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Full text of "North Carolina manual [serial]"

Library 

OF THE 

University of NortK Carolina 

This book was presented by 

n.C. Ti^ToricaA Comm.55.0^ 



05-1^8 



c 2> 



UNIVERSITY OF N C AT CHAPEL HILL 




00017482270 



This book may be kept out one month unless a recall 
notice is sent to you. It must be brought to the North 
Carolina Collection (in Wilson Library) for renewal. 



*& 



Form No A-369 



U- 



I 



II 



PUBLICATION'S OF THE 
NORTH CAROLINA HISTORICAL COMMISSION 



NORTH CAROLINA MANUAL 

1923 



COMPILED AND EDITED 
BY 

R. B. HOUSE 

ARCHIVIST OF THE NORTH CAROLINA HISTORICAL 

Commission 



RALEIGH 

Edwards a Broughton Printing Company 

State Printers 

1923 



1923 



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PREFACE. 



This volume is issued by the North Carolina Historical Commis- 
sion in order to furnish in succinct form information about the 
State, its government and institutions, which otherwise would re- 
quire much investigation in many different sources. Unless other- 
wise stated, the data in each case is the latest available. 

Similar manuals were issued by the Secretary of State in 1903, 
1905, and 1907, and by the North Carolina Historical Commission 
in 1909, .1911, 1913, 1915, 1917, 1919, and 1921. The demands for 
these volumes has been so great that all editions hava been ex- 
hausted. 



ERRATUM 

The footnote to the sketch of Hon. R. L. Doughton on page 450 
should apply to Hon. R. A. Doughton on page 482. 



NORTH CAROLINA HISTORICAL COMMISSION. 



T. M. Pittman, Chairman, Henderson. 

M. C. S. Noble Chapel Hill 

Frank Wood Edenton 

Heriot Clarkson Charlotte 

D. H. Hill, Secretary, Raleigh. 



a 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Official Register for 1923 - 9 

LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT: 

Officers and Members of the Senate _. 13 

Senatorial Districts 16 

Rules of the Senate 17 

Standing Committees of the Senate - 27 

Officers and Members of the House of Representatives 33 

Rules of the House of Representatives ' .. 38 

Standing Committees of the House of Representatives .. 50 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS: 

Department of the Governor 59 

Department of the Secretary of State 61 

Treasury Department 63 

Auditor's Department 64 

Department of Education 86 

Attorney-General's Department 75 

JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT: 

Court of Impeachment 79 

The Supreme Court 80 

Superior Courts. 81 

Other Courts 81 

The Corporation Commission 1 82 

ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS, BOARDS, COMMISSIONS: 

Department of Agriculture L3l1»«.-3-t„- 87 

Department of Labor and Printing . 100 

Department of Insurance }.-'- ------ - 1 - - 104 

North Carolina Historical Commission 107 

State Library of North Carolina I.-.- 112 

Library Commission of North Carolina - 113 

State Board of Health - 117 

•Board of Public Charities '..:„- 120 

North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 130 

State Highway Commission ' - H-* 

Fisheries Commission Board - - -- 151 

- State Board of Elections --- 152 

State Standard Keeper - --- 15- 



Contents 



IFiremen's Relief Fund 153 

Audubon Society of North Carolina . 153 

Board of Internal Improvements 157 

North Carolina National Cuard and Reserve Militia 159 

State Prison .....V.'Si-..^.^ 162 

State Department of Revenue ...AJy.P. 163 

The State Board of Equalization, ___•_ 164 

The New State Tax System \ 165 

Commission of Child Welfare .. 166 

STATE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS: 

University of North Carolina 177 

North Carolina A. and E. College \ 180 

North Carolina College For Women 183 

Cullowhee Normal and Industrial College 187 

Appalachian Training School __. -. 188 

East Carolina Teachers College \.S . 189 

State School for (White) Blind and for (Colored) Blind and Deaf .i.".^..^.'..., 190 

State School for the (White) Deaf }.3.1.. 193 

Stonewall Jackson Training School 195 

State Normal School for the Colored and Indian Races 197 

State A. and T. College for the Colored Race 202 

Caswell Training School ..:_ 204 

STATE CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS: 

State Hospital at Raleigh 209 

State Hospital at Morganton 213 

State Hospital at Goldsboro ... 214 

North Carolina Sanatorium for the Treatment of Tuberculosis 214 

North Carolina State Orthopaedic Hospital School 215 

Oxford Orphan Asylum 216 

North Carolina Orphanage for the Colored Race 218 

The Soldiers' Home.. 219 

The Confederate Woman's Home 221 

MISCELLANEOUS: 

The North Carolina Railroad Company 225 

The Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad Company 229 

The North Carolina Agricultural Society 231 

State Capitol 235 

State Administration Building 240 

North Carolina Day 242 

Legal Holidavs 243 

The State Flag 246 

The Great Seal 247 

State Motto and its Origin 252 

Confederate Museum at Richmond 254 



Contents 7 

PLATFORMS OF POLITICAL PARTIES, 1923: page 

National Democratic Platform . 257 

National Republican Platform 277 

National Socialist Platform 296 

National Prohibition Platform ... 302 

^State Democratic Platform _ _ 307 

State Republican Platform _ 310 

State Socialist Platform. 316 

ELECTION RETURNS: 

Vote for President 320 

Vote for Governor and Other State Officers _ 326 

Vote for United States Senator. 331 

Vote for Congressmen, 1920 333 

Vote on Constitutional Amendments, 1920 _._ 341 

Vote on Amendment to Section 28:11.. 343 

THE HALIFAX RESOLUTION ..__ 347 

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 348 

CONSTITUTIONS: 

Constitution of the United States 355 

Constitution of North Carolina 372 

Index to the Constitution of North Carolina _ 404 

CENSUS: 

Population, area, etc., of the United States and Territories, 1910 and 1920 415 

Estimated Population of North Carolina from 1675 to 1786 417 

Census of North Carolina 1790-1840, 1850-1920 418 

Population of North Carolina towns and cities 422 

Counties and County Seats 430 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES: 

E xecuti ve Officials 435 

Justices of the Supreme Court 442 

Senators and Representatives in Congress 445 

Senators and Representatives in the General Assembly, 1921 452 



OFFICIAL REGISTER FOR 1923-1924. 



LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT. 

W.B.Cooper. President of the Senate - .. Wilmington, 

S. G. Dawson. Speaker of the House of Representatives. Kinston. 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS. 

Cameron Morrison Governor... -Mecklenburg. 

W. B. Cooper Lieutenant-Governor New Hanover. 

W. N. Everett ...Secretary of State... ._ Richmond 

Baxter Durham Auditor Wake. 

B. R. Lacy Treasurer. .Wake. 

E. C. Brooks Superintendent of Public Instruction Durham. 

James S. Manning. Attorney-General. ...Wa 

JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT. 

SUPREME COURT JUSTICES 

Walter Clark Chief Justice Wake 

Platt D Walker Associate Justice Mecklenburg 

William A Hoke. Associate Justice Lincoln 

Walter P Stacy Associate Justice New Hanover 

W J Adams Associate Justice Carthage 

superior court judges. 

W. M. Bond First District Chowan— Edenton. 

George W. Connor Second District .Wilson— Wilson. 

John H. Kerr Third District Warren— Warrenton. 

Frank A. Daniels Fourth District. Wayne— Goldsboro. 

J. Lloyd Horton. Fifth District. Pitt— Farmville. 

IT. A. Gridt Sixth District Clinton. 

Thomas H Calvert Seventh District. Wake— Raleigh. 

E. H. Cranmer Eighth District. ...Brunswick— Southport. 

N. A. Sinclair Ninth District. Fayetteville. 

William A. Devin Tenth District Granville— Oxford. 

Henry P. Lane. ...Eleventh District. Rockingham— Reidsville. 

Thomas J. Shaw Twelfth District... Guilford— Greensboro. 

A. M. Stack. Thirteenth District Monroe. 

W F Harding Fourteenth District Mecklenburg— Charlotte. 

B F. Long Fifteenth District Iredell— St ates\ille. 

J. L. Wfbb Sixteenth District Clveland— Shelby. 

T. B. Finley . Seventeenth District Wilkes-Wilkesboro. 

J. Bis Ray Eighteenth District Yancey— Burnsville. 

P. A. McElroy Nineteenth District Madison— Marshall. 

T. D. Bryson .Twentieth Distiict Swain— Bryson City. 

solicitors- 

W L Small First District Pasquotank— Elizabeth City 

R G Allsbrook ...Second District. Edgecombe— Tarboro 

G E Midyette Third District Northampton— Jackson- 

C S Williams. Fourth District . Sanford 

Jesse H Davis Fifth District . .Craven— New Bern 

J A Powers Sixth District Lenoir— Kinston 

W F Ev\ns Seventh District. Raleigh _ 

Woodus Kf.llum Eighth District ...New Hanover— Wilmington 

S B McLean ..Ninth District . Robeson— Maxton 

L. P. McLendon ..Tenth District ...Durham 

S Porter Graves Eleventh District ..Surry— Mount Airy 

Itfl 



U Official Register 

J F Spruill Twelfth Distiict Davidson— Lexington 

W D Phillips Thirteenth District Rockingham 

J C Carpenter Fourteenth District Gaston— Gastonia 

Z V Long ..Fiftcerth District Statesville 

R L Huffman Sixteenth District Burki — Morganton 

J J Hayes Seventeenth District Wilkes— North VVilkesboro 

J. M. Carson Eighteenth District Rutherfordton. 

J. E. Swain. Nineteenth District Asheville. 

G. C. Davis ..Twentieth District Waynesville. 

CORPORATION COMMISSION. 

W. T. Lee Chairman Haywood. 

George P Pell Commissioner ...Forsyth. 

A. J. Maxwell Commissioner Craven. 

R. Otis Self ._ Chief Clerk Jackson. 

ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS, BOARDS, AND COMMISSIONS. 
DEPARTMENT of agriculture. 
W. A. Graham Commissioner ...Lincoln. 

DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND PRINTING. 

M. L. Shipman Commissioner Henderson. 

Lawrence E. Nichols .Assistant Commissioner Wake. 

INSURANCE DEPARTMENT. 

Stacey \\. Wade Commissioner Carteret. 

DEPARTMENT OF REVENUE. 

A. D. Watts Commissioner Iredell. 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WELFARE. 

Mrs. Kate Burr Johnson. ..Commissioner... Raleigh. 

HIGHWAY COMMISSION. 

Frank Page Commissioner Raleigh. 

ADJUTANT GENERAL 

John Van B. Metts Raleigh. 

Superior Court Calendar, 1923-1924 

District Spring, 1923. Fall, 1923. Spring, 1924. Fall, 1924. 

1 Judge Connor Judge Bond Judge Devin ..Judge Sinclair. 

2 Judge Kerr Judge Connor Judge Bond Judge Devin. 

3 Judge Daniels Judge Kerr Judge Connor Judge Bond. 

4. Judge Horton Judge Daniels Judge Kerr Judge Connor. 

5 Judge Grady ...Judge Horton Judge Daniels Judge Kerr. 

6... Judge Calvert Judge Grady .Judge Horton Judge Daniels. 

7. Judge Cranmer Judge Calvert- .Judge Grady Judge Horton. 

8 Judge Sinclair Judge Cranmer Judge Calvert Judge Grady. 

9 Judge Devin Judge Sinclair Judge Cranmer Judge Calvert. 

10 Judge Bond Judge Devin Judge Sinclair Judge Cranmer. 

11 Judge Shaw Judge Lane Judge Bryson Judge McElroy. 

12. .Judge Stack Judge Shaw Judge Lane Judge Bryson. 

13. Judge Harding Judge Stack Judge Shaw Judge Lane. 

14 Judge Long Judge Harding Judge Stack Judge Shaw. 

15 ..Judge Webb Judge Long Judge Harding Judge Stack. 

16 Judge Finley.. ..Judge Webb Judge Long Judge Harding. 

17 Judge Ray Judge Finley Judge Webb Judge Long. 

18 Judge McElroy Judge Ray Judge Finley Judge Webb. 

19 Judge Bryson Judge McElroy Judge Ray Judge Finley. 

20 Judge Lane Judge Bryson Judge McElroy Judge Ray. 



THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT. 



PART 



1. Officers of the Senate. 

2. Members of the Senate (Arranged alphabetically). 

3. Members of the Senate (Arranged by districts). 

4. Senatorial Districts. 

5. Rules of the Senate. 

6. Standing Committees of the Senate. 

7. Officers of the House of Representatives. 

8. Members of the House of Representatives 

(Arranged alphabetically). 

9. Members of the House of Representatives 

(Arranged by counties). 

10. Rules of the House of Representatives. 

11. Standing Committees of the House of Representa- 

tives. 



(in, 



OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF THE SENATE. 



OFFICERS 

W. B. Cooper.. President _. 

W. L. Long President, pro tern. 

F. D. Hackett T .. Principal Clerk ... 

David G aster Sergcant-at-Arms. 

Phil. C. Cocke Reading Clerk 

Joseph J. Mackay, Jr Efagrossing Clerk. . 



.New Hanover. 
.Halifax. . 

.Wilkes. 

.Cumberland. 

.Buneombe. 



SENATORS 

Alphabetically Arranged 



Name 



Armfield, Frank 

Baggett, J. R 

. Htllamv, Emmett 

>TBennett, C. C 

Bovette, J. M 

Brown, J. A 

Brown, J. C 

Castello, A. T._ 

Costen, T. W 

DeLaney, J. L 

Ebbs, Plato D 

Everett, S. J 

Graham, W. A., Jr. ... 
Giles, D. F 

Grady, Paul D 

Griffin, James L 

Hargett, John S 

Harris, Charles U 

Harris, C. P 

Harrison, W. E 

Haymore, Rufus L.._ 

Heath, W. C 

Hicks, A. A. 

Hodges, Dr. J. M 

Jones, Paul 

Johnson, P. H 

Johnson, R. D 

Jones, Allen 

Jones, Howard F 

Jurney, Buren 

Lattimore, S. C 

Long, W. L 



District 



Twentieth 

Twelfth 

Ninth. 

Eighteenth 

Nineteenth 

Tenth 

Seventeenth 

Third 

First 

Twentieth 

Thirty-first 

Fifth 

Twenty-fifth.... 
Twenty-seventh 

Eighth 

Thirteenth 

Seventh 

Thirteenth 

Sixth 

Eighteenth 

Twenty-third .... 

Nineteenth 

Fifteenth 

Thirtieth 

Fourth 

Second 

Ninth.. 

Twenty- ninth... 

Fourteenth 

Twenty-fifth.... 

Twentv-sevcnth 
Fourth 




Democrat... 

Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 

Democrat... 
Democrat... 

Democrat... 

Democrat... 
Democrat... 

Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 

Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Republican. 

Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat. .. 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat ... . 

Democrat... 
Democrat..". 



Postoffice 



Concord, N. C. 

Lillington, N. C. 
Wilmington, N. C. 
Samarcand, N. C. 
Albemarle, N. C. 
Chadbourn, N. C 
Madison, N. C. 

Aulander, N. C. 
Gatesville, N. C. 

Charlotte, N. C 

Asheville, N. C. 
Greenville, N. C. 

Lincolnton, N. C. 
Marion, N. C. 
Kenly, N. C. 
Pittsboro, N. C. 

Trenton, N. C. 
Raleigh, N. C. 
Mapleville, N. C. 
Rockingham, X. C. 
Mount Airy, N. C. 
Monroe, \ r . C. 
Oxford, N. C. 
Newland, N. C. 

Tarboro, N. C. 
Panti go, N. C. 
Warsaw, N. C. 
Furches, N. C. 
\\ arrenton, N. C. 
Statesville, N. C. 

Shelby, N. C. 
Roanoke Rapids, N. C- 

113' 



14 



Li cislativk Department 



SENATO-iS — Continued. 



Name 



McDonald, D. A... 
Mendenhall.O. E... 
Moss.O. B. 

Parker, H. B 

Ray, J. Clyde 

Ruark, J. W 

Sams, A. F 

Squires, Mark 

Stubbs, Harry W— 

Tapp.L. P 

Varser, L. R 

Walker, G. B 

White, G. T 

Williams, P. H 

Wilson, R. T 

Woltz, A. E _. 

Woodson, Walter H 

Zachary, J. M 



District 



Twelfth 

Seventeenth 

■Sixth 

Eighth 

Sixteenth- 

Tenth 

Twenty-second 
Twentv-cighth. 
Second 

Seventh 

Eleventh 

Thirty third.... 
Twenty-fourth. 

First 

Sixteenth 

Twenty-sixth-. 
Twenty- first ... 

Thirty-second . 



Party 



Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat- . . 

Democrat... 

Democrat... 
Democrat... 

Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 

Democrat... 

Democrat... 

Democrat... 
Republican .. 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 

Democrat.. . 



Postoffice 



Carthage, N. C. 
High Point, N. C. 
Spring Hope, N. C. 

Goldsboro, N. C. 

Hillsboro, N. C. 
Southport, N. C. 

Winston- Salem, N. C. 
Lenoir, N. C. 
Williamston, N. C. 

Kinston, N. C. 

Lumberton, N. C. 

Andrews, N. C. 
Hamptonville, N C. 
Elizabeth City, N. C. 
Yanceyvil.e, N. C. 
Gastonia, N. C. 
Salisbury, N. C. 

Calvert, N. C. 



SENATORS. 

(Arranged by Districts) 

First District— T. W. Costen, Gatesville (D) ; P. H. Williams, 
Elizabeth City (D). 

Second District— Harry W. Stubbs, Williamston (D); P. H. 
Johnson, Pantego (D). 

Third District — A. T. Castelloe, Aulander (D). 

Fourth District — Paul Jones, Tarboro (D) ; W. L. Long, Roanoke 
Rapids (D). 

Fifth District — S. J. Everett, Greenville (D) 

Sixth District— O. B. Moss, Spring Hope (D) ; C. P. Harris, 
Mapleville (D). 

Seventh District— L>. P. Tapp, Kinston (D); Jno. S. Hargett, 
Trenton (D). 

Eighth District — H. B. Parker, Goldsboro (D) ; Paul D, Grady, 
Kenly, (D). 

Ninth District — R. D. Johnson, Warsaw (D); Emmett Bellamy, 
Wilmington (D). 



Senators, 1923 15 

Tenth District— J. A. Brown, Chadbourn (D); J. W. Ruark, 
Southport (D). 

Eleventh District — L. R. Varser, Lumberton (D). 

Twelfth District— D. A. McDonald, Carthage (D) ; J. R. Baggett, 
Lillington (D). 

Thirteenth District — Jas. L. Griffin, Pittsboro (D) ; Chas. U. Harris, 
Raleigh (D). 

Fourteenth District — Howard F. Jones, Warrenton (D). 

Fifteenth District — A. A. Hicks, Oxford (D). 

Sixteenth District — J. Clyde Ray, Hillsboro (D); R. T. Wilson, 
Yanceyville (D). 

Seventeenth District — 0. E. Mendenhall, High Point (D) ; J. C. 
Brown, Madison (D). 

Eighteenth District — C. C. Bennett, Samarcand (D) ; W. E. Har- 
rison, Rockingham (D). 

Nineteenth District— J. M. Boyette, Albemarle (D); W. C. Heath, 
Monroe (D). 

Twentieth District — J. L. DeLaney, Charlotte (D); Frank Arm- 
field, Concord (D). 

Twenty-first District — Walter H. Woodson, Salisbury (D). 
Twenty-second District — A. F. Sams, Winston-Salem (D). 
Twenty-third District — Rufusi L. Haymore, Mpunt Airy (R). 
Twenty-fourth District — G. T. White, Hamptonville (R). 
Twenty-fifth District — Buren Jurney, Statesville (D) ; W. A. Gra- 
ham, Jr., Lincolnton (D). 

Twenty-sixth District — A. E. Woltz, Gastonia (D). 

Twenty-seventh District — B. F. Giles, Marion (D) ; S. C. Lattimore, 
Shelby (D). 

Twenty-eighth District — Mark Squires, Lenoir (D). 

Tioenty-ninth District — Allen Jones, Furches (D). 

Thirtieth District— Dr. J. M. Hodges, Newland (R). 

Thirty-first District— Plato D. Ebbs, Asheville (D). 

Thirty-second District — J. M. Zachary, Calvert (D). 

Thirty-third District — G. B. Walker, Andrews (D). 



16 Legislative Department 

SENATORIAL DISTRICTS. 

First District — Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Gates, Hertford, Pas- 
quotank, and Perquimans counties shall elect two senators. 

Second District — Beaufort, Dare, Hyde, Martin, Pamlico, Tyrrell, 
and Washington shall elect two senators. 

Third District — Bertie and Northampton shall elect one senator. 

Fourth District — Edgecombe and Halifax shall elect two senators. 

Fifth District — Pitt shall elect one senator. 

Sixth District — Franklin, Nash, and Wilson shall elect two- 
senators. 

Seventh District — Carteret, Craven, Greene, Jones, Lenoir, and 
Onslow shall elect two senators. 

Eighth District — Johnston and Wayne shall elect two senators. 

Ninth District — Duplin, New Hanover, Pender, and Sampson shall 
elect two senators. 

Tenth District — Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus, and Cumberland 
shall elect two senators. 

Eleventh District — Robeson shall elect one senator. 

Twelfth District — Harnett. Hoke, Moore, and Randolph shall elect 
two senators. 

Thirteenth^ District — Chatham, Lee, and Wake shall elect two 
senators. 

Fourteenth District— Vance and Warren shall elect one senator. 

Fifteenth District — Granville and Person shall elect one senator. 

Sixteenth District— Alamance, Caswell, Durham, and Orange shall 
elect two senators. 

Seventeenth District — Guilford and Rockingham shall elect two 
senators. 

Eighteenth District — Davidson, Montgomery, Richmond, and Scot- 
land shall elect two senators. 

Nineteenth District — Anson, Stanley, and Union shall elect two 
senators. 

Twentieth District — Cabarrus and Mecklenburg shall elect two 
senators. 

Twenty-first District — Rowan shall elect one senator. 

Twenty-second District — Forsyth shall elect one senator. 



Senatorial Districts 17 

Twenty-third District — Stokes and Surry shall elect one senator. 

Twenty-fourth District — Davie, Wilkes, and Yadkin shall elect one 
senator. 

Twenty-fifth District — Catawba, Iredell, and Lincoln shall elect 
two senators. 

Tiventy-sixth District — Gaston shall elect one senator. 

Twenty-seventh District — Cleveland, Henderson, McDowell. Polk 
and Rutherford shall elect two senators. 

Twenty-eighth District— Alexander, Burke, and Caldwell shall elect 
one senator. 

Twenty-ninth District — Alleghany, Ashe, and Watauga shall elect 
one senator. 

Thirtieth District — Avery, Madison, Mitchell, and Yancey shall 
elect one senator. 

Thirty-first District — Buncombe shall elect one senator. 

Thirty-Second District — Haywood, Jackson, and Transylvania 
shall elect one senator. 

Thirty-third District — Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Macon, and Swain 
shall elect one senator. 

Sec. 2. This act shall be in force from and after its ratification. 
Ratified this the 8th day of March, A. D. 1921. 



RULES OF THE SENATE. 

Order of Business. 

1. The President having taken the chair at the hour to which tne 
Senate shall have adjourned, and a quorum being present, the 
Journal of the preceding day shall be read, unless otherwise ordered 
by the Senate, to the end that any mistake may be corrected. 

2. After reading and approval of the Journal, the order of business 
shall be as follows: 

(1) Reports of standing committees. 

(2) Reports of select committees. 

(3) Announcement of petitions, bills and resolutions. 

(4) Unfinished business of preceding day. 

(5) Special orders. 



Legislate :. Department 

(6) General orders. First, bills and resolutions on third reading; 
second, bills and resolutions on second reading. But messages from 
the Governor and House of Representatives and communications 
and reports from State officers and reports from the Committees on 
Engrossed Bills and Enrolled Bills may be received and acted on 
under any order of business. 

Powers and Duties of the President. 

3. He shall take the chair promptly at the appointed time and pro- 
ceed with the business of the Senate according to the rules adopted. 
At any time during the absence of the President, the President pro 
tempore, who shall be elected, shall preside, and he is hereby vested, 
during such time, with all powers of the President except that of 

giving a casting vote in case of a tie when he shall have voted as a 
Senator. 

4. He shall assign to doorkeepers their respective duties, and shall 
appoint such pages and laborers as may be necessary, each of whom 
shall receive the same Compensation as is now provided by law. 

Of the Clerk. 

5. The President and Clerk of the Senate shall see that all bills 
shall be acted upon by the Senate in the ordsr in which they stand 
upon the Calendar, unless otherwise ordered as hereinafter provided. 
The Calendar shall include the numbers and titles of bills and join' 
resolutions which have passed the House of Representatives and 
have been received by the Senate for concurrence. 

6. The Clerk shall certify the passage of bills by the Senate, with 
the date thereof, together with the fact whether passed by a vote 
of three-fifths or two-thirds of the Senate, whenever such vo'e may 
be required by the Constitution and laws of the State. 

Ox the Rights and Duties of Senators. 

7. Every Senator presenting a paper shall indorse the same; if a 
petition, memorial, or report to the General Assembly, with a brief 
statement of its subject or contents, adding his name; if a reso- 
lution, with his name; if a report of a committee, a statement of such 
report, with the name of the committee and member making the 
same; if a bill, a statement of its title, which shall contain a brief 
statement of the subject or contents of the bill, with his name; and 



Rules of the Senate 19 

all bills, resolutions, petitions, and memorials shall be delivered to 
the Clerk and by him handed to the President to be by him referred, 
and he shall announce the titles and references of the same, which 
shall be entered on the Journal. 

8. All motions shall be reduced to writing, if desired by the Presi- 
dent or any Senator, delivered at the table, and read by the Presi- 
dent or Clerk before the same shall be debated; but any such motion 
may be withdrawn by the introducer at any time before decision or 
amendment. 

9. If any question contains several distinct propositions it shall 

be divided by the President, at the request of any Senator, provided 

each subdivision, is left to itself, shall form a substantive proposi- 
tion. 

10. When the President is putting a question, or a division by 
counting shall be had, no Senator shall w r alk out of or across the 
House, nor when a Senator is speaking pass between him and the 
President. 

11. Every Senator wishing to speak or debate, or to present a 
petition or other paper, or to make a motion or to report, shall rise 
from his seat and address the President, and shall not proceed fur- 
ther until recognized by him. No Senator shall speak or debate 
more than twice nor longer than thirty minutes on the same day 
on the same subject without leave of the Senate, and when two 
or more Senators rise at once the President shall name the Ssnator 
who is first to speak. 

12. Every Senator who shall be within the bar of the Senate when 
the question is stated by the Chair shall vote thereon, unless he shall 
be excused by the Senate or unless he be directly interested in the 
question; and the bar of the Senate shall include the entire Senate 
Chamber. 

13. When a motion to adjourn or for recess shall be affirmatively 
determined, no member or officer shall leave his place until adjourn- 
ment or recess shall be declared by the President. 

Standing Committees. 

14. The following committees shall be named by the Lieutenant- 
Governor: 

On Agriculture. 
On Appropriations. 



20 Legislative Department 

On Banks and Currency. 

On Claims. 

On Commerce. 

On Congressional Districts. 

On Constitutional Amendments. 

On Corporation Commission. 

On Corporations. 

On Counties, Cities, and Towns. 

On Distribution of Governor's Message. 

On Education. 

On Election Law. 

On Engrossed Bills. 

On Federal Relations. 

On Finance. 

On Fish, Fisheries, and Shell-fish. 

On Caswell Training School. 

On Game Law. 

On Immigration. 

On Insane Asylums. 

On Institutions for the Blind. 

On Institutions for the Deaf. 

On Insurance. 

On Internal Improvements. 

On Journal. 

On Judicial Districts. 

On Judiciary, No. 1. 

On Judiciary, No. 2. 

On Manufacturing. 

On Military Affairs. 

On Mining. 

On Penal Institutions. 

On Pensions and Soldiers' Home. 

On Propositions and Grievances. 

On Public Health. 

On Public Roads. 

On Railroads. 

On Rules. 



Rules of the Senate 21 

On Salaries and Fees. 

On Senate Expenditures. 

On Senatorial Districts. 

On Library. 

On Printing. 

On Trustees of the University. 

On Consolidated Statutes. 

On Water Commerce. 

16. The Committee on Engrossed Bills shall examine all bills, 
amendments, and resolutions before they go out of the possession of 
the Senate, and make a report when they find them correctly en- 
grossed: Provided, that when a bill is typewritten and has no inter- 
lineations therein, and has passed the Senate without amendment, 
it shall be sent to the House without engrossment, unless otherwise 
ordered. 

17. The Committee on Appropriations shall carefully examine all 
bills and resolutions appropriating or paying any moneys out of 
the State Treasury, except bills creating or increasing salaries, 
which shall be referred to the proper committee: Provided, said 
committee shall report to the Appropriations Committee the amount 
allowed, and keep an accurate record of the same and report to the 
Senate from time to time. 

18. Every report of the committee upon a bill or resolution which 
shall not be considered at the time of making the same, or laid 
on the table by a vote of the Senate, shall stand upon the general 
orders with the bill or resolution; and the report of the committee 
voted. 

19. That no committee shall be composed of more than nine mem- 
bers unless the Lieutenant-Governor shall, without objection from 
the Senate, appoint a greater number on any committee. 

On Genekal Orders and Special Orders. 

20. Any bill or other matter may be made a special order for a 
particular day or hour by a vote of the majority of the Senators 
voting, and if it shall not be completed on that day it shall be 
returned to its place on the Calendar, unless it shall be made a 
special order for another day; and when a special order is under 
consideration it shall take precedence of any special order or sub- 



22 Legislative Department 

sequent order for the day, but such subsequent order may be taken 
up immediately after the previous special order has been disposed of. 

21. Every bill shall receive three readings previous to its being 
passed, and the President shall give notice at each whether it be 
the fust, second, or third. After the first reading, unless a motion 
shall be made by some Senator, it shall be the duty of the President 
to refer the subject-matter to an appropriate committee. No bill 
shall be amended until it shall have been twice read. 

Proceedings When There Is Not a Quorum Voting. 

22. If, on taking the question on a bill, it shall appear that a 
constitutional quorum is not present, or if the bill require a vote of 
a certain proportion of all the Senators to pass it, and it appears 
that such number is not present, the bill shall be again read and 
the question taken thereon; if the bill fail a second time for the 
want of the necessary number being present and voting, the bill 
shall not be finally lost, but shall be returned to the Calendar in its 
proper order. 

Precedence of Motions. 

23. When a question is before the Senate no mo';ion shall be re- 
ceived except those herein specified, which motions shall have pre- 
cedence as follows, viz.: 

(1) For an adjournment. 

(2) To lay on the table. 

(3) For the previous question. 

(4) To postpone indefinitely. 

(5) To postpone to a certain day. 

(6) To commit to a standing committee. 

(7) To commit to a select committee. 

(8) To amend. 

(9) To substitute. 

24. The previous question shall be as follows: "Shall the main 
question be now put?" and until it is decided shall prelude all 
amendments and debate. If this question shall be decided in the 
affirmative, the "main question" shall be on the passage of the bill, 
resolution, or other matter under consideration; but when amend- 
ments are pending the question shall be taken up on such amend- 
ments, in their order, without further debate or amendment. How- 



Rules of the Senate 23 

ever, any Senator may move the previous question and may restrict 
the same to an amendment or other matter then under discussion. 
If such question he decided in the negative, the main question 
shall be considered as remaining under debate. 

25. When a motion for the previous question is made and is 
pending, debate shall cease, and only a motion to adjourn or lay on 
the table shall be in order, which motion shall be put as follows: 
adjourn, previous question, lay on the table. After a motion 
the previous question is made, pending a second thereto, any mem- 
ber may give notice that he desires to offer an amendment to the 
bill or other matter under consideration; and after the previous 
question is seconded such member shall be entitled to offer his 
amendment in pursuance of such notice. 

Other Questions to be Taken Without Dei: > 

26. The motions to adjourn and lay on the table shall be decided 
without debate, and the motion to adjourn shall always be in order 
when made by a Senator entitled to the floor. 

27. The respective motions to postpone to a certain day, or to 
commit, shall preclude on the main question. 

28. All questions relating to priority of business shall be dec 
without debate. 

29. When the reading of a paper is called for, except petitions, 
and the same is objected to by any Senator, it shall be determined 
by the Senate without debate. 

30. Any Senator requesting to be excused from voting may make, 
either immediately before or after the vote shall have been called 
and before the result shall have been announced, a brief statemi 

of the reasons for making such request, and the question shall then 
be taken without debate. Any Senator may explain his vote on 
any bill pending by obtaining permission of the President before 
the vote is put: Provided, that not more than threa minutes shall 
be consumed in such explanation. 

Questions That Require a Two-Thibds Vote, 

31. No bill or resolution on its third reading shall be acted on 
out of the regular order in which it stands on the Calendar, and do 
bill or resolution shall be acted upon on its third reading the same 



24 Legislative Department 

day on which it passed its second reading unless so ordered by two- 
thirds of the Senators present. 

32. No bill or resolution shall be sent from the Senate on the day 
of its passage except on the last day of the session, unless other- 
wise ordered by a vote of two-thirds of the Senators present. 

33. No bill or resolution, after being laid upon the table upon 
motion, shall be taken therefrom except by a vote of two-thirds of 
the Senators present. 

Decorum in Debate. 

34. No remark reflecting personally upon the action of any Sena- 
tor shall be in order in debate unless preceded by a motion or res- 
olution of censure. 

35. When a Senator shall be called to order he shall take his 
seat until the President shall have determined whether he was in 
order or not; if decided to be out of order, he shall not proceed 
without the permission of the Senate; and every question of order 
shall be decided by the President, subject to an appeal to the Senate 
by any Senator; and if a Senator is called to order for words 
spoken, the words excepted to shall be immediately taken down 
in writing, that the President or Senate may be better able to 
judge of the matter. 

Miscellaneous Rules. 

36. When a blank is to be filled, and different sums or times 
shall be proposed, the question shall be first taken on the highest 
sum or the longest time. 

37. When a question has been once put and decided, it shall be 
in order for any Senator who shall have voted in the majority to 
move a reconsideration thereof; but no motion for the reconsidera- 
tion of any vote shall be in order after the bill, resolution, mes- 
sage, report, amendment, or motion upon which the vote was taken 
shall have gone out of the possession of the Senate; nor shall 
any motion for reconsideration be in order unless made on the same 
day or the next following legislative day on which the vote 
proposed to be reconsidered shall have taken place, unless the 
same shall be made by the Committee on Enrolled Bills for verbal 
or grammatical errors in the bills, when the same may be made 
at any time. Nor shall any question be reconsidered more than 
once. 



Rules of the Senate 25 

38. All bills and resolutions shall take their place upon the 
Calendar according to their number, and shall be taken up in 
regular order, unless otherwise ordered. 

39. No smoking shall be allowed on the floor of the Senate Cham- 
ber during the sessions. 

40. Senators and visitors shall uncover their heads upon entering 
the Senate Chamber while the Senate is in session, and shall 
continue uncovered during their continuance in the Chamber. 

41. No Senator or officer of the Senate shall depart the service of 
the Senate without leave, or receive pay as a Senator or offic> r 
for the time he is absent without leave. 

42. No person other than the executive and judicial officers of 
the State, members and officers of the Senate and House of Rep- 
resentatives, and ex-members shall be permitted within the Senate 
Chamber. 

43. No rule of the Senate shall be altered, suspended, or rescinded 
except on a two-thirds vote of the Senators present: Provided, 
that this shall not apply to Rule 55. 

44. In case a less number than a quorum of the Senate shall con- 
vene, they are authorized to send the doorkeeper, or any other 
person, for any or all absent Senators, as a majority of the Sena- 
tors present shall determine. 

45. The ayes and noes may be called for on any question before 
the vote is taken, and if seconded by one-fifth of the Senators 
present, the question shall be decided by the ayes and noes, and 
the same shall be entered upon the Journal. 

46. The President of the Senate, whenever it shall appear to him 
to be necessary in order to expedite the public business, shall 
appoint clerks to such Senate committees as may be in need of 
same. 

47. Every bill introduced into the Senate shall be printed or type- 
written. Amendments need not be typewritten. 

48. The Clerk of the Senate shall provide a box of sufficient size. 
with an opening through the top, for the reception of bills; such 
box shall be kept under lock and key and shall be stationed on the 
Clerk's desk. The President of the Senate shall have in his charge 
and keeping the key to such box. All bills which are to be Intro- 



- .nvK Department 

duced into the Senate shall he deposited in such box before the 
session begins. At the proper time the President shall open the 
box and take therefrom the bills. Such bills shall be read by 
their titles, which reading shall constitute the first reading of the 
bill, and unless otherwise disposed of shall be referred to the proper 
committee. A bill may be introduced by unanimous consent at any 
time during the session. 

The Chief Engrossing Clerk of the Senate shall appoint, with 
the approval of the President of the Senate, as his assistants not 
more than four competent stenographers and typewriters. Should 
the public business require more than this number the presiding 
officer may appoint such additional ones as may be necessary. S 
stenographers and typewriters shall work under the direction and 
supervision of the Engrossing Clerk. They shall also make for the 
members who introduce a bill, without extra cost, one original 
and two carbon copies of all bills. 

The Journal of the Senate shall be typewritten in duplicate, 
original and carbon, the original to be deposited in the office of 
the Secretary of State as the record, and the other (carbon) copy 
to be delivered to the State Printer. 

Ail bills and resolutions reported unfavorably by the commit- 
tee to which they were referred, and having no minority report, 
shall lie upon the table, but may be taken from the table and 
placed upon the Calendar at the request of any Senator. 

52. That in case of adjournment without any hour being named, 
the Senate shall reconvene the next legislative day at 11 o'clock A. M. 

When a bill is materially modified or the scope of its appli- 
cation extended or decreased, or if the county or counties to which 
it applies be changed, the title of the bill shall be changed by the 
Senator introducing the bill or by the committee having it in charge, 
or by the Engrossing Clerk, so as to indicate the full purport of the 
bill as amended and the county or counties to which it applies. 

54. It shall be the duty of the Principal Clerk to furnish to the 
-iding officer and the members of the Senate all necessary sta- 
tionery, which shall be provided for out of the funds set apart for 
the expenses of the General Assembly. 

55. After a bill has been tabled or has failed to pass on any of its 
readings, the contents of such bill or the principal provisions of 



Senate Com mittees 27 

its subject-matter shall not be embodied in any other measure 
Upon the point of order being raised and sustained by the Chair, 
such measure shall be laid upon the table, and shall not be taken 
therefrom except by a vote of two-thirds of the elected membership 
of the Senate: Provided, no local bill shall be held by the Chair 
as embodying the provisions, or being identical with any State- 
wide measure which has been laid upon the table or failed to pass 
any of its readings. 

56. That in the event of the absence of the President of the Senate 
and the President pro tempore, at any time fixed for the reconvening 
of the Senate, the Principal Clerk of the Senate or, in his absence 
also, some member of the Senate Committee on Rules shall call the 
Senate to order and designate some member to act as President. 

57. Whenever a public bill is introduced, a carbon copy thereof 
shall accompany the bill. On the same day that such public bill 
is introduced the Chief Clerk shall deliver the carbon copy to the 
Public Printer and cause four hundred (400) copies thereof to be 
printed. On the morning following the delivery of the printed copies, 
the Chief Clerk shall cause the Chief Page to have a copy thereof 
put upon the desk of each member and then retain the other printed 
copies in his office. A sufficient number for the use of the commit- 
tee to whom the bill is referred shall be by the Chief Clerk delivered 
to the chairman or clerk of the committee. If the bill is passed, 
the remaining copies shall be by the Chief Clerk delivered to the 
Chief Clerk of the House of Representatives, for the use of the 
House of Representatives. No committee shall consider or report 
any public bill until after the same shall have been printed as herein 
provided for. In the event the member introducing the bill and 
the Chief Clerk shall differ as to whether it is a public bill, the ques- 
tion shall be left to the decision of the President of the Senate, 
whose decision shall be final. The cost of printing as herein pr > 
vided for shall be paid from the contingent fund of the Semvo. 



STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE SENATE 

Agriculture. — Senators Graham, chairman; Johnson of Beaufort. 
Lattimore, Jones of Edgecombe, Brown of Columbus. Tapp, Harris 
of Franklin, Hargett, Parker, McDonald, Bennett, Walker, Jones of 
Alleghany, Zachary, Heath, White. 



28 Li qislative Department 

Appropriations. — Senators Giles, chairman; Tapp, Hicks, Baggett, 
Harris of "Wake, Heath, Johnson of Beaufort, Squires, Woltz, Castello, 
Jones of Warren, Armfield, Grady, Varser, Jurney, Johnson of Dup- 
lin, Lattimore, Long, Moss, Mendenhall. 

Banks and Currency. — Senators Mendenhall, chairman; Williams, 
Sams, Giles, Griffin, Harris of Wake, Walker, Haymore, Brown of 
Columbus, Castello, Tapp. 

Caswell Training School. — Senators Hargett, chairman; Baggett, 
Stubbs, Johnson of Beaufort, Bennett, Graham, Ebbs, Woltz, Jones 
of Edgecombe, Harris of Franklin, Delaney, Tapp. 

Claims. — Senators Costen, chairman; Jones of Edgecombe, Walker, 
McDonald, Zachary, Ebbs, Hodges, Jones of Alleghany, Brown of 
Rockingham. 

Commerce. — Senators Williams, chairman; Tapp, McDonald, 
Squires, Jurney, Lattimore, Giles, Graham, White, Brown of Rock- 
ingham, Johnson of Duplin. 

Congressional Districts. — Senators Zachary, chairman; Sams, Tapp, 
Castello, Parker, Woodson, Armfield, Heath, Boyette, Ray, Brown of 
Rockingham. 

Consolidated Statutes. — Senators Jones of Edgecombe, chairman; 
Woltz, Armfield, Delaney, Parker, Ruark, Johnson of Duplin, Varser, 
Wilson, Everett, Haymore. 

Const itittional Amendments.- — Senators Armfield, chairman; Sams, 
Baggett, Stubbs, Castello, Everett, Ray, Brown of Columbus, Varser, 
Ebbs, McDonald, Zachary. 

Corporations. — Senators Hicks, chairman; Ray, Armfield, Brown 
of Columbus, Stubbs, Wilson, Ruark, Varser, Ebbs, Zachary, Bel- 
lamy. Harris of Wake. 

Corporation Commission. — Senators Brown of Rockingham, chair- 
man; Bennett, Harrison, Long, Harris of Franklin. 

Counties, Cities and Towns. — Senators McDonald, chairman; 
Boyette, Baggett, Woltz, Sams, Bellamy, Mendenhall, Parker, Ebbs, 
Ray, Hicks, Walker, Brown of Columbus, Haymore. 

Distribution of Governor's Message. — Senators Castello, chairman; 
Jones of Edgecombe, Grady, Jones of Warren, Lattimore, Wilson. 

Education. — Senators Woodson, chairman; Hicks, Harrison, Brown 
of Columbus, Tapp, Giles, Sams, Johnson of Beaufort, Castello, Woltz, 
Boyette, Moss, Griffin, Costen, Ebbs, Wilson, Lattimore, Squires, 



Senate Committees 2d 

Jurney, Jones of Warren, Johnson of Duplin, Grady, Hodges, Jones 
of Alleghany, Heath. 

Election Laws.- — Senators Boyette, chairman; Grady, Griffin, Bel- 
lamy, Long, Stubbs, Wilson, McDonald, Giles, Graham, Woodson, 
Hargett, Tapp. 

Engrossed Bills. — Senators Lattimore, chairman; Griffin, Woltz, 
Hicks, Bennett, Hargett, Ray, Wilson, Squires, Brown of Rocking- 
ham, Brown of Columbus, Moss. 

Enrolled Bills. — Senators Squires, chairman; Castello, Jones of 
Warren, Lattimore. 

Federal Relations. — Senators Moss, chairman; Wilson, Jones o! 
Warren, Woltz, Heath, Ruark, Bellamy, Johnson of Duplin, White. 

Finance — Senators Varser, chairman; Sams, Long, Delaney, Har- 
rison, Mendenhall, Woodson, Hargett, Bellamy, Wilson, McDonald, 
Walker, Williams, Boyette, Graham, Griffin, Ebbs, Giles, Ruark, 
Costen. 

Fish and Fisheries. — Senators Ruark, chairman; Grady, Hargett, 
Graham, Williams, Johnson of Beaufort, Long, Moss, Harrison, Sams, 
Boyette. 

Game Laws. — Senators Parker, chairman; Johnson of Beaufort, 
Jones of Edgecombe, Brown of Columbus, Harris of Franklin, Cas- 
tello, Ebbs, Walker, Ray, McDonald, Lattimore, Zachary, White. 

Immigration. — Senators Harris of Franklin, chairman; Stubbs, 
Brown of Columbus, Brown of Rockingham, Wilson, Williams, 
McDonald, Harrison, Johnson of Duplin, Heath. 

Insane Asylums. — Senators Baggett, chairman; Ray, Stubbs, 
Everett, Costen, Williams, Ebbs, Zachary, Harris of Wake, Brown 
of Columbus, Hodges, Squires, Johnston of Beaufort. 

Institutions for the Blind. — Senators Johnson of Beaufort, chair- 
man; Costen, Jones of Edgecombe, Everett, McDonald, Harris of 
Wake, Hodges, Brown of Columbus, Williams. 

Institutions for the Deaf. — Senators Ebbs, chairman; Ray. Hicks, 
Johnson of Duplin, Harris of Wake, Harris of Franklin, Graham, 
Everett, Hargett, Bellamy, Hicks, Zachary, Hodges, Squires. 

Insurance. — Senators Ray, chairman; Johnson of Duplin, Sams, 
McDonald, Hargett, Giles, Squires, Graham, Mendenhall, Harris of 
Wake, Stubbs, Varser, Brown of Columbus. 



30 Li -.i-i \ 1 1\ e Department 

Internal lmproroh-ent. — Senators Tapp, chairman; Zachary, 
Everett, Jurney, Ebbs, Brown of Rockingham, Lattimore, Moss, 
Haymore. 

Journal. — Senators Wilson, chairman; Ray, Bennett, Squires, Gra- 
ham, Jones of Warren, Hicks, White. 

Judicial Districts. — Senators Grady, chairman; Tapp, Delaney, 
Sams, Baggett, Woltz, Woodson, Graham, Jones of Alleghany, Wilson, 
Griffin, McDonald, Bellamy, Squires, Harris of Wake, Varser, 
Jurney, Castelloe, Moss, Brown of Rockingham. 

Judiciary Number 1. — Senators Stubbs, chairman; Woltz, Hicks 
Sams, Mess, Jones of Edgecombe, Long, Parker, Johnson of Duplin, 
Ruark, Varser, Harris of Wake, Wilson, Costen. 

Judiciary Number 2. — Senators Delaney, chairman; Baggett, Cas- 
tello, Ray, Brown of Rockingham, Everett, Bellamy, Armfield, Wood- 
son, Jurney, Squires, Grady, Haymore. 

Library. — Senators Bennett, chairman; Ebbs, Woltz, Moss, White, 
Costen. 

Manufacturing. — Senators Woltz, chairman; Boyette, Hicks, Par- 
ker, Ebbs, Jurney, Zachary, Sams, White, Hodges, Graham. 

Military Affairs. — Senators Heath, chairman; Grady, Parker, Jur- 
ney, Bellamy, Brown of Rockingham. 

Mining. — Senators Walker, chairman; Ebbs, Squires, Jones of 
Ashe, Zachary, Haymore. 

Penal Institutions. — Senators Bellamy, chairman; Woodson, Grady, 
Long, Moss, Griffin, Bennett, McDonald, Harris of Wake, Giles, 
Walker, Johnson of Duplin, White. 

Printing. — Senators Jones of Warren, chairman; Jones of Edge- 
combe, Ruark, Squires, Lattimore, Zachary, White. 

Propositions and Grievances. — Senators Harrison, chairman; 
Hargett, Jones of Edgecombe, Mendenhall, Giles, Tapp, Lattimore, 
Williams, Jurney, Hicks, Sams, Jones of Warren, Johnson of Beau- 
fort, Haymore. 

Public Health. — Senators Brown of Columbus, chairman; Sams, 
Johnson of Beaufort, Harris of Franklin, Ebbs, Armfield, Giles, John- 
son, of Duplin, Varser, Bellamy, Hodges. 

Public Roads. — Senators Sams, chairman; Griffin, Boyette, Harri- 
son, Ray, Woltz, Jones of Warren, Moss, Delaney, Ebbs. Jurney, 



Senate Com m i 31 

Long, Johnson of Duplin, Harris of Wake, Mendenhall, Bennett, 
Hicks, Varser, Walker, White, Johnson of Beaufori. 

Railroads. — Senators Johnson of Duplin, chairman; Johnson of 
Beaufort, Ruark, Bellamy, Mendenhall, Brown of Columbus, Heath, 
Armfield, Sams. 

Rules. — Senators Long, chairman; Giles, Sams, Delaney, Varser, 
Moss, Harris of Wake, Armfield, Woodson, Johnson of Duplin. 

Salaries and Fees. — Senators Squires, chairman; McDonald, Bag- 
gett, Johnson of Duplin, Parker, Giles, Woodson, Jurney, Moss 
Delaney, Woltz. 

Senate Expenditures. — Senators Jurney, chairman; Jones of Edge- 
combe, Harris of Wake, Hargett, Moss, Delaney, Johnson of Dup- 
lin, Giles. 

Senatorial Apportionment.- — Senators Griffin, chairman; Varsar, 
Moss, Everett, Hargett, Brown of Columbus, Brown of Rockingham, 
Graham. 

Pensions and Soldiers Homes. — Senators Jones of Alleghany, chair- 
man; Walker, Jones of Edgecombe, Jones of Warren, Harris of Wake. 
Hicks, Hargett, Parker, McDonald, Zachary, Haymore, Heath. 

lYustccs of the University. — Senators Everett, chairman; Harris 
of Wake, Castello, Woltz, Delaney, Bellamy, Woodson, Johnson of 
Duplin, Varser, Sams, Brown of Columbus, Giles, Graham, Long, 
Hodges. 

Committee on Water Commerce. — Senators Harris, of Wake, chair- 
man; Armfield, Hargett, Grady, Ray, Ruark, Heath, Jones of 
Warren, Delaney, Graham, Boyette, Sams, Harrison, Everett, 
Bellamy, Johnson of Duplin. 



OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF THE HOUSE OF 
REPRESENTATIVES. 



OFFICERS 

John G. Dawson, Speaker. 

Alex. Lassiier Principal Clerk 

D. P. Dellinger.. __Reading Clerk 

L. F. Burkhead Sergeant-at-Arms._ 

Miss Rosa Mcnds Engrossing Cl< rk ... 



.Wake. 

< last on. 

.Wake. 
.Cabarrus. 



REPRESENTATIVES 

Alphabetical !y Arranged 



Name 



Bennett, Bert E 

Bowie, T. C 

Braswell. Dr. J..C 

Bray, B. F 

Broughton, N. L 

Brown, Julius 

Bryant, V. S 

Buck, D. M 

Bumgardner, Thomas P. 

Burgwyn, W. H. S 

Byrd, A. W 



Chamblee, Clarence H. 

Cobb, Collier. 

Coffey, Blaine 

Cohoon.F. F 

Cohoon, F. L. W 

Connor, H. G., Jr 

Cooper, George II 

Coward, O. B 

Cowles, Charles H 

Cox, R. M 



Daniel, Charles R 

Davis, G.E 

Davis, J. Roan 

Davis, M. Leslie 

Dawson, J. G 

Deaton, J. M 

DeHart, Dr. James 

Dillard, J. H 

Duckworth, W. H 

Doub, S. L.. 

Doughton, R. A ... 

Dun -ton , J. L 

Erwin.S. K., Jr, 

Everett, R. O 

lEverett, W. N 



Ferrell, Luther.. Forsyth 

Fountain, R. T Edgecombe... 



County 



Anson... 

Ashe 

Nash 

Perquimans... 

Wake 

Pitt 

Durham 

Yancey 

Stanly 

Northampton. 
Wayne 



Wake. 

Robeson 

Watauga 

Pasquotank. 

Tyrrell 

Wilson 

Franklin 

Jackson 

Wilkes 

Forsyth 



Burke 

Durham.... 
Richmond. 




Halifax 

Hyde 

Cleveland 

Carteret 

Lenoir 

Catawba. J 

Swain 

Cherokee 

Transylvania .. 

Yadkin _ 

Allegjiany 

Currituck 



Democrat.. . 
Democrat.. . 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat-.. 
Democrat.. . 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat-.. 
Democrat— . 

Democrat.-. 

Democrat. _ 

Republican 

Democtat.. 

Republican 

Democrat.. 

Democrat.. . 

Democrat... 

Republican 

Democrat... 

Democrat.. . 

Democrat... 

Democrat.. 

Democrat.. 

Democrat... 

Democrat. . 

Democrat.. 

Democrat... 

Democrat.. 

Republican 

Democrat.. 

Democrat.. 

Democrat 
Democrat 
Democrat 

Democrat. 

Democrat.. 



PostofEcc 



Wadesboro, M. C. 
Jefferson, N. C. 
Whitakers, N. C. 
Hertford, N. C. 
Garner, N. C. 
Greenville, N. C. 
Durham, N. C. 
Bald Mountain. N. C. 
Albemarle, N. C. 
Jackson, N. C. 
Mount Olive, N. C. 

Zebulon, N. C. 
Parkton. N. C. 
Shulls Mills, N. C. 
Elizabeth City, X. C. 
Columbia, N. C. 
Wilson, N. C. 
Louisburg, X. C. 
Webster, N. C. 
Wilkesboro, X. C. 
\\ inston -Salem, X. C. 

Weldon, X. C. 
Lake Landing, X. C. 
Kings Mountain, X. C. 
. Beaufort, X. C. 
Kinston, X C. 
Hickory, N. C. 
Bryson City, N. C. 
Murphv, X . < '. 
Brevard, X. C. 
Ea i Bi rid, N. C. 
Sparta. V I '. 

Waterlilly, X. C. 

M , .1 -a nl on, X. C. 
Durham, N. C. 
Rockingham, N ■ < '- 

Winston-Salem, X. C. 
R, :kj Mount, X. C. 



1 Resigned Jan. 16 to become Secretary of State. 
o 



34 



Legislative Department 



REPRESENTATIVES— Continued. 



Name 



Gaston, H. B 

Gibson, E. H 

Gosney, C. A 

Grady. Charles D. 

Graham, A. H 

Grant, H. V 

Grist, Frank D.... 
Gwaltney, F. C... 
Gwynn.T. L 



Hamilton, C. E. .. 

Hauser, C. M 

Hendricks, M. D._ 

Hi'l.Levi 

Hooker, Frank B. 
Hooks, George W. 



Jackson, W. M. 
Jenkins, T. M._ 
Johnson, D. B. 

King, John W.. 



Lawrence, L. J... 

Lewis. \Y. H 

Loven, Ed. S 



McFarland, J. E. 

Mclver, Dr. E. M 

McKinnon, D. P 

Martin, Van B. . 
Matthews, W. R. . 

Milliken, J. F 

Moore, Clayton 

Morgan, Clarence 

Moser, I. C 

Murphy , Walter 



Neal. W. W... _. 

Nelson, J. Wiley . 

Nettles, H. L... 

Newberry, J. H 

Nimocks, Q. K., Sr. 

Norris. Charles 

Nowell, Dr. L. A.... 



Owens, T. E.. 



Parker, Edward S., Jr. 

Parker, R. H 

Pass, W. B 

Patterson, Martin A.... 

Person, R. M... 

Peterson, Dr. C. A 

Pharr, Edgar W 

Poisson, L. J 

Pruden, W. D 



Quickel, 



County 


Party 


Postoffice 


Gaston 


Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat.. . 
Democrat— . 
Republican.. 
Democrat. .. 

Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat. .. 
Democrat... 

Republican.. 
Republican.. 
Democrat- .. 

Democrat... 

Democrat.. 
Democrat. . . 
Democrat— - 
Democ^at--- 
Democrat.. - 
Democrat--- 
Democrat... 
Democrat.. _ 
Democrat.. . 
Democrat... 
Republican .. 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 

Democrat... 
Democrat.. . 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat. .. 
Democrat... 

Republican.. 

Democrat- __ 
Democrat. -- 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat. .. 
Republican .. 
Democrat.. . 
Democrat.-. 
Democrat- .. 

Democrat.-- 


Belmont, N. C. 


Scotland 

Wake 


Laurinburg, N. C. 
Raleigh, N. C. 


Dare 


Manteo, N. C. 


Orange 


Hillsboro, N. C. 


Onslow . 


Sneads Ferry, N. C. 


Caldwell 

Alexander 

Haywood 

Forsyth 


Lenoir, N. C. 
Taylorsville, N. C. 
•Springdale, N. C. 

Winston-Salem, N. C. 


Stokes 

Davie .. 


Germanton, N. C. 
Cana, N. C, R.F.D.l 


Greene 


LaGrange, N. C. 


Pamlico 


Oriental, N. C. 


Columbus. 

Surry. 


Whiteville, N. C. 
Dobson, N. C. 


Graham 


Robbinsville, N. C. 


Bladen 


Eliiabethtown, N. C. 


Guilford 

Hertford .. 

Pender 


Greensboro, N. C. 

Murfreesboro, N. C. 
Atkinson, N. C. 


Avery.. _ 

Rutherford 

Lee __ 


Linville, N. C. 

Forest City, N. C. 
Jonesboro, N. C. 


Robeson 

Washington 

Mecklenburg.. . 
Union . 


Rowland, N. C. 
Plymouth, N. C. 
Charlotte, N. C. 
Monroe, N. C. 


Martin 


Williamston, N. C. 


Polk. 

Randolph 

Rowan 


Tryon, N. C. 
Ashboro, N. C. 
Salisbury, N. C. 


McDowell 

Madison .. 

Buncombe 

Duplin 

Cumberland 

Camden 

Bertie 


Marion, N. C. 
Marshall, N. C. 
Biltmore, N. C, R.F.D. 1 
Warsaw, N. C. 
Fayetteville, N. C. 
South Mills, N. C. 
Colerain, N. C. 


Sampson 

Alamance 

Clav 


Clinton, N. C. 

Graham, N. C. 
Enfield, N. C. 
Hayesville, N. C. 


Hoke 


Raeford, N. C. 


Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 


Charlotte, N. C. 
Soruce Pine, N. C. 


Mecklenburg 

New Hanover.. - 
Chowan 


Charlotte, N. C. 
Wilmington, N. C. 
Edenton, N. C. 


Lincoln.. 


Lincolnton, N. C. 



Members of House of Representatives 



35 



REPRESENTATIVES— Cont in,,,, I. 



Name 



Rankin, Thomas W 

Ray, J. Frank 

Reynolds, R. B 

Rideoutte, J. W 

Robbins, J. W 

Rodgers.C. P 

Ross, George R 

Saunders, W. M 

Sellers, H. S 

Sherrill, John B.___ 

Simpson, R. W 

Smith, R. W 

Snipes, C. A 

Sutton, Thomas I.. 

Tavler, R. E 

Taylor, Robert B.. 
Taylor, W. L 

Thurston, D. J 

Townsend. H. D.... 

Townsend, N. A 

Turlington, £,eb V.. 

Vaughn, Walter R.. 

Wade, J. E.L 

Walker, James W... 
Warren, Lindsay C. 

Warren, W. A 

Watkins, John S. „. 

Watkins, M. B 

Whrtaker, T. C 

Wiiitaker, T. E 

Williams, R. P 

Wright, C. Or- 



County 


Party 




Rockingham 


Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 

Democrat... 
Democrat... 

Democrat.. . 
Democrat— . 

Democrat 

Democrat... 
Democrat... 

Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 

Democrat... 

Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat— 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 


Reidsvijle, X. C. 

Franklin, N. C. 
Star, X. C. 
Salisbury, X. C. 
Rockv Mount, X. C. 
East Flat Rock, N. C. 
Jackson Springs, N. C. 

Smithfield, N. C. 
Kings Mountain, N. C, 

R. F. D., 1 
Concord, N. C. 
Trotville N C 


Montgomery 

Rowan 


Nash 


Henderson...... 

Moore 


Johnston 

Gaston 


Cabarrus 

Gates.. 


Pitt 


Ayden.N. C. 

Bynum, X T . C. 
Goldsboro, X. C. 

Asheville, X. C. 
Townsville, N. C. 


Chatham 

Wayne 

Buncombe.. 

Vance 


Caswell 




Johnston 

Davidson 

Harnett 


Clayton, N. C. 
Erlanger, N. C. 
Dunn N. C. 


Iredell 




Warren 


Vaughn, N. C. 


New Hanover... 

Rockingham 

Beaufort 

Person 


Wilmington, N. C. 
Reidsville, N. C. 
Washington, N. C. 
Hurdle Mills, N. C. 


Granville 

Brunswick 

Jones 


Virgilina, Va., R. F. D.2 
Town Creek, X. C. 
Trenton, N. C. 


Guilford... 

Craven 


Oau Ridge, X. C. 
Xe« Bern, X. C. 


Guilford 


Greensboro, X. C. 



KEPBESENTATIVES. 

(Arranged by Counties) 

Alamance — Edward S. Parker, Jr., Graham (D). 
Alexander — F. C. Gwaltney, Taylorsville (R). 
Alleghany — R. A. Doughton, Sparta (D). 
Anson — Bert E. Bennett, Wadesboro (D). 
Ashe — T. C. Bowie, Jefferson (D). 
Avery — Ed. S. Loven, Linville (D). 
Beaufort — Lindsay C. Warren, Washington (D). 
Bertie — Dr. L. A. Nowell, Colerain (D). 
Bladen — D. B. Johnson, Elizabethtown (D. 



36 Legislative Department 

Brunswick — M. B. Watkins, Town Creek (D). 

Buncombe— H. L. Nettles, Biltmore, R. 1 (D); R. E. Taylor, Ashe- 
ville (D). 

Burke — S. J. Ervin, Jr., Morganton (D). 

Cabarrus — Jno. B. Sherril, Concord (D). 

Caldwell— Frank D. Grist, Lenoir (D). 

Camden— Chas. Norris, South Mills (D). 

Carteret — M. Leslie Davis, Beaufort (D). 

Caswell— -W. L. Taylor, Semora (D). 

Catawba — J. M. Deaton, Hickory (D). 

Chatham— C. A. Snipes, Bynum (D). 

Cherokee— J. H. Dillard, Murphy (D). 

Chowan — W. D. Pruden, Edenton (D). 

Clay—W. B. Pass, Hayesville (D). 

Cleveland — J. Roan Davis, Kings Mountain (D). 

Columbus — Geo. W. Hooks, Whiteville (D). 

Craven — R. P. Williams, New Bern (D). 

Cumberland— Q. K. Nimocks, Sr., Fayetteville (D). 

Currituck — J. L. Dunston, Waterlilly (D). 

Dare— Chas. H. Grady, Manteo (D). 

Davidson — H. D. Townsend, Erlanger (D). 

Davie — M. J. Hendricks, Cana, R. 1 (D). 

Duplin — J. H. Newberry, Warsaw (D). 

Durham— R. O. Everett, Durham (D); V. S. Bryant, Durham (D). 

Edgecombe — R. T. Fountain, Rocky Mount (D). 

Forsyth— C. E. Hamilton, Winston-Salem (D) ; R. M. Cox, Winston- 
Salem (D); Luther Ferrell, Winston-Salem (D). 

Franklin — Geo. H. Cooper, Louisburg (D). 

Gaston— H. S. Sellers, Kings Mountain, R. 1 (D); H. B. Gaston, 
Belmont (D). 

Gates— R. W. Simpson, Trotville (D). 

Graham — T. M. Jenkins, Robbinsville (R). 

Granville— Jno. S. Watkins. Virgilina, Va., R. 2 (D). 

Greene — Levi Hill, LaGrange (D). 

Guilford— T. E. Whitaker, Oak Ridge (D); C. G. Wright, Greens- 
boro (D); Jno. W. King, Greensboro (D). 

Halifax— R. H. Parker. Enfield (D) ; Chas. R. Daniel, Weldon (D). 

Harnett — N. A. Townsend, Dunn (D). 

Haywood — T. L. Gwynn, Springdale (D). 



Members of House of Representatives 



37 



Henderson— C. P. Rodgers, East Flat Rock (D). 

Hertford — L. J. Lawrence, Murfreesboro (D). 

Hoke — Martin A. Patterson, Raeford (D). 

Hyde — G. E. Davis, Lake Landing (D). 

Iredell — Zeb. V. Turlington, Mooresville (D). 

Jackson — O. B. Coward, Webster (D). 

Johnson — W. M. Saunders, Smithfield (D); D. J. Thurston, Clav- 
ton (D). 

Jones — T. C. Whitaker, Trenton (D). 

Lee— Dr. E. M. Mclver, Jonesboro (D). 

Lenoir — J. G. Dawson, Kinston (D). 

Lincoln — A. L. Quickel, Lincolnton (D). 

Macon — J. Frank Ray, Franklin (D). 

Madison — J. Wiley Nelson, Marshall (D). 

Martin — Clayton Moore, Williamston (D). 

McDowell — W. W. Neal, Marion (D). 

Mecklenburg — Edgar W. Pharr, Charlotte (D) ; R. M. Person, 
Charlotte (D); W. R. Matthews, Charlotte (D). 

Mitchell— Dr. C. A. Peterson, Spruce Pine (R). 

Montgomery— R. B. Reynolds, Star (D). 

Moore — Geo. R. Ross, Jackson Springs (D). 

Nash— Dr. J. C. Braswell, Whitakers (D) ; J. W. Robbins, Rocky 
Mount (D). 

Neiv Hanover — L. J. Poisson, Wilmington (D) ; J. E. L. Wade, 
Wilmington (D). 

Northampton — W. H. S. Burgwyn, Jackson (D). 

Onslow — H. V. Grant, Sneads Ferry (D). 

Orange — A. H. Graham, Hillsboro (D). 

Pamlico — Frank B. Hooker, Oriental (D). 

Pasquotank — F. F. Cohoon, Elizabeth City (D). 

Pender — W. H. Lewis, Atkinson (D). 

Perquimans — B. F. Bray, Hertford (D). 

Person — W. A. Warren, Hurdle Mills (D). 

Pitt— Julius Brown, Greenville (D) ; R. W. Smith, Ayden (D). 

Polk — Clarence Morgan, Tryon (R). 

Robeson — D. P. McKinnon, Rowland (D) ; Collier Cobb, Parkton 
(D). 

Randolph — I. C. Moser, Asheboro (D). 

Richmond — W. N. Everett, Rockingham (D). 



38 Legislative Department 

Rockingham — Jas. R. Walker, Reidsville (D); Thos. W. Rankin, 
Reidsvillo (D). 

Roioan — Walter Murphy, Salisbury (D); J. W. Rideoutte, Salis- 
bury (D). 

Rutherford — J. E. McFarland, Forest City (D). 

Sampson — T. E. Owens, Clinton (R). 

Scotland — E. H. Gibson, Laurinburg (D). 

Stanly — Thos. P. Bumgardner, Albemarle (D). 

Stokes — C. M. Hauser, Germanton (D). 

Surry — W. M. Jackson, Dobson (R). 

Swain — Dr. James Dehart, Bryson City (D). 

Transylvania — W. H. Duckworth, Brevard (D). 

Tyrrell— -F. L. W. Cohoon, Columbia (R). 

Union — J. F. Milliken, Monroe (D). 

Vance — Robert B. Taylor, Townsville (D). 

Wake — N. L. Broughton, Garner (D) ; Clarence H. Chamblee, 
Zebulon (D) ; C. A. Gosney, Raleigh (D). 

Warren — Walter R. Vaughan, Vaughan (D). 

Washington — Van B. Martin, Plymouth (D). 

Watauga— Blame Coffey, Shulls Mills (R). 

Wayne— Thos. I. Sutton, Goldsboro (D) ; A. W. Byrd, Mount 
Olive (D). 

Wilkes — Chas. H. Cowles, Wilkesboro (R). 

Wilson — H. G. Connor, Jr., Wilson (D). 

Yadkin — S. L. Doub, East Bend (R). 

Yancey — D. M. Buck, Bald Mountain (D). 



RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 

Touching the Duties of Speaker 

1. It shall be the duty of the Speaker to have the sessions of 
the House opened with prayer. 

2. He shall take the chair every day at the hour fixed by the 
House on the preceding legislative day, shall immediately call 
the members to order, and, on appearance of a quorum, cause 
the Journal of the preceding day to be read. 

3. He shall preserve order and decorum, may speak to points of 
order in preference to other members, rising from his seat for 



Rules of House of Representatives 39 

that purpose, and shall decide questions of order, subject to an 
appeal to the House by any member, on which appeal no member 
shall speak more than once, unless by leave of the House. A 
two-thirds vote of the members present shall be necessary to sustain 
any appeal from the ruling of the Chair. 

4. He shall rise to put a question, but may state it sitting. 

5. Questions shall be put in this form, namely: "Those in 
favor (as the question may be) will say, 'Aye'," and after the 
affirmative voice has been expressed, "Those opposed will say, 
'No'." Upon a call for a division, the Speaker shall count; if 
required, he shall appoint tellers. 

6. The Speaker shall have a general direction of the hall. He 
shall have a right to name any member to perform the duties 
of the Chair, but substitution shall not extend beyond one flay, 
except in case of sickness or by leave of the House. 

7. All committees shall be appointed by the Speaker, unless 
otherwise specially ordered by the House. 

8. In all elections the Speaker may vote. In all other cases he 
may exercise his right to vote, or he may reserve this right 
until there is a tie; but in no case shall he be allowed to vote 
twice on the same question. 

9. All acts, addresses and resolutions, and all warrants and 
subpoenas issued by order of the House shall be signed by the 
Speaker. 

10. In case of any disturbance or disorderly conduct in the 
galleries or lobby, the Speaker or other presiding officer shall 
have power to order the same to be cleared. 

11. No persons except members of the Senate, officers and clerks 
of the General Assembly, Judges of the Supreme and Superior 
Courts, State officers, former members of the General Assembly, 
and persons particularly invited by the Speaker shall be admitted 
within the hall of the House: Provided, that no person except 
members of the Senate and officers of the General Assembly shall 
be allowed on the floor of the House or in the lobby in the rear 
of the Speaker's desk, unless invited by the Speaker or the House. 

12. Reporters wishing to take down debates may be admitted by 
the Speaker, who shall assign such places to them on the 11 ■ 



40 Legislative Department 

or elsewhere, to effect this object, as shall not interfere with the 
convenience of the House. 

13. Smoking shall not be allowed in the hall, the lobbies, or 
the galleries while the House is in session. 

Order of Business of the Day 

14. After the reading of the Journal of the preceding day, 
which shall stand approved without objection, the House shall 
proceed to business in the following order, viz.: 

(1) The receiving of petitions, memorials, and papers addressed 
to the General Assembly or to the House. 

(2) Report of Standing Committees. 

(3) Reports of Select Committees. 

(4) Resolutions. 

(5) Bills. 

(6) The unfinished business of the preceding day. 

(7) Bills, resolutions, petitions, memorials, messages, and other 
papers on the Calendar, in their exact numerical order, unless 
displaced by the orders of the day; but motions and messages to 
elect officers shall always be in order. 

The Clerk of the House shall provide suitable boxes, properly 
labeled, to be placed on his desk, in one of which members shall 
place all petitions and resolutions which they desire to introduce; 
in the other shall be placed all bills. No member shall rise from 
his seat to introduce any petition, resolution or bill unless he is 
permitted so to do, out of order, by consent of the House. 

Ox Decorum in Debate 

15. When any member is about to speak in debate or deliver 
any matter to the House, he shall rise from his seat and respect- 
fully address the Speaker. 

16. When the Speaker shall call a member to order, the mem- 
ber shall sit down, as also he shall when called to order by another 
member, unless the Speaker decides the point of order in his 
favor. By leave of the House a member called to order may clear 
a matter of fact, or explain, but shall not proceed in debate so 
long as the decision stands, but by permission of the House. 



Rules of House of Representath 41 

Any member may appeal from the decision of the Chair, and if, 
upon appeal, the decision be in favor of the member called to order, 
he may proceed; if otherwise, he shall not, except by leave of 
the House; and if the case, in the judgment of the House, require 
it, he shall be liable to its censure. 

17. No member shall speak until recognized by the Chair, and 
when two or more members rise at the same time, the Speaker 
shall name the member to speak. 

18. No member shall speak more than twice on the main ques- 
tion, nor longer than thirty minutes for the first speech and 
fifteen minutes for the second speech, unless allowed to do so by 
the affirmative vote of a majority of the members present; nor 
shall he speak more than once upon an amendment or motion to 
commit or postpone, and then not longer than ten minutes. But 
the House may, by consent of a majority, suspend the operation of 
this rule during any debate on any particular question before 
the House, or the Committee on Rules may bring in a special rule 
that shall be applicable to the debate on any bill. 

19. While the Speaker is putting any question, or addressing 
the House, no person shall speak, stand up, walk out of or across 
the House, nor when a member is speaking entertain private dis- 
course, stand up, or pass between him and the Chair. 

20. No member shall vote on any question when he was not 
present when the question was put by the Speaker, except by the 
consent of the House. Upon a division and count of the House on 
any question, no member without the bar shall be counted. 

21. Every member who shall be in the hall of the House for 
the above purpose when the question is put shall give his vote 
upon a call of the ayes and noes, unless the House for special 
reasons shall excuse him, and no application to be excused from 
voting or to explain a vote shall be entertained unless made 
before the call of the roll. The hall of the House shall include the 
lobbies, galleries, and offices connected with the hall. 

22. "When a motion is made, it shall be stated by the Speaker, 
or, if written, it shall be handed to the Chair and read aloud by 
the Speaker or Clerk before debate. 

23. Every motion shall be reduced to writing, if the Speaker or 
any two members request it. 



42 Legislative Department 

24. After a motion is stated by the Speaker or read by the Clerk, 
it shall be deemed to be in possession of the House, but may be 
withdrawn before a decision or amendment, except in case of a 
motion to reconsider, which motion, when made by a member, 
shall be deemed and taken to be in possession of the House, and 
shall not be withdrawn without leave of the House. 

25. When a question is under debate no motion shall be re- 
ceived but to adjourn, to lay on the table, to postpone indefinitely, 
to postpone to a day certain, to commit or amend, which several 
motions shall have precedence in the order in which they stand 
arranged; and no motion to lay on the table, to postpone indefi- 
nitely, to postpone to a day certain, to commit or amend, being 
decided, shall be again allowed at the same stage of the bill or 
proposition. 

26. A motion to adjourn or lay on the table shall be decided 
without debate, and a motion to adjourn shall always be in order, 
except when the House is voting or some member is speaking; 
but a motion to adjourn shall not follow a motion to adjourn 
until debate or some other business of the House has intervened. 

27. When a question has been postponed indefinitely, the same 
shall not be acted on again during the session, except upon a two- 
thirds vote. 

28. Any member may call for a division of the question, when 
the same shall admit of it, which shall be determined by the 
Speaker. 

29. When a motion has been once made and carried in the affirma- 
tive or negative, it shall be in order for any member of the majority 
to move for the reconsideration thereof, on the same or succeeding 
day, unless it may have already passed the Senate, and no motion 
to reconsider shall be taken from the table except by a two-thirds 
vote. But unless such vote has been taken by a call of the yeas 
and nays, any member may move to reconsider. 

30. When the reading of a paper is called for, which has been 
read in the House, and the same is objected to by any member, it 
shall be determined by a vote of the House. 

31. Petitions, memorials, and other papers addressed to the 
House shall be presented by the Speaker; a brief statement of the 
contents thereof may be verbally made by the introducer before 



Rules of House of Representatiyi s 43 

reference to a committee, but shall not be debated or decided 
on the day of their first being read, unless the House shall 
direct otherwise. 

32. When the ayes and noes are called for on any question, it 
shall be on motion before the question is put; and if seconded by 
one-fifth of the members present, the question shall be decided by 
the ayes and noes; and in taking the ayes and noes, or on a call 
of the House, the names of the members will be taken alphabeti- 
cally. 

33. Decency of speech shall be observed and personal reflection 
caremlly avoided. 

34. Any member may arise at any time to speak to a question of 
puiounal privilege, and upon objection to him proceeding, the 
SjjeuKer shall determine if the question is one of privilege. 

35. Fifteen members, including the Speaker, shall be authorized 
to compel the attendance of absent members. 

<Jb. No member or officer of the House shall absent himself from 
the service of the House without leave, unless from sickness or 
inability. 

37. Any member may excuse himself from serving on any com- 
mittee if he is a member of two standing committees. 

3«. if any member shall be necessarily absent on temporary 
business of the House when a vote is taken upon any question, 
upon entering the House he shall be permitted, on request, to vote, 
provided that the result shall not be thereby affected. 

39. No standing rule or order shall be rescinded or altered with- 
out one day's notice given on the motion thereof, and to sustain 
such motion two-thirds of the House shall be required. 

40. The members of the House shall uncover their heads upon 
entering the House while it is in session, and shall continue so 
uncovered during their continuance in the hall, except Quakers. 

41. A motion to reconsider shall be determined by a majority 
vote, except a motion to reconsider an indefinite postponement, 
or a motion to reconsider a motion tabling a motion to reconsider, 
which shall require a two-thirds vote. 

42. After a bill has been tabled or has failed to pass on any 
of its readings, the contents of such bill or the principal pro- 
visions or its subject-matter shall not be embodied in any other 



44 Legislative Department 

measure. Upon the point of order being raised and sustained 
by the Chair, such measures shall be laid upon the table, and 
shall not be taken therefrom except by a vote of two-thirds of 
the elected membership of the House: Provided, no local bill shall 
be held by the Chair as embodying the provisions, or being identical 
with any State-wide measure which has been laid upon the table, 
or failed to pass any of its readings. 

Standing Committees 

43. At the commencement of the session a standing committee 
shall be appointed by the Speaker on each of the following sub- 
jects, namely: 

On Agriculture. 

On Appropriations. 

On Banks and Currency. 

On Claims. 

On Congressional Districts. 

On Constitutional Amendments. 

On Corporation Commission. 

On Corporations. 

On Counties, Cities and Towns. 

On Courts and' Judicial Districts. 

On Education. 

On Election Laws. 

On Engrossed Bills. 

On Expenditures of the House. 

On Federal Relations. 

On Finance. 

On Fish and Fisheries. 

On Game. 

On Health. 

On Immigration. 

On Insane Asylums. 

On Institutions for the Blind. 

On Institutions for the Deaf and Dumb. 

On Insurance. 

On Internal Improvements. 

On The Journal. 

On Judiciary No. 1. 



Rules of House of Representatives 45 

On Judiciary No. 2. 

On Manufactures and Labor. 

On Military Affairs. 

On Mines and Mining. 

On Oyster Industry. 

On Penal Institutions. 

On Pensions. 

On Private and Public Local Laws. 

On Privileges and Elections. 

On Propositions and Grievances. 

On Public Roads. 

On Regulation of Public-Service Corporations. 

On Rules. 

On Salaries and Fees. 

On Senatorial Districts. 

Joint Committees 
On Enrolled Bills. 
On Justices of the Peace. 
On Library. 
On Printing. 

On Public Buildings and Grounds. 
On Trustees of University. 
On Revision of the Laws. 

The first member announced on each committee shall be Chair- 
man. 

44. In forming a Committee of the Whole House, the Speaker 
shall leave the Chair, and a Chairman to preside in committee 
shall be appointed by the Speaker. 

45. Upon bills submitted to a Committee of the Whole House, the 
bill shall be first read throughout by the Clerk, and then again 
read and debated by sections, leaving the preamble to be last con- 
sidered. The body of the bill shall not be defaced or interlined, 
but all amendments, noting the page and line, shall he duly 
entered by the Clerk on a separate paper as the same shall be 
agreed to by the Committee, and so reported to the House. 
After report, the bill shall again be subject to be debated and 
amended by sections before a question on its passage be taken. 



46 Legislative Department 

46. The rules of procedure in the House shall be observed in 
a committee of the Whole House, so far as they may be applic- 
able, except the rule limiting the time of speaking and the 
previous question. 

47. In a Committee of the Whole House a motion that the 
Committee rise shall always be in order, except when a mem- 
ber is speaking, and shall be decided without debate. 

48. Every bill shall be introduced by motion for leave, or 
by order of the House, or on the report of a committee, unless 
introduced in regular order during the morning hour. 

49. All bills and resolutions shall be reported from the com- 
mittee to which referred, with such recommendation as the com- 
mittee may desire to make. 

50. Every bill shall receive three several readings in the House 
previous to its passage, and the Speaker shall give notice at 
each whether it be its first, second or third reading. 

51. Any member introducing a bill or resolution shall briefly 
endorse thereon the substance of the same. 

52. All bills and resolutions shall upon their introduction be 
referred by the Speaker, without suggestion from the introducer, 
to the appropriate committee. No bills shall be withdrawn from 
the committee to which referred except upon motion duly made 
and carried by a majority vote. 

53. The Clerk of the House shall keep a separate calendar of 
the Public, Local and Private Bills, and shall number them in 
the order in which they are introduced, and all bills shall be 
disposed of in the order they stand upon the Calendar; but the 
Committee on Rules may at any time arrange the order of pre- 
cedence in which bills may be considered. No bill shall be 
twice read on the same day without the concurrence of two- 
thirds of the members. 

54. All resolutions which may grant money out of the Treasury, 
or such as shall be of a public nature, shall be treated in all 
respects in a similar manner with Public bills. 

55. The Clerk of the House shall be deemed to continue in 
office until another is appointed. 

56. Upon the motion of any member, there shall be a call of 
the House, a majority of the members present assenting thereto, 



Rules of House of Representatives 47 

and upon a call of the House the names of the members shall 
be called over by the Clerk and the absentees noted, after which 
the names of the absentees shall again be called over. The doors 
shall then be closed, and those from whom no excuse or suffi- 
cient excuses are made may, by order of those present, if fifteen 
in number, be taken into custody as they appear, or may be 
sent for and taken into custody wherever to be found by special 
messenger appointed for that purpose. 

57. The previous question shall be as follows: "Shall the main 
question be now put?" and, until it is decided, shall preclude all 
amendments and debate. If this question shall be decided in 
the affirmative, the "main question" shall be on the pas- 
sage of the bill, resolution, or other matter under considera- 
tion; but when amendments are pending, the question shall be 
taken upon such amendments, in their order, without further 
debate or amendment. If such question be decided in the nega- 
tive, the main question shall be considered as remaining under 
debate: Provided, that no one shall move the previous question 
except the member submitting the report on the bill or other 
matter under consideration, and the member introducing the bill 
or other matter under consideration, or the member in charge of 
the measure, who shall be designated by the chairman of the 
committee reporting the same to the House at the time the bill 
or other matter under consideration is reported to the House, 
or taken up for consideration. 

When a motion for the previous question is made, and pending 
the second thereto by a majority, debate shall cease; but if any 
member obtains the floor, he may move to lay the matter under 
consideration on the table, or move an adjournment, and when 
both or either of these motions are pending the question shall 
stand : 

(1) Previous question. 

(2) To adjourn. 

(3) To lay on the table. 

And then upon the main question, or amendments, or the motion 
to postpone indefinitely, postpone to a day certain, to commit, 
or amend, in the order of their precedence, until the main que 
tion is reached or disposed of: but after the previous quesl 



4S Legislative Department 

has been called by a majority, no motion, or amendment, or 
debate shall be in order. 

All motions below the motions to lay on the table must be 
made prior to a motion for the previous question; but, pending 
and not after the second therefor, by the majority of the House, 
a motion to adjourn or lay on the table, or both, are in order. 
This constitutes the precedence of the motions to adjourn and 
lay on the table over other motions, in Rule 25. 

Motions stand as follows in order of precedence in Rule 26: 

Lay on the table. 

Previous question. 

Postpone indefinitely. 

Postpone definitely. 

To commit or amend. 

When the previous question is called, all motions below it fall, 
unless made prior to the call, and all motions above it fall after 
its second by a majority required. Pending the second, the 
motions to adjourn and lay on the table are in order, but not 
after a second. When in order and every motion is before the 
House, the question stands as follows: 

Previous question. 

Adjourn. 

Lay on the table. 

Postpone indefinitely. 

Postpone definitely. 

To commit. 

Amendment to amendment. 

Amendment. 

Substitute. 

Bill. 

The previous question covers all other motions when seconded 
by a majority of the House, and proceeds by regular graduation 
to the main question, without debate, amendment, or motion, until 
such question is reached or disposed of. 

58. All committees, other than the Committee on Appropria- 
tions, when favorably reporting any bill which carries an appro- 
priation from the State, shall indicate same in the report, and 



Standing Committees of House of Ri i 

said bill shall be re-referred to the Committee on Appropr 
for a further report before being acted upon by the Hoi 

59. The Principal Clerk, the Engrossing Clerk and the Door- 
keeper shall appoint, with the approval of the Spe 
affirmative order in the House, such assistants as may be ne 
sary to the efficient discharge of the duties of their 
offices. 

60. The Speaker shall appoint twelve pages to wait upon the 
sessions of the House, and when the pressure of business may 
require, he may appoint three additional pages. 

61. The Chairman of each of the committees, Agriculture, Ap- 
propriations, Banks and Currency, Counties, Cities and Towns, 
Courts and Judicial Districts, Education, Fish and Fisheries, Fi- 
nance, Judiciary No. 1, Judiciary No. 2, Propositions and Griev- 
ances, Public Roads, and Salaries and Fees, may appoint a clerk 
to his respective committee with the approval of the Speaker. 

62. The Chairman and five other members of any committee 
shall constitute a quorum of said committee for the transaction of 
business. 

63. The Committee on the Journal shall examine daily the 
Journal of the House before the hour of convening, and report 
after the opening of the House whether or not the proceedings 
of the previous day have been correctly recorded. 

64. When a bill shall be reported by a Committee witli a recom- 
mendation that it be not passed, but accompanied by a minority 
report, the question before the House shall be "The adoption of the 
Minority Report," and it failing to be adopted by a majority 
vote, the bill shall be placed upon the unfavorable calendar. Such 
minority report shall be signed by at least three members of the 
committee who were present when the bill was considered in 
committee. In the event there is an unfavorable report with no 
minority report accompanying it, the bill shall be placed upon 
the unfavorable calendar. To take a bill from the unfavorable 
calendar, a two-thirds vote shall be necessary. 

65. Whenever a public bill is introduced, a carbon copy th ire- 
of shall accompany the bill. On the same day that such public 
bill is introduced the Chief Clerk shall deliver the carbon copy 

4 



50 Legislative Department 

to the Public Printer and cause four hundred (400) copies thereof 
to be printed. On the morning following the delivery of the 
printed copies, the Chief Clerk shall cause the Chief Page to 
have a copy thereof put upon the desk of each member and then 
retain the other printed copies in his office. A sufficient number 
for the use of the Committee to whom the bill is referred shall 
be by the Chief Clerk delivered to the Chairman or Clerk of the 
committee. If the bill is passed, the remaining copies shall be 
by the Chief Clerk delivered to the Chief Clerk of the Senate, for 
the use of the Senate. No Committee shall consider or report 
any public bill until after the same shall have been printed as 
herein provided for. In the event the member introducing the 
bill and the Chief Clerk shall differ as to whether it is a public 
bill, the question shall be left to the decision of the Speaker 
of the House of Representatives, whose decision shall be final. 
The cost of printing as herein provided for shall be paid from the 
contingent fund of the House of Representatives. 



STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE HOUSE OF 
REPRESENTATIVES 

Agriculture. — Representatives Cox, chairman; King, Burgwyn, 
Whitaker of Jones, Ross, Davis of Hyde, Watkins of Granville, Net- 
tles, Bennett, Sutton, Chamblee, Robbins, Person, Gibson, Wa'-ker, 
Broughton, Buck, Hill, Loven, Simpson, Watkins of Erunsw ck, 
Thurston, Norris, Taylor of Caswell, Gwynn, Snipes, Selers, Hooks, 
Dunton, Patterson, Reynolds, Grant, Hooker, Cohoon of Pasquotank, 
Lewis, Bray, Warren of Person, Smith, Cobb, Hauser, Taylor of 
Vance, Nimocks, Everett, Fountain, Townsend of Harnett, Connor, 
Warren of Beaufort, Quickel, Martin, Hendricks, Gosney, Sanders, 
Morgan, Owen, Coffey. 

Aj)proi)riations. — Representatives Murphy, chairman; Connor, 
Doughton, Bowie, Neal, Cox, Wright, Burgwyn, Warren of Beaufort, 
Moore. Parker of Alamance, Gosney, Ray, Bryant, Townsend of Har- 
nett, Pharr, Ross, Graham, Gibson, Poisson, Fountain, Everett, King, 
Whitaker of Jones, Sanders, Chamblee, Turlington, Ferrell, Pruden, 
Parker of Halifax, Ervin Brown, Rideoutte, Wade, Vaughan, Lewis, 
Byrd, Mclver, Robbins, Broughton, Peterson, Cowles. 



Standing Committees op House of Repbesentatives 51 

Banks and Currency.— Representatives Townsend of Harnett, chair- 
man; Buck, Nowell, Burgwyn, Gwynn, Hooker, Cox, Moore, Tur- 
lington, Warren of Beaufort, Rogers, Gosney, Ross, Hendricks, Jack- 
son. 

Caswell Training School. — Representatives Whitaker of Guilford, 
chairman; Mclver, Grist, Deaton, Gwynn, Patterson, Nelson, Rob- 
bins, Bray, Duckworth, Williams. 

Claims. — Representatives Bennett, chairman; Bryant, McKinnon, 
Rankin, Hill, Loven, Norris, Coward, Nelson, Robbins, McFarland, 
Duckworth, Sutton, Person, Jenkins, Gwaltney. 

Congressional Districts. — Representatives Ross, chairman; Con- 
nor, Warren of Beaufort, Bowie, Parker of Alamance, Burgwyn, 
Murphy, Townsend of Harnett, Parker of Halifax, Neal, Cox, Dillard, 
Gaston, Hill, Moore, Sanders, Grant, Davis of Cleveland, Peterson. 

Constitutional Amendments. — Representatives Everett, chairman; 
Doughton, Murphy, Bowie, Parker of Alamance, Dillard, Taylor of 
Buncombe, Nimocks, Quickel, Graham, Ferrell, Brown, Connor, 
Moser, Milliken, Byrd. 

Corporation Commission. — Representatives Gosney, chairman; 
Fountain, Wright, Quickel, Person, Brown, Chamblee, Nimocks, 
Loven, Ervin, Bryant, Parker of Halifax, Gwynn, Milliken, Johnson, 
Hooks, Jackson. 

Corporations. — Representatives Fountain, chairman; Gosney, 
Everett, Hamilton, Gaston, Wright, Ross, McKinnon, Rankin, Mar- 
tin, Broughton, Nettles, Townsend of Davidson, Davis of Cleve- 
land, Coward, Lewis, McFarland, Vaughan, Duckworth, Owens, Co- 
hoon of Tyrrell, Coffey, Cowles, Gwaltney. 

Counties, Cities and Towns. — Representatives Neal, chairman; 
Connor, Cox, Ross, Warren of Beaufort, Townsend of Harnett, 
Gwynn, Moore, Burgwyn, Grant, Gosney, Grady, Chamblee, Milliken, 
Murphy, Rankin, Cobb, McKinnon, Warren of Person, Nowell, Co- 
hoon of Pasquotank, Bennett, Pharr, Taylor of Buncombe, Davis 
of Hyde, Grist, Williams, Davis of Carteret, Davis of Cleveland. 
Townsend of Davidson, Fountain, Lawrence, Saunders, Hay. Vaughan, 
Rideoutte, Ferrell, Nettles, Moser, Gtaston, Sellers, Watkins of 
Brunswick, Norris, Patterson, Cowles, Owen. 

Courts and Judicial Districts. — Representatives Bowie, chairman; 
Connor, Murphy, Townsend of Harnett, Doughton, Moore, Burgwyn. 



52 Legislative Department 

Warren of Beaufort, Parker of Alamance, Ray, Everett, Byrd, Dil- 
lard, Pruden, Grady, Ferrell, Nimocks, Daniel, Lawrence, Poisson, 
Quickel, Pharr, Brown, Moser, Milliken, Turlington, Bryant, Whit- 
aker of Guilford, Fountain. 

Drainage. — Representatives Whitaker of Jones, chairman; Sutton, 
Duckworth, Nowell, Watkins of Brunswick, Norris, Bumgardner, 
Pruden, Grady, Simpson, Hill, Grant, Lewis, Brown, Cobb, Walker, 
Cohoon of Pasquotank, Williams, Owens, Cohoon of Tyrrell, Coffey, 
Gwaltney. 

Education. — Representatives Connor, chairman; Whitaker of Guil- 
ford, Doughton, Bowie, Cox, Neal, Everett, Ray, Townsend of Har- 
nett, Warren of Beaufort, Moore, Pharr, Burgwyn, Sanders, Byrd, 
Gosney, Parker of Alamance, Braswell, Nowell, Bennett, Davis of 
Cartaret, Davis of Hyde, Ross, Hamilton, Whitaker of Jones, Bry- 
ant, Grady, Turlington, Hendricks, Dunston, Simpson, Loven, Deaton, 
Sherrill, Lawrence, Taylor of Buncombe, Johnson, Patterson, Wade, 
Poisson, Graham, Moser, McKinnon, Rankin, Gib:on, Vaughan, Mar- 
tin, Rideoutte, Hauser, Buck, Pass, Grist, Robbins, Taylor of Caswell, 
Watkins of Granville, Gaston, Coffey, Cowles, Doub, Owen. 

Election Laws. — Representatives Turlington, chairman; Neal, 
Doughton, Connor, Murphy, Moore, Bowie, Burgwyn, Matthews, 
Townsend of Harnett, Cox, Buck, Vaughan, Moser, Townsend of 
Davidson, Cohoon of Pasquotank, Snipes, Cowles. 

Engrossed .Bi7Zs.— Representatives Gwynn, chairman; Ray, Parker 
of Halifax, Bennett, Watkins of Brunswick, Hooker, Bumgardner, 
Deaton, Sellers, Sutton, Norris, Robbins, Lewis, Rankin, Graham, 
Nettles, Turlington, Ervin, Jackson, Cohoon of Tyrrell, Gwaltney. 

Expenditures in the House. — Representatives Martin, chairman; 
Doughton, Connor, Murphy, Moore, Neal, Cox, E'rvin, Fountain, 
Snipes, Davis of Cleveland, Nelson, Lewis, Coffey. 

Federal Relations. — Representatives Ray, chairman; Murphy, 
King, Doughton, Quickel, Dillard, Whitaker of Guilford, Graham, 
Sherrill, Poisson, Cowles, Doub. 

Finance. — Representatives Doughton, chairman; Connor, Pharr, 
Gosney, Burgwyn, Sanders, Warren of Beaufort, Townsend of Har- 
nett, Cox, Murphy, Neal, Parker of Alamance, Turlington, Nettles, 
Gaston, Ross, Daniel, Nowell, Whitaker of Guilford, Whitaker of 
Jones, Sherrill, Mclver, Davis of Cartaret, Dillard, Nimocks, Hamil- 



Standing Committees of House of Representatives 53 

ton, Everett, Bryant, Fountain, Graham, King, Quickel, Matthews, 
Braswell, Wade, Poisson, Gibson, Broughton, Vaughan, Coward, 
Hauser, Buck, Nelson, Johnson, Ray, Parker of Halifax, Coffey, 
Jackson, Owen. 

Fish and Fisheries. — Representatives Davis of Carteret, chair- 
man; Poisson, Parker of Alamance, Doughton, Townsend of Har- 
nett, Hamilton, Ervin, Murphy, Wade, Moore, Grady, Davis of Car- 
teret, Pruden, Williams, Bryant, Wright, Gwynn, Sanders, Tur- 
lington, Grant, Cohoon of Pasquotank, Hooker, Cohoon of Tyrrell. 

Game. — Representatives Hooker, chairman; Cobb, Thurston, Wat- 
kins of Brunswick, Norris, Pass, Hooks, Dunston, Grady, Gaston, 
Simpson, Matthews, Nelson, Wade, Cohoon of Pasquotank, Lewis, 
Bray, Walker, Bumgardner, Hauser, Rankin, Taylor of Vance, 
Broughton, Martin, Buck, Pharr, Morgan, Jackson, Cohoon of 
Tyrrell, Cowles, Owens. 

Health. — Representatives Braswell, chairman; No well, M elver, 
Deart, Bumgarner, Sherrill, Davis of Carteret, Connor, Bowie, Neal, 
Warren of Beaufort, Townsend of Harnett, McFarland, Deaton, 
Nimocks, Ferrell, Sellers, Wright, Whitaker of Guilford, Burgwyn, 
Quickel, Pharr, Ross, Rankin, Gibson, Hauser, Duckworth, Taylor 
of Vance, Chamblee, Sutton, Buck, Pass, Person, Peterson, Jenkins, 
Owen, Jackson, Cohoon of Tyrrell, Cowles, Doub, Gwaltney. 

Immigration. — Representatives Hill, chairman; Grist, Deaton, 
Pass, Hendricks, Rodgers, Braswell, Cohoon of Pasquotank, Walker, 
Bumgardner, Taylor of Vance, Owens. 

Insane Asylums. — Representatives Gaston, chairman; Byrd, De- 
Hart, Mclver, Milliken, Taylor of Caswell, Snipes, Williams, Town- 
send of Davidson, Sanders, Person, Braswell, Hooker, Smith, Cobb, 
Walker, Hauser, Martin, Buck, Whitaker of Jones, Lewis, Norris. 
Cohoon of Tyrrell, Cowles, Doub. 

Institution for Blind. — Representatives Nettles, chairman; Mc- 
lver, Nowell, Davis of Cleveland, Hendricks, Cooper, Whitaker of 
Jones, Poisson, Warren of Person, McKinnon, Rankin, Rideoutte, 
Gibson, Taylor of Vance, Sutton, Coffey, Doub. 

Institutions for Deaf and, Dumb. — Representatives Nowell, chair- 
man; Buck, DeHart, Bumgardner, Johnson, Bray, Sherrill, Pruden, 
Fountain. Simpson, Rogers, Reynolds, Braswell, Graham, Smith, 
Broughton, Parker of Alamance, Ervin, Davis of Carteret, Deaton, 
Nimocks, Cox Turlington, Neal, Pharr, Owen. 



54 Legislative Department 

Insurance. — Representatives Brown, chairman; Byrd, Hauser, 
Rankin, Johnson, Taylor of Buncombe, Sherrill, Warren of Person, 
Dillard, Fountain, Cooper, Parker of Halifax, Rodgers, Coward, 
Whitaker of Jones, Quickel, Person, Watkins of Granville, Pharr, 
Bryant, Jackson, Doub. 

Internal Improvemen ts.— Representatives Cohoon of Pasquotank, 
chairman; Chamblee, Ervin, Grist. Deaton, Williams, Perrell, King, 
Gwynn, Grant, Moser, Duckworth, Morgan, Cowles. 

Journal. — Representatives Lawrence, chairman; Taylor of Bun- 
combe, Davis of Carteret, Nimocks, Hamilton, Wright, Daniel, Tur- 
lington, Hooker, Duckworth, Moore, Townsend of Harnett, Burgwyn, 
Ross, Bryant. 

Judiciary No. 1. — Representatives Warren of Beaufort, chairman; 
Parker of Alamance, Burgwyn, Townsend of Harnett, Doughton, 
Dillard, Quickel, Gosney, Moore, Murphy, Byrd, Bryant, Ervin, 
Pruden, Ferrell, Grady, Parker of Halifax, Graham, McKinnon, Mar- 
tin, Moser, Milliken, Jackson. 

Judiciary No. 2. — Representatives Fharr, chairman; Connor, Bowie, 
Nimocks, Everett, Gibson, Ray, Fountain, Hamilton, Brown, Davis 
of Cleveland, Lawrence, Davis of Carteret, Turlington, Thurston, 
Poisson, Gaston, Daniel, Johnson, Taylor of Buncombe, Jenkins, 
Whitaker of Guilford. 

Manufacturing and Lalor. — Representatives Hamilton, chairman; 
Wade, Neal, Quickel, Rideoutte, Coward, Ross, Parker of Alamance, 
Buck, Reynolds, Bennett, Snipes, Townsend of Davidson, Cooper, Mc- 
Farland, Matthews, Bowie, Wright, Connor, Bumgardner. 

Military Affairs. — Representatives Byrd, chairman; Gosney, Gra- 
ham, Daniel, Gaston, Townsend of Davidson, Hamilton, Parker of 
Halifax, Mclver, Taylor of Vance, Jenkins, Peterson. 

Mines and Mining.— Representatives Watkins of Granville, chair- 
man; Bennett, Nettles, Grist, Pass, Hendricks, Rodgers, Warren of 
Person, Moser, McFarland, Taylor of Vance, Doub, Gwaltney. 

Oyster Industry. — Representatives Grady, chairman; Neal Ross, 
Doughton, Moore, Turlington, Grant, Pruden, Williams, Dunton, 
Daniel, Davis of Hyde, Robbins, Hooker, Cohoon of Pasquotank, 
Martin, Brown, Bray, Owen, Cohoon of Tyrrell. 

Penal Institutions. — Representatives Matthews, chairman; Sand- 
ers, Parker of Alamance, Turlington, Townsend of Harnett, Moore, 



Standing Committees of House of Represent \n . 55 

Neal, Gosney, Grady, Ross, Cohoon of Pasquotank, McKinnon, Cow- 
ard, Loven, Milliken, Byrd. 

Pensions. — Representatives Bray, chairman; Matthews, Watkins, 
Grist, Norris, Williams, Sellers, Watkins of Granville, Robbins, 
Warren of Person, Walker, McFarland, Taylor of Vance, Sutton, 
Bowie, Peterson, Doub. 

Private and Public-Local Laws. — Representatives Cooper, chair- 
man; Taylor of Caswell, Dunton, Whitaker of Guilford, Patterson, 
Davis of Hyde, Lewis, Warren of Person, McFarland, Gosney, 
Broughton, Buck, Connor, Burgwyn, Ross, Warren of Beauforl 
Peterson. 

Privileges and Elections. — Representatives McKinnon, chairman; 
Nimocks, Bowie, Lawrence, Turlington, Burgwyn, Dunton, Wade, 
Dillard, Ray, Gaston, Taylor of Buncombe, Warren of Person, Coffey. 

Propositions and Grievances. — Representatives Graham, chairman; 
Warren of Beaufort, Connor, Bowie, Cox, Parker of Alamance, Town- 
send of Harnett, Hooker, Bennett, Hooks, Grady, Sellers, Watkins 
of Granville, Gosney, King, Patterson, Davis of Hyde, Grant, Thurs- 
ton, Ferrell, Ray, Ross, Davis of Cleveland, Moore, Ervin, Neal, 
Robbins, Pharr, Matthews, Braswell, Poisson, Burgwyn, Bray, Brown, 
McKinnon, Walker, Rideoutte, Gibson, Broughton, Martin, Byrd, 
Bumgardner, Fountain, Whitaker of Guilford, Peterson, Morgan, 
Owens. 

Public Roads and Turnpikes. — Representatives Moore, chairman; 
Bowie, Doughton, Connor, Cox, Neal, Wright, Pharr, Burgwyn, Ross, 
Gosney, Quickel, Sanders, Gwynn, Townsend of Harnett, Warren of 
Beaufort, Parked of Alamance, Graham, Sherrill, Dillard, Everett of 
Durham, Byrd, Nettles, Loven, Ervin, Taylor of Caswell, Pass, Davis 
of Cleveland, Hendricks, Ferrell, Cooper, Gaston, Watkins of Gran- 
ville, Turlington, Rogers, Thurston, Nelson, Person, Wade, Poisson, 
Grant, Cohoon of Pasquotank, Smith, McKinnon, Walker, Gibson. 
Broughton, Vaughan, Martin, Hauser, Johnson, Whitaker of Jones. 
Buck, Williams, Sellers, Jenkins, Peterson, Coffey, Doub. 

Regulation Public Service Corporations. — Representatives Poisson, 
chairman; Neal, Cox, Wright, Townsend of Harnett, Gwynn, Mclver, 
Taylor of Vance, Moore, Ross, Murphy. Vaughan, Gosney. 

Revision of the Laws. — Representatives Bryant, chairm m; Wright, 
Daniel, Parker of Halifax, Burgwyn, McKinnon, Brown, Poisson 
Ferrell, Murphy, Bowie, Jenkins. 



56 Legislative Department 

Rules. — Representatives Burgwyn, chairman; Doughton, Murphy, 
Bowie, Connor, Neal, Cox, Moore, Warren of Beaufort, Parker of 
Alamance, Townsend of Harnett, Coffey. 

Salaries and Fees. — Representatives Parker of Alamance, chair- 
man; Ray, Neal, Dillard, Nimocks, Gaston, Doughton, Murphy, King, 
Coward, Johnson, Cooper, Patterson, Mclver, Wade, Cohoon of 
Pasquotank, Moser, Bumgardner, DeHart, Buck, Sellers, Bryant, 
Ferrell, Peterson, Jackson, Cohoon of Tyrrell. 

Senatorial Districts. — Representatives Nimocks, chairman; Taylor 
of Vance, Neal, Gosney, Matthews, Loven, Ervin, Snipes, Pass, 
Fountain, Sellers, Thurston, Hauser, Cox, Moore, Bowie, Turlington, 
Whitaker of Jones, Morgan, Coffey. 

Water Commerce. — Representatives Sanders, chairman; Murphy, 
Parker of Alamance, Warren of Beaufort, Davis of Carteret, Everett 
of Durham, Neal, Wright, Hamilton, Townsend of Harnett, Turling- 
ton, Grady, Moore, Matthews, Pharr, Poisson, King, Wade, Chamhlee, 
Gibson, Hooker, Brown, McKinnon, Bryant, Watkins of Brunswick, 
Williams. 



JOIST COMITTEES 

Enrolled Bills. — Representatives King, chairman; Person, Nettles, 
Snipes, Pass, Gaston, Coward, McKinnon, DeHart, Vaughan, Jenkins, 
Gwaltney. 

Justices of the Peace. — Representatives Smith, chairman; Hooker, 
Nelson, Loven, Watkins of Brunswick, Grist, Taylor of Caswell, 
Dunton, Cooper, Watkins of Granville, Hill, Dillard, Pruden. 

Library. — Representatives Taylor of Vance, chairman; Nimocks, 
Graham, Reynolds, Nowell, Ervin, Sherrill, Daaton, Whitaker of 
Guilford, Daniel, Whitaker of Jones, Vaughan. 

Printing. — Representatives Sherrill, chairman; Davis of Cleveland, 
Williams, Sellers, Lawrence, Thurston, Reynolds, Hauser, DeHart, 
Vaughan, Martin, Byrd, Bumgardner, Jenkins, Gwaltney. 

Public Buildings and Grounds. — Representatives Rodgers, chair- 
man; Bryant, Gaston, Bennett, Johnson, Hooks, Hamilton, Grant, 
Bray Cobb, Warier. Nettles, Whitaker of Jones, Coffey. 

Trustees of University. — Representatives Quickel, chairman; 
Wright, Murphy, Doughton, Bowie, Townsend of Harnett, Burgwyn, 
Connor, Moore, Graham, Warren of Beaufort, Pharr, Bryant, Ervin, 
Pruden. 



PART II. 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS. 



1. Governor. 

2. Secretary of State. 

3. Treasurer. 

4. Auditor. 

5. Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

6. Attorney-General. 



157! 



THE GOVERNOR. 

Cameron Morrison, Governor. 

The Governor is the chief executive officer of the State. He is 
elected by the people for a term of four years. He receives a salary 
of $6,500 a year, and in addition is allowed annually $600 for travel- 
ing expenses, and a residence, with domestic servants. 

Article III, Section 2. of the Constitution of North Carolina, pre- 
scribes the following qualifications for the Governor: 

1. He must have attained the age of thirty years. 

2. He must have been a citizen of the United States for five years, 
and a resident of North Carolina for two years next before the 
election. 

3. No person shall be eligible for the office of Governor for more 
than four years in any term of eight years, unless he becomes Gov- 
ernor by having been Lieutenant-Governor or President of the 
Senate. 

The same qualifications apply to the office of Lieutenant-Governor. 

The Constitution prescribes the powers and duties of the Governor 
as follows: 

1. To take the oath of office prescribed for the Governor. 

2. To reside at the seat of government; to keep the General As- 
sembly informed respecting the affairs of the State; and to recom- 
mend to the General Assembly such measures as he deems expedient. 

3. To grant reprieves, commutations and pardons (except in cases 
of impeachment), and to report each case of reprieve, commutation, 
or pardon to the General Assembly. 

4. To receive reports from all officials of the Executive Depart- 
ments and of public institutions, and to transmit the same to the 
General Assembly. 

5. He is commander-in-chief of the militia of the State, except 
when they are called into the service of the United States. 

6. To call extra sessions of the General Assembly when he thinks 
necessary, by and with the advice of the Council of State. 

I 59 ] 



60 Executive Departments 

7. To appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, 
all officers whose offices are established by the Constitution and 
whose appointments are not otherwise provided for. 

8. To keep "The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina" and 
use the same as occasion shall require. 

He has no veto power, being the only Governor in the United 
States without such power. 
In addition to these duties the following are prescribed by statute: 

1. To supervise the official conduct of all executive and adminis- 
trative officers, and to visit all State institutions whenever he deems 
such visitation necessary to inquire into their management and 
needs. 

2. To see that all public offices are filled and their duties per- 
formed. 

3. To make appointments and supply vacancies not otherwise pro- 
vided for in all departments. 

4. To be the sole official organ of communication between the gov- 
ernment of thi 4 s State and other States or the government of the 
United States. 

5. To use the civil and military power of the State to prevent the 
violation of the statute against prize-fighting in North Carolina. 

6. To convene the Council of State for consultation whenever he 
deems it necessary. 

7. To appoint a Private Secretary, who shall keep a record of all 
public letters written by or to the Governor in books provided for 
that purpose. 

8. To cause to be kept the following records: a register of all ap- 
plications for pardon or the commutation of any sentence; an ac- 
count of his official expenses, and the rewards offered by him for 
the apprehension of criminals, which shall be paid upon the warrant 
of the Auditor. 

9. Under certain conditions to employ counsel for the State. 

10. To appoint by proclamation one day in each year as a day of 
solemn and public thanksgiving to Almighty God for past blessings 
and of supplication for His continued kindness and care over us as a 
State and a Nation. 

11. To procure a seal for each department of the State govern- 
ment to be used in such manner as may be established by law. 



Secretary of State 

In addition to the above duties the Governor is, < hair- 

man of the State Board of Education, of the Board of Public Build- 
ings and Grounds, of the State Board of Pensions, of the SI 
of Internal Improvements, of the North Carolina Geological Board, 
of the Board of Trustees of the State Library, of the Board of 
tees of the University of North Carolina, of the SI 
Commission, of the committee to let the contract for State print i 
and of the State Board of Canvassers. 



THE SECRETARY OF STATE. 

W. N. Everett, 1 Secretary of State. 

The Secretary of State is at the head of the Department of State. 
He is elected by the people for a term of four years and receives a 
salary of $4,500. He is, ex officio, a member of the Council of State, 
of the State Board of Education, of the State Text-book Commission, 
of the Board of Public Buildings and Grounds, and is a trustee of 
tho public libraries. 

The Secretary of State countersigns all commissions issued by 
the Governor, and is charged with the custody of all statutes and 
joint resolutions of the Legislature, all documents which pass under 
the Great Seal, and of all books, records, deeds, parchments, in 
and papers now deposited in his office or which may hereafter be 
there deposited pursuant to law. 

Through the Secretary of State all corporations for business or 
charitable purposes under the general laws of the State are char- 
tered. This includes mercantile, manufacturing, banking, insur- 
ance, railroad, street car, electric, steamboat, and other companies. 
The certificates of incorporation are there filed and recorded. For 
the period November 30, 1920, to June 30, 1922, there have b 
2,020 certificates for domestic corporations filed in the office of the 
Secretary of State on which $94,241.58 organization or dissolution 
taxes have been paid. Four hundred and fifty-eight of theso are 
dissolutions and 1,562 are certificates of incorporation and amend- 
ments. For the period November 30, 1920, to June 30, 1922, 51 banks 



Succeeded J. Bryan Grimes, deceased, Jan. 16, 1923. 



62 Executive Departments 

have been incorporated and 4 railroad companies have filed articles 
of association or amendment with the Secretary of State. Foreign 
corporations, before being permitted to do business in North Caro- 
lina, are required to file copies of their charters in the office of the 
Secretary of State. 

All bills passed by the General Assembly are enrolled for ratifi- 
cation under the supervision and direction of the Secretary of State, 
and shall be typewritten or written with pen and ink, in the dis- 
cretion of the Secretary of State. All bills are now typewritten, 
which change is very much in the interest of economy and accuracy. 
Copyists in the enrolling office are paid ten cents a copy sheet for 
original and one carbon copy. The carbon copy is sent to the State 
Printer, from which copy are published the laws, resolutions, etc. An 
assistant to the Secretary of State prepares these laws for publication, 
determines which are "public," "public-local," and which are "pri- 
vate"; side-notes them and prepares the captions and indexes the 
laws of the session. This work has grown very much in the last 
few years. 

