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Full text of "North Carolina manual [serial]"

THE LIBRj\RY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 




THE COLLECTION OF 
NORTH CAROLINIANA 

PRESENTED BY 

William Lunsf ord Long 

C 9X7. 05 

N87m 
192? 



UNIVERSITY OF N C AT CHAPEL HILL 



00017482323 



This book is due on the last date stamped 
below unless recalled sooner. It may be 
renewed only once and must be brought to 
the North Carolina Collection for renewal. 



JSt 



Fo/-ni No. A -369 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE 
NORTH CAROLINA HISTORICAL COMMISSION 



NORTH CAROLINA MANUAL 

1927 



COMPILED AND EDITED 

BY 

A. R. NEWSOME 

Secretary of the North Carolina 
Historical Commission 



RALEIGH 

EDWARDS a BROUGHTON COMPANY 

State Printers 
1927 



1927 



JANUARY 


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PREFACE 



This volume is issued by the North Carolina Historical Commis- 
sion in order to furnish in succinct form information about the 
State, its government and institutions, which otherwise would re- 
quire much investigation in many different sources'. Unless other- 
wise stated, the data in each case is the latest available. 

Similar manuals were issued by the Secretary of State in 1903, 
1905, and 1907, and by the North Carolina Historical Commission 
in 1909, 1911, 1913, 1915, 1917, 1919, 1921, 1923, and 1925. The 
demand for these volumes has been so great that all editions except 
that of 1925 have been exhausted. 



NORTH CAROLINA HISTORICAL COIVOIISSION 



Thomas M. Pittman, Chairman, Henderson 

M. C. S. Noble Chapel Hill 

Heriot Clarkson Raleigh 

W. N. Everett Raleigh 

Ben Dixon MacNeill Raleigli 

A. R. Newsome, Secretary, Raleigh. 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Official Register for 1927-1928 9 

THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT: 

Officers and Members of the Senate 15 

Senatorial Districts 18 

Rules of the Senate 19 

Standing Committees of the Senate 30 

Officers and Members of the House of Representatives 35 

Rules of the House of Representatives 41 

Standing Committees of the House of Representatives 5:5 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS: 

The Governor 63 

The Secretary of State 70 

The Auditor 73 

The Ti'easurer 75 

Superintendent of Public Instruction 78 

The Attorney-General 83 

Council of State ..•-- 85 

JIDICIAL DEPARTMENT: 

Court of Impeachment 91 

The Supreme Court 92 

Superior Courts 93 

Other Courts 93 

North Carolina Corporation Commission 94 

STATE DEPARTMENTS, BOARDS, AND COMMISSIONS: 

The Adjutant-General's Department 101 

Department of Agriculture 105 

Board of Agriculture H*^ 

Joint Committee for Agricultural Work 114 

Department of Labor and Printing ll-'> 

Department of Insurance 1'-" 

■State Department of Revenue '-•' 

State Board of Assessment '-'^ 

State Highway Commission '•" 

State Board of Health '•'" 

Department of Conservation and DevelopmenI 1»" 



Contents 



Page 

State Board of Charities and Public Welfare 147 

Child Welfare Commission 1^5 

The Budget Bureau 163 

North CaroUna Historical Commission 165 

Library Commission of North Carolina 172 

State Library l'^6 

Law Library - ■ ^'^ 

Audubon Society of North Carolina 180 

North Carolina Fisheries Commission Board 185 

Printing Commission 18" 

Salary and Wage Commission 189 

Judicial Conference 189 

State Prison 190 

State Bureau of Identification 192 

Commissioner of Pardons - 193 

Educational Commission 194 

Tlie Equalizing Fund Commission 195 

State Board of Vocational Education 195 

College Commission - 196 

State Committee on High School Text-books 197 

Text-book Commission 198 

Transportation Advisory Commission 199 

State Sinking Fund Commission 200 

State Board of Elections - 202 

State Board of Canvassers - 203 

State Board of Pensions 204 

Commissioner of the Veterans Loan Fund 205 

Board of Public Buildings and Grounds 206 

Municipal Board of Control - 207 

State Standard Keeper 208 

Board of Commissioners of Navigation and Pilotage 209 

Crop Pest Commission 210 

National Park Commission for North Carolina 210 

Commission on the Reproduction of the Canova Statue of Washington 211 

Bennett Place Memorial Commission 212 

Board of Medical Examiners 213 

Board of Chiropody Examiners 214 

The Board of Nurse Examiners of North Carolina 215 

Board of Pharmacy - 216 

North Carolina Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners 217 

North Carolina State Board of Dental Examiners 218 

State Board of Accountancy - 219 

State Board of Architectural Examination and Registration 220 

State Board of Chiropractic Examiners 220 

State Board of Embalmers 221 

State Board of Examiners in Optometry- -■ 222 



Contents 



Pace 

State Board of Osteojiathic Examination and Registration 223 

State Board of Registration for Engineers and Land Surveyors 224 

State Licensing Board for Contractors 225 

STATE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS: 

University of North Carolina 229 

North Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engineering 234 

North Carolina College for Women 240 

Cullowhee State Normal School 245 

Appalachian State Normal School '. 247 

East Carolina Teachers College 248 

North Carolina School for the White Blind and for the Colored Blind 

and Deaf : 250 

North Carolina School for the Deaf 252 

Stonewall Jackson Manual Training and Industrial School 254 

North Carolina Normal Schools and Colleges for the Coloi-ed Race and 

for the Cherokee Indians of Robeson County 255 

Fayetteville Colored Normal School 257 

Elizabeth City Colored Normal School 259 

Winston-Salem Teachers College at Winston-Salem 260 

North Carolina College for Negroes 261 

Cherokee Indian Normal School of Robeson County 262 

Negro Agricultural and Technical College of North Carolina 26:i 

Caswell Training School 265 

East Carolina Industrial Training School for Boys 266 

State Ti-aining School for Negro Boys 267 

State Home and Industrial School for Girls and Women 268 

STATE CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS: 

State Hospital at Raleigh 273 

State Hospital at Morganton 275 

State Hospital at Goldsboro 275 

North Carolina Sanatorium for the Treatment of Tuberculosis 276 

North Carolina Orthopaedic Hospital 278 

Oxford Orphanage 279 

North Carolina Orphanage for the Colored Race 280 

Soldiers' Home 28- 

Confederate Women's Home 284 

MISCELLANEOUS; 

The North Carolina Railroad Company 289 

The Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad Company 29H 

Tlie Appalachian and Western North Carolina Railroad Company 295 

The North Carolina Agricultural Society 296 

The North Carolina State Capitol 297 

State Administration Building •'"'•' 



8 Contp:nts 

Pagk 

North Carolina Day 304 

Legal Holidays in North Carolina 306 

The State Flag 308 

The Great Seal 310 

State Motto and Its Origin 'j '.. 315 

The Confederate Museum at Richmond 317 

PLATFORMS OF POLITICAL PARTIES, 1926: 

State Democratic Platform 321 

State Republican Platform 329 

ELECTION RETURNS: 

Vote for President by States, 1912-1924 339 

Vote for President by Counties, 1916-1924 342 

Vote by Counties for Governor in Democratic Primaries, 1920-1924 344 

Vote for State Officers in Democratic Primaries, 1924 346 

Democratic Primary Vote. June 5, 1926, for United States Senator 347 

Vote for Governor by Counties, 1920-1924 343 

Vote for United States Senator, 1920-1926 350 

Vote for Members of Congress, 1922-1926 352 

Vote on Constitutional Amendment and Referendum by Counties, 1926.... 357 

Vote for Solicitors, 1926 361 

THE HALIFAX RESOLUTION 369 

THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 370 

CONSTITUTIONS; 

Constitution of the United States of America 377 

Constitution of the State of North Carolina 394 

Index to the Constitution of North Carolina 448 

CENSUS: 

Population and Area of the Several States and Territories, 1910-1920 459 

Population (estimated) of North Carolina, 1675-1786 461 

Census of North Carolina, 1790-1840 462 

Census of North Carolina, 1850-1920 463 

Population of North Carolina Cities and Towns, 1900-1920 466 

North Carolina Counties and County Seats 474 

Economic Development of North Carolina 477 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES: 

Executive Officials 481 

Justices of the Supreme Court 487 

Members of Congress 491 

Members of the General Assembly 499 



OFFICIAL REGISTER FOR 1927-1928 



LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT 

J. Elmer Lo, President of the Senate Durham. 

Richard T. 'I^untaix ._. Speaker of the House of Representatives. Edgecombe. 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT 

A. W. L ijEan Governor Robeson. 

J. Elmer Long Lieutenant-Governor Durham. 

W. N. Everett Secretary of State Richmond. 

Baxter Durham Auditor Wake. 

B. R. Lacy Treasurer ".Wake. 

A. T. Allen Superintendent of Public Instruction Alexander. 

Dennis G . Brummitt _ Attorney-General .Gran vi lie. 

JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT 

SUPREME COURT JUSTICES 

Walter P. Stacy Chief Justice New Hanover. 

W. J. Ad.\ms Associate Justice Moore. 

Heriot Clarkson Associate Justice Mecklenburg. 

George W. Connor Associate Justice Wilson. 

W. J. Brogden Associate Justice. Durham. 

superior court judges 

W. M. Bond First District Chowan— Edenton. 

M. V. Barnhill Second District Nash — Rock.v Mount. 

Garland E. Midyette Third District Northampton— Jackson. 

Frank A. Daniels Fourth Di.strict Wayne — Goldsboro. 

R. A. NuNN. Fifth District Craven— New Bern. 

H. A. Grady _ Sixth District Sampson — C^linton. 

W. C. Harris Seventh District Wake — Raleisli. 

E. H. Cranmer Eighth District Brun.swick— Southport. 

N. A. Sinclair Ninth District Cumberland Kayettevillo. 

William A. Devin Tenth District. ._ ..XJranvillc — Oxford. 

Raymond G. Parker Eleventh District Fors.\th— Winston-Salem. 

Thomas J. Shaw .Twelfth District Guilford — Greensboro. 

A. M. Stack •_ Thirteenth District Union -Monroe. 

W. F. Harding Fourteenth District .Mecklenburg— Charlotte. 

J. M. Oglesby Fifteenth District Cabarrus— Concord. 

J. L. Webb Sixteentli District Cleveland— Shelby. 

T. B. Finley Seventeenth District Wilkes- Wilke.sboro. 

Michael Schenck Eighteenth District Henderson Henderson ville. 

P. A. McElroy Nineteenth District . .Madison Miirsliftll. 

Walter E. .Moore Twentieth District Jackson— Sjlva. 

solicitors 

W. L. Small First District Pasquotank— Elizalietli City. 

Donnell Gilliam Second District EdKCcombc- Tarborn. 

R. Hunt Parker Third Di.strict .Vance— Henderson. 

C. L. Williams Fourth District Lee— Sunford. 

D. M. Clark Fifth District Pitt— Greenvdle. 

J. A. Powers Sixth District .Lenoir— Kinston. 

L. S. Brassfield Seventh District Wake— RuleiKh. 

Woodus Kellum Eighth District... -New IIanover-« ilinintiton. 

T. A. McNeill . Ninth District ..Robeson— Lumberlun. 

W. B Umstead ...Tenth District... Durham— Durham. 



10 Official Register 



S. Porter Graves Eleventh District Surry— Mount Airy. 

J. F. Spruill Twelfth District Davidson— Lexington. 

F. D. Phillips Thirteenth District Richmond-Rockingham. 

J. G. Carpenter ..Fourteenth District Gaston— Gastonia. 

Z. V. Long Fifteenth District.. Iredell— Statesville 

L. S. Spurling Sixteenth District Caldwell— Lenoir. 

John R. Jones geventcenth District Wilkes— North F-'' • - ro. 

J. W. Pless, Jr Eighteenth District McDowell— Mar 

R. M. Wells.. ...Kineteenth District Buncombe— AsL le. 

G. C. Davis Twentieth District Haywood — Wayne 'lie. 

CORPORATION COMMISSION 

W. T. Lee Chairman Hay > . 

George P. Pell Commissioner.-. Forsj '.. 

A. J. Maxwell .Commissioner Craven. 

R. Otis Self. . Chief Clerk Jackson. 

ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENTS, BOARDS, AND COMMISSIONS 

ADJUTANT general's DEPARTMENT 

J. Van B. Metts ...The Adjutant General New Hanover. 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

W. A. Graham Commissioner Lincoln. 

DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND PRINTING 

F. D. Grist Commissioner Caldwell. 

DEPART.MENT OF INSURANCE 

Stacey W. Wade Commissioner Carteret. 

DEPARTMENT OF REVENUE 

R. A. DouGHTOX .Commissioner. _. Alleghany. 

ST.iTE HIGHWAY COMMISSION 

Frank Page Commissioner Moore. 

STATE BOARD OF HEALTH 

C. O'H. Laughi.vghouse Secretary _ Pitt. 

DEP.4.RTMENT OP CONSERVATION' AND DEVELOl'MEN'T 

Wade H. Phillips Director Davidson. 

STATE BO.A^RD of CHARITIES .\.ND PUBLIC WELFARE 

Mrs. Kate Burr Johnson Commissioner Wake. 

CHILD WELFARE COMMISSION 

E. F. Carter Executive Secretary Wake. 

NORTH CAROLINA HISTORICAL COMMISSION 

A. R. Newsome ... Secretary Union. 

LIBRARY CO.MMISSION 

Mrs. Lillian B. Griggs Secretary Durham. 

STATE LIBRARY 

Miss Carrie L. Broughton ..Librarian Wake. 

LAW LIBR.VRY 

Marshall DeL. Haywood Librarian Wake. 



Official Register 11 



AUDUBON SOCrETY 

Miss Placide H. Ujjdeewood. Secretary Wake. 

FISHERIES COMMISSION BOARD 

J. A. Nelson Commissioner. Carteret. 

S.\LART AND WAGE COMMISSION 

H. HoYLE Sink Executive Secretary _ ..Davidson. 

STATE PRISON 

George Ross Pou Superintendent Johnston. • 

Superior Court Calendar, 1927-1928 
District Spring, 1927. Fall, 1927 Spring, 1928 Fall, 1928 

1 Judge Daniels Judge Mid.vette Judge Barnhill Judge Bond. 

2 Judge Nunn Judge Daniels Judge Midyette Judge Barnhill. 

3 Judge Grady Judge Nunn ...Judge Daniels Judge Midyette 

4 Judge Harris Judge Grady.. Judge Nunn ..Judge Daniels. 

5 .Judge Cranmer Judge Harris Judge Grady Judge Nunn- 

6 Judge Sinclair _ Judge Cranmer Judge Harris Judge Grady. 

7 Judge Devin Judge Sinclair ..Judge Cranmer ."...Judge Harris. 

8 Judge Bond Judge Devin ^•..-. Judge Sinclair Judge Cranmer. 

9 Judge Barnhill Judge Bond Judge Devin Judge Sinclair. 

10 ...Judge Midyette Judge Barnhill Judge Bond Judge Devin. 

11 Judge Harding Judge Stack.. Judge Shaw Judge Parker. 

12 Judge Oglesby Judge Harding Judge Stack Judge Shaw. 

13 Judge Webb ..Judge Oglesby Judge Harding Judge Stack. 

14 Judge Finley Judge Webb Judge Oglesby Judge Harding. 

15 Judge Schenck.. Judge Finley Judge Webb Judge Oglesby. 

16 Judge McElroy Judge Schenck Judge Finley Judge Webb. 

17 Judge Moore Judge McElroy Judge Schenck Judge Finley. 

18 Judge Parker Judge Moore... Judge McElroy Judge Schenck. 

19 Judge Shaw Judge Parker Judge Moore. Judge .McEIro.v. 

20 Judge Stack.. ..Judge Shaw Judge Parker Judge Moore. 



PART ! 
THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT 



1. Officees of the Senate. 

2. Members of the Senate (Arranged Alphabetically). 

3. Members of the Senate (Arranged by Districts). 

4. Senatorial Districts. 

5. Rules of the Senate. 

6. Standing Committees of the Senate. 

7. Officers of the House of Representatives. 

8. Members of the House of Representatives (Arranged 

Alphabetically). 

9. Members of the House of Representatives (Arranged 

by Counties). 

10. Rules of the House of Representatives. 

11. Standing Committees ok thk House of Represent.v- 

tives. 



OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF THE SENATE 



OFFICERS 

J. Elmer Long President Durham. 

W. L. Long. President, pro tern Halifax. 

Leroy B. Martin. Principal Clerk Yadkin. 

O. P. Shell Sergeant-at-Arms Harnett. 

B. Fritz Smith Reading Clerk Wake. 

Rev. a. Corey Engrossing Clerk Martin. 



SENATORS 
(Alphabetically Arranged) 



Name 



Askew, E. S. 



Bailey, John L... 

Blount, M. K 

Broughton, J. M. 



Call, Clarence--- 
Canaday, C. C. 
Childs, W. H.... 

Clark, W. G 

Currie, Claude.. 



Dunlap, Frank L. 

Ebbs, Plato- 

Fulton, H. T 



Grant, L. Clayton, 
Grier, Frank L 



Hancock, F. W., Jr. 

Hargett, J. S 

Harris, C. P 

Haywood, Fab J 

Hines, Chas. A 

Horton, W. B 

Horton, W. P.. 

Hyatt, J. L 



Johnson, R. D. . 



Lawrence, Lloyd, J. 
Long, W. L...- 



McDonald, D. A 

McRackan, Donald. 



McLeod, George B. 
McNeill, P. T 



District 



Maguire, S. O... 
Moore, Clayton- 



Third 

Sixth 

Fifth.... 

Thirteenth 

Twenty-fourth. . 

Eighth 

Twenty-fifth.... 

Fourth. 

Eighteenth 

Nineteenth 

Thirty-first 

Twenty-seventh- 

Ninth 

Twenty-fifth 

Fifteenth 

Seventh. 

Sixth 

Twentieth-. 

Seventeenth 

Sixteenth 

Thirteenth 

Thirtieth 

Ninth 

First.-. 

Fourth... 

Twelfth 

Tenth. 

Eleventh 

Twenty-ninth. . 

Twenty-third- .. 
Second 



Party 



Democrat. -- 

Democrat--. 
Democrat--. 
Democrat... 

Republican. 
Democrat.. - 
Democrat... 
Democrat-. - 
Democrat-.- 

Democrat... 

Democrat... 

Democrat--. 

Democrat-.. 
Democrat-.. 

Democrat--. 
Democrat-. - 
Democrat-.. 
Democrat... 
Democrat- -- 
Democrat--. 
Democrat... 
Republican . 

Democrat--. 

Democrat.. - 
Democrat--. 

Democrat--. 
Democrat--. 

Democrat--. 
Democrat.-. 

Republican - 
Democrat -- 



PostoflSce 



Merry Hill. N. C. 

Elm City, N. C. 
Greenville, N. C. 
Raleigh, N. C. 

North Wilkesboro, N. C 
Benson, N. C. 
Lincolnton, N. C. 
Tarboro, N. C. 
Troy. N. C. 

Wadesboro, N. C. 

Asheville. N. C. 

Kings Mountain. N. C. 

Wilmington, N. C. 
Statesville, N. C. 

O-xford, N. C. 
Trenton, N. C. ^ 
Mapleville, N. C. 
Concord, N. C. 
Greensboro, N. C. 
Yanceyvillc, N. C. 
Pittsboro, N. C. 
Burnsville, N. C. 

Warsaw. N. C. 

Murfreesboro. N. C. 
Roanoke Rapids, N. C. 

Carthage. N. C. 
Whitcville. N. C. 

Lumbcrton, N. C. 
West Jefferson, N. ('. 

Elkin, N. C. 
Williumstoii. \. 



16 



Legislative Department 



SENATORS—Continued. 



Name 



Ray, J. Clyde 

Roane, R. J 

Royall, Kenneth C. 
Ruark, J. W 

Salmon, N. McK. . 

Sedberry, J. C 

Sharp, J. M 

Smith, D. B 

Smith, W. Erskine, 

Spainhour, J. F 

Spencer, C. B 

Stringfield, Thos-. 

Tapp, L. P 

Whitmire, R. L 

Williams, B. B 

Williams, P. H 

Woltz, A. E 

Womble, B. S 

Woodson, Walter H 



District 



Sixteenth 

Thirty-third 

Eighth 

Tenth 

Twelfth 

Eighteenth 

Seventeenth 

Twentieth 

Nineteenth 

T wenty-ei ght h . . 

Second. -.1 

Thirty-second.-. 

Seventh 

Twentj-seventli. 

Fourteenth 

First 

Twenty-sixth... 
Twenty-second - . 
Twenty- first 



Party 



Democrat. . - 
Democrat. -- 
Democrat. -- 
Democrat-. - 

Democrat-. - 
Democrat- - - 
Democrat.. - 
Democrat- -- 
Democrat... 
Democrat- - - 
Democrat... 
Democrat--. 

Democrat--- 

Democrat... 
Democrat--. 
Democrat... 
Democrat-.. 
Democrat--. 
Democrat--. 



PostofEce 



Hillsboro, N. C. 
Whittier, N. C. 
Goldsboro, N. C. 
Southport, N. C. 

LilUngton, N. C. 
Rockingham, N. C. 
Reidsville, N. C. 
Charlotte, N. C. 
Albemarle, N. C. 
Morganton, N. C. 
Swan Quarter, N. C 
Waynesville, N. C. 

Kinston, N. C. 

Hendersonville, N. C. 
Warrenton, N. C. 
Elizabeth City, N. C. 
Gastonia, N. C. 
Winston-Salem, N. C. 
Salisbury, N. C. 



SEJfATOBS 
(Arranged by Districts) 

First District — Lloyd J. Lawrence, Murfreesboro (D); P. H. 
Williams, Elizabeth City (D). 

Second District — Clayton Moore, Williamston (D); C. B. Spencer, 
Swan Quarter (D). 

Third District— E. S. Askew, Merry Hill (D). 

Fourth District — W. G. Clark, Tarboro (D) ; W. L. Long, Roanoke 
Rapids (D). 

Fifth District— M. K. Blount, Greenville (D). 

Sixth District — C. P. Harris, Mapleville (D) ; John L. Bailey, Elm 
City (D). 

Seventh District — L. P. Tapp, Kinston (D) ; J. S. Hargett, Tren- 
ton (D). 

Eighth District— Kenneth C. Royal, Goldsboro (D); C. C. Cana- 
day, Benson (D). 

Ninth District— h. Clayton Grant, Wilmington (D); R. D. John- 
son, Warsaw (D). 



Senators 17 

Tenth District — Donald McRackan, Whiteville (D); J. W. Ruark, 
Southport (D). 

Eleventh District — ^George B. McLeod, Lumberton (D). 
Twelfth District — N. McK. Salmon, Lillington (D) ; D. A. 
McDonald, Carthage (D). 

Thirteenth District — J. M. Broughton, Raleigh (D) ; W. P. Hor- 
ton, Pittsboro (D). 

Fourteenth District — B. B. Williams, Warrenton (D). 

Fifteenth District— F. W. Hancock, Jr., Oxford (D). 

Sixteenth District — J. Clyde Ray, Hillsboro (D); W. B. Horton, 
Yanceyville (D). 

Seventeenth District — Chas. A. Hines, Greensboro (D); J. M. 
Sharp, Reidsville (D). 

Eighteenth District — Claude Carrie, Troy (D); J. C. Sedberry, 
Rockingham (D). 

l^ineteenth District — Frank L. Dunlap, Wadesboro (D); W. 
Erskine Smith, Albemarle (D). • 

Ticentieth District— D. B. Smith, Charlotte (D); Fab J. Haywood, 
Concord (D). 

Twenty-first District — Walter H. Woodson, Salisbury (D). 

Twenty-second District — B. S. Womble, Winston-Salem (D). 

Twenty-third District — S. O. Maguire, Elkin (R). 

Twenty-fourth District — Clarence Call, North Wilkesboro (R). 

Twenty-fifth District — W. H. Childs, Lincolnton (D); Frank L. 
Grier, Statesville (D). 

Twenty-sixth District — A. E. Woltz, Gastonia (D). 

Tiventy-seventh District — H. T. Fulton, Kings Mountain (D); 
R. L. Whitmire, Hendersonville (D). 

Twenty-eighth District — J. F. Spainhour, Morganton (D). 

Twenty-ninth District — P. T. McNeill, West Jefferson (D). 

Thirtieth District — J. L. Hyatt, Burnsville (R). 

Thirty-first District — Plato Ebbs, Asheville (D). 

Thirty-second District — Thomas Stringfield, Waynesvillo (D). 

Thirty-third District — ^R. J. Roane, Whittier (D). 
2 



18 Legislative Depabtmeint 

SENATORIAL DISTRICTS 

Ch. 161, P. L. 1921. 

First District — Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Gates, Hertford, Pas- 
quotank and Perquimans counties shall elect two senators. 

Second Disirict — Beaufort, Dare, Hyde, Martin, Pamlico, Tyrrell, 
and Washington shall elect two senators. 

Third District — Bertie and Northampton shall elect one senator. 

Fourth District — Edgecombe and Halifax shall elect two senators. 

Fifth District — Pitt shall elect one senator. 

Sixth District — Franklin, Nash and Wilson shall elect two sena- 
tors. 

Seventh District — Carteret, Craven, Greene, Jones, Lenoir, and 
Onslow shall elect two senators. 

Eighth District — Johnston and Wayne shall elect two senators. 

Ninth District — Duplin, New Hanover, Pender, and Sampson shall 
elect two senators. 

Tenth District — Bladen. Brunswick, Columbus, and Cumberland 
shall elect two senators. 

Eleventh District — Robeson shall elect one senator. 

Twelfth District — Harnett, Hoke, Moore, and Randolph shall elect 
two senators. 

Thirteetith District — Chatham, Lee, and Wake shall elect two 
senators. 

Fourteeiith District — Vance and Warren shall elect one senator. 

Fifteenth District — Granville and Person shall elect one senator. 

Sixteenth District — Alamance, Caswell, Durham, and Orange shall 
elect two senators. 

Seventeenth District — Guilford and Rockingham shall elect two 
senators. 

Eighteenth District — Davidson, Montgomery, Richmond, and 
Scotland shall elect two senators. 

Nineteenth District — Anson, Stanly, and Union shall elect two 
senators. 

Twentieth District — Cabarrus and Mecklenburg shall elect two 
senators. 

Tiventy-first District — Rowan shall elect one senator. 



Rules of the Senate 19 

Twenty-second District — Forsyth shall elect one senator. 

Twenty-third District — Stokes and Surry shall elect one senator. 

Twenty-fourth District — Davie, Wilkes, and Yadkin shall elect 
one senator. 

Twenty-fifth District — Catawba, Iredell, and Lincoln shall elect 
two senators. 

Twenty-sixth District — Gaston shall elect one senator. 

Twenty-seventh District — Cleveland, Henderson, McDowell, Polk, 
and Rutherford shall elect two senators. 

Twenty-eighth District — Alexander, Burke and Caldwell shall elect 
one senator. 

Twenty-ninth District — Alleghany, Ashe, and Watauga shall elect 
one senator. 

Thirtieth District — Avery, Madison, Mitchell, and Yancey shall 
elect one senator. 

Thirty-first District — Buncombe shall elect one senator. 

Thirty-second District — ^Haywood, Jackson, and Transylvania shall 
elect one senator. 

Thirty-third District — Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Macon, and Swain 
shall elect one senator. 



RULES OF THE SENATE 

Order of Business 

1. The President having taken the chair at the hour to which the 
Senate shall have adjourned, and a quorum being present, the 
Journal of the preceding day shall be read, unless otherwise ordered 
by the Senate, to the end that any mistake may be corrected. 

2. After reading and approval of the Journal, the order of 
business shall be as follows: 

(1) Reports of standing committees. 

(2) Reports of select committees. 

(3) Announcement of petitions, bills and resolutions. 

(4) Unfinished business of preceding day. 

(5) Special orders. 



20 Legislativk Dkpaktment 

(6) General orders. First, bills and resolutions on third read- 
ing; second, bills and resolutions on second reading. But messages 
from the Governor and House of Representatives and communica- 
tions and reports from State officers and reports from the Commit- 
tees on Engrossed Bills and Enrolled Bills may be received and 
acted on under any order of business. 

Powers and Dutiks of the Pkesidext 

3. He shall take the chair promptly at the appointed time and 
proceed with the business of the Senate according to the rules 
adopted. At any time during the absence of the President, the 
President pro teynpore. who shall be elected, shall preside, and he 
is hereby vested, during such time, with all powers of the Presi- 
dent except that of giving a casting vote in case of a tie when he 
shall have voted as a Senator. 

4. He shall assign to doorkeepers their respective duties, and 
shall appoint such pages and laborers as may be necessary, each of 
whom shall receive the same compensation as is now provided by 
law. 

Of the Clerk 

5. The President and Clerk of the Senate shall 'see that all bills 
shall be acted upon by the Senate in the order in which they stand 
upon the Calendar, unless otherwise ordered as hereinafter pro- 
vided. The Calendar shall include the numbers and titles of bills 
and joint resolutions which have passed the House of Representa- 
tives and have been received by the Senate for concurrence. 

6. The Clerk shall certify the passage of bills by the Senate, 
with the date thereof, together with the fact whether passed by a 
vote of three-fifths or two-thirds of the Senate, whenever such vote 
may be required by the Constitution and laws of the State. 

On the Rights and Dities of Sf:nators 

7. EVery Senator presenting a paper shall endorse the same; if 
a petition, memorial, or report to the General Assembly, with a 
brief statement of its subject or contents, adding his name; if a 
resolution, with his name; if a report of a committee, a statement 



Rules of the Senate 21 

of such report, with the name of the committee and member mak- 
ing the same; if a bill, a statement of its title, which shall contain 
a brief statement of the subject or contents of the bill, with his 
name; and all bills, resolutions, petitions, and memorials shall be 
delivered to the Clerk and by him handed to the President to be 
by him referred, and he shall announce the titles and references 
of the same, which shall be entered on the Journal. 

8. All motions shall be reduced to writing, if desired by the 
President or any Senator, delivered at the table, and read by the 
President or Clerk before the same shall be debated; but any such 
motion may be withdrawn by the introducer at any time before 
decision or amendment. 

9. If any question contains several distinct propositions it shall 
be divided by the President, at the request of any Senator, pro- 
vided each subdivision, if left to itself, shall form a substantive 
proposition. 

10. When the President is putting a question, or a division by 
counting shall be had, no Senator shall walk out of or across the 
chamber, nor when a Senator is speaking pass between him and the 
President. 

11. Every Senator wishing to speak or debate, or to present a 
petition or other paper, or to make a motion or to report, shall 
rise from his seat and address the President, and shall not proceed 
further until recognized by him. No senator shall speak or debate 
more than twice nor longer than thirty minutes on the same day 
on the same subject without leave of the Senate, and when two 
or more Senators rise at once the President shall name the Senator 
who is first to speak. 

12. E'very Senator who shall be within the bar of the Senate 
when the question is stated by the chair shall vote thereon, unless 
he shall be excused by the Senate or unless he be directly interested 
in the question; and the bar of the Senate shall include the entire 
Senate Chamber. 

13. When a motion to adjourn or for recess shall be afflrniatively 
determined, no member or officer shall leave his place until ad- 
journment or recess shall be declared by the President. 



22 Legislative Department 



STANDING COMMITTEES 

14. The following committees shall be named by the Lieutenant- 
Governor: 

On Agriculture. 

On Appropriations. 

On Banks and Currency. 

On Claims. 

On Commerce. 

On Congressional Districts. 

On Constitutional Amendments. 

On Corporation Commission. 

On Corporations. 

On Counties, Cities, and Towns. 

On Distribution of Governor's Message. 

On Education. 

On Election Law. 

On Engrossed Bills. 

On Federal Relations. 

On Finance. 

On Fish, Fisheries, and Shell-fish. 

On Caswell Training School. 

On Game Law. 

On Immigration. 

On Insane Asylums. 

On Institutions for the Blind. 

On Institutions for the Deaf. 

On Insurance. 

On Internal Improvements. 

On Journal. 

On Judicial Districts. 

On Judiciary, No. 1. 

On Judiciary, No. 2. 

On Manufacturing. 

On Military Affairs. 

On Mining. 

On Penal Institutions. 

On Pensions and Soldiers' Home. 

On Propositions and Grievances. 



EULES OF THE SeNATE 23 

On Public Health. 

On Public Roads. 

On Railroads. 

On Rules. 

On Salaries and Fees. 

On Senate Expenditures. 

On Senatorial Districts. 

15. Joint Committees 

On Library. 
On Printing. 

On Trustees of the University. 
On Consolidated Statutes. 
On Water Commerce. 
On Trustees State College. 

16. The Committee on Engrossed Bills shall examine all bills, 
amendments, and resolutions before they go out of the possession 
of the Senate, and make a report when they find them correctly 
engrossed: Provided, that when a bill is typewritten and has no 
interlineations therein, and has passed the Senate without amend- 
ment, it shall be sent to the House without engrossment, unless 
otherwise ordered. 

17. The Committee on Appropriations shall carefully examine all 
bills and resolutions appropriating or paying any moneys out of 
the State Treasury, except bills creating or increasing salaries, 
which shall be referred to the proper committee: Provided, said 
committee shall report to the Appropriations Committee the amount 
allowed, and keep an accurate record of the same and report to the 
Senate from time to time. 

18. Every report of the committee upon a bill or resolution 
which shall not be considered at the time of making the same, or 
laid on the table by a vote of the Senate, shall stand upon the 
general orders with the bill or resolution; and the report of the 
committee shall show that a majority of the committee were present 
and voted. 

19. That no committee shall be composed of more than nine 
members unless the Lieutenant-Governor shall, without objection 
from the Senate, appoint a greater number on any committee. 



24 Legislative Department 



Ox Gem;hai, Ohders and Special Oroerk 

20. Any bill or other matter may be made a special order for a 
particular day or hour by a vote of the majority of the Senators 
voting, and if it shall not be completed on that day it shall be 
returned to its place on the Calendar, unless it shall be made a 
special order for another day; and when a special order is under 
consideration it shall take precedence of any special order or sub- 
sequent order for the day, but such subsequent order may be taken 
up immediately after the previous special order has been disposed of. 

21. Every bill shall receive three readings previous to its being 
passed, and the President shall give notice at each whether it be 
the first, second, or third. After the first reading, unless a motion 
shall be made by some Senator, it shall be the duty of the President 
to refer the subject-matter to an appropriate committee. No bill 
shall be amended until it shall have been twice read. 

Proceedings When There Is Not a Quorum Voting 

22. If, on taking the question on a bill, it shall appear that a 
constitutional quorum is not present, or if the bill require a vote 
of a certain proportion of all the' Senators to pass it, and it ap- 
pears that such number is not present, the bill shall be again 
read and the question taken thereon; if the bill fail a second time 
for the want of the necessary number being present and voting, 
the bill shall not be finally lost, but shall be returned to the 
Calendar in its proper order. 

Precedence of Motions 

23. When a question is before the Senate no motion shall be 
received except those herein specified, which motions shall have 
precedence as follows, viz: 

(1) For an adjournment. 

(2) To lay on the table. 

(3) For the previous question. 

(4) To postpone indefinitely. 

(5) To postpone to a certain day. 

(6) To commit to a standing committee. 



KULES OF THE SeNATE 25 

(7) To commit to a select committee. 

(8) To amend. 

(9) To substitute. 

