Commercial 
Club, and Chamber of Commerce of High Point; Member City 
Council of High Point, 1913-14; Vice-president of High Point Morris 
Plan Bank; Vice-Chairman Guilford County Democratic Executive 
Committee, 1916-1920. Loyal Order of Moose; dictator 1918-1919; 
past-dictator since 1919. Quaker; Treasurer North Carolina Yearly 
Meeting of Friends since 1917; clerk of High Point Monthly Meet- 
ing of Friends, 1918-1920. Married, April, 1907, to Miss Lizette 
Brown. Address: High Point, N. C. 



MARVIN WESLEY NASH. 

(Twenty-first District. — Counties: Chatham, Moore, Richland, and 
Scotland. Two Senators.) 

Marvin Wesley Xash, Democrat, Senator from the Twenty-first 
Senatorial District, was born in Greenville, N. C, May, 1878. Son 
of Rev. L. L. and Louise (Taylor) Nash. Attended Raleigh Male 
Academy, 1S88-1891; Cape Fear Academy, 1892-1894; Fayetteville 
Military Academy, 1896-1898; University of North Carolina Law 
School, 1899-1900. Attorney at Law. Member of the North Caro- 



State Senators 447 

lina Bar Association. City Attorney at Hamlet, N. C, 1910-1920. 
Knights of Pythias; Mason; Royal Arch; Knights Templar; Shrine. 
Methodist. Married Miss Rosa R. Hart, June, 1905. Address: Ham- 
let, N. C. 



R. M. OATES. 

(Thirty-second District. — Counties: Cleveland, Henderson, Polk, 
and Rutherford. Two Senators.) 

R. M. Oates, Democrat, Senator from the Thirty-second Sena- 
torial District. Address: Hendersonville, N. C. 



N. W. OUTLAW. 
(Fifth District. — County: Pitt. One Senator. 

N. W. Outlaw, Democrat, Senator from the Fifth Senatorial Dis- 
trict. Address: Greenville, N. C. 



NOLLIE M. PATTON. 

(Thirty-third District. — Counties: Alexander, Burke, Caldwell, 
and McDowell. Two Senators.) 

Nollie M. Patton, Republican, Senator from the Thirty-third Sena- 
torial District, was born at Dysartsville, N. C, August 10, 1892. 
Son of J. R. and Emma P. (Tate) Patton. Attended Morganton 
Graded Schools, 1903-1909; Patton High School, 1909-1911; Trinity 
College, A.B., 1915; Trinity College Law School, 1915-1917; Attorney 
at Law. Served in the United States Army from May, 1917, to 
March, 1919; commissioned 2nd Lieutenant; promoted to 1st Lieu- 
tenant and then to Captain; eleven months overseas; decorated 
with Croix de Guerre in September, 1918. Pi Kappa Alpha Fra- 
ternity. Knights of Pythias. Methodist. Address: Morganton, 
N. C. 



J. COLEMAN RAMSEY. 

(Thirty-fifth District. — Counties: Avery, Madison, Mitchell, and 
Yancey. One Senator.) 

J. Coleman Ramsey, Republican, Senator from the Thirty-fifth 
Senatorial District, was born at Walnut, Madison County, August, 



448 Biographical Sketches 

1879. Son of Jacob M. and Catherine L. (Smith) Ramsey. At- 
tended Walnut public schools; Weaverville College; Wake Forest 
College Law School; and Cumberland University Law School, 
Lebanon, Tenn. Lawyer. Represented Madison County in Legis- 
lature of 1911. Has been Mayor of Marshall and County Attorney. 
Served in the United States Army as private in Coast Artillery in 
the Spanish American War. Mason, 32° and Shriner. Presby- 
terian. Married Miss Margaret Morrow, 1914. Address: Marshall, 
N. C" 



JAMES RAYNOR. 

(Fourteenth District. — Counties: Harnett, Johnston, Lee, and 
Sampson. Two Senators.) 

James Raynor. Republican, Senator from the Fourteenth Sena- 
torial District. Address: Benson, N. C. 



WALLACE ALEXANDER REINHARDT. 

(Thirtieth District. — Counties: Catawba and Lincoln. One Sena- 
tor.) 

Wallace Alexander Reinhardt, Republican, of Catawba County, 
Senator from Thirtieth District, was born in Catawba County, N. C, 
September 23, 1869. Son of Robert P. and Susan (Ramseur) Rein- 
hardt. Was educated in public schools. Two years at Catawba Col- 
lege. Farmer and dairyman. Chairman County Republican Execu- 
tive Committee, 1916-1918. Treasurer of Catawba County, 1914-1918. 
Mason. Reformed. Married Miss Iva I. I. Kerd, December 18, 1890. 
Address: Newton, N. C. 



W. JOSEPH ROBINSON. 

(Thirty-fourth District. — Counties: Alleghany, Ashe, and Wa- 
tauga. One Senator.) 

W. Joseph Robinson, Republican, Senator from the Thirty-fourth 
District, was born in Carter, Tenn., September 20th. 1879. Son of 
Joseph H. and Sarah M. (Elliott) Robinson. Educated in the public 



State Senators 449 

schools; Pierce high school; and University Medical College, Kansas 
City, Mo., 1900-1904. Physician. Member of Ashe County Medical 
Society; North Carolina Medical Society; American Medical Asso- 
ciation. Mason. Married September 16th, 1903, Miss Julia Suther- 
land. Address: Creston, N. C. 



ANDREW PULLER SAMS. 
{Twenty-sixth District. — County: Forsyth. One Senator.) 
A. F. Sams, Democrat, Senator from the Twenty-sixth Senatorial 
District, was born in Buncombe County, June 1, 1872. Son of Leroy 
Warren and Ailcy (Brown) Sams. Attended preparatory schools 
and Mars Hill College from 1885-1894. A.B., Wake Forest College 
in 1897. Licensed Attorney at Law in 1903. Member of American 
Bar Association. Solicitor Winston-Salem Municipal Court 1910- 
1913. Baptist. Married Miss Minnie Bonner in 1899. Address: 
Winston-Salem, N. C. 



JOHN ANDREW SCOTT, JR. 
(Tiventy-ninth District. — County: Iredell. One Senator.) 
John Andrew Scott, Jr., Democrat, Senator from the Twenty- 
ninth Senatorial District, was born at Point Pleasant, W. Va., in 
1892. Son of Rev. John A. and Lucy (Waddell) Scott. Received 
degree of A.B. Davidson College in 1911. Attended University of 
North Carolina Law School, 1912-1913. Served as 1st Lieutenant, 
103rd Field Artillery, A. E. F., 1917-1919. Pi Kappa Alpha. Knights 
of Pythias. Presbyterian; deacon. Married Miss Anne Belle Wal- 
ton, September, 1919. Address: Statesville, N. C. 



HARRY WILLIAMS STUBBS. 

(Second District.— Counties: Martin, Washington, Tyrrell, Dare, 
Beaufort, Hyde, and Pamlico. Two Senators.) 

Harry Williams Stubbs, Democrat, Senator from the Second Sena- 
torial District, was born at Williamston, N. C, in 1860. Son of 
Jesse R. and Mary L. (Williams) Stubbs. Attended Horner and 
Graves School, Oxford. N. C, and public schools; University of 
North Carolina, 1879. Dick and Dillard's Law School. Attorney 
at Law. Member of the General Assembly for twenty-five years. 
Mason; Odd Fellow. Address: Williamston, N. C. 

29 



450 Biographical Sketches 



HERBERT LINWOOD SWAIX. 



(Second District. — Counties: Martin, Washington, Tyrrell, Dare, 
Beaufort, Hyde, and Pamlico. Two Senators.) 

Herbert Linwood Swain, Democrat, Senator from the Second 
Senatorial District, was born in Tyrrell County, in November, 1894. 
Son of J. Haywood and V. C. Swain. Education received in public 
schools of Tyrrell County, Creswell High School, Ayden Seminary, 
and University of North Carolina, 1913-1916. Attorney at Law. 
Represented Tyrrell County in the General Assembly of 1917. 
Mayor of Columbia in 1918. Served in the United States Navy in 
1918. Jr. 0. U. A. M. Member of State Board of Education 1916- 
1917. Food Administrator for Tyrrell County, 1917; Naval Intelli- 
gence Agent for Tyrrell during the War; Vice Chairman War Sav- 
ings Stamp Committee. Free Will Baptist. Married Miss Olivia 
McClees. Address: Columbia, N. C. 



W. F. TAYLOR. 

(Eighth Distiict. — County: Wayne. One Senator.) 

W. F. Taylor. Democrat, Senator from the Eighth Senatorial 
District. A.B., University of North Carolina, 1911; L.L.B. 1914. 
Lawyer. Address: Goldsboro, N. C. 



LYCURGUS RAYNER VARSER. 

(Twelfth District. — County: Robeson. One Senator.) 

Lycurgus Rayner Varser, Democrat, Senator from the Twelfth 
Senatorial District, was born in Gates County, August, 1878. Son 
of W. H. and Emily T. (Duck) Varser. Attended Reynoldson Insti- 
tute, 1892-1895; Wake Forest College A.B., 1899; Wake Forest Law 
School, 1899-1901. Lawyer. Member North Carolina Bar Associa- 
tion and American Bar Association. Chairman Board of Trustees, 
Lumberton Graded Schools. Jr. O. U. A. M.; I. O. O. F.; Mason. 
Held all chairs of I. O. O. F. Baptist; deacon; moderator. Married, 
June, 1904, to Miss Lily Ford Snead. Address: Lumberton, N. C. 



State Senators 451 

WILLIAM RICHMOND WALKER. 

(Nineteenth District. — County: Rockingham. One Senator.) 

William Richmond Walker, Democrat, Senator from the Nine- 
teenth Senatorial District, was born in Greensboro, October, 1855. 
Son of William Richmond and Letitia Harper (Morehead) Walker. 
Received his preparatory education in the public schools of Greens- 
boro. A.B., Davidson College, 1875. Cotton manufacturer. From 
1889 to present date has been bank president, and treasurer and 
director of various textile and development companies. Presby- 
terian; deacon; elder for fifteen years. Married Miss Minnie R. 
Faucette in 1885. Address: Spray, N. C. 