The Secretary of State is charged with the work of distributing 
the Supreme Court Reports, the Consolidated Statutes, Session Laws, 
Journals, etc. 

All vacant and unappropriated land in North Carolina is subject 
to entry by residents or citizens of the State. Almost all the vacant 
land in the State has been granted to individuals or is the property 
of the State Board of Education, but small tracts are frequently 
discovered and entries for same made. The warrants, plats, and 
surveys and a record of grants for all lands originally granted by 
the Lord Proprietors, by the Crown of Great Britain, or by the State 
of North Carolina, are preserved in the office of the Secretary of 
State. 

The -General Assembly of 1909 increased the price of these lands 
to $1.50 an acre, and provided "That all lands entered under this 
act for which a grant has been obtained at the price of $1.50 an 
acre shall be free from all claims, title and interest now vested in 
the State of North Carolina or the State Board of Education." 

All automobiles in the State are required to be registered annually 
by the Secretary of State. For the year ending June 30, 1922, there 
have been registered in the office of Secratary of State: 



Secretary of State 63 

163,962 Motor-vehicles, 1,445 Motorcycles and 961 dealers. 
For the year ending June 30, 1922, $2,364,509.15 was collected from 
automobiles. 

From July 1, 1922, to December 1, 1922, $2,703,516.34 has been 
collected. 

The General Assembly of 1921 fixed a gasoline tax of lc a gallon to 
become effective in May, 1921. 

From May, 1921, to December 1, 1922, $1,228,412.30 has been col- 
lected from this source. 



THE TREASURER. 

B. R. Lacy, Treasurer. 

The State Treasury is one of the Executive Departments of the 
State Government. The State Treasurer is elected by the people 
for a term of four years. His term of office begins the first day 
of January next after his election and continues until his successor 
is elected and qualified. He is ex officio a member of the Gover- 
nor's Council, the State Board of Education, and the Board of 
Public Buildings and Grounds. He receives a salary of $4,500 
per annum. 

The duties of the State Treasurer as prescribed by law are as 
follows: 

1. To keep his office in the city of Raleigh and attend there be- 
tween the hours of 10 o'clock a. m. and 3 o'clock p. m., except 
Sundays and legal holidays. 

2. To receive all moneys that may be paid into the Treasury of 
the State; to pay interest on State bonds and all warrants legally 
drawn on the Treasury by the Auditor, and to report to the Gov- 
ernor and the General Assembly the financial condition of the 
State, including a summary of the receipts and disbursements for 
each fiscal year. 

3. To make complete revenue bill to cover estimated expenses 
and recommend the tax rate. 

4. To construe revenue when license is paid direct to State 
Treasurer. 



64 Executive Departments 



THE STATE AUI>ITOI\ 

The Department of the State Auditor is one of the Executive 
Departments of the State Government. The Auditor is elected for 
a term of four years by the qualified voters of the State, at the same 
time and places and in the same manner as members of the General 
Assembly are elected. His term of office begins on the first day of 
January next after his election, and continues until his successor 
is elected and qualified. His salary is $4,500 per annum. (Consti- 
tution of North Carolina, Article III, section 1.) His duties as pre- 
scribed by law are as follows: (Revival of 1905, section 5365) : 

1. To superintend the fiscal concerns of the State. 

2. To report to the Governor annually, and to the General As- 
sembly at the beginning of each biennial session thereof, a complete 
statement of the funds of the State, of its revenues and of the 
public expenditures during the preceding fiscal year, and, as far as 
practicable, an account of the same down to the termination of the 
current calendar year, together with a detailed estimate of the ex- 
penditures to be defrayed from the Treasury for the ensuing fiscal 
year, specifying therein each object of expenditure and distinguish- 
ing between such as are provided for by permanent or temporary 
appropriations and such as must be provided for by a new statute, 
and suggesting the means from which such expenditures are to be 
defrayed. 

3. To suggest plans for the improvement and management of the 
public revenue. 

4. To keep and state all accounts in which the State is interested. 

5. To examine and settle the accounts of all persons indebted to 
the State, and to certify the amount of balance to the Treasurer. 

6. To direct and superintend the collection of all moneys due to 
the State. 

7. To examine and liquidate the claims of all persons against the 
State, in cases where there is sufficient provision of law for the 
payment thereof, and where there is no sufficient provision, to ex- 
amine the claim and report the fact, with his opinion thereon, to 
the General Assembly. 

8. To require all persons who have received any moneys belonging 
to the State, and have not accounted therefor, to settle their ac- 
counts. 



State Auditor 65 

9. To have the exclusive power and authority to issue all warrants 
for the payment of money upon the State Treasurer; and it shall be 
the Auditor's duty, before issuing the same, to examine the laws 
authorizing the payment thereof, and satisfy himself of the correct- 
ness of the accounts of persons applying for warrants, and to this 
end he shall have the power to administer oaths; and he shall also 
file in his office the voucher upon which the warrant is drawn and 
cite the law upon said warrant. 

10. To procure from the books of the banks in which the Treas- 
urer makes his deposits monthly statements of the moneys received 
and paid on account of the Treasurer. 

11. To keep an account between the State and the Treasurer, and 
therein charge the Treasurer with the balance in the Treasury when 
he came into office, and with all moneys received by him, and credit 
him with all warrants drawn or paid by him. 

12. To examine carefully on the first Tuesday of every month, or 
oftener if he deems it necessary, the accounts of the debits and 
credits in the bank book kept by the Treasurer, and if he discovers 
any irregularity or deficiency therein, unless the same be rectified 
or explained to his satisfaction, to report the same forthwith in 
writing to the Governor. 

13. To require, from time to time, all persons who have received 
moneys or securities, or have had the disposition or management 
of any property of the State, of which an account is kept in his 
office, to render statements thereof to him ; and all such persons shall 
render such statements at such time and in such form as he shall 
require. 

14. To require any person presenting an account for settlement to 
oe sworn before him and to answer orally as to any facts relating to 
its correctness. 

In addition to the above, the State Auditor is a member of the 
Council of State, of the State Board of Education, of the State Text- 
book Commission, of the State Board of Pensions. All pension mat- 
ters are managed in this department; all applications or pensions 
examined, and all pension warrants issued to more than eleven 
thousand pensioners. The Auditor keeps the accounts of the Sol- 
diers' Home. 
5 



66 Executive Departments 

pensions for confederate veterans. 

The first pension law was passed by the Legislature of 1885. It 
appropriated $30,000 annually for certain classes of disabled Con- 
federate soldiers. This appropriation has been increased from time 
to time, until the annual appropriation now amounts to $1,000,000. 

We have now on the pension roll of North Carolina in round 
numbers 11,000 pensioners. 

To totally blind and disabled Confederate soldiers the law allows 
$180 each per year. That class received $21,497.50 in 1922. 

The Soldiers' Home was organized by the Legislature of 1891, and 
there was expended that year $2,250. That has gradually increased 
from year to year until the last Legislature appropriated $60.00( 
for maintenance. 

15. To cause to be examined at least once a year and oftener i1 
conditions require, all counties and county officers receiving or dis 
bursing public funds. 

16. To keep a record of all bonded indebtedness of the State, coun 
ties, cities, towns, and other sub-divisions of government. 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION. 

Eugene C. Brooks, Superintendent. 

The Department of Education is one of the Executive Depart 
ments of the State Government. The Superintendent of Public In 
struction, head of the department, is elected by the people for < 
term of four years. His term begins on the first of January nex 
after his election, and continues until his successor has been electei 
and qualified. His salary is $5,000 per annum, and in addition he i 
allowed "actual traveling expenses" when engaged in the perforn: 
ance of his official duties. 

Section XLI of the Constitution of North Carolina of 1776 is a 
follows: "That a school or schools be established by the Legislature 
for the convenient instruction of youth, with such salaries to th 
masters, paid by the public, as may enable them to instruct at Ioa 
prices; and all useful learning shall be duly encouraged and pre 
moted in one or more universities." 



Superintendent of Public Instruction 67 

Except for the establishment of the University of North Carolina, 
no attempt was made by the Legislature to carry out this injunc- 
tion of the Constitution until nearly three-quarters of a century had 
elapsed. The first efforts were a failure and nothing definite was 
accomplished until the creation of a Department of Education by 
the election in 1851 of Calvin H. Wiley, Superintendent of Common 
Schools. He entered upon the duties of his office in January, 1852, 
and was continued in office until October 19, 1865. The following 
figures tell the story of his work: Number of teachers in 1852, 800; 
in 1855, 2,064; in I860, 2,2S6. Enrollment in the schools in 1853, 83,- 
373; in 1855, 115,856; in 1860, 116,567. Number of schools taught in 
1855, 1,905; 1860, 2,854. School fund in 1853, $192,250; in 1860, 
$40S,566. Expenditures in 1853, $139,865; in 1860, $255,641. The 
schools were kept open throughout the war, and in 1863 enrolled 
more than 50,000 pupils. In 1865, as one of the results of the war, 
the office of Superintendent of Common Schools was abolished. 



EDUCATION IN OUR PRESENT CONSTITUTION. 

Article IX of the Constitution of North Carolina relates to educa- 
tion. It reads as follows: 

Section 1. Religion, morality, and knowledge being necessary to 
good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the 
means of education shall forever be encouraged. 

Sec. 2. The General Assembly, at its first session under this Con- 
stitution, shall provide by taxation and otherwise for a general and 
uniform system of public schools, wherein tuition shall be free of 
charge to all the children of the State between the ages of six and 
twenty-one years. And the children of the white race and the chil- 
dren of the colored race shall be taught in separate public schools; 
but there shall be no discrimination in favor of or to the prejudice 
of either race. 

Sec. 3. Each county of the State shall be divided into a convenient 
number of districts, in which one or more public schools shall be 
maintained at least six months in every year; and if the commission- 
ers of any county shall fail to comply with the aforesaid require- 
ments of this section they shall be liable to indictment. 

Sec. 4. The proceeds of all lands that have been or hereafter may 
be granted by the United States to this State and not otherwise 



6S Executive Departments 

appropriated by this State or the United States, also all moneys 
stocks, bonds and other property now belonging to any State fun 
for purposes of education, also the net proceeds of all sales of th 
swamp lands belonging to the State, and all other grants, gifts o 
devises that have been or hereafter may be made to the State an 
not otherwise appropriated by the State or by the terms of the gran 
gift or devise, shall be paid into the State Treasury, and, togethe 
with so much of the ordinary revenue of the State as may be by lai 
set apart for that purpose, shall be faithfully appropriated for e: 
tablishing and maintaining in this State a system of free publi 
schools, and for no other uses or purposes whatsoever. 

Sec. 5. All moneys, stocks, bonds, and other property belonging t 
a county school fund, also the net proceeds from the sale of estrayi 
also the clear proceeds of all penalties and forfeitures and of all fine 
collected in the several counties for any breach of the penal o 
military laws of the State, and all moneys which shall be paid b 
persons as an equivalent for exemption from military duty sha 
belong to and remain in the several counties and shall be faitl 
fully appropriated for establishing and maintaining free public school 
in the several counties in this State: Provided, that the amount co 
lected in each county shall be annually reported to the Superintent 
ent of Public Instruction. 

Sec. 6. The General Assembly shall have power to provide for th 
election of trustees of the University of Xorth Carolina, in whon 
when chosen, shall be vested all the privileges, rights, franchise 
and endowments thereof in any wise granted to or conferred upo 
the trustees of said University; and the General Assembly may mak 
such provisions, laws and regulations from time to time as may t 
necessary and expedient for the maintenance and management c 
said University. 

Sec. 7. The General Assembly shall provide that the benefits of th 
University, as far as practicable, be extended to the youth of th 
State free of expense for tuition; also that all the property whic 
has heretofore accrued to the State or shall hereafter accrue froi 
escheats, unclaimed dividends or distributive shares of the estate 
of deceased persons shall be appropriated to the use of the Universit: 

Sec. 8. The Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Secretary of Stati 
Treasurer, Auditor, Superintendent of Public Instruction, and A 
torney-General shall constitute a State Board of Education. 



Superintendent of Public Instruction 69 

Sec. 9. The Governor shall be president and the Superintendent 
of Public Instruction shall be secretary of the Board of Education. 

Sec. 10. The Board of Education shall succeed to all the powers 
and trusts of the president and directors of the literary fund of 
North Carolina, and shall have full power to legislate and make all 
needful rules and regulations in relation to free public schools and 
the educational fund of the State; but all acts, rules and regulations 
of said board may be altered, amended, or repealed by the General 
Assembly, and when so altered, amended or repealed they shall not 
be reenacted by the board. 

Sec 11. The first session of the Board of Education shall be held 
at the capital of the State within fifteen days after the organization 
of the State Government under this Constitution; the time of future 
meetings may be determined by the board. 

Sec 12. A majority of the board shall constitute a quorum for 
the transaction of business. 

Sec 13. The contingent expenses of the board shall be provided 
by the General Assembly. 

Sec 14. As soon as practicable after the adoption of this Consti- 
tution the General Assembly shall establish and maintain in connec- 
tion with the University a department of agriculture, of mechanics, 
of mining and of normal instruction. 

Sec 15. The General Assembly is hereby empowered to enact 
that every child of sufficient mental and physical ability shall attend 
the public schools during the period between the ages of six and 
eighteen years for a term of not less than sixteen months, unless 
educated by other means. 

Sec 27. The people have the right to the privilege of education, 
and it is the duty of the State to guard and maintain that right — 
Bill of Rights, North Carolina Constitution. 

Article II, section 29: 

The General Assembly shall not pass any local, private, or special 
act or resolution: "Erecting new townships, or changing township 
lines, or establishing or changing the lines of school districts." 

educational qualification for suffrage 
Article VI, section 4, of the Constitution of North Carolina, con- 
tains the following: 

Every person presenting himself for registration shall be able to 
read and write any section of the Constitution in the English Ian- 



70 Executive Departments 

guage; and before he shall be entitled to vote he shall have paid, or 
or before the first day of May of the year in which he proposes tc 
vote, his poll tax for the previous year, as prescribed by Article V 
section 1, of the Constitution. But no male person who was, or 
January 1, 1S67, or at any time prior thereto, entitled to vote undei 
the laws of any State in the United States wherein he then resided 
and no lineal descendant of any such person, shall be denied the righ 
to register and vote at any election in this State by reason of his fail 
ure to possess the educational qualifications herein prescribed: Pro 
vided, he shall have registered in accordance with the terms of this 
section prior to December 1, 1908. 

By the Constitution of 186S the office of Superintendent of Publi< 
Instruction was created, and the Department of Education made on< 
of the Constitutional Departments of the State Government. Sine* 
that time the following have filled the office: S. S. Ashley, Alexandei 
JMcIver, Stephen D. Pool, John C. Scarborough, Sidney M. Finger 
Charles H. Mebane, Thomas F. Toon, James Y. Joyner, and E. C 
Brooks. 

The scope and general nature of the work of this department cai 
be best understood from the following summary of the genera 
powers and duties of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction 

The Superintendent is required to publish the school law, make i 
biennial report to the Governor, keep his office at the capital, am 
sign all orders for money paid out of State Treasury for educationa 
purposes. He has general direction of the school system and tin 
enforcement of the school law, all school officers being required t< 
obey his instructions and his interpretation of the law. He is re 
quired to be acquainted with the educational conditions of all sec 
tions of the State, and he must also keep in touch with the educa 
tional progress of other States. 

In addition to these general duties, the State Superintendent ha: 
the following duties: Trustee of State Library, C. S., 6574; presiden 
board of directors North Carolina College for women, C. S., 5834 
chairman of trustees of East Carolina Teachers College, C. S., 5866 
makes rules and regulations for rural libraries, C. S., 5622; chairmai 
ex officio board of trustees of the Caswell Training School, Law: 
1911; member of board of trustees of the University of North Caro 
lina, C. S., 5789; member Board of Vocational Education, C. S., 5393 
member of Library Commission, C. S., 6597. 



Superintendent of Public Instruction 



71 



SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES, 1920-21 

This table gives the total amount spent for teaching and supervision, administration, 
operation and maintenance of plants, outlay payments, borrowed money repaid and the 
balance on hand June 30, 1921. 





Rural 


City 


North 

Carolina 


Total expenditures (exclusive of borrow- 
ed money repaid, 1920-21) 

Total expenditures (exclusive of borrow- 
ed money repaid, 1919-20) 


3 11,564,666.30 
7,973,640.86 


S 5,923,097.40 
4,240,617.34 


3 17,487,703.70 
12,214,258.20 






S 3,591,025.44 

S 7,848,680.00 
5,717,705.59 


8 1,682,480.00 

S 3,946,747.69 
2,727,994.15 


S 5,273,505.50 

3 11,795,427.69 
8.445,699.74 


Expenses (costs of conducting school 
system ) : 

Teaching and supervision, 1920-21 

Teaching and supervision, 1919-20 . 


Increase - 

Administ ration, 1920-21 

Administration, 191-20 — . 


S 2,130,974.41 

S 333.922.40 

300,119.99 


S 1,218,753.54 

S '.12.254.17 

77,587.13 


3 3,349,727.95 
3 426,176.57 

377,707.12 




S 33,802.41 

8 717,862.03 
338,436.67 


8 14,667.04 

3 532,808.88 

406,899.57 


3 48,409.45 

3 1,250,670.91 
745,336.24 


Operation and maintenance of plants 


Operation and maintenance of plants 
1919-20 


Increase 

Total — Teaching, administration, oper- 
ation and maintenance, 1920-21 __ 

Total — Teaching, administration, oper- 
ation and maintenance, 1919-20. 


S 379,425.36 

S 8,900,464.43 
6,356,262.25 


S 125,909.31 

S 4,471,800.74 
3,212,180.85 


3 505,334.67 

3 13,472,275.17 
9,568,743.10 


Increase - - .. 


S 2,544,202.18 

S 2,664,201.87 
1,017,378.61 


S 1,359,329.89 

3 1,351,286.66 
1,028,136.49 


3 3,903,532.07 


Outlays (for permanent improvements 
and repayment of bonds , Loans, etc. ) : 
Outlay payments for new buildings, 

sites, and repairs, 1920-21 

Outlay payments for new buildings, 
sites, and lepairs, 1919-20 . 


8 4,015,4- 
2,645,515.10 






Increase.. .. . 


8 1,046,823.26 
8 229,972.50 


3 323,150.17 
3 329,701.99 


S 1,369,973.43 


Balance on hand, June 30, 1921 


3 559,674.17 


Borrowed money repaid, bonds, etc., 
1920-21 


S 1,839,312.86 
875,798.70 


8 1,380.650.99 
851,047.14 


S 3,219,963.85 


Borrowed money repaid, bonds, etc., 
1919-20... 


1,726,845.84 






Increase. 


S 963,514.00 


8 529,803.85 


3 1,493,118.1 1 



Executive Departments 



SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURES— Continued 





Rural 


City 


North 
Carolina 


Percentage spent for teaching and super- 
vision 1920-21 


67.9 
2.9 
6.2 

23. 

17.09 

20 .54 

30.21 


66.7 
1.5 

9. 

22.8 

32.28 
40.87 

52.82 




Percentage spent for administration 
1920-21 

Percentage spent for operation and main- 
tenance, 1920-21 

Percentage spent for new buildings and 

Amount spent for each child of school age 
1920-21... 

Amount spent for each child enrolled 1920-21 
Amount spent for each child attending 
daily, 1920-21 


2.4 

7.1 

23. 

20.33 
24.70 

35.33 



MISCELLANEOUS STATISTICS, 1920-21 



Totpl school population 

Total enrollment 

Total average daily attendance 

Total number of rural schools 

Total number of teachers 

Average term of all schools in days 

Total number of schoolhouses 

Total value of school property 

Average value schoolhouses. 

Average annual salary of teachers.. 



Rural 



15 



076, 

5H2. 

382. 

7, 

14. 

7, 

170, 

2, 



844 
844 
758 
511 

459 

125 

467 

653.00 

032.49 

Oli'.i.cf, 



City 



183,484 

144, 91S 
122,129 



3,902 
176.4 
434 

S 13,025,480.00 

30,012.62 

919.76 



North 

Carolina 



S60.328 

707,762 

494, 8S7 

7,511 

18,361 

135.9 
7,901 
-? 28,202,133.00 
3,569.43 
596.74 



Superintendent of Public Instruction 
RECEIPTS FOR SCHOOLS 



73 



SCHOOL FUND AND SOURCES, 1920-21 

This table shows the total school fund of each county and of each separate town or city 
system for the scholastic year beginning July 1, 1920, and ending JuDe 30, 1921, and shows 
the source of same. 





Rural 


City 


X.i] th 
Carolina 


Total Receipts: 
Total revenue and non-revenue re- 
ceipts, 1920- 1921 . 


8 10,901,662.71 
9,100,532.27 


I .").754,940.17 
4,550,446.63 


8 16,656,604.88 
13,650,978.90 


Total revenue and non-revenue re- 
ceipts, 1919-20 






Increase. . 


S 1,801,130.44 

8 3,498,671.43 
3,018,651.62 


8 1,204,495.54 

8 1.025,276.43 
789,788.02 


S 3, 005 .625 .98 

S 4,523,947.86 
3,808.439.64 


Revenue Receipts: 

County property tax, 1920-21 

County property tax, 1919-20 


Increase . 

Appropriation from State Public 

Appropriation from State Public 
School Fund, 1919- 20 


8 480,019.81 

8 2,459,523.42 
2,528,101.93 


8 235,488.41 

8 " 950,277.02 
767,334.20 


8 715,508.22 

8 3,409,800.44 
3,295,436.03 


Increase 


8 68,578.51 

S 1,030,417.31 
935.144.20 


8 182,942.82 

S 1,988,100.70 
1,633,705.03 


$ 114,364 31 


Local district taxes, 1920-21. 


8 3,018,518.01 


Local district taxes, 1919-20.. 


2,568,849.23 






Increase 


8 95,273.11 

8 138,339.43 
117,369.39 


8 354,395.67 

8 32,069.80 
10,912.20 


8 449,668.78 


Miscellaneous funds from State and 
Federal Appropriations, 1920-21 

Miscellaneous funds from State and 
Federal Appropriations, 0909- 0..0 


8 170,409.23 
128,281.59 


Increase . 


8 20,970.04 

8 823,216.36 
657,592.24 


8 21,157.60 

8 121.635.12 
155.838.67 


8 42,127.61 


Poll and special property tax, 1920-21 . _ 
Poll and special property tax, 1919-20. . 


8 944,851.48 
813,430.91 


Increase 


8 165,624.12 

8 528,079.35 
356,804.32 


8 34,203.55 

8 :;v736.07 
78,053.34 


8 131,420.57 


Fines, forfeitures, and penalties, 1920-21 
Fines, forfeitures, and penalties, 1919-20 


566,815.42 

434.s57.Ctj 


Increase 


8 171,275.03 

117,918.21 
145,370.21 


8 39,317.27 


8 131,957.76 


Dog taxes, 1919-20.. 


117,918.21 

145.370.21 








Increase 


8 27,468.00 

8 220,628.79 

173.173.73 


S 


8 27,468.00 


Private donations, tuitions and all 
other revenue receipts, 1920-21 

Private donations, tuitions and all 
other revenue receipts, 1919-20 


8 203,354.47 
129,054.79 


8 423,983.26 
302,228.52 


Increase 


8 47,455.06 


8 74,299.68 


S 121,754.74 



74 



Executive Departments 



RECEIPTS FOR SCHOOLS— Continued. 





Rural 


City 


North 
Carolina 


Total revenue receipts, 1920-21 


S 8,816,794.30 
7,932,207.64 


8 4,359,449.61 
3,564,680.25 


S 13,176,243.90 


Total revenue receipts, 1919-20 


11.496.S93.89 


Increase 


$ 884,586.66 


? 704,763.36 


S 1,679.350.02 






Non-Revenue Receipts: 

Sale of bonds, 1920-21 

Sale of bonds, 1919-20 


S 688,496.49 
273,545.67 


S 907,196.04 
829,415.90 


S 1,595,692.53 
1,002,961.57 








S 414,950.82 

S 405,375.00 
245.582.22 


$ 77,780.14 

S 107.000.00 
39.000.00 


$ 1,492,730.96 


State and Emergency Loans Funds, 
1920-21 


•8 572,375.00 


State Loan Fund, 1919-20 


284,582.22 








$ 159,792.78 

S 127,911.52 
78,780.61 


S 128,000.00 

S 5S,998.18 
55,998.18 


8 287,792.78 


Sale of school property, insurance, re- 
funds, and all other non-revenue re- 
ceipts, 1920-21 _. 


S 186,909.70 


Sale of school property, insurance, re- 
funds, and all other non-revenue re- 
ceipts, 1919-20 


134,541.76 








S 49,130.91 
S 863,085.40 


§ 3,237.03 
S 262.2S9.34 


? 52.367.94 


Balance brought forward, July 1, 1920.. 


S 1,125,383.74 


Total non-revenue receipts, 1920-21 ... 
Total non-revenue receipts, 1919-20 ... 


S 2,084,868.41 
1,168,324.63 


S 1,395,492.56 
985,760.38 


8 3,380,360.97 
2,154,085.01 




S 916,543.78 


S 409,732.18 


1 1,326,275.96 






Borrowed Monet: 
Borrowed money from banks (tern- 


S 2,732,288.63 


S 1,878,508.21 
802,482.84 


S 4,610,796.84 


Borrowed money from banks (tem- 
porary loans) 1919-20 


613.026.04 


1,415,508.88 








$ 2,119,262.59 


S 1,076,025.37 


S 3,195,287.96 








1 



Attorney General 75 

THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL. 

James S. Manning, Attorney-General, Raleigh. 

The Attorney-General is a member of the Executive Department 
of the State Government. He is elected by the people for a term of 
tour years. His term begins the first of January next after his elec- 
tion and continues until his successor is elected and qualified. He 
receives a salary of $4,000 per annum. 

It is the duty of the Attorney-General: 

1. To defend all actions in the Supreme Court in which the State 
shall be interested or is a party; and, also, when requested by the 
Governor or either branch of the General Assembly, to appear for 
the State in any other court or tribunal in any cause or matter, civil 
or criminal, in which the State may be a party or interested. 

2. At the request of the Governor, Secretary of State, Treasurer, 
Auditor, Corporation Commissioners, Insurance Commissioner, or 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, he shall prosecute and defend 
all suits relating to matters connected with their departments. 

3. To represent all State institutions, including the State Prison, 
whenever requested so to do by the official head of any such insti- 
tution. 

4. To consult with and advise the solicitors, when requested by 
them, in all matters pertaining to the duties of their office. 

5. To give, when required, his opinion upon all questions of law 
submitted to him by the General Assembly, or either branch thereof, 
or by any official of the State. 

6. To pay all moneys received for debts due or penalties to the 
State immediately after the receipt thereof, into the Treasury. 

'The Attorney-General is a member of the State Board of Edu- 
cation, of the State Board of Public Buildings and Grounds, of the 
State Board of Pensions, and of the State Text-book Commission, 
and is the legal adviser of the Council of State; chairman of the 
Municipal Board of Control and of the Board of Parole; member of 
the State Board of Equalization. 



I 

_ 



JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT. 



The judicial power of the State is vested in: 

1. A Court for the Trial of Impeachments. 

2. A Supreme Court. 

3. The Superior Courts. 

4. Courts of Justices of the Peace. 

5. Such other inferior courts as may be established by the General 
Assembly. 



COURT OF IMPEACHMENT. 

Article IV. section 3, of the Constitution of North Carolina pro- 
vides that the court for trial of impeachment shall be the Senate. 
A majority of the members are necessary to a quorum, and the judg- 
ment shall not extend beyond removal from, and disqualification to 
hold, office in North Carolina; but the party shall be liable to in- 
dictment and punishment according to law. The House of Repre- 
sentatives solely hajs the power of impeaching. No person shall be 
convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the Senators 
present. When the Governor is impeached, the Chief Justice pre- 
sides. The following causes, or charges, are sufficient, when proven, 
to warrant conviction: (1) corruption in office; (2) habitual drunk- 
enness; (3) intoxication while in the exercise of office; (4) drunk- 
enness in any public place; (5) mental or physical incompetence to 
discharge the duties of office; (6) any criminal matter the convic- 
tion whereof would tend to bring the office into public contempt. 

Only once in the history of the State has the High Court of Im- 
peachment been organized for the purpose of impeaching the Gov- 
ernor. This was in 1870, when the House of Representatives im- 
peached Governor W. W. Holden before the Senate, for "high crimes 
and misdemeanors." The trial was conducted on both sides by the 
most eminent lawyers of the State, and resulted in the conviction of 
the Governor and his removal from office. In 1901 similar charges 
of impeachment were preferred against Chief Justice David M. 
Furches and Associate Justice Robert M. Douglas, but both were 
acquitted. 

[791 



SO Judicial Department 

THE SUPREME COURT. 

The Supreme Court consists of a Chief Justice and four associate 
justices elected by the qualified voters of the State for a term of 
eight years. 

The Constitution of 1776 required the General Assembly to "ap- 
point Judges of the Supreme Courts of Law and Equity, Judges of 
Admirality, and Attorney-General," who were commissioned by the 
Goverenor and held office during good behavior. Acting under this 
authority, the General Assembly in 1776 divided the State into six 
judicial districts. In 1782 a seventh district, and in 17S7 an eighth 
district were added. Under the act of 1777 three judges, Samuel 
Ashe, Samuel Spencer, and James Iredell, were chosen. The judges 
rode the circuits separately, but sat together as an appellate court. 
In 1790 the eight judicial districts were divided into an eastern and 
a western riding, and a fourth judge was added, two being assigned 
to each riding. In each riding the two judges sat together as an 
appellate court. In 1797 the General Assembly created an extra- 
ordinary court for the purpose of trying the Secretary of State and 
other officials who had been discovered confederating with others in 
an elaborate scheme for defrauding the State by issuing fraudulent 
land warrants. For trial of these criminals the General Assembly 
deemed it expedient to create a new court to sit at Raleigh twice a 
year, not exceeding ten days at each term. The court was author- 
ized to hear appeals of causes which had accumulated in the district 
courts. The existence of this court under the act was to expire at 
the close of the session of the General Assembly next after June 10, 
1802; but before the expiration of this time the General Assembly 
continued the court for three years longer, for the purpose of hear- 
ing appeals from the district courts, and gave to it the name of 
"Court of Conference." By an act of 1804 the court was made a per- 
manent Court of Record. The judges were ordered to reduce their 
opinions to writing and to deliver the same viva voce in open court. 
The next year (1S05) the name of the court was changed to the 
Supreme Court. In 1S10 the judges were authorized to elect one of 
their members a Chief Justice, John Louis Taylor being chosen to 
that office. The Supreme Court now consisted of six judges, but two 
continued to be a quorum, and all the judges still rode the circuits. 

In 1818 an act was passed establishing the present Supreme Court 
and requiring it to sit in Raleigh for the hearing of appeals. The act 



Supreme and Other Courts 81 

provided for three judges to be elected by the General Assembly. 
John Louis Taylor, Leonard Henderson, and John Hall composed the 
first court, which began its sessions January 1, 1819. The judges 
elected their own Chief Justice, Taylor being continued in that 
office. The number of judges continued to be three until 1868, when 
the Constitution adopted by the convention of that year increased 
the number to a Chief and four Associate Justices. The con- 
vention of 1875 reduced it again to three, but by an amendment 
adopted in 1888 the number was raised to a Chief Justice and four 
Associate Justices, where it has continued until the present time. 
The Supreme Court holds annually two sessions of sixteen weeks, 
one beginning the first Monday in September, the other the first 
Monday in February. 

The court is authorized to choose its own clerk, marshal, reporter, 
and other officers. 



SUPERIOR COURTS. 

There are twenty Superior Court judges, one for each of the twenty 
circuits, or judicial districts, who are elected by the people and hold 
their offices for a term of eight years. The Superior Court has appel- 
late jurisdiction of all issues of law or of fact determined by a clerk 
of the Superior Court or justice of the peace, and of all appe 
from inferior courts for error assigned in matters of law as pro- 
vided by law. In the matter of original jurisdiction the law is: 

"The Superior Court shall have original jurisdiction of the civil 
actions whereof exclusive original jurisdiction is not given to some 
other court, and of all criminal actions in which the punishment 
may exceed a fine of fifty dollars or imprisonment for thirty days; 
and of all such affrays as shall be committed within one mile of the 
place where and during the time such court is being held." 



OTHER COURTS. 

The Constitution gives to the General Assembly power to estab- 
lish other courts inferior to the Supreme and Superior Courts, and 
to allot and distribute to them such powers and jurisdiction, 

6 



82 Judicial Department 

within constitutional limits, as it sees fit. From the decision of 
these inferior courts the Legislature has power to provide a proper 
system of appeals. 

The Constitution also requires the General Assembly to provide 
for the establishment of special courts for the trial of misdemeanors 
in cities and towns where the same may be necessary. 

Such courts are the mayors of cities and incorporated towns. 
Their election or appointment is usually provided for in the char- 
ters of incorporation, the acts of the General Assembly prescribing 
how' particular towns and cities shall be governed. 

The jurisdiction of such special courts — also called in the law, 
inferior courts — is usually set forth in the charters. 

The general law also provides that "the mayor of every city and 
incorporated town * * * within the corporate limits of his city or 
town, shall have the jurisdiction of a justice of the peace in all 
criminal matters arising under the laws of the State or under the 
ordinances of such city or town." 

Justices of the peace, in their respective counties, try (1) that 
class of civil actions which involve demands for small debts and 
property of little value and (2) that class of criminal actions, called 
petty misdemeanors, which involve only slight punishment. 

They try all cases of contract or promise to pay money where the 
sum demanded does not exceed two hundred dollars. 

They may try certain civil actions where the value of the 
property in controversy or the amount claimed for damages does 
not exceed fifty dollars. 

They try criminal cases arising within their counties, the punish- 
ment of which fixed by law cannot exceed a fine of fifty dollars or 
imprisonment for thirty days. 



NORTH CAROLINA CORPORATION COMMISSION. 

R. 0. Self, Clerk. 

The North Carolina Corporation Commission was established by 
an act of the General Assembly of 1899, superseding the Railroad 
Commission, which was established in 1891. The offices of the Com- 
mission now occupy the entire first floor of the State Departments 
Building. 



Corporation Commission S3 

Membership: W. T. Lee, Chairman, Haywood County; George P. 
Pell, Forsyth County; A. J. Maxwell, Craven County. 

The Commission has general supervision over all railroad, tele- 
graph, telephone, street railway, steamboat, canal, waterworks, and 
all other companies exercising the right of eminent domain, and, 
also, under act of 1913, of electric light, power, water, and gas com- 
panies. 

It is authorized to hear and adjust complaints, to fix and revise 
rates and tariffs of all railroads and all other transportation com- 
panies, and gas, water, electric, and telephone companies. 

In 1899 the Commission was given supervision of all State banks. 
At that time, there were fifty-two State banks, twenty-one private 
banks, and eight savings banks operating under the State system, 
making a total of eighty-one banking institutions. This number 
had increased to 546 on December 1, 1922, or a total increase of ap- 
proximately 575 %. On December 2, 1899, the total banking resources 
were $13,222,501.12. On September 15, 1922, the total banking re- 
sources were $254,588,817.07, being an increase of $241,366,312.95, 
or a percentage increase of approximately 1825%. The Commission 
is authorized to appoint bank examiners whose duties are to examine 
the various banks and report to the Commission. Ten examiners 
are now employed regularly in this work. 

The Commission has heard 5889 formal cases. These consisted 
principally of overcharges, discriminations, freight service, failure 
of railroad companies to provide accommodations for passengers and 
cars for freight, storage charges, depots, and sidings. 

The Commission now has a regular department in charge of two 
experienced freight rate clerks for handling and adjusting claims 
by shippers for overcharges in freight rates. 

The duties of the Clerk are many and varied and embrace a general 
supervision over the activities of the Commission and the working 
force of the various departments. 



PART IV. 



ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS, BOARDS, 
COMMISSIONS. 



1. Department of Agriculture. 

2. Department of Labor and Printing. 

3. Department of Insurance. 

4. North Carolina Historical Commission. 

5. State Library. 

6. North Carolina Library Commission. 

7. State Board of Health. 

8. State Board of Charities and Public Welfare. 

9. North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey. 

10. State Highway Commission. 

11. Fisheries Commission Board. 

12. State Board of Elections. 

13. State Standard Keeper. 

14. Firemen's Relief Fund. 

15. Audubon Society of North Carolina. 

16. Board of Internal Improvements. 

17. North Carolina National Guard and Reserve 

Militia. 

18. State Prison. 

19. State Department of. Revenue. 

20. Commission of Child Welfare. 

1851 



THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

W. A. Graham, Commissioner, Raleigh. 

The Constitution of the State (1876) provides for a Department 
of Agriculture, Immigration, and Statistics. Under this fundamental 
law the General Assembly established the Department of Agriculture 
in 1877. (Chapter 274.) 

Since that time it has been greatly fostered and enlarged by the 
General Assembly, and its field expanded by the enterprise, energy, 
and capacity of its corps of workers. 

At present the Board consists of ten members, one member from 
each Congressional District, who are appointed by the Governor and 
confirmed by the Senate, for terms of six years; and of the Com- 
missioner of Agriculture, who is a member of and ex officio chairman 
of the Board. All members are required by law to be practical 
farmers. 

The Commissioner of Agriculture, who is chief executive officer of 
the Department, was formerly elected by the Board; but the Legis- 
lature of 1899, in order to bring the Department in closer touch with 
the people, especially the farmers of the State, so changed tbe law 
as to make the Commissioner an elective officer. 

The Department is charged with the following: 

1. Investigations relating to the improvement of agriculture, the 
beneficial use of commercial fertilizers and composts, and to induce 
capital and labor to enter the State. 

2. With investigations for the improvement of milk and beef 
cattle, especially with investigations relating to the diseases of cattle 
and other domestic animals — having power to quarantine infected 
animals and to regulate the transportation of stock within the State. 

3. With investigations of the ravages of insects injuriously affect- 
ing market gardens, fruits, etc., and with dissemination of informa- 
tion essential for their abatement. 

4. With investigations directed to the introduction and fostering 
of new agricultural industries adapted to the various soils ami 
climate of the State. 



88 Administrative Departments 

5. With investigations relative to the subject of drainage and irri- 
gation, and mineral and domestic sources of fertilizers, including 
composting, etc. 

6. With the collection of information relating to the subject of 
farm fences, etc. 

7. With the enforcement of the laws enacted for the sale of com- 
mercial fertilizers, seed, food products, and with authority to make 
regulations concerning the same. 

8. With the dissemination of information relative to the ad- 
vantages of soil and climate and to the natural resources and 
industrial opportunities offered in the State. 

To these have been added: 

The issuing of bulletins. 

The Museum. 

Farmers' Institutes. 

Soil Survey. 

Enforcement by regulations of 

The Pure Food Law; 

Concentrated Commercial Feeding-stuff Law; 

Cotton-seed Meal Law; 

Law regulating the statistics of leaf tobacco; 

Crop-pest Commission; 

Law regulating the standard-weight packages of meal and flour; 

Registration and sale of condimental, patented, proprietary or 
trade-mark stock or poultry tonics, regulators, or conditioners; 

The inspection of illuminating and power oils, fluids and gaso- 
line; 

Law to prevent and punish the sale of adulterated, impure, or 
misbranded agricultural and vegetable seed and those lacking via- 
bility; 

The manufacture and sale of anti-hog-cholera serum also of inocu- 
lation germs of leguminous crops. 

The rapid spread of the "stock law" over the State Irs rendered 
unnecessary any action by the Board as to fences, as this is now 
largely local. A map showing the stock law and no stock-law, quar- 
antine and free territory in the State lias recently been issued. 



Agricultural Department 89 

The Department is, to a considerable extent, a sub-legislature. 
The Legislature, in committing to its execution specified laws, con- 
fers upon the Board power to make regulations for this purpose, 
which are given the authority of law, and violation of them is made 
a misdemeanor, cognizable by the courts. The power to confer this 
authority has been tested in the courts and approved by decision of 
the Supreme Court. 

THINGS THAT HAVE BEEN DONE BY THE AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT. 

1. The source of the ingredients in fertilizers is made known. 
Analyses are reported in the Bulletin from each firm so as to have 
those of the same guarantee classed together, and a farmer can tell 
them and not make an extra trip when he can get goods of the com- 
position he wishes although under a different name. 

2. The feed inspection law has been amended to include all feeds 
and the value of feeds much improved. Ground red corn cobs cannot 
be sold as wheat bran nor sawdust or rotten corn used as a filler. 

3. Condimental Feed Law. — Analyses are made of each brand and 
published. The people need not pay high prices for many of the 
ingredients, such as charcoal, copperas, saltpetre, salt, salts, etc., 
which can be bought for a few cents a pound of grocers. Drugs for 
either stock or men must have a value corresponding with that 
printed on the container or they can be excluded from sale. 

4. Thirty cheese factories are in operation, and these afford mar- 
kets for milk in our mountain countries which were not available 
three years ago. In 1920,- 481,676 pounds of cheese were made. Nine 
creameries are in operation. 

5. Great advance has been made along all lines of animal hus- 
bandry, animal feeding and feeds for animals, including poultry 
All cases of diseases of animals appearing in the State have been 
suppressed. "We have had no epidemic which could not be eliminated. 

6. For the year ending November 30, 1920, there was distributed 
4,370,407 c. c. of serum and 128,093 c. c. of virus, enough serum to 
immunize approximately 75,000 hogs weighing 100 pounds. The re- 
ceipts from the serum amounted to $66,208.85. 

7. Eradication of the Cattle Tick.— There are still left twenty-one 
counties in the extreme Eastern part of the State in which the tick 
has not been eradicated. The Department has prepared and will 



90 Administrative Departments 

request the Legislature to enact a bill on this subject. This bill is 
now a law in all of the States which were infested with the tick 
except North Carolina and Florida. 

Tuberculosis. — All herds which pass two successive tests without 
reactors are placed on the Accredited Herd List. There are in Noi-th 
Carolina at this time 163 of these Accredited Herds, and 862 herds 
under supervision. One hundred and ninety-six tubercular animals 
were slaughtered and $5,734.63 was paid under the law relating to 
this subject. The State appropriates annually $5,000.00 for this in- 
demnity and for paying for animals slaughtered on account of glan- 
ders. When a cow or other animal is affected either with tubercu- 
losis or glanders, the animal is reported to the authorities and killed 
and paid for, thereby preventing spreading of the diseases. 

8. A pure seed law by which the farmers are protected from pur- 
chase of inferior seed either in purity or germination. Seed deficient 
in either are prohibited from sale in the State, and the introduction 
of injurious weeds is prohibited. 

9. Preparation of legume culture which is sold at one-fourth the 
former price. This pays the cost of production and sale. 

10. Great advance in the work in Entomology, especially in spray- 
ing. Many pests have been destroyed and others much curtailed in 
their injurious operations. 

11. Also in Horticulture. The Department has taken highest 
prizes in all exhibits of apples, and the North Carolina apples and 
other fruits are being recognized in the markets of the Nation. The 
pecan culture in the State has also been greatly extended. In many 
sections these plantings are beginning to bear nuts of very superior 
quality. 

12. The State in the value of its farm products has risen from 
the twenty-second to the seventh position, and the value of the agri- 
cultural crops has increased since 1910 at an average of $10,000,000 
a year. 

13. The Women's Work. — Many wives and daughters of farmers 
are earning money for themselves. The girls' and women's clubs are 
carrying on the preserving of vegatables, fruits and meats. The 
women have not lacked ability to do this work, but prior to this they 
lacked opportunity. Several hundred thousand dollars' worth of 
these goods will be produced and prepared this year. This work in 



Agricultural Department 91 

its incipiency and growth is the product of the Farmers' Institute 
as conducted by the Department. 

14. Home Demonstration Work. — There were enrolled in this work 
in clubs 8,289 girls and 8,343 women, a total of 16,632. Besides the 
clubs, there were 217,143 women who gardened as individuals. 

There were 200,8'82 pounds of fruits and vegetables dried, 90,913 
gallons brined, and 125 community canneries established. Fifty- 
nine owners of mills have trained agents to direct the work in the 
villages at the mills. Twenty-six thousand six hundred and thirty- 
three home conveniences were placed in homes and 29 rest rooms 
were established. 

The Chairman of the Board of Health says that the organizations 
established by the home agents were most helpful in the fight 
against influenza. They established 75 community kitchens and in 
many counties they directed the preparation of the food. Miss 
Annie Lee Rankin acted as dietitian at the A. and E. College and at 
Camp Polk, and Mrs. Cornelia Morris at the Raleigh High School 
Emergency Hospital. Citizens in the vicinity furnished supplies at 
many of the kitchens. 

15. Farm demonstrators in 70 counties, whose duty it is to give 
instructions about crops to the farmer in the field. 

16. Boys' corn clubs and pig clubs in all parts of the State. 

17. Cooperative work with the U. S. Department and the A. and 
E. College, especially under the Lever Act. 

18. The Pure Food Law. — The weight or quantity of contents to be 
marked on all containers, with which numbers the contents must 
comply. Adulteration is seldom found in the foods sold in the State. 

19. Inspection of illuminating oils and gasoline, by which the 
quality and safety of the oils have been improved without cost to 
the consumer. 

20. The length and strength of staple is considered in forming 
standards of cotton by the National Department, and expert graders 
are furnished in counties which desire them. This has saved thou- 
sands of dollars to the farmers in the sale of their cotton. 

21. The National Department has been requested to consider the 
question of reduction for tare for bagging and ties on cotton bales, 
which is ackowledged to be unjust. This can be accomplished only 



92 Administrative Departments 

by an international convention under the auspices of a national 
congress. 

22. Inspection of flour to detect that which is bleached and pre- 
vent the sale of it as unbleached. 

23. In all cases of inspection in the machinery of the Department 
the article which renders the inspection necessary is required to pay 
cost of work. 

24. More than one-third of the State has been surveyed and a soil 
map issued of- each county. 

25. Farmers of the State are not becoming renters. Since 1910, 
204 farmers have lost their farms and about 6,000 renters have 
bought land. 

26. There is corn and wheat enough in the State for its consump- 
tion. There may be a little imported, but enough will be exported to 
offset this. There are 180 pounds of flour to every man, woman and 
child in the State, more per capita than was ever known before, 
and more meat has been cured than heretofore. 

27. A marketing system is being evolved which will acquaint the 
citizens of the State with knowledge of where they can find the 
various articles for sale and accomplish cooperation. 

28. For six years North Carolina has stood first in the production 
of cotton per acre, first in quantity of sweet potatoes and peanuts, 
and second in value of tobacco crop. 

29. Cotton-seed Meal. — No goods are permitted to be branded as 
"meal" unless they contain 6% per cent ammonia, but must be 
branded "cotton-seed feed." 

30. The Bulletin ranks with the highest of its class, and many 
letters of commendation are received from persons within and with- 
out the State. Requests are frequently received for publications of 
these bulletins in those of other States and also from the agricul- 
tural press. It has a circulation of more than 35.000 each month. 
Copies have been requested for use as text-books in the public 
schools of other States and the University of Wisconsin. 

31. The Museum continues to be the most valuable south of Phila- 
delphia, except that at the National Capital. It is the State's great 
object lesson. Additions to the different departments are made each 
year. A representative agricultural exhibit is now being collected. 



Agricultural Department 



93 



STATISTICS. 

The following statistics will show some of the results of the work 
of the Department. 

North Carolina produced in 



Corn (bushela).. 
Wheat (bushels) 
Cotton (bales). . 



1860 



30,000,000 

4 ,743 ,706 

145,514 



1910 



34,063,531 

7 ,433 ,000 

665,132 



1915 



64 ,050 ,000 

10 ,355 ,000 

732 ,000 



1918 



63 ,000 ,000 

13,167,000 

732 ,000 



DRAINAGE. 

The Department has arranged with the National Department for 
an expert in this work, who will give information to the farmers 
concerning the drainage of creeks, cutting ditches, and laying tiles. 

VETERINARY DIVISION. 

The Division of Veterinary Science is devoted to giving informa- 
tion as to the care and feeding of farm animals, improvement of 
live stock, treatment of diseases, the gradual extermination of the 
tick. 

Serum for Vaccination of hogs to prevent the spread of cholera 
is manufactured by this division. 



ANTI-CHOLERA SERUM. 

Ninety-five per cent of the hogs vaccinated escaped cholera. The 
Department is now prepared to supply all requests for serum, and 
it is expected that the scourge of cholera will be much abated. 

CATTLE QUARANTINE AND ERADICATION OF THE FEVER TICK. 

The United States and State laws concerning the eradication of 
the cattle tick are simply improvements on the act of the Legislature 
of 1795 concerning the driving of cattle from the oak to the long- 
leaf pine sections of the State, which was continued as a statute 
until the Revival of 1905. The disease was called murrain or dis- 
temper, and its malignity known, but not for a century was the 
cause ascertained and direct effort made for cure and eradication. 



94 Administrative Departments 

Starting in 1S99, with the crest of the Blue Ridge as the location 
of the quarantine line, it has heen moved east to the Roanoke River 
in Warren County as the northern boundary, and to the Pee Dee in 
Anson as the southern boundary of the State. This quarantine line 
is established by the United States Agricultural Department. The 
movement of cattle Is restricted to a few months each year and 
subject to inspections and regulations, while exempted territory is 
free from impediments. The price of cattle in the exempted section 
(that which is free of the tick) is thought to be one cent per 
pound live weight over that in the quarantine sections. The value 
of exemption is apparent. The stock law tends to destroy the tick, 
and where it has prevailed for several years, few ticks being found, 
the county is soon declared free. At the suggestion of this De- 
partment, infected counties or parts of counties have been quaran- 
tined, and the clear territory has been given the benefit of exemp- 
tion. 

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY. 

This department does much valuable work. The Board ha.s 
granted the use of the Edgecombe County farm as far as needed to 
be used in its operations. 

farmers' institutes. 

Farmers' Institutes have been greatly extended and are now held 
in every county in the State. 

Meetings of farmers to hear matters pertaining to their vocation 
discussed by scientific men and also by practical farmers have met 
with great encouragement in the numbers attending and interest 
shown in the proceedings, and the beneficial results to farming in 
the communities where the institutes are held are very evident. 

Realizing that while "A good farmer without, it is needful there 
be," that "A good housewife within is as needful as he," institutes 
for the benefit of the farmers' wives and daughters were introduced 
in 1907. They have been well attended and have been equally as 
beneficial in the advancement of agricultural conditions as have 
the institutes for the men; usually one joint session is held at each 
institute. 

CHEMISTRY. 

The Division of Chemistry makes analyses of fertilizer, cotton-seed 
meal, feed and foodstuffs, soils, minerals and marls, waters, etc. 



Agricultural Department 95 

The law as to deficient fertilizers may be found in the Revisal of 
1906, sec. 3949. 

SOIL SURVEY, TEST FARM, AND FARM DEMONSTRATION WORK. 

This is conducted like the cattle quarantine, in conjunction with 
the United States Agricultural Department, the expenses being de- 
frayed by each department. The object is to locate the different 
types of soil in the State. Upon these types it is desired to locate 
test farms for practical and scientific purposes. Test farms have 
been established in Edgecombe County, at Willard Station in Pender 
County, Statesville, near Swannanoa in Buncombe County, and in 
the old tobacco belt at Oxford and in the newly drained black lands 
of Eastern North Carolina in Beaufort County. The effort is to 
conduct these farms for the benefit of the crops grown in each sec- 
tion, first on small plats and then on a large scale, showing results 
of different kinds and amounts of home-made and commercial fer- 
tilizers, preparation of land, cultivation and rotation of crops and 
demonstration work. 

As it might be supposed that all children of the same parents 
would be exactly alike, so it might be inferred that all soils com- 
posed from decomposition of the same rocks would be identical; but 
this is known to be true in neither case. 

By demonstration work on different fields in the same locality, or 
type of soil, the variations of each can be ascertained, and the 
manures prepared and cultivation suitable learned. 

The demonstrator of the Department, as requested or as oppor- 
tunity offers, can visit localities of the State, make suggestions upon 
these lines, and gather statistics for promotion of the work. The 
National Department is doing a large amount of work along this 
line and there is hearty cooperation between the two departments. 

ISOTHERMAL BELT. 

The investigational work with Thermal Zones was inaugurated in 
a preliminary way in 1909 at the Blantyre Test Farm by W. N. Hutt, 
to ascertain if possible the conditions underlying the phenomena of 
Thermal Belts or frostless zones in relation to fruit-growing. Two 
years of preliminary investigation furnished such evidence of the 
necessity and value of the work that the cooperation of the U. S. 
Weather Bureau was secured. Special recording stations were estub- 



96 Administrative Departments 

lished at the State Test Farm at Blantyre, in the orchards of Hon. 
Chas. A. Webb of Asheville, Mr. W. T. Lindsey of Tryon, Mr. Boiling 
Hall of Waynesville, Mrs. Moses Cone of Blowing Rock, and Mr. 
J. B. Sparger of Mount Airy, where a range in elevation from 1,000 
to 4,200 feet was secured. 

In 1912 the recording stations were increased to 15. Mr. L. A. 
Denson, Section Director of the Weather Bureau of North Carolina, 
and Prof. H. J. Cox, Special Expert of the U. S. Weather Bureau, 
were detailed to assist in this cooperation. 

The field work and records were completed in 1916. Since that 
time the vast amount of records collected at the different stations 
are being worked over by the experts of the U. S. Weather Bureau 
under the direction of Professor Cox of the Chicago Station. A topo- 
graphical map of Western North Carolina has been prepared with 
contour lines showing the locations of the observation stations and 
the mountainous nature of the surrounding country- In order to 
make this work of practical as well as. of scientific value, a map 
showing the location of railroads to available fruit zones of 500-feet 
contours from 1,500 to 3,500 elevations will be prepared. This map, 
in addition to that prepared by the Weather Bureau experts, will be 
of value to people in securing lands at suitable altitudes for com- 
mercial orcharding. 

The results of these investigations are being worked into a publi- 
cation which is expected to be available within a year. 

PURE FOOD DIVISION. 

The Pure Food Law passed by the General Assembly of 1899, 
amended in 1905 and redrafted and passed as a new act in 1907, 
forbids the manufacture or sale of adulterated or misbranded food 
or beverages and charges the Department of Agriculture with its 
enforcement. 
. Inspections are made throughout the State and samples collected 
for analyses. The samples are examined for adulteration and the 
results published, showing the brand name of the article and the 
name and address of the manufacturer. The first report was pub- 
lished as the Department Bulletin for December, 1909. Since that 
time similar reports have been published annually. 
There are two classes of adulterants found in food: 
1. Substances which are deleterious to health, and 



Agricultural Department 97 

2. Substances which merely render the food less valuable. 

The use of the first is prohibited, the second can be used provided 
their presence is made known to the. purchaser. 

Much of the food and beverages sold in the State is in the hands 
of unintelligent men, who can be imposed upon by shrewd and un- 
scrupulous manufacturers. Owing to various complications the 
enforcement of the Food Law is far more difficult than one not 
familiar with the situation would think. 

The National Government has enacted a food law which requires 
weight of contents to be stamped on all packages or other containers 
of goods. The Legislature has enacted this for the State. 

FEED INSPECTIONS, 

The Legislature of 1903 passed a law which requires the Commis- 
sioner of Agriculture to employ Feed Inspectors, whose duty it is to 
visit the different towns in the State, see that the law is complied 
with as to the branding of bags, weight of bags, and to take samples 
of all feeds. These samples are examined microscopically in the 
towns in which they are found, and if adulterated are immediately 
withdrawn from sale. 

All samples collected are analyzed by the Feed Chemist, and th> 
results, along with such additional information as circumstances 
may advise, are published in the bulletins of the Department of 
Agriculture. 

In enforcing the law there are four main objects in view: 

1. To stop the sale of adulterated feeds in North Carolina. 

2. To educate the consumers to buy feed according to the analyses 
on the bags, just as he buys his fertilizer by an analysis. 

3. To teach the dairymen and farmers the best way to combine 
their home-grown feeds with those they are compelled to buy to 
get the greatest benefit from the amount consumed. 

4. To stimulate a desire on the part of the consumers for better 
feeds. 

ENTOMOLOGY. 

The work of this division includes the inspection of fruit trees, 
which are not allowed to be sold in this Ptnte unless declared free 
from disease. Experts are sent to examine all nurseries for insect 
pests, and many commercial orcbnids are inspected. Directions 

7 



98 Administrative Departments 

furnished for preparation of material for spraying, and for its ap- 
plication. The San Jose scale is being controlled in many places, 
and further damage prevented by directions sent from this office. 
Other insect pests and diseases have been prevented or cured, and 
much valuable information given the people of the State on mat- 
ters pertaining to insects of all kinds. 

HORTICULTURE. 

This division is devoted to promoting the interests of trucking, 
the home and market garden, also the culture, preservation and 
marketing the fruits of the State. 

The test farm in Pender County is used in connection with the 
trucking interests of the eastern part of the State. On this farm 
$1,500 was realized from the sale of the lettuce raised on one and 
one-fourth acres of land. 

In the apple section a short series of institutes is held annually 
to illustrate the proper packing of fruit for shipment. Institutes 
on pruning, spraying, etc., are held in proper season. 

For three successive years the exhibit of apples from North Caro- 
lina has taken the sweepstakes prize at the exhibits at the National 
Horticultural Congress, and the western part of the State is now 
regarded as one of the most important apple-growing sections of the 
nation, both in quantity and quality. North Carolina in 1913 re- 
ceived the Wilder prize from the American Pomological Society. 
The section adjacent to Southern Pines is noted for its peaches, 
pears, and plums. 

Agronomy and Botany Division. 

Under the drections of this division experiments in plant breeding 
and selection are conducted upon the test farms and the farms of 
individuals in different sections of the State. Inoculation germs 
for legumes are manufactured and sold at cost. 

The inspection prevents the introduction of seeds of noxious 
weeds into the State and enables the farmer to ascertain, before 
purchasing, the quality of the seed as to purity and germination. 

DEMONSTRATION "AND INSPECTION OF POWER AND ILLUMINATING OILS 

AM) GASOLINE. 

The Pure Food Chemist is also Oil Chemist. The quality of the 
oil has been kept at a good standard and the price has not been 



Agricultural Department 99 

increased. When the law was enacted there were four firms trans- 
acting business in this State; at the present time there are nineteen. 

DEMONSTRATION WORK. 

This work gives practical advice to and cooperates with the farm- 
ers upon their farms. It has been extended to eighty-one counties. 
Part of the expenses is borne by the National Department of 
Agriculture. 

boys' corn club. 

In these clubs more than 4,000 boys have been enrolled. The 
Department appropriates $500 annually in premiums. 

women's and girls' work. 
This work in domestic economy has met with a ready response 
from the wives and daughters of the farmers. 

THE BULLETIN. 

The Bulletin is issued monthly, each month's issue being devoted 
to a particular subject. Its value seems to be appreciated both 
within and without the State, as is attested by its continually in- 
creasing mail list. Besides the regular monthly Bulletin, special 
papers are issued when deemed of enough importance to justify the 
expense. 

THE MUSEUM. 

The State Geologist has, since the establishment of his department 
in 1850, collected specimens of different kinds, principally of min- 
erals, representing the natural resources of the State. In 1879 the 
care of the Museum and expense of maintenance were transferred to 
the Department of Agriculture. A building has been erected for its 
occupancy, and its contents greatly increased. It is now by far the 
most extensive in its contents of anything of its nature south of 
Philadelphia, save the National Museum at Washington, D. C. To 
it, more than any other source, is attributable the fine displays the 
State has made at international, national, and State expositions. It 
is the State's object lesson, representing its resources in agriculture, 
timber, mineral, fishes, birds, game, animals, and flora and fauna in 
general. 

As articles affected by time become undesirable they are replaced. 
The idea is to keep the Museum constantly growing, with no chai 
for stagnation. 



100 Administrative Departments 

immigration. 

The Legislature in 1909 repealed the act of 1907 concerning immi- 
gration. There are now no agents of the State employed in foreign 
countries; a few young men come from Scotland each year, and 
land and immigration companies bring some people to the State 
each year, but no report is made to the Department; however, it co- 
operates with them as far as practicable. 

The Department has no lands of the State for sale, and can make 
no contracts, warrant titles, or do any work of like nature. It can 
only put parties desiring to purchase property in the State in com- 
munication with citizens who have property to sell, and leave them 
to perfect sales, if it is found desirable. 

Many letters are received from persons from the Stat2S of the 
Middle West requesting information as to the resources of the State. 
and several hundred have each year purchased homes. The Depart- 
ment had arranged to place exhibits at the fairs in these States, bur 
this was abandoned when the law was repealed. 

SALES OF LEAF TOBACCO. 

Chapter 97, Laws 1907, requires the Department to preserve a 
record of the leaf tobacco sold on the floors of the warehouses of the 
State, and publish it monthly. Each warehouse is required to 
furnish an account of its sales, and is guilty of a misdemeanor for 
failure. 



DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND PRINTING 

M. L. Shipman, Commissioner. 

The Department of Labor and Printing, created by the Legislature 
of 1887, is one of the oldest State departments outside of those 
established by constitutional mandate. The duties of the Depart- 
ment are comprehended under the four general heads: 

1. Collection, collation, and publication of industrial statistics; 

2. Supervision of the State's printing, 

3. Mine inspection; 

4. Free employment service. 



Department of Labor and Printing 101 

industrial statistics. 
The Commissioner, aided by the Assistant Commissioner, collects, 
collates, and publishes information and statistics concerning labor 
and its relation to capital, the hours of labor, the earnings of laborers 
and their educational, moral, and financial condition, and the 
best means of promoting their mental, moral, and material wel- 
fare; also statistics concerning the various mining, milling, and 
manufacturing industries in this State, their location, capacity, 
and actual output of manufactured products, the kind and quantity 
of raw material annually used by them and the capital invested 
therein; the location, estimated and actual horse-power and condi- 
tion of valuable water-powers, developed and undeveloped, in the 
State; farm lands and farming, the kinds, character, and quantity 
of the annual farm products; timber lands and timbers, truck 
gardening, dairying, and such other information and statistics con- 
cerning the agricultural and industrial welfare of the citizens of 
the State as may be deemed of interest and benefit to the public. 

A high standard was set for this work and it has ever since been 
the policy of the office to improve upon its own work from year 
to year. The biennial report is now recognized as one of the most 
succinct examples of statistical work issued in the United States. 
The matter has been boiled down, so to speak, and one chief aim 
has been to present the greatest possible information in the least 
possible space, accomplishing thereby two very desirable ends, i. e., 
ease and convenience of reference, and minimum expense. 

Men who are causing the wheels of industry to turn all over 
the country pronounce the biennial report of the Department one 
of the most comprehensive and valuable publications, on the sub- 
jects treated, gotten out by any State in the Union. It is the 
only official publication which shows the industrial status of North 
Carolina and the great variety of her manufactured products. 
It reaches every State in the Union and many foreign countries. 
It is the chief medium through which the State's growth and 
development are advertised to the world. 

THE STATE'S PRINTING. 

When the public printing had become of such importance that 
the old practice of assumption that it would take care of itself 
was proven inadequate and unsatisfactory, the duty of systematizing' 



102 Administrative Departments 

and superintending this work was added to the duties of the office 
(Chapter 373, Public Laws of 1899). Since that time the growth 
of the State has been great, its progress indeed wonderful. Keep- 
ing pace with its progress, the Department of Labor and Printing 
shows a record of quality and economy in performance not equaled 
by any other Commonwealth, and approached by but few. 

The Commissioner, Mr. Shipman, and the Assistant Commissioner, 
Mr. Nichols, place especial emphasis on their invitation to the 
people of the State to make use of the Department. Any question 
bearing on subjects touched by the report will be gladly answered, 
whenever possible. 

The handling of the public printing has been brought down 
to the point where figures as to specifications and cost may be 
given before or after performance, which information serves well 
where economy enters as largely into any proposition as it does 
into the public printing. Changes in practice are made as often as 
it is found that improvement can be made, and the policy of the 
office at the present time makes impossible any of the abuses ob- 
taining under the arrangement in force prior to the placing of 
the public printing under the Department's charge. 

Before a single item of printing expense is paid for by the 
State the account of the printer is examined, accompanied by an 
inspection of the work itself, by a man who knows the printing 
business. Every pound of paper purchased is bought by the State 
to fit the particular need, and is subject to the decision of the 
expert of the Department — himself, according to the provisions 
of the act, a "practical printer." The record of purchases of paper 
show a great saving along this line, also. . 

All printing, engraving, die-stamping, and binding done for the 
State is let to contract for two-year periods under competitive bid- 
ding, and the work is carefully supervised in process by the Commis- 
sioner of Labor and Printing, aided by the Assistant Commissioner 
(required by law to be a practical printer). All requisitions for State 
printing are made upon the Department of Labor and Printing; 
the Department places orders for same with contracting printers, 
issuing requisite quantity of paper stock for each order; super- 
vises the work in process, examines the finished work, audits and 
approves bills for same. 



Department of Labor and Printing 1":; 

The cost of the State's printing, including the paper stock used, 
approximates $250,000 annually. The Department purchases all 
paper for State printing, maintaining a large paper storage ware- 
house in Raleigh. 

The work of the Department of Labor and Printing is necessar 
done away from the public eye. The watchful auditing of thou- 
sands of dollars of accounts, the economical purchase of thousands 
of dollars of supplies, the skillful exposition and appraisement of 
industrial facts, is not spectacular labor, but a work of the highest 
value and largest returns. 

MINE INSPECTION. 

North Carolina has a comprehensive mining law, and by thi 
statute the Commissioner of Labor and Printing is constituted mine 
inspector, with large powers. 

FREE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE. 

Since October 1, 1919, the United States Employment Service, 
operating in North Carolina, has been conducted under the direction 
and supervision of the Commissioner of Labor and Printing, who 
provided office quarters in his department and is serving as Federal 
Director for this State without additional compensation. Funds 
for clerical assistance were provided by the Federal Government 
and during the first fifteen months the service was in operation, on 
this cooperative basis, between 5,000 and 6,000 applicants for 
work were placed in situations satisfactory to them; more than 
20,000 returned soldiers were communicated with in regard to 
employment and nearly 4,000 placed. It was through these com- 
munications that hundreds of disabled soldiers were located and 
reported to the Federal Board for Vocational Education, which 
placed them in proper training. 

Realizing the urgent necessity for a well organized system of 
employment for North Carolina, under State and Federal supervi- 
sion, the Department of Labor and Printing brought the matter to 
the attention of the General Assembly of 1921 and succeeded in se- 
curing an appropriation adequate for the development of such an 
agency by the Department. The machinery provided in the statute 
creating the free employment bureaus enables the Department to as- 
sist in bringing the jobless man and the manless job together in a 



104 Administrative Departments 

systematic way, in service which reaches all classes of employers 
and all classes of employes. Local employment offices were estab- 
lished in our large industrial centers and much assistance rendered 
in relieving acute unemployment conditions all too prevalent since 
the conclusion of the World War. During the first year the em- 
ployment service was in operation under State and Federal co- 
operation more than 15,000 men and women found positions through 
the free employment bureau of the State Department of Labor and 
Printing. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF INSURANCE. 

Stacey W. Wade, Commissioner. 

The North Carolina Insurance Department is not, as many 
believe, simply a channel for the collection of revenue; nor is its 
activity limited to the supervision of insurance companies. Suc- 
cessive legislatures have recognized its administrative facilities, 
and have added from time to time the supervision of 

Building and Loan Associations 

Lightning Rod Companies 

Investment Companies 

Morris Plan Companies 

Rate Making Bureaus and Associations 

as well as the enforcement of the Fire Marshal Law, the Build- 
ing and Inspection Law, the proper erection and protection of State 
and institutional property, and the supervision of Fire Depart- 
ments throughout the State. It is apparent, therefore, that neither 
of these subjects can be treated here except by brief reference. 

Created originally for the enforcement of the insurance laws, 
it is probable that this is still the most important phase of its 
work; for while insurance was looked upon only a few years ago 
by many as a gamble, and regarded by the general public with 
suspicion, today it probably exceeds every other financial institu- 
tion of the country in importance. So great is its effect upon 
commerce and industry that our entire credit system would collapse 
over night if the protection of insurance were instantly removed. 

Since the formation of the Department in 1899 it has been the 
duty of the Commissioner to investigate the financial responsibilty 



Departmext of Insurance 105 

of each company seeking admission to the State, of which there 
are now more than six hundred; to scrutinize each of the many 
thousand forms of contracts issued by them to see that the value 
of protection was not weakened or destroyed by some qualifying 
clause; to see that the contracts are given a reasonable interpre- 
tation in the settlement of claims and not misrepresented to the 
public; to watch the progress of companies and see that sufficient 
reserves are carried to guarantee the protection promised; to pro- 
tect the public and companies themselves against the impractical 
and unsafe policies of promoters operating under the guise of in- 
surance who continually seek his approval or attempt to operate in 
open defiance of the law. 

North Carolina has reaped a great benefit in the growth of the 
insurance business; for while in 1899 there were only seven 
North Carolina companies, having assets of $746,791, there are to- 
day eighty-two such companies with home offices in this State and 
assets of $33, 264. 068. 5S, and furnishing employment for thousands 
of our citizens, while the revenue of the Department has in- 
creased from ninety thousand dollars a year to over a million. 
Probably no other State in the Union has insurance laws as far- 
reaching in the protection furnished its citizens as the North 
Carolina Code. 

Next in importance to insurance is probably the Building and 
Loan Associations of the State, which in 1904, when turned over to 
the Department, had only $S0,000 in assets, now have thirty-seven 
million dollars distributed among more than two hundred asso- 
ciations, and over seventy thousand shareholders. The force of 
these institutions in the upbuilding of our cities, both in taxable 
property and citizenship, cannot be estimated. Their supervision 
calls for trained experts, and while no fund has ever been appro- 
priated for that purpose by the State, they have been supervised 
without expense to the State and without loss to their members. 
It is gratifying to know that we are in advance of any other 
State in the provisions for safeguarding our people in this direction 
as well as in the help rendered the associations in their organi- 
zation and conduct. 

One of the most far-reaching statutes we are called upon to 
enforce is the State Building Code, which is accepted as a model 
by practically every other State and upon which often depends 



106 Administrative Departments 

the lives of thousands of our citizens and our children away at 
school. No school building may be erected in the State the plans 
of which have not been submitted to the Department, examined and 
approved by an expert in fire protection. The result of this is 
thai we have in North Carolina more modern fire-proof school 
buildings than any other State in the Union, while the pupils are 
taught fire prevention from text-books especially prepared for 
this purpose by the Department. 

Fire Departments throughout the State have been given special 
attention, organized and drilled by experts, with the result that 
North Carolina has more motor-driven" fire-fighting equipment than 
any other State of like size, and full-paid firemen have replaced the 
loyal but inadequate volunteers with their hand reels and horse- 
drawn vehicles. 

A systematic inspection of all cities and towns in the State as 
to defects in buildings and electrical equipment is carried out 
through experts in building and electrical construction under the 
direction of the Commissioner. Every fire reported to be of in- 
cendiary origin is thoroughly investigated by experienced detec- 
tives, and prosecutions conducted where the evidence warrants. 
This has led to the conviction and imprisonment of hundreds of 
arson criminals during the history of the Department, notwith- 
standing arson is of all crimes probably the hardest to prove. 

A campaign of education in the prevention of fires and acci- 
dents is carried on continually throughout the State by compe- 
tent instructors provided by the Department and paid from the 
taxes collected from insurance companies, which also contributed 
over $30,000 annually toward the maintenance of our various 
Fire Departments. 

A business little understood and discredited by many, the sale 
and erection of lightning rods, has grown to be a considerable 
industry in the rural sections of the State, and since, as in most 
lines, there are impostors and inferior products, a special law 
provided that each brand sold shall be submitted to and approved 
by the Department before being offered for sale, and that each 
erector shall secure a license from the Department upon showing 
his fitness. 

No other statute probably means more to our people today nor 
results in more perplexities for the Department than what is 



Department of Insurance L07 

known as the "Blue Sky Law." Millions of dollars have been lost 
by our people in the past for lack of such a law rigidly enforced, 
and it is gratifying to feel that millions are now being saved 
by the vigilance of the Department and its representatives. The 
press has also rendered valuable assistance by warning the public 
against speculative investments without inquiry; yet it appears 
that each minute has its new-born sucker and many of them reach 
majority without a change of heart and fall victim to the flowery 
talk of the stock fakir. 

Every company operating in the State is required to file a copy of 
the rates charged by it on all property, and where such rates 
appear discriminatory they are investigated and equalized with 
the rates charged on other property of the same class. It is to 
the credit of the companies to say that this has called for very few 
adjustments, and that because of the work which we have done 
along the line of fire prevention North Carolina enjoys lower 
fire insurance rates than any other Southern State. 

There are employed by the Department at present twenty-five 
persons, twelve of whom are traveling practically all of the time. 
The time of the others is well taken up in performing the multi- 
ple duties imposed by law, and it must be apparent that the effi- 
cient performance of their work requires constant study and ad- 
vancement in order to keep abreast of the corporations whose 
progressiveness and desire for business demand constant scrutiny 
and supervision. 



NORTH CAROLINA HISTORICAL COMMISSION. 

D. H. Hill, Secretary, Raleigh. 

The North Carolina Historical Commission was created by an act 
of the Legislature of 1903. It consists of five members appointed 
by the Governor for terms of six years. They receive no salary or 
per diem, but are allowed their actual expenses when attending to 
their official duties. 

The offices of the Commission are in the State Administration 
Building, a new fireproof structure erected under an act of the Gen- 
eral Assembly in 1911. 

The duties of the Commission are as follows: 



108 Administrative Departments 

1. To have collected historical data pertaining to the history of 
North Carolina and the territory included therein from the earliest 
limes. 

2. To have such material properly edited, published by the State 
Printer as other State printing, and distributed under the direction 
of the Commission. 

3. To care for the proper marking and preservation of battle-fields, 
houses, and other places celebrated in the history of the State. 

4. To diffuse knowledge in reference to the history and resources 
of North Carolina. 

5. To encourage the study of the history of North Carolina in 
the schools of the State, and to stimulate and encourage historical 
investigation and research among the people of the State. 

6. To make a biennial report of its receipts and disbursements, its 
work and needs, to the Governor, to be by him transmitted to the 
General Assembly. 

The powers of the Commission are as follows: 

1. To adopt a seal for use in official business. 

2. To adopt rules for its own government not inconsistent with 
the provisions of the law. 

3. To fix a reasonable price for its publications and to devote the 
revenue arising from such sales to extending the work of the Com- 
mission. 

4. To employ a secretary. 

5. To control the expenditures of such funds as may be appropriate 
for its maintenance. 

GENERAL SUMMARY. 

Following is a general summary of the work of the Historical 
Commission: 

1. The Commission has saved from destruction, classified and filed 
many thousands of letters and other documents of the Executive 
and Legislative Department from colonial times to the present. 

2. It has made an extensive collection, numbering more than 
100,000 pieces of material bearing on North Carolina's part in the 
World War. 

3. It has secured for the State the following private collections, 
numbering many thousands of valuable manuscripts: Letters and 



Historical Commission 109 

papers of Zebulon B. Vance, James Iredell, Bryan Grimes, Airs. 
Cornelia P. Spencer, David L. Swain, B. J. Hale, Calvin II. "Wiley, 
John H. Bryan, Jonathan Worth, William L. Saunders, William A. 
Graham, William R. Davie, the Pettigrew Family, Charles B. Aycock, 
Archibald D. Murphey, John Steele, W. H. S. Burgwyn, Nathaniel 
Macon, Thomas Ruffin, David S. Reid, Willie P. Mangum, and several 
small collections. 

4. It has issued the following publications: "Public Education 
in North Carolina, 1790-1840: A Documentary History," 2 vols.; 
"Schools and Academies in North Carolina, 1790-1840: A Docu- 
mentary History"; "The Correspondence of Jonathan Worth," 2 
vols.; Papers of Archibald D. Murphey, 2 vols.; Papers of Thomas 
Ruffin, vols. I, II, III and IV; "Literary and Historical Activities in 
North Carolina, 1900-1905"; Von Graff enried's Account of the Found- 
ing of New Bern, 1 vol; Records of the Moravians in Ncrth Caro- 
lina, Vol. I; "A Legislative Manual of North Carolina" for 1909, 
1911, 1913, 1915, 1917, 1919, 1921, and twenty-eight bulletins. 

5. It recovered for the State, through the gift of the Italian 
Government, Canova's famous statue of Washington. 

6. It has erected in the rotunda of the Capitol a marble bust of 
William A. Graham; and obtained, without cost to the State, simi- 
lar busts of Matt W. Ransom, Samuel Johnson, John M. Morehead, 
Calvin H. Wiley, and W. S. Ashe. 

7. The Commission maintains in its Hall of History one of the 
most extensive historical museums in America. It contains about 
15,000 objects, illustrative of every period of the history of North 
Carolina from the earliest colonial times to the present. 

8. It has assisted a large number of students in their investiga- 
tions into North Carolina history, given information about the 
history of the State whenever it was possible, and has encouraged 
in many ways the study of our history in the schools of the State. 

9. It maintains a Legislative Reference Library for supplying in- 
formation to members of the General Assembly and others interest id 
in the affairs of the State. 

THE LEGISLATIVE REFERENCE LIBRARY. 

The Legislative Reference Library idea is not a new one. For 
twenty-five years such departments in other States have been ren- 



11° Administbative Depabtments 

dering valuable service. They have been provided for in thirty 
States, and in more than fifty cities of the United States. Recently 
there has been established a Legislative Reference Bureau in the 
Congressional Library which is rendering similar aid to the Na- 
tional Government. 

For ten years progressive citizens have urged the establishment 
of such a department in North Carolina. In response to that de- 
mand the Legislature of 1915, by a unanimous vote in the Senate 
and House of Representatives, passed a bill entitled "An act to 
establish a Legislative Reference Library," under the supervision 
of the North Carolina Historical Commission. 

Among the duties of the Librarian set forth in this act are the 
following: "To collect, tabulate, annotate and digest information 
for the use of the members and committees of the General Assembly, 
and the officials of the State," and of the various counties and cities 
included therein, upon all questions of State, county, and municipal 
legislation." 

As indicated by the caption as well as the subject-matter of the 
act, this Department is created primarily for the benefit of the 
members and committees of the General Assembly. 

These representatives of the people serve practically without com- 
pensation and in most cases make considerable personal sacrifice 
in order to be of service to the State. During the short sessions 
of the General Assembly they do not have time to study and thus 
secure for themselves information about the hundreds of measures 
they are called upon to consider. Heretofore there has been no 
agency to collect and classify the sort of information needed by the 
busy legislator. 

To fill this want is the particular field of service of the Legisla- 
tive Reference Library. For that purpose more than ten thousand 
books, laws, pamphlets, and clippings have been gathered and 
classified so that they are instantly available for use by interested 
persons. Additional material is received daily, and an attempt is 
made to procure as full information as is obtainable about all 
legislation in other States and countries. 

Information relating to the following subjects, which are taken 
from a list of more than fifteen hundred headings, will serve to 
illustrate the scope of service which is rendered: Agriculture, Appro- 
priations, Automobiles, Banks, Bill Drafting, Budgets, Campaign 



Historical Commission 111 

Expenses, Capital Punishment, Charities, Child Labor, Civil Serv- 
ice, Constitutions, Contracts, Convicts, Cooperative Buying and 
Marketing, Corporations, Courts, Credit, Crime and Criminals, 
Democratic Party, Drainage, Education, Elections, Employment. 
Factories, Farm Problems, Finance, Fires, Fish and Game, Food, 
Forests, Freight Rates, Health, Immigration, Initiative and Referen- 
dum, Insane, Insurance, Judges, Juries, Labor, Lawyers, Liens, 
Legislation, Loans, Manufacturers, Marriage and Divorce, Medicine, 
Militia, Municipalties, Negroes, Newspapers, Pardons, Parole. Pas- 
senger Rates, Pensions, Pharmacy, Platforms, Primaries, Prisons, 
Procedure, Prohibition, Public-Service Corporations, Railroads, Re- 
publican Party, Roads, Rural Credits, Schools, State Government, 
Statutes, Strikes, Taxation, Trusts, Universities and Colleges, Vital 
Statistics, Vocational Education, Wages, Woman Suffrage, Women, 
Workmen's Compensation. 

The province of the Legislative Reference Library is not to pro- 
mote legislation, but to furnish data and information so that the 
best and most widely approved laws may be enacted. 

With the cooperation and assistance of the persons for whose 
benefit the Legislative Reference Library was created, it hopes to 
achieve the same measure of success that similar agencies have 
had in other states. 

Members of the Historical Commission: 

W. J. Peele 1903-1919 

J. D. Hufman 1903-1905 

F. A. Sondley 1903-1905 

Richard Dillard 1903-1905 

R. D. W. Connor 1903-19n; 

Charles L. Raper 1905-1907 

Thomas W. Blount 1905-1911 

J. Bryan Grimes 1905- 

M. C. S. Noble 1907- 

D. H. Hill 1907-19:'^ 

T. M. Pittman 1911- 

Frank Wood 1919- 

Heriot Clarkson 1922- 

SECRETARIES. 

R. D. W. Connor 1903-1921 

D. H. Hill 1921- 



112 Administrative Departments 

NORTH CAROLINA STATE LIBRARY. 

Carrie L. Broughtox, Librarian. 

The North Carolina State Library, like practically all State 
Libraries, had its beginning in the miscellaneous collection of 
books which had accumulated in the various offices of the State 
officials. 

These books were purchased and donated to meet the various 
needs of the members of the General Assembly and the State 
Officers. 

When the Capitol was burned in 1831, the library, which was 
located in that building, was also consumed. The fire that de- 
stroyed the old building originated on the roof, and owing to an 
unnecessary panic caused by the announcement that the dome 
was falling, the people fled from the building and left the library 
to its fate. 

In 1S37 the General Assembly passed an act requiring the Secre- 
tary of State to collect books for the State Library and discharge 
the duty of Librarian. It was further enacted by the General 
Assembly that he be allowed fifty dollars per annum for his 
services as State Librarian during his term of office. No appro- 
priation was made for several years, and on the completion of 
the present Capitol in 1840 the few books saved from the fire were 
moved to the Capitol building. 

Code 2, Vol. 2, Section 3608, says: "The sum of $500 is annually 
appropriated for the increase of the Public Library." 

In March, 1SSS, the State Library was moved from the Capitol 
building to the new Supreme Court and Library Building located on 
the northeast corner of Salisbury and Edenton streets, where it 
remained until January, 1913, when it was moved to its present 
location. 

As stated above, in 1840 the Legislature appropriated $500 for 
the purchase of books. This appropriation stood for eighty 
years, from 1840-1921, when the General Assembly increased it to 
$3,000. 

The State Library has become an agency of great importance 
in the educational development of North Carolina. The educa- 
tional movement of recent years has awakened great interest in 



Library Commission 113 

library work, and our people realize more forcibly than ever before 
the value of this work. 

The patronage by students in our schools and colleges and by 
the general public within the past few years has shown a marker! 
growth and an increasing realization of the place of the Library 
in educational work. 

To the legislator and man of public affairs, the State Library 
is a place where he can, at his own convenience and in his 
own way, study intelligently and freely all questions of legis- 
lation that will affect his people and his State. 

Our genealogical department is becoming more and more popular 
each day. Hardly a day passes that you cannot find one or more 
genealogists at work. 

To meet all these various needs we are directing our efforts 
to the building up of a great reference library. 

All works written by or about North Carolinians or about North 
Carolina are purchased. The North Carolina collection now forms 
one of the most interesting and valuable features of the library. 
We now have in printed form a complete bibliography of North 
Carolina literature to be found in the State Library. 

Another particularly valuable feature of the library is the col- 
lection of bound newspapers. This now consists of 4,360 bound 
volumes. These are rapidly being indexed according to towns, 
cities and dates, by the library staff. After this work is completed, 
it is our desire and aim to index the contents of the leading 
papers of the State. 

Number volumes in general library 37,325 

Number volumes in Government documents 6,970 

Number volumes in bound newspapers 4,360 

Number volumes in magazines 3,458 



52.113 



LIBRARY COMMISSION OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Mary B. Palmer. Secretary and Director. 

The Library Commission of North Carolina was created by the 
General Assembly of 1909, and active work was begun September 
15th of the same year. The Commission consists of five members, 

8 



114 Administrative Departments 

two of whom are appointed by the North Carolina Library Associa- 
tion and one by the Governor; the State Librarian and the Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction complete the membership. 

The purpose of the Commission, as expressed in the law, is to 
"give assistance, advice, and counsel to all libraries in the State, to 
all communities which may propose to establish libraries, and to all 
persons interested, as to the best means of establishing and admin- 
istering such libraries, as to the selection of books, cataloging, main- 
tenance and other details of library management as may be prac- 
ticable." 

The following are the important lines of activity: 

1. Establishment of Public Libraries. — The Commission endeavors 
to secure the establishment of public libraries in localities able to 
support them, and gives advice and assistance in arousing public 
interest. After preliminary correspondence, communities proposing 
to establish libraries are visited by the Secretary, and the practical 
details of organization explained. In many instances she classifies 
the books, starts the accession record and shelf-list, installs a proper 
charging system, and teaches the librarian how to keep the neces- 
sary records. The service is rendered without cost to the Library. 

2. Reorganization of Old Libraries. — The Secretary visits libraries 
already established to confer with the Librarian and Library Board 
regarding methods of work and plans for further development. 
While much information and advice may be given by letters and 
circulars, personal visits are much more effective, as they invariably 
give new impulse to the local work and enable the Secretary to 
become familiar with library conditions in all parts of the State. 

3. Library Statistics. — Every public library in the State, includ- 
ing free public libraries, subscription libraries, school, college and 
university libraries, Young Men's Christian Association, legal asso- 
ciation, medical association, Supreme Court and State libraries, is 
required by law to make an annual report to the Commission. 
From the data thus secured the Commission compiles an annual 
report of library conditions in North Carolina. 

4. The North Carolina Library Bulletin. — This is a magazine of 
20 pages, published quarterly. It is sent free to every library in 
the State, and, upon application, to library trustees and to others 
interested in library extension. The first issue appeared in De- 
cember, 1909. Each number contains important library articles, 



Library Commission 115 

book lists, editorial notes, and general library news. It is intended 
to serve as a means of communication with each and every library, 
to bring the libraries into closer relation with one another, and, 
in general, to increase the interest in libraries throughout the 
State, and to improve the quality of their service to the public. 

5. Traveling Libraries. — For the benefit of communities without 
library facilities the Library Commission maintains a system of 
free traveling libraries. A library contains from thirty-five to 
forty volumes, about fifteen being fiction, fifteen children's books, 
and the remaining volumes popular and attractive books of biog- 
raphy, travel, science, etc. The books are shipped in a stout case 
equipped with shelves so that it may be used as a bookcase when 
it reaches its destination. The rules governing the loan of libra- 
ries are as few and simple as possible. The application may be 
signed by the president and secretary of a local library association, 
by three residents, or by the officers of a Farmers' Union Local, a 
Woman's Betterment Association, or a Community Service League. 
Borrowers agree to pay the freight both from and to Raleigh, to 
take good care of the books and to return them promptly, to make 
good any loss or damage beyond reasonable wear and tear, and to 
lend the books without charge to all responsible persons in the 
community. 

Traveling libraries containing only children's books have been 
prepared especially for the use of schools. They contain books for 
youngest readers, books for intermediate ?"**"•* ~™ A hooks for mo*"* 
advanced students. 

Special collections of agricultural books are loaned to teacher*, 
of agriculture for the school year. 

6. Package Libraries. — Package libraries are of two kinds: The 
Debate libraries, and the Study Club libraries. The Debate libraries 
are carefully prepared collections on the political, social, and 
economic questions which are being debated by schools and societies 
throughout the State. They consist of books, pamphlets, and maga- 
zine and newspaper articles. These little libraries contain the 
best material available on a subject and as much as the ordinary 
library would be able to furnish. Hence they are not lent to 
individuals, but to schools and debating societies, and on condition 
that all taking part in the debate have the use of the material. 
Libraries are now available on 90 different subjects. These Debate 



116 Administrative Departments 

libraries not only furnish the best material available to schools 
and societies which otherwise would have little or no material of any 
kind, but they are also a very effective means of bringing the Com- 
mission into close touch with the schools, and in many cases 
the Commission is able to awaken interest in the improvement of 
the school library or in the establishment of a traveling library 
station in the community. 

7. The General Loan Collection. — This is a miscellaneous collec- 
tion of books on all subjects and it enables the Commission to send 
books to individuals and to supplement the various fixed collections 
so that they will meet the needs of each community and organiza- 
tion to which they are lent. In order that citizens may secure books 
as easily and as promptly as possible, they are sent in response to 
applications signed by a teacher, minister, postmaster, county or 
town official, or the officers of a book club, society, or other organi- 
zation. The books from this section are lent for three weeks, and 
the borrower pays the postage both from and to Raleigh. 

S. Distribution of Library Literature. — In addition to the ~North 
Carolina Library Bulletin, the following publications have been is- 
sued and distributed by the Commission: 

Free Traveling Libraries. 

Clubwomen and Libraries. 

Agriculture and Country Life. 

North Carolina Package Libraries: Material for debate. 

Select Bibliography of North Carolina, by Stephen B. Weeks. 

How to Start a Public Library. 

Material for Study Clubs. 

Free Debate Libraries. 

Other library literature, including tracts of the American Library 
Association, book lists, building plans, etc., is sent out as required. 

9. School Libraries. — The development of school libraries is a 

special feature of the work. A close connection has been established 

with the schools by giving advice on the care and use of school 

libraries, assistance in starting the necessary records, and help in 

he selection and purchase of books. 



State Board of Health 117 

members of the library commission. 

Eugene C. Brooks, Acting Chairman Wake 

Charles Lee Smith, Vice-Chairman Wake 

Carrie L. Broughton, Treasurer Wake 

Alfred M. Scales Guilford 

Joseph P. Breedlove Durham 

Mrs. W. C Leak Richmond 



THE STATE HOARD OF HEALTH. 

W. S. Rankin, M.D., Secretary and Treasurer, Raleigh. 

members. 

J. Howell Way. M.D., President Waynesville 

Richard H. Lewis, M.D., LL.D., Raleigh 

Thomas E. Anderson, M.D Statesville 

A. J. Crowell, M.D Charlotte 

Chas. O'H. Laughinghouse, M.D Greenville 

Cyrus Thompson, M.D., Jacksonville 

P. R. Harris. M.D Henderson 

E. J. Tucker. D.D.S., Roxboro 

Charles E. Waddell, C. E Asheville 

Executive Staff. 

W. S. Rankin, M.D., Secretary and Treasurer, and State Health 
Officer. 

Ronald B. Wilson, Assistant to the Secretary. 

C. A. Shore, M.D., Director State Laboratory of Hygiene. 

L. B. McBrayer, M.D., Director Bureau of Tuberculosis and Su 
perintendent of the State Sanatorium for Treatment of Tuberculosis, 
Sanatorium, N. C. 

G. M. Cooper, M.D., Chiei of Bureau of Medical Inspection of 
schools. 

K. E. Miller, M.D., Chief of Bureau of County Health Work. 

H. E. Miller, C.E., Chief of Bureau of Engineering and Inspection. 

F. M. Register, M.D., Deputy State Registrar of Vital Statistics. 

J. S. Mitchener, M.D., Chief of Bureau of Epidemology. 

K. P. B. Bonner, M.D., Chief of Bureau of Maternity and Infancy. 



US Administrative Departments 

North Carolina today holds rank as one of the most healthful 
States of the Union. For the past two years this State has main- 
tained the highest birth rate, and at the same time has had a 
death rate below the average death rate of the United States regis- 
tration area which now comprises approximately eighty-two per cent 
of the population of the country. Coincident with the tremendous 
development during the years of the present century of agriculture 
and industries has been an improvement in health conditions 
no less remarkable. 

On account of its geographic location the State has been espe- 
cially susceptible to two semi-tropical diseases, malaria and hook- 
worm. On account of its predominating rural population, typhoid 
fever and other fecal-borne diseases have largely affected the 
public health. Yet today hookworm disease is becoming rare in 
the State; malaria is almost entirely confined to certain sections 
as yet undrained or only partially developed agriculturally; and 
typhoid fever has been removed as a major factor in the public 
health. 

The vital statistics records for the State as compared with 
those of the nation show that North Carolina has made a greater 
legree of improvsmss' In the health of its people since 1900 than 
has the country as a whole. In 1900 the death rate for the entire 
registration area was 17.6 per thousand of population. At that 
time this State had no accurate records, but it is estimated that 
the death rate was approximately 22 per thousand of population. 
This very high death rate has been steadily decreased year by 
year until 1921 the State had a rate of 11 per thousand of popu- 
lation as compared with a rate of 12. S for the country as a whole. 

This marked reduction in the death rate is the more noteworthy 
when considered in connection with the high birth rate. In 1921 
the latter was 33.3 per thousand of population for the second suc- 
cessive year, being the highest rate in the United States. This 
means an addition annually to the population of a large group 
which is most susceptible to a number of fatal diseases. Despite 
this large annual infant population, however, the mortality rate 
among infants has been reduced, and the State ranks well toward 
the top in this particular. 

Tuberculosis, which holds a place throughout the world as one 
of the major causes of death, in 1921 claimed more than a thou- 



State Board of Health 119 

sand less victims in this State than in 1914, the first year for 
which dependable records are available. The total number of deaths 
from this cause in 1921 was 2,641, giving the State a rate 
of 98.4 per hundred thousand of population as compared with a rate 
of 111.9 for the entire country. This enviable record was made in 
spite of the fact that nearly five hundred deaths from this cause 
were of non-residents, patients at government or private hospitals 
maintained in North Carolina because of its excellent climatic 
conditions. This rate for the State is far under that of any other 
Southern State with the single exception of the State of Florida. 

North Carolina today is perhaps the best sanitated State in the 
United States, considering its predominant rural population. It 
is the only State having State laws requiring the sanitary dis- 
posal of human excreta. Practically the entire urban population is 
now served with public water supplies and water sewerage. The 
semi-urban, village, and a large portion of the rural population is 
protected by a system of sanitary privies which are required to 
be built and maintained in accordance with plans and specifica- 
tions approved by the State Board of Health. 

The State is served by a Board of Health consisting of nine 
members, five appointed by the Governor and four elected by the 
Medical Society of the State of North Carolina. The membership 
now contains seven physicians, one civM engineer and one dentist. 
The Board functions through its executive officer, the State Health 
Officer, who in turn is assisted by experienced men placed in charge 
of the following divisions of the work: Laboratory or hygiene; 
sanatorium for the treatment of tuberculosis; vital statistics; medi- 
cal inspection of schools; county health work; epidemiology; engi- 
neering and inspection; maternity and infancy. 

The work of the Board may be briefly summarized as follows: 
The Board of Health supervises the quarantine of 44,000 cases of 
contagious diseases annually; assists the medical profession in the 
diagnosis, control and treatment of 6,500 cases of venereal diseases; 
vaccinates with its own officers against typhoid fever and diphtheria 
120,000 people annually and influences the vaccination by the 
medical profession of not less than 75,000 others; supplies 25,000 
closes of diphtheria vaccine at the cost of $6,000, which woul I 
otherwise cost the people $75,000; furnishes $25,000 worth of 
Pasteur treatments and 250,000 smallpox vaccinations; supplies 



120 Administrative Departments 

dental treatment to 25,000 school children; operates on 2,500 school 
children for diseased tonsils and adenoids; treats 425 persons for 
an average of four months for tuberculosis at the State Sanatorium 
and advises 34,000 others with respect to the absence or presence 
of tuberculosis and a proper course of treatment. The Board 
also passes upon the designing and installation of more than a 
million dollars' worth of water plants and sewerage systems an- 
nually; supervises and assists in the operation of water and 
sewage plants approximating in value $35,000,000, which serve 
a population of 600,000; exercises sanitary inspection and direction 
over the hotels and cafes of the State, jails, convict camps and 
State institutions, and exercises sanitary control over 100,000 sur- 
face closets. The Board has developed and participates in the 
management of a system of county health work embracing 26 
full-time county health departments and eleven full-time county 
health nurses, serving fifty-five per cent of the State's popula- 
tion. This system of local health work has attracted the atten- 
tion of the entire world, representatives from South America, 
Australia, and many European countries having been sent to the 
State to study the system. 



STATE BOARD OF CHARITIES AM) PUBLIC WELFARE 

Mrs. Kate Burr Johnson, Commissioner. 

In 1917 the General Assembly of North Carolina repealed the 
law providing for the Board of Public Charities made mandatory 
by the Constitution of 186S, which had been valuable as a stimu- 
lating and developing agency, but was more or less hampered 
by lack of funds and the legal authority to execute, and created 
instead the "State Board of Charities and Public Welfare" with 
enlarged powers and a more adequate appropriation. This Board 
is composed of seven members, two of whose terms expire each 
two years. The members of the Board are elected by the General 
Assembly upon recommendation of the Governor. They serve 
without pay, but receive necessary traveling expenses. The law 
governing the operations of the Board is as follows: 

"It shall have power to employ a trained investigator of social ser- 
vice problems, who shall be known as the Commissioner of Public 
Welfare, and to employ such other inspectors, officers, and agents 



State Board of Charities 121 

as it may deem needful in the discharge of its duties." (Par. 8, 
sec. 5006, Consol. Stat.) 

Its powers and duties as enumerated by the statute are: 

"(a) To investigate and supervise through and by its own mem- 
bers or its agents or employes the whole system of the charitable 
and penal institutions of the State and to recommend such changes 
and additional provisions as it may deem needful for their eco- 
nomical and efficient administration. 

"(b) To study the subjects of nonemployment, poverty, vagrancy, 
housing conditions, crime, public amusement, care and treat- 
ment of prisoners, divorce and wife desertions, the social evil 
and kindred subjects and their causes, treament, and prevention, 
and the prevention of any hurtful social condition. 

"(c) To study and promote the welfare of the dependent and 
delinquent child and to provide either directly or through a 
bureau of the board for placing and supervision of dependent, 
delinquent, and defective children. 

"(d) To inspect and make report on private orphanages, institu- 
tions, and persons receiving or placing children, and all such 
persons, institutions and orphanages shall, before soliciting funds 
from the public, submit to the State Board of Charities and Public 
Welfare an itemized statement of the money received and expended 
and of the work done during the preceding year, and shall not 
solicit other funds until licensed by the State Board, said state- 
ment of moneys received and expended and the work done to 
be made each year as ordered by the State Board, and said 
Board shall have the right to make all such information public. 

"(e) To issue bulletins and in other ways to inform the public 
as to social conditions and the proper treatment and remedies 
for social evils. 

"(f) To issue subpoenas and compel attendance of witnesses, 
administer oaths, and to send for persons and papers whenever 
it deems it necessary in making the investigation provided for 
herein or in the other discharge of its duties, and to give such 
publicity to its investigations and findings as it may deem best 
for the public welfare. 

"(g) To recommend to the Legislature social legislation and 
the creation of necessary institutions. 



L22 Administrative Departments 

"(h) To all cud, either through its members or agencies, social 
service conventions and similar conventions and to assist in pro- 
moting all helpful publicity tending to improve social conditions 
of the State, and to pay out of the funds appropriated to the 
State Board, office expenses, salaries of employes, and all other 
expenses incurred in carrying out the duties and powers herein- 
before set out. 

"Section 3916. The Board shall also give special attention to 
the causes of insanity, defect or loss of the several senses, idiocy, 
and the deformity or infirmity of the physical organization. They 
shall, besides their own observation, avail themselves of corre- 
spondence and exchange of facts of the labors of others in these 
departments, and thus be able to afford the General Assembly 
data to guide them in future legislation for the amelioration of 
condition of the people, as well as to contribute to enlighten 
public opinion and direct it to interests so vital to the prosperity 
of the State. The State Board shall keep and report statistics of the 
matters hereinbefore referred to and shall compile these reports 
and analyze them with a view of determining and removing the 
cause in order to prevent crime and distress. 

"Six. 3917. The State Board shall have power to inspect county 
jails, county homes, and all prisons and prison camps and other 
institutions of a penal or charitable nature, and to require reports 
from sheriffs of counties and superintendents of public welfare 
and other county officers in regard to the conditions of jails 
and almshouses, or in regard to the number, sex, age, physical and 
mental condition, criminal record, occupation, nationality and 
race of inmates, or such other information as may be required by 
said State Board. The plans and specifications of all new jails 
and almshouses shall, before the beginning of the construction there- 
of, be submitted for approval to the State Board. 

"Sec. 3918. The State Board shall biennially prepare and submit 
to the General Assembly a complete and full report of its doings 
during the preceding two years, showing the actual condition of 
all the State institutions under its supervision with such sug- 
gestions as it may deem necessary and pertinent, which shall be 
printed by the State Printer, and shall report such other matters 
as it may think for the benefit of the people of the State. 



State Board of Charities 123 

"Sec. 3919. Whenever the Board shall have reason to believe 
that any insane person, not incurable, is deprived of proper remedial 
treatment, and is confined in any almshouse or other place, whether 
such insane person is a public charge or otherwise, it shall be 
the duty of the said Board to cause such insane person to be 
conveyed to the proper State hospital for the insane, there to re- 
ceive the best medical attention. So also it shall be their care that 
all the unfortunate shall receive benefit from the charities of the 
State. 

"Sec. 3930. The Board may require the superintendents or other 
officers of the several charitable and penal institutions of the 
State to report to them of any matter relating to the inmates of 
such institutions, their manner of instruction and treatment, with 
structure of their buildings, and to furnish them any desired 
statistics upon demand. No person shall be appointed to any place 
or position in any of the State institutions under the super- 
vision of the State Board who is related by blood or marriage to 
any member of the State Board or to any of the principal officers, 
superintendents, or wardens of State institutions." 

The law also provides that the Board shall appoint County Boards 
of Public Welfare, to consist of three persons known to be interested 
in social welfare, who shall assist the County Superintendent of 
Public Welfare in carrying out plans in the counties. This Board 
shall have power and right at any time to remove any member 
of the county board. 

An annual appropriation of twenty thousand dollars was made 
by the General Assembly of 1921 to carry on the work of the State 
Board. 

Within the last year the work of the Board has been organized 
under five Bureaus: Child Welfare, InsititutionaJ Supervision, 
Mental Health and Hygiene, Promotion and Education, and County 
Organization. A brief summary of the work that is being done 
through these five bureaus is here given. 

child welfare. 

The work of the Bureau of Child Welfare is divided into two 
divisions: (a) Case Work; (b) Supervision of Child-Caring In- 
stitutions and Compulsory School Attendance. 



124 Administrative Departments 

(a) The Case Work Division has handled, approximately, 300 
cases in the last six months (October, 1921- .May, 1922). Many 
of these cases were those that the superintendents of public wel- 
fare felt that they needed help with. 

1 )uring the fourteen months ending with the fiscal year June 
30, 1922. approximately 10,000 children have been handled by the 
juvenile courts in the State. This estimate is made from reports 
sent in by the superintendents of public welfare in fifty-five 
counties where 6.42S children have been handled. The dispo- 
sition of the cases that came before the court was as follows: 

656 dismissed 
1,630 returned home on probation 
476 plated in temporary homes 
725 placed in institutions 
■17 adopted. 

Social agencies differ so in the various counties that a solution 
of a problem possible in one county is out of the question in 
another. The majority of the cases deal with neglected or de- 
pendent children, white and colored. Whenever possible, effort 
is made to secure mother's aid through county help or charitable 
organizations, looking toward the time when the State will pass 
a bill providing for this necessity. In cases where children 
lack a mother and must be provided with homes, effort is made to 
place them in temporary or permanent homes in their own counties. 
Building up this system is slow, as the idea of foster homes, 
particularly temporary ones, is new. 

A few urban counties are making plans for Receiving Homes 
for their child problems. These homes are to be, not orphanages, 
but clinics, temporary stopping places for children on their way 
to permanent placements. 

(b) Child-caring institutions for defectives, delinquents and de- 
pendents are necessary adjuncts to the child welfare program. 

North Carolina has five institutions for the care of its defec- 
tives; two for its delinquents; 23 for its dependents; three rescue 
homes and one child-placing society. Two of these are orphanages 
for colored children. Licenses are granted to these institutions 
once each year. It has been necessary for the State Board of 
Charities and Public Welfare to close up two child-caring insti- 



State Board of Charities 125 

lutions and to refuse to license six organizations, and individuals 
wishing to receive dependent children. 

An intensive study has been made of twenty of the orphanages 
this year with a view to obtaining a complete and accurate 
account of the buildings and equipment, sanitary conditions, health 
of the children, school work and general management of each 
institution. A written report of each institution has been sent 
to the members of the boards of trustees with such recommenda- 
tions as would help to raise the standard of institutional manage- 
ment and child care in the State. 

(c) School Attendance: Superintendents of public welfare are the 
chief school attendance officers in every county. Last year approxi- 
mately 100,000 children of the compulsory school attendance age 
were placed in school largely through the efforts of .superinten- 
dents of public welfare. The school attendance work is done under 
the direction of county and city boards of education, but a member 
of the State Board of Public Welfare assists in adjusting cases 
whenever called. 

INSTITUTIONAL SUPERVISION. 

This bureau has as its duties the inspection and supervision 
of the State Prison system, county and city jails and chain gangs, 
hospitals for the insane, county homes for the aged and infirm, 
and other charitable institutions in the State. 

Since the organization of the department into bureaus, within 
the last year, aside from routine work the Bureau of Institutional 
Supervision has undertaken two definite pieces of work. The 
first is the study of poor relief in the State, including both the 
county homes and outdoor relief. A rather elaborate questionnaire 
has been sent to the county superintendents of public welfare; 
a member of the staff of the Commissioner of Public Welfare has 
visited a number of county homes; and Dr. H. W. Crane, head of 
the Bureau of Mental Hygiene and Health, is making a study of the 
mental condition of the inmates in a typical group of county 
' homes. The result of the study will be carefully tabulated and 
analyzed and should be valuable in determining the future policy 
of the State in regard to the care of its poor. 

The second piece of work is a study of the prison system of the 
State. This study is being undertaken in cooperation with a com- 
mittee appointed by the North Carolina Conference for Social 



126 Administrative Departments 

Service. This committee is studying various phases of our prison 
situation such as: Provision for thorough mental and physical 
examination of prisoners; a plan for the separate treatment 
of different classes of prisoners; the need of a farm colony for 
women ; living conditions in county and State road camps; county 
jails, and municipal prisons; the honor system; better adminis- 
tration of parole; met hods of selecting those placed in charge of 
correctional institutions; adequate facilities for institutional train- 
ing of youthful delinquents; and the employment of discharged 
prisoners. Out of the deliberations of this committee, now en- 
larged to include one hundred representative citizens of the State, 
it is hoped will develop a complete and properly unified correctional 
system for the State. 

MENTAL HEALTH AND HYGIENE. 

Established Oct. 1, 1921. 

During the period covered by this report this Bureau has held 
case conferences, conducted mental examinations, and suggested 
disposition of cases. This type of service has been rendered private 
individuals, the Red Coss, three different State institutions, three 
county superintendents of public welfare, five public schools, and 
three private orphanages. Conferences have also been held with 
institution and public school officials in relation to more adequate 
provision for the future recognition and care of abnormal and 
subnormal individuals. 

In connection with this work, 310 cases were studied by means 
of the group examination method, while 253 cases were given indi- 
vidual mental examinations. In addition, the Bureau is now engaged 
in making a study of the mental status of the inmates of 10 represen- 
tative county homes. At the present time 103 of the inmates of 7 
of these county homes have been given individual examinations. 
For most of these cases partial family history studies have also 
been made. This study will be completed during the current year. 

The Bureau is now formulating plans for the inauguration of a 
system of registration of all cases of mental pathology and 
other cases of dependency and delinquency. It is hoped that 
such a system will supply information concerning present con- 
ditions that will be of assistance in the guidance of the case 
work of all social agencies, both private and public, within the 



State Board of Charities 127 

State. It should also provide data that may be the basis for 
future study, enabling us to formulate more definite and successful 
policies in our dealing with the above problems. 

PROMOTION AND EDUCATION. 

As the success of the public welfare work depends to a large 
extent upon the interest and intelligent cooperation of the public, 
every possible effort is made through bulletins and pamphlets on 
special subjects, public talks, newspaper articles, and promotion 
of county welfare days to inform the public of the work of the 
State Board and also give the public an intelligent idea of our 
social problems. The Board issues a monthly sheet, "The Public 
Welfare Progress," to a mailing list of five thousand. Probably 
one-fouj-th of the time of the members of the staff is spent in 
conferences with both State and out of State people. North Caro- 
lina's public welfare program has been the subject of such favor- 
able comment generally that many people interested in social 
problems visit the State for observation purposes. The University 
School of Public Welfare and the State Board of Public Welfare 
jointly hold special institutes each summer at the University for 
the purpose of raising the standard of social work by bringing 
together superintending of public welfare, institutional officials, 
and other social workers in a two weeks' conference. Recognized 
authorities on different phases of social work are secured for 
the institutes in addition to members of the University staff and 
State officials. 

Subjects discussed at the conference are divided into three 
classes: "Those having to do with general problems and policies 
in relation to public welfare; those having to do with State and 
county policy and public welfare administration; and those having 
to do with specific problems and methods of work." 

Howard W. Odum, Ph.D., Dean of the School of Public Welfare 
of the University, is consulting expert of the State Board of 
Charities and Public Welfare. 

COUNTY ORGANIZATION. 

Counties having a population of 32,000 or more by the census 
of 1920 must have a whole-time superintendent of public welfare, 
according to the law of 1921. Twenty-nine counties in the State 



12S Administrative Departments 

hare such a population, but two of these counties were exempted 
for special reasons. Consequently, it is only mandatory that 27 
counties have whole-time superintendents. Where a whole-time 
superintendent is not appointed, the superintendent of public in- 
struction must do the welfare work by virtue of his office with- 
out additional salary, though he must be provided with a reasonable 
expense fund and such extra clerical help as is needed to do the 
work. At the time this article is written (December, 1922) fifty-four 
counties have whole-time superintendents of public welfare, and 
in several of the larger counties the superintendents have been 
provided with assistants. County superintendents of public wel- 
fare are appointed by the County Boards of Education and the 
Boards of County Commissioners, these boards jointly paying the 
superintendent's salary. No superintendent of public welfare can 
serve until his appointment is approved by the State Board of 
Charities and Public Welfare. 

A great deal of time and effort on the part of the Commissioner 
and the field agent of the State Board is spent in trying to interest 
the counties in employing superintendents of public welfare and then 
in finding the right type of person to serve in this capacity. In 
most instances persons with no training for social work have been 
appointed, consequently the staff of the State Board is at the 
service of the superintendents as far as possible to assist them 
in fulfilling the requirements of their offices. The keeping of 
social records, case work, inspections of county institutions, pro- 
bation, etc., were all more or less unknown to those who have 
been appointed superintendents of public welfare, making it neces- 
sary for the staff of the State Board to be a traveling teaching staff 
to a great extent. The State Board also assists in organizing the 
County Juvenile Courts, and has established a standard system of 
record keeping for the latter. 

The duties of a superintendent of public welfare are as follows: 

(a) He shall be chief school attendance officer of the county. 

(b) He shall be chief probation officer and with the County 
Juvenile Court have oversight of dependent, neglected and delinquent 
children under 16 years of age. 

(c) He shall enforce the Child Labor laws. 

(d) He shall have oversight, under the direction of the State 
Board, of persons discharged from hospitals for the insane and 



State Board of Charities 129 

from other State institutions, and of all persons on probation or 
parole. 

(e) He shall have, under control of the County Commissioners, 
the care and supervision of the poor, and administer the poor 
funds. 

(f)He shall act as agent of the State Board in relation to any 
work to be done by the State Board within the county. 

(g) He shall promote wholesale recreation in the county and 
enforce such laws as regulate commercial amusement. 

(h) He shall have, under direction of the State Board, over- 
sight of dependent children placed in the county by the State. 

(i) He shall assist the State Board in finding employment for 
the unemployed. 

(j) He shall investigate into the cause of distress, under the 
direction of the State Board, and make such other investigations 
in the interest of social welfare as the State Board may direct. 

MEMBERS OF BOARD. 

W. A. Blair, Chairman Winston-Salem 

Carey J. Huxter, Vice-Chairman Raleigh 

A. W. McAlister Greensboro 

Rev. M. L. Kesler Thomasville 

Mrs. Walter P. Woodward. . . Wilson 

Mrs. Thomas W. Lingle Davidson 

Mrs. J. W. Pless Marion 

executive staff. 

Mrs. Kate Burr Joiixsox Commissioner 

Roy M. Brown Field Agent 

Wiley B. Saxders Field Agent 

Mary G. Shotwell Child Welfare 

Emetii Tuttle 07? Aid Welfare 

Harry W. Crane Mental Health and Hygiene 

Nell Battle Lewis Secretary 

Howard W. Odum Consulting Expert 

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C. 