24. The previous question shall be as follows: "Shall the main 
question be now put?" and until it is decided shall preclude all 
amendments and debate. If this question shall be decided in the 
affirmative, the "main question" shall be on the passage of the 
bill, resolution, or other matter under consideration; but when 
amendments are pending the question shall be taken up on such 
amendments, in their order, without further debate or amendment. 
However, any Senator may move the previous question and may 
restrict the same to an amendment or other matter then under 
discussion. If such question be decided in the negative, the main 
question shall be considered as remaining under debate. 

25. "When a motion for the previous question is made and is 
pending, debate shall cease, and only a motion to adjourn or lay 
on the table shall be in order, which motion shall be put as fol- 
lows: adjourn, previous question, lay on the table. After a motion 
for the previous question is made, pending a second thereto, any 
member may give notice that he desires to offer an amendment to 
the bill or other matter under consideration; and after the previous 
question is seconded such member shall be entitled to offer his 
amendment in pursuance of such notice. 

Other QrESTio>"s to he Taken Without Debate 

26. The motions to adjourn and lay on the table shall be decided 
without debate, and the motion to adjourn shall always be in order 
when made by a Senator entitled to the floor. 

27. The respective motions to postpone to a certain day, or to 
commit, shall preclude debate on the main question. 

28. All questions relating to priority of business shall be decided 
without debate. 

29. When the reading of a paper is called for, except petitions, 
and the same is objected to by any Senator, it shall be determined 
by the Senate without debate. 

30. Any Senator requesting to be excused from voting may 
make, either immediately before or after the vote shall have been 



26 Legislative Departs: eixt 

called and before the result shall have been announced, a brief 
statement of the reasons for making such request, and the question 
shall then be taken without debate. Any Senator may explain his 
vote on any bill pending by obtaining permission of the President 
before the vote is put: Provided, that not more than three mihutes 
shall be consumed in such explanation. 

Questions That Require a Two-Thieds Vote 

31. No bill or resolution on its third reading shall be acted on 
out of the regular order in which it stands on the Calendar, and no 
bill or resolution shall be acted upon on its third reading the 
same day on which it passed its second reading unless so ordered 
by two-thirds of the Senators present. 

32. No bill or resolution shall be sent from the Senate on the 
day of its passage except on the last day of the session, unless other- 
wise ordered by a vote of two-thirds of the Senators present. 

33. No bill or resolution, after being laid upon the table upon 
motion, shall be taken therefrom except by a vote of two-thirds of 
the Senators present. 

Decorum in Debate 

34. No remark reflecting personally upon the action of any 
Senator shall be in order in debate unless preceded by a motion or 
resolution of censure. 

35. When a Senator shall be called to order he shall take his 
seat until the President shall have determined whether he was 
in order or not; if decided to be out of order, he shall not proceed 
without the permission of the Senate; and every question of order 
shall be decided by the President, subject to an appeal to the Senate 
by any Senator; and if a Senator is called to order for words 
spoken, the words excepted to shall be immediately taken down in 
writing, that the President or Senate may be better able to judge 
of the matter. 

Miscellaneous Rules 

36. When a blank is to be filled, and different sums or times shall 
be proposed, the question shall be first taken on the highest sum 
or the longest time. 



KULES OF THE SeNATE 27 

37. When a question has been once put and decided, it shall 
be in order for any Senator who shall have voted in the majority 
to move a reconsideration thereof; but no motion for the recon- 
sideration of any vote shall be in order after the bill, resolution, 
message, report, amendment, or motion upon which the vote was 
taken shall have gone out of the possession of the Senate; nor 
shall any motion for reconsideration be in order unless made on 
the same day or the next following legislative day on which the 
vote proposed to be reconsidered shall have taken place, unless the 
same shall be made by the Committee on Enrolled Bills for verbal 
or grammatical errors in the bills, when the same may be made at 
any time. Nor shall any question be reconsidered more than once. 

38. All bills and resolutions shall take their place upon the 
Calendar according to their number, and shall be taken up in regu- 
lar order, unless otherwise ordered. 

39. No smoking shall be allowed on the floor of the Senate 
Chamber during the sessions. 

40. Senators and visitors shall uncover their heads upon enter- 
ing the Senate Chamber while the Senate is in session, and shall 
continue uncovered during their continuance in the Chamber. 

41. No Senator or officer of the Senate shall depart the service 
of the Senate without leave, or receive pay as a Senator or officer 
for the time he is absent without leave. 

42. No person other than the executive and judicial officers of 
the State, members and officers of the Senate and House of Rep- 
resentatives, and ex-members shall be permitted within the Senate 
Chamber. 

43. No rule of the Senate shall be altered, suspended, or rescinded 
except on a two-thirds vote of the Senators present: Provided. 
that this shall not apply to Rule 55. 

44. In case a less number than a quorum of the Senate shall 
convene, they are authorized to send the doorkeeper, or any other 
person, for any or all absent Senators, as a majority of the Senators 
present shall determine. 

45. The ayes and noes may be called for on any (luestiou l)o- 
fore the vote is taken, and if seconded by one-fifth of the Senators 
present, the question shall be decided by the ayes and noes, and 
the same shall be entered upon the Journal. 



28 Legislative Department 

46. The President of the Senate, whenever it shall appear to him 
to be necessary in order to expedite the public business, shall ap- 
point clerks to such Senate committees as may be in need of same. 

47. Every bill introduced into the Senate shall be printed or 
typewritten. Amendments need not be typewritten. 

4S. The Clerk of the Senate shall provide a box of sufficient size, 
with an opening through the top, for the reception of bills; such 
box shall be kept under lock and key and shall be stationed on the 
Clerk's desk. The President of the Senate shall have in his charge 
and keeping the key to such box. All bills which are to be in- 
troduced into the Senate shall be deposited in such box before the 
session begins. At the proper time the President shall open the 
box and take therefrom the bills. Such bills shall be read by their 
titles, which reading shall constitute the first reading of the bill, 
and unless otherwise disposed of shall be referred to the proper 
committee. A bill may be introduced by unanimous consent at any 
time during the session. 

49. The Chief Engrossing Clerk of the Senate shall appoint, with 
the approval of the President of the Senate, as his assistants not 
more than four competent stenographers and typewriters. Should 
the public business require more than this number the presiding 
officer may appoint such additional ones as may be necessary. 
Such stenographers and typewriters shall work under the direction 
and supervision of the Engrossing Clerk. They shall also make for 
the members who introduce a bill, without extra cost, one original 
and two carbon copies of all bills. 

50. The Journal of the Senate shall be typewritten in duplicate, 
original and carbon, the original to be deposited in the office of the 
Secretary of State as the record, and the other (carbon) copy to 
be delivered to the State Printer. 

51. All bills and resolutions reported unfavorably by the com- 
mittee to which they were referred, and having no minority re- 
port, shall lie upon the table, but may be taken from the table and 
placed upon the Calendar at the request of any Senator. 

52. That in case of adjournment without any hour being named, 
the Senate shall reconvene the next legislative day at 11 o'clock a.m. 

53. When a bill is materially modified or the scope of its ap- 
plication extended or decreased, or if the county or counties to 



Rules of the Senate 29 

which it applies be changed, the title of the bill shall be changed 
by the Senator introducing the bill or by the committee having 
it in charge, or by the Engrossing Clerk, so as to indicate the full 
purport of the bill as amended and the county or counties to which 
it applies. 

54. It shall be the duty of the Principal Clerk to furnish to the 
presiding officer and the members of the Senate all necessary 
stationery, which shall be provided for out of the funds set apart 
for the expenses of the General Assembly. 

55. After a bill has been tabled or has failed to pass on any 
of its readings, the contents of such bill or the principal provisions 
of its subject-matter shall not be embodied in any other measure. 
Upon the point of order being raised and sustained by the Chair, 
such measure shall be laid upon the table, and shall not be taken 
therefrom except by a vote of two-thirds of the elected membership 
of the Senate; Provided, no local bill shall be held by the Chair 
as embodying the provisions, or being identical with any State-wide 
measure which has been laid upon the table or failed to pass any 
of its readings. 

56. That in the event of the absence of the President of the 
Senate and the President pro tempore, at any time fixed for the re- 
convening of the Senate, the Principal Clerk of the Senate, or, in 
his absence also, some member of the Senate Committee on Rules 
shall call the Senate to order and designate some member to act 
as President. 

57. Whenever a public bill is introduced, a carbon copy thereof 
shall accompany the bill. On the same day that such public bill 
is introduced the Chief Clerk shall deliver the carbon copy to the 
Public Printer and cause four hundred (400) copies thereof to 
be printed. On the morning following the delivery of the printed 
copies the Chief Clerk shall cause the Chief Page to have a copy 
thereof put upon the desk of each member and then retain the 
other printed copies in his office. A sufficient number for the 
use of the committee to whom the bill is referred shall be by the 
Chief Clerk delivered to the chairman or clerk of the committee. 
If the bill is passed, the remaining copies sliall bo by the Chief 
Clerk delivered to the Chief Clerk of the House of Representatives, 
for the use of the House of Representatives. No commitloe sliall 



30 Legislative Department 

consider or report any public bill until after the same shall have 
been printed as herein provided for. In the event the member in- 
troducing the bill and the Chief Clerk shall differ as to whether 
it is a public bill, the question shall be left to the decision of the 
President of the Senate whose decision shall be final. The cost of 
printing as herein provided for shall be paid from the contingent 
fund of the Senate. 



STANDIJfG COMMITTEES OF THE SENATE 

Agriculture. Senators Bailey, chairman; Clark, Dunlap, Hargett, 
Hancock, Askew, McRackan, Currie, Roane, McLeod, Harris, Mc- 
Donald, Horton of Caswell, Maguire, Call. 

Approiviatioyis. Senators Williams of Pasquotank, chairman; 
Long, Woodson, Hargett, Ray, Woltz, Ebbs, Grant, Spencer, Horton 
of Chatham, McDonald, Tapp, Hancock, Smith of Mecklenburg, 
Royall, Haywood, Salmon, Williams of Warren, Currie, Grier, 
Sedberry, Whitmire, Blount. 

Banks and Currency. Senators Royall, chairman; Williams of 
Pasquotank, Woodson, Woltz, Tapp, Womble, Bailey, Broughton, 
Hlnes, Blount, Stringfield, Lawrence, Dunlap, Clark, Williams of 
Warren, Haywood, Horton of Caswell, Childs, Harris, Askew, 
Currie, Call. 

Caswell Training School. Senators Sedberry, chairman; Hargett, 
Moore, Askew, Clark, Harris, Ebbs, Haywood, Williams of War- 
ren, Roane, Stringfield, Call. 

Claims. Senators Tapp, chairman; Dunlap, Lawrence, Bailey, 
Johnson, Ruark, McLeod, Horton of Chatham, Hines, Sedberry, 
Haywood, Childs. 

Commerce. Senators Askew, chairman; Long, Williams of Pas- 
quotank, Tapp, Grant, Salmon, Grier, Fulton, Maguire. 

Congressional Districts. Senators Williams of Warren, chair- 
man; Moore, Lawrence, Long, Hargett, Johnson, Salmon, Ray, 
Womble, Grier, Stringfield, Canady. 

Consolidated Statutes. Senators Grant, chairman; Spencer, 
Blount, Royall, Horton of Chatham, Williams of Warren, Sharp, 
Smith of Mecklenburg, Whitmire. 



Standing Committees of the Senate 31 

Constitutional Amendment. Senators McRackan, chairman; Dun- 
lap, Moore, Grant, Woodson, Woltz, Spainhour, Lawrence, Royall, 
Ruark, Hines. 

Corporations. Senators Broughton, chairman; Long, Williams 
of Pasquotank; Dunlap, Moore, Clark, McRackan, Ruark, Williams 
of Warren, Hancock, Currie, Smith of Stanly, Haywood, Childs, 
Whitmire, Stringfield, Canady. 

Corporation Commission. Senators Childs, chairman; Williams 
of Pasquotank, Hargett, McLeod, Salmon, Horton of Caswell, Sed- 
berry, Haywood, Call. 

Counties, Cities and Towns. Senators Ebbs, chairman; Clark, 
McDonald, Sharp, Dunlap, Ray, Tapp, Horton of Chatham, Spencer, 
Womble, Spainhour, Royall, Broughton, McRackan, Horton of 
Caswell, Hines, Smith of Mecklenburg, Childs, Whitmire, Roane, 
Maguire. 

Distribution of Governor's Message. Senators Roane, chairman; 
Bailey, Tapp, McLeod, McDonald, Smith of Mecklenburg, Fulton, 
McNeill, Hyatt. 

Education. Senators Woltz, chairman; Sharpe, Johnson, Ray, 
Grant, Spainhour, Ebbs, Horton of Chatham, Tapp, Spencer, Smith 
of Mecklenburg, Blount, Royall, Salmon, Broughton, Hancock, Sed- 
berry, Whitmire, Hyatt, Stringfield, Canady, McNeill, Horton of 
Caswell, Lawrence, Call, Maguire. 

Election Law. Senators Horton of Chatham, chairman; Hargett, 
Long, Dunlap, Woodson, Williams of Pasquotank, Ebbs, Grant, 
Spainhour, Blount, Broughton, Hancock, Horton of Caswell, Smith 
of Mecklenburg, Smith of Stanly, Grier, Whitmire, Canady, Mc- 
Neill, Ruark, Askew. 

Engrossed Bills. Senators Canady, chairnran; Askew, Bailey. 
McRackan, McLeod, McDonald, Ray, Grier, Call. 

Enrolled Bills. Senators Whitmire, chairman: Spencer, Chirk, 
Tapp, Ruark, Broughton, Sharpe, Sedberry, Maguire. 

Federal Relations. Senators Canady, chairman; Moore, Blount. 
Harris, Johnson, Call, Fulton, Hyatt. 

Finance. Senators Woodson, chairman; Wonil)le. Williams of 
Pasquotank, Clark, Long, Dunlap, Johnson, Woltz, Hay, Moore. 
Sharp. McRackan, Hines, Ruark, Broughton. McLeod, Hor- 
ton of Caswell, Smith of Stanly, Haywood, Hyatt, Stringfield. Childs. 
Canady, Call. 



32 Legislative Department 

Fish and Fisheries. Senators Ruark, chairman; Spencer, Hargett, 
Lawrence, McLeod, Askew, Hancock, Smith of Mecklenburg, String- 
field, McNeill, Currie, Maguire. 

Game Lata. Senators McLeod, chairman; Dunlap, Tapp, Mc- 
Donald, Spencer, Williams of Pasquotank, Horton of Chatham, 
Grant, Ray, Bailey, Sharp, Lawrence, Clark, Harris, Haywood, 
Grier, Fulton, Roane, Call. 

Immigration. Senators Harris, chairman; Lawrence, Askew, 
Tapp, Ruark, Salmon, Horton of Caswell. 

Insane Asylum. Senators Clark, chairman; Woltz, Bailey, Tapp, 
Womble, Grier, Ray, Ruark, Royall, Salmon, Sedberry, Smith of 
Stanly, Maguire. 

Institutions for the Blind. Senators Spainhour, chairman; 
Broughton, Royall, Lawrence, Ba,iley, Hargett, Salmon, iSharp, 
Currie, Haywood, Childs, Whitmire. Stringfield, Roane. 

Institutions for the Deaf. Senators Grier, chairman; Williams, 
of Pasquotank, Ebbs, Askew, Blount, Harris, McDonald, Brough- 
ton, Horton of Chatham, Ray, Fulton, McNeill, Hyatt. 

Insurance. Senators Hines, chairman; Dunlap, Woodson, Wil- 
liams of Warren, Clark, Moore, Woltz, Hancock, Ray, McDonald, 
Grant, Ruark, Williams of Pasquotank, Sedberry, Smith of Stanly, 
Childs, Fulton, McNeill, Canady, Maguire. 

Internal lynprovemenls. Senators Lawrence, chairman; Moore, 
Long, Harris, Grant, Horton of Chatham, Williams of Warren, 
Hancock, Hines, Womble, Maguire. 

Journal. Senators Stringfield, chairman; Sharp, Spencer, Ray, 
Currie, Dunlap, Smith of Mecklenburg, Grier, Fulton. 

Courts and Judicial Districts. Senators Smith of Mecklenburg, 
chairman; Johnson, Woltz, Sharpe, Dunlap, Womble, Ray, Moore, 
Gi'ant, Horton of Chatham, Williams of Warren, Hancock, Hines, 
Currie, Childs, Lawrence, Whitmire, Canady, Smith of Stanly. 

Judiciary. No. I. Senators Moore, chairman; Long, Sharp, Dun- 
lap, Woltz, Womble, Woodson, Spainhour, Horton of Chatham, Ray, 
Lawrence, Blount, Salmon, Hancock, Hines, Smith of Stanly, 
Grier, Ruark. 

Judiciary. No. 2. Senators Johnson, chairman; Broughton, Grant, 
Spencer, Royall, McRakan, Horton of Caswell, Williams of War- 
ren, Currie, Sedberry, Smith of Mecklenburg, Childs, Whitmire, 
Canady. 



Standing Committees of the Senate iV.i 

Library. Senators Fulton, chairman; Ebbs, Canady, Lawrence, 
Clark, McLeod, Spainhour, Horton of Caswell. 

Manufacture. Senators Haywood, chairman; Long, Hargett, IJun- 
lap, Williams of Pasquotank, Woltz, Woodson, Fulton, Womble, 
Ray, Hines, Royall, Grant, Smith of Stanly, Smith of Mecklen- 
burg, Stringfield, Call. 

Military Affairs. Senators Smith of Stanly, chairman; Dunlai), 
Horton of Caswell, Royall, Broughton, Salmon, Hancock, Hines, 
Currie, Sedberry, Grier, Canady. 

Alining. Senators Roane, chairman; Askew, McDonald, McLeod, 
Horton of Chatham, Haywood, Childs, Stringfield, Call. 

Penal Institutions. Senators Hancock, chairman; Moore, Spen- 
cer, Dunlap, Tapp, Hargett, Canady, Clark, Johnson, McLeod, Sal- 
mon, Horton of Chatham, Charp. Currie, Woltz. Ebbs, Stringfield, 
Sedberry, Maguire. 

Printing. Senators McNeill, chairman; Askew, Bailey, Tapp, 
Johnson, McRackan, McDonald, Williams of Warren, Ray, Sharp. 

Pensions and Soldiers' Home. Senators Horton of Caswell, chair- 
man; Dunlap, Woodson, Currie, Horton of Chatham, Woltz, Hines, 
Smith of Mecklenburg, Smith of Stanly, Whitmire, Fulton. McNeill, 
Roane, Ruark and Maguire. 

Proiiositions and Grievances. Senators Spencer, chairman; Har- 
gett, Johnson, Bailey, Harris, Tapp, McLeod, McDonald, Broughton. 
Williams of Warren, Hancock, Haywood, Grier, Whitmire, Fulton, 
McNeill, Hyatt, Roane. 

Piiblic Health. Senators McDonald, chairman; Spencer, Harris. 
Hargett, Grant, Womble, Ebbs, Hancock. Salmon, Haywood, Gritr. 
Fulton, Roane, Canady, Call, Hyatt. 

Roads. Senators Hargett, chairman; Ray, Moore, Spencer, I^ong, 
V/oodson, Dunlap, Woltz. Johnson, Grant, McRackan, Horton of 
Chatham, McLeod, Spainhour, Broughton. f]bbs, Blount. Royall. 
Womble, Hancock, Horton of Caswell, Currie, (Irier, .McXeill. 
Roane, Canady. Stringfield, Clark, Hyatt, Maguire, Askew, Salnuui. 

Railroads. Senators Ray, chairman; Tapp, Williams, of Warren: 
Ruark, Woodson, McDonald, Hines Spainhour, Sharp. Woinbli-. 
Dunlap, Smith of Stanly, Haywood, Childs, Fulton, Maguire. 

Rules. Senators Long, chairman; Woodson, Williams of Pas- 
quotank, Moore, Johnson, Womble, Ray, Hiirgett, Woltz. Hines. 



34 Legislative Department 

Salaries and Fees. Senators Dunlap, chairman; Woltz, Hargett, 
Williams of Pasquotank, Woodson, Spencer, Tapp, Dunlap, Hines, 
Clark, Salmon, McNeill, Spencer. 

Sen-ate Expenditures. Senators Salmon, chairman; Lawrence, 
Askew. Clark, Bailey, Tapp, McRackan, Sedberry, Haywood, Childs, 
Roane. 

Senatorial Apportionment. Senators Blount, chairman; Ruark, 
Moore, Long, Harris, Hargett, Spainhour, Horton of Caswell, Mc- 
Donald, Smith of Stanly, Fulton, McNeill, Canady, Roane. 

Trustees of University. Senators Currie, chairman; Long, Woltz, 
Moore, Spencer, Johnson, Blount, Ray, Dunlap, Smith of Mecklen- 
burg, Grier, Clark, Blount, Harris, Royall, Williams of Warren. 

Water Commerce. Senators Sharp, chairman; McDonald. Woliz, 
Womble, Woodson, Smith of Mecklenburg, Dunlap, Ray, McLeod, 
Hancock, Horton of Chatham, Grant, Hargett, Blount, Clark, Wil- 
liams of Pasquotank, Lawrence, Hyatt. 

Welfare. Senators Womble, chairman; Long, Spainhour, Bailey, 
Tapp, Williams of Pasquotank, Grant, Womble, Hines, Horton of 
Chatham, Broughton, Hancock, Haywood, Smith of Mecklenburg, 
Currie, Clark, Blount, Williams of Warren, Salmon, Whitmire, 
Stringfleld, Royall. 

Committee on Trustees of State College. Senators Dunlap, chair- 
man; Moore, Ruark, McDonald, Broughton, Hines, Haywood, 
Womble, Woltz. Ebbs. Call. 



OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF THE HOUSE OF 
REPRESENTATIVES 



OFFICERS 



Rich.^rdT. Fodntain Speaker EdKecombe 

A-LEX L.^ssiTER. Principal Clerk Rertie 

p. P. Dellingeh Reading Clerk .'."Caston 

i?^^-^' ?,''-;;-- Sergeant-at .A.rms Montgomorv 

Miss Rosa B. Mund Engrossing Clerk Cabarrus ' 



BEPRESENTATIVES 
(Alphabetically Arranged) 



Name 



.\ustin, W. B 

Banks, Veston C 

Bell, D. L 

Bell, W. H 

Black, Sam 

Bolich, W. Bryan 

Bost, Luther H 

Boyd, Jas. R _. 

Boyles, C. O 

Brawley, S. C 

Brewer, J. M 

Brewer, Stacy 

Bridger, J. A 

Brown, P. E 

Bullard, V. C 

Butler, John S 

Byrd, A. W 

Campbell, Wm. B... 

Coffey, Thos. H 

Connor, H. G 

Cox, Dr. B. T 

Cox, R. M 

Cox, W. E 

Creekmore, T. L 

Dunn, Wm., Jr 

Eddleman, Dr. H. M 

Eure, T. A 

Everett, J. A 

Everett, R. O 

Falls, B. T 

Flanagan, E. G 

Folger, John H 

Fountain, R. T 

Gibbs, Closs 

Giles, J. Hamp 



County 


Party 


PostoflBce 


Ashe - - . 


Democrat... 

Democrat .. 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat-.. 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Republican. 
Democrat--. 
Democrat--. 
Democrat--. 
Democrat.-. 
Republican. 
Democrat--. 
Democrat--. 
Democrat. .. 

Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 

Democrat 

Democrat- -. 
Democrat--. 
Democrat--. 

Democrat... 

Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 

Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 

Democrat... 

Democrat... 
Democrat... 


Jefferson N C 


Pamlico 

Chatham 

Carteret 

Cabarrus 

Forsyth-.. 


Grantsboro, N. C. 
Pittsboro, N. C. 
Newport, N. C. 
Harrisburg, R. 2., N. C. 
Winston-Salem N C 


Stanly 




Haywood 

Stokes 


Waynesville, N. C. 
King, N. C. 


Durham 

Wake 


Durham, N. C. 
Wake Forest, N. C 


Moore. . 


Vass. N C. 


Bladen- 


Bladenboro, N. C. 


Wilkes 


Wilkcsboro, N. C. 


Cumberland 

Robeson 

Wayne 


Fayetteville, N. C. 
St. Pauls, N. C. 
Mt. Olive, N. C. 


New Hanover . . 

Watauga.. 

Wilson 


Wilmington, N. C. 
Blowing Rock, N. C. 
Wilson, N. C. 


Pitt 


Winterville, N. C. 


Forsyth 

Alleghany 

Wake...- -- 

Craven. . 

Gaston 


Winston-Salcin, N. C. 
Stratford, N. C. 
Raleigh, N. C. 

New Bern, N. C. 

Gastonia, N. C. 


Gates 

Martin 


Euro. N. C. 
Palmyra, N. C. 


Durham.- 

Cleveland 

Pitt. 

Surry 

Edgecombe 

Hyde 

Burke... 


Durham, N. C. 

Shelby, N. C. 
Greenville, N. C. 
Mt. Airy, N. C. 

Rocky Mount, N. C 

Engelhard, N. C. 
Glen Alpine, N. ('. 



36 



Legislative Department 



REPRESENTATIVES— Continued 



Name 



Gold, T. J 

Graham, A. H 

Graham, A. McL... 
Grant, A. T., .Jr.... 
Gwaltney, John L. 



Hargett, Fred W., Jr. 

Harris, R. L 

Hart, Dr. J. E 

Hayman, i\I . D 

Haywood, Oscar 

Helms, T. L. A.. 

Hill, .John Bright 



Jenkins, T. M... 
Johnson, E. R. 

Jones, H. R 

Jonas, Chas. A. 



I^err, A. Yancey. 
Klutz, L. F. . .-".. 



Lee, Cha; . G. Jr. 
Leggett, L. W.,... 

Little, VV. F 

Loven, Ed. S. 



-Macon, \V H. 

Makepeace, O. P 

Marshall, J. A. 

Martin, L. A 

Martin, Van B 

Mason, O. F., .Jr 

Matthews, Johnson . 

Morgan, W. F.. 

Moser, I. C 

Moss, O. B 

Moss, T. J 

Murphy, Walter 



Nash, M. W 

Nettles, Harry 

Nicholson, Cyrus. 
Norwood, VV. J. . . 



Odom, W. P. . 
(diver, VV. .M. 



Parker, Dr. Carl P. 

Parnell, VVm. I 

Penland, Witt 

Pool, C. M 

Poole, D. S . 

Price, VV. E 



County 



Guilford.. 

Orange 

Sampson. . 

Davie 

Alexander - 



McBrvde, Dr. M. H.... . 

McDevitt, N. B 

MacLean, Angus D 

McLean, Miss Carrie L 



Onslow 

Person 

Anson 

Dare 

Montgomery 

Union 

New Hanover . . 



Graham... 
Currituck. 
Johnston. 
Lincoln 



Caswell- . 
Catawba. 



Buncombe. 

Halifax 

Polk 

Avery 



Rockingham. 

Madison 

Beaufort 

Mecklenburg- 



Franklin 

Lee 

Forsyth 

Davidson 

VVashinfiton- 

Gaston 

Scotland 

Perquimans- 
Randolph--. 

Nash 

Rutherford- - 
Rowan 



Richmond. 
Buncombe. 

Jackson 

Halifax 



Cherokee . 
Robeson. 



Nort ampton. . 

Yancey 

Clay 

McDowell 

Hoke 

Mecklenburg 




Privott, H. C ....I Chowan. 



Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Republican . 
Democrat... 

Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 
Democrat-.. 
Democrat... 

Republican. 
Democrat... 
Democrat--. 
Republican . 

Democrat -.- 
Republican _ 

Democrat--. 
Democrat--. 
Democrat--- 
Democrat 

Democrat--. 

Democrat 

Democrat--. 
Democrat--. 

Democrat--. 

Democrat 

Democrat--. 
Democrat-.. 
Democrat--. 
I^emocrat--- 
Democrat--- 

Democrat 

Democrat--. 
Democrat--. 
Democrat--. 
Democrat... 

Democrat- -- 
Democrat--. 
Republican. 
Democrat 

Republican. 
Democrat-.. 

Democrat--. 
Republican. 
Republican. 
Republican . 
Democrat... 
Democrat... 

Democrat -. 



PostoflBce 



High Point, N. C. 
Hillsboro, N. C. 
Chnton, N. C. 
Mocksville, N. C. 
Taylorsville, N. C. 

Jacksonville, N. C. 
Roxboro, N. C. 
VVadesboro, N. C. 
VV'anchese, N. C. 
Mt. Gilead, N. C. 
Monroe, N. C. 
Wilmington, N. C. 

Robbinsville, N. C. 
Currituck, N. C. 
McCullers, R.F.D., N. C. 
J..incolnton, N. C. 

Yancevville, N. C. 
Newton, N. C. 

Asheville, N. C. 
Hobgood, N. C. 
Trvon, N. C. 
Linville, N. C. 

Reidsville, N. C. 
Marshall, N. C. 
Washington, N. C. 
Charlotte, N. C. 

Louisburg, N. C. 
Sanford, N. C. 
Walnut Cove, N. C. 
Lexington, N. C. 
Plymouth, N. C. 
Gastonia, N. C. 
Wagram, N. C. 
Winfall, N. C. 
Asheboro, N. C. 
Spring Hope, N. C. 
Forest City, N. C. 
Salisbury, N. C. 

Hamlet, N. C. 
Biltmore, N. C. 
Sylva, N. C. 
Rosemary, N. C. 

Murphv, N. C. 
Marietta, N. C. 

Seaboard, N. C. 
Burnsville, N. C. 
HayesviUe, N. C. 
Marion, N. C. 
Raeford, N. C. 
Charlotte, N. C. 

Edenton, N. C. 



Members of Housk of Kepresentatives 



REPRESENTATIVES— Continued 



Name 



Rhodes, H. J 

Rideoutte, J. W 

Rogers, W. W. __ 

Rouse, R. C 

Satterwhite, S. J 

Shipman, J. M 

Smith, T. L 

Smith, Willis 

Solesbee, Rev. A. S 

Squires, Mark _. 

Stancill, J. Clyde 

Sutton, Fred I 

Tarkington, C. L 

Tatem, C. \V._ 

Tipton, .John H 

Townsend, N. A 

Turlington, Z. V 

Ward, Geo. R 

Watkins, John S 

Watkins, iM. B 

Wells, J. T 

Wetiiuir, F. S 

Whitaker, T. C 

White, G. T 

Williams, O. P 

Wilson, J. K 

Wilson, T. J 

Winston, Francis D 

Wood, J W 

Woodard, W. C 

Wright, C. G 

Yelverton, Harrison 

Younce, Geo. A 

Young, I. J 



County 



Part\ 



Alamance.. 

Rowan 

Hertford __. 

Greene 

Warren 

Columbus 

Rockingham 

Wake 

Macon 

Caldwell 

Mecklenburg 

Lenoir 

Camden 

Tyrrell 

Mitchell 

Harnett 

Iredell 

Duplin 

Granville 

Brunswick 

Pender 

Henderson 

Jones 

Yadkin 

Swain 

Pasquotank 

Transylvania 

Bertie- 

Johnston ._ 

Nash 

Guilford 

Wayne 

Guilford 

Vance . 



Postoftice 



Democrat - 
Democrat . _ 
Democrat . 
Democrat . 

Democrat _ 
Democrat _ 
Democrat _ 
Democrat ._ 
Republican . 
Democrat -_ 
Democrat _ 
Democrat -. 

Democrat. .. 
Democrat _ 
Republican . 
Democrat _ 
Democrat . 

Democrat .. 
Democrat -. 
Democrat . 
Democrat . 
Republican _ 
Democrat 
Republican _ 
Republican . 
Democrat .. 
Democrat--. 
Democrat- . 
Democrat -. 
Democrat -. 
Democrat .. 

Democrat -. 
Democrat--. 

1 >itiiii(Tat - - 



Burlington, N. C. 
Salisbury, .\. ('. 
.Ahoskic, N. (". 
Snow Hill, N. C. 

Manson, .\. C 
Whiteville, N. C. 
Leaksville, N. C. 
Ralcipli, N. C. 
Franklin. N. C. 
Lenoir, N. C. 
Charlotte, N. C. 
Kinston, N. C. 

Camden, X. C. 
Columbia, .\. C. 
Relief, .\. C. 
Dunn, X. C. 
.Mooresville, X. C. 

Wallace, N. C. 
Virgilina, \a.. R. F. 
Town Creek. X. C. 
.\tkin.son, X. C. 
Hendcrsoiivillp, X. C. 
Trenton, X. C. 
Hamptonville, X. C. 
Brvson Citv, X. C. 
Elizabeth City, X. C. 
Pisgah Forest, X. C. 
Windsor, X. C. 
Benson, X. C. 
Rocky Mount, X. C. 
Greensboro, X. C. 

Goldsboro, X. C. 
Greensboro, N. C. 
Henderson, N. C. 



REPRESENTATIVES 

(Arranged by Counties) 

Alamance — H. J. Rhodes, Burlington (D). 
Alexander — ^John L. Gwaltney, Taylorsville (D). 
Alleghany— W. B. Cox, Stratford (D). 
Anson — Dr. J. E. Hart, Wadesboro (D). 
Ashe — W. B. Austin, Jefferson (U). 
Avery — Ed. S. Loven, Linville (D). 
Beaufort — Angus D. MacLean, Washington (D). 
Bert'? — Francis D. Winston. Windsor (H). 



38 Legislative Department 

Bladen — J. A. Bridger, Bladenboro (D). 

Brunswick — M. B. Watkins, Town Creek (D). ' 

Buncombe — Harry L. Nettles, Biltmore (D); Charles G. Lee, Jr., 
Asheville (D). 

Buike — J. Hamp Giles, Glen Alpine (D). 

Cabarriis — Sam Black, Harrisburg, R. F. D. 2 (D). 

CaldiveU — Mark Squires, Lenoir (D). 

Camden — C. L. Tarkington, Camden (D). 

Carte7-et—W. H. Bell, Newport (D). 

Caswell — A. Yancey Kerr, Yancey ville (D). 

Catawba — L. F. Klutz, Newton (R). 

Chatham— D. L. Bell, Pittsboro (D). 

Cherokee — W. P. Odom, Murphy (R). 

Chowan — H. C. Privott, Edenton (D). 

Clay— Witt Penland, Hayesville (R). 

Clevela7id—B. T. Falls, Shelby (D). 

Columbus — J. M. Shipman, Whiteville (D). 

Craven — William Dunn, Jr., New Bern (D). 

Cumberland — V. C. Bullard, Fayetteville (D). 

Currituck — E. R. Johnson, Currituck (D). 

Dare — M. D. Hayman, Wanchese (D). 

Davidson — L. A. Martin, Lexington (D). 

Davie — A. T. Grant, Jr., Mocksville (R). 

Duplin — George R. Ward, Wallace (D). 

Durham — S. C. Brawley, Durham (D) ; R. O. Everett, Durham 
(D). 

Edgecoinbe — R. T. Fountain, Rocky Mount (D). 

Forsyth — R. M. Cox, Winston-Salem (D) ; W. Bryan Bolich, Win- 
ston-Salem (D); J. A. Marshall, Walnut Cove (D). 

Franklin — W. H. Macon, Louisburg (D). 

Gaston — Dr. H. M. Eddleman, Gastonia (D); 0. F. Mason, Jr., 
Gastonia (D). 

Gates— T. A. Eure, Eure (D). 



Members of House of Representatives 39 

Ghaham — T. M. Jenkins, Robbinsville (R). 

Granville — John S. Watkins, Virgilina, Va., K. F. I). (D). 