T. W. WILLIAMS. 

(Sixth District. — Counties: Franklin, Nash, and Wilson. Two 
Senators.) 

T. W. Williams, Democrat, Senator from the Sixth Senatorial 
District. Address: Elm City, N. C. 



STANLEY WINBORNE. 

(First District. — Counties: Perquimans, Currituck, Chowan, 
Gates, Pasquotank, Camden, and Hertford. Two Senators.) 

Stanley Winborne, Democrat, Senator from the First Senatorial 
District, was born at Murfreesboro, N. C, August, 1886. Son of 
Benjamin Brodie and Nellie (Vaughan) Winborne. Attended Dr. 
E. E. Parham's School, Murfreesboro, 1898-1903; Ph.B., University 
of North Carolina, 1907. University of North Carolina Law School, 
1907-1908. Lawyer. Member North Carolina Bar Association. 
Mayor of Murfreesboro, 1909-1910; Chairman Democratic Executive 
Committee, 1912; County Attorney, 1909-1915; Vice-President Citi- 
zens' Bank, 1909-1919; Representative in the General Assembly, 
1915, 1917, 1919, 1920; member of the Board of Trustees of the 
University of North Carolina since 1917. Pi Kappa Alpha, and 
Gorgon's Head Fraternities; Mason; all offices in Blue Lodge. 
Methodist. Married Miss Frances Sharp Jernigan, April, 1912. Ad- 
dress: Murfreesboro, N. C. 



452 Biographical Sketches 

WALTER H. WOODSON. 

(Twenty-fifth District. — County: Rowan. One Senator.) 

Walter H. Woodson, Democrat, Senator from the Twenty-fifth 
District, was born in Salisbury, April 20th, 1875. Son of Horatio 
Nelson and Margaret Elizabeth (Bostian) Woodson. Attended Salis- 
bury Graded Schools, 1881-1889; James M. Hill's High School at 
Salisbury, 1889-1892; B.S., University of North Carolina, 1892-1896. 
University Law School, 1898-1899. Lawyer. Member of North 
Carolina Bar Association. City Attorney of Salisbury, 1910-1913; 
Mayor of City of Salisbury, 1913-1919; Chairman of Democratic 
Executive Committee of Rowan County, 1908-1916. Knights of 
Pythias. Jr. O. U. A. M. Methodist; Steward. Married Miss Paul- 
ine Mae Bernhardt, December 20, 1900. Address: Salisbury, N. C. 



KEl»KESE\TATIVES 



JAMES ALLEN AUSTIN 

James Allen Austin, Democrat, Representative from Guilford 
County, born at New London, Stanly County. Son of J. D. and 
Mary J. (Talley) Austin. Received his preparatory education at 
Crescent Academy and Business College; Oak Ridge Institute; 
LL.B., University of North Carolina Law School, 1908-1911. At- 
torney at Law. Member of North Carolina Bar Association. Judge 
of the Municipal Court of High Point, 1917-1919. B. P. O. E. 
Methodist; steward since 1918. Married in 1914 to Miss Nancy 
Kearns. Address: High Point, N. C. 



DAVID COLLIN BARNES 

David Collin Barnes, Democrat, Representative from Hertford 
County, was born at Murfreesboro, in November, 1875. Son of 
David Alexander and Bettie (Vaughan) Barnes. Received his 
preparatory education in the public schools of Murfreesboro and 
Horner's Military School. Attended University of North Carolina 
Law School. Lawyer and banker. Member of North Carolina 
Bar Association. President of People's Bank since 1904. Repre- 
sented his county in the General Assembly of 1919; Senator from 



Representatives in General Assembly 453 

First Senatorial District in 1911 and 1913. Was County Appeal 
Agent during war, and member of Advisory Board. Ancient Free 
and Accepted Masons; Master of Lodge. Episcopalian. Address: 
Murfreesboro, N. C. 



JOSIAH WILLIAM BARNES 

Josiah William Barnes, Democrat, Representative from Johnston 
County, was born in that county. Son of Siah H. and Janie 
(Wilder) Barnes. Educated in the public schools. Farmer. Repre- 
sented his county in the General Assembly of 1909 and 1917. 
Mason. Master of Lodge. Baptist. Married Miss Delia Bayeth, 
1898. Address: Clayton, N. C, R. F. D. No. 2. 



MAURICE VICTOR BARNHILL 

Maurice Victor Barnhill, Democrat, Representative from Nash 
County, was born in Halifax County, in 1887. He is the son of 
Martin V. and Mary (Dawes) Barnhill. He received his prepara- 
tory education in the Enfield Graded and High Schools. Attended 
University of North Carolina Law School, 1908-1909. Lawyer. 
Solicitor Nash County Recorder's Court, 1915-1920. Mason, Shriner, 
Pythian, Odd Fellow. Methodist, steward. Married in 1912 to 
Miss Nannie Cooper Barnhill. Address: Rocky Mount, N. C. 



C. L. BELL 



C. L. Bell, Democrat, Representative from Hyde County. Ad- 
dress: Swan Quarter, N. C. 



EMMETT HARGROVE BELLAMY 

Emmett Hargrove Bellamy, Democrat, Representative from New 
Hanover County, was born in Wilmington. N. C, February, 1891. 
Son of John D. and Emma (Hargrove) Bellamy. Attended Hor- 
ner's Military School, 1904-1907; A.B., University of North Caro- 
lina, 1912; LL.B., Columbia University Law School, 1915. Lawyer. 



454 Biographical Sketches 

Member North Carolina Bar Association. Served as First Lieu- 
tenant of Field Artillery in United States Army, 1917-1919. Sigma 
Alpha Epsilon. Odd Fellow; Noble Grand, 1919-1921. Episcopalian. 
Address: Wilmington, N. C. 



BERT E. BENNETT 

Bert E. Bennett, Democrat, Representative from Anson, born in 
Stanly County, January, 1873. Son of David N. and Agnes (Dun- 
lap) Bennett. Attended public schools; Horner's Military School; 
Davidson College. Farmer. Woodman of the World. Married Miss 
Margaret Lee, September, 1901. Address: Wadesboro, N. C. 



ADOLPHUS A. BLACKWELDER 

Adolphus A. Blackwelder, Republican, Representative from Cald- 
well County, was born in Stanly County, September 30, 1870. Son 
of William S. and Rachel L. (Frick) Blackwelder. Educated at 
Palmerville Academy, Palmerville, N. C, and Crescent Academy, 
Rowan County, N. C. Merchant and farmer. City Commissioner 
of Lenoir, 1917-1918. Mason. Member of Reformed Church. 
Sunday School teacher for fifteen years. Taught in public schools 
for ten years. Married Miss Mamie F. McNairy, June, 1907. Ad- 
dress: Lenoir, N. C. 



MAHLON BOLTON. 

Mahlon Bolton, Democrat, Representative from Northampton 
County, was born at Woodland, N. C, October, 1863. Son of 
James and Luvenie (McDaniel) Bolton. Attended Woodland High 
School. 1877-1881; Wake Forest College, 1881-1882; Jefferson Medi- 
cal College, Philadelphia, graduating in 1885. Physician. Member 
of County and State Medical Societies and Seaboard Medical So- 
ciety. President County Medical Society; President Seaboard Medi- 
cal Society of Virginia and North Carolina. Director. Cashier and 
Vice-President of bank at Rich Square. Represented Northampton 
County in General Assembly of 1909. Mayor. Medical Examiner 
for Government. Mason, Odd Fellow. Methodist; steward for 



Representatives in General Assembly 455 

thirty-five years; Sunday School Superintendent for past ten years; 
delegate to annual conference. Married December, 1888, to Miss 
Emma Baugham. Address: Rich Square, N. C. 



THOMAS C. BOWIE. 

Thomas C. Bowie, Democrat, Representative from Ashe County, 
was born at Joseph, La., in 1876. He is a son of John Ruth and 
Frances (Calloway) B'owie. Received his preparatory education 
at Moravian Falls Academy, 1891; Trap Hill High School, 1892; 
and Mars Hill College, 1893. Received Ph.D. in 1899 from the 
University of North Carolina. Did post-graduate work at Yale 
College in 1900 in Political and Social Science. Attended law 
schools of Yale and University of North Carolina. Lawyer. Mem- 
ber of State Bar Association and American Bar Association. Repre- 
sented Ashe County in the Legislatures of 1909, 1913, 1915, 1921, 
and was Speaker of the House in 1915. Mason, Odd Fellow. 
Episcopalian. Married Miss Jean Davis in 1906. Address: West 
Jefferson, N. C. 



ALEX 0. BRADLEY. 

Alex O. Bradley, Republican, Representative from Clay County, 
was born in Buncombe County, November 8, 1888. Son of William 
D. and Jane (Halcombe) Bradley. Farmer. Served as private 
in 165th Coast Artillery Corps from 1909 to 1912. Baptist. Mar- 
ried Miss Jessie Bumgarner April 22, 1916. Address: Hayesvillc. 
N. C. 



JULIUS BROWN 

Julius Brown, Democrat, Representative from Pitt County, was 
born at Bethel, N. C, November 18, 1879. Son of Fernando and 
Ann M. (Martin) Brown. Was educated at Bethel High School; 
Law School of University of North Carolina, 1901-1902. Lawyer. 
Representative from Pitt County in 1919. Odd Fellow. Mason. 
Married Miss Estell Thigpen, August 13, 1913. Address, Greenville, 
N. C. 



456 BlOGKAPHICAL SKETCHES 

CHARLES G. BRYANT. 