130 Administrative Departments 

NORTH CAROLINA GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SURYEY. 

Joseph Hyde Pratt, Director and State Geologist, Chapel Hill, N. C. 

The act establishing the North Carolina Geological and Economic 
Survey was passed by the General Assembly of 1905. This act, with 
subsequent acts, outlines in considerable detail the work with which 
this department is charged. Briefly, the Survey is responsible for 
carrying out the following work: 

(1) The examination of the mineral, forest, fishery and other 
resources of the State. 

(2) The examination of the geological formations of the State 
with reference to their economic products. 

(3) The examination of road-building materials and the best 
methods of utilizing same. 

(4) The examination and classification of the soils and forests 
and other physical features of the State, with special reference to 
their bearing upon the occupations of the people. 

(5) The examination of the streams and waterpowers of the 
State, with special reference to their development in manufacturing 
enterprises and the preservation of the sources of these streams 
through the protection of the forests. 

(6) The examination of the water supplies of the State, with 
special reference to sinking deep artesian wells. 

(7) Enforcement of all laws relating to the prevention of forest 
fires and the protection of forests. 

(8) The supervision of drainage districts organized under the 
North Carolina Drainage Law, and approval of drainage engineers. 

(9) To make such recommendations as may be considered advisa- 
ble in regard to the conservation, protection and utilization of the 
several natural resources of the State. 

(10) Care and protection of Mt. Mitchell State Parks, and other 
State parks. 

(11) Supervise organization of Agricultural Development Districts. 

(12) Cooperate with State Highway Commission in planting 
trees along highways. 

(13) To cooperate with the various Federal and State departments 
and bureaus. 



Geological and Economic Survey 131 

(14) The preparation of reports giving the results of investiga- 
tions conducted according to the above. 

The Survey has been organized into divisions, with a competent 
engineer in charge of each, who has detailed supervision of its work.' 
These divisions and the chiefs of each are as follows: 

Administrative and Records Division, Joseph Hyde Pratt, director. 

Geological and Mining Division, W. F. Prouty, Geologist. 

Forestry Division, J. S. Holmes, State Forester. 

Water Resources Division, Thorndike Saville. Hydraulic Engineer. 

Drainage and Reclamation Division, Joseph Hyde Pratt, Engineer. 

Mapping Division, Prof. T. F. Hickerson, Topographic Engineer. 

Biological Division, W. C. Coker, Botanist. 

State Forests and Parks Division, Joseph Hyde Pratt. 

On account of limited appropriations of the Survey only a few of 
the engineers and scientists can be employed for their full time, 
many of them devoting only a few months in the year to the work. 
The Survey has had the most hearty cooperation with the various 
Federal bureaus, such as the United States Geological Survey, the 
United States Bureau of Public Roads, the United States Coast and 
Geodetic Survey, the United States Forest Service, the United States 
Fisheries Commission, the National Association of Audubon Socie- 
ties, the American Association of State Highway Officials, and 
various State associations, such as the North Carolina Good Roads 
Association, the North Carolina Drainage Association, and the 
North Carolina Forestry Association. 

GEOLOGICAL AND MINING DIVISION. 

The geological work carried on by this division during the past 
two years has consisted principally of investigations of the brown 
iron ores, Western North Carolina, coal deposits of the Deep River 
region of Chatham, Moore and Lee counties, oil in the Coastal Plain 
region and in Triassic formation, talc deposits and clay deposits 
of the State. 

The report on the cretaceous formation of the Coastal Plain 
region has been completed. Part I has already been printed; 
Parts II and III are ready for the printer but lack of funds has 
prevented their publication. This is being published as Volume V, 



132 Administrative Departments 

Parts I, II and III of the Survey's publications. This report, 
together with Volume III on the general geology of the Coastal 
Plain region, is of special interest to those who are interested in 
the water resources of Eastern North Carolina, in its lime and 
marl deposits, and to those interested in the supposed occurrence 
of oil. 

Bulletin No. on Brown Iron Ores and Bulletin No. — on 

Magnetic Iron Ores of Winston, N. C, and Eastern Tennessee have 
been completed but lack of funds prevents their publication. 

Statistics relating to the production of the various minerals and 
ores of the State were collected in cooperation with the United 
States Geological Survey. Mineral specimens from various sections 
of the State have been tested and reported on. While the majority 
of these specimens are of little value commercially, occasionally 
one is sent in which either has a commercial value or is of scientific 
interest. Through this means deposits of commercial minerals 
have been located which have proved to be of considerable value. 

The .following publications have been printed during the past 
two years relating to mineral subjects: 

Economic Paper No. 49, "The Mining Industry in North Carolina 
During 1913-1917, Inclusive." 

Press Bulletin No. 170, "The Mining Industry in North Carolina 
During 1918." 

The State Geologist has been assisted in this work by Prof. W. S. 
Bayley, Geologist; Prof. Win. F. Prouty, Geologist; Mr. M. R. 
Campbell, Geologist; Mr. Jasper L. Stuckey and Mr. K. K. Kimball, 
Assistant Geologists, and Mr. Stanley C. Sears, Metallurgical Engi- 
neer. 

FORESTRY DIVISION. 

The forestry work of the Survey is to examine, study, and report 
on the forest resources of the State in their relation to the life and 
activities of the people. Through the action of the 1915 Legislature, 
there has been added the duty of protecting the forests from fire 
and of making experiments in forestry practice for the benefit 
of the people of the State. Studies of the forest resources of the 
various counties, of the wood-using industries of the State, and of 
various other features have been made. Many private woodland 
tracts have been examined and advice for their conservative manage- 



Geological and Economic Survey 133 

ment given to the owners. Illustrated lectures have been given at 
the public schools and talks on practical forest management made 
at Farmers' Institutes and on many other occasions. 

The most important forestry work of the Survey has been in 
connection with the prevention of forest fires. With the idea of 
securing reliable information on the damage done by fires and at 
the same time interesting leaders of thought in each township in 
fire prevention, annual inquiries by correspondence have been carried 
on for the past thirteen years. The results show an average 
annual loss of over $750,000 as a result of forest fires. 

The Forestry Law, enacted by the Legislature of 1915, provided for 
the extinguishment and prevention of forest fires through the em- 
ployment of competent forest wardens, payment for fire fighting, 
and penalties for setting illegal fires. The General Assembly of 1921 
authorized counties to cooperate with the survey in protecting their 
forested area from fire. Unfortunately, the adequate enforcement 
of this law and cooperation with the counties has been delayed 
owing to lack of funds. 

By reason of the enactment of these laws, the State Geologist has 
been enabled to secure from the Federal Government a sum not 
exceeding $12,000, a year for the purpose of employing wardens 
under the Weeks Law. There is now available $24,000 per year for 
this purpose if the State will furnish funds to enable the Survey to 
meet it. 

Through the enactment of these laws the Survey has been en- 
abled to take advantage of the cooperation offered by the Forest 
Service under the Weeks Law in the protection of the State's 
forests from fire. During the past year there was allotted to North 
Carolina on a 50% basis $25,000, but on account of lack of funds 
the Survey had only $12,000 to use for this work, and therefore 
could not take up the full $25,000. During the next fiscal year 
the State is offered $24,000 if it can meet this sum with an 
equal amount. There are now employed for what time is necessary 
for patrolling and protection of the forests 140 forest wardens. 
These men have done splendid work not only by actually pre- 
venting and extinguishing fires but by forming centers of informa- 
tion and activity which will bear good fruit in the future. 



134 Administrative Departments 

An item in the Agricultural Bill recently introduced into Con- 
gress calls for an appropriation of $1,000,000 for cooperating with 
the State in forest fire prevention, forest investigation and forest 
planting. This measure has the endorsement of the Secretary of 
Agriculture, the U. S. Forest Service, and several of the leading 
timber-using industries. Should this measure pass, the Forest 
Service proposes under it to make apportionments to the States 
on a percentage basis of what it would cost to adequately protect 
all the forests of the State from fire. After some one-half of the 
total annual appropriation had been apportioned in this way, addi- 
tional amounts up to 2 r > per cent of the total cost might be secured 
on condition that the State should require by law measures neces- 
sary to insure the replacement of the forest. The restrictions of 
the present Weeks Law would probably be removed. Under such 
an arrangement North Carolina should be able to secure from the 
Federal Government as much as $50,000 to $75,000 per year. 

Under the law of 1915 (Chapter 253), the General Assembly 
recognized the duty of the State to experiment in and demonstrate 
practical methods of forestry. One of the most pressing needs at 
the present time is experiments to determine the best ways of 
reforesting the non-agricultural lands of the different regions of 
the State. A start has been made on the spruce lands in Mitchell 
Park, but a definite appropriation is needed to put these experi- 
ments on a practical basis, and appropriations are necessary for the 
purchase of more land for this purpose. 

In order to interest the people of North Carolina in better forest 
protection and to educate the young people, and especially the 
children, in a better understanding and wiser use of our natural 
resources, the Survey has cooperated with a number of organiza- 
tions where such cooperation would help. Much of our most effec- 
tive work in education has been accomplished through the Con- 
servation Department of the State Federation of Women's Clubs. 

Realizing that the greater part of the forest area of North 
Carolina is included in farms, the Survey has devoted a great deal 
of -attention to the study of farm forestry and the assisting of 
farmers in the better management of their woodlands. 



Geological and Economic Survey 135 

The Survey has assisted the North Carolina Forestry Association 
very materially by helping to organize and hold annual forestry con- 
ventions which, besides their interest for the delegates who attended, 
have a wide influence on public opinion throughout the State. 

The Forestry Division of the Survey has before it a large and 
increasing field of usefulness. Reconstruction following the war 
must take into consideration the adjustment of supply and demand 
as regards our forest resources. The study of the timber condi- 
tions of the various counties, which up to the present include all 
the mountain and Piedmont counties, must be extended to the 
Coastal Plain counties. 

The children of our schools and students of our colleges should 
understand the problems with which they will eventually have 
to deal. The Survey must continue to furnish speakers, publica- 
tions, articles for the press, and other information, and be ready 
at all times to assist the citizens of the State and those who would 
become so in the forestry problems confronting them. Experi- 
ments must be conducted in order to have definite and practical 
information available; and, for these, the State should have at least 
one Experiment Forest in each of the forest regions. The planting 
of trees along our improved highways will become an important 
public activity, and State nurseries should be maintained to fur- 
nish at cost planting stock both for shade trees and for farm 
planting. The protection of the forest lands of the State from 
fire, must be carried out with efficiency and economy. 

In order to emphasize the value of the forests of North Carolina 
and their need of protection by the State and the necessity of the 
General Assembly passing adequate legislation and making sufficient 
appropriations for protecting this valuable natural resource, there 
is given below an estimated amount and value of standing timber, 
young forest growth in North Carolina, and the damage from 
forest fires during the past ten years. 



136 



Administrative Departments 



ESTIM \TI!) VMOUNT AND VALUE OF STANDING TIMBER IN NORTH 
CAROLINA SUITABLE FOR SAW TIMBER, H20 





Mountain 
Region 


Piedmont 
Region 


Total areas, acres 

Ana forested 


4.150,000 
if) ,000 

a? ,800 ,000 

- " )0,000 

842,000,000 

b300,000 

900,000 

36,000,000 

9,100,000 

848,000,000 


12,850,000 
7 ,200 ,000 

c4 ,200 ,000 


Hardwood forest: 
Area 


Total stand 1.000-ft 


2,930 000 


Value 

Softuood /ored: 
Area 


814,650,000 

d2 ,400 ,000 

4,160,000 

S20 800 000 


Total stand, 1.000-ft 


Value . 


Total stand, 1 ,000-f t 


7,090,000 
835,450,000 


Total value. 



Coastal 
Plain Region 



14,190,000 
10,800,000 

2,500,000 

6,000,000 

$24 ,000 ,000 

f8 ,300 ,000 
12,000,000 

360,000,000 
18,000,000 

384,000,000 



Total 

State 



31,190,000 
21,130,000 

9 ,500 ,000 

17,430,000 

3 80 ,650 ,000 

11,000,000 

16,760,000 

S86,800,000 

34,190,00 

8157,450,000 



Note. 

a. Includes mixed hardwood and softwood forests. 

b. Spruce forests only. 

c. Includes mixed hardwood and pine forests. 

d. Second growth or old field pine forests. 

e. Chiefly hardwood swamps. 

f. Includes both longleaf and shortleaf pine forests. 

ESTIMATED VALUE OF YOUNG FOREST GROWTH IN NORTH CAROLINA, 1920 



Total area, in acres in region. 
Forested area 

Hardwood forest area 

Area not producing. 

Merchantable timber area 

Area young growth.. , 

Value young growth .. 

Softwood forest area 

Area not producing. 

Merchantable timber area 

Area young growth 

Value young growth 

Total value young growth 



Mountain 
Region 



4 
3 
2 

1 

a2 

S37 



,150,000 
,130,000 
,800,000 
300,000 
,000 ,000 
,500 ,000 
,500,000 
300,000 
260,000 
40,000 



Piedmont 
Region 



,500,000 



12,800,000 

7,200,000 

4,200,000 

200 ,000 

1,000,000 

a4 ,000 ,000 

360 ,000 ,000 

2,400,000 

160,000 

240,000 

2 ,000 ,000 

340 ,000 ,000 

8100,000,000 



Coastal 
PlainRegiou 



14,000,000 

10,800,000 

2,500,000 



1,200,000 

1 ,300 ,000 

813,000,000 

8,300,000 

3,300,000 

2,900,000 

2,100,000 

342 ,000 ,000 

855 ,000 ,000 



State 



30,950,000 

21,130,000 

9,500,000 

500,000 

3,200,000 

7,800,000 

3110,500,000 

11,000,000 

3,720,000 

3,180,000 

4,100,000 

S82 ,000 ,000 

3192,500,000 



a. Includes some areas on which there is mature timber. 



Geological and Economic Survey 137 

STATEMENT OF DAMAGE BY FOREST FIRES. 

throughout State for ten-year period, 1910 1919, inclusive, as reported annually by township 

correspondents. 

Total forested area of State - 20,000,000 

Total number acres forest land burnt over 3 ,949 ,000 

Total value timber destroyed S 2,140,000 

Total value young growth destroyed.. .. 3 ,561 ,000 

Total value forest products destroyed- _ 3,856,000 

Total value improvements destroyed 1 ,023 ,000 

Grand total value of all damage reported 10,810,000 

SPECIAL INVESTIGATIONS. 

The Survey has been cooperating with the U. S. Forest Service 
through the Appalachian Forest Experiment Station in carrying 
forward several studies concerning the distribution and growth 
of our forest trees. The field work on the study of juniper or 
white cedar, which was begun in 1921, has recently been completed. 
A popular handbook on this tree by the Survey and a more tech- 
nical one by the Station will be published at an early date. 

Weather records are being kept on the summit of Mt. Mitchell 
by the Forest Warden in charge for the use of the Station in its 
study of the relation of climate to fire risk. This is the highest 
weather observation station in the Eastern United States. 

Assistance also has been furnished the Station in its study of 
second growth yellow poplar; and in its preparation of its report 
on "Public Requirements on Forest Lands and Desirable Forestry 
Practice." 

In 1923 seeding and planting experiments on cut and burned over 
spruce lands will be begun under the same auspices. 

WATER EESOURCES DIVISION. 

The work of this division consists of investigations carried on 
under the following heads: 

1. Water Powers. 

Gauging Stations. 

2. Water Supply for Cities and Towns. 

Mountain Region. 
Piedmont Region. 
Coastal Plain Region. 

3. Protection of Watersheds. 



13S Administrative Departments 

Water Powers.— Notwithstanding the larger developments that 
have been made by the Southern Power Company, Aluminum Com- 
pany of America, and the Carolina Power and Light Company, there 
is still a very much larger demand for power in the various cities 
and towns of the State than can be supplied by these companies. 

After the preliminary investigations have been made and it has 
been ascertained whether or not a certain amount of power can be 
developed, the final examination or preparation of plans for its de- 
velopment are not made by the Survey, but the city or corporation 
is referred to competent hydraulic engineers in private life to take 
up this work for them. 

The State Survey is cooperating with the Federal Survey in oper- 
ating gauging stations and in making discharge measurements on 
several streams and rivers in Western and Piedmont North Caro- 
lina. The Federal Government is cooperating heartily with the Sur- 
vey in this work. 

Protection of Watersheds. — The protection of watersheds from a 
sanitary standpoint is worked out by Mr. Saville, hydraulic engineer,, 
and the protection of the forest areas on the watersheds or their 
reforestation is carried on under the supervision of Mr. Holmes, 
the Forester. 

A map is being prepared showing the transmission lines of the 
various power companies. The power companies have been very 
generous in supplying the Survey with information regarding their 
transmission lines and the character of the power development of 
their several sites. 

In order to obtain the information and data desired as early as 
possible and also to be able to give to the counties and municipali- 
ties information they need regarding their water powers and water 
supplies, the Survey, in carrying out its water resources survey of 
the State, is cooperating with the counties and municipalities in 
making the survey of their areas on a 50 per cent basis. 

The following figures regarding water powers in North Carolina 
and the amount that is being utilized illustrate strikingly the need 
for this water power survey of the several counties: 



Geological and Economic Survey 139 

The total developed hydro-electric power in the State is now dis- 
tributed about as follows:' 

Horsepower. 

Southern Power Company and subsidiaries 63,000 

Carolina Power and Light Company 35,500 

Aluminum Company of America 185,000 

Blue Ridge Power Company 8,000 

Roanoke Rapids Power Company 6,000 

North Carolina Power Company 7,750 

Other developments, amount 54,750 

360,000 

Of this power, the 8,000 horsepower at Tuxedo by the Blue Ridge 
Power Company is transmitted for use in Spartansburg, South 
Carolina. The 93,000 produced by the Aluminum Company of Amer- 
ica at Badin is used in the local reduction of aluminum, and the 
72,000 horsepower at Cheoah is transmitted for a similar use in 
Tennessee. Thus, only some 131,000 horsepower, or about 40 per 
cent of all the power developed in the State, is available for general 
industrial and commercial use. 

There is still undeveloped water power in the State that will 
aggregate one million horsepower, and at least 2,000,000 with storage, 
and it is to bring about the development of this water power and 
its utilization that the Survey is urging sufficient appropriations for 
making the water resources survey of the State. 

A district engineer's office has been established at Asheville in 
cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey, which is mainly for 
the Water Resources Division of these two Surveys. It is however, 
used as a general office for advertising the work of the two Sur- 
veys and for distributing publications and giving out information 
regarding the resources of the Southern Appalachian Region. 

DRAINAGE AND RECLAMATION DIVISION. 

Since the passage of the North Carolina Drainage Act by the 
General Assembly of 1909 there have been 146 projects organized or 
proposed under this Act. Of this number 51 were districts embracing 
overflowed lands of Burke, Cabarrus, Catawba, Cleveland, Davidson, 
Forsyth, Gaston, Guilford, Iredell, Lincoln, Mecklenburg, Moore, 
Rockingham and Rowan Counties of the Piedmont region, and 



140 Administrative Departments 

Henderson County of the Mountain region; and 91 projects have in- 
cluded the swamp lands of Beaufort, Bladen, Camden, Carteret, 
Chowan, Columbus, Craven, Cumberland, Currituck, Duplin, Edge- 
combe, Harnett, Hyde, New Hanover, Onslow . Pamlico, Pender, 
Perquimans, Pitt, Robeson, Sampson, Tyrrell, Washington, Wayne 
and Wilson Counties of the Coastal Plain region. Of these 146 
projects, 75 districts, representing 615,000 acres, have been completed 
and the lands drained; 15 districts have been approved; 64 districts 
have been proposed and are either in the preliminary stages of 
organization or are held up for one cause or another; 9 projects 
have been abandoned as not feasible at the present time. 

Of this reclaimed acreage, approximately 30,000 acres are reclaimed 
overflowed lands of the Piedmont region which before its reclamation 
was not worth, as producing land, over $25 per acre, but is now 
worth from $100 to $200 per acre. At an average value of $100 
per acre it would make the value of this land now $300,000, or an 
increase of $225,000. The market value of the 585,000 acres of re- 
claimed swamp lands is at least $50 per acre, making the total 
minimum value of these reclaimed swamp lands $29,250,000. Be- 
fore their reclamation these lands were not valued at more than 
$2 per acre and a great deal of the land was on the tax books at 50 
cents or less per acre. Estimating its previous value at $2 per acre, 
or a total of $1,170,000, this makes a gain to the State in the value 
of the reclaimed swamp lands of $28,080,000, at a cost of not over 
$75,000 to the State. 

There are still approximately 2,000,000 acres of swamp lands in 
the Coastal Plain region of North Carolina, of which at least 1,250,- 
000 acres represents land that can be drained and when drained 
will make very productive agricultural land. The soil of the balance 
of the swamp areas is more peaty in character and not so susceptible 
to profitable drainage at the present time. 

The Survey has cooperated and organized the work of the North 
Carolina Drainage Association, and with it has arranged for 
annual conventions, which were held at Elizabeth City, N. C, in 1921, 
and at Goldsboro, N. C. in 1922. These are the first meetings held 
by the Association since the beginning of the war 

On account of lack of funds the Survey has not been able to carry 
out as full a program as it is desired in connection with the exam- 
ination of proposed drainage districts, and assisting the districts 



Geological and Economic Survey 141 

in developing the reclaimed lands and bringing settlers to take up 
these lands. 

The Survey has cooperated with the National Drainage Congress 
in the conventions held in 1921 at St. Paul, Minn., and in 1922 at 
Kansas City. At the St. Paul convention the Survey had a 
rather elaborate exhibit illustrating the reclamation work in this 
State. The cost of making the exhibit was defrayed largely by sub- 
scriptions from various drainage districts. 

The Survey has kept in touch with all legislation relating to 
drainage and has published and widely distributed copies of the 
North Carolina Drainage Law and amendments, together with a 
book of forms for use in the organization of drainage districts. 
Many requests have been received for this book of forms from people 
interested in drainage in other States. 

MAPPING DIVISION. 

The work of this Division includes the preparation of the various 
maps of the State, and can be summarized as follows: 

1 — Base Map 
2 — Topographic Map 
3 — Traverse Map 
4 — Geological Map. 

(1) Base Map. — A base map of the State was prepared by the 
Survey in cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey in 1911. 
This is used in the preparation of all the other maps and also used 
for special maps which are to show transmission lines of power 
companies, railroad lines; forest areas; highways, etc. This base 
map has to be corrected from time to time as new railways are 
constructed, county lines changed, canals constructed, etc. A 
revision of this base map has been made and is ready for publication. 

(2) Topographic Map. — The most valuable map to the State is 
the topographic map. This is also the most expensive to prepare. 
This map is being made in cooperation with the U. S. Geological 
Survey, but only as rapidly as the State will cooperate with the 
Federal Survey. The States that cooperate will be the first to be 
mapped, and in a recent communication from the Chairman of the 
Board of Surveys and Maps of the Federal Government he states: 



142 Administrative Departments 

I am advised by the Geological Survey that the least workable 
appropriation which should be asked for is $5,000, for the reason 
that, on a dollar for dollar basis, such an appropriation, matched 
by an equal amount from the Government, will serve to survey 
one regular quadrangle. During the coming two years, $25,000 per 
year will be available to the State for this purpose if the State 
will appropriate an equal amount. 

The State should, if possible, provide for a sufficient amount 
so that it can cooperate to the limit of $25,000 a year with the 
Federal Survey. Such a topographic map of the whole State would 
be of inestimable value to the State Highway Commission in its 
highway work; to the Survey and power companies in water power 
investigations; to railway corporations in their location work; 
and to the Survey and mining companies in preparation of geologi- 
cal maps of different areas. 

(3) Traverse Map. — There is a continual demand for traverse 
maps of the various counties which would be on a much larger 
scale than the State map and would show in more detail certain 
conditions of the county and location of houses than can ba shown 
on the smaller scale maps. The traverse maps would not show 
the topography unless this had already been prepared in con- 
nection with the topographic map, but would show township 
lines, county lines, railways, streams, swamp areas, forest areas, 
cities and towns, schoolhouses, churches, and all houses in the 
country. These maps are somewhat expensive to prepare as all 
the roads and streams are actually traversed as in the prepara- 
tion of a topographic map. The map, however, when completed, 
is of inestimable value to county commissioners, county road com- 
missioners and county superintendents of schools. The traverse 
map is also necessary in preparing the county soil maps which are 
made by the Department of Agriculture. 

(4) Geological Map. — The Survey has nearly completed a new 
geological map of the State which will show in considerable detail 
the various geological formations. Several special geological maps 
have been published of -different portions of the State, as the 
Coastal Plain region, mountain region, and certain sections of the 
Piedmont area. 



Geological and Economic Survey 143 

biological division. 

The work that comes under this Division is investigations relat- 
ing to fish and oysters, birds, plants, mushrooms, etc. 

There is a great need for adequate legislation for the protection 
of our fish and game, and a,s soon as such legislation is passed 
there will be many problems that should be investigated by the 
State in connection with the use and propagation of fish and game. 
Very little effort has been made to determine what is the actual 
value to the State of North Carolina of its waters from a stand- 
point of the game fish that they contain, and the Survey is now 
investigating this question. 

Dr. W. C. Coker has prepared for the Survey an elaborate manu- 
script, thoroughly illustrated, on "The Mushrooms of North Caro- 
lina." It. has been impossible to publish this report on account of 
lack of funds. Portions of this have been published in the Journal 
of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, but it is not available to 
the people of the State as it should be, and therefore the people 
are losing the value of this work. Dr. Coker and his assistants 
are now at work investigating and preparing for publication a 
glossary of the plants of North Carolina. 

Hatcheries for supplying fish for the streams and lakes of 
Western and Piedmont North Carolina can be operated and made 
of economic value to the State. The Beaufort* laboratory, which was 
established by the Federal Government, largely through the in- 
fluence of the North Carolina Survey, offers a splendid opportunity 
for investigation and study of problems relating to the marine 
fisheries. It is believed that it would be money well invested for 
the State to maintain a permanent investigator at the Beaufort 
Laboratory, and such assistants as may be necessary to carry on 
investigations relating to the development of the various fish 
industries of the States. 

STATE FORESTS AND PARKS DIVISION. 

Mt. Mitchell State Park. — The General Assembly of 1921 turned 
over to the North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey the 
care, protection and administration of the Mt. Mitchell State Park; 



* The land upon which the Beaufort Laboratory is located was purchased by 
the Survey with funds collected from various institutions and presented to the 
Federal Government. 



144 Administrative Departments 

also transferring to the Survey all the rights, powers, duties and 
obligations of the Mt. Mitchell Park Commission and the Mitchell 
Peak Park Commission, the acts creating these two commissions 
having been repealed. The Survey maintains a^ warden on the 
Park, who looks after the protection of the forested area of the 
Park from fire, the construction of trails and cooperates with the 
wardens of the National Forests in the general protection of the 
forests of that area from fire. 

A lookout has been constructed on the summit of Mt. Mitchell 
for use in forest protection work. The automobile road which was 
constructed to Camp Alice, about one-half mile below the summit 
i t Mt. Mitchell, has made it possible for people to visit the Park 
in large numbers. During the past summer over 17,000 people visited 
Mt. Mitchell State Park. This means additional expense in the 
protection and care of the Park. This Park, which cost originally 
$18,600.00, has more than doubled in value since its purchase. 

There are other areas in North Carolina which contain natural 
attractions which should be preserved for posterity, and it is be- 
lieved that the only method by which this can be done is through 
State or Federal ownership, preferably State ownership. Among 
such areas that should be given serious consideration are: Linville 
Gorge, Burke County; Grandfather Mountain, Avery and Watauga 
Counties; White Side Mountain, in Jackson County; and certain 
portions of the banks along the Atlantic coast line, as Fort Macon, 
Kitty Hawk, etc. 

GEOLOGICAL HOARD. 

Governor Cameron Morrison, ex officio Chairman. . .Raleigh 

Frank R. Hewitt Asheville 

C. C. Smoot. Ill North Wilkesboro 

Jonx H. Small Washington 

S. Westray Battle Asheville 

Joseph Hyde Pratt. Director and state Geologist, Chapel HiU 



STATE HIGHWAY COMMISSION. 

Frank Page, Chairman. 

The State Highway Commission is composed of nine District 

Commissioners and the Chairman, known as the State Highway 
Commissioner, and who is the executive head of the organization 



State Highway Commission 145 

The Commission has charge of the expenditure of funds provided 
by the $50,000,000 bond issue and of all Federal Aid funds. It 
also has control of the construction and maintenance of the State 
Highway System made up of approximately 6,100 miles of road 
connecting the county seats and principal towns of the State. 
The Chairman, Mr. Frank Page, is a full time officer and has 
under his direction the organization described below. 

ASSISTANT TO CHAIRMAN 

H. V. Joslin is assistant to the Chairman and handles certain 
administrative matter and correspondence of a non-technical nature. 
In addition to this his duties involve matters pertaining to con- 
tracts, the purchase of cement, pipe, steel, and other materials 
purchased by the Commission for use in road construction. 

LEGAL DEPARTMENT. 

W. L. Cohoon, of Elizabeth City, is the attorney for the Com- 
mission and handles all matters of a legal nature, particularly those 
involving court proceedings. 

PURCHASING DEPARTMENT. 

All purchases of any nature are made through this department 
of which W. S. Fallis, as Purchasing Agent, is head. By handling 
these purchases through a central point much labor is saved and 
a large amount of money saved to the State each year. 

ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT. 

This department is in charge of Homer Peele, an experienced 
auditor who, with an able staff of assistants, has charge of all 
receipts and disbursements, including Federal Aid funds. All 
matters involving the handling of funds pass through this de- 

EQUIPMENT DEPARTMENT. 

Charles D. Farmer, Superintendent of Motor Equipment, is in 
charge of this department, one of the most important branches of 
the Commission. All of the automotive equipment required in the 
work of the Commission is kept up by this department and all 
road building material and equipment received from the Federal 
Government as surplus war material is stored at the depot until 

10 



146 Administrative Departments 

such time as it is needed. The depot is located on Route 10, 
about four miles west of Raleigh, occupying about 12 acres. 

PTJBLN VI'IOX AND STATISTICS. 

This department is in charge of H. K. Witherspoon, Project 
Engineer. The work of the department includes the keeping of 
tabulated records of the various projects throughout the State 
and other information of a statistical nature; the editing and com- 
piling of the Biennial Report; the publication and distribution 
of route maps and road information; the photographic work of 
the Commission; and the furnishing of information to those inter- 
ested in the work of the Commission. A monthly magazine en- 
titled, "The Highway Bulletin," is published by this department. 

ENGINEERING. 

The Engineering Department of the Commission is also under 
the supervision of the State Highway Commissioner, but is di- 
rectly in charge of Charles M. Upham, State Highway Engineer. 

ROAD DEPARTMENT. 

The senior Road Engineer, George F. Syme, has charge of the 
preparation of plans and estimates for all road work. In this 
department about twenty-five draftsmen and computers are em- 
ployed in preparing plans, checking estimates, and in other work 
incidental to letting of contracts. 

BRIDGE DEPARTMENT. 

The work of designing and preparing plans for all bridges neces- 
sary in State Highway Construction is under the supervision of 
W. L. Craven, senior Bridge Engineer. This department is thorough- 
ly organized and is capable of preparing plans and estimates for 
any type or size of bridge. 

In addition to the drafting force of the department there are 
several bridge repair forces which reconstruct and maintain a 
number of bridges which were taken over by the Commission. 

PRINCIPAL LOCATING ENGINEER. 

0. B. Bestor, as principal Locating Engineer, has charge of all 
location surveys on the State Highway System. A very efficient 



State Highway Commission 147 

organization has been worked up in this department and has been 
the means of saving thousands of dollars to the State. 

CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERS. 

With a view to obtaining better construction on hard sur- 
faced roads and bridges, six construction engineers, all experienced 
in their line, were appointed as follows: Messrs. C. N. Conner, 
W. E. Hawkins, and G. E. McNutt, on concrete paving; Messrs. 
E. R. Olbrich and E. E. Strohm on asphaltic concrete work; and 
Messrs. C. N. Conner and 0. F. Yont on concrete bridge work. These 
engineers visit the various jobs at intervals and see that the most 
efficient methods are being used and the best results obtained. 

MAINTENANCE SUPERINTENDENT. 

J. B. Clingman, Maintenance Supervisor, exercises general super- 
vision over the maintenance work in the State and acts in an 
advisory capacity to the District Maintenance Engineers. 

TESTS AND INVESTIGATIONS. 

G. W. Hutchinson is in charge of this department which con- 
ducts tests and investigations of materials used, and available for 
use, in road construction. In addition to maintaining two labora- 
tories in Raleigh this department has inspectors stationed at 
various mills from which materials are shipped; conducts a material 
survey in the State and operates a core-drill on the hard sur- 
faced roads, as they are laid, for the purpose of obtaining test 
specimens. 

DISTRICT ENGINEERS. 

There are nine District Engineers, as outlined in the report 
of district construction. These engineers have charge of all work 
in their respective districts, each district being practically an in- 
dividual unit as far as organization is concerned, but at the same 
time being under the State Highway Engineer. 

NORTH CAROLINA STATE HIGHWAY SYSTEM. 

North Carolina is fast becoming the "Good Roads State" of the 
Union. People in the State are talking about it, people outside the 
State are enthusiastic. From one end to the other there is activity 
with road machines, and scattered around at frequent intervals are 



148 Administrative Departments 

"Detour Here" signs that mean another road is being added to North 
Carolina's fast growing network of highways. 

The State has been "pulled out of the mud" in the last few years 
by the work of a splendidly organized Highway Commission, by the 
public sentiment behind road building, and by appropriations and 
legislation passed by the Legislature. The public sentiment, en- 
couraged by the way people were beginning to praise North Carolina 
roads, grew fast, and it was not long before roads became the 
subject of conversation in every city and cross road village. It 
became an issue with the Legislature, and the Legislature made possi- 
ble the money that is now being so rapidly converted into more 
money, convenience for the people, and fame for the State. 

There are in the State at present approximately 50,000 miles of 
roads and from this mileage there has been set aside about 6,000 
miles of highways which is designated as the State Highway 
System and which connects all of the county seats and principal 
towns by the most practicable route. When contemplated improve- 
ments are completed the State will have as fine a system of roads 
as can be found anywhere. A brief history of highway work will 
show perhaps more clearly than by any other means the rapid 
strides that have been made in the last few years toward "putting 
North Carolina on the right track." 

The State Highway Commission of North Carolina was first ap- 
pointed by Governor Locke Craig in accordance with the provisions 
of Chapter 113 of the Public Laws of 1915, in anticipation of the 
passage of the Federal Road Act in 1916; but since the appropria- 
tion provided was only $10,000.00 with which to carry out the 
provisions of the Act, the Commission could only act in an advisory 
capacity to the various county and township boards throughout the 
State. The members of this Commission were as follows: Governor 
Locke Craig, Chairman; Dr. Joseph Hyde Pratt, Secretary; Dr. 
W. C. Riddick, Prof. T. P. Hickerson, Col. Bennehan Cameron, E. C. 
Duncan and Guy V. Roberts. The General Assembly of 1917 
made no change either in the Commission or in the law creating 
it except to set aside the funds collected from automobile license fees, 
as provided in Chapter 107 of the Public Laws of 1913, as a main- 
tenance fund to provide for the upkeep of the State System of 
roads. 

At this time little could be done towards building new roads, 
but a great deal was accomplished by educating the people of the 



State Highway Commission 149 

State to the need for good roads and the many benefits to be 
derived therefrom. 

Real highway construction may be said to have begun with 
the passage of the 1919 Highway Law (Chapter 189, Public Laws, 
1919) in which fees for automobile licenses were increased suffi- 
ciently to provide funds to meet more nearly adequately Federal 
aid funds allotted by the Government. 

By the terms of this law one-fourth of the cost of constructing 
a road on the State System was furnished by the county in which 
the road was located, one-fourth from the State Highway Fund, 
and one-half from Federal aid funds. A new Commission was ap- 
pointed, consisting of Frank Page of Aberdeen, Chairman, and W. S. 
Fallis, State Highway Engineer under the former commission, re- 
mained in this capacity. During the two years that this Commission 
functioned under the law of 1919 approximately 200 miles of 
improved highways were completed at a cost of $2,464,000, and 
650 miles, estimated to cost $9,730,000, were placed under con- 
struction. Except for paying a portion of the cost of the work 
and supervising it nothing was done by the Commission in the 
way of maintenance, as this phase of the work was left in the 
hands of county officials. 

Realizing the need for a more extensive road-building program 
and seeing the necessity for a more adequate system of maintenance, 
certain foresighted citizens of the State began a campaign in 
1920, which resulted in the passage by the General Assembly of 
1921 of the Doughton-Connor-Bowie Act. The purposes of the 
law are well expressed in section 2. which reads as follows: "The 
general purposes of this act are for the State to lay out, take 
over, establish and construct and assume control of approximately 
5,500 miles of hard-surfaced and other dependable highways running 
to all county seats, and to all principal towns, State parks and 
principal State institutions, and linking up with State highways 
of adjoining States and with national highways into national 
forest reserves by the most practicable routes, with special view 
to development of agriculture, commercial and natural resources 
of the State, and for the further purpose of permitting the State 
to assume control of the State highways, repair, construct and 
reconstruct and maintain said highways at the expense of the 
entire State, and to relieve the counties and cities and towns 



150 Administrative Departments 

of the State of this burden." Briefly, the act provides for a 
State Highway Commission consisting of a chairman from the 
State at large, and for one commissioner from each of the nine 
construction districts into which the State is divided; all engi- 
neering work is in charge of a State Highway engineer chosen by 
the Commission; funds are provided by the issuance of serial 
bonds aggregating P50 nno 000. from automobile license fees, and 
from a tax of one cent per gallon on motor vehicle fuel. 

Figures show more clearly than words the vast amount of con- 
struction that is now under way in the State. At the present 
time (September 1, 1922) the total work completed amounts to 
$9,975,027.00; the total work under construction or contracted for 
$21,317,584.00; total mileage of work completed, 6S4 miles; total 
mileage under construction or contracted for, 1,346 miles. There 
remains yet to be let contracts amounting to $21,000,000.00. These 
figures will give some idea of the stupendous job being carried 
on by the North Carolina State Highway Commission, and one 
can visualize the great road system that will obtain throughout 
the State within the next few years. 

North Carolina ranks with the first in highway development and 
the fact that she is rapidly acquiring a network of good roads over 
which her vast variety of products can be more easily and 
cheaply transported to market, unquestionably spells progress and 
prosperity to its great citizenship. The effect upon its industrial 
and social development is already being reflected largely and its 
future is so bright as to make every man, woman and child 
proud that they can live in the "Old North State" and become a 
beneficiary of its Highway System. 

Some of the outstanding projects completed and others under 
way would furnish material for an interesting story, the most 
recent being the completion of the project, known as the Williams- 
ton Causeway, which required two years from time work was 
started until completed. It consists of 3.9 miles of causeway and 
4,358 linear feet of viaduct and bridge, and cost approximately 
$500,000.00. 

Of the many Highway Building organizations throughout the 
Union, that of the State of North Carolina is rated as one of 
the leading. Although only a few years old, it has already accom- 
plished more than others that have existed two to three times as 
long. 



Fisheries Commission Board 151 

FISHERIES COMMISSION BOARD, 

The Fisheries Commission Board was created by the General 
Assembly of 1915 for the purpose of enforcing the laws relating to 
fish. It consists of five members appointed by the Governor, at 
least three of whom must be from the several fishing districts of 
the State, and have a practical knowledge of the fishing industry. 
The Board appoints a Fisheries Commissioner, who is responsible 
to it for carrying out the duties of his office. The term of his office 
is four years. He is authorized to appoint two assistants by and 
with the consent of the Fisheries Commission Board. He also ap- 
points, with the approval of the Board, inspectors in each county, 
under his jurisdiction. The Fisheries Commission Board is given 
jurisdiction over and control of all the fisheries of the State, which 
is construed by the act creating the Board to include porpoises 
and other marine mammals, fishes, mollusca and crustaceans, and 
all operations involved in using, setting, or operating apparatus 
employed in kiling or taking said fish or in transporting or pre- 
paring them for market. The Board also has authority and power 
to regulate, prohibit, or restrict in time, place, character, and dimen- 
sions, the use of nets, appliances, apparatus,' or other means em- 
ployed in taking or killing fish, and to regulate seasons at which 
the various species of fish be taken in the several waters of the 
State, and to prescribe the minimum size of fish which may be 
taken. It has general supervision of the acts of its officers and 
employees. The Fisheries Commissioner is responsible to the Board 
for his acts in carrying out and enforcing all the laws, rules, and 
regulations of the Board pertaining to the fishing industry in the 
State. He must also see that all license and other taxes are col- 
lected and paid to the Treasurer. The State owns five boats, which 
are used for patrolling the waters and enforcing the laws. 

MEMBERS OF THE FISHERIES COMMISSION BOARD. 

Ed. Chambers Smith, Chairman Raleigh 

A. V. Cobb Winsdor 

S. P. Hancock Beaufort 

E. H. Freeman Wilmington 

J. C. Baum Poplar Branch 

John A. Nelson, Fisheries Commissioner Gloucester 

Theo. S. Meekins, Assistant Commissioner Manteo 

W. G. Dixon, Assistant Commissioner Oriental 



152 Administrative Departments 

STATE BOARD OF ELECTIONS. 

The State Board of Elections consists of five electors appointed by 
the Governor for a term of two years. Not more than three of them 
may be of the same political party. Vacancies occurring in the 
Board are filled by the Governor. Members of the State Board of 
Elections receive, in full compensation for their services, $4 per day 
for the time they are actually engaged in the discharge of their 
duties together with their actual traveling expenses, and such other 
expenses as are necessary and incident to the discharge of the .duties 
imposed upon them relating to elections. 

MEMBERS OF THE BOARD. 

P. M. Pearsall, Chairman New Bern 

R. T. Claywell, Secretary Morganton 

W. J. Davis Hendersonville 

B. S. Royster Oxford 

Clarence Call Wilkesboro 



STATE STANDARD KEEPER. 

The State Standard Keeper is appointed by the Governor to take 
care of the balances, weights, and measures prescribed by law, and 
perform such other duties as the Governor may prescribe touching 
said balances, weights, and measures. It is his duty to procure and 
furnish, at prime cost, to any of the counties, upon an order of the 
Board of County Commissioners, any of the standard sealed weights 
and measures required by law to be kept, and he is authorized, by 
and with the approval of the Governor, to contract for the manufac- 
ture of plain sealed weights, substantially made of iron, steel or 
brass, as the county ordering may direct; yardstick male of sub- 
stantial wood, each end neatly covered with metal, sealed, marked 
and stamped "N. C"; half bushel, peck, half peck, quarter peck, and 
one-eighth peck, made of substantial, well-seasoned wood, with se- 
cure metallic binding and casing; gallon, half gallon, quart, pint, 
half pint, and gil measure, made of light sheet copper with iron 
handles. He must procure and furnish, as herein provided, to the 
Board of Commissioners of any county ordering the same, dry and 
liquid sealed measures and yardstick made of brass or copper. 

State Standard Keeper. T. F. Brockwell, Raleigh, N. C. 



Audubon Society of North Carolina 153 

FIREMEN'S RELIEF FUND. 

The State of North Carolina pays $2,500 a year to the North 
Carolina State Volunteer Fireman's Association and to the North 
Carolina State Firemen's Association, which fund is known as the 
Firemen's Relief Fund. 

The purpose of the fund is for the relief of firemen, members of 
such associations, who may be injured or made sick by disease 
contracted in the actual discharge of duty as firemen, and for the 
relief of widows, children or dependent mothers of such firemen 
who may be killed or die from disease contracted in the discharge 
of their duty. Such duty must be performed in the service of the 
fire department from the time of the fire alarm until the mem- 
bers are dismissed by the company officers at roll call, or in service 
connected with the fire department which is directed to be per- 
formed by the officer in charge. 

Any fireman of good moral character in North Carolina, and be- 
longing to an organized fire company, who will comply with the 
requisitions of the constitution and by-laws of the North Carolina 
State Firemen's Association, may become a member of this Asso- 
ciation, and be eligible to relief from the fund. 



THE AUDUBON SOCIETY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Miss Placide H. Underwood, Raleigh, Secretary. 

The Audubon Society of North Carolina was incorporated in 1903 
with J. Y. Joyner, T. Gilbert Pearson, R. H. Lewis, A. H. Boyden, 
H. H. Brimley, P. D. Gold, Jr., J. F. Jordan, and R. N. Wilson as 
incorporators. (Rev. 1905, Sec. 18-63.) 

The officers of The Audubon Society of North Carolina are a Presi- 
dent, Vice-President, Secretary and Treasurer, and such other officers 
as may be fixed by the by-laws. (Rev. 1905, Sec. 1863.) 

The objects for which the corporation is formed are to promote 
among the citizens of North Carolina a better appreciation of the 
value of the song and insectivorous birds to man and the State; to 
encourage parents and teachers to give instruction to children on 
the subject; to stimulate public sentiment against the destruction 
of wild birds and their eggs; to secure the enactment and the en- 



l' r >4 Administrative Departments 

forcement of proper and necessary laws for the protection and 
preservation of the birds and game of North Carolina. Its further 
office is through the appointment of game wardens, to rigidly en- 
force the laws for game and bird protection. 

The funds received by the Treasurer of the State from the license 
tax on nonresident hunters constitutes a fund known as the Bird 
and Game Fund. This fund is paid out by the Treasurer of the 
State on the order of the Treasurer of The Audubon Society of 
North Carolina, who makes an annual report to the Governor of the 
receipts and expenditures of the society for each year. 

The Governor, upon the recommendation of The Audubon Society, 
appoints bird and game wardens- and the Treasurer of the Society, 
whose term of office, unless otherwise provided for, are during good 
behavior, or until their successors are appointed. The Governor 
issues to the Treasurer of The Audubon Society and to each person 
appointed as warden, a commission. These commissions are trans- 
mitted to the clerk's office of the Superior Court for the county from 
which the prospective treasurer or bird and game warden is ap- 
pointed. 

Every person appointed as game warden, before entering upon the 
duties of the office, is required to take oath before the clerk of the 
Superior Court of the county in which he resides that he will faith- 
fully perform the duties of said office, and execute a bond in the 
sum of one hundred dollars for the faithful discharge of his duties. 
The compensation of Avardens is fixed and paid by the society. 
There are thirty-two counties of the State under the jurisdiction 
of The Audubon Society and there are sixty-one game wardens in 
the various counties, each county having one or more wardens. 

Any nonresident of the State who desires to hunt in any of the 
counties under the jurisdiction of The Audubon Society is required 
to make application to the clerk of the Superior Court of any of 
the counties under Audubon control, and the clerk of the court 
issues such license upon the payment of a fee of ten dollars and 
clerk's fee. A nonresident hunting license issued by the clerk of 
the Superior Court of any one of the counties under the jurisdiction 
of The Audubon Society is valid in all the Audubon counties, while 
a nonresident hunting license issued in a county not under the 
jurisdiction of The Audubon Society can be used only in the county 
in which it is issued. 



Audubon Society of North Carolina 



155 



In 1909 the General Assembly of North Carolina passed an act 
withdrawing certain counties from Audubon protection. Subsequent 
to 1909 other counties have been withdrawn so that at the present 
time there are only thirty-two counties under the jurisdiction of 
The Audubon Society of North Carolina. The following counties 
are under the jurisdiction of The Audubon Society: 



Alamance 

Alleghany 

Ashe 

Avery 

Bladen 

Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Caldwell 

Chatham 

Columbus 



Durham 

Edgecombe 

Greene 

Haywood 

Iredell 

Lee 

Lenoir 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Moore 

New Hanover 



Northampton 

Orange 

Person 

Rockingham 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Surry 

Watauga 

Wake 

Yancey 



In its efforts towards education, The Audubon Society has ex- 
pended part of its funds towards the publication of a book on North 
Carolina birds. The Society has had prepared and has had paid for 
the plates presenting pictures of bird life in North Carolina. During 
the year 1919 The Book on North Carolina Birds, by T. Gilbert 
Pearson, C. S. Brimley, and H. H. Brimley, was published after a 
period of several years, the material for this book having been de- 
stroyed by Are when the establishment of E. M. Uzzle & Co. was 
burned in November, 1915. This is a joint publication of the North 
Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, the State Audubon So- 
ciety and the State Museum. Copies of this publication can be se- 
cured either from the office of the Secretary of the Audubon Society, 
Raleigh, or from the North Carolina Geological and Economic Sur- 
vey Chapel Hill, upon the payment of $2.75 for cloth bound copies 
and $2.00 paper bound. 

The Audubon Society owns two small islands in Pamlico Sound 
which are patroled by a game warden during the nesting season. 
These islands are Leggett Lump and Royal Shoal. 

In an attempt to increase a State-wide interest in bird and game 
conservation, the secretaries of the Society have given illustrated 
bird lectures and talked on bird study to Teachers' Institutes, Com- 



156 Administrative Departments 

munity Clubs, Women's Clubs and to many of the schools in the 
State, and a great many Junior Audubon Societies have been organ- 
ized and several schools and clubs have held "Bird Days" as a result 
of this work. 

A bill providing for the enactment of a State-wide game commis- 
sion to take over the work of The Audubon Society was introduced 
into the Senate by Senator Kelly, Chairman of the Senate Committee 
on Game, at the last session of the General Assembly (1917). This 
bill, amended several times so as to exempt certain counties from 
its provisions, passed its first reading. On its second reading, there 
were so many Amendments offered that the bill was transferred to 
the committee. The committee stripped the bill of all amendments 
and reported it back to the Senate with a substitute amendment. 
When the bill come up for passage, however, there were several more 
amendments offered and a parliamentary wrangle followed, during 
which the bill was tabled. It was then so near the end of the ses- 
sion of the General Assembly that there was not sufficient time to 
take the matter up in the House, and the matter was dropped. 

When The Audubon Society was organized the office of the Secre- 
tary was at Greensboro, N. C, Mr. T. Gilbert Pearson, now Presi- 
dent of The National Association of Audubon Societies, being Sec- 
retary. In 1913, upon the election of Mr. James W. Cheshire, Secre- 
tary, the office was moved to Raleigh, N. C, and since that time 
the work of the Society has been carried on by the various secre- 
taries in Raleigh, N. C. 

Officers of the Audubon Society of North Carolina: 

OFFICERS. 

Dr. R. H. Lewis, President Raleigh 

H. H. Brimley, Vice-President Raleigh 

P. H. Underwood, Secretary Raleigh 

R. A. Brown, Treasurer Raleigh 

board of directors. 

Rev. Melton W. Clark Greensboro 

Brook G. Empie Wilmington 

B. F. Siielton Speed 

W. H. Swift Greensboro 

Franklin Sherman, Jr Raleigh 



Board of Internal Improvements 157 



SECRETARIES. 

T. Gilbert Pearson 1903-1911 

P. D. Gold, Jr Nov. 22, 1912- June 1, 1915 

J. W. Cheshire June 1, 1913-March 20, 1915 

R. E. Parker June 1, 1915-June 1, 1917 

G. A. Martin June 1, 1917-Oct. 10, 1917 

Miss Placide H. Underwood Oct. 10, 1917 



BOARD OF INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS. 

The State Board of Internal Improvements was created and made 
a body corporate by Chapter 982, Acts of the General Assembly of 
1819. The Board has been continued to date with varying modi- 
fications. Its present status, as denned in Chapter 107 of the Con- 
solidated Statutes of 1920, is as follows. 

The Board consists of the Governor of the State, who is ex offi- 
cio, president, and two commissioners who are appointed biennially 
by the Governor, with the advice of the Senate. Any two members 
of the Board constitute a board for the transaction of business. The 
Board, moreover, has power to fill any vacancies that may occur in 
its membership. The private secretary of the Governor is, ex officio, 
secretary to the Board. Whenever it is deemed necessary, how- 
ever, the Board may appoint a special clerk. 

Meetings of the Board are held whenever and wherever the Gov- 
ernor may direct. Members of the Board receive five dollars per day 
and their traveling expenses for the time they are employed in the 
public service. Rules, by-laws and regulations for the conduct of 
the Board are made by the Board itself so long as they are not 
inconsistent with the laws of the State. A true record of its pro- 
ceedings must be kept, and at all times be open to inspection by the 
members of the General Assembly and others interested therein. 

Whenever the State makes an appropriation for any work of in- 
ternal improvements conducted by a corporation, the State, unless 
otherwise directed, becomes a stockholder in such corporation and 
holds as many shares as may correspond with the amount of money 
appropriated. It is the Board's duty to have charge of all the 



1,s Administrative Departments 

State's interest in all works of internal improvements. Therefore, 
the Board must require of the president and chief official of any 
work of internal improvement a written report of its affairs, cov- 
ering in detail (he number of shares of stock owned by the State; 
number owned otherwise; face value of such shares; market value 
of such shares; amount of bonded debt and for what purpose con- 
tracted; amount of other debt and how incurred, if interest on 
bonded debt has been punctually paid as agreed, and, if not, 
how much in arrears; amount of gross receipts for past year 
and from what sources derived; an itemized account of expendi- 
tures for past year; any lease or sale of property of said 
company, or any part thereof, to whom made, for what considera- 
tion and for what length of time; suits at law pending against his 
company concerning its bonded debt or in which title to whole or 
any part of such road or canal is concerned; any sales of stock 
owned by the State, by whose order made, and disposition of the 
proceeds. .Failure to make such a report is a misdemeanor, punish- 
able by law. 

The Board of Internal Improvements must report biennially to 
the General Assembly the condition of all railroads, canals, or other 
works of internal improvements in which the State has an interest, 
together with suggestions as to improvements, enlargements, or 
extensions of such works, and recommendations of new works of a 
similar nature, as they may deem desirable; the amount, condition, 
and character of the State's interest in other railroads, roads, canals 
or other works of internal improvements in which the State has 
taken stock, to which she has loaned money, or whose bonds she 
holds as security; the condition of such roads or other corporate 
bodies, in detail, over whose affairs the Board has any jurisdiction, 
and the names of all persons failing or refusing to report as re- 
quired by law. 

The Board, moreover, must approve any incumbrance on the 
State's interest in corporations of internal improvements. When- 
ever it deems it necessary the Board may appoint proxies to act 
for the State's interest in the meetings of stockholders in any com- 
pany whose affairs are in any way subject to the jurisdiction of 
the Board of Internal Improvements. 



North Carolina National Guard 159 

Whenever the Governor deems it nec:ssary to the public interest 
he may direct a member of the Beard to invest'gate the affairs of 
or the official conduct of any official of any corporation of internal 
improvements, and he is empowered to take such action concern- 
ing any matter reported upon pertaining to the affairs of the 
corporation as the Board may deem to the interest of the State. 
The Governor may suspend or remove from office any of said officials, 
if in his opinion the interest of the State demands it. The mem- 
ber of the Board appointed to make such special investigation has 
all powers granted to a committee of investigation appo'nted by 
the General Assembly and receives as compensation such sum as 
the Governor, by and with the Council of State, shall deem just. 
Sheriffs must execute writs of such member of the Board of Internal 
Improvements as they would for a judicial officer of tha State, and 
shall be allowed the same compensation therefor. 

It is the duty of the Board also to investigate the affairs of all 
State departments and to make reports on them to the Governor 
of the expenses and the necessity therefor, together with recom- 
mendations for such changes as in its opinion will improve the 
public service. For the purpose of performing the above duties, th 
Board is authorized to employ an expert accountant or other agency, 
upon the approval of the Governor. 



NORTH CAROLINA NATIONAL GUARD. 

The Militia of the State is divided into three classes, the National 
Guard, the Naval Militia and the Unorganized Militia. 

The General Assembly (session 1917) passed an act to revise 
military laws of the State and to increase the efficiency of the militia. 
Immediately after the passage of this act steps were taken to in- 
crease the strength of the National Guard and to promote its 
efficiency. This work was being vigorously prosecuted when war 
was declared against Germany, and from that time until the 
National Guard was drafted into the Federal service every energy 



160 



AliM IMSTKATIYK DEPARTMENTS 



was put forth to bring the National Guard to a high state of 
efficiency. 

Pursuant to the Proclamation of the President, of July 3, 1917, 
the following organizations, units and detachments of the Na- 
tional Guard of North Carolina were drafted into the Federal 
service on August 5, 1917: 



1st Brigade. 

1st Infantry. 

2nd Infantry. 

3rd Infantry. 

Field Hospital No. 1. 

Ambulance Company No. 1. 

Veterinary Corps. 

Radio Company Signal Corps. 

1st Regiment Field Artillery. 



1st Squadron Cavalry. 

1 Machine Gun Troop. 

1st Battalion Engineers. 

1 Engineer Train. 

1 Motor Truck Company. 

Field and Staff. 

Sanitary Detachment and 

Six Companies Coast Artillery. 

Quartermaster Corpn. 



Being a total of 277 officers, 7,454 enlisted men, grand total of 
7,731. Of the Naval Militia 18 officers and 187 men (total 215) 
were called into Federal service April 6, 1917, as National Naval 
Volunteers. The record these troops made in the World War 
is a source of pride to all North Carolinians. 

At the close of the World War the entire National Guard was 
discharged from the service, and the past two years or so have 
been devoted to reorganization of the State's military forces. 
The present strength totals approximately twenty-five hundred 
officers and men, and units are located in about thirty counties. 
These units are fully equipped at the expense of the Federal 
authorities, are paid for armory drills during the year from the 
same source, and are given fifteen days' training each summer 
under the supervision of professional instructors. The State pro- 
vides armories, maintains the camp site at Camp Glenn, makes 
allowances to officers and men, takes care of courts-martial and 
carrying bond expenses, inspections, etc. The North Carolina 
National Guard is in a high state of efficiency, and in this respect, 
and in numbers, compares most favorably with the Guard of the 
other States. It is interesting to note that at the close of the 
war there was no National Guard in the United States, but at 
the present time its strength exceeds 160,000 officers and men 
organized and equipped similar to units of the Regular Army. 



North Carolina National Guard 161 

Organizations of the North Carolina National Guard are located 
as follows: 

120th infantry 

Company A Burlington. Company L Parkton. 

B Warrenton. M Wilson. 

C-— Henderson. Service Company. Raleigh. 

D Durham. Reg. Hq. Company Reidsville. 

E. Concord. Howitzer Company _Gastonia. 

F_. _ Charlotte. 1st Bn. Hq. Company Oxford. 

G Winston-Salem. 2nd Bn. Hq. Company.. Greensboro. 

H .Waynesville. 3rd Bn. Hq. Company Greensboro. 

I Plymouth. Medical Detachment (Regi 

K Mount Gilead. mental) Graham. 

1(Wth cavalry. 

Troop E Lincolnton. Sq. Hq. & Hq. Det Hickory. 

F Asheville. Medical Det. (Sq.) Lincolnton. 

G Hickory. Troop D (Sep.) Andrews. 

117TH FIELD ART7LLERY. 

Hq. Det. & Combat Train. Youngsville. Battery C--_ Hendersonville. 

Battery A Goldsboro. ' D New Bern. 

B Louisburg. Medical Det. (BN) Goldsboro. 

SEPARATE UNITS. 

421st Company, Coast Artillery Corps Wilmington. 

30th Signal Company Canton. 

Company G, 200th Artillery (AA; Raeford. 

A 105th Engineers North Wilke3boro. 

B. Morgan ton. 

115th Ambulance Company Edenton. 

105th Veterinary Company _.. Asheville. 

During the past two years the National Guard of the State 
has more than justified its existence from a standpoint of State 
use, and is in the first line of the National Defense. Organizations 
have been called out for the maintenance of law and order, pro- 
tection of property, etc., on many occasions, and have in each 
instance performed their duty in a most commendable way. 

During the past two years approximately 75,000 record cards 
of men from the State who served in the World War have been 
received from the War Department at Washington, and these 
have been filed alphabetically by counties in the Adjutant General's 
Department. This will eventually become one of the State's 

11 



162 Administrative Departments 

most valued records, and will show in detail the service of each 
person from the State who served in the Army, Navy, or Marine 
Corps during the World War. 

ADJUTANT GENERALS OF NORTH CAROLINA SINCE 1861 

J. G. Martin 1861- 

Abial G. Fisher 1868-1871 

John G. Gorman 1871-1876 

Johnstone Jones 1877-1888 

James D. Glenn 1889-1892 

Francis H. Cameron 1893-1896 

A D. Cowles 1897-1898 

Beverly S. Royster 1899-1904 

Thomas H. Robertson 1905-1909 

Joseph F. Armfield 1910-1911 

Roy L. Leinster 1911-1912 

Gordon Smith 1912-1913 

Laurence W. Young 1913-1916 

Beverly S. Royster 1916- 

J. V. B. Metts 1920- 



STATE PRISOX. 

Geo. Ross Pou, Superintendent, Raleigh. 

This institution was founded by an act of the General Assembly, 
ratified the 12th day of April, A. D. 1869, entitled "An Act to Pro- 
vide for the Erection of a Penitentiary." Reference is made to the 
act cited, and also to the Report of the Commission to Erect a Peni- 
tentiary, Document No. 18, Legislative Documents, 1868-70. 

The prison building is a magnificent brick structure, erected upon 
granite foundation. The prison wall is of granite, and is twenty 
feet in height and six feet broad at the top, and its base is said to 
extend sixteen feet below the surface. The building and wall are 
estimated to have cost the State more than a million and a quarter 
dollars. 

The institution is situated about one mile west of the Capitol on 
the extension of Morgan Street and near Hillsboro road. 

The affairs of the prison are administered by a board of five 
directors appointed by the Governor. 

The Dangerous Insane Department is maintained out of the State 
prison earnings. 



State Department of Revenue 163 



SUMMARY. 

Founded 1869 

Number of buildings* 1 

Cost (estimated by prison authorities) $1,225,000 

Number of acres of land 7,300 

Number of employes 134 

Number of inmates 825 

Liabilities None 

superintendents. 

W. T. Hicks Wake 

Paul F. Faison Wake 

A. Leazar Iredell 

John R. Smith Wayne 

J. M. Mewborne Lenoir 

W. H. Day Wake 

J. S. Mann Hyde 

J. J. Laughinghouse Pitt 

J. S. Mann Hyde 

J. R. Collie Franklin 

board of directors. 

H. B. Varner, Chairman Lexington 

Frank Gough Lumberton 

W. M. Sanders Smithfield 

B. F. Shelton Speed 

A. E. Smith Mount Airy 



STATE DEPARTMENT OP REVENUE. 

A. D. Watts, of Iredell County, Commissioner, Raleigh. 
The General Assembly of 1921 passed an act to transfer the 
powers and duties of the State Tax Commission to the State 
Department of Revenue, and provided that the new department 
should begin to function on May 1, 1921. The Governor appointed 
the present commissioner, and he assumed office at the time fixed in 
the law. He was appointed for four years, after which the office 
becomes elective as other State offices. 

This department collects the taxes on inheritances and incomes, 
assesses the taxes on franchises and licenses, and construes the 
provisions of the Revenue and Machinery acts. It has printed and 



* Two camps on State farm; each have living quarters and many farm build- 
ings of commodious size. 



164 Administrative Departments 

distributes all blanks for ad valorem taxes in the counties and 
municipalities and receives annual reports from them. 

The Commissioner assesses all public service corporations for 
franchise and ad valorem taxation and certifies to the counties 
and other taxing sub-divisions of the State the proportionate as- 
sessments made for such counties and other taxing sub-divisions. 

The Commissioner also values the capital stock of all domestic 
corporations, other than public service corporations; and, if the 
value of the capital stock is in excess of the tangible property — real 
and personal — returned for taxation by such corporations, certifies 
such excess to the county and other taxing sub-divisions in which 
the principal office of the company is located for county and other 
local taxation as other property is taxed. 

The Commissioner also ascertains the proportion of the capital 
stock of -foreign corporations, having an office and doing business 
in the State, which is subject to franchise tax, and assesses the 
same. 

Under the act creating his office it is the duty of the Commissioner 
to prepare for the legislative committees of succeeding General 
Assemblies such revision of the revenue laws of the State as he may 
find by experience and investigation to recommend, so that the same 
may be introduced in the General Assembly and available in printed 
form for consideration of its members within the first ten days 
of the session. 

Such in brief are the principal duties of the Commissioner. 



THE STATE BOARD OF EQUALIZATION. 

The General Assembly in the same act creating the Department 
of Revenue also created the State Board of Equalization, con- 
sisting of the Commissioner of Revenue, Chairman; the Chairman 
of the Corporation Commission, and the Attorney-General. 

All the powers and duties of the State Tax Commission as a 
State Board of Equalization, and as an appellate court, to hear 
and determine appeals from valuation of property by assessing 
officers in the several counties were transferred to the new board. 
)uring the calendar year 1921, after the reductions and adjust- 
ments in the value of real estate authorized by the General Assembly 



New State Tax System 165 

of that year were made by the assessing officers in the several 
counties, the board was kept busy hearing and determining appeals 
from such assessing officers. 



THE NEW STATE TAX SYSTEM. 

The General Assembly of 1921 levied no ad valorem tax on 
property whatever for State purposes. Under authority conferred 
by the income tax amendment to the Constitution, which had 
just been adopted by the people of the State, it levied a tax on 
all incomes, individuals and corporate, with certain specific ex- 
emptions to individuals; readjusted the existing taxes on inheri- 
tances, franchises, licenses and insurance receipts; and in this way 
provided for the State's revenues without an ad valorem tax on 
property. ■ 

The taxes collected by the Department of Revenue for the first 
fiscal year of its existence ending June 30, 1922, are as follows: 

Income $2,233,781.07 

Inheritance 957,030.46 

Cotton 194,095.76 

Total $3,384,907.29 

The levy of a tax on cotton ginned has been abolished by the 
General Assembly. 

In addition to the income taxes collected during the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1922, there have been collected up to and includ- 
ing December 15, 1922, on 1921 incomes, $174,314.64. 

Much of the inheritance taxes collected were on inheritance! 
which became liable for tax more than five years before the col- 
lections were made. 



166 Administrative Departments 

STATE CHILD WELFARE COMMISSION. 

Mrs. Kate Burr Johnson, Chairman. 

E. F. Carter, Executive Officer. 
Raleigh N. C. 

Chapter 100 of the Public Laws of 1919, designated the State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, the Secretary of the State 
Board of Health, and the Commissioner of Public Welfare, as 
ex officio, a State Child Welfare Commission. The act declared it 
the duty of the Commission to make and formulate such rules and 
regulations for enforcing and carrying out the provisions of the 
child labor law, the laws relating to seats for women employes 
and the law requiring separate toilets for sexes and races as in 
its judgment it shall deem necessary. The act further provided 
for the regulation of children employed under fourteen years of 
age, the authority to employ and commission agents, prescribe 
forms for legal employment of children and the inspection of all 
places enumerated in the law. 

The combining of the three departments, in the creation of 

this Commission, brought together the greatest forces in the State 

for sympathetic supervision and direction of the child employed. 

't has been a potent factor to assist the child in realizing the 

highest attainment possible in health, education, and welfare. 

The interpretation of the powers given the Commission, by the 
Attorney-General, the endorsement given it by business and the 
public all demonstrate that the act was soundly conceived, and 
that it is based upon the correct principles for child labor ad- 
ministration. The volume of work accomplished and reported 
after our first contact and following up of the same by field service, 
in cooperation with the Superintendent of Public Welfare and the 
securing of the ends designed by the law, prove conclusively 
that the act is being administered for the benificent purpose for 
which it was created. 

The work has been pursued during the period of our present 
biennial period with increased efficiency and a growing response 
from the public in general. The work may well be divided into 
two divisions covering the nineteen months of the period. The 
first year was devoted to following up the conditions reported in 
our first report and a special study of child labor administration, 
industrial sanitation and fatigue. This resulted in the Execu- 



State Child Welfare Commission 167 

tive Officer recommending to the Commission, after careful investi- 
gation of the most efficient organizations for the administration 
of relative laws, a system which would insure an official visit and 
an inspection when required, of all places enumerated in the 
laws, giving due credit for each item of work accomplished and 
providing an intelligent basis for calculations for future expendi- 
tures necessary to effectually prosecute the work under the Com- 
mission. 



OUTSTANDING THINGS ACCOMPLISHED DURING THE BIEN- 
NIAL PEKIOD BEGINNING NOVEMBER 30, 1921 AND 
ENDING JUNE 30, 1922. 

Takirfg over all the work of the certification of children entering 
employment, formally conducted by the Federal Revenue Depart- 
ment. 

The certification, of 7,283 children for employment. The check- 
ing and verifying of the records relative to same. 

The securing of a school record for each child certified for 
employment, stating grade completed, vocational training received, 
and the teacher's observation of the child before entering employ- 
ment. 

Securing a physical examination of each child certified for em- 
ployment, including those certified from the Federal certificate 
after the law had been declared invalid by the United States 
Supreme Court. These examinations have resulted in some fine 
health work in correcting physical defects which would have 
seriously retarded the development of the child. 

A survey of street trades was made in six of our largest cities. 
A study was made of the hours, wages, school attendance, court 
record, home environments, and recreation of six hundred and 
forty-seven children employed. 

The inauguration of a system of inspection that provides for 
an official visit to each business and industrial place and a de- 
tailed inspection of all manufacturing places enumerated in the 
law which secured 5,555 official visits and inspections in seven 
months after it was installed against 3,935 for the period of our first 
biennial report. 



16S Administrative Departments 

This system requires a notice of the immediate discharge of 
any child employed contrary to the law, the standards adopted 
to protect the health and morals of the child and refuse certifi- 
cation where dangerous employment hazards are present. A total 
of S72 child labor violations have received the benefits to be 
derived from such supervision, during the year. 

It has secured a permanent record of the physical conditions of 
all plants inspected and an official record of the nature of each 
violation and the time considered reasonable for compliance in 
each case. A total of eight hundred and twenty-six violations of 
the laws relative to industrial sanitation and fatigue have been 
reported under the system. The compliances secured and reported 
according to dates agreed upon have ranged from 12 to 100 per 
cent in the twenty counties covered by this system. 

An increase of 115 to 800 per cent has been secured in the volume 
of work reported in the twenty counties to which this system 
has been applied. It has established a practical basis for cal- 
culating the actual cost of each item of wo*k required under 
the laws administered by the Commission. 

The extraordinary demands made upon the Commission after 
the Federal law was declared unconstitutional greatly increased the 
demands for field service and printed forms. A total of 45,500 
copies of the laws and rulings and 124,052 posters, leaflets, forms 
and certificates have been distributed through the mail, field 
agents and the Superintendents of Public Welfare in serving the 
Public. 



CHILD LABOR LAW. 

Sec. 5. No child under the age of fourteen years shall be em- 
ployed, or permitted to work, in or about or in connection with any 
mill, factory, cannery, workshop, manufacturing establishment, 
laundry, bakery, mercantile establishment, office, hotel, restaurant, 
barber shop, boot-black stand, public stable, garage, place of amuse- 
ment, brick yard, lumber yard, or any messenger or delivery 
service, except in cases and under regulations prescribed by the 
Commission hereinafter created: Provided, the employments in 
this section enumerated shall not be construed to include bona 
fide boys' and girls' canning clubs recognized by the Agricultural De- 



State Child Welfare Commission 169 

partment of this State; and such canning clubs are hereby ex- 
pressly exempted from the provisions of this act. 

Sec. 6. No person under sixteen years of age shall be employed, 
or permitted to work, at night in any of the places or occupations 
referred to in section five of this act, between the hours of nine 
p. m. and six a. in., and no person under sixteen years of age 
shall be employed or permitted to work in or about or in connection 
with any quarry or mine. 

Sec. 7. That the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, the 
Secretary of the State Board of Health, and the Commissioner 
of Public Welfare of the State of North Carolina are hereby con- 
stituted the State Child Welfare Commission, and they shall serve 
without additional compensation. It shall be the duty of this 
commission to make and formulate such rules and regulations 
for enforcing and carrying out the provisions of this act, and of 
chapter eighty-three of the Public Laws of one thousand nine 
hundred and thirteen, and chapter eight hundred and fifty-seven 
of the Public Laws of one thousand nine hundred and nine, as 
in its judgment it shall deem necessary. 

Sec. 8. That for the purpose of securing the proper enforcement 
of the provisions of sections five, six, and seven of this act, and 
of chapter eighty-three of the Public Laws of one thousand nine 
hundred and thirteen, chapter eight hundred and fifty-seven of 
the Public Laws of one thousand nine hundred and nine, the said 
commission, or its duly authorized agents, shall have authority to 
enter and inspect at any time, mines, quarries, mills, factories, 
canneries, workshops, manufacturing establishments, laundries, 
bakeries, mercantile establishments, offices, hotels, restaurants, bar- 
ber shops, boot-black stands, public stables, garages, places of 
amusement, brick yards, lumber yards, and other places of em- 
ployment, and it shall be unlawful for any person, firm, or cor- 
poration to refuse permission to enter, obstruct, or prevent any 
duly authorized agent of said commission in his effort to make 
the inspection herein provided for. 

Sec. 9. The said commission shall have authority to appoint and 
employ such agents for the purpose of enforcing the provisions of 
sections five, six, seven, and eight of this act as may be found 
to be necessary, and they may use the county superintendent -of 
public welfare or chief school attendance officer or truant officer of 



170 Administrative Departments 

the several counties for the purpose of carrying out the pro- 
visions of sections five, six, seven, and eight of this act, and they 
may use the agents specially designated for carrying out the 
provisions of sections five, six, seven, and eight of this act, to 
aid in carrying out the provisions of sections one, two, and four of 
this act in regard to school attendance. 

Sec. 10. That if the employer of any person under sixteen years 
of age shall, at the time of such employment, in good faith, pro- 
cure, rely upon, and keep on file a certificate issued in such form 
and under such conditions and by such persons as the said 
commission herein provided for shall prescribe showing that the 
person is of legal age for such employment, such certificate shall 
be prima facie evidence of the age of the person and the good 
faith of the employer. No person shall knowingly make a false 
statement or present false evidence in or in relation to any 
such certificate or application therefor, or cause any false state- 
ment to be made which may result in the issuance of an im- 
proper certificate of employment. 



RULINGS. 

Revised and Passed September 6, 1921. 

The State Child Welfare Commission, in executive session on 
August 6, 1919, made the following rulings, which have the force 
of law: 

1. No child of any age under 16 years shall be permitted to 
work in any of the occupations mentioned in section 5, before 
6 o'clock in the morning or after 9 o'clock at night. This ruling 
is made mandatory by section 6, and the law gives no discretion to 
the Commission to modify the same. 

2. No girl under 14 years of age shall be permitted to work 
in any of the occupations mentioned in section 5. The reason for 
this is that if the womanhood of the State is to be properly 
conserved in the future, girls of tender age certainly should not 
be allowed to run the dangers of association inherent in employ- 
ment in public places. 



State Child Welfare Commission 171 

3. No child under 14 years of age shall be employed in any 
of the occupations mentioned in section 5 for more than eight 
hours in any one day. 

4. (Revised September 6, 1921.) Boys between 12 and 14 years 
of age may be employed in the enumerated occupations when the 
public school is not in session when it is shown to the County 
Superintendent of Public Welfare or other authorized agent of 
the Commission that the proposed employment is not to the injury 
of the health or morals of the child. But in no case shall such 
employment be legal until a certificate has been issued by the 
County Superintendent of Public Welfare or other authorized agent 
of the Commission on blanks furnished by the State Commission. 
Before determining the question the County Superintendent of 
Public Welfare or other authorized agent may, if he deem it neces- 
sary, require a physical examination of the child by the public 
health officer or other practicing physician. The Employment 
Certificate is to be issued only upon documentary evidence or proof 
of age as required by the Commission. 

5. During the time that the public school is in session, boys 
between 12 and 14 years of age may be employed on Saturday and 
out of school hours on the same conditions as above, provided that 
such employment does not interfere with their school work. Where 
school officials have provided for what is known as continuation 
schools, and where arrangement has been made to make the out- 
side employment a unit of the school work, boys of this age may be, 
in specific cases, allowed to be occupied in employment during 
school hours for a limited time, at the discretion of the super- 
intendent of the school. 

The State Child Welfare Commission, in executive session on 
September 6. 1921, made the following rulings, which have the 
force of law: 

6. No child, claiming to be 14 or 16 years of age, but whose 
actual age is doubtful, shall be permitted to work in any of the 
occupations mentioned in sections 5 and 6 until an Age Certifi- 
cate has been issued by the Superintendent of Public Welfare or 
other authorized agent of the Commission in accordance with 
the provisions required in section 10 of this act. The design of 
this section is to insure the proper enforcement of the compulsory 
school law, to prevent the employment of any person contrary to 



172 Administrative Departments 

the law, and to free the employer from liability to this act. An 
Age Certificate to be issued only upon documentary evidence or 
proof of age as required by the Commission. 

7. On and after March 1, 1922. the Superintendent of Public Wel- 
fare and other authorized agents of the Commission shall require 
a school record of evidence for any child under 16 years of age 
who makes application to engage in employment in any of the 
occupations mentioned in sections 5 and 6 before issuing either 
an Employment Certificate or Age Certificate. The school record 
to be prepared by school official or teacher in accordance with 
the approved school code for children and the accredited record 
system for schools approved by the Department of Education. 

8. On and after March 1, 1922, the Superintendent of Public 
Welfare and other authorized agents of the Commission shall 
require a physical examination by a health officer or practicing 
pnysician, upon forms approved by the Commission, of any child 
under 16 years of age who makes application for employment, 
except in cases where the child has received physical examination 
by a medical officer of the State Bureau of Medical Inspection 
of Schools. 

9. The Superintendent of Public Welfare is specially designated 
and commissioned as the authorized agent of the State Child 
Welfare Commission in the several counties to assist in enforcing 
and carrying out the provisions of the child labor law and other 
acts relative to business and industry. In this position equal 
care is required to supervise and direct those employed, and to 
correct any influence that would injure the welfare of any person 
or contribute to truancy or delinquency of any child. 

10. The Superintendent of Public Welfare and other authorized 
agents of the Commission shall suspend any certificate for em- 
ployment when a condition is found that will injure the health 
or morals of a child, pending the action of the Commission, or 
revoke any certificate issued on false evidence. 

EMPLOYMENTS NOT PROHIBITED. 

It is to be noted that the law does not prohibit the employ- 
ment of children in occupations other than those enumerated 
in section 5, such as farming and domestic employment. It is 
assumed, also, that it does not affect children who are kept 



State Child Welfare Commission 173 

by their parents under their direct personal control in or about 
places owned and operated by the parents themselves, except in 
prohibited hours. The reason for this is that parents are supposed 
to control and care for their own children wherever they may 
be with them. 

GENERAL PURPOSE. 

The Commission feels that it should call the attention of parents, 
public officers, ministers, educators, social workers, and thinkers, 
and the public generally, to the fact that the Legislature intended 
this act to be a measure for child welfare and to solicit the 
aid and cooperation of all in securing the beneficent purpose in- 
tended. To this end it is necessary to make every possible effort 
to provide wholesome conditions of environment for children, while 
not in school or employed. Such environment must depend upon 
better home influences, more parental thought and care, and more 
public cooperation in the way of playgrounds and other whole- 
some recreation. It is still true that an "idle brain is the devil's 
workshop," and juvenile delinquency arises in nearly all cases from 
idleness or lack of proper direction of youth energy. 



CHILD LABOR STANDARDS. 



ILLEGAL EMPLOYMENT. 



Children under 16 years employed in mine. 

Children under 16 years employed in quarry. 

Girls under 14 years employed in terms used in sections 5 and Q. 

Boys under 12 years employed in terms used in sections 5 and 6. 

ILLEGAL HOURS. 

Children under 16 years employed after 9 p. m. 

Children under 16 years employed before 6 a. m. 

Children under 14 years employed during school hours. 

Boys between 12 and 14 years employed over eight hours per day. 

ILLEGAL EMPLOYMENT WITHOUT CERTIFICATES 

Boys between 12 and 14 years employed before school without 
Employment Certificate. 

Boys between 12 and 14 years employed after school without 
Employment Certificate. 



174 Administrative Departments 



Boys between 12 and 14 years employed during vacation with- 
out Employment Certificate. 

Boys between 12 and 14 years employed without having change 
of employment endorsed on certificate. 

Boys between 12 and 14 years employed when Employment 
Certificate has been suspended. 

Boys between 12 and 14 years employed when Employment Certifi- 
cate has been lost. 

Children 14 to 16 years employed without Age Certificate (legal 
protection for the employer and parent). 

Children 14 to 16 years employed when Age Certificate has 
been lost. 

Children 14 to 16 years employed when Age Certificate has been 
revoked. 

UNLAWFUL PHYSICAL CONDITIONS. 

Children employed with symptoms of disease contributory to 
retardation or disability. 

Children employed when determined by physical examination 
that employment is injurious to health. 

Children employed with surrounding conditions injurious to 
morals. 

Children employed with dangerous employment hazards present. 



PART V. 



STATE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 



1. University of North Carolina. 

2. North Carolina State College op Agriculture ant. 

Engineering. 

3. North Carolina College for Women. 

4. Cullowhee Normal and Industrial School. 

5. Appalachian Training School. 

6. East Carolina Teachers College. 

7. North Carolina Schools for the (White) Blind 

and for the (negro) blind and deaf. 

8. North Carolina School for the (White) Deaf. 

9. Stonewall Jackson Manual Training and Indus- 

trial School. 

10. North Carolina Normal Schools for the Coloree 

Race and for the Cherokee Indians of Robeson 
County. 

11. North Carolina Negro Agricultural and Techni 

cal College. 

12. Caswell Training School. 



175 



THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

H. W. Chase, President, Chapel Hill. 

The University of North Carolina is at Chapel Hill, Orange 
County, near the middle of the State. Its charter was granted in 
17S9; the cornerstone of the first building was laid in 1793 and 
students were admitted in 1795. The campus of 48 acres and 
about 550 acres of forest contiguous to it were given by the citizens 
of the county. All the buildings put up for 112 years were given 
by friends of the University, the first direct appropriation from the 
Legislature for construction being $50,000 for a chemistry building 
in 1905. Of the total amount received by the institution from all 
sources, since its foundation, one half has been contributed by 
alumni and other friends. 

During the Reconstruction period after the Civil War the Uni- 
versity was stripped of its funds, and much of its property and 
equipment was destroyed. From 1870 to 1875 its doors were closed. 

For the first eighty years of its existence, the University received 
no money from the State for maintenance. When it was reopened 
in 1875, with practically nothing but empty halls and meagre con- 
tributions from friends, the interest from the Land-Script Fund 
($7,500) was turned over to it, but this was later withdrawn. 
In 1881 the Legislature made its first direct appropriation for main- 
tenance, granting $5,000 to cover one year. 

The annual upkeep fund voted by the State was increased little 
by little, but for a score of years the University was barely able to 
exist. Toward the end of the century, when the movement for public 
education was carried to a definite triumph through the efforts of 
Governor Aycock and others, the institution at Chapel Hill came 
upon better days. Maintenance appropriations were augmented 
until now the yearly allowance from the Legislature is $480,000. 

A number of new buildings have been erected on the campus 
since the support of higher education was accepted as a fixed policy 
of the State. The two-year period just ended has been the greatest 
building period in the history of the University. The Legislature 
of 1921 voted a building fund of $1,490,000. Out of this have been 

12 (1771 



17S Administrative Departments 

erected four dormitories, each accommodating 120 students, and 
three classroom buildings. In addition, long needed improvements 
have been made to the water, lighting and heating services. 

Next on the program are a woman's building, chemistry and 
geology buildings, another classroom building, and more dormitories 
for men. 

The increasing flood of graduates from the high schools of North 
Carolina creates the necessity of a continued expansion of living 
quarters. The attendance for the year 1922-1923, not including the 
summer school, is 2,000. There were 239 more students in the fall 
of 1922 than a year before, and 427 more than two years before. 
Estimates based on the State Superintendent of Education's figures 
for high school seniors in North Carolina this year indicate an at- 
tendance at the Universiy of 2,500 in 1924-1925. 

Attendance for the five years preceding the present year (exclud- 
ing summer school and correspondence students) was as follows: 

1917-18 855 

1918-19 1,156 

1919-20 1,425 

1920 21 1,547 

1921-22 1,733 

The number of students in the Summer School of 1922 was 1400. 

Of the students attending the regular session, about 95 per cent, 
are from North Carolina. 

The University property now consists of: 

Campus 48 acres, and woodland 550 acres ? 173.92S.34 

Equipment, books, apparatus, furniture, etc 536,064.76 

Buildings and faculty houses 2,965.345.66 

$3, 675, 338.76 
Endowment, including loan funds 1,588,914.46 

Total $5,264,253.22 

The income of the University was derived from the following 

sources for the year 1921-1922: 

MAINTENANCE. 

State appropriation $480,000.00 

Student fees • ■ 123,490.04 

Invested funds 78,484.48 

Gifts 5,250.10 

Other sources ' 22,769.91 

Total $709,994.53 



University of North Carolina 179 

building and improvements. 

State appropriation $910,000.00 

Escheats 6,925.53 

University Bonds Sold 31,500.00 

Fire Protection Receipts 1,322.92 

Inn Fire Loss Receipts 6,929.61 

Other Sources 5,794.93 

Total $962,472.99 

The University is comprised of the following departments: Col- 
legiate, applied science, engineering, teachers' training, graduate, 
law, medicine, pharmacy, and the division of extension. 

The parents of the students represent all professions, creeds and 
parties in the State. The leading professions represented are 
farmers, merchants, lawyers, physicians, manufacturers, ministers, 
teachers. The leading churches are: Methodist, Baptist, Presby- 
terian, Episcopal. 

Over one-half of the students earn or borrow, in part or in 
whole the money for their education. Some 87 of them earn their 
board by waiting at the table. Few of the families from which these 
students come are able to stand the strain of the support of a son at 
college without stringent economy or even many sacrifices. About 
one-half of the graduates start out as teachers. 

There is a splendid spirit of democracy about the institution, 
which opens the doors of achievement to all alike and places at- 
tainment upon merit alone. It is emphatically a place "where 
wealth is no prejudice and poverty is no shame." 

SUMMARY. 

Charter granted 1789 

Opened 1795 

Acres of land owned 598 

Value of buildings, equipment and land $3,675,338.76 

Invested funds 1,578,340.08 

Number of volumes in library 105,00ft, 

Number of students 3,384 

Number of faculty 120 

Income from State 502,499.65 

Income from students 123,490.04 

Invested funds 78,484.48 



180 State Educational Institutions 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UXIYEHSITY. 

No president 1795-1804 

Joseph Caldweu 1804-1835 

David L. Swain 1835-1868 

Solomon Pool 1869-1870 

University closed 1870-1876 

Kemp P. Battle 1876-1891 

George T. Winston 1891-1896 

Edwin A. Aujerman 1896-1900 

Francis P. Venable 1900-1914 

Edward K. Graham 1914-1918 

Harry W. Chase 1919- 



NORTH CAROLINA STATE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 
AND ENGINEERING. 

W. C. Riddick, President, West Raleigh. 

During the years in which North Carolina was slowly emerging 
from the economic havoc wrought by Civil War and Reconstruction, 
some far-sighted men began to see the necessity of rearing indus- 
trially equipped men. They felt keenly the need of competent man 
to build and direct new industries, and to restore the land which 
had been impoverished by slave labor. They recognized that men 
capable of doing what was needed would have to be educated in in- 
dustrial schools and technical colleges. This recognition came 
slowly, because the Southern people up to that period had been 
wedded to classical education. 

The first organized body to take steps for the establishment of an 
industrial institution in North Carolina was the Watauga Club. 
This Club, composed of bright young men, explained its mission by 
declaring that it was "an association in the city of Raleigh designed 
to find out and make known information on practical subjects that 
will be of public use." In 1885 this club presented to the Legisla- 
ture the following memorial: 

"We respectfully memorialize your honorable body: 

"First. To establish an industrial school in North Carolina which 
shall be a training place for young men who wish to acquire skill in 
the wealth-producing arts and sciences. 

"Second. To establish this school in Raleigh in connection with 
the State Agriculture Department. 



College of Agriculture and Engineering 181 

"Third. To make provision for the erection of suitable buildings 
and for their equipment and maintenance. 

(Signed) Arthur Winslow, Chairman; 

W. J. Peele, 
Walter H. Page." 

This memorial quickened general interest in the proposed school, 
and several bills looking to its foundation were introduced in the 
Legislature of 1885. On March 7th, one of these bills, introduced by 
Hon. Augustus Leazar of Iredell County, became a law. This law 
provided that the Board of Agriculture should seek proposals from 
the cities and towns of the State, and that the school should be 
placed in the town offering most inducements. The Board of Agri- 
culture finally accepted an offer from the city of Raleigh. 

Meantime, the ideas of the advocates of the school had been some- 
what broadened as to the character of the proposed institution. They 
saw that Congress was about to supplement the original land grant 
by an additional appropriation for agricultural and mechanical col- 
leges in each State. The originators of the conception then sought 
the aid of progressive farmers in order to change the school into 
an Agricultural and Mechanical College. Col. L. L. Folk, the editor 
of the newly established Progressive Farmer, threw the weight of his 
paper heartily into the new idea. Meetings were held in various 
places, and two very large meetings in Raleigh considered the 
proposition. As a result, the school already provided for was, by 
action of the Legislature of 1887, changed into an Agricultural and 
Mechanical College, and the Land Scrip Fund was given the newly 
formed institution. In addition, the law directed that any surplus 
from the Department of Agriculture should go into the treasury of 
the college. Mr. R. Stanhope Pullen, one of Raleigh's most broad- 
minded citizens, gave the institution eighty-three acres of land in a 
beautiful suburb of Raleigh. The first building was completed in 
1889 and the doors of the college were opened for students in Octo- 
ber, 1889. Seventy-two students, representing thirty-seven counties, 
were enrolled the first year. The faculty consisted of six full pro- 
fessors and two assistants. 

From this small beginning in 1889 the college has grown to be the 
second in size in students and faculty among the colleges for men in 
the State. 



182 State Educational Institutions 

The Legislature of 1917 changed the name of the college to North 
Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engineering. 

The college confines its curriculum entirely to technical and in- 
dustrial education. No general or academic courses are offered. 

The courses of study are as follows: 

First, Agriculture, including under this general term Agronomy, 
Horticulture, Trucking, Animal Husbandry, Dairying, Veterinary 
Science, Poultry Science, and a course in Agricultural Education. 

Second, Engineering. These courses include Civil, Electrical, Me- 
chanical, and Mining Engineering. The equipment for field and for 
laboratory work in these courses makes them very practical, as well 
as scientific. 

Third, Textile Industry. Students in Textiles have an entire mill 
building for their use. In addition to carding, spinning, weaving 
and designing, they have a thoroughly practical course in dyeing 
in the chemistry of dyes, and in textile engineering. 

Fourth, Industrial Chemistry. Four-year courses in Agricultural 
Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, and Textile Chemistry and Dye- 
ing. 

Fifth, Industrial Management and Agricultural Administration. 
The two leading courses given in this Division are: Industrial 
Management and Agricultural Business Administration. The pur- 
pose of these courses are to train executives and administrators, su- 
perintendents and managers for the two leading industries of the 
State, Manufacturing and Farming. A third curriculum, General 
Business Administration, is given incidental to the other two Bus- 
iness Administration courses. 

In all these courses, mathematics, English, physics, chemistry and 
one modern language are required. 

For young men who have not time or means to spend four years 
in college, and yet who want to fit themselves as far as possible for 
industrial employments, short courses of one and two years are 
offered in Agriculture, and two years in Mechanic Arts and Textiles. 

In January of each year a three-weeks' practical course for farm- 
ers is given. 

During the summer there is conducted at the college a Summer 
School for Teachers, a short course for Club Boys and Girls, a course 
for Farm Demonstration Agents and the Farmers' Convention. 



North Carolina College for Women . . 1S3 

These activities, in addition to the regular college session, keep 
the plant in active service every day in the year. 

The college, in cooperation with the State Department of Agri- 
culture, conducts the North Carolina Experiment Station and the 
North Carolina Extension Service, which employ more than two 
hundred men and women, and touch the lives of at least three- 
fourths of the people of the State. 

SUMMARY 

Founded 1889 

Number of buildings 37 

Number of acres of land 4S5 

Value of buildings and equipment $2,250,000.00 

Value of land 250,000.00 

Number of volumes in library 10,000 

. Number of students 1,200 

Number of faculty 100 

State appropriation per annum 275,000.00 

PRESIDENTS. 

Alexander Q. Holladay 1889-1899 

George Tayloe Winston 1899-1908 

Daniel Harvey Hill 1908-1916 

Wallace Carl Riddick 1916- 



THE XORTH CAROLINA COLLEGE FOR WOMEff. 

Julius I. Foust, President, Greensboro, N. C. 

The State Normal and Industrial College was established by an 
act of the General Assembly of 1891. The General Assembly of 1919 
changed the name of this institution to The North Carolina College 
for Women. The purpose of the college, as stated in chapter 199 
of the Public Laws of North Carolina, session 1919, amending the 
charter, is as follows: 

"The objects of the institution shall be (1) to teach young 
white women all branches of knowledge recognized as essential to a 
liberal education, such as will familiarize them with the world's 
best thought and achievement and prepare them for intelligent and 



184 State Educational Institutions 

useful citizenship; (2) to make special provision for training in 
the science and art of teaching, school management, and school 
supervision; (3) to provide women with such training in the arts, 
sciences, and industries as may be conducive to their self-support 
and community usefulness; (4) to render to the people of the State 
such aid and encouragement as will tend to the dissemination of 
knowledge, the fostering of loyalty and patriotism, and the promo- 
tion of the general welfare. Tuition shall be free, upon such condi- 
tions as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors, to those who 
signify their intention to teach in the schools of North Carolina; 
and also, in the discretion of said board, to those who signify their 
intention to enter other fields of public service. 

"* * * * That it shall be the duty of the faculty of the North 
Carolina College for Women to extend its influence and usefulness as 
far as possible to the persons of the State who are unable to avail 
themselves of its advantages as resident students, by extension 
courses, by lectures, and by such other means as may seem to them 
most effective." 

In 1892 the institution began with $30,000 donated by the city 
of Greeensboro and ten acres of land, the gift of Mr. R. S. Pullen, 
Mr. R. T. Gray, Mr. E. P. Wharton, and others, with an annual ap- 
propriation of $10,000 from the State. In addition to the State ap- 
propriation and tuition fees, the institution received during the first 
few years about $3,000 annually from the Peabody Fund and for 
three years received $2,500 annually from the General Education 
Board. It also received about $11,000 from the faculty and students, 
and a small amount from Mr. George Foster Peabody, and a library 
building from Mr. Andrew Carnegie. The plant is now worth more 
than $2,500,000; the annual State appropriation is $330,000, and 
the loan and scholarship funds received from various sources in the 
State and out of it now amount to $35,000. The faculty numbers 100, 
and there have been enrolled during the present session 1,270 stu- 
dents, and during the summer session 998 students; total 2,268. 

The chief mission of the institution lies in furnishing the public 
school system of the State well-equipped teachers who are capab:e 
of rendering the State intelligent and useful service. It provides 
regular degree courses, whose admission requirements, curriculum 



North Carolina College for Women . . 185 

of instruction, and standards of scholarship are in keeping with 
the requirements of our best Southern colleges for men and 
women. 

Special industrial and commercial courses are open to those who 
do not have free tuition and are not under contract to teach. Pro- 
vision is also made for teachers who may wish to take brief courses 
in pedagogy and in the subjects taught in the public schools. For 
those who cannot remain longer, a two-year course is offered. For 
various reasons a number of ambitious teachers are not able to avail 
themselves of the two-year course, and to meet the demands of these 
a regular summer session has been inaugurated. The advantages 
of the institution are thus open to every worthy young white woman 
who has availed herself of the opportunities offered in the public 
schools of the State. 

The patronage of the institution has justified the wisdom of 
the founders. During the thirty years of its life, beginning October, 
1892, and closing with the session of June, 1923, there have been en- 
rolled more than 12,000 young women as students. These students 
have come from all of the 100 counties of the State, and in their 
political and religious faith, their financial condition, their profes- 
sional and social life, their intellectual ability and previous educa- 
tional opportunities, are representative of the people of North Car- 
olina. Of the more than 12,000 young women who have sought the 
help and strength thus provided, more than 80 per cent received their 
training in the rural public schools, one-third defrayed their own 
expenses, and two-thirds, according to their own written statement, 
would not have attended any other North Carolina College. In 
brief, one of the strongest forces of the college, and a prime source 
of its usefulness, has been the representative character of its pa- 
tronage. This coming together of all classes from all sections of the 
State necessarily results in creating an atmosphere of wholesome 
democracy and equal opportunity. The spirit of the State Col- 
lege for Women is, therefore, what the spirit of every State college 
should be, and, as a result, its representatives acquire that larger 
sympathy, that breadth of vision, and that intelligent insight into 
the needs of their State that no text-books or lectures or mere 
academic training can ever hope to give. 

Some indication of the serviceableness of the college is suggested 
by what has been said of the scope and character of its patronage. 



1S6 State Educational Institutions 

It has, since its establishment, been an open door of opportunity for 
the white women of North Carolina. Through it the State has added 
to its resources over 12,000 educated women, who have taught lessons 
of patriotism and right living to at least 500,000 North Carolina 
children. Two-thirds of all the students enrolled and nine-tenths of 
all who graduate become teachers in North Carolina. No large 
movement for the uplift of the State has failed to have support from 
its faculty and students, and today there is not a county in the 
State where representatives of the college are not to be found actively 
engaged in public service. 

SUMMER SESSION 

The special purpose of the North Carolina College for Women in 
organizing the Summer Session was to offer the advantages of 
its instruction to those women in the State whose occupation during 
other months of the year prevents their attendance upon the regular 
session. In the selection and arrangement of its summer courses 
the college has in view the needs of the following classes: 

First. Teachers wishing special work in the principles and 
methods of teaching (Primary, Gramar, and High School), with op- 
portunities for practice and observation work under experienced 
supervisors. 

Second. Teachers desiring advanced or collegiate courses in 
Philosophy, Science, Psychology, and the History of Education. 

Third. Teachers of special subjects, such as Domestic Science, 
Vocal Music, Drawing, and Manual Arts. 

Fourth. High school teachers who desire advanced or extra work 
along the line of their specialties with free use of good department 
libraries and well-equipped laboratories. 

Fifth. College students who wish to earn advanced credit or to 
remove conditions. 

Sixth. Students preparing for college. 

Seventh. Mothers, wives, and home-makers who feel the need of 
practical help in such subjects as food and food values, cookery, 
kitchen conveniences, home nursing, sanitation, and household dec- 
oration. 



CULLOWHEE NORMAL AND INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL 187 

SUMMARY OF ENROLLMENT DURING THE SESSION 1922-1923 

Enrolled during the regular session 1,270 

Enrolled during the summer session .- . 998 

Total number taught at the college during the 

session 1922-1923 2,268 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1891 

Number of buildings used for college purposes 25 

Number of buildings used for residential purposes 12 

Number of acres of land 100 

Value of buildings and land $2,500,000 

Number of volumes in library 18,500 

Number of faculty 100 

Annual State appropriation (maintenance) $ 330,000 

PRESIDENTS. 

Charles D. McIver 1891-1906 

Julius I. Foust (Dean) 1906-1907 

Julius I. Foust 1907- 



CULLOWHEE NORMAL AXD INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 

R. L. Madison, President, Cullowhee, N. C. 

The Cullowhee Normal and Industrial School is a State co- 
educational institution mainly for the training of teachers. The 
school was chartered in 1891 as a private institution, and in 1905 
became a State institution. It has trained more than 2,000 teachers 
for public school work and has furnished eleven county superintend- 
ents. The institution is equipped with steam heat, electric lights, 
and a gravity water line. It is built to accommodate about 200 
boarding students. The organization of the school embraces: Prac 
tice School, High School, Normal Collegiate School, Domestic Science 
School, Domestic Arts School, and Music School. 

More than 300 teachers enrolled for the Summer Quarter, 1922. 



18S State Educational Institutions 

SUMMARY. 

Number of buildings 9 

Number of acres of land owned 27.5 

Number of instructors 12 

Value of buildings and lands $225,000 

Annual appropriation 25,000 

PRESIDENTS. 

R. L. Madison 1889-1912 

A. C. Reynolds 1912-1920 

R. L. Madison 1920- 



THE APPALACHIAN TEAINISG SCHOOL. 

B. B. Dougherty, President, Boone. 

The Appalachian Training School for Teachers was established 
by act of the Legislature of 1903. The school is located at Boone, 
Watauga County, North Carolina, in the midst of North Carolina's 
unsurpassed mountain scenery. It is the center of education for the 
northwestern section of North Carolina, embracing some of the best 
of her mountainous counties. 

• 

The institution makes no pretension to being a college. It is a 
normal school, and its mission is to give a high school and profes- 
sional education to hundreds of young people who cannot go else- 
where. 

During the years 1919-1920 there were 433 students in the school. 
It supplies a large proportion of the public school teachers for the 
surrounding counties, and has had a marked influence upon the 
improvement of scholarship and professional training of these teach- 
ers. In addition to this, the school has opened a way to the State 
University and the State Normal College to a large number of stu- 
dents who otherwise would not have entered those institutions. 

The flrst appropriation made by the Legislature was $2,000 for 
maintenance, voted by the Legislature of 1903. The Legislature of 
1907 increased this to $4,000, and made an additional appropriation 
of $10,000 for the enlargement of the plant. In 1909 the Legisla- 
ture appropriated $6,000 a year for maintenance, and $8,000 per year 



East Carolina Teachers College 189 

for general improvements. The Legislature of 1911 appropriated 
$10,000 per annum for maintenance and $10,000 for improvements. 
The Legislature of 1913 appropriated $15,000 for a new dormitory 
and $12,500 for maintenance. 

In 1917 the maintenance fund was raised to $20,000 and $50,000 to 
improve the plant. In 1921 the maintenance was raised to $50,000, 
$125,000 allowed for buildings. 

summary 

Founded 1903 

Number of buildings 9 

Number of acres of land owned 450 

Value of buildings and equipment $400,000 

Value of land 50,000 

Number of students 906 

Number of faculty 15 

Income from State appropriation for maintenance, 

per annum $ 50,000 

PRESIDENT 

B. B. Dougherty 1903- 



EAST CAROLINA TEACHERS COLLEGE. 

R. H. Wright, President, Greenville. 

The East Carolina Teachers College was established by act of the 
General Assembly of 1907. The school is located at Greenville. The 
site contains 50 acres of land, a large part of which is a natural 
forest. 

Nine buildings have been erected; three dormitories with a ca- 
pacity for 334 students; an administration building containing the 
offices, auditorium, and class rooms; a building for the kitchen and 
dining-room (this building contains store-rooms for supplies and 
a refrigerating plant) ; an infirmary, a building containing the 
power plant and laundry, an eight-room model school and a resi- 
dence for the president. 

The buildings and equipment are modern in every sense and are 
valued at $1,159,000. The town of Greenville and county of Pitt 



190 State Educational Institutions 

voted $100,000 in bonds for this school, and the State has made an 
appropriation of $679,332.57 for buildings and equipment. These 
buildings have not yet been thoroughly equipped, but enough equip- 
ment has been installed to enable the school to do efficient work. 
The equipment installed is of the best type procurable. 

Section 5864 of the charter reads: "That the said college shall 
be maintained by the State for the purpose of giving to young 
white men and women such education and training as shall fit and 
qualify them to teach, in the public schools of North Carolina." 

This clearly sets forth the purpose of the college. To those 
students who agree to teach there is no charge for tuition. Prac- 
tically all of the students sign this agreement. This shows that the 
management is adhering to the purpose of the college as stated in 
its charter. 

The school, first opened the doors for students October 5, 1909. 
During the past thirteen years, including the summer terms, there 
have been enrolled 7,928 students. 

SUMMARY 

Founded 1907 

Number of buildings 9 

Number of acres of land 50 

Value of buildings and grounds $1,159,000 

Number of students 1907-1922 7,928 

Annual appropriation $ 105,000 

Other income 3,165 

PRESIDENT 

R. H. Wright 1907- 



IfORTH CAROLINA SCHOOL FOR THE BLLXI) 
A>D THE DEAF. 1 

This institution was established by act of the General Assembly 
passed January 12, 1845, while Hon. W. A. Graham was Governor 
of North Carolina. On the first day of May following the school 
opened with seven pupils, which number increased to seventeen 



1 The State schools for the blind white children and for the blind and the deaf 
negro children, though separate institutions, in separate buildings located iu differ 
ent parts of the city, are under the same supervision. — Editor. 



School for the Blind and the Deaf 191 

during the session. The first appropriation amounted to $5,000 an- 
nually. Two years later it was made $10,000. W. D. Cooke, of Vir- 
ginia, was elected first principal, and for some years the school was 
conducted in a building on Hillsboro Street, rented for the purpose. 

On April 14, 1849, the corner-stone of the present main building 
on Caswell Square was laid by the Grand Lodge of Masons. At first 
deaf children only were received, but later blind children were ad- 
mitted. 

In 1868 a department for the education of the negro deaf and 
blind children of the State was established on Bloodworth Street, 
in the southeastern part of the city. This has grown to be the 
largest and best equipped school for the negro deaf and blind in 
the South. 

In 1894 the white deaf children were removed to their new school 
at Morganton. 

The auditorium building furnishes dormitories for the boys and 
a good auditorium, but it is now too small to accommodate the num- 
ber of students in attendance. 

The school has a small library and a partially equipped gymnasium 
which have aided much in the work it is doing. 

The industrial building furnishes room for the broom, mattress, 
and cane-seating department of the school. Similar buildings are 
at the colored department. 

The increased attendance has made it necessary to increase the 
appropriation for maintenance, and the Legislature has made addi- 
tions from time to time until the annual income is now $85,000. 

This is equivalent to only about $280 per child — an amount far less 
than that used by any school for the blind in the United States. 

Seventeen years ago the allowance per child was more than $214. 
With the increased cost of living, one can readily see how cramped 
must be the financial condition. 

The school is now seriously handicapped for lack of room and 
of funds. The present quarters are entirely too circumscribed. There 
is no room for exercise grounds, and if any children need exercise, 
it is the blind; nor is there any place for additional buildings. The 
overcrowded condition of the buildings demands serious attention. 
His Excellency, the Governor, recommended in his message to the 



192 State Educational Institutions 

General Assembly of 1911 the purchase of 100 acres in the suburbs 
of the city upon which to erect new buildings upon the cottage sys- 
tem. This suggestion was emphasized by the State Board of Internal 
Improvements, the State Board of Health, and the Board of Charities. 

The new plant for the School for the Blind is being built near 
Pullen Park, and it is hoped that the incoming session of the 
General Assembly will provide sufficient funds to complete this 
plant in time for occupancy next fall. It is being built on the cottage 
system, and is of fireproof construction, and will be in every re- 
spect an up-to-date plant. 

The literary work of the school begins with kindergarten and 
continues up through the grades and full four years' high school 
course, parelleling in this work the courses approved by the State 
Board of Education. 

We also give thorough courses in piano, pipe organ, violin, and 
voice, and have an excellent orchestra. 

All of the girls in the white department take fancy work, also 
work in the sewing department. The boys take work in the 
broom and mattress shops or piano tuning. 

We have similar departments for the colored blind. The deaf 
are also trained in the shoe shops, the carpenter shops and in agri- 
cultural work on the school farms. 

It is the aim of the school not only to give each child a good 
literary training, but vocational training as well, so that each one 
will be fitted for making a good living. 

Those who have made a careful study of the former students 
claim that 85 per cent of the graduates of the school are making a 
good living. In their chosen professions and business a large num- 
ber are leaders in their communities. 

SUMMARY 

Founded 1S45 

Number of buildings 7 

Number of acres of land 122 

Value of buildings and equipment $200,000 

Value of land 80,000 

Number of volumes in library (ink print) 1.900 

Number of volumes in library (tactile print) 5,600 



School for the (White) Deaf 193 

Number of students 140 

Value of buildings at new site $ 500,000 

Number of faculty 23 

State appropriation (including both departments )$ 130,000 

Income from other sources None 

NAMES AND TERMS OF SERVICE OF ALL PRINCIPALS. 

W. D. Cooke 1845-1860 

Wllley J. Palmer 1860-1869 

John Nichols 1873-1877 

S. F. Tomlinson 1871-1873 

John Nichols 1869-1871 

Hezekiah A. Gudger 1877-1883 

William J. Young 1883-1896 

Frederick R. Place June, 1896-September, 1896 

John E. Ray 1896-1918 

John T. Alderman Jan., 1918-August, 1918 

G. E. LlNEBERRY 1918- 

COLORED DEPARTMENT. 

Founded 1869 

Number of buildings 4 

Value of buildings and equipment $ 75,000 

Number of volumes in library (ink print) 500 

Number of volumes in library (tactile print) 1,700 

Number of students 174 

Number of faculty 17 



THE NORTH CAROLINA SCHOOL FOR THE (WHITE) DEAF. 

E. McK. Goodwin, Superintendent, Morganton 

In 1845 this State first attempted the education of her deaf and 
dumb children, being the ninth State in the Union to undertake 
the education of this class of children. The first year, seven pupils 
were admitted. Soon thereafter the blind children of the State 
were provided for under the same management, and the institution 
became the Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb and 
the Blind. Both classes were admitted into the institution at 
Raleigh till the Legislature of 1891 was made to realize that there 

13 



194 State Educational Institutions 

was only a small part of either class being educated, for up to that 
time only about 25 per cent were being even partially educated. 

In 1891 the General Assembly passed an act creating and establish- 
ing the North Carolina School for the Deaf and Dumb for the white 
race only, and located it at Morganton. The school was opened for 
the reception of pupils in 1894. All white deaf children then in 
school at Raleigh were admitted to the new school, which had very 
limited support. There were only 102 present the first year, but as 
soon as the Legislature made provision, the school admitted 162, and 
the attendance has increased steadily till 303 were admitted one 
session. There are many adult deaf in North Carolina now entirely 
uneducated. It is a significant fact, however, that this State has the 
largest attendance in proportion to her population of any Southern 
State, and, indeed, compares favorably with the Northern States in 
this respect. 

The statute prescribes the public school course of the State, and 
allows high school work for those who want to go to college. 

In addition to the regular school work, we have five industrial 
departments for the boys, where they are given, as far as possible, 
the knowledge of handicraft in the elementary branches. The five 
departments for the boys are farming and gardening, woodwork and 
carpentry, typesetting and printing, and shoemaking and tailoring. 
The girls are taught general domestic work, including cooking, plain 
sewing and dressmaking. Primary handicraft is taught to the small 
children. 

America leads the world in her provision for the education of the 
deaf. From 1817, when the first school was established in America, 
till about 186S, all the schools used the French system, which is the 
manual or sign method; but in 186S the German or oral method was 
introduced, and while the progress has been slow, the proportion has 
constantly increased till at present about 85 per cent of all the deaf 
children in the United States, now in school, are being taught by 
the oral method. Many of these children learn to speak and read 
speech of others sufficiently to become invaluable to themselves and 
to the great convenience of the members of their families. But even 
if their speech is not natural or good, the written language of the 
orally taught deaf is more natural and smooth in expression than 
that of the deaf taught manually. 



Manual Training and Industrial School 195 

The North Carolina School has two departments to meet the de- 
mands, and is known in the profession as a "combined school." Our 
orally taught pupils become as adept "sign makers" as the manually 
taught. They acquire the manual language by association with those 
who sign and spell on their fingers. The orally taught get all the 
manually taught get, and also what speech and speeeb-reading tbey 
get from the oral system, beyond what those manually taught even 
claim to get. Some of the largest and best schools for the deaf in 
America are "pure oral" schools. 

The North Carolina School has prepared a number of students for 
Gallaudet College, where they have graduated with distinction. 
Many of our former students have done well in the race of life, 
making a good living and good citizens. 

Our school plant is worth at least $1,000,000. The school, from its 
creation, has had a broad and liberal-minded board of directors of 
practical business men. The present board is composed of J. L. 
Scott, Jr., president; A. C. Miller, Mrs. I. P. Jeter, W. W. Neal, W. R. 
Whitson, J. T. Barrett, Dr. Jenness Morrill, and E. McK. Goodwin 
has been superintendent since its establishment. 

The school has now a staff of twenty-seven regular grade teachers 
and an educational principal, a supervising teacher in Goodwin 
Hall, our new primary school, and five industrial teachers. 

1,131 pupils have been enrolled since opening in 1894. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded - 1894 

Number of buildings 5 

Number of acres of land 327 

Value of buildings and equipment $1,000,000 

Value of land $ 60,000 

Number of volumes in library 3,700 

Number of faculty (including one principal) 35 

State appropriation $ 110,000 

Income from other sources, about $ 4,000 



THE STONEWALL JACKSON MANUAL TRAINING 
AND INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 

Charles E. Boger, Superintendent, Concord. 

In accordance with an act of the Legislature of 1907, the Stone- 
wall Jackson Manual Training and Industrial School was established. 