Greene — R. C. Rouse, Snow Hill (D). 

Guilford— Q. G. Wright, Greensboro (D); T. J. Gold, High Point 
(D); Geo. A. Younce, Greensboro (D). 

Halifax — L. W. Leggett, Hobgood (D); W. J. Norwood, Rosemarv 
(D). 

Harnett — X. A. Townsen 1, Dunn (D). 

Hayn-ood — James R. Boyd. Waynesville (D). 

'Henderson — P. S. Wetmur, Hendersonville (R). 

Hertford — W. W. Rogers, Ahoskie (D). 

Hoke—B. S. Poole, Raeford (D). 

Hyde — Gloss Gibbs, Engelhard (D). 

Iredell — Z. V. Turlington, Mooresville (D). 

Jackson — Cyrus H. Nicholson, Sylva (R). 

Johnston — J. W. Wood, Benson (D); Hubert R. Jones, McCullers, 
R. F. D. (D). 

Jones— 1. C. Whitaker, Trenton (D). 

Lee — 0. P. Makepeace, Sanford (D). 

Lenoir — Fred I. Sutton. Kinston (D). 

Lincoln — C. A. Jonas, Lincolnton (R). 

Macon— B.e\. A. S. Solesbee, Franklin, R. F. D. 4 (R). 

Madison — N. B. McDevitt, Marshall (D). 

Martin^J. A. Everett, Palmyra (D). 

McDouell — C. M. Pool, Marion (R). 

Mecklenburg — J. Clyde Stancill, Charlotte (D); Miss Carrio L. 
McLean, Charlotte (D) ; W. E. Price, Charlotte (D). 

Mitofiell— John H. Tipton, Relief (R).. 

Montgomery — Oscar Haywood, Mt. Gilead (D). 

Moore — Stacy Brewer, Vass (D). 

Nash — O. B. Moss, Spring Hope (D); W. C. Woodard, Rocky 
Mount (D). 

New Hanover — William H. Campbell, Wilmington (D); John H. 
Hill, Wilmington (D). 



40 LE(iisLATivi: Departmekt 

Ts! orthampton — Dr. Carl P. Parker, Seaboard (D). 

Onslow — Fred W. Hargett, Jr., Jacksonville (D). 

Orafige — A. H. Graham, Hillsboro (D). 

Pamlico — Veston C. Banks, Grantsboro (D). 

Pasquotank — J. K. Wilson, Elizabeth City (D). 

Pender — J. T. Wells, Atkinson (D). 

Perquimans — W. F. Morgan, Winfall (D). 

Person — R. L. Harris, Roxboro (D). 

Pitt — Dr. B. T. Cox, Wintervllle (D) ; E. G. Flanagan, Greenville 
(D). 

Polk—W. F. Little, Tryon (D). 

Randolph — I. C. Moser, Asheboro (D). 

Richmond — M. W. Nash, Hamlet (D). 

Roheso7}—John S. Butler, St. Pauls (D); W. M. Oliver, Marietta 
(D). 

Rockingham — Dr. M. H. McBryde, Reidsville (D): T. L. Smith, 
Leaksville (D). 

Rowan — Walter Murphy, Salisbury (D); J. W. Rideoutte, Salis- 
bury (D). 

Rutherford— T. J. Moss. Forest City (D). 

Sampson — A. McL. Graham, Clinton (D). 

Scotland — Walter Johnson Matthews, Wagram (D). 

Stanly — Luther H. Bost, Albemarle (D). 

Stokes— C. O. Boyles, King (R). 

Sur7-y—Jol\n H. Folger, Mt. Airy (D). 

Swain — 0. P. Williams, Bryson City (R). 

Transylvania — T. J. Wilson, Pisgah Forest (D). 

Tyrrell— C. W. Tatem,. Columbia (D). ' 

Union — T. L. A. Helms, Monroe (D). 

Vance — I. J. Young, Henderson (D). 

Wake — J. M. Brewer, Wake Forest (D); Thomas L. Creekmore, 
Raleigh (D); Willis Smith, Raleigh (D). 

Warren — S. J. Satterwhite, Manson (D). 



Rules of the House of Representatives 41 

Washington — Van B. Martin, Plymouth (D). 

Watmiga — Thomas H. Coffey, Blowing Rock (D). 

Wayne — Harrison Yelverton, Goldsboro (D); A. W. liyrd. Mt. 
Olive (D). 

Wilkes — P. E. Brown, Wilkesboro (R). 

Wilson — H. G. Connor, Wilson (D). 

Yadkin — G. T. White, Hamptonville (R). 

Yancey — W. I. Parnell. Burnsville (R). 



RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Touching the Duties of Speaker 

1. It shall be the duty of the Speaker to have the sessions of 
the House opened with prayer. 

2. He shall take the chair every day at the hour fixed by the 
House on the preceding legislative day, shall immediately call the 
members to order, and, on appearance of a quorum, cause the 
Journal of the preceding day to be approved. 

3. He shall preserve order and decorum, may speak to points of 
order in preference to other members, rising from hi.s seat for 
that purpose, and shall decide questions of order, subject to an 
appeal to the House by any member, on which appeal no member 
shall speak more than once, unless by leave of the House. A 
two-thirds vote of the members present shall be necessary to sus- 
tain any appeal from the ruling of the Chair. 

4. He shall rise to put a question, but may state it sitting. 

5. Questions shall be put in this form, namely, "Those in favor 
(as the question may be) will say, 'Aye,'" and after the affirmative 
voice has been expressed, "Those opposed will say, 'No.' " Upon 
a call for a division, the Speaker shall count; if required, lie shall 
appoint tellers. 

6. The Speaker shall have a general direction ol' llu' liall. lie 
shall have a right to name any member to perform the duties of 
the Chair, but substitution shall not extend beyond one day. except 
in case of sickness or by leave of the House. 



42 Legislative Department 

7. All committees shall be appointed by the Speaker, unless 
otherwise specially ordered by the House. 

8. In all elections the Speaker may vote. In all other cases he 
may exercise his right to vote, or he may reserve this right until 
there is a tie; but in no case shall he be allowed to vote twice on 
the same question. 

9. All acts, addreses and resolutions, and all warrants and 
subpoenas issued by order of the House shall be signed by the 
Speaker. 

10. In case of any disturbance or disorderly conduct in the 
galleries or lobby, the Speaker or other presiding officer shall have 
power to order the same to be cleared. 

11. No persons except members of the Senate, officers and 
clerks of the General Assembly, Judges of the Supreme and Superior 
Courts, State officers, former members of the General Assembly, 
and persons particularly invited by the Speaker shall be admitted 
within the hall of the House: Provided, that no person except mem- 
bers of the Senate and officers of the General Assembly shall be 
allowed on the floor of the House or in the lobby in the rear of 
the Speaker's desk, unless permitted by the Speaker of the House. 

12. Reporters wishing to take down debates may be admitted 
by the Speaker, who shall assign such places to them on the floor 
or elsewhere, to effect this object, as shall not interfere with the 
convenience of the House. 

13. Smoking shall not be allowed in the hall, the lobbies, or the 
galleries while the House is in session: Provided, that smoking may 
be permitted in the lobby in the rear of the Speaker's desk. 

Ordek of Business of the Day 

14. After the approval of the Journal of the preceding day, which 
shall stand approved without objection, the House shall proceed 
to business in the following order, viz.: 

(1) The receiving of petitions, memorials, and papers addressed 
to the General Assembly or to the House. 

(2) Reports of standing committees. 
(.3) Reports of select committees. 



RULKS OF THE HoUSE OF RePKESENTATIVES -i'.i 

(4) Resolutions. 

(5) Bills. 

(6) The unfinished business of the preceding day. 

(7) Bills, resolutions, petitions, memorials, messages, and other 
papers on the Calendar, in their exact numerical order, unless 
displaced by the orders of the day; but messages and motions u, 
elect officers shall always be in order. 

No member shall rise from his seat to introduce any petition, 
resolution or bill out of order unless he is permitted so to do by 
a suspension of the rules. 

On Decorum in Debate 

15. When any member is about to speak in debate or deliver 
any matter to the House, he shall rise from his seat and respect- 
fully address the Speaker. 

16. When the Speaker shall call a member to order, the mem- 
ber shall sit down, as also he shall when called to order by another 
member, unless the Speaker decides the point of order in his favor. 
By leave of the House a member called to order may clear a matter 
of fact, or explain, but shall not proceed in debate so long as the 
decision stands, but by permission of the House. Any member may 
appeal from the decision of the Chair, and if, upon appeal, the 
decision be in favor of the member called to order, he may pro- 
ceed; if otherwise, he shall not, except by leave of the House; and 
if the case, in the judgment of the House, require it, he sb;ill be 
liable to its censure. 

17. No member shall speak until recognized by the Chair, and 
when two or more members rise at the same time, the Speaker 
shall name the member to speak. 

18. No member shall speak more than twice on tbc main 
question, nor longer than thirty minutes for the first speech and 
fifteen minutes for the second speech, unless allowed to do .so by 
the affirmative vote of a majority of the members present ; nor sliall 
he speak more than once upon an amendment or mot inn to commit 
or postpone, and then not longer than ten minutes. But the 
House may, by consent of a majority, suspend the operation of this 
rule during any debate on any particular question before the 



44 Legislative Department 

House, or the Committee on Rules may bring in a special rule that 
shall be applicable to the debate on any bill. 

19. While the Speaker is p'utting any question, or addressing 
the House, no person shall speak, stand up, walk out of or across 
the House, nor when a member is speaking entertain private dis- 
course, stand up, or pass between him and the Chair. 

20. No member shall vote on any question when he was not 
present when the question was put by the Speaker, except by the 
consent of the House. Upon a division and count of the House on 
any question, no member without the bar shall be counted. 

21. Every member who shall be in the hall of the House for the 
above purpose when the question is put shall give his vote upon a 
call of the ayes and noes, unless the House for special reasons shall 
excuse him, and no application to be excused from voting or to 
explain a vote shall be entertained unless made before the call 
of the roll. The hall of the House shall include the lobbies and 
offices connected with the hall. 

22. When a motion is made, it shall be stated by the Speaker, 
or, if written, it shall be handed to the Chair and read aloud by 
the Speaker or Clerk before debate. 

23. Every motion shall be reduced to writing, if the Speaker or 
any two members request it. 

24. After a motion is stated by the Speaker or read by the 
Clerk, it shall be deemed to be in possession of the House, bat 
may be withdrawn before a decision or amendment, except in case 
of a motion to reconsider, which motion, when made by a member, 
shall be deemed and taken to be in possession of the House, and 
shall not be withdrawn without leave of the House. 

25. When a question is under debate no motion shall be re- 
ceived but to adjourn, to lay on the table, to postpone indefinitely, 
to postpone to a day certain, to commit or amend, which several 
motions shall have precedence in the order in which they stand 
arranged; and no motion to lay on the table, to postpone indefinitely, 
to postpone to a day certain, to commit or amend, being decided, 
shall be again allowed at the same stage of the bill or proposition. 

26. A motion to adjourn or lay on the table shall be decided 
without debate, and a motion to adjourn shall always be in order. 



Rules of the House of Kepresentatives 4') 

except when the House is voting or some member is speaking; 
but a motion to adjourn shall not follow a motion to adjourn 
until debate or some other business of the House has intervened. 

27. When a question has been postponed indefinitely, the same 
shall not be acted on again during the session, except upon a two- 
thirds vote. 

28. Any member may call tor a division of the ciuestion, wlien 
the same shall admit of it, which shall be determined by the 
Speaker. 

29. When a motion has been once made and carried in the 
affirmative or negative, it shall be in order for any member of the 
majority to move for the reconsideration thereof, on the same or 
succeeding day, unless it may have subsequently passed the Senate, 
and no motion to reconsider shall be taken from the table except 
by a two-thirds vote. But unless such vote has been taken by a 
call of the yeas and nays, any member may move to reconsider. 

30. When the reading of a paper is called for, which has been 
read in the House, and the same is objected to by any member, it 
shall be determined by a vote of the House. 

31. Petitions, memorials, and other papers addressed to the House 
shall be presented by the Speaker; a brief statement of the con- 
tents thereof may be verbally made by the introducer before refer- 
ence to a committee, but shall not be debated or decided on the day 
of their first being read, unless the House shall direct otherwise. 

32. When the ayes and noes are called for on any question, it 
shall be on motion before the question is put; and if secoiuled by 
one-fifth of the members present, the question shall l)e decided "oy 
the ayes and noes; and in taking the ayes and noes, ur on ;i call 
of the House, the names of the members will l)e taken alphabetically. 

33. Decency of speech shall l)e observed and personal rctlc.tinn 
carefully avoided. 

34. Any member may arise at any time to speak to a (niestion 
of personal privilege, and upon objection to him proceed lug. tli.- 
Speaker shall determine if the question is one of privilege. 

35. Fifteen members, including the Speaker, shall be authorize. 1 
to compel the attendance of absent nuMnbers, 



46 Legislative Department 

36. No member or officer of the House shall absent himself from 
the service of the House without leave, unless from sickness or 
inability. 

37. Any member may excuse himself from serving on any com- 
mittee if he is a member of two standing committees. 

38. If any member shall be necessarily absent on temporary busi- 
ness of the House when a vote is taken upon any question, upon 
entering the House he shall be p'ermitted, on request, to vote, pro- 
vided that the result shall not be thereby affected. 

39. No standing rule or order shall be rescinded or altered 
without one day's notice given on the motion thereof, and to sus- 
tain such motion two-thirds of the House shall be required. 

40. The members of the House shall uncover their heads upon 
entering the House while it is in session, and shall continue so 
uncovered during their continuance in the hall, except Quakers. 

41. A motion to reconsider shall be determined by a majority 
vote, except a motion to reconsider an indefinite postponement, or 
a motion to reconsider a motion tabling a motion to reconsider, 
which shall require a two-thirds vote. 

42. After a bill has been tabled or has failed to pass on any of 
its readings, the contents of such bill or the principal provisions 
or its subject-matter shall not be embodied in any other measure. 
Upon the point of order being raised and sustained by the Chair, 
such measures shall be laid upon the table, and shall not be taken 
therefrom except by a vote of two-thirds of the elected membership 
of the House: Provided, no local bill shall be held by the Chair as 
embodying the provisions or being identical with any State-wide 
measure which has been laid upon the table, or failed to pass any 
of its readings. 

Stam)u\g Committees 

43. At the commencement of the session a standing committee 
shall be appointed by the Speaker on each of the following sub- 
jects, namely: 

On Agriculture. 
On Appropriations. 
On Banks and Banking. 
On Claims. 



Rules of the Hoise of Kepbesentatives 47 



On Commerce. 

On Congressional Districts. 

On Constitutional Amendments. 

On Corporation Commission. 

On Corporations. 

On Counties, Cities, and Towns. 

On Courts and Judicial Districts. 

On Education. 

On Election Laws. 

On Engrossed Bills. 

On Expenditures of the House. 

On Federal Relations. 

On Finance. 

On Pish and Fisheries. 

On Game. 

On Health. 

On Immigration. 

On Insane Asylums. 

On Institutions for the Blind. 

On Institutions for the Deaf and Dumb. 

On Insurance. 

On Internal Improvements. 

On the Journal. 

On Judiciary, No. 1. 

On Judiciary, No. 2. 

On Manufactures and Labor. 

On Military Affairs. 

On Mines and Mining. 

On Oyster Industry. 

On Penal Institutions. 

On Pensions. 

On Private and Public-Local Laws. 

On Privileges and Elections. 

On Propositions and Grievances. 

On Public Roads. 

On Public Welfare. 

On Regulation of Public-Service CorporiUions. 

On Rules. 



48 Legislative Department 

On Salaries and Fees. 
On Senatorial Districts. 

Joint Committees 
On Enrolled Bills. 
On Justices of the Peace. 
On Library. 
On Printing. 

On Public Buildings and Grounds. 
On Trustees of University. 
On Revision of the Laws. 
The first member announced on each committee shall be chairman. 

44. In forming a Committee of the Whole House, the Speaker 
shall leave the Chair, and a Chairman to preside in committee shall 
be appointed by the Speaker. 

45. Upon bills submitted to a Committee of the Whole House, the 
bill shall be first read throughout by the Clerk, and then again read 
and debated by sections, leaving the preamble to be last considered. 
The body of the bill shall not be defaced or interlined, but all 
amendments, noting the page and line, shall be duly entered by 
the Clerk on a separate paper as the same shall be agreed to by 
the committee, and so reported to the House. After report, the 
bill shall again be subject to be debated and amended by sections 
before a question on its passage be taken. 

46. The rules of procedure in the House shall be observed in 
a Committee of the Whole House, so far as they may be applicable, 
except the rule limiting the time of speaking and the previous 
question. 

47. In a Committee of the Whole House a motion that the com- 
mittee rise shall always be in order, except when a member is 
speaking, and shall be decided without debate. 

48. Every bill shall be introduced by motion for suspension of 
the rules, or by order of the House, or on the report of a com- 
mittee, unless introduced in regular order during the morning 
hour. 

49. All bills and resolutions shall be reported from the com- 
mittee to which referred, with such recommendation as the com- 
mittee may desire to make. 



Rules of the House of Representatives 4'.» 

50. Every bill shall receive three several readinss in the House 
previous to its passage, and the Speaker shall give notice at each 
whether it be its first, second or third reading. 

51. Any member introducing a bill or resolution shall briefly 
endorse thereon the substance of the same. 

52. All bills and resolutions shall upon their introduction be 
referred by the Speaker, without suggestion from the introducer, 
to the appropriate committee. No bills shall be withdrawn from 
the committee to which referred except upon motion duly made and 
carried by a majority vote. 

53. The Clerk of the House shall keep a separate calendar of 
the public, local, and private bills, and shall number them in the 
order in which they are introduced, and all bills shall be disposed 
of in the order they stand upon the Calendar; but the Committee 
on Rules may at any time arrange the order of precedence in which 
bills may be considered. No bill shall be twice read on the same 
day without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members. 

54. All resolutions which may grant money out of the Treasury, 
or such as shall be of a public nature, shall be treated in all respects 
in a similar manner with public bills. 

55. The Clerk of the House shall be deemed to continue in office 
until another is appointed. 

56. On the point of no quorum being raised, the doors shall be 
closed and there shall be a call of the House, and ui/on a call of 
the House the names of the members shall be called over by the 
Clerk and the absentees noted, after which the names of the 
absentees shall again be called over. Those for whom no excuse or 
sufficient excuses are made may, by order of those present, if lifteon 
in number, be taken into custody as they appear, or may be sent 
for and taken into custody wherever to be found by special lu.^s- 
senger appointed for that purpose. 

Previous Question 

57. The previous question shall be as follows: "Shall the main 
question be now put?" and, until it is decided, shall predudo all 
amendments and debate. If this question shall bo docidod in th.. 



50 Legislative Department 

affirmative, the "main question" shall be on the passage of the 
bill, resolution or other matter under consideration; but when 
amendments are pending, the question shall be taken upon such 
amendments, in their order, without further debate or amendment. 
If such question be decided in the negative, the main question shall 
be considered as remaining under debate: Provided, that no one 
shall move the previous question except the member submitting the 
report on the bill or other matter under consideration, and the 
member introducing the bill or other matter under consideration, 
or the member in charge of the measure, who shall be designated 
by the chairman of the committee reporting the same to the House 
at the time the bill or other matter under consideration is reported 
to the House or taken up for consideration. 

When a motion for the previous question is made, and pending 
the second thereto by a majority, debate shall cease; but if any 
member obtains the floor, he may move to lay the matter under 
consideration on the table, or move an adjournment, and when both 
or either of these motions are pending the question shall stand: 

(1) Previous question. 

(2) To adjourn. 

(3) To lay op the table. 

And then upon the main question, or amendments, or the motion 
to postpone indefinitely, postpone to a day certain, to commit, or 
amend, in the order of their precedence, until the main question is 
reached or disposed of; but after the previous question has been 
called by a majority, no motion, or amendment, or debate shall be 
in order. 

All motions below the motions to lay on the table must be made 
prior to a motion for the previous question; but, pending and not 
after the second therefor, by the majority of the House, a motion 
to adjourn or lay on the table, or both, are in order. This con- 
stitutes the precedence of the motions to adjourn and lay on the 
table over other motions, in Rule 25. 

Motions stand as follows in order of precedence in Rule 26: 

Previous question. 

Adjourn. 

Lay on the table. 



Rules of the House of Representatives 51 

Postpone definitely. 
To commit or amend. 

When the previous question is called, all motions below ii uUl. 
unless made prior to the call, and all motions above it fall after 
its second by a majority required. Pending the second, the motions 
to adjourn and lay on the table are in order, but not after a second. 
When in order and every motion is before the House, the question 
stands as follows: 

Previous question. 

Adjourn. 

Lay on the table. 

Postpone indefinitely. 

Postpone definitely. 

To commit. 

Amendment to amendment. 

Amendment. 

Substitute. 

Bill. 

The previous question covers all other motions when seconded 
by a majority of the House, and proceeds by regular graduation to 
the main question, without debate, amendment, or motion, until 
such question is reached or disposed of. 

58. All committees, other than the Committee on Appropriations, 
when favorably reporting any bill which carries an appropriation 
from the State, shall indicate same in the report, and said bill 
shall be re-referred to the Committee on Appropriations for a 
further report before being acted upon by the House. 

59. The Principal Clerk, the Engrossing Clerk, and the Sergeant- 
at-Arms shall appoint, with the approval of the Speaker, such 
assistants as may be necessary to the efficient discbarf^c of the 
duties of their various offices. 

60. The Speaker shall appoint a Clerk to the Speaker, and he 
shall also appoint twelve pages to wait upon the sessions of the 
House, and when the pressure of business may require, he may 
appoint six additional pages. 

61. The chairman of each of the committees— Agriculture, Ap- 
propriations, Banks and Banking, Counties, Cities and Towns. 



52 Legislative Department 

Courts and Judicial Districts, Education, Fisli aod Fisheries, 
Finance, Judiciary, No. 1, Judiciary, No. 2, Propositions and Griev- 
ances, Public Roads, Salaries and Fees, Commerce, Public Welfare, 
and Penal Institutions — may appoint a clerk to his respective com- 
mittee with the approval of the Speaker. 

62. The chairman and five other members of any committee shall 
constitute a quorum of said committee for the transaction of busi- 
ness. 

63. The Committee on the Journal shall examine dally the 
Journal of the House before the hour of convening, and report after 
the opening of the House whether or not the proceedings of the 
previous day have been correctly recorded. 

64. When a bill shall be reported by a committee with a 
recommendation that it be not passed, but accompanied by a mi- 
nority report, the question before the House shall be "The adoption 
of the Minority Report," and it failing to be adopted by a majority 
vote, the bill shall be placed upon the unfavorable calendar. Such 
minority report shall be signed by at least three members of the 
committee who were present when the bill was considered in com- 
mittee. In the event there is an unfavorable report with no 
minority report accompanying it, the bill shall be placed upon the 
unfavorable calendar. To take a bill from the unfavorable calendar, 
a two-thirds vote shall be necessary. 

65. Whenever a public bill is introduced, a carbon copy thereof 
shall accompany the bill. On the same day that such public bill 
is introduced the Chief Clerk shall deliver the carbon copy to the 
Public Printer and cause four hundred (400) copies thereof to be 
printed. On the morning following the delivery of the printed 
copies, the Chief Clerk shall cause the Chief Page to have a copy 
thereof put upon the desk of each member and then retain the other 
printed copies in his office. A sufficient number for the use of the 
committee to whom the bill is referred shall be by the Chief Clerk 
delivered to the chairman or clerk of the committee. If the bill is 
passed, the remaining copies shall be by the Chief Clerk delivered 
to the Chief Clerk of the Senate, for the use of the Senate. No 
committee shall consider or report any public bill until after the 
same shall have been printed as herein provided for. In the event 



Standing Committees of House of Representativks ii'S 

the member introducing the bill and the Chief Clerk shall differ as 
to whether it is a public bill, the question shall be left to the 
decision of the Speaker of the House of Representatives, whose de- 
cision shall be final. The cost of printing as herein provided for 
shall be paid from the contingent fund of the House of Repre- 
sentatives. 

66. Whenever any resolution or bill is introduced a carbun 
copy thereof shall be attached thereto, and the Principal Clerk 
shall cause said carbon copy to be numbered as the original resolu- 
tion or bill is numbered, and shall cause the same to be available it 
all times to the member introducing the same. In case the resolu- 
tion or bill is a public resolution or bill, an additional carbon 
copy shall also be attached thereto for the use of the Public Printer, 
under the provisions of Rule 65. 



STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE HOUSE OF 
REPRESENTATIVES 

Committee on Agriculture. Representatives Watkins of Gran- 
ville, chairman; Whitaker, Boyd, Bost, Cox of Forsyth, Co.\ of 
Alleghany, Jones, Ward, Oliver, Helms, Satterwhite, Younce. 
Harris, Eure, Pool of McDowell, Gibbs, Rouse, Everett of Martin. 
Butler, Tatem, Black, Cox of Pitt, Wells, Norwood, Wilson of 
Pasquotank, Hargett, Hayman, Johnson, Loven, Little, Marsliall, 
Nettles, Parker, Privott, Shipman, Tarkington, Watkins of Mruiis- 
wick, Wilson of Transylvania, White, Poole of Hoke, Tipton. W oil. 
Morgan, Matthews. 

Committee on Appropriations. Representatives Tmlingtoii. 
chairman; Graham of Orange, Connor, Townsend. Nash. 151a. k. 
Brewer of Wake, Price, Giles, MacLean of Beaufort, Dunn. liiill.-nd. 
Wood, Brawley, Smith of Rockingham, Gold, Rogers. Folgcr. 
Younce, Rhodes, Ward, Sutton, Mason, Makepeace, Morgan. Klan 
agan, Tatem, Butler, Wilson of Pasquotank, Kerr, Woodard. .Moss 
.of Rutherford, Everett of Durham, Creekmore, Marshall. Ilrown. 

Committee on Banks and Banldmi. Representatives W. \V. Ifogcrs. 
chairman; Boyd, Woodard, Macon, Flanagan, Harris, Price. Moss 
of Nash. Dunn. Sutton. Privott. Townsend, Little, Wilson of Tian- 



54 Legislative Department 

sylvania, Young, Smith of Wake. Johnson, Everett of Martin, 
Gold, MacLean of Beaufort, McDevitt, Hargett, Hill, Gibbs, Wil- 
liams, Wetmur, Parnell. 

Committee on Claims. Representatives Leggett, chairman; Banics. 
Bell of Carteret, Brewer of Moore, Bridger, Cox of Alleghany, 
Eddleman, Eure, Hayman, Helms, Loven, Macon, Matthews, Satter- 
white, Rideoutte, Shipman, Smith of Rockingham, Young, BuUard, 
Moser, Boyles, Odom. 

Committee on Commerce. Representatives Creekmore, chairman; 
Gold, Graham of Sampson, Martin of Washington, Dunn, Hill, 
Nettles, MacLean of Beaufort, Brawley, Bullard, Bolich, Wright, 
Stancill, Gibbs, Banks, Wilson of Pasquotank, Wells, Bridger, Boyd. 
Haywood, Cox of Pitt. Bell of Chatham, Jonas, Williams, Ward, 
Campbell. 

Committee on Congressional Districts. Representatives Murphy, 
chairman; Everett. Sutton, Moss of Nash, Graham of Orange, 
Moser, Martin of Washington, Miss McLean of Mecklenburg, Nettles, 
Turlington, Townsend, Coffey, McDevitt, Martin of Davidson. Log- 
gett, Mason, Younce, Whitaker. 

Committee on Constitutional Amendments. Representatives 
Wilson of Pasquotank, chairman; Winston, Murphy, McLean of 
Beaufort, Miss McLean of Mecklenburg, Hill, Folger, Everett of 
Durham, Moss of Nash, Rideoutte, Martin of Washington, Town- 
send, Yelverton, Smith of Wake, Leggett, McDevitt, Grant. Soles- 
bee, Penland. 

Committee on Corj)oration Commission. Representatives Rhodes, 
chairman; Gwaltney, Woodard, Brawley, Bost, Brewer of Wake, 
Butler. Byrd, Creekmore, Falls, Turlington, Martin of Washing- 
ton, Moss of Rutherford, Bolich. Leggett, Miss McLean of Meck- 
lenburg, Hargett, Winston, Squires. Folger, Tatem. Everett of 
Martin, Nicholson, Parnell. 

Covirnittee on Corporations. Representatives Boyd, chairman; 
Murphy, Harris, Norwood, Flanagan, Woodard, Wright, Price, 
Dunn, Smith of Wake, Hargett, Winston, Moser, Nettles, Parker, 
Stancill, Sutton, Tarkington, Smith of Rockingham, Privott. Tatem, 
Squires, Williams, White. 

Committee on Counties. Cities and Toicns. Representatives 
Young, chairman; Moser, Coffey, Makepeace. McDevitt. Privott. 
Nash. Rhodes, Creekmore. Kerr. Campbell, Bolich, McBryde, Bell of 



Standing Committees of House of Representatives 55 

Carteret, Hargett, Woodard, Hart, Palls, Poole of Hoke, Macon, 
Boyd, Nettles, Helms, MacLean of Beaufort, Giles, Younce, Miss 
McLean of Mecklenburg, Mason, Byrd, Brewer of Moore, Wilson 
of Pasquotank, Bullard, Oliver, Eddleman, Solesbee, Brown. Pen- 
land, Brewer of Wake. 

Committee on Courts and Judicial Districts. Representatives 
Smith of Wake, chairman; Dunn, Bolich, Folger, Connor, Moser, 
Moss of Nash, Stancill, Miss McLean of Mecklenburg, Bell of Chat- 
ham, Rhodes, Campbell, Wright, Winston. Lee, Everett of Durham, 
Austin, Townsend, Wilson of Pasquotank, McDevitt, Harris, Satter- 
white, Hart, Ward, Poole of Hoke, Turlington, Wood, Rogers, Mar- 
tin of Davidson, Jones, Solesbee, White, Boyd, MacLean of Beaufort. 

Committee on Drainage. Representatives Bost, chairman; Dunn, 
Tatem, Gibbs, Hargett. Watkins of Brunswick. Privott, Haynian. 
Johnson, Winston, Everett of Martin, Bridger, Matthews, Graham of 
Orange. 

Committee on Education. Representatives Connor, chairman; 
Moss of Nash, Ward, Cox of Alleghany, MacLean of Beaufort. Cold. 
Parker, Folger. Poole of Hoke, Black, Austin, Nash, Falls, Winston, 
Jones, Privott, Graham of Sampson, Giles, E'ure, McDevitt, Helms, 
Bost, Kerr. McBryde, Whitaker, Leggett, Watkins of Brunswick, 
Makepeace. Satterwhite. Smith of Wake, Rouse, Townsend, Price, 
Rideoutte, Gwaltney, Miss McLean, Wetmur, Parnell, Harris, Wat- 
kins of Granville. 

Committee on Election Laics. Representatives B. T. Falls, chair- 
man; Turlington. Graham of Sampson, Miss McLean. Privo, Moss 
of Nash. Moser, Martin of Davidson, Murphy, Bost, Graluim of 
Orange, Sutton, Dunn. Johnson, Creekmore, Jones of Johnston. 
Brawley, Connor, Martin of Washington. Eure. Brown, Parnell. 

Committee on Engrossed Bills. Representatives Mason, chair- 
man; Graham of Orange. Nettles, Sutton, Everett of Martin, Banks, 
Bell of Carteret, Bost, Bridger, Byrd, Falls, Jones, Lee, Macon, Moss 
of Rutherford, Rouse, Tipton, Nicholson, Odom. 

Committee on Enrolled Bills. Representatives Bell of Cliatliani, 
chairman; Black, Bolich, Brawley, Brewer of Mooro, Caiiipbcli. 
Creekmore, Eure, Flanagan, Hargett, Hayman, Loven. Marsluill. 
Matthews, Nash, Norwood, Tarkington, Tatem, Watkins of IJrnns- 
wick, Wells, Yelverton, Williams, Klutz, Brown. 

Committee on Exxienditures of the House. Represent at ivos Ftldo- 
outte, chairman; Mason, Macon, Marshall. Martin of Davidson. 
Townsend, Martin of Washington, Sutton. Tarkington, Gwallnry. 



56 Legislative Department 

Moser, Younce, Whitaker, Turlington, Price, Moss of Rutherford, 
White, Parnell. 

Committee on Federal Relations. Representatives Winston, 
chairman; Dunn, Hill, Wilson of Pasquotank, Haywood, Ward, 
Everett of Durham, Younce, Bolich, Brawley, MacLean of Beaufort, 
Graham of Sampson, Sutton, Morgan, Wells, Martin of Washington, 
Grant, Jonas, Nicholson. 

Committee on Finance. Representatives Graham of Orange, 
chairman; Townsend, Bridger, Murphy, Martin of Davidson, Con- 
nor, Winston, Hargett, Squires, Stancill, Cox of Forsyth, Gibbs, 
Hart, Macon, Wright, McDevitt, Boyd, Coffey, Graham of Sampson. 
Turlington, Parker, Gold, Makepeace, Austin, Harris, Oliver, Mat- 
thews, Moss of Nash, Ward, Moser, Everett of Martin, MacLean of 
P.eaufort, Smith of Wake, Norwood, Jenkins, Byrd. 

Committee on Fish and Fisheries. Representatives Whitaker, 
chairman; W. H. Bell of Carteret, Privott, Gibbs, Austin, Bridger, 
Eullard, Boyd, Stancill, Johnson, Moss of Nash, Hargett, Coffey, 
Campbell, Eddleman, Cox of Alleghany, Gold, Pool of McDowell, 
Dunn, Parnell, Hyman, Younce. 

Committee on Game. Representatives Johnson, chairman; 
Harris, Price, Wilson of Pasquotank, Hayman, Poole of Hoke, 
Leggett, Brawley, Bell of Chatham, Cox of Forsyth, Gibbs, Mc- 
Bryde, Woodard, Oliver, Sutton, Lee, Marshall, Rogers, Hargett, 
Brown, Tipton, White. 

Committee on Health. Representatives McBryde, chairman; 
Eddleman, Hart, Parker. Nettles, Cox of Forsyth, Yelverton, Austin, 
Leggett, Wright, Smith of Wake, Miss McLean of Mecklenburg, 
Moss of Rutherford. Little, Jones, Klutz, Younce, Grant, Tipton, 
Murphy, Winston, Cox of Pitt. 

Committee on Immigration. Representatives Black, chairman; 
Wells, Banks, Coffey, Cox of Forsyth, Everett of Martin, Cox 
of Pitt, Graham of Sampson, Johnson, Kerr, Loven, Matthews, 
Watkins of Brunswick, Yelverton, Young, Whitaker, Price, Nettles, 
Oliver, Odom, Solesbee. 

Committee on Insane Asylum. Representatives Cox of Pitt, 
chairman; Hart, Yelverton. Parker, Macon, Giles, Boyd, Bost, Eddle- 
man, Smith of Wake, Wright, Shipman, Moss of Rutherford. Hay- 
wood Loven, McBryde, Klutz, Williams. Byrd. 



Standing Committees of Housk of Rei'rehentativks ."jT 

Committee on the Institutions for the B'Und. Representatives 
Smith of Rockingham, chairman; Hart, Jones, Watkins of Gran- 
ville, Young, Marshall, Everett of Durham, Whitaker, Tateni, Pri- 
vott, Martin of Washington, Norwood, Satterwhite, Parker. 