Charles G. Bryant, Republican, Representative from Yadkin 
County, was born in Yadkin County, February 26, 1866. Son of 
Stephen H. and Deborah (Farrington) Bryant, .was educated at 
Moravian Falls Academy, 1888-1889; Trap Hill Institute, 1890-1892; 
M.D. of Louisville Medical College, 1893-94; M.D., Richmond Uni- 
versity Medical College, 1911. Physician. Represented Wilkes 
County in the General Assembly of 1907, also represented Yadkin 
County in the General Assembly of 1919. Served in the Spanish- 
American War in Cuba and in the Philippine Islands, 1898-1902. 
Mason, Odd Fellow, Knights of Pythias. Baptist. Married Miss 
Maggie Cowles Hampton April 16, 1902. Address: Jonesville, N. C. 



WILLIAM WINBORNE BUNCH 

William Winborne Bunch. Democrat, Representative from Chowan 
County, was born near Edenton, N. C, in 1873. Son of John A. 
and Rebecca (Gaskins) Bunch. Educated at Dr. Winborne's School 
and at Elm Grove School. Farmer. Baptist. Married Miss Viola 
Elliott in 1901. Address: Edenton, N. C. 



EDGAR RAMSEY BURT 

Edgar Ramsey Burt, Democrat, Representative from Montgomery 
County, was born at Osgood, Chatham County, October, 1869. Son 
of J. G. and Debanie (Thomas) Burt. Attended public schools and 
Holly Springs School. Farmer and lumber dealer. Methodist; 
steward for ten years. Married Miss Henrie Adams in 1900. Ad- 
dress: Biscoe, N. C. 



W. M. BUTT. 



W. M. Butt, Democrat, Representative from Beaufort County. 
Address: Bonnerton, N. C. 



Representatives in General Assembly 457 

A. W. BYRD. 

A. W. Byrd, Democrat, Representative from Wayne County. 
Address: Mount Olive, N. C. 



FRED 0. CHRISTOPHER. 

Fred 0. Christopher, Republican, Representative from Cherokee, 
was born at Ivy Log, Ga., February 26, 1889. Son of Wesley and 
Chastian Christopher. Graduated from Murphy High School in 
1911. Attended University of North Carolina, 1912; University of 
North Carolina Law School in 1917. Lawyer. Member North 
Carolina Bar Association. Entered military service September 6, 
1918, as private. Mason. Baptist. Address: Murphy, N. C. 



RICHARD C. CLARKE. 
Richard C. Clarke, Republican, Representative from Henderson 
County, was born in Pennsylvania, October, 1877. Son of Charles 
S. and Louise (Kennedy) Clarke. Attended school at Kiskiminetas, 
Saltsburg, Pa., 1896, and Westminster, New Wilmington, Fa., 1897- 
1898. President First Bank and Trust Company, Hendersonville. 
N. C; City Commissioner, 1915; Thirty-second Degree Mason. 
Presbyterian. Married Miss Louise Winter, October, 1909. Address: 
Hendersonville, N. C. 



LILLIAN EXUM CLEMENT. 

Lillian Exum Clement, Democrat, Representative from Buncombe 
County, was born at Black Mountain, N. C, March, 1894. Daughter 
of George Washington and Sarah Elizabeth (Burnett) Clement. 
Received elementary education and high school course in private 
school under the direction of the Parish of All Souls Church. At- 
tended Normal and Collegiate Institute for one year, and then 
studied under a private tutor. Studied law under J. J. Britt and 
Robert C. Goldstein, 1914-1915. Licensed to practice law in 1916 
Lawyer. Member of the Business and Professional Women's Club. 
Chief Clerk of the Buncombe County Draft Board during the war. 
First woman in the South elected to the House of Representatives. 
Secured her nomination over two men before ratification of the 
Nineteenth Amendment. Address: Asheville, N. C. 



458 Biographical Sketches 

CORNELIUS FULTON CLINE. 

Cornelius Fulton Cline, Democrat, Representative from Ruther- 
ford County, was born near Granite Falls, Caldwell County, April, 
1872. Son of E. E. and Linna (Rader) Cline. Educated at 
Granite Falls Academy. Lumberman; secretary-treasurer of the 
Warlick Lumber Company. Methodist; trustee and steward; 
Charge Lay Leader; District Lay Leader; District Steward, mem- 
ber Joint Board of Finance, 1914-1918; member of Sunday School 
Board and Board of Lay Activities of Western N. C. Conference. 
Married Miss Erne Lenoa Jones, May, 1898. Address: Gilkey, N. C. 



AUSTIN BLAINE COFFEY. 

Austin Blaine Coffey, Republican, Representative from Watauga 
County, was born at Shulls Mills, N. C, January 14, 1887. Son 
of David N. and Carolin Coffey. Attended the public schools and 
Appalachian Training Schools, 1901-1903. Farmer. Represented 
Watauga County in the Legislature of 1917. Odd Fellow. Baptist; 
deacon since August, 1918. Married March, 1913, to Miss Hailey 
Harris. Address: Shulls Mills, N. C, R. F. D. No. 1, Box 45. 



JOHN M. COLEMAN. 

John M. Coleman, Democrat, Representative from Warren 
County, was born in that county October, 1870. He is a son of 
W. G. and Joyce Ann (Shearin) Coleman. Educated in the pre- 
paratory schools of Warren County. Merchant, farmer, banker. 
President of the Bank of Macon since its organization. Baptist. 
Married in 1896 to Miss Willie Augusta Phelps. Address- Macon, 
N. C. 



HENRY GROVES CONNOR, JR. 

Henry Groves Connor, Jr., Democrat, Representative from Wilson 
County, was born at Wilson, N. C, July 19, 1876. Son of Henry 
Groves and Kate (Whitfield) Connor. Was educated at Wilson 
graded schools; private schools in Wilson; B.S. of University 



Representatives in General Assembly 459 

of North Carolina, 1897. Law School, University of North Caro- 
lina, 1898. Lawyer. Chairman County Democratic Executive Com- 
mittee; Delegate National Democratic Conventions, 1912-1916. 
Sigma Alpha Epsilon (college fraternity). Married Miss Elizabeth 
Clark, April 17, 1901. Address: Wilson, N. C. 



CHARLES ALBERT COOKE. 

Charles Albert Cooke, Democrat, Representative from Pasquotank 
County, was born in Hertford County in 1867. Son of Richard A. 
and Sallie Ann (Saunders) Cooke. Educated in the public schools 
and Captain Harrison's School at Aulander, N. C. Merchant. Mem- 
ber of the Merchants' Association and the Chamber of Commerce 
of Elizabeth City. Commissioner of Windsor, 1901-1908; Clerk 
and Treasurer to Board of Commissioners, 1902-1908. Member of 
the Board of Trustees of the graded school, Elizabeth City; Chair- 
man of the Finance Committee since 1917. Baptist; Church Treas- 
urer for several years. Married Miss Loula F. Britton in 1891. 
Address: Elizabeth City, N. C. 



JOSEPH BASCOM COOPER. 

Joseph Bascom Cooper, Republican, Representative from Burke 
County, was born in that county in June, 1890. Son of John H. 
and Emily L. (Baker) Cooper. Educated at Rutherford College. 
Farmer. Member of Farmers' Union; County Chairman. Taugbt 
school for ten years. Methodist; lay leader; member of building 
committee. Married December, 1911, to Miss Estelle A. Berry. 
Address: Connelly Springs, N. C. 



WILLIAM CHAMBERS COUGHENOUR. 

William Chambers Coughenour, Democrat, Representative from 
Rowan County, was born in Salisbury, September 25, 1886. Son of 
Tbomas Adam and Mary Norfleet (Swicegood) Coughenour. Edu- 
cate at Horner's Hilitary School, 1903; A. IT., University of North 
Carolina, 1908; Columbia University, School of Law, 1910-1911. 
Lawyer. Member House of Representatives of North Carolina, 



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GEORGE COLUMBUS DEES 

George Columbus Dee?. Democrat, Repi - 
Cox:: - orn at C - N 

aud Julia F s (Brinson) Dees. 

eruy. 1906; Guilf< rd Collegi 1907-1 

~:uiau Business C ghkeeps N. Y.. 1 

College, AJEf. degree. . I N rth 

::ieal C< - 1916. Farmer. S E Friends Idress 

N. C. 



D. LAMER DOXXELL. 

D. Lanier Douuell. I Lepres 

County. w.;< bom at Oak B ... ■ N . - - iV 

W. O. and Martha F. Ms ] 

at Oak Ridge Institute. A: 'ores 

in lumber and land business Miss 

K rner in October, 1916. Address .. ; R ig< X C 



- A. DOUGH \ 

Rufus A. Doughtou, 1 
County, was born in that county. January 10, ^ 
ton and Rebecca (^ lies tight 

(Va.) High School, 1876-1877; Universitj North Ca 
law at University Korth Carolina. 1SS0. Lawyei 

banker. President of Bank of Sparta K resei Ive in the 
General Assembly, LSS7, 1SS S 1, 1909, 1911, 1913, 1911 
and 1!M:>. Lieutenant Governor, 1893-1897 S 
1891. Member of present Budget Comu Mason. 

Married January 3, 1883, Miss Sue B Parks Address Spart) S 



462 Biographical Sketches 

JOHN B. ENSLEY. 

John B. Ensley, Republican, Representative from Jackson 
County. Address: Dillsboro, N. C. 



REUBEN OSCAR EVERETT. 

Reuben Oscar Everett, Democrat, Representative from Durham 
County, was born in October, 1879. Son of Justus and Elizabeth 
(Purvis) Everett. Graduate of the University of North Carolina. 
Lawyer. Episcopalian. Address: Durham, N. C. 



WILLIAM NASH EVERETT. 

William Nash Everett, Democrat, Representative of Richmond 
County, was born in Rockingham, December 29, 1864. Son of Wil- 
liam I. and Fannie (LeGrand) Everett. Attended Rockingham High 
School, 1882; University of North Carolina, 1886. Farmer and 
merchant. State Senator, 1917. Member of House, 1919. Methodist. 
Married Miss Lena Payne in 1888. Address: Rockingham, N. C. 