196 State Educational Institutions 

The law permits the school to receive donations, and it is largely due 
to several liberal-minded people that the school has made such 
wonderful progress for the few years it has been in existence. Mr. 
Caesar Cone of Greensboro, has furnished material to make the 
work uniforms for the boys since the opening of the school. Since 
the death of Mr. Cone, Mr. Bernard Cone, in memory of his brother, 
continues this contribution. General Julian S. Carr, of Durham, 
N. C, recently gave the school §200.00 to supply a pressing and 
urgent need. In January, 1909, the first cottage was completed, 
which was the gift of the King's Daughters of North Carolina; it 
was erected on a 298-acre tract of land, which was donated by the 
city of Concord. Since that time 32 acres have been purchased by 
the school. Many additions have also been made to the school: 
Mr. and Mrs. W. N. Reynolds, of Winston-Salem, contributed $1,000.00 
towards the building of a stock barn; Mr. and Mrs. G. T. Roth, of 
Elkin, furnished $3,500.00 to erect the Industrial Building, in which 
is located the electric shoe shop, printing office, woodworking shop, 
engine room, and space for the storage of lumber and supplies. A 
beautiful chapel has been built of rough granite, which cost $6,500.00. 
A granite memorial bridge has been constructed across the na- 
tional highway, connecting the chapel grounds with the school cam- 
pus. These are the gifts of the King's Daughters. An artistic granite 
pavilion, costing $4,000.00, the gift of Mr. J. E. Latham, of Greens- 
boro, has been built. This Pavilion contains rest rooms, lavatories, 
drinking fountain, and band instrument room on the first floor, 
and a band stand and observation room on the second floor. Twelve 
cottages are completed, giving accommodations for 360 boys. Of 
these, six cottages have been erected by the various counties of the 
State. Mecklenburg Cottage was built by funds donated by the 
citizens of town and county. The funds for the other five cottages 
were furnished by the county commissioners of the various counties. 
These counties are Guilford, Durham, Rockingham. Gaston, Rowan, 
Iredell. Robeson county commissioners have authorized the build- 
ing of another county cottage. The new school building erected 
contains school rooms and auditorium, and rooms for library, 
barber shop, dental office, and an indoor gymnasium room. The 
complete furnishing of the auditorium was the gift of Mr. J. F. 
>nnon, Concord, N. C, costing about $3,500.00. The other special 
rooms are waiting for equipment. Our administration building, 



Normal Schools for Negroes and Indiaxs 197 

erected by the State, was destroyed by fire on the morning of 
September 8, 1922. Three days later, a friend of the school was 
found in the person of Mrs. J. W. Cannon, of Concord, who donated 
$50,000.00 for its replacement and enlargement. This new building 
will more adequately serve the purpose of the school than the old 
one. 

Fire protection has been provided by the laying of 8-inch and 
6-inch water mains, and the placing of hydrants in easy reach of all 
the buildings. 

An underground wiring has been installed for campus lighting. 

A modern dairy barn, with two silos, equipped for the housing 
of forty cows has been erected. 

Two other brick structures have been built. One of these contains 
the store room for supplies for the school, and a cold storage 
plant. The other, the bakery and laundry rooms. 

The reclamation of the farm lands has been wonderful. 

SUMMARY. 

School opened January 12, 1909 

Buildings 24 

Value of buildings and equipment $558,333.28 

Value of land $ 55,000.00 

Number acres of land 330 

Pupils 360 

STATE APPROPRIATION. 

Flat Maintenance (for first 100 boys) $ 40,000.00 

Per capita for all boys over 100 $ 200.00 

Permanent Improvements $140,000.00 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOLS FOR THE COLORED RACE AM) FOR 
THE CHEROKEE LVDIAXS OF ROBESON COUNTY. 

N. C. Newbold, Director, Raleigh. 

The State maintains three normal schools for the training of 
Negro teachers and one for the training of teachers for the Cherokee 
Indians of Robeson County. The normal schools for the Negroes are 
located in Fayetteville, Elizabeth City, and Winston-Salem; the 
school for the Cherokee Indians of Robeson County is located at 
Pembroke. 



19S State Educational Institutions 

The first superintendent of these schools was Charles L. Coon, 
elected in 1904. In January, 1907, he was succeeded by John 
Duckett, who died November 16, 1908. J. A. Bivens was superintend- 
ent from January, 1909, until his death, March 2, 1913. E. E. 
Sams was superintendent from March, 1913 to June 1, 1919. A. T. 
Allen was superintendent from June 1, 1919, to June 30, 1921. In 
the Legislature of 1921 a Division of Negro Education was created 
in the Department of Public Instruction with the following per- 
sonnel: N. C. Newbold, director; G. H. Ferguson, assistant director; 
W. A. Robinson, supervisor of Teacher-Training and High Schools; 
W. F. Credle, supervisor of the Julius Rosenwald Fund; G. E. Davis, 
supervisor of Rosenwald Buildings; Mrs. Annie W. Holland, super- 
visor of Elementary Schools; Miss Annabel Pratt, secretary; Miss 
Lillian Ray, stenographer. The director of this division is an 
ex officio member of the Boards of Trustees of these schools, and 
this division has general supervision of the schools. 

Most of the Negro and Indian teachers in the sections where 
these schools are located have received their training in these 
schools. Industrial training, especial. y in domestic science, is re- 
quired in all of them. In the Slater School at Winston-Salem shop 
aid farm work are taught n the Indian School home economics 
and vocational agriculture are taught under the direction of the 
Smith-Hughes Fund. 

In 1917 the Legislature made an appropriation of $10,000 out of 
the bond issue for the improvement of the colored normals. 

The General Assembly of 1919 made an appropriation of $90,000 
for the improvement and enlargement of the three normal schools 
for the colored teachers, and $1,250 for the repair of the buildings at 
Pembroke for the Cherokee Indians, and increased the maintenance 
fund for the four institutions, making the following distribution: 

Slater Normal $15,000.00 

Elizabeth City Normal 11,000.00 

Fayetteville Normal 9,000.00 

Pembroke Normal 3,600.00 

This makes a total for maintenance of $3S,600 and a total for 
building purposes of $91,250. 

The $1,250 for the repair of the Pembroke Normal School was 
spent and the buildings were repaired that year. 



Normal Schools for Negroes and Indians 199 

In 1921 the Legislature made available the following appropria- 
tions for improvement and maintenance for Negro education: 

Building and equipment, four State Normal 

Schools $394,000 

Building and equipment, four State Normal 

Schools (balance 1917-1919 appro.).. 100,000 $494,000 

Maintenance, three State Normal Schools 

(annual) 75,000 

Division of Negro Education (annual) .... 15,000 

Teacher-training in private schools (an- 
nual) 15,000 

Teacher-training in summer schools (esti- 
mate annual) 20,000 

High School and vocational education (es- 
timate annual) 30,000 

Building and improvement, A. & T. College, 

Greensboro \ . 115,000 

Maintenance, A. & T. (annual) 30,000 

Building reformatory for Negro boys 25,000 

Maintenance of reformatory (annual).... 10,000 

Sanatorium for Negro tubercular patients 100,000 

Total $929,000 

The General Education Board in 1919 made a conditional offer 
of $20,000 to Elizabeth City Normal School for the purpose of build- 
ing a practice school in connection with the normal school. 

In recognition of valuable service rendered the community and 
the State by the Slater State Normal School in Winston-Salem, the 
citizens of that city, the General Education Board, and the State 
Legislature each gave $10,000, making a total of $30,000, in 1919 for 
the construction and equipment of an industrial and science building 
at that school. This building was completed early in 1921. 

In 1921 the Legislature made available the following appropria- 
tions for improvement and maintenance for the Indian Normal 
School: 

Maintenance (annual) 7,200 

Building and equipment $ 2,000 

Maintenance (annual) 8,200 

Building and equipment (Special Session) 75,000 

Total $84,200 

All of the property of these normal schools is held by the State 
Board of Education. 



200 State Educational Institutions 

FAYETTEVILLE COLORED NORMAL SCHOOL. 

E. E. Smith, Principal. 

J. W. Seahrook, Vice-Principal. 

Founded 1877 

Number of buildings 6 

Number of acres of land 42 

Value of buildings $ 210,000 

Value of land 15,000 

Value of furniture and equipment 40,000 

Number of students below seventh grade 118 

Number of students above seventh grade 412 

State appropriation (maintenance) $ 23,500 

State appropriation (buildings and improve- 
ments, used in new buildings $ 177,830 

ELIZABETH CITY COLORED NORMAL SCHOOL. 

P. W. Moore, Principal. 

J. H. Bias, Vice-Principal. 

Founded 1892 

Number of buildings 5 

Number of acres of land 41 

Value of buildings % 215,000 

Value of land $ 15,000 

Value of furniture and equipment $ 40,000 

Number of students below the seventh grade. . . . 277 

Number of students above seventh grade 271 

State appropriation (maintenance) $ 23,500 

State appropriation (building and improve- 
ments) used in new buildings $ 164,500 

SLATER INDUSTRIAL AND NORMAL SCHOOL AT 
WINSTON-SALEM. 

S. G. Atkins, Principal 

Founded 1895 

Number of acres of land 25 

Number of building 7 

Value of buildings $ 250,000 

Value of land $ 25,000 

Other property, including furniture and fixtures. .% 50,000 

Number of students below seventh grade 480 

Number of students above seventh grade 252 

State appropriation (maintenance) % 28,000 

State appropriation (buildings and improve- 
ments) (used in new buildings) § 177,830 



Normal Schools for Negroes and Indians 201 

INDIAN NORMAL SCHOOL AT PEMBROKE 
A. B. Riley, Principal. 

Founded 1S87 

Number of buildings 4 

Number of acres of land 10 

Value of buildings $ 90,000 

Value of land $ 7,500 

Number of students below seventh grade 196 

Number of students above seventh grade 96 

State appropriation (maintenance) $ 7,200 

Value of equipment $ 7,000 

SUPERINTENDENTS. 

Charles L. Coon 1904-1907 

John Duckett 1907-1908 

J. A. Bivens 1908-1913 

B. E. Sams 1913-1919 

A. T. Allen 1919-1921 

N. C. Newbold (Director) 1921- 

As will be seen from the foregoing statement, the three Negro 
State Normal Schools have had appropriations for building as fol- 
lows: 

1. General Assembly of 1917 $ 10,000 

2. General Assembly of 1919 90,000 

3. General Assembly of 1921 394,000 

which is approximately a half million dollars. A number of sub- 
stantial brick buildings have been built or are under construction for 
these schools. All the appropriation has been used except about 
$7,000, which will be spent in the next sixty days, when all the con- 
struction will be completed. 

The General Education Board gave $125,000 to purchase equipment 
for the three Negro Normal Schools, thus making it possible to use 
all the State's appropriations in actual construction of new build- 
ings. 

A splendid new brick building containing classrooms, auditorium, 
and office and library rooms is being constructed at Pembroke in 
Robeson County for the Cherokee Indians. The special session of 
the General Assembly in 1921 made an appropriation of $75,000 for 
this purpose. 



202 State Educational Institutions 

THE NEGRO AGRICULTURAL AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE 

James B. Dudley, President, Greensboro, N. C. 

Founded 1891 

Number of buildings • • 13 

Number of acres of land owned 130% 

Value of buildings and equipment $300,000 

Value of land 64,000 

Number of volumes in library . . 2,900 

Number of regular students (1922) 446 

Number of Summer School students (1922) 474 

Total number of students (1922) 920 

Number of faculty 25 

Income from State Appropriation $30,000 

Income from Federal Appropriation $ 16,500 

PRESIDENTS 

John O. Crosby 1892-1896 

James B. Dudley 1896- 

The Negro Agricultural and Technical College is located at Greens- 
boro. Its charter was granted March 9, 1891; the first building was 
completed in 1893, and the school opened in the fall of the same year. 
The citizens of Greensboro donated fourteen acres of land and $11,000 
to be used in the construction of buildings. In 1893 the General 
Assembly supplemented this gift with an appropriation of $11,000. 

The financial support of the college comes from the United States 
Government under an act of Congress known as the Morrill Act, 
passed August 2, 1890; and from the State of North Carolina, which 
makes appropriations for maintenance and improvements. 

The management of the institution and the care of its property 
is vested in a board of trustees, consisting of fifteen members. 
The trustees, by an act of the Legislature, have power to elect the 
president, teachers, and as many other officers and servants as they 
think necessary. 

This institution has six brick buildings, one brick-veneered build- 
ing, three barns, a small dairy building, two greenhouses, a broom 
shop, a blacksmith shop, a poultry plant, and a few smaller buildings. 

The college confines its courses of study entirely to agricultural 
and mechanical education. No purely academic courses are offered. 

The Agricultural Department of this institution is one of the best 
to be found in any Negro school in the country. 

Its aim is to train practical farmers and teachers of agriculture. 
It offers four courses. 



Normal Schools for Negroes and Indians 203 

1. A four-year course for those who want a well-rounded agricul- 
tural education combined with technical and practical training. 

2. A two-year course for those who have little time to spend in 
school and want to get only such information as bears directly on 
their chosen vocation. 

3. A winter short-course for farm boys who are unable to get into 
school until after harvesting their crop, and who must leave before 
the close of school in order to prepare for another crop. 

4. A one-week course for farmers and others who can spend only 
a limited time away from their business. 

Throughout the State and the South may be seen the splendid work 
of the men who have completed these courses. Some of the finest farms 
in the State are managed by its graduates, and the leading Negro 
institutions seek them as teachers of agriculture. The Farm Demon- 
stration work in this State is, to a large extent, being done by the 
graduates of this department. 

Through farmers' meetings and short courses this department is 
endeavoring to stimulate the Negro farmers in every section of the 
State. A vocational course for training teachers of agriculture 
was established by the Smith-Hughes Fund in 1917. The object 
of this department is to prepare agricultural teachers for the 
Rural High Schools in this State. 

The work of the Agricultural Department is greatly handicapped 
because of the lack of sufficient equipment and teachers. 

The courses in the Mechanical Arts Department are designed 
to give the student a thorough knowledge of the trades offered in 
this department. Aside from the technical skill of his particular 
trade, the student is given a course in Mechanical Drawing and a 
working knowledge of at least two kindred trades. Students and 
graduates of this department are leading useful and thrifty lives in 
this and other Sates as carpenters, bricklayers, auto mechanics, 
machinists, plumbers, electricians, broom and mattress makers, 
blacksmiths, architects, contractors, and teachers. 

Any person of suitable age and character who desires a trade 
is admitted as a special student regardless of entrance requirements. 

Some indications of the usefulness of the college may be sug- 
gested by the scope and character of its work. Ever since this in- 
stitution was established, it has been the open door of industrial 



204 State Educational Institutions 

opportunity for the Negro boys of this State. It has added to the in- 
dustrial resources of the State more than 600 trained workers who 
have taught the lessons of patriotism, thrift, and right living to 
more than a hundred thousand Negro men, women, and children 
in this State. 

It is hoped that the General Assembly will see its way clear to 
give this institution an appropriation sufficiently adequate to meet 
its growing demands, and to enable it to take first rank among the 
Negro land-grant colleges of this country. 



THE CASWELL TRAINING SCHOOL. 

C. Banks McNairt, M. D., Superintendent, Kinston. 

The Caswell Training School (The North Carolina School for the 
Feebleminded) was established by the Legislature in 1911. Dr. 
Ira M. Hardy, who with other notable and progressive leaders worked 
so faithfully in teaching the urgent need of such an institution, was 
superintendent during the construction of the first main buildings. 

On July 1, 1914, the institution was opened and 15 girls received. 
Since then there have been 519 admissions. At the close of the last 
biennial period, June 30th, 1922, we had present 274 children. The 
present population is 322. 

The Legislature of 1919, appreciating the necessity for the ex- 
pansion of this work, appropriated the sum of $300,000.00 for re- 
building and enlarging the institution. The Legislature of 1921, 
appreciating the said program, appropriated $240,000.00 for perma- 
nent improvements and furnishing with which we have completed 
and furnished buildings sufficient to accommodate 400 children. 
Said buildings were sufficiently completed to be dedicated April 13, 
1922. However, we were able to take only 300 children for lack 
of maintenance. 

The purpose of the institution as it relates to the children them- 
selves is identical with that of the home, the school and the com- 
munity; to establish wholesome conditions in which they may find 
their fullest happiness, and to train and educate to the extent of 
their mental ability and to throw around them such protection and 
safeguards as will prevent them from being overcome by the things 



Caswell Training School 205 

they are unable to meet, and also, prevent them, as far as possible, 
from being a burden or nuisance to those by whom they are sur- 
rounded. Then the institution goes further and seeks to educate the 
people to the alarming increase of the number of this class and to 
initiate methods cutting off this increase and thus saving our 
homes, our communities and our State from the ever present burden 
and responsibility of the care of these whom all admit are a heavy 
liability to any community. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1911 

Number of buildings 11 

Old buildings of brick construction: Adminis- 
tration building, 1 dormitory, laundry. New 
buildings of fire-proof construction: 3 2-story 
dormitories, dining hall and school building, 
kitchen and refrigerating plant, smoke house, 
power house, potato house. 

Number of acres of land 950 

Value of buildings and equipment $550,000 

Value of land $ 40,000 

Number of pupils 322 

Number of employees 50 

Income from State (maintenance 1921-22) $160,000 

SUPERINTENDENTS. 

Dr. Ira M. Hardy 1911-1913 

Dr. C. Banks McNairy 1914-1922 



PART VI. 



STATE CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS. 



1. State Hospital at Raleigh. 

2. State Hospital at Morganton. 

3. State Hospital at Goldsboro. 

4. North Carolina Sanatorium for the Treatment of 

Tuberculosis. 

5. North Carolina State Orthopaedic Hospital 

School. 

(3. Oxford Orphanage for White Children. 

7. North Carolina Orphanage for the Colored Race. 

8. The Soldiers' Home. 

9. Confederate Woman's Home. 



207 1 



STATE HOSPITAL AT RALEIGH. 

Aleert Anderson, M.D. Superintendent. 

To Raleigh there came in 1S48 Miss Dorothea Lynde Dix, who two 
years later was to be termed in a letter to her from Millard Fillmore, 
President of the United States, "the most distinguished and useful 
woman America has yet produced." Her mission was one of the 
noblest ever undertaken by a mortal — the care of the insane, and 
she brought about the establishment of asylums for them in 
more than thirty States. She was literally the mother of the State 
Hospital at Raleigh, the first in North Carolina. 

Her first effort to induce the Legislature to make an appropriation 
was defeated, but Providence showed her a way to win success. A 
member of the House was James C. Dobbin of Fayetteville, and his 
wife became seriously ill at a hotel at Raleigh. By day and night 
Miss Dix was by her bedside, a trained and devoted nurse. On her 
death-bed Mrs. Dobbin expressed gratitude for the tender and loving 
care given her and almost with her dying breath urged her husband 
to repay her debt of appreciation by making another effort to pass 
the bill. From her graveside he went to the House and there made 
a speech so impressive and so touching that opposition disappeared 
and the bill to establish the North Carolina Asylum for the Insane 
passed by an overwhelming vote, 101 yeas to 10 nays. 

The first appropriation was made in 1849, but the work of construc- 
tion did not begin until May, 1850. The site, a noble and commanding 
one, had been chosen by Miss Dix at the request of the Legislature 
and is named for her "Dix Hill." The plan of the main building 
was of the finest type then conceived and it stands today a fine ex- 
ample of the best thought of seventy-two years ago; a central struc- 
ture 186 by 80 feet, with two wings each 325 by 40 feet, with accom- 
modations for 224 patients. The first superintendent of construction 
was Dr. Edward Strudwick, of Hillsboro, who was chosen by the 
asylum commission created by the Legislature as a "competent medi- 
cal superintendent." He consented to accept the duties temporarily, 
until his place could be filled. September 16th the commission (or 
trustees) appointed Dr. Edward C. Fisher, of Richmond, Va., who had 

14 [20j! 



210 State Chabitable Institutions 

had experience in such an asylum at Staunton, Va., and he entered 
on the duty October 1st. 

The report of the superintendent from February 22nd to October 
31st, 1856, showed that during that period 59 males and 31 females, 
a total of 90, had been admitted, and that 80 remained, 4 having 
recovered and 3 improved greatly. The report also showed that the 
amount expended in building the asylum was $184,938, and that the 
incidental expenditure totaled $60,606. 

Superintendent Fisher paid a tribute to the noble founder of the 
Asylum, Miss Dix, an oil portrait of her having been made for the 
State and placed in the reception-room. He said: "Unwilling as she 
is to receive a public recognition of thanks and enjoying a world- 
wide reputation for her action and philanthropic efforts to relieve 
the sorrow and suffering of the distressed, we deem this a suitable 
occasion to present this humble, but not less sincerely felt, tribute 
to her heroic and untiring efforcs in originating and prosecuting 
with success the law establishing and building the North Carolina 
Insane Asylum." No honor was too great for North Carolina to 
give her. She visited this asylum frequently and was greeted always 
by the deep respect, love and admiration of the Governor, the Legis- 
lature and the people. 

Dr. Fisher said in his report of September 30th, 1865, "the circum- 
stances surrounding the management of the Asylum have been both 
novel and peculiar but have at least been manfully met." He stated 
further that "in the past four months there have been received 
eight colored patients, 6 males and 2 females, admitted by military 
authority. There was no arrangement of the building designed for 
this class of unfortunates, hence there was no other alternative but 
to place them in the same apartments in common with the whites. 
The question arises as to what extent shall the apartments be applied 
to the use of the colored insane? It may be reasonably expected 
that a part of this building will be called into requisition for their 
accommodation and common justice seems to require that for their 
maintenance a tax should be levied upon the colored people of the 
State, as the present financial status utterly precludes the least hope 
of a separate or distinct building being erected for them." It is of 
interest to know that North Carolina, 25 years after this statement, 
namely, in 1880, made this provision for a State hospital at Goldsboro. 



State Hospital at Raleigh 211 

During the ten years between February 22nd, 1866, and the found- 
ing in 1856, there had been in the Asylum 693 immates; no serious 
accident or misfortune befell any one of these and 172 had been 
discharged as restored. July 7th, 1868, Dr. Eugene Grissom became 
superintendent of the Asylum and found 216 inmates, who filled it 
to capacity, and there were 250 applications for admission. 

His first report says that the garden supplied the Asylum and also 
furnished vegetables to the Deaf-Mute Asylum. The improvement 
and adornment of the grounds was placed under the direction of 
Capt C. B. Denson of Pittsboro. Through the years many newspapers 
had been sent by their editors as a gift, and pictures and books were 
also freely given. 

The State was divided by a line north and r.outh along the west- 
ern boundaries of Rockingham, Guilford, Randolph, Montgomery and 
Richmond counties. Those west of the line were to be sent to the 
State Hospital at Morganton. 

In 1889 Dr. William R. Wood succeeded Dr. Grissom as Superin- 
tendent, September 12th, and he reported 240 beds in the Asylum. 
He reported a general average of 8 insane to a county outside the 
Asylum, a total of 816, of whom 37 per cent were in poorhouses, 5 
per cent in jails and 57 per cent "unprovided for by any known 
responsible authority." 

Fireproof towers, fire escapes, were installed in 1892. In March, 
1894, Dr. Wood resigned and Dr. Geo. L. Kirby became superintend- 
ent. Dr. Francis. T. Fuller, after 38 years Of constant and devoted 
service as assistant superintendent, died, September 14th. A new 
building containing a congregate dining room and dormitories for 
75 female patients was occupied. The school for nurses was estab- 
lished in 1895. In 1897 there were 425 patients, costing $140.00 each 
for maintenance. Dr. James McKee became Superintendent in 1902. 

The State Hospital Commission, in 1908, bought 1,139 acres of ad- 
joining land for $53,500. The land area had up to this purchase been 
far too limited and this addition gave opportunity for growth on 
a great scale and so marks a most important period in the life of 
what had become the State Hospital at Raleigh. On this land were 
built two colonies for epileptics. A colony building for convalescing 
male insane and an annex to the male insane department were built 
and work was begun on a female colony building, named the Erwin 



212 State Charitable Institutions 

Building. The water supply began to be received from the Raleigh 
mains. In 1910 the two epileptic colonies and one male insane colony 
were opened; the epileptic ones with capacity for 192 patients. Dr. 
L. J. Picot became Superintendent in 1912, upon the death of Dr. 
AIcKee. 

Dr. Albert Anderson became Superintendent in 1913. He instituted 
vocational training for the patients, with great success, a highly 
trained expert directing the work. A careful survey disclosed 
some male and female patients with tuberculosis and these were at 
once placed in a special building for this disease. A complete medi- 
cal laboratory was installed and a training school for nurses put in 
operation. A spacious greenhouse was added to the equipment; 
mechanical stokers were installed in the boiler house, effecting a 
great saving of coal and doing away with the smoke. The po'icy 
was adopted of bringing the medical profession into close touch with 
the Hospital and of having clinics. The number of patients November 
30th, 1914, was 994, of whom 531 were females, 463 males; the total 
number admitted from the opening of the institution in 1856 being 
6,830. In the Epileptic Department there were 204, of whom 123 
were males and 81 females. 

In 1915 a dental department was inaugurated, and also a Mental 
Hygiene campaign in the eastern half of the State. A Nurses' Home 
was built and a Receiving Building for female patients. In 1918 an 
epidemic of influenza caused the death of two employes and 18 
patients. 

The boiler capacity was increased, at a cost of $90,000. 

In 1919, 49 patients were transferred to this Hospital from the Gas- 
well Training School at Kinston, because of a fire at the latter. All 
the patients were immunized against typhoid. A new kitchen, cost- 
ing $100,000 and the best in any institution of this kind, was built 
with a capacity to serve 2,000 persons. The laundry was burned, 
but was quickly rebuilt with double its former capacity. 

Tuberculosis caused the slaughter of the herd of cattle, and a new 
herd was purchased. 

During the last year, August, 1921 to July, 1922, there has been 
spent $765,000. Two large dining rooms, each holding more than 
t00 patients, for serving meals, with connecting corridors, bringing 
All patients into the male and female dining rooms, have been built 
on either side and connected with kitchen at a cost of about $200,000. 



State Hospital at Moegantown 213 

The barnyard equipment lias been moved from the old site to near 
the middle of the farm with the most modern and convenient build- 
ings, consisting of hay barn — 400-ton capacity; 40-stall mule barn; 
a large implement shed 204 feet by 40 feet; eight cottages for colored 
laborers; and a cottage for a white man who is feeder and caretaker 
of this group of farm buildings. A new dairy barn with individual 
drinking cups with capacity of 85; a modern bullpen holding four 
bulls; and calf barn equipped like the dairy, sufficiently large to hold 
forty to fifty calves. All the room made by our new buildings will 
accommodate about 600 patients. 



STATE HOSPITAL AT MORGANTON. 

John McCampbell, M.D., Superintendent. 

The appropriation for maintenance for the past two years was 
$425,000 annually. This amount under the present standard of care 
proved sufficient with a balance left over at the end of the period. 
We have requested through the medium of our budget an annual 
appropriation of $454,000 for the next two years. This amount, calcu- 
lated upon the present rate of expenditures, will care for 300 addi- 
tional patients. 

We are requesting by way of permanent improvement an appro- 
priation of $215,000 for the purpose of building a new power house 
and installing necessary mechanical equipment. This request is 
made after a careful survey of engineers and upon their recommenda- 
tion. We are also asking for $200,000 for the purpose of building two 
buildings, one for men and one for women, providing additional 
capacity. At the present rate of application for admission these wil' 
be needed before they can be supplied. 

SUMMARY. 

Institution founded 1875 

Number of buildings ' 17 

Number of acres of land 1,130 

Number of inmates 1,450 

Number of attendants 100 

Annual appropriation $425,000 

SUPERINTENDENTS. 

Dr. P. L. Murphy 1882-1907 

Dr. John McCampbell 1907- 



214 State Charitable Institutions 

STATE HOSPITAL AT GOLBSBORO. 

"W. W. Faison, M.D., Superintendent, Goldsboro, N. C. 
This institution was opened for reception of patients August 1st, 
1880. The number of patients received since its beginning is 7,059. 
Number discharged, 5,93S. Number of patients remaining on roll, 
1,116. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1880 

Number of buildings 13 

Number of acres of land 725 

Value of buildings and equipment $1,000,000.00 

Value of land $ 100,000.00 

Number of inmates 1,116 

Number of attendants 52 

State Appropriation for 1921 and 1922 $ 740,000.00 

SUPERINTENDENTS. 

W. H. Moore 1880-18S2 

J. D. Roberts 1S82-1888 

J. F. Miller 1888-1906 

W. W. Faison 1906- 



>0RTH CAROLINA SANATORIUM FOR TREATMENT OF 

TUBERCULOSIS. 

L. B. McBrayer. M.D., F.A.C.P., Superintendent, Sanatorium, X. C. 

The North Carolina Sanatorium for Treatment of Tuberculosis 
was established by an act of the General Assembly in 1907, which 
appropriated for the purpose $15,000 for construction and $5,000 
for annual maintenance. 

summary. 

Number of buildings 30 

Value of buildings $512,015.68 

Number of acres of land 1,200 

Value of land $ 54,750.00 

Number of patients 190 

Appropriations 1921 and 1922: 

Permanent improvements $330,000.00 

Maintenance, 1921 85,000.00 

Maintenance, 1922 S5,000.00 

Extension, 1921 15,000.00 

Extension, 1922 15,000.00 



North Carolina Orthopedic Hospital 215 

superintendents. 

J. E. Brooks, M. D 1907-1912 

M. E. Street, M. D 1912-1914 

L. B. McBrayer, M. D., F. A. C. P 1914- 



SORTH CAROLINA ORTHOPAEDIC HOSPITAL. 

Robert B. Babington, Founder and President, Gastonia, N. C. 

The North Carolina Orthopaedic Hospital, Gastonia, N. C, 
was founded in 1909, was chartered in 1314, was created a State 
institution by the General Assembly of 1917, was erected to God in 
1920-21 for the scientific treatment and healing of crippled children of 
sound mind. The institution was dedicated August 18th, 1921, and 
was opened for the reception of little crippled children July 1st, 1921. 

The General Assembly of 1917 and of 1919 appropriated $20,000.00 
each session for permanent improvements, making $40,000.00 to the 
building fund. The above General Assembly appropriated $7,500.00 
for maintenance fund. However, the institution was not operating, 
on account of not having sufficient funds to be built. Therefore, 
none of the money appropriated for maintenance was used. 

The completion and opening of the North Carolina Orthopaedic 
Hospital, July 1st, 1921, supplies the State of North Carolina with 
one of the most needed charities of the day, and one of the few such 
State institutions in the United States. 

The aim and purpose of the institution is to scientifically treat, 
heal and teach all crippled and deformed children of sound mind of 
North Carolina, and especially the orphaned, poor and neglected 
ones. 

The institution is located in Gaston County on a 28.5 acre tract 
of land, two miles east of Gastonia on the New Hope asphalt road, 
beautifully situated on a high elevation of more than 1,000 feet. The 
land is well watered, with beautiful groves on it. 

The main buildings, where the children live are fireproof and 
beautiful in architectural design. 

The institution is under the management of a board of nine trus- 
tees, appointed from time to time by the Governor, of which the 
Governor is ex officio Chairman. 



216 State Charitable Institutions 



SUMMARY. 

Founded ' 1909 

Chartered 1914 

Created a State institution 1917 

Number of acres of land 28.5 

Value of land $ 28.500.00 

Value of buildings, improvements and equipment 200,000.00 



OXFORD ORPHANAGE. 

R. L. Brown, Superintendent, Oxford. 

In the year 1872 the Oxford Orphan Asylum was established by 

the Grand Lodge of Ancient, Free and Accepted Order of Masons 

of North Carolina. 

It was the first institution of its character established in the 
State and one of the first in the South. 

This property was originally the old St. John's College, and was 
established in 1855 by the Grand Lodge of North Carolina for edu- 
cational purposes. After being tried for a number of years and 
proving a failure financially, the Grand Lodge in 1S72 decided to 
turn the property into a home for the orphan children of the State. 

This was accomplished largely through the instrumentality of 
John H. Mills, who offered the resolution at the meeting of the 
Grand Lodge, and worked for its adoption without very great en- 
couragement. It was, therefore, quite fitting that he should have 
been chosen to be the first superintendent of the Orphanage. 

This action of the Grand Lodge brought into existence the first 
orphanage in North Carolina. 

The purpose of the institution is to provide a temporary home 
and training school for the homeless boys and girls of the State. 

The conditions of admission of the white children of North Caro- 
lina are: That they are really destitute and homeless; that they are 
of sound mind and body; and they are not over twelve years of age. 

The benefits of Oxford Orphan Asylum have never been restricted 
to the children of Masons alone. Only about 25 per cent of its chil- 
dren had fathers who were Masons. 

Three thousand four hundred and twenty-two children have re- 
ceived the care and training of the institution since 1872 to October 
31, 1922. 



Oxford Orphanage 217 

The institution is providing the necessities of life for these chil- 
dren, the opportunity to acquire an English education, industrial 
training in cottages, kitchen, sewing room, domestic science, laundry, 
Shoe shop, printing office, telegraphy and typewriting, woodworking 
shop, dairy, and on farm. Each child is in school at least the half 
of each school day during the school term of nine and a half months. 
Moral and religious instruction is prominent in the work. 

In recognition of the services of the Oxford Orphan Asylum, its 
value to our Commonwealth in its work, the State of North Carolina 
appropriates $30,000 annually to aid in its maintenance and ex- 
tension. 

Annually a report of the operations of the institution is made to 
the Governor of the State and to the State Board of Public Charities, 
and to the Grand Lodge. 

At the request of the Grand Lodge of Masons, the State of North 
Carolina is represented by three members on the board of directors of 
the Orphanage. These are appointed by the Governor of the State. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1872 

Number of acres of land 242 

Number of buildings 28 

Value of land, buildings, and equipment $500,000.00 

Number of volumes in library 1,800 

Number of children in institution (Nov. 1, 1922) 378 

Number of officers and teachers 44 

Annual income (State appropriation) $ 30,000.00 

Annual income (other sources) 114,263.36 

SUPERINTENDENTS. 

J. H. Mills 1S72-18S2 

B. F. Dixon 1883-1890 

Julius T. Harris (Sept. 1-Nov. 21) -1890 

B. F. Dixon (Nov. 21-Dec. 31) -1890 

W. S. Black 1891-1894 

N. M. Lawrence 1894-1898 

W. J. Hicks 1898-1911 

R. L. Brown 1911- 



218 State Charitable Institutions 

NORTH CAROLINA ORPHANAGE FOR THE COLORED RACE. 

Henry P. Cheatham, Super hit en (lent, Oxford, N. C. 

The North Carolina Orphanage for the Colored Race was founded 
in 1SS3 as the result of the joint efforts of Rev. Augustus Shepard, 
then pastor of the colored Baptist Church in Henderson, and Henry 
P. Cheatham, then a teacher in the Henderson public schools. Their 
plans contemplated the establishment of an orphanage in North 
Carolina for the fatherless and homeless children of the colored race 
without regard to religious sects. Calling together certain leaders 
of the colored race, they laid their plans before them. The plans 
were adopted, a board of directors elected, and a site purchased for 
the orphanage about a mile and a half south of the town of Oxford. 
Upon this site were two old and dilapidated buildings, which were 
repaired and put into immediate use. During the first ten years of 
its existence the Orphanage was entirely dependent upon the 
churches, Sunday schools, and sympathetic individuals for support, 
together with what the children could earn by cultivating the six 
acres of land then belonging to the Orphanage. In 1892 the Grand 
Lodge of Masons of North Carolina adopted a provision allowing the 
Orphanage annually ten per cent of its gross receipts, and in 1893 
the General Assembly began to make a small annual appropriation, 
which now amounts to $10,000. 



SUMMARY. 

Founded 1883 

Number of buildings 10 

Number of acres of land 234 

Value of land, buildings and equipment $60,000 

Number of children in institution 185 

Number of officers, teachers and helpers 9 

Annual appropriation from State $10,000 

Other sources (for 1918) 4,578 

Annual per capita cost 112 

superintendents. 

Rev. Joshua Perry 1883-1884 

Miss Bessie Hackixs 1884- 

Rev. Walter A. Patillo 1SS6-1SS7 

Rev. Robert Shepherd 1S87-1907 

Henry P. Cheatham 1907- 



Soldiers' Home 219 

SOLDIERS' HOME. 

J. A. Wiggs, Superintendent. 

So far as can be ascertained from the records on file in the office 
of the Soldiers' Home, a home for indigent Confederate soldiers was 
first established in a rented house at the corner of Polk and Blood- 
worth streets, in the city of Raleigh, and declared to be opened on 
October 15, 1S90, with five inmates. W. C. Stronach, under the aus- 
pices of the Daughters of the Confederacy, acted as superintendent 
and looked after the personal comforts of the men. 

The General Assembly of 1S91, chapter 60, Private Laws, incor- 
porated Gen. Robert F. Hoke, Col. William L. Saunders, Col. A. B. 
Andrews, Capt. S. A. Ashe, Gen Rufus Barringer, Gen. A. M. Scales, 
Gen. Robert B. Vance, Gen. Thomas Clingman, Gen. W. P. Roberts, 
Gen. Julian S. Carr, Capt. Thomas J. Jarvis, Col. W. P. Wood, Gen. 
Matt. W. Ransom and other members of the Confederate Veterans' 
Association, under the name and style of "The Soldiers' Home Asso- 
ciation," and conferred upon this association the usual corporate 
powers. The act gave to the Soldiers' Home Association a tract of 
land near the eastern section of the city of Raleigh, known as Camp 
Russell, to be used for the purpose of a soldiers' home, and, if it 
should cease to be so used, to revert to and belong to the State. The 
same act appropriated $3,000 for the maintenance of the Soldiers' 
Home and the support of its inmates. Section 6 of the act is as 
follows: 

"The directors shall cause to be kept a minute-book of the Home, 
in which full entries shall be kept concerning memorable incidents 
in the lives of its inmates. They shall also take steps to form a 
museum of Confederate relics and to perpetuate such historical 
records of the Confederate soldiers of North Carolina as they shall 
find it practicable to do." 

The act was ratified February 14, 1901. 

On April 27, 1S91, the number of inmates of the Soldiers' Home 
having increased to nine, they were removed to an old building at 
Camp Russell which had been fitted up for the purposes of the Home. 
Miss Mary Williams was appointed matron, and served in that ca- 
pacity until February 15, 1893, when Capt. J. H. Fuller was made 
resident superintendent. On February 1, 1898, Superintendent 



220 State Charitable Institutions 

Fuller resigned. Feebleness of age and the increase in number of 
inmates had made the duties too arduous for one of his strength. 

Capt. R. H. Brooks was elected to succeed Captain Fuller, and 
served until his death on June 14, 1910. The number of inmates 
continued to increase during his term, and the necessity for new and 
larger buildings became urgent. A dormitory was built to accommo- 
date 70 inmates, and furnished by liberal donations from the Daugh- 
ters of the Confederacy and others. A large hospital was built, 
medical attention given, nurses employed, water, sewerage, and elec- 
tric lights provided, and the grounds made attractive. Such heavy 
expenses exceeded the appropriation made by the State, and at the 
close of Captain Brooks' term the books showed the Home to be in 
arrears to the extent of $6,000; but all felt confident that the Legis- 
lature would provide for the deficiency. 

Capt. W. S. Lineberry was elected to succeed Captain Brooks, and 
entered upon his duties July 20, 1910. 

Colonel D. H. Milton, who was elected to succeed Capt. W. S. Line- 
berry, September 26, 1916, took charge October 1, 1916. Colonel 
Milton resigned October 1, 1920, and was succeeded by J. A. Wiggs. 

An appropriation of $35,000 was made by the Legislature of 1915 
for the support of the Home. The Home is now out of debt; the 
buildings bright with new paint; the grounds ornamented with trees 
and shrubbery, and walks clean. The comrades are, as a rule, 
contented. The fare is good, the rooms comfortable, the regulations 
reasonable, and an air of cheerfulness pervades. Ail this v .as come 
from the humble beginning of October, 1890. 

SUMMARY. 

Founded 1890 

Number of comrades received since its founding. . 1,373 

Number received since last report 63 

Number of comrades died since its founding 682 

Number died since last report 66 

Number of comrades in the Home, December 1, 1922 111 

SUPERINTENDENTS. 

Miss Mary Williams 1891-1893 

Capt. J. H. Fuller 1893-189S 

Capt. R. H. Brooks 1898-1910 

Capt. W. S. Lineberry 1910-1916 

Col. D. H. Milton 1916-1920 

J. A. Wigg 1920- 



The Confederate Woman's Home 221 

THE CONFEDERATE WOMAN'S HOME. 

Miss N. W. Williams, Superintendent, Fayette ville. 

The Confederate Woman's Home of North Carolina was estab- 
lished by chapter 62 of the Public Laws of 1913. The act incorpor- 
ated the Confederate Woman's Home Association, with Julian S. 
Carr, John, H. Thorpe, Robert H. Ricks, Robert H. Bradley, E. R. 
Preston, Simon B. Taylor, Joseph B. Spainhour, A. D. McGill, M. 
Leslie Davis, T. T. Thorne, and W. A. Grier, as incorporators. The 
object of the Association was "to establish, maintain, and govern 
a home for deserving, needy and dependent wives and widows of 
North Carolina Confederate soldiers, and other worthy dependent 
women of the Confederacy who are bona fide residents of this State." 
Ample power for carrying out thi's purpose was conferred by the 
act upon the Association. The act authorized the Governor to 
appoint a board of directors of seven members who should be the 
governing board of the institution. The board appointed by the 
Governor consisted of J. A. Turner, James A. Bryan, W. H. Bahnson, 
Haywood Parker, A. G. McGill and Ashley Home. Upon the death 
of Colonel Home, the Governor appointed T. T. Thorne to the 
vacancy. An advisory board of women managers was established to 
assist the board of directors in the equipment and management of 
the Home. The State appropriates $10,000 annually for its main- 
tenance. 

DIRECTORS 

J. A. Bryan. Chairman New Bern, N. C. 

Geo. M. Rose, Yice-Chairman Fayetteville, N. C. 

W. H. White Oxford, N. C. 

T. T. Thorne Rocky Mount, N. C. 

J. S. Carr Durham, N. C. 

J. W. McLaughlin Raeford, N. C. 

E. R. McKeithan Fayetteville, N. C. 

advisory board 
Mrs. Hunter Smith Mrs. Harlee Townsend 
Mrs. Felix Harvey Mrs. W. 0. Winstead 
Mrs. T. B. Reynolds Mrs. B. H. Griffin- 
Mrs. R. E. Little Mrs. Herbert McCulleus 
Mrs. McKeithan Mrs. T. W. Thrash 
Mrs. T. W. Bickett Mrs. Marshall William;. 



PART VII. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



1. The Xorth Carolina Railroad Company. 

2. The Atlantic and JSTorth Carolina Railroad 

Company. 

3. The ISTorth Carolina Agricultural Society. 

4. North Carolina State Capitol. 

5. State Administration Building. 

6. North Carolina Day. 

7. Legal Holidays in North Carolina. 

8. State Flag. 

9. The Great Seal. 

10. State Motto and Its Origin. 

11. The Confederate Museum at Richmond. 



1223 



THE AORTH CAROLINA RAILROAD COMPANY.* 

A. H. Ellee, Secretary and Treasurer-^ 

The greatest of all enterprises so far attempted by the State of 
forth Carolina in the nature of a public or internal improvement 
as the building of the North Carolina Railroad from Goldsboro by 
ay of Raleigh, Greensboro and Salisbury, to Charlotte. 

Considering the experimental state of railroading at that time, the 
read of public or private indebtedness, and the limited resources, 
le movement was a monumental enterprise — and one in advance of 
nything attempted by almost any other State in the Union. The 
access, however, which has crowned the labors and sacrifices of our 
ithers has established beyond all question that their wisdom was 
mal to, or superior to, any displayed before or since their day. 

In 1833 the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad Company and the Wil- 
lington and Raleigh, afterwards known as the Wilmington and Wel- 
an Railroad Company, were chartered, and later these roads were 
nilt. In 1848 the former was in the hands of the State, and was in 

bankrupt condition for the want of patronage. It was necessary 
) give it some connection, or to extend it. At the session of Novem- 
3r, 1848, the western counties urged a charter for a road from 
harlotte to Danville, asking no State aid; but the eastern members 
pposed that project. The finances of the State were in such an 
impoverished condition that it was generally deemed impracticable 
>r the State to give any considerable aid to any railroad; but Wil- 
am S. Ashe, the Democratic Senator from New Hanover, intro- 
nced a bill to construct a road from Goldsboro to Charlotte, under 
le name of the North Carolina Railroad, and appropriating two mil 
ons of dollars for that purpose, on condition, however, that private 
irties would subscribe one million, and to secure the payment of 
le State bonds, when issued, a lien was given on the State's stock. 

When the western men brought up the Charlotte and Danville bill 
l the House, Stanley and other eastern men opposed it so bitt rly 



* This article is brought forward from the MANUAL of 191:!. The editor 
grets that he has been unable to secure from the present secretary of the 
my a revised statement bringing it up to date. 

t The writer acknowledges his indebtedness to Capt. S. A. Ashe for his 
storieal data contained in this sketch. 

15 [225] 



226 Miscellaneous 

that it could not pass, and then in a dramatic scene, the friends of 
internal improvement agreed to send to the Senate and take the 
Ashe hill from the files and offer it as a substitute. After a great 
and prolonged struggle the bill passed the House of Commons. In 
the Senate it failed by an adverse majority of one; but the Senator 
from Cumberland was led to support it by passing the bill for the 
State to build the plank road from Payetteville to Salem; and then 
the vote in the Senate was a tie. Speaker Graves, who had up to 
that moment maintained an impenetrable silence as to the measure, 
broke the tie in favor of building the road by State aid; and the 
:sure was passed. Speaker Graves was never again elected to 
any office by the vote of his people. 

To secure the needed one million of private stock, Speaker Graves, 
Governor forehead and Mr. William Boylan made great exertions, 
and by their efforts, aided by Joseph Caldwell, Governor W. A. Gra- 
ham, Paul C. Cameron and others, the necessary stock was eventu- 
ally raised. On January 29, 1856, the railroad was ready for passage 
of trains from Goldsboro to Charlotte, and charters had been granted 
for two other roads — from Goldsboro to Morehead City and from 
Salisbury to the Tennessee line. 

By act ratified 14th of February, 1855, the General Assembly in- 
creased the capital stock to $4,000,000, and subscribed for the State 
the whole of the added capital. From that time till now the State 
has owned three-fourths and individuals one-fourth of this road. 

The first president of the company was Governor John M. More- 
head, to whom so much was due for securing the subscription of the 
private stock, and under his direction the road was constructed. His 
successors were Charles F. Fisher, of Rowan; Paul C. Cameron, 
Josiah Turner, Jr., of Orange, and William A. Smith, of Johnston. 
During the administration of Mr. Smith the road was, on the 11th 
day of September, 1871, leased to the Richmond and Danville Rail- 
road Company for thirty years, at a rental of 6 per cent per annum. 
The subsequent presidents of the company have been: Thomas M. 
Holt, Lee S. Overman, S. B. Alexander, J. F. Kornegay, R. M. Nor- 
ment, J. L. Armstrong, H. G. Chatham, Charles M. Stedman and 
Benehan Cameron. 

On the 16th day of August, 1S95, in view of the approaching termi- 
nation of the lease, the property was leased to the Southern Railway 






North Carolina Railroad Company 227 

Company for a term of ninety-nine years at an annual rental of 
Gy 2 per cent for six years and 7 per cent for the remaining ninety- 
three years, and the stock of the company was selling at $186 per 
share until the panic of 1907. 

On the readjustment of the debt of the State, the State renewed 
the bonds issued for the purchase of the North Carolina Railroad 
stock, pledging the original lien on the stock for the payment of the 
debt. 

Col. Peter B. Ruffin for more than thirty years was the faithful 
and efficient secretary and treasurer of the company. 

The secretaries of the company in the order of their election and 
service are as follows: Cyrus P. Mendenhall, Julius B. Ramsey, R. 
M. Mills, F. A. Stagg, J. A. McCauley, W. F. Thornburg, P. B. Ruffin, 
H. B. Worth, Spencer B. Adams, D. H. McLean, A. H. Eller, J. P. 
Cock and R. B. White. 

The State, as is well known, has continued to own its $3,000,000 of 
the original capital stock, and has acquired two (2) additional 
shares, thus giving it 30,002 shares, at par value amounting to 
$3,000,200, which, however, at the recent market value aggregates 
$5,580,372. And it is confidently believed that if the State desired 
to part with a controlling interest in the company, its stock would 
command a much greater price, and those who have watched the 
constant advance in the price of this stock expect it to go to $200 
per share at an early day. 

Under the lease of 1871 to the Richmond and Danville Railroad 
Company, the company could not have claimed the betterments mad? 
by the lessee; but under the present lease the company is not only 
amply secured by bond for the prompt payment of its lease money 
and organization expenses, to-wit, $143,000, on the first clay of Janu- 
ary and July of each year, but upon the termination of said lease 
for any cause the company acquires the betterments made thereon. 

In addition to the railroad and rolling stock leased to the South- 
ern Railway Company, the company still owns valuable land in and 
about Company Shops, now known as the city of Burlington. 

When the board of directors appointed by Governor Aycock took 
charge of the company's affairs, there was a floating indebtedness of 
$10,000. The May balance, 1912, of the secretary and treasurer 
shows that said indebtedness has been paid and a special divi- 



228 MlS( ELLANEOT S 

dend of one-half of one per cent, amounting to $20,000, and the corn- 
puny lias to its credit in the bank the sum of $21,128.64, all of which, 
except a small balance, is drawing 4 per cent interest. Again, on 
August 1, 1912, an extra one-half of one per cent dividend, amounting 
to $20,000, was paid. Promptly upon the payment of the lease 
money on the first of January and July in each year, the directors 
declare a dividend, and the secretary and treasurer pay to the State 
Treasurer immediately $105,000, and a like dividend is paid to the 
private stockholders on the first day of February and August of each 
year. The present board of directors, as appointed by Governor 
Kitchin on the part of the State, are given below. The State's 
proxy is Jo. M. Reese; the expert is John W. Thompson, and the 
company's attorney is Prank R. McNinch.* 

A true sketch of this company would be incomplete without calling 
attention to the long and invaluable services of Gen. R. P. Hoke as 
director. His experience and great knowledge of affairs, and life- 
long devotion to the best interest of the company, entitle him to the 
gratitude of the State, as well as the private stockholders. His 
death on July 3, 1912, was deeply and universally lamented. 

The question is sometimes asked why the organization of the 
North Carolina Railroad Company is kept up, and what particular 
functions it performs. 

This company, as some people think, does not belong to the State 
of North Carolina. It is a quasi-public corporation like all other 
railroad companies, in which the State owns three-fourths of the 
stock. It is managed practically as any private corporation would 
be managed, the principal difference being that the Governor has 
the appointment of eight of the directors, while the private stock- 
holders have the election of four of the directors. 

The organization is maintained for the purpose of enforcing the 
terms of the lease to the Southern Railway Company, and, in case 
of the termination of that lease for any cause, to resume the opera- 
tion of the road. 

It is required to see that the bonds given for the prompt payment 
of the rent, and also the bond to maintain the rolling stock in good 
condition, are kept in force. It receives the rent money of $280,000 
per year, payable semi-annually, and declares a dividend and pays 



* Tins article was written in 1912. 



Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad Company 229 

the same to the stockholders of record. It transfers stock like other 
corporations. 

In leasing its property to the Southern Railway Company it re- 
served its office building, which is the residence of the secretary and 
treasurer, containing its vault and records, at Burlington, N. C. It 
owns certain real estate in and about the city of Burlington, which 
is sold by its land committee from time to time. 

The secretary and treasurer is required to give a bond in the sum 
of $50,000, and his books and accounts are audited by a finance com- 
mittee at stated times. It is required to file a report annually with 
the State Corporation Commission and one with the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, as other railroad companies must do. It also 
reports its income for Federal taxation like other corporations. Its 
stock is the most valuable holding that the State of North Carolina 
has amongst its assets, and whether it will be the policy of the State 
to hold its stock perpetually or to dispose of the same is a matter 
for the Legislature of the future. 



THE ATLANTIC AND NORTH CAROLINA RAILROAD COMPANY. 

[Reprinted from the North Carolina Manual of 1915. The editor regrets that 
he has not been able to get the data necessary to bring the article up to date.] 

The Atlantic and Northern Carolina Railroad was chartered by the 
General Assembly of North Carolina in 1852, duration of the charter 
being ninety-nine years. The charter was amended in 1854 and 1855. 
Work on the railroad was begun shortly afterwards, and pushed to 
completion from Goldsboro to a point on the seacoast now known 
as Ivlorehead City, a distance of 95 miles, in 1858. 

Not having the necessary data at hand, I state from memory, and 
from information gained from other sources, the names of the differ- 
ent presidents of the railroad company, in the order of their service 
from the beginning up to the time when the railroad was leased to 
the Howland Improvement Company, during the administration of 
Hon. C. B. Aycock as Governor of North Carolina, on September 1, 
1904, as follows: John D. Whitford, Charles R. Thomas, John D. 
Whitford, E. R. Stanley, R. W. King, L. W. Humphrey, John 
Hughes, John D. Whitford, Washington Bryan, W. S. Chadwick, 
Robert Hancock, D. W. Patrick, James A. Bryan. 



230 AIix i i i. mill's 

The road was capitalized at $1,800,000; the par value of the stock 
was fixed at $100 per share. The State of North Carolina owns 
12,666 shares of the stock. The county of Craven owns 1,293 shares, 
county of Lenoir owns 500 shares,* the county of Pamlico owns 
202 shares. The balance of the stock of the road is owned by private 
individuals. The equipment of the road was by no means complete 
when the War between the States began (1861), and by reason of 
the fact that a- good portion of the road was under the control 
of the Federal arms from the fall of New Bern in 1862 to the 
close of the war in 1865, the road when turned over to its rightful 
owners was little more, if any, than a burden to carry, which was 
in part the cause of no returns to the stockholders 6n their invest- 
ments for thirty-four years after the road was constructed. 

During the administration of Hon. T. J. Jarvis, Governor of 
North Carolina, the railroad was leased to W. J. Best, who had 
control and operated same for a short time only, and then returned 
it back to its owner. 

There is an outstanding bonded indebtedness against the road cf 
$325,000, bearing interest at 6 per cent per annum, the interest 
payable semi-annually. Bonds for same were issued in 1887 and 
will mature in 1817. t During the last year of the presidency of 
James A. Bryan two suits were instituted in the Federal Court for 
the Eastern District of North Carolina for the appointment of 
receivers of the road— first by K. S. Finch of New York, and the 
second by John P. Cuyler of New Jersey. Receivers were appointed 
in both cases, but relief was granted by higher courts. 

The vast amount of unsettled business in which the Atlantic and 
North Carolina Railroad Company was in any way interested at the 
time the Howland Improvement Company, "lessees," assumed con- 
trol of the railroad, was very largely adjusted during the first two 
years. The expiration of the third year of the lease found only a 
small amount of difference to be looked after, which in time was 
settled. Suit was brought in the Superior Court of Craven County, 
in 1906, to annul the lease to the Howland Improvement Company, 
resulting in a decision upholding the lease, which decision was 
affirmed by the Supreme Court. 

The contract for lease with the Howland Improvement Company 
terminates in ninety-one years and four months from the date of 

* Sold to private individuals, t "Written in 1914. 



North Carolina Agricultural Society 231 

its execution, and the stipulations contained in same have, up to 
the last meeting of the stockholders of the Atlantic and North Caro- 
lina Railroad Company, in 1912, been largely complied with, as 
will be seen from the annual reports to the stockholders' meeting 
of the president, treasurer and expert of the lessor company. The 
Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad has, with some other short 
lines in Eastern North Carolina, been merged into and now forms 
part of the Norfolk Southern Railway system. 

The following have been presidents of the company: James A. 
Bryan, J. W. Grainger, S. W. Ferrebee, L. P. Tapp, H. H. Grainger 
and Thomas D. Warren. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Joseph E. Pogue, Secretary, Raleigh. 

The North Carolina Agricultural Society, which operates the 
State Fair annually in Raleigh during the month of October, was 
chartered by special act of the Legislature in 1852 "to provide a 
place for the holding of annual fairs, that the citizens may be en- 
couraged by exhibitions, premiums and other means to develop and 
improve the productions of agriculture and every species of native 
industry; and to this end, and for these great and valuable pur- 
poses, and to no other, shall the corporation apply all the funds 
which by any means it may acquire." 

No capital stock was provided for in that charter. Various public- 
spirited citizens loaned to the Society a sum of money sufficient to 
purchase grounds and erect buildings for the purposes of an annual 
fair, taking therefor the bonds of the Society. The real property 
pledged to secure this bonded debt is held in trust. The bonded 
debt was originally $26,600, but was reduced in 1905 to $22,600, and 
refunded for twenty years at five per cent instead of six per cent, 
the former rate. These bonds are now generally held at par value. 
In 1917 ten. thousand dollars more was borrowed from the Citizens 
National Bank of Raleigh, at six per cent, to build the Woman's 
Building. This is payable in annual installments of $1,000 each, 
$5,000 of which has been paid. 



232 MlS( II LANEOUS 

Any profits made in the operation of the Pair go into a surplus 
fund, which is spent in permanent improvements of all kinds at 
the Fair Grounds, for increased premiums, and other betterments 
that go toward making the Fair more efficient and for payment 
of the interest on the Bonds. 

The present Fair Grounds are in the western suburbs of the city 
of Raleigh, at the terminus of the electric street car line. They 
were purchased about forty years ago, and cover sixty-seven acres 
of land in one of the most desirable of Raleigh's suburbs. The 
Society has twelve large buildings on these grounds. Some of these 
buildings were erected when the site was acquired, but most of 
them have gradually been added from annual profits of the Fair. 
Most of them have been put up in recent years. The three live- 
stock buildings were erected in 1913. The "Sandhills" Building 
was donated through President Leonard Tufts in 1916, and the 
Woman's Building was built in 1917. A new sheep building was 
erected, 25x162 feet in dimension. Modern bleacher seats to accom- 
modate 1,500 persons and many changes and improvements on the 
grounds were made in 1920. Nearly all of the old buildings have 
been remodeled and practically rebuilt out of the current income. 

A few years ago a Machinery Shed, 48 x 200 feet, with metal roof, 
was erected for the accommodation of exhibits of heavy farm 
machinery. A modern reinforced concrete building 60 x 150 feet has 
been put up for the exhibitors of agricultural and horticultural 
products. This is equipped with a concrete floor. The State Board 
of Agriculture usually occupies about one-half of this building with 
a most attractive exhibit of the various activities of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. A modern fireproof poultry house has been 
erected and gives 9,000 square feet of space for exhibits of this 
valuable and growing industry of the State. 

Among other improvements might be mentioned the widening 
three times of the "Midway" within the last dozen years, to afford 
room for the ever increasing crowds, and the macadamizing of this 
thoroughfare; the overhauling and remodeling of the Arts and 
Crafts Building, known as "Floral Hall"; a large increase in the 
number of box stalls for exhibition and race horses, the wiring of 
the buildings for electric lights, the extension of the city water 
pipe to the Fair Grounds, providing running water throughout. 
The live-stock buildings cost nearly $10,000; the swine building 



North Carolina Agricultural Society 233 

has a concrete floor. And all of these improvements, with the ex- 
ception of the Woman's Building, have been erected and paid for 
out of the current revenues, without adding one dollar of bonded 
debt. This is an achievement of which the management feels proud. 
In addition to this, the management found the Society heavily 
in debt and facing the possibilty of a foreclosure of the mortgage. 
All floating debts have been paid. Nearly $15,000 has been p 
for past-due interest and in reducing the bonded debt. 

It may be said, in conservative terms, that the Fair has grown 
from modest beginnings, until in recent years, just as the Old North 
State is taking her proper place among the foremost States of the 
Union, her State Fair is taking rank with the leading institutions 
of the kind in the country. Moreover, it has been gaining more 
and more the enthusiastic support, cooperation and advice of men 
in all industries of the State, a thing that is absolutely necessary 
for the making of a larger and greater fair. 

It is the intention of the management to continue to put up new 
permanent buildings as fast as the profits from the fair will permit, 
or the public policy of the State towards her agricultural and indus- 
trial interests as expressed at the State Fair will make possible, 
replacing all of the old wooden structures with buildings that are 
adapted to the rapidly increasing needs of the more representative 
exhibitors that are year by year demanding larger and better ac- 
commodations. A new race track w r as completed in 1920 at a cost of 
$23,000, releasing the old track site for improvements. 

Some definite idea of the growth of the Fair during the last few 
years may be gathered from the fact that in one year the number of 
solid carloads of exhibits jumped from 42 to 83, and the number of 
separate entries from 1,201 in 1909 to 3,501 in 1910, and 4,136 in 
1911, and each year since has shown a healthy growth, 1922 wit- 
nessing the largest exhibits in the long history of the Society. 

No other occasion in North Carolina draw's anything like the 
throngs that visit the State Fair each year. The railroads for years 
have been putting on special rates and extra trains to handle the 
crowds, and thousands come by automobile. 

Keeping pace with the most modern methods of stimulating the 
efforts to produce better and better crops of all kinds, the manage- 
ment during the last few years has instituted the corn contest fea 



234 Misi i i i wi:urs 

ture for boys, cotton contests for men and boys, the tomato contest 
for girls, the Pig Clubs for boys and girls, and the Poultry Clubs 
for boys and girls, and still more and larger prizes for individual 
and county exhibits and agricultural products. The Girls' and Boys' 
Poultry Clubs were invited to enter our poultry show free of entry 
fees, and they made a fine showing and won a large percentage of 
the prize money in this department. 

The Fair of 1922, by common consent, was pronounced the best in 
its long history of fifty-seven years. Especially did the exhibits 
in cattle, horses, swine and sheep excel anything yet seen at the State 
Fair or anywhere else in our Fair Zone. 

The list of national live-stock associations offering their special 
premiums at the Fair keeps growing larger as the years go by, and 
in the case of one of the most prominent of these associations the 
North Carolina State Fair is honored among only four Southern 
fairs. It is thus apparent that our State Fair is recognized as one 
of the greatest gathering points for pure-bred live-stock in the South. 

For years the management has been working away from the big- 
midway and little-exhibit condition of a fair back to the funda- 
mental purpose of its existence, the competition of the best to make 
better, and all questionable shows and doubtful games are abso- 
lutely forbidden in the grounds, and a clear field is given to the 
best shows offering legitimate amusement as well as educational 
features. The management is icorking for the ideal State Fair, 
ivhich shall he the meeting place of agriculture and industry, a dr. 
light ful outing for all the members of the family, a short school 
for men and women, boys and girls, the best short course in agri- 
culture in the State, a great industrial exchange, a university of 
experience and experiment, an annual, advertisement of the great- 
ness of a great State. 

Mrs. Edith Vanderbilt of Biltmore, N. C, was elected president of 
the Society in 1921, and has just been re-elected president for 1923 
her third term. Her activities for the promotion, enlargement and 
development of State Fair along all useful lines, during her adminis- 
tration has set a new pace, culminating in the largest display of 
live-stock at the 1922 State Fair ever seen in the South, and the 
Society is to be congratulated upon her accepting the presidency 
for another year, when even greater results are naturally to be 
expected. She also inaugurated an active State campaign for new 



North Carolina State Capitol 235 

life and annual memberships in the Society, and increased the 
number this year from 65 to 233, and this campaign will be con- 
tinued throughout the State during 1923. 

Mr. E. V. Walborn, formerly manager of the Ohio State Fair, is 
now serving his first year as business manager of the North Caro- 
lina State Fair, and brings to us advanced ideas which he should 
naturally develop in so large a field of experience, having served 
the Ohio State Fair for four years, terminating when he came here 
in January of 1922. 

The outlook for the North Carolina State Fair for 1923 is such 
as to indicate and justify every hope of making the State Fair this 
fall a State, Fair in fact as well as name, which is the goal set by 
the President, Mrs. Edith Vanderbilt. A most commendable ambi- 
tion, and one likely to be achieved by the quite remarkable energy 
and determination of this most gracious and practical lady. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE CAPITOL. 

On the morning of June 21, 1831, the State Capitol of North Caro- 
lina was destroyed by fire. Though the public records of the State 
were saved, the State Library, containing many valuable books and 
manuscripts, was lost. 

The citizens of Raleigh naturally bemoaned the destruction of the 
building, but Governor Stokes did not regard it as a great loss. In 
his opinion there were some mitigating circumstances. In his mes- 
sage to the General Assembly, when it met the following November, 
he said that the calamity was not so great, because the old State- 
house, built in 1794, was almost ready to tumble down of its own 
accord, and that perhaps many valuable lives had been saved by its 
being destroyed by fire instead of tumbling down on the Legislature 
while in session. 

At once Senator Seawell of Wake brought forward a bill providing 
for the erection of a new Capitol on the site of the old one. At the 
same time a similar bill was introduced in the House of Commons. 
As there was a strong sentiment in the State favorable to the re- 
moval of the capital from Raleigh to Fayetteville, these two bills to 
rebuild at Raleigh met with vigorous opposition. Accordingly, Sen- 
ator Seawell's bill was quickly disposed of. Senator Wilson of Edge- 



236 Miscellaneous 

combe moved to table it, and it was tabled. The House bill was 
longer discussed. The discussion was prolonged for two days, but 
on a yea and nay vote the bill failed, 65 to 68. The Assembly of 
1831 refused to rebuild. 

A year passed, and the ruins of the old Statehouse still marked 
the site of the former Capitol. But the Constitution, or rather the 
Ordinance, of 1789, located the capital at Raleigh, and the Legisla- 
ture had no power to move it. It was even questioned with great 
seriousness whether the Assembly could hold its sessions in the 
Governor's Mansion, at the end of Fayetteville Street, as that was 
outside of the limits of the town. To move the Capital a con- 
vention was necessary, and a majority of the Legislature was not 
favorable to a convention. 

At the session of November, 1832, the Assembly, by a vote of 
35 to 28 in the Senate and 73 to 60 in the House, resolved to rebuild 
on the old site, and $50,000 was appropriated for the purpose. 

William Boylan, Duncan Cameron, Henry Seawell, Romulus M. 
Saunders and William S. Mohoon were appointed commissioners to 
have the work done. The commissioners, with $50,000 at their 
command, did not dally. The rubbish was cleared away, the excava- 
tions made and the foundations were laid. On July 4, 1833, the 
'corner-stone was set in place. Up to that time W. S. Drummond 
was the superintendent and chief architect, and he was one of the 
principal persons in the ceremony of laying the corner-stone. 

After the foundations were laid the work progressed more slowly, 
and it was so expensive that the appropriation was exhausted. The 
Legislature at its next session appropriated $75,000 more. To do 
the stone and finer work many skilled artisans had been brought 
from Scotland and other countries. Part of the work was con- 
ducted under the supervision of W. S. Drummond and another part 
under Colonel Thomas Bragg, but these arrangements did not prove 
satisfactory, and a year later, in September, 1834, Mr. I. Theil Town 
of New York, acting for the commissioners, contracted with David 
Paton to come to Raleigh and superintend the work. 

Mr. Paton was an architect who had come from Scotland the year 
before. He was then thirty-three years of age. He was the son of 
John Paton of Edinburgh, who was an extensive builder in that city 
and vicinity and who had built the greater part of the new town and 



North Carolina State Capitol 237 

constructed the famous Dean Bridge across the water of Leith, and 
he ranked high in his profession. Having received a. liberal educa- 
tion at the University of Edinburgh, David Paton took up the pro- 
fession of his father and was regularly bred as an architect and 
builder under his father and under Sir John Sloan, R. A., professor 
of architecture to the Royal Academy of London. He soon demon- 
strated his capacity. When he first came to Raleigh the cost of over- 
seeing the work on the Capitol was $25 a day. He reduced that cost 
to $9. Twenty-eight stonecutters were paid $81 a day. This he 
reduced to $56. He made a saving in these two items alone of $42 
a day. He found himself to be not merely supervisor of the work, 
but the superintendent; not merely the superintendent, but the 
bookkeeper and paymaster. He had every detail of the work on his 
shoulders. And then he had to make the working drawings. He 
was the builder, the architect, the designer. 

Both the commissioners and the architect had large ideas. The 
former were wise enough to expend the original $50,000, which the 
General Assembly expected would complete the structure, on its 
foundation. Their work being severely criticised, they resigned 
January 1, 1835. Their successors were Beverly Daniel, chairman, 
Samuel P. Patterson, Charles Manly and Alfred Jones. The Legis- 
lature was compelled to make appropriations for the work from 
time to time. The following is a table of the several appropriations 
made : 

Session of 1832-33 $ 50,000.00 

Session of 1833-34 75,000.00 

Session of 1834-35 75,000.00 

Session of 1835 75,000.00 

Session of 1836-37 120,000.00 

Session of 1838-39 105,300.00 

Session of 1840-41 31,374.46 



Total $531,674.46 

It must be remembered that the stone with which the building 
was erected was the property of the State. Had the State been 
compelled to purchase this material the cost of the Capitol would 
have been considerably increased. 

The following is a description of the Capitol, written by David 
Paton, the architect: 



238 Miscellaneous 

"The State Capitol is 160 feet in length from north to south by 
140 feet from- east to west. The whole height is 97 V. feet in the 
center. The apex of pediment is 64 feet in height. The stylobate 
is 18 feet in height. The columns of the east and west porticoes 
are 5 feet 2 1 /L> inches in diameter. An entablature, including block- 
ing course, is continued around the building, 12 feet high. 

"The columns and entablature are Grecian Doric, and copied 
from the Temple of Minerva, commonly called the Parthenon, which 
was erected in Athens about 500 years before Christ. An octagon 
tower surrounds the rotunda, which is ornamented with Grecian 
cornices, etc., and its dome is decorated at top with a similar orna- 
ment to that of the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, commonly 
called the Lanthorn of Demosthenes. 

"The interior of the Capitol is divided into three stories: First, 
the lower story, consisting of ten rooms, eight of which are appro- 
priated as offices to the Governor, Secretary, Treasurer, and Comp- 
troller, each having two rooms of the same size — the one contain- 
ing an area of 649 square feet, the other 528 square feet — the two 
committee rooms, each containing 200 square feet, and four closets; 
also the rotunda, corridors, vestibules, and plazas, contain an area of 
4,370 square feet. The vestibules are decorated with columns and 
antaee, similar to those of the Tonic Temple on the Ilissus, near the 
Acropolis of Athens. The remainder is groined with stone and 
brick, springing from columns and pilasters of the Roman Doric. 

"The second story consists of Senatorial and Representatives' 
chambers, the former containing an area of 2,545 and the latter 
2,849 square feet. Four apartments enter from Senate Chamber, two 
of which contain each an area of 169 square feet, and the other two 
contain an area of 154 square feet; also, two rooms enter from 
Representatives' chamber, each containing an area of 170 square 
feet; of two committee rooms, each containing an area of 231 feet; 
of four presses and the passages, stairs, lobbies, and colonnades, 
containing an area of 3,204 square feet. 

"The lobbies and Hall of Representatives have their columns 
and antaee of the Octagon Tower of Andronicus Cyrrhestes and the 
plan of the hall is of the formation of the Greek theater and the 
columns and antsee in the Senatorial chamber and rotunda are of 
the Temple of Erechetus, Minerva Polias, and Pandrosus, in the 
Acropolis of Athens, near the above named Parthenon. 



North Carolina State Capitol 239 

"Third, or attic story, consists of rooms appropriated to the Su- 
preme Court and Library, each containing an area of 693 square 
feet. Galleries of both houses have an area of 1,300 square feet; 
also two apartments entering from Senate gallery, each 169 square 
feet, of four presses and the lobbies' stairs, 988 square feet. These 
lobbies, as well as rotunda, are lit with cupolas, and it is proposed 
to finish the court and library in the florid Gothic style." 

In the summer of 1840 the work was finished. The Assembly had, 
in December, 1832, appropriated $50,000 for the building. Mr. Boy- 
Ian, Judge Cameron and State Treasurer Mohoon and their associates 
spent that sum in the foundation. They proposed to have a Capitol 
worthy of the State. At every subsequent session the Assembly 
made additional appropriations. There was some caviling, and the 
commissioners resigned; but the Legislature and the new commis- 
sioners took no step backwards. Year by year they pressed on the 
work as it had been begun, until at last, after more than seven 
years, the sum of $531,674.46 was expend-ed. As large as that sum 
was for the time, when the State was so poor and when the entire 
taxes for all State purposes reached less than $100,000, yet the 
people were satisfied. The building had been erected with rigorous 
economy, and it was an object of great pride to the people. Indeed, 
never was money better expended than in the erection of this noble 
Capitol. 

Speaking of this structure, Samuel A. Ashe, in an address on 
David Paton, delivered in 1909, says: 

"Not seventy years have passed since the completion of this build- 
ing, yet it has undying memories. It was finished the year Henry 
Clay was set aside and his place as the Whig leader given to General 
Harrison. Four years later Clay spoke from the .western portico; 
but, like Webster and Calhoun, the. prize of the presidency was 
denied him. The voices of other men of large mould also have been 
heard within this Capitol. Here, too, our great jurists — Gaston, 
Ruffin, Pearson and their associates — held their sessions and brought 
renown to North Carolina. Here, Badger, Mangum, Dobbin and 
scores of men known to fame held high debates. Here was brought, 
forth in great travail our system of internal improvements, and of 
education, ramifying the State, disseminating enlightenment and 
opening the pathways to prosperous, contented and happy homes for 
our people. 



240 Miscellaneous 

"Here Ellis and Clark and the mighty Vance directed the affair?' 
of State in the trying days of war and suffering and desolation, the 
glories mingled with pain and sorrow, and fading away in heart- 
rending defeat; hut through it all the women and men, alike heroes, 
worthy the poets' loftiest strains. Then, when the people were still 
bowed in anguish, Carolinians turned their faces to the future, 
and, with resolution and intelligence, themselves modified their 
laws and institutions to meet the new conditions but in vain, for 
these mute walls are the witnesses of the saturnalia of Reconstruc- 
tion, still awaiting some Dante to portray the scenes with realistic 
power. Yet the dark cloud had its silver lining, and the courageous 
devotion of Jarvis, John Graham and their Spartan band adds 
historic interest to that time of fearful storm. 

"Later, here was the scene of the great State trial, the impeach- 
men. of the Chief Magistrate of the Commonwealth and the contest 
between the intellectual giants of that generation, Governor Graham 
and Bragg and Merrimon, contesting with Smith and Conigland 
and Richard Badger. 

"And these walls have witnessed the reversal of that State policy 
forced on an unwilling people by the mailed hand of the conquering 
power, and the full restoration of Anglo-Saxon control. Never in 
history has a people been so clearly and effectually vindicated as 
those gallant souls of North Carolina, who, emulating the constancy 
of Hamilcar, swore their children to undying opposition to those 
who would destroy their civilization. Let the oppressed of future 
ages gaze on the scene and take courage. Already hallowed are the 
memories that these chambers evoke. What grand occasions yet 
await them! We may not lift the veil of the future, but experience 
warns us that history constantly repeats itself, and as the web 
woven by destiny unrolls itself there will yet occur within these 
enduring walls occasions of surpassing magnitude affecting the 
weal and woe of our posterity." 



STATE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. 

Mindful of the fact that only a little more than a generation ago 
the State Capitol of North Carolina was destroyed by fire, entailing 
the loss of many valuable records and papers, for some years prior 



State Administrative Building 241 

to the convening of the 1911 session of the General Assembly the 
demand has been insistent for a safer housing of several depart- 
ments of the State Government at Raleigh, notably the books and 
records of the North Carolina Historical Commission, which has 
now grown to be one of the most important branches of the work at 
the seat of government. 

Early in the session a movement was started for the building of 
a State administration building at the capital, and after numerous 
conferences and compromises of differences as to the amount that 
should be appropriated for that purpose, a bill was at length unani- 
mously passed by both houses, appropriating the sum of $250,000 
for this purpose and conferring upon the government the appoint- 
ment of a State Building Commission for the consummation of this 
worthy undertaking. Soon after the adjournment of the Legislature 
Governor W. W. Kitchin named as the members of the Commission 
Ashley Home of Clayton, William E. Springer of Wilmington, 
Julian S. Carr of Durham, W. L. Parsons of Rockingham, A. S. 
Rascoe of Windsor, J. A. Long of Roxboro, and J. Elwood Cox of 
High Point, men of affairs and recognized business ability in the 
State. 

The State Building Commission held its first meeting in the office 
of the State Auditor at 12:30 p. m., May 9, 1911, and organized by 
the election of Ashley Home, of Clayton, as chairman, and William 
E. Springer, of Wilmington, as secretary. Following organization a 
conference was held with the Board of Public Buildings and 
Grounds, composed of the Governor, Secretary of State, Treasurer, 
and Attorney-General. It was stated as the purpose of the General 
Assembly to provide ample room for the Supreme Court, all valu- 
able State records, the State Library, offices for the Attorney- 
General, and several of the other State departments. The grounds 
were carefully gone over, the situation canvassed, and a subcom- 
mittee composed of Chairman Home, Secretary Springer, and 
Commissioner Cox was appointed to go further into the matter of 
a building and site. 

At a subsequent meeting, on May 19, 1911, the committee reported 
that it had secured an option on three sites, and recommended the 
purchase of the Grimes tract for $45,000. This recommendation was 
accepted by the Commission as a whole, and on June 6, 1911. 

1(\ 



242 Miscellaneous 

plans as prepared by P. Thornton Marye, of Atlanta, were accepted 
after hearing a number of others and after several conferences. 
These plans were later reviewed by Glenn Brown, of Washington, 
D. C, another expert in building construction, and were declared 
eminently proper and in order in every respect. The plans call 
for a modern fireproof building four stories in height and admirably 
adapted to the purpose to which it will be put. 

On November 1, 1911, the Commission met again in Rale'gh, after 
proposals had been invited for the building, and after considering a 
number of bids for the construction, the contract was at length 
awarded to the John T. Wilson Company, of Richmond, Va., at a 
cost of $188,000, the building to be completed and ready for occu- 
pancy by January 19, 1913. 

How well the State Building Commission wrought is attested by 
the splendid building, wdiich now stands opposite the Capitol 
grounds and which was occupied in January, 1914, by the several 
departments of government as agreed upon after the numerous 
conferences of the Commission. The departments occupying the 
building are as follows: First floor, State Library; second floor, 
North Carolina Historical Commission and the Library Commis- 
sion; third floor, the Supreme Court and Attorney-General; fourth 
floor, Supreme Court Library. 



SOUTH CAROLISA DAY. 

The following act. entitled "An Act to Provide for the Celebration 
of North Carolina Day in the Public Schools," is chapter 164 of the 
Public Laws of 1901: 
The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

Section 1. That the 12th day of October in each and every year, 
to be called "North Carolina Day" may be devoted, by appropriate 
exercises in the public schools of the State, to the consideration of 
some topic or topics of our State history, to be selected by the Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction. Provided, that if the said day shall 
fall on Saturday or Sunday, then, the celebration shall occur on the 
Monday next following: Provided, further, that if the said day shall 
fall at a time when any such schools may not be in session, the 
celebration may be held within one month from the beginning of the 
term, unless the Superintendent of Public Instruction shall desig- 
nate some other time. 

Sec. 2. This act shall be in force from and after its ratification. 

In the General Assembly read three times, and ratified this the 
9th day of February, A. D.. 1901. 



Legal Holidays in North Carolina 243 

October 12th, the date selected for North Carolina Day, is the 
anniversary of the laying of the corner-stone of the University of 
North Carolina, October 12, 1793. In accordance with the pro- 
visions of this act, the Superintendent of Public Instruction has 
had prepared and distributed to the schools of the State each year 
a program of exercises devoted to the study of some phase of North 
Carolina history. 

Since the creation of North Carolina Day the following subjects 
have been studied each year (back numbers of the programs can 
be secured from the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
Raleigh, N. C.) : 

1901. The Roanoke Island Colonies. Prepared by Fred A. Olds. 

1902. The Albemarle Section. Prepared by a Committee. 

1903. The Lower Cape Fear Section. Prepared by R. D. W. Connor. 

1904. The Pamlico-Neuse Section. Prepared by Charles L. Coon. 

1905. The Scotch Highlanders in North Carolina. Prepared by R. D. W. Connor. 

1906. Charles D. Mclver Memorial Day. Prepared by R. D. W. Connor. 

1907. The Scotch-Irish in North Carolina. Prepared by Charles H. Mebane. 

1908. The German Settlements in North Carolina "\ 

1909. Western North Carolina. I Each prepared b 

1910. North Carolina Poets and Poetry. > ' ' .,„ ' 
■tnii t -I j n „■ , ( R. D. \\ . Connor. 

1911. Local and County History. I 

1912. Charles B. Aycock Memorial Day. " 

1913. North Carolina Rural Life and Knapp Memorial Day. Edited by N. C. 

Newbold. 

1914. Community Service. 

1915. School and Neighborhood Improvement Day. 

1916. Murphy Day: Archibald DeBow Murphy". Prepared by Edgar W. 

Knight. 

1917. Thrift, Conservatism, Patriotism. 



LEGAL HOLIDAYS IN NORTH CAROLINA. 

Although certain great days in each year — such as New Year's 
Day, Fourth of July, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day— have 
long been observed as general holidays, there were no "legal" holi- 
days in North Carolina prior to 1881. The Legislature of that year, 
in the interest of commercial transactions, passed an act to make 
these customary holidays "legal" holidays. It is chapter 294, Public 
Laws of 18S1, and was brought forward in The Code of 1S83 as 
sections 3784-37S6 of chapter 61. It provides: 

"That the first day of January, twenty-second day of February, 
tenth day of May, twentieth day of May, fourth day of July, and a 
day appointed by the Governor of North Carolina as a thanksgiving 
day, and the twenty-fifth day of December of each and every year be, 



244 Miscellaneous 

and the same are hereby declared to be public holidays; and that 
whenever any such holiday shall fall upon Sunday, the Monday next 
following shall be deemed a public holiday, and papers due on such 
Sunday shall be payable on the Saturday next preceding, and papers 
which would otherwise be payable on said Monday shall be payable 
on the Tuesday next thereafter. 

"Sec. 2. Be it further enacted, That whenever either of the above 
named days shall fall on Saturday, the papers due on the Sunday 
following shall be payable on the Monday next succeeding. 

"Sec. 3. Be it further enacted. That whenever the above named 
days shall fall on Monday, the papers which should otherwise be 
payable on that day shall be payable on Tuesday next succeeding." 

Ten years later, the nineteenth of January was made a "legal" 
holiday, by chapter 58, Public Laws of 1891, which provides: 

"That the nineteenth day of January, the birthday of the peerless 
Robert E. Lee, in each and every year hereafter, shall be a public 
holiday." 

In 1899, the first Thursday in September was designated as Labor 
Day and made a "legal" holiday. The Legislature of 1901 amended 
this Act by changing the holiday from the first Thursday to the 
first Monday in September. The reason for this change was re- 
cited in the preamble of the act as follows: 

"Whereas it is dsirable that the same date should be set aside by 
both State and Federal statutes for the observance of the same holi- 
day; 

"And whereas the first Monday in September is designated by stat- 
utes in various States and also by Federal Statutes as Labor Day, 
while the first Thursday in September is designated as Labor Day by 
statute of this State, thereby causing confusion and annoyance in 
mercantile transactions, therefore," etc. 

These several Acts were all brought forward in the Revisal of 
1905 as section 2838. 

The Legislature of 1907 added another legal holiday to the list 
by setting aside as a holiday "Tuesday after the first Monday in 
November, when a general election is held." This is chapter 996, Pub- 
lic Laws of 1907. 

The latest of our legal holidays is the twelfth day of April. Th : s 
was provided for by chapter 888, Public Laws of 1909, which is as 
follows: 



Legal Holidays in North Carolina 245 

"Whereas the Provincial Congress which met at Halifax, in this 
State, in April, one thousand seven hundred and seventy-six, after 
providing for the military organization of the State, did, on the 
twelfth day of April, one thousand seven hundred and seventy-six, 
adopt the following resolutions, generally known as the 'Halifax 
Resolutions,' to-wit: 

" 'Resolved, That the delegates for this colony in the Continental 
Congress be empowered to concur with the delegates of the other 
colonies in declaring independency, and forming foreign alliances, 
reserving to this colony the sole and exclusive right of forming a 
constitution and laws for this colony.' 

'And whereas said resolution is the first declaration in favor of in- 
dependence by the people of the whole State, through their duly 
authorized representatives, and was adopted more than two months 
before the Declaration of Independence by the Continental Congress; 
and whereas an occurrence so momentous in the history of our State 
and Nation, and so illustrative of the patriotism and wisdom of the 
whole people of North Carolina, should be commemorated, therefore, 

''The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

"Section 1. That the twelfth day of April in each and every 
year be, and the same is hereby made a legal holiday in North 
Carolina." 

Legal holidays in North Carolina, therefore, are as follows: 

January 1 — New Year's Day. 

January 19 — Birthday of General Robert E. Lee. 

February 22 — Birthday of George Washington. 

April 12 — Anniversary of the Resolutions adopted by the Pro- 
vincial Congress of North Carolina, at Halifax, April 12, 1776, in- 
structing the delegates from North Carolina to the Continental 
Congress to vote for a Declaration of Independence. 

May 10 — Confederate Memorial Day. 

May 20 — Anniversary of the "Mecklenburg Declaration of Inde- 
pendence." 

July 4 — Independence Day. 

September, first Monday — Labor Day. 

November, Tuesday after first Monday — General Election Day. 

November 11 — Armistice Day. 

November, last Thursday — Thanksgiving Day. 

December 25— Christmas Day. 



246 MlS< I' LANEOUS 

THE STATE FLA(i. 

The first legislation on the subject of a State flag was enacted 
by the Convention of 1861. May 20, 1861, the Convention adopted 
the Ordinance of Secession. 

On that same day Col. John D. Whitford, a member of the Con- 
vention from Craven County, introduced the following ordinance, 
which was passed and referred to a select committee of seven: 

"Be it ordained that the flag of this State shall be a blue field 
with a white V thereon, and a star, encircling which shall be the 
words 'Surgit astrum, May 20th, 1775.' " 

Colonel Whitford was made chairman of the committete to which 
this ordinance was referred. The committee secured the aid and 
advice of William Garl Brown, an artist of Raleigh. Brown pre- 
pared and submitted a model to this committee. And this model 
was adopted by the Convention on the 22d day of June, 1861. It 
will be observed that the Brown model, to be hereafter explained, 
was vastly different from the one originally proposed by Colonel 
Whitford. Here is the ordinance as it appears on the Journal of 
the Convention: 

"AX ORDINANCE IX EELATIOX TO A STATE FLAG." 

"Be it ordained by this Convention, and it is hereby ordained by 
the authority of the same, That the Flag of North Carolina shall 
consist of a red field with a white star in the center, and with the in- 
scription, above the star, in a semi-circular form, of 'May 20th, 1775/ 
and below the star, in a semi-circular form, of 'May 20. 1861.' That 
there shall be two bars of equal width, and the length of the field 
shall be equal to the bar, the width of the field being equal to both 
bars; the first bar shall be blue, and the second shall be white; and 
the length of the flag shall be one-third more than its width. (Rati- 
fied the 22d day of June, 1861.)" 

This State flag, adopted in 1861, is said to have been issued to 
the first ten regiments of State troops during the summer of that 
year, and was borne by them throughout the war, being the only 
flag, except the National and Confederate colors, used by the North 
Carolina troops during the Civil War. This flag existed until 1885. 
when the Legislature of that year adopted a new model. 

The bill, which was introduced by General Johnstone Jones on 
the 5th of February, 1885, passed its final reading one month later 
after little or no debate. This act reads as follows: 



The Great Seal 247 



AN ACT TO ESTABLISH A STATE FLAG. 

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

Section 1. That the flag of North Carolina shall consist of a blue 
union, containing in the center thereof a white star with the letter 
N in gilt on the left and the letter C in gilt on the right of said 
star, the circle containing the same to be one-third the width of 
the union. 

Sec. 2. That the fly of the flag shall consist of two equally pro- 
portioned bars; the upper bar to be red, the lower bar to be white; 
that the length of the bars horizontally shall be equal to the per- 
pendicular length of the union, and the total length of the flag shall 
be one-third more than its width. 

Sec. 3. That above the star in the center of the union there shall 
be a gilt scroll in semi-circular form, containing in black letters 
this inscription: "May 20th, 1775," and that below the star there 
shall be a similar scroll containing in block letters the inscription: 
"April 12, 1776." 

In the General Assembly read three times and ratified this 9th 
day of March, A. D. 1885. 

No change has been made in the flag since the passage of this 
act. By an act of 1907 it is provided: 

"That the board of trustees or managers of the several State in- 
stitutions and public buildings shall provide a North Carolina flag, 
of such dimensions and material as they may deem best, and the 
same shall be displayed from a staff upon the top of each and every 
such building at all times except during inclement weather, and 
upon the death of any State officer or any prominent citizen the 
flag shall be put at half-mast until the burial of such person shall 
have taken place. 

"That the Board of County Commissioners of the several counties 
in this State shall likewise authorize the procuring of a North Caro- 
lina flag, to be displayed either on a staff upon the top, or draped 
behind the Judges' stand, in each and every courthouse in the 
State, and that the State flag shall be displayed at each and every 
term of court held, and on such other public occasions as the Com- 
missioners may deem proper." 



THE GREAT SEAL.* 

The Constitution of North Carolina, Article TIT, sect inn Id, re- 
quires that 



* Abridged from "The Great Seal of North Carolii ' Iryan Gr 

Publications of the North Carolina Historical Commission, Bulletin No. 5. 



24S Miscellaneous 

"There shall be a seal of the State which shall be kept by the 
Governor, and used by him as occasion may acquire, and shall be 
called 'The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina.' All grants 
and commissions shall be issued in the name and by the authority 
of the State of North Carolina, sealed with 'The Great Seal of the 
State,' signed by the Governor and countersigned by the Secretary 
of State.' " 

The use of a Great Seal for the attestation of important docu- 
ments began with the institution of government in North Carolina. 
There have been at various times nine different seals in use in the 
colony and State. The first seal was adopted by the Lords Proprie- 
tors of Carolina soon after receiving their charters from the Crown 
in 1665. This seal is to be seen in the Public Record Office in Lon- 
don. It is described as follows: 

"The obverse side has a shield bearing on its face two cornucopias 
crossed, filled with products and having for supporters, on the sin- 
ister side, an Indian chief holding an arrow. On the dexter is an 
Indian squaw with a papoose by her side and one in her arms. 
These natives, I imagine, are supposed to be bringing tribute. The 
crest is a stag upon a wreath above a helmet from which there is a 
mantling. On the scroll below the shield is the motto, D omit us 
Cultoribus Orbis. Around the shield are the words MANGUM 
SIGILLUM CAROLINAE DOMINORUM. On the reverse side is a 
disc bearing a cross, around which are arranged the coats-of-arms 
of the Lords Proprietors in the following order: Clarendon, Albe- 
marle, Craven, John Berkeley, Cooper, Carteret, William Berkeley, 
and Colleton. The size of this seal is 3 3-8 inches in diameter, and 
was made by placing together two wax cakes with tape between 
before being impressed, and was about % inch thick. This seal 
was used on all the official papers of the Lords Proprietors for 
Carolina, embracing North and South Carolina." 

About 1665 the government of Albemarle County was organized, 
and for a seal the reverse side of the seal of the Lords Proprietors 
was adopted. It bore the word A-L-B-E-M-A-R-L-E, beginning with 
the letter A between the names of Clarendon and Albemarle, L be- 
tween the arms of Albemarle and Craven, BE between the arms of 
Craven, Lord John Berkeley, etc. 

This was a small seal 1 7-16 inches in diameter, with one face 
only, and is now frequently to be found attached to colonial papers. 
It was first used for the government of the County of Albemarle, 
and then became the seal of the Province of North Carolina, being 
used until just after the purchase by the Crown. 



The Gkeat Seal 249 

In 1730, after the purchase of the colony by the Crown, the Lords 
of Trade proposed to the King a new seal "whereon Liberty is rep- 
resented introducing Plenty to your Majesty with this motto. Q 
sera tamen respexit, and this inscription around the circumference, 
Sigillum Provincae Nostrae Carolinae, Septentrionalis." The back- 
ground on which the King and these figures stand is a map of 
the coast of North Carolina, and in the offing is a ship. On the 
reverse of this seal are the Royal Arms, Crown, Garter, Supporters 
and Motto, with this inscription around the circumference, Georgius 
Secunclus Dei Gratia Magnae Britaniae, Franciae, et Hiberniae, !'■ . 
Ficlei Defensor, Brunsviei et Lunenbergi Dux, Sacri Roman i Im- 
perii Archi Thesaurarius. et Elector. 

This seal was made by placing two cakes or layers of wax to- 
gether, between which was the ribbon or tape with which the in- 
strument was interlaced and by which the seal was appended. It 
was customary to put a piece of paper on the outside of these cakes 
before they were impressed. The seal complete was 4% inches in 
diameter and from y 2 to % inch thick and weighed about 5 x /2 
ounces. 

In 1767 Governor Tryon received from the King a new Great 
Seal for the Province. The new seal was engraved on the one side 
with the Royal Arms, Garter, Crown, Supporters and Motto, and 
this inscription around the circumference "Georgius III D: G: Mag. 
Bri, Fr. et Hib. Rex, F. D. Brun, et Lun, Dux, S. R. I. ar TJies. ct 
El." On the other side are figures of the King and Liberty who is 
introducing Plenty to the King with this Motto, Quae Sera Tain en 
Respexit. Around the circumference is the following legend: Sig- 
illium, Provinciae Nostrae Carolinae, Septentrionalis. This seal 
was 4 inches in diameter, % to % inches thick, and weighed 4% 
ounces. 

Sometimes a smaller seal than the Great Seal was used, as com- 
missions and grants are often found with a small heart-shaped seal 
about one inch wide and a quarter of an inch thick which was 
impressed with a crown. Also a seal was occasionally used about 
three inches long and two inches wide and a half an inch thick, in 
the shape of an ellipse. These impressions were evidently made by 
putting the wax far enough under the edge of the Great Seal to 
take the impression of the crown. The royal governors also some- 
times used their private seals. 



250 Miscellaneous 

When the government of the independent State of North Caro- 
lina was organized, the Constitution adopted at Halifax, December 
IS, 1776, provided, Section XVII, "That there shall be a seal of this 
State, which shall be kept by the Governor, and used by him as 
occasion may require; and shall be called the Great Seal of the 
State of North Carolina and be affixed to all grants and commis- 
sions." 

The Convention of 1868 changed the section of the Constitution, 
with reference to the seal, to read as it now stands. 

The Assembly of 177S appointed William Tisdale to cut and en- 
grave the first State seal, under the direction of the Governor. This 
seal was used until 1794. Its actual size was three inches in diame- 
ter and Vi inch thick. It was made by putting two cakes of wax 
together with paper wafers on the outside and pressed between the 
dies forming the obverse and reverse sides of this seal. 

The seal of 1778 is described as follows: 

"On one side is the figure of Minerva or Liberty holding in the 
right hand the pole with cap and in the left hand with arm ex- 
tended is held a large scroll on which appears in large capital let- 
ters the word 'Constitution.' Under the figure the words, IN LEGI- 
BUS SALUS. Around the circumference are the words, THE 
GREAT SEAL OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA. On the 
other side of the shield is the figure of a woman, probably Plenty. 
The right arm is folded across her breast and in her right hand 
inclining toward her left shoulder is held a distaff. In the left 
hand with arm extended is held an ear of corn. In the distance be- 
yond a tree browses a cow. Under these figures appear the word 
and letters 'INDEPENDENCE— MDCCLXXVI.' Around the cir- 
cumference appear the words 0. FORTUNATOS, NIMIUM. SUA 
SI. BONA. NORINT, COLONOS." 

In December, 1781, the General Assembly authorized the Gov- 
ernor to procure a seal that should "be prepared with one side only, 
and calculated to make the impression on the face of such grant, 
commission, record, or other public act," etc. An artist in Phila- 
delphia submitted a sketch to the Governor as follows: Minerva is 
represented in the act of introducing Ceres with her horn of plenty 
to Liberty, who is seated on a pedestal holding in her right hand 
a book on which is inscribed the word "Constitution." In the 
background are introduced a pyramid, denoting strength and dura- 



The Geeat Seal 251 

bility, and a pine tree which relates immediately to the products of 
the State. 

This sketch, omitting Minerva and with some minor changes, 
was accepted hy Governor Speight. The new seal was very much 
like the present one. It has two figures, Liberty and Plenty. Lib- 
erty is seated on a pedestal with her pole in her right hand, and 
her cap on the pole; in her left hand is a scroll with the word 
"Constitution" upon it. Plenty is standing to the left and front of 
Liberty; around her head is a circlet of flowers; in her right hand, 
leaning against her shoulder, is her cornucopia, mouth upwards, 
overflowing with fruits and produce. In her left is an ear of corn. 
Around the circumference are the words THE GREAT SEAL OF 
THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

This seal was 2% inches in diameter, slightly larger than the 
present one, and was used until about 1835. 

In 1834 the Legislature authorized the Governor to procure a new 
seal. The preamble to the act states that the old seal had been in 
use since the first day of March, 1793. The seal adopted in 1835, 
which was used until 1883, was very similar to its predecessor. 
On it Liberty and Plenty faced each other. Liberty was standing, 
her pole with cap on it in her left hand, and a scroll with the word 
"Constitution" inscribed thereon in her right hand. Plenty is sit- 
ting down, her right arm half extended towards Liberty, three 
heads of wheat in her right hand, and in her left the small end 
of her horn, the mouth of which is resting at her feet, and the 
contents of her horn rolling out. Around the circumference were 
♦he words THE GREAT SEAL OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAR- 
OLINA. This seal was 2% inches in diameter. 

In 1883 an act was passed relative to the seal, which was incor- 
porated in the Code as section 3329. The seal therein provided fin- 
is described as follows: 

"The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina shall be two an 1 
one-quarter inches in diameter, and its design shall be a representa- 
tion of the figures of Liberty and Plenty, looking toward ea h 
other, but not more than half fronting each other, and otherwise 
disposed as follows: Liberty, the first figure, standing, her pole 
with cap on it in her left hand and a scroll with the word ('(insti- 
tution' inscribed thereon in her right hand. Plenty, the second fig- 
ure, sitting down, her right arm half extended towards Liberty, 



252 Miscellaneous 

three heads of wheat in her right hand, and in her left the small 
end of her horn, the mouth of which is resting at her feet, and the 
contents of the horn rolling out." 

In 1893 an act, introduced hy Jacob Battle, added at the foot of 
the coat of arms of the State as a part thereof the motto "Esse 
Quam Videri," and required that the words, "May 20, 1775," be in- 
scribed at the top of the coat of arms. 

The present Great Seal of the State of North Carolina is de- 
scribed at the top of the coat of arms. 

"The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina is two and one- 
quarter inches in diameter, and its design is a representation of 
the figures of Liberty and Plenty, looking toward each other, but 
not more than half fronting each other, and otherwise disposed as 
follows: Liberty, the first figure standing, her pole with cap on it 
in her left hand and a scroll with the word 'Constitution' inscribed 
thereon in her right hand. Plenty, the second figure, sitting down, 
her right arm half extended toward Liberty, three heads of wheat 
in her right hand, and in her left the small end of her horn, the 
mouth of which is resting at her feet, and the contents of horn roll- 
ing out. In the exergon is inserted the words May 20, 1775, above 
the coat of arms. Around the circumference is the legend, 'The 
Great Seal of the State, of North Carolina,' and the motto, 'Esse 

Quam Videri.' " 



STATE MOTTO AM) ITS OBIGIJT.* 

The General Assembly of 1893 (chapter 145) adopted the words 
"Esse Quam Videri" as the State's motto and directed that these 
words with the date, "20 May, 1775," should be placed with our 
Coat of Arms upon the Great Seal of the State. 

The words "Esse Quam Videri" mean "to be rather than to seem." 
Nearly every State has adopted a motto, generally in Latin. The 
reason for their mottoes being in Latin is that the Latin tongue 
is far more condensed and terse than the English. The three 
words, "Esse Quam Videri," require at least six English words to 
express the same idea. 

Curiosity has been aroused to learn the origin of our State motto. 
It is found in Cicero in his essay on Friendship (Cicero de Ami- 
citia, chap. 26). He says, "Virtute enim ipsa non tain multi prediti 



* Adopted from an article by Chief Justice "Walter Clark in The North Caro- 
lina Booklet, Vol. IX, No. 3. 



State Motto and its Origin 253 

esse quam videri," i. e., "Virtue is a quality which not so many de- 
sire to possess as desire to seem to possess," or, translated literally, 
"For indeed not so many wish to be endowed with virtue as wish 
to seem to be." 

The phrase is a striking one, and Cicero's version of it has been 
caught up and often used as a motto. No less than three houses 
of British nobility have adopted it, to-wit: the Earl of Winterton, 
Earl Brownlow and Lord Lurgan. 

It has been adopted by many associations, especially literary 
societies. In this State it is the motto of Wilson Collegiate Insti- 
tute and, with some modifications, of one of the societies at Wake 
Forest College. 

The figures on our State Coat of Arms are Liberty and Plenty. 
It has been objected that the motto has no reference or application 
to the figures on the coat of arms. It is very rarely that such is 
the case. The national motto, "E Pluribus Unum," has no refer- 
ence to the Eagle and Shield and the Thunderbolts on the national 
coat of arms. Nor has the "Excelsior" of New York, the "Dirigo" 
of Maine, the "Qui Transtulet, Sustinet" of Connecticut any appli- 
cation to the figures above them. Indeed, Virginia's "Sic Semper 
Tyrannis" is one of the very few instances in which the motto 
bears such reference. But, in fact, is our motto so entirely with- 
out reference to the coat of arms as is usually the case? The fig- 
ures are, as just stated, Liberty and Plenty. Is it inappropriate to 
say we prefer to be free and prosperous than seem to be so. There 
have been States that had all the appearance of liberty and pros- 
perity, when in truth having lost the reality of both, they were 
tottering to their fall. 

It is a little singular that until the act of 1S93 the sovereign State 
of North Carolina had no motto since its declaration of independ- 
ence. It was one of the very few States which did not have a 
motto, and the only one of the original thirteen without one. 

It may be noted that up to the time it became a "sovereign and 
independent State" the Colony or Province of North Carolina bore 
on its great seal "Quae sera tamen respexit." This was taken from 
the first Eclogue of Virgil (line 27) and, referring to the figure of 
Liberty, meant "Which, though late, looked upon me" — the full line 
in Virgil being "Liberty, which though late, looked upon me indo- 
lent." No wonder that this was dropped by the new State. Noth- 



254 Mix i LLANEOUS 

ing could possibly have been more inappropriate. Liberty came 
not to her late; and it came not to a people inert or unseeking 
her rewards. To such, liberty never comes. 

It may he mentioned, to prevent any misunderstanding as to the 
scope of the Act of 1893 (now Revisal, sec. 5320), that it does not 
apply to county seals. Each county is authorized to adopt its own 
seal. Revisal, sec. 1318 (24). Many counties now have on their 
county seals the appropriate phrase, "Leges Jaraque Vindicamus." 
Some have adopted the State motto. But this is a 'matter left to 
the discretion of the county commissioners in each county. 

Note by the Editors (of The Booklet). — The bill which was 
passed in 1893 to adopt our State motto was introduced by Senator 
Jacob Battle, of Nash, afterwards Judge of the Superior Court. 
We have before us a letter from him in which he states that the 
motto was selected by Judge — since Chief Justice — Walter Clark, 
who also drew the bill and requested him to present it. He adds 
that the words "20 May, 1775," secured the hearty cooperation of 
Senator Brevard McDowell, of Mecklenburg, and by their joint 
efforts the bill passed by the unanimous vote of both houses of the 
General Assembly, and without amendment. 



THE CONFEDERATE MUSEUM AT RICHMOND. 

In the house in Richmond, Virginia, which was the Executive 
Mansion of the Confederate States, and as such was occupied by 
President Jefferson Davis from 1861 to 1835, the United Daughters 
of the Confederacy support a museum of relics of the Confederacy. 
To each of the former Confederate States is assigned a room which 
it supports. To the support of the North Carolina Room, the 
General Assembly appropriates $200 annually. About eight years 
ago it was decided that each room must raise an endowment of 
$2,000. The officials of the North Carolina Room increased theirs 
to $3,000, and up to date are the only ones who have completed 
their fund. The North Carolina Room contains one of the largest 
collections of relics, and the largest collection of portraits, in the 
museum. About 15,000 persons visit the museum annually. 

The State Regent for North Carolina is. in 1918, Mrs. Latta C. 
Johnson of Charlotte, the Vice-Regent is Mrs. J. Allison Hodges, 
Richmond, Va. 



PART VIII. 



PLATFORMS OF POLITICAL PARTIES. 1922. 



1. National Democratic Platform. 

2. National Republican Platform. 

3. National Socialist Platform. 

4. National Prohibition Platform. 

5. State Democratic Platform. 

6. State Republican Platform. 

7. State Socialist Platform. 






NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC PLATFORM 1920. 

The Democratic Party, in its national convention now assembled, 
sends greetings to the President of the United States, Woodrow 
Wilson, and hails with patriotic pride the great achievements for 
country and the world wrought by a Democratic administration 
under his leadership. 

It salutes the mighty people of this great republic, -emerging 
with imperishable honor, from the severe tests and grevious strains 
of the most tragic war in history, having earned the plaudits and 
the gratitude of all free nations. 

It declares its adherence to the fundamental progressive principles 
of social, economic and industrial justice and advance, and pur- 
poses to resume the great work of translating these principles 
into effective laws, begun and carried far by the Democratic ad- 
ministration and interrupted only when the war claimed all the 
national energies for the single task of victory. 

LEAGUE OF NATIONS 

The Democratic Party favors the League of Nations as the 
surest, if not the only, practicable means of maintaining the perma- 
nent peace of the world, and terminating the insufferable burden 
of great military and naval establishments. It was for this that 
America broke away from traditional isolation and spent her blood 
and treasure to crush a colossal scheme of conquest. It was upon 
this basis that the President of the United States, in prearrangement 
with our allies, consented to a suspension of hostilities against the 
imperial German government; the armistice was granted and a 
treaty of peace negotiated upon the definite assurance to Germany 
as well as to the powers pitted against Germany, that "a general 
association of nations must be formed, under specific covenants, 
for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political inde- 
pendence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike." 
Hence, we not only congratulate the President on the vision mani- 
fested and the vigor exhibited in the prosecution of the war, but 
we felicitate him and his associates on the exceptional achieve- 
ments at Paris involved in the adoption of a league and treaty 

17 1257 1 



25S Platforms of Political Parties 

so near akin to previously expressed American ideals and so in- 
timately related to the aspirations of civilized people everywhere. 

We commend the President for his courage and his high con- 
ception of good faith in steadfastly standing for the covenant 
agreed to by all the associated and allied nations at war with 
Germany, and we condemn the Republican Senate for its refusal 
to ratify the treaty merely because it was the product of Democratic 
statesmanship, thus interposing partisan envy and personal hatred 
in the way of peace and renewed prosperity of the world. By every 
accepted standard of international morality the President is justi 
fied in asserting that the honor of the country is involved in this 
business; and we point to the accusing fact that before it was de- 
termined to initiate political antagonism to the treaty, the now 
Republican chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee 
himself publicly proclaimed that any proposition for separate peace 
with Germany such as he and his party associates thereafter re- 
ported to the Senate, would make us "guilty of the blackest crime." 

On May 15, last, the Knox substitute for the Versailles treaty 
was passed by the Republican Senate, and this convention can 
contrive no more fitting characterization of its obloquy than that 
made in the Forum Magazine of December, 1918, by Henry Cabot 
Lodge, when he said: 

"If we send our armies and young men abroad to be killed and 
wounded in Northern France and Flanders with no result but this, 
our entrance into war with such an intention was a crime which 
nothing can justify." 

The intent of Congress and the intent of the President was that 
there would be no peace until we could create a situation where 
no such war as this could recur. We cannot make peace except in 
company with our allies. It would brand us with everlasting dis- 
honor and bring ruin to us also if we undertook to make a separate 
peace. 

Thus to that which Mr. Lodge, in saner moments, considered 
"the blackest crime" he and his party in madness sought to give 
the sancity of law, that which eighteen months ago was of "ever 
lasting dishonor," the Republican Party and its candidates today 
accept as the essence of faith. 



National, Democratic Platform 259 

We endorse the President's view of our international obligations 
and his firm stand against reservations designed to cut to pieces 
the vital provisions of the Versailles treaty and we commend the 
Democrats in Congress for voting against resolutions for separate 
peace which would disgrace the nation. We advocate the immediate 
ratification of the treaty without reservations which would impair 
its essential integrity; but we do not oppose the acceptance of any 
reservations making clearer or more specific the obligations of the 
United States in the league associates. Only by doing this may we 
retrieve the reputation of this Nation among the powers of the 
earth and recover the moral leadership which President Wilson 
won and which Republican politicians at Washington sacrificed. 
Only by doing this may we hope to aid effectively in the restoration 
of order throughout the world, and to take the place which we 
should assume in the front ranks of spiritual, commercial, and in- 
dustrial advancement 

We reject as utterly vain, if not vicious, the Republican assump- 
tion that ratification of the treaty and membership in the League 
of Nations would in any way impair the integrity or independence 
of our country. The fact that the covenant has been entered into 
by twenty-nine nations, all as jealous of their independence as 
we are of ours, is a sufficient refutation of such charges. The 
President repeatedly has declared, and this convention reaffirms, 
that all our duties and obligations as a member of the league must 
be fulfilled in strict conformity with the Constitution of the United 
States, embodied in which is the fundamental requirement of 
declaratory action by the Congress before this Nation becomes a 
participant in any war. 

CONDUCT OF WAR 

During the war President Wilson exhibited the very broadest 
conception of liberal Americanism. In his conduct of the war, as 
in the general administration of his high office, there was no sem- 
blance of partisan bias. He invited to Washington as his counsellors 
and coadjutors hundreds of the most prominent and pronounced 
Republicans in the country. To these he committed responsibilities 
of the gravest import and most confidential nature. Many of them 
had charge of vital activities of the Government. 



260 Platforms of Political Parties 

And yet, with the war successfully prosecuted and gloriously 
ended, the Republican Party in Congress, far from applauding 
tho masterly leadership of the President and felicitating the country 
on the amazing achievements of the American Government, has 
meanly requited the considerate course of the Chief Magistrate 
by savagely defaming tho commander-in-chief of the army and navy 
and by assailing nearly every public officer of every branch of the 
service intimately concerned in winning the war abroad and pre- 
serving the security of the Government at home. 

We express to the soldiers and sailors and marines of America 
the admiration of their fellow countrymen. Guided by the genius 
of such commanders as Gen. John J. Pershing, the armed force 
of America constituted a decisive factor in the victory and brought 
new luster to the flag. 

Wo commend the patriotic men and women who sustained tho 
efforts of their Government in the crucial hours of the war and 
contributed to the brilliant administrative success achieved under 
the broad-visioned leadership of our President. 

FINANCIAL ACHIEVEMENTS 

A review of the record of the Democratic Party during the 
administration of Woodrow Wilson presents a chapter of substan- 
tial achievements unsurpassed in the history of tho republic. For 
fifty years before the advent of this administration periodical con- 
vulsions had impeded the industrial progress of the American 
people and caused inestimable loss and distress. By tho enactment 
of the Federal Reserve Act the old system, which bred panics, was 
replaced by a new system, which insured confidence. It was an 
indispensable factor in winning the war, and today it is the hope 
and inspiration of business. Indeed, one vital danger against which 
the American people should keep constantly on guard is the com- 
mitment of this system to partisan enemies who struggled against 
its adoption and vainly attempted to retain in the hands of specu- 
lative bankers a monopoly of the currency and credits of the nation. 
Already there are well defined indications of an assault upon the 
vital principles of the system in the event of Republican success 
in tho elections in November. 

Under Democratic leadership the American people successfully 
financed their stupendous part in the greatest war of all time. Tho 



National Democratic Platform 261 

Treasury wisely insisted upon the meeting of an adequate portion 
of the war expenditure from current taxes and the bulk of the 
balance from popular loans, and, during the first full fiscal year 
after fighting stopped, upon meeting current expenditures from 
current receipts notwithstanding the new and unnecessary burdens 
thrown upon the Treasury by the delay, obstruction and extrava- 
gance of a Republican Congress. 

The nonpartisan Federal Reserve authorities have been wholly 
free of political interference or motive; and, in their own time 
and their own way, have used courageously, though cautiously, 
the instruments at their disposal to prevent undue expansion of 
credit in the country. As a result of these sound Treasury and 
Federal Reserve policies, the inevitable war inflation has been 
held down to a minimum, and the cost of living has been pre- 
vented from increasing here in proportion to the increase in other 
belligerent countries and in neutral countries which are in close 
contact with the world's commerce and exchange. 