Committee on the Institutions for the Deaf and Dumb. Reprpscii- 
tatives Moss of Rutherford, chairman; Bridger, Wells, Younce, Par- 
ker, Cox of Pitt, Falls, Austin, Black, Brewer of Wake. Yelverfoii, 
Rideoutte, Rouse, Bullard, Gibbs, Watkins of Brunswick, Watkins of 
Granville, Rogers, Morgan, Leggett, Bell of Carteret. 

Committee on Insurance. Representatives Younce, chairman ; 
Woodard, Morgan, Price, Smith of Rockingham, Wilson of Transyl- 
vania, Moss of Rutherford, Coffey, Lee, Young, Dunn, Wright. 
Norwood, Gibbs, Wilson of Pasquotank, Connor, Brewer of Wake. 
Little, Boyd, Butler, Parker, Flanagan, Haywood, Banks, Graham 
of Sampson, Squires, Klutz, Jonas, Williams. 

Committee on Internal Improvements. Representatives Morgan, 
chairman; Brewer of Wake, Wood, Rogers, Hill, Wells, Dunn. Mc- 
Devitt, Boyd, Watkins of Brunswick, Watkins of Granville, Moss 
of Nash, Kerr, Smith of Rockingham, Makepeace, Parker, Satter- 
white, Graham, Bost, Bullard. 

Committee on the Journal. Representatives Nettles, chairman; 
Banks, Leggett, Yelverton, Rhodes, Kerr, Younce, Rideoutte, Nash, 
Oliver, Loven, Lee, Matthews. Price, Moss of Rutherford, Cox of 
Alleghany, Boyles, Williams, Odom. 

Committee on Judiciary, No. 1. Representatives Moss of Nash, 
chairman; Ward, Dunn, Gold, Moser. Turlington, Falls, Xash. 
Bullard, Everett of Durham, Martin of W^ashington, Byrd. Smith 
of Wake, Moss of Rutherford, Bolich, Hill, Butler, Wright, Leggett. 
Rhodes, Lee, Grant, Jenkins, Nicholson, Harris, MacLean of Beuu- 
fort. 

Committee on Judiciary, No. 2. Representatives Sutton, chair- 
man; Graham of Orange, Wilson of Pasquotank, Miss McLean of 
Mecklenburg, Connor, Townsend, Winston, Squires, Bell of Chat- 
ham, Graham of Sampson, Murphy, Creekmore, Stancill, Gwaltncy, 
Younce, Rogers, Folger, Campbell, Mason, Brawley, Austin. Martin 
of Davidson. Jonas, Klutz, Woodard. 

Committee on Library. Representatives Wright, chairman: Hay- 
wood, Brewer of Moore, Eddleman, Connor, Yelverton, Makepeace. 
Winston, Everett of Durham, Little, Rhodes, Hidooutte. Kotise. 
Johnson, Watkins of Granville, Wliitaker. Hart. Solesbce. Williams. 



58 Legislative Department 

Committee on Manufacture and Labor. Representatives Cox of 
Forsyth, chairman: Rideoutte, R. L. Harris, Mason, Norwood, Smith 
of Rockingham, Stancill, Turlington, Wright, Black, Helms, Wood, 
Bost, Eure, Falls, Flanagan, Gwaltney, Watkins of Granville, Whita- 
ker, Tipton, Pool of McDowell. 

Committee on Military Affairs. Representatives Wells, chairman; 
Norwood, Byrd, Bolich, Younce, Mason, Moss of Rutherford, Bridger, 
McBryde, Hill. Satterwhite. Sutton, Young. Wright, Jones, Poole 
of Hoke, Rhodes, Graham of Orange, Bell of Chatham. 

Comviittee on Mines and Mining. Representatives McDevitt, 
chairman; Wilson of Transylvania. Nettles, Makepeace, Boyd, 
Brewer of Moore, Bell of Chatham, Bost, Little, Loven, Satter- 
white, Tatem, Cox of Pitt, Moss of Rutherford, Boyles, Brown. 

Committee on Oyster Industry. Representatives Bell of Car- 
teret, chairman; Morgan. Johnson. Watkins of Brunswick. Gibbs, 
Tatem, Dunn, Hayman, Banks, Martin, Wells, Moss of Nash, Eure, 
Macon, Martin of Washington, Leggett, Murphy, Privott, Wetmur, 
Parnell. 

Committee on Penal Institutions. Representatives Brewer of 
Wake, chairman; Giles. Hart, Bell of Chatham, Dunn, Brawley, 
Makepeace, Sutton, Moss of Nash, Hill, Creekmore, Moser, Moss 
of Rutherford, Folger, Byrd, Bridger, Nettles, Wood, Brewer of 
Moore, White, Pool of McDowell. 

Committee on Pensions. Representatives Poole of Hoke, chair- 
man; Coffey, Gwaltney, Kerr, Falls, Bullard, Macon, Wood, Mar- 
shall, Eddleman, Rouse, Boyd, Whitaker, D. McDevitt, Morgan, 
Little, Helms, Bost, Brawley, Haywood, Shipman. Wetmur. White, 
Solesbee, Watkins of Granville. 

Committee on Printing. Representatives Kerr, chairman; 
Brewer of Moore, Brewer of Wake, Poole of Hoke, Everett of 
Durham, Winston, Graham of Orange, Makepeace, Macon, Nor- 
wood, Turlington, Bridger, Haywood, Helms, Hill. Jones. Leggett, 
Squires, Little, Privott, Tatem, Boyles, Grant. 

Committee on Private and Public Local Laws. Representatives 
Brawley, chairman; Stancill, Winston, Oliver, Butler, Nash, Hill, 
Byrd, Rogers, Rhodes, Rouse, Folger, Lee, Austin, Wright, Miss 
McLean, Klutz. 

Committee on Priinleges and Elections. Representatives Miss 
McLean of Mecklenburg, chairman; Wright, Cox of Forsyth, Fol- 



Standing Committees of House of Representatives 59 

ger, Boyd, Byrd, Nash, Coffey, Everett of Martin, Eddleman, Dunn, 
Hargett, Hill, Johnson, Tatem, Young. Wood, Townsend, Wilson of 
Pasquotank, Grant, Odom. 

Committee on Propositions and Grievances. Representatives 
Martin of Washington, chairman; Younce, Oliver, Byrd, Creekmore. 
Matthews, Murphy, Smith of Rockingham, Nash, Morgan, Campbell, 
Brewer of Moore, Haywood, Wells, Wilson of Transylvania, Stan- 
cill, Everett of Martin, Coffey, Falls, Moser, Woodard, Gibbs, 
Rogers, Nettles, Graham of Sampson, Mason, Moss of Nash, Soles- 
bee, Jonas, Grant. 

Committee on Public Roads. Representatives Woodard, chair- 
man; Connor, Ward, Sutton, Townsend, Turlington, Cox of For- 
syth, Bost, Price, Rhodes, Mason, Martin of Davidson, Makepeace, 
Gold, Boyd, Graham of Orange, Graham of Sampson, Johnson. 
Tatem, Giles, Wells, Creekmore, Bell of Chatham, Black, Watkins 
of Granville, Brawley, Hargett, Brewer of Moore, Flanagan, Moser, 
Boyles, Nicholson. 

Committee on Public Welfare. Representatives Gold, chairman; 
Turlington, Townsend, Falls, Young, Moser, Miss McLean of Meck- 
lenburg, Smith of Wake, Giles, Boyd, Graham of Orange, Yelver- 
ton, Norwood, Poole of Hoke, Gibbs, Wood, Harris, Tarkingron. 
Wright, Martin of Davidson, Jenkins. 

Committee on Regulation of Public Service Corporations. Repre- 
sentatives Ward, chairman; Boyd, Woodard, Falls, Connor, Crock- 
more, Bolich, Turlington, Mason. Privott. Bullard, Folger, Giles. 
Kerr, Lee, Jonas, Klutz. 

Committee on Revision of Laws. Representatives Stancill of 
Mecklenburg, chairman; Murphy, Creekmore, Martin of Washing- 
ton, Bolich, Connor, Moser, Banks, Campbell, Bridger, Brewer of 
Moore, Ward, Wilson of Pasquotank, Wilson of Transylvania. 
Brown, Grant. 

Committee on Rules. Representatives Moser, chairman; Winston. 
Connor, Falls, Graham of Orange, Martin of Wa.shington. .Make- 
peace, Moss of Nash, Townsend, Turlington, Younce, Brown. 

Committee on Salaries and Fees. Representatives Martin of 
Davidson, chairman; Ward, Brawley, Eddleman, Austin, Boyd, lirll 
of Carteret, Everett of Martin, Johnson, Marshall. Rogers. S(iuirrs, 
Bolich, Makepeace, Stancill, Hargett, Little, Morgan. Brewcn- of 



60 Legislative Department 

Moore, Campbell, Woodard, Townsend, Cox of Pitt, Sutton, Jen- 
kins, Penland. 

Committee on Senatorial Districts. Representatives Everett of 
Durham, chairman; Creekmore, Murphy, Turlington, Graham of 
Orange, Woodard, Bell of Chatham, Jones, Smith of Rockingham, 
Yelverton, "Ward, Winston, Bullard, Cox of Alleghany, Eddleman, 
Gwaltney, Boyd, Norwood, Brown, Jenkins. 

Committee on Trustees of State College. Representatives Squires, 
chairman; Johnson, Brewer of Wake, Tatem, Parker, Nettles, 
Mason, Best, Rhodes, Kerr, Makepeace, Moss of Nash, Cox of 
Alleghany, Cox of Forsyth, McBryde, Eure, Prlvott, Hart, Soles- 
bee, Jenkins, Whitaker, Jones. 

Committee on Trustees of University. Representatives Townsend, 
chairman; Graham of Orange, Murphy, Younce, Sutton, Wilson of 
Pasquotank, Bell of Chatham, Macon, Parker, Moss of Nash, ]\Iason, 
Jonas. 

Committee of Justices of Peace. Representatives Watkins of 
Brunswick, chairman; Whitaker, Wilson, Tarkington, Marshall, 
Morgan, Everett of Martin, Cox of Pitt, Brewer of Moore, Little. 
Butler, Smith of Rockingham, Lee, Brldger,. Loven, Earle, Gibbs. 
Byrd, Shlpman, Rogers, Penland, Odom, Tiplon. 

Committee of Casioell Training School. Representatives Jones, 
chairman; Whitaker, Cox, Poole of Hoke, Sutton, Prlvott, Eddleman, 
Morgan, Norwood, Butler, Hayman, Loven, Rouse, Marshall, Witmur, 
Williams. 

Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds. Representatives 
Makepeace, chairman; Byrd, Eure, Wood, Satterwhite. Hayman, 
Flanagan, Rouse, Gwaltney, Leggett, Bullard, Little, Creekmore, 
Wetmur, Jenkins. 



PART II 
EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS 



1. Governor. 

2. Secretary of State. 

3. Auditor. 

4. Treasurer. 

5. Superintendent of Public l.\sTKr( -ikin. 

6. Attorney-General. 

7. Council of State. 



THE GOYERJfOE 

Angus Wilton McLean, Governor, Raleigh 

The Governor is the chief executive officer of the State. He is 
elected by the people for a term of four years. He receives a salary 
of $6,500 a year, and in addition is allowed annually $600 for travel- 
ing expenses, and a residence with domestic servants. 

Article HI, Section 2, of the Constitution of North Carolina, pre- 
scribes the following qualifications for the Governor: 

1. He must have attained the age of thirty years. 

2. He must have been a citizen of the United States for five years, 
and a resident of North Carolina for two years next before the 
election. 

3. No person shall be eligible for the office of Governor for more 
than four years in any term of eight years, unless he becomes Gov- 
ernor by having been Lieutenant-Governor or President of the 
Senate. 

The same qualifications apply to the office of Lieutenant-Governor. 
The Constitution prescribes the powers and duties of the Gov- 
ernor as follows: 

1. To take the oath of oflfice prescribed for the Governor. 

2. To reside at the seat of government; to keep the General As- 
sembly informed respecting the affairs of the State; and to recom- 
mend to the General Assembly such measures as he deems expedient. 

3. To grant reprieves, commutations and pardons (except in cases 
of impeachment), and to report each case of reprieve, commutation, 
or pardon to the General Assembly. 

4. To receive reports from all officials of the Executive Depirrt- 
ments and of public institutions and to transmit the same to th.- 
General Assembly. 

5. He is commander-in-chief of the militia of the State, except 
when they are called into the service of the United States. 

6. To call extra sessions of the General Assembly when he thinks 
necessary, by and with the advice of the Council of State. 



64 ExECUTIVK Depaktme>"ts 

7. To appoint, l)y and with the advice and consent of the Senate, 
all officers whose offices are established by the Constitution and 
whose appointments are not otherwise provided for. 

8. To keep "The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina" and 
use the same as occasions shall require. 

He has no veto power, being the only Governor in the United 
States without such power. 

In addition to these duties the following are prescribed by statute: 

1. To supervise the official conduct of all executive and adminis- 
trative officers, and to visit all State institutions whenever he deems 
such visitation necessary to inquire into their management and 
needs. 

2. To see that all public offices are filled and their duties per- 
formed. 

3. To make appointments and supply vacancies not otherwise pro- 
vided for in all departments. 

4. To be the sole official organ of communication between the gov- 
ernment of this State and other States or the government of the 
United States. 

5. To use the civil and military power of the State to prevent the 
violation of the statute against prize-fighting in North Carolina. 

6. To convene the Council of State for consultation whenever he 
deems it necessary. 

7. To appoint a Private Secretary, who shall keep a record of all 
public letters written by or to the Governor, in books provided for 
that purpose. 

8. To cause to be kept the following records: a register of all ap- 
plications for pardon or the commutation of any sentence; an ac- 
count of his official expenses, and the rewards offered by him for 
thfe apprehension of criminals, which shall be paid upon the warrant 
of the Auditor. 

9. Under certain conditions to employ counsel for the State. 

10. To appoint by proclamation one day in each year as a day of 
solemn and public thanksgiving to Almighty God for past blessings 
and of supplication for His continued kindness and care over us as 
a State and a Nation. 



The Govern ok 65 

11. To procure a seal for each department of the State Kovern- 
ment to be used in such manner as may be established by law. 

The Governor is, ex officio, president of the State Board of Edu- 
cation; chairman Budget Commission; member of the State 
Board of Canvassers; member State Board of Public Buildings and 
Grounds; member Pension Board; member State Library Board; 
chairman State Geological Board; member State Printing Comniie- 
sion; chairman Board of Internal Improvements: Commander-in- 
Chief State Militia; chairman Memorial Building Commission; 
president Board of Trustees University of North Carolina; chair- 
man Board of Trustees Orthopedic Hospital; president Board of 
Trustees State A. and E. College. 

Historical >'ote 

The office of governor was provided for in the first charters and 
plans for colonizing English-speaking America. Sir Walter Raleigh, 
the founder of English-speaking America, and the supreme author- 
ity over it under the crown, instituted the office in his scheme of 
government for the first "Lost Colony" by appointing Ralph Lane 
the first governor of "Virginia" in 1585. The office was continued 
in Raleigh's subsequent colonies, likewise in the founding of Vir- 
ginia at Jamestown. The beginning of North Carolina government 
was the organization of a government for Albemarle, under the Lords 
Proprietors. William Drummond was the first governor. Though 
there were modifications of the office by the Lords Proprietors under 
their varying plans of government, there was no break in the suc- 
cession of governors of North Carolina proper during the whole 
period in which North Carolina was a proprietary governiiu-ni. 
1663-1728. The governor was appointed at pleasure by the Pro- 
prietors, and his chief duty was to represent them and not I he 
people. He was limited in his executive authority by a council of 
from six to twelve men; but since the council was created practic:illy 
always from men recommended by the governor, this liniitalion was 
largely illusory. He was supreme in the colony, and limited (uily 
by the instructions of the Proprietors themselves. From 172S to 
1776 North Carolina was a Ci-own Colony. The status of i lie 
governor remained the same except that the Crown took I lie pl:ice 



66 Executive Departments 

of the Proprietors. The independent state government was or- 
ganized under the constitution of 1776. This constitution con- 
tinued the office of governor but strictly defined his eligibility, 
powers, and duties, as follows: 

1. He was to be elected jointly by the two houses of the General 
Assembly for a term of one year, and was not to be eligible for 
more than three terms in any six successive years. 

2. He was to be not less than thirty years of age; he must have 
been a resident of North Carolina for five years; he must be pos- 
sessed of a freehold to the value of one thousand pounds. 

3. He was to be advised in office by a council of state elected by 
the General Assembly. 

4. His powers and duties were strictly defined by the Constitution, 
by the General Assembly under the Constitution. 

5. He was subject to impeachment. 

Such was the status of the governor until the Constitution of 
1835. This Constitution made the office elective by the people for 
a term of two years, limited eligibility to four years in any six 
successive years, and omitted the property qualification. 

The Constitution of 1868 increased the term of office to four years 
and limited it to' four years in any successive eight except in the 
case of succession from Lieutenant-Governor or President of the 
Senate. This Constitution created the office of Lieutenant-Governor 
and established all constitutional elective officers, except the Attor- 
ney-General, as the Council of State. Since 1868 the constitutional 
status of the governor has remained the same. 



Chief Executives of Xorth Carolina 

GOVERNORS OF "VIRGINIA" 

April 1585 — June 1586 Ralph Lane' 

April 1587— August 1587 John White' 

CHIEF EXECUTIVES UNDER THE PROPRIETORS 

October 1663— October 1667 William Drummond- 

October 1667 — December 1669 Samuel Stephens 3, •• 

October 1670— May 1673... ...Peter Carteret^ 

May ...1673— November 1676 John Jenkins^ 

November 1676—. 1678 Thomas Eastchurch, ^, 

. . . 1677— Thomas Miller" 



The Governor (37 

-\lll~ — - -1678 — JohnCulpepptT' 



February.. i679-AuguVtv:::::::::i679:::::::-: — johnHarvev3 

November...... 1679- 1681. ..:.:::::iohn .^^0^. 

November 2..... 1691-.::::::::::::::::: |^::::::::::::::::?|;il;^l:;;a 

-aV,---Vo-, — 1«q1Z ^?^! Thomas Jarvisi' 

"^"^"^^^l.. 694-.. 696.. .JohnArchdale'o 

694- 699 rohn Harvev" 

"-70^" ll'B-'- - — Henderson Walker^ 

1703- 1705 Robert Daniel" 

1705- 1706 Thomas Gary" 

706- 1708.... Wilham Glover^ 

}J?n~;f.^""^'''''-- -I'^ll ...Thomas Gary ■•• 

M— o" ll}^n~¥^y^-C 1712.... .Edward Hyde ^ 

May 9. 1712-September 8 1712 Edward Hvde'^ 

September 12.. . .1712-May 28 1714 :.:::::Thoma pXck'. 

^r ^ f qV }?ot~-y^'°^ 26 1722.. Charles Eden' 

March 30 722-August 30 1722 Thomas Pollock^ 

August 30 722-January 15 1724 .....Wilham Reed^ 

January 15 ^24-July 17 1725 George Rurringfon^ 

July 17 1725-May 1728.. Richard Everard^' 

GOVERNORS UNDER THE CROWN 

^Y V- ll?8-Febr'iary 25 1731 ....Richard Everard'' 

February 2o 1731-Apnl lo 1734 George Burrington > * 

^^rl^^-o- 1734-October 27 1734... Nathaniel Rice^ 

October 2/ 1734-July 17 1752... Gabriel Johnston" ' 

•J"'^ ^^-V.- 1752-January 29 1753 Nathaniel Rice' 

January 29 1753— November 2 1754.. Matthew Rowan' 

November 2 1754-March 28 ...1765. Arthur Dobbs'*- 

March 28 1765— December 20 1765. William Tryon" 

December 20 1765— July 1 1771 William Trvon" 

July 1 1771— August 12 1771 James Hasell' 

August 12 1771— May 1775.. Josiah Martin" 

PRESIDENTS ON THE PROVINCIAL COUNCIL'S 

October 18 1775— March 5... 1776..Cornehus Harnett N'ew Hanover 

June 5 1776— August 21 1776.. Cornelius Harnett" New Hanover 

August 21 1776— September 27. .1776.. Samuel Ashe" New Hanover 

September 27 1776— October 25 1776.. Willie Jones Halifax 

GOVERNORS OF NORTH CAROLINA SINCE INDEPEXDENCE 
(Elected by the Legislature) '8 

December 19 1776— April 18. 1777.. Richard Caswell"' DobbsS" 

April 18 1777— April 18 1778.. Richard Caswell. Dobbs 

April 18 1778— May 4 1779.. Richard Caswell... Dobbs 

May 4 1779— April 1780.. Richard Caswell Dobbs 

April 1780— June 26 I781-.Abner \asli Craven 

June 26 1781— April 26 1782.. Thomas Uurke Orange 

April 26 1782— April 30 1783.. Alexander Martin Guilfoni 

April 30 1783— January 1 1785.. Alexander Martin GuilfnnI 

January 1... 1785— December 12... 1785.. Richard Caswell. Dolibs 

December 12 1785— December 23...1786..Ricliard Caswell Dobbs 

December 23 1786— December 20... 1787.. Richard Caswell. Dobbs 

December 20. 1787— November 18. .1788.. Samuel Johnston Chowan 

November 18 1788 — November 16. .1789.. Samuel Johnston Chowan 

November 16 1789— December 17... 1789.. Samuel Johnston'' Chowan 

December 17. 1789— December 9 1790.. Alexander Martin Guilford 

December 9 1790— January 2 1792..Alexan<lcr Martin Guilford 

January 2 1792— December 14... 1792. .Alexander Martin Guilford 

December 14 17<)2— December 26.. .1793.. R. D. .S|)aiKht Craven 

December 26. 1793— January 6 1705.. R. D. Spaight Craven 

January 6 1795— \o\ember 19. .1795.. R. I). Sp.iighl Craven 



68 



Executive Departments 



November 19 1795— December 19.--1796. 

December 19 1796— December 5 1797. 

December 5 1797— December 7 1798. 

December 7 179S— November 23. _ 1799. 

November 23 1799— November 29.. 1800. 

November 29 .1800— November 28. .1801. 

November 28 1801— December 6 1802. 

December 6 1802— December 1 1803 

December 1 1803— November 29.. 1804. 

November 29 1804— December 10... 1805. 

December 10 1805— December 1 1806. 

December 1 1806— December 1 1807. 

December 1 1807— December 12... 1808. 

December 12 1808— December 13... 1809. 

December 13 1809— Deceinber 5 1910. 

December 5. ..1810— December 9 1811. 

December 9 1811— November 25_.1812. 

November 25. 1812- November 20. .1813. 

November 20 1813— November 29. .1814. 

November 29 1814— December 7 1815. 

December 7 1815— December 7 1816. 

December 7 1816— December 3 ...1817. 

December 3 1817— November 24.. 1818. 

November 24 1818— November 25.-1819. 

November 25 1819— December 7 1820_ 

December 7 1820- December 7 1821. 

December 7 1821— December 7 1822. 

December 7 1822— December 6 1823. 

December 6_ ..1823— December 7 1824. 

December 7 1824— December 6 1825. 

December 6 1825— December 29.. .1826. 

December 29 1826— December 8 1827. 

December 8 1827— December 12... 1828. 

December 12 1828— December 10.. .1829. 

December 10 1829— December 18.. .1830. 

December 18 1830— December 13... 1831. 

December 13 1831— December 6 1832. 

December 6_. .1832— December 9 1833. 

December 9 1833— December 10... 1834. 

December 10 1834— December 10.--1835. 

December 10 1835— December 31.. .1836. 



.Samuel Ashe New Hanover 

.Samuel Ashe New Hanover 

.Samuel Ashe New Hanover 

.W. R. Davie. Halifax 

Benjamin Williams Moore 

Benjamin Williams Moore 

.Benjamin Williams Moore 

.James Turner 2-' Warren 

. James Turner \\arren 

.James Tiu-ner Warren 

.Nathaniel Alexander Mecklenburg 

.Nathaniel Alexander Mecklenburg 

-Benjamin Williams Moore 

. David Stone Bertie 

.David Stone Bertie 

.Benjamin Smith Bnmswick 

.William Hawkins Warren 

.William Hawkins Warren 

-Willi am Hawkins W^arren 

.William Miller Warren 

-William Miller Warren 

-Wilham Miller Warren 

.John Branch Halifax 

.John Branch Halifax 

.John Branch Halifax 

- Jesse Franklin Surry 

-Gabriel Holmes -_ -Sampson 

-Gabriel Holmes..- Sampson 

.Gabriel Holmes Sampson 

.H. G. Burton Halifax 

.H. G. Burton Halifax 

.H. G. Burton Halifax 

.James Iredell Chowan 

-John Owen Bladen 

. John Owen Bladen 

. Mont ford Stokes Wi Ikes 

.Montford Stokes Wilkes 

.D. L. Swain Buncombe 

.D. L. Swain Buncombe 

-D. L. Swain Buncombe 

-R. D. Spaight, Jr Craven 



GOVERNORS ELECTED BY THE PEOPLE 2 ^ 



December 
December 
January 1. 
December 
January 1 
January 1 
January 1 
January 1 
December 
December 
January 1 
January 1 . 
January 1 . 
January 1 . 

July 7 

September 
December 
May 29-.. 
December 
December 
July 1.... 
December 
January 1 



31 1836— December 29.. .1838. 



29. 



31. 



.1838— January 1 1841. 

.1841— December 31... 1842. 

.1842— January 1 1845. 

-1845— January 1 1847. 

.1847— January 1 1849. 

.1849— January 1 1851 

-1851— December 22-.. 1852. 
. 1852— December 6... .1854, 

.1854 — January 1 1855. 

.1855— January 1 1857. 

-1857— January 1 1859. 

.1859 — January 1 1861 

.1861— July 7 1861 



1861— September 8.. ..1862, 

8 1862— December 22.. .1864. 

22 1864— May 29 1865. 

1865— December 15.. .1865. 

15 1865— December 22... 1866. 

22 1866— July 1 1868. 

1868— December 15... 1870. 

15 1870— January 1 1873. 

1873— Julv 11 1874 



.E. B. Dudley New Hanover 

.E. B. Dudley New Hanover 

.J. M. Morehead fUiilford 

.J. M. Morehead Guilford 

.W. A. Graham Orange 

.W. A. Graham Orange 

.Charles Manly Wake 

.D. S. Reid Rockingham 

.D. S. Reid-'' Rockingham 

.Warren Winslow^s Cumberland 

-Thomas Bragg Northampton 

-Thomas Bragg Northampton 

.John W. Ellis Rowan 

.John W. Ellis = fi Rowan 

.Henry T. Clark-^ Edgecombe 

-Z. B. Vance Buncombe 

-Z. B. Vance^' Buncombe 

-W. W. Holden = s Wake 

-Jonathan Worth Randolph 

.Jonathan Worth 2 9 Randolph 

-W. W. Holdenso Wake 

.T. R. Caldwelpi Burke 

.T. R. Caldwell Biu-ke 



The Governor 



G9 



July 11 1874— January 1. _. 

January 1 1877— February 5, . 

February 5 1879— Januarys 18. . 

January 18 1881— January 21.. 

January 21 1885— January 17 

January 17 1889— April 8l 

April 8 ..1891— January 18.. 

January 18.. .1893— January 12.. 

January 12 1897— January 15. . 

January 15 1901— January 11.. 

January 11 1905— January 12.. 

January 1 1909— January 15. _ 

January 15 1913— January 11. . 

January 11 1917— January 12.. 

January 12 ...1921— January 12. . 

January 12 1925— 



..1877..C. II. Brogden'2 Wuviii- 

--JE?--?,- ^- '^'ance" i\Icaklfi.bur« 

..1881..T. J. Jarvis'< Pitt 

..1885..T. J. Jarvis Pitt 

..1889..A. M. Scales I.". JlockinRlmin 

..1891..D. G. Fowlers... Wake 

..1893. .Thomas M. Holt'- Alamance 

.-1897..Elias Carr Edgecombe 

..1901..D. L. Russell Brunswirk 

..1905..C. B. Aycock Wavnc 

..1909..R. B. Glenn Forsvtii 

..1913-.W. VV. Kitcliin. Person 

.-1917.. Locke Craig. Buncombe 

..1921. .Thomas \V. Bickett Franklin 

..1925.. Cameron Morrison ..Mccklcnbur« 

Angus Wilton McLean Robeson 



NOTES 

1 Appointed by Sir Walter Raleigh. 

2 Appointed by Sir William Berkeley at the request of the other Lords Proprietors. 

3 Appointed by the Lords Proprietors. 
^ Died in office. 

5 Acting-Governor by virtue of his office as President of the Council. 
^ Died before quahfying. 

' Deputy of Governor Eastchurch. Deposed by the rebels under John Culpepp«T. 
* Elected by the rebels. 

' On his way to Carolina he was captured by pirates and detained until 1682. 
1° Governor of all Carolina with headquarters at Charleston. Governed North 
Carohna through a deputy. This plan was followed until 1712. 
^' Deputy Governor. 

1 2 The first governor of North Carolina as a separate and distinct province. Appointeil 
by the Lords Proprietors. 

13 Continued in office during the transfer of the province from the Lords Proprietors 
to the Crown. 

" Appointed by the Crown. 

15 Lieutenant-Governor. 

16 The Provincial Congress (after April, 1776, called the Council of Safety) was tlie cliief 
executive authority of the revolutionary government during the interval from the over- 
throw of the rojal government in 1775 until the inauguration of the independent State 
government January 1, 1777. 

1' Resigned. 

18 "That the Senate and House of Commons, jointly at their first meeting after each 
election, shall by ballot elect a Governor for one year, who shall not be ehKil)le to (hut 
office longer than three years in each six successive years." Art. XV, Coii-slitution of 1770. 

1' Chosen by the Convention of December, 1776, to fill interval until the Legi-slature 
could meet. 

20 Abolished in 17C1. 

21 Elected by Convention of 1789 to United States Senate. Did not qualify for hid 
third term as Governor. 

22 John Baptista Ashe, of Halifax, was first chosen, but died before ho could qtiiilify. 
Turner was then elected. 

23 The Convention of 1835 amended the Constitution to provide for the election of the 
governor by a popular vote, increased his term of office to two years and nuide any pornoii 
inehgible for more than two terms successively. 

2'' Elected to the United States Senate. 
25 Ex officio as President of the Senate. 

2 8 Died in office. 

2' Turned out by Provisional government. 

28 Provisional governor appointed b.v the President of the United Stuti-s. 

-^ Turned out by reconstruction government. 

3" Impeached and removed from office. 

31 Ex officio as lieutenant-governor. Elected governor by the people in 1872. Dinl in 
office. 

32 Ex officio as lieutenant-governor. 

3 3 Elected to the United States Senate. 

3^ Ex officio as lieutenant-governor. Elected governor by tlio people in I.S70. 
35 Died in office. 



70 Executive Departments 



THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

Sec. 1, Art. Ill, Constitution; Art. 1, Ch. 22, C. S.; Ch. 97. C. S. ; Ait. 4, 
Ch. 129, C. S.; Ch. 97, P. L. 1921 — Extra Session 

W. N. Everett, Secretary of State, Raleigh 

Title — Secretary of State. 
Appointment — Elected by the people. 
Term — Four years. 
S'aZari/— $4,500. 

Ex officio Member — Council of State; State Board of Education; 
Board of Public Buildings, Municipal Board of Control, Trustee 
State Library, Chairman Board of Advisors of World War Veterans 
Loan Fund. 

Fnnction 

To have custody of all statutes and resolutions, rolls of regis- 
tered voters and other State and official records; to supervise pub- 
lication and distribution of the laws; to examine and certify articles 
or certificates of incorporation; to register trademarks, brands 
and marks. 

The Secretary of State countersigns all commissions issued by the 
Governor, and is charged with the custody of all statutes and joint 
resolutions of the Legislature, all documents which pass under the 
Great Seal, and of all books, records, deeds, parchments, maps and 
papers now deposited in his office or which may hereafter be there 
deposited pursuant to law. 

Through the Secretary of State all corporations for business 
or charitable purposes under the general laws of the State are char- 
tered. These include mercantile, manufacturing, banking, insur- 
ance, railroad, street car, electric, steamboat, and other companies. 
The certificates of incorporation are there filed and recorded. 

There have been 2,880 certificates for domestic corporations filed 
in the oflice of Secretary of State for the two-year period ending June 
30, 1926. 

There have been 391 certificates of dissolutions filed with the 
Secretary of State during the last two years, and 314 foreign cor- 
porations have filed domestication papers. There have been regis- 
tered 36 trade-marks within the last two years. 



Secretary of State 71 

Payments to the Treasurer by the Secretary of State for the 
fiscal years July 1, 1924 to June 30, 1926 were as follows: 

July 1, 1921, July 1, 19.1J 

to to 
June, 30, 1925 June SO, 192i! 

Great Seals $ lOi.oo $ 77.50 

Grants 876.77 1,785.41 

Fees 3,284.60 1,078.55 

Seals 971.00 326.00 

Corporation tax 75,963.80 226,673.22 

Corporation Fees 5,598.30 7,695.10 

Corporation Seals 1,889.00 2,407.00 

Foreign Corporations 9,521.18 25,117.20 

Foreign Corporation Penalty 1,595.00 

Supreme Court Reports 10,977.07 7,780.78 

Code, Laws, Journals 9,157.87 6,404.23 

Trade-marks 68.30 52.70 

Petty differences .87 .01 

Miscellaneous 44.84 77.95 

Land Grant Seals 48.75 82.50 

Land Grant Fees and Postage 31.20 55.05 

Refunds 790.83 1,244.06 

Total $119,325.38 $282,452.26 

Foreign corporations, before being permitted to do business in 
North Carolina are required to file copies of their charters in the 
ofl5ce of the Secretary of State. 

All bills passed by the General Assembly are enrolled for 
ratification under the supervision and direction of the Secretary of 
State, and shall be typewritten or written with pen and ink, in tlie 
discretion of the Secretary of State. All bills are now typewritten. 
A carbon copy is sent to the State Printer, from which copy are 
published the laws, resolutions, etc. An assistant to tlie Secretary 
of State prepares these laws for pul)lication, determines which are 
"Public," "Public-Local," and which are "Private"; side-notes tliein 
and prepares the captions and indexes the laws of the session. 

The Secretary of State is charged with the work of disf ril)ui iiiK 
the Supreme Court Reports, the Consolidated Statutes, Session 
Laws, Journals, etc. 



72 Executive Departments 

All vacant and unappropriated land in North Carolina is sub- 
ject to entry by residents or citizens of the State. Almost all the 
vacant land in the State has been granted to individuals or is the 
property of the State Board of Education, but small tracts are fre- 
quently discovered and entries for same made. The warrants, 
plats, and surveys and a record of grants for all lands originally 
granted by the Lord Proprietors, by the Crown of Great Britain, or 
by the State of North Carolina, are preserved in the office of the 
Secretary of State. 

Historical Note 

The office of Secretary of State developed from that of Secretary 
of the Province, which began in 1675 with the appointment of Robert 
Holden. and continued by the Constitution of 1776. The Secretary 
of the Province was appointed by the Crown at pleasure, and re- 
ceived his patent from the Governor's Council. He was a Justice 
of the Peace, Clerk of Pleas of the Crown, and issued land grants. 
The Constitution of 1776 made the term three years and the 
method of appointment election by the General Assembly. The Con- 
stitution of 1835 reduced the term to two years. The Constitution 
of 1868 increased the term to four years, and made the office elective 
by the people. 