J. T. EXUM. 



J. T. Exum, Democrat, Representative from Greene County. Ad- 
dress: Snow Hill, N. C. 



EARLE J. EZZELL. 

Earle J. Ezzell, Democrat, Representative from Union County, 
was born at Waxhaw, N. C. He is a son of F. J. and Mary E. 
(Lee) Ezzell. Attended Weddington Academy in 1895-1899; Uni- 
versity of North Carolina. Farmer. Member of the Farmers' 
Union. Woodman of the World, Free Mason. Methodist Episco- 
pal; Trustee 1914-1920. Address: Waxhaw, N. C. 



Representatives in General Assembly 463 

RALPH RUDOLPH FISHER. 

Ralph Rudolph Fisher, Republican, Representative from Transyl- 
vania County. Born in Greenville County, South Carolina, 1892. 
He is the son of Dr. W. C. and Rhoda Emma (Walker) Fisher. He 
attended Columbus Institute, 1906-1907; Mars Hill College, 1910- 
1914; Furman University, Greenville, S. C, 1914-1915; Wake Forest 
College, 1915-1917, graduating in 1917 with degree of LL.B. from 
Wake Forest Law School. Lawyer. Member Bar Association. 
Editor of Brevard News. Private in United States Army from 
August, 1917, to August, 1919. Remained in France nineteen and 
a half months. Was with French Army at St. Mihiel; met Ger- 
man spring drive with 20th Colonial French Corps at Amiens Val- 
ley in March, 1918; wounded May 29th and again August 3d, 1918. 
Woodman of the World, Jr. O. U. A. M., Redman, W. 0. W, I. O. 
O. F.; Noble Grand, Odd Fellows; Deputy Warden, Odd Fellows. 
Baptist. Address: Brevard, N. C. 



RICHARD TILLMAN FOUNTAIN. 

Richard Tillman Fountain, Democrat, Representative from 
Edgecombe County, was born in Edgecombe County. Son of Almon 
L. and Louisa (Eagles) Fountain. Was educated in public schools 
and Tarboro Male Academy; University of North Carolina, 1905- 
1907. Lawyer. Member North Carolina Bar Association and the 
American Bar Association. Member Legislature, session 1919. 
Judge of Recorder's Court, Rocky Mount, 1911-1918. Trustee Rocky 
Mount graded schools since 1917; Secretary of board since 1918. 
Knights of Pythias. Presbyterian. Married Miss Susie Rankin, 
October 3, 1919. Address: Rocky Mount, N. C. 



FRANK LANNEAU FULLER, JR. 

Frank Lanneau Fuller, Jr., Democrat, Representative from Dur- 
ham County, was born in that county October, 1893. Son of Frank 
Lanneau and Lilia Arnold (Day) Fuller. Attended Woodberry 
Forest School, Virginia, 1908-1910; Davidson College; University 
of Virginia Law School, 1914-1916. Lawyer. Served as First 



464 Biographical Sketches 

Lieutenant in 113th Field Artillery, 1917-1918; Captain 28th Field 
Artillery, 1918-1919. Presbyterian. Married August, 1917, to Miss 
Elizabeth Wilson. Address: Durham, N. C. 



HARLEY BLACK GASTON. 

Harley Black Gaston, Democrat, Representative from Gaston 
County, was born in that county November, 1891. He is the son 
of S. J. and Cora (Black) Gaston. Received his preparatory edu- 
cation in the Lowell graded school and at Belmont High School; 
A.B., Trinity College, Durham, N. C, 1914; attended University 
of North Carolina. Attorney. Served as Second Lieutenant in 
United States Army from 1917 to 1919. Wounded in action. Mason. 
Methodist; superintendent of Sunday School since 1920. Address: 
Belmont, N. C. 



RIDDICK WAVERLY GATLING. 

Riddick Waverly Gatling, Democrat, Representative from Gates 
County, was born in Gates County, October 4, 1871. Son of John J. 
and Emiley G. (Willey) Gatling. Was educated at Reynoldson Male 
Institute; Horner Military School, 1887-1888. Farmer. Treasurer 
of Gates County, 1898-1914. President Citizens Bank since its 
organization, 1916. President Farmers Emporium, Inc. Trustee 
Reynoldson High School. Representative in General Assembly, 
1919. Episcopalian. Married Miss Nancy D. Langstun, who died 
November 12, 1909. Address: Gates, N. C. 



J. P. GIBBS. 



J. P. Gibbs, Republican, Representative from Yancey County. 
Address: Burnsville, N. C. 



MELVIN BROADUS GLOVER. 

Melvin Broadus Glover, Democrat. Representative from Nash 
County, was born in that county February 12th, 1898. Son of 
Irving Nixon and Hadie Lanie (Deans) Glover. Educated at 



Representatives in General Assembly 465 

Mount Pleasant High School, Wilson graded schools, Bailey graded 
and High School. Member of the Chamber of Commerce. Town 
Commissioner of Bailey, 1918-1919. Chairman of School Board. 
Member of N.ash County Board of Public Welfare. Served as 
private in United States Army from September, 1918, to December, 
1918. Mason; Jr. 0. U. A. M., Financial Secretary, 1917-1918. 
Methodist. Address: Bailey, N. C. 



CHARLES ALFRED GOSNEY. 

Charles Alfred Gosney, Democrat, Representative from Wake 
County, was born in Pittsylvania County, Va,, in 1889. He is a 
son of James H. and Ida (Dodson) Gosney. Received his prepara- 
tory education in the public schools of Pittsylvania County and 
of the City of Danville, 1895-1899; public schools of Hampton, 
1899-1907. Read law in the office of James H. Pou, and under Judge 
Pell. Licensed by Supreme Court of North Carolina in 1916. 
Attorney. Enlisted as private in June, 1917; promoted to Regi- 
mental Sergeant in July, 1917; commissioned Second Lieutenant, 
Infantry, in December, 1917; promoted to First Lieutenant in 
April, 1918; Battalion Adjutant in July, 1918; assigned to Head- 
quarters, 60th Infantry Brigade as Liaison Officer, July, 1918; ap- 
pointed Aide-de-Camp to General S. L. Faison in November, 1918. 
Discharged May 3. 1919. At present Captain and Adjutant, North 
Carolina National Guard. Member of the American Legion. State 
Adjutant and Finance Officer, 1919-1920. Mason. Baptist; secre- 
tary of Sunday School, 1910-1919; Assistant Superintendent, 1920 
to present time. Married, 1920, to Miss Janie Fetner. Address: 
Raleigh, N. C. 



PAUL D. GRADY. 

Paul D. Grady, Democrat, Representative from Johnston County, 
was born at Seven Springs, N. C, in 1890. Son of James Calhoun 
and Ella Smith (Outlaw) Grady. Educated at Kenly High School; 
Tennessee Military Institute, 1906-1907; Oak Ridge Institute. 1907- 
1908; Washington and Lee University, 1909-1910; Wake Forest 
College, 1910-1911. Lawyer and farmer. Attorney for town of 
Kenly. Member of General Assembly of 1919. Mayor of Kenly, 
1918. Jr. O. U. A. M. Mason. Presbyterian. Married Miss Lelia 

30 



466 Biographical Sketches 

Grace Swink, 1909. Was Chief Registrar for all military registra- 
tions, 1918; member Johnston County Legal Advisory Board; Chair- 
man War Savings Committee; Food Administrator; Vice-Chairman 
Red Cross drives; Chairman Local Civilian Relief Committee; mem- 
ber United States Public Health Committee; Legal Counsel for 
soldiers and families of Beulah Township; member Liberty Loan 
Committees. Address: Kenly, N. C. 



ALEXANDER HAWKINS GRAHAM. 

Alexander Hawkins Graham, Democrat, Representative from 
Orange County, was born at Hillsboro, N. C, August, 1890. Son 
of John W. and Maggie P. (Bailey) Graham. Received his pre- 
paratory education in the Episcopal High School, Alexandria, 
Va., 1906-1908; A.B., University of North Carolina, 1912; attended 
University of North Carolina Summer School, 1912-1913, and Har- 
vard Law School, 1913-1914. Attorney at law. Member of the 
North Carolina Bar Association. Commissioned Second Lieuenant 
at Port Oglethorpe in 1917; promoted to First Lieutenant and then 
to Captain, serving overseas with the 81st Division. Episcopalian. 
Married Miss Kathleen Long in August, 1917. Address: Hills- 
boro, N. C. 



THOMAS J. GRAHAM. 

Thomas J. Graham, Republican, Representative from Graham 
County, was born March 29th, 1866. Son of Alphus T. and Caro- 
lina (Wells) Graham. Minister. Private in Regular Army. Odd 
Fellow. Baptist. Married October 10, 1906, to Miss Lillie Price. 
Address: Brock, N. C. 



A. T. GRANT, JR. 

A. T. Grant, Jr., Republican, Representative from Davie County, 
was born at Mocksville, N. C. Son of A. T. and Rebecca (Parker) 
Grant. Attended public schools at Mocksville, and the University 
of North Carolina. Attorney at Law. Member of the North Caro- 



Representatives in General, Assembly 467 

lina Bar Association. Represented his county in the House of 
Representatives, 1903-1909; in the Senate, 1913-1915. Supervisor 
of Census in' 1910. Married Miss Helen Brewster in 1908. Address: 
Mocksville, N. O. 



H. P. GRIER. 

H. P. Grier, Democrat, Representative from Iredell County, was 
born in Yorkville, S. C, March, 1871. Son of William L. and 
Mary (Barron) Grier. Received academic education in Statesville, 
N. C. Read law under Major Harvey Bingham, of Statesville, and 
was licensed by the Supreme Court of North Carolina at Septem- 
ber term, 1893. Chairman of County Board of Elections from the 
creation of that office until May, 1907, when he was elected Mayor 
of Statesville for a term of two years. Again elected Mayor of 
Statesville, May, 1909, without opposition. Representative in the 
Legislature, 1913, 1915, 1917 and 1919. Trustee of the University 
of North Carolina. Associate Reformed Presbyterian. Married 
Miss Marietta Leinster. Address: Statesville, N. C. 