After a year and a half of fighting in Europe, and despite another 
year and half of Republican obstruction at home, the credit of 
the Government of the United States stands unimpaired, the Fed- 
eral Reserve note is the unit of value throughout all the world 
and the United States is the one great country in the world which 
maintains a free gold market. 

We condemn the attempt of the Republican Party to deprive the 
American people of their legitimate pride in the financing of the 
war — an achievement without parallel in the financial history of 
this or any other country, in this or any other war. And in par- 
ticular we condemn the pernicious attempt of the Republican party 
to create discontent among the holders of the bonds of the Govern- 
ment of the United States and to drag our public finance and our 
banking and currency system back into the arena of party politics. 

tax law revision. 
We condemn the failure of the present Congress to respond to 
the oft repeated demand of the President and the Secretaries of the 
Treasury to revise the existing tax laws. The continuance in 
force in peace times of taxes devised under pressure of imperative 
necessity to produce a revenue for war purposes, is indefensible and 



262 Platforms of Political Parties 

can only result in lasting injury to the people. The Republican 
Congress persistently failed, through sheer political cowardice, 
to make a single move toward readjustment of tax laws which it 
denounced before the last election and was afraid to revise before 
the next election. 

We advocate tax reform and a searching revision of the war 
revenue acts to fit peace conditions so that the wealth of the nation 
may not be withdrawn from productive enterprise and diverted to 
wasteful or nonproductive expenditure. 

We demand prompt action by the next Congress for a complete 
survey of existing taxes and their modification and simplification 
with a view to secure greater equity and justice in tax burden and 
improvement in administration. 

public economy. 

Claiming to have effected great economies in Government ex- 
penditures, the Republican Party cannot show the reduction of 
one dollar in taxation as a corollary of this false pretense. In 
contrast, the last Democratic Congress enacted legislation reducing 
taxes from eight billions, designed to be raised, to six billions for 
the first year after the armistice, and to four billions thereafter; 
and there the total is left undiminished by our political adversa- 
ries. Two years after armistice day a Republican Congress pro- 
vides for expending the stupendous sum of $5,403,390,327.30. 

Affecting great paper economies by reducing departmental esti- 
mates of sums which would not have been spent in any event, and 
by reducing formal appropriations, the Republican statement of 
the expenditures omits the pregnant fact that Congress authorized 
the use of one and a half billion dollars in the hands of various 
departments and bureaus, which otherwise would have been covered 
into the Treasury, and which should be added to the Republican 
total of expenditures. 

high cost of living 
The high cost of living and the depreciation of bond values in 
this country are primarily due to war itself, to the necessary gov- 
ernmental expenditures for the destructive purposes of war, to 
private extravagance, to the world shortage of capital, to the in- 
flation of foreign currencies and credits, and, in large degree, to 
conscienceless profiteering. 



National Democratic Platform 263 

The Republican Party is responsible for the failure to restore 
peace and peace conditions in Europe, which is a principal causo 
of post-armistice inflation the world over. It has denied the de- 
mand of the President for necessary legislation to deal with sec- 
ondary and local causes. The sound policies pursued by the Treas- 
ury and the Federal Reserve System have limited in this country, 
though they could not prevent the inflation which was world-wide. 
Elected upon specific promises to curtail public expenditures and 
to bring the country back to a status of effective economy, the 
Republican Party in Congress wasted time and energy for more 
than a year in vain and extravagant investigation, costing the tax- 
payers great sums of money, while revealing nothing beyond the 
incapacity of Republican politicians to cope with the problem. 
Demanding that the President, from his place at the peace table, 
call the Congress into extraordinary session for imperative pur- 
poses of readjustment, the Congress when convened spent thirteen 
months in partisan pursuits, failing to repeal a single war statute 
which harassed business or to initiate a single constructive meas- 
ure to help business. It busied itself making a pre-election record 
of pretended thrift, having not one particle of substantial existence 
in fact. It raged against profiteers and the high cost of living 
without enacting a single statute to make the former afraid of 
doing a single act to bring the latter within limitations. 

The simple truth is that the high cost of living can only bo 
remedied by increased production, strict governmental economy, 
and a relentless pursuit of those who take advantage of post-war 
conditions and are demanding and receiving outrageous profits. 

We pledge the Democratic Party to a policy of strict economy in 
Government expenditures and to the enactment and enforcement of 
such legislation as may be required to bring profiteers before the 
bar of criminal justice. 

the tariff 
We reaffirm the traditional policy of the Democratic Party in 
favor of a tariff for revenue only, and to confirm the policy of 
basing tariff revisions upon the intelligent research of a nonparti- 
san commission, rather than upon the demands of selfish interests, 
temporarily held in abeyance. 



264 Platforms of Political Parties 

budget. 

In the interest of economy and good administration, we favor the 
creation of an effective budget system that will function in accord 
with the principles of the Constitution. The reform should reach 
both the executive and the legislative aspects of the question. The 
supervision and preparation of the budget should be vested in the 
Secretary of the Treasury as the representative of the President. 
The budget, as such, should not be increased by the Congress except 
by a two-third vote, each House, however, being free to exercise 
its constitutional privilege of making appropriations through inde- 
pendent bills. The appropriation bills should be considered by the 
single committees of the House and the Senate. The audit sys- 
tem should be consolidated, and its powers expanded so as to 
pass upon the wisdom of, as well as the authority for, expenditures. 

A budget bill was passed in the closing days of the second session 
of the sixty-sixth Congress which invalidated by plain constitu- 
tional defects and defaced by consideration of patronage, the Presi- 
dent was obliged to veto. The House amended the bill to meet 
the executive objection. We condemn the Republican Senate for 
adjourning without passing the amended measure, when by devot- 
ing an hour or two more to this urgent public business a budget 
system could have been provided. 

SENATE RULES. 

We favor such alteration of the rules of procedure of the Senate 
of the United States as will permit the prompt transaction of the 
nation's legislative business 

AGRICULTURAL INTERESTS. 

To the great agricultural interests of the country the Democratic 
Party does not find it necessary to make promises. It already is 
rich in its record of things actually accomplished. For nearly half 
a century of Republican rule not a sentence was written into fhe 
Federal statutes affording one dollar of bank credits to the farm- 
ing interests of America. In the first term of this Democratic ad- 
ministration the National Bank Act was so altered as to authorize 
loans of five years maturity on improved farm lands. Later was 
established a system of farm loan banks, from which the borrowings 
already exceed $300,000,000, and under which the interest rate to 



National Democratic Platform 265 

farmers has been so materially reduced as to drive out of business 
the farm loan sharks who formerly subsisted by extortion upon the 
great agricultural interests of the country. 

Thus it was a Democratic Congress in the administration of a 
Democratic President which enabled the farmers of America for 
the first time to obtain credit upon reasonable terms and insured 
their opportunity for the further development of the nation's 
agricultural resources. Tied up in Supreme Court proceedings, in 
a suit by hostile interests, the Federal Farm Loan System, origi- 
nally opposed by the Republican candidate for the Presidency, ap- 
pealed in vain to a Republican Congress for an adequate financial 
assistant to tide over the interim between the beginning and the 
ending of the current year, awaiting a final decision of the highest 
court on the validity of the contested act. We pledge prompt and 
consistent support of sound and effective measures to sustain, am- 
plify and perfect the rural credits statutes and thus to check and 
reduce the growth and course of farm tenancy. 

Not only did the Democratic Party put into effect a great farm 
loan system of land mortgage banks, but it passed the Smith-Lever 
agricultural extension act, carrying to every farmer in every sec- 
tion of the country, through the medium of trained experts and 
by demonstration farms, the practical knowledge acquired by the 
Federal Agricultural Department in all things relating to agricul- 
ture, horticulture, and animal life; it established the bureau of 
markets, the bureau of farm management, and passed the cotton 
futures act, the grain grades bill, the cooperative farm administra- 
tion act, and the Federal warehouse act. 

The Democratic Party has vastly improved the rural mail sys- 
tem, and has built up the parcel post system to such an extent 
as to render its activities and its practical service indispensable to 
the farming community. It was this wise encouragement and this 
effective concern of the Democratic Party for the farmers of the 
United States that enabled this great interest to render such essen- 
tial service in feeding the armies of America and the allied nations 
of the war and succoring starving populations since armistice day. 

Meanwhile the Republican leaders at Washington have failed 
utterly to propose one single measure to make rural life more 
tolerable. They have signalized their fifteen months of congres- 



266 Platforms of Political Parties 

sional power by urging schemes which would strip the farms of 
labor; by assailing the principles of the Farm Loan System and 
seeking to impair its efficiency; by covertly attempting to destroy 
the great nitrogen plant at Muscle Shoals upon which the Govern- 
ment has expended $70,000,000 to supply American farmers with 
fertilizers at reasonable cost; by ruthlessly crippling nearly every 
branch of agricultural endeavor, literally crippling the productive 
mediums through which the people must be fed. 

We favor such legislation as will confirm to the primary pro- 
ducers of the nation the right of collective bargaining and the right 
of cooperative handling and marketing of the products of the 
workshop and the farm, and such legislation as will facilitate the 
exportation of our farm products. 

We favor comprehensive studies of farm production costs and 
the uncensored publication of facts found in such studies. 

LABOR AND INDUSTRY. 

The Democratic Party is now, as ever, the firm friend of honest 
labor and the promoter of progressive industry. It established 
the Department of Labor at Washington and a Democratic Presi- 
dent called to his official council board the first practical working 
man who ever held a cabinet portfolio. Under this administration 
have been established employment bureaus to bring the man and 
the job together; have been peaceably determined many bitter dis- 
putes between capital and labor; were passed the child labor law, 
the workingman's compensation act (the extension of which we 
advocate so as to include laborers engaged in loading and unload- 
ing ships and in interstate commerce), the eight-hour law, the 
act for vocational training, and a code of other wholesome laws 
affecting the liberties and bettering the conditions of the laboring 
classes. In the Department of Labor the Democratic administra- 
tion established a woman's bureau, which a Republican Congress 
destroyed by withholding appropriations. 

Labor is not a commodity, it is human. Those who labor have 
rights and the national security and safety depend upon a just 
recognition of those rights and the conservation of the strength of 
the workers and their families in the interest of sound-hearted 
and sound-headed men, women and children. Laws regulating 



National Democratic Platform 267 

hours of labor and conditions under which labor is performed, 
when passed in recognition of the conditions under which life 
must be lived to attain the highest development and happiness, are 
just assertions of the national interest in the welfare of the people. 

At the same time the Nation depends upon the products of labor, 
a cessation of production means loss, and, if long continued, dis- 
aster. The whole people, therefore, have a right to insist that 
justice shall be done to those who work, and in turn that those 
whose labor creates the necessities upon which the life of the 
nation depends must recognize reciprocal obligation between the 
worker and the State. They should participate in the formulation 
of sound laws and regulations governing the conditions under which 
labor is performed, recognize and obey the laws so formulated, 
and seek their amendment when necessary by the processes ordi- 
narily addressed to the laws and regulations affecting the other 
relations of life. 

Labor, as well as capital, is entitled to adequate compensation. 
Each has the indefensible right of organization, of collective bar- 
gaining, and of speaking through representatives of their own 
selection. Neither class, however, should at any time nor in any 
circumstances, take action that will put in jeopardy the public 
welfare. Resort to strikes and lockouts which endanger the health 
or lives of the people is an unsatisfactory device for determining 
disputes, and the Democratic Party pledges itself to contrive, if 
possible, and put into effective operation a fair and comprehensive 
method of composing differences of this nature. 

In private industrial disputes, we are opposed to compulsory 
arbitration as a method plausible in theory but a failure in fact. 
With respect to Government service, we hold distinctly that the 
rights of the people are paramount to the right to strike. How- 
ever, we confess scrupulous regard for the conditions of public 
employment and pledge the Democratic Party to be instant in inquiry 
into the pay of Government employes and equally speedy regula- 
tions designed to bring salaries to a just and proper level. 

WOMAN SUFFRAGE 

We endorse the proposed 19th amendment to the Constitution of 
the United States, granting equal suffrage to women. We congratu- 



268 ' Platforms of Political Parties 

late the Legislatures of thirty-five States which have already ratified 
said amendment, and we urge the Democratic Governors and Legis- 
latures of Tennessee, North Carolina, and Florida and such States 
as have not yet ratified the Federal suffrage amendment to unite 
in an effort to complete the process of ratification and secure the 
36th State in time for all the women of the United States to partici- 
pate in the fall election. We commend the effective advocacy of the 
measure of President Wilson. 

WOMEN IN INDUSTRY 

We urge cooperation with the States for the protection of child 
life through infancy and maternity care; in the prohibition of 
child labor and by adequate appropriations for the children's 
bureau and the women's bureau of the Department of Labor. Co- 
operative Federal assistance to the State is immediately required 
for the instruction in citizenship for both native"and foreign born; 
increased appropriation for vocational training in home economics; 
re-establishment of joint Federal and State employment service 
with women's departments under the direction of technically quali- 
fied women. We advocate full representation of women on all 
commissions dealing with women's interest and a reclassification 
of the Federal Civil Service free from discrimination on the ground 
of sex; a continuance of appropriations for education in sex hygiene; 
Federal legislation which shall insure that American women resi- 
dent in the United States, but married to aliens, shall retain their 
American citizenship, and that the same process of naturalization 
shall be required for women as for men. 

DISABLED SOLDIERS. 

The Federal Government should treat with the utmost considera- 
tion every disabled soldier, sailor and marine of the world war, 
whether his disability be due to wounds received in line of action 
or to health impaired in service, and for the dependents of the 
brave men who died in line of duty the Government's tenderest 
concern and richest bounty should be their requital. The fine 
patriotism exhibited, the heroic conduct dsplayed by American 
soldiers and sailors and marines at home and abroad constitute 
a sacred heritage of posterity, the worth of which can never be 
recompensed from the Treasury and the glory of which must not be 
diminished by any such expedients. 



National Democratic Platform 269 

The Democratic administration wisely established a war risk 
insurance bureau, giving four and a half millions of enlisted men 
insurance at unprecedentedly low rates and through the medium of 
which compensation of men and women injured in service is readily 
adjusted, the hospital facilities for those whose health is impaired 
are abundantly afforded. 

The Federal board of vocational education should be made a 
part of the war risk insurance bureau in order that the task may 
be treated as a whole, and this machinery of protection and assist- 
ance must receive every aid of law and appreciation to full and 
effective operation. 

We believe that no higher or more valued privilege can be afforded 
to an American citizen than to become a free holder in the soil of 
the United States and to that end we pledge our party to the en- 
actment of soldiers' settlements and home aid legislation which 
will afford to the men who fought for America the opportunity to 
become land and home owners under conditions affording genuine 
government assistance unincumbered by needless difficulties of red 
tape or adverse financial investment. 

THE RAILROADS. 

The railroads were subjected to Federal control as a war measure 
without other idea than the swift transport of troops, munitions and 
supplies. When human life and national hopes were at stake, profits 
could not be considered, and were not. Federal operation, however, 
was marked by an intelligence and efficiency that minimized loss 
and resulted in many and marked reforms. The equipment taken 
over was not only grossly inadequate, but shamefully outworn. 
Unification practices overcame the initial handicaps and provided 
additions, betterments and improvements. Economics enabled opera- 
tion without rate raises that private control would have found 
necessary, and labor was treated with an exact justice that secured 
the enthusiastic cooperation that victory demanded. The funda- 
mental purpose of Federal control was achieved fully and splendidly, 
and at far less cost to the taxpayer than would have been the case 
under private operation. Investments in railroad properties were 
not only saved by government operation, but government manage- 
ment returned these properties vastly improved in every physical 
and executive detail. A great task flatly discharged. 



270 Platforms of Political Parties 

The President's recommendation of return to private ownership 
gave the Republican majority a full year in which to enact the 
necessary legislation. The house took six months to formulate 
its ideas and another six months was consumed by the Republican 
Senate in equally vague debate. As a consequence, the Esch- 
Cummings bill went to the President in the closing hours of Con- 
gress, and he was forced to a choice between the chaos of a veto 
and the acquiesence in the measure submitted, however grave may 
have been his objections to it. 

There should be a fair and complete test of the law until careful 
and mature action by Congress may cure its defects and insure a 
thoroughly effective transportation system under private owner- 
ship without government subsidy at the expense of the taxpayers 
of the country. 

IMPROVED HIGHWAYS. 

Improved roads are of vital importance not only to commerce 
and industry, but also to agriculture and rural life. The Federal 
Road Act for 1916, enacted by the Democratic Congress, represented 
the first systematic effort of the government to insure the building 
of an adequate system of roads, in this country. The act, as 
amended, has resulted in placing the movement for improved high- 
ways on a progressive and substantial basis in every State in the 
union and in bringing under actual construction more than 13,000 
miles of roads suited to the traffic of the communities in which 
they are located. 

We favor a continuance of the present federal aid plan under 
existing federal and State agencies, amended so as to include as 
one of the elements in determining the ratio in which the several 
States shall be entitled to share in the fund, the area of any public 
lands therein. 

Inasmuch as the postal service has been extended by the Demo- 
cratic party to the door of practically every producer and every 
consumer in the country (rural free delivery alone having been 
provided for six million additional patrons within the past eight 
years without material added cost), we declare that this instrumen- 
tality can and will be used to the maximum of its capacity to im- 
prove the efficiency of distribution and reduce the cost of living to 
consumers while increasing the profitable operations of producers. 



National Democratic Platform 271 

We strongly favor the increased use of the motor vehicle in the 
transporation of the mails and urge the removal of the restric- 
tions imposed by the Republican Congress on the use of motor 
devices in mail transportation in rural territories. 

merchant marine. 

We desire to congratulate the American people on the rebirth of 
our merchant marine, which once more maintains its former place 
in the world. It was under a Democratic administration that this 
was accomplished after seventy years of indifference and neglect, 
thirteen million tons having been constructed since the act was 
passed in 1916. We pledge the policy of our party to the continued 
growth of our merchant marine under proper legislation so that 
American products will be carried to all ports of the world by 
vessels built in American yards, flying the American flag. 

PORT FACILITIES. 

The urgent demands of the war for adequate transportation of 
war materials as well as for domestic need, revealed the fact that 
our port facilities and rate adjustment were such as to seriously 
effect the whole country in times of peace as well as war. 

We pledge our party to stand for equality of rates, both import 
and export, for the ports of the country to the end that there might 
be adequate and fair facilities and rates for the mobilization of the 
products of the country offered for shipment. 

INLAND WATERWAYS. 

We call attention to the failure of the Republican rational Con- 
vention to recognize in any way the rapid development of barge 
transportation on our inland waterways, which development is 
the result of the constructive policies of the Democratic adminis- 
tration. And ' we pledge ourselves to the further development of 
our inland waterways, and we recognize the importance of con- 
necting the Great Lakes with the sea by way of the Mississippi 
River and its tributaries, as well as by the St. Lawrence River. 
We favor an enterprising foreign trade policy with all nations, and 
in this connection we favor the full utilization of all Atlantic, 
Gulf and Pacific ports, and an equitable distribution of shipping 
facilities between the various ports. 



272 PlatforxMs of Political Parties 

Transportaton remains an increasingly vital problem in the 
continued development and prosperity of the nation. 

Our present facilities for distribution by rail are inadequate, and 
the promotion of transportation by water is imperative. 

We, therefore, favor a liberal and comprehensive policy for the de- 
velopment and utilization of our harbors and interior waterways. 

FLOOD CONTROL 

We commend the Democratic Congress for the redemption of 
the pledge contained in our last platform by the passage of the 
flood control act of March 1, 1917, and point to the successful con- 
trol of the floods of the Mississippi River and the Sacramento 
River, California, under the policy of that law, for its complete 
justification. We favor the extension of this policy to other flood 
control problems wherever the Federal interest justifies the ex- 
penditure required. 

RECLAMATION OF ARID LANDS. 

By wise legislation and progressive administration we have 
transferred the Government reclamation projects representing an 
investment of $100,000,000 from a condition of impending failure 
and loss of confidence in the ability of the government to carry 
through such large enterprises, to a condition of demonstrated 
success, whereby formerly arid and wholly unproductive lands now 
sustain 40,000 prosperous families and have an annual crop produc- 
tion of over $70,000,000, not including the crops grown on a million 
acres outside the projects supplied with storage water for Govern- 
ment workers. 

We favor ample appropriations for the continuation and extension 
of this great work of homebuilding and internal improvement 
along the same general lines to the end that all practical projects 
shall be built, and waters now running to waste, •shall be made 
to provide homes and add to the food supply proper resources and 
taxable property, with the government ultimately reimbursed for 
the entire outlay. 

THE TRADE COMMISSION. 

The Democratic party heartily endorses the creation and work of 
the Federal Trade Commission in establishing a fair field for com- 
petitive business, free from restraints of trade and monopoly and 



National Democratic Platform 273 

recommends amplification of the statutes governing its activities 
so as to grant it authority to prevent the unfair use of patents in 
restraint of trade. 

LIVE STOCK MARKETS. 

For the purpose of insuring just and fair treatment in the great 
interstate live stock market, and thus instilling confidence in 
growers through which production will be stimulated and the price 
of meats to consumers bs ultimately reduced, we Tavor the enact- 
ment of legislation for the supervision of such markets by the 
national government. 

MEXICO. 

The United States is the neighbor and friend of the nations of 
the three Americas. In a very special sense, our international re- 
lations in this hemisphere should be characterized by good will 
and free from any possible suspicion as to our national purpose. 

The administration, remembering always that Mexico is an in- 
dependent nation and that permanent stability in her government 
and her institutions could come only from the consent of her 
own people to a government of their own making, has been unwilling 
either to profit by the misfortune of the people of Mexico or to 
enfeeble their future by imposing from the outside a rule upon their 
temporarily distracted councils. As a consequence, order is grad- 
ually reappearing in Mexico; at no time in many years have 
American lives and interest been so safe as they now are; peace 
reigns along the border and industry is resuming. 

When the new government of Mexico shall have given ample 
proof of its ability permanently to maintain law and order, signi- 
fied its willingness to meet its international obligations and written 
upon its statute books just laws under which foreign investors 
shall have rights as well as duties, that government should receive 
our recognition and systematic assistance. Until these proper ex- 
pectations have been met, Mexico must realize the propriety of a 
policy that asserts the rights of the United States to demand full 
protection for its citizens. 

PETROLEUM. 

The Democratic party recognizes the importance of the acquisi- 
tion by Americans of additional sources of supply of petroleum 

18 



274 Platforms of Political Parties 

and other minerals and declares that such acquisition both at home 
and abroad should be fostered and encouraged. 

We urge such action, legislative and executive, as may secure to 
American citizens the same rights in the acquirement of mineral 
rights and foreign countries as are enjoyed by the citizens or sub- 
jects of any other nation. 

NEW NATIONS. 

The Democratic party expresses its active sympathy with the 
people of China, Czecho-Slovakia, Finland, Poland, Persia and 
others who have recently established representative government and 
who are striving to develop the institutions of true democracy. 

IRELAND. 

The great principle of national self-determination has received 
constant reiteration as one of the chief objectives for which this 
country entered the war, and victory established this principle. 

Within the limitation of international comity and usage, this 
convention repeats the several previous expressions of the sympathy 
of the Democratic party of the United States for the aspirations 
of Ireland for self-government. 

ARMENIA. 

We express our deep and earnest sympathy for the unfortunate 
people of Armenia, and we believe that our government, consistent 
with its constitution and principles, should render every possible 
and proper aid to them in their efforts to establish and maintain 
a government of their own. 

THE PHILIPPINES. 

We favor the granting of independence without unnecessary de- 
lay to the 10,500,000 inhabitants of the Philippine Islands. 

HAWAII. 

We favor a liberal policy of homesteading public lands in Hawaii 
to promote a larger middle class citizen population, with equal rights 
to all citizens. 

PORTO RICO 

We favor the granting to the people of Porto Rico the traditional 
territorial form of government, with a view to ultimate statehood, 



National Democratic Platform 275 

accorded to all territories of the United States since the beginning 
of our government, and we believe that the officials appointed to 
administer the government of such territories should be qualified 
by previous bona fide residence therein. 

ALASKA 

We commend the Democratic Administration for inaugurating a 
new policy as to Alaska as evidenced by the construction of the 
Alaska railroad and opening of the coal and oil fields. 

We declare for the modification of the existing coal land law, 
to promote development without disturbing the features intended 
to prevent monopoly. 

For such changes in the policy 01 forestry control as will permit 
the immediate initiation of the paper pulp industry. 

For relieving the territory from the evils of long distance govern- 
ment by authority and interlocking bureaucratic regulation, and to 
that end we urge the speedy passage of a law containing the 
essential features of the Lane^Curry bill now pending, coordinating 
and consolidating all Federal control of natural resources under 
one department to be administered by a nonpartisan board perma- 
nently resident in the territory. 

For the fullest measure of territorial self-government with the 
view to ultimate statehood, with jurisdiction over all matters not 
of purely Federal concern, including fisheries and game, and for 
an intelligent administration of Federal control, we believe that 
all officials appointed should be qualified by previous bona fide 
residence in the territory. 

For a comprehensive system of road construction with increased 
appropriations and the full extension of the Federal road act to 
Alaska. 

For the extension to Alaska of the Federal farm loan act. 

ASIATIC IMMIGRATION. 

The policy of the United States with reference to the non-admis- 
sion of Asiatic immigrants is a true expression of the judgment 
of our people and to the several States, whose geographical situa- 
tion or internal condition make this policy and the enforcement of 
the laws enacted pursuant thereto, of particular concern, we pledge 
our support. 



276 Platforms of Political Parties 

the postal service. 

The efficiency of the Postoffice Department has been vindicated 
against a malicious and designing assault by the efficiency of its 
operation. Its record refutes its assailants. Their voices are 
silenced and their charges have collapsed. 

We commend the work of the joint commission on the reclassi- 
fication of salaries of postal employes, recently concluded, which 
commission was created by a Democratic administration. The 
Democratic party has always favored and will continue to favor the 
fair and just treatment of all government employes. 

FREE SPEECH AND PRESS. 

We resent the unfounded reproaches directed against the Demo- 
cratic administration for alleged interference of the freedom of 
the press and freedom of speech. 

No utterances from any quarter have been assailed, and no publi- 
cation has been repressed which has not been animated by the 
reasonable purpose and directed against the nation's peace, order 
and security in time of war. 

We reaffirm our respect for the great principles of free speech 
and a free press, but assert as an indisputable proposition that 
they afford no toleration of enemy propaganda or the advocacy of 
the overthrow of the government of the State or nation by force 
or violence. 

EEPVBLICAX CORRUPTION. 

The shocking disclosure of the lavish use of money by aspirants 
for the Republican nomination for the highest office in the gift of 
the people has created a painful impression throughout the coun- 
try. Viewed in connection with the recent conviction of a Republi- 
can Senator from the State of Michigan for the criminal transgres- 
sion of the law limiting expenditures on behalf of a candidate for 
the United States Senate, it indicates the re-entry, under Republi- 
can auspices, of money as an influential factor in elections, thus 
nullifying the letter and flaunting the spirit of numerous laws 
enacted by the people to proctect the ballot from the contamination 
of corrupt practices. We deplore those delinquencies and invoke 
their stern popular rebuke, pledging our earnest efforts to strength- 
ening of the present statutes against corrupt practices and their 
rigorous enforcement. 



National Republican Platform 277 

We remind the people that it was only by the return of a Repub- 
lican Senator in Michigan, who is now under conviction and sen- 
tence for the criminal misuse of money in his election, that the 
present organization of the Senate with a Republican majority 
was made possible. 

CONCLUSION 

Believing that we have kept the Democratic faith and resting 
our claims in the confidence of the people not upon grandiose 
promises but upon performances of our duty, we submit our record 
to the nation's Federation and ask that the pledges of this platform 
be appraised in the light of that record. 



NATIONAL REPUBLICAN PLATFORM, 1920 

The Republican party, assembled in representative national con- 
vention, reaffirms its unyielding devotion to the Constitution of 
the United States, and to the guarantees of civil, political and 
religious liberty therein contained. It will resist all attempts 
to overthrow the foundations of the government or to weaken the 
force of its controlling principles and ideals, whether these at- 
tempts be made in the form of international policy or domestic 
agitation. 

For seven years the national government has been controlled 
by the Democratic party. During that period a war of unparalleled 
magnitude has shaken the foundations of civilization, decimated 
the population of Europe, and left in its train economic misery 
and suffering second only to the war itself. 

The outstanding features of the Democratic administration have 
been complete unpreparedness for war and complete unpreparedness 
for peace. 

UNPREPAHEDNESS FOR WAR. 

Inexcusable failure to make timely preparation is the chief indict- 
ment against the Democratic administration in the conduct of the 
war. Had not our Associates protected us, both on land and sea, 
during the first twelve months of our participation, and furnished 
us to the very day of the Armistice with munitions, planes and 
artillery, this failure would have been punished with disaster. 
It directly resulted in unneccessary losses to our gallant troops, in 



27S Platforms of Political Parties 

the impediment of victory itself, and in an enormous waste of 
public funds literally poured into the breach created by gross 
neglect. Today it is reflected in our huge tax burden and in the 
high cost of living. 

TJNPREPARDNESS FOR PEACE. 

Peace found the Administration as unprepared for peace as war 
found it unprepared for war. The vital needs of the country de- 
manded the early and systematic return to a peace-time basis. 

This called for vision, leadership and intelligent planning. All 
three have been lacking. While the country has been left to shift 
for itself, the Government has continued on a war-basis. The 
Administration has not demobilized the army of place holders. It 
continued a method of financing which was indefensible during the 
period of reconstruction. It has used legislation passed to meet 
the emergency of war to continue its arbitrary and inquisitorial 
control over the life of the people in time of peace, and to carry 
confusion into industrial life. Under the despot's plea of necessity 
or superior wisdom, executive usurpation of legislative and judicial 
functions still undermines our institutions. Eighteen months after 
the Armistice, with its war-time powers unabridged, its war-time 
departments undischarged, its war-time army of place holders still 
mobilized, the Administration continues to flounder helplessly. 

The demonstrated incapacity of the Democratic party has de- 
stroyed public confidence, weakened the authority of the govern- 
ment, and produced a feeling of distrust and hesitation so univer- 
sal as to increase enormously the difficulties of readjustment and to 
delay the return to normal conditions. 

Never has our nation been confronted with graver problems. 
The people are entitled to know in definite terms how the parties 
purpose solving these problems. To that end, the Republican party 
declares its policies and program to be as follows: 

CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT. 

We undertake to end executive autocracy and to restore to the 
people their constitutional government. 

The policies herein declared will be carried out by the federal 
and State governments, each acting within its constitutional powers. 



National Republican Platform 279 

foreign relations. 

The foreign policy of the Administration has been founded upon 
no principle and directed by no definite conception of our nation's 
rights and obligations. It has been humiliating to America and 
irritating to other nations, with the result that after a period of 
unexampled sacrifice, our motives are suspected, our moral influence 
impaired, and our Government stands discredited and friendless 
among the nations of the world. 

We favor a liberal and generous foreign policy founded upon 
definite normal and political principles characterized by a clear 
understanding of and a firm adherence to our own rights, and un- 
failing respect for the rights of others. We should afford full 
and adequate protection to the life, liberty, property and all in- 
ternational rights of every American citizen, and should require 
a proper respect for the American flag; but we should be equally 
careful to manifest a just regard for the rights of other nations. 
A scrupulous observance of our international engagements when 
lawfully assumed is essential to our own honor and self-respect, 
and the respect of other nations. Subject to a due regard for our 
international obligations, we should leave our country free to de- 
velop its civilization along lines most conducive to happiness and 
welfare of its people, and to cast its influence on the side of justice 
and right should occasion require. 

(a) MEXICO. 

The ineffective policy of the present Administration in Mexican 
matters has been largely responsible for the continued loss of 
American lives in that country and upon our border; for the enor- 
mous loss of American and foreign property; for the lowering 
of American standards of morality and social relations with Mexi- 
cans, and for the bringing American ideals and justice, national 
honor and political integrity into contempt and ridicule in Mexico 
and throughout the world. 

The policy of wordy, futile written protests against the acts 
of Mexican officials, explained the following day by the President 
himself as being meaningless and not intended to be considered 
seriously, or enforced, has but added in degree to that contempt, 
and has earned for us the sneers and jeers of Mexican bandits, 
and added insult upon insult against our national honor and dignity. 



2S0 Platforms of Political Parties 

Wo should not recognize any Mexican government unless it be 
a responsible government willing and able to give sufficient guar- 
antees that the lives and property of American citizens are re- 
spected and protected; that wrongs will be promptly corrected and 
just compensation will be made for injury sustained. The Republi- 
can party pledges itself to a consistent, firm and effective policy 
towards Mexico that shall enforce respect for the American flag 
and that shall protect the rights of American citizens lawfully in 
Mexico to security of life and enjoyment of property, in accord- 
ance with established principles of international law and our 
treaty rights. 

The Republican party is a sincere friend of the Mexican people. 
In its insistence upon the maintenance of order for the protection 
of American citizens within its border a great service will be 
rendered the Mexican people themselves; for a continuation of 
present conditions means disaster to their interests and patriotic 
aspirations. 

(b) MANDATE FOP. ARMENIA. 

We condemn President Wilson for asking Congress to empower 
him to accept a mandate for Armenia. We commend the Republi- 
can Senate for refusing the President's request to empower him 
to accept the mandate for Armenia. The acceptance of such man- 
date would throw the United States into the very maelstrom of 
European quarrels. According to the estimate of the Harbord 
Commission, organized by authority of President Wilson, we would 
be called upon to send 59,000 American boys to police Armenia 
and to expend $276,000,000 in the first year and $756,000,000 in 
five years. This estimate is made upon the basis that we would 
have only roving bands to fight; but in case of serious trouble with 
the Turks or with Russia, a force exceeding 200,000 would be 
necessary. 

No more striking illustration can be found of President Wilson's 
disregard of the lives of American boys or of American interests. 

We deeply sympathize with the people of Armenia and stand 
ready to help them in all proper ways, but the Republican party 
will oppose now and hereafter the acceptance of a mandate for 
any country in Europe or Asia. 



National Republican Platform 2S1 

(C) LEAGUE OF NATIONS. 

The Republican party stands for agreement among the nations 
to preserve the peace of the world. We believe that such an 
international association must be based upon international justice, 
and must provide methods which shall maintain the rule of public 
right by the development of law and the decision of impartial 
courts, and which shall secure instant and general international 
conference whenever peace shall be threatened by political action, 
so that the nations pledged to do and insist upon what is just 
and fair may exercise their influence and power for the prevention 
of war. 

We believe that all this can be done without the compromise 
of national independence, without depriving the people of the 
United States in advance of the right to determine for them- 
selves what is just and fair when the occasion arises, and with- 
out involving them as participants and not as peacemakers in a 
multitude of quarrels, the merits of which they are unable to 
judge. 

The covenant signed by the President at Paris failed signally to 
accomplish this great purpose, and contains stipulations, not only 
intolerable for an independent people, but certain to produce the 
injustice, hostility, and controversy among nations which it pro- 
posed to prevent. 

That covenant repudiated, to a degree wholly unnecessary and 
unjustifiable, the time-honored policies in favor of peace declared 
by Washington, Jefferson and Monroe, and pursued by all Ameri- 
can administrations for more than a century, and it ignored the 
universal sentiment of America for generations past in favor of 
international law and arbitration, and it rested the hope of the 
future upon mere expediency and negotiation. 

The unfortunate insistence of the President upon having his 
own way, without any change and without any regard to the opin- 
ions of a majority of the Senate, which shares with him in the 
treaty-making power, and the President's demand that the Treaty 
should be ratified without any modification, created a situation 
in which Senators were required to vote upon their consciences 
and their oaths according to their judgment against the Treaty 
as it was presented, or submit to the commands of a dictator in 



282 Platforiis of Political Parties 

a matter where the authority and the responsibility under the 
Constitution were theirs, and not his. 

The Senators performed their duty faithfully. We approve their 
conduct and honor their courage and fidelity. And we pledge the 
coming Republican administration to such agreements with the 
other nations of the world as shall meet the full duty of America 
to civilization and humanity, in accordance with American ideals, 
and without surrendering the right of the Amercan people to 
exercise its judgment and its power in favor of justice and peace. 

CONGRESS AND RECONSTRUCTION. 

Despite the unconstitutional and dictatorial course of the Presi- 
dent and the partisan obstruction of the Democratic Congressional 
minority, the Republican majority has enacted a program of con- 
structive legislation which in great part, however, has been nulli- 
fied by the vindictive vetoes of the President. 

The Republican Congress has met the problems presented by 
the Administration's unpreparedness for peace. It has repealed 
the greater part of the vexatious war legislation. It has enacted 
a transportation act making possible the rehabilitation of the rail- 
road systems of the country, the operation of which under the pres- 
end Democratic Administration has been wasteful, extravagant and 
inefficient in the highest degree. The Transportation Act made pro- 
vision for the peaceful settlement of wage disputes, partially nulli- 
fied, however, by the President's delay in appointing the Wage Board 
created by the act. This delay precipitated the outlaw railroad 
strike. 

We stopped the flood of public treasure, recklessly poured into 
the lap of an inept Shipping Board, and laid the foundations 
for the creation of a great merchant marine; we took from the 
incompetent Democratic Administration the administration of the 
telegraph and telephone lines of the country and returned them 
to private ownership; we reduced the cost of postage and in- 
creased the pay of the postal employes— the poorest paid of all 
public servants; we provided pensions for superannuated and retired 
civil servants; and for an increase in pay of soldiers and sailors. 
We reorganized the Army on a peace footing, and provided for the 
maintenance of a powerful and efficient Navy. 



National Republican Platforji 283 

The Republican Congress established by law a permanent Wo- 
man's Bureau in the Department of Labor; we submitted to the 
country the constitutional amendment for woman suffrage, and 
furnished twenty-nine of the thirty-five Legislatures which have 
ratified it to date. 

Legislation for the relief of the consumers of print paper, for 
the extension of the powers of the government under the Food 
Control Act, for broadening the scope of the War Risk Insurance 
Act, better provisions for the dwindling number of aged veterans 
of the Civil War and for the better support of the maimed and 
injured of the Great War, and for making practical the Vocational 
Rehabilitation Act, has been enacted by the Republican Congress. 

We passed an oil leasing and water power bill to unlock for the 
public good the great pent-up resources of the country; we have 
sought to check the profligacy of the Administration, to realize upon 
the assets of the government and to husband the revenues derived 
from taxation. The Republicans in Congress have been responsible 
for cuts in the estimates for government expenditure of nearly 
$3,000,000,000 since the signing of the armistice. 

We enacted a national executive budget law; we strengthened 
the Federal Reserve Act to permit banks to lend needed assistance 
to farmers; we authorized financial incorporations to develop ex- 
port trade; and finally, amended the rules of the Senate and House, 
which will reform evils in procedure and guarantee more efficient 
and responsible government. 

AGRICULTURE. 

The farmer is the backbone of the nation. National greatness 
and economic independence demanded a population distributed be- 
tween industry and the farm, and sharing on equal terms the pros- 
perity which is wholly dependent upon the efforts of both. Neither 
can prosper at the expense of the other without inviting joint 
disaster. 

The crux of the present agricultural condition lies in prices, 
labor and credit. 

The Republican party believes that this condition can be im- 
proved by: practical and adequate farm representation in the ap- 
pointment of governmental officials and commissions; the right to 



2S4 Platforms of Political Parties 

form cooperative associations for marketing their products, and pro- 
tection against discrimination; the scientific study of agricultural 
prices and farm production costs, at home and abroad, with a 
view of reducing the frequency of abnormal fluctuations; the un- 
censored publication of such reports; the authorization of asso- 
ciations for the extension of personal credit; a national inquiry 
on the co-ordination of rail, water and motor transportation with 
adequate facilities for receiving, handling and marketing food; 
the encouragement of our export trade; an end to unnecessary 
price-fixing and ill considered efforts arbitrary to reduce prices of 
farm products which invariably result to the disadvantage both of 
producer and consumer; and the encouragement of the production 
and importation of fertilizing material and its extensive use. 

The Federal Farm Loan Act should be so administered as to 
facilitate the acquisition of farm land by those desiring to be- 
come owners and proprietors and thus minimize the evils of farm 
tenantry, and to furnish such long time credits as farmers may 
need to finance adequately their larger and long time production 
operations. 

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS. 

There are two different conceptions of the relations of capital 
and labor. The one is contractual and emphasizes the diversity 
of interests of employer and employe. The other is that of co- 
partnership in a common task. 

We recognize the justice of collective bargaining as a means of 
promoting good will, establishing closer and more harmonious re- 
lations between employers and employes, and realizing the true 
ends of industrial justice. 

The strike or the lockout, as a means of settling industrial dis- 
putes, inflicts such loss and suffering on the community as to justify 
government initiative to reduce its frequency and limit its con- 
sequences. 

We deny the right to strike against the government; but the 
rights and interests of al! government employes must be safe- 
guarded by impartial laws and tribunals. 

In public utilities we favor the establishment of an impartial 
tribunal to make an investigation of the facts and to render a de- 
cision to the end that there may be no organized interruption 



National Republican Platform 285 

of service necessary to the lives, health and welfare of the people. 
The decisions of the tribunals should be morally but not legally 
binding, and an informed public sentiment be relied on to secure 
their acceptance. The tribunals, however, should refuse to accept 
jurisdiction except for the purpose of investigation, as long as 
tho public service be interrupted. For public utilities we favor the 
type of tribunal provided for in the Transportation Act of 1920. 

In private industries we do not advocate the principle of compul- 
sory arbitration, but we favor impartial commissions and better 
facilities for voluntary mediation, conciliation and arbitration, sup- 
plemented by that full publicity which will enlist the influence 
of an aroused public opinion. The Government should take the 
initiative in inviting the establishment of tribunals or commissions 
for the purpose of voluntary arbitration and of investigation of 
disputed issues. 

We demand the exclusion from interstate commerce of the pro- 
ducts of convict labor. 

national economy. 

A Republican Congress reduced the estimates submitted by tho 
Administration almost three billion dollars. Greater economies 
could have been effected had it not been for the stubborn refusal 
Oj! tho Administration to cooperate with Congress in an economy 
program. The universal demand for an executive budget is a 
recognition of the incontrovertible fact that leadership and sincere 
assistance on the part of the executive departments are essential 
to effective economy and constructive retrenchment. 

The Overman Act invested the President of the United States 
with all the authority and power necessary to restore the Federal 
Government to a normal peace basis and to reorganize, retrench 
and demobilize. Tho dominant fact is that eighteen months after 
the Armistice the United Sates Government is still on a war-time 
basis, and the expenditure program of the Executive reflects 
war-time extravagance rather than rigid peace-time economy. 

As an example of tho failure to retrench which has characterized 
tho post-war policy of the Administration, we cite the fact that 
not including the War and Navy Departments, the executive de- 
partments and other establishments at Wash.njton actually record 
an increase subsequent to the Armistice of 2,184 employes The 



2S6 Platforms of Political Parties 

net decrease in pay-roll cost contained in the 1921 demands sub- 
mitted by the Administration is only one per cent under that of 
1920. The annual expenses of the Federal Government can be 
reduced hundreds of millions of dollars without impairing the 
efficiency of the public service. 

We pledge ourselves to a carefully planned readjustment to a 
peace-time basis and to a policy of rigid economy, to the better 
coordination of departmental activities, to 'the elimination of un- 
necessary officials and employes, and to the raising of the standard 
of individual efficiency. 

THE EXECUTIVE BUDGET. 

We congratulate the Republican Congress on the enactment of 
a law providing for the establishment of an Executive Budget as 
a necessary instrument for a sound and business-like administration 
of the national finances; and we condemn the veto of the President 
which defeated this great financial reform. 

REORGANIZATION OF FEDERAL DEPARTMENTS AND BUREAUS. 

We advocate a thorough investigation of the present organization 
of the Federal departments and bureaus, with a view to securing 
consolidation, a more business-like distribution of functions, the 
elimination of duplication, delays and over-lapping of work, and the 
establishment of an up-to-date and efficient administrative organiza- 
tion. 

WAR POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT. 

The President clings tenaciously to his autocratic war-time 
powers. His veto of the resolution declaring peace and his refusal 
to sign the bill repealing war-time legislation, no longer necessary, 
evidence his determination not to restore to the Nation and to the 
States the form of government provided for by the Constitution. 
This usurpation is intolerable and deserves the severest condem- 
nation. 

TAXATION. 

The burden of taxation imposed upon the American people is 
staggering; but in presenting a true statement of the situation we 
must face the fact that, while the character of the taxes can and 
should be changed, an early reduction of the amount of revenue 



National Republican Platform 287 

to be raised is not to be excepted. The next Republican administra- 
tion will inherit from its Democratic predecessor a floating in- 
debtedness of over three billion dollars, the prompt liquidation of 
which is demanded by sound financial considerations. Moreover, 
the whole fiscal policy of the Government must be deeply influenced 
by the necessity of meeting obligations in excess of five billion 
dollars which mature in 1923. But sound policy equally demands 
the early accomplishment of that real reduction of the tax burden 
which may be achieved by substituting simple for complex tax 
laws and procedure; prompt and certain determination of the tax 
liability for delay and uncertainty; tax law's which do not, for tax 
laws which do, excessively mulct the consumer or needlessly repress 
enterprise and thrift. 

We advocate the issuance of a simplified form of income return; 
authorizing the Treasury Department to make changes in regu- 
lations effective only from the date of their approval; empowering 
the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with the consent of the 
taxpayer, to make final and conclusive settlements of tax claims 
and assessments barring fraud, and the creation of a Tax Board 
consisting of at least three representatives of the tax-paying pub- 
lic and the heads of the principal divisions of the Bureau of 
Internal Revenue to act as a standing committee on the simpli- 
fication of forms, procedure and law, and to make recommendations 
to the Congress. 

banking and currency 

The fact is that the war, to a great extent, was financed by a 
policy of inflation through certificate borrowing from the banks, 
and bonds issued at artificial rates sustained by the low discount 
rates established by the Federal Reserve Board. The continuance 
of this policy since the armistice lays the Administration open 
to severe criticism. Almost up to the present time the practices 
of the Federal Reserve Board- as to credit control have been frankly 
dominated by the convenience of the Treasury. 

The results have been a greatly increased war cost, a serious 
loss to the millions of people who in good faith bought Liberty 
Bonds and Victory Notes at par, and extensive post-war specula- 
tion, followed today by a restricted credit for legitimate industrial 
expansion. As a matter of public policy, we urge all banks to 
give credit preference to essential industries. 



2SS Platforms of Political Pasties 

The Federal Reserve System should be free from political in- 
fluence, which is quite as important as its independence of domi- 
nation by financial combinations. 

THE HIGH COST OF LIVING. 

The prime cause of the "High Cost of Living" has been first 
and foremost a fifty per cent depreciation in the purchasing power 
of the dollar, due to a gross expansion of our currency and credit. 
Reduced production, burdensome taxation, swollen profits, and the 
increased demand for goods arising from a fictitious but enlarged 
buying power have been contributing causes in a greater or less 
degree. 

We condemn the unsound fiscal policies of the Democratic adminis- 
tration which have brought these things to pass, and their at- 
tempts to impute the consequences to minor and secondary causes. 
Much of the injury wrought is irreparable. There is no short way 
out, and we decline to deceive the people with vain promises or 
quack remedies. But as the political party that throughout its 
history has stood for honest money and sound finance, we pledge 
ourselves to earnest and consistent attack upon the high cost of 
living by rigorous avoidance of further inflation in our govern- 
ment borrowing, by courageous and intelligent deflation of over- 
expanded credit and currency, by encouragement of heightened 
production of goods and services, by prevention of unreasonable 
profits, by exercise of public economy and stimulation of private 
thrift and by revision of war-imposed taxes unsuited to peace-time 
economy. 

PROFITEERING. 

We condemn the Democratic administration for failure impar- 
tially to enforce the anti-profiteering laws enacted by the Republi- 
can Congress. 

RAILROADS. 

We are opposed to government ownership and operation or em- 
ploye operation of the railroads. In view of the conditions prevail- 
ing in this country, the experience of the last two years, and the con- 
clusions which may fairly be drawn from an observation of the 
transportation systems of other countries, it is clear that adequate 
transportation service both for the present and future can be 



National Republican Platform 289 

furnished more certainly, economically and efficiently through 
private ownership and operation under proper regulation and con- 
trol. 

There should be no speculative profit in rendering the service 
of transportation; but in order to do justice to the capital already 
invested in railway enterprises, to restore railway credit, to in- 
duce future investment at a reasonable rate, and to furnish en- 
larged facilities to meet the requirements of the constantly increas- 
ing development and distribution, a fair return upon actual value 
of the railway property used in transportation should be made 
reasonably sure, and at the same time provide constant employ- 
ment to those engaged in transportation service, with fair hours 
and favorable working conditions, at wages or compensation at 
least equal to those prevailing in similar lines of industry. 

We endorse the Transportation Act of 1920 enacted by the Re- 
publican Congress as a most constructive legislative achievement. 

WATERWAYS. 

We declare it to be our policy to encourage and develop water 
transportation service and facilities in connection with the com- 
merce of the United States. 

REGULATION OF INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE. 

We approve in general the existing Federal legislation against 
monopoly and combinations in restraint of trade, but since the 
known certainty of a law is the safety of all, we advocate such 
amendment as will provide American business men with better 
means of determining in advance whether a proposed combination 
is or is not unlawful. The Federal Trade Commission, under a 
Democratic Administration, has not accomplished the purposes for 
which it was created. This Commission properly organized and 
its duties efficiently administered should afford protection to the 
public and legitimate business interests. There should be no per- 
secution of honest business, but to the extent that circumstances 
warrant we pledge ourselves to strengthen the law against unfair 
practices. 

We pledge the party to an immediate resumption of trade rela- 
tions with every nation with which we are at peace. 

19 



290 Platforms of Political Parties 

international trade and tariff. 
The uncertain and unsettled condition of international balances, 
the abnormal economic and trade situation of the world, and 
the impossibility of forecasting accurately even the near future, pre- 
clude the formulation of a definite program to meet conditions a 
year hence. But the Republican party reaffirms its belief in the 
protective principle and pledges itself to a revision of the tariff as 
soon as conditions shall make it necessary for the preservation of 
the home market for American labor, agriculture and industry. 

MERCHANT MARINE. 

The national defense and our foreign commerce require a mer- 
chant marine of the best type of modern ship flying the American 
flag, manned by American seamen, owned by private capital, and 
operated by private energy. We endorse the sound legislation 
recently enacted by the Republican Congress that will insure the 
promotion and maintenance of the American merchant marine. 

We favor the application of the Workmen's Compensation Acts 
to the merchant marine. 

We recommend that all ships engaged in coastwise trade and all 
vessels of the American merchant marine shall pass through the 
Panama Canal without payment of tolls. 

IMMIGRATION. 

The standard of living and the standard of citizenship of a 
nation are its most precious possessions, and the preservation 
and elevation of those standards is the first duty of our govern- 
ment. The immigration policy of the United States should be such 
as to insure that the number of foreigners in the country at any 
time shall not exceed that which can be assimilated with reason- 
able rapidity, and to favor immigrants whose standards are similar 
to ours. 

The selective tests that are at present applied should be im- 
proved by requiring a higher physical standard, a more complete 
exclusion of mental defectives and of criminals, and a more effec- 
tive inspection applied as near the source of immigration as 
possible, as well as at the port of entry. Justice to the foreigner 
and to ourselves demands provision for the guidance, protection 



National Republican Platform 291 

and better economic distribution of our alien population. To 
facilitate government supervision, all aliens' sbould be required to 
register annually until they become naturalized. 

The existing policy of the United States for the practical exclu- 
sion of Asiatic immigrants is sound, and should be maintained. 

NATURALIZATION. 

There is urgent need of improvement in cur naturalization law. 
No alien should become a citizen until he has become genuinely 
American, and adequate tests for determining the alien's fitness 
for American citizenship should be provided for by law. 

We advocate, in addition, the independent naturalization of mar- 
ried women. An American woman, resident in the United States, 
should not lose her citizenship by marriage to an alien. 

FREE SPEECH AND ALIEN AGITATION. 

We demand that every American citizen shall enjoy the ancient 
and constitutional right of free speech, free press and free assembly 
and the no less sacred right of the qualified voter to be repre- 
sented by his duly chosen representative; but no man may advo- 
cate resistance to the law, and no man may advocate violent over- 
throw of the government. 

Aliens within the jurisdiction of the United States are not entitled 
of right to liberty of agitation directed against the government or 
American institutions. 

Every government has the power to exclude and deport those 
aliens who constitute a real menace to its peaceful existence. But 
in view of the large numbers of people affected by the immigra- 
tion acts and in view of the vigorous malpractice of the Depart- 
ments of Justice and Labor, an adequate public hearing before a 
competent administrative tribunal should be assured to all. 

LYNCHING. 

We urge Congress to consider the most effective means to end 
lynching in this country, which continues to be a terrible blot on 
our American civilization. 



292 Platfobms ok Political Parties 

publk roads ami highways. 
We favor liberal appropriations in cooperation with the State ; 
for the construction of highways, which will bring about a redac- 
tion in transportation costs, better marketing of farm products, 
improvements in rural postal delivery, as well as meet the needs of 
military defense. 

In determining the proportion of Federal aid for road construc- 
tion among the States the sums lost in taxation to the respective 
States by the setting apart of large portions of their area as forest 
reservations should be considered as a controlling factor. 

CONSERVATION. 

Conservation is a Republican policy. It began with the passage 
of the Reclamation Act signed by President Roosevelt. The recent 
passage of the coal, oil and phosphate leasing act by a Republican 
Congress and the enactment of the waterpower bill fashioned in 
accordance with the same principle, are consistent landmarks in 
the development of the conservation of our national resources. We 
denounce the refusal of the President to sign the waterpower bill, 
passed after ten years of controversy. The Republican party has 
taken an especially honorable part in saving our national forests 
and in the effort to establish a national forest policy. Our most 
pressing conservation question relates to our forests. We are using 
our forest resources faster than they are being renewed. The result 
is to raise unduly the cost of forest products to consumers and 
especially farmers, who use more than half the lumber produced in 
America, and in the end to create a timber famine. The Federal 
Government, the States and private interests must unite in devising 
means to meet the menace. 

reclamation. 
We favor a fixed and comprehensive policy of reclamation to in- 
crease national wealth and production. 

We recognize in the development of reclamation through Federal 
action with its increase of production and taxable wealth a safe- 
guard for the nation. 

We commend to Congress a policy to reclaim lands and the 
establishment of a fixed national policy of development of natural 



National Republican Platform 293 

resources in relation to reclamation through the now designated 
government agencies. 

ARMY AND NAVY. 

We feel the deepest pride in the fine courage, the resolute en- 
durance, the gallant spirit of the officers and men of our army 
and navy in the World War. They were in all ways worthy of the 
best traditions of the nation's defenders, and we pledge ourselves 
to proper maintenance of the military and naval establishments 
upon which our national security and dignity depend. 

THE SERVICE MEN. 

We hold in imperishable remembrance the valor and the patriot- 
ism of the soldiers and sailors of America who fought in the great 
war for human liberty, and we pledge ourselves to discharge to 
the fullest the obligations which a grateful nation justly should 
fulfill in appreciation of the services rendered by its defenders on 
sea and on land. 

Republicans are not ungrateful. Throughout their history they 
have shown their gratitude toward the nation's defenders. Liberal 
legislation for the care of the disabled and infirm and their de- 
pendents has ever marked Republican policy toward the soldier 
and sailor of all the wars in which our country has participated. 
The present Congress has appropriated generously for the disabled 
of the World War. 

The amounts already applied and authorized for the fiscal year 
1920-21 for this purpose reached the stupendous sum of $1,180,571,- 
893. This legislation is significant of the party's purpose in 
generously caring for the maimed and disabled men of the recent 
war. 

CIVIL SERVICE. 

We renew our repeated declaration that the civil service law 
shall be thoroughly and honestly enforced and extended wherever 
practicable. The recent action of Congress in enacting a compre- 
hensive civil service retirement law and in working out a com- 
prehensive employment and wage policy that will guarantee equal 
and just treatment to the army of government workers, and in 
centralizing the administration of the new and progressive employ- 



294 Platforms of Political Parties 

ment policy in the hands of the Civil Service Commission is 
worthy of all praise. 

postal service. 
We condemn the present Administration for its destruction of 
the efficiency of the postal service, and the telegraph and tele- 
phone service when controlled by the government and for its 
failure to properly compensate employes whose expert knowledge 
is essential to the proper conduct of the affairs of the postal system. 
We commend the Republican Congress for the enactment of legis- 
lation increasing the pay of postal employes, who up to that time 
were the poorest paid in the government service. 

WOMAN SUFFRAGE. 

We welcome women into full participation in the affairs of 
government and the activities of the Republican party. We earnestly 
hope that Republican Legislatures in States which have not yet 
acted on the Suffrage Amendment will ratify the amendment, to 
the end that all of the women of the nation of voting age may 
participate in the election of 1920, which is so important to the 
welfare of our country. 

SOCIAL PROGRESS. 

The supreme duty of the nation is the conservation of human 
resources through an enlightened measure of social and industrial 
justice. Although the federal jurisdiction over social problems is 
limited, they affect the welfare and interest of the nation as a whole. 
We pledge the Republican party to a solution of these problems 
through national and State legislation in accordance with the 
best progressive thought of the country. 

EDUCATION AND HEALTH. 

We endorse the principle of Federal aid to the States for the 
purposes of vocational and agricultural training. 

Whenever Federal money is devoted to education, such education 
must be so directed as to awaken in the youth the spirit of America 
and a sense of patriotic duty to the United States. 

A thorough system of physical education for all children up to 
the age of 19, including adequate health supervision and instruc- 
tion, would remedy conditions revealed by the draft and would 



National Republican Platform 295 

add to the economic and industrial strength of the nation. National 
leadership and stimulation will be necessary to induce the States 
to adopt a wise system of physical training. 

The public health activities of the Federal government are 
scattered through numerous departments and bureaus, resulting 
in inefficiency, duplication and extravagance. We advocate a greater 
centralization of the Federal functions, and in addition urge 
the better coordination of the work of the Federal, State and local 
health agencies. 

CHILD LABOR. 

The Republican party stands for a Federal child labor law and 
for its rigid enforcement. If the present law be found uncon- 
stitutional or ineffective, we shall seek other means to enable Con- 
gress to prevent the evils of child labor. 

WOMEN IN INDUSTRY. 

Women have special problems of employment which make neces- 
sary special study. We commend Congress for the permanent 
establishment of a Women's Bureau in the United States Department 
of Labor to serve as a source of information to the States and 
to Congress. 

The principle of equal pay for equal service should be applied 
throughout all branches of the Federal government in which women 
are employed. 

Federal aid for vocational training should take into consider- 
ation the special aptitudes and needs of women workers. 

We demand Federal legislation to limit the hours of employment 
of women engaged in intensive industry, the product of which 
enters into interstate commerce. 

HOUSING. 

The housing shortage has not only compelled careful study of 
ways of stimulating building, but it has brought into relief the 
unsatisfactory character of the housing accommodations of large 
numbers of the inhabitants of our cities. A nation of home owners 
is the best guaranty of the maintenance of those principles of 
liberty, law and order upon which our government is founded. 
Both national and State governments should encourage in all proper 



296 Platforms ui- Political Parties 

ways the acquiring of homes by our citizens. The United States 
Government should make available the valuable information on 
housing and town planning collected during the war. This infor- 
mation should be kept up to date and made currently available. 

HAWAII. 

For Hawaii we recommend Federal assistance in Americanizing 
and educating their greatly disproportionate foreign population; 
home rule; and the rehabilitation of the Hawaiian race. 

Pointing to its history and relying on its fundamental principles, 
we declare that the Republican party has the genius, courage and 
constructive ability to end executive usurpation and restore con- 
stitutional government; to fulfill our world obligations without 
sacrificing our national independence; to raise the national stand- 
ards of education, health and general welfare; to re-establish a 
peace-time administration and to substitute economy and efficiency 
for extravagance and chaos; to restore and maintain the national 
credit; to reform unequal and burdensome taxes; to free business 
from arbitrary and unnecessary official control; to suppress dis- 
loyalty without the denial of justice; to repel the arrogant chal- 
lenge of any class and to maintain a government of all the people, 
as contrasted with government for some of the people, and finally 
to allay unrest, suspicion and strife, and to secure the cooperation 
and unity of all citizens in the solution of the complex problems 
of the clay, to the end that our country, happy and prosperous, 
proud of its past, sure of itsilf and of its institut'ons, may look 
forward with confidence to the future. 



NATIONAL SOCIALIST PLATFORM. 

In the national campaign of 1920 the Socialist party calls upon 
all American workers of hand and brain, and upon all citizens 
who believe in political liberty and social justice, to free the 
country from the oppressive misrule of the old political parties, 
and to take the government into their own hands under the ban- 
ner and upon the program of the Socialist party. 

The outgoing administration, like Democratic and Republican 
administrations of the past, leaves behind it a disgraceful record 



National Scoalist Platform 297 

of solemn pledges unscrupulously broken and public confidence 
ruthlessly betrayed. 

It obtained the suffrage of the people on a platform of peace, 
liberalism and social betterment, but drew the country into a 
devastating war, and inaugurated a regime of despotism, reaction 
and oppression unsurpassed in the annals of the republic. 

It promised to the American people a treaty which would assure 
to the world a reign of international right and true democracy. 
It gave its sanction and support to an infamous pact formulated 
behind closed doors by predatory elder statesmen of European and 
Asiatic Imperialism. Under this pact territories have been an- 
nexed against the will of their populations and cut off from then- 
source of sustenance; nations seeking their freedom in the exer- 
cise of the much heralded right of self-determination have been 
brutally fought with armed force, intrigue and starvation blockades. 

To the millions of young men who staked their lives on the 
field of battle, to the people of the country who gave unstmtingly 
of their toil and property to support the war, the Democratic 
administration held out the sublime ideal of a union of the peoples 
of the world organized to maintain perpetual peace among nations 
on the basis of justice and freedom. It helped create a reactionary 
alliance of imperialistic governments, banded together to bully 
weak nations, crush working-class governments and perpetuate strife 
and warfare. 

While thus furthering the ends of reaction, violence and oppres- 
sion abroad, our administration suppressed the cherished and 
fundamental rights and civil liberties at home. 

Upon the pretext of war-time necessity, the Chief Executive of 
the republic, and the appointed heads of his administration, were 
clothed with dictatorial powers (which were often exercised arbi- 
trarily), and Congress enacted laws in open and direct violation of 
the constitutional safeguards of freedom of expression. 

Hundreds of citizens who raised their voices for the maintenance 
of political and industrial rights during the war were indicted 
under the Espionage Law, tried in an atmosphere of prejudice and 
hysteria, and many of them are now serving inhumanly long jail 
sentences for daring to uphold the traditions of liberty which once 
were sacred in this country. 



298 Platforms of Political Parties 

Agents of the Federal Government unlawfully raided homes and 
meeting places and prevented or broke up peaceable gatherings of 
citizens. 

The Postmaster-General established a censorship of the press 
more autocratic than ever tolerated in a regime of absolutism, 
and has harassed and destroyed publications on account of their 
advanced political and economic views, by excluding them from 
the mails. 

And after the war was in fact long over, the administration has not 
scrupled to continue a policy of repression and terrorism under 
the shadow and hypocritical guise of war-time measures. 

It has practically imposed involuntary servitude and peonage on 
a large class of American workers by denying them the right to 
quit work and coercing them into acceptance of inadequate wages 
and onerous conditions of labor. It has dealt a foul blow to the 
traditional American right of asylum by deporting hundreds of 
foreign-born workers by administrative order, on the mere sus- 
picion of harboring radical views, and often for the sinister pur- 
pose of breaking labor strikes. 

In the short span of three years our self-styled liberal adminis- 
tration has succeeded in undermining the very foundation of 
political liberty and economic rights, which this republic has built 
up in more than a century of struggle and progress. 

Under the cloak of a false and hypocritical patriotism and under 
the protection of governmental terror the Democratic administra- 
tion has given the ruling classes unrestrained license to plunder 
the people by intensive exploitation of labor, by the extortion of 
enormous profits, and by increasing the cost of all necessities 
of life. Profiteering has become reckless and rampant, billions 
have been coined by the capitalists out of the suffering and misery 
of their fellow men. The American financial oligarchy has be- 
come a dominant factor in the world, while the condition of the 
American workers has grown more precarious. 

The responsibility does not rest upon the Democratic party alone. 
The Republican party, through its representatives in Congress and 
otherwise, has not only openly condoned the political misdeeds 
of the last three years, but has sought to outdo its Democratic rival 
in the orgy of political reaction and repression. Its criticism of 



National Socialist Platform 299 

the Democratic administrative policy is that it is not reactionary 
and drastic enough. 

America is now at the parting of the roads. If the outraging of 
political liberty, and concentration of economic power into the 
hands of the few is permitted to go on, it can have only one con- 
sequence, the reduction of the country to a state of absolute capi- 
talist despotism. 

We particularly denounce the militaristic policy of both old 
parties of investing countless hundreds of millions of dollars in 
armaments after the victorious completion of what was to have 
been the "last war." We call attention to the fatal results of such 
a program in Europe, carried on prior to 1914, and culminating in 
the Great War; we declare that such a policy, adding unbearable 
burdens to the working class and to all the people, can lead only 
to the complete Prussianization of the nation, and ultimately to 
war; and we demand immediate and complete abandonment of this 
fatal program. 

The Socialist party sounds the warning. It calls upon the people 
to defeat both parties at the polls, and to elect the candidates of 
the Socialist party to the end of restoring political democracy and 
bringing about complete industrial freedom. 

The Socialist party of the United States therefore summons 
all who believe in this fundamental doctrine to prepare for a com- 
plete reorganization of our social system, based upon public owner- 
ship of public necessities; upon government by representatives 
chosen from occupational as well as from geographical groups, in 
harmony with our industrial development; and with citizenship 
based on service, that we may end forever the exploitation of 
class by class. 

To achieve this end the Socialist party pledges itself to the 
following program: 

1. social. 

1. All business vitally essential for the existence and welfare 
of the people, such as railroads, express service, steamship lines, 
telegraph lines, oil wells, power plants, elevators, packing houses, 
cold-storage plants and all industries operating on a national 
scale, should be take*n over by the nation. 



300 Platforms of Political Parties 

2. All publicly owned industries should be administered jointly 
by the government and representatives of the workers, not for 
revenue of profit, but with the sole object of securing just com- 
pensation and humane conditions of employment to the workers 
and efficient and reasonable service to the public. 

3. All banks should be acquired by the government, and incor- 
porated in a unified public banking system. 

4. The business of insurance should be taken over by the gov- 
ernment, and should be extended to include insurance against 
accident, sickness, invalidity, old age and unemployment, without 
contribution on the part of the worker. 

5. Congress should enforce the provisions of the Thirteenth, 
Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments in reference to the Negroes, 
and executive Federal legislation should be enacted to secure to 
the Negroes full civil, political, industrial and educational rights. 

2. INDUSTRIAL. 

1. Congress should enact effective laws to abolish child labor, 
to fix minimum wages, based on an ascertained cost of a decent 
standard of life, to protect migratory and unemployed workers 
from oppression, to abolish detective and strike-breaking agencies 
and to establish a shorter workday in keeping with increased 
industrial productivity. 

3. POLITICAL. 

1. The constitutional freedom of speech, press, and assembly should 
be restored by repealing the Espionage Law, and all other repres- 
sive legislation, and by prohibiting the executive usurpation of 
authority. 

2. All prosecutions under the Espionage Law should be discon- 
tinued, and all persons serving prison sentences for alleged offenses 
growing out of religious beliefs, political views or industrial activi- 
ties should be fully pardoned and immediately released. 

3. No alien should be deported from the United States on account 
of his political views or participation in labor struggles, nor in 
any event without proper trial on specific charges. The arbitrary 
power to deport aliens by administrative order- should be repealed. 



National Socialist Platform 301 

4. The power of the courts to restrain workers in their struggles 
against employers by the writ of injunction or otherwise, and 
their power to nullify congressional legislation, should he abro- 
gated. 

5. Federal judges should be elected by the people and be subject 
to recall. 

6. The President and the Vice-President of the United States 
should be elected by direct popular election, and be subject to re- 
call. All members of the Cabinet should be elected by Congress 
and be responsible at all times to the vote thereof. 

7. Suffrage should be equal and unrestricted in fact as well as in 
law for all men and women throughout the nation. 

8. Because of the strict residential qualification of suffrage in 
this country, millions of citizens are disfranchised in every elec- 
tion; adequate provision should be made for the registration and 
voting of migratory voters. 

9. The Constitution of the United States should be amended to 
strengthen the safeguards of civil and political liberty, and to 
remove all obstacles to industrial and social reform, and recon- 
struction, including the changes enumerated in this program, in 
keeping with the will and interest of the people. It should be 
made amendable by a majority of the voters of the nation upon 
their own initiative, or upon the initiative of Congress. 

4. FOREIGN RELATIONS. 

1. All claims of the United States against allied countries for 
loans made during the war should be cancelled upon the under- 
standing that all war debts among such countries shall likewise 
be cancelled. The largest possible credit in food, raw material 
and machinery should be extended to the stricken nations of 
Europe in order to help them rebuild the ruined world. 

2. The Government of the United States should initiate a move- 
ment to dissolve the mischievous organization called the "League 
of Nations" and to create an international parliament, compos ,1 
of democratically elected representatives of all nations of the 
world, based upon the recognition of their equal rights, the prin- 
ciples of self-determination, the right to national existence of 
colonies and other dependencies, freedom of international trade 



302 Platforms of Political Parties 

and trade routes by land and sea, and universal disarmament, and 
be charged with revising the Treaty of Peace on the principles of 
justice and conciliation. 

3. The United States should immediately make peace with the 
Central Powers and open commercial and diplomatic relations with 
Russia under the Soviet Government. It should promptly recog- 
nize the independence of the Irish Republic. 

4. The United States should make and proclaim it a fixed prin- 
ciple in its foreign policy that American capitalists, who acquire 
concessions or make investments in foreign countries, do so at 
their own risk, and under no circumstances should our govern- 
ment enter into diplomatic negotiations or controversies or resort 
to armed conflicts on account of foreign property claims of Ameri- 
can capitalists. 

5. FISCAL. 

1. All war debts and other debts of the Federal Government 
should immediately be paid in full, the funds for such payment 
to be raised by means of a progressive property tax, whose bur- 
dens should fall upon the rich and particularly upon great fortunes 
made during the war. 

2. A standing progressive income tax and a graduated inheri- 
tance tax should be levied to provide for all needs of the govern- 
ment, including the cost of its increasing social and industrial func- 
tions. 

3. The unearned increment of land should be taxed, all land 
held out of use should be taxed at full rental value. 



NATIONAL PROHIBITION PLATFORM. 

The Prohibition Party assembled in National Convention in the 
city of Lincoln, Nebraska, on this twenty-second day of July, 1920, 
expresses its thanks to Almighty God for the victory over the bever- 
age liquor traffic which crowns fifty years of consecrated effort. 
The principles which we have advocated throughout our history 
have been so far recognized that the manufacture and traffic in 
intoxicating drink have been forever prohibited in the fundamental 
law of the land; Congress has rightly interpreted the Eighteenth 
Amendment in laws enacted for its enforcement; and the Supreme 
Court has upheld both the Amendment and the law. 



National Prohibition Platform 303 

Asking that it be clothed with governmental power, the Prohi- 
bition Party challenges the attention of the Nation and requests 
the votes of the people on this Declaration of Principles. 

NULLIFICATION CONDEMNED. 

The organized liquor traffic is engaged in a treasonable attempt 
to nullify the amendment by such modification of the enforcement 
act as will increase the alcoholic content of beer and wine and 
thus thwart the will of the people as constitutionally expressed. 

In face of this open threat the Republican and Democratic parties 
refused to make platform declarations in favor of law enforcement, 
though petitioned so to do by multitudes of people. Thus the 
Prohibition party remains the sole political champion of National 
Prohibition. 

The Prohibition party in its platform in 1872 declared: "There 
can be no greater peril to the nation than the existing party com- 
petition for the liquor vote; any party not openly opposed to the 
traffic, experience shows, will engage in this competition, will court 
the favor of the criminal classes, will barter away the public morals, 
the purity of the ballot, and every object of good government for 
party success." Notwithstanding the liquor traffic is now outlawed 
by the Constitution, this fitly describes the present political attitude 
of the old parties. 

The issue is not only the enforcement but also the maintenance 
of the law to make the amendment effective. 

The proposed increase in the alcoholic content of beverages would 
be fraught with grave danger in that it would mean the return of 
the open saloon with all its attendant evils. 

THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS. 

The League of Nations is now in existence and is functioning 
in world affairs. We favor the entrance of the United States into 
the League by the immediate ratification of the treaty of peace, 
not objecting to reasonable reservations interpreting American un- 
derstanding of the covenant. The time is past when the Qnited 
States can hold aloof from the affairs of the world. Such course is 
shortsighted and only invites disaster. 



304 Platforms of Political Parties 

peace. 
We stand for a constitutional amendment providing that treaties 
of peace shall be ratified by a majority of both Houses of Congress. 

We stand by our declaration of 1916 against militarism and uni- 
versal military training. Without it our boys were in a short 
time trained to whip the greatest army ever assembled and with 
national prohibition to make sure the most virile manhood in the 
world, we should encourage universal disarmament and devotion to 
the acts of peace. 

EDUCATION. 

We stand for compulsory education with instruction in the 
English language, which, if given in private or parochial schools, 
must be equivalent to that afforded by the public schools, and be 
under state supervision. 

SUFFRAGE. 

The Prohibition party has long advocated the enfranchisement of 
women. Suffrage should not be conditioned upon sex. We con- 
gratulate the women upon the freedom which the party has helped 
them to achieve. 

WOMAN AND THE HOME. 

We approve and adopt the program of the National League of 
Women Voters providing for: 

The prohibition of child labor; 

Adequate appropriation for the Children's Bureau; 

Protection for infant life through a federal program for mater- 
nity and infancy care; 

A Federal department of education, Federal aid for the removal 
of illiteracy and the increase of teachers' salaries; 

Instruction of the youth and the newcomer to our shores in the 
duties and ideals of citizenship; 

Vocational training in home economics; 

Federal supervision of the marketing and distribution of food, 
the enactment and enforcement of such measures as will open the 
channels of trade, prevent excess profits, and eliminate unfair com- 
petition and control of the necessities of life; 



National Prohibition Platform 305 

The establishment of a Woman's Bureau in the Department of 
Labor to determine standards and policies which will improve work- 
ing conditions for women and increase their efficiency; 

The appointment of women in the mediation and conciliation 
service and on any industrial commissions and tribunals which 
may be created; 

The establishment of a joint Federal and State employment service 
with women's departments under the direction of qualified women; 

The merit system in the Civil Service free from discrimination 
on account of sex with a wage scale determined by skill demanded 
for the work and in no wise below the cost of living as established 
by official investigation; 

Appropriation to carry on a campaign against venereal diseases 
and for public education in sex hygiene; 

Federal legislation permitting an American born woman to 
retain her citizenship while resident in the United States, though 
married to an alien; 

And further, that an alien woman who* marries an American 
citizen must take the obligation of citizenship before she can be- 
come a citizen. 

ECONOMY IN ADMINISTRATION. 

We believe in the Budget system and we stand for economy in 
governmental administration. There should be a reduction in 
boards, committees, commissions and offices which consume taxes 
and increase expenses. 

LABOR AND INDUSTRY. 

We stand for Industrial Peace. We believe the time has come for 
the government to assume responsibility for the protection of the 
public against the waste and terror of industrial warfare, and to 
that end we demand legislation defining the rights of labor and the 
creation of industrial courts, which will guarantee to labor and 
employing capital equal and exact justice, and to the general pub- 
lic protection against the paralysis of industry due to this warfare. 

PROFITEERING. 

The Prohibition party pledges the nation to rid it of the profiteer 
and to close the door against his return. It will endeavor to 

20 



306 Platforms of Political Parties 

eliminate all unnecessary middlemen by the encouragement of or- 
ganizations among producers that will bring those who sell and 
those who use nearer together. It will enact and enforce laws 
needful to effectively prevent excessive charges by such middlemen. 
To this end it will demand legislation subjecting to the penalties 
of the criminal law all corporate officers and employes who give 
or carry out instructions that result in extortion; it will make it 
unlawful for anyone engaged in interstate commerce to make a 
sale of one article dependent upon the purchase of another article 
and it will require such corporation to disclose to customers the 
difference between cost price and selling price or limit the profit 
thai can be legally charged, as the rate of interest is now limited. 

AGRICULTURE. 

We pledge our aid to the farmer in working out a plan to equal- 
ize prices, to secure labor, and to organize a system of cooperative 
marketing, including public terminals, mills and storage for the 
purpose of encouraging agriculture and securing for the farmer 
such return as will tend to increased production. 

We favor such extension of the parcel post as will further 
facilitate the direct traffic between the producer and consumer. 

PRESIDENTIAL QUALIFICATIONS. 

The qualifications for President stated in the Constitution have 
to do with age and citizenship. We call attention to the fact that 
of greater importance are those not so stated referring to moral, 
intellectual and spiritual endowments. The President of the United 
States in his daily life, his home and family relationships and in 
his official career is expected to typify the finest and best the 
country can produce. He is the leader of the nation. The moral 
force and power of his example are immeasurable. No man or 
woman should ever be elected to the high office who is out of har- 
mony with the purposes of the people or who lacks sympathy with 
their highest and holiest ideals, and with the Christian principles 
upon which the nation was founded. 

LAW AND ORDER. 

A crying evil of the day is the general lax enforcement of the law. 
Without obedience to law and maintenance of order our American 
institutions must perish. 



State Democratic Platform 307 

The Prohibition party now, as ever, pledges impartial enforce- 
ment of all law. 

CONCLUSION. 

In this national and world crisis the Prohibition party reminds 
the people of its long time faithfulness and its wisdom, proved by the 
many reforms which it was the first to advocate; and on its 
record as the oldest minority party — one which has never sold its 
birthright for a mess of pottage but throughout the years has 
stood for the best interests of the country — it asks the favorable 
consideration of the voters, believing that by its support they can 
make it necessary for all political organizations to come up to a 
higher level and to render a finer quality of service. 

It pledges itself resolutely to stand for the right and oppose 
the wrong and dauntlessly to lead in the advocacy of righteous 
and patriotic principles. On its record and on this Declaration 
of Principles it submits its case to the American people. 



STATE DEMOCRATIC PLATFORM, 1922. 

Profoundly thankful to Divine Providence for the great bless- 
ings to our beloved Commonwealth of North Carolina, the Demo- 
cratic party in convention assembled does hereby declare its plat- 
form, as follows: 

national affairs 

We reaffirm our allegiance to the time honored principles of the 
Democratic party, and we hereby commend the constructive policy 
of the Democratic party under our great President, Woodrow 
Wilson. 

We heartily endorse the course of our Senators and Represen- 
tatives in Congress and point with pride to the record they 
have made. 

We condemn the Republican Administration for its failure to 
pass legislation to meet the needs of the country. 

STATE AFFAIRS. 

The Democratic party since it has been entrusted with power 
in this State has uniformly favored and enacted legislation pro- 
viding for longer and better schools for the children of the State, 



30S Platforms of Political Parties 

for increased facilities for the care of the State's unfortunates, for 
the conservation of the public health, for the building up and 
encouragement in every proper way of the agricultural interests 
of the State, for the fostering of all legitimate business enter- 
prises, for the protection of the mutual interests of labor and 
capital, for the construction and improvement of public roads, 
and, in fact, for the upbuilding and uplifting of the State. 

THE PRESENT ADMINISTRATION. 

We heartily endorse the Democratic State Administration. We 
commend and endorse the action of the recent General Assembly 
of North Carolina in the great constructive programs which have 
been carried on for the material and industrial progress of the 
State. 

We recommend the Legislature for the enactment of legislation 
looking to the care and protection of the interests of the youthful 
delinquents and defectives of the State; we commend the Legis- 
lature for the enactment of legislation looking to the construc- 
tion and establishment of a system of hard-surfaced and other 
dependable roads connecting the county seats with the principal 
cities and towns, and we pledge the people of this State that this 
road program will be carried on with efficiency and economy; we 
commend the provisions made for increasing the facilities of our 
State institutions, both educational and charitable; we commend 
the legislation providing the splendid program being carried on 
in the State for the protection and conservation of the public 
health, and the improvement of sanitary living conditions, both 
urban and rural; we commend the legislation providing for the 
collection, of the State's entire revenue from incomes, inheritances, 
franchises, insurance policies, fees, and rentals from the State's 
property, thereby providing a system of taxation whereby no 
taxes whatever are levied for State purposes upon property, and 
the establishment of a department for the assessment and col- 
lection of the State's revenues; we recommend the legislation 
simplifying the judicial procedure in civil actions and reducing 
the cost of litigation; we commend the provisions made for the 
care of our Confederate veterans and their widows, and pledge 
the Democratic party to a continuation of all of those policies. 



State Democratic Platform 309 

We point with pride to the fact that Governor Morrison has 
recommended and vigorously urged the passage of this great con- 
structive program enacted by the last General Assembly. 

In the administration of his office as Governor, Governor Morri- 
son has inaugurated many measures and improvements for the moral 
and material upbuilding of the State. 

(a) We endorse the appointment by him of boards of consulting 
specialists to visit and minister to the needs of the insane, the 
delinquents, the defectives, and other unfortunates in the State.* 
Under this plan a score or more of eminent specialists have visited 
each institution, performing operations and otherwise treating hun- 
dreds of these patients, without one cent of cost to the State. 
The thanks of the State are due to these gentlemen for the great 
and unselfish service they have rendered suffering humanity. 

(b) We heartily endorse the program suggested by Governor 
Morrison and adopted by the Departments of Agriculture, Educa- 
tion, Health and Public Welfare work, looking to the production 
of sufficient food for the people of the State, and earnestly hope 
for the early realization of this great idea, the consummation of 
which is greatly to be desired, and which is in line with the pro- 
gram for the upbuilding of the moral and material welfare ©f the 
people. 

(c) We heartily commend the Governor for his program looking 
to the production and conservation of fish, oysters, and other sea 
food in the waters of our State. 

We pledge to the people of the State that the Democratic party 
will administer the affairs of the State, «ounties, and munici- 
palities, with every economy consistent with efficient and progressive 
government. 

We pledge to the people of the various counties and munici- 
palities of the State the greatest measure of control of their local 
affairs, consistent with efficient and orderly government, and the 
rights of other counties and municipalities. 

We favor the passage of a workman's compensation act fair to 
both employer and employe. 

We are profoundly grateful to the service men of the late war, and 
we recommend to the National Government the enactment of legis- 
lation looking to their relief. 



310 Platforms of Political Parties 

We recommend that the State Executive Committee be authorized 
and directed to amend the plan of organization so as to double the 
number of that committee, to the end that full representation of 
women may be had thereon. Provided, that fifty members shall 
constitute a quorum. The committee, at its next meeting, shall 
provide the necessary machinery for the election of these ad- 
ditional members. 

We denounce the covert, unfair and cowardly attack made by 
Jhe Republican party in its platform adopted at its convention at 
Winston-Salem, upon the program for a fair and equitable sys- 
tem of taxation, the education of the children, and the construc- 
tion and maintenance of the highways; and we warn the people 
that if the Republican party be entrusted with power in this State, 
the evils warned against by them will indeed be realized. 



REPUBLICAN .STATE PLATFORM, 1922. 

We, the Republicans of North Carolina, in convention assembled 
at Winston-Salem, April, 1922, reaffirm our devotion to the prin- 
ciples of the Republican party which are now, as they have 
ever been, the surest guarantee of the. preservation and con- 
tinued prosperity of this State and Nation. 

NATIONAL AFFAIRS. 

We view with pride the wise and conservative leadership of 
our President, Warren G. Harding. We congratulate him and 
the country upon the selection of men of pre-eminent ability to 
fill cabinet positions, whose concerted efforts have restored our 
nation to its place of wholesome leadership in the affairs of 
the world from which it had been displaced by the preceding 
Democratic administration. 

We congratulate the country upon the progress made by the 
Republican Administration in fulfiling its platform pledges, and 
in its effort to restore the country to normality after the shock 
given it by the Democratic party, and upon the safe, sound 
and conservative policies adopted in all departments of the gov- 
ernment which are gradually bringing relief from the conditions 
created by the reckless era of extravagrance and mis-manage- 
ment, and accompanying burden of taxation under the Wilson 



State Republican Platform 311 

administration. Constitutional government has been restored, ex- 
travagant expenditures have been eliminated by the creation of 
the budget system, the public finances have been placed upon 
a scientific basis, we have reduced the public debt $3,700,000,000 
and have reduced taxes to the extent of three-quarters of a 
billion dollars a year. The extent to which the confidence of 
the people in the government has been restored may be measured 
by the fact that during the year that has past Liberty Bonds and 
Victory Notes have increased in value to the extent of two 
billions of dollars. 

TAXATION. 

We deplore and condemn the extravagrance indulged in by the 
Democratic administration in this State, While the National 
Republican Administration is practising every economy, decreas- 
ing the number of government employes, and reducing taxation 
wherever possible, the Democratic Administration in the State 
of North Carolina is creating opportunities for political hench- 
men, issuing bonds and borrowing money with a reckless disre- 
gard of the property rights and welfare of the people, and as 
a result the very land of the State is tottering under taxation, 
piling ever higher, and the rank and file of our people burdened 
as never before. 

We condemn the dominant party for its jugglery of the tax 
provisions of the State for political purposes as is illustrated 
in the manipulation of the Revaluation Act. We assert it is time 
to apply business methods to our tax system, and end the present 
tampering with our finances which is endangering the credit of 
the State at home and abroad, and keeps the contitutionality of 
legislation governing taxation, and the validity of securities is- 
sued by the State and its sub-divisions, almost continually before 
the Supreme Court. 

EDUCATION. 

The Republican party in North Carolina, as in every other 
State, favors public education and liberal support to all public 
educational institutions, and if our party is intrusted with the 
management of our State government we would immediately pro- 
vide for the election of our County Board of Education by the 
people, and thereby restore to the people the control and manag- 
ment of our public schools, and we guarantee to observe and 



312 Platforms of Political Parties 

enforce the Constitutional requirements of a six months school 
term in each county in the State, and at a greatly reduced rate 
of taxation 

We pledge the people of the State to provide a uniform system 
of taxation for schools throughout the State and to give each 
county in the State the same rate of taxation for schools and each 
county its proportionate share of the constitutional requirements 
for a uniform system of public education throughout the State, 
and at a greatly reduced rate of taxation. Such a system will 
insure uniformity in tax rate, uniformity in school facilities and 
eliminate waste and extravagance in County and State in school 
administration and give the State a new impetus in public edu- 
cation. 

We condemn the Democratic party for the frequent and un- 
necessary change in the text books used in the public schools, 
which result in hundreds of thousands of dollars of increased 
profits to the publishers of school books, but which are a needless 
and burdensome expense upon the people of the State. We favor 
the policy of the State's furnishing free text books in the public 
schools and thereby saving to our people thousands of dollars 
now expended for text books and bringing to the child of our 
poor man the same opportunity of education now enjoyed by 
the child of the rich. 

ROADS. 

We melieve in a State system of highways; and we point with 
pride to the fact that what progress we have made towards ob- 
taining a State system of highways has been brought about by 
the fearless advocacy of the Republican party in its platform, on 
the hustings and in the Legislature. But we condemn the Demo- 
cratic party for prostituting the road system, as it has the school 
system to purposes of politics and for the reckless extravagance and 
favoritism with which it has expended the people's money. 

AGRICULTURE. 

We believe that it is the first duty of the State to help alleviate 
the burdens under which agriculture is staggering in North 
Carolina. Specifically we pledge ourselves to the establishment 
of an adequate system of rural credits and to such a reorganization 



State Republican Platform 313 

of the State Department of Agriculture that it will become a real 
aid to the farmers of the State instead of being as it is now, a 
haven for job hunters. 

CARE OF SOLDIERS. 

We favor a continuation of the time honored policy of the 
Republican party of enacting liberal legislation to provide for the 
care of infirm and disabled soldiers and their dependents. The 
unselfish and patrotic service rendered by them and their more 
fortunate brothers in arms, will ever be proud heritage of our 
country. 

We demand that necessary legislation be enacted to make the 
Farm Loan Banks properly function in behalf of the farmers 
in accordance with the avowed purpose of the creation of such 
banks; giving to the farmers short term loans on security of 
farm products and long term loans on real estate all at a rate 
of interest, such as is accorded by banks on commercial loans, 
and that the Farm Loan Banks be completely divorced from In- 
ternational Banking. 

POLITICAL HONESTY. 

The most degrading thing in the life of North Carolina is 
the political dishonesty which is shamelessly flouted by the ma- 
chine of the Democratic party. This dishonesty is striking at 
the very vitals of the State and has already produced that cynical 
attitude towards public affairs which invariably accompanies the 
decline of free government. No State can live that tolerates 
dishonesty and no party should survive which winks at or en- 
courages it. 

We do not charge that all elections are dishonest. We do 
charge that the election laws of the State lend themselves to fraud, 
that they were framed with that end in view and that the Demo- 
cratic machine of the State under these laws, perpetrates the most 
shameless fraud whenever it deems fraud necessary to accom- 
plish its purposes. 

ELECTION LAW. 

We denounce the Democratic party for refusing to pass the 
Australian Ballot law, and for amending the Absentee Voter law 
in such a way as to make fraud easy to perpetrate and hard to 



314 Platfokms of Political Parties 

punish. And we pledge ourselves to enact the Australian Ballot 
law and to place adequate safeguards around the Absentee Ballot. 
The time has come for corrupt elections to cease. 

"GERRYMANDERING." 

Another form of political dishonesty is the "Gerrymandering" 
of the State by the Democratic party, by means of which 43 
per cent of the voters of the State are robbed of their proper 
right of representation. The Congressional Districts required by 
law to be compact and contiguous are veritable geographical 
monstrosities. One need only look at a map and a census table 
to see that the Republicans of Carolina have been robbed of our 
representatives in Congress. In like manner the Republicans of 
North Carolina have been robbed of Solicitors and State Senators, 
and the plan of electing judges by the State at large while allow- 
ing the Democrats of the various districts to select the candi- 
dates for those districts is but another form of the same evil, 
by which the high office of Judge is dragged into politics and 
the Republican districts are denied representation on the bench. 

CAMPAIGN methods. 

We denounce the Democratic machine for the infamous methods 
employed by it in the campaign of 1920. We believe the decent 
right thinking people of North Carolina who love their State 
and Nation and believe in clean- politics, will not longer permit 
the dominant party to resort to such degrading tatics in its effort 
to inflame the passions of the people and divert their minds 
from a calm consideration of the issues before them. A party 
which stoops to such base methods is not worthy to be entrusted 
with the sacred rights of the people. 

We deplore the attempt of the Democratic party to drag the 
negro question into any campaign. The Republican party of North 
Carolina is an organization of white men and women. It has no 
intention of appointing negroes to office within the State. 

To sum up our position, we commend: 

Education, in accordance with our Constitution and with election 
of the School Board by direct vote of the people. 

Good roads, built on business principles, without favorites or 
waste with reduced overhead charges. 



State Republican Platform 315 

Conservation of all products and investigation of the most scien- 
tific methods of saving producers, whether by warehouses, storage, 
cold storage or other means; also a system of credits for the 
products so stored. 

Economy of the strictest kind in all public affairs and this 
should mean the reduction of amounts paid as salaries in the 
public offices to unnecessary employes. 

Budget System for towns, counties and State and all sub- 
divisions, that the taxpayers may know where tax moneys go, 
and that every department be compelled to live within the esti- 
mates of such budget. 

We condemn: 

Election frauds to be a disgrace to the State. 

Text book methods, in choosing of which millions are lost to 
taxpayers, and a public scandal is disgracing our State; we need 
free text books, printed within our State so far as practical. 

Bond issuing in such a reckless manner without any prepa- 
ration to meet interest and repayment. Such methods are enslaving 
our children to the third and fourth generation. 

System of bank examinations which permit insolvency and loss 
to depositors which could be prevented. 

Public debt being constantly increased without the slightest at- 
tempt at economy or curbing needless expenses. 

Useless additional bureaus, costing the taxpayers untold millions 
to make new jobs for political favorites, such as a commission to 
collect taxes which is the duty of every sheriff. 

Gerrymandering the districts of the State to the end that a 
party remains in power though the voters have lost confidence in 
its efficiency and honesty. 

"We promise: 

Honest election laws and the Australian Ballot. 

Reduction in taxes, and the creation of a modern taxing system. 

State taxes shall be raised without burdensome property tax, 
which tax should be used for reduction of debt if necessary at all. 

Publicity in the fullest sense of all public business both as to 
assessing of all taxes and payment of all costs of government. 



316 Platforms of Political Parties 

Reduction of officers, the number of which has been increased 
without necessity and without reason. 

Judges shall be selected from both parties to the end that every 
man may feel assured of obtaining justice and escaping partisan 
prejudice. 

Officers elected on our platform shall be true to every trust, 
painstaking in every duty, considerate of every citizen, honest in 
every public act; any delinquent will be driven from power in- 
stead of being supported by a mistaken idea of partisan policy. 



STATE SOCIALIST PLATF0E3I. 

The political expression of the platform of all parties voice 
the economic interests of the people or class, which they subserve. 
The Socialist party assumes to represent the interest of the working 
class of field and industry only. 

As between the Democratic and Republican parties there is no 
essential difference, both standing for the competitive system. 
Dominant political parties in the present compaign confine their 
discussions to such issues as "The Capitalist League of Nations," 
and other equally unimportant issues, so far as the common people 
are concerned, unmindful of the fact that a large proportion of our 
population is being robbed by the capitalist system of four-fifths 
of its production, thus bringing destitution and crime as a natural 
correlative of the conditions under which they exist. 

The Socialist party stands for the abolition of the competitive 
system and substitution therefor of the collective, or cooperative, 
ownership of all means of production and distribution, which are 
used for exploitation. The Socialist party of North Carolina 
affirms its allegiance to the principles of International Socialism 
as enunciated in the National Platform of the Socialist party. 

While realizing that only by a complete revolution, or change, of 
the system of government now in vogue can we bring about the 
emancipation of the toiling masses, yet we are sensible to the fact 
that there are present immediate demands for the alleviation of 
conditions which now confront us. 

Therefore, we call upon all workers of industry and farm to 
unite with us for the establishing of a government and industry 



State Republican Platform 317 

We especially favor that plank in the national platform in re- 
gard to a public banking system. 

The development by the State of natural resources, to the end 
of promoting the industrial and social conditions of the whole 
people. 

REVENUE. 

The taxation of income, inheritances and industry to an extent 
sufficient to meet all the requirements of the State. The exemption 
of all properties or incomes of the amount of $2,000.00 or less of 
any taxation whatever. 

These demands are to be regarded as only of temporary value 
during the period of transformation of the government and industry 
from capitalism to socialism, and the ultimate aims should not 
be lost sight of. The people should move onward to the conquest 
of all the public powers to an entire change of the present system 
for one which will secure to them collectively all blessings of 
modern civilization, and of that culture hitherto unknown to 
history. 



Note — We extend our congratulations to the women of the State 
on their acquirement of the ballot after so long and courageous 
a fight, and call their attention to the fact that the Socialist party 
has since its inception stood unqualifiedly for the right of women 
to the full use of the ballot. They should realize that the end is 
not merely the acquirement of the use of the ballot, but to complete 
emancipation of all workers from L he tyranny of industry and we 
call upon them to unite with us for the securing of these aims. 



318 Platforms of Political Parties 

owned and controlled collectively by the workers, and as a means 
to the establishment of these things we make the present demands. 

POLITICAL. 

The right of every citizen whether male or female, without re- 
gard to race or color, to the full use of the ballot. The elimination 
of the poll tax qualification for voting. The full use of the 
Initiative, the Referendum and Recall. The gradual substitution 
of occupational representation for the present territorial representa- 
tion and the Australian ballot. 

INDUSTRIAL. 

The collective ownership and democratic management of all 
the essential, vital industries and natural resources of the State. 

The full right of all labor to organize and bargain collectively. 

Complete discontinuance of the use of the writ of the injunction 
and the use of the militia against labor, in the settlement of dis- 
putes. 

The paying of old age pensions and the insurance against in- 
dustrial accidents to an extent adequate to meet the cost of living, 
while keeping the person in his or her own home. 

AGRICULTURE. 

The paying into the State as taxes the full rental value of all 
lands held for speculation and investment. State aid to all renting 
and tenant farmers desiring to own land, to the end that all farm- 
ing may be carried on by those owing their own land. 

State aid in the marketing of the farmers product and the sup- 
plying of farm machinery and fertilizer at the lowest possible 
cost. 

SOCIAL. 

The consolidation of the school districts so as to make every 
school a standard high school, giving every child the opportunity 
of securing a high school education. Adequate pay to teachers in 
the schools so as to demand the best possible talent. The furnish- 
ing free text books by the State. 

The construction and maintenance of a State-wide system of im- 
proved public roads. 



PART IX. 



ELECTION RETURNS. 



1. Vote for President by States, 1912-1920. 

2. Vote for President by Counties, 1912-1920. 

3. Vote by Counties for Governor in Democratic Pri- 

maries, 1916-1920. 

1. Vote for State Officers in Democratic Primaries, 
1920. 

5. Vote for Governor by Counties, 1912-1920. 

6. Vote for United States Senator, 1918-1920. 

7. Vote for Members of Congress, 1918-1920. 

S. Vote for Constitutional Amendments by Counties, 
1920. 



[3101 



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127,890 

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8,046 

10,350 

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5,189 


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24,703 
16,1181 
15,510 
6,409 

2,214 
8,876 
32,267 
28,947 
56,106 
1,639 
20,242 


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Election Returns 



VOTE FOR PRESIDENT BY COUNTIES, 1912-1920. 





1912 


1916 


1920 


Counties 


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Alamance __. 

Alexander 


2 032 

"'S52 

652 

1,487 

1 , 043 

217 

1,605 

1,571 

1,140 

777 

3,716 

1,365 

1,738 

1,627 

303 

1,153 

705 

2,110 

1,652 

906 

663 

372 

2,351 

1.668 

1,819 

1,678 

622 

397 

2,484 

823 

1,757 

2,197 

1,851 

3,042 

1,856 

2,333 

618 

416 

1,561 

894 

3,830 

2,300 

1,364 

2,068 

1,092 

742 

626 

636 

2,528 

1,210 

2,757 

635 

862 


150 
523 
208 
125 
478 
138 
295 

43 

33 
280 
426 

48 
389 
482 

40 
218 
154 
203 

70 
734 

60 

17 

81 
155 

79 

235 

6 

238 

1,509 

810 

33 

124 

102 

1,689 

71 
244 

95 
261 
192 
124 
460 

42 
148 
354 
801 

61 

63 

76 

392 

315 

1,335 

35 
451 


1,637 

497 

256 

118 

1,241 

950 

548 

61 

511 

456 

2,285 

1,288 

1,584 

1,167 

62 

537 

45 

1,872 

1,343 

477 

77 

387 

943 

892 

190 

870 

8 

80 

1,143 

345 

1,066 

1,204 

77 

1,262 

346 

1,279 

179 
003 

343 
152 

1,979 
135 

1,035 
861 
380 
105 
40 
300 

1.047 
729 

1,083 

125 

fiO 


10 





2,476 

954 

796 

2,046 

1,898 

360 

1,957 

1,461 

1,261 

810 

4,229 

1,621 

2,080 

1,725 

368 

1,165 

849 

2,569 

1,839 

1,362 

610 

400 

2,764 

2,143 

1,780 

1,971 

945 

470 

2,675 

910 

1,824 

2,463 

2,028 

4,115 

2,057 

3,019 

826 

476 

1,713 

1,066 

4,616 

2,312 

1,992 

2.403 

1,166 

977 

780 

840 

3,335 

1,306 

3,468 

712 

1,054 


2,278 

1,187 

641 

301 

1,930 

1,158 

1,274 

116 

651 

989 

3,830 

1,474 

2,314 

1,659 

86 

1,246 

338 

2,614 

1,501 

1,362 

91 

453 

1,497 

1 , 327 

542 

1,217 

87 

363 

2,801 

1,245 

1,527 

1,837 

135 

3,585 

396 

2,542 

309 

460 

648 

294 

3,670 

299 

1,603 

1,523 

1,795 

209 

110 

277 

2,073 

1,288 

2,R57 

233 

573 


5 

1 
22 

4 
14 

12 
6 

24 
238 

44 
1 

8 

4 


2 
1 

9 

10 

1 

2 

"I 

1 

11 

1 
3 


5,255 
2,045 
1,409 
3.175 
3,431 

397 
3,522 
1 , 840 
1,939 
1 , 253 
10,167 
3,262 
4,418 
2,931 

540 
2,070 
1,239 
5,404 
3,186 
1,761 
1,091 

755 
5,181 
3,111 
3,413 
3 233 
1 i 000 

825 
4,797 
1,624 
3,398 
4,646 
3,343 
8.123 
2,742 
7,148 

796 

644 
2,622 
1,649 
9,615 
3,429 
3,919 
4,229 
2,496 
1,104 
1,266 
1,134 
6,470 
2,385 
6,030 

964 
2,327 


4,619 
2,643 


Alleghany 






1,201 


Anson 






433 


Ashe 


1 

2 
61 





3, $08 


Averv .. 

Beaufort 

Bertie 


2,503 

2,266 

212 


Bladen 






1,064 


Brunswick. _. 






1.362 


Buncombe. _. 
Burke 


101 


.... 


8,917 
3,592 


Cabarrus 






5,148 


Caldwell 
Camden 


11 


.... 


3,258 
142 


Carteret 






2,315 


Caswell 






505 


Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee _. 


2 


3 


5,935 
2,906 
2,506 


Chowan 






209 


Clay 






911 


Cleveland 

Columbus.. _ 








2,953 
1,783 


Craven 






731 


Cumberland. 
Currituck 


10 


.... 


1,972 
86 


Dare 






632 


Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe.. 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates... 


10 

3 
1 

49 

325 

1 

46 


12 
1 

"T 

22 


5,90 

2,591 

2,697 

3,550 

24 

6,792 

589 

5,803 

327 


Graham, ... 
Granville 






915 
833 


Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson. .. 
Hertford 


"""43" 
..... 

6 



"26" 
.... 


439 
7,920 

524 
3,311 
3,000 
3,337 

221 


Hoke 






166 


Hvde .. 






530 


Iredell 

Jackson 


5 


2 


4. 102 
2,355 
5,588 








385 


Lee 






1,143 



Vote for President 



325 



VOTE FOR PRESIDENT — Continued. 





1912 


1916 


1920 


Counties 


c 
o 

I 


+3 


03 

> 
pi 


c 


c 

O 




en 


.c 
to 

3 

M 



tss 
u 
03 

a 
2 

8 

~~6~ 

"22" 
19 

18 
1 

5 
21 

12 

"l" 

"5" 

"3" 


>, 

= 
a 
= 

1 

2 

4 

"i 
1 

3 

4 

2 


y. 


O 


M 

c 




1,568 

1,280 

1,020 

897 

1,251 

1,037 

3,967 

385 

1,012 

1,167 

1,862 

2,021 

1 , 625 

901 

997 

094 

972 

967 

647 

820 

2,303 

675 

2,665 

1,319 

2,706 

1.939 

2,748 

2,lf0 

1,265 

751 

1,702 

1,144 

1,919 

766 

631 

297 

1,786 

1,204 

3,996 

987 

503 

933 

2,293 

1,636 

1,741 

713 

1,112 


122 

49 

134 

430 

229 

343 

284 

203 

144 

252 

172 

140 

57 

66 

172 

74 

77 

19 

228 

784 

347 

153 

370 

■82 

154 

694 

2S0 

82 

84 

9 

105 

1.450 

2,277 

220 

107 

224 

92 

168 

282 

112 

384 

420 

95 

331 

82 

791 

60 


347 

1,066 

841 

1,320 

34 

773 

533 

716 

846 

678 

576 

107 

53 

550 

821 

329 

184 

268 

44 

184 

433 

501 

1,809 

174 

660 

778 

1,537 

1 , 553 

2,520 

75 

1,548 

210 

608 

858 

537 

100 

457 

234 

1,517 

46 

149 

819 

1,11911 

2,571 

561 

599 

1,336 






1,666 
1,521 
1,146 

972 
1,472 
1,274 
4,508 

462 
1,222 
1 , 337 
2,189 
2,355 
1,518 
1.197 
1,230 

710 
1,177 

970 

615 

953 
2,839 

679 
2,747 
1,553 
2,894 
2,316 
3,053 
2,445 
1,369 

938 
2,110 
1,569 
2,029 

829 

821 

416 
2,662 
1,451 
4,827 
1,217 

651 
1,141 
2,625 
1,632 
2,052 

879 
1,273 


667 

1,369 

1,069 

1,965 

281 

1.218 

1,257 

1,298 

1,196 

1,047 

826 

492 

45 

785 

1,158 

527 

270 

400 

288 

917 

719 

750 

3,031 

650 

1 , 453 

1.957 

2,320 

1,871 

2,727 

137 

1,941 

1,852 

2,977 

1,128 

841 

392 

702 

558 

2,461 

227 

486 

1,352 

1,446 

3,470 

730 

1,721 

1,082 


2,560 
3,331 
2,177 
1,310 
2,561 
2,809 
11,313 

697 
2,321 
2,679 
4,031 
4,102 
2,305 
1,557 
1,993 
1,286 
1,736 
1,580 
1,042 
1,646 
4,196 
1,361 
5,110 
3,341 
6,183 
4,507 
6,421 
5,101 
2,426 
1,705 
3,843 
1,999 
3,547 
1,434 
1,542 

718 
4,168 
2,461 
8,020 
1,865 
1,116 
1,721 
4,794 
2,843 
:;, 196 
1,350 
2,280 


1,153 


Lincoln 


3 


12 


3,137 
2.050 








3,616 








. r 30 


McDowell... 
Mecklenburg 
Mitchell . 


10 
38 





2,561 
3,421 
2,153 


Montgomery 

Moore 

Nash 

N'wHanovor. 

Northampton 


"l7~ 

42 


.... 


2,304 

2,279 

1,556 

712 

165 






853 


Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank. 


4 
20 





1 , 737 

1,008 

507 






699 


Perquimans. 
Person 






487 






1,566 


Pitt 

Polk.... 


3 
1 

6 
3 


~~8~ 


864 
1,326 


Randolph... 
Richmond... 
Robeson 


6,297 
1,124 

2,220 


Rockingham. 

Rowan.. 

Rutherford.. 


51 

50 

7 


9 
7 
1 


3,605 
l.SsS 
4,015 
5,353 








306 


Stanly.. 






4,312 


Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 


22 


1 


2,926 
5,170 
2,239 


Traasvlvania . 

Tyrrell 

Union 


1 

4 
19 





1,680 
532 

1, 101 

816 


Wake 

Warren 


12 


.... 


3,653 
295 


Washington 






071 


Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 


2 
16 


"9" 


2,631 
2,822 
6,451 


Wilson 

Yadkin 





.... 


1,374 

::. 101 


Yancey 






2,596 




117 




Totals 


144,507 


29,139 


69.130 


1,025 


168,383 


120,890 


509 


'.:; 


305,447 


232,848 



Eugene V. Debs (Socialist), Electors, 446. 
Aaron S. Watkins (Prohibitionist) Electors, 17. 



326 



Election Returns 



VOTE BY COUNTIES FOR GOVERNOR EN DEMOCRATIC 
PRIMARIES,* 1916-1920. 





1916 


1920 
First Primary 


1920 
Second Primary 


Counties 


4* 

■>■ 

n 


a 
bD 

"Si 

3 

Q 






o 

03 

a 


a 

M 
03 


o 

M 

O 

M 


•V 
a 
O 




386 
214 
124 

1,458 
200 
131 
708 
971 
644 
216 

1,398 
398 
295 
347 
368 
710 
509 
614 
697 
231 
271 
98 

1,012 

1,081 
563 
644 
280 
190 

1,115 
316 
632 
P68 
353 
663 

1 , 528 

1,086 
118 
185 
818 
688 

1,212 

1,495 
640 

1,258 
261 
582 
283 
178 

1,555 


67 

14 

18 

276 

22 

16 

376 

689 

306 

247 

1,943 

531 

89 

181 

84 

123 

161 

111 

212 

90 

78 

32 

671 

826 

268 

968 

406 

46 

237 

39 

436 

605 

1,181 

295 

527 

364 

41 

19 

565 

73 

1,010 

396 

375 

704 

313 

258 

346 

139 

915 


134 
187 
131 
590 
214 
18 
438 
694 
694 
91 

1,873 
633 
303 
270 
161 
449 
89 
891 
535 
147 
282 
101 
4C 
806 

1,263 
413 
408 
202 
553 
160 
265 
752 

1,254 
514 

1,323 
956 
128 
53 
518 
209 
497 
359 
368 

1,674 

378 

250 

450 

92 

1,578 


488 
183 
60 
834 
107 
157 

1,086 
229 
229 
306 

1,443 
346 
149 
262 
277 
427 
219 
292 
349 
195 
247 
13 

2,219 

'699 

718 

957 

99 

68 

281 

50 

697 

608 

713 

1,094 
715 

1,258 
196 

627 
373 
692 
1,177 
595 
395 
228 
576 
177 
254 
478 


182 
14 

eo 

569 

45 

g 

73 
350 
316 
172 
217 

55 
284 

31 
106 
136 
375 
343 
319 

17 
137 

26 
521 
420 
124 
443 
184 

30 
833 
237 
133 
410 
457 
510 
547 
279 
120 
2 
282 

70 

1,298 

607 

542 

113 

22 
213 
233 
201 
313 


358 
375 
320 
986 
429 
41 
579 
027 

1,037 
209 

2,052 
737 
532 
361 
142 
382 
292 

1,033 
689 
315 
232 
103 
390 

1,011 

1,451 
840 
450 
189 
886 
277 
741 

1,106 

1 , 004 
936 

1,349 

1,375 
189 
ISO 
847 
284 

1,031 
915 
783 

1,162 
478 
406 
409 
492 

1,959 


488 


Alexander ._ 


203 


Alleghany- 


200 




1,082 




173 




308 




1,220 




517 


Bladen -- 


334 




445 




1,967 


P-urke --- 


359 




321 


Caldwell 

Camden 


443 
158 




273 


Caswell 


433 




401 


Chatham 


390 


Cherokee 


106 




186 


Clay 


26 


Cleveland 


3,248 


Columbus 


1 322 




951 


Cumberland 


1,323 
135 


Dare 


13 




752 


Davie 


211 


Duplin . 


757 


Durham. 


584 




767 


Forsvth 


1,410 


Franklin 

Gaston 


632 
1,494 


Gates 


145 


Graham 




Granville 


713 


Greene 


576 


Guilford 


1,307 


Halifax 


999 


Harnett 


682 


Haywood 


553 


Henderson 


257 


Hertford . . 

Hoke 


592 

1S9 


Hyde _ 

Iredell 


444 
1,011 



*Thc Republican party held no gubernatorial primary . 



Vote for Governor 

VOTE FOR GOVERNOR, 1916-1920 — Continued. 



327 





1016 


1920 
First Primary 


1920 
Second Primary 


Counties 


-p 

o 

a 

m 


a 
m 

-p 

JS 
M 

3 
c3 

Q 


a 
o 
en 

(H 

o 


u 
a 

a 

o 


o 
Hi 



m 

M 

O 

fe-4 


u 
o 
B 
T3 
u 

a 
O 




479 
980 
238 
480 
599 
559 
280 
148 
197 
237 

1,742 
93 
558 
516 
619 
813 

1,267 
458 
374 
238 
746 
5S6 
306 
363 
869 
191 
811 

1,294 

1,830 
940 
800 

1,093 
435 
583 
232 
245 
394 
254 
81 
63 

1,850 
865 

2,483 
888 
172 
201 

1,030 
549 
922 
237 
111 


76 
848 
102 
140 
650 
74 
20 
194 
280 
268 

1,207 

42 

114 

486 

1,021 

1,587 
428 
236 
199 
95 
379 
348 
117 
227 

1,052 

174 

311 

394 

669 

376 

755 

530 

7.3 

300 

76 

39 

148 

121 

209 

20 

303 

536 

1,765 
471 
164 
5 
441 
411 
647 
59 
141 


397 

1,154 

464 

458 

240 

227 

175 

215 

537 

309 

3,022 

108 

205 

298 

953 

615 

398 

418 

85 

201 

188 

215 

69 

62 

896 

177 

1.031 

853 

1,974 

76 

733 

453 

194 

401 

316 

154 

315 

210 

245 

11 

528 

215 

1,090 

485 

36 

92 

690 

915 

1,161 

130 

386 


297 
577 
251 
230 
900 
543 
73 
226 
274 
421 
436 
160 
49 
69 
521 

1,097 

1,023 
313 
358 
327 
332 
268 
435 
170 

1,392 
138 
147 
274 

2,536 
546 

1,104 

1,158 
183 
205 
333 
103 
294 
98 
91 
146 

1,152 
500 

2,281 
541 
247 
25 
917 
117 
292 
130 
464 


30 

178 

32 

346 

290 

398 

21 

22 

118 

21 

2,048 

14 

615 

697 

32! 