Secretaries of the Colony 

ALBEMARLE 

167.5-1677 Robert Holden 

1677-1679 Thomas Miller 

1679-1684 Robert Holden 

1684-1685 Francis Hartley 

1685 Woodrowe 

NORTH CAROLINA 

1694-1702 Daniel Akehurst 

1702-1712 Samuel Swann 

1712-1722 Tobias Knight 

1722-1730 _-. John Lovick 

1730-1753 Nathaniel Rice 

1 753-1 754 James M urra v 

1754-1755 Henry McCulloch 

1755-1762 Richard Spaight 

1762-1770 Benjamin Heron 

1770-1770 John London 

1770-1772 Robert Palmer 

1772-1775 Samuel Strudwick ' 

I Thomas Falkner was appointed in 1761, but never qualified. He farmed out the 
office to Strudwick. 



The Auditor 



Secretaries of State 

1777-1798 James Glasgow _.. DnMii. 

1798-1810 William White. _ " lenn r 

1811-1859 — William Hill :.-.:.:::::::::::: " Rockineha,,, 

1859-18()2__ _...Rufus H. Page . .. VVak' 

1862-1864 John P. H. Russ ._ "'"' Wakp 

1864-1865 Charles R. Thomas """" Craven 

1866-1867 Robert W. Best ------^I.-.-^-l^I^"" Greene 

1868-1871 Henry J. Alemniinger . Wake 

1872-1875.... ..William H. Howerton '" Rowan 

isya'IsQ? Joff.PhAEnglehard.... New Hanover 

1879-1891... ---William L. Saunders Wake 

1891-1895 Octavius Coke Wake 

1895-1896 Charles M. Cooke -I-----]."^;^^^"^"^;FrankIin 

1897-1900 Cyrus Thompson _ Onslow 

1901-1923 J. Bryan Grimes PiU 

1923 W.iN. E;verett Richmond 



THE AUDITOR 

Art, III, ypc. 1, Constitution; Art. 5, Cli. 129, C. S. 

Baxter Durham, titate Auditor, Raleigh 

Ti^e— State Auditor. 

Ai)pointment — Elected by the people. 

Term — Four Years. 

<Sa?ar2/— $4,500. 

Ex Officio Member — Council of State, State Board of Education, 
State Board Pensions, Printing Commission. 

Function 

To superintend the fiscal affairs of the State; to keep and state 
all accounts in which the State is interested; to draw warrants on 
the State Treasurer on approved vouchers; to suggest and effect 
plans for the improvement and management of (lie imblic revenue; 
to handle the pension system; to cause to l)e audited the accounts 
of each State department and institution. 

Ch. 163, P. L. 1921. To cause to be examined, audited and ad- 
justed the various accounts, systems of accounts and accounting of 
the several State departments, and institutions; to devise systems 
for control and disbursements of the funds of the State, its depart- 
ments and institutions; to require all olFicirs of the State, its de- 
partments and institutions to install sucli systems of accounting 
procedures and control of disbursement of funds as be ehcts; to 



74 Executive Departments 

have departments and institutions examined and audited from time 
to time; to employ experts and accountants to examine, analyze 
and report on such departments and institutions. 

Ch. 100, P. L. 1925. To require all counties, townships, school dis- 
tricts or other municipal corporations to report to the State Auditor 
on or before June 1, 1925, all bonds or notes having a fixed maturity 
of one year or more from date thereof, and also to make report to 
State Auditor within thirty days after the issuance of any bond or 
note having a fixed maturity of at least one year from date. The 
State Auditor is directed to furnish the necessary forms and keep 
on file statements as required in the foregoing. 

Rkports. To report annually to the Governor and biennially to 
the General Assembly a complete statement of receipts and expendi- 
tures of the State during preceding fiscal year and as far as possible 
of the current year, together with detailed estimate of proposed 
expenditures for ensuing fiscal year, specifying therein each object 
of expenditure and distinguishing between such as are provided for 
by permanent or temporary appropriations, and such as must be 
provided for by a new statute, and to suggest the means from which 
such expenditures are to be defrayed. 

Comptrollers^ 

1782-1784 Richard Caswell Dobbs 

1784-1808 John Craven - Halifax 

1808-1821 Samuel Goodwin Cumberland 

1821-1827 Joseph Hawkins Warren 

1827 John L. Henderson Rowan 

1827-1834 James Grant Halifax 

1834-1836 Nathan Stedman Chatham 

1836-1851 William F. Collins - Nash 

1851-1855 — -William J. Clarke Wake 

1855-1857 George W. Brooks Pasquotank 

1857-1867 Curtis H. Brogden Wayne 

1867-1868-. S. W. Burgin 

Auditors of Public Accounts^ 

1862-1864 Samuel P. Phillips Orange 

1864-1865 Richard H. Battle Wake 

State Auditors 

1868-1873 Henderson Adams .• 

1873-1875 .John Reillev Cumberland 



1 Tlie office of State Auditor was created by the Constitution in 1868. Prior 
to 1868 there was a Comptroller appointed by the General Assembly. 

-This office was created by the Laws of 1862, and abolished a few years later. 



The Treasurer 75 



1875-1879 Samuel L. Love Haywood 

1880-1889 William P. Roberts Gates 

1890-1893 George W. Sanderlin Lenoir 

1893-1897 Robert M. Furman Buncombe 

1898-1900 Hal W. Ayer Wake 

1901-1910 Benjamin F. Dixon Cleveland 

1910 Benjamin F. Dixon, Jr Wako 

1911-1921 ..William P. Wood Randolph 

1921 Baxter Durham Wako 



THE TREASURER 

Sec. 1, Art. IV, Constitution; Art. 6, Cha. 129, C. S. 

B. R. Lacy, State Treasurer, Raleigh 

Title — State Treasurer. 

Appointment — Elected by the people. 

Term — Four years. 

/SaZary— $4,500. 

Ex Officio Member — Council of State; State Board of Education 
(Treasurer), Board of Public Buildings and Grounds. 

Ex Officio Treasurer — Hospitals for Insane (3), A. and E. College, 
State Deaf and Dumb School (Morganton), Deaf, Dumb and Blind 
School (Raleigh), State Prison, Soldiers' Home, Caswell Training 
School, State Hospital for Dangerous Insane, Confederate Women's 
Home, Department of Agriculture, State Board of Education, State 
Board for Vocational E'ducation. 

The duties of the State Treasurer as prescribed by law are as 
follows : 

1. To keep his office in the city of Raleigh and attend there be- 
tween the hours of 10 o'clock a.m. and 8 o'clock p.m., except Sun- 
days and legal holidays. 

2. To receive all moneys that may be paid into the Treasury of 
the State; to pay interest on State bonds and all warrants legally 
drawn on the Treasurer by the Auditor, and to report to the Gov- 
ernor and the General Assembly the financial condition of the State, 
including a summary of the receipts and disbursements for each 
fiscal year. 

3. To make complete revenue bill to cover estimated expenses and 
recommend the tax rate. 

4. To construe revenue when license is paid direct to Stale 
Treasurer. 



76 Executive Depaktments 



Historical Note 

The office of Treasurer originated in 1715 with tlie appointment 
of Edward Moseley. From 1740 to 1779 there were two districts. 
Northern and Southern, witli a Treasurer for each. From 1779 to 
1782 tliere were six districts, each with a Treasurer, as follows: 
Edenton, Salisbury, Hillsboro, Halifax, New Bern, Wilmington. In 
1782 a seventh district — Morgan — was created. In 1784 the district 
system was abandoned, and a treasurer for the State was elected. 
The colonial treasurers were appointed, and their duties defined by 
the General Assembly at pleasufe. The Constitution of 1776 made 
the term one year; that of 1835 made it two years. The Constitu- 
tion of 1868 made the oflice elective by the people and the term 
four years. 

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT STATE TREASURY FOR 
FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1926 

RECEIPTS 

Balance July 1, 1925 « 4,103,639 23 

General Fund: 

Revenue (taxes) - $ 11,813,051.46 

Non revenue 1,320,491.46 

$ 13, 133, .542. 92 

Institut:onal Funds: 

Colleges and institutions 3,212,364.14 

16,345.907.06 

Special Funds: 

Automobile and other sources ■? 23,340,381.24 

Bond sales 20,125,000.00 

Note sales and renewals 69,388,531 .61 

Federal Funds :. 218,773.48 

Board of Education 258,532.03 

113,331,218.36 

$ 133,780,764.65 

DISBURSEMENTS 

General Funds $ 13,974,003.65 

Special Funds 39,795,391.92 

Federal Funds ---- 219,927.93 

Board of Education 272.496.26 

Notes paid and renewals --. 61,650,000.00 

$ 115,911,819.76 

Balance June 30, 1926 17,868,944.89 

? 133,780,764.65 



TiiK Tkeasurek 77 

TREASURY DEPARTMENT STATE DEBT CLOSE OF lU'SINESS JISK 30. i«20 

Bonded Debt: 

Interest and sinking fund provided from 
General Fund: 

4% Funding $ 3,980,000.00 

4% Improvement __ _ 3, .321, 000. 00 

$ 7.301.000 00 

4K% General Fund _ 9,4,38,000 00 

43^% Improvement _.. 1 1,. 547, 000. 00 

4H% Improvement 7,600,000,00 

5% Funding 4,.500,0OO 00 

5% Improvement 3,372,000.00 

$ I3.7.58.(HH| (M) 

Public Schools Building: 
Interest and sinking fund provided froni 
Special Funds: 

4i2'/o Public Schools Building lO.OOO.IHHJ WJ 

HiGHW.w Bo.\Ds: 
Interest and sinking fund provided from 
Special Funds: 

414% Construction $ 61.697,000.00 

434% Construction 3,750,000.00 

5% Construction 4,5.')2,600.00 

■ 69,999,600.00 

Total Bonds- t 123,757.600.00 

Notes, Anticipating Bond S.\les: 
Interest paid from Special funds: 

4i|% Highway $ 10,000,000.00 

4Ji% Chowan river bridge 300,000.00 

SH7o Highway 5,000,000.00 

S 15,300,000 00 

3H% Public School Building 5,000,000.00 

$ 20,300,000.00 

$ 144,0,57,600 0(1 
Bonds Due, Not Presented for P.wment: 

4% Consolidated debt, due 1910 $ 400.00 

6% Construction due 1879 -- 18,000.00 

4% Improvement due 1924 1 1,000.00 

4% Improvement due 1925 7,000.00 

• 26,400 00 

Total State debt. » 144,084.000.00 



Colonial Treasurers 

171.5-1740 Province-at-large - ICdward .\l u.~rli-.\ 

1740-1749 Southern District- - Edward .MoM-lt-y 

1740-1748 ..Northern District John llodKr<i>ii 

1749-1750 Southern District Eleazcr Allen 

1748-17.52 Northern District Thomas itarkiT 

1750-17.56 ... Southern District lohn Siarkoy 

1752-1754 Northern District ■'<>'>" Haywooil 

1766-1773 Southern District •'<.>'''> A;'''^ 

1773-1776 Southern District Kichard ( ilmwcII 

1754-1766 Northern District-.- --- - hmcpli .Moiilforl 

District Treasurers 

1777-1779 Southern District fohn A.mIic, New Hanover 

1777 Northern District Samuel .(olin.-tlon. ' C'Iidwiiii 

1777-1779 Northern District William Skinner 

1779-1784 -.Edenton District V\dliani Skiniicr 



1 Declined to serve. 



78 Executive Departments 



1779-1782 -Salisbury District William Cathey 

1 782-1 784 Salisbury District Robert Lanier 

1779 Hillsboro District William Johnston' 

1779 Hillsboro District Nathaniel Rochester - 

1779-1782 Hillsboro District ...Matthew Jones 

1782-1784 Hillsboro District Memucan Hunt, Granville 

1779-1784 Halifax District Green Hill 

1779-1782 New Bern District Richard Cogdell, Craven 

1782-1784 New Bern District Benjamin Exum 

1779-1782 Wilmington District John Ashe, New Hanover 

1782-1784 --Wilmington District Timothy Bloodworth, New Hanover 

1782-1784 Morgan District John Brown 

State Treasurers 

1784-1787 Memucan Hunt. Granville 

1787-1827 John Ha v wood Edgecombe 

1827-1827 John S. Haywood Wake 

1827-1830 WilHam Robards Granville 

1830 Robert H. Burton' Lincoln 

1830-1835- -William S. Mhoon Bertie 

1835-1837 Samuel F. Patterson Wilkes 

1837-1839 Daniel W. Courts-. Surry 

1839-1843 Charles L. Hinton Wake 

1843-1845 John H. Wheeler Lincoln 

1845-1852 Charles L. Hinton Wake 

1852-1862 Daniel W. Courts. Surry 

1862-1865 Jonathan Worth Randolph 

1865-1865 William Sloan Anson 

1865-1868 Kemp P. Battle Wake 

1869-1876 David A. Jenkins Gaston 

1876-1885 John M. Worth Randolph 

1886-1892 --Donald W. Bain,__ Wake 

1893-1895 Samuel McD. Tate Burke 

1895-1901 William H. Worth Guilford 

1901 Benjamin R. Lacy Wake 



SUPEEIXTENDENT OF PUBLIC OSTRUCTION 

Sec. 3. Art. I, Constitution; Ch. 9.5. C. S. ; Ch. 61, P. L. 1921; Ch. 145, 

P. L. 1921 

A. T. Allex, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh 

Title — Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

Appointment — Elected. 

Term — Four years. 

Salary— %5, 000. 

Ex Officio Memher — Board of Trustees University of North Caro- 
lina, President Board of Trustees North Carolina College for Women, 
President Board of Trustees East Carolina Teachers' College, 
Secretary State Board of Education, Board of Trustees State 



' Declined to serve. 

- Election declared illegal because he was a member of the General Assembly. 



Superintendent ok Pthlic Instruction 7!) 

Library, Executive Officer State Board for Vocational Education. 
Child Welfare Commission, College Commission, Library Com- 
mission. 

Function 

To. direct the operation of the public schools within the State of 
North Carolina, and to enforce the laws and regulations in re- 
lation thereto; to appoint jointly with the Governor the Elementary 
Text Book Commission and to receive their report; to appoint 
jointly with the Governor a Committee on High School Text Books 
and to receive their report and transmit it to the State Board of 
Education. 

To prepare or have prepared and cause to be printed and distrib- 
uted Course of Study for the Elementary Schools. High School 
Course of Study, Course of Study in Physical Education, and Course 
of Study in Americanism; to supervise work of rural libraries; to 
provide educational films for schools; to provide for the celebration 
of certain special days and to print programs therefor; to arbitrate 
disputes between counties over the support of joint school districts; 
to hear evidence relative to the inefficiency of county superintend- 
ents; and to perform such other duties as may be imposed by law 
or by the rules and regulations of the State Board of Education. 

Reports. To report biennially to the Governor at least five days 
prior to regular session of General Assembly, giving information 
and statistics of the public schools with recommendations as to 
changes in the law. 

Section XLI of the Constitution of North Carolina of 1776 is as 
follows: "That a school or schools be established by the Legislature, 
for the convenient instruction of youth, with such salaries to the 
rpasters, paid by the public, as may enable them to instruct at low 
prices; and all useful learning shall be duly encouraged iind pro- 
moted in one or more universities." 

Except for the establishment of the University of North Carolina, 
no attempt was made by the Legislature to carry out this injunc- 
tion of the Constitution until nearly three-ciuartcrs of a century bad 
elapsed. The first efforts were a failure and nothing delinite was 
accomplished until the creation of a Department of Kducation by 
the election in 1851 of Calvin II. Wiley, Superintendent of Common 
Schools. He entered upon the duties of his office in .I.iininry. 1S52. 



80 Executive Departments 

and was continued in office until October 19, 1865. The following 
figures tell the story of his work: Number of teachers in 1852, 800; 
in 1855, 2,064: in 1860, 2,286. Enrollment in the schools in 1853, 83,- 
373; in 1855, 115,856; in 1860, 116,567. Number of schools taught in 
1855, 1,905; 1860, 2,854. School fund in 1853, $192,250; in 1860, 
$408,566. Expenditures in 1853, $139,865; in 1860, $255,641. ' The 
schools were kept open throughout the war, and in 1863 enrolled 
more than 50,000 pupils. In 1865, as one of the results of the war, 
the office of Superintendent of Common Schools was abolished. 

By the Constitution of 1868 the office of Superintendent of Public 
Instruction wa.« created, and defined practically as it exists today. 

Education hi Our Present Constitution 

Article IX of the Constitution of North Carolina relates to educa- 
tion. It reads as follows: 

Sectiox 1. Religion, morality, and knowledge being necessary to 
good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the 
means of education shall forever be encouraged. 

Sec. 2. The General Assembly, at its first session under this 
Constitution, shall provide by taxation and otherwise for a general 
and uniform system of public schools, wherein tuition shall be free 
of charge to all the children of the State between the ages of six 
and twenty-one years. And the children of the white race and the 
children of the colored race shall be taught in separate public 
schools; but there shall be no discrimination in favor of or to the 
prejudice of either race. 

Sec. 3. Each county of the State shall be divided into a conven- 
ient number of districts in which one or more public schools shall 
be maintained at least six months in every year; and if the commis- 
sioners of any county shall fail to comply with the aforesaid 
requirements of this section they shall be liable to indictment. 

Sec. 4. The proceeds of all lands that have been or hereafter may 
be granted by the United States to this State and not otherwise 
appropriated by this State or the United States, also all moneys, 
stocks, bonds and other property now belonging to any State fund 
for purposes of education, also the net proceeds of all sales of the 
swamp lands belonging to the State, and all other grants, gifts or 
devises that have been or hereafter may be made to the State and 



Superintendent of Public Instruction 81 

not otherwise appropriated by the State or by the terms of the grant, 
gift or devise, shall be paid into the State Treasury, and, together 
with so much of the ordinary revenue of the State as may be by law 
set apart for that purpose, shall be faithfully appropriated for es- 
tablishing and maintaining in this State a system of free public 
schools, and for no other uses or purposes whatsoever. 

Sec. 5. All moneys, stocks, bonds, and other property belonging to 
a county school fund, also the net proceeds from the sale of estrays, 
also the clear proceeds of all penalties and forfeitures and of all finei^ 
collected in the several counties for any breach of the penal or 
military laws of the State, and all moneys which shall be paid by 
persons as an equivalent for exemption from military duty shall 
belong to and remain in the several counties and shall be faith- 
fully appropriated for establishing and maintaining free public 
schools in the several counties in this State: Provided, that the 
amount collected in each county shall be annually reported to the 
Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

Sec. 6. The General Assembly shall have power to provide for the 
election of trustees of the University of North Carolina, in whom, 
when chosen, shall be vested all the privileges, rights, franchises 
and endowments thereof in any wise granted to or conferred upon 
the trustees of said University; and the General Assembly may 
make such provisions, laws and regulations from time to time as 
may be necessary and expedient for the maintenance and manage- 
ment of said University. 

Sec. 7. The General Assembly shall provide that the benefits of the 
University as far as practicable, be extended to the youth of the 
State free of expense for tuition; also that all the property which 
has heretofore accrued to the State or shall hereafter accrue from 
escheats, unclaimed dividends or distributive shares of the estates 
of deceased persons shall be appropriated to the use of the University. 

Sec. 8. The Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Secretary of Stat»\ 
Treasurer, Auditor, Superintendent of Public Instruction, and At- 
torney-General shall constitute a State Board of Education. 

Sec. 9. The Governor shall he president and the Superinlcndfnt 
of Public Instruction shall be secretary of the Board of K'ducatlon 

Sec. 10. The Board of Education shall succeed to all the powers 
and trusts of the president and directors of the literary fund of 
6 



82 Executive Departments 

North Carolina, and shall have full power to legislate and make all 
needful rules and regulations in relation to free public schools and 
the educational fund of the State; but all acts, rules and regulations 
of said board may be altered, amended, or repealed by the General 
Assembly, and when so altered, amended or repealed they shall not 
be reenacted by the board. 

Sec. 11. The first session of the Board of Education shall be held 
at the capital of the State within fifteen days after the organization 
of the State Government under this Constitution; the time of future 
meetings may be determined by the board. 

Sec. 12. A majority of the board shall contitute a quorum for 
the transaction of business. 

Sec. 13. The contingent expenses of the board shall be provided 
by the General Assembly. 

Sec. 14. As soon as practicable after the adoption of this Constitu- 
tion the General Assembly shall establish and maintain in connec- 
tion with the University a department of agriculture, of mechanics, 
of mining and of normal instruction. 

Sec. 15. The General Assembly is hereby empowered to enact 
that every child of sufficient mental and physical ability shall attend 
the public schools during the period between the ages of six and 
eighteen years for a term of not less than sixteen months, unless 
educated by other means. 

Sec. 27. The people have the right to the privilege of education, 
and it is the duty of the State to guard and maintain that right. — 
Bill of Rights, 'North Carolina Constitution. 

Article II, section 29: 

The General Assembly shall not pass any local, private, or special 
act or resolution: "Erecting new townships, or changing township 
lines, or establishing or changing the lines of school districts." 

• 

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS FOR SUFFRAGE 

Article VI, section 4, of the Constitution of North Carolina, con- 
tains the following: 

Every person presenting himself for registration shall be able to 
read and write any section of the Constitution in the English lan- 
guage; and before he shall be entitled to vote he shall have paid, on 
or before the first day of May of the year in wiiich he proposes to 



Attorney-General 83 

vote, his poll tax for the previous year, as prescribed by Article V, 
section 1, of the Constitution. But no male person who was, on 
January 1, 1867, or at any time prior thereto, entitled to vote under 
the laws of any State in the United States wherein he then resided, 
and no lineal descendant of any such person, shall be denied the 
right to register and vote at any election in this State by reason of 
his failure to possess the educational qualification herein pre- 
scribed: Provided, he shall have registered in accordance with the 
terms of this section prior to December 1, 1908. 

Superintendent of Common Schools^ 

1852-1865 Calvin H. Wiley Guilford 

Superintendents of Public Instruction 

1868-1872 S. S. Ashley New Hanover 

1872-1874 Alexander Mclver Guilford 

1874-1876 Stephen D. Pool Craven 

1876 John Pool Pasquotank 

1877-1884 John C. Scarborough Johnston 

1885-1892 Sidney M. Finger '. Catawba 

1893-1896 John C. Scarborough Hertford 

1897-1900 Charles H. Mebane Catawba 

1901-1902 Thomas F. Toon Robeson 

1902-1918 James Y. Joyner Guilford 

1919-1923 E. C. Brooks Durham 

1923 A. T. Allen Alexander 



THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL 

Dennis G. Brummitt, Attorney-General. Raleigh 

The Attorney-General is a member of the Executive Department 
of the State Government. He is elected by the people for a term of 
four years. His term begins the first of January next aftt>r his elec- 
tion and continues until his successor is elected and qualilied. He 
receives a salary of $4,000 per annum. 

It is the duty of the Attorney-General: 

1. To defend all actions in the Supreme Court in which the State 
shall be interested or is a party; and, also, when ro<iuos(ed by the 
Governor or either branch of the General Assembly, to appear for 
the State in any other court or tribunal in any cause or matter, 
civil or criminal, in which the State may be a party or interested. 



1 Office abolished in 1865. 



84 Executive Dei'aktments 

2. At the request of the Governor, Secretary of State, Treasurer, 
Auditor, Corporation Commissionei's, Insurance Commissioner, or 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, lie shall prosecute and defend 
all suits relating to matters connected with their departments. 

3. To represent all State institutions, including the State Prison, 
whenever requested so to do by the official head of any such insti- 
tution. 

4. To consult with and advise the solicitors, when requested by 
them, in all matters pertaining to the duties of their olfice. 

5. To give, when required, his opinion upon all questions of law 
submitted to him by the General Assembly, or either branch thereof, 
or by any official of the State. 

6. To pay all moneys received for debts due or penalties to the 
State immediately after the receipt thereof, into the Treasury. 

The Attorney-General is a member of the State Board of Educa- 
tion, of the State Board of Public Buildings and Grounds, of the 
State Board of Pensions, of the State Textbook Commission, and of 
the Printing Commission, and is the legal adviser of the Council 
of State; chairman of the Municipal Board of Control; member 
of the State Board of Assessment. 

Historical Note 

In the colony the Attorney-General was appointed at pleasure 
by the Crown. In addition to his other duties he was a justice of 
the Peace. George Durant, the first Attorney-General, was appointed 
in 1677, and the office has continued since that time. The Constitu- 
tion of 1776 made the office appointive by the General Assembly to 
continue during good behavior. The Constitution of 1835 limited 
the term to four years with the provision that it might be increased. 
The Constitution of 1868 defined the office as it is today. The At- 
torney-General, by an act of the General Assembly of 1925 (Chapter 
207), was allowed three assistants, to be appointed by him and 
severally to be assigned to the State Highway Commission, the 
State Department of Revenue and the Attorney General. 

Attorneys-General 

1677-1679 George Durant 1716-1724 William Little 

1694 John Porter ' 1721-1725 Thomas Boyd 

1703 Richard Plater 172,5-1731 William Little 

1705 Thomas Snowden 1731-1731 John Conner 

1712-1713 Edward Bonwicke 1731-1734 John Montgomery 



Council of State 

\llt\ll^i John Hodgson ]75fi-175f, .Charle.s Elliott 

\7At\7i7 -T°^" Montgomery 1756-1766 Robert Jone« • 

\lil-\lil -iofeph Anderson 175<)-1766.... Thonms riiil.l ' 

\ltl'\l^.l Thomas Child 1766-1767 Marmadukc .J..»p.- 

1755-1756 George Nicholas 1767 Thomas McGuiro 

1777-1779 Waightstill Avery Burke 

1779-1782 James Iredell _ Chowan 

1782-1791 Alfred Moore I-\"^\"-"--'.":."."::::::Brun8W^ck 

1791-1794 -.-John Havwood H.ilifnic 

1795-1802 Blake Baker ".":::":' Edgecombe 

1803-1808 Henry Seavvell Wake 

1808-1810 Oliver Fitts ..I '""" "VVarren 

1810 William Miller V '" " Warren 

1810-1816 Hutchins G. Burton . Halif-ix 

1816-1825-- -..William Drew.. . . " " "Halifax 

1825-1828 James F. Taylor ...""I'.'I.I^Wake 

1828 Robert H. Jones Warren 

1828-1835 Romulus M. Saunders Caswell 

1835-1840 John R. J. Daniel Halifax 

1840-1842 Hugh McQueen : Chatham 

1842-1846 Spier Whitaker " 'Halifax 

1846-1848 Edward Stanlv Beaufort 

1848-1851 Bartholomew F. Moore Halifax 

1851-1852 William Eaton, Jr Warren 

1852-1855 Matt W. Ransom Northampton 

1855-1856 Joseph B. Batchelor Warren 

1856-1860 William H. Bailey Mecklenburg 

1860-1863 William A. Jenkins Granville 

1863-1868 Sion H. Rogers -... - Wake 

1868-1869 William M. Coleman 

1870-1871 Lewis P. Olds- .Wake 

1871-1873 William M. Shipp Lincoln 

1873-1876 Tazewell L. Hargrove ...Granville 

1876-1885 Thomas S. Kenan Wilson 

1885-1893 Theodore F. Davidson Buncombe 

1893-1897 Frank I. Osborne - - MecklenburR 

1897-1900 ---7eb. V. Walser Davidson 

1900-1901 Robert D. Doulgas Guilford 

1901-1909 ..--Robert D. Gilmer Haywood 

1909-1917.. ---Thomas W. Bickett Franklin 

1917-1925 James S. Manning ...Wake 

1925 Dennis G. Brummitt Granville 



COUNCIL OF STATE 

Sec. 9, Art. Ill, Constitution; Sec. 14, Art. III. Constitution; Sec. 6.'>47. fh. 

107, C. S. ; Sec. 6937, Art. 2, Ch. 113, C. S. ; Sec. 7637, Art. 3, Cli. 12i>. 

C. S. ; Ch. 50, P. L. 1921, Extra Session; Clis. 89, I. ST, P. L. 192:. 

Composition (4) — Secretary of State, Auditor, Treasurer, SujK'rin- 
tendent Public Instruction, ex officio members. Attoruey-Cioneral, 
legal adviser to Executive Department. 

Term — Four years. 

Function 

To advise the Governor in the execution oC hi.s ollice. any llirco 
constituting a quorum; to keep a signed record of tlioir advice and 



1 Jones and Child held cum missions at the same lime, but Child wii.i 111 liniiliitid iluriiiK 
part of his term. 



86 Executive Departments 

proceedings in this capacity, from any part of which any member 
may enter his dissent; to furnish such records to the General As- 
sembly as are required; to convene at call of the Governor; to 
advise with the Governor in regard to convening General Assembly 
for extra session. To approve or reject, in conjunction with the 
Governor, any proposed encumbrance on the franchise or property 
of any corporation in which the State is a stockholder or otherwise 
has an interest. State bonds and certificates may be signed in lieu 
of the Treasurer, in case of his absence or inability to sign, by any 
member of the Council of State designated by it. The Governor and 
Council of State shall have charge of all the State's interest in all 
railroads, canals, and other works of internal improvement and shall 
report biennially to the General Assembly on their condition, sug- 
gesting at the same time such improvements as they deem proper. 

Historical Note 

The Proprietary Governor was assisted in the administration by 
a Council. The organization of the Council, and the method of 
selecting its members, varied with the varying moods of the Lords 
Proprietors. In 1663 they directed Governor Berkeley to select a 
Council of six. Two years later they fixed its membership at an 
even number from six to twelve, inclusive, to be determined by the 
Governor. In 1670, probably with the idea of making the Council 
more representative of the varied colonial interests, they changed 
the number to ten, five of whom were to be their own deputies 
selected by themselves and five to be selected by the General As- 
sembly. This plan was continued till 1691 when, the Council hav- 
ing become an upper house of the General Assembly, the Lords 
Proprietors instructed the Governor to consider the deputies alone 
as members. At the same time, it was determined that each of 
the Lords Proprietors should be represented in the province by a 
deputy. Finally, in 1724, the deputies were abolished and the Coun- 
cil was organized with twelve members selected by the Lords Pro- 
prietors. The functions of the Council were two-fold, executive and 
legislative. Together with the Governor, it composed the executive 
branch of the government, and was charged with many important 
duties; independently of the Governor its executive functions were 
inconsiderable. Upon the death or absence of the Governor, the 



Council of State >7 

Council chose a president who administered the government until 
the vacancy was filled. 

The Council formed a part of the legislative branch of the guv- 
ernment. Prior to 1691, the legislature, usually called the General 
Assembly, but sometimes referred to as the Grand Assembly, was 
composed of the Governor, the Councilors, and the Delegates of 
the people sitting together as one body. After that date the 
Council became an upper house, and the delegates a lower house 
called the House of Commons. This development was the result 
not of design but of custom, and came about in a thoroughly char- 
acteristic English way. As acts of the Assembly were not valid 
until signed by the Governor and three deputies, it became the 
custom of the Governor and deputies to meet independently of the 
Assembly to consider such measures as the Assembly presented for 
their signatures. Thus the deputies, probably feeling that it was 
unnecessary for them to pass twice on the same matters, gradually 
dropped out of the larger body and after a while came to be thought 
of as a separate and distinct legislative chamber. The Lords Pro- 
prietors formally recognized them as such in 1691. At thi- same 
time the five councilors elected by the Assembly were dropped 
from the Council leaving that body composed of the deputies only. 

The functions of the Council remained the same under the Crown 
as under the Proprietors. They were provided for in the instructions 
from the Crown to the Governor, which also named the first coun- 
cilors. Vacancies were filled by the King with the board of trade. 
The Council with the Governor represented the Crown in the prov- 
ince. The Governor could not a(;t without the consent of at least 
three councilors, but the Governor could suspend his councilors 
for misconduct, and in the case of vacancy could recommend a 
successor. The authority, usTially advisory, of the Council e.xtcndod 
over actions of the Governor and other ofl^icers, quit rents, land 
grants, claims, and warrants, the court of exchequer, patents, com- 
missions, administrators, Indians, reprieves and pardons, audits. 
cases of equity, legislative acts. 

The Constitution of 1776 continued the Council, but made the 
office elective by the General Assembly, for the term of one year. 
and the number of councilors seven. The Constitution of 1S6S 
defined the Council of State as it is today. 



PART III 



JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT 



1. Court of Impeachment. 

2. Supreme Court. 

3. Superior Courts. 

4. Other Inferior Courts. 

5. Corporation Commission. 



JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT 

The judicial power of the State is vested in: 

1. A Court for the Trial of Impeachments. 

2. A Supreime Court. 

3. The Superior Courts. 

4. Courts of Justices of the Peace. 

5. Such other inferior courts as may be established by the General 
Assembly. 



COURT OF IMPEACHMENT 

Article IV, section 3, of the Constitution of North Carolina pro- 
vides that the court for the trial of impeachment shall be the Senate. 
A majority of the members are necessary to a quorum, and the judg- 
ment shall not extend beyond removal from and disqualification to 
hold office in North Carolina; but the party shall be liable to in- 
dictment and punishment according to law. The House of Repre- 
sentatives solely has the power of impeaching. No person shall be 
convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the Senators 
present. When the Governor is impeached, the Chief Justice pre- 
sides. The following causes, or charges, are sufficient, when proved, 
to warrant conviction: (1) corruption in office; (2) habitual drunk- 
enness; (3) intoxication while in the exercise of office (4) drunk- 
enness in any public place; (5) mental or physical incompetence 
to discharge the duties of office; (6) any criminal matter the convic- 
tion whereof would tend to bring the office into public contempt. 

Only once in the history of the State has the High Courl of Im- 
peachment been organized for the purpose of impeaching the Gov- 
ernor. This was in 1870, when the House of Representatives im- 
peached Governor W. W. Holden before the Senate, for "high crimes 
and misdemeanors." The trial was conducted on both sides l)y the 
most eminent lawyers of the State, and resulted in the conviction of 
the Governor and his removal from office. In 1911 similar cliarges 
of impeachment were preferred against Chief Justice David M. 
Furches and Associate Justice Robert M. Dougla.s, but botli were 
acquitted. 



92 Judicial Depaktmekt 

THE SUPREME COUKT 

The Supreme Court consists of a Chief Justice and four Associate 
Justices elected by the qualified voters of the State for a term of 
eight years. 

The Constitution of 1776 required the General Assembly to "ap- 
point Judges of the Supreme Courts of Law and Equity, Judges of 
Admiralty, and Attorney-General," who were commissioned by the 
Governor and held office during good behavior. Acting under this 
authority, the General Assembly in 1776 divided the State into six 
judicial districts. In 1782 a seventh district and in 1787 an eighth 
district were added. Under the act of 1777 three judges, Samuel 
Ashe, Samuel Spencer, and James Iredell, were chosen. The judges 
rode the circuits separately, but sat together as an appellate court. 
In 1790 the eight judicial districts were divided into an eastern and 
a western riding, and a fourth judge was added, two being assigned 
to each riding. In each riding the two judges sat together as an 
appellate court. In 1797 the General Assembly created an extra- 
ordinary court for the purpose of trying the Secretary of State and 
other officials who had been discovered confederating with others in 
an elaborate scheme for defrauding the State by issuing fraudulent 
land warrants. For trial of these criminals the General Assembly 
deemed it expedient to create a new court to sit at Raleigh twice a 
year, not exceeding ten days at each term. The court was author- 
ized to hear appeals of causes which had accumulated in the district 
courts. The existence of this court under the act was to expire at 
the close of the session of the General Assembly next after June 10, 
1802; but before the expiration of this time the General Assembly 
continued the court for three years longer, for the purpose of hear- 
ing appeals from the district courts, and gave it the name of 
"Court of Conference." By an act of 1804 the court was made a per- 
manent Court of Record. The judges were ordered to reduce their 
opinions to writing and to deliver the same viva voce in open court. 
The next year (1805) the name of the court was changed to the 
Supreme Court. In 1810 the judges were authorized to elect one of 
their members a Chief Justice, John I.,ouis Taylor being chosen to 
that office. The Supreme Court now consisted of six judges, but two 
continued to be a quorum, and all the judges still rode the circuits. 