WILLIAM GENTRY HALL. 

William Gentry Hall, Republican, Representative from Swain 
County, was born in Haywood County, April 30th, 1893. He is the 
son of Nathan A. and Mattie (Nelson) Hall. Attended Andrews 
High School, 1910-1915; Mars Hill College, 1913-1916. Is now en- 
gaged in the lumber business. He served as a yeoman in the 
United States Navy from December 14th, 1917, to December 14th, 
1918. I. O. O. F., Noble Grand. Baptist. Address: Ravensford. 
N. C. 



CHARLES EVERETT HAMILTON. 

Charles Everett Hamilton, Democrat, Representative from Forsyth 
County, was born in Stanly County, September, 18S0. Son of O. C. 
and Lilla (Kirk) Hamilton. Attended High School at Union In- 
stitute in Union County. Studied law at the American Law School, 
Chicago, 111., 1916-1917. Attorney at Law. Member of the Legal 
Association of Winston-Salem. Member of School Board. Winston- 



468 Biographical Sketches 

Salem, 1915-1918; Board of Aldermen, 1919-1920; County Council 
of Defense for Forsyth County, 1917-1919. Mason. Jr. 0. U. A. M.; 
District Deputy State Councillor for Jr. 0. U. A. M., 1916 and 1918; 
Past Councillor; and member of State Finance Committee. Metho- 
dist; Assistant Superintendent of Sunday School; Teacher of Bible 
Class; member of Board of Stewards. Married, June, 1906, to Miss 
Bertha A. Secrest. Address: Winston-Salem, N. C. 



W. H. HENDERSON. 

W. H. Henderson, Democrat, Representative from Haywood 
County, was born in that county. He is a son of J. M. and Marian 
Henderson. Educated in the public schools of the community. He 
was ten years County Commissioner of Haywood County; Chair- 
man for four years. Farmer and stock raiser. A. F. & A. M. 
Methodist. Married in 1880 to Miss Mary Brown. Address: Canton, 
N. C, R. F. D. No. 1. 



JOHN A. HENDRICKS. 

John A. Hendricks, Republican, Representative from Madison 
County, was born in Davie County. He is the son of Joseph A. 
Hendricks and Amanda A. (Daniel) Hendricks. Attended the 
common schools of Yadkin; and Yadkin College, 1881-1882; Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, 1885-1888; Law School of University of 
North Carolina, 1892. Lawyer. Member American Bar Association, 
North Carolina Bar Association. Attorney for Madison County; 
Attorney for Town of Marshall. Member of the Legislature, 1889, 
1891, receiving in 1891 the Republican vote for Speaker of the 
House. Republican candidate for Superior Court Judge, 1898-1900. 
United States Special Attorney for the Department of Justice, 
January, 1901 to November, 1915, inclusive. Methodist. Married, 
January, 1900, to Miss Letitia May Mason, Chapel Hill. Address: 
Marshall, N. C. 



THOMAS CLINGMAN HICKS. 

Thomas Clingman Hicks, Republican, Representative from Avery 
County, was born in Carter County, Tennessee. He is a son of 
Gordon and Adlaid (Oaks) Hicks. Attended Montezuma High 



Representatives in General Assembly 469 

School,' 1896. Elected, in 1898, Justice of the Peace, and held office 
for four years. In 1910 was elected County Commissioner of 
Mitchell County. Jr. 0. U. A. M., Councilor; Odd Fellow, Coun- 
cillor. Baptist. Address: Elk Park, N. C. 



E. J. HILL. 



E. J. Hill, Democrat, Representative from Duplin County. Ad- 
dress: Warsaw, N. C. 



MAURICE DeKALB HOLDERBY. 

Maurice DeKalb Holderby, Democrat, Representative from Rock- 
ingham County, was born at Ruffin, N. C, May, 1873. Son of 
Victor M. and Virginia A. (Guerrant) Holderby. Attended public 
schools, 1887-1891. Farmer. Special Agent for Maryland life In- 
surance Company. Methodist; steward, 1902-1920; superintendent 
of Sunday School. 1902-1920. Married, 1901, to Miss Nannie S. 
Graves. Address: Ruffin, N. C. 



A. I. HUNEYCUTT. 

A. I. Huneycutt, Republican, Representative from Stanly County. 
Address: Badin, N. C. 



N. W. JENKINS. 

N. W. Jenkins, Democrat, Representative from Robeson County. 
Address: Fairmont, N. C. 



EDWIN R. JOHNSON. 

Edwin R. Johnson, Democrat, Representative of Currituck 
County, was born in that county September 10th, 1868. Son of 
Silas P. and Caroline M. (Conetu) Johnson. Educated in the pub- 
lic schools of the county and at Atlantic Collegiate Institute, 



470 Biographical Sketches 

Elizabeth City, N. C. Merchant. Chairman of the Democratic 
Executive Committee of Currituck County since 1897. Chairman 
of the Board of County Commissioners, 1905-1908. Represented 
the First Senatorial District in the State Senate, 1909-1917. Chair- 
man Currituck Highway Commission, 1916. Represented Curri- 
tuck County in the Legislatures of 1919-1921. Address: Currituck, 
N. C. 



LESLIE NEWKIRK JOHNSTON. 

Leslie Newkirk Johnston, Democrat, Representative from Pender 
County, born at Willard, N. C, January, 1890. Son of George 
Washington and Ellen Louise (Rivenbark) Johnston. Attended 
Salemburg High School, 1905-1907; Buie's Creek Academy, 1907- 
1908; A.B., University of North Carolina, 1912. Farmer. Member 
of Wilmington Co-operative Truck Growers' Association; General 
Manager of the St. Helena Branch. Married, September, 1915, to 
Miss Lottie Kathaleen Kerr. Address: Burgaw, N. C. 



DAVID MORSE JONES. 

David Morse Jones, Republican, Representative from Carteret 
County, was born at Beaufort, N. C, February 27, 18S1. Son of John 
B. and Hannah J. (Delamar) Jones. Was educated at Beaufort 
public and private schools, 1888-1899. Merchant. Member House 
of Representatives, 1919. Delegate to Republican National Con- 
vention, 1920. Member City Council, 1914-1916. Odd Fellow; 
Knights of Harmony; Charitable Brotherhood. Methodist. Mar- 
ried Miss Ruby E. Stevens, May 3, 1905. Two children. Address: 
Beaufort, N. C. 



EDWARD JONES HALE KENNEDY. 

Edward Jones Hale Kennedy, Democrat, Representative from 
Cumberland County, was born at Fayetteville, December, 1862. Son 
of Charles and Mary Agnes (Wemyss) Kennedy. Educated in the 
public schools. Blacksmith. Alderman in 1882. Mason; Odd 
Fellow; Jr. O. U. A. M.; Treasurer of Masonic Lodge; Past Grand 
of Odd Fellows; Financial Secretary of Jr. O. U. A. M. for twenty 
years. Baptist; deacon since 1894; trustee since 1910. Married 
in 1886 to Miss Mary Kate Johnson. Address: Fayetteville, N. C. 



Representatives in General Assembly 471 

JOHN B. KING. 

John B. King, Democrat, Representative from Franklin County, 
was born in that county October 3d, 1847. Son of John D. and 
Priscilla (Finch) King. Chairman of Democratic Committee for a 
number of years. Member of New Hope Christian Church; deacon 
since 1881. Married Miss S. A. Richards, December 29, 1869. Ad- 
dress: Youngsville, N. C. 



WILLIAM F. WARD.* 

William F. Ward, Democrat, Representative from Craven County. 
Address: New Bern, N. C. 



LEON T. LANE. 

Leon T. Lane, Democrat, Representative from Chatham County, 
was born in that county July, 1872. Son of Colonel John Randolph 
and Mary Ellen (Siler) Lane. Attended Mount Vernon Springs 
School, 1884-86, and Wake Forest College. Engaged in farming and 
saw milling. Sheriff of Chatham County, 1910-1920; resigned. 
Presbyterian; elder. Married, November, 1896, to Miss Maude 
Foust. Address: Ore Hill, N. C, Route No. 1, or Mt. Vernon 
Springs, N. C. 



WALTER P. LAWRENCE. 

Walter P. Lawrence, Democrat, Representative from Alamance 
County, was born in Randolph County, N. C. Son of Rev. John S. 
and Annie (Covington) Lawrence. Received his preparatory edu- 
cation at Shiloh Academy and Richmond Training School. Ph.B., 
in 1894, from Elon College; M.A., in 1906. from Yale University; 
Litt.D. (honorary), from Defiance College, in 1911. Studied in 
Oxford University, and also University of Chicago. Taught as 
supply in University of Wooster, Wooster, Ohio. Dean of Elon 
College and Professor of English Literature. President Klmi Bank- 
ing and Trust Company, 1912-1920; Director Alamance Bank and 
Trust Company; Director Standard Realty and Security Company. 
1915-1920. Mayor of Elon College, 1906-1911; Commissioner of Ala- 



* Elected in place of K. W. Lamb, resigned. Born L893 A I'.. Wake Forest 
College, 1!)1(). Lawyer. Served us officer in l'. S. Navy during World War 



472 Biographical Sketches 

mance County, 1917-1920. Jr. O. U. A. M. Member of Christian 
Church; President North Carolina and Virginia Christian Confer- 
ence, 1912-1913; North Carolina Conference Mission Board, 1914- 
1920; Mission Board, Southern Christian Convention, 1916-1920. 
Author. Married Miss Annie Graham, in 1896. Address: Elon 
College, N. C. 



OSCAR LEACH. 



Oscar Leach, Democrat, Representative from Hoke County, was 
born in Robeson County, December, 1887. Son of A. D. and Clemen- 
tina (Hamer) Leach. Attended Raeford Institue, 1907-1909; A.B., 
University of North Carolina, 1914; LL.B., University of North 
Carolina, 1916. Attorney at law. Entered first officers' training 
camp at Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., May, 1917. Commissioned Second 
Lieutenant, promoted to First Lieutenant. Mason. Presbyterian. 
Address: Raeford, N. C. 