482 

399 

98 

256 

28 

350 

430 

141 

164 

792 

I 

811 

686 

615 

290 

535 

88 

162 

276 

468 

100 

377 

16 

17 

31 

898 

398 

1,593 

315 

137 

43 

-162 

61 

354 

140 

1! 


266 

1,924 

453 

788 

530 

364 

350 

269 

632 

422 

3, !i:: 

62 

474 

695 

1.395 

1,167 

l »57 

431 

181 

246 

420 

691 

112 

180 

1,457 

256 

1,373 

1,077 

1,861 

447 

856 

613 

331 

557 

721 

384 

580 

280 

345 

51 

791 

3711 

2,131 

678 

151 

271 

1,106 

1,435 

1,640 

261 

285 


339 




1,240 




378 




368 




1,050 




595 




224 




147 




361 




507 




1,506 


Mitchell 


182 




304 




202 




873 




735 




835 




298 




440 




220 




279 




235 




219 




277 


Pitt 


1,480 


Polk - 


177 




512 




785 




2,472 




718 




878 




1,<I29 




206 




1 '1 




164 




197 




715 




78 






Tyrrell 


Hi7 


Union. 


1,463 

112 


Wake 


2,585 




542 




124 




24 




955 


Wilkes 


186 


Wilson.. 






195 




392 






Totals 


63,121 


37,017 


49,070 


48,983 


:ii!,isn 


70,332 


61,073 







32S Election Returns 

VOTE FOR STATE OFFICERS IN DEMOCRATIC PRIMARIES, 

1920. 

FOR GOVERNOR— 
First Primai y: 

Cameron Morrison - -- 49,0<u 

O. Max Gardner - - — - .48,983 

R. N. Page— - - - 30.180 

Second Primary: 

Cameron Morrison— .0,332 

O. Max Gardner — 61,073 

FOR LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR— 

W. B. Cooper ..64,225 

F. C. Harding- 51,605 

FOR STATE TREASURER— 

B. R. Lacy - - ..83,914 

B. F. Renfrew - .30,686 

FOR COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE— 

W. A. Graham. - - 75,192 

H. E. Thompson 37,845 

FOR COMMISSIONER OF LABOR AND PRINTING— 

M. L. Shipman — "3,505 

D. P. Dellinger — - 35,227 

FOR STATE AUDITOR— 

First Primary: 

Bvxter Durham- — .36,461 

J. P. Colk— - 2730 

D. A- McDonald— - 17.479 

D. L. Boyd- ---- ...16,427 

W. T. Woodley - 13,042 

Second Promary: 

Baxter Durham 64,697 

J.P.Cook — - - 52,682 

FOR INSURANCE COMMISSIONER— 

Stacey W. Wade — — - - .o,810 

John Underwood- 25,874 

C. T. McCleneghan 16,792 

FOR ASSOCIATE JUSTICE OF SUPREME COURT- 

First Primary: 

W. A. Hoke 59,/49 

W. P. Stacy 34.633 

B. F.Long - 33,843 

W. J.Adams—. - - - 88,141 

N. G. Gullet- - 20,. 06 

O. H. Guion — 

N. J. Rouse- 1 () ,<10 

Second Primary: 

W. P. STacy - -- - <M37 

B. F. Long 49 ' 110 

FOR UNITED STATES SENATOR— 

Lee S. Overman 94,806 

A. L. Brooks - 23 ,869 



TOTE IN REPUBLICAN PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY. 

FOR PRESIDENT- 

Leonard Wood— - - - ,'n'o-i 

Hiram Johnson- - - -- 15,3.5 



'Figures not obtainable at time of publication. 



Vote for Governor 
VOTE FOR GOVERNOR BY COUNTIES, 1921-1920. 



329 







1912 






1916 


1920 


Counties 


u 

u 

c 

h^3 


a 

-^» 
<v 
zc 

a 

E 
o 


to 
o 
u 

o 
t-l 
1— 1 


O 


+3 

o 

V 

S 

s 

O 


>. 

o 
c 
c 

< 
a 

C3 


01 


c 


OQ 




£ 

O 


c 
u 

7-. 

f- 

O 

"5 
1-5 


Alamance...- 


2,168 

871 

676 

1,513 

1,700 

227 

1,825 

1,036 

1,229 

827 

3,875 

1,375 

1,864 

1,661 

317 

1,165 

830 

2,136 

1,683 

949 

695 

381 

2,398 

1,894 

1,859 

1.7S8 

629 

391 

2,505 

835 

1.829 

2,264 

1,823 

3,119 

1,941 

2,363 

640 

431 

1,670 

921 

3.874 

2,334 

1,409 

2,087 

1,086 

764 

658 

685 

2,649 


324 
852 
366 
135 
1,027 
172 
293 

28 

43 

380 

1,045 

91 

1,094 

593 

29 
222 
202 
300 
155 
1,165 

48 
9 
114 
343 
118 
499 

21 

243 

2,118 

1,082 

46 
349 

93 
2,046 
113 
390 
110 
411 
289 
163 
661 

40 
21 IS 
561 
695 

88 

24 

59 
512 


1,416 
141 
103 

80 
641 
847 
482 

57 
414 
201 
1,493 
1,211 
782 
828 

48 
489 

10 
1,763 
1,219 

74 

60 
386 
845 
424 
135 
480 
4 

14 
567 

68 
970 
932 

43 

312 

202 

1,076 

100 

72 
198 

99 
1,685 
120 
901 
625 
805 

53 

32 

236 

1,000 


10 

72 

~78~ 

2 

5 
12 

"¥ 

2 
"Y 

~y 

5 

15 
3 
6 

49 

301 

1 

39 

39" 

"16" 

4 
2 

.... 


2,483 

922 

784 

2,047 

1,889 

324 

1,919 

1,475 

1,259 

825 

4,487 

1,585 

2,091 

1,724 

374 

1,142 

838- 

2,547 

1,813 

1,003 

604 

398 

2,705 

2,192 

1,787 

1,996 

921 

458 

2,647 

001 

1,836 

2,505 

2,018 

4,108 

2,092 

3,019 

800 

475 

1.702 

1,062 

4,588 

2,337 

1,979 

2,376 

1,154 

967 

794 

792 

3,290 


2 293 
1*208 

616 

274 

1,950 

1,283 

1,256 

60 

598 

981 
3,835 
1,484 
2,308 
1,707 
64 
1,263 

342 

2,685 

1,514 

1,361 

80 

464 
1,469 
1,245 

507 

1,173 

72 

375 
2,814 
1,259 
1,516 
1,786 

117 
3,629 

381 
2,531 

287 

460 

612 

286 
3,643 

246 
1,624 
1,526 
1 , 794 

ITS 
85 

284 
2,076 


3 

63 
~T 

"is" 

3 

"T 

13 

"13" 

8 

"T 

25 
215 

"47" 

1 

9 
.... 


5,274 
2,000 
1.417 
3.340 
3,628 

403 
3,559 
1,886 
1,991 
1,311 
10,412 
3,314 
4,394 
2,953 

565 
2,094 
1,250 
5,424 
3,219 
1,762 
1,129 

763 
5,116 
3,313 
3,464 
3,316 

974 

846 
4,907 
1,634 
3,432 
1,706 
3,395 
8,250 
2,786 
7,220 

812 

655 
2,662 
1,604 
9,594 
3,540 
3,902 

1 , 227 
2,525 
1,165 

1 , 266 
1,170 
6,351 


4,624 
2,643 
1,187 




422 


Avery 


3,800 
2,497 


Beaufort. . 


2,212 


Bertie.- 


147 




1,010 


Brunswick..-- 


1,381 




8,005 
3,566 




5,226 


Caldwell - 


3,222 




116 




2,292 


Caswell .- 


496 




5,912 




2,895 




2,474 




162 


Clav - 


913 




2,978 




1,655 




604 




1,849 
69 


Dare 


624 


Davidson 


5,844 




2,583 


Duplin __--- 


2,704 
3,494 


Edgecombe..- 


292 


Forsyth - 


6,759 


Franklin. _ 


552 


Gaston--- 


5,749 
294 




916 




793 




427 


Guilford 


7,788 


Halifax..- _. 


113 
3,318 


Hay w ood 

Henderson 


2,962 
3,604 


Hertford 


210 


Hoke 


156 


Hyde . 


475 


Iredell — - 


4,4194 



330 



Election Retubns 

VOTE FOR GOVERNOR, 1912-1920 — Continued. 



Counties 



Jackson-- 

Johnston ... 

Jones 

Lee....— 

Lenoir 

Lincoln..- 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell-.. _ 
Mecklenburg- . 

Mitchell- 

Montgomery-.. 

Moore--- 

Nash 

New Hanover- 
Northampton- 

Onslow 

Orange--- 

Pamlico--- 

Pasquotank—- 

Pende— 

Perquimans— . 

Ferson. -- 

Pitt 

Polk..- 

Randolph-- 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham-. 

Rowan-- 

Rutherford 

Sami son- — 

Scotland 

Stanly.. 

Stokes 

Surry..- 

Swain 

Transylvania.. 

Tyrrell 

Union— 

Vance-- 

Wake 

Warren--- 

Washington- .. 

Watauga- 

Wayne ..-- 

Wilkes 

Wilson... 

Yadkin 

Yancey 



1912 



Totals 



O 

o 

o 
o 



233 
959 
694 
888 
666 
324 
056 
925 
264 
062 
110 
412 
132 
208 
922 
990 
672 
904 
096 
703 
011 
988 
686 
847 
42(1 
676 
828 
357 
103 
997 
839 
241 
289 
774 
742 
168 
006 
799 
640 
382 
724 
,223 
,221 
,044 
509 
981 
,390 
,622 
,877 
774 
,150 



149,975 43,625 



03 
E 

o 
h 



764 

1,761 

76 

95 

214 

67 

314 

842 

231 

886 

452 

177 

291 

464 

200 

211 

13 

55 

516 

108 

61 

21 

310 

811 

457 

61 

475 

116 

211 

899 

3' is 

165 

176 



lii'i) 
585 
529 
789 
310 
309 
1H 
199 
593 



471 
723 

131 

528 
65 

1,068 
50 



220 
507 

66 
386 
201 
1,015 
614 
900 

18 
189 
342 
717 
668 
410 
426" 

69 

42 
444 
468 
279 
117 
234 

42 

62 

239 

5 

1,759 

85 

344 

153 

961 

1,423 

2,366 

48 
1,005 

48 
288 
246 
321 

43 
326 

151 
913 

29 

39 
455 
948 

2,332 
442 

1,028 



1916 



03 

C 



1,302 
3,227 

705 
1,049 
1,690 
1 , 502 
1,126 

941 
1,403 
1 , 268 
4,403 

462 
1,225 
1,361 
2,174 
2,499 
1,462 
1,144 
1,213 

700 
1,168 

973 

631 

937 
2,762 

683 
2,761 
1,606 
3,068 
2,288 
3,001 
2 132 
L326 

944 
2,105 
1,513 
2,n22 

794 

821 

410 
2,758 
1,459 
4,719 
1,279 

651 
1,134 
2,627 
1,595 
2.050 

858 
1.263 



49,930 944 167761 120,157 



<; 



1,293 

2,946 

231 

581 

653 

1,380 

1,053 

1,991 

270 

1,234 

1,163 



297 

1,188 

1,029 

826 

251 

30 

8C4 

1,159 

530 

929 

353 

286 

929 

740 

743 

3,037 

593 

1,435 

1 , 978 

2,454 

1,871 

2,758 

161 

1,945 

1,871 

2,982 

1,141 

836 

388 

635 

537 

2 298 

"'l33 

486 

1,381 

1,425 

3,471 

676 

1,738 

1,101 



1920 



19 
20 



35 



13 



03 
O 



2,398 
6,076 

999 
2,319 
2,882 
3,326 
2,101 
1,330 
2,577 
2,821 
11,221 

736 
2,305 
2,708 
4,072 
4,342 
2,329 
1,578 
2,081 
1,291 
1,816 
1,6H 
1,057 
1,629 
4,156 
1,387 
5,066 
3,219 
6,185 
4,469 
6,427 
5,092 
2,428 
1.671 
3,901 
2,001 
3,569 
1,418 
1,549 

717 
4,025 
2,459 
8,145 
1,891 
1,115 
1,753 
4,817 
2,884 
3,530 
1,355 
2,306 



590 308,151 



W. B. Taylor, Socialist, 336. 



Vote for U. S. Senator 
TOTE FOR IT. S. SENATOR, 1918-1920. 



331 





19 


18 


19 


20 


Counties 


d 

DQ 

c 



9 
g 

in 

fa 


c3 
o 

a 
u 

a 
o 

1-5 


c 

03 

s 

M 
> 

o 

o 

OJ 


a 



"o 

n 

< 


Alamance 


2,528 

821 

687 

1,666 

1,778 

198 

1,704 

1,159 

951 

385 

4,104 

1,352 

1,840 

1,670 

305 

1,064 

872 

2,323 

1,716 

903 

608 

370 

2,410 

1,346 

1,561 

1,344 

507 

364 

2,535 

674 

1,672 

2,030 

1,568 

4,(127 

1 , 597 

3,164 

446 

371 

1,474 

720 

3.747 

1,746 

1,865 

2,085 

98 1 

693 

769 

57(1 

37.398 


2,241 

1,144 

475 

148 

1,875 

690 

688 

28 

349 

520 

3,281 

1,510 

2,065 

1,542 

58 

992 

228 

2,485 

1,422 

1,120 

46 

428 

1.116 

529 

256 

356 

34 

293 

2,680 

1,216 

1,051 

1,144 

50 

2.917 

188 

2,120 

102 

335 

344 

132 

2,394 

89 

1,373 

1. ill 

1,450 

80 

32 

136 

1.664 


5,289 
2,045 
1,426 
3,375 
3,630 

404 
3,564 
1,887 
2,000 
1,317 
10,413 
3,311 
4,429 
2,966 

563 
2,094 
1,253 
5,436 
3,229 
1 , 753 
1 , 133 

783 
5,202 
3,337 
3,463 
3,341 

974 

845 
4 , 933 
1.636 
3,442 
4,772 
3,413 
8,309 
2,799 
7,236 

812 

653 
2,671 
1,662 

3,547 
3,918 

1 . 225 
2.522 
1,168 
1,274 
1,169 
6.493 


4,604 
2,639 
1,182 
423 
3 793 


Alexander 


Alleghany 


Anson _ 


Ashe 




2,496 
2 214 


Beaufort 


Bertie 


145 


Bladen 


1 003 


Brunswick 


1 378 


Buncombe 


7 914 


Burke 


3 56 9 


Cabarrus 


5 208 


Caldwell 


3 208 


Camden 


118 


Carteret 


2 289 


Caswell 


493 




5,907 
2 894 


Chatham 


Cherokee 


2 473 


Chowan 


17' 1 


Clay 


913 


Cleveland 


2 '145 


Columbus _ 


1 639 


Craven ... 


603 


Cumberland 


1 836 


Currituck 


67 


Dare . 


624 


Davidson 


5,819 

2.579 


Davie... 


Duplin 


2,699 


Durham 


3,472 


Edgecombe 


217 


Forsyth. 


6,717 


Franklin 


540 


Gaston 


5,743 




094 


Graham 


914 


Granville 


793 


Greene 


427 


Guilford... 


7,733 


Halifax.. 


404 


Harnett 


3,312 


Haywood 


2,962 


Henderson 


3,498 


Hertford 




Hoke.... 


154 


Hyde 


476 


Iredell 


4.384 



332 



Election Returns 



VOTE FOR U. S. SENATOR, 1918-1920 — Continued. 





1918 


19 


20 


Counties 


Q 

m 

a 

o 

£ 
B 

fa 


"0 
a 

"3 

a 



>-> 


c 

03 
S 

U 

o 
> 

o 

GO 

o 
a 

J 


a 

c 

"3 

a 

< 




1,040 

3,213 

639 

902 

1,295 

1,438 

1,148 

601 

1,313 

1,198 

3,995 

311 

1,116 

1,189 

1,579 

1,177 

1,121 

930 

741 

522 

635 

897 

486 

791 

2,569 

657 

2,655 

1,513 

2,576 

2,001 

2,871 

2,198 

1,026 

803 

1,977 

1,345 

1,815 

047 

790 

308 

2,157 

1,230 

3,740 

1,081 

511 

1.005 

2,245 

1 . 720 

1,416 

607 

1,108 


915 

2,594 

134 

568 

260 

1,372 

945 

1,378 

230 

1,183 

782 

779 

950 

830 

354 

31 

22 

418 

641 

400 

114 

346 

I'd 

814 

333 

671 

2,884 

319 

625 

1,733 

2,099 

1,712 

2,418 

84 

1,786 

1,724 

2,577 

949 

737 

246 

267 

294 

1,318 

71 

451 

1,274 

963 

2,752 

290 

1,495 

794 


2,399 
6,081 
1,000 
2,364 
2,881 
3,337 
2,106 
1,335 
2,574 
2,817 
11,542 
737 
2,337 
2,747 
4,084 
4,342 
2,330 
1,574 
2,127 
1,291 
1.817 
1,606 
1,060 
1,656 
4,201 
1,390 
5,078 
3,368 
6,297 
4,512 
6,438 
5,111 
2,433 
1,702 
3,911 
2,009 
3,581 
1,419 
1,549 
717 
4.2(13 
2,508 
8,307 
1,894 
1,115 
1,757 
4,867 
2,884 
3,539 
1,360 
2,306 


2,354 




5,332 




337 




1,124 




1,021 




3,125 




2,033 




3,610 




498 


McDowell .. . 


2,568 




3,253 


Mitchell . 


2,554 




2,294 


M oore 


2,223 


Nash 


1,511 


New Hanover 


472 


Northampton - - 


127 


Onslow 


821 


Orange. _ 


1,727 




1,010 


Pasquotank 


416 




672 


Perquimans 


478 


Person 


1,565 


Pitt -- 


821 


Polk.... 


1.350 


Rand ol oh 


6,239 


Robeson 


1,098 
2,055 


Rockingham 


3,587 


Rowan .. . 


4,888 


Rutherford 


3,993 


Sampson,. _ 


5.2S9 


Scotland 


286 


Stanly 


4,275 


Stokes 


2,988 


Surry 


5,153 


Swain . 


2 , 252 


Transylvania 


1,664 


Tyrrell 


535 


Union 


1,365 


Vance 


768 


Wake 


3,278 


Warren _ 


240 


Washington .. ... 


970 


Watauga . 


2,598 


Wayne .. .. . 


2,766 


Wilkes 


6,458 


Wilson.. _. 


1,319 


Yadkin.... 


3,290 


Yancey 


2,574 






Totals 


143,524 


93,697 


310.504 


229,343 



Vote for Members of . Congress 



333 



VOTE FOE MEMBERS OF CONGRESS, 191S-1920. 

FIRST CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 





1918 


19 


20 


19 


22 


Counties 




"3 

H 

M 

a 

~ 
>-> 


D 


U 
C3 

- 

w 


a 

u 

a 

V 

o 


02 

"3 
W 


u 

o 

5 

C3 

d 


Beaufort 


1,640 
263 
603 
490 
304 
439 
571 
532 

1,303 
517 
467 

2,518 
306 
474 


698 
108 
53 
66 
346 
106 
108 
183 
221 
240 
204 
375 
231 
462 


3,526 

581 

1,102 

977 

811 

790 

1,143 

1,227 

2,487 

1,759 

1,045 

4,135 

715 

1,116 


2,164 

97 
160 

48 
520 
305 
184 
441 
552 
399 
458 
699 
532 
936 


1,854 
223 
312 

368 
648 
708 
438 
470 

1,030 
607 
455 

1,653 
611 
824 


557 
6 

2 


Camden 


Chowan.. 


Currituck 


10 

473 


Dare 


Gates 


141 


Hertford 


28 


Hvde 


79 


Martin 


39 


Pasquotank 


150 


Perquimans 


108 


Pitt 


89 


Tvrrell 


307 


Washington 


432 






Totals 


10,427 


3,401 


21,414 


7,495 


10,201 


3 401 







SECOND CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 





1918 


1920 


1922 




C 


Q 




Q 


Counties 






g 






s 




















.r; 


J3 


3 


A 






V 


O 






-^ 


+^ 


X 






w 


W 


G 


m 




-3 


T3 




■3 




3 


3 


o 


3 






oJ 




e3 




O 


o 


£ 


O 


Bertie 


1,139 

1,549 

662 

1,717 
1,307 
1,094 
1,106 
1,412 


1,838 
3,:;9S 
1,648 
3,502 
2,889 
2,293 
1,900 
3,422 


81 
180 
383 
295 
808 
121 
220 
1,279 


765 


Edgecombe 


1 , 228 


Greene 


B26 


Halifax 


1,314 


Lenoir 


1,402 


Northampton 


SI Mi 


Warren 


978 


Wilson. 


1,214 






Totals _. 


9,986 


20,890 


3,367 


8,533 



334 



Election Returns 



VOTES FOR MEMBERS OF CONGRESS, 1918-1922— Continued 
THIRD CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 





1918 


1920 


1922 




Counties 


e 
o 

xn 

a 

Ph~ 

_;a 

3 

£ 

C3 
CO 


>> 

O 

c3 
O 

s 
o 


c 


BO 

c 

n— 

z 

3 

3 
m 


to 
a 
't-t 

o 

u 
03 

o 


>* 

d 

u 


o 
o 

tn ■■ — 

£ 
o 

H 


Carteret 


981 

1,527 

1,607 

621 

923 

530 

874 

1,009 

2,163 


1,070 
278 

1,036 
134 
422 
390 
314 

2,404 
952 


2,077 
3,454 
3,414 
984 
1,528 
1,289 
1,541 
2,440 
4,820 


2,280 
591 

2,676 
319 
858 
998 
642 

5,296 

2,687 


2,583 

1,867 

2,621 

494 

833 

838 

900 

1,494 

2,471 


1,563 


Craven 


57 


Duplin - 


669 


Jones . - 


53 


Onslow 


161 


Pamlico 


280 


Pender. . 


242 


Sampson 


3,117 


Wayne 


782 






Totals 


10,205 


7,000 


21,547 


16,347 


14,101 


6,925 







FOURTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 





1918 


19 


20 


19 


22 














^-, 




Q 


g 


P 


g 


Q 


g 




— 


a 


* — 


1- 


* — 


M 




3 


o 


3 


O 


3 


^ 




O 


X 


O 




O 


CO 


Counties 


Ph 


Q 


Ph 


c3 


Ph 






"3 


*H 


-3 


Q 


■3 


a 




u 


U 


03 


en 
o 




60 

3 




■S 


JZ 


S 




S 


K 




■3 


o 


"3 




' J 






w 




K 




H 


&h 


Chatham 


1,708 
1,565 
3,141 
1,551 
1,215 
3,673 


1,441 
172 

2,594 
317 
274 

1,230 


3,192 
2,772 
6,066 
3,957 
2,415 
8.068 


2,890 
476 

5,267 

1,470 
762 

3,219 


3,326 
1,135 
5,271 

2,277 

921 

4,275 


2,814 


Franklin ._ 


111 


Johnston 


4,240 


Nash 


104 


Vance -- 


155 


Wake.. 


662 






Totals 


12,853 


6,028 


26,470 


14,084 


16,205 


8,086 



Vote for Memrers of Congress 



335 



VOTES FOR MEMBERS OF CONGRESS, 1918-192C— Continued 
FIFTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 



Counties 



Alamance... 

Caswell 

Durham 

Forsyth 

Granville 

Guilford..— 

Orange 

Person 

Rockingham 

Stokes 

Surry 

Totals... 



1918 



a 
G 



2Q 

CO w 

5 
O 



2,487 

852 

1,965 

4,004 

1,469 

3,693 

724 

754 

1,997 

1,316 

1,815 



21,076 



a 



.rt 



2,239 

216 

1,133 

2,905 

327 

2,373 

640 

786 

1,718 

1,716 

2,582 



16,635 



1920 



£q 



o 



5,272 
1,195 
4,604 
8,240 
2,570 
10,000 
2,057 
1,411 
4,479 
1,969 
3,504 



45,301 



*# 



4,566 
506 
3,522 
6,569 
822 
7,422 
1,685 
1.753 
3,585 
2,932 
5,122 



38,484 



1922 



e 

s 

13 



^O 



03 

o 



3,851 

860 

3,194 

5,748 



5,553 
1,697 
1,647 
4,155 
1,818 
3,755 



33,694 



03 



a 



S 
►J 



1,579 

191 

1,478 

3,479 



3,598 
868 
827 
2,071 
2,067 
4,020 

20,380 



SIXTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 





19 

c 


18 


19 


20 


19 


22 












13 




js 








Q 


03 

a 




Counties 


O 


^> 


o 


« 


c 




Q 






^5 


>> 





>. 








►— i 


Cv 


a 


^ 




^ 


f~r— 


• --? 


•t^ 


• 


*-a 






if-il 


.9 


£ 


M 
U 


£ 




a 


03 03 








c3 




a 


MO 


£ 


m 


£ 


^3 




03 


O o 


c 




o 


r^ 




X 


<s 


W 


« 


W 


$■ 


Bladen 


923 
359 
1,370 
1 , 356 
1,833 
1,156 
2,578 


356 
514 
515 
329 
1,361 

627 


2,025 
1,357 
3,382 
3,329 
3,918 
3,930 
6,233 


981 
1 , 263 
1,463 
1,813 
3,295 

406 
1,819 


2,325 
1,188 
2,241 
1,163 

3,529 
1,871 

2,729 


569 


Brunswick. 


1,109 


Columbus «. 


466 


Cumberland 


373 


Harnett 


2,098 


New Hanover 


85 


Robeson 


566 






Totals.. 


9,575 


3,702 


24,174 


11,040 


14,996 


5,266 







336 



Election Returns 



VOTES FOR MEMBERS OF CONGRESS, 1918-1920— Continued. 
SEVENTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 



Counties 



Anson.. , 

Davidson 

Davie 

Hoke 

Lee 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Randolph 

Richmond.... 

Scotland 

Union 

Wilkes 

Yadkin 

Totals... 



1918 



03 C 

03 O 



SI 



1,678 

2,523 

659 

758 

887 

1,112 

1,194 

2,645 

1,539 

804 

2,063 

1,710 

603 



18,275 



to 



O' 



•« 



140 

2,659 

1,204 

32 

560 

949 

812 

2,895 

333 

84 

253 

1,214 

1,417 



14,116 



1920 



03 

2 

03 



3,393 
4,870 
1,627 
1,259 
2,321 
2,310 
2,707 
5,072 
3,343 
1,684 
4,167 
2,972 
1,346 



37,071 



o 
O 



395 
5,742 
2,552 

138 
1,102 
2,274 
2,197 
6,183 
1,095 

325 
1,217 
6,«32 
3,242 



32,784 



1922 



C3 

s 



1,753 
5,753 

1,617 
627 
1,363 
2,491 
2,468 
5,691 
2,440 
858 
1,362 
3,051 
1,155 



30,629 



o 



70 

5,100 

1,980 

20 

318 
2,119 
1,708 
5,558 

218 
30 

234 
4,354 
1,883 



23,592 



EIGHTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 





1918 


19 


20 


1922 




c 




a 




a 


,^ 




o 




o 


« 





d 




.^ 


>> 

o 

c 


.c 




^3 




Counties 


t£ 


us 


t 


■3 


*o 




O 




o 


.0 


O 


X2 




Qt 




G~ 


a 


Qx 






<Q 


~K 


,-p 


S 


P 


s 






<*- 


+3 


O 


hJ 









3 


o 
o 





u 

O 







« 


(n 


r^> 


1-5 


g 


i-s 


Alexander 


827 
719 


1,148 
448 


2; 052 
1,455 


2,613 
1,115 


2,192 
1,584 


2,221 


Alleghany 


1,105 


Ashe 


1,792 


1,829 


3,642 


3,686 


4,089 


3,629 


Cabarrus 


1,863 


2,042 


4,380 


5,178 


4,235 


3,929 


Caldwell 


1,700 
3,390 
2,888 
1,955 


1,521 

1,677 
2,085 
1.797 


3,015 
6,483 
6,283 
3,836 


3,135 
4,378 
4,515 
4,279 


3,396 
5,481 
4,633 
3,673 


2,782 


Iredell 


2,468 


Rowan 


2,620 


Stanly 


3,620 


Watauga. . 


971 


1,279 


1,788 


2,557 


2,056 


2,119 






Totals 


16,105 


13,826 


32,934 


31,456 


31,340 


24,235 







Vote for Members of Congress 



337 



VOTES FOR MEMBERS OF CONGRESS, 1918-192C— CWiWd. 
NINTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 





19 


18 


1920 


1922 


Counties 


Q 

x> 

o 

.2 

fa 


g 

CO 

03 

1-2 

< 
CO 

u 
c3 

o 


Q 

cd 

3 
"3 

PQ 
fa 
< 


O 

fa 

CD 

A! 
03 

"-5 


Q 

3 
a 

*3 

fa 
fa 
<j 


d 

U 

o 
"a 

03 

w 

fa 




279 
1 , 329 
2,332 
2,406 
3,152 
1,418 

628 
3,969 

365 
1,104 


607 

1,490 

2,468 

1,134 

2,154 

1,387 

1,271 

770 

773 

776 


417 
3,323 
5,474 
5,143 
7,160 
3,284 
1,337 
11,047 

729 
2,281 


2,457 
3,511 

6,176 
2,947 
5,696 
3,060 
3,607 
3,494 
2,198 
2,540 


552 
3,963 
5,595 
2,532 
4,212 
3,014 
1,390 
3,976 

634 
2,728 


1,605 




2,881 




4,923 




981 




1,147 




2,255 




1,919 




677 


Mitchell 


1,191 




1,589 






Totals --- 


16,982 


12,830 


40,195 


35,686 


28,596 


19,168 







TENTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 





19 


18 


19 


20 


19 


22 


Counties 


a 

CD 
> 
03 
CD 

a 


fa 
*? 

fa 

CO 

fa 


G 

fa. 
> 

a 

o 

"3 
fa 

« 


fa 

CO 

a 

3 
a 

o 

1-5 
fa 
fa 


P 

U 

> 

03 
C 

o 
"3 

SI 


fa 

CD 
CO 

fa 
«i 

fa 

a 

03 

fa 




4,015 

913 

375 

362 

2,090 

976 

1,040 

1,198 

1,085 

645 

2,169 

668 

787 


3,442 

1,188 

431 

351 

1,139 

1,482 

923 

1,183 

998 

717 

1,738 

937 

742 


10,295 
1 , 745 
771 
648 
4,228 
2,523 
2,395 
2,827 
2,103 
1,379 
5,048 
1,436 
1,525 


8,096 
2,458 
908 
923 
2,943 
3,513 
2,359 
2,554 
2,018 
1,367 
3,585 
2,221 
1,680 


9,356 
1,994 
950 
785 
4,224 
2,874 
2,798 
3,23] 
2,539 
1,364 
4,194 
1,572 
1,745 


5,331 




2,019 




935 




931 




1,728 




2,580 




2 , 533 




2,522 




1,982 


Polk . 


1,384 




2,838 




1,497 




1,912 






Totals -. 


16,323 


15,271 


36,923 


34,625 


37,626 


28,192 







22 



338 Election Retubns 

VOTE FOR CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT BY COUNTIES, 1922. 

THESE AMENDMENTS 

1. Give authority to the State to tax net income from all sources above 

exemption of not less than $2,000 for married man or widow or widower 
having dependent minor child or children, and to all other persons not 
less than $1,000. 

2. To limit poll tax to not exceeding $2 for State, and for municipalities, $1. 

3. To reduce rate of tax on property for general expenses of State and counties 

from 66 2-3 cents to a limit of 15 cents on each $100 worth of property. 

4. To substitute a rule of one instead of two years residence in State and 

four months in precinct, as qualification for voting. 

5. To abolish payment of poll tax as qualification for voting. 



Chapter 5, Public Laws, Extra Session of 1920, is as follows: 

AN ACT TO AMEND CHAPTER 129 OF THE PUBLIC LAWS OP 1919, AND 
TO FURTHER AMEND THE CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE O- NORTH 
CAROLINA. 

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

Section 1. That chapter one hundred and twenty-nine of the 

Public Laws of nineteen hundred and nineteen be and the same is 

hereby amended so as hereafter to read as follows: 

Section 2. That the Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

be, and the same is hereby, amended in manner and form as 

follows: 

I. Amend article five, section three, by repealing the proviso 
in said section, "that no income shall be taxed when the property 
from which the income is derived is taxed,'' and substituting in 
lieu thereof the following: "Provided, the rate of tax on incomes 
shall not in any case exceed six per cent (6%), and there shall 
be allowed the following exemptions, to be deducted from the 
amount of annual incomes, to wit: for a married man with a wife 
living with him, or to a widow or wndower having minor child or 
children, natural or adopted, not less than $2,000; to all other 
persons not less than $1,000, and there may be allowed other 
deductions (not including living expenses) so that only net in- 
comes are taxed." > 

II. By striking out section one of article five and substituting 
therefor the following: 



Vote on Constitutional Amendments 339 

"Section 1. The General Assembly may levy a capitation tax 
on every male inhabitant of the State over twenty-one and under 
fifty years of age, which said tax shall not exceed two dollars, and 
cities and towns may levy a capitation tax which shall not exceed 
one dollar. No other capitation tax shall be levied. The commis- 
sioners of the several counties and of the cities and towns may 
exempt from the capitation tax any special cases on account of 
poverty or infirmity." 

III. By striking out section six article five and substituting 
therefor the following: "The total of the State and county tax 
on property shall not exceed fifteen cents on the one hundred 
dollars value of property, except when the county property tax is 
levied for a special purpose and with the special approval of the 
General Assembly, which may be done by special or general act: 
Provided, this limitation shall not apply to taxes levied for the 
maintenance of the public schools of the State for the term re- 
quired by article nine, section three, of the Constitution: Provided 
further, the State tax shall not exceed five cents on the one hun- 
dred dollars value of property." 

IV: By striking out that part of the first sentence of section two 
of article six ending with the word "election" before the word 
"provided," and substituting therefor the following: "He shall 
reside in the State of North Carolina for one year and in the 
precinct, ward, or other election district in which he offers to vote 
four months next preceding the election. 

V. By abrogating the following requirement of section four of 
article V: "And before he shall be entitled to vote he shall have 
paid on or before the first day of May of the year in which he 
proposes to vote, his poll tax for the previous year, as prescribed 
by article V, section 1, of the Constitution," and by abrogating the 
following proviso at the end of section 4 of article VI: "Provided 
such person shall have paid his poll tax as. above required." 

Sec. 3. That amendments I, II, and III to the Constitution shall 
be considered as one amendment, and amendments IV and V shall 
be considered as one amendment, and shall be submitted to the 
qualified voters of the whole State at the general election. 

Sec. 4. That the electors favoring the adoption of amendments 
I, II, and III shall vote ballots on which shall be written or printed, 
"For Amendments to Limit Rate of State and County Taxes, and 



340 Election Returns 

Amount of Poll Taxes, and to Authorize Income Tax," and those 
opposed, ballots on which shall be written or printed "Against 
Amendments to Limit Rate of State and County Taxes, and 
Amount of Poll Tax, and to Authorize Tax." 

Sec. 5. That the electors favoring the adoption of amendments 
IV and V shall vote ballots on which shall be written or printed, 
"For Amendments to Change Requirement of Two Years Residence 
in the State and Payment of Poll Tax as Qualification for Voting," 
and those opposed, ballots onwhich shall be written or printed, 
"Against Amendments to Change Requirement of Two Years Resi- 
dence in the State and Payment of Poll Tax as Qualification for 
Voting.'' 

Sec. 6. That the election upon the amendments shall be conducted 
in the same manner and under the same rules and regulations as 
provided by the laws governing general elections, and if the ma- 
jority of the votes cast be in favor of the amendments, or any of 
them, it shall be the duty of the Governor of the State to certify 
the amendments receiving a majority of votes cast under the seal 
of the State to the Secretary of State, who shall enroll the said 
amendments so certified among the permanent records of his office, 
and the same shall be in force, and every part thereof, from and 
after the date of such certification. 

Sec 7. This act shall be in force from and after its ratification. 

Ratified this 26th day of August, A. D. 1920. 



Vote on Constitutional Amendments 



341 



VOTE ON FOREGOING AMENDMENTS. 



Counties 


Amendme 

V, Sectio 

and 6: 1 

Rate of J 

County J 

Poll fa? 

Authorii 

on Net 

from all 


nt to Art. 
ns 1, 3, 4 
limiting 
State and 
'axes and 
:es, and 
-ing Tax 
Income 
Sources 


Amend mi 

VI, Secti 
4: Chang 

dence 1 

ment for 

from Tw 

Year in t 

and to 
County, c 
ishing Pa 
Poll Tax 

site for 


nt to Art 
Dns 2 and- 
ing Resi- 
equire- 
Voting 
o to One 
he State, 
Four in 
nd Abol- 
yment of 
as Krqui- 
Voting 




For 


Against 


For 


Against 




5,190 
1,974 
1,156 
1,965 
2,738 
1,395 
3,018 
1,569 
2,068 

612 
7,707 
3,787 
3,223 
1,939 

605 
2,618 

851 
7,154 
2,986 
1,588 

928 

867 
;».:;n;, 

2,840 

3,115 

1,942 

931 

868 

4,246 

1,580 

2,485 

3,091 

2,185 

9,049 

1,981 

2,207 

719 

769 

2,176 

1,417 

9,707 

1,549 

3,674 

4,172 

3,137 

1,114 

978 

837 

5,874 

2,305 

3,822 


658 

1,682 

194 

803 

441 

15 

1,653 

255 

537 

227 

1,413 

1,117 

1,352 

582 

8 

124 

164 

684 

1,357 

342 

269 

54 

656 

861 

410 

1,735 

50 

36 

2,783 

679 

2,162 

1,954 

797 

1,228 

881 

2,573 

128 

263 

730 

447 

2,964 

1,791 

1,475 

648 

307 

148 

177 

202 

414 

462 

2,675 


5,703 
1,974 
1,124 
1,675 
1,988 

884 
2,625 
1,508 
1,844 

382 
6,931 
3,818 

991 
1,711 

482 
2,582 

569 
7,187 
1 , 922 
1,347 

397 
. 867 
4,781 
2,922 
2, '942 
1,803 
93 

868 
4,246 
1,431 
2,384 
2,374 
2,178 
9,456 
1.547 
2,038 

516 

331 
2,107 
1,079 
9,316 
1,032 

2.614 

1 , 262 

3,662 

755 

686 

830 

6,557 

1,838 

3,976 


S18 




1 752 


Alleghany.- . .. ... 


301 


Anson ... ... - ... - 

Ashe . 


1.241 
31 


Avery _ _ _ _ _ _. .. 


15 

1,718 




254 


Bladen 


459 




254 




1,803 


Burke . .-■- - 


467 
1,219 


Caldwell 


355 


Camden ._ 


4 


Carteret . 


254 


Caswell... 


182 




699 


Chatham. 


770 




232 


Chowan 


255 


Clay 


54 


Cleveland . . 


835 


Columbus _ .. -. - 

Craven . 


713 
339 


Cumberland . - 


1,587 


Currituck 


50 


Dare . 


36 


Davie .. 


2,783 
472 


Duplin . 


1 , 995 




2,489 




852 


Forsvth _ . . . - 


451 


Franklin 


792 




2,238 


Gates 


40 




118 




716 


Greene . 


508 


Guilford -.- 


3,250 




1,982 


Harnett. 


2. HIS 




69 




479 


Hertford .. 


370 


Hoke 


345 


Hyde 


197 




761 




us 




2,400 



342 



Election Returns 



VOTE ON FOREGOING AMENDMENTS— Continued. 



Counties 



Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir ... 

Lincoln .. 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg .. 

Mitchell 

Montgomery.. 

Moore ... 

Nash 

New Hanover 
Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank.. 

Pender 

Perquimans .. 

Person 

Pitt.... 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham.. 

Rowan 

Rutherford... 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry. 

Swain 

Transvlvania. 

Tyrrell 

Union 

Vance_ 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington... 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 

Totals.... 



Amendment to Art. 

V, Sections 1, 3, 4 

and 6: Limiting 

Rate of State and 

County Taxes and 

Authorizing Tax 

on Net Income 

from all Sources 



For 



910 
350 
602 
663 
695 
027 
002 
793 
912 
437 
976 
172 
446 
290 
113 
455 
906 
464 
786 
45! 
184 
296 
806 
888 
185 
546 
207 
046 
495 
504 
896 
765 

SI'S 

254 
337 
469 
091 
022 
825 
685 
798 
104 
070 
141 
503 
443 
310 
958 
474 



26,873 



Against 



102 
475 
967 
379 
128 
661 
530 
1 

1,410 

84 

687 

368 

877 

1,093 
912 
224 
540 
240 
121 
27 
207 
582 

2,125 
125 

1,952 
231 

2,458 

1,196 
900 
402 

1,052 
789 
222 

1 ,' 344 
857 
128 
11 
104 
195 
748 

3,396 
793 
131 
190 

2,200 
513 

1,234 

1,127 
504 



2 222 



81,109 



Amendment to Art. 
VI, Sections 2 and 
4: Changing Resi- 
dence Require- 
ment for Voting 
from Two to One 
Year in the State, 

and to Four in 
County, and Abol- 
ishing Payment of 
Poll Tax as Requi- 
site forVoting 



For 



813 
2,221 
1,808 
2,665 
2,717 
2,703 
1,402 
3,201 
8,128 

720 
1,714 
3,040 
2,693 
2,064 

944 
1,115 
1,205 
1,038 
1,585 
1,003 
1,163 

610 
1,196 
1,617 
2,014 
2,546 
4,227 
3,100 
5,758 
4,727 
2,181 

736 
1,861 



4,234 
1,892 
1,043 

974 
3,277 

828 
5,165 

800 

936 
1,141 
3,013 
4,447 
2,024 
1,456 
2,698 



235,608 



Against 



123 
730 
840 
619 
141 
849 
559 



1,160 
189 
435 
279 
1,272 
1,042 
929 
295 

1 999 

228 

54 

636 

189 

324 

2,553 

116 

,838 

231 

2,45 

1,9778 

1,614 

693 

1,040 

730 

2,569 



1, 



839 
119 
181 
142 
583 
877 

3,399 
867 
633 
190 

2,265 
509 

1,133 

1,439 
97 



83,366 



Vote on Amendment to Section 28: II 



343 



VOTE ON AMENDMENT TO SECTION 28, ARTICLE II: INCREASING PAY OF 
MEMBERS OF THE LEGISLATURE FROM S4 TO $10 PER DAY. 



Counties 



Alamance... 
Alexander ... 
Alleghany... 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick .. 
Buncombe.. 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell.... 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham... 
Cherokee.... 

Chowan 

Clay. 

Cleveland... 
Columbus ... 

Craven 

Cumberland 
Currituck... 

Dare 

Davidson... 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe. 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville ... 

Greene 

Guilford.... 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood... 
Henderson.. 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell _ 

Jackson 

Johnston. ... 

Jones 

Lee_ 



For 


Against 


1,855 


1,843 


249 


1,943 


62 


1,327 


302 


1,319 


417 


818 


129 


402 


1,127 


858 


244 


427 


783 


1,787 


235 


1,211 


3,771 


7,032 


2,022 


656 


1,700 


2,234 


348 


89 


152 


38 


1,849 


867 


231 


648 


476 


2,011 


276 


3,826 


653 


1,315 


132 


141 


91 


835 


1,051 


1,870 


573 


1,795 


1,096 


631 


403 


941 


141 


203 


421 


210 


597 


1,983 


155 


1,645 


1,480 


1,813 


1,630 


1,497 


481 


693 


2,125 


1,920 


322 


803 


2,136 


1,448 


166 


459 


187 


396 


517 


936 


176 


696 


1,997 


3.S57 


514 


750 


1,562 


2,076 


1,921 


1,415 


1,169 


2,498 


144 


279 


131 


449 


118 


340 


1,878 


3,086 


649 


117 


1,748 


5,361 


51 


448 


438 


996 



344 



Election Returns 



Counties 



Lenoir_ 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg.. 

Mitchell 

Montgomery... 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover. 

Northampton. 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 

Pender 

Perquimans 

Person 

Pitt _ 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham... 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania.. 

Tyrrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake.. 

Warren... 

Washington 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 

Totals 



For 


Against 


242 


1,124 


927 


2,478 


657 


1,307 


278 


1,819 


301 


647 


237 


437 


1,746 


2,001 


149 


719 


40 


169 


681 


2,540 


593 


649 


852 


782 


224 


456 


78 


719 


519 


1,687 


169 


401 


335 


322 


178 


1,046 


252 


234 


126 


1,699 


251 


1,314 


376 


501 


89 


2,477 


714 


925 


828 


2,027 


1,919 


2,053 


3,605 


1,763 


1,101 


4,838 


493 


3,670 


362 


300 


2,115 


2,783 


225 


1,900 


283 


2,918 


241 


817 


636 


9 


483 


138 


266 


989 


231 


662 


2,129 


2,169 


299 


594 


685 


379 


233 


1,165 


868 


2,102 


584 


3,567 


188 


905 


115 


1,978 


1,253 


624 


72,297 


138,765 



PART X. 

1. The Halifax Resolution of April 12, 1776. 

2. The Declaration of Independence. 



[345] 



THE HALIFAX RESOLUTION. 

Adopted by the Provincial Congress of 2sorth Carolina 
in session at Halifax, April 12, 1776. 

It appears to your committee that pursuant to the plan concerted 
by the British Ministry for subjugating America, the King and 
Parliament of Great Britain have usurped a power over the per- 
sons and properties of the people unlimited and uncontrouled; 
and disregarding their humble petitions for peace, liberty and 
safety, have made divers legislative acts, denouncing war, famine, 
and every species of calamity, against the Continent in general. 
That British fleets and armies have been, and still are, daily em- 
ployed in destroying the people, and committing the most horrid 
devastations on the country. That Governors in different Colonies 
have declared protection to slaves who should imbrue their hands 
in the blood of their masters. That ships belonging to America 
are declared prizes of war, and many of them have been violently 
seized and confiscated. In consequence of all of which multitudes of 
the people have been destroyed, or from easy circumstances re- 
duced to the most lamentable distress. 

And whereas the moderation hitherto manifested by the United 
Colonies and their sincere desire to be reconciled to the mother 
country on constitutional principles, have procured no mitigation 
of the aforesaid wrongs and usurpations, and no hopes remain of 
obtaining redress by those means alone which have been hitherto 
tried, your committee are of opinion that the House should enter 
into the following resolve, to-wit: 

Resolved, That the delegates for this Colony in the Continental 
Congress be impowered to concur with the delegates of the other 
Colonies in declaring Independency, and forming foreign alliances, 
reserving to this Colony the sole and exclusive right of forming 
a Constitution and laws for this Colony, and of appointing dele- 
gates from time to time (under the direction of a general repre- 
sentation thereof), to meet the delegates of the other Colonies for 
such purposes as shall be hereafter pointed out. 



1347 1 



348 Declaration of Independence 

THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. 

lit Congress, July 4, 1776. 

The Unanimous Declaration of the Thirteen United States 

of America. 

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one 
people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them 
with another, and to assume among the Powers of the earth, the 
separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Na- 
ture's God entitled them, a decent respect to the opinions of man- 
kind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them 
to the separation. 

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created 
equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with cerain unalien- 
able Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of 
Happiness. That to secure these rights, G-overnments are instituted 
among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the 
governed, That whenever any Form of Government becomes destruc- 
tive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish 
it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such 
principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall 
seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, in- 
deed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be 
changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experi- 
ence hath shown, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while 
evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms 
to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and 
usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to 
reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their 
duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for 
their future security. — 'Such has been the patient sufferance of these 
Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to 
alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the pres- 
ent King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usur- 
pations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute 
Tryanny over these States. To provide this, let Facts be submitted 
to a candid world. 

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and 
necessary for the public good. 



Declaration of Independence 348 

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and 
pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his 
Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly 
neglected to attend to them. 

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large 
districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right 
of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them 
and formidable to tyrants only. 

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncom- 
fortable, and distant from the depository of their Public Records, 
for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his 
measures. 

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing 
with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people. 

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause 
others to be elected; whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of 
Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exer- 
cise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the 
dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within. 

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States; for 
that purpose obstructing the Laws of Naturalization of Foreigners; 
refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and 
raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands. 

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his 
Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers. 

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure 
of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries. 

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms 
of Officers to harass our People, and eat out their substance. 

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies with- 
out the Consent of our legislature. 

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior 
to the Civil Power. 

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction 
foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving 
his Assent to their acts of pretended legislation: 

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: 



350 Declaration of Independence 

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any 
Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these 
States: 

For cutting off of Trade with all parts of the world: 

For imposing taxes on us without our Consent: 

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury: 

For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offenses: 

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighboring 
Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarg- 
ing its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit in- 
strument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies: 

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, 
and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments: 

For suspending our own Legislature, and declaring themselves in- 
vested with Power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. 

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his 
Protection and waging "War against us. 

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, 
and destroyed the lives of our people. 

He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercena- 
ries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already 
begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in 
the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civil- 
ized nation. 

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high 
Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners 
of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands. 

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeav- 
oured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless 
Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished 
destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions. 

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Re- 
dress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been 
answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is 
thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be 
the ruler of a free People. 



Declaration of Independence 351 

Nor have We been wanting in attention to our British brethren. 
We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legis- 
lature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have 
reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settle- 
ment here. We have appealed to their native justice and magna- 
nimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kin- 
dred to disavow these unsurpations, which would inevitably interrupt 
our connection and correspondence. They too have been deaf to 
the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, ac- 
quiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold 
them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace 
Friends. 

We, therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, 
in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of 
the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by 
Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish 
and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to 
be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all 
Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection 
between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be 
totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they 
have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, 
establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Inde- 
pendent States may of right do. And for the support of this Decla- 
ration, with a firm reliance on the Protection of Divine Providence, 
we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our 
sacred Honor. JOHN HANCOCK. 

New Hampshire — Josiah Bartlett, Wm. Whipple, Matthew 
Thornton. 

Massachusetts Bay — Saml. Adams, John Adams, Robt. Tkeat 
Paine, Elbridge Gerry. 

Rhode Island — Step. Hopkins, William Ellert. 

Connecticut — Rodger Sherman, Sam'el Huntington, Wm. Will- 
iams, Oliver Wolcott. 

New York — Wm. Floyd, Phil. Livingston, Frans. Lewis, Lewis 
Morris. 

New Jersey — Richd. Stockton, Jno. Witherspoon, Fras. Hopkin- 
son, John Hart, Abra. Clark. 



352 Declaration of Independence 

Pennsylvania— Robt. Morris, Benjamin Rush, Benja. Franklin, 
John Morton, Geo. Clymer, Jas. Smith, Geo. Taylor, James Wilson, 
Geo. Ross. 

Delaware — Caesar Rodney, Geo. Read, Tho. M'Kean. 

Maryland— Samuel Chase, Wm. Paca, Thos. Stone, Charles Car- 
roll of Carrollton. 

.Virginia — George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, Th. Jefferson, 
Benja. Harrison, Thos. Nelson, Jr., Francis Lightfoot Lee, Carter 
Braxton. 

North Carolina — Wm. Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn. 

South Carolina — Edward Rutledge, Thos. Heywood, junr., 
Thomas Lynch, junr., Arthur Middleton. 

Georgia — Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, Geo. Walton.* 

* This arrangement of the names is made for convenience. The States are 
not mentioned in the original. 



PART XI. 



CONSTITUTIONS. 



1. Constitution" of the United States. 

2. Constitution of North Carolina. 

3. Index to the Constitution of North Carolina. 



23 I 353 ] 



CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 

We, the People of the United States, in order to form a more per- 
fect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquillity, provide 
for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure 
the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain 
and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. 

Article I. 

Section 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested 
in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate 
and House of Representatives. 

Section 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of 
Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several 
States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications 
requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the Stats 
Legislature. 

No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained 
to the Age of twenty-five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of 
the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabi- 
tant of that State in which he shall be chosen. 

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the 
several States which may be included within this Union, according 
to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding 
to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to 
Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three 
fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made 
within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the 
United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in 
such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The number of Repre- 
sentatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each 
State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enum- 
eration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled 
to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence 
Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, 
Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, 
North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three. 

[ 355 ] 



356 Constitution of the United States 

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the 
Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such 
vacancies. 

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other 
Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment. 

Section 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of 
two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for 
six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote. 

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the 
first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three 
Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated 
at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the 
Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expira- 
tion of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second 
Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during 
the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof 
may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the 
Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies. 

No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the 
Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United 
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that 
State for which he shall be chosen. 

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the 
Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided. 

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President 
pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall 
exercise the Office of President of the United States. 

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. 
When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. 
When the President of the United States is tried the Chief Justice 
shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Con- 
currence of two thirds of the Members present. 

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than 
to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any 
Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the 
Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indict- 
ment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to law. 



Constitution of the United States 357 

Section 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections 
for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State 
by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by 
Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of 
chusing Senators. 

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such 
Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall 
by Law appoint a different Day. 

Section 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Re- 
turns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each 
shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number 
may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the 
Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such 
Penalties as each House may provide. 

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, Punish 
its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of 
two thirds, expel a member. 

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time 
to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judg- 
ment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of 
either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those 
Present, be entered on the Journal. 

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the 
Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any 
other Place than that in which the two Houses shall bo sitting. 

Section 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Com- 
pensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out 
of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, ex- 
cept Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from 
Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective 
Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any 
Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in 
any other Place. 

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he 
was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of 
the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments 
whereof shall have been increased during such time; and no Person 
holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of 
either House during his Continuance in Office. 



358 Constitution of the United States 

Section 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the 
House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur 
with Amendments as on other Bills. 

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives 
and the Senate, shall, before it becomes a Law, be presented to the 
President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but 
if not he shall return it, with his Objections, to that House in which 
it shall have originated, who shall enter the [Objections at large on 
their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If lafter such Reconsid- 
eration two thirds of that, House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall 
be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which 
it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of 
that House, it shall become a law. But in all such Cases the Votes 
of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the 
Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shaH bo en- 
tered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall 
not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays ex- 
cepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be 
a Law, in like manner as if he had signed it unless the Congress by 
their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not 
be a Law. 

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the 
Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on 
a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of 
the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be 
approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by 
two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives according to 
the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill. 

Section 8. The Congress shall have the Power To lay and collect 
Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises,' to pay the Debts and provide for 
the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but 
all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the 
United States; 

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States; 

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the sev- 
eral States, and with the Indian Tribes; 

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform 
Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States; 



Constitution of the United States 359 

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, 
and to fix the Standard of Weights and Measures; 

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the securities 
and current Coin of the United States; 

To establish Post Offices and post Roads; 

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing 
for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Rights to 
their respective Writings and Discoveries; 

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court; 

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high 
Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations; 

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make 
Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water; 

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to 
that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years; 

To provide and maintain a Navy; 

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land 
and naval Forces; 

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the 
Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions; 

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, 
and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the 
Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, 
the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the 
Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress; 

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over 
such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of 
particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat 
of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Author- 
ity over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of 
the State in which the same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, 
Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings; — 
And 

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carry- 
ing into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested 
by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in 
any Department or Officer thereof. 



360 Constitution of the United States 

.Section- 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any 
of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be 
prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight 
hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Im- 
portation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person. 

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be sus- 
pended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public 
Safety may require it. 

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed. 

No Capitation, or ether direct Tax, should be laid, unless in Pro- 
portion to the Census or Enumeration hereinbefore directed to be 
taken. 

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State. 

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or 
Revenue to the Forts of one State over those of another; nor shall 
Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or 
pay Duties in another. 

No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence 
of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Ac- 
count of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be 
published from time to time. 

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: and no 
Persons holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, with- 
out the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present. Emolument, 
Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince or for- 
eign State. 

Section 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or 
Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; 
emit BiHs of Credit; make any thing but gold and silver Coin a 
Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder ex post 
facto Law or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant 
any Title of Nobility. 

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Im- 
posts or Duties on Imports or Exports except what may be absolutely 
necessary for executing its inspection Laws; and the net Produce 
of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, 
shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all 
such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Control of the Con 
gress. 



Constitution of the United States 361 

No State shall, without the Consent rf Congress, lay any Duty of 
Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into 
any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign 
Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such immi- 
nent Danger as will not admit of Delay. 

Article II. 

Section 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of 
the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the 
Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen 
for the same Term, be elected, as follows: 

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature there- 
of 'may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of 
Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in 
the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding 
an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be ap- 
pointed an Elector. 

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by 
Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhab- 
itant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List 
of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; 
which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the 
Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the Presi- 
dent of the Senate. The President of the Senate, shall, in the 
Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the 
Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person hav- 
ing the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such 
Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; 
and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an 
equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall 
immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no 
Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the 
said House shall in like manner chuse the President. But in chusing 
the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation 
from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall 
consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and 
a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every 
Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the great- 
est Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But 



362 Constitution of the United 'States 

if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate 
shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President. 

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, 
and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall 
be the same throughout the United States. 

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the 
United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall 
be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be 
eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of 
thirty-five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the 
United States. 

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his 
Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties 
of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, 
and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, 
Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice 
President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President and 
such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, 
or a President shall be elected. 

The President shall at stated Times, receive for his Services, a 
Compensation, which shall neither be Increased nor diminished dur- 
ing the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not 
receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United 
States, or any of them. 

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the 
following Oath or Affirmation: — 

"I do solemnly swear (on- affirm) that I will faithfully execute the 
Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my 
Ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United 
States." 

Section 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the 
Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the sev- 
eral States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; 
he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in 
each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the 
Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant 
Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except 
in Cases of Impeachment. 



Constitution of the United States 363 

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the 
Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators 
present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice 
and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public 
Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the Supreme Court, and all other 
Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein 
otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law; but 
the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior 
Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts 
of Law, or in the Heads of Departments. 

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may 
happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions 
which shall expire at the End of their next Session. 

Section. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress Infor- 
mation of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consider- 
ation such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he 
may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either 
of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to 
the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he 
shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public 
Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, 
and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States. 

Section. 4. The President. Vice president and all civil Officers of 
the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, 
and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Mis- 
demeanors. 

Article III. 

Section. 1. The Judicial Power of the United States, shall be 
vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the 
Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, 
both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices dur- 
ing good Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their 
Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during 
their continuance in Office. 

Section. 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law 
and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United 
States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Au- 
thority; — to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers 
and Consuls; — to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction; 



364 Constitution of the United States 

— to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party; — to 
Controversies between two or more States; — between a State and 
Citizens of another State; — between Citizens of different States, — 
between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of 
different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and 
foreign States, Citizens, or Subjects. 

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and 
Consuls, and those in which a State shall be a Party, the supreme 
Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before 
mentioned the Supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both 
as to Law and Pact, with such Exceptions, and under such regula- 
tion as the Congress shall make. 

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be 
by Jury; and* such Trial shall be held in the State where the said 
Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within 
any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress 
may by Law have directed. 

Section. 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only 
in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving 
them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason 
unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or 
on Confession in open Court. 

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of 
Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of 
Blood or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted. 

i 
Article IV. 

Section. 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to 
the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other 
State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Man- 
ner in which such Acts, records and Proceedings shall be proved, 
and the effect thereof. 

Section. 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all 
Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States. 

A person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other 
Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State 
shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which 
he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdic- 
tion of the Crime. 



Constitution of the United States 365 

No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws 
thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any Law, or 
Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but 
shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Serv- 
ice or Labour may be due. 

Section. 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this 
Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the 
Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the 
Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Con- 
sent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the 
Congress. 

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all need- 
ful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property 
belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution 
shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United 
States, or any particular State. 

Section. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in 
this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each 
of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or 
of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against 
domestic Violence. 

Article V. 

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it 
necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the 
Application of the Legislature of two thirds of the several States, 
shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either 
case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes as part of this Con- 
stitution, when ratified by the Legislature of three fourths of the 
several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one 
or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; 
Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year 
one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect 
the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; 
and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal 
Suffrage in the Senate. 

• Article VI. 

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the 
Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United 
States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation. 



366 Constitution of the United States 

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall 
be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall 
be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the 
supreme Law of the land; and the Judges in every State shall be 
bound thereby, any thing in the Constitution or laws of any State 
to the Contrary notwithstanding. 

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Mem- 
bers of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial 
Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall 
be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but 
no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any 
Office or public Trust under the United States. 

Article VII. 

The Ratification of the Convention of nine States, shall be suf- 
ficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States 
so ratifying the Same. 

THE AMENDMENTS 
I. 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of re- 
ligion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the free- 
dom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably 
to assemble, and to petition the Government for redress of griev- 
ances. 

II. 

A well-regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free 
State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be 
infringed. 

III. 

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house, with- 
out the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to 
be prescribed by law. 

IV. 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, 
papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall 
not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable 
cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing 
the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. 



Constitution of the United States 367 

V. 

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise in- 
famous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand 
Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the 
Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; 
nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put 
in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any Criminal 
Case to be witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, 
or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property 
be taken for public use, without just compensation. 

VI. 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a 
speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district 
wherein the crime shall have' been committed, which district shall 
have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the 
nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the wit- 
nesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining Wit- 
nesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his 
defence. 

VII. 

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall ex- 
ceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and 
no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court 
of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law. 

VIII. 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, 
nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. 

IX 

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not 
be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 

X. 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Consitution 
nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respec- 
tively, or to the people. 



368 Constitution of the United States 

XI. 

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to 
extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against 
one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens 
or Subjects of any Foreign State. 

XII. 

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by 
ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall 
not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall 
name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in dis- 
tinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall 
make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all 
persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for 
each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to 
the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the 
President of the Senate; — The President of the Senate shall, in the 
presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the 
certificates and the votes shall then be counted; — The person having 
the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, 
if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors ap- 
pointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the per- 
sons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of 
those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall 
choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the 
President, the vote shall be taken by States, the representation from 
each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist 
of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a ma- 
jority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the 
House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever 
the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day 
of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as Presi- 
dent, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of 
the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as 
Vice-President shall be Vice-President, if such number be a ma- 
jority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person 
have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the 
Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose 
shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a 



Constitution of the United States 

majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But 
no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall 
be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States. 

XIII. 

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a 
punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly con- 
victed, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to 
their jurisdiction. 

Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by 
appropriate legislation. 

XIV. 

Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, 
and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United 
States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make 
or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities 
of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any per- 
son of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor 
deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of 
the laws. 

Section. 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several 
States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole 
number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But 
when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for 
President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives 
in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the 
members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male in- 
habitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens 
of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation 
in rebellion, or other crime, the basis. of representation therein shall 
be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citi- 
zens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one 
years of age in such State. 

Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Con- 
gress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, 
civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who 
having previously taken an oath as a member of Congress, or as an 
officer of the United States, or as a member of any State Legislature 
or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the 

24 



370 Constitution of the United States 

Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection 
or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies 
thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House 
remove such disability. 

Section. 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, 
authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions 
and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, 
shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State 
shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aM of insur- 
rection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the 
loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and 
claims shall be held illegal and void. 

Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appro- 
priate legislation, the provisions of this article. 

XV. 

Section 1. The right of the citizens of the United States to vote 
shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any 
State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article 
by appropriate legislation. 

XVI. 

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, 
from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the 
several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration. 

XVII. 

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators 
from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and 
each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall 
have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous 
branch of the State Legislatures. 

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the 
Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of 
election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the Legislature of 
any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary 
appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the 
Legislature may direct. 



Constitution of the United States 371 

XVIII. 

Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the 
manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, 
the importation thereof into, the exportation thereof from the 
United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof 
for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. 

Section 2. The Congress and the several States shall have con- 
current power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

XIX. 

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be 
denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account 
of sex. 

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate 
legislation. 

ratification of the constitution. 

The Constitution was ratified by the thirteen original States in 
the following order: 

Delaware, December 7, 1787; Pennsylvania, December 12, 1787; 
New Jersey, December IS, 1787; Georgia, January 2, 1789; Connecti- 
cut, January 9, 1788; Massachusetts, February 6, 1788; Maryland, 
April 28, 17S8; South Carolina, May 23, 1788; New Hampshire, June 
21, 1788; Virginia, June 25, 1788; New York, July 26, 1788; North 
Carolina, November 21, 1789; Rhode Island, May 29, 1790. 

ratification of the amendments. 
The First to Tenth, inclusive, were declared in force December 15, 
1781; the Eleventh, January 8, 1798; the Twelfth, September 25, 
1804; the Thirteenth was proclaimed December 18, 1865; the Four- 
teenth, July 28, 1868; the Fifteenth, March 30, 1870; the Sixteenth, 
February 25, 1913; the Seventeenth, May 30, 1913; the Eighteenth, 
January 29, 1919; the Nineteenth, August 26, 1920. 



CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

(revised.) 

PREAMBLE. 

We, the people of the State of North Carolina, grateful to Almighty- 
God, the Sovereign Ruler of Nations, for the preservation of the 
American Union, and the existence of our civil, political and re- 
ligious liberties, and acknowledging our dependence upon Him 
for the continuance of those blessings to us and our posterity, 
do for the more certain security thereof, and for the better 
government of this State, ordain and establish this Constitution: 

ARTICLE I. 

DECLARATION OF RIGHTS. 

That the great, general and essential principles of liberty and 
free government may be recognized and established, and that the 
relations of this State to the Union and Government of the United 
States, and those of the people of this State to the rest of the 
American people, may be defined and affirmed we do declare: 

Section 1. That we hold it to be self-evident that all men are 
created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with cer- 
tain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, the 
enjoyment of the fruits of their own labor, and the pursuit of 
happiness. 

Sec. 2. That all political power is vested in, and derived from, 
the people; all government of right originates from the people, is 
founded upon their will only, and is instituted solely for the good 
of the whole. 

Sec. 3. That the people of this State have the inherent, sole 
and exclusive right of regulating the internal government and 
police thereof, and of altering and abolishing their Constitution 
and form of government whenever it may be necessary for their 
safety and happiness; but every such right should be exercised 
in pursuance of law, and consistently with the Constitution of the 
United States. 

Sec. 4. That this State shall ever remain a member of the 
American Union; that the people thereof are a part of the Ameri- 
can Nation; that there is no right on the part of the State to 

[372] 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 373 

secede, and that all attempts, from whatever source or upon what- 
ever pretext, to dissolve said Union or to sever said Nation, ought 
to be resisted with the whole power of the State. 

Sec. 5. That every citizen of this State owes paramount alle- 
giance to the Constitution and government of the United States, 
and that no law or ordinance of the State in contravention or 
subversion thereof can have any binding force. 

Sec. 6. The State shall never assume or pay, or authorize the 
collection of any debt or obligation, express or implied, incurred 
in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or 
any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; nor shall the 
General Assembly assume or pay, or authorize the collection of 
any tax to pay, either directly or indirectly, expressed or implied, 
any debt or bond incurred or issued by authority of the convention 
of the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty eight, nor any 
debt or bond incurred or issued by the Legislature of the year 
one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, either at its special 
session of the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, 
or at its regular sessions of the years one thousand eight hundred 
and sixty-eight, and one thousand eight bunded and sixty-nine, 
and one thousand eight hundred and seventy, except the bonds 
issued to fund the interest on the old debt of the State, unless 
the proposing to pay the same shall have first been submitted 
to the people and by them ratified by the vote of the majority of 
all the qualified voters of the State, at a regular election held for 
that purpose. 

Sec. 7. No man or set of men are entitled to exclusive or 
separate emoluments or privileges from the community but in 
consideration of public services. 

Sec. 8. The legislative, executive and supreme judicial powers 
of the government ought to be forever separate and distinct from 
each other. 

Sec. 9. All power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, 
by any authority, without the .consent of the representatives of 
the people, is injurious to their rights, and ought not to be exer- 
cised. 

Sec. 10. All elections ought to he free. 

Sec. 11. In all criminal prosecutions, every man has the right 
to be informed of the accusation against him and to confront the 



374 Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

accusers and witnesses with, other testimony, and to have counsel 
for his defense, and not to be compelled to give evidence against 
himself, or to pay costs, jail fees, or necessary witness fees of the 
defense, unless found guilty. 

Sec. 12. No person shall be put to answer any criminal charge, 
except as hereinafter allowed, but by indictment, presentment or 
impeachment. 

Sec. 13. No person shall be convicted of any crime but by the 
unanimous verdict of a jury of good and lawful men in open court. 
The Legislature may, however, provide other means of trial for 
petty misdemeanors, with the right of appeal. 

Sec. 14. Excessive bail should not be required, nor excessive 
fines imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishments inflicted. 

Sec. 15. General warrants, whereby any officer or messenger 
may be commanded to search suspected places, without evidence 
of the act committed, or to seize any person or persons not named, 
whose offense is not particularly described and supported by evi- 
dence, are dangerous to liberty and ought not to be granted. 

Sec. 16. There shall be no imprisonment for debt in this State, 
except in cases of fraud. 

Sec. 17. No person ought to be taken, imprisoned, or disseized 
of his freehold, liberties or privileges, or outlawed or exiled, or in 
any manner deprived of his life, liberty or property but by the 
law of the land. 

Sec. 18. Every person restrained of his liberty is entitled to a 
remedy to inquire into the lawfulness thereof, and to remove the 
same, if unlawful; and such remedy ought not to be denied or 
delayed. 

Sec. 19. In all controversies at law respecting property, the 
ancient mode of trial by jury is one of the best securities of the 
rights of the people, and ought to remain sacred and inviolable. 

Sec. 20. The freedom of the press is one of the great bulwarks 
of liberty, and therefore ought never to be restrained, but every 
individual shall be held responsible for the abuse of the same. 

Sec. 21. The privileges of the writ of liabeas corpus shall not be 
suspended. 

Sec. 22. As political rights and privileges are not dependent upon, 
or modified by, property, therefore no property qualification ought 
to affect the right to vote or hold office. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 375 

Sec. 23. The people of the State ought not to be taxed, or made 
subject to the payment of any impost or duty, without the con- 
sent of themselves, or their representatives in General Assembly, 
freely given. 

Sec. 24. A well regulated militia being necessary to the security 
of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms 
shall not be infringed; and, as standing armies in time of p^aeo 
are dangerous to liberty, they ought not to be kept up, and tho 
military should be kept under strict subordination to, and gov- 
erned by, the civil power. Nothing herein contained shall justify 
the practice of carrying concealed weapons, or prevent the Legis- 
lature from enacting penal statutes against said practice. 

Sec. 25. The people have a right to assemble together to con- 
sult for their common good, to instruct their representatives, and 
to apply to the Legislature for redress of grievances. But secret 
political societies are dangerous to the liberties of a free people, 
and should not be tolerated. 

Sec. 26. All men have a natural and inalienable right to worship 
Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences, 
and no human authority should, in any case whatever, control or 
interfere with the rights of conscience. 

Sec. 27. The people have the right to the privilege of education, 
and it is the duty of the State to guard and maintain that right. 

Sec. 28. For redress of grievances, and for amending and strength- 
ening the laws, elections should be often held. 

Sec. 29. A frequent recurrence to fundamental principles is abso- 
lutely necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty. 

Sec. 30. No hereditary emoluments, privileges or honors ought 
to be granted or conferred in this State. 

Sec. 31. Perpetuities and monopolies are contrary to the genius 
of a free State and ought not to be allowed. 

Sec. 32. Retrospective laws, punishing acts committed before 
the existence of such laws, and by them only declared criminal, 
are oppressive, unjust and incompatible with liberty; wherefore 
no ex post facto law ought to be made. No law taxing retrospec 
tively sales, purchases, or other acts previously done, ought to be 
passed. 



376 Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

Sec. 33. Slavery and involuntary servitude, otherwise than for 
crime, whereof the parties shall have been duly convicted, shall be 
and are hereby forever prohibited within the State. 

Sec. 34. The limits and boundaries of the State shall be and 
remain as they now are. 

Sec. 35. All courts shall be open; and every person for an injury 
done him in his lands, goods, person or reputation, shall have 
remedy by due course of law, and right and justice administered 
without sale, denial or delay. 

Sec. 36. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any 
house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war but 
in a manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 37. This enumeration of rights shall not be construed to 
impair or deny others retained by the people; and all powers not 
herein delegated remain with the people. 

ARTICLE II. 

LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT. 

Section 1. The legislative authority shall be vested in two dis- 
tinct branches, both dependent on the people, to wit, a Senate and 
House of Representatives. 

Sec. 2. The Senate and House of Representatives shall meet 
biennially on the first Wednesday after the first Monday in Janu- 
ary next after their election; and, when assembled, shall be denomi- 
nated the General Assembly. Neither house shall proceed upon 
public business unless a majority of all the members are actually 
present. 

Sec. 3. The Senate shall be composed of fifty Senators, biennially 
chosen by ballot. 

Sec. 4. The Senate Districts shall be so altered by the General 
Assembly, at the first session after the return of every enumera- 
tion by order of Congress, that each Senate District shall contain, 
as near as may be, an equal number of inhabitants, excluding 
aliens and Indians not taxed, and shall remain unaltered until 
the return of another enumeration and shall at all times consist 
of contiguous territory; and no county shall be divided in the 
formation of a Senate District, unless such county shaall be equit- 
ably entitled to two or more Senators. 



CONSTITUTION' OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 377 

Sec. 5. The House of Representatives shall be composed of one 
hundred and twenty Representatives, biennially chosen by ballot, 
to be elected by the counties respectively, according to their popu- 
lation, and each county shall have at least one Representative in 
the House of Representatives, although it may not contain the 
requisite ratio of representation; this apportionment shall be 
made by the General Assembly at the respective times and periods 
when the districts of the Senate are hereinbefore directed to be 
laid off. 

Sec. 6. In making the apportionment in the House of Repre- 
sentatives, the ratio of representation shall be ascertained by 
dividing the amount of the population of the State, exclusive of 
that comprehended within those counties which do not severally 
contain the one hundred and twentieth part of the population of 
the State, by the number of Representatives, less the number 
assigned to such counties; and in ascertaining the number of the 
population of the State, aliens and Indians not taxed shall not be 
included. To each county containing the said ratio and not twice 
the said ratio there shall be assigned one Representative; to each 
county containing two but not three times the said ratio there 
shall be assigned two Representatives, and so on progressively, 
and then the remaining Representatives shall be assigned sever- 
ally to the counties having the largest fractions. 

Sec. 7. Each member of the Senate shall not be less than twenty- 
five years of age, shall have resided in the State as a citizen two 
years, and shall have usually resided in the district for which he 
is chosen one year immediately preceding his election. 

Sec. 8. Each member of the House of Representatives shall be 
a qualified elector of the State, and shall have resided in the 
county for which he is chosen for one year immediately preceding 
his election. 

Sec. 9. In the election of all officers, whose appointment shall 
be conferred upon the General Assembly by the Constitution, the 
vote shall be viva voce. 

Sec. 10. The General Assembly shall have the power to pass 
general laws regulating divorce and alimony, but shall not have 
power to grant a divorce or secure alimony in any individual case. 

Sec. 11. The General Assembly shall not have power to pass 
any private law to alter the name of any person, or to legitimate 



37S Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

any person not born in lawful wedlock, or to restore to the rights 
of citizenship any person convicted of an infamous crime, but shall 
have power to pass general laws regulating the same. 

Sec. 12. The General Assembly shall not pass any private law, 
unless it shall be made to appear that thirty days' notice of appli- 
cation to pass such a law shall have been given, under such direc- 
tion and in such manner as shall be provided by law. 

Sec. 13. If vacancies shall occur in the General Assembly by 
death, resignation or otherwise, writs of election shall be issued 
by the Governor under such regulations as may be prescribed by 
law. 

Sec. 14. No law shall be passed to raise money on the credit 
of the State, or to pledge the faith of the State, directly or in- 
directly, for the payment of any debt, or to impose any tax upon 
the people of the State, or allow the counties, cities or towns to 
do so, unless the bill for the purpose shall have been read three 
several times in each House of the General Assembly and passed 
three several readings, which readings shall have been on three 
different days, and agreed to by each House respectively, and 
unless the yeas and nays on the second and third readings of the 
bill shall have been entered on the journal. 

Sec. 15. The General Assembly shall regulate entails in such 
manner as to prevent perpetuities. 

Sec. 16. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, 
which shall be printed and made public immediately after the 
adjournment of the General Assembly. 

Sec. 17. Any member of either House may dissent from and 
protest against any act or resolve which he may think injurious 
to the public, or any individual, and have the reasons of his dis- 
sent entered on the journal. 

Sec. 18. The House of Representatives shall choose their own 
Speaker and other officers. 

Sec. 19. The Lieutenant-Governor shall preside in the Senate, but 
shall have no vote unless it may be equally divided. 

Sec. 20. The Senate shall choose its other officers and also a 
Speaker {pro tempore) in the absence of the Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor, or when he shall exercise the office of Governor. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 379 

Sec. 21. The style of the acts shall be: "The General Assembly 
of North Carolina do enact." 

Sec. 22. Each House shall be judge of the qualifications and 
election of its own members, shall sit upon its own adjournment 
from day to day, prepare bills to be passed into laws; and the two 
Houses may also jointly adjourn to any future day or other place. 

Sec. 23. All bills and resolutions of a legislative nature shall 
be read three times in each House before they pass into laws, and 
shall be signed by the presiding officers of both Houses. 

Sec. 24. Each member of the General Assembly, before taking 
his seat, shall take an oath or affirmation that he will support the 
Constitution and laws of the United States, and the Constitution 
of the State of North Carolina, and will faithfully discharge his 
duty as a member of the Senate or House of Representatives. 

Sec. 25. The terms of office for Senators and members of the 
House of Representatives shall commence at the time of their 
election. 

Sec 26. Upon motion made and seconded in either House by 
one-fifth of the members present, the yeas and nays upon any 
question shall be taken and entered upon the journals. 

Sec. 27. The election for members of the General Assembly 
shall be held for the respective districts and counties, at the places 
where they are now held, or may be directed hereafter to be held, 
in such manner as may be prescribed by law, on the first Thursday 
in August, in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy, 
and every two years thereafter. But the General Assembly may 
change the time of holding the elections. 

Sec. 28. The members of the General Assembly for the term 
for which they have been elected shall receive as a compensation 
for their services the sum of four dollars per day for each day of 
their session, for a period not exceeding sixty days; and should 
they remain longer in session they shall serve without compensa- 
tion. They shall also be entitled to receive ten cents per mile, 
both while coming to the seat of government and while return- 
ing home, the said distance to be computed by the nearest line 
or route of public travel. The compensation of the presiding 
officers of the two Houses shall be six dollars per day and mileage. 
Should an extra session of the General Assembly be called, the 



380 Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

members and presiding officers shall receive a like rate of com- 
pensation for a period of not exceeding twenty days. 

Sec. 29. The General Assembly shall not pass any local, pri- 
vate, or special act or resolution relating to the establishment of 
courts inferior to the Superior Court; relating to the appointment 
of justices of the peace; relating to health, sanitation, and the 
abatement of nuisances; changing the names of cities, towns and 
townships; authorizing the laying out, opening, altering main- 
taining, or discontinuing of highways, streets, or alleys; relating 
to ferries or bridges; relating to non-navigable streams; relating to 
cemeteries; relating to the pay of jurors; erecting new townships, 
or changing township lines, or establishing or changing the lines of 
school districts; remitting fines, penalties, and forfeitures, or re- 
funding moneys legally paid into the public treasury; regulating 
labor, trade, mining, or manufacturing; extending the time for 
the assessment or collection of taxes or otherwise relieving any 
collector of taxes from the due performance of his official duties 
or his sureties from liability; giving effect to informal wills and 
deeds; nor shall the General Assembly enact any such local, pri- 
vate or special act by the partial repeal of a general law, but the 
General Assembly may at any time repeal local, private, or special 
laws enacted by it. Any local, private, or special act or resolution 
passed in violation of the provisions of this section shall be void. 
The General Assembly shall have power to pass general laws 
regulating matters set out in this section. 

ARTICLE III. 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 

Section 1. The Executive Department shall consist of a Gov- 
ernor, in whom shall be vested the supreme executive power of 
the State, a Lieutenant-Governor, a Secretary of State, an Au- 
ditor, a Treasurer, a Superintendent of Public Instruction, and an 
Attorney-General, who shall be elected for a term of four years 
by the qualified electors of the State, at the same time and places 
and in the same manner as members of the General Assembly are 
elected. Their term of office shall commence on the first day of 
January next after their election, and continue until their suc- 
cessors are elected and qualified: Provided, that the officers first 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 381 

elected shall assume the duties of their office ten days after the 
approval of this Constitution by the Congress of the United States, 
and shall hold their offices four years from and after the first day 
of January. 

Sec. 2. No person shall be eligible as Governor or Lieutenant- 
Governor unless he shall have attained the age of thirty years, 
shall have been a citizen of the United States five years, and shall 
have been a resident of this State for two years next before the 
election ; nor shall the person elected to either of these two offices 
be eligible to the same office more than four years in any term of 
eight years, unless the office shall have been cast upon him as 
Lieutenant-Governor or President of the Senate. 

Sec. 3. The returns of every election for officers of the Execu- 
tive Department shall be sealed up and transmitted to the seat of 
government by the returning officers, directed to the Speaker of 
the House of Representatives, who shall open and publish the 
same in the presence of a majority of the members of both Houses 
of the General Assembly. The persons having the highest number 
of votes respectively shall be declared duly elected; but if two or 
more be equal and highest in votes for the same office, one of 
them shall be chosen by joint ballot of both Houses of the Gen- 
eral Assembly. Contested elections shall be determined by a joint 
ballot of both Houses of the General Assembly in such manner 
as shall be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 4. The Governor, before entering upon the duties of his 
office shall, in the presence of the members of both branches of 
the General Assembly, or before any Justice of the Supreme Court, 
take an oath or affirmation that he will support the Constitution 
and laws of the United States, and of the State of North Carolina, 
and that he will faithfully perform the duties appertaining to the 
office of Governor, to which he has been elected. 

Sec. 5. The Governor shall reside at the seat of government 
of this State, and he shall, from time to time, give the General 
Assembly information of the affairs of the State, and recommend 
to their consideration such measures as he shall deem expedient. 

Sec. 6. The Governor shall have power to grant reprieves, com- 
mutations and pardons, after conviction, for all offenses (except 
in cases of impeachment), upon such conditions as he may think 
proper, subject to such regulations as may be provided by law 



382 Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

relative to the manner of applying for pardons. He shall biennially 
communicate to the General Assembly each case of reprieve, com- 
mutation or pardon granted, stating the name of each convict, the 
crime for which he was convicted, the sentence and its date, the 
date of the commutation, pardon or reprieve and the reasons 
therefor. 

Sec. 7. The officers of the Executive Department and of the 
public institutions of the State shall, at least five days previous 
to each regular session of the General Assembly, severally report 
to the Governor, who shall transmit such reports with his mes- 
sage to the General Assembly, and the Governor may, at any time, 
require information in writing from the officers in the Executive 
Department upon any subject relating to the duties of their 
respective offices, and shall take care that the laws be faithfully 
executed. 

Sec. 8. The Governor shall be Commander in Chief of the mili- 
tia of the State, except when they shall be called into the service 
of the United States. 

Sec. 9. The Governor shall have power, on extraordinary occa- 
sions, by and with the advice of the Council of State, to convene 
the General Assembly in extra session by his proclamation, stat- 
ing therein the purpose or purposes for which they are thus 
convened. 

Sec. 10. The Governor shall nominate and, by and with the 
advice and consent of a majority of the Senators-elect, appoint all 
officers whose offices are established by this Constitution and whose 
appointments are not otherwise provided for. 

Sec. 11. The Lieutenant-Governor shall be President of the 
Senate, but shall have no vote unless the Senate is equally divided. 
He shall, whilst acting as President of the Senate, receive for his 
services the same pay which shall, for the same period, be allowed 
to the Speaker of the House of Representatives; and he shall 
receive no other compensation except when he is acting as Gov- 
ernor. 

Sec. 12. In case of the impeachment of the Governor, his fail- 
ure to qualify, his absence from the State, his inability to dis- 
charge the duties of his office, or, in case the office of Governor 
shall in any wise become vacant, the powers, duties and emolu- 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 3S3 

ments of the office shall devolve upon the Lieutenant-Governor 
until the disability shall cease or a new Governor shall be elected 
and qualified. In every case in which the Lieutenant-Governor 
shall be unable to preside over the Senate, the Senators shall elect 
one of their own number President of their body; and the powers, 
duties and emoluments of the office of Governor shall devolve 
upon him whenever the Lieutenant-Governor shall, for any reason, 
be prevented from discharging the duties of such office as above 
provided, and he shall continue as acting Governor until the dis- 
abilities are removed, or a new Governor or Lieutenant-Governor 
shall be elected and qualified. Whenever, during the recess of the 
General Assembly, it shall become necessary for the President of 
the Senate to administer the government, the Secretary of State 
shall convene the Senate, that they may select such President. 

Sec. 13. The respective duties of the Secretary of State, Audi- 
tor, Treasurer, Superintendent of Public Instruction, and Attor- 
ney-General shall be prescribed by law. If the office of any of 
said offices shall be vacated by death, resignation or otherwise, 
it shall be the duty of the Governor to appoint another until the 
disability be removed or his successor be elected and qualified. 
Every such vacancy shall be filled by election at the first general 
election that occurs more than thirty days after the vacancy has 
taken place, and the persons chosen shall hold the office for the 
remainder of the unexpired term fixed in the first section of this 
article. 

Sec. 14. The Secretary of State, Auditor, Treasurer, and Su- 
perintendent of Public Instruction shall constitute, ex officio, the 
Council of State, who shall advise the Governor in the execution 
of his office; any three of them shall constitute a quorum. Their 
advice and proceedings in this capacity shall be entered in a jour- 
nal to be kept for this purpose exclusively, and signed by the 
members present, from any part of which any member may enter 
his dissent; and such journal shall be placed before the General 
Assembly when called for by either House. The Attorney-Gen- 
eral shall be, ex officio, the legal adviser of the Executive Depart- 
ment. 

Sec. 15. The officers mentioned in this article shall, at stated 
periods, receive for their services a compensation to be estab- 
lished by law, which shall neither be increased nor diminished 



384 Constitution of the State of Nokth Carolina 

during the time for which they shall have been elected, and the 
said officers shall receive no other emolument or allowance what- 
ever. 

Sec. 16. There shall be a seal of the State, which shall be kept 
by the Governor, and used by him as occasion may require, and 
shall be called "The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina." 
All grants and commissions shall be issued in the name and by 
the authority of the State of North Carolina, sealed with "The 
Great Seal of the State," signed by the Governor and counter- 
signed by the Secretary of State. 

Sec. 17. The General Assembly shall establish a Department 
of Agriculture, Immigration and Statistics, under such regula- 
tions as may best promote the agricultural interests of the State, 
and shall enact laws for the adequate protection and encourage- 
ment of sheep husbandry. 

ARTICLE IV. 

JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT. 

Section 1. The distinction between actions at law and suits 
in equity, and the forms of all such actions and suits, shall be 
abolished; and there shall be in this State but one form of action 
for the enforcement or protection of private rights or the redress 
of private wrongs, which shall be denominated a civil action; and 
every action prosecuted by the people of the State as a party 
against a person charged with a public offense, for the punish- 
ment of the same, shall be termed a criminal action. Feigned 
issues shall also be abolished, and the fact at issue tried by order 
of court before jury. 

Sec. 2. The judicial power of the State shall be vested in a 
Court for the trial of Impeachments, a Supreme Court, Superior 
Courts, Courts of Justices of the Peace, and such other courts in- 
ferior to the Supreme Court as may be established by law. 

Sec. 3. The Court for the Trial of Impeachments shall be the 
Senate. A majority of the members shall be necessary to a 
quorum, and the judgment shall not extend beyond removal from 
and disqualification to hold office in this State; but the party shall 
be liable to indictment and punishment according to law. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 385 

Sec. 4. The House of Representatives solely shall have the 
power of impeaching. No person shall be convicted without the 
concurrence of two-thirds of the Senators present. When the 
Governor is impeached, the Chief Justice shall preside. 

Sec. 5. Treason against the State shall consist only in levying 
war against it, or adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and 
comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the 
testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession 
in open court. No conviction of treason or attainder shall work 
corruption of blood or forfeiture. 

Sec 6. The Supreme Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and 
four Associate Justices. 

Sec. 7. The terms of the Supreme Court shall be held in the 
city of Raleigh, as now, unless otherwise provided by the General 
Assembly. 

Sec. 8. The Supreme Court shall have jurisdiction to review, 
upon appeal, any decision of the courts below, upon any matter 
of law or legal inference. And the jurisdiction of said Court over 
"issues of fact" and "questions of fact" shall be the same exer- 
cised by it before the adoption of the Constitution of one thousand 
eight hundred and sixty-eight, and the Court shall have the power 
to issue any remedial writs necessary to give it a general super- 
vision and control over the proceedings of the inferior courts. 

Sec 9. The Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction to 
hear claims against the State, but its decisions shall be merely 
recommendatory; no process in the nature of execution shall issue 
thereon; they shall be reported to the next session of the General 
Assembly for its action. 

Sec 10. The State shall be divided into nine judicial districts, 
for each of which a judge shall be chosen, and there shall be held 
a Superior Court in each county at least twice in each year, to 
continue for such time in each county as may be prescribed by 
law. But the General Assembly may reduce or increase the num- 
ber of districts. 

Sec 11. Every judge of the Superior Court shall reside in the 
district for which he is elected. The judges shall preside in the 
courts of the different districts successively, but no judge shall 
hold the courts in the same district oftener than once in four 

25 



386 Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

years; but in case of the protracted illness of the judge assigned 
to preside in any district, or of any other unavoidable accident 
to him, by reason of which he shall be unable to preside, the 
Governor may require any judge to hold one or more specified 
terms in said district, in lieu of the judge assigned to hold the 
courts of the said district; and the General Assembly may by gen- 
eral Jaws provide for the selection of special or emergency judges 
to hold the Superior Courts of any county or district, when the 
judge assigned thereto by reason of sickness, disability, or other 
cause, is unable to attend and hold said court, and when no other 
judge is available to hold the same. Such special or emergency 
judges shall have the power and authority of regular judges of 
the Superior Courts, in the courts which they are so appointed 
to hold; and the General Assembly shall provide for their reason- 
able compensation. 

Sec. 12. The General Assembly shall have no power to deprive 
the Judicial Department of any power or jurisdiction which right- 
fully pertains to it as a coordinate department of the govern- 
ment; but the General Assembly shall allot and distribute that 
portion of this power and jurisdiction which does not pertain to 
the Supreme Court among other courts prescribed by this Consti- 
tution or which may be established by law, in such manner as it 
may deem best; provide also a proper system of appeals, and 
regulate by law, when necessary, the methods of proceeding in 
the exercise of their powers of all the courts below the Supreme 
Court, so far as the same may be done without conflict with other 
provisions of this Constitution. 

Sec. 13. In all issues of fact, joined in any court, the parties 
may waive the right to have the same determined by a jury, in 
which case the finding of the judge upon the facts shall have the 
force and effect of a verdict by a jury. 

Sec. 14. The General Assembly shall provide for the establish- 
ment of special courts, for the trial of misdemeanors, in cities 
and towns where the same may be necessary. 

Sec. 15. The Clerk of the Supreme Court shall be appointed by 
the Court, and shall hold his office for eight years. 

Sec. 16. A Clerk of the Superior Court for each county shall 
be elected by the qualified voters thereof, at the time and in the 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 387 

manner prescribed by law for the election of members of the 
General Assembly. 

Sec. 17. Clerks of the Superior Courts shall hold their offices 
for four years. 

Sec. 18. The General Assembly shall prescribe and regulate 
the fees, salaries, and emoluments of all officers provided for in 
this article; but the salaries of the judges shall not be diminished 
during their continuance in office. 

Sec. 19. The laws of North Carolina, not repugnant to this 
Constitution, or the Constitution and laws of the United States, 
shall be in force until lawfully altered. 

Sec. 20. Actions at law and suits in equity pending when this 
Constitution shall go into effect shall be transferred to the courts 
having jurisdiction thereof, without prejudice by reason of the 
change; and all such actions and suits commenced before, and 
pending the adoption by the General Assembly of the rules of 
practice and procedure herein provided for, shall be heard and 
determined according to the practice now in use, unless otherwise 
provided for by said rules. 

Sec. 21. The Justices of the Supreme Court shall be elected by 
the qualified voters of the State, as is provided for the election of 
members of the General Assembly. They shall hold their offices 
for eight years. The judges of the Superior Courts, elected at 
the first election under this amendment, shall be elected in like 
manner as is provided for Justices of the Supreme Court, and 
shall hold their offices for eight years. The General Assembly 
may, from time to time, provide by law that the judges of the 
Superior Courts, chosen at succeeding elections, instead of being 
elected by the voters of the whole State, as is herein provided for, 
shall be elected by the voters of their respective districts. 

Sec. 22. The Superior Courts shall be at all times open for the 
transaction of all business within their jurisdiction, except the 
trial of issues of fact requiring a jury. 

Sec. 23. A solicitor shall be elected for each judicial district, 
by the qualified voters thereof, as is prescribed for members of 
the General Assembly, who shall hold office for the term of four 
years, and prosecute on behalf of the State, in all criminal actions 
in the Superior Courts, and advise the officers of justice in his 
district. 



I'.ss Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

Sec. 24. In each county a sheriff and coroner shall be elected 
by the qualified voters thereof, as is prescribed for members of 
the General Assembly, and shall hold their offices for two years. 
In each township there shall be a constable elected in like man- 
ner by the voters thereof, who shall hold his office for two years. 
When there is no coroner in a county, the clerk of the Superior 
Court for the county may appoint one for special cases. In case 
of a vacancy existing for any cause in any of the offices created 
by this section, the commissioners of the county may appoint to 
such office for the unexpired term. 

Sec. 25. All vacancies occurring in the offices provided for by 
this article of the Constitution shall be filled by the appointment 
of the Governor, unless otherwise provided for, and the appointees 
shall hold their places until the next regular election for members 
of the General Assembly, when elections shall be held to fill such 
offices. If any person, elected or appointed to any of said offices, 
shall neglect and fail to qualify, such offices shall be appointed 
to, held and filled as provided in case of vacancies occurring 
therein. All incumbents of said offices shall hold until their suc- 
cessors are qualified. 

Sec. 26. The officers elected at the first election held under this 
Constitution shall hold their offices for the terms prescribed for 
them respectively, next ensuing after the next regular election 
for members of the General Assembly. But their terms shall be- 
gin upon the approval of this Constitution by the Congress of the 
United States. 

Sec. 27. The several justices of the peace shall have jurisdic- 
tion, under such regulations as the General Assembly shall pre- 
scribe, of civil actions, founded on contract, wherein the sum de- 
manded shall not exceed two hundred dollars, and wherein the 
title to real estate shall not be in controversy; and of all criminal 
matters arising within their counties where the punishment can- 
not exceed a fine of fifty dollars or imprisonment for thirty days. 
And the General Assembly may give to the justices of the peace 
jurisdiction of other civil actions wherein the value of the prop- 
erty in controversy does not exceed fifty dollars. When an issue 
of fact shall be joined before a justice, on demand of either party 
thereto, he shall cause a jury of six men to be summoned, who 
shall try the same. The party against whom judgment shall be 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 389 

rendered in any civil action may appeal to the Superior Court 
from the same. In all cases of a criminal nature the party against 
whom judgment is given may appeal to the Superior Court, where 
the matter shall be heard anew. In all cases brought before a 
justice, he shall make a record of the proceedings and file same 
with the clerk of the Superior Court for his county. 

Sec. 28. When the office of justice of the peace shall become 
vacant otherwise than by expiration of the term, and in case of 
a failure by the voters of any district to elect, the clerk of the 
Superior Court for the county shall appoint to fill the vacancy for 
the unexpired term. 

Sec. 2'9. In case the office of clerk of a Superior Court for a 
county shall become vacant otherwise than by the expiration of 
the term, and in case of a failure by the people to elect, the judge 
of the Superior Court for the county shall appoint to fill the 
vacancy until an election can be regularly held. 

Sec. 30. In case the General Assembly shall establish other 
courts inferior to the Supreme Court, the presiding officers and 
clerks thereof shall be elected in such manner as the General 
Assembly may from time to time prescribe, and they shall hold 
their offices for a term not exceeding eight years. 

Sec. 31. Any judge of the Supreme Court or of the Superior 
Courts, and the presiding officers of such courts inferior to the 
Supreme Court as may be established by law, may be removed 
from office for mental or physical inability, upon a concurrent 
resolution of two-thirds of both Houses of the General Assembly. 

The judge or presiding officer against whom the General Assembly 
may be about to proceed shall receive notice thereof, accompanied 
by a copy of the causes alleged for his removal, at least twenty 
days before the day on which either House of the General Assem- 
bly shall act thereon. 

Sec. 32. Any clerk of the Supreme Court or of the Superior 
Courts, or of such courts inferior to the Supreme Court as may 
be established by law, may be removed from office for mental or 
physical inability; the Clerk of the Supreme Court by the judges 
of said Court, the clerks of the Superior Courts by the judge 
riding the district, and the clerks of such courts inferior to the 
Supreme Court as may be established by law by the presiding 
officers of said courts. The clerk against whom proceedings are 



390 Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

instituted shall receive notice thereof, accompanied by a copy of 
the causes alleged for his removal, at least ten days before the 
day appointed to act thereon, and the clerk shall be entitled to an 
appeal to the next term of the Superior Court, and thence to the 
Supreme Court as provided in other cases of appeals. 

Sec. 33. The amendments made to the Constitution of North 
Carolina by this Convention shall not have the effect to vacate 
any office or term of office now existing under the Constitution of 
the State and filled or held by virtue of any election or appoint- 
ment under the said Constitution and the laws of the State made 
in pursuance thereof. 

ARTICLE V. 

REVENUE AND TAXATION. 

Section 1. The General Assembly may levy a capitation tax on 
every male inhabitant of the State over twenty-one and under 
fifty years of age, which said tax shall not exceed two dollars, and 
cities and towns may levy a capitation tax which shall not exceed 
one dollar. No other capitation tax shall be levied. The commis- 
sioners of the several counties and of the cities and towns may 
exempt from the capitation tax any special cases on account of 
poverty or infirmity. 

Sec. 2. The proceeds of the State and county capitiation tax 
shall be applied to the purpose of education and the support of 
the poor, but in no one year shall more than twenty-five per cent 
thereof be appropriated to the latter purpose. 

Sec. 3. Laws shall be passed taxing, by a uniform rule, all 
moneys, credits, investments in bonds, stocks, joint-stock companies, 
or otherwise; and, also, all real and personal property, according to 
its true value in money; Provided, notes, mortgages, and all other 
evidence of indebtedness given in good faith for the purchase price 
of a home, when said purchase price does not exceed three thousand 
dollars, and said notes and mortgages and other evidence of indebt- 
edness shall be made to run for not less than five nor more than 
twenty years, shall be exempt from taxation of every kind: Pro- 
vided, that the interest carried by such notes and mortgages shall 
not exceed five and one-half per cent. The General Assembly may 
also tax trades, professions, franchises and income: Provided, the 
rate of tax on incomes shall not in any case exceed six per cent 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 391 

(6%*) and there shall be allowed the following exemptions, to be 
deducted from the amount of annual incomes, to wit: for a mar- 
ried man with a wife living with him, or to a widow or widower 
having minor child or children, natural or adopted, not less than 
$2,000; to all other persons not less than $1,000, and there may be 
allowed other deductions (not including living expenses) so that 
only net incomes are taxed. 

Sec. 4. Until the bonds of the State shall be at par, the General 
Assembly shall have no power to contract any new debt or pecu- 
niary obligation in behalf of the State, except to supply a casual 
deficit, or for suppressing invasions or insurrections, unless it 
shall in the same .bill levy a special tax to pay the interest an- 
nually. And the General Assembly shall have no power to give 
or lend the credit of the State in aid of any person, association 
or corporation, except to aid in the completion of such railroads 
as may be unfinished at the time of the adoption of this Constitu- 
tion, or in which the State has a direct pecuniary interest, unless 
the subject be submitted to a direct vote of the people of the 
State, and be approved by the majority of those who shall vote 
thereon. 

Sec. 5. Property belonging to the State, or to municipal corpor- 
ations, shall be exempt from taxation. The General Assembly 
may exempt cemeteries and property held for educational, scien- 
tific, literary, charitable or religious purposes; also wearing ap- 
parel, arms for muster, household and kitchen furniture, the me- 
chanical and agricultural implements of mechanics and farmers, 
libraries and scientific instruments, or any other personal prop- 
erty, to a value not exceeding three hundred dollars. 

Sec. 6. The total of the State and county tax on propei-ty shall 
not exceed fifteen cents on the hundred dollars value of prop- 
erty, except when the county property tax is levied for a special 
purpose and with the special approval of the General Assembly, 
which may be done by special or general act: Provided, this limi- 
tation shall not apply to taxes levied for the maintenance of the 
public schools of the State for the term required by article nine, 
section three, of the Constitution: Provided further, the State tax 
shall not exceed five cents on the one hundred dollars value of 
property. 



392 Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

Sec. 7. Every act of the General Assembly levying a tax shall 
state the special object to which it is to be applied, and it shall 
be applied to no other purpose. 

ARTICLE VI. 

SUFFRAGE AND ELIGIBILITY TO OFFICE. 

Section 1. Every male person born in the United States, and 
every male person who has been naturalized, twenty-one years of 
age, and possessing the qualifications set out in this article, shall 
be entitled to vote at any election by the people in the State, 
except as herein -otherwise provided. 

Sec. 2. He shall reside in the State of North Carolina for one 
year and in the precinct, ward, or other election district in which 
he offers to vote four months next preceding the election: Provided, 
that removal from one precinct, ward or other election district to 
another in the same county shall not operate to deprive any person 
of the right to vote in the precinct, ward or other election district 
from which he has removed until four months after such removal. 
No person who has been convicted, or who has confessed his guilt 
in open court, upon indictment, of any crime the punishment of 
which now is or may hereafter be imprisonment in the State's 
Prison, shall be permitted to vote unless the said person shall be 
first restored to citizenship in the manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 3. Every person offering to vote shall be at the time a 
legally registered voter as herein prescribed and in the manner 
hereafter provided by law, and the General Assembly of North 
Carolina shall enact general registration laws to carry into effect 
the provisions of this article. 

Sec. 4. Every person presenting himself for registration shall 
be able to read and write any section of the Constitution in the 
English language. But no male person who was on January 1, 
1867, or at any time prior thereto, entitled to vote under the laws 
of any State in the United States wherein he then resided, and no 
lineal descendant of any such person, shall be denied the right to 
register and vote at any election in this State by reason of his 
failure to possess the educational qualifications herein prescribed: 
Provided, he shall have l-egistered in accordance with the terms of 
this section prior to December 1, 190S. The General Assembly shall 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 393 

provide for the registration of all persons entitled to vote without 
the educational qualifications herein prescribed, and shall, on or 
before November 1, 1908, provide for making a permanent record 
*bf such registration, and all persons so registered shall forever 
thereafter have the right to vote in all elections by the people in 
this State, unless disqualified under section 2 of this article. 

Sec. 5. That this amendment to the Constitution is presented 
and adopted as one indivisible plan for the regulation of the 
suffrage, with the intent and purpose to so connect the different 
parts and to make them so dependent upon each other that the 
whole shall stand or fall together. 

Sec. 6. All elections by the people shall be by ballot, and all 
elections by the General Assembly shall be viva voce. 

Sec. 7. Every voter in North Carolina, except as in this article 
disqualified, shall be eligible to office, but before entering upon the 
duties of the office he shall take and subscribe the following oath: 

"I, , do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support 

and maintain the Constitution and laws of the United States, and 
the Constitution and laws of North Carolina not inconsistent 
therewith, and that I will faithfully discharge the duties of my 
office as So help me, God." 

Sec. 8. The following classes of persons shall be disqualified 
for office: First, all persons who shall deny the being of Almighty 
God. Second, all persons who shall have been convicted or con- 
fessed their guilt on indictment pending and whether sentenced 
or not, or under judgment suspended, of any treason or felony, 
or of any other crime for which the punishment may be imprison- 
ment in the penitentiary, since becoming citizens of the United 
States, or of corruption or malpractice in office, unless such per- 
son shall be restored to the rights of citizenship in a manner pre- 
scribed by law. 

Sec. 9. That this amendment to the Constitution shall go into 
effect on the first day of July, nineteen hundred and two, if a 
majority of votes cast at the next general election shall be cast in 
favor of this suffrage amendment. 



394 Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

ARTICLE VII. 

MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS. 

Section 1. In each county there shall be elected biennially by 
the qualified voters thereof, as provided for the election of mem- 
bers of the General Assembly, the following officers: A treasurer, 
register of deeds, surveyor, and five commissioners. 

Sec. 2. It shall be the duty of the commissioners to exercise a 
general supervision and control of the penal and charitable insti- 
tutions, schools, roads, bridges, levying of taxes, and finances of 
the county, as may be prescribed by law. The register of deeds 
shall be, ex officio, clerk of the board of commissioners. 

Sec 3. It shall be the duty of the commissioners first elected 
in each county to divide the same into convenient districts, and 
to report the same to the General Assembly before the first day 
of January, 1869. 

Sec. 4. Upon the approval of the reports provided for in the 
foregoing section by the General Assembly, the said districts shall 
have corporate powers for the necessary purposes of local govern- 
ment, and shall be known as townships. 

Sec 5. In each township there shall be biennially elected by 
the qualified voters thereof a clerk and two justices of the peace, 
who shall constitute a board of trustees and shall, under the 
supervision of the county commissioners, have control of the 
taxes and finances, roads and bridges of the townships, as may be 
prescribed by law. The General Assembly may provide for the 
election of a larger number of justices of the peace in cities 
and towns and in those townships in which cities and towns are 
situated. In every township there shall also be biennially elected 
a school committee, consisting of three persons, whose duties shall 
be prescribed by law. 

Sec 6. The township board of trustees shall assess the taxa- 
ble property of their township and make returns to the county 
commissioners for revision, as may be prescribed by law. The 
clerk shall be ex officio treasurer of the township. 

Sec 7. No county, city, town or other municipal corporation 
shall contract any debt, pledge its faith or loan its credit, nor 
shall any tax be levied or collected by any officers of the same 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 395 

except for the necessary expenses thereof, unless by a vote of the 
majority of the qualified voters therein. 

Sec. 8. No money shall be drawn from any county or township 
treasury except by authority of law. 

Sec. 9. All taxes levied by any county, city, town or township 
shall be uniform and ad valorem upon all property in the same, 
except property exempted by this Constitution. 

Sec. 10. The county officers first elected under the provisions 
of this article shall enter upon their duties ten days after the ap- 
proval of this Constitution by the Congress of the United States. 

Sec. 11. The Governor shall appoint a sufficient number of 
justices of the peace in each county, who shall hold their places 
until sections four, five and six of this article shall have been 
carried into effect. 

Sec. 12. All charters, ordinances and provisions relating to 
municipal corporations shall remain in force until legally changed, 
unless inconsistent with the provisions of this Constitution. 

Sec. 13. No county, city, town or other municipal corporation 
shall assume to pay, nor shall any tax be levied or collected for 
the payment of any debt, or the interest upon any debt, contracted 
directly or indirectly in aid or support of the rebellion. 

Sec. 14. The General Assembly shall have full power by stat- 
ute to modify, change or abrogate any and all of the provisions 
of this article and substitute others in their place, except sections 
seven, nine, and thirteen. 

ARTICLE VIII. 

CORPORATIONS OTHER THAN MUNICIPAL. 

Section 1. No corporation shall be created nor shall its char- 
ter be extended, altered, or amended by special act, except cor- 
porations for charitable, educational, penal, or reformatory pur- 
poses that are to be and remain under the patronage and con- 
trol of the State; but the General Assembly shall provide by 
general laws for the chartering and organization of all corpora- 
tions and for amending, extending, and forfeiture of all charters, 
except those above permitted by special act. All such general 
laws and special acts may be altered from time to time or re- 
pealed; and the General Assembly may at any time by special 
act repeal the charter of any corporation. 



396 Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

Sec. 2. Dues from corporations shall be secured by such - in- 
dividual liabilities of the corporations and other means as may 
be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 3. The term corporation, as used in this article, shall be 
construed to include all associations and joint-stock companies 
having any of the powers and privileges of corporations not pos- 
sessed by individuals or partnerships. And all corporations shall 
have the right to sue and shall be subject to be sued in all courts 
in like cases as natural persons. 

Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the Legislature to provide by 
general laws for the organization of cities, towns, and incor- 
porated villages, and to restrict their powers of taxation, assess- 
ment, borrowing money, contracting debts, and loaning their credit, 
so as to prevent abuses in assessment and in contracting debts 
by such municipal corporations. 

ARTICLE IX. 

EDUCATION. 

Section 1. Religion, morality and knowledge being necessary 
to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and 
the means of education shall forever be encouraged. 

Sec 2. The General Assembly at its first session under this 
Constitution shall provide by taxation and otherwise for a gen- 
eral and uniform system of public schools, wherein tuition shall be 
free of charge to all the children of the State between the ages 
of six and twenty-one years. And the children of the white race 
and the children of the colored race shall be taught in separate 
public schools; but there shall be no discrimination in favor of 
or to the prejudice of either race. 

Sec. 3. Each county of the State shall be divided into a con- 
venient number of districts, in which one or more public schools 
shall be maintained at least six months in every year; and if the 
commissioners of any county shall fail to comply with the afore- 
said requirements of this section they shall be liable to indict- 
ment. 

Sec. 4. The proceeds of all lands that have been or hereafter 
may be granted by the United States to this State and not other- 
wise apportioned by this State or the United States, also all 



Constitution of the State of North Caboeiw 397 

money, stocks, bonds and other property now belonging to any 
State fund for purposes of education, also the net proceeds of all 
sales of the swamp lands belonging to the State, and all other 
grants, gifts or clevises that have been or hereafter may be made 
to the State and not otherwise appropriated by the State or by 
the terms of the grant, gift or devise, shall be paid into the State 
treasury, and, together with so much of the ordinary revenue 
of the State as may by law be set apart for that purpose, shall 
be faithfully appropriated for establishing and maintaining in 
this State a system of free public schools, and for no other uses 
or purposes whatsoever. 

Sec. 5. All moneys, stocks, bonds and other property belonging 
to a county school fund, also the net proceeds from the sale of 
estrays, also the clear proceeds of all penalties and forfeitures 
and of all fines collected in the several counties for any breach 
of the penal or military laws of the State, and all moneys which 
shall be paid by persons as an equivalent for exemption from 
military duty, shall belong to and remain in the several counties, 
and shall be faithfully appropriated for establishing and main- 
taining free public schools in the several counties of this State: 
Provided, that the amount collected in each county shall be an- 
nually reported to the Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

Sec. 6. The General Assembly shall have power to provide for 
the election of trustees of the University of North Carolina, in 
whom, when chosen, shall be vested all the privileges, rights, fran- 
chises and endowments thereof in any wise granted to or con- 
ferred upon the trustees of said University, and the General As- 
sembly may make such provisions, laws and regulations from 
time to time as may be necessary or expedient for the mainte- 
nance and management of said University. 

Sec 7. The General Assembly shall provide that the benefits 
of the University, as far as practicable, be extended to the youth 
of the State free of expense for tuition; also that all the property 
which has heretofore accrued to the State or shall hereafter accrue 
from escheats, unclaimed dividends or distributive shares of the 
estates of deceased persons shall be appropriated to the use of 
the University. 



398 Constitution of the State of Nokth Carolina 

Sec 8. The Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Secretary of State, 
Treasurer, Auditor, Superintendent of Public Instruction, and 
Attorney-General shall constitute a State Board of Education. 

Sec. 9. The Governor shall be president and the Superintendent 
of Public Instruction shall be secretary of the Board of Education. 

Sec. 10. The Board of Education shall succeed to all the pow- 
ers and trusts of the president and directors of the Literary Fund 
of North Carolina, and shall have full power to legislate and 
make all needful rules and regulations in relation to free public 
schools and the educational fund of the State; but all acts, rules 
and regulations of said board may be altered, amended, or re- 
pealed by the General Assembly, and when so altered, amended 
or repealed, they shall not be re-enacted by the board. 

Sec. 11. The first session of the Board of Education shall be 
held at the capital of the State within fifteen days after the organi- 
zation of the State government under this Constitution; the time 
of future meetings may be determined by the board. 

Sec. 12. A majority of the board shall constitute a quorum for 
the transaction of business. 

Sec. 13. The contigent expenses of the board shall be provided 
by the General Assembly. 

Sec. 14. As soon as practicable after the adoption of this Con- 
stitution the General Assembly shall establish and maintain in 
connection with the University a department of agriculture, of 
mechanics, of mining, and of normal instruction. 