In 1818 an act was passed establishing the present Supreme Court 
and requiring it to sit in Raleigh for the hearing of appeals. The 



Superior Courts 9.'? 

act provided for three judges to be elected by the General Assembly. 
John Louis Taylor, Leonard Henderson, and John Hall composed the 
first court, which began its session January 1, 1819. The judges 
elected their own Chief Justice, Taylor being continued in that 
oflSce. The number of judges continued to be three until 1868, when 
the Constitution adopted by the convention of that year increased 
the number to a Chief and four Associate Justices. The conven- 
tion of 1875 reduced it again to three, but by an amendment adopted 
in 1888 the number was raised to a Chief Justice and four Associate 
Justices, where it has continued until the present time. The Su- 
preme Court holds annually two sessions of sixteen weeks, one be- 
ginning the first Monday in September, the other the first Monday 
in February. 

The court is authorized to choose its own clerk, marshal, reporter, 
and other officers. 



SUPERIOR COURTS 

There are twenty Superior Court judges, one for each of the twenty 
circuits, or judicial districts, who are elected by the people and hold 
their offices for a term of eight years. The Superior Court has ap- 
pellate jurisdiction of all issues of law or of fact determined by a 
clerk of the Superior Court or justice of the peace, and of all appeals 
from inferior courts for error assigned in matters of law as pro- 
vided by law. In the matter of original jurisdiction the law is: 

"The Superior Court shall have original jurisdiction of the civil 
actions whereof exclusive original jurisdiction is not given to some 
other court, and of all criminal actions in which the punishment 
may exceed a fine of fifty dollars or imprisonment for thirty days; 
and of all such affrays as shall be committed within one mile of the 
place where and during the time such court is l)eing held." 



OTHER COURTS 

The Constitution gives to the General Assembly power to estab- 
lish other courts inferior to the Supreme and Superior Courts, and 
to allot and distribute to them such powers and jurisdiction, within 
constitutional limits, as it sees fit. From the decision of these in- 



94 Judicial Department 

ferioi" courts the Legislature has power to provide a proper system 
of appeals. 

The Constitution also requires the General Assembly to provide 
for the establishment of special courts for the trial of misdemeanors 
in cities and towns where the same may be necessary. 

Such courts are the mayors of cities and incorporated towns. 
Their election or appointment is usually provided for in the char- 
ters of incorporation, the acts of the General Assembly prescribing 
how particular towns and cities shall be governed. 

The jurisdiction of such special courts — also called in the law, 
inferior courts — is usually set forth in the charters. 

The general law also provides that "the mayor of every city and 
incorporated town , . . within the corporate limits of his city 
or town, shall have the jurisdiction of a justice of the peace in all 
criminal matters arising under the laws of the State or under the 
ordinances of such city or town." 

Justices of the peace, in their respective counties, try (1) that 
class of civil actions which involve demands for small debts and 
property of little value and (2) that class of criminal actions, called 
petty misdemeanors, which involve only slight punishment. 

They try all cases of contract or promise to pay money where the 
sum demanded does not exceed two hundred dollars. 

They may try certain other civil actions where the value of the 
property in controversy or the amount claimed for damages does 
not exceed fifty dollars. 

They try criminal cases arising within their counties, the punish- 
ment of which fixed by law cannot exceed a fine of fifty dollars or 
imprisonment for thirty days. 



NORTH CAROLINA CORPORATION COMMISSION 

R. O. Self, Clerk, Raleigh 

The North Carolina Corporation Commission was established by 
an act of the General Assembly of 1899, superseding the Railroad 
Commission, established in 1S91. The offices of the Commission 
occupy the first floor of the State Departments Building. The Com- 



N'oRTH Carolina Corporation Commission 95 

missioners are elected, one every two years, for a period of six 
years. The present commission is composed of W. T. Lee, Chair- 
man, of Haywood County, George P. Pell, Commissioner, of Forsyth 
County, and A. J. Maxwell, Commissioner, of Wake County. 

The Commission has general supervision over railroad, telegraph, 
telephone, street railway, steamboat, canal, waterworks, and all 
other companies exercising the right of eminent domain, and also 
under the act of 1913, of electric light, power, water, and gas com- 
panies. Under the act of 1923, it is given power to require train 
schedules, and adequate warehousing facilities to promote the 
more expeditious handling of less carload freight. By the act of 
1921, it is given the general supervision of state banks; and by act 
of 1925, the supervision of motor vehicles used for the transpor- 
tation of persons or property for compensation, and of capital 
issues, known as the Blue Sky Law. 

Details in regard to the several public utilities are too voluminous 
to attempt in this manual, but are briefly enumerated as follows: 

ELECTEIC POWER 

This is truly the "electric age." This business with its great 
organizations has grown out of the isolated electric plant serving an 
Individual community. The past few years have witnessed a most 
remarkable degree of concentration in the electric utility business. 
Goldsboro and Henderson have been on inter-connecting trans- 
mission lines with Sheffield, Ala., and Nashville, Tenn. Without this 
connection west of the Savannah River we have within our jurisdic- 
tion, or adjacent for available transmission, hydro-electric power, 
with steam auxiliaries, producing 760,000 horsepower. This makes 
possible the opera,tion of more than 6,000 manufacturing plants. 

At the close of the year 1923, the seventy-eight privately-owned 
and operated electric utilities had an invested capital of $45,335,173. 

gas utilities 
The ten gas companies operating seventeen plants in (he State 
have an invested capital of approximately ,$6,000,000. 

STREET railways 

There are twelve street railway systems in the State with approx- 
imately $10,000,000 invested capital, and 155 miles of road. 



96 Judicial Department 

telephone utilities 
The extent of the industry in North Carolina can be more readily 
comprehended when we realize that 120 companies are operating 
295 exchanges, with 150,000 telephones, with 26,000 miles of wire. 
The companies report investments of approximately $10,000,000. 

EXPRESS COMPANIES 

The American Railway Express Company and the Southeastern 
Express Company operate in North Carolina, the American over the 
Seaboard Air Line, the Atlantic Coast Line, Norfolk Southern and 
associated lines, and the Southeastern over the Southern and as- 
sociated lines. 

TELEGRAPH COMPANIES 

The Western Union Telegraph Company and the Postal Telegraph 
Company operate in North Carolina over 3,968 miles of pole and 
cable line. Just what investment these companies have is difficult 
to ascertain, as many of their lines are leased or operated jointly 
with telephone companies and railroads. 

RAILROAD STATISTICS 

There are fifty-seven railroad companies in North Carolina, oper- 
ating 4,941 miles of road. These companies report a total capital 
stock of $111,327,000 with funded debt of $145,000,000. 

BANKING DEPARTMENT 

In 1899 the Commission was given supervision of all State banks. 
At that time there were fifty-two State banks, twenty-one private 
banks, and eight savings banks operating under the State system, 
making a total of eighty-one banking institutions. On December 
31, 1925, this number had increased to 501 banks, including 67 
branches. The total resources of these banks amounted to 
$306,986,915. 

MOTOR V'EHICLE DEI'ARTMENT 

This department has charge of the enforcement and supervision 
of what is known as the Bus Act, Chapter 50, Public Laws of 1925. 
On August 14, 1926, ninety-seven passenger bus line certificates were 
outstanding and under these certificates a total of 456 motor pas- 
senger buses were being operated on approximately 4,500 miles of 
road. The annual bus mileage operation for the year ended June 20, 



North Cabolina Cokpokatiojv Commission 97 

1926, was approximately 11,350,040. Seventeen express or freight 
certificates were outstanding, and under these there were being 
operated eighty-three trucks on 1,756 miles of road. Union bus 
stations have been established at practically all termini and have 
done more to improve the service to the traveling public than any 
other one thing that has been done in connection with the super- 
vision of such service. Consolidation of operation has reduced 
competition to a point where tho operators can give more attention 
to service. 

capital issues department 

The Capital Issues Department of the Corporation Commission 
was established by Chapter 190, Public Laws of 1925. It is organized 
by the appointment of one member of the Corporation Commission 
as the Commissioner in charge, and the appointment of an Assistant 
Commissioner, who is in direct charge of the work of the depart- 
ment. The department is charged with the supervision of sales of 
securities within the State, and under the law registers for sale 
such securities as may meet the requirements of the law and are 
neither exempted by the law nor sold in an exempted transaction. 
All who deal in securities are required to obtain license for such 
business before engaging in it. 



PART IV 



STATE DEPARTMENTS, BOARDS, AND COMMISSIONS 



1. The Adjutant-Gteneral's Department. 

2. Department of Agriculture. 

3. Board of Agriculture. 

4. Joint Committee for Agricultural Work. 

5. Department of Labor and Printing. 

6. Department of Insurance. 

7. State Department of Revenue. 

8. State Board of Assessment. 

9. State Highway Commission. 

10. State Board of Health. 

11. Department of Conservation and Development. 

12. State Board of Charities and Public Welfare. 

13. Child Welfare Commission. 

14. The Budget Bureau. 

15. J^orth Carolina Historical Commission. 

16. Library Commission of North Carolina. 

17. State Library. 

18. Law Library. 

19. Audubon Society of I^orth Carolina. 

20. jSTorth Carolina Fisheries Commission Board. 

21. Printing Commission. 

22. Salary and Wage Commission. 

23. Judicial Conference. 

24. State Prison. 

25. State Bureau of Identification. 

26. Commissioner of Pardons. 

27. Educational Commission. 

28. The Equalizing Fund ComxAiission. 



100 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

29. State Board of Vocational Education. 

30. College Commission. 

31. State Committee on High School Text-Bocks. 

32. Text-Book Commission. 

33. Transportation Advisory Commission. 

34. State Sinking 'Fund Commission. 

35. State Board of Elections. 

36. State Board of Canvassers. 

37. State Board of Pensions. 

38. Commissioner of the Veteran's Loan Fund. 

39. Board of Public Buildings and Grounds. 

40. Municipal Board of Control. 

41. State Standard Keeper. 

42. Board of Commissioners of ISTavigation and Pilotage. 

43. Crop Pest Commission. 

44. National Park Commission for North Carolina. 

45. Commission on the Beproduction of the Canova Statue 

of Washington. 

46. Bennett Place Memorial Commission. 

47. Board of Medical Examiners. 

48. Board of Chiropody Examiners. 

49. The Board of Nurse Examiners of North Carolina. 

50. Board of Pharmacy. 

51. North Carolina Board of Veterinary Medical 

Examiners. 

52. North Carolina State Board of Dental Examiners. 

53. State Board of Accoi^ntancy. 

54. State Board of Architectural Examination and Begis- 

TRATION. 

55. State Board of Chiropratic Examiners. 

56. State Board of Embalmers. 

57. State Board of Examiners in Optojietky. 

58. State Board of Osteopathic Examination and Re(;is- 

TKATION. 

59. State Board of RE(iisTRATioN for Engineers and Land 

Surveyors. 



The Adjutant-Generai/s DKPART.\rKXT Idl 



THE ADJUTANT GENERAL'S DEPARTMENT 

Art. Ill, Sec. 8, Constitution; Cli. 11, C. S. ; Ch. 53, P I.. 1921- 
Ch. 54, P. L. 1925. 

J. Van B. Metts, The Adjtttant General, Raleigh 

Title — The Adjutant General. 

Appointment — By Governor. 

Term — Four Years. 

Qualification — Five years commissioned service in National Guard, 
Naval Militia, Regular Army, U. S. Navy, or Marine Corps. 

/SaZari/— $4,500. 

Function 

To organize, direct and control the militia of this State; to pre- 
serve the peace and to protect life and property in emergency 
through the use of the National Guard, Naval Militia and unorgan- 
ized militia; and otherwise execute the military laws and regu- 
lations of the United States, State of North Carolina and the Com- 
mander-in-Chief. 

To make returns and reports to the Secretaries of War and Navy 
as required; to keep records of officers and enlisted men; to have 
prepared and properly distributed military laws, etc , and to perform 
such other duties as required by military law and regulations of the 
Governor. 

Akt. Ill, Cii. 2, C. S. The Governor is Commander-in-Chief of the 
State Militia which is divided into (1) National Guard. (2) Naval 
Militia, and (3) Unorganized Militia. The Governor is empowered 
to call out Ihe militia to execute the laws, suppress riots or insurrec- 
tions and to repel invasions; to prescribe such regulations relating 
to the organization of the National Guard and Naval Militia as con- 
form to the requirements of the Federal statutes. 

The military staff is divided into (1) the personal staff of th(> 
Governor consisting of 10 National Guard officers and 2 Naval Militia 
officers as aides-de-camp; and (2) the administrative staff as pre- 
scribed by the Secretary of War and the Secretary of Navy. 



102 State Departments, Boakds, and Commissions 

The Governor is directed by law to appoint a Property and Dis- 
bursing officer for North Carolina, who shall receipt and account for 
all funds and property belonging to the State for military purposes. 
His principal duties are the disbursement of all funds appropriated 
by the State for military purposes including the issuance of 
thousands of checks quarterly and semi-annually in payment of 
vouchers and pay rolls for Armory drills. 

The Governor shall also, according to law, appoint, subject to 
the approval of the Secretary of War, a Property and Disbursing 
officer for the United States. This officer disburses annually about 
$200,000 in government funds and is accountable for and keeps a 
record of about two and a half million dollars worth of Federal 
property in the hands of the National guard. 

The Adjutant General, as head of the Department, is subordinate 
only to the Governor in matters pertaining thereto. 

Reports. To make an annual report to the Governor including 
a detailed statement of all expenditures made for military purposes 
during the year. 

To report biennially to the General Assembly. 

Historical JVote 

The office and department of the Adjutant General was created by 
Chapter 18, of the laws of 1806, and has been in continuous exist- 
ence ever since, though until 1860 the salary was nominal and the 
duties of the department slight. 

The militia of the State has been in existence since 1679, when 
the Lords Proprietors instructed Governor John Harvey to organize 
the able-bodied citizens and to appoint officers. Under the colonial 
government all officers were appointed by the Governor. Three 
provisions relating to militia have been brought forward from old 
charters and constitutions: 

1. The Governor is Commander-in-Chief. 

2. The people have a right to bear arms. 

3. All able-bodied male citizens are subject to military duty at 
the call of the Governor, subject to regulation of the Genei*al 
Assembly. 



The Adjutant General's Department 103 

The age limit was originally 16-50. This has been changed to 
18-45. Citizens were originally required to furnish their own arms; 
since 1836 the National Government has assumed this obligation. 
Originally all men subject to military duty were required by law to 
organize, muster, and drill. The requirement was never universally 
effective. The law allowed volunteer companies full privilege of 
organization, drill, and exemption from the regular scheme of 
organization; and the military activity of the State was usually 
confined to these volunteer companies of which there were many 
with long and honorable records. Since 1873 the militia has been 
in two classes^organized and unorganized. The organized militia 
consists of volunteers entirely. The State Guard was reorganized 
in 1877. Up to 1836 all general and field officers were elected by 
the General Assembly. All company officers were elected by the 
enlisted men of the several companies. The law was then changed 
— company oflScers were still elected by the companies, but general 
and field officers were elected by the officers of the units concerned. 
Since 1873 all officers have been appointed by the Governor. 

Prior to 1873 each county was required to organize at least one 
regiment, and the State to maintain at least six brigades. There 
were in 1854 ten divisions of militia consisting of 105 regiments 
totaling 1,050 companies of 45 men each — about 1,000 officers and 
47,250 enlisted men. In order to conform to the Federal laws, an act 
of the Legislature of 1903 changed the designation "North Carolina 
State Guard" to "North Carolina National Guard."' These militia 
organizations formed the main home defense in the war of the 
Revolution. They formed the basis of the system which enrolled 
an estimate of 125,000 North Carolinians in the Confederate armies. 

The North Carolina State Guard was among the first to respond 
to the call of the President in 1898 for service in the Spanish- 
American War. Two regiments of infantry were furnished; and. in 
addition. North Carolina furnished a regiment of colored troops. 

The Federal law having been changed so that the President 
would have authority to draft or call the National Guard into serv- 
ice of the United States in a National emergency, on .June 19tli. 
1916, the North Carolina National Guard was mobilized at Camp 
Glenn, North Carolina, for service on the Mexican border, on ac- 
count of the existing relations with Mexico and sent to Camp 
Stewart, near El Paso, Texas, for Federal Service. 



104 State Depaetmekts, Boards, and Commissions 



These National Guard units were: 

First, second, third, regiments. Infantry; Troops A and B Cavalry; 
Companies A and B Engineers; Ambulance Co. No. 1; and Hospital 
Co. No. 1. 

With the exception of the second regiment. Infantry, and Com- 
panies A and B Engineers, which were not mustered out of Fed- 
eral service until following the World War, all these troops were 
returned to their home stations and mustered out; but soon they 
were mustered back into Federal service for the World War. 
National Guard troops served in the Thirtieth and Forty-second 
Divisions in France and Belgium. 

Pursuant to the Proclamation of the President, July 3, 1917, the 
following organizations, units and detachments of the National 
Guard of North Carolina were drafted into the Federal service on 
August 5, 1917: 



First Brigade 

First Infantry 

Second Infantry 

Third Infantry 

Field Hospital No. 1 

Ambulance Company No. 1 

Veterinary Corps 

Radio Company Signal Corps 

First Regiment Field Artillery 



First Squadron Cavalry 
First Machine Gun Troop 
First Battalion Engineers 
First Engineer Train 
First Motor Truck Company 
Field and Staff 
Sanitary Detachment and 
Companies Coast Artillery 
Quartermasters Corps 



Six 



making a total of 277 officers, and 7,454 enlisted men — a grand 
total of 7,731. Of the Naval Militia IS officers and 187 men (total 
215) were called into Federal service April 6, 1917, as National 
Naval Volunteers. The record these troops made in the World War 
is a source of pride to all North Carolinians. 

At the close of the World War the entire National Guard was 
discharged from the service, and the past seven years have been 
devoted to a reorganization of the State's military forces. The 
present strength totals approximately 3,800 officers and men, and 
units are located in about 40 counties. These units are fully equip- 
ped at the expense of the Federal authorities, are paid for armory 
drills during the year from the same source, and are given fifteen 
days training each summer under the supervision of prdfessional 



Department of Agricultuke 105 

instructors. The State provides armories, maintains the camp 
site at Camp Glenn, maltes allowances to officers and men, takes 
care of courtsmartial and carrying bond expenses, inspections, etc. 
The North Carolina National Guard is in a high state of efficiency, 
comparing favorably in this respect and in numbers with the Guard 
of the other States. It is interesting to note that at the close of 
the war there was no National Guard in the United States, but at 
the present time its strength exceeds 190,000 officers and men or- 
ganized and equipped similarly to units of the Regular Army. 

For further information concerning the strength and location of 
various units of North Carolina National Guard see "Roster North 
Carolina National Guard, Revised to Deceml)er 31, 1925," published 
by the Adjutant General of North Carolina. 



DEPARTMENT OF AGKICULTLRE 

Sec. 17. Art. Ill, Constitution: Ch. 84, C. S. ; Ch. 25. P. U, 1921; 

Ch. 174, P. L. 192.i. 

W. A. Graham, Commissioner, Raleigh 

Title — Commissioner. 

Appointment — Elected by people. 

Term — Four years. 

Qualification — Practical farmer. 

SaZarj/— $4^500. 

Ex Officio memljcr — Chairman Board of Agriculture, Joint Com- 
mittee for Agricultural Work. 

The Constitution of the State (1868) provides for a Department 
of Agriculture. Immigration and Statistics. Under this funda- 
mental law the General Assembly established the Department of 
Agriculture in 1877. (Chapter 274). Since that time it has been 
greatly enlarged by the General Assembly, and its field expanded 
by the ever increasing demands made upon it by a rapidly growing 
agriculture. 

At present the Board consists of ten members, one member from 
each Congressional District, appointed by the Governor and con- 
firmed by the Senate, for terms of six years; and of tlu> Comnii.s- 



106 State Departmein'ts, Boards, and Commissions 

sioner of Agriculture, who is a member of and ex officio chairman 
of the Board. 

The Commissioner of Agriculture, who is chief executive officer 
of the Department, was formerly elected by the Legislature but in 
order to bring the Department in closer touch with the people, 
especially the farmers of the State, the law was so changed as to 
make the office of Commissioner elective. 

The Department is charged with the following: 

1. Investigations relating to the improvement of agriculture, the 
beneficial use of commercial fertilizers and composts, and to induce 
capital and labor to enter the State. 

2. Investigations for the improvement of milk and beef cattle, 
especially with investigations relating to the diseases of cattle and 
other domestic animals — having power to quarantine infected 
animals and to regulate the transportation of stock within the State. 

3. Investigations of the ravages of insects injuriously affecting 
market gardens, fruits, etc. and with dissemination of information 
essential for their abatement. 

4. Investigations directed to the introduction and fostering of 
new agricultural industries adapted to the various soils and climates 
of the State. 

5. Investigations relative to the subject of drainage, and irri- 
gation, and mineral and domestic sources of fertilizers, including 
composting, etc. 

6. The enforcement of the laws enacted for the sale of com- 
mercial fertilizers, seed, food products, and with authority to make 
regulations concerning the same. 

7. The dissemination of information relative to the advantages 
of soil and climate and to the natural resources and industrial op- 
portunities offered in the State. 

To these have been added: The issuing of bulletins; the 
Museum: Farmers' Institutes; enforcement by regulations of the 
Pure Food Law, concentrated commercial feeding-stuff law, cotton- 
seed meal law, the law regulating the statistics of leaf tobacco, for- 
estry work, the law regulating the standard-weight packages of 
meal and flour, registration and sale of condimental, patented, 
proprietary or trademark stock or poultry tonics, regulators or con- 
ditioners, the inspection of illuminating and power oils, fluids and 



Department of Agriculture 107 

gasoline, the law to prevent and punish the sale of adulterated, im- 
pure, or misbranded agricultural and vegetable seed and those lack- 
ing viability; the manufacture and sale of anti-hog cholera serum; 
also of inoculating germs for leguminous crops. 

The Department is, to a considerable extent, a sub-legislature. The 
Legislature, in committing to its execution specified laws, confers 
upon the Board power to make regulations for this purpose, which 
are given the authority of law, and violation of them is made a 
misdemeanor, cognizable by the courts. The power to confer this 
authority has been tested in the courts and approved by decision 
of the Supreme Court. 

Things That Have Been Done by the Agricultural Departincnt 

1. The source of the ingredients in fertilizers is made known. 

2. The feed inspection law has been amended to include all feeds 
and the value of feeds much improved. 

3. Conclimental Feed Laic. Analyses are made of each brand and 
published. The people need not pay high prices for many of the 
ingredients, such as charcoal, copperas, saltpetre, salt, salts, etc., 
which can be bought for a few cents a pound of grocers. Drugs 
for either stock or men must have a value corresponding with that 
printed on the container or they may be excluded from sale. 

4. Great advance has been made along all lines of animal feeding 
and feeds for animals, including poultry. All cases of diseases of 
animals appearing in the State have been suppressed. We have 
had no epidemic which could not be eliminated. 

5. Eradication of the Cattle Tick is now complete. 

Tuberculosis. All herds which pass two successive tests without 
reactors are placed in the Accredited Herd list. The State appro- 
priates annually $10,000.00 for indemnity for paying for animals 
slaughtered on account of glanders. When a cow or other animal 
is affected with tuberculosis or glanders, the animal is reported to 
the authorities and killed and paid for, thereby preventing spread- 
ing of the diseases. 

6. A pure seed law by which the farmers may be protected from 
purchase of inferior seed either in purity or germination. 

7. Preparation of legume culture which is sold at fifty cent.s an 
acre bottle. This pays the cost of production. 



108 State Departments^ Boards, and Commissions 

8. Great advance in the work in Entomology, especially in spray- 
ing. Many pests have been destroyed and others much curtailed in 
their injurious operations. 

9. Also in Horticulture, all regulatory work is done by the De- 
partment. 

10. TTie Pure Food Law. The weight or quantity of contents to 
be marked on all containers, with which numbers the contents 
must comply. Adulteration is seldom found in the foods sold in 
the State. 

11. Inspection of illuminating oils and gasoline, by which the 
quality and safety of the oils have been improved without cost to 
the consumer. 

12. Inspection of flour to detect that which is bleached and pre- 
vent the sale of it as unbleached. 

13. A marketing system is being evolved whereby the farmer can 
dispose of his products advantageously. 

14. Cottonseed Meal. No goods are permitted to be branded as 
"meal" unless they contain 6V2 per cent ammonia, but must be 
branded "cottonseed feed." 

15. The Bulletin ranks with the highest of its class, and many 
letters of commendation are received from persons within and 
without the State. Requests are frequently received for these bul- 
letins in other states; and, also, from the agricultural press. It has 
a circulation of more than 35,000 each month. Copies have been 
requested for use as testbooks in the public schools of other states 
and the University of Wisconsin. 

16. The Museum continues to be the mos.t valuable south of 
Philadelphia, except that at the National Capital. It is the State's 
great object lesson. Additions to the different departments are 
made each year. A representative agricultural exhibit is now 
being collected. 

STATISTICS 

The following statistics will show some of the results of the 
work of the Department: 



Department of Agriculture 



l(»l) 



North Carolina produced in 



Corn (bushels )- 
Wheat (bushels) 
Cotton (bales)- 



1860 



30,000,000 

4,743,706 

14,5,514 



1910 



34,063,531 

7,433,000 

665,132 



1915 



64,0,50,000 

10,3.55,000 

732,000 



1918 



63,000,000 

13,167,000 

732,000 



1923 



58,568,000 
6,038,400 
1,020,000 



1924 



44,512,000 
5,, 544. 000 
1,901,000 



DRAINAGE 

The Department has arranged with the National Department for 
an expert in this work, who gives information to the farmers con- 
cerning the drainage of creeks, cutting ditches, and laying tiles. 

VETERINARY DIVISION 

The Veterinary Division is devoted to giving information as to 
the treatment of animal diseases. 

Serum for vaccination of hogs to prevent the spread of cholera 
is furnished by this Division. 

Ninety-five per cent of the hogs vaccinated escape cholera. The 
Department is now prepared to supply all requests for serum, and 
the scourge of cholera has been much abated. 



CHEMISTKY 

The Division of Chemistry makes analyses of fertilizer, cotton- 
seed meal, feed and foodstuffs, soils, minerals and marls, waters, 
etc. 

TEST FARMS 

Test Farms have been established in Edgecombe County, at Wil- 
lard Station in Pender County, Statesville, near Swannanoa in 
Buncombe County, and in the old tobacco belt at Oxford, in the 
newly-drained black lands of Eastern North Carolina, and in Beau- 
fort County. The effort is to conduct these farms for the benefit 
of the crops grown in each section, first on small plats and then 
on a large scale, showing results of different kinds and amounts 
of home-made and commercial fertilizers, preparation of land, culti- 
vation and rotation of crops and demonstration work. These farms 
are conducted jointly by the State Department and the State College. 



110 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS AND CREDIT UNIONS 

To organize and conduct a bureau of information in regard to 
cooperative associations and rural credits; to promote the establish- 
ing of such agencies through educational campaigns and personal 
advice and assistance; to examine at least once a year organizations 
so formed. 

PUKE FOOD DIVISION 

The pure food law passed by the General Assembly of 1899, 
amended in 1905 and redrafted and passed as a new^ act in 1907, 
forbids the manufacture or sale of adulterated or misbranded food 
or beverages and charges the Department of Agriculture with its 
enforcement. 

Inspections are made throughout the State and samples collected 
for analyses. The samples are examined for adulteration and the 
results published, showing the brand name of the article and the 
name and address of the manufacturer. The first report was publish- 
ed as the Department Bulletin for December, 1909. Since that time 
similar reports have been published annually. 

There are two classes of adulterants found in food : 

1. Substances which are deleterious to health, and 

2. Substances which merely render the food less valuable. 

The use of the first is prohibited; the second can be used provided 
their presence is made known to the purchaser. 

Much of the food and beverages sold in the State is in the hands 
of unintelligent men, who can be imposed upon by shrewd and 
unscrupulous manufacturers. Owing to various complications the 
enforcement of the Food Law is far more difficult than one not 
familiar with the situation would think. 

The National Government has enacted a food law which requires 
weight of contents to be stamped on all packages or other containers 
of goods. The Legislatux'e has enacted this law for this State. 

FEED INSPECTIONS 

The Legislature of 1903 passed a law which requires the Com- 
missioner of Agriculture to employ Feed inspectors, whose duty 
it is to visit the different towns in the State, see that the law is 
complied with as to the branding of bags, weight of bags, and to 



Department of Agriculture 111 

take samples of all feeds. These samples are examined microscopi- 
cally and if found adulterated are immediately withdrawn from 
sale. 

All samples collected are analyzed by the Feed Chemist and the 
results, along with such additional information as circumstances 
may advise, are published in the bulletins of the Department of 
Agriculture. 

In enforcing the law there are four main objects in view: 

1. To stop the sale of adulterated feeds In North Carolina. 

2. To educate the consumers to buy feed according to the analyses 
on the bags, just as he buys his fertilizer by an analysis. 

3. To teach the dairymen and farmers the best way to combine 
their home-grown feeds with those they are compelled to buy to get 
the greatest benefit from the amount consumed. 

4. To stimulate a desire on the part of the consumers for better 
feeds. 

ENTOMOLOGY 

The work of this division includes the inspection of fruit trees, 
which are not allowed to be sold in this State unless declared free 
from disease. Experts are sent to examine all nurseries for insect 
pests, and many commercial orchards are inspected. Directions are 
furnished for preparation of material for spraying, and for its ap- 
plication. The San Jose scale is being controlled in many places 
and further damage prevented by directions sent from this office. 
Other insect pests and diseases have been prevented or cured, and 
much valuable information given the people of the State on mat- 
ters pertaining to insects of all kinds. 

maekp:t division 
This division cooperates with the farmers in finding the best 
markets for their surplus products. 

BOTANY DIVISION 

is charged with the 

■ 1. Examination and testing of field, garden, flower and herb seeds. 

2. Manufacture and distribution of pure cultures for legume cropH. 



112 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

3. The placing of Federal grades on grain. 

4. Identification of plants and the control of weeds. 

DEMONSTRATION AND INSl'KCTION OF POWER AND ILLUMINATING OILS AND 

GASOLINE 

The Pure Food Chemist is also Oil Chemist. The quality of the 
oil has been kept at a good standard. 

DIVISION OF PUBLICATIONS 

In addition to editing the Bulletin this division issues the Agri- 
cultural Review, a monthly publication covering the various activi- 
ties of the Department. 

THE Mi:SEUM "" 

The State Geologist has, since the establishment of his depart- 
ment in 1850, collected specimens of different kinds, principally of 
minerals, representing the natural resources of the State. In 1879 
the care of the Museum and expense of maintenance were trans- 
ferred to the Department of Agriculture. A building has been 
erected for its occupancy, and its contents greatly increased. It 
is now by far the most extensive in its contents of anything of 
its nature south of Philadelphia, save the National Museum at Wash- 
ington, D. C. To it, more than any other source, is attributable the 
fine display the State has made at international, national, and State 
expositions. It is the state's object lesson, representing its resources 
in agriculture, timber, mineral, fishes, birds, game, animals and 
flora and fauna in general. 

As articles affected by time become undesirable they are replaced. 
The idea is to keep the Museum constantly growing, with no chance 
for stagnation. 

IMMIGRATION 

The Legislature in 1909 repealed the act of 1907 concerning immi- 
gration. There are now no agents of the State employed in foreign 
countries; a few young men come from Scotland each year, and 
land and immigration companies bring some people to the State 
each year, but no report is made to the Department; however, it 
cooperates with them as far as practicable. 

The Department has no lands of the State for sale, and can make 
no contracts, warrant titles or do any work of like nature. It can 



Board of Agriculture 1 13 

only put parties desiring to purchase property in the State in com- 
munication with citizens who have property to sell, and leave them 
to perfect sales, if it is found desirable. 

Many letters are received from persons from the states of the 
Middle West requesting information as to the resources of the 
State and several hundred have each year purchased homes. The 
Department had arranged to place exhibits at the fairs in these 
States, but this was abandoned when the law was repealed. 

SALES OF LEAF TOBACCO 

Chapter 97, Laws 1907, requires the Department to preserve a 
record of the leaf tobacco sold on the floors of the warehouses of 
the State, and publish it monthly. Each warehouse is required to 
furnish an account of its sales, and is guilty of a misdemeanor for 
failure. 



BOARD OF AGRICULTUEE 

Sec. 17, Art. Ill, Constitution; Cli. 84, C. S. ; Ch. 137, P. L. 1921; Cli. 28, 
P. L. 1921 — Extra Session; Ch. 174, P. L. 1925. 

Composition (11). Ten members, Commissioner of Agriculture, 
Chairman. 

Appointment — Ten by Governor with consent of Senate; one 
elected. 

Term — Six years; Chairman four years. 

Qualification — Practical farmers. 

Compensation — $5 per diem and mileage. 

MEMBERS OF BOARD OF AORK II.TI I!E 

Firet District — F. P. Latham, Belhaven. 
Second District — J. J. Harris, Macon. 
Third District — W. A. Brown, Rocky Point. 
Fourth District — Clarence Poe, Raleigh. 
Fifth District— R. W. Scott, Haw River. 
Sixth District — J. Vance McGougan, Fayetteville. 
Seventh District— T. J. Finch, Thomasville. 

8 



IM State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

Eighth District — W. B. McLelland, Stony Point. 
Ninth District — O. Max Gardner, Shelby. 
Tenth District — E. G. Robersox, Leicester. 

Function 

The functions of the Board of Agriculture are now strictly legis- 
lative and advisory, while all executive power in the Department 
is vested in the office of Commissioner of Agriculture (Chapter 174, 
Laws 1925.) 

Statk Warehouse System. To maintain a cotton warehouse 
system, administered through, a State warehouse superintendent to 
stabilize and encourage cotton industry; to make suitable rules and 
regulations to enforce law; to fix charges for storing cotton in 
local warehouses; to impose a tax of 25 cents on each bale of 
cotton ginned up to June 30, 1922, to be collected by Commissioner 
of Revenue, and 90 per cent of the total receipts from this source 
to be invested in first mortgages to aid and encourage the establish- 
ment of warehouses operating under this system. 

State Warehouse Superintendent. To have power to lease prop- 
erty for warehousing of cotton and encourage erection of ware- 
houses in the various cotton-growing counties under terms of this 
act; to provide an adequate system of inspection, rules, forms and 
reports to insure security; to supervise local warehouses in general 
and to issue receipts for cotton classified and stored, through local 
warehouse managers. 

Reports. To make an annual report to Governor of its work and 
all receipts and expenditures and objects for which expended. 