BENJAMIN FRANKLIN LEE. 

Benjamin Franklin Lee, Republican, Representative from David- 
son County, was born at Fair Grove, Mo., 1872. Son of John Walker 
and Sarah (Highfill) Lee. He attended Yadkin College, 1890-1891; 
Oak Ridge Institute, 1891-1892. Farmer. Member of the Board of 
Aldermen, Lexington, 1918. Served as Sergeant in U. S. Army in 
1898. Mason, Junior Warden. 1906; Jr. O. U. A. M. Baptist; 
Assistant Superintendent of Sunday School, 1917; Deacon, 1920. 
In 1900, married to Miss Lula Jane Miller. Address: Thomasville, 
N. C. 



T. F. LIMERICK. 

T. F. Limerick, Democrat, Representative from Union County. 
Address: Monroe, N. C. 



JOSEPH TURNER LINNEY. 

Joseph Turner Linney, Republican, Representative from Alex- 
ander County, was born near York Institute, N. C., January 5, 1874. 
Son of Joseph Wellington and Susan Amanda (Smith) Linney. 



Representatives in General Assemisly 473 

Attended Vashti High School, 1885-1891; Taylorsville Collegiate 
Institute, 1892-1894; Hiddenite High School, 1895-1896; Davidson 
College, 1905; University of North Carolina, 1907; Appalachian 
Training School, 1908; Trinity College, 1910-1911; private study, 
1912-1918. Farmer. Mason. Baptist. Address: Hiddenite, N. C. 



NEILL BROWN McARTHUR. 

Neill Brown McArthur, Democrat, Representative from Robeson 
County, was born in that county in February, 1856. He is the son 
of David and Rosa (Brown) McArthur. Attended public schools 
from 1863 to 1874. Farmer. Justice of the Peace for about ten 
years and Road Commissioner for one year. Presbyterian; Deacon 
since 1885. Married in 1893 to Miss Flora Buie. Address: Red 
Springs, N. C, R. F. D. No. 2. 



JOHN CALHOUN McBEE. 

John Calhoun McBee, Republican, Representative from Mitchell 
County, was born at Mica, August 19, 1876. Son of James A. and 
Rachel (Mace) McBee. Attended Bowman Academy, 1892-1895; 
Wake Forest College. 1911, Bachelor of Laws. Lawyer. Member 
of the North Carolina Bar Association. President Bakersville 
Milling, Power and Light Company. Mayor of Bakersville, 1914- 
1920; Representative in State Legislature, 1917. Delegate to Na- 
tional Republican Convention at Chicago, 1920. Served as pri- 
vate in Company B, 16th U. S. Infantry, 1899-1902. Mason, Odd 
Fellow, Jr. O. U. A. M. Member Farmers' Union. Baptist. Married 
in 1904 to Miss Margaret C. Thomas. Address: Bakersville, N. C. 



H. McGEE. 



H. McGee, Republican, Representative from Stokes County. Ad- 
dress: Germanton, N. C. 



474 Biographical Sketches 

PEYTON McSWAIN. 
Peyton McSwain, Democrat, Representative from Cleveland 
County, was born in Shelby. N. C, May, 1895. Son of D. F. and 
Margaret (Holland) McSwain. Attended Piedmont High School, 
Lawndale, N. C, 1910-1920; University of North Carolina, 1914- 
1915; University of North Carolina Law School, 1915-1916; Uni- 
versity de Toulouse, France, Law School, 1919. Attorney at law. 
Served as private in 81st Division, 1917-1919. Mason, Jr. 0. U. 
A. M. Presbyterian. Address: Shelby, N. C. 



SAMUEL OSCAR MAGUIRE. 
Samuel Oscar Maguire, Republican, Representative from Surry 
County, was born at Madison, Dorchester County, Maryland. Son 
of Edward Oscar and Julia Frances (Williams) Maguire. Attended 
country school from 1889-1897; Shaftsbury College of Expression. 
Representative from Surry County, 1919. Traveling salesman. 
Mason. Married Miss Rebecca Emeline Kracy, August 20, 1910. 
Four children. Address: Elkin, N. C. 



VAN BUREN MARTIN. 
Van Buren Martin, Democrat, Representative from Washington 
County, was born in Northampton County. Son of J. V. and Ida 
(Stancell) Martin. Received his preparatory education at Conway 
High School and Whitsett Institute. B.L. of Wake Forest College, 
1904. Attorney at law. Mayor of Plymouth, N. C, 1919-1920. 
Superintendent of Public School, Washington County, 1909-1910. 
Prosecuting Attorney for Washington County, 1910-1919. Member 
of State Senate from Second Senatorial District, 1909 and 1911. 
A. F. & A. M., Knights of Pythias, Royal Arch Mason. Baptist. 
Married, in 1911, to Miss Estell Johnston. Address: Plymouth, 
N. C. 



JOHN HILARY MATTHEWS. 
John Hilary Matthews, Democrat, Representative from Bertie 
County, was born in Hertford County, November 2, 1873. Son of 
George M. and Lavenia C. (Taylor) Matthews. Attended Littleton 



Representatives in General Assembly 475 

Male Academy, 1891-1892; Scotland Neck Military Academy, 1892- 
1893; Bryant and Stratton Business College, Baltimore, 1894; Uni- 
versity of North Carolina Law School, 1904. Lawyer. Member 
North Carolina Bar Association. Trustee Chowan College and Chair- 
man of the Board of Trustees. Chairman County Council of De- 
fense, 1917-1918; County Food Administrator, 1917-1918; Govern- 
ment Appeal Agent and Chairman of County War Savings Stamp 
Committee, 1917-1918. Representative in the General Assembly, 
1917-1919. Baptist. Married February 20, 1895, to Miss Minnie 
Watford. Address: Windsor, N. C. 



WILLIAM ROBERT MATTHEWS. 

William Robert Matthews, Democrat, Representative from 
Mecklenburg County, was born in Rockingham County, November 
30th, 1857. Son of Dr. J. T. and Ruth F. (Price) Matthews. At- 
tended Oak Ridge Institute, 1878-1879. Real estate and insurance. 
Mayor of Madison, 1889. Alderman City of Charlotte, 1911-1912. 
School Commissioner City of Charlotte, 1915-1916. Chairman Road 
Trustee, Charlotte Township, 1917-1918. W. 0. W.; Jr. O. U. A. M. 
Representative in the General Assembly of 1917-1919; extra session, 
1920. Organized the Sons and Daughters of American Liberty, 
1919; headquarters, Charlotte, N. C; at present Chief Commander 
of the order. Married Miss Sallie E. Melton, Chester, S. C, May 
23rd, 1888. Address: Charlotte, N. C. 



L. D. MELVIN. 



L. D. Melvin, Democrat, Representative from Bladen County. 
Address: Parkersburg, N. C. 



WILLIAM ARCHIBALD MONROE. 

William Archibald Monroe, Democrat, Representative from Lee 
County, was born in Carthage, April 18, 1863. Son of Marl in Alex 
ander and Elizabeth Jane (Blue) Monroe. Attended public schools. 
1870-1879; Union Home School, 1879-1883; M.D., University of 
Maryland, 1884-1886. Physician. Member of American Medical 



476 Biographical Sketches 

Association, State Medical Association and Southern Medical Asso- 
ciation. Member of Seaboard Air Line, the Atlantic Coast Line and 
the Southern Railway Surgeons Associations; the Sanford Commer- 
cial Club. Held offices in all these associations. Trustee Sanford 
graded schools, 1900-1919; Alderman of Sanford, 1906-1916; member 
Lee County Board of Health, 1916-1920. Member of the Lee County 
Council of Defense; member of the District Medical Advisory 
Board, 1917-1918. Mason, I. 0. O. F., Knights of Pythias. Presby- 
terian; deacon, ruling elder; Moderator of Fayetteville Presbytery. 
Married, March, 1891, to Miss Elizabeth Huey Stewart. Address: 
Sanford, N. C. 



W. J. MORRISETTE. 

W. J. Morrisette, Democrat, Representative from Camden County. 
Address: Camden, N. C. 



REID RUFUS MORRISON. 
Reid Rufus Morrison, Democrat, Representative from Iredell, 
was born in that county, January 2, 1883. Son of Robert Hall 
and Lucy A. (Reid) Morrison. B.S., Davidson College, 1902. North 
Carolina Medical College, 1906. Farmer. Served as Captain of 
the 113th Field Artillery in the United States Army, 1917-1919. 
Mason. Knights of Pythias. Presbyterian. Married Miss Isabelle 
Douglas, June, 1914. Address: Morrisville, N. C, Route No. 4. 



GEORGE WASHINGTON MUMFORD. 
George Washington Mumford, Democrat, Representative from 
Wake, was born in Johnston County, October, 1883. Son of William 
H. and Etta (Stewart) Mumford. Educated in the public schools. 
State Superintendent of the American National Insurance Company. 
Member of the National Underwriters' Association; State Associa- 
tion of Underwriters. District Superintendent of the American 
National Insurance Company; inspector. Member of the Home 
Guard during war. I. O. O. F., Jr. O. U. A. M. Held all chairs in 
I. O. O. F., and represented Lodge in Grand Lodge three terms, 
1913, 1914, 1915. Methodist; steward. Married, July, 1906, to 
Miss Valeria Pair Liles. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



Representatives in General Assembly 477 

WALTER MURPHY. 