Sec. 15. The General Assembly is hereby empowered to enact 
that every child of sufficient mental and physical ability shall 
attend the public schools during the period between the ages of 
six and eighteen years for a term of not less than sixteen months, 
unless educated by other means. 

ARTICLE X. 

homesteads and exemptions. 

Section 1. The personal property of any resident of this State 
to the value of five hundred dollars, to be selected by such resi- 
dent, shall be and is hereby exempted from sale under execution 
or other final process of any court issued for the collection of any 
debt. 



Constitution op the State of North Carolina 399 

Sec. 2. Every homestead, and the dwellings and buildings used 
therewith, not exceeding in value one thousand dollars, to be 
selected by the owner thereof, or in lieu thereof, at the option 
of the owner, any lot in a city or village, with the dwellings and 
buildings used thereon, owned and occupied by any resident of 
this State, and not exceeding the value of one thousand dollars, 
shall be exempt from sale under execution or other final process 
obtained on any debt. But no property shall be exempt from 
sale for taxes or for payment of obligations contracted for the 
purchase of said premises. 

Sec. 3. The homestead, after the death of the owner thereof, 
shall be exempt from payment of any debt during the minority 
of his children or any one of them. 

Sec. 4. The provisions of sections one and two of this article 
shall not be so construed as to prevent a laborer's lien for work 
done and performed for the person claiming such exemptions, or a 
mechanic's lien for work done on the premises. 

Sec. 5. If the owner of a homestead die, leaving a widow but 
no children, the same shall be exempt from the debts of her hus- 
band, and the rents and profits thereof shall inure to the benefit 
during her widowhood, unless she be the owner of a homestead 
in her own right. 

Sec. 6. The real and personal property of any female in this 
State acquired before marriage, and all property, real and per- 
sonal, to which she may, after marriage, become in any manner 
entitled, shall be and remain the sole and separate estate and 
property of such female, and shall not be liable for any debts, 
obligations or engagements of her husband, and may be devised 
and bequeathed, and, with the written assent of her husband, 
conveyed by her as if she were unmarried. 

Sec 7. The husband may insure his own life for the sole use 
and benefit of his wife and children, and in case of the death 
of the husband the amount thus insured shall be paid over to the 
wife and children, or to the guardian if under age, for her or 
their own use, free from all the claims of the representatives of 
her husband or any of his creditors. 

Sec. 8. Nothing contained in the foregoing sections of this 
article shall operate to prevent the owner of a homestead from 



400 Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

disposing of the same by deed; but no deed made by the owner 
of a homestead shall be valid without the volutary signature 
and assent of his wife, signified on her private examination accord- 
ing to law. 

ARTICLE XI. 

PUNISHMENTS, PENAL INSTITUTIONS AND PUBLIC CHARITIES. 

Sec. 1. The following punishments only shall be known to 
the laws of this State, viz., death, imprisonment with or without 
hard labor, fines, removal from office, and disqualification to hold 
and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under this State. 
The foregoing provision for imprisonment with hard labor shall 
be construed to authorize the employment of such convict labor 
on public works or highways, or other labor for public benefit, 
and the farming out thereof, where and in such manner as may be 
provided by law; but no convict shall be farmed out who has been 
sentenced on a charge of murder, manslaughter, rape, attempt to 
commit rape, or arson: Provided, that no convict whose labor 
may be farmed out shall be punished for any failure of duty as 
a laborer except by a responsible officer of the State; but the 
convicts so farmed out shall be at all times under the supervision 
and control, as to their government and discipline, of the peniten- 
tiary board or some officer of the State. 

Sec. 2. The object of punishment being not only to satisfy 
justice, but also to reform the offender, and thus prevent crime, 
murder, arson, burglary and rape, and these only, may be punish- 
able with death, if the General Assembly shall so enact. 

Sec. 3. The General Assembly shall, at its first meeting, make 
provision for the erection and conduct of a State's Prison or 
penitentiary at some central and accessible point within the State. 

Sec. 4. The General Assembly may provide for the erection of 
a house of correction, where vagrants and persons guilty of mis- 
demeanors shall be restrained and usefully employed. 

Sec. 5. A house or houses of refuge may be established when- 
ever the public interests may require it, for the correction and 
instruction of other classes of offenders. 

Sec. 6. It shall be required by competent legislation that the 
structure and superintendence of penal institutions of the State, 
the county jails and city police prisons secure the health and 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 401 

comfort of the prisoners and that male and female prisoners be 
never confined in the same room or cell. 

Sec. 7. Beneficent provisions for the poor, the unfortunate and 
orphan being one of the first duties of a civilized and Christian 
State, the General Assembly shall, at its first session, appoint and 
define the duties of a Board of Public Charities, to whom shall 
be entrusted the supervision of all charitable and penal State 
institutions, and who shall annually report to the Governor upon 
their condition, with suggestions for their improvement. 

Sec. 8. There shall also, as soon as practicable, be measures 
devised by the State for the establishment of one or more orphan 
houses where destitute orphans may be cared for, educated and 
taught some business or trade. 

Sec. 9. It shall be the duty of the Legislature, as soon as prac- 
ticable, to devise means for the education of idiots and inebriates. 

Sec. 10. The General Assembly may provide that the indigent 
deaf-mute, blind and insane of the State shall be cared for at the 
charge of the State. 

Sec. 11. It shall be steadily kept in view by the Legislature 
and the Board of Public Charities that all penal and charitable 
institutions should be made as nearly self-supporting as is con- 
sistent with the purposes of their creation. 

ARTICLE XII. 

MILITIA. 

Section 1. All able-bodied male citizens of the State of North 
Carolina, between the ages of twenty-one and forty years, who are 
citizens of the United States, shall be liable to do duty in the 
militia: Provided, that all persons who may be averse to bearing 
arms, from religious scruples, shall be exempt therefrom. 

Sec. 2. The General Assembly shall provide for the organizing, 
arming, equipping and discipline of the militia, and for paying 
the same when called into active service. 

Sec. 3. Tne Governor shall be Commander in Chief, and shall 
have power to call out the militia to execute the law, suppress 
riots or insurrections, and to repel invasion. 

2G 



402 CoNSTni no.N of the State of North Carolina 

Sec. 4. The General Assembly shall have power to make such 
exemptions as may be deemed necessary, and enact laws that may 
be expedient for the government of the militia. 

ARTICLE XIII. 

AMENDMENTS. 

Section 1. No convention of the people of this State shall ever 
be called by the General Assembly, unless by the concurrence of 
two-thirds of all the members of each House of the General As- 
sembly, and except the proposition, Convention or No Convention, 
be first submitted to the qualified voters of the whole State, at 
the next general election in a manner to be prescribed by law. 
And should a majority of the votes be cast in favor of said con- 
vention, it shall assemble on such day as may be prescribed by 
the General Assembly. 

Sec. 2. No part of the Constitution of this State shall be altered 
unless a bill to alter the same shall have been agreed to by three- 
fifths of each House of the General Assembly. And the amend- 
ment or amendments so agreed to shall be submitted at the next 
general election to the qualified voters of the whole State, in such 
a manner as may be prescribed by law. And in the event of their 
adoption by a majority of the votes cast, such amendment or 
amendments shall become a part of the Constitution of the State. 

ARTICLE XIV. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Section 1. All indictments which shall have been found, or may 
hereafter be found, for any crime or offense committed before this 
Constitution takes effect may be proceeded upon in the proper 
courts, but no punishment shall be inflicted which is forbidden 
by this Constitution. 

Sec. 2. No person who shall hereafter fight a duel, or assist in 
the same as a second, or send, accept, or knowingly carry a chal- 
lenge therefor, or agree to go out of the State to fight a duel, shall 
hold any office in this State. 

Sec 3. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in con- 
sequence of appropriations made by law; and an accurate account 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 403 

of the receipts and expenditures of the public money shall be 
annually published. 

Sec. 4. The General Assembly shall provide, by proper legisla- 
tion, for giving to mechanics and laborers an adequate lien on 
the subject-matter of their labor. 

Sec. 5. In the absence of any contrary provision, all officers of 
this State, whether heretofore elected, or appointed by the Gov- 
ernor, shall hold their positions only until other appointments are 
made by the Governor, or, if the officers are elective, until their 
successors shall have been chosen and duly qualified according to 
the provisions of this Constitution. 

Sec. 6. The seat of government of this State shall remain at 
the city of Raleigh. 

Sec. 7. No person who shall hold any office or place of trust 
or profit under the United States, or any department thereof, or 
under this State, or under any other State or government, shall 
hold or exercise any other office or place of trust or profit under 
the authority of this State, or be eligible to a seat in either House 
of the General Assembly: Provided, that nothing herein con- 
tained shall extend to officers in the militia, justices of the peace, 
commissioners of public charities, or commissioners for special 
purposes. 

Sec. 8. All marriages between a white person and a negro, or 
between a white person and a person of negro descent to the third 
generation inclusive, are hereby forever prohibited. 



404 Constitution of the State of North Carolina 



INDEX TO CONSTITUTION. 

Abuses in assessments and contracting debts by municipal corporations, General 

Assembly to prevent, A. 8, S. 4. 
Actions at law and equity suits, no distinction, A. 4, S. 1. 

Pending when Constitution took effect, A. 4, S. 20. 

Acts of General Assembly, style of, A. 2, S. 21. 
Levying taxes, must stato object, A. 5, S. 7. 

Agricultural Department, A. 3, S. 17. 

In connection with University, A. 9, S. 14. 
Alimony, General Assembly does not secure, A. 2, S. 10. 
Allegiance to United States Government, A. 1, S. 5. 
Amendments, A. 13. 

Do not vacate existing office, A. 4, S. 33. 
Answer to criminal charge, A. 1, S. 12. 

Apportionment of Senators and Representatives, A. 2, SS. 4, 5, 6. 
Arms, right to bear, A. 1, S. 24. 

Article seven, General Assembly may modify or repeal certain sections, A. 7, S. 14. 
Assemblage, right of, A. 1, S. 25. 
Attorney-General advises Executive, A. 3, S. 14. 

Duties of, A. 3, S. 13. 

Auditor, duties of, A. 3, S. 13. 

Bail, excessive, A. 1, S. 14. 

Ballot, elections to be by, A. 6, S. 3. 

Bills of General Assembly, read three times, A. 2, S. 23. 

Blind provided for, A. 11, S. 10. 

Board of Charities, A. 11, S. 7. 

Boundaries of State, A. 1, S. 34. 

Capitation tax, application of proceeds from, A. 5, S. 2. 
Exempts, A. 5, S. 1. 

Capital punishment, A. 11, S. 2. 

Charities, public, A. 11. 

Deaf-mutes, and the blind, A. 11, S. 10. 

Idiots and inebriates, A. 11, S. 9. 

Provisions for orphans and the poor, A. 11, S. 7. 

Self-supporting, as far as possible, A. 11, S. 14. 

Cities organized by legislation, A. 8, S. 4. 

Citizenship, restoration to, A. 2, S. 11. 

Civil and criminal actions, A. 4, S. 1. 

Claims against the State, A. 4, S. 9. 

Clerk of Superior Court, election of, A. 4, S. 10. 
Removal for inability, A. 4, S. 32. 

Clerk of Supreme Court, A. 4, S. 15. 
Removal of, A. 4, S. 32. 
Terms of office of, A. 4, S. 17. 

Commutations, A. 3, S. 6. 

Compulsory education, General Assembly may provide, A. 9, S. 15. 

Concealed weapons, carrying not justified, A. 1, S. 24. 

Constitution, how changed, A. 13, S. 2. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 405 



Controversies at law about property, A. 1, S. 19. 
Convention, how called, A. 13. 
Convict labor, A. 11, S. 1. 
Coroner and sheriff, A. 4, S. 24. 
Corporations, municipal, A. 7. 

Charter remain in force till legally changed, A. 7, S. 12. 

Power of General Assembly over, A. 7, S. 12. 
Corporations other than municipal, A. 8. 

Debts of, how secured, A. 8, S. 2. 

Special charters prohibited, A. 8, S. 1. 

Correction, houses of, A. 11, S. 4. 

Council of State, A. 3, S. 14. 

Counsel allowed defendant, A. 1, S. 11. 

County commissioners, election and duty of, A. 7, SS. 1, 2. 

Counties, commissioners divide into districts, A. 7, S. 3. 

Districts have corporate powers as townships, A. 7, S. 4. 
Majority of voters necessary to levy taxes, etc., A. 7, S. 7. 
Money, how drawn from treasury, A. 7, S. 8. 
Officers enter on duty, when, A. 7, S. 10. 

Of townships, A. 7, S. 5. 
School districts, A. 9, S. 3. 

Fund, A. 9, S. 5. 
Taxes to be ad valorem, A. 7, S. 9. 
Township trustees assess property, A. 7, S. 6. 

County Treasurer, A. 7, S. 1. 

Courts to be open, A. 1, S. 35. 

Kinds of, A. 4, S. 2. 
Criminal charges, answer to, A. 1, S. 12. 

Criminal and civil actions, A. 4, S. 1. 

Courts for cities and towns, A. 4, S. 14. 

Prosecutions, A. 1, S. 11. 
Deaf-mutes provided for, A. 11, S. 10. 
Death punishment, A. 11, S. 2. 

Debt does not affect homestead. A. 10, S. 3. 

County, citv or town cannot contract, except bv majoritv of qualified voters, 

A. 7, S. 7. 
Imprisonment for, A. 1, S. 16. 
In aid of rebellion, void, A. 7, S. 13. 

Debt, restrictions upon increase of public, etc., A. 5, S. 4. 

What bonds declared invalid, A. 1, S. 6. 
Declaration of rights, A. 1. 
Department of Agriculture, A. 3, S. 17. 
Divorce, General Assembly does not grant, A. 2, S. 17. 
Disqualification for office, A. 6, S. 5 ; A. 14, S. 7. 

Dueling disqualifies, A. 14, S. 2. 
Education, Board of, A. 9, S. 8. 

Officers, A. 9, S. 9. 

Expenses, A. 9, S. 13. 

Countv school fund, A. 9, S. 5. 

Encouraged, A. 9, S. 1 ; A. 1, S. 27. 

First session of, A. 9, S. 11. 

Power of, A. 9, S. 10. 

Property devoted to, A. 9, SS. 4, 5. 

Quorum, A. 9, S. 12. 
Election of officers by General Assembly, viva voce, A. 2, S. 9. 



406 Constitution of the State of North Carolina 



Elections, by people and Genera] Assembly, A. 6, S. 3. 

Contested, returns of, A. 3, S. 3. 

Free, A. 1, S. 10. 

Frequent, A. 1, S. 28. 
Electors, oath of office of, A. 6, S. 4. 

Qualifications of, A. 6, S. 1. 

Registration of, A. 6, S. 2. 

Eligibility to office, A. 6. 
Emergency judges, A. 4, S. 11. 
Emoluments, exclusive, none, A. 1, S. 7. 
Hereditary, A. 1, S. 30. 

Entails to be regulated, A. 2, S. 15. 

Enumeration of rights not to impair others retained by people, A. 1, S. 37. 

Equity suits and actions at law, distinction abolished, A. 4, S. 1. 
Pending when Constitution took effect, A. 4, S. 20. 

Evidenco against himself, criminal not compelled to give, A. 1, S. 11. 
Executive, Attorney-General advises, A. 3, S. 14. 
Department of, A. 3. 

Distinct, A. 1. S. 8. 
Officers, A. 3, S. 1. 

Compensation, A. 3, S. 15. 
Duties, A. 3, S. 13. 
Reports of, A. 3, S. 7. 
Terms of office of, A. 3, S. 1. 
Sea] of State, A. 3, S. 16. 
Vacancy in, how filled, A. 3, S. 13. 

Exemption, A. 10, S. 1. 

By reason of military duty, etc., A. 12, S. 4. 

Property of feme covert not liable for husband's debts, A. 10, S. 6. 

Ex post facto laws, A. 1, S. 32. 

Extra session of Gene- al Assembly, A. 3, S. 9. 

Feigned issues abolished, A. 4, S. 1. 

Feme sole, property of, not liable for husband's debts, A. 10, S. 6. 

Fines, excessive, A. 1, S. 14. 

Freedom of tho press, A. 1, S. 20. 

Fundamental principles, frequent recurrence to, A. 1, S. 29. 

General Assembly, acts, style »of, A. 2, S. 21. 

Article seven may be modified or repealed by, A. 7, S. 14. 

Bills and resolutions read thiee times, A. 2, S. 23. 

Compulsory education may bo enforced by, A. 9, S. 15. 

Election by, A. 6, S. 3. 

Entails regulated by, A. 2, S. 15. 

Extra session, A. 2, S. 28; A. 3, S. 9. 

Journals kept, A. 2, S. 16. 

Protests entered on, A. 2, S. 17. 
Members of, A. 2, S. 24. 

Assemble, when, A. 2, S. 2. 

Election for, when, A. 2, S. 27. 

Office a disqualification, A. 14, S. 7. 

Terms commence with election, A. 2, S. 25. 

Vacancies, how filled, A. 2, S. 13. 
Municipal corporations controlled by, A. 7, S. 11. 
Names, personal, not changed by, A. 2, S, 11. 
Officers of, election, I'iva voce, A. 2, S. 9. 

Pay of, A. 2, S. 28. 

President of Senate, A. 2, S. 19. 

Speaker of House, A. 2, S. 18. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 407 



Powers of, A. 2, S. 22. 

In relation to divorce and alimony, A. 2, S. 10. 
Representation apportioned by, A. 2, SS. 4, 5. 
Revenue, A. 2, S. 14. 
Schools provided by, A. 9, S. 2. 
University to be maintained by, A. 9, SS. 6, 7. 
Yeas and nays, A. 2, SS. 14, 26. 
Government, allegianco to United States, A. 1, S. 5. 
Internal, of State, A. 1, S. 3. 
Origin of, A. 1, S. 2. 
Seat of, remains in Raleigh, A. 14, S. 6. 

Governor, commands militia, A. 3, S. 8. 

Commutations, pardons, reprieves, A. 3, S. 6. 

Compensation, A. 3, S. 15. 

Duties of, A. 3, S. 12. 

Extra sessions called by, A. 3, S.. 9. 

Impeachment of, A. 3, S. 12. 

Justices of peace appointed by, when, A. 7, S. 11. 

Lieutenant, qualifications of, A. 3, S. 2. 

Oath of office, A. 3, S. 4. 

Officers appointed by, A. 3, S. 10; A. 14, S. 5. 

Qualification of, A. 3, S. 2. 

Resident of, A. 3, S. 5. 

Vacancy in office of, A. 3, S. 12. 

Habeas corpus, A. 1, S. 21. 
Hereditary emoluments, A. 1, S. 30. 
Homestead and exemption, A. 10, S. 2. 

Benefit of widow, income, A. 10, S. 5. 

Exempted from debt, A. 10, S. 3. 

Laborer's lien attaches, A. 10, S. 4. 

Privy examination of wifu to dispose of, A. 10, S. 8. 

House of correction, A, 11, S. 4. 

Orphans, A. 11, S. 8. 

Refuge, A. 11, 8. 5. 

House of Representatives, representatives, apportionment, A. 2, S. 5. 

Officers of, A. 2, S. 18. 

Term begins when, A. 2, S. 25. 

Qualification for, A. 2, S. 8. 

Ratio of, A. 2, S. 6. 
Husband can insure life for benefit of family, A. 10, S. 7. 
Idiots provided for, A. 11, S. 9. 
Immigration, Department of, A. 3, S. 17. 

Impeachment, A. 4, S. 4. 
Court of, A. 4, S. 3. 
Of Governor, A. 3, S. 12. 

Imprisonment for debt, A. 1, S. 16. 

Except by law, wrong, A. 1, S. 17. 
Indictments for crime committed before Constitution took effect, A. 14, S. 1. 
Inebriates, A. 11, S. 9. 
Inferior courts, A. 4, S. 12. 

Officers of, A. 4, S. 30. 
Insana provided for, A. 11, S. 10. 
Institutions, charitable, A. 11. 

Penal, A. 11. 

Public, annual reports from, A. 3, S. 7. 

Self-supporting as far as possible. A. 11, S. 11. 

Sexes to be separated, A. 11, S. 6. 



40S CONSTIT! HON OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 



Instruction, superintendent of public, A. 3, S. 13. 
Intermarriage of whites and negroes prohibited, A. 14, S. 8. 
Internal government of State, A. 1, S. 3. 
Issues of fact, by whom tried and how waived, A. 4, S. l<i. 
Judges, election, terms of, etc., A. 4, S. 21. 

Fees, salaries, emoluments, A. 4, S. IS. 

Removal of for inability, A. 4, S. 31. 

Residence of, A. 4, S. 11. 

Judicial department, A. 4. 

Districtr, for superior courts, A. 4, S. 10. 

General Assembly not to deprive of jurisdiction, A. 4, S. 12. 

Powers, division of, A. 4, S. 2. 

Term of first officers under Constitution, A. 4, S. 26. 

Vacancies, A. 4, 8. 25. 
Judicial remedy, allowed all, A. 1, S. 35. 
Judiciary distinct, A. 1, S. 8. 
Jurisdiction, «ourts inferior to Supreme, A. 4, S. 12. 

Justices of the peace, A. 4, S. 27. 

Supreme Court, A. 4, S. 8. 

Jury, right of, A. 1, S. 13. 

Sacred and inviolable, A. 1, S. 19. 

Trial by, waived, A. 4, S. 13. 
Justices of the peare, Governor appoints, when, A. 7, S. 11. 

Jurisdiction of, A. 4, S. 27. 

Vacancies in office, A. 4, S. 28. 
Laborers' and Mechanics' lien, A. 14, S. 4. 

Attaches homestead, A. 10, S. 4. 
Law of the land, no person imprisoned, or deprived of life, etc., but by, A. 1. S. 17. 

Laws, e:e xost facto and retrospective, A. 1, S. 32. 

Private, thirty days' notice before passage, A. 2, S. 12. 

What in force, A. 4, S. 19. 
Legislative Department, distinct, A. 1, S. 8. 
Legislature, two branches of, A. 2, S. 1. 

Provide for organizing towns, etc., A. 8, S. 4. 

Trials other than jury, A. 1, S. 13. 
Legitimation, General Assembly can -pass genera] laws for, A. 2, S. 11. 

Libertv, deprivation of, except by law, A. 1, S. 17. 
R'eligious, A. 1, S. 26. 
Restraint of, remedied, A. 1, S. 18. 
Warrants without evidence, dangerous to, A. 1, S. 15. 

Lien of laborers and mechanics, A. 14, S. 4. 

Lieutenant-Governor, President of Senate, duties of, A. 3, S. 11. 

When Governor, A. 3, S. 12. 
Literary Fand, Board of Education to succeed to rights of, A. 9. S. 10. 
Local legislation prohibited, A. 2, S. 29. 

Marriages between whites and negroes forbidden, A. 14, S. 8. 
Married woman, husband can insure life for benefit of, A. 10, S. 7. 

Privy examination of, to dispose of homestead, A. 10, S. 8. 

Property of, not liable for husband's debts, A. 10, S. 6. 
Mechanics, lien, A. 14, S. 4. 
Men. equality, rights of, A. 1, S. 1. 
Militia, A. 1, S. 24; A. 12. 

Exemptions from duty, A. 12, S. 4. 

Governor commands, A. 3, S. 8; A. 12, S. 3. 

Organization of, A. 12. S. 2. 

Who liable to bear arms, A. 12, S. 1. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 409 

Money, how drawn from State Treasury, A. 4, S. 1. 
County or township treasury, A. 7, S. 8. 

Monopolies are injurious, A. 1, S. 31. 

Municipal corporations, A. 7. 

Cannot contract debt except by majority of qualified voters, A. 7, S. 7. 

Charters remain in force till changed, A. 7, S. 12. 

General Assembly to provide for organization oi, taxation, etc., by, A. H, S. -i 

Power of General Assembly over, A. 7, S. 14. 

Special charters prohibited, A. 8, S. 4. 
Names, personal, how changed, A. 2, S. 11. 

Normal School, to be maintained by General Assembly at University, A. 9, S. 14. 
Oath of Governor, A. 3, S. 4. 

Oath of member of Genera] Assembly, A. 2, S. 24. 
Oath of office, A. 6, S. 4. 

Office, cannoi hold two, A. 14, S. 7. 
Disqualification, A. 6, S. 5. 
Dueling disqualifies for, A. 14, S. 2. 
Eligibility to, A. 6. 
Qualification, property, none, A. 1, S. 22. 

Officers, county, A. 7, S. 1 ; A. 7, S. 10. 

First elected, A. 4, S. 26. 

What, appointed by Governor, A. 3, S. 10; A. 4, S. 5. 
Orphans, houses for, A. 11, S. 8. 

Provision for, A. 11, S. 7. 
Pardons, A. 3, S. 6. 

Peace, soldiers quartered in time of, A. 1, S. 36. 
Penitentiary, A. 11, S. 3. 

Convict labor, A. 11, S. 1. 

Self-supporting as far as possible, A. 11, S. 11. 

Sexes separated, A. 11, S. 6. 

People, right of, to assemble together, A. 1, S. 25. 
Perpetuities, injurious, A. 1, S. 31. 

General Assembly shall prevent, A. 2, S. 15. 
Political power and government, A. 1, S. 2. 

Societies in secret dangerous, A. 1, S. 25. 
Poor, provision for, A. 11, S. 7. 
Power of General Assembly, A. 2, S. 22. 

To suspend laws injurious, A. 1, S. 9. 

Powers, executive, judicial and legislative, distinct, A. 1, S. 8. 
Judicial, division of, A. 4, S. 2. 

Press, freedom and abuse of, A. 1, S. 20. 

Principles, recurrence to, fundamental, A. 1, S. 29. 

Prisoners, health and comfort secured, A. 11, S. 6. 

Private laws, A. 2, SS. 11, 12. 

Privileges, exclusive, none, A. 1, S. 7. 

Property, controversies at law about, A. ., S. 19. 

Deprivation of, except by law wrong, A. 1, S. 17. 

Devoted to education, A. 9, S. 4. 

Exemptions from taxation, A. 5, S. 5. 

Feme sole not liable for husband's debts, A. 10, S. 6. 

Qualifications, none, A. 1, S. 22. 
Prosecution, criminal, A. 1, S. 11. 
Protest, by whom and when made, A. 2, S. 17. 
Public debt, increase of, restricted, etc., A. 5, S. 4. 

What bonds declared invalid, A. 1, S. 6. 



lln Constitution of the State of North Carolina 



Public money, how drawn, A. 14, S. 3. 

Public Schools, General Assembly to provide for, A. 9, S. 2. 

Punishments, penal institutions and public charities, A. 11. 

Cruel or unusual, A, 1, S. 14; A. 14, S. 1. 
Qualification and election of Members of General Assembly, each house judge of, 

A. 2, S. 22. 
Rebellion, debt in aid of, not to be paid, A. 7, S. 13. 
Recurrence to fundamental principles, A. 1, S. 29. 
Refuge, houses of, A. 11, S. 5. 
Register of deeds, A. 7, S. 1. 
Registration of electors, A. 6, S. 2. 

Religious liberty, A. 1, S. 2b. 

Scruples against bearing arms, A. 12, S. 1. 

Removal of judges, A. 4, S. 31. 

Of clerks, A. 4, S. 32. 
Representation and taxation, A. 1, S. 23. 
Reprieves, A. 3, S. 6. 
Retrospective laws, A. 1, S. 32. 
Revenue, A. 2, S. 14; A. 5. 
Right of assemblage, A. 1, S. 25. 

Jury, A. 1, S. 13. 
Right of secession, none, A. 1, S. 4. 

To bear arms, A. 1, S. 24. 

To suspend laws, injurious, A. 1, S. 9. 
Rights, declaration of A. 1. 

Of men, A. 1, S. 1 ; A. 1, S. 37. 
Salaries and fees, General Assembly to regulate, A. 4, S. 1° 

Schools, attendance of children, A. 9, S. 15. 

County, divided into districts, A. 9. S. 3. 

Fund, A. 9, S. 5. 

Provided by legislation, A. 9, S. 2. 

Races separate, A. 9, S. 2. 

Seal of State, A. 3, S. 16. 

Search warrants without evidence, wrong, A. 1, S. 15. 

Seat of government at Raleigh, A. 14, S. 6. 

Secession, no right of, A. 1, S. 4. 

Secretary of State, duties of, A. 3, S. 13. 

Senate, presiding officer, A. 2, S. 19. 

Pro tern. Speaker, when elected, A. 2, S. 20. 

Senators, number of, A. 2, S. 3. 

Other senatorial officers, A. 2, S. 20. 
President of, A. 2, S. 19. 
Qualifications for, A. 2. S. 7. 
Regulating senatorial districts, A. 2, S. 4. 

Sexes, separated in confinement, A. 11, S. 6. 

Sheriff and coroner, A. 4, S. 24. 

Slavery prohibited, A. 1, S. 33. 

Societies, secret political, dangerous, A. 1, S. 25. 

Soldiers, how quartered, A. 1, S. 36. 

Solicitor, how elected, A. 4, S. 23. 

Special courts, A. 4, S. 14. 

State boundaries, A. 1, S. 34. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 411 



Claims against, A. 4, S. 9. 

Internal government, A. 1, S. 3. 

Statistics, department of, A. 3, S. 17. 
Suffrage and eligibility to office, A. 6. 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, A. 3, S. 13. 

Reports of county school fund to be made, A. 9, S. 5. 

Superior Court, open at all times except for jury trials, A. 4, S. 22. 
Clerk, his election, A. 4, S. 16. 
Districts, A. 4, S. 10. 
Judges, election and term, A. 4, S. 21. 

Residence, A. 4, S. 11. 

Rotation, A. 4, S. 11. 
Solicitor for each district, A. 4, S. 23. 
Special term, A. 4, S. 12. 
Term, A. 4, S. 17. 
Vacancy, A. 4, S. 29. 
Transaction of business, A. 4, S. 22. 

Supreme Court, clerk, A. 4, S. 15. 

Jurisdiction, A. 4, SS. 8, 9. 

Justices, A. 4, S. 6. 

Election and terms of, A. 4, S. 21. 

Terms of, A. 4, S. 7. 
Surveyor, A. 7, S. 1. 

Suspending laws without consent of representatives, not to be exercised, A. 1, S. 9. 
Taxation, ad valorem and uniform, A. 5, S. 3. 

And revenue, A. 5 ; A. 1, S. 23. 

Except for necessary expenses, not levied by county, city or town without 
assent of majority of voters, A. 7, S. 7. 

Income, A. 5, S. 3. 

Limitation, A. 5, S. 6. 

Of county to be ad valorem, A. 7, S. 9. 

Of purchases and sales retrospectively not to be passed, A. 1, S. 32. 

Property exemptions from, A. 5, S. 5. 
Taxes, acts to levy, to state object, A. 5, S. 7. 
Towns, etc., organized by legislation, A. 8, S. 4. 
Townships, officers of, A, 7, S. 5. 
Treason against State, A. 4, S. 5. 
Treasurer, duties of, A. 3, S. 13. 

University, agricultural department of, mechanics, mining and normal instruction 
connected with, A. 9, S. 14. 

Benefits of, A. 9, S. 7. 

Election of trustees, A. 9, S. 6. 

General Assembly shall maintain, A. 9, S. 7. 

Maintenance of, A. 9, S. 6. 

Property devoted to, A. 9, S. 7. 

Vacancies in General Assembly, A. 2, S. 13. 

Other, A. 3, SS. 12, 13; A. 4, SS, 25, 28, 29. 

Vagrants, houses of correction for, A. 11, fe. 4. 
Warrants without evidence injurious, A. 1, S. 15. 
Whites and negroes cannot intermarry, A. 1 ±, S. 8. 

Separated in schools, A. 9, S. 2. 
Widow, homestead benefits, A. 10, S. 5. 
Yeas and nays, when entered, A. 2, SS. 14, 26. 



PART XII 



CENSUS 



1. Population and Area of the Several States and 

Territories, 1910 and 1920. 

2. Population (Estimated) of North Carolina, 1675- 

1786. 

3. Census of North Carolina, 1790-1840. 

4. Census of North Carolina, 1850-1920. 

5. Population of North Carolina Cities and Towns, 

1900-1920. 

6. North Carolina Counties and County Seats. 



1413] 



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POPULATION (Estimated) OF NORTH CAROLINA, 1675-17S6. 



1675 4,000 

1701 5,000 

1707 7,000 

1715 11,000 

1729 35,000 

1752 100,000 

1765 200,000 

1771 250,000 

1786 350,000 



27 '417 



41S 



Cexsus 
(i:\Srs OF NORTH CAROLINA, 1790-1840. 



Count ies 


Date of 
Forma- 
tion 


1790 


1800 


1810 


1820 


1830 


1840 


1 Alamance 


1840 
1847 
1859 
1749 
1799 














2 Alexander 














3 Alleghany 














4 Anson. 


5,133 


8,146 
2,783 


8,831 
3,694 


12,534 
4,335 


14,095 
6,987 


15,077 
7,467 


5 Ashe __ _. 


6 Avery 




7 Beaufort 

8 Bertie 

9 Bladen 


1705 
1722 
1734 
1764 
1791 
1777 
1792 
1841 
1777 
1722 
1777 
1842 
1770 
1839 
1672 
1861 
1841 
1808 
1712 
1754 
1672 
1870 
18 22 

1836 
1749 
1881 
1732 
1849 
1779 
1846 
1779 
1872 
1746 
1799 
1770 
175S 
1855 
1808 
1838 
1759 


5,462 

12,606 

5,084 

3,071 


6,242 
11,249 
7,028 
4,110 
5,812 
9,929 
5,094 


7,203 
11,218 
5,671 
4,778 
9,277 
11,007 
6,158 


9,850 
10,805 

7,276 

5,480 
10,542 
13,411 

7,248 


10,969 

12,262 

7,811 

6,516 

16,281 

17,888 

8,810 


12,225 

12,175 

8,022 

5,265 

10,084 


10 Brunswick 

11 Buncombe 


12 Burke 


8,118 


15,799 
9 '59 


13 Cabarrus 


14 Caldwell 






15 Camden 


4,033 

3,732 

10,096 


4,191 
1,399 

8,701 


5,347 

4,823 
11,757 


6,347 

5,609 

13,253 


6,733 

6,597 

15,785 


5,663 

6,592 

14,693 


16 Carteret __ 


17 Caswell _ _. 


18 Catawba.. 


19 Chatham 


9,221 


11,861 


12,977 


12,661 


15,405 


16 9 4 9 


20 Cherokee __.„ 


3,4*7 


21 Chow-an 


5,011 


5,132 


5,297 


6,464 


0,697 


6,690 


22 Clav 


23 Cleveland.... 














24 Columbus.. 






3,022 

12,676 

9,382 

6,985 


3,912 
13,394 
14,446 

8,098 


4.111 
13,734 
14,834 

7,655 


3,941 


25 Craven.. . 


10,469 
8,671 
5,219 


10,245 
9,264 
6,928 


13,438 

15,284 

6,703 


27 Currituck 

28 Dare 


29 Davidson... . .. 










13,389 


14,606 


30 Davie 










7.574 


31 Duplin 


5,662 


6,796 


7,863 


9,744 


11,291 


11 18° 


32 Durham. _ . 




33 Edgecombe.. 

34 Forsyth 


10,225 


10,421 


12,423 


13,276 


14,935 


15,708 


35 Franklin 

36 Gaston ._ .. 


7,559 


8,529 


10,166 


9,741 


10,665 


10,980 


37 Gates 


5,392 


5,881 


5,965 


6,837 


7,866 


8 161 


38 Graham 




39 Granville 


10,982 
6,893 
7,191 

13,965 


14,015 
4,218 
9, 142 

13,945 


15.576 

4,867 

1 1 , 420 

13,620 


18,222 

4,533 

14,511 

17,237 


19,355 
6.413 

IS, 737 
17,739 


18,817 
6 595 


40 Greene*... 


41 Guilford.... 


19 175 


42 Halifax 


16,865 


43 Harnett 


44 Haywood _ 






2,780 


4,073 


4,578 


4,975 


45 Henderson... 






5,129 


46 Hertford . 


5,828 


6.701 


6,052 


7,712 


8,537 


4 484 


47 Hoke 




48 Hvde 


1705 
1788 
1S51 
1746 
1779 
1907 
1791 
1779 
1842 
1828 
1851 
1774 


4,120 
5, 135 


4,829 
8,856 


6,029 

10,972 


4,967 
13,071 


6,184 

14,918 


6,458 


49 Iredell 


15,685 


50 Jackson _ 




51 Johnston.. 

52 Jones... 

53 Lee 


5,634 
4,822 


6,301 
4,339 


6,867 

4,908 


9,607 
5,216 


10.938 
5,608 


10,599 
4,945 


54 Lenoir.. 




4,005 
12,660 


5,572 

16,359 


6,799 
18,147 


7,-723 

22,455 


7,605 


55 Lincoln 

56 McDowell _. 


9,224 


26,160 


57 Macon 










5,333 


4,869 


58 Madison 












59 Martin 


6,080 


5,629 


5.9S7 


6,320 


8,539 1 


7,637 



North Carolina 
CENSUS OF NORTH CAROLINA, 1850-1920. 



419 



















Land 




















An a in 




1850 


1860 


1870 


1880 


1890 


1900 


1!.10 


1920 


Square 
Wiles 




11,444 


11,852 


11,874 


14,613 


18,271 


25,665 


28,712 


32,718 


494 


1 


5,220 


6,022 


6,868 


8,355 


9,430 


10,950 


11,592 


12,212 


297 


2 




3,598 


3,691 


5,486 


6,523 


7,759 


7,745 


7,403 


223 


3 


13,489 


13,664 


12,428 


17,994 


20,027 


21,870 


25,465 


28,334 


551 


4 


8,777 


7,956 


9,573 


11,437 


15,628 


19,581 


19,074 


21,001 
10,335 
31,024 


399 
819 


5 
6 


13.816 


14,766 


13,011 


17,474 


21,072 


26,404 


30,877 


7 


12,851 


14,310 


12,950 


16,399 


19,176 


20,538 


23,039 


23,993 


712 


8 


9,767 


11,995 


12,831 


16,158 


16,763 


17,677 


18,006 


19,761 


1,013 


9 


7,272 


8,406 


7,754 


9,389 


10,900 


12,657 


14,432 


14,876 


812 


10 


13,425 


12,654 


15,412 


21,909 


35,206 


44,288 


49,798 


64,148 


624 


11 


7,772 


9,237 


9,777 


12,809 


14,939 


17,699 


21,408 


23,297 


534 


12 


9,747 


10,546 


11,954 


14,964 


18,142 


22,456 


26,240 


33,730 


387 


13 


6,317 


7,497 


8,476 


10,291 


12,298 


15,694 


20,579 


19,984 


507 


14 


6,049 


5,343 


5,361 


6,274 


5,667 


5,474 


5,640 


5,382 


218 


15 


6,939 


8,186 


9,010 


9,784 


10,825 


11,811 


13,776 


15,384 


538 


16 


15,259 


16,215 


16,081 


17,825 


16,028 


15,028 


14,858 


15,759 


396 


17 


8,862 


10,729 


10,984 


14,946 


18,689 


22,123 


27,918 


33,839 


408 


18 


18,449 


19,101 


19,723 


23,453 


25,413 


23,912 


22,635 


23,814 


785 


19 


6,838 


9,166 


8,080 


8,182 


9,976 


11,860 


14,136 


15,242 


451 


211 


6,721 


6,842 


6,450 


7,900 


9,167 


10,258 


1 1 , 303 


10,649 


ltil 


21 






2,461 
12,696 


3,316 
16,571 


4,197 
20,394 


4,532 
25,078 


3,11)9 
29,494 


4,646 
34,272 


185 

485 


22 


10,396 


12,348 


23 


5,909 


8,597 


8,474 


14,439 


17,856 


21,274 


28,020 


30,124 


937 


24 


14,709 


16,268 


20,516 


19,729 


20,533 


24,164 


25,594 


29,048 


us;, 


25 


20,610 


16,369 


17,035 


23,836 


27,321 


29,249 


35,284 


35,064 


l.iv.s 


26 


7,236 


7,115 


5,131 


6,476. 


6,747 


6,529 ' 


7,693 


7,268 


273 


27 






2,778 
17,414 


3,244 
20,333 


3,768 
21,702 


4.757 
23,403 


4,811 
29,404 


5.115 

35,201 


405 
563 


28 


15,320 


16,601 


211 


7,S66 


8,491 


9,620 


11,096 


11,62! 


12,115 


13,394 


13,578 


261 


30 


13,514 


15,784 


15,542 


18,773 


18,690 


22,405 


25,442 


30,223 


830 


31 










IS, 141 
24,113 


26,233 
26,591 


35,276 
32,010 


12,219 
37,995 


284 
515 


32 


17,189 


17.376 


22,970 


26,181 


33 


11,168 


12,092 


13,050 


18,078 


28,434 


35,261 


47,311 


77,269 


309 


31 


11,713 


14,107 


14,135 


20,829 


21,098 


25,115 


24,692 


26,667 


171 


35 


8,173 


9,307 


12.602 


14,254 


17,764 


27,903 


37,063 


51,242 


359 


16 


8,426 


8,443 


7,724 


8,897 


10,252 


10,413 


10,455 


10.537 


356 


37 








2,335 
31,286 


3,313 
24,84 


4 . 343 
23,263 


4,749 
25. 102 


4,872 


102 
504 


38 


21,249 


23,396 


24,831 


39 


6,619 


7,925 


8,687 


10,037 


10,039 


12,038 


13,083 


16,212 


258 


40 


19,754 


20,056 


22,736 


23,585 


2S.052 


39,074 


i,u. 197 


79,272 


674 


1! 


16,589 


19,442 


20,408 


30, 300 


2,8,908 


30,793 


37,646 


: 1,766 


681 


42 




8,039 


8,895 


10,862 


13,700 


I5.9SS 


22.174 


28,313 


596 


1 ; 


7,074 


5,081 


7,921 


10,271 


13,310 


16,222 


21,020 


1 !, 196 


5 41 


11 


6.853 


10,448 


7,706 


10,281 


12,589 


14,104 


16,202 


18,248 


362 


15 


8,142 


9,504 


9.273 


11,843 


13,851 


14,294 


15,436 


16.291 

1 1 . 722 

8,386 


596 


46 

17 


7,636 


7,732 


6,445 


7,765 


8,903 


9,278 


8,840 


18 


11.719 


15,347 


L6 931 


22,675 


25.462 


29,064 


34,315 


37,959 


592 


49 




5,515 


6,683 


7,343 


9,512 


11,853 


12,998 


1 196 


mi 


50 


~13.72<i~ 


15,656 


16,897 


23,461 


27,239 


32,250 


11. 101 


18,998 


688 


51 


5,038 


5,7:io 


5,002 


7. 191 


7,403 


8,226 


8,721 

1 1 , 376 
22,7611 


r. too 


I'll 
136 


52 
53 


7,828 


10,220 


10,434 


15,344 


14,879 


18,639 


54 


7,746 


8,195 


9,573 


11,061 


12,586 


15,498 


17,132 


17,862 


296 


55 


6,246 


7,12(1 


7,592 


9,836 


10,939 


12,567 


13,538 


16,703 


137 


56 


6,389 


6,004 


6,015 


8,064 


10 101' 


12,104 


12, 191 


12,887 


531 


57 




5,908 


8,192 


12,810 


17,805 


20,644 


20,132 


20, os:; 


i:;i 


58 


8,307 


10,195 


9,647 


13,140 


15,221 


15,383 


17,797 


20,826 


1 18 


59 



420 



Census 



CENSUS OF NORTH CAROLINA, m0-lM0— Continued. 




Counties 


Date of 
Forma- 
tion 


1790 


1800 


1810 


1820 


183C 


1840 


60 Mecklenburg 

til Mitchell 


1762 

1861 

1779 

1784 

1777 

1729 

1741 

1734 

1752 

1872 

1672 

1875 

1672 

1791 

1760 

1855 

1779 

1779 

1786 

1785 

1753 

1779 

1784 

1899 

1S41 

1789 

1771 

1871 

1861 

1729 

1842 

1881 

1770 

1779 

1799 

1849 

1779 

1777 

1S55 

1850 

1833 


11,395 


10,439 


14,272 


16,895 


20,073 


18,273 


62 Montgomery 

63 Moore 

64 Nash 


4,725 
3,770 
7,393 
6,831 
9,981 
5,387 
12,216 


7,677 
4,767 
6,975 
7,060 

12,353 
5,623 

16,362 


8,430 

6,367 

7,268 

11,465 

13,082 

6,669 

20,135 


8,693 

7,128 

8,125 

10,866 

13,242 

7,016 

23,492 


10,919 
7,745 
8,490 

10,959 

13,391 
7,814 

23,908 


10,780 
7,988 
9,047 

13,312 

13,369 
7,527 

24,356 


65 New Hanover 

66 Northampton 

67 Onslow 


68 Orange 


69 Pamlico ... 


70 Pasquotank 

71 Pender 


5,497 


5,379 


7,674 


8,008 


8,641 


8,514 


72 Perquimans.. .. 

73 Person _ _ 


5,140 


5,708 
6,402 
9,084 


6,052 
6,642 
9,169 


6.857 

9,029 

10,001 


7,419 
10,027 
12,093 


7,346 

9,790 

11,806 


74 Pitt 


8,275 


75 Polk 


76 Randolph 

77 Richmond 

78 Robeson 


7,276 
5,055 
5,326 
6,187 
15,828 
7,808 
6,065 


9,234 
5,623 
6,839 
8,277 
20,064 
10,753 
6,719 


10,112 

6,695 

7,528 

10,316 

21,543 

13,202 

6,620 


11,331 

7,537 

8,204 

11,474 

26,009 

15,351 

8,908 


12,406 
9,396 
9,433 
12,935 
20,786 
17,557 
11,634 


12,875 
8,909 
10,370 
13,442 
12,109 
19,202 
12,157 


79 Rockingham 

80 Rowan.. 


81 Rutherford 

82 Sampson 

83 Scotland 


84 Stanly 














85 Stokes 


8,528 
7,19! 


11,026 
9,509 


11,645 
• 10,366 


14,033 
12,320 


16,196 
14,504 


16,265 
15,079 


86 Surrv 


87 Swain 


88 Transvlvania 














89 Tyrrell 


4,744 


3,395 


3,364 


4,319 


4,732 


4,657 


90 Union 


91 Vance 














92 Wake 

93 Warren 


10,192 
9,397 


13,437 

11,284 

2,422 


17,080 

11,004 

3,464 


20,102 

11,158 

3,986 


20,398 

11,877 

4,552 


21,118 

12,919 

4,525 


94 Washington 


95 Watauga . ._ 




96 Wavne 


6,133 
8,143 


6,772 
7,217 


8,687 
9,054 


9,040 
9,967 


10,331 
11,968 


10,891 
12,577 


97 Wilkes 

98 Wilson 


99 Yadkin 














lOOYancev 












5 962 
















Totals 




393,751 


478,103 


555,500 


038.829 


737,987 


753,409 







*Inl758 Dobbs County was formed from part of Johnston. In 1791 Dobbs was divided 
into Lenoir and Glasgow. In 1799 the name of Glasgow was changed to Greene. 



North Carolina 



421 





CENSUS OF NORTH CAROLINA, 1850-1920— Continued. 






















Land 




1850 


1800 


1870 


1880 


1890 


1900 


1910 


1920 


Area in 
Square 

Miles 




13,914 


17,374 


24,299 


34,175 


42,673 


55,208 


67,031 


80,695 


590 


60 






4,705 
7,487 


9,435 
9,3 ',< 


12,807 
11,239 


15,221 
14,197 


17,245 
14,967 


11,278 
14,607 


362 
489 


01 


0,872 


7,649 


62 


9,342 


11,427 


12,048 


16,821 


20,479 


23 022 


17,010 


21,388 


798 


63 


10,657 


11,687 


11,077 


17,731 


20,707 


25', 478 


33,727 


41,001 


584 


04 


17,668 


21,715 


27,978 


21,376 


24,026 


25,785 


32,037 


40,020 


199 


05 


13,335 


13,372 


14,749 


20,032 


21,242 


21,150 


22,323 


23,184 


523 


66 


8,283 


8,856 


7,509 


9,829 


10,303 


1 1 , 940 


14,125 


14,703 


645 


67 


17,055 


16,947 


17.507 


23,698 


14,918 


14,690 


15,084 


17,895 


386 


68 








6,323 
10,369 


7,146 
10,748 


8,045 
13,660 


9,966 
16,693 


9,000 
17,670 


358 
231 


69 


8,950 


8,940 


8,131 


70 








12,468 
9,466 


12,514 

9,293 


13,381 
10,091 


15,471 
11,054 


14,788 
11,137 


883 
251 


71 


7,332 


7,238 


7,745 


72 


10,781 


11,221 


11,170 


13,719 


15,151 


16,685 


17,356 


18,973 


386 


73 


13,397 


16,080 


17,276 


21,794 


25,519 


30,889 


36,340 


45,569 


644 


74 




4,043 


4,319 


5,062 


5,902 


7,004 


7,040 


8,832 


258 


75 


15,832 


16,793 


17,551 


20,836 


25,195 


28,232 


29,491 


30,856 


795 


76 


9,818 


11,009 


12,882 


18,245 


23,948 


15,855 


19,073 


25,567 


466 


77 


12,826 


15,489 


16,262 


23,380 


31,483 


40,371 


51,945 


54,674 


1,043 


78 


14,495 


16,746 


15,718 


21,744 


25,363 


33,103 


36,442 


44,149 


573 


79 


13,870 


14,589 


16,810 


19,965 


24,123 


31,066 


37,521 


44,062 


483 


80 


13,550 


11,573 


13,121 


15,198 


18,770 


25,101 


28,385 


31,426 


547 


81 


14,585 


16,624 


16,436 


22,894 


25,096 


26,380 


29,982 


36,002 


921 


82 












12,553 
15,220 


15,363 
19,909 


15,600 
27,429 


387 
413 


83 


6,922 


7,801 


8,315 


10,505 


12,136 


84 


9,206 


10,402 


11,208 


15,353 


17,199 


19,866 


20,151 


20,575 


472 


85 


18,443 


10,380 


11,252 


15,302 


19,281 


25,515 


29,705 


32,464 


531 


86 








3,784 
5,340 
4,545 


6,577 
5,881 
4,225 


8,401 
6,620 
4,980 


10,403 
7,191 
5,219 


13,224 
9,303 
4,849 


560 
371 
397 


87 






3,536 
4,173 


88 


5,133 


4,944 


89 


10,151 


11,202 


12,217 


18,056 


21,259 


27,150 


33,277 


30,029 


561 


90 










17,581 

49,207 


16,684 
54,626 


19,425 
63,229 


22,799 
75,155 


276 
841 


91 


24,888 


28,627 


35,617 


47,939 


92 


13,912 


15,726 


17,768 


22,619 


19,300 


19,151 


20,266 


21,593 


432 


93 


5,664 


6,357 


6,516 


8,928 


10,200 


10,608 


11,002 


11,429 


334 


94 


3,400 


4,957 


5,287 


8,160 


10,011 


13,417 


13,556 


13,477 


330 


95 


13,486 


14,905 


18,144 


24,951 


20,100 


31,356 


35,698 


43,040 


597 


90 


12,899 


14,749 


15,539 


19,181 


22,075 


26,872 


30,282 


32,r,ll 


718 


97 




9,720 


12,258 


16,1 nit 


18,044 


23,590 


28,269 


30,813 


392 


98 




10,714 


10,697 


12,420 


13,790 


14,083 


15,428 


16,391 


334 


99 


8,204 


8,655 


5,909 


7,694 


9,490 


11,464 


12,072 


15,093 


302 


100 


869.039 


992,622 


1.071,361 


1,399,750 


1, (',17,947 


1. 893. 810 


2.206,287 


2.559.123 


18,580 





422 



Census 



POPULATION OF NORTH CAROLINA CITIES AM) TOWNS, 

1900-1920. 



City or Town 



Abbottsburg 

Aberdeen... 

Acme 

Advance.. 

Ahoskie 

Albemarle 

Alexander* 

Almond 

Andrews 

Angier 

Ansonville 

Apex 

Archdale 

Arden. 

Asheboro 

Asheville 

Atkinson 

Atlantic*. 

Aulander 

Aurora 

Autryville 

Ayden 

Bailey 

Bakersville 

Banner Elk 

Bath 

Battleboro 

Bayboro 

Beargrass — 

Beaufort 

Belhaven 

Belmont 

Benson 

Bessemer City... 

Bethel 

Big Lick 

Biltmore 

Biscoe 

Black Creek..... 
Black Mountain. 

Bladenboro 

Blowing Rock... 

Boardman 

Bolivia 

Bonsai _. 

Boone 

Boonville.. 

Bostie 

Brevard.. 

Bridgersville* 

Bridgeton 

Broadway 

Brookford 

Bryson 

Buie 

Buie's Creek 



County 



Bladen. 

Moore 

Columbus 

Davie 

Hertford 

Stanly 

Buncombe 

Swain 

Cherokee 

Harnett 

Anson 

Wake* 

Randolph 

Buncombe 

Randolph 

Buncombe 

Pender 

Carteret 

Bertie 

Beaufort 

Sampson 

Pitt 

Nash ■- 

Mitchell 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Edgecombe and Nash. 

Pamlico 

Martin 

Carteret 

Beaufort 

Gaston 

Johnston 

Gaston 

Pitt 

Stanly 

Buncombe 

Montgomery 

Wilson 

Buncombe 

Bladen 

Watauga 

Columbus. 

Brunswick 

Chatham and Wake... 

Watauga 

Yadkin 

Rutherford 

Transylvania 

Wilson 

Craven 

Lee 

Catawba 

Swain 

Robeson 

Harnett 



1920 



1910 



78 

858 

183 

280 

,429 

,691 



148 
,634 

375 
486 
926 
178 



2,559 

28,504 

296 



803 
524 
351 
1,673 
518 



162 

274 

309 

349 

108 

2,968 

1,816 

2,941 

1,123 

2,176 

800 

282 

172 

755 

274 

531 

459 

338 

828 

199 

178 

374 

162 

. 206 

1,658 



548 
250 
709 



291 



159 

794 



283 
924 
116 
118 

98 
936 
221 
486 
681 
145 
151 
865 
,762 
115 
524 
543 
440 

77 
990 
195 
416 



283 

211 

370 

56 

,483 

,863 

,176 

800 

,529 

569 

162 

173 

697 

219 

311 

278 

261 

796 



85 
179 

28 
209 
919 

50 
348 
149 
725 
612 

66 
249 



Towns marked * are not reported to date. 



North Carolina 
POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS- Contii ued. 



423 



City or Town 



Burgaw 

Burlington 

Burnsville* 

Calypso 

Cameron. 

Candor 

Canton 

Carrb oro 

Carthage 

Cary 

Castalia 

Catawba 

Cerro Gordo 

Chadbourn 

Chapel Hill 

Charlotte... 

Cherry 

Cherry ville 

China Grove 

Chocowinity*.... 

Claremont... 

Clarendon 

Clarkton... 

Clayton 

Cleveland 

Clinton 

Clyde 

Coats 

Colerain 

Collettsyille. 

Columbia 

Columbus 

Concord 

Conetoe 

Conover 

Contentnea 

Cornelius.. 

Council... 

Cove City... 

Creedmoor 

Creswell 

Cronly* 

Grouse 

Cumberland 

Dallas. 

Davidson 

Delco 

Denton 

Denver 

Dillsboro 

D obson 

Dover 

Drexel 

Dudley 

Dunn 

Durham 

East Bend.. ----- 

East Kings Mountain* 

East Laurinburg 

East Lumberton 



County 



Pender 

Alamance 

Yancey 

Duplin 

Moore 

Montgomery. 

Haywood 

Orange 

Moore 

Wake- 

Nash 

Catawba 

Columbus 

Columbus 

Orange 

Mecklenburg- 
Washington.. 

Gaston 

Rowan 

Beaufort 

Catawba 

Columbus 

Bladen _- 

Johnston 

Rowan 

Sampson 

Haywood 

Harnett 

Bertie 

Caldwell 

Tyrrell 

Polk 

Cabarrus 

Edgecombe... 

Catawba 

Greene 

Mecklenburg- 
Bladen 

Craven 

Granville 

Washington.. 

Columbus 

Lincoln... ... 

Cumberland.. 

Gaston 

Mecklenburg. 

Columbus 

Davidson 

Lincoln 

Jackson 

Surry 

Craven 

Burke 

Wayne. 

Harnett 

Durham 

Yadkin 

Gaston 

Scotland 

Robeson 



1920 



,040 
,952 



1 

16 

1 

1 



405 
241 
267 
,584 
,129 
962 
645 
263 
250 
2G2 
904 
,483 
,338 
99 
884 
,027 



435 
135 
368 

,423 
366 

,110 
363 
526 
215 
123 
738 
168 

,903 
160 
681 



1 



141 
92 

258 
392 



209 
80 
397 
156 
210 
559 
243 
528 
368 
670 
392 
240 
805 
719 
508 



541 

,(ill 



1910 



956 

4, SI IS 
422 



259 

160 

1,393 



1, 



863 
383 
219 
222 
323 

1,242 

1,149 
34,014 
76 
,153 
852 
127 
297 
147 
276 

1,441 
426 

1,101 
344 
160 
189 
80 
848 
122 

8,715 
158 
421 
246 
833 
74 
308 
324 
329 
289 
175 
300 

1.065 

1 , 056 



320 
282 
277 
360 
737 



164 

1,823 
18,241 
522 
383 
577 
881 



1900 



387 

3,692 

207 



218 
"230 



605 
333 
163 
169 
123 
243 
1,099 
18,091 

"Tooi 

887 
"160 



754 
198 
958 
244 

'""207 

57 

382 

334 

7,910 
132 
413 



224 

78 

"343 

514 
904 



199 
279 
327 



1,072 

6,679 
III 



Towns marked * are not reported to date. 



424 



Census 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS-Continued. 



City or Town 


County 


1920 


1910 


1900 


East Spencer 


Rowan .. 


2,239 
2,777 

153 
8,925 

335 


1,729 
2,789 
171 
8,412 
117 
377 
886 
293 




Edenton. 


Chowan.. 


3,046 
99 

6,348 
144 
498 
860 
17° 


Edwards 


Beaufort.. 


Elizabeth Citv..._ - 


Pasquotank 


Elizabethtown.. 


Bladen 


Elk Park* 


Mitchell 


Elkin 


Surry 


1,195 
383 
473 
653 
248 

1,648 


Ellenboro _ __ 


Rutherford 


Ellerbee 


Richmond 




Elon College ... 


Alamance 


200 


638 


East Mondos 


Iredell 




Enfield 


Halifax 


1,167 
81 
162 
146 
248 
441 
730 
519 
352 


361 


Enoehsville* .. 


Rowan 


93 


Eureka 


Wavne 




123 


Everetts . 


Martin 


230 

139 

397 

1,000 

477 

348 

200 

198 

1,780 

8,877 

2,312 


127 


Evergreen..- . _. . 


Columbus 


Fair Bluff 


Columbus 


3°8 


Fairmont _ ._-.__ 


Robeson . 


432 
308 


Faison _ 


Duplin 


Faith 


Rowan 


Faleon 


Cumberland 




Falkland 


Pitt 


132 
816 

7,045 

1,592 
137 
189 
329 
379 
809 
951 
127 
284 
169 

5,759 
203 
154 

1,162 
308 
119 
102 
304 
126 

6,107 
240 

2,504 

381 

363 

15,895 

4,101 
291 
330 
209 
314 
452 

2,173 

205 

230 

140 

90 


139 


Farmville 


Pitt 


OQ9 


Fayetteville 


Cumberland 


.i 670 


Forest Citv.. _ 


Rutherford 


1 090 


Forestville* ._ 


Wake 


157 


Fountain 


Pitt.... 


243 

583 

773 

1,058 

1,294 

555 

376 

263 

12,871 


Four Oaks . . 


Johnston 


171 


Franklin __ 


Macon 


335 


Franklinton __ .. 


Franklin 


761 


Fremont 


Wayne 


435 


Fuquay Springs 


Wake 




Garner Springs _ 


Wake 




Garvsburg _ _ 


Northampton... 


269 


Gastonia . 


Gaston 


4 610 


Gatesville* . 


Gates 


°00 


Germantown.. . . 


Stokes 


132 

1,385 

346 

132 

90 

261 

130 

11,296 

239 

2,366 

1,101 

466 

19,861 

5,772 

375 

463 

296 

299 

474 

3,659 

175 


129 


Gibsonville 


Alamance-Guilford 
Burke 


5 9 1 


Glen Alpine _ 


137 


Glenw : ood .. 


McDowell 




Godwin _. 


Cumberland.... 




Gold Hill 


Rowan t 


514 


Gold Point 


Martin 


I'M 


Goldsboro 


Wayne 


5,877 


Goldston 


Chatham 


Graham 


Alamance.. 


' 05 9 


Granite Falls 


Caldwell.. 


277 


Granite Quarry . 


Rowan 




Greensboro 


Guilford... 


10 035 


Greenville 


Pitt 


2,565 


Grifton 


Pitt 


229 


Grimesland 


Pitt 


277 


Grover 


Cleveland.. 


174 


Halifax 


Halifax 


306 


Hamilton 


Martin 


493 


Hamlet 


Richmond. 


639 


Hampton 


Rutherford.. 

Gaston 




Hardin Mills* 


205 


Harrellsville 


Hertford 


131 

85 


109 


Hassell _ 


Martin 





Towns marked * are not reported to date. 



North Carolina 



425 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS— Continued. 



City or Town 



Hayesville ._ 

Haywood - 

Hazelwood 

Henderson 

Hendersonville__ 

Hertford 

Hickory 

High Point.. .... 

Highland 

Highlands _. 

Hildebrand 

Hillsboro 

Hobgood 

Hoffman 

Holly Springs... 

Hollyville 

Hookerton 

Hope Mills 

Hot Springs 

Hudson _. 

Huntersville 

Icemorlee 

Indian Trail 

Ingold* 

Iron Station 

Jackson... 

Jacksonville 

Jamesville 

Jason* 

Jefferson 

Jonesboro. 

Jonesville 

Jupiter 

KeUord 

Kenansville 

Kenly 

Kernersville 

Keyser 

Kings Mountain. 

Kinston 

Kittrell 

LaGrange... 

Landis 

Lasker 

Lattimore 

Laurinburg 

Lawndale 

Leaksville 

Leechville* 

Leicester* 

Lenoir.. 

Lewarae 

Lewiston 

Lexington 

Liberty 

Lilesville 

Lillington 

Lincolnton 

Linden 

Littleton 



County 



Clay 

Chatham 

Haywood 

Vance 

Henderson 

Perquimans 

Catawba 

Guilford 

Catawba 

Macon 

Burke 

Orange 

Halifax ._._ 

Richmond 

Wake 

Pamlico 

Greene ___ 

Cumberland 

Madison 

Caldwell 

Mecklenburg 

Union 

Union 

Sampson... _. 

Lincoln 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Martin 

Greene 

Ashe 

Lee 

Yadkin 

Buncombe 

Bertie 

Duplin 

Johnston 

Forsyth 

Moore 

Cleveland-Gaston. 

Lenoir 

Vance 

Lenoir 

Rowan 

Northampton 

Cleveland 

Scotland 

Cleveland 

Rockingham 

Beaufort 

Buncombe 

Caldwell 

Richmond 

Bertie 

Davidson 

Randolph 

Anson 

Harnett 

Lincoln 

Cumberland 

Halifax-Warren 



1920 



257 
. 141 

484 
5.222 
3,720 
1,704 
5,076 
14,303 
1,062 
504 
172 
,180 
336 
385 
333 
107 
294 
783 
495 
403 
833 
447 
224 



I. 



223 
579 
656 
389 



1900 



1900 



196 
886 
787 
87 
223 
302 
827 

1,219 
113 

2,800 

9,771 
223 

1,399 
972 
196 
262 

2,643 
774 

1,606 



3,718 
424 
244 

5,254 
636 
440 
593 

3,390 
191 
760 



162 

428 

4,503 

2,818 

1,841 

3,716 

9,525 

487 

267 

140 

857 

165 

175 

261 

126 

204 

964 

443 

411 

591 

398 

154 

124 

107 

527 

505 

398 

60 

184 

799 

621 

111 

316 

270 

726 

1,128 

170 

2,218 

6,995 

242 

1,007 

437 

203 

297 

2,322 

568 

1,127 

151 

153 

3,364 

279 

262 

4,163 

474 

386 

380 

2,413 



3,748 
1,917 

1,382 
2,525 

4,163 

""249 
109 
707 
122 
184 
219 

" 139 
881 
445 

"""533 



86 

'""441 
309 
235 

"""230 
640 

""l"§7 
167 
271 
260 
652 
180 
2,062 
4,106 
168 
853 

""121 

108 
1,334 

""688 

100 

126 

1,296 

"m 

1,234 

304 

213 

65 

828 



1,152 



Towns marked * are not reported to date. 



426 



Census 

POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS— Continued. 



City or Town 


County 


1920 


1910 


1900 


Longview 


Catawba 

Franklin 

Gaston 


755 

1 , 954 

1,154 

516 

202 

2,691 

1,162 

219 

149 

1,247 

694 

1,266 

141 

394 

99 

166 

147 

1,784 


243 

1,775 

876 

266 

165 

2,230 

983 

186 

189 

1,033 

653 

664 

220 

408 

52 




Louisburg.. .. 


1,178 




290 




Wilson.. ... 


236 


Lumber Bridge 


Robeson 


181 


Lumberton . . 


Robeson 

Gaston 


849 


MoAdenville 


1,144 


McFarland . 


Anson. 

W.irren _. 


112 
157 


Madison 


Rockingham 


813 




Duplin... . 


454 


Maiden 


Catawba... 

Moore 


614 




176 


Manteo 

Mapleton _ 


Dare . 

Hertford 

Cherokee 


312 


Marble . .. 




Margarettsville. . 


Northampton . . 


107 
1,519 
225 
301 
802 
499 
396 
141 


123 


Marion 


McDowell 

Pitt 


1,116 


Marlboro* 


111 


Mars Hill .. 


Madison 


364 

748 
828 
310 


289 


Marshal! 


Madison _ 


337 


Marshville _ 


Union . . . 


349 


Matthews .. 


Mecklenburg 

Pitt 


378 


Maupin . 






Greene . _ 


61 

1,397 

1,886 

536 

1,341 

118 

183 

104 

697 

375 

84 






Robeson. . 


1,321 

874 

345 

693 

88 

74 

117 

467 

419 

86 

194 

1,063 
100 

4,082 
254 
198 

3,400 

2,039 

2,712 
151 
261 
498 

3,844 
723 
526 

1,071 
753 
347 
809 
977 
750 
160 
95 


935 


Mayodan '. 


Rockingham.. 

Jones . _ 


904 


Mavsville . 


98 




218 


Merrv Oaks _. 


Chatham . ... . . 






Johnston 


61 


Middleburg . 


Vance. 


169 




Nash... 




Milton . 


Caswell .. _. 


490 


Mineral Springs . 


Union 




Mint Hill* 


Mecklenburg 


192 


Mo^ksville... 


Davip . . 


1,146 

136 

4,084 


745 




Chatham 




Monroe . . 


Union ...... . _ 

Mitchell 


2,427 




219 




Cleveland.. 


228 
4,315 
2,958 
2,867 

166 
83 

631 
4,752 

975 
1,160 
2,297 

770 


144 


Moorpsville 


Iredell 

Carteret . 

Burke 

Wake 

Caldwell 


1,533 


Morehead Citv. 

Morganton 


1,379 

1,928 

100 






Morven.. . 


Anson .. .... 

Surry 


447 


Mount Airy .. . 

Mount Gilead 

Mount Holly... . ... . .. 

Mount Olive 


2,680 


Montgomery 

Gaston . . . . 


395 
630 


Wayne 

Cabarrus 


617 

444 


Mountain Island* .. 


Gaston. ■ 


450 


Murf reesboro 


Hertford 

Cherokee 

Nash 


602 

1,314 

939 

243 


657 


Murphv.. __ . 


604 
479 




McDowell. ._ 

Wake ... 




New Hill 






Avery 

Stanly _ _. ._ 

Craven 


289 

228 

12,198 

404 




New London. 

New Bern 


312 

9,961 

321 


299 
8,090 


Newport 


Carteret 


328 



Towns marked * not reported to date. 



North Carolina 
POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS— Continued. 



427 



City or Town 



Newton 

Newton Grove 

North Wilkesboro... 

Norwood... 

Oakboro 

Oak City 

Oakley 

Old Fort 

Ore Hill* 

Oriental 

Orrum. 

Oxford 

Pactolus 

Palmyra 

Pantego 

Parkersburg 

Parkton 

Parmele 

Patterson 

Peachland 

Pee Dee* 

Pembroke 

Pendleton* 

Pikeville 

Pilot Mountain 

Pine Level 

Pine Bluff 

Pinetops 

Pineville 

Pink Hill 

Pittsboro 

Plvmouth 

Polkton 

Pollocksville.. 

Powellsville 

Princeton. 

Prineeville 

Raeford 

Raleigh 

Ramseur 

Randleman.. . 

Red Springs 

Reidsville 

Rennert.. 

Rhodhiss 

Rich Square. 

Richfield 

Richlands 

Ringwood* 

Roanoke Rapids 

Robbinsville 

Roberdel... 

Robersonville 

Rockingham 

Rockwell 

Rocky Mount 

Rocky Mount Mills. 

Rolesville* 

Roper 

Rose Hill 

Roseboro 



County 



Catawba 

Sampson 

Wilkes... 

Stanly 

Stanly , 

Martin 

Pitt 

McDowell... 

Chatham... 

Pamlico 

Robeson 

Granville. _ 

Pitt 

Halifax 

Beaufort 

Sampson 

Robeson 

Martin 

Caldwell..... 

Anson. 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Northampton 

Wayne 

Surry 

Johnston 

Moore 

Edgecombe 

Mecklenburg 

Lenoir 

Chatham 

Washington . _ 

Anson 

Jones 

Bertie 

Johnston 

Edgecombe 

Hoke 

Wake 

Randolph 

Randolph 

Robeson _. 

Rockingham 

Robeson 

Caldwell 

Northampton 

Stanly 

Onslow 

Halifax 

Halifax 

Graham 

Richmond 

Mjartin 

Richmond 

Rowan 

Edgecombe-Nash. 

Nash 

Wake... 

Washington 

Duplin 

Sampson 



1920 



021 
125 
363 
221 
282 
397 
49 
931 



607 

86 

,606 

210 

103 

335 

76 

382 

355 

183 

196 



329 



333 
707 
373 
165 
465 
689 
160 
584 
847 
575 
339 
157 
403 
562 
235 
076 
014 
,967 
018 
333 
292 
835 
475 
177 
548 



3611 
119 
476 
199 
51 ill 
45:: 
742 
833 



043 
516 

749 



1910 



2,316 

73 

1,902 

928 



251 

57 

778 

94 

645 

214 

3,018 

154 

94 

324 

67 

219 

272 

86 

232 

628 

258 

62 

210 

652 

394 

92 

211 

688 

58 

502 

2,165 

287 

227 

75 

354 

627 

580 

111, IMS 

1,022 

1,950 

1,089 

4,828 

,179 

370 

367 

210 

445 

147 

, 670 

122 

422 

616 

2,155 

8,051 
480 
170 
819 
364 
183 



1, 



1, 



1900 



1,583 

75 

918 

663 



115 

""253 

""306 

"2~059 

52 

131 

253 

57 

'""336 

""156 



86 
168 
710 
266 



585 

"424 
1,011 
276 
198 
44 
281 
552 

"i:L643 
769 

2,190 
858 

3,262 
133 

""""232 

73 

160 

98 

1,009 



275 
1,507 

1^937 
605 
155 



C3 



Towns marked * not reported to date. 



428 



Census 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS— Conh 


nved. 




City or Town 


County 


1920 


1910 


1900 


Rosman 


Transylvania 


527 

767 

3,214 

2,207 

442 

275 

1,693 

1,147 


145 
787 

1,425 
491 
437 
229 

1,062 
419 

5,533 

7,153 
235 

2,282 
136 

1,726 
280 

1,331 
139 
121 

3,127 
315 
308 
895 

1,347 
450 




Rowland 


Robeson 


357 


Roxboro 


Person 


1,021 




Bertie 


997 


Royall Cotton Mills 


Wake 




Rutherford College . 


Burke 




Rutherfordton.. 


Rutherford.. 


880 


St. Pauls 


Robeson 






Forsyth _ ... _._ 


3,642 




Rowan 


13,884 

549 

2,977 


6,277 




Polk 


211 




Lee 


1,044 




Wilson __ _ _. 


123 


Scotland Neck 


Halifax 


2,061 


1,348 


Seaboard* 


Northampton _.. 


287 




Johnston 


1,601 
174 
334 

3,609 
93 


816 


Shallotte - 


Brunswick _. . . 


149 




'Nash... 




Shelby 


Cleveland _ 


1,874 




Pitt 






Yadkin _ ._ 




Siler City 


Chatham 


1,253 

1,895 

700 

717 

245 

373 

293 

743 

1,664 

159 

2,510 

1,221 

584 

424 

467 

7,895 

121 

245 

138 

179 

472 

218 


440 


Smithfield 


Johnston 


764 




Greene 


405 


Spruce Pine 


Mitchell 






Buncombe 


238 
390 
202 
542 

1,484 
199 

1,915 

1,246 
321 
204 
239 

4,599 


312 


South Mills 


Camden.. 






Anson 


154 




Moore . 


517 






1,336 




Alleghanv 


501 




Rowan 






Nash _ _ _- 


666 




Gaston 


441 




Wilson 




Star 


Mont gomcry 


211 




Iredell 


3,141 




Cumberland... 




Stem 


Granville 








Pitt 

Guilford 

Rockingham 

Pamlico . 


79 
159 
404 
161 
82 
305 
185 
390 
698 
418 

4,129 
662 
154 

3,877 
269 














168 


Stouts* 


Union 




Stovall 


Granville 


414 

184 

420 

863 

782 

4,568 

1,122 

164 

5,676 






Hyde 






Onslow 


265 




Jackson 


281 


Tabor 


Columbus 




Tarboro. 


Edgecombe 

Alexander 


2,499 




413 




Duplin 




Thomasville 


Davidson 

Halifax 


751 


Tillery* 


258 


Todd 


Ashe 

Wilson 


82 




ToisnotJ 


590 


560 




Vance 


206 
488 
400 
342 






Jones... 


331 
332 
230 


338 


Trinity 


Randolph 


274 




Iredell... 





Towns marked * are not reported to date. 
fReported under Winston-Salem. 
JReported under Elm City. 



North Carolina 



429 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS-f ',„/.„„, ,/. 



City or Town 


County 


1920 


1910 


1900 


Trov 


Montgomery. 


1,102 

1,067 
142 
147 
156 
540 
308 
467 
273 
189 
190 

2,648 
174 

1,425 


1,055 
700 
43 
139 
155 
392 
296 
273 
420 
185 


878 
324 


Tryon 


Polk 


Tunis 


Hertford 


Union 


Hertford 


176 


Union Mills 


Rutherford 


Yanceboro 


Craven 


291 
169 


Vandemere 


Pamlico 


Vass 


Moore 


Vaughan . __ 


Warren 




Waco 


Cleveland. 


160 


Wade 


Cumberland 


Wadesboro 


Anson 


2,376 


1,546 


Wagrarn 


Scotland 


Wake Forest ... 


Wake 


1,443 
287 
444 
215 
480 
127 
807 
723 

6,211 
169 
602 

2,008 
442 
227 

1,999 
759 
846 


823 
142 
218 


Wakefield* 


Wake 


Wallace 


Duplin 


648 


Walnut* 


Madison 


Walnut Cove... 


Stokes 


651 

158 

927 

1,108 

6,166 

181 

750 

1,942 

606 

74 

1,861 

1,239 

1,266 

462 


336 


Walstonburg. 


Greene 


Warrenton . 


Warren 


836 

576 

4,842 


Warsaw .. 


Duplin... 


Washington. 


Beaufort 


Watha 


Pender 


Waxhaw 


Union.. 


752 


Waynesville 


Haywood 


1 307 


Weaverville 


Buncombe 


329 


Webster 


Jackson 




Weldon 


Halifax . 


1 433 


Wendell 


Wake 




West Hickory 


Catawba 


213 


West Jefferson 


Ashe _. 




West I.umberton 


Robeson 


231 

46 

755 

179 

1,368 

216 

45 

799 

53 

1,574 

25,748 

6,717 

684 

289 

353 

17,167 

484 

624 

312 

187 




Westray 


Nash... 


48 

723 

164 

1,664 

261 




Whitakers 


Edgecombe-Nash 


388 


Whitehall 


Wayne 


114 


Whiteville 


Columbus 


643 


Whittirr 


Jacls son-Swain 




Wilbanks 


Wilson _ 


46 


Wilkesboro.. _ 


Wilkes 


814 


635 


Williams* 


Yadkin 




Williamston 


Martin _ 


1,800 

33,372 

10,612 

1,210 

288 

470 

48,395 

650 

489 

400 


012 


Wilmington 


New Hanover 


20,976 


Wilson 


Wilson.. 


3,525 


Windsor 


Bertie 


597 


Winfall 


Perquimans 


222 


Wingate 


Union 




Winston-Salem 


Forsyth 


10,008 


Winterville 


Pitt 


243 


Winton 


Hertford 

Northampton 


688 


Woodland 


242 


Woodleaf*... 


Rowan.. 




Woodville. 


Bertie 

Randolph 


381 

367 

20 

254 

445 




Worth ville 


393 
54 
130 
432 
338 
431 
483 


467 


Wrightsville Beach 


New Hanover 


22 


Yadkin College. 


Davidson 


210 


Yadkinville.. 


Yadkin 


292 


Yancevville* 






Youngsville 


Franklin 


370 

953 


345 


Zebulon ' 


Wake 





Towns marked * are not reported to date. 



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PART XIII 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



1 Executive Officials. 

2. Justices of the Supreme Court. 

3. Senators and Representatives in Congress. 

4. Senators and Representatives in the General As- 

sembly. 



i 1 13 I 



EXECUTIVE OFFICIALS. 



CAMERON MORRISON 

GOVERNOR 

Cameron Morrison, Democrat, of Richmond County, was born in 
Richmond County, North Carolina, October 15th, 1869. Sou of Daniel 
M. Morrison and his wife, Martha Cameron Morrison. Educated in 
the private schools of M. C. McCaskill at Ellerbe Springs, N. C, 
and Dr. William Carroll of Rockingham. Lawyer. Member of Sen- 
ate Branch of the General Assembly in 1900. Mayor of the town of 
Rockingham in 1893. Elected Governor of North Carolina in 1920. 
Presbyterian. Married Miss Lottie May Tomlinson of Durham, 
N. C, who died Nov. 12, 1919. One child, a daughter, Angelia. Ad- 
dress: Raleigh, N. C. 



135 



43G Biographical Sketches 



JOHN BRYAN GRIMES* 

SECRETARY OF STATE 

J. Bryan Grimes, Democrat, of Fitt County, was born in 
Raleigh, N. C., June 3, 1868. Son of Bryan and Charlotte 
Emily (Bryan) Grimes. Educated at private schools: 
Raleigh Male Academy; Trinity school (Chocowinity, N. 
C); Lynch's High School (High Point, N. C); University 
of North Carolina; Bryant and Stratton Business College 
(Baltimore, Md.) Planter, Member of State Farmers Al- 
liance. Member Executive Committee North Carolina Ag- 
ricultural Society. Member State Board of Agriculture, 
1899-1900. Was elected Secretary of State in 1900, re-elected 
in 1904, 1908, 1912, 1916 and 1920. Term expires 1925. 
Ex-president Tobacco Growers Association of North Caro- 
lina 1899-1900. Chairman North Carolina Historical Com- 
mission 1907-1923. Member State Literary and Historical 
Association. President of the North Carolina Society of 
Sons of the Revolution 1911-1923. Member Executive Com- 
mittee, Trustees University of North Carolina. Chairman 
of Committee of Trustees for the Extension and Develop- 
ment of the University Buildings and Grounds. Member 
of the Farmers Cooperative and Education Union. President 
Scottish Society of America 1918-1919. Member Executive 
Committee of North Carolina Council of Defense. Aide-de- 
camp on staff of Governor E'lias Carr, with rank of Colonel. 
Director of Tobacco Growers Cooperative Association 1922- 
23. Episcopalian. Married November 14, 1894, Miss Mary 
Octavia Laughinghouse; February 3, 1904, Miss Elizabeth 
Forest Laughinghouse. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



*Sinco the abovo was written Colonel Grimes died of pneumonia, January 
11, 1923. — Editor. 



Executive Officials 437 

WILLIAM NASH EVERETT 

SECRETARY OF STATE 1 

William Nash Everett, Democrat, Secretary of State, was boru 
in Rockingham, December 29, 1S64. Son of William I. and Fannie 
(LeGrand) Everett. Attended Rockingham High School, 1882; Uni 
versity of North Carolina 1886. Parmer and Merchant. State 
Senator, 1917. Member House 1919-1921-1923. Methodist. Mar-ied 
Miss Lena Payne in 1888. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



BENJAMIN RICE LACY 

STATE TREASURER 

Benjamin R. Lacy, Democrat, of Wake County, was born in Ral- 
eigh, N. C, June 19, 1854. Son of Rev. Drury and Mary Rice Lacy, 
and a grandson of the Revs. Drury Lacy and Benjamin H. Rice. 
Both his grandfathers, his father, his brother and his son were 
Presbyterian Ministers, and he is an elder in the First Presbyterian 
Church in the City of Raleigh. He attended the Preparatory 
School of R. H. Graves, Graham, N. C, in 1868; Bingham School, 
Mebane, N. C, in 1869. Then served a regular apprenticeship as a 
machinist in the old Raleigh & Gaston Shops, was general foreman 
of these shops for four years and ran a locomotive engine fifteen 
years. He is a member of Division No. 339 Brotherhood of Locomo- 
tive Engineers, was a delegate to three Grand Conventions of the 
B. of L. E.; is a member of Manteo Lodge Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows, also of Walnut Creek Council No. 55 Jr. 0. U. A. M. Is 
Past Worshipful Master of William Hill Lodge No. 218, Raleigh, 
N. C, and Neuse Lodge No. 97, Millbrook, N. C, A. F. & A. M., and 
is Grand Treasurer of the Grand Lodge. Was Alderman of the 
City of Raleigh. State Commissioner of Labor and Printing for six 
years. Elected State Treasurer in 1900; re-elected in 1904, 1908, 1912, 
1916 and 1920. Term expires 1924. Married June 27, 1882, to Miss 
Mary Burwell. They have seven children. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



BAXTER DURHAM 

STATE AUDITOR 

Baxter Durham, Democrat, was born in Durham, N. C, August 
20, 1878. Son of Columbus and Lila (Walters) Durham. At- 



1 Appointed by the Governor, January 16, 1923. — Editor. 



438 Biographical Sketches 

tended public schools of Durham and Raleigh 1884-1892; Raleigh 
Male Academy, 1892-1894; Wake Forest College, 1894-1895. Travel- 
ing Auditor, Department of State Auditor. Served as private, 
Sergeant, Captain and Major in National Guard, 1907-1919. B. P. 
0. E. Elected State Auditor November 2, 1920. Baptist. Address: 
Raleigh, N. C. 



EUGENE CLYDE BROOKS. 

Eugene Clyde Brooks, Democrat, of Durham County, was born in 
Greene County, December 3, 1871. He is a son of Edward J. and 
Martha Eleanor (Broks) Brooks. He was prepared for college at 
Bethel Academy in Lenoir County in 1881-1890, and was graduated 
at Trinity College in 1894. In 1913-1914 he was a student at Teach- 
ers' College, Columbia University. Dr. Brooks has been a teacher 
all his life. He was principal of the Kinston graded schools in 
1900; Superintendent of the Monroe graded schools in 1900-1903; 
Rural School Supervisor and Secretary to the Educational Cam- 
paign Committee (in North Carolina State Department of Educa- 
tion), 1903-1904; Superintendent of the Goldsboro graded schools, 
1904-1907; and Professor of Education in Trinity College, 1907-1919. 
In 1906 he became editor of "North Carolina Education." He was 
president of the North Carolina Teachers' Assembly in 1913-1914; 
and a member of the State Educational Commission, 1917-1918. In 
1918 he was appointed State Director of the National Educational 
Association. Davidson College conferred upon him the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Literature in 1918, and in 1920 Trinity College 
conferred upon him the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws. Mr. 
Brooks has always taken an active interest in civic matters. In 
1913 he was a member of the Board of Aldermen of the city of 
Durham; vice-president of the Durham Chamber of Commerce in 
1918; vice-president of the Durham Building and Loan Association, 
1916-1918; member of the Executive Committee of the Durham 
Public Library. 1914-1918; and a member of the Board of Education 
of the Durham City Schools, 1914-1919. Mr. Brooks is the author 
of "Story of Cotton," "Story of Corn," "Life of Braxton Craven," 
"Woodrow Wilson as President," "Agriculture and Rural Life 
Day," and "Education for Democracy," and co-author of North 
Carolina Geography," "Agricultural Arithmetic," and "History in 
the Elementary Schools," and editor of "North Carolina Poems." 



Executive Officials 4b 9 

He was a member of the Durham Rotary Club and is a member of 
Phi Beta Kappa. Methodist. Married Miss Ida Myrtle Sapp.. Ad- 
dress: Raleigh, N. C. 



JAMES SMITH MANNING. 

ATTORNEY-GENERAL. 

James Smith Manning, Democrat, of Durham County, was born 
June 1, 1859. Son of John and Louisa Jones (Hall) Manning. 
Educated at Pittsboro Female Academy (Dr. Sutton) and A. H. 
Merritt's school; University of North Carolina, A. B., 1879; Univer- 
sity of North Carolina Law Sehool. Lawyer. Nominated for 
Superior Court Judge, 1898. Attorney for city of Durham, 1886- 
1887. Representative from Durham County in General Assembly 
of 1907. State Senator from Nineteenth District in 1909. Associate 
Justice of the Supreme Court, 1909-1910. In 1913 moved to Raleigh 
and joined a partnership with former Governor W. W. Kitchin 
under the firm name of Manning and Kitchin. Elected Attorney- 
General in 1916. Trustee of University of North Carolina. Episco- 
palian. Married, December 12, 1888, Miss Julia Tate Cain. Ad- 
dress: Raleigh, N. C. 



WILLIAM ALEXANDER GRAHAM. 

COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. 

William A. Graham, Democrat, of Lincoln County, was born 
December 26, 1839, at Hillsboro, N. C. Son of William A. and 
Susan (Washington) Graham. Educated at private schools, 1847- 
1848; Caldwell Institute (Hillsboro, N. C.) ; Union Academy (Wash- 
ington, D. C); University of North Carolina, 1856-1859; Princeton 
College, A. B. I860. Farmer. President North Carolina Farmers' 
Alliance, three terms; State Senator, 1874-1875 and 1878-1879; 
Representative 1905. Member North Carolina Board of Agriculture, 
1899-1908. Elected Commisioner of Agriculture in 1908, and re- 
elected in 1912, and 1916, and 1920. Captain Co. K. 2nd N. C. 
Cavalry, C. S. A. Major and Assistant Adjutant General of 
North Carolina State Troops. Baptist. Moderator of South 
Fork Association. Thirty years Chairman of Executive Com- 
mittee. President Baptist State Convention. Author: Genera] 
Joseph Graham and His Revolutionary Papers; History of South 



440 Biographical Sketch ks 

Fork Association; Life and Services of General William L. David- 
son; Battle of Ramsaur's Mill; History of Second Regiment North 
Carolina Cavalry, and North Carolina Adjutant General's Depart- 
ment (North Carolina Regiments) 1861-1865. Walter Clark, Editor. 
Married Mi6s Julia Lane, June 9, 1864. Eleven children. Ad- 
dress: Raleigh, N. C. 



MITCHELL LEE SHIPMAN. 

COMMISSIONER OF LABOR AND PRINTING. 

M. L. Shipman, Democrat, of Henderson County, was born at 
Bowman's Bluff, Henderson County, December 31, 1866. Son of 
F. M. and Martha A. (Dawson) Shipman. Educated in public 
schools and private schools. Editor. Teacher. Superintendent 
Public Instruction Transylvania County, 1892-1895. Twice First 
Vice-President, eight times Historian, and once President North 
Carolina Press Association. Member National Editorial Association. 
Chairman Henderson County Democratic Executive Committee, 
1898-1906; Chairman Senatorial and Congressional District Com- 
mittees; member State Democratic Executive Committee; Calendar 
Clerk, State Senate, 1899-1905; Assistant Commissioner of Labor 
and Printing, 1905-1908. Elected Commissioner Labor and Print- 
ing, 1908; re-elected 1912-1916 and 1920. Term expires 1924. Federal 
Director N. C. Employment Service. First Vice-President Inter- 
national Association of Labor Commissioners and Chairman of the 
Executive Committee. Fraternal orders: Odd Fellows (Past Grand 
Master, now Grand Treasurer), Knights of Pythias (Past Chancel- 
lor), Royal Arcanum, Jr. O. U. A. M. Sec-Treas. North Carolina 
Orphan Association and Chairman Publicity Committee. Baptist; 
Clerk of Carolina Association, 1902. Married Miss Lula Osborne, of 
Brevard, July 12, 1896. Four children. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



STACEY W. WADE. 

INSURANCE COMMISSIONER. 

Stacey W. Wade, Democrat, was born at Morehead City, N. C, 
August 18, 1875. Son of David B. and Sarah (Royal) Wade. At- 
tended public and private schools of home town. Insurance Com- 
missioner. Assistant Principal Clerk of the State Senate, 1903, 



Executive Officials 441 

5, 7, 8, and 9; Vice-President Carteret lie Company, 1904-1906; 
City Clerk, 1906-1908; Director of the Bank of Carteret, 1907-1909*; 
Auditor and Member Finance Committee Atlantic and North Caro- 
lina Railroad' Company, 1911-1921; Chief Deputy Insurance Commis- 
sioner, 1909-1921. Insurance Commissioner, ex officio Fire Marshall 
Janaury 1, 1921-1925. Mason, Knights Templar, Shrine. Methodist. 
Married Miss Clyde Mann, December, 1905. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



ALSTON DAVIDSON WATTS. 1 

COMMISSIONER OF REVENUE. 

A. D. Watts, Democrat, of Iredell County, was born in Shiloh 
township, that county, where he still retains his legal residence, 
March 12th, 1866. Son of Thomas A. and Margaret (Morrison) 
Watts. Educated in the free schools, academies, Bingham School, 
and for a short time at Davidson College. Served as deputy register 
of deeds and deputy clerk, and edited a newspaper in his native 
county. Was personal clerk to Senator Simmons and clerk to the 
Committees of the U. S. Senate of which he was chairman, with two 
or three short interruptions, from December, 1901 to July, 1913, 
when he resigned, being at that time clerk to the Committee on 
Finance. Was collector of internal revenue for the fifth district 
July, 1913, to August, 1919; was supervisor of internal revenue for 
the State from August to December, 1919, when he resigned to go 
into the income tax business in which he engaged until appointed 
to his present position. Was a member of the House of Representa- 
tives in 1901 and 1903 and of the State Senate in 1913, resigning in 
July of that year to become collector of internal revenue. Has been 
chairman of his precinct and a member of his county Democratic 
Committee since he became a voter in 1888, and a member of the State 
Committee since his first election in 1896. Was an alternate to the 
Democratic National Convention in Chicago in 1892 and a delegate to 
the one at Kansas City in 1900. Is a Presbyterian, Mason, and Jr. 
O. U. A. M. Was appointed Commissioner of Revenue by Governor 
Morrison April 2nd, 1921, and assumed office May 1st 1921. 



1 Colonel Watts resigned Jan. 29, 1923. lie was succeeded by Hon. R. A. 
Dough ton. — Editor. 



JUSTICES OF THE SUPREME COURT. 



WALTER CLARK. 

CHIEF JUSTICE. 

Walter Clark, Democrat, of Wake County, was born in Halifax 
County, N. C, August 19, 1846. Son of David and Anna M. (Thorne) 
Clark. Graduated from University of North Carolina 1864. Lieu- 
tenant Colonel, C. S. A. Admitted to the bar 1868. Judge of Supe- 
rior Court, 1885-1889. Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, 1889- 
1902. Chief Justice since January 1, 1903. Frequent contributor to 
periodical literature. Author: Clark's Annotated Code of Civil Pro- 
cedure. Translator from the French: Constant's Memoirs of Na- 
poleon (3 vols.). Editor: The State Records of North Carolina (16 
vols.); The North Carolina Regiments, 1861-1865 (5 vols.); Reprints 
of North Carolina Supreme Court Reports, with annotations (164 
vols.). President North Carolina Literary and Historical Associa 
tion, 1900-1901. LL.D. (University of N. C). Methodist. Married. 
Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



PLATT DICKINSON WALKER. 

ASSOCIATE JUSTICE. 

Piatt D. Walker, Democrat, of Mecklenburg County, was born in 
Wilmington, N. C. Son of Thomas D. and Mary Vance (Dickinson) 
Walker. Educated at George W. Jewett's School, Wilmington, and 
James H. Horner's School, Oxford, N. C; University of North Caro- 
lina. Finished collegiate course at University of Virginia and 
studied law there under Prof. John B. Minor and Prof. Southall, 
and received LL.B. Diploma. Obtained his license to practice law 
from Supreme Court; admitted to Bar of North Carolina and settled 
at Rockingham, and practiced law with the late Hon. Walter L. 
Steele, afterwards member of Congress. Representative from Rich- 
mond County in General Assembly of North Carolina. Removed to 
Charlotte and entered into partnership with the late Hon. Clement 

[442] 



Justices of the Supreme Court 443 

Dowd (afterwards member of Congress) for the practice of law, and 
later with Hon. Armistead Burwell, afterwards Justice of the 
Supreme Court, and E. T. Cansler, Esq. Has been Associate Justice 
of the Supreme Court of North Carolina since January, 1903. First 
President of the North Carolina Bar Association, 1899. President 
of the State Literary Historical Association, 1909-1910. Trustee of 
the University of North Carolina, 1901-1905. LL.D. (Davidson Col- 
lege, 1903, and University of North Carolina 1908). Episcopalian. 
Married Miss Nettie Settle Covington, June 5, 1878, at Reidsville, 
N. C; Miss Alma Locke Mordecai, June 8, 1910. Residence: Char- 
lotte, N. C. Office: Raleigh, N. C. 



WILLIAM ALEXANDER HOKE. 

ASSOCIATE JUSTICE. 

William A. Hoke, Democrat, of Lincoln County, was born at Lin- 
colnton, N. C, October 25, 1851. Son of Col. John Franklin and 
Catherine Wilson (Alexander) Hoke. Educated at private schools. 
Studied law under Chief Justice Richmond Pearson at Richmond 
Hill, N. C. Admitted to Bar 1872. Practiced law at Shelby and 
Lincolnton, N. C, until 1891. Representative in Legislature of North 
Carolina in 1889. Judge of the Superior Court, 1891-1904. Elected 
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina, 1904; re- 
elected, 1912 and again in 1920. Member Society of the Cincinnati. 
LL.D. (University of N. C). Episcopalian. At Lincolnton, Decem- 
ber, 16, 1897, married to Miss Mary McBee. Residence: Lincolnton, 
N. C. Office: Raleigh, N. C. 



WALTER PARKER STACY. 

ASSOCIATE JUSTICE. 

Walter Parker Stacy, Democrat, was born in Ansonville. Decem- 
ber, 1884. Son of Rev. L. E. and Rosa (Johnson) Stacy. Attended 
Weaverville College, 1895-1898; Morven High School, 1899-1902; 
University of North Carolina, degree of A. B., 190S: University 
Law School, 1908-1909. Lawyer. Member of North Carolina Bar 
Association. Represented New Hanover County in General As- 
sembly of 1915. Judge Superior Court, Eighth Judicial District. 



444 Biographical Sketches 

1916-1920. Elected Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of 
North Carolina, 1920. Lecturer University Summer Law School, 
1922. Methodist. Residence: Wilmington, N. C. Office: Raleigh, 
N. C. 



W. J. ADAMS 

ASSOCIATE JUSTICE 

W. J. Adams, Democrat, of Moore County. Graduate of University 
of North Carolina. Member House of Representatives, North Caro- 
lina, 1893. State Senator 1895. Appointed Judge Superior Court in 
December, 1908, to fill unexpired term of Judge Neal, who had 
resigned. Elected for full terni in 1910 and again in 1918. Ap- 
pointed Associate Justice Supreme Court by Governor Morrison in 
September, 1921, to fill unexpired term of Judge Allen, deceased. 
Elected to same office in 1922. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



MEMBERS OF CONGRESS. 



FURNIFOLD McLENDEL SIMMONS. 

F. M. Simmons, Democrat, of New Bern, Craven County, was born 
January 20, 1854, in the County of Jones, N. C. Educated at Wake 
Forest College and at Trinity College, graduating at Trinity Col- 
lege with the degree of A.B., in June, 1873; was admitted to the 
Bar in 1875, and practiced the profession of law until his election 
to the United States Senate in 1901. In 1886 was elected a member 
of the Fiftieth Congress from the Second Congressional District 
of North Carolina. In 1893 was appointed Collector of Internal 
Revenue for the Fourth (the Eastern) Collection District of North 
Carolina, and served in that office during the term of Mr. Cleveland. 
In the campaigns of 1892, 1898, 1900, 1902, 1904, and 1906, was 
Chairman of the Democratic Executive Committee of the State. 
LL.D. of Trinity College, N. C, 1901; University of North Caro- 
lina, 1915. He was elected to the United States Senate to succeed 
Marion Butler, Populist, for the term beginning March 4, 1901, 
and re-elected in 1907, and again in 1913, having been chosen in 
the Democratic primary November 5, 1912, over two opponents, 
Governor W. W. Kitchin and Chief Justice Walter Clark. Chairman 
of Finance Committee in the Sixty-third, Sixty-fourth and Sixty- 
fifth Congresses during Democratic control of the United States Senate. 
One of the authors of the Underwood-Simmons Tariff Cct of 1913- 

1921, and of the Revenue Measures which provided for the financing 
of the World War on the part of America. In 1918 re-elected to the 
Senate for term March 4, 1919-March 3, 1925. Led the Democrats of 
the Senate in their great fights against the Republican Revenue 
Bills and the Fordney-McCumber Tariff Bill in 1921 and 1922. 
Member of Democratic National Senatorial Committee in campaign of 

1922, and was offered its chairmanship but declined it. Is now 
Chairman of the Democratic Patronage and the Library Committees 
of tho Senate, ranking Democratic (minority) member of the Com- 

I 445 1 



446 Biographical Sketches 

mittee on Finance, member of the Steering Committee, the Committee 
on Commerce, and of other committees of the Senate. Was honored 
with the vote of North Carolina for the Presidency of the United 
States in the Democratic National Convention of 1920. 



LEE SLATER OVERMAN 

Lee Slater Overman, Democrat, of Salisbury, was born Jan- 
uary 3, 1854, in Salisbury, Rowan County; graduated at Trinity 
College, North Carolina, with the degree of A. B., June, 1874; the 
degree of M. A. was conferred upon him two years later; since that 
time the degree of LL.D.; also degree of LL.D. conferred by the 
University of North Carolina in 1917; also LL.D. conferred by David- 
son College, North Carolina, in 1922; taught school two years; was 
private secretary to Gov. Z. B. Vance in 1877-78, private secretary to 
Gov. Thomas J. Jarvis in 1879; began the practice of law in his 
native town in 1880; was five times a member of the legislature, 
sessions of 1883, 1885, 1887, 1893, and 1899; was the unanimous choice 
of his party and elected speaker of the house of representatives, 
session of 1893; was president of the North Carolina Railroad Co. in 
1894; was the choice of the Democratic caucus for United States 
Senator in 1895, and defeated in open session by Hon. Jeter C. Prit- 
chard, through a combination of Republicans and Populists; was 
president of the Democratic State convention ir 1900 and 1911; for 
10 years a member of the board of trustees of the State University; 
is also trustee of Trinity College; was chosen presidential elector for 
the State at large in 1900; married Mary P., the eldest daughter ot 
United States Senator (afterwards Chief Justice) A. S. Merrimon, 
October 31, 1878; was elected to the United States Senate to succeed 
Hon. Jeter C. Pritchard, Republican, for the term beginning March 4, 
1903, and re-elected in 1909; was elected on November 3, 1914, for a 
third term, being the first Senator elected to. the United States 
Senate by direct vote of the people of his State. Elected on the 2d 
day of November, 1920, for the fourth term by a majority of 81,161. 



Members of Congress i i~, 



HALLETT S. WARD. 



(First District. — Counties: Currituck, Camden, Dare, Pasquotank, 
Perquimans, Chowan, Gates, Hertford, Washington. Tyrrell. .Mar- 
tin, Beaufort, Hyde, Pitt. Population, 206,137.) 

Hallett S. Ward, Democrat, of Beaufort County, was born in Gates 
County August 31st, 1870. Attended only the public schools of the 
county and a short period at the Corao Academy in Hertford County 
under the great teacher of that day, Capt. Julian H. Picot. Studied 
law at the University in the summer of 1893. Located in Plymouth, 
N. C. Married Aileen Latham. Elected to State Senates of 1899 
and 1901. Elected Solicitor of the First Judicial District in 1904; 
served six years. Elected to Sixty-seventh Congress in 1920. 



CLAUDE KITCHIN. 

(Second District. — Counties: Bertie, Edgecombe, Greene, Halifax, 
Lenoir, Northampton, Warren and Wilson. Population 233,111). 

CLAUDE KITCHIN, Democrat, of Scotland Neck, was born in 
Halifax County, N. C, near] Scotland Neck, March, 24, 1869; 
graduated from Wake Forest College June, 1888, and was married to 
Miss Kate Mills November 13 of the same year; was admitted to the 
bar September, 1890, and has since been engaged in the practice of 
the law at Scotland Neck; never held public office until elected to the 
Fifty-seventh Congress; elected to the Fifty-eighth, Fifty-ninth, 
Sixtieth, Sixty-first, Sixty-second, Sixty-third, Sixty-fourth, Sixty- 
fifth, and Sixty-sixth Congresses and re-elected to the Sixty-seventh 
Congress. Majority leader in the Sixty-fourth and Sixty-fifth Con- 
gresses and Minority Leader in Sixty-seventh Congress. 



CHARLES LABAN ABERNETHV. 

(Third District. — Counties: Carteret, Craven, Duplin, Jones, Ons- 
low, Pamlico, Pender, Sampson and Wayne. Population. 202,760). 

Charles Laban Abernethy, Democrat, from the Third District, 
was born at Rutherford College, N. C, March 18. 1ST:'. He is the 



448 Biographical Sketches 

son of Rev. John Turner Abernethy and Martha Anna Scott Aber- 
nethy. He was educated at Mount Olive preparatory schools, Ruther- 
ford College, and the Law School of the University of North Caro- 
lina. Lawyer. Member of the Kiwanis Club of New Bern and New 
Bern Chamber of Commerce. County Attorney of Carteret County 
1896; Presidential Elector 1900 and Presidential Elector 1904, Solicitor 
3rd and 5th Judicial Districts for about 12 years. Odd Fellow. K. 
of P. B. P. 0. E. Red Men. J. 0. U. A. M. Mason. Methodist. Married 
Miss Minne May, in 1895. Address: New Bern, N. C. 



EDWARD WILLIAM POU. 

(Fourth District.— Counties: Chatham, Franklin, Johnston, Nash, 
Vance, and Wake. Population, 238,594.) 

Edward William Pou, Democrat, of Johnston County, was born at 
Tuskegee, Ala., September 9, 1863. Presidental Elector in 1888. 
Elected Solicitor of the Fourth Judicial District of North Carolina 
in 1890, 1894. and 1898. Elected to the Fifty-seventh, Fifty-eighth, 
Fifty-ninth, Sixtieth, Sixty-first, Sixty-second, Sixty-third, Sixty- 
fourth, Sixty-fifth, Sixty-sixth, and Sixty-seventh Congresses. Ad- 
dress: Smithfield, N. C. 



CHARLES MANLY STEDMAN. 

(Fifth District.— Counties: Alamance, Caswell, Durham, Forsyth, 
Granville, Guilford, Orange, Person, Rockingham, Stokes, Surry. 
Population, 408-138.) 

Charles Manly Stedman, Democrat, of Greensboro, was born Jan- 
uary 29, 1841, in Pittsboro, Chatham County; moved with his 
father's family to Fayetteville when he was 12 years of age. Pre- 
pared for college at the Pittsboro Academy, and at the Donaldson 
Academy in Fayetteville. Graduated from the University of North 
Carolina in 1861. In response to the call for volunteers, he left 
the University before the commencement exercises and volunteered 
as a private in the Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry Com- 
pany, which was in the first North Carolina (or Bethel) Regiment. 
Upon the disbanding of this regiment he joined a company from 



Members of Congkess 

Chatham County; was lieutenant, then captain, and afterwards its 
major. This company belonged to the Forty-fourth North Carolina 
Regiment. He served with Lee's Army during the entire war; was 
three times wounded, and surrendered at Appomattox. He is one 
of the twelve sokliers who were engaged in the battle at Bethel 
and who surrendered with Lee at Appomattox. At the close of the 
Civil War he returned to Chatham County, where he taught school 
for a year; while there he studied law under Hon. John Manning 
and procured his license to practice. Married Miss Catherine de 
Rosser Wright, January 8, 1866. In 1867 he moved to Wilmington, 
where he practiced law for many years; he was a member of the 
firm of Wright & Stedman. Delegate to the Democratic National 
Convention, 1880. Elected Lieutenant Governor, 1884. In 1898 he 
moved to Greensboro and formed a copartnership with A. Wayland 
Cooke, under the firm name of Stedman & Cooke. Since residing 
in Greensboro he has served as President of the North Carolina 
Bar Association. In 1909 he was appointed by Governor Kitchin 
a director of the North Carolina Railroad Company, representing 
the State's interest, and was afterwards elected its president. For 
many years he was trustee of the University of North Carolina. He 
is a director of the Guilford Battle Ground Company; was elected 
to the Sixty-sscond, Sixty-third, Sixty-fourth, Sixty-fifth, Sixty-sixth 
Sixty-seventh and Sixty-eighth Congresses. 



HOMER LeGRAND LYON. 

(Sixth District. — Counties: Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus, Cum- 
berland, Harnett, New Hanover and Robeson. Population, 223,434.) 

Homer LeGrand Lyon, Democrat, of Whiteville, N. C, was born 
March 1st, 1879, in Elizabethtown, N. C; was educated at Davis 
Military School and the University of North Carolina; was lie. used 
to practice law in September, 1900. Had been Solicitor of the Sth 
Judicial District for seven years preceding his election to Congress. 
Married Miss Kate M. Burkhead in 1904. 



29 



450 Biographical Sketches 

WILLIAM C. HAMMER. 

(Seventh District.— Counties: Anson, Davidson, Davie, Hoke, Lee, 
Montgomery, Moore, Randolph, Richmond, Scotland, Union, Wilkes, 
and Yadkin. Population, 295,917.) 

William C. Hammer, Democrat, was born in Randolph County, 
March 24, 1864. Son of William C. and Hannah Jane (Burrows) 
Hammer. Educated in the public schools, Yadkin College, Western 
Maryland College, University of North Carolina Law School. 
Lawyer. Member American Bar Association; North Carolina Bar 
Association; National Editorial Association; North Carolina Press 
Association. Mayor of Asheboro; Town Commissioner; School 
Commissioner; County Superintendent of Schools; Solicitor 10th 
and 15th Judicial Districts of North Carolina; United States Attor- 
ney Western District of North Carolina; Delegate from Fourth 
North Carolina District Democratic National Convention, 1896, at 
Chicago, Delegate at large to Democratic National Convention at Bal- 
timore, 1912; President North Carolina Press Association, 1914-1915. 
Mason. Odd Fellow, Jr. 0. U. A. M., Woodman of the World. Meth- 
odist. Married Miss Minnie Lee Hancock, 1893. Address: Ashe- 
boro, N. C. 



ROBERT LEE DOUGHTON. 1 

(Eighth District. — Counties: Alexander, Alleghany, Ashe, Cabar- 
rus, Caldwell, Iredell, Rowan, Stanly, and Watagua. Population 
217,254.) 

Robert L. Doughton, Democrat, Laurel Springs, N. C, was born 
at Laurel Springs, N. C, November 7, 1863; was educated in the 
public schools and at Laurel Springs and Sparta High Schools; is 
a farmer and stock raiser; was appointed a member of the Board 
of Agriculture in 1903; elected to the State Senate from the Thirty- 
fifth District of North Carolina in 1908; served as a director of the 
State Prison from 1909 to 1911; elected to the Sixty-second, Sixty- 
third, Sixty-fourth, Sixty-fifth, Sixty-sixth, Sixty-seventh and Sixty- 
eighth Congresses. 



^esisjned Jan. 29, 1923 to become Commissioner of Revenue. — Editor. 



Members of Congress 451 

ALBERT LEE BULWINKLE. 

(Ninth District. — Counties: Mecklenburg, Gaston, Cleveland, Lin- 
coln, Catawba, Burke, Madison, Mitchell, Yancey and Avery. Popu- 
lation, 297,996.) 

A. L. Bulwinkle, Democrat, Gastonia, Gaston County, born April 
21, 1883; attended school in Dallas, N. C; studied law at the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina. Lawyer; member of the firm of Bul- 
winkle & Cherry. Prosecuting Attorney in the Municipal Court of 
the City of Gastonia, 1913-1916; nominated for the State Senate by 
the Democratic Primary of 1916, but withdrew on account of being 
in the military service on the Mexican Border; Captain, 1st In- 
fantry, N. C. N. G., 1909-1917; Major, commanding 2nd Battalion, 
113 F. A., 55th F. A. Brigade, 30th Div., 1917-1919. Married Miss 
Bessie Lewis, 1911; two children; was elected to the Sixty-seventh 
Congress, and re-elected to the 68th Congress. 



ZEBULON WEAVER. 

(Tenth District. — Counties: Cherokee, Buncombe, Clay, Graham, 
Haywood, Henderson, Jackson, McDowell, Macon, Polk, Rutherford, 
Swain, Transylvania. Population, 231,483.) 

Zebulon Weaver, Democrat, of Buncombe County, was born in 
Weaverville, N. C, May 12, 1872. He is the son of W. E. and Han- 
nah E. (Baird) Weaver. A. B. of Weaverville College, 1889. Studied 
law at the University of North Carolina, 1894. Lawyer. Represented 
Buncombe County in the General Assembly of North Carolina in 
1907 and 1909. State Senator, 1913 and 1915. After a close contest 
with James J. Britt, Republican, in 1916 was declared elected Repre- 
sentative in the Sixty-fifth Congress. Was elected to Sixty-sixth, 
Sixty-seventh and Sixty-eighth Congresses. Methodist. Married 
Miss Anna Hyman of New Bern, N. C. Has five children. Address: 
Asheville, N. C. 



MEMBERS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY. 



OFFICERS OF THE SENATE. 



WILLIAM BRYANT COOPER. 

PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE. 

William Bryant Cooper, New Hanover County, Democrat, Lieu- 
tenant Governor, was born at Cool Springs, S. C, Jan. 22, 1867. 
Son of Noah Bryant and Lucinda Jennette Cooper. Attended 
public schools of Mullins, S. C. Banker. Member of the Chamber 
of Commerce of Wilmington; president in 1900; member of Board 
of Trade in 1910; Mason; president of Masonic Temple Corpora- 
tion. Methodist; steward; Sunday school Superintendent, 1905- 
1910. Married Miss Ala Francis Gore, 1893. Address: Wilmington, 
N. C. 



FRANK DOBBIN HACKETT. 

Frank D. Hackett, Democrat, Principal Clerk of the Senate, was 
born at Maizefield, Wilkes County, June 14, 1857. Son of Charles 
Carroll and Jane Cuthbert (Sturgis) Hackett. Attended Jonesville 
Academy, 1866-1870; Swansboro Academy, 1870; private tuition, 
1870; H. Bingham's Law School, Stattsville, N. C, 1888-1889; 
Licensed in February, 1890. Lawyer. Member North Carolina 
Bar Association; Wilkes County Bar Association; President Wilkes 
County Bar Association, 1914-1915; Secretary Treasurer North 
Wilkesboro Building and Loan Association, 1908-1915. Special Dep- 
utp Collector Internal Revenue, 1895-1896. Assistant Clerk North 
Carolina House of Representatives, 1899-1901. State Bank Examiner, 
1902 Mayor of North-Wikesboro, 1900-1904 Supervisor for Wilkes 
County Revaluation Work. 1919-1920. Elected Principal Clerk of 
Senate Special Session. 1920. I. O. O. F.; Grand Warden, Grand 

[452] 



State Senators 453 

Lodge, 1908-1919; Deputy Grand Master, 1909-1910; Grand Master, 
1910 and 1911; Grand Representative from North Carolina to 
Sovereign Grand Lodge World, 1912-1913. Methodist; Sunday school 
superintendent; chairman Board of Stewards for about ten years. 
Married, April, 1883, to Miss Alice Phillips. Address: North 
Wilkesboro, N. C. 