JOIJiT COMMITTEE FOR AGRICULTURAL WORK 

Part 3, Art. 1, Ch. 84, C. S.; Art 7, Ch. 93, C. S. ; Ch. 142, P. L. 1925 

Composition (11) — Governor, Chairman; Commissioner of Agri- 
culture, President State A. and E. College, ex officio members; four 
members Board of Agriculture designated by Board; four members 
Board of Trustees of A. and E. College designated by Board. 

Personnel — Appointed by Board of Trustees of the College: Robert 
N. Page, Southern Pines; W. D. Laroque, Kinston; J. F. Diggs, 



Department of Labor and Printing 115 

Rockingham; Charles W. Gold, Greensboro. Appointed by State 
Board of Agriculture: Clarence Poe, Raleigh; 0. Max Gardner, 
Shelby; Dr. J. Vance McGougan, Fayetteville; R. W. Scott, Haw- 
River. 

Term — During terms as members of the Board. 

Function 

It shall be the purpose of the Joint Committee for Agricultural 
V/ork to prevent duplication and to maintain greater cooperation 
on the part of the North Carolina State College of Agriculture and 
Engineering and the State Department of Agriculture, Immigration 
and Statistics; and the Joint Committee shall have authority to 
settle any and all questions relative to jurisdiction or duplication 
of work that may be referred to it either by the President of the 
College or the Commissioner of Agriculture, and the decision of the 
Joint Committee not inconsistent with law shall be binding on both 
institutions. The Joint Committee shall meet at least once each 
year at the call of the chairman to receive reports from the Presi- 
dent of the College and the Commissioner of Agriculture on fhe 
relation of the two institutions, with special reference to the re- 
search or any other work in which the two institutions are in- 
terested, and to make recommendations to the governing bodies 
of each that may tend to increase their cooperation in promoting 
agricultural improvements in the State. 



DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND PRINTING 

Arts. 1, 2, Ch. 120, C. S. ; Art. 2, Ch. 112, C. S. ; Chs. 25, 131, P. L. 1921; 

Ch. 127, P. L. 1925 

P. D. Grist, Covimissionrr, Raleigh 

Title — Commissioner. 

Appointment — Elected. 

Term — Four years. 

Salary— ^i,500. 

Ex officio Member — Printing Commission. 



116 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

Function 

To collect and collate information and statistics concerning: 

1. Labor and its relation to capital, hours of labor, earnings of 
laborers, and their educational, moral and financial condition, and 
means of promoting their welfare. 

2. Various mining, milling and manufacturing industries of State, 
location, capacity and output, raw materials and capital invested. 

3. Location, estimated and actual horse-power and condition of 
valuable water powers, developed and undeveloped in this State. 

4. Farm lands and farming, kinds, character and quantity of 
annual farm products in this State. 

5. Truck gardening and dairying. 

6. Timber lands and timber. 

7. Other information affecting agricultural and industrial wel- 
fare of the State. 

To perform the duties of mine inspector for the State; to act as 
State Director for U. S. Employment Service; to supervise, in con- 
junction with printing commission, all State printing; to appoint an 
assistant commissioner who is a practical printer, to take charge 
of State printing under his direction. 

PrBLic Employment Service. To maintain a public employment 
bureau in the Department, to establish and conduct public employ- 
ment offices in the State; to extend vocational guidance to minors 
seeking employment; to cooperate with Federal, municipal and 
other agencies in employment, rehabilitation and Americanization 
problems. 

State Printing. To carefully examine all printing and binding 
done for the State or any Department thereof, by the public print- 
ers, and to certify that same meets required standards and that the 
accounts rendered by the public printer are accurate and just. Such 
accounts shall not be approved by the Commissioner nor audited 
by the State oftener than forty-eight times a year; to purchase for 
use of the State, the paper and stationery used for public printing. 

Cooperative Purchase of Supplies. At the beginning of the 
present biennium and at the request of the Director of the Budget, 
this Department undertook to centralize the purchase of office equip- 
ment and supplies and has been able to reduce the cost on a great 



Department OF Labor AND Printing 117 

many of these items by from 20 to 50 per cent. The total savings 
to the departments during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1926, 
amounted to slightly over $4,000. During the year ending June 30, 
1927, these savings will approximate $25,000, due to the broadening 
of the scope of the activity to cover office furniture and equipment, 
upon which items contracts have been and are being made which 
enable the State to buy upon the same price basis as dealers. 

Mine Inspection. To examine all the mines in the State as often 
as possible, to see that the provisions of law are strictly observed 
and carried out; to employ counsel and to prosecute violations; to 
examine particularly the works and machinery belonging to any 
mine; to examine condition of mines as to ventilation, drainage, 
and general security, to investigate deaths by accidents; to keep a 
record of all examinations and all data affecting mining industry 
in this State. 

Reports. To publish and distribute biennially a statistical re- 
port covering the Department's activities and research, also an an- 
nual report to the Governor on mines and mining industry. 

The Department of Labor and Printing, created by the Legislature 
of 1887, is one of the oldest State departments outside of those 
established by constitutional mandate. The duties of the Depart- 
ment are comprehended under the four general heads: 

1. Collection, collation, and publication of industrial statistics. 

2. Supervision of the State's printing. 

3. Mine inspection. 

4. Free employment service. 

INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS 

The Commissioner, aided by the Assistant Commissioner, collects, 
collates, and publishes information and statistics concerning labor 
and its relation to capital, the hours of labor, the earnings of labor- 
ers and their educational, moral, and financial condition, and the 
best means of promoting their mental, moral, and nKitorial wel- 
fare; also statistics concerning the various mining, milling, and 
manufacturing industries in this State, their location, capacity, 
and actual output of manufactured products, the kind and quantity 
of raw material annually used by them and the cnpilal invested 



J18 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions " 

therein; the location, estimated and actual horsepower and condi- 
tion of valuable waterpowers, developed and undeveloped, in the 
State; farm lands and farming, the kinds, character, and quantity 
of the annual farm products; timber lands and timbers, truck 
gardening, dairying, and such other information and statistics con- 
cerning the agricultural and industrial welfare of the citizens of 
the State as may be deemed of interest and benefit to the public. 

A high standard was set for this work and it has ever since been 
the policy of the office to improve upon its own work from year 
to year. The biennial report is now recognized as one of the most 
succinct examples of statistical work issued in the United States. 
The matter has been boiled down, so to speak, and one chief aim 
has been to present the greatest possible information in the least 
possible space, accomplishing thereby two very desirable ends, i.e., 
ease and convenience of reference, and minimum expense. 

Men who are causing the wheels of industry to turn all over 
the country pronounce the biennial report of the Department one 
of the most comprehensive and valuable publications, on the sub- 
jects treated, issued by any state in the Union. It is the only 
official publication which shows the industrial status of North 
Carolina and the great variety of her manufactured products. It 
reaches every state in the Union and many foreign countries. It 
is the chief medium tlirough which the State's growth and de- 
velopment are advertised to the world. 

• 

THE state's printing 

When the public printing had become of such importance that 
the old practice of assuming that it would take care of itself was 
proved inadequate and unsatisfactory, the duty of systematizing 
and superintending this work was added to the duties of the office 
(Chapter 373, Public Laws of 1899). Since that time the growth 
of the State has been great. Keeping pace with its progress, the 
Department of Labor and Printing shows a record of quality and 
economy in performance not equaled by any other Commonwealth, 
and approached by but few. 

The handling of the public printing has been brought down 
to the point where figures as to specifications and cost may be 
given before or after performance, which information serves well 
where economy enters as largely into any proposition as it does 



Department of Labok and Printing 119 

into the public printing. Changes in practice are made as often as 
it is found that improvement can be made and the policy of the 
office at the present time makes impossible any of the abuses ob- 
tained under the arrangement in force prior to the placing of 
the public printing under the Department's charge. 

Before a single item of printing expense is paid for by the 
State the account of the printer is examined, accompanied by an 
inspection of the work itself, by a man who knows the printing 
business. Every pound of paper purchased is bought by the State 
to fit the particular need, and is subject to the decision of the 
expert of the Department — himself, according to the provisions of 
the act, a "practical printer." The record of purchases of paper 
shows a great saving &,long this line, also. 

All printing, engraving, die-stamping, and binding done for the 
State is let to contract for two-year periods under competitive bid- 
ding, and the work is carefully supervised in process by the Com- 
missioner of Labor and Printing, aided by the Assistant Commis- 
sioner (required by law to be a practical printer). All requisitions 
for State printing are made upon the Department of Labor and 
Printing; the Department places orders for same with contracting 
printers, issuing requisite quantity of paper stock for each order; 
supervises the work in process, examines the finished work, aifdits 
and approves bills for same. 

The cost of the State's printing, including the paper stock used, 
appi'oximates $250,000 annually. The Department purchases all 
paper for State printing, maintaining a large paper storage ware- 
house in Raleigh. 

MINE INSPECTION 

North Carolina has a comprehensive mining law, and by this 
statute the Commissioner of Labor and Printing is constituted mine 
inspector with large powers. 

PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT SEItVICE 

Since October 1, 1919, the United States Employment Service, 
operating in North Carolina, has been conducted under the direction 
and supervision of the Commissioner of Labor and Printing, who 
provided office quarters in his department and is serving as Federal 
Director of the State without additional compensation. Funds 



120 Statk Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

for clerical assistance are provided by the Federal and State Gov- 
ernments. During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1926, 33,417 ap- 
plicants for work w^ere placed in situations satisfactory to them. 
Realizing the urgent necessity for a well-organized system of 
employment for North Carolina, under State and Federal super- 
vision, the Department of Labor and Printing brought the matter to 
the attention of the General Assembly of 1924 and succeeded in se- 
curing an appropriation adequate for the development of such an 
agency by the Department. The machinery provided in the statute 
creating the free employment bureaus enables the Department to as- 
sist in bringing the jobless man and the manless job together in a 
systematic way, a service which reaches all classes of employers 
and all classes of employees. Local employment offices were estab- 
lished in our large industrial centers and much assistance rendered 
in relieving acute unemployment conditions all too prevalent since 
the conclusion of the World War. During the first year the em- 
ployment service was in operation under State and Federal co- 
operation, more than 15,000 men and women found positions through 
the public employment bureau of the State Department of Labor 
and Printing. 



1)EPART3IE>T OF INSURANCE 

Ch. 99, C. S.; Ch. 106, C. S. ; Ch. 25, P. L. 1921; Ch. 119, P. L. 1924, extra 

session; Ch. 101, P. L. 1925 

Stacey W. Wade. Commissioner. Raleigh 

Title — Commissioner 
Appointment — Elected. 
Term — Four Years. 
.S'aZfl/-]/— $4,500. 

Function 

To direct the administration and enforcement of the insurance 
laws of this State; to supervise the admission and regulation of 
all insurance companies, associations and orders doing or proposing 
to do business in this State (600 life, health, account, casualty, fire, 
marine, credit, burglary, plate glass, liability, steam boiler, automo- 
bile, etc.); to investigate complaints and prosecute violations; to 
supervise building and loan associations (246), lightning-rod com- 



^ Departmekt OF Insueance 121 

panies, Morris Plan companies, rate-making bureaus and associa- 
tions and jewelry .auctioneers; to enforce the State Building Code 
and Inspection laws; to act as fire marshal ex officio and to investi- 
gate fires, etc; to administer premium collections (50 cents on 
$100) for Firemen's Relief Fund; to receive and file fire insurance 
rates and pass on complaints of discrimination. 

To collect taxes from all classes of insurance companies, whether 
foreign or local, doing business in this State on the basis of 2 1-2 
per cent upon the amount of their gross premium receipts in this 
State, provided that should one-fourth of the entire assets of the 
Company be invested and maintained in bonds of this State, or of 
any county, city or town of this State, or of any property situated 
in this State or taxable therein, or loans to North Carolina policy- 
holders against the reserve on their policies, then the tax shall be 
two and one-fourth per centum upon the gross premium receipts 
aforesaid, and if the amount so invested shall be three-fourths of 
its total assets, the tax shall be two per centum of its gross premium 
receipts; provided, that if such company is chartered in this Stale, 
maintains its main office herein and if the amount so invested shall 
be equal to its total reserve on business derived from this state, 
then, as to those companies usually known as life insurance com- 
panies, health and accident insurance companies, title insurance 
companies, and fraternal orders or associations, the tax shall be 
three-fourths of one per centum upon the gross premium receipts 
in this State, and as to all other companies one and one-half per 
centum upon their gross premiums in this State. Companies other 
than North Carolina companies paying the tax levied in this section 
shall not be liable for franchise tax on their capital stock and no 
county, city or town shall be allowed to impose any additional tax, 
license, or fee, other than ad valorem taxes, upon any insurance 
company, association, or order paying the tax levied in this section. 

To collect fees for licenses issued to all classes of insurance com- 
panies and annual fees for licenses issued to each general agent, 
agent and broker in accordance with the schedule fixed l)y law. 

To collect other fees pertaining to insurance companies as pre- 
scribed by law. 

Sec. 6079, Ch. 99, C. S. The Insurance Commissioner "shall, in 
his annual report, make a statement of the fires investigated, tlio 



122 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions • 

value of property destroyed, the amount of insurance, if any, the 
origin of the fire, when ascertained, and the location of the property 
damaged or destroyed, whether in town, city, or country. He shall 
also file annually an itemized statement, under oath, of all money 
received by him and disbursed under this chapter.'' 

Reports. To submit annually to the Governor, and biennially 
to the General Assembly, through the Governor, a report of his offi- 
cial acts, the condition of all insurance and other companies or 
associations under his jurisdiction, with a condensed statement 
of their reports to him; together with a statement of the licenses, 
taxes and fees received by him and paid by him to the Treasurer. 

To report to the General Assembly at each Session, suggested 
changes in the laws. 

Historical Xote 

Created by act of General Assembly in 1899. 

firemen's relib:f fund 

The State of North Carolina pays $2,500 a year to the North 
Carolina State Volunteer Firemen's Association and to the North 
Carolina State Firemen's Association, which fund is known as the 
Firemen's Relief Fund. 

The purpose of the fund is for the relief of firemen, members of 
such associations who may be injured or made sick by disease con- 
tracted in the actual discharge of duty as firemen, and for the relief 
of widows, children or dependent mothers of such firemen who may 
be killed or die from disease contracted in the discharge of their 
duty. Such duty must be performed in the service of the fire de- 
partment from the time of the fire alarm until the members are 
dismissed by the company oflScers at roll call, or in service con- 
nected with the fire department which is directed to be performed 
by the officers in charge. 

Any fireman of good, moral character in North Carolina, and 
belonging to an organized fire company, who will comply with the 
requirements of the constitution and by-laws of the North Carolina 
State Firemen's Association may become a member of this Associa- 
tion, and be eligible to relief from the fund. This fund was es- 
tablished by Act of the General Assembly in 1891. 



Department of Insurance 123 

general progress 

During the last four years the insurance companies and build- 
ing and loan associations operating in North Carolina under the 
supervision of the Insurance Commissioner have enjoyed a greater 
growth than ever before in a similar period. There has been a 
corresponding increase of activity in the other phases of depart- 
mental work, which include, lightning rod sales and installa- 
tion, auctioneers, and the erection and inspection of buildings. 
Coincident with the growth and increased activity in these different 
divisions there has been a similar increase in the revenues to 
the State paid by the Insurance Department, while the work of 
supervision has also been greatly complicated. From the organiza- 
tion of the department in 1899 to April 1, 1926, there has been paid 
into the Treasury $11,737,416.55 of which $6,085,472.25 was paid ia 
during the six year period ending April 1, 1926. 

BUILDING AND LOAN ASSOCIATIONS 

Probably the most outstanding growth has occurred among the 
building and loan associations of the State. When the building 
and loan associations were turned over to the Insurance Depart- 
ment in 1904 they had only $80,000 in assets. In December, 1920. 
165 associations reported assets totaling $29,000,000. At the close 
of 1925, 246 associations reported assets of $81,188,000, their receipts 
increasing -during the same period from $16,000,000 to $59,000,000 
a year. The force of these institutions in the upbuilding of our 
cities, both in taxable property and citizenship, cannot be estimated. 
Their supervision calls for trained experts, and while no fund has 
ever been appropriated for that purpose by the State, they have 
been supervised without expense to the State and with little loss to 
their members. It is gratifying to know that we are in advance 
of any other State in the provisions for safeguarding our people 
in this direction as well as in the help rendered the associations 
in their organization and conduct. 

INSURANCE SUPERVISION 

This department was created originally for Ihu enforcement of 
the insurance laws. It is probable that this is still the most im- 
portant phase of its work; for while insurance was looktMl upon 



124 State Departments^ Boards, and Commissions 

only a few years ago by many as a gamble, and regarded by the 
general public with suspicion, today it exceeds every other financial 
institution of the country in importance. So great is its effect 
upon commerce and industry that our entire credit system would 
collapse over night if the protection of insurance were instantly 
removed. 

Since the formation of the department in' 1899 it has been the 
duty of the commissioner to investigate the financial responsibility 
of each company seeking admission to the State, of which there 
are now more than six hundred; to scrutinize each of the many 
thousand forms of contracts issued by them to see that the value 
of protection was not weakened or destroyed by some qualifying 
clause; to see that the contracts are given a reasonable interpreta- 
tion in the settlement of claims and not misrepresented to the public; 
to watch the progress of companies and see that sufficient reserves 
are carried to guarantee the protection promised; to protect the 
public and companies themselves against the impractical and unsafe 
policies of promoters operating under the guise of insurance who 
continually seek his approval or attempt to operate in open defiance 
of the Law. 

North Carolina has reaped a great benefit in the growth of its 
insurance business, particularly in the organization and growth 
of its domestic companies, for while in 1899 there were only seven 
North Carolina companies having assets aggregating $746,791, there 
are today 80 such companies with home offices in this State and 
assets of more than 158,938,588, furnishing employment to thou- 
sands of our citizens and filling a real need in the social and 
economic life of the State. 

FIRE marshal law 

One of the most far-reaching statutes we are called upon to en- 
force is the State Building Code, which is accepted as a model by 
practically every other State and upon which often depend the 
lives of thousands of our citizens and our children at school. No 
school building may be erected in the State the plans of which have 
not been submitted to the Department, examined and approved by 
an expert in fire protection. The result of this is that we have in 
North Carolina more modern fire-proof school buildings than any 



Department of Insurance 125 

other State in the union, while the pupils are taught fire prevention 
from textbooks especially prepared for this purpose by the depart- 
ment. 

Fire departments tliroughout the State have been given special 
attention, organized and drilled by experts, with the result that 
North Carolina has more motor-driven fire-fighting equipment than 
any other State of like size, and full paid firemen replace the loyal 
but inadequate volunteers with their hand reels and horse-drawn 
vehicles. 

A systematic inspection of all cities and towns in the State 
as to defects in buildings and electrical equipment is carried out 
through experts in buildings and electrical construction under the 
direction of the Commissioner. Every fire reported to be of incendi- 
ary origin is thoroughly investigated by experienced detectives, and 
prosecutions conducted where the evidence warrants. This has 
led to the conviction and imprisonment of hundreds of arson crim- 
inals during the history of the department, notwithstanding arson 
is of all crimes probably the hardest to prove. 

A campaign of education in the prevention of fires and accidents 
is carried on continually throughout the State by competent instruc- 
tors provided by the department and paid from the taxes collected 
from insurance companies, which also contribute over |35,000 an- 
nually toward the maintenance of our various fire departments. 

A business little understood and discredited by many, the sale 
and erection of lightning rods, has grown to be a considerable in- 
dustry in the rural sections of the State, and since, as in most 
lines, there are imposters and inferior products, a special law 
provides that each brand sold shall be submitted to and approved 
by the department before being offered for sale, and that each erector 
shall secure a license from the department upon showing his fitness. 

INSURANCE RATES 

North Carolina occupies an enviable position compared witb atl- 
joining states with reference to fire insurance rates, which distinc- 
tion has been earned by the campaign on fire prevention carrieii 
on by the State Insurance Department, and while tbo deiiartment 
possesses no power to make fire insurance rates every company 
operating in the State is required to file a copy of (be rates cbargcd 



126 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

by it on all property, and where such rates appear discriminatory 
they are investigated and equalized with the rates charged on other 
property of the same class. It is to the credit of the companies to 
say that this has called for very few adjustments, and that because 
of the work which we have done along the line of fire prevention 
North Carolina enjoys lower fire insurance rates than any other 
Southern State. 

There are employed by the department at present twenty-five 
persons, six of whom are traveling practically all of the time. The 
time of the others is well taken up in performing the multiple 
duties imposed by law, and it must be apparent that the efficient 
performance of their work requires constant study and advancement 
in order to keep abreast of the corporations whose progressiveness 
and desire for business demand constant scrutiny and supervision. 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF REVE:\UE 

Chs. 34, 38, 40, P. L. 1921; Chs. 101, 158, 182, 258, P. L. 1925 

R. A. DouGHTON, Commissioner, Raleigh 

Title — Commissioner of Revenue. 
Appointment — Elected by the people. 
Term — Four years. 

Salary — $5,500 and traveling expenses. 
Chairman — State Board of Assessment. 

Function 

To administer and enforce the taxes imposed by the Revenue Act, 
being given the power to divide the State into districts, to examine 
any records or persons bearing upon matters required to be included 
in the return, and to appoint and remove necessary deputies and 
clerks; to prepare and publish annually statistics with respect to 
the operation of the revenue act; to keep such records of collection 
of taxes as may be prescribed by the State Auditor; to make monthly 
reports to the State Treasurer or State Auditor, or both, of all col- 
lections of taxes; and to construe all sections of the revenue act, 
such decisions being prima facie correct. 



State Department of Revenue 



127 



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128 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

To license motor vehicles and to appoint inspectors to enforce 
automobile license law; to collect automobile license tax and gaso- 
line road tax. To collect all fees, taxes, licenses, etc., required of 
bus lines and jitneys. To collect all taxes, licenses and fees from 
all classes of insurance companies. 

The taxes collected by the Department of Revenue for the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1926, as shown on the preceding page. 



STATE BOARD OF ASSESSMENT 

Ch. 102, P. L. 1925 

Composition (3) — Commissioner of Revenue, Chairman; Chair- 
man of Corporation Commission, Attorney General, members ex 
officio. 

This Board is constituted by law of three officers, viz., the Com- 
missioner of Revenue, Attorney General and the Chairman of the 
Corporation Commission. The Commissioner of Revenue is Chair- 
man of the Board and is empowered to exercise the functions of 
the Board when the same is not in session. This Board has gen- 
eral supervision of the taxing system of the State and is the final 
authority, where those who claim injustice has been done, to 
remedy such injustice in the way of valuations and otherwise. It 
has among other powers and duties the following: 

1. To advise all assessing officers and institute proceedings to 
enforce penalties against officers, corporations, etc., for failing to 
discharge their duty. 

2. To prepare a pamphlet of instructions to tax assessors and 
to advise them as to the law and their duties in respect to assess- 
ing property. 

3. To investigate the taxing system in the various counties, and 
if it finds the same grossly irregular, unlawfully or unequally as- 
sessed, to correct such irregularity and to equalize the valuation 
of the property in any county either upon the complaint of the tax- 
payer or upon its own initiation. 

4. To require Registers of Deeds, Auditors, Clerks, Mayors, etc., 
to make such annual reports as will enable the State Board to 
ascertain the assessed valuations of all property listed for taxation 



State Board of Assessment 



129 



STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 
State Board of Assessment, R.4xeigh 



Tax Rates of Counties and Schools, and Valuations of Property in North Carolina as 
Reported by the Auditors and Register of Deeds of the Several Counties to the State Board 
of Assessment. These Figures are Approximately Correct, and Cover the Year of 1925 



Name of County 



Alamance. . 
Alexander.- 
Alleghany. - 

Anson 

Ashe- .- 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick-. 
Buncombe-- 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell--.. 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland . . 
Columbus.-. 

Craven 

Cumberland 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe-. 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates- 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson. . 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 

Johnston 

9 



County 


School 


Total 


Value 


Aggregate 


Tax 
Rate 


Tax 
Rate 


County 
Rate 


Real 
Property 


Value Real 

And Personal 

Property 


S .75 


$ .60 


$ 1 ,35 


S 23,. 5.52, 815 


$ 34,389,251 


.56 


.74 


1.30 


5,760,471 


8,440,131 


.55 


.45 


1.00 


3,583,133 


4,572,177 


.55 


.68 


1.23 


11,590,548 


22,807,016 


1.14 


.54 


1.68 


8, .522,312 


12,031,208 


.79 


.91 


2.00 


4,309,123 


5,516,609 


.90 


.70 


1.60 


22,187,195 


28,397,345 


.72 


.73 


1.45 


10,968.769 


15.905,7.35 


.55 


.92 


1.47 


10,010.030 


13,9.50,805 


.57 


.40 


.97 


6,743,787 


8,816,463 


.45 


..35 


.80 


97,567,193 


127, 191,, 535 


.28 


.54 


.82 


20,055.307 


26,307,555 


.55 


.55 


1.10 


26,918,719 


.38,828,070 


.48 


.70 


1.18 


16,020.833 


20,6.58,676 


.59 


1.10 


1.69 


2,794.417 


3,. 5.50, 254 


.85 


.70 


1.55 


10,116,271 


12,628,624 


.90 


.85 


1.75 


6,111,900 


8,874,679 


.53 


.52 


1.05 


28,4.59,670 


40,310,805 


.72 


..50 


1 22 


9,306,095 


18,973,281 


1. 10 


.60 


1.70 


4.350,569 


8,584,066 


.79 


..53 


1.32 


7,018,435 


10,525,387 


1.85 


1.06 


2.91 


2, 002,. 508 


2,412,032 


.26 


.54 


.80 


25,715,625 


37,727,078 


.80 


.84 


1-.64 


13,123,587 


20,816,781 


.90 


.60 


1.50 


21,957,137 


29.062,434 


.83 


.73 


1.56 


21,512,705 


30,126,215 


.48 


1.16 


1.64 


4,096,473 


5,2.50,278 


.53 


.82 


1.35 


1.775,551 


2,116,203 


.52 


.63 


1.15 


21,569,725 


34,477,000 


.65 


.75 


1.40 


8,806,947 


12,779.194 


.56 


.75 


1.31 


19, 21 7,, 524 


24,908.103 


AQH 


.eoM 


1.10 


46,781.786 


83,265,369 


.22 


..58>2 


.80' o 


24,393,076 


34, 179,. 526 


.26 


.29 


..55 


87,612,062 


178,279,218 


.31 


.80 


III 


10,1.38,041 


14,439,943 


.45 


..55 


I .00 


61,607.576 


88,171,829 


.33 


1.05 


1 .38 


4.8S2..3.52 


7,486,668 


.50 


.90 


1.40 


3,665,975 


4.232.1.59 


.65 


.93 


1.58 


11,609,020 


21,465,960 


1.08 


.53 


1.61 


11.174.916 


13.621,6.53 


.46 


.39 


.85 


115.270,460 


163, 035., 890 


.90 


.65 


1 .55 


24.199.838 


40.378.808 


.42 


.75 


1.17 


17,727,767 


24. 9.85., 5,36 


.65 


.70 


I ..35 


13,708.331 


20,2.52,792 


.70 


.65 


1 .35 


14.143.394 


19.571,920 


.86 


.84 


1.70 


7,702,618 


11.492,198 


.49 


.53 


1 .02 


8.400,318 


10,578.093 


.54 


1.00 


1 .54 


4.674,763 


5,7.59,271 


.60 


.60 


1.20 


28.30S..506 


45,682,108 


.75 


.73 


1.48 


6,725,030 


11,065,461 


.61 


.68 


1.29 


28,677,296 


43,9.53,613 



130 ' State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 



Name of County 



Jones. 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin.. 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg . . 

Mitchell 

Montgomery.-. 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover. 
Northampton . 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank... 

Pender 

Perquimans 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk... 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham. . 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly... 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania.. 

Tyrrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake.. 

Warren 

Washington 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 



Total. 



County 
Tax 
Rate 



.40 

.60 

.99 

.80 

.84 
1.03 

.55 

.68 

.56 

.65 

.98 

.55 

.55 

.541^ 

.71+ 

.70 

.56 
1.11 

.59 

.65 

1.12}2 

.65 
.58 
.66 
.55 

.82 



School 
Tax 
Rate 



.84+ 

.47 

.49 

.62 

.84^0 

.66 

.86 

.54 

.44 

.78 

.72 

.90 

.43 

.33 

.25 

.76 

.98 

.43 

.94 

.57 

.67 



.75 
.55 
.61 
.70 
.64 
.72 
.95 
.60 
.40 
.70 
.50 
.63 
.80 
.751^ 
.85 
.78 
.78 
1.21 
.55 
.75 
.57^-2 
.60 
.42 
.90 
.45 
.53 



Total 

County 

Rate 



$ 1.15 
1.15 



1.60 
1.50 
1.48 
1.75 
1.50 
1.28 
.96 
1..35 
1.48 
1.18 



.74+ 
.60 
.60 
.70 

My. 
.54 ' 

.81 
.53 
.55 
.62 
.70 
.85 
1.02 
.50 
.60 
.70 
.82 
.60 
.66 
.93 
.63 
..55 



1..35 

1.30 

1.56+ 

1.48 

1.34 

2.32 

1.14 

1.40 

1.70 

1.25 

1.00 

1.56 

1.00 

1.35 



1.59 
1.07 
1.09 
1.32 
1.41 
1.20 
1.67 
1.07 
.99 
1.40 
1.42 
1.75 
1.45 
.85 
.85 
1.43 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1.43 



.80 
.03 
.60 
.50 
.30 



Value 

Real 

Property 



5,440,901 

8,617,078 

23,400,570 

10,704,4.55 

4,933,674 

5,2.58,9.35 

10, 573,. 308 

9,749,681 

109,796,785 

4,060,234 

7,146,884 

17,577,487 

23,241,885 

42,729,1.34 

8,611,025 

7,439,525 

11,277,662 

4,438,793 

13,008,174 

6,403,326 

5,788,482 

10,571,511 

38,494,601 

5,077,727 

13,298,433 

21,662,442 



27,503,974 

39,421,238 

21,708,487 

16,339,759 

10.863,825 

20,590,855 

8,832,522 

17,779,050 

6,749,239 

5,144,273 

3,182,280 

17,783,147 

12,892,786 

64,215,955 

9,569,043 

5,870,391 

6,724,168 

35,7.53,033 

9,823,402 

32,106,007 

7,070,6.52 

5.861,662 



$ 1,822.315,959 



Aggregate 

Value Real 

And Personal 

Property 



7,136,535 
13,194,226 
28,739,480 
15,439,800 

6,420,178 

10,491,526 

16.134,716 

20,706,076 

160,709,186 

9,549,733 
15,134,605 
24,904,718 
32,965,962 
57,892,766 
14,922,932 
11,177,396 
17,895,812 

5,660,891 
18,619,720 
10,759,401 

7, 991,. 307 
15, 191,. 322 
50,222,430 

6,958,065 
20, 819, .541 
32.026,577 
41,690,315 
42,895,754 
56,184,746 
32,868,021 
22,763,701 
16,937,215 
30,342,631 
12,739,723 
28,407,519 
12,191,696 

7,811,277 

3,942,472 
25,291,199 
21,386,272 
92,595,934 
14,247,497 

8,712,063 

8,396,928 

48,158,959 

15,382,600 

46,056,195 

9,483,389 

7,995,727 



2,750,980,067 



State Highway Commission 131 

throughout the State to the end that it may have complete statis- 
tical information as to the practical operation of the taxing laws. 

5. To make investigation of the revenue laws and systems of 
other states and to report to the Legislature at each regular session 
thereof the whole amount of taxes collected in the State for all 
State and county purposes, being classified. 

6. To prepare for legislative committees prior to the meeting 
of each General Assembly such revision of the Revenue and Ma- 
chinery Acts of the State as experience and investigation indicate 
should be enacted into law. 

7. To value the capital stock of all corporations under the rules 
and regulations mentioned in the Machinery Act of the State and 
make a report to the Governor. In fact, the State Board of Assess- 
ment is head of the taxing system of the State and is the court of 
last resort in case of complaints and appeals. Its duties are very 
extensive and its work from a practical standpoint continues al- 
most throughout the year. The officers who constitute this Board 
receive no salary as members of such Board. 



STATE HIGHWAY COIMISSION 

Ch. 2, P. L. 1923; Chs. 277 and 312, P. L. 192.5 

Frank Page, State Highway Commissioner, Raleigh 

Comiwsition (10) — Chairman, State Highway Commissioner; 
nine commissioners. 

Apjiointment — -By Governor, with consent of Senate. 

Te?-m — Chairman, six years; other members, six years, over- 
lapping. 

Qualification — Chairman, practical business man from State at 
large; members, one from each highway district, three of minority 
party. 

Compensation — Chairman, $15,000 and expenses; other members 
$10 per diem and expenses. 

Fiiiu'tion 

To supervise and control the location, construction and mainte- 
nance of the State Highway system; to meet the requirement nf 



132 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

Federal aid acts; and to administer and enforce other provisions of 
the State Highway Act. 

To keep records of proceedings and adopt rules governing trans- 
actions and enforcement of law; to appoint a State highway engi- 
neer (4 year term) and other employees, fix their salaries and 
prescribe their duties; to meet quarterly, or oftener on call of 
Commissioner or of five members, the Highway Commissioner to 
devote entire time to the work of the Commission and to be vested 
with power of Commission when same is not in session. 

To designate and map the roads comprising the State Highway 
System not to exceed 6,500 miles and to publish same; to alter or 
relocate same subsequent to public hearing or on its own volition; 
to let all contracts for construction. 

To take over and control existing county or township roads 
constituting part of system; to provide for necessary road materials; 
to enforce by mandamus its legal rights. 

To regulate use of State highways and to police traffic thereon, to 
establish a traffic census to secure information concerning use, cost, 
value, importance and necessity of roads forming a part of the 
State Highway System as a basis for construction of same. 

To assume full and exclusive responsibility for the maintenance 
of all roads other than streets in towns and cites forming part of 
system, except roads maintained by counties under contract with 
Commission. 

To exercise full power to comply with Federal aid acts relating to 
construction, maintenance and improvement of rural post roads. 

To regulate street openings and excavations on State-owned roads; 
to condemn land for rights of way and for purposes of obtaining 
road materials, such as lime, sand, gravel, timber, etc., and to em- 
ploy counsel for advice and legal action; to select and provide road 
materials; to adopt standard design and uniformly mark all roads 
comprised in the system. 

To keep full account of each road project showing expenditures 
and liabilities and records of contracts and force account work. 

To apportion construction and maintenance funds obtained from 
receipts of bond issues ($85,000,000), automobile license tax, gas- 



State Highway Commission 133 

oline, road tax and other sources, to each district as prescribed by 
law. 

Reports. To make full detailed report to each General Assembly, 
showing construction and maintenance work and cost of same, re- 
ceipts of license fees and disbursements. 

Note. Specific duties of State Highway Commissioner and State 
Highway Engineer as such are not set forth in the law. Refer- 
ence is invariably to the Highway Commission. 