Walter Murphy, Democrat, Representative from Rowan County, 
was born in Salisbury, X. C, October, 1872. Son of Andrew and 
Helen (Long) Murphy. Educated at the University of North 
Carolina. Attended University Law School, 1892-1894. Lawyer. 
Trustee of the University since 1903; executive committee of same. 
General Secretary of the Alumni of the University of North Caro- 
lina. Trustee of the North Carolina Sanatorium for the Treat- 
ment of Tuberculosis, 1907-1914. Member of the State Democratic 
Executive Committee, 1898, 1913. City Attorney for Salisbury, 
1903-1908; member of the General Assembly, 1897, 1901, 1903, 1905, 
1907, 1913 and 1915. Speaker of the House of Representatives at the 
extra session, 1914; of the regular session, 1917. Reading Clerk 
of State Senate. 1899. Elector-at-Large for North Carolina, 1908. 
B. P. O. E.; F. O. E.; Red Men; K. of P.; Mason; Sigma Nu 
(college) Fraternity. Episcopalian. Married Miss Maud Harvey, 
1903. Address: Salisbury, N. C. 



WILLIAM WEAVER NEAL. 

William Weaver Neal, Democrat, Representative from McDowell 
County, was born at Marion, N. C, February 15, 1874. Son of Joseph 
Grayson and Rowena (Weaver) Neal. Hosiery manufacturer. Clerk, 
War Department, Washington, 1894-1900. Claim agent, Louisville 
and Nashville Railroad to 1908. Traveling passenger agent, North- 
ern Pacific Railway. Division Deputy Internal Revenue to 1917. 
Methodist. Married Miss Addie Malone, November 10, 1898. Ad 
dress: Marion, N. C. 



THOMAS E. OWEN. 

Thomas E. Owen, Republican, Representative from Sampson 
County, was born in that county December 29th, 1N"'>.">. Son of 
Edmond B. and Mary E. (Spearman) Owen. Attended public and 
high schools of Sampson County. Parmer, lumberman and hanker. 
Represented his county in the Legislatures of 1901, L908, L907. 
Candidate for Presidential Elector in 1904 tor Third Congressional 
District. Elected Treasurer of Sampson County and held office 



478 Biographical Sketches 

1908-1916. Free Mason. Methodist. Founded and edited The Neivs 
Dispatch, a weekly paper, from 1908 to 1916, at Clinton, N. C. 
Married, in 1895, to Miss Mary E. Underwood. Address: Roseboro, 
N. C. 



BENJAMIN WINGATE PARHAM. 

Benjamin Wingate Parham, Democrat, Representative from Gran- 
ville County, was born in that county November, 1883. Son of 
Albert C. and Jeanette (Hester) Parham. Received his prepara- 
tory education at Horner's Military School, 1898-1901. B.A., Wake 
Forest College, 1904; Harvard Law School, 1906-1908; Wake Forest 
Law School, summer of 1908. Attorney at law. Member of North 
Carolina Bar Association, North Carolina Good Roads Association. 
Member of Legislature of 1913; Democratic State Executive Com- 
mittee, 1910-1915; Chairman Board of Elections, Granville County, 
1915-1920. Member Board of Trustees, Oxford graded schools, since 
1917. Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons, Jr. O. U. A. M. Master 
Oxford Lodge, A. F. & A. M., 1917-1918. District Deputy Grand 
Master, Twentieth Masonic District of North Carolina, 1920. Bap- 
tist. During war was Chairman of the Granville County Council 
of National Defense; Food Administrator for Granville County; 
member of Legal Advisory Board and charter member of Granville 
County Chapter of the Red Cross: Address: Oxford, N. C. 



JOHN CAMPBELL PASS. 

John Campbell Pass, Republican, Representative from Person 
County, was born in that county June 1, 1852. Son of James M. 
and Harriet (Chambers) Pass. Farmer. Representative in Gen- 
eral Assembly in 1919. Clerk Superior Court, 1882-1890. Treasurer 
of County, 1894-1898. Representative in the General Assembly, 
1917. Married Miss Ella Winstead. Address: Roxboro, N. C. 



RUFUS MORGAN PERSON. 

Rufus Morgan Person, Democrat, Representative from Mecklen- 
burg County, was born in Franklin County in 1871. He is a son 
of Joseph Arrington and Alice (Morgan) Person. Attended Hor- 



Representatives in General Assembly 479 

ner's School, Oxford, N. C, 1886-1887. Manufacturer and farmer. 
Member of the Farmers' Union and Cotton Growers' Association. 
Postmaster at Kittrell, N. C, under Cleveland. Mayor of Kittrell, 
1892-1893. Mason, W. 0. W., Jr. 0. U. A. M. Episcopalian. Mar- 
ried in 1895 to Miss Jessie Allen. Address: Charlotte, N. C, 
R. F. D. No. 8. 



EDGAR WALKER PHARR. 

Edgar Walker Pharr, Democrat, Representative from Mecklen- 
burg County, was born near Charlotte, March 4, 1899. Son of 
Walter S. and Jennie E. (Walker) Pharr. Attended rural public 
school until 1905; Charlotte University School, 1905-1906; A.B., 
Erskine College, Due West, S. C, 1909. Studied law at the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina. Lawyer. Member State Bar Associa- 
tion. Member of Charlotte Bar Association. W. O. W. ; Knights 
of Pythias; Mason; Shriner; D. O. K. K. Chairman, War Savings 
Committee for Mecklenburg County, 1918. Representative in the 
General Assembly, 1917, 1919, special session 1920. Associate Re- 
formed Presbyterian. Married in 1914 to Alta Ruth Knox. Address: 
Charlotte, N. C. 



JAMES A. PROPST. 

James A. Propst, Republican, Representative from Catawba 
County, was born at Newton, N. C, March 29, 1859. Son of George 
and Amanda (Punch) Propst. Attended country schools, 1867-1877. 
Farmer. Director Citizens Bank of Conover. Director Farmers' 
Union Warehouse Company of Newton. Business agent for Farm- 
ers' Union of Catawba County. Farmers' Union. Reformed Church. 
Married Miss Mary L. Simmons, January 11, 1883. Address: 
Hickory, N. C. 



AUGUSTUS L. QUICKEL. 

Augustus L. Quickel, Democrat, Representative from Lincoln 
County, was born in that county August, 1874. Son of John ('. and 
Josephine (Crouse) Quickel. Attended Piedmont Seminary; B.L., 



480 Biographical Sketches 

University of North Carolina, 1895; University of North Carolina 
Law School, 1896-1897. Lawyer. Member State Bar Association. 
Represented his county in General Assembly, 1903-1911; Clerk to 
Judiciary Committee of the House of Representatives of the United 
States Congress, 1914-1919. Lutheran. Address: Lincolnton, N. C. 



CLARENCE OSBORNE RIDINGS. 

Clarence Osborne Ridings, Democrat, Representative from Polk 
County, was born in that county in 1892. He is a son of James I. 
and Cora G. (Tanner) Ridings. Attended Fruitland Institute, 
Hendersonville, N. C, from 1912 to 1916. Merchant. Served in 
United States Army as private, May, 1917-July, 1918. Mason. 
Baptist. Address: Fingerville, S. C, Route No. 1. 



WILEY A. RODGERS. 

Wiley A. Rodgers, Democrat, Representative from Macon County, 
was born in Franklin, May, 1872. Son of C. T. and Margaret (Reid) 
Rogers. Attended Franklin High School; the University of North 
Carolina; and the Medical Department of the University of Nash- 
ville, 1898. Physician. Member of the Macon-Clay Medical Society. 
Represented Macon County in the General Assembly of 1905. County 
Medical Examiner during late war. Mason, Knights of Pythias, 
Jr. O. U. A. M. Methodist. Married in 1911. Address: Franklin, 
N. C. 



GEORGE ROMULUS ROSS. 

George Romulus Ross, Democrat, Representative from Moore 
County, was born in Randolph County, May 22, 1888. Son of 
Romulus Rudolphus and Rebecca Ellen (McCulloch) Ross. Re- 
ceived his preparatory education from the Asheboro High School. 
Was graduated from the North Carolina Agricultural and Mechani- 
cal College, Raleigh, N. C, in 1911. Farmer. Mason, Woodman of 
the World, Jr. 0. U. A. M. Methodist. Married Miss Margaret 
Charlotte Goley, February, 1914. Address: Jackson Springs, N. C. 



Representatives in- General Assembly 481 

A. E. SHAW. 

A. E. Shaw, Democrat, Representative from Scotland County. 
Address: Wagram, N. C. 



ELIJAH HERMONS SMITH. 

Elijah Hermons Smith, Republican, Representative from Bruns- 
wick County, was born in Shallotte, N. C, in 1891. He is a son 
of Daniel James and Josephine (Bland) Smith. Attended Regan 
High School, 1909-1911; University of North Carolina, 1918. Farmer 
and attorney. Mason. Baptist, clerk since 1917. Married in 
1913 to Miss Minnie Frink. Address: Southport, N. C. 



ROBERT WILLIAMS SMITH. 

Robert Williams Smith, Democrat, Representative from Pitt 
County, was born near Greenville, November 2, 1869. Son of 
Theophilus and Elisabeth (May) Smith. Educated at the Oxford 
Orphanage, 1878-1880, and in the public schools of Pitt County. 
Merchant and farmer. Director Winterville Oil Mill, President 
Planters Tobacco Warehouse Company, President Ayden Chamber 
of Commerce. Mayor of Ayden, 1916 and 1918. Thirty-second 
Scottish Rite Mason; I. O. O. F. Several terms Master of Ayden 
Lodge, A. F. & A. M. ; Noble Grand of I. O. O. F. several years. 
Christian Church; deacon for last twenty years. July 8, 1896, 
married Miss Cora E. Hart. Address: Ayden, N. C. 



JAMES EDMUND SPENCE. 

James Edmund Spence, Republican, Representative from Ran- 
dolph County, was born near Raleigh. January 17, 1866. Was 
educated at Liberty Academy and Wake Forest College. Farmer 
and merchant. Representative, General Assembly, 1919. Private 
Secretary to Congressman W. F. Stroud, 1S94-18!M>. Baptist. Mar- 
ried Miss Fannie G. Lambert. Address: Coles Store, N. C. 

31 



482 Biographical Sketches 

HENRY SEATON SWAIN. 