SENATORS (STATE) 

FRANK ARMFIELD. 

{Twentieth District. — Counties: Cabarrus and Mecklenburg. Two 
Senators.) 

Frank Armfield, Democrat, Senator from the twentieth district, 
was born at Monroe, N. C, May 24, 1870. He is the son of E. A. 
md Rachel (Phifer) Armfield. He received his preparatory education 
at Monroe High School, National School of Elocution and Oratory of 
Philadelphia, 1890. Attended Trinity College and Yale University; 
also the Law School of the University of North Carolina. Lawyer. 
Member N. C. Bar Association, Merchants and Manufacturers Club, 
National Pecan Growers. Member of N. C. State Guard for about 
five years. B. P. O. E. Jr. O. U. A. M. Mayor of Monroe for two 
years. Married Miss Lucille Armfield in 1905. Address: Concord, 
N. C. 



JOHN ROBERT BAGGETT. 

(Ticelfth District. — Counties: Harnett, Hoke, Moore and Ran- 
dolph. Two Senators.) 

John Robert Baggett, Democrat, Senator from the twelfth dis- 
trict, was born in Sampson County, October 1871. Son of Silas E., 
and Winnefred (Wilson) Baggett. Attended Salem High School and 
the Law School of the University of North Carolina. Lawyer. 
Member of the N. C. Bar Association. State Senator 1911; Mayor 
of Lillington 1912-1918; Member of Board of Directors of Caswell 
Training School 1911-1917; Member of Central Hospital Board from 
1917-1921; Member of Lillington High School Board 1913 to date. 
Mason. J. O. U. A. M. Baptist; Superintendent of Sunday 
School and Teacher. Married, in 1901, to Miss Allene Keeter. Ad- 
dress: Lillington, N. C. 



454 Biographical Sketches 

EMMETT HARGROVE BELLAMY. 

(Ninth District. — Counties: Duplin, New Hanover, Pender, and 
Sampson. Two Senators). 

Emmett Hargrove Bellamy, Democrat, Senator from Ninth Dis- 
trict, was born in Wilmington, N. C, September 12, 1891. Son 
of John D. and Emma (Hargrove) Bellamy. Attended Horner's 
Military School, 1904-1907; A.B., University of North Carolina, 
1912; LL.B., Columbia University Law School, 1915. Lawyer. Mem- 
ber North Carolina Bar Association. Served as First Lieutenant 
of Field Artillery in United States Army, 1917-1919. Author Bellamy 
Law requiring physical examination as prerequisite to matrimony. 
Sigma Alpha Epsilon. Odd Fellow; Noble Grand, 1919-1921. 
Episcopalian. Address: Wilmington, N. C. 



C. C. BENNETT. 

(Eighteenth District. — Counties: Davidson, Montgomery, Rich- 
mond, and Scotland. Two Senators.) 

C. C. Bennett, Democrat, Senator from Eighteenth Senatorial Dis- 
trict. Address: Samarcand, N. C. 



JOHN M. BOYETTE. 

(Nineteenth. — Counties: Anson, Stanly and Union. Two Sena- 
tors. ) 

John M. Boyette, Democrat, Senator from the nineteenth district, 
was born in Anson County, April 15, 1873. Son of John M. and 
Catherine Jane Gray Boyette. Education in the public schools of the 
locality. Real Estate. Member of the Lion's Club. Commissioner 
of Albemarle 1901-1903; Register of Deeds Stanly County 1906, 1908, 
1910, 1920. Mason. J. O. U. A. M., K. of P., having held offices in 
each of these orders. Methodist, steward from 1906 to date. Married 
Miss Anna Blalock 1900; second marriage Miss Minnie Blalock 
1912. Address: Albemarle, N. C. 



State Senatobs 455 

JOSEPH ADDISON BROWN. 

{Tenth District. — Counties: Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus and 

Cumberland. Two Senators). 

Joseph Addison Brown, Democrat, Senator from the Tenth Sena- 
torial District, was born at Rockingham, N. C, in 1861. Attended 
commercial school one year. Merchant. Farmer. State Senator in 
1893, 1899, 1901, 1903, 1911. Member State's Prison Board in 1902. 
Mason. Odd Fellow. K. of P. Presbyterian. Married, in 1897, to 
Miss Minnie Mclver. Address: Chadbourn, N. C. 



JUNIUS C. BROWN 

{Seventeenth District — Counties: Guilford and Rockingham, Two 
Senators.) 

Junius C. Brown, Democrat, Senator from the Seventeenth Dis- 
trict, was born in Apex, Dec. 2, 1886. Son of James G. and Cornelia 
(Hunter) Brown. Received his preparatory education at Buie's 
Creek Academy and Cary High School. Graduated from Wake 
Forest College in 1913; Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Laws. 
Took special course at the University of Grenoble, France. Lawyer. 
Member of N. C. Bar Association. Attorney for town of Madison 
1915 to date. Served with A. E. F. in the 321st Infantry, 81st 
Division. J. O. U. A. M.; A. F. and A. M. Baptist. Married Miss 
Eliza Ray Pratt, 1921. Address: Madison, N. C. 



ALLEN THURMAN CASTELLOE 

{Third District — Counties: Northampton and Bertie. One Sen- 
ator.) 

Allen Thurman Castelloe, Democrat, Senator from the Third 
District, was born in Hertford County, August 1, 1892. Son of 
William H. Castelloe and Celia Mitchell. Attended Aulander High 
School, 1908-1912, and University of North Carolina. 1916. A. B. 
Also attended Law School of Wake Forest College, 1917, and Har- 
vard University 1919-1922. Lawyer. President, Farmers Bank Inf.. 
Aulander since 1921; President Aulander Brick Company since 



456 Biographical Sketches 

1918; Director of Bank of Aulander since 1919. Mayor of Aulander, 
1917. Member of Board of Trustees Aulander Schools since 1917; 
Mason Baptist. Lecturer to Bible Class. Married Miss Sallie 
Hollowell in 1916. Address: Aulander, N. C. 



THOMAS WILLIAM COSTEN 

{First District— Counties: Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Gates, 
Hertford, Pasquotank and Perquimans. Two Senators.) 

Thomas William Costen, Democrat, Senator from the First Dis- 
trict, was born at Sunbury, Gates County, June 20, 1873. Son of 
Thomas William and Lucy Headen (Brown) Costen. Attended Sun- 
bury Academy 1883-1888, Guilford College 1889-1892, and the Law 
School of the University of North Carolina in 1896. Admitted to 
the Bar in 1896. Lawyer. Superintendent of Schools, Gates County, 
1900-1916; Chairman of Board of Education, 1918-1922. Methodist; 
Member Board of Stewards. Married Miss Nannie M. Seawell in 
1896. Chairman of Gates County Chapter Red Cross during War; 
also member of Local Advisory Board. Address: Gatesville, N. C. 



JAMES LESTER DELANEY 

{Twentieth District. — Counties: Cabarrus and Mecklenburg. Two 
Senators.) 

J. L. DeLaney, Democrat, Senator from the Twentieth Senatorial 
District, was born in Union County. Son of James Stanhope and 
Margaret E. (Matthews) DeLaney. ^ Educated at Weddington Acad- 
emy, 1896-1900. University of North Carolina, 1900-1902. Univer- 
sity of North Carolina Law School, 1904. Lawyer. Prosecuting 
attorney for city of Charlotte, 1911-1913. State Senator, 1919, 1921. 
Mason. Odd Fellow. J. O. U. A. M. Presbyterian. Married Miss 
Cora Matthews, 1905. Address: Charlotte, N. C. 



State Senators 4."i7 

PLATO DURHAM EBBS 
(Thirty -fir st District. — County: Buncombe. One Senator.) 
Plato Durham Ebbs, Democrat, Senator from the Thirty-first 
District, was born in Madison County. Son of Jasper and Tolitha 
(Flemmons) E'bbs. Wholesale Grocer. Director, Asheville Chamber 
of Commerce and Merchants Association. Representative from 
Madison County 1915-1917. United Commercial Travelers. B. P. 
0. E. Married Miss Katie Sprinkle, December 1903. Address: 
Asheville, N. C. 



SIMON JUSTUS EVERETT 

(Fifth District.— County: Pitt. One Senator.) 

Simon Justus Everett, Democrat, Senator from the Fifth Sena- 
torial District, was born in Martin County in 1877. Son of Justus 
and Elizabeth (Best) Everett. Attended Hamilton (Martin County) 
Preparatory schools, Vine Hill Male Academy at Scotland Neck; 
Ph.B. of the University of North Carolina; Law Schools of Uni- 
versity of North Carolina and Columbia University. Lawyer. Mem- 
ber of American Bar Association. Director of three small banks 
and a small cotton mill. County Attorney for Pitt County, four 
years. Federal Food Administrator for Pitt County and Chair- 
man, Fair Price Committee during the World War. Chairman, 
Democratic Executive Committee for Pitt County two years. Mason. 
Principal of High School of Monroe one year, and of Salisbury one 
year. Member of Immanuel Missionary Baptist Church. Teacher 
of Philathea Class. Married Miss Margaret Whitmore Shields in 
1907. Address: Greenville, N. C. 



DENISON FOY GILES 

(Twenty-seventh District. — Counties: Cleveland, Henderson, Mc- 
Dowell, Polk and Rutherford. Two Senators.) 

D. F. Giles, Democrat, Senator from the twenty-seventh sena- 
torial district, was born in McDowell County, July 26, 1880. Son 
of M. D. and Julia (Gibbs) Giles. Attended Mount Fleasanl I 
legiate Institute, Trinity College three years, and the University 



458 Biographical Sketches 

of North Carolina for one year. Educator. County Superintendent 
of Public Schools in McDowell County seven years; City Superin- 
tendent of Public Schools at Marion, N. C. for three years; County 
Superintendent of Public Schools in Wake County for three years; 
Member State Board Institute Conductors for two years; Member 
State Senate 1915. Active in the Councils of the National Educa- 
tional Association, Southern Educational Conference, and N. C. 
Teachers Assembly for a number of years. Mason. K. of P. 
Redmen. J. O. U. A. M. Methodist. Married Miss Katherine 
Lee Reed in 1908. Address: Marion, N. C. 



PAUL DAVIS GRADY 

(Eighth District. — Counties: Johnson and Wayne. Two Sena- 
tors.) 

Paul D. Grady, Senator from Eighth Senatorial District was born 
at Seven Springs, Wayne County, North Carolina, on September 
5, 1890. Son of Dr. James Calhoun and Ella Smith Grady. Edu- 
cated at Tennessee Military Institute, Wake Forest College, and 
Washington and Lee University. Received license to practice law 
at the February Term 1911 of the Supreme Court of North Carolina. 
Special Attorney for the United States Department of Justice 1914- 
1916. Mayor of Town of Kenly 1918. Deputy Collector of Internal 
Revenue 1919-1920. Represented Johnston County in the House of 
Representatives in 1919 and 1921. 



WILLIAM ALEXANDER GRAHAM JR. 

(Ticenty-fifth District. — Counties: Catawba, Iredell and Lincoln. 
Two Senators.) 

William Alexander Graham, Jr., Democrat, Senator from the 
Twenty-fifth Senatorial District, was born in Lincoln County, in 
1873. Son of William A. and Julia (Lane) Graham. Attended Pied- 
mont Seminary at Lincolnton, Horner Military School, and Univer- 
sity of North Carolina. Farmer. Delegate to Lincoln Cotton Grow- 
ers' Convention at Montgomery, Ala., in 1920. Clerk to Senate Fi- 
nance Committee under Judge Osborne; Clerk of Joint Finance 



State Skxators 459 

Committee of Senate and House under Judge Osborne and Hon. 
J. B. Holeman, session 1899. Registration Clerk in Department of 
Agriculture; Chief Clerk to Commissioner S. L. Patterson; Acting 
Commissioner of Agriculture in absence of Mr. Patterson. Sei 
as a member of Precinct Democratic Executive Committee; often 
member of County Democratic Executive Committee. At present 
Chairman of Precinct Executive Committee and Member of Demo- 
cratic County Executive Committee. K. of P. Address: Iron 
Station, N. C. 



JAMES L. GRIFFIN. 

(Thirteenth District.— Counties: Chatham, Lee and Wake. Two 
Senators.) 

James L. Griffin, Democrat, Senator from the Thirteenth Sena- 
torial District, was born in Pittsboro, March 26, 1874. Son of J. M. 
and Euphemia (Hatch) Griffin. Attended Pittsboro High School; 
and Wake Forest College, 1893-1895. Cashier Bank of Pittsboro. 
Superintendent of Schools for Chatham County 1901-1902; Clerk of 
the Superior Court, Chatham County 1902-1903. Mason. Baptist; 
member of the Board of Trustees of Wake Forest College. Married 
Miss Hettie Wrenn in 1898. Address: Pittsboro, N. C. 



J. S. HARGETT. 

(Seventh District. — Counties: Carteret, Craven, Greene, Jones, 
Lenoir, and Onslow. Two Senators.) 

J. S. Hargett, Democrat Senator from the Seventh Senatorial 
District. . Born May 18, 1874. Attended Richland High Scho -1 
and University. Married twice, f^rst wife Olivia Steed, of 
Richland. Of this union six children, four living. Second wife, 
Mrs. Susan Koonce Burt. No children by this union. Member of 
Methodist Church, Steward and charge lay leader. Sheriff Jones 
County for twelve years. Chairman County Democratic Executive 
Committee for last six years. Member State Executive Committee. 
Member Masonic order and Shrine. Member last Legislature. 



460 Biographical Sketches 

CHARLES UPCHURCH HARRIS. 

(Thirteenth District. — Counties: Chatham, Lee and Wake. Two 
Senators.) 

Charles Upchurch Harris, Democrat, Senator from the Thirteenth 
Senatorial District. Born at Raleigh, March 12, 1883. Son of 
Cebern Logan and Florence C. (Upchurch) Harris. Attended the 
Raleigh Graded Schools, 1888-1893; Raleigh Male Academy, 1893- 
1897; N. C. College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, 1897-1899; 
Wake Forest College, 1899-1901; University of North Carolina 1902- 
1903, graduating in 1903 with degree of LL.B.; Wake Forest College 
Law School, 1903-1904. Lawyer. Member N. C. Bar Association. 
Represented Wake County in General Assembly of 1907. Judge of 
Recorders Court, 1919-1921. B. F. O. E., Exalted Ruler 1914-1915, 
Grand Lodge Representative 1915-1922. Episcopalian; Director of 
Brotherhood of St. Andrew, 1922. Married Miss Saidee Robbins in 
1909. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



CLYDE PEEBLES HARRIS. 

(Sixth District. — Counties: Franklin, Nash and Wilson. Two 
Senators.) 

Clyde Peebles Harris, Democrat, Senator from Sixth Senatorial 
District, was born in Franklin County, September 19th, 1864. Son 
of Col. Harville and Roxanna (Daniel) Harris. Attended Louisburg 
Academy 1880-1881 and rural schools. Farmer. Was Director and 
Vice-President of Farmers and Merchants Bank, Louisburg, N. C. 
for many years and January, 1920, was made President. Baptist. 
Church treasurer 1905-1920. Married Miss Annie Fleming in 1891. 
Address: Mapleville, N. C. 



WILLIAM EDWARD HARRISON. 

(Eighteenth District. — Counties: Davidson, Montgomery, Rich- 
mond, and Scotland. Two Senators.) 

William Edward Harrison, Democrat, Senator from the Eight- 
eenth Senatorial District. Born in Sussex County, Virginia, May 



State Senators 461 

21, 1867. Son of Trezevant and Mary Louisa (Land) Harrison. 

Merchant. Baptist. Married, in 1895, to Miss Annie Marshall. 
Address: Rockingham, N. C. 



RUFUS LAFEYETTE HAYMORE. 

(Tiventif-thircl District. — Counties: Stokes and Surry. One Sena- 
tor.) 

Rufus L. Haymore, Republican, of Surry County, Senator from 
the Twenty-third Senatorial District. Born in Surry in 1851. 
Lawyer. County Commissioner, 1883. Mayor of Mount Airy, X. C, 
1897. Representative in the General Assembly of 1909, 1913, 1917. 
State Senator in 1911, 1915, 1919. Address: Mount Airy, N. C. 



WILLIAM CROW HEATH. 

(Nineteenth District. — Counties: Anson, Stanly and Union. Two 
Senators.) 

William Crow Heath, Democrat, Senator from the Nineteenth 
Senatorial District. Born in Union County, November 24, 1S66. 
Son of A. W. and Nannie J. (Crow) Heath. Received his educa- 
tion in the following schools: Common schools till 1876, Professors, 
Hodges and Scroggs, 1877-1879, A. R. Banks, preparatory School at 
Fort Mill, S. C, 1880-1881, King's Mountain Military Academy, 
1882, South Carolina Military Academy 1882-1886, Bryant and Si 
ton Business College, Baltimore, 1887. Graduated from The Citadel 
in class of 1886 as A.B. and C.E., and from Bryant ami Stratton 
in 1887. Merchant, Manufacturer and Farmer. Member American 
Cotton Manufacturers' Association, president of same 1904-1905; 
President Southern Carriage and Vehicle Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion, 1S07-1908; President First National Bank, .Monroe, N. C, 
1907-1908; Vice-President Piedmont Wagon Sompany, Hickory, N. C, 
1900-1902. Captain Monroe Light Infantry, National Guards 1890- 
1894. Major First Battalion, 4th Regiment N. C. National Guards, 
1895-1897. At present Assistant Paymaster General, Rank of Colonel 
on staff of General Julian S. Carr, U.C.V. Methodist. Married 
Miss Alice Armfield, November, 1887. Address: Monroe. N. C. 



462 Biographical Sketches 

ARCHIBALD ARRINGTON HICKS. 

(Fifteenth District.— Counties: Granville and Person. One Sen- 
ator.) 

Archibald Arrington Hicks, Democrat, Senator from the Seven- 
teenth Senatorial District. Born in Granville County, September 
9, 1862. Son of Benjamin Willis and Isabella Jane (Crews) Hicks. 
Attended Pleasant Hill Academy, 1868-1878; Shiloh Academy, 1878- 
1879; Yadkin College, 1879-1883. Studied law as he taught school. 
Attorney. Mayor of Oxford 1892-1894; Chairman Democratic Exec- 
utive Committee six years; State Senator, 1899-1911. Mason. Odd 
Fellow. Office holder in both of these orders. Methodist; Superin- 
tendent of Sunday School for eight years; Delegate to General Con- 
ference in Washington, D. C. Married Miss Hettie Minor in 1S94. 
Address: Oxford, N. C. 



JOSEPH M. HODGES. 

(Thirtieth District.— Counties: Avery, Madison, Mitchell and 
Yancey. One Senator.) 

Joseph M. Hodges, Republican, Senator from the Thirteenth Sena- 
torial District. Born in Watauga County, April 16, 1867. Son of 
Rev. Larkin and Thursa (Michael) Hodges. Attended the common 
schools of his county, a nd taught there for six years. Attended 
Baltimore Medical (now the University of Maryland) graduating 
in 1904. Took one year hospital course in the Maryland General 
Hospital, 1904-1905. Medical doctor. Railroad surgeon for the East 
Tennessee & Western North Carolina Railroad since 1910. Mem- 
ber Avery County Medical Society, State Medical, and American 
Medical Associations. U. S. Pension examiner 1908-1910; Quaran- 
tine officer for Avery County at present. Elected County Com- 
missioner for Avery County, served as Chairman in 1917 and 1918. 
Chairman, Republican Executive Committee for Avery County in 
1918 and 1920. Chairman of 30th Senatorial District in 1914 and 
1915. First coroner of Avery County; appointed in 1910 and served 
two years. Served, also, as County Health officer for Avery County, 
1912-1914. Mason. Missionary Baptist; secretary 1890-1900. Mar- 
ried, in 1908 to Miss Emma Hodge. Address: Cranberry, N. C. 



State Senators 463 

PAUL H. JOHNSON. 

(Second District. — Counties: Beaufort, Dare, Hyde, Martin, 
Pamlico, Tyrrell, and Washington. Two Senators.) 

Paul H. Johnson, Democrat, Senator from the Second Senatorial 
District. Address: Pantego, N. C. 



RIVERS D. JOHNSON. 

(Ninth District. — Counties: Duplin, New Hanover, Pender, and 
Sampson. Two Senators.) 

Rivers D. Johnson, Democrat, Senator from the Ninth Senatorial 
District. Address: Warsaw, N. C. 



ALLEN JONES. 



(Twenty-ninth District. — Counties: Alleghany, Ashe, and Wa- 
tauga. One Senator.) 

Allen Jones, Democrat, Senator from the Twenty-ninth Senato- 
rial District. Born in Alleghany County, December 11, 1845. Son 
of John A. and Elizabeth (Baldwin) Jones. Educated in the public 
schools. Farmer. Served two years in the Civil War as a pri- 
vate. Mason. Baptist; clerk and deacon for about forty years. 
Married first, Miss Lettie A. Brown, in 1871; second, Miss Nannie 
J. Cot in 1880; and third, Miss Nora Warden, in 1905. Address: 
Furches, N. C, R. F. D., Box. No. 56. 



HOWARD FEILD JONES. 

(Fourteenth District. — Counties: Vance and Warren. One Sena- 
tor.) 

Howard Feild Jones, Democrat, Senator from the Fourteenth Sena- 
torial District. Born in Warren County, in 1866. Son of Joseph 
Speed and M a ry Ann (Fort) Jones. Educated at home, by tutors 
and in the Home School for Young Ladies and Small Boys al 
Shocco Hill Plantation. Taught school. County Superintendent 



464 Biographical Sketch* 3 

of Public Instruction, 1911-1919, in Warren County; Chairman, Board 
of Education, Warren County, 1909-1911; Deputy Clerk Superior 
Court of Warren; General Superintendent Carolina Telephone and 
Telegraph Company. Assistant Engrossing Clerk in the Senate 
and later Assistant Enrolling Clerk. Newspaper man. President, 
Press Publishing Company; owner of The Warren Record, The News 
Reporter, The Franklin News. At present Secretary of County 
Executive Committee. Mason; office holder. Methodist; Super- 
intendent of Sunday School for a number of years. Married Miss 
E'sts'.le Brodie in 1897. Address: Warrenton, N. C. 



PAUL JONES. 



(Fourth District. — Counties: Edgecombe and Halifax. Two Sena- 
tors.) 

Paul Jones, Democrat, Senator from the Fourth Senatorial Dis- 
trict, was born at Tarboro, N. C, June 22, 1867. Son of John Wesley 
and Eugenia Helen (Jeffreys) Jones. Received his preparatory 
education at Tarboro Male Academy, 1875-1881. Attended Wake 
Forest College 1882-1883; Trinity College 18S3rl885; graduated 
from Trinity 1885; University of North Carolina Law School. 
Planter. Director in Edgecombe County Chamber of Commerce. 
Mayor of Tarboro for six years. Captain Company A, Edgecombe 
Guards, 2nd N. C. Infantry, 1906-1916. Jr. 0. U. A. M.; State Coun- 
cellor of Junior Order. Methodist; chairman Board of Stewards; 
Trustee; Superintendent of Sunday School. E'ditor North Caro- 
lina Law Journal for State Bar Association. Married Miss Ida 
McClure Adams. Address : Tarboro, N. C. 



BUREN JURNEY. 

(Twenty-fifth District. — Counties. Catawba, Iredell, and Lincoln. 

Two Senators.) 

Buren Jurney, Democrat, Senator from Twenty-fifth Senatorial 
District. Born in Iredell County, February 23, 1890. Son of Z. T. 
and Sarah Louise (Patterson) Jurney. Attended Mars Hill 1908- 



State Senators 165 

1912; University of North Carolina 1912-1913; and Wake Forest 
Law School 1914-1915. Attorney-at-law. Member X. 0. Bar Asso- 
ciation. K. of P.; Patrotic Order of Sons of America. Methodist. 
Address. Statesville, N. C. 



SAMUEL CUSTER LATTIMORE. 

(Tiventy-seventh District. Counties: Cleveland, Henderson, Mc- 
Dowell, Polk, and Rutherford. Two Senators.) 

Samuel Custer Lattimore, Democrat, Senator from the Twenty- 
seventh District. Born in Cleveland County, October 12, 1890. Son 
of William A. and Mary (Elliot) Lattimore. Attended Boiling 
Springs High School. Planter. Superintendent South Shelby 
Graded School, 1915-1918; Food Administrator, 1917-1918; Assist- 
ant supervisor of Revaluation, 1919. Member Kiwanis Club. Cor- 
poral in World War June, 1918 - December, 1918. Mason. Baptist. 
Address: Shelby, N. C, R. F. D., No. 3. 



WILLIAM LUNSFORD LONG. 

(Fotirth District. — Counties: Halifax and Edgecombe. Two Sena- 
tors.) 

William Lunsford Long, Democrat, of Halifax County. Senator 
from the Fourth District, was born February 5, 1890, at Garysburg. 
Son of Lemuel McKinney and Bettie Gray (Mason) Long. A.B. of 
the University of North Carolina, 1909. Lawyer. Director First 
National Bank, Roanoke Rapids, N. C; Rosemary Banking & Trust 
Co., Rosemary, N. C; Carolina & Northeastern Railroad Co.; Vice- 
President Schlichter Lumber Company; Roanoke Mills Company: 
Rosemary Mfg. Co. Representative in the General Assembly, 1915. 
State Senator, 1917-1919. S. A. E. (Collet Fraternity), Gimghoul. 
Phi Beta Kappa of University of North Carolina. Mnson; K. of P. 
Married Miss Rosa Arrington Heath, of Petersburg, Va. Address: 
Roanoke Rapids N. C. 
30 



466 Biographical Sketches 

DANIEL ALLEN McDONALD. 

(Twelfth District.— Counties. Harnett, Hoke, Moore and Ran- 
dolph. Two Senators. 

Daniel Allen McDonald, Democrat, Senator from the Twelfth 
Senatorial District. Born at Curriesville, N. C, June, 1851. Son 
of Allan and Mary Ann (Mclver) McDonald. Attended Free Schools 
of his locality and Commercial College at Lexington, Ky. Farmer. 
County Surveyor, 1882; Clerk of Superior Court, 1886-1906; Member 
of General Assembly 1909-1911. State Explosive Inspector, 1917- 
1918. Director of Insane Asylum six years. President Bank of 
Carthage at one time, and also President of Randolph and Cumber- 
land Railroad. Mason. Presbyterian; Deacon, 1886-1900. Married 
Miss Ida Ann Martin in 1884. Address: Carthage, N. C. 



OTTIS EARL MENDENHALL. 

(Seventeenth District. — Counties: Guilford and Rockingham. 
Two Senators.) 

Ottis Earl Mendenhall, Democrat, Senator from the Twentieth 
Senatorial District, was born at Jamestown, N. C, Jur>e, 1875. 
Son of James Nathan and Martha Fiorina (Wheeler) Mendenhall. 
Received his preparatory education at Lexington High School. A.B. 
from Guilford College in 1895; A.B. from Haverford College, Haver- 
ford, Pa., in 1897; A.M. from Haverford College in 1898. Real 
Estate, Insurance, and Banking. Member Rotary Club, Commercial 
Club, and Chamber of Commerce of High Point; Member City 
Council of High Point, 1913-14; Member 1921 N. C. General Assem- 
bly, Senate. Vice-president of High Point Morris Flan Bank; 
Vice-Chairman Guilford County Democratic Executive Committee, 
1916-1920. Loyal Order of Moose; dictator 1918-1919; past-dictator 
since 1919. Quaker; Treasurer North Carolina Yearly Meeting of 
Friends since 1917; clerk of High Point Monthly Meeting of Friends, 
1918-1920. Married April, 1907, to Miss Lizette Brown. Address: 
High Point, N. C. 



State Senators 467 

OTWAY BINNS MOSS. 

(Sixth District. — Counties: Franklin, Nash, and Wilson. Two 
Senators.) 

Otway Binns Moss, Democrat, Senator from the Sixth District. 
Born at Wilson, N. C, October 20, 1890. Son of V. F. and Loula 
(Binns) Moss. Attended Wilson Graded Schools, graduating in 
1907. B.L. of Wake Forest College. Attorney-at-Law. Chairman 
Township Democratic Executive Commitee for last three years. 
Vice-Recorder County Recorder's Court for four years. Supervisor 
of 1920 Census for Fourth Congressional District. Mason. Baptist; 
Superintendent of Sunday School, 1919; Teacher of Mens Class, 1921. 
Married Miss Dolly Edwards in 1915. Address: Spring Hope, N. C. 



HERSEY BAYLIES PARKER. 

(Eighth District. — Counties: Johnson and Wayne. Two Sena- 
tors.) 

Hersey Baylies Parker, Democrat, Senator from the Eighth Sena- 
torial District. Born at Coma, Hertford County, N. C. Son of 
Rev. Hersey Baylies and Maria Agnes (Majette) Parker. Attended 
Buckhorn Academy, 1889; University of North Carolina, 1889-1890. 
Attorney-at-Law and Farmer. President of Parker Motor Com- 
pany. Member of N. C. Bar Association. Attorney for Golds 
boro Saving and Trust Company, New York Equitable Life Assur- 
ance Society, Virginia Lumber and Box Company, and R. G. Dun 
and Company for 30 years. Mayor of North Wilkesboro 1894; 
Chairman of Board of Election of Wayne County 1905-1916; Secre- 
tary of Democratic County Executive Committee, 1903-1918; Chair- 
man Wayne County Democratic Executive Committee, 1920-1922; 
Member Legislature, 1903. Member of Company D, Goldsboro Rifles 
from 1889-1901 filling all non-commissioned offices; Captain of 
Company, 1901-1903. Inspector-General of North Carolina on Gov- 
ernor Kitchin's staff, with rank of Major. J. O. U. A. M. Bap- 
tist; Superintendent of Sunday School for fourteen years; teacher 
and deacon. Married, 1904, to Miss Helen A. Vann. Address: 
Goldsboro, N. C. 



468 Biographical Sketches 

J. CLYDE RAY. 

(Sixteenth Disrict. — Counties. Alamance, Caswell, Durham, and 
Orange. Two Senators.) 

J. Clyde Ray, Democrat, Senator from the Sixteenth Senatorial 
District. Born in Orange County, February, 1890. Son of John 
W., and Lila (Williams) Ray. Attended Hillsboro High School 
1909-1912; University of North Carolina, graduating in 1916 with 
A.B. degree. Attorney. Member N. C. Bar Association. Private 
in the Army from September 7, 1918, to January 7, 1919. Metho- 
dist; steward 1916-1922. Married Miss Mamie E. Brown, 1918. 
Address: Hillsboro, N. C. 



JOSEPH WATTERS RUARK. 

{Tenth District.— Counties. Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus, and 
Cumberland. Two Senators.) 

Joseph Watters Ruark, Democrat, Senator from the Tenth Sena- 
torial District. Born at Southport, N. C, in 1885. Son of J. B. 
and Sallie (Longest) Ruark. Attended Southport Academy and 
Law School of the University of North Carolina. Attorney. Mem- 
ber of Southport Chamber of Commerce. Elected Attorney for 
Brunswick County, 1922. Mayor of Sanford, 1911-1912; Mayor of 
Southport, 1915-1921; Recorder for Brunswick County 1921-1922. 
J. O. U. A. M. Methodist; steward. Married Miss Bessie Cross 
in 1911. Address: Southport, N. C. 



ANDREW FULLER SAMS. 
(Twenty-second District. — County. Forsyth. One Senator.) 

A. F. Sams, Democrat, Senator from the Twenty-second Sena- 
torial District, was born in Buncombe County. Son of Leroy Warren 
and Alica (Brown) Sams. Attended preparatory schools and Mars 
Hill College 1885-1894. A.B., Wake Forest College in 1897. Licensed 
Attorney at Law in 1903. Solicitor Winston-Salem Municipal 
Court 1910-1913; State Senate 1921. Baptist. Married Miss Minnie 
Bonner in 1899. Address: Winston-Salem, N. C. 



State Senators 169 

HARRY WILLIAMS STUBBS. 

(Second District. — Counties: Beaufort, Dare, Hyde, JMartin, l 
lico, Tyrell, and Washington. 'Two Senators.) 

Harry Williams Stubbs, Democrat, Senator from the Second Sena- 
torial District, was born at Williamston, N. C, in 1860. Son of 
Jesse R. and Mary L. (Williams) Stubbs. Attended Horner and 
Graves School, Oxford N. C, and public schools; University of 
North Carolina, 1879. Dick and Dillard's Law School. Attorney 
at Law. Member of the General Assembly for twenty-five years. 
Mason; Odd Fellow. Address: Williamston, N. C. 



MARK SQUIRES. 

(Tiuenty-eighth District.- — Counties: Alexander, Burke, and Cald- 
well. One Senator.) 

Mark Squires, Democrat, Senator from the Twenty-eighth Sena- 
torial District. Born in Union County, in 1878. Son of John B. 
and Mary A. (Stevens) Squires. Educated in public schools and 
the North Carolina State College. Lawyer. Chairman County 
Executive Committee, 1910-1912; Mayor of Lenoir, 1911-1914; Read- 
ing Clerk State Senate, 1909-1911; Member State Senate Special 
Session 1921; Wilson and Marshall Elector in 1915. Mason; office 
holder. Married Miss Mary E. Dunlap in 1902. Address. Lenoir, 
N. C. 



L. P. TAPP. 



(Seventh District. — Counties: Carteret, Craven, Greene, Jones, 
Lenoir, and Onslow. Two Senators.) 

L. P. Tapp, Democrat, Senator from the Seventh District. Born 
in Orange County, October, 1869. Son of Ruffin R., and Malissa 
(Dunnagan) Tapp. Educated in the free schools and Caldwell 
Institute. Tobacconist. Town Alderman at Kinston for 'six years. 
President of the Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad. Methodist. 
Married Miss Lillie Laws. Address: Kinston, N. C. 



470 Biographical Sketches 

LYCURGUS RAYNER VARSER. 

{Eleventh, District. — County. Robeson. One Senator.) 
Lycurgus Rayner Varser, Senator from the Eleventh Sena- 
torial District, was born in Gates County, August, 1878. Son of 
W. H. and Emily T. (Duck) Varser. Attended Reynoldson Insti- 
tute, 1892-1895; Wake Forest College A.B., 1899; Wake Forest Law 
School, 1899-1901. Lawyer. Member North Carolina Bar Associa- 
tion and President of American Bar Association. Jr. O. U. A. M.; 
Mason. Held all chairs of I. 0. O. F. Baptist; deacon; moderator. 
Married, June, 1904, to Miss Lily Ford Snead. Address: Lumberton, 
N. C. 



GEORGE BENJAMIN WALKER. 

(Thirty-tMrd District. — Counties: Cherokae, Clay, Graham, Ma- 
con, and Swain. One Senator.) 

George Benjamin Walker, Democrat, Senator from the Thirty- 
third Senatorial District. Born in Cherokee County, N. C. Son 
of William,' and Margaret J. (Scott) Walker. Educated in the 
public schools of his county. Farmer and stock raiser. Vice- 
President and Director Merchants and Manufacturers Bank of 
Andrews, N. C. Chairman, Democratic Executive Committee Gra- 
ham County for twenty years, and the same in Cherokee County 
for eight years. Member Legislature from Graham County in 1883. 
Director, six years, of the Insane Asylum at Morganton. Presby- 
terian. Married Miss Martha Barker in 1SS4. Address: Andrews, 
N. C. 



GEORGE THOMAS WHITE. 

(Twenty-fourth District. — Counties: Davie, Wilkes, and Yadkin. 
One Senator.) 

George Thomas White, Republican, Senator from the Twenty- 
fourth Senatorial District. Born in Iredell County in 1865. Son of 
W. Pinkey and Adeline (Daniel) White. Educated at Moravian 
Falls, N. C. Miller and Farmer. County Commissioner, 1902-1904. 
High Sheriff from 1904-1908. Mason. Woodman of the World. 
Methodist; steward, 1900-1922. Married, in 1887 to Miss Mary 
McCollis Johnson; in 1917 to Miss Mallie L. Thomasson. Address: 
Hamptonville, N. C. 



State Senators » 471 

PATRICK HENRY WILLIAMS. 

(First District. — Counties: Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Gates, 
Hertford, Pasquotank and Perquimans. Two Senators.) 

Patrick Henry Williams, Democrat, Senator from the First Sena- 
torial District. Born in Camden County, in 1869. Son of Robert, 
and Marenda (Torksey) Williams. Attended Elizabeth City schools 
till 1886; David Military School at La Grange, N. C, 1S86-1S88; 
University of North Carolina, 1888-1889; Smith's Business College, 
1899, at Lexington, Ky.; Randolph-Macon College, 1892-1896. A.B. 
of the University of North Carolina, 1897. Banker. Manager, Secre- 
tary-Treasurer Elizabeth City Hosiery Company, 1902-191S; Direc- 
tor First National Bank, Elizabeth City, 1900-1917; President Sav- 
ings Bank & Trust Company, Elizabeth City, 1916 to the present 
time; Director Atlantic Joint Stock Bank, Raleigh, N. C. Alder- 
man 1921; District Supervisor under Revaluation Act, 1919-1920. 
Kappa Alpha. Odd Fellow; office holder. Methodist; Superin- 
tendent of Sunday School, Board of Stewards, Board of Trustees, 
Lay Leader, and Teacher. Married, in 1891, to Miss Minnie White; 
in 1898 to Miss Ella Kramer. Address: Elizabeth City, X. C. 



ROBERT THOMAS WILSON. 

(Sixteenth District. — Counties: Alamance, Caswell, Durham, and 
Orange. Two Senators.) 

Robert Thomas Wilson, Democrat, Senator from the Sixteenth 
Senatorial District. Born in Caswell County in lSSH. Son of 
Robert P., and Virginia A. (Travis) Wilson. Attended public 
schools of Caswell County; Danville Military Institute, 1900-1902; 
N. C. State College, 1903; Wake Forest Law School, 1915. Lawyer. 
During World War, member of Legal Advisory Board, Caswell 
County; -Chairman War Savings Committee; Chairman Distribu- 
tion of Food under the Food Administrator; Captain of the Home 
Guards. Register of Deeds, 1910-1920, Caswell County. J. O. U. 
A.M.; Mason; office holder in each. Missionary Baptist; Deacon. 
Married Miss Mary F. Flintoff in 1907; Miss Ella S. White in 
1911. Address: Yanceyville, N. C 



472 ' Biographical Sketches 

ALBERT EDGAR WOLTZ. 

(Twenty-sixth District. — County: Gaston. One Senator.) 
Albert Edgar Woltz, Democrat, Senator from the Twenty-sixth 
Senatorial District, was born at Dobson, N. C, August, 1877. Son 
of Dr. John R. and Louisa J. (Kingsbury) Woltz. Received his 
preparatory education at Dobson High School, 1893-1895, and Siloam 
Academy, 1S95-1S97. Attended University of North Carolina, 1897- 
1901; Central University, 1905-1907, A.B. and A.M., and the Uni- 
versity Law School, 1909-1911. Member Gaston County Bar Asso- 
ciation, State of North Carolina Bar Association and American 
Bar Association. Mayor of Granite Palls, 1902. Member Board 
of Directors, Chamber of Commerce, City of Gastonia, N. C, 1919- 
1920; City School Board of Gastonia, 1912-1916; Board of Directors 
of Gaston Mutual Building and Loan Association, 1919-1920; Legal 
Advisory Board for Gaston County, 1917-1919; Member Board of 
Directors of Gaston County Fair Association, 1916-1920; Congres- 
sional Executive Committee, Ninth District, 1920. Superintendent 
of Granite Falls Graded Schools, 1901-1902; Lenoir Graded Schools, 
1903-1907; Goldsboro Graded Schools, 1907-1909. Burser of Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, 1909-1912. Mason; I. O. O. F.; Noble 
Grand, 1919; Grand Guardian, 1920; Deputy Grand Master, 1922; 
Red Men; Knights of Pythias; Past Councilor, Jr. O. U. A. M. 
Methodist; steward, 1914-1922. Vice-President Alba Cotton Mill, 
1920-1922. Married Miss Daisy C. Mackie, 1903. Represented 
Gaston County in the House of Representatives, Session 1921. 
Address: G?stonia, N. C. 



WALTER H. WOODSON. 

(Twenty-first District. — County: Rowan. One Senator.) 
Walter H. Woodson, Democrat, Senator from the Twenty-first Dis- 
trict, was born in Salisbury, April 20th, 1875. Son of Horatio Nelson 
and Margaret Elizabeth (Bostian) Woodson. Attended Salisbury 
Graded Schools, 1881-1889; James M. Hill's High School at Salis- 
bury. 1S89-1S92; B. S. University of North Carolina, 1892-1896. Uni- 
versity Law School, 1898-1899. Lawyer. Member of North Carolina 
Bar Association. City Attorney of Salisbury, 1910-1913; Mayor of 
City of Salisbury, 1913-1919; Chairman Salisbury City School Board, 
1913-1919; Chairman of Democratic Executive Committee Rowan 



Representatives in General Assembly 473 

County, 1922; Knights of Pythias; Jr. 0. U. A. M.; Methodist; Church 
Trustee. Married Miss Pauline Mary Bernhardt, December 20. 1900. 
Address, Salisbury, N.' C. 



JOSEPH MANSON ZACHARY. 

(Thirty-second District. — Counties: Haywood, Jackson and Tran- 
sylvania. One Senator). 

Joseph Manson Zachary, Democrat, Senator from the Thirty-second 
Senatorial District. Born in Jackson County, N. C, in 1864. Son of 
Jonathan, and Eliza A. (Jones) Zachary. Attended Calvert Public 
Schools 1882-1883; Simpsonville, S. C, High School 1886-1887. Far- 
mer. Mason. Married, in 1894, to Miss Emma 0. Brooks. Address: 
Calvert, N. C. 



REPRESENTATIVES. 



JOHN GILMER DAWSON. 
Speaker. 

J. G. Dawson, Democrat, Representative from Lenoir County, was 
born in that county in 1882. Son of John Henry and Annie E. 
(Daly) Dawson. Attended Kinston public schools; Law school of 
the University of North Carolina, 1907-1909. Lawyer. Member 
American Bar Association; N. C. Bar Association. Mason. Odd 
Fellow. J. O. U. A. M. Kappa Sigma. Episcopalian. Married Miss 
Margaret R. Weyher in 1911. Address: Kinston, N. C. 



BERT E. BENNETT. 

Bert E. Bennett, Democrat, Representative from Anson County. 
Address: Wadesboro, N. C. 



THOMAS C. BOWIE. 



Thomas C. Bowie, Democrat, Representative from Ashe County, 
was born at Lake St. Joseph, La., in 1876. He is a son of John Ruth 



474 Biographical Sketches 

and Frances (Calloway) Bowie. Received his preparatory education 
at Moravian Falls Academy, 1891; Trap Hill High School, 1892; 
and Mars Hill College, 1893. Received Ph.D. in 1899 from the 
University of North Carolina. Did post-graduate work at Yale 
College in 1900 in Political and Social Science. Attended law 
schools of Yale and University of North Carolina. Lawyer. Mem- 
ber of State Bar Association and American Bar Association. Repre- 
sented Ashe County in the Legislatures of 1909, 1913, 1915, 1921, 
and was Speaker of the House in 1915. Mason, Odd Fellow. 
Episcopalian. Married Miss Jean Davis in 1906. Address: West 
Jefferson, N. C. 



JAMES CORNELIUS BRASWELL. 

James Cornelius Braswell, Democrat, Representative from Nash 
County. Born, January 22, 1859, in Edgecombe County. Son of 
Archelaus and Margaret (Cutchin) Braswell. Received his prepara- 
tory education in Horner's School, and Emory and Henry College, Va. 
Attended the University of Maryland, graduating from the medical 
department in 1882. In 1882-83 he attended the New York Post 
Graduate Medical School. Physician and Farmer. Member Nash 
County Board of Health. Represented his county in Legislature of 
1909. Odd Fellow. Mason. Held offices in both orders. Married 
Miss Mary Lyon in 1887; second marriage, 1907. Address: Whit- 
akers, N. C. 



BENJAMIN FRANKLIN BRAY. 

Benjamin Franklin Bray, Democrat, Representative from Per- 
quimans County, was born in Washington, N. C, in 1846. Son of 
Solomon and Polly (Burgess) Bray. Educated in the public schools. 
Sheriff of his county for sixteen years. Mason. Odd Fellow. Bap- 
tist; deacon. Address: Hertford, N. C. 



NEEDHAM LEWIS BROUGHTON. 

Needham Lewis Broughton, Democrat, Representative from Wake 
County, was born at Garner, in 1884. Son of Joseph T. and Martha 
H. (Snelling) Broughton. Attended Garner Public Schools, Oak 



Representatives in General Assembly 475 

Ridge Institute, Elon College, graduating from Elon College in 1903. 
Also attended Eastman Business College at Poughkeepsie, X. Y. 
Seedsman and Farmer. Mayor of Garner for eight years. Investiga- 
tor Marketing Cotton Seed and its Products, Bureau of Markets, 
Washington, D. C, in 1918. Mason. B. P. 0. E. Methodist; steward 
for eight years. Married Miss Flossie Bagwell in 1911. Address: 
Garner, N. C. 



JULIUS BROWN. 

Julius Brown, Democrat, Representative from Pitt County, was 
born in that county in 1879. Son of Fernando and Ann (Martin) 
Brown. Attended Bethel (Pitt County) High School; and the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina Law School, 1901-1902. Lawyer. Repre- 
sentative in the Legislatures of 1919, 1921. Odd Fellow. Mason. 
Married Miss Estell Thigpen in 1913. Address: Greenville. X. ('. 



VICTOR SILAS BRYANT. 

Victor Silas Bryant, Democrat, Representative from Durham 
County, was born at Durham, N. C, September 29, 1898. Son of 
Victor S. and Matilda (Heartt) Bryant. Attended Durham High 
School, 1910-1914; A. B. of the University of North Carolina. 191 s; 
University of North Carolina Law School, 1919. Lawyer. Member 
of the Kiwanis Club; Zeta Fsi Fraternity. Presbyterian. Married 
Miss Elizabeth Scales in 1921. Address: Durham, N. C. 



DAVID M. BUCK. 

David M. Buck, Democrat, Representative from Yancey County, 
was born at Lees Mills, Va. in 1878. Son of E. C. and Gilla (Lee) 
Buck. Attended Johnston City High School, Tennessee; and Milli- 
gan College, 1892-1895. Merchant and Farmer. Representative in 
General Assemblies of 1909 and 1911. Mason; having held offices 
in that order. Baptist. Married Miss Pearl Ramsey in 1901. Ad- 
dress: Bald Mountain, N. C. 



476 BlOGKAPHICAL SKETCHES 

THOMAS PRITCHARD BUMGARDNER. 

Thomas Pritchard Bumgardner, Democrat, Representative from 
Stanly County, was born at Taylorsville, N. C, in 18S3. Son of 
W. J. and Elizabeth (Kerley) Bumgardner. Attended public schools; 
1899-1900, Taylorsville Collegiate Institute; 1901-1902 Moravian 
Falls Academy; Oak Ridge Institute, 1903. At present in the 
automobile business. Member of the Lions Club. In 1907-1909 
Private Secretary to Hon. R. N. Hackett, Congressman Eighth 
North Carolina District; Assistant Engrossing Clerk, House of 
Representatives 1903; Assistant to Principal Clerk, House of Repre- 
sentatives, 1905, 1907. Mason. Baptist. Married, in 1907, to Miss 
Roberta Christine Stover. Address:* Albemarle, N. C. 



WILLIAM HYSLOP SUMNER BURGWYN. „ 

W. H. S. Burgwyn, Bemocrat, Representative Northampton County, 
was born at Jackson, January 22, 1886. Son of George Pollock and 
Emma Wright (Ridley) Burgwyn. Attended Warrenton High School, 
1898-1900; Episcopal High School, Alexandria, Va., 1900-1902; George- 
town University; University of North Carolina Law School 1906-1908. 
Attorney at Law. Farmer. Mayor of Jackson, 1917-1918. State 
Senator from Third District, 1917-1918, 1921-1922 and 1922-1923; 
County Attorney Northampton County; Trustee of the University 
of North Carolina since 1914. Mason, Royal Arch, Knight Templar, 
32nd Degree, Shriner. A. T. O., College Fraternity. Episcopalian; 
vestryman. Married Miss Josephine Griffin, January 2, 1911. Ad- 
dress: Woodland, N. C. 



ARNOLD W. BYRD. 

Arnold W. Byrd, Democrat, Representative from Wayne County, 
was born in Duplin County. Son of N. B. and Bettie C. Byrd. 
Attended Mount Olive High School, 1905-1909. A. B. of Trinity 
College. Attended Trinity College Law School, 1914-1916. Lawyer. 
Secretary Mount Olive Business Men's Club. Representative from 
Wayne County in General Assembly of 1919. Represented North 
Carolina Colleges in National Peace Oratorical Contest in 1914. 



Representatives in General Assemble 177 

Served as 1st Lieutenant in World War, in France and Germany, 
1918-1919. Mason. Odd Fellow. J. 0. U. A. M. Methodist; steward. 
Address: Mount Olive, N. C. 



CLARENCE HEFLIN CHAMBLEE. 

Clarence Heflin Chamblee, Democrat, Representative from Wake 
County, was born at Wakefield, N. C, in 1877. Son of Dr. M. C. 
and Henrietta Reid (Brown) Chamblee. Educated at Stringfield 
and Ferrell School, Wakefield, N. C. Merchant and Farmer. Mason; 
J. 0. U. A. M. Baptist; Sunday School Superintendent, and deacon. 
Married in 1905 to Miss Nannie Sentelle. Address: Zebulon, N. C. 



COLLIER COBB. 

Collier Cobb, Democrat, Representative from Robeson County, 
was born at Parkton, N. C, in 1880. Son of Col. Stephen J. and 
Ninetta (Thaggard) Cobb. Received his education in the Park- 
ton Graded schools. Merchant and Farmer. Mayor of Parkton 
1901; served a,s alderman for several terms; trustee of Parkton 
Graded Schools since 1908. Served in the National Guard from 
1898 to 1911. Baptist; deacon since 1912; superintendent of 
Sunday School since 1915. Married Miss Mary B. Hughes in 
1905. Address: Parkton, N. C. 



AUSTIN BLAINE COFFEY. 

Austin Blaine Coffey, Republican, Representative from Watauga 
County, was born at Shulls Mills, N. C, January 14, 1SS7. Son 
of David N. and Carolin Coffey. Attended the public schools and 
Appalachian Training Schools, 1901-1903. Farmer. Represented 
Watauga County in the Legislature of 1917. Represented Wautau 
County in the Legislature of 1921 and special session of 1921. 
Odd Fellow. Baptist; deacon since August, 1918. Married March, 
1913, to Miss Hailey Harris. Address: Shulls Mills, N. ('.. H. P. D. 
No. 1, Box 45. 



478 Biographical Sketches 

F. P. COHOON. 

F. F. Cohoon, Democrat, Representative from Pasquotank County. 
Address: Elizabeth City, N. C. 



FREDERICK LUDFORD WILSON COHOON. 

F. L. W. Cohoon, Republican, Representative from Tyrrell County, 
was born at Gum Neck, N. C. Son of Frederick and Eliza (Janis) 
Cohoon. Received his education in the public schools. Farmer. 
Sheriff of his county for 12 years. J. O. U. A. M. Episcopalian. 
Married Miss Lula A. Ambrose in 1896. Address: Columbia, N. C. 



HENRY GROVES CONNOR, JR. 

Henry Groves Connor, Jr., Democrat, Representative from Wilson 
County, was born at Wilson, N. C, July 19, 1876. Son of Henry 
Groves and Kate (Whitfield) Connor. Was educated at Wilson 
Graded Schools; private schools in Wilson; B. S. of University 
of North Carolina, 1897. Law School, University of North Caro- 
lina, 1898. Lawyer. Chairman County Democratic Executive Com- 
mittee; Delegate National Democratic Conventions, 1912-1916. Sigma 
Alpha Epsilon (college fraternity). Married Miss Elizabeth Clark, 
April 17, 1901. Address: Wilson, N. C. 



GEORGE G. COOPER. 

George H. Cooper, Democrat, Representative from Franklin 
County, was born at Laurel, N. C. Son of William and Martha 
(Gupton) Cooper. Received his education at the Louisburg Male 
Academy, 1878-1879. Manufacturer and Lumber Dealer. Baptist. 
Married Miss Mary E. Andrews. Address: Louisburg, N. C, 
Box No. 396. 



OSCAR B. COWARD. 

Oscar B. Coward, Democrat, Representative from Jackson County, 
was born in that County. Son of Nathan and Jane (Rogers) 



Representatives in General Assembly 479 

Coward. Attended Eastlaporte schools. Farmer and surveyor. 
State Senator in 1918^1920. Mason. Married, first, to Miss Emma 
Long in 1885; later to Miss Nora Zachary, in 1898. Address: 
Webster, N. C. 



ROBERT MARTIN COX. 

Robert Martin Cox, Democrat, Representative from Forsyth 
County, was born in that county July 9, 1876. Son of Romulus 
L. and Susan E. (Barrow) Cox. Attended Oak Ridge Institute, 
1894-189 l 5. Farmer and Seedsman. Representative in the General 
Assembly, 1907, 1917,1919, and 1921. Methodist Protestant. 
Married 1917, Miss Lillian Miller. Jfddress: Rural Hall, N. C. 



CHARLES H. COWLES. 

Charles H. Cowles, Republican, Representative from Wilkes 
County. Address: Wilkesboro, N. C. 



CHARLES RUFUS DANIEL. 

Charles Rufus Daniel, Democrat, Representative from Halifax 
County, was born at Weldon, in 1894. Son of Walter E. and 
Jeannette M. (Snead) Daniel. Attended Fork Union Military 
Academy, Va; Wake Forest College; A.B. of University of North 
Carolina, 1916; LL. B. degree, 1920. Lawyer. City Attorney at 
Weldon, 1921, Served a.s 1st Lieutenant with the American Ex- 
peditionary Forces. Kappa Alpha. Baptist. Address: Weldon, 
N. C. 



GEORGE E. DAVIS. 

George E. Davis, Democrat, Representative from Hyde County, 
was born at Engelhard, N. C, in 1870. Son of Thomas M. and Eliza 
J. Davis. Attended private and public schools, 1879-1897. Farmer. 
Sheriff of Hyde County, 1912-19161 Methodist. Married Miss 
Credle in 1904. Address: Lake Landing, N. C. 



480 Biographical Sketches 

JEDETH ROAN DAVIS. 

J. R. Davis, Democrat, Representative from Cleveland County,, 
was born in that county in 1887. Son of George L. and Jane Davis. 
Attended Piedmont High School, 1907-1910; Trinity College, 1914; 
University of North Carolina Law School, 1915. Lawyer. Served 
in the U. S. Navy eighteen months during the World War. Mason; 
Pythian. Methodist. Married Miss Berta Milles in 1920. Address: 
Kings Mountain, N. C. 



MARION LESLIE DAVIS. 

M. Leslie Davis, Democrat, Representative from Carteret County, 
was born at Beaufort, N. (\ in 1879. Son of John D. and Nar- 
cissa Elizabeth (Webb) Davis. Attended Beaufort High School; 
Graduated from Wake Forest College, A.B. degree, in 1905; B.L. 
degree, in 1906. Lawyer. Alderman at Beaufort, 1907, 1911, 1913, 
1915. Odd Fellow. Woodmen of the World. Knights of Harmony; 
Charitable Brotherhood. Baptist; Superintendent of Sunday School 
for IS years; Deacon; Church clerk; Moderator Neuse-Atlantic 
Association since 1909; Trustee Wake Forest College; Member 
State Board of Education, Baptist State Convention, 1914-1919; 
Trustee Baptist State Convention, 1917-1918. Married Miss Ruth 
Ivey in 1914. Address: Beaufort, N. C. 



WILLIS ALEXANDER DEATON. 

W. A. Deaton, Democrat, Representative from Catawba County, 
was born in Rowan County in 1862. Son of John Ernsley and Nancy 
Jane (Crosby) Deaton. Attended public schools, and Union Academy 
1881-1882; Enochsville Academy 1883-1884; Roanoke College; Grad- 
uated from North Carolina College, A. B. Degree, in 1889. Mount 
Airy Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, 1889-1891. Clergyman. 
President of Lenoir College 1901; twice President of Evangelical 
Lutheran Tennessee Synod; A. M. from North Carolina College 1892; 
D. D. Lenoir College, 1812; Chairman Executive Committee, 
N. C. Lutheran Synod; Member Board of Trustees, Lenoir College, 
North Carolina College. City councilman 1886-1887. Member of the 
Evangelical Lutheran Church. Married Miss Margaret Pauline Mil- 
ler, in 1891. Address: Hickory, N. C. 



Representatives i-\ Genekal Assembly 181 

JAMES DEHART. 

James DeHart, Democrat, Representative from Swain County. 
Born in Swain County, December 30, 1873. Son of William Joseph 
and Eliza (Gibson) DaHart. Attended schools of Bryson City, 
University of Nashville (collegiate and medical) ; graduated with 
M. D. degree. Physician. County Physician Swain County. Alder- 
man. Mason. "Woodman. Baptist. Deacon. Married Miss Emily 
May February 15, 1906. Address: Bryson City, N. C. 



JOHN HENRY DILLARD JR. 

J. H. Dillard Jr., Democrat, Representative from Cherokee County, 
was born in Rockingham County, N. C. Son of John Henry and Anne 
(Martin) Dillard. Attended public and private schools 1869-1878; 
University of North Carolina 1S7S-1S79; Dick and Dillard Law 
School at Greensboro 1879-1883. Law T yer. Member American Bar 
Association; N. C. Bar Association. Member of Board of Aldermen, 
Greensboro, 1896-1897; Representative from Cherokee in 1911; Mayor 
of Murphey 1921-1922. Served as 2nd Lieutenant in National Guard 
1SS0-1SS1. Mason. Odd Fellow. Presbyterian; elder for twenty-one 
years; moderator Asheville Presbytery: Commissioner to General 
Assembly; Superintendent of Sunday school for twenty-one years. 
Married, in 1888, to Miss Dixie King. Address: Murphy, N. C. 



SANFORD LAFAYETTE DOUB. 

S. L. Doub, Republican, Representative from Yadkin County, was 
born at East Bend, in 1860. Son of Henry Cannon and Jennie 
(Dowlin) Doub. Attended East Bend High School, 1885-1S86. Far- 
mer. County Treasurer, Yadkin County, 1896-1900; Member of Board 
of County Commissioners of Yadkin County, 1912-1918; Chairman 
four years. Methodist steward since 1890. Married Ella Davis, 
in 1912. Address: East Bend, N. C. 
31 



482 BlOGB M'llK \i Sketi Ills 



RUPUS A. DOUGHTON. 



Rufus A. Doughton, Democrat, Representative from Alleghany 
County, was born in that county, January 10, 1857. Son of J. Hor- 
ton and Rebecca (Jones) Doughton. Educated at Independence 
(Va.) High School, 1876-1877; University of North Carolina. Studied 
law at University of North Carolina, 1890. Lawyer, farmer and 
banker. President of Bank of Sparta. Representative in the 
General Assembly, 1887, 1889, 1891, 1909, 1911, 1913, 1915, 1917 
and 1919-1921. Lieutenant Governor, 1893-1897. Speaker of the 
House, 1891. Member of the Highway Commission but will resign 
that place on entering upon his duties as member of Legislature. 
Mason. Methodist. Married January 3, 1883, Miss Sue B. Parks. 
Address: Sparta, N. C. 



W. H. DUCKWORTH. 

W. H. Duckworth, Democrat, Representative from Transylvania 
County. Address: Brevard, N. C. 



JAMES L. DUNTON. 

J. L. Dunton, Democrat, Representative from Currituck County, 
was born in the county in 1863. Son of Alexander and Elizabeth 
(Hampton) Dunton. Received his education in the public schools. 
Parmer. Baptist. Married Miss Lina P. Newman in 1890. Address: 
Waterlily, N. C. 



SAMUEL JAMES ERVIN, JR. 

S. J. Ervin Jr., Democrat, Representative from Burke County, 
was born at Morganton, in 1896. Son of Samuel James and Laura 
(Powe) Ervin. Attended Morganton Graded Schools 1903-1913; 
Naval Academy Preparatory School, Annapolis Md., February-April, 
1913; University of North Carolina 1913-1917; Summer Law School, 
1919; A. B. degree in 1917; Harvard University Law School, 1919- 



Representatives in General Assembly 4S3 

1921; LL. B. degreel922. Lawyer. Member Kiwanis Club; secre- 
tary-treasurer 1922. Served as 2nd Lieutenant with American Expe- 
ditionary Forces; wounded several times; cited for "conspicuous 
gallantry in action." . Member American Legion; post historian 
1919-1922; department historian 1920-1921. Mason. Odd Fellow; 
K. of P. K. of K. Phi Delta Phi. Sigma Upsilon. Presbyterian. 
Author of "A Pre-Revolutionary History of Rowan County," a 
James Sprunt Publication, University of North Carolina. Address: 
Morganton, N. C. 



REUBEN OSCAR EVERETT. 

Reuben Oscar Everett, Democrat, Representative from Durham 
County, was born in October, 1879. Son of Justus and Elizabeth 
(Purvis) Everett. Graduate of the University of North Carolina. 
Lawyer. Episcopalian. Address: Durham, N. C. 



WILLIAM NASH EVERETT. 1 



WESLEY LUTHER FERRELL. 

vV L. Ferrell, Democrat, Representative from Forsyth County, 
was born at Durham, N. C, in 1895. Son of William L., and Mary 
S. (Walker) Ferrell. Attended Winston High School, 1908-1812; 
Trinity College, 1912-1916, A. B. Degree. Trinity College Law School 
1916-1920. Attorney. Member Rotary Club, Twin City Club, Forsyth 
Country Club, N. C. Bar Association, Forsyth County Bar Associa- 
tion, American Legion. Served as First Lieutenant, M. T. C, from 
1 17 to 1919. Pi Kappa Alpha Fraternity. B. P. 0. E. Methodist; 
Sunday school teacher. Address: Winston-Salem, N. C. 



RICHARD TILLMAN FOUNTAIN. 

Richard Tillman Fountain, Democrat, Representative from Edge- 
combe County, was born in Edgecombe County, February 15th, 1885. 
Son of Almon L. and Louisa (Eagles) Fountain. Was educated in 



designed Jan. 16, 1923 to become Secretary of State. — Editor 



484 Biographical Sketches 

the public Schools of Edgecombe County and the Tarboro Male 
Academy; University of North Carolina, 1905-1907. Lawyer. Mem- 
ber and Vice-President of the North Carolina Bar Association, also 
member the American Bar Association. Member Legislature, Sessions 
1919-1921. Judge of the Municipal Court of the City of Rocky Mount, 
1911-1918. Trustee Rocky Mount Graded Schools 1917-1921, Secre- 
tary from 1918-1921. Knights of Pythias. Presbyterian. Married 
Miss Susan Rankin of Gastonia, October 3rd, 1918. Address: 
Rocky Mount, N. C. 



HARLEY BLACK GASTON. 

Harley B. Gaston, Democrat, Representative from Gaston County, 
was born in that county, November 20th, 1891. He is the son of 
S. J. and Cora (Black) Gaston. He received his preparatory edu- 
cation in the Lowell Public Schools and the Belmont High School; 
A. B. Trinity College, Class of 1914. Was a High School Principal 
for three years; studied law at the University of North Carolina; 
He served as a Second Lieutenant in the Fourth Regular Army 
Division 1917-1919. Wounded. Member of American Legion; Mem- 
ber of North Carolina Bar Association; Mason, Knights of Pythias, 
and Methodist. Superintendent of Belmont Main Street Sunday 
School since 1920. Representative from Gaston County in both the 
regular and the extra session of the General Assembly during 
1921. Attorney at Law, Belmont, N. C. 



EDWARD HERBERT GIBSON. 

E. H. Gibson, Democrat, Representative from Scotland County, 
was born in that county, in 1880. Son of Nelson W., and Catherine 
(Easterling) Gibson. Attended private school of Professor P. P. 
Wyche, Gibson, N. C, and private school of C. D. Koonce, Gibson, 
N. C, until 1898; Trinity College a year and a half; University Law 
School 1902-1903. Lawyer. Member North Carolina Bar Association, 
Scotland County Chamber of Commerce. Trial Justice of the Crim- 
inal Court for Scotland County 1913-1918. Served as Chairman of 
Scotland County Local Board under the Selective Service Law, 1918; 
Y. M. C. A. Secretary with American Expeditionary Forces in France 
1918-1919. Mason. Methodist. Married Miss Edith Moore Gibson 
in 1906. Address: Laurinburg, N. C. 



Representatives in Genebal Assemble 485 

CHARLES ALFRED GOSNEY. 

Charles Alfred Gasney, Democrat, Representative from Wake 
County, was born in Pittsylvania County, Va., in 1889. Son of 
James H. and Ida (Dodson) Gosney. Lawyer. Served with Head- 
quarters 60th Infantry Brigade during the World War. Served as 
Representative from Wake County in the General Assembly of 
1921. Married, 1920, to Miss Janie Fetner. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



ALEXANDER HAWKINS GRAHAM. 

Alexander Hawkins Graham, Democrat, Representative from 
Orange County, was born at Hillsboro, N. C, August, 1S90. Son 
of John W. and Maggie F. (Bailey) Graham. Received his pre- 
paratory education in the Episcopal High School, Alexandria, 
Va,, 1906-1908; A.B., University of North Carolina, 1912; attended 
Unversity of North Carolina Summer School 1912-1913, and Har- 
vard Law School, 1913-1914. Attorney at law. Member of the 
North Carolina Bar Association. Commissioned Second Lieutenant 
at Fort Oglethorpe in 1917; promoted to First Lieutenant and then 
to Captain, serving overseas with the Slst Division. Episcopalian. 
Married Miss Kathleen Long in August, 1917. Address: Hills- 
boro, N. C. 



HORACE V. GRANT. 

Horace V. Grant, Democrat, Representative from Onslow County, 
was born at Sneads Ferry in 1S73. Son of Daniel Lindsey and 
Carolyn (Piner) Grant. Educated in the Public schools of his 
locality. Farmer and stock raiser. Member of the Co-operative 
Marketing Association. Justice of the Peace, 1900-1910; member of 
General Assembly of North Carolina, 1915, 1917. Member of North 
Carolina Home Guards. Mason. Trustee of Sneads Ferry Methodist 
Church. Married Miss Pearl Mattacks, in 1897. Address: Sneads 
Ferry, N. C. 



CHARLES HOWARD GRADY. 

C. H. Grady, Democrat, Representative from Dare County, was 
born at Kenly, N. C, in 1899. Son of J. C, and Ella (Outlaw) 
Grady. Received his preparatory education in Kenly High School, 



486 Biographical Sketches 

and Donaldson Military School. Attended University of Virginia, 
University of North Carolina, and Wake Forest College. Attorney. 
Presbyterian. Married Miss Ella Glenmore Koonce. Address: 
Manteo, N. C. 



FRANKLIN DAVIS GRIST. 

F. D. Grist, Democrat, Representative from Caldwell County,, was 
born at Lenoir, in 1891. Son of John Taylor, and Mary Nancy 
(Davis) Grist. Received his education in the Lenoir public 
schools. Printer. Served as private in the World War in France 
and in the Army of Occupation; wounded in action. Methodist. 
Married in 1919 to Miss Jessie Deal. Address: Lenoir, N. C. 



F. C. GWALTNEY. 

F. C. Gwaltney, Republican, Representative from Alexander 
County, was born in 1858. Received his education in the public 
schools and at Cedar Run Academy. Farmer. Justice of the 
Peace, 1892-1904; United States Deputy Marshal, 1900-1903. Married 
Miss Allice 0. Daniel in 1884. Address: Taylorsville, N. C. 
R. F. D. No. 3, Box 57. 



THOMAS LENOIR GWYN. 

T. L. Gwyn, Democrat, Representative from Haywood County, was 
born at Springdale, N. C, in 1882. Son of James, and Amelia 
(Foster) Gwyn. Attended Bingham School, Asheville, 1898-1899; 
University of North Carolina, Ph.B. in 1903. Farmer and stock 
raiser; also lumber dealer. Member Civitan Club, Canton, N. C. 
President Western North Carolina Good Roads Association; Chair- 
man Legislative Committee North Carolina Good Roads Associa- 
tion; President Haywood Supply Company (wholesale grocers); 
President North Carolina Shorthorn Breeders Association: Vice- 
President First National Bank, Waynesville; Vice-President State 
Fair, 1921-1922; Vice-President State Assocation County Commis- 
sioners, 1921. Member County Board of Education, Haywood County, 
1918-1922. Mason. Zeta Psi Fraternity. Episcopalian. Married 
Miss Hilda Way in 1919. Address. Springdale, N. C. 



Representatives in General Assembly 487 

C. E. HAMILTON. 

C. E. Hamilton, Democrat, Representative from Forsyth County. 
Address: Winston-Salem, N. C. 



CHARLES MILLER HAUSER. 

Charles Miller Hauser, Democrat, Representative from Stokes 
County, was born at Clemmons, N. C, in 1868. Son of Philip, and 
Margaret (Pledger) Hauser. Received his education at Reeds 
Academy, 1892-1893. Farmer. Chairman of Farmers Co-operative 
Association of Stokes County; director of Bank of Stokes County, 
since 1911. Justice of Peace in Forsyth County, 1900-1917. Justice 
of Peace in Stokes since 1921. J. 0. U. A. M. Methodist; steward 
1S00-1922. Married Miss Minnie Lee Foster in 1893. Address: 
Germantown, N. C. 



METIER HACKSON HENDRICKS. 

M. J. Hendricks, Democrat, Representative from Davie County, 
was horn in that county in 1867. Son of Francis Monroe, and 
Martha Ann (Reedman) Hendricks. Attended Courtney Acad- 
emy, Yadkin County; and Cana Academy, Davie County, from 1885- 
18S8. Farmer. Farm Demonstration Agent for Davie County 
1910-1913. Road Supervisor for Farmington Township, 1915-1916. 
Lecturer in Farmers Institutes, 1910-1918. Mason. Baptist; deacon 
and treasurer for past twenty years; Sunday School Superintendent 
for fifteen years. Married Miss Emma Grace Eaton in 18S9. Ad- 
dress: Cana, N. C. 



LEVI HILL. 



Levi Hill, Democrat, Representative from Greene County, was 
born in Lenoir County in 1868. Son of Robert P. and Elizabeth 
(Hinson) Hill. Attended public and private schools, 1889; Col- 
legiate Institute at Institute, N. C, 1890. Taught in public schools 
about twelve years. Farmer. Justice of the Peace. Woodman 
of the World. Baptist; Clerk for ten years. Married Miss Edith 
C. Herring in 1899. Address: Snow Hill, N. C, Route No. 4. 



4SS Biographical Sketches 

FRANK B. HOOKER. 

Frank B. Hooker, Democrat, Representative from Pamlico County, 
was born at Bayboro, N. C, in 1854. Son of Henry H., and Hannah 
(Twiford) Hooker. Received his education in the public schools 
and Bush Grove Academy. Retired from business. President of 
Oriental Chamber of Commerce. Mayor of Oriental 1912; County 
Commissioner of Beaufort County, 1884-1888; Represented Beau- 
fort County in General Assembly 1895, 1903, 1907, 1909; Assistant 
Clerk in the enrolling office 1901; Clerk to House Judiciary Com- 
mittee, 1905; Journal Clerk in engrossing office of the House, 1911, 
1913, 1915; Represented Pamlico in 1817; Assistant in engrossing 
office of House, 1919, 1921. Mason; Master of Pamlico Lodge. 
Methodist; steward since 1900; recording steward at present. 
Married in 1876 to Miss Emma J. Rives; in 1912, to Mrs. Laura 
Dixon. Address: Oriental, X. C. 



GEORGE WESLEY HOOKS. 

George Wesley Hooks, Democrat, Representative from Columbus 
County, was born at Cerro Gordo, in 1884. Son of James Pinkney 
and Mary Jane (Martin) Hooks. Received his education in the 
public schools of his county. Farmer and journalist. Odd Fellow. 
Mason. Baptist; clerk, 1908-1912; Sunday School Superintendent 
1907-1919; teacher 1907-1922. Author of several papers and poems. 
Address: Whiteville, N. C. 



WINSTON MONTGOMERY JACKSON. 

W. M. Jackson, Republican, Representative from Surry County, 
was born in that county in 1876. Son of Job, and Winnie E. 
(Nichols) Jackson. Attended Siloan Academy, 1897-1898; took law 
course at Wake Forest College. Taught in public schools of Surry 
County for five years. Lawyer. Married Miss Magdaline Riggs, in 
1908. Address: Dobson, N. C. 



Representatives in General Assembly 489 

THEO M. JENKINS. 

Theo. M. Jenkins, Republican, Representative from Graham 
County, was born in Buncombe County, in 1887. Son of C. L., and 
Sue L. (Redmond) Jenkins. Attended Fair View Collegiate In- 
stitute, 1905; University of North Carolina (Summer School) 1908; 
Wake Forest Law School, 1916. Lawyer. Member North Carolina 
Bar Association. Mayor of Robbinsville, 1922; County Attorney 
for Graham County, 1917-1920, 1922; United States Government 
Appeal Agent, Attorney to Local Board, Graham County, 1917-1919. 
Mason. Baptist. Married Miss Winnie V. Mauney, 1915. Address: 
Robbinsville, N. C. 



DAVID BONYAX JOHNSON. 

D. B. Johnson, Democrat, Representative from Bladen County, 
was born at Cedar Creek, N. C. Son of T. J., and Minnie Johnson. 
Attended White Oak School, 1910-1914; Wake Forest College, 1917, 
1918, 1920. LL. B. Lawyer. Mayor of Elizabethtown, 1921-1922. 
Served fifteen months as corporal in World War. Mason. Baptist; 
clerk of the Baptist Association Bladen County. Address: Eliza- 
bethtown, N. C. 



JOHN W. KING. 

John W. King, Democrat, Representative from Guilford County, 
was born at Danbury, N. C, in 1871. Son of Walter W. and Cornelia 
A. (McCandless) King. Attended public and private schools of Dan- 
bury; Oak Ridge Institute, 1887-1888. Graduated from Eastman 
College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., in 1891. Farmer. Member Tri-State 
Tobacco Growers Cooperative Association; Central Carolina Ware- 
housing Corporation; Greensboro Chamber of Commerce; Merchants 
and Manufacturers Club. Director of Tri-State Tobacco Crowns 
Cooperative Association; President of Central Carolina Warebousin^ 
Corporation. Member Travelers Protective Association; United 
Commercial Travelers; Chairman of Legislative Commission, and 
Chairman of Good Roads Commission. Member of Christian Disci- 
ples Church; Chairman of Finance Committee. Married Miss 
Anna Louise Howard in 1909. Address: Greensboro, N. C. 



490 Biographical Sketches 



LLOYD J. LAWRENCE. 



Lloyd J. Lawrence, Democrat, Representative from Hertford 
County, was born at Murfreesboro, N. C, in 1871. Son of Jamee 
N., and Mary Elizabeth (Pruden) Lawrence. Attended Murfrees- 
boro High School, 1883-1888; M.irfreesboro Military Academy, 1888- 
1890; University of North Carolina Law School, 1890-1892 Lawyer. 
Member State Bar Association; Commercial Law League of America. 
President of Citizens Bank, 191.1-1919; President of First National 
Bank of Murfreesboro, 1919-1922; President United Telephone Com- 
pany, 1904-1922; Editor Hertford Observer, 1922. Mayor of Mur- 
freesboro, 1893-1901; Chairman Board of Education; Chairman Board 
of Elections; County Attorney; Representative in General Assembly 
of 1901; Supervisor 1st N. C. District, 1920 Census. Methodist; 
Sunday School Superintendent and steward. Married, in 1895, 
to Miss Eva Alberta Eldridge; in 1919 to Miss Olive B. Vinson. 
Address: Murfreesboro. N. C. 



WILLIAM HEZEKIAH LEWIS. 

W. H. Lewis, Democrat, Representative from Pender County, 
was born at Atkinson, N. C. Son of J. E. Lewis and Margaret J. 
(Bonner) Lewis. Farmer and Banker. Member Board of Trade 
of Atkinson, N. C. Mayor Atkinson six years; Notary Public eight 
years. Postmaster twenty years; County Commissioner four years. 
Mason; served eight years as secretary. Woodman of the World. 
Baptist; deacon for past six years. Married Miss Carrie L. Peterson 
in 1892. Address: Atkinson, N. C. 



ED S. LOVEN. 



Ed. S. Loven, Democrat, Representative from Avery County, was 
born in Burke County, in 1892. Son of Anderson and Mary Jane 
(Webb) Loven. Received his education in the public schools. 
Merchant. Sheriff of Avery County, 1911-1912. Mason. Presby- 
terian. Married Miss Myrtle L. Clay in 1S95. Address: Lineville, 
N. C. 



Representatives i\ General Assembly 491 

JAMES EDWARD McFARLAND. 

J. E. McFarland, Democrat, Representative from Rutherford 
County, was born at Spartanburg, S. C, in 1861. Mason. Presby- 
terian. Member Board of Trade. Member Town Council, 1917-1918. 
Address: Forest City, N. C 



EVANDER McNAIR McIVER. 

E. M. Mclver Democrat, Representative from Lee County, was 
born at Jonesboro, N. C, in 1876. Son of A. A. and Flora (Bryan) 
Mclver. Attended Jonesboro High School, 1884-1893; University of 
North Carolina, A. B. degree, 1904.; George Washington University 
Medical School, 1904-1907; University of North Carolina Medical De- 
partment, M. D., 1908. Physician. Member of County, State, South- 
ern Medical and American Medical Societies. Captain of Medical 
Corps in the World War, 1917-1919. Mason. J. O. U. A. M. Presby- 
terian; deacon since 1910. Married, in 1920, to Miss Rachel 
Tucker. Address: Jonesboro, N. C. 



DANIEL PRATHER McKINNON. 

D. P. McKinnon, Democrat, Representative from Robeson County, 
was born in Rowland, N. C, in 1896. Son of Graham and Allie 
(Bird) McKinnon. Attended Tennessee Military Institute, 1912- 
1916; University of North Carolina, 1916-1917; Washington and 
Lee University, 1919-1921. Lawyer. Phi Delta Phi. Served as 
Second Lieutenant in World War. Mason. K. of P. Phi Delta 
Theta. Presbyterian. Won Washington and Lee Medal in oratory 
in 1920 Address: Rowland, N. C. 



VAN BUREN MARTIN. 

Van Buren Martin, Democrat, Representative from Washington 
County, was born in Northampton County. Son of J. V. and Ida 
(Stancell) Martin. Received his preparatory education at Conway 



492 Biographical Sketches 

High School and Whitsett Institute. B.L. of Wake Forest College, 
1904. Attorney at law. Mayor of Plymouth, N. C, 1919-1920. 
Superintendent of Public School, Washington County, 1909-1910. 
Prosecuting Attorney for Washington County, 1910-1919. Member 
of State Senate from Second Senatorial District, 1909 and 1911. 
Member of State Legislature 1921 and 1923, from Washington County. 
A. F. & A. M., Knights of Pythias, Royal Arch Mason. Baptist. 
Married, in 1907, to Miss Estell Johnston. Address: Plymouth, 
N. C. 



WILLIAM ROBERT MATTHEWS. 

William Robert Matthews, Democrat, Representative from 
Mecklenburg County, was born in Rockingham County, November 
30th, 1857. Son of Dr. J. T. and Ruth F. (Price) Matthews. At- 
tended Oak Ridge Institute, 1878-1879. Real estate and insurance. 
Mayor of Madison, 1889. Alderman City of Charlotte, 1911-1912. 
School Commissioner City of Charlotte, 1915-1916. Chairman Road 
Trustee, Charlotte Township, 1917-1918. W. O. W.; Jr. O. U. A. M. 
Representative in the General Assembly of 1917-1919-1921; extra 
session, 1920-1921. Organized the Sons and Daughters of American 
Liberty, 1919; headquarters, Charlotte, N. C; at present Chief 
Commander of the order. President, Oaklawn Cemetery, Charlotte, 
N. C. Married Miss Sallie E. Melton, Chester, S. C, May 23rd, 1888. 
Address: Charlotte, N. C. 



JESSE FEARRING-TON MILLIKEN. 

J. F. Milliken, Democrat, Representative from Union County, was 
born in Chatham County in 1888. Son of John R., and Annie (Fear- 
rington) Milliken. Attended Pittsboro Academy from 1896-1903; 
Law School of the University of North Carolina 1909-1910. Attorney 
at Law. Served as private, Battalion Sergeant Major and 2nd 
Lieutenant in World War. Sigma Nu Fraternity. Mason. Member 
American Legion; First Commander Lee County Post. Address: 
Monroe, N. C. 



Representatives in General Assembly 493 

CLAYTON MOORE. 

Clayton Moore, Democrat, Representative from Martin County, 
was born at Williamston in 1888. Son of James E. and Jane (Sykes) 
Moore. Attended Williamston High School; Oak Ridge Institute; 
A. and M. College; V. P. I., and University of North Carolina Law 
School. Attorney. Member State Bar Association; Representative 
from Martin County in General Assembly of 1921. City and County 
Attorney. Mason. B. P. O. E. Episcopalian; member of vestry. 
Married Miss Jennie Swanner in 1914. Address: Williamston, N. C. 



CLARENCE W. MORGAN. 

C. W. Morgan, Republican, Reresentative from Polk County, 
was born near Trycm, N. C. in 1879. Son of Henry C. and Sophia 
(Hill) Morgan. Attended Folk County Country schools. Took busi- 
ness course, in 1898, from Bowling Green Business College & Normal 
Institute, Ky. Hardware Merchant. Member Tryon Board of Trade. 
Methodist. Married Miss Alma Morris in 1903. Address: Tryon, 
N. C. 



IRA CLEVELAND MOSER. 

I. C. Moser, Democrat, Representative from Randolph County, 
was born at Rock Creek, N. C, in 1886. Son of Thaddeus Lucian, 
and Barbara Catherine (Garrett) Moser. Attended Oak Ridge Insti- 
tute, and Friendship Academy. Graduated from tho University of 
North Carolina, with degree of A.B., in 1911. University of North 
Carolina Law School in 1915. Lawyer. Member United Lutheran 
Church of America. Married, in 1915 to Miss Lou Ola Tuttle. Ad- 
dress: Asheboro, N. 



WALTER MURPHY. 

Walter Murphy, Democrat, Representative from Rowan County. 
was born in Salisbury, N. C, October, 1872. Son of Andrew and 
Plelen (Long) Murphy. Educated at the University of North 
Carolina Attended University Law School, L892-1894. Lawyer. 



494 Biographical Sketches 

Trustee of the University since 1903; executive committee of same. 
General Secretary of the Alumni of the University of North Caro- 
lina. Trustee of the North Carolina Sanatorium for the Treat- 
ment of Tuberculosis, 1907-1914. Member of the State Democratic 
Executive Committee, 1898, 1913. City Attorney for Salisbury, 
1903-1908; member of the General Assembly, 1897, 1901, 1903, 1905, 
1907, 1913, 1915 and 1921. Speaker of the House of Representatives 
at the extra session, 1914; of the regular session, 1917. Reading 
Clerk of State Senate, 1899. Elector-at-large for North Carolina, 
190S. B. P. O. E., F. O. E.; Red Men; K. of P.; Mason; Sigma Nu 
(college) Fraternity. President of the General Alumni Association 
of the University of North Carolina. — President Salisbury Kiwanis 
Club, A. A. O. N. M. S. Oasis Temple. Episcopalian. Married Miss 
Maud Harvey, 1903. Address: Salisbury, N. C. 



WILLIAM WEAVER NEAL. 

William W. Neal, Democrat, Representative from McDowell County 
since 1919. Address: Marion, N. C. 



JACOB WILEY NELSON. 

J. W. Nelson, Democrat, Representative from Madison County, 
was born at Marshall, N. C, in 1863. Son of John Burton and Marga- 
rite (Garrison) Nelson. Received his educattion in the free schools 
from 1870-1876. Retired merchant. Mason. Member Missionary 
Baptist Church; deacon 1907-1821. Address: Marshall, N. C. 



HARRY L. NETTLES. 

Harry L. Nettles, Democrat, Representative from Buncombe 
County, was born at Biltmore, N. C, in 1885. Son of W. M. and Eliza 
(Joyner) Nettles. Attended public schools, Christ School, and Ashe- 
ville Business College, 1906. Farmer. Representative in the General 
Assembly of 1915. K. of P. J. O. U. A. M. Modern Woodmen of 
America. D. O. K. K. Married Miss Margaret Bibson in 1908. 
Address : Biltmore, N. C. 



Representatives i\ General Assembly 

J. H. NEWBERRY. 

J. H. Newberry, Democrat, Representative from Duplin County. 
Address: Warsaw, N. C. 



Q. K. NIMOCKS, SR. 

Q. K. Nimocks, Sr., Democrat, Representative from Cumberland 
County. Address: Fayetteville, N. C. 



CHARLES NORRIS. 

Charles Norris, Democrat, Representative from Camden County, 
was born in that county in 1867. Son of Thomas and Elizabeth 
(West) Norris. Received his education in the public schools of 
his county. Merchant. Chairman County Board of Camden County 
Commissioners; Justice of the Peace for fourteen years. Mason. 
Odd Fellow. Modern Woodmen of America. Methodist; steward 
for twenty years. Married, first, Miss Sallie Guaranton; second, 
Miss Almeda Sawyer. Address: South Mills, N. C. 



LUTHER A. NOWELL. 

Luther A. Nowell, Democrat, Representative from Bertie County, 
was born at Colerain, N. C, in 1871. Son of Alpheus, and Virginia 
(Britton) Nowell. Attended Davis Military School 1887-1888; Globe 
Academy 1889; Wake Forest College, 1890-1893; was graduated from 
the University of Maryland in 1895. Physician and Banker. Mem- 
ber N. C. Medical Society; Seaboard Medical Society of North Caro- 
lina and Virginia. President Bank of Colerain since its organization. 
Commissioner Bertie County 1908-1914; Member Board of Education 
of Bertie County for two years. Odd Fellow. W. O. W. M 
Miss Cleo Britton in 1905. Address: Colerain, N. C. 



T. E. OWE'XS. 



T. E. Owens, Republican, Representative from Sampson County, 
was born near Roseboro, N. C. Son of Edmund B. ( and Mary ( Sp 
man) Owens. Received his education in the public schools of Samp- 



496 Biographical Sketches 

son County. Farmer, Lumberman, and Banker. Member of Legis 
latures of 1901, 1903, 1907, and 1921. Presidential Elector in 1904. 
Elected Treasurer of Sampson County 1908-1916. Mason. Metbodist. 
Married Miss Elizabeth Underwood in 1895. Founded, and edited 
for eigbt years the Neios Dispatch of Clinton. Address: Roseboro, 
N. C. 



EDWARD S. PARKER, JR. 

Edward S. Parker, Jr., Democrat, Representative from Alamance 
County, was born at Graham, N. C. Son of Edward S., and Ellen 
Caroline (Northam) Parker. Receivea liis education in thy local 
public schools, and at Oak Ridge Institute. T<>ok law course at the 
University of North Carolina in 1893. Attorney. Member of N. C. 
Bar Association. Chairman Executive Committee of N. C. Bar Asso- 
ciation in 1922. Mayor of Graham several terms. Chairman Board 
Trustees Graham Graded School 1901-1918. K. of P. Mason. Presby- 
terian. Married Miss Mary E. Mebane in 1897. Address: Graham. 
N. C. 



ROBERT HUNT PARKER. 

R. H. Parker, Democrat, Representative from Halifax County. 
Born at Enfield, in 1892. Son of R. B. and Victoria C. (Hunt) Par- 
ker. Bachelor of Arts at the University of Virginia in 1912; 
Bachelor of Laws University of Virginia in 1915. Lawyer. Member 
of the American Legion. Served as Lieutenant with the American 
Expeditionary Forces in the World War. Kappa Sigma. Episco- 
palian. Address: Enfield, N. C. 



WILLIAM BASCOM PASS. 

W. B. Pass, Democrat, Representative from Clay County, was 
born at Hayesville, N. C, in 1856. Son of Richard S., and Elizabeth 
N. Pass. Received his education at the Hayesville High School. 
Wholesale drug broker. Married Miss Mary D. Davidson in 1880. 
Address: Hayesville, N. C. 



Representatives in General Assembly 497 

MARTIN A. PATTERSON. 

Martin A. Patterson, Democrat, Representative from Hoke County, 
was born in Cumberland County in 1870. Son of Duncan J.. 
Margaret (Leslie) Patterson. Received his education in the public 
schools of Cumberland County, and at Thompson School at Siler 
City, N. C. Farmer. Presbyterian; ruling elder since 1892. Mar- 
ried Miss Martha Jane Monroe in 1900. Address: Raeford, N. C. 



RUFUS MORGAN PERSON. 

Rufus Morgan Person, Democrat, Representative from Mecklen- 
burg County, was born in Franklin County in 1871. He is a son 
of Joseph Arlington Person and Alice (Morgan) Person. Attended 
Horner's School, Oxford, N. C, 1886-1887. Manufacturer and farmer. 
Member of the Farm Bureau and Cotton Growers' Association. 
Postmaster at Kittrell, N. C, under Cleveland. Mayor of Kittrell, 
1892-1893. Mason, Shriner, W. O. W. , Jr. O. U. A. M. Episcopalian. 
Married in 1895 to Miss Jessie Allen. Address. Charlotte, N. C, 
R. F. D. No. 8. 

CHARLES AUGUSTUS PETERSON. 

C. A. Peterson, Republican, Representative from Mitchell County, 
was born at Relief, N. C, in 1882. Son of Solomon, and Julia (Ed- 
wards) Peterson. Attended Bawmon Academy, Bakersville, N. C, 
1900; Dwight Institute, Erwin, Tenn., 1901; Tennessee Medical Col- 
lege, 1903-1906; N. C. Medical College, degree of M.D., 1907; Post 
graduate course at New York Post Graduate Medical School and 
Hospital; Tulane University. Physician and Surgeon, Member 
N. C. State Medical Society; Southern Medical Association; Am 
can Medical Association. President Bank of Spruce Pine, N. C, 
1916-1922; President Board of Trade Spruce Pine. 1920; Secret 
United States Pension Board since 1916. Freemason., K. of P. 
Married Miss Nora McCall in 190S. Address: Spruce Pine, N. C. 



EDGAR WALKER PHARR. 

Edgar Walker Pharr, Democrat, Representative from Mec 1 
burg County, was born near Charlotte, March 4. 1899. Son 

32 



498 Biographical Sketches 

Walter S. and Jennie E. (Walker) Fharr. Attended rural public 
school until 1905; Charlotte University School, 1905-1906; A.B., 
Erskine College, Due West, S. C, 1909. Studied law at the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina. Lawyer. Member County, State, and 
American Bar Associations. Knights of Pythias; Mason; Shriner; 
D. O. K. K. Chairman, War Savings Committee for Mecklenburg 
County, 1918. Representative in the General Assembly, 1917, 1919, 
special session 1920-1921 regular and special. Associate Reformed 
Presbyterian. Married in 1914 to Alta Ruth Knox, Atlanta, Ga. 
Address: Charlotte, N. C. 



LEWIS JULIEN POISSON. 

L. J. Poisson, Democrat, Representative from New Hanover County, 
was born at Wilmington, N. C, in 18S7. Son of L. J., and Manie 
(Allen) Poisson. Attended Woodbury Forest School, Cape Fear 
Academy, North Carolina A. and M. College, and the Law School 
of the University of North Carolina. Lawyer. Special Assistant 
United States Attorney General 1914-1916. Episcopalian. Married 
Miss Gethyn Rugan in 1920. Address: Wilmington, N. C. 



WILLIAM DOSSEY PRUDEN. 

W. D. Pruden, Democrat, Representative from Chowan County, 
was born in that county in 1894. Son of W. D. and Annie (Wood) 
Pruden. Attended Warrenton High School 1910-1911; Edenton 
public schools prior to this date; University of North Carolina, A.B. 
degree, in 1915; Harvard Law School 1915-1917. Lawyer. Served 
as 2nd Lieutenant with the American Expeditionary Forces 1917- 
1919. Episcopalian. Address: Edenton, N. C. 



AUGUSTUS L. QUICKEL. 

Augustus L. Quickel, Democrat, Representative from Lincoln 
County, was born in that county August, 1874. Son of John C. and 
Josephine (Crouse) Quickel. Attended Piedmont Seminary; B.L., 
University of North Carolina, 1895; University of North Carolina 



Representatives i\ Generai Assembly 

Law School 1896-1897. Lawyer. Member State Bar Association. 
Represented his county in General Assembly, 1903-1911 and 1921; 
Clerk to Judiciary Committee of the House of Represents i the 

United States Congress, 1914-1919. Lutheran. Address: Lincolnl 
N. C. 



THOMAS WHITSETT RANKIN. 

T. W. Rankin, Democrat, Representative from Rockingham County, 
was born in that county, in 1888. Son of Thomas Franklin, and 
Mary (Wade) Rankin. Received his education in the public scln 
Engaged in the life insurance business. Mason. Presbyterian. .Mar- 
ried in 1916 to Miss Louise Anderson. Address: Reidsville, N. C. 



J. FRANK RAY. 



J. Frank Ray, Democrat, Representative from Macon County, was 
born in that county in 1858. Son of John, and Nancy (Summ 
Ray. Lawyer. Address: Franklin, N. C. 



REUBEN REYNOLDS. 

Reuben Reynolds, Democrat, Representative from Montgomery 
County, was born in that county in 1867. Son of Joseph and Mary 
Ann (Hurley) Reynolds. Received his education at Ellerbe Sprii 
N. C. Farmer and Lumberman. Engrossing Clerk for the House in 
1897. Mayor of Star, 1917-1918. Mason. Methodist; steward 
twenty years; superintendent of Sunday school for three years. 
Married Miss Hettie Smith in 1902; married Mis- Masie Petree in 
lit 19. Address: Star, N. C. 



JAMES WILEY RIDEOUTTE. 

J. W. Rideoutte, Democrat, Representative from Rowan County, 
was born at Raleigh, N. C, in 1S78. Son of James Thomas and 
Nancy Elizabeth (Johnson) Rideoutte. Attended public sch< 
at New Bern, N. C. 1884-1887; Columbia, S. C, I hool 1887 



500 Biographical Sketches 

1893. Machinist with Southern Railway Company. Member Inter- 
national Association of Machinists; Foreman Southern Railway 
1910; General Foreman, 1911. Member of Salisbury Board of Al- 
derman 1914-1915, 1916-1917; Member of Company D., 1st South 
Carolina Volunteers 1895-1897. W. 0. W., Moose. Episcopalian Mar- 
ried Miss Agnes D. Crawford in 1899. Address: Salisbury, N. C. 



JOHN W. ROBBINS. 

John W. Robbins, Democrat, Representative from Nash County, 
was born in that county in 1867. Son of John D. and Emelyne 
(Weaver) Robbins. Received his education in public schools 1887- 
1890. Farmer. Odd Fellow. K. of P. Baptist; deacon since 1908. 
Married Miss Mittie Hales in 1891. Address: Sharpsburg, N. C. 



CARROLL PICKENS ROGERS. 

Carroll Pickens Rogers, Democrat, Representative from Henderson 
County, was born at Johnson, S. C, in 1880. Son of Rev. William 
A. and Annie Maria (Anderson). Attended the Graded Schools at 
Marion, S. C, 1886-1890; Charleston, S. C, 1890-1892; Spartanburg, 
S. C, 1892-1894; Wofford Fitting School, 1894-1895; Furman Uni- 
versity, 1897-1898. Was graduated at Wofford College in 1900. with 
A. B. degree. Kappa Alpha Fraternity. Manufacturer. Member 
National Association of Hosiery and Underwear Manufacturers. 
Member Chamber of Commerce, Hendersonville, N. C. Justice 
of Peace, 1910-1922. Member Henderson County Executive Com- 
mittee, 1912-1922. Delegate to State Convention, 1922. Served 
as 2nd Lieutenant of North Carolina Reserve Militia, 1917-1918. 
Mason. K. of P. W. O. W. Red Men. Methodist; treasurer; 
Chairman of Board of Stewards; Chairman Board of Trustees. 
Married Miss Susan Mildred Erskine in 1911. Address: East 
Flat Rock, N. C. 



GEORGE ROMULUS ROSS. 

George Romulus Ross,. Democrat, Representative from Moore 
County, was born in Randolph County, May 22, 1888. Son of 



Representatives in General Assembly 501 

Romulus Rudolphus and Rebecca Ellen (McCulloch) Ross. Re- 
ceived his preparatory education from the Asheboro High School. 
Was graduated from the North Carolina Agricultural and Mechani- 
cal College, Raleigh, N. C, in 1911. Farmer and Manager of Jackson 
Packing Company. Mason, Woodman of the World, Jr. 0. U. A. M. 
Methodist Protestant. Married Miss Margaret Charlotte Goley, 
February, 1914. Address: Jackson Springs, N. C. 



W. M. SAUNDERS. 

W. M. Saunders, Democrat, Representative from Johnston County. 
Address: Smithfield, N. C. 



HIRAM SYLVANUS SELLERS. 

H. S. Sellers, Democrat, Representative from Gaston County, 
was born in that county in 1858. Son of Abraham and Easter 
Sellers. Received his education in the public schools and at Ruther- 
ford College. Deputy Sheriff, 1888-1895; Coroner, 1912-1918; Justice 
of the Peace for last six years. K. of P. Mason. D. O. K. K. 
Methodist. Married Mrs. Laura Evans in 1882; Mrs. D. A. Beatty 
in 1914. Address: Kings Mountain, N. C. 



JOHN BASCOM SHERRILL. 

J. B. Sherrill, Democrat, Representative from Cabarrus County, 
was born in Iredell County, February 23, 1864, and is a son of the 
late Rev. M. V. Sherrill. His mother was Miss Martha J. Douglas. 
He was educated under Prof. W. H. Brooks, of Olin, N. C. News- 
paper man. Secretary and treasurer of the North Carolina Pn 
Association for 32 consecutive years, from 1SSS-1920. He was 
elected President in 1921, and re-elected to that office in 1922. 
Postmaster of Concord under Cleveland's second administration. 
Trustee of Trinity College. Member from Cabarrus County in the 
Lower House of the North Carolina Genera] Assembly. Married 
Miss Anna Montgomery. 



502 Biographical Sketches 

RICHARD W. SIMPSON. 

R. W. Simpson, Democrat, Representative from Gates County, 
was born in Perquimans County, in 1858. Son of Willam C. and 
Sarah A. (Riddick) Simpson. Received his education at Belvidere 
Academy. Farmer. Chairman Board of Education for six years; 
member Legislature of 1905, 1907 extra session 1908. Justice of the 
Peace for thirty-two years. Deputy Sheriff for four years. Mis- 
sionary Baptist; clerk for twenty years; deacon; trustee. Married 
Miss Mary E. Hunter in 1SS4. Address: Trotville, N. C. 



ROBERT WILLIAMS SMITH. 

Robert Williams Smith, Democrat, Representative from Pitt 
County, was born near Greenville, November 2, 1S69. Son of 
Theophilus and Elizabeth (May) Smith. Educated at the Oxford 
Orphanage, 1878-1880, and in the public schools of Pitt County. 
Merchant and farmer. Director Winterville Oil Mill, President 
Planters Tobacco Warehouse Company, President Ayden Chamber 
of Commerce. Mayor of Ayden 1916 and 1918. Thirty-second 
Scottish Rite Mason; I. O. O. F. Several terms Master of Aydeh 
Lodge, A. F. & A. M.; Noble Grand of I. O. O. F. Several years. 
Christian Church; deacon for last twenty years. July 8, 1896, 
married Miss Cora E. Hart. Address: Ayden, N. C. 



CHARLES ALEXANDER SNIPES. 

Charles Alexander Snipes, Democrat Representative from Chat- 
ham County was born at Chapel Hill in 1872. Son of William F. 
and Bettie (Ellis) Snipes. Attended Thompson School, Siler City, 
1889-1901. Farmer. Justice of the Peace 1916-1918. Mason. Me- 
thodist; Superintendent of Sunday School, 1910-1921; steward since 
1908; Chairman of Board of Stewards since 1912. Married Miss 
Daisy D. Hackney in 1895. Address: Bynum, N. C. 



THOMAS I. SUTTON. 

Thomas I. Sutton, Democrat, Representative from Wayne County, 
was born in Sampson County, in 1S65. Son of Oats, and Susanna 



Representatives in General Assi mbli 

(.Murphy) Sutton. Attended Woodland Academy, l vV ."> and Na- 
hunta Academy, 1886-1887. Farmer. Justice of the Peace, 19 
1913. Missionary Baptist; clerk, 1896-1904; deacon since 1904. 
Married Miss Sarah E. Jinnett in 1891. Address: Goldsboro, . v 



EUGENE TAYLOR. 

Eugene Taylor, Democrat, Representative from Buncombe County, 
was born in that county in 1896. Son of James B. and Zora E. 
(Wells) Taylor. Attended Asheville High School, 1911-1914. Law- 
School of Wake Forest College, degree of LL.B. in 1917. Lawyer. 
Member County and State Bar Associations. Served as 2nd Lieu- 
tenant in World War. Member American Legion. W. 0. W. Ad- 
dress: Asheville. N. C. 



ROBERT BELLAMY TAYLOR. 

Robert Bellamy Taylor, Democrat, Representative from Vance 
County, was born in Townsville, December, 1S93. Son of Edward 
Osborne and Allene Grist (Hargrove) Taylor. Attended Horner's 
Military School, 1911-1914. Farmer and lumber dealer. Three 
years in military school. Served as sergeant on Mexican Border, 
1916-1817. Commissioned 1st Lieutenant at First Officers Training 
Camp. One year's service overseas, 1918-1919. Episcopalian. Ad- 
dress: Townsville, N. C. 



WALTER LEE TAYLOR. 

Walter Lee Taylor, Democrat, Representative from Ca^ 
County, was born at Semora, N. C, in 1875. Son of William Hoppe, 
and Mary E. (Hamlett) Taylor. Attended private schools, 1883- 
1892; Elon College, 1892-1893, 1896. Farmer. Mason. Member Chris- 
tian Church; deacon. Married Miss Mary John Yarborough in 1916. 
Address: Semora, N. C. 



DOC JONES THURSTON. 

D. J. Thurston, Democrat, Representative from Johnston County, 
was born near Clayton, N. C, in 1S73. Son of W. .1. V.. and 
Zilphia (Culley) Thurston. Attended public and private sch 



504 Biographical Sk 

in his country. Took summer law course at Wake Forest Col- 
lege. Farmer. Missionary Baptist. Married Miss Jessie Jen- 
kens in 1903. Address: Clayton. X. C. 



HOWARD DAVIS TOWNSEND. 

Howard Davis Townsend. Democrat. Representative from David- 
son County, was born in Cabarrus County, in 1892. Son of Pinkney 
P. and Ida Dorcas (Porter) Townsend. Received his education 
in the public schools. Cotton manufacturer. Member of Lexing- 
ton Chamber of Commerce; Board of Directors and Vice-President 
of Davidson Fair Association, 1921-1922. Justice of the Peace, 
1916-1922; Notary Public. 1918-1922; Home Guards, 1918-1919. 
K. of P. B. P. O. E. Mason. Presbyterian. President Erlanger 
Baraca Class and First Vice-President North Carolina Baraca 
Association. Married Miss Esther Huffsticker, in 1917. Address: 
Erlanger, N. C. 



N. A. TOWNSEND. 

N. A. Townsend. Democrat, Representative from Harnett County. 
Son of Jackson and Sarah M. (Oliver) Townsend. Was born in 
Robeson County May 1, 18S2. A.B. University of North Carolina 
1905. Studied law at University of North Carolina 1905-1906. Law- 
yer. Admitted to bar February 1906. Married 1909. to Miss Myrtle 
Agnes Wade. Mayor of the Town of Dunn 1911-1912. Attorney Town 
of Dunn 1917-1921. Member of the House of Representatives 1921. 
Address: Dunn. N. C. 



ZEBULON VANCE' TURLINGTON. 

Z. V. Turlington, Democrat, Representative from Iredell County. 
was born in Johnston County, in 1S77. Son of Eli and Sarah 
(Woodalll Turlington. Attended Turlington Institute. Smithfield, 
N. C. 1893-1896; Dniversity of North Carolina Law School 1898-1899. 
Lawyer. Member Rotary Club. Member of House of Representatives 
in 1905, 1907, 1909, and 1911. Presbyterian. Married Miss Mary 
Howard Rankin, in 1902. Address: Mooresville, N. C. 



Representatives in General Assembly 

WALTER ROBERT VAUGHAN. 

W. R. Vaughan, Democrat, Representative from Warren County. 
was born in Granville County, in 1871. Son of Robert Starke and 
Mary Eliza (Clarke) Vaughan. Attended private schools in Hen- 
derson, N. C, 1876-1884 and Henderson Academy 18S4-1S89. Farmer 
and Railroad Agent. Mayor of Vaughan 1895-1S99; Chairman County 
Convention of Warren 1901; Chairman Township Executive Com- 
mittee for a number of years; Member Board of Education Warren 
County two years; Member and Secretary County Highway Com- 
mission one year; Chairman School Board for about ten years; Jus- 
tice of the Peace. Member of Safety First Committee of S. A. L.. 
in 1917. Appointed by the Governor member of Soldiers Advisory 
Committee during World War. Mason. Order of Railroad Tele- 
graphers. Methodist: Superintendent of Sunday School for last 
twenty-five years. Married Miss Valeria James Fl tyd in Ad- 

dress Vaughan. N. C. 



JAMES EDWARD LEE WADE. 

J. E. L. Wade, Democrat, Representative from New Hanover 
County, was born at Monroe. N. C. in 1889. Son of Edward Timothy, 
and Virginia Colwell (Whitfield) Wade. Attended public schools 
and Cape Fear Academy. Transportation, A. C. L. Railway. Mem- 
ber of Advisory Committee to Board of Education in New Ham 
County 1920-1921; Member City Council 1920-1921. Mason. R 
of Brotherhood of Railway Trainmen. Served as Local Chairman 
and Vice-Chairman of A. C. L. Board of Adjustment. J. 0. U. A. M. 
Red Men. Odd Fellow. Modern Woodmen of America. Baptist; 
member of Business Men's Class. Married Miss Alberta Thurman 
Dickerson. Address: Wilmington, X. C. 



JAMES WILLIAM WALKER. 

James William Walker, Democratic, Representative fr ock- 

ingham County, was born in that County, January 22nd, 1860. Son 
of Robert T. and Mary M. (Montgomery) Walker. Attended prh 
and public schools 1S70-1S80; Stevens Creek High School, A' 
1881; Normal Summer School at Chapel Hill, 1 '">' 



506 Biographic \i. Sket< hes 

Institutes for teachers for eight or ten years. Taught in public 
schools for six or eight years. Contractor and builder over twenty- 
five years. Vice-President and director of Burton Clarence Walker 
Co., Furniture and Undertaking, Mercantile business, of Reidsville, 
N. C. Representative in the General Assembly 1921. Odd Fellow; 
filled all chairs up to and including Noble Grand and twice repre- 
sentative to the State Grand Lodge. Methodist, Steward for last 
seventeen years. Married 1883, to Miss Mary Annie Martin. Married 
second time December 1920 to Miss Mary S. Gibbs. Address: Reids- 
ville, N. C. 



LINDSAY CARTER WARREN. 

Lindsay Carter Warren, Democrat, Representative from Beaufort 
County, was born at Washington, N. C, in 1889. Son of Charles 
F. and Elizabeth Mutter (Blount) Warren. Received his preparatory 
education at Bingham School, at Asheville, 1903-1906. Attended 
University of North Carolina 1906-1908; Law School of the University 
of North Carolina 1911-1912. Lawyer. Chairman Democratic Exec- 
utive Committee of Beaufort County since 1912; County Attorney 
of Beaufort County since 1912; State Senator 1917, and 1919. Presi- 
dent pro tempore State Senate in 1919; Member Code Commission 
1919; Chairman Legal Advisory Board and Government Appeal 
Agent for Beaufort County during World War; Chairman Demo- 
cratic State Platform Committee, 1920; Chairman Legislative Com- 
mission for Workmens Compensation Act, 1920; Trustee University 
of North Carolina; Director First National Bank of Washington; 
Director, The Trust Company of Washington. Member Alpha Tau 
Omega Fraternity. B. P. O. E. Member Kiwanis club; president. 
Episcopalian. Married Miss Emily D. Harris, in 1916. Address: 
Washington, N. C. 



WILLIAM ALGERNON WARREN. 

W. A. Warren, Democrat, Representative from Person County, 
was born in Caswell County in 1852. Son of F. L. and Mary A. 
(Wells) Warren. Attended Hughes Academy. County Commissioner 
1899-1900; Member Board of Education 1901-1902; Representative in 



'Representatives in General Assembly 



507 



General Assembly of 1903, and 1911. Primitive Baptist. Married 
Miss Hulda Aj Hester in 1882. Address: Hurdle Mill, I". C. Route, 
No. 2. 



John S. W 
was born i 
(Reid) Watfi 
Farmers 
Farmers' 
Mason. W 
School 
dress: Vii 



n bat 



is. 



Mial 



JOHN S. WATKINS. 

ins, Democrat, Representative from Granville County. 

county in 1879. Son of John A. and Margaret 

Attended Scottsburg Normal College, 1898-1899. 

iry and Treasurer of Granville County Branch of 

Fire Insurance Company, 1918 to present date. 

Baptist; chairman of Board of Deacons; Sunday 

Married Miss Belle Norwood in 1905. Ad- 

na, Va., Route, No. 2. 



W 



Suputendent. 



MARVIN BRODGON WATKINS. 

Marvin 1 don Watkins, Democrat, Representative from Bruns- 
wick Counvas born at Ellenboro, N. C, in 18S9. Son of Daniel 
A. and S (Brogdon) Watkins. Attended Salemburg High 
School, 19 Farmer and Merchant. Served four years in U. S. 
Naval Res : on duty three months in 1918. Member of the 
American on. Methodist; Sunday School Superintendent and 
steward, ried Miss Mattie J. Thompson, in 1911. Address: 
Town CreT. C. 



Thoma v 



County, 
Thomas 
neighbor 
Farmer. 

1911; t* 

State 

Eightee 

cutive 

years 



THOMAS CALVIN WHITAKER. 






rin Whitaker, Democrat, Representative from Jones 

orn at Cypress Creek, January 25th, 18*55. Son of 

d Sarah Eliza (Koonce) Whitaker. Educated in 

schools, 1863-1S74, and Rutherford College. 1S75. 

ve years secretary to Hon. C. R. Thomas, M. ('.. 1 

•s Director of A. & N. C. R. R., 1899-1901; four yens 

& N. C. R. R., Kitchen Administration. L909 L913. 

a member, twelve years secretary, Democratic 

, third North Carolina District, 1894-1912. Eighteen 
n Democratic County Executive Committee, Jones 



Gee 



508 Biographical Sketches 

County, 1S92-1910. Methodist; Superintendent Sunday School of 
Wilson, N. C. 1S94-1920. Married, December, 1880, Miss Elizabeth 
Murray. Address: Trenton, N. C. 



THOMAS EARLY WHITAKER. 

Thomas Early Whitaker, Democrat, Representativerom Guilford 
County, was born in Granville County in 1866. So of David W. 
and Carrie A. (Freeman) Whitaker. Attended Oak llge Institute, 
1883-1886; Judge R. P. Dick's Law School at Gresboro, N. C.,' 
1896. President of Oak Ridge Institute; Farmer anLawyer. Re- 
presented Guilford County in General Assembly 1!, 1903, 1921. 
J. O. U. A. M. Modern Woodmen of America. Methist. Married 
Miss Ida L. Ogburn in 1891. Address: Oak Ridgel". C. 



RICHARD PATRICK WILLIAMS 

R P. Williams, Democrat, Representative from ven County, 
was born at New Bern. N. C. in 1853. Son of The, and Sarah 
Ann (Ellis) Williams. Received his education in thblic schools 
of New Bern and High Point. Farmer and Stock Dr. Alderman 
of New Bern, 1886-1888; Mayor of New Bern, ISSRepresented 
his county in the General Assembly of 1893 and ' Justice of 
the Peace and County Commissioner, 1897-1899; Tr, 1899. At 
present, Commissioner Seventh Township Craven ity. Metho- 
dist. Married Miss Pauline Telfair Carrington. ress: New 
Bern, N. C. 



C. G. WRIGHT. 



C. G. Wright, Democrat, Representative from >rd County. 
Capitalist. Educated at the University of North tia, class of 
1886. Representative in the General Assembly of L919. Trus- 
tee of the University of North Carolina since Address: 
Greensboro, N. C.