Henry Seaton Swain, Democrat, Representative from Tyrrell 
County, was born in Tyrrell County, N. C, Oct. 3, 1880. Son of 
Charlie William and Indiana (Bateman) Swain. Was educated at 
Columbia High School 1892-1896; Creswell Academy 1897; Free Will 
Baptist Theological Seminary, Ayden, N. C, 1900. Farmer. Taught 
in Public Schools of Tyrrell County 1901-1910. Register of Deeds 
for Tyrrell County, 1912-1913; member County Board of Education 
1916-1918; Representative from Tyrrell County in General Assembly 
1919-1920. Jr. O. U. A. M.; Charitable Brotherhood; Farmers' Union. 
Free Will Baptist. Married Miss Delia Alexander, Dec. 28, 1902. 
Address: Columbia, N. C. 



FRANCIS M. TAYLOR. 

Francis M. Taylor, Democrat, Representative from Halifax 
County, was born in that county. Son of John R. and Martha 
(Marks) Taylor. Attended private and public schools of Halifax 
County, 1884-1895. Farmer, merchant, and real estate dealer. 
Director of Bank of Enfield. Director of Halifax County Tobacco 
Warehouse Company. Justice of the Peace since 1899. Member 
of School Committee for last ten years. Tax Collector, 1906-1907. 
A. F. and A. M.; M. W. O. A. Member of General Assembly of 1917. 
Methodist. Married Miss Mattie E. Moore, January, 1902 Address: 
Brinkleyville, N. C. 



ROBERT BELLAMY TAYLOR. 

Robert Bellamy Taylor, Democrat, Representative from Vance 
County, was born in Townsville. December, 1893. Son of Edward 
Osborne and Allene Grist (Hargrove) Taylor. Attended Horner's 
Military School, 1911-1914. Farmer and lumber dealer. Three 
years in military school. Served as sergeant on Mexican Border, 
1916-1917. Commissioned 1st Lieutenant at First Officers Training 
Camp. One year's service overseas, 1918-1919. Episcopalian. Ad- 
dress: Townsville, N. C. 



Representatives in General Assembly 483 

james Mcpherson templeton, jr. 

James McPherson Templeton, Jr., Democrat, Representative from 
Wake County, was born in Cary, June, 1885. Son of James McPher- 
son and Rachel Williams (Jones) Templeton. Attended Cary High 
School, 1896-1903; A.B., Trinity College, 1907; Trinity College Law 
School, 1909-1911. Attorney at Law. Member North Carolina Bar 
Association. Director and Vice President Bank of Cary. Commis- 
sioner of Cary 1909-1911; Mayor of Cary 1911-1913, 1913-1915; mem- 
ber of Wake County Board of Elections 1910; Chairman Board of 
Trustees Cary High School. Mason, 32°; Jr. O. U. A. M. Methodist; 
steward since 1903; recording secretary; district steward. Address: 
Cary, N. C. 



N. A. TOWNSEND. 

N. A. Townsend, Democrat, Representative from Harnett County. 
Address: Dunn, N. C. 



JOHN EDWARD TUCKER. 

John Edward Tucker, Democrat, Representative from Caswell 
County. Farmer. Address. Milton, N. C. 



R. P. UZZELL. 



R. P. Uzzell, Democrat, Representative from Wayne County. 
Address: Goldsboro, N. C. 



JAMES WILLIAM WALKER. 

James William Walker, Democrat, Representative from Rocking- 
ham County, was born in that county, January 22, 1860. Son of 
Robert T. and Mary M. (Montgomery) Walker. Attended private 
and public schools 1870-1880; Stevens Creek High School, Virginia, 
1881; Normal Summer School at Chapel Hill, 1882; and county 
institutes for teachers for eight or ten years. Contractor. Odd 



484 Biographical Sketches 

Fellow; filled all chairs up to and including Noble Grand and 
twice representative to the State Grand Lodge. Methodist. Steward 
for last fifteen years. Married, March, 1883, to Miss Mary Annie 
Martin. Address: Reidsville, N. C. 



ELISHA HINTON WALTON. 

Elisha Hinton Walton, Democrat, Representative from Onslow 
County, was born in Jacksonville, N. C. Son of John D. and Mar- 
garette E. Walton. Attended Turlington Institute, Smithfield, N. C. 
Merchant. Treasurer of Onslow County 1910-1914. Sheriff of Ons- 
low County 1916-1920. Member of Masonic Order; Shriner. Mar- 
ried. 1897, to Miss Nancy Ellen Humphrey. Address: Jacksonville. 
N. C. 



THOMAS CALVIN WHITAKER. 

Thomas Calvin Whitaker, Democrat, Representative from Jones 
County, was born at Cypress Creek, January 25th, 1855. Son of 
Thomas J. and Sarah Eliza (Koonce) Whitaker. Educated in 
neighborhood schools, 1863-1874, and Rutherford College, 1875. 
Farmer. Twelve years secretary to Hon. C. R. Thomas, M.C., 1899- 
1911; two years Director of A. & N. C. R. R., 1899-1901; four years 
State Proxy A. & N. C, R. R., Kitchin Administration, 1909-1913. 
Eighteen years a member, twelve years secretary, Democratic Execu- 
tive Committee, third North Carolina District, 1894-1912. Eighteen 
years Chairman Democratic County Executive Committee, Jones 
County, 1892-1910. Methodist; Superintendent Sunday School, 1894- 
1920. Married, December, 1880, Miss Elizabeth Murray. Address: 
Trenton, N. C. 



ELBERT SCOTT WHITE. 

Elbert Scott White, Democrat, Representative from Perquimans 
County, was born at Belvidere, N. C, in 1872. Son of Elihu A. and 
Margaret M. White. Attended Belvidere Academy 1880-1889; B.S., 
Guilford College, 1893; D.D.S., Philadelphia Dental College, 1897. 
Farmer. Member of the American Dental Association; "Virginia 
State Dental Association; Tidewater Dental Society, president in 



Representatives in General Assembly 485 

1904; Hertford Chamber of Commerce; Superintendent of Public 
Welfare of Perquimans County 1919-1920. Mason; Shriner; B. P. 
O. E. Episcopalian. Address: Belvidere, N. C. 



HIETTE SINCLAIR WILLIAMS. 

Hiette Sinclair Williams, Republican, Representative from Cabar- 
rus County, was born at East Bend, Yadkin County, N. C, March 3, 
1872. Son of J. Franklin and Sarah L. (Patterson) Williams. 
Received preparatory education at Union High School, at East Bend, 
N. C, 1891-1892; B.S. of Guilford College, 1895. Wake Forest Law 
School, 1899. Lawyer. Representative in the General Assembly 
from Yadkin County, 1899; from Cabarrus County, 1909, 1913, and 
1915, 1919 and 1921. Attorney for Board of Commissioners of 
Cabarrus County, 1909-1910 and 1913-1920. Chairman Republican 
Executive Committee for Cabarrus County, N. C. Member of Society 
of Friends, called "Quakers." Married Miss Ethel Reavis. Address: 
Concord, N. C. 



JULIUS ROBERT WILLIAMSON. 

Julius Robert Williamson, Democrat, Representative from Colum- 
bus County, was born at Cerro Gordo, December 25, 1869. Son of 
H. D. and Sarah Elizabeth (Davis) Williamson. Attended public 
schools; Davis School at La Grange 1884-1885; and Davis College 
at Winston, N. C, 1891; Greensboro Law School, 1892-1893. Mer- 
chant and land owner. Retired lawyer. Delegate to National 
Democratic Convention of 1908. Represented Columbus County in 
Legislature of 1913. Mason. Baptist; Superintendent of Sunday 
school for eight years; deacon; moderator of Cape Fear-Columbus 
Baptist Association for nine years. Married Miss Maggie Lee Wil- 
liamson in 1893. Address: Cerro Gordo, N. C. 



ALBERT EDGAR WOLTZ. 

Albert Edgar Woltz, Democrat, Representative from Gaston 
County, was born at Dobson, N. C, August, 1877. Son of Dr. John 
R. and Louisa J. (Kingsbury) Woltz. Received his preparatory 



486 Biographical Sketches 

education at Dobson High School, 1893-1895, and Siloam Academy, 
1895-1897. Attended University of North Carolina 1897-1901; Cen- 
tral University, 1905-1907, A.B. and A.M., and the University Law 
School, 1909-1911. Member Gaston County Bar Association and 
State of North Carolina Bar Association. Mayor of Granite Falls, 
1902. Member Board of Directors Chamber of Commerce 1919-1920; 
City School Board of Gastonia, 1912-1916; Board of Directors of 
Gaston Mutual Building and Loan Association, 1919-1920; Legal Ad- 
visory Board for Gaston County, 1917-1919; Congressional Executive 
Committee, 9th District, 1920. Superintendent of Granite Falls 
Graded Schools, 1901-1902; Lenoir Graded Schools, 1903-1907; Golds- 
boro Graded Schools, 1907-1909. Burser of University of North Caro- 
lina, 1909-1912. Mason; I. O. O. F.; Noble Grand, 1919; Grand 
Guardian, 1920; Red Men; Knights of Pythias. Methodist; steward, 
1914-1920. Married Miss Daisy C. Mackie, 1903. Address: Gastonia, 
N. C. 



C. G. WRIGHT. 



C. G. Wright, Democrat, Representative from Guilford County. 
Capitalist. Educated at the University of North Carolina, class of 
1886. Representative in the General Assembly of 1917, 1919. Trus- 
tee of the University of North Carolina since 1917. Address: 
Greensboro, N. C. 



LUKE HERMAN YOUNG. 

Luke Herman Young, Democrat, Representative from Buncombe 
County, was born in Madison County, N. C, December 23, 1891. Son 
of Joshua and Jane (Anderson) Young. Was educated at Mars Hill 
Academy, 1907-1908; Fruitland Institute, 1912-1913. Farmer and 
dairyman. Jr. O. U. A. M.; Odd Fellow. Baptist. Married Miss 
Cora Lee Miller, March 15, 1913. Address: Asheville, N. C, R. F. 
D. 4.