ORGANIZATION 

Frank Page, Chairman Raleigh 

F. C. KuGLEK, First District Washington 

C. R. Wheatly, Second District Beaufort 

W. A. McGiRT, Third District Wilmington 

John Sprunt Hill, Fourth District Durham 

J. Elwood Cox, Fifth District High Point 

W. C. Wilkinson, Sixth District Charlotte 

Alex S. Hanes, Seventh District Winston-Salem 

A. M. KisTLER, Eighth District Morganton 

J. G. Stikelether, Ninth District Asheville 

L. R. Ames, Acting State-Highioay Engineer Raleigh 

administrative 

The State Highway Commission, as provided in the Highway Act 
of 1921 and amendments of 1923 and 1925 is composed of the Chair- 
man, Hon. Frank Page, who is a full-time official, and the nine Dis- 
trict Commissioners from the construction districts throughout the 
State. As set forth in the Highway Law, the Commission has con- 
trol of the expenditure of the $85,000,000 bond issue, Federal Aid 
funds, and revenue from the gasoline tax and auto license fees. It 
is responsible for the construction and maintenance of the 6.500 
miles of roads making up the State Highway System and connect- 
ing the county-seats and principal towns. 



134 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

Assistant to Chairman 
H. K. Witherspoon, Assistant to Chairman, handles correspondence 
and detailed work of the Chairman which does not require his per- 
sonal attention. 

Legal Department 

Charles Ross, of Lillington, is Attorney for the Highway Com- 
mission, which office is provided for in Section 21 of the State 
Highway Act. The Attorney handles all matters of a legal nature. 

Purchasing Department 

W. Z. Betts is in charge of the purchasing department and handles 
the purchasing of all equipment and supplies for the Commission. 
The majority of the purchasing is done on a competitive basis, 
thus effecting the saving of a large sum annually. This depart- 
ment also handles the cement purchases of the Commission. 

Accounting Department 
Homer Peele, an experienced auditor, is in charge of this de- 
partment and handles all receipts and disbursements of funds com- 
ing under the supervision of the Highway Commission. 

Equipment Department 

C. D. Farmer, Superintendent of Motor Equipment, is in charge 
of the equipment department, which takes care of the upkeep of the 
automotive equipment required in the work of the Commission. 

The depot, which covers approximately twelve acres, is located 
about four miles west of Raleigh. 

Claim Department 

C. H. Rogers, Claim Engineer, has charge of the investigation and 
adjustment of all claims for damage to property filed with the 
Commission. 

ENGINEERING 

State Highway Engineer 
L. R. Ames, Acting State Highway Engineer, has direct charge 
of all engineering work of the Commission, and has under his super- 
vision the departments outlined below. 



State Highway Commission 135 

Road Department 

George P. Syme, Senior Highway Engineer, has charge of the 
drafting and preparation of plans and estimates for all road work 
carried on by the Commission. This department handles the prep- 
aration of proposals, contracts, and checks up final estimates before 
final payment is made. All blueprint work of the Commission is 
taken care of in this department. 

Bridcje Dcpartmenl 

W. L. Craven, Senior Bridge Engineer, has charge of the work 
of designing and preparing plans for all bridges and culverts in 
the State Highway System. Several large structures have been 
designed during the past two years. 

Locating Department 

R. G. Browning, Principal Locating Engineer, has charge of all lo- 
cation surveys on the State Highway System. Thousands of dollars 
have been saved the State by careful study and revision of proposed 
locations. 

Construction Department 

W. E. Hawkins, State Construction Engineer, has under his direc- 
tion the progress and final inspections of construction work and 
testing of materials. 

Maintenance Department 

A. P. Eskridge, State Maintenance Engineer, has charge of one 
of the most important branches of the Commission. Maintenance of 
over 6,000 miles of highways is carried on under the direction of 
this department by a well-organized force throughout the State. 

District Engineers 

The State is divided into nine construction districts, each in 
charge of a District Engineer. Each district is in effect a separate 
unit, but is at the same time under the direction of the State High- 
way Engineer. 



136 State DepabtmentS;, Boards, and Commissions 

Historical Note 

The State Highway Commission of North Carolina was first ap- 
pointed by Governor Locke Craig in accordance with the provisions 
of Chapter 113 of the Public Laws of 1915, in anticipation of the 
passage of the Federal Road Act in 1916; but since the appropriation 
provided was only $10,000 with which to carry out the provisions 
of the Act, the Commission could only act in an advisory capacity 
to the various county and township boards throughout the State. 
The General Assembly of 1917 made no change either in the Com- 
mission or in the law creating it except to set aside the funds col- 
lected from automobile license fees, as provided in Chapter 107 of 
the Public Laws of 1913, as a maintenance fund to provide for the 
upkeep of the State System of roads. 

At this time little could be done towards building new roads, but 
a great deal was accomplished by educating the people of the 
State to the need for good roads and the many benefits to be derived 
therefrom. 

Real highway construction may be said to have begun with 
the passage of the 1919 Highway Law (Chapter 189, Public Laws, 
1919) in which fees for automobile licenses were increased suffi- 
ciently to provide funds to meet more adequately Federal aid funds 
allotted by the Government. 

By the terms of this law one-fourth of the cost of constructing a 
road on the State System was furnished by the county in which 
the road was located, one-fourth from the State Highway Fund, 
and one-half from Federal aid funds. A new Commission was ap- 
pointed, consisting of Frank Page of Aberdeen, Chairman; and W. S. 
Fallis, State Highway Engineer under the former commission, re- 
mained in this capacity. During the two years that this Commission 
functioned under the law of 1919 approximately 200 miles of 
improved highways were completed at a cost of |2, 464, 000; and 
650 miles, estimated to cost $9,730,000, were placed under con- 
struction. Except for paying a portion of the cost of the work 
and supervising it nothing was done by the Commission in the 
way of maintenance, as this phase of the work was left in the hands 
of county officials. 

Realizing the need for a more extensive road-building program 
and seeing the necessity for a more adequate system of maintenance. 



State Board of Health I'M 

certain foresighted citizens of the State began a campaign in 
1920, which resulted in the passage by the General Assembly of 
1921 of the Doughton-Connor-Bowie Act. The purposes of the 
law are well expressed in section 2, which reads as follows: "The 
general purposes of this act are for the State to lay out, take over, 
established and construct and assume control of approximately 5,500 
miles of hardsurfaced and other dependable highways running to 
all county seats, and to all principal towns, State parks and princi- 
pal State institutions, and linking up with State highways of ad- 
joining States and with national highways into national forest 
reserves by the most practicable routes, with special view to develop- 
ment of agriculture, commercial and natural resources of the State, 
and for the further purpose of permitting the State to assume con- 
trol of the State highways, repair, construct and reconstruct and 
maintain said highways at the expense of the entire State, and to 
relieve the counties and cities and towns of the State of this bur- 
den." Briefly, the act provides for a State Highway Commission 
consisting of a chairman from the State at large, and for one com- 
missioner from each of the nine construction districts into which 
the State is divided; all engineering work is in charge of a State 
Highway engineer chosen by the Commission; funds are provided 
by the issuance of serial bonds aggregating $85,000,000; from auto- 
mobile license fees, and from a tax of four cents per gallon on motor 
vehicle fuel. 

For maps and other information apply lo II. K. Wiiherspoon, 
assistant to chairman, State Highway Commission, Raleigh. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH 

Charles O'H. Lattghinghouse, Secretary and State Tlralth Officer. 

Raleigh 

Composition — Nine members. 

Personnel— 3. Howell Way, M.D., F.A.C.P., Presklcnl. Waynes- 
ville; Thomas E. Anderson, M.D., Statesville; Cyrus Thcinpson. 
M.D., Jacksonville; E. J. Tucker, D.D.S., Roxboro; A. J. Crowoll. 
M.D., F.A.C.S., Charlotte; D. A. Stanton, M.D., F.A.C.S.. Tligli Point; 
James P. Stowe, Ph.G., Charlotte; W. S. Rankin, M.l).. Sc.D.. Char- 
lotte; John B. Wright, M.D., F.A.C.S., Raleigh. 



138 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

Apjjointment — Five appointed by Governor; four elected by Med- 
ical Society of the State of North Carolina. 

Term — Six years. 

Comptnsation — Members of Board, $4 per diem and expenses; 
Secretary, $5,000 annually. 

Function 

To enforce the public health laws of the State; to formulate pol- 
icies and secure remedial or necessary legislation; to educate the 
public in matters of health. 

To take cognizance of the health interests of the people; to make 
sanitary investigations; to investigate causes of diseases danger- 
ous to the public health, especially epidemics; also the sources of 
mortality, and the effect of location, employment, and environment 
upon the public health; to gather and distribute such information; 
to act as the medical advisers of the State and advise the govern- 
Dient in regard to the location, sanitary construction, and manage- 
ment of all State Institutions and to inspect same not less than 
once a year; to maintain a State Laboratory of Hygiene; to make 
examinations for the presence and diagnosis of communicable dis- 
eases; to prepare and distribute antitoxins, vaccines, and sera; to 
make monthly examinations of potable waters; to investigate water- 
sheds, systems of water supply, sewerage, and to approve all plans 
for same; to supervise registration of births and deaths, the Secre- 
tary being State Registrar; to control privy construction and main- 
tenance; to conduct prenatal work and child hygiene; to publish 
bulletins, rules, regulations. 

To elect a President from its membership and an executive com- 
mittee consisting of the President and two other members; to meet 
annually, and to hold a conjoint meeting with the Medical Society 
of the State of North Carolina; to hold special sessions and meet- 
ings of the executive committee upon call of the President through 
the Secretary. 

The Board elects from the registered physicians of the State a 
Secretary-Treasurer for a term of six years. He is the executive 
officer of the Board, and is designated by law as State Health 
Officer. 



State Board of Health i:VJ 

Bureaus for the discharge of special duties are maintained as 
follows: Executive, Vital Statistics and Epidemiology, State Lab- 
oratory of Hygiene, Sanitary Engineering and Inspection, Maternity 
and Infancy, County Health Work. 

Historical Jfote 

The North Carolina State Board of Health is the twelfth oldest 
institution of its kind in the United States. It was created in 1877 
by an Act of the General Assembly constituting the entire Medical 
Society of the State as a board of health. Practically every Gen- 
eral Assembly since that time has increased in some vital particular 
the work and support of the Board. Credit for initiating the work 
goes by universal assent to Dr. Thomas Fanning Wood of Wilming- 
ton, who became the first secretary in 1879 when the General As- 
sembly reconstituted the Board as partially appointed by the Gov- 
ernor, partially elected by the Medical Society. Though the work 
cf the Board has been expanded and modified, no radical changes 
have since been made in its status. 

The first State appropriation in 1877 was $100 annually. The 
State appropriation for the past fiscal year was $400,000, and to 
this the Board was able to add by interesting other agencies about 
$650,000. North Carolina now ranks sixth among the States in the 
amount of money expended in the protection and promotion of the 
health of its people. This State has the enviable distinction of 
having established the first county health department in the United 
States for service to its rural population, and now has 37 such de- 
partments with efficient personnel and adequate budgets for real 
f^ervice. It stands second in the number of such agencies, Ohio 
having the honor of first place. 

The Board at present is composed of seven physicians, one dentist, 
one pharmacist. The various functions of the Board are adminis- 
tered under the direction and supervision of the State Health Officer 
by trained men at the heads of the several divisions of specializ<nl 
work. 



140 State Departments^ Boards^ and Commissions 
DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPlWnENT 

Ch. 85, C. S. ; Ch. 101, C.S. ; ch. 122, P. L. 1925 

Wade H. Phillips, Director, Raleigh. 

Composition — Board of Conservation and Development (7 
members) ; Director. 

Personnel — Board: Governor A. W. McLean, chairman; Dr. H. B. 
Shaw, State College; Dr. D. D. Carroll, University of North Caro- 
lina; H. L McClaren, Charlotte; Jas. G. K. McClure, Asheville; 
John H. Small, Washington, D. C; S. Wade Marr, Raleigh. 

Dixnsion Chiefs: J. S. Holmes, State Forester, Raleigh; Thorn- 
dike Saville, Hydraulic Engineer, Chapel Hill; H. J. Bryson, State 
Geologist, Raleigh. 

Appointment — By Governor with consent of Senate; Director 
appointed by Governor to serve at his pleasure. 

Term' — Four years overlapping. 

Qualification — Citizens of the State, one from the staff of the 
University and one from the staff of State College. 

Compensation — Four dollars per diem not exceeding eight days 
annually and necessary traveling expenses; salary of Director 
fixed by the Governor not to exceed salary heretofore paid State 
Geologist. 

Objects of the Department 

1. To take over the powers and duties exercised by the State 
Geological and Economic Survey, the State Geological Board and 
the State Geologist, as provided for in chapter one hundred and 
one of the Consolidated Statutes of one thousand nine hundred and 
nineteen and other statutes relating thereto. 

2. By investigation, recommendation and publication, to aid 

(a) In the promotion of the conservation and development of 
the natural resources of the State; 

(b) In promoting a more profitable use of lands, forests and 
waters ; 

(c) In promoting the development of commerce and industry; 

(d) In coordinating existing scientific investigations and 
other related agencies in formulating and promoting sound 
policies of conservation and development; and 



] Department of Conservation and Development 141 

(e) To collect and classify the facts derived from such investi- 
gations and from other agencies of the State as a source of 
information easily accessible to the citizens of the State and 
to the public generally, setting forth the natural, economic, 
industrial and commercial advantages of the State. 
The board shall have control of the work of the department and 
may make such rules and regulations as it may deem advisable 
to govern the work of the department and the duties of its 
employees. 

It shall make investigations of the natural, industrial and com- 
mercial resources of the State, and take such measures as it may 
deem best suited to promote the conservation and development of 
such resources. 

It shall make investigations of the existing conditions of trade, 
commerce and industry in the State, with the causes which may 
hinder or encourage their growth and may devise and recommend 
such plans as may be considered best suited to promote the develop- 
ment of these interests. 

The board may take such other measures as it may deem advisable 
to obtain and make public a more complete knowledge of the State 
and its resources and it is authorized to cooperate with other de- 
partments and agencies of the State in obtaining and making public 
such information. 

It shall be the duty of the board to arrange and classify tlie 
facts derived from the investigations made, so as to provide a 
general source of information in regard to the State, its advantages 
and resources. 

The board may also cause to be prepared for publication, from 
time to time, reports and statements, with illustrations, maps and 
other descriptions, which may adequately set forth the natural 
and material resources of the State and its industrial and com- 
mercial developments, with a view to furnishing information to 
educate the people with reference to the material advantages of 
the State, to encourage and foster existing industries, and to present 
inducements for investment in new enterprises. Such reports and 
information shall be published and distributed as the board may 
direct, at the expense of the State as other public documents. 



142 State Departments^ Boards, and Commissions 

Director. With approval of the board, to make or cause to be 
made examinations and surveys of the economic and natural re- 
sources of the State and investigations of its industrial and com- 
mercial enterprizes and advantages and to perform such other 
duties as may be required to carry out the objects of the De- 
partment. He shall appoint with approval of the board necessary 
experts and assistants including State Geologist and State Forester, 
and shall assign to each appropriate duties. 

Cooperation with State Departments, Counties axd Towns and 
WITH Federal Government. The Board is authorized to cooperate 
with the North Carolina Corporation Commission in investigating 
the water-powers in the State and to furnish the Corporation Com- 
mission such information as is possible regarding the location of 
the water-power sites, developed water-powers, and such other in- 
formation as may be desired in regard to water-power in the State; 
the board shall also cooperate as far as possible with the Depart- 
ment of Labor and Printing, the State Department of Agriculture, 
the Fisheries Commission Board and other departments and institu- 
tions of the State in collecting information in regard to the re- 
sources of the State and in preparing the same for publication in 
such a manner as may best advance the welfare and improvement 
of the State. 

The board is authorized to cooperate with the counties of the 
State in any surveys to ascertain the natural resources of the 
county; and with the governing bodies of cities and towns, with 
boards of trade and other like civic organizations, in examining and 
locating water supplies and in advising and recommending plans 
for other municipal improvements and enterprises. Such coopera- 
tion is to be conducted upon such terms as the board may direct. 

The board is authorized to arrange for and accept such aid and 
cooperation from the several United States Government bureaus 
and other sources as may assist in completing topographic surveys 
and in carrying out the other objects of the department, and to 
continue any arrangement which may have been heretofore made 
with such Federal agencies by the Geological and Economic Survey 
and by the Geological Board. 

The board is further authorized and directed to cooperate with 
the Federal power commission in carrying out the rules and regu- 



Department of Conservation and Development 143 

lations promulgated by that commission; and to act in behalf of 
the State in carrying out any regulations that may be passed 
relating to water-powers in this State other than those related to 
making and regulating rates. 

Control of Mount Mitchell Park and Other State Parks. The 
board shall have the control and management of Mount Mitchell 
Park and any other parks which have been or may be acquired by 
the State as State parks. 

Forestry DivisioxX. The natural resources of North Carolina are 
so widespread and important that every possible effort must be 
made to conserve tliem, namely to have them used wisely so that 
they will benefit equally the present and future generations. 

The forests of the State besides providing timber and other pro- 
ducts for domestic and industrial use, protect and regulate our 
streams, help prevent the erosion of our soils, furnish feeding and 
breeding places for our game and other wild life and beautify the 
great out-of-doors for the recreation and inspiration of our people. 

Of the State's total area of 31,000,000 acres, two-thirds or about 
21,000,000 acres are in timber of some kind or are best adapted 
to the growth of timber. From the North Carolina forests there 
is created by industries dependent upon them an estimated annual 
wealth of $168,000,000. On the 21,000,000 acres it is estimated that 
there is now a stand of 29 billion board feet, as against a stand 
of 40 billion board feet according to an estimate made sixteen years 
ago. In 1915, North Carolina was the fourth State in the produc- 
tion of lumber, while in 1923 it was the eleventh. It is still first 
in the number of sawmills which are cutting its timber twice 
as fast as it is being produced. 

The Forestry Division, popularly known as the State Forest 
Services, is now organized to carry on four principal lines of effort, 
(1) forest protection, (2) forest planting, (3) State parks and 
forests, and (4) forestry information. 

The forest protective organization covers some thirty counties 
which cooperate by paying one-half the local costs up to an agreed 
upon maximum aggregating some $14,600. Tlie State apportion- 
ment for this work is $16,990, and private contributions $2,410. 
This is met by the Federal Government with funds contributed 



144 Statk Defaimmknts, Boards; and Commissions 

under the Clarke-McNary law on a percentage basis which all 
counted makes a total available for this work of $68,000. 

There are in addition to the administrative force some 2,500 
district and deputy forest wardens throughout the cooperating 
counties selected for their knowledge, ability and good standing, 
and paid only on part time. This force fought some 1,062 forest 
fires during 1925 and kept the average burned area down to 171 
acres per fire. Although a large damage was reported from these 
counties for that year the counties were saved a loss of many 
thousands of dollars through the efforts of these men. However, 
to protect the 21,000,000 acres of forest land in the State from the 
annual fire damage of $1,227,500, which is the average reported 
damage for the past ten year period, the State Forest Service will 
need much stronger financial support. 

A small forest nursery is now established at Raleigh and seed- 
lings of several species of pine are being distributed at cost to 
farmers throughout the State. 

The protection and administration of Mount Mitchell State Park 
containing 1,224 acres and Fort Macon State Park of 400 acres 
as well as the developments of a management policy for the State 
Lakes and other recreational forest and water areas is placed in 
the State Forest Service. 

Economic studies relating to the forest resources of the State 
are carried on and information distributed to inquirers both within 
and outside of North Carolina. 

Water Resources Division. Created in 1921, its function has 
been to promote the conservation and more profitable use of the 
State's water resources; first, by obtaining basic data through 
research, directed surveys, and stream gaging, to which is added 
the collection of such data from all available sources; and second, 
by presenting this data in a form easily used by engineers and the 
general public. 

Acting in its capacity as an investigator and a seeker for basic 
information necessary for orderly and economical development of 
our resources, it has vigorously sought to obtain stream flow records 
for the use of municipalities in investigating water supplies, and 
power companies, their developments; has aided in the collection of 



Department of Conservation and Develop.mknt 14.") 

rainfall records for the same purpose; and it has, through coopera- 
tive work with counties, caused surveys to be made of rivers to 
determine their power possibilities and the most feasible methods 
for their development. Also, it has caused the chemical analysis 
of waters from many streams in order to supply such information 
to industrial concerns seeking locations for manufacturing plants. 
Miscellaneous investigations, many of them, have been made qn the 
request of the Governor in some instances; of State departments 
and institutions in others. 

While being concerned primarily with the State's Water Resources 
as such, it is also concerned with those resources during their 
development and afterwards. Hence it has been authorized and 
directed to cooperate with the Federal Power Commission and to 
act in behalf of the State in carrying out any regulations that 
may be passed relating to water^owers in the State other than 
those relating to making and regulating rates. In this connection, 
a very close watch is kept on power developments; contact is 
maintained with the Federal Power Commission and the interests 
of the State are looked after. 

In order to keep the State fully informed concerning the status of 
its power developments and of their output, an annual circular is 
published, called the "Power Situation in North Carolina." In 
keeping this Circular accurate and up-to-date, considerable statisti- 
cal work is necessary. For that and other purposes an attempt is 
made to collect complete statistical data regarding power develop- 
ments and production; a service whic'h is regarded as worthy and 
valuable in that, among many other purposes, such figures serve 
as an industrial barometer. 

To meet the future hydro-electric needs of our people there is 
indicated a State agency for supplying accurate and comprehensive 
facts upon which State authority may proceed impartially to super- 
vise and regulate future developments, not only in the fixing of 
rates, but to the end of assuring that water-powers generally shall 
secure such a uniform treatment as will make the most out of 
every stream, considered in its character of a public asset to be 
utilized and managed in the common benefit; that developments are 
not made in a manner so incomplete as to fail in proper realization 
of their possibilities, and that they are not unduly (i(^l;iycd liy 
10 



146 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

private owners of stream rights. Unless the State takes steps to 
conserve and properly regulate its powers for itself, the time will 
come w^hen the authority it neglects to exercise will be assumed by 
the Federal Government. 

The Division's funds have in the past, for the most part, been 
devoted to stream gaging work in cooperation with the U. S. 
Geolqgical Survey. Today, stream gaging has been fairly well 
established; its only need being more adequate funds to allow for 
sufficient operation and expansion. Other problems of major import- 
ance have now presented themselves. A comprehensive investiga- 
tion of our coastal section with its many sounds, inlets and 
beaches is needed. The Water Works Association has called for 
an investigation of the ground-water supplies of the coastal plain 
section, with particular reference to deep wells. Some of the mis- 
cellaneous problems of importance to the State which the Division 
would be well justified in investigating are: silting in large re- 
servoirs resulting in loss of capacity; evaporation therefrom re- 
sulting in loss of power; drainage of waste lands and functioning 
of drainage districts; inland waterways; rate of recovery of streams 
from pollution by domestic and industrial sewage; determination of 
hydrogen-ion concentration of ground and surface waters of 
the State; and most important of all, sources of water supply 
available for municipal use with regard to availability, adequacy of 
yield, and proper method of developing. 

The service rendered by the Water Resources Division to the 
State has far more than justified its existence. Economical develop- 
ment of gigantic hydro-electric power systems has been made 
possible through the use of stream flow records. The manner in 
which the industrial development has followed hydro-electric devel- 
opment needs no telling here. Municipalities have been enabled to 
develop streams for water supplies with assurance of their adequ- 
acy. State institutions have been aided in solving their water 
supply problems. Requests for information concerning water re- 
sources of the State have been received and answered in great 
numbers. Often, however, requests for information have not been 
satisfied because of limited facilities and insufficient data. Having 
a great field of usefulness and service to the State, the Division 



State Board of Charities and Public Welfare 147 

functions, filling that field as best it can with its limited facilities, 
while waiting for a greater opportunity. 

Geological Division. The Department from time to time during 
its history has undertaken investigations of the geological forma- 
tions of the State, occurrence of various minerals, their commer- 
cial value and methods of mining, and published a number of bul- 
letins and economic papers concerning them, many of these in 
cooperation with Federal agencies. From an economic as well 
as scientific point of view there is a great amount of study still 
needed to be done, and which would, in all probability, yield good 
returns on the investment. 

In 1920, the value of mineral products was the greatest up to 
that time in the history of the State and amounted to .$8,150,753. In 
1923, a new high record for mineral production value amounting 
to $11,042,517 was set. The 1924 mineral production had a value 
of $10,163,435. The slight decrease in the value of the 1924 min- 
eral production as compared with that of 1923 was due to a falling 
off in the amount of crushed stone and gravel used for road work 
and also to a decrease in the price of kaolin and mica. 

The marked increases in recent years have come largely from a 
greater utilization of stone and clay products including kaolins and 
shale. Possibilities in the commercial uses of clays and shale for 
fire proofing face brick and various types and qualities of tiles are 
highly attractive. The Department is constantly investigating and 
reporting upon mineral resources with the view of providing data 
for industrial development. 



STATE BOARD OF CHARITIES AND PUBLIC WELFARE 

Art. XI, Sec. 7, Constitution; Ch. 88. C. S. ; Arts. 1, 2, .5, Ch. 103, C. S. ; 
Ch. 128. P. L. 1921; Ch. 90, P. L. 192.5 

Mrs. Kate Buki! Johnson, Commissioner of P^iblic Welfare. Raleigh 

Comiwsition — Seven members. Elected l)y General Assembly 
on recommendation of Governor. 
Term — Six years overlapping. 
Qualification — One to be a woman. 
Compensation — Expenses only. 



148 State Departments, Boards, axd Commissions 

Function 

To investigate and supervise the whole system of charitable and 
penal institutions of the State, and to recommend such changes 
and additional provisions as it may deem needful for their economi- 
cal and efficient administration. 

To study problems of non-employment, poverty, vagrancy, hous- 
ing conditions, crime, public amusement, care and treatment of 
prisoners, divorce and wife desertion, the social evil and kindred 
subjects and their causes, treatment and prevention; to issue, pub- 
lish and distribute bulletins on social conditions and proper treat- 
ment and remedies for social evils. 

To study and promote the welfare of the dependent and delinquent 
child and to provide either directly or through a bureau of the 
Board for the placing and supervision of dependent, delinquent and 
defective children. 

To inspect and report on private orphanages, institutions, materni- 
ty homes and persons or organizations receiving and placing chil- 
dren and to require such institutions to submit reports, and informa- 
tion as directed; to issue and revoke for cause, licenses to persons 
or agencies carrying on such work. (According to Ch. 90, P. L. 1925. 
the Board is not required to license child-caring institutions owned 
by a religious denomination or a fraternal order and having a plant 
valued at not less than $60,000.) 

To inspect county jails, prisons, county homes and other insti- 
tutions of a penal or charitable nature, and to require reports from 
sheriffs and other officers; to approve plans and specifications of new 
jails and almshouses. 

To approve by certificate the election of County Superintendent 
of Public Welfare elected for two years by County Board of Educa- 
tion and Board of County Commissioners in joint session. 

To appoint county boards of charities and public welfare. 

To approve applications for establishment of private, town and 
county hospitals for the insane, feeble-minded, and inebriate and 
to issue licenses for same which shall at all times be subject to 
visitation. 

To recommend to the Legislature social legislation and the crea- 
tion of necessary institutions. 



State Board of Charities and Public Welfare 14!» 

Historical Note 

In 1917 the General Assembly repealed the law providing for the 
Board of Public Charities, made mandatory by the State Constitu- 
tion of 1868, and created the State Board of Charities and Public 
Welfare with enlarged duties and powers. This session of the 
Legislature also provided for county superintendents and boards 
of public welfare, leaving such organization optional with the 
counties. The General Assembly of 1919 improved the county plan 
of organization, making the employment of a superintendent of 
public welfare mandatory in counties having a population of more 
than 32,000; and also created the State system of juvenile courts. 

THE WORK OF TilK HOAKI) 

The work of the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare 
has to do with the unfortunate elements of the State's population — 
the insane, the feeble-minded, the poor, the crippled, the orphan, 
the criminal, the neglected, the dependent, and the delinquent. Its 
object is to secure for these handicapped people the protection and 
care that are their due in a Christian democracy; to seek out the 
causes of social maladjustments: and to plan as wisely as may be 
for their prevention. 

This work is organized under six bureaus: the bureau of county 
organization, the children's bureau, the bureau of institutions, the 
bureau of mental health and hygiene, the bureau of education and 
publicity, and the bureau of work among the Negroes. 

COrXTY ORGANIZATION 

The duties of the bureau of county organization include: (1) 
cooperation with county boards of commissioners and education and 
public welfare; (2) promotion of appointment of efficient superin- 
tendents of public welfare; (.3) appointment of county boards of 
public welfare; (4) standardization of county public welfare work, 
including juvenile court and probation work; (5) partial supervision 
of the enforcement of the compulsory school attendance law. 

The county is the basis of the North Carolina plan of public 
welfare which heads up in the State Board. Fifty-nine counties in 
North Carolina are now (September, 1926) organized for this work. 



150 State Depabtments, Boaeds, and Commissions 

In only 29 of these is the employment of a superintendent of public 
welfare required by law. Of these fifty-nine counties, fifty-one have 
full-time officers and eight, part-time officers. 

The County Superintendent of Public Welfare is the agent of 
the State Board in his county, and is chief school attendance 
officer, and chief probation officer. With the county juvenile court, 
he has oversight of all dependent, neglected and delinquent chil- 
dren under 16 years of age in the county. He enforces the child 
labor laws and supervises, under the county commissioners, the 
care of the poor and the administration of the poor funds. In addi- 
tion, he has oversight of persons discharged from hospitals for the 
insane and from other State institutions and of all persons on proba- 
tions or parole. He is expected to promote wholesome recreation in 
the county and to enforce such laws as regulate commercial amuse- 
ment; to assist the State Board in finding employment for the 
unemployed; and to investigate the causes of distress. 

Election of County Superintendents of Public Welfare must be 
approved by the State Board, which wishes to approve only persons 
qualified by training or experience or having personal aptitude for 
the work. In conjunction with the School of Public Welfare at the 
• University of North Carolina, the Board conducts institutes of 
public welfare at Chapel Hill each summer, at which county super- 
intendents may study subjects related to their work and discuss 
their problems. 

mothers' aid and case W(1RK 

The children's Bureau has two main divisions of work: Mothers' 
Aid and Case Work. The Mothers' Aid work is financed by a fund 
of $30,000 a year given by the General Assembly, to be matched 
dollar for dollar by the counties taking advantage of it, to help 
worthy mothers deprived of their husbands' support to rear their 
children in their own homes. Now (September, 1926) about 1,100 
children are being benefited in this way. Since the beginning of 
the fund in 1923, over four hundred mothers have been helped. 
Seventy-four counties participate in the fund. 

The large majority of the women receiving this help are widows, 
a few are deserted, a few have husbands in prison or in hospitals 
for the insane; the husbands of a few are physically incapacitated. 
These women are encouraged to secure work in their homes to aug- 



State Board of Charities and Public Welfare 151 

ment their incomes so that their names may eventually be removed 
from the Mothers' Aid list and the money given to more needy 
cases. They are encouraged to send their children to school, to have 
them examined by the health authorities, and in every way to 
rear them as respectable and useful citizens. These women are 
not considered as objects of charity, but as employees of the State 
whose job is to rear good citizens. 

In the division of case work, 1,215 cases of unfortunate people 
have been handled during the last two years by the State Board 
of Charities and Public Welfare. These cases included mental 
problems, delinquent women and girls, transients and imposters, 
investigations for other states, epileptic and insane cases, children 
needing temporary or permanent care, cripples, and miscellaneous 
cases. 

CLINICS FOR CRIPPLED CHILDREN 

A census of crippled children to determine the number in the 
State was made in 1922, under the direction of the State Board of 
Oharities and Public Welfare, working in connection with the Re- 
habilitation Department of the State Department of Education. 

Since that time regional clinics have been held by the State 
Orthopedic Hospital and the Children's Bureau, in order to examine 
any crippled children to see if they could be helped by hospital 
treatment. At 22 clinics, 1,149 children have been examined, and 
many of them have been treated at the hospital. 

INSTITUTIONAL SIPKUVISION 

The State Board of Charities and Public Welfare is required by 
law to supervise all charitable and penal institutions. This includes 
State and county penal institutions, county homes, institutions for 
defectives, orphanages, reformatories, maternity homes, and insti- 
tutions for the delinquent. 

Through a special arrangement between the State Board of 
Charities and Public Welfare and the State Board of Health, a 
special inspector has spent ail of his time since July 1, 1925, in 
inspecting penal institutions. 

Monthly reports are asked by the Bureau from county jails and 
county prison camps in order to collect statistics on crime. Plans 
for new jails and county homes arc approved by tlic burt-au. 



152 State Depaktments, Boards, and Commissions 

A report of every inmate of child-caring institutions in the State 
has been filed in the office of this bureau. In this work, the Board's 
object has been to try to secure for the child committed to an 
institution the best possible care. A few child-caring institutions 
have been discontinued because of their failure to meet essential 
requirements. 

MEXTAL HYGIENE 

The professor of abnormal psychology at the University of North 
Carolina, who is a part-time member of the staff of the State Board 
of Charities and Public "Welfare, is available for mental examinations 
of problem cases that come to the attention of the Board. Studies 
are made by the Bureau of Mental Health and Hygiene of the 
relation of mental deficiency or aberration to crime, dependency 
and immorality. 

Inspection of all State and private institutions for the insane, the 
defective or the mentally sick is made by this bureau. 

Clinics for the purpose of examining sub-normal school children 
have been held in several towns, and in some cases, special classes 
for mentally retarded children have been begun. 

Similar clinics have also been held from time to time at State 
and private institutions. 

As far as possible, information on mental diseases and mental 
defects is given out in order to bring the attention of the public 
to the necessity of coping with the problems of insanity and feeble- 
mindedness, both by remedial and preventive methods. 

EDUCATION AND PUBLICITY 

Through the Bureau of Education and Publicity an effort is 
made to acquaint the people of North Carolina with what the State 
Board of Charities and Public Welfare is doing and what it hopes 
to do. Public Weifa7-e Progress, a four-page monthly sheet, is 
issued to a mailing list of 6,000; special bulletins are printed from 
time to time; news and feature stories are sent to the State press; 
special articles are supplied for periodicals; and all requests for 
material and information on the work of the State Board of Chari- 
ties and Public Welfare are filled. 



Statk Board of Charities and Public Welfare 153 

In order to promote supplementary training for social workers, 
Institutes of Public Welfare have been held each summer since 1921 
at Chapel Hill in conjunction with the School of Public Welfare 
of the University of North Carolina. At the Institute in 1926, the 
registration was 116. 

Addresses by members of the Board, by the Commissioner of 
Public Welfare, and her staff, complete the plan by which the 
State learns of the work of the Board. 

SPELMAN-EOCKEFELLER GRANT 

In July, 1924, the State Board received a grant of $30,000 from 
the Laura Spelman-Rockefeller Memorial Fund, to be used in dem- 
onstration work for a period of three years. The School of Public 
Welfare of the University of North Carolina was given a similar 
grant to enable the two agencies to show the results that may be 
obtained in a county, when the superintendent of welfare is trained 
and fitted for his job and has well-equipped offices and a sufficient 
number of assistants to do the work. 

In four counties — Wake, Orange, Chatham, and Cherokee — the 
work has been carried on with interesting results. The project has 
afforded field work under supervision for students at the School of 
Public Welfare. 

NEGRO WORK 

Part of the grant has been used to institute the Bureau of Work 
among Negroes, headed by a trained Negro social worker. The 
two objectives of the bureau are the intelligent study of Negro 
life, with its social problems, and the development of programs in 
the communities through the stimulating of organized cooperative 
effort on the part of the Negroes. Since the founding of the Bureau 
in January, 1925, eighteen Negro social workers have been placed 
in county and city departments of public welfare, and sixty-two 
Negro communities have been organized. 

The plan used by the head of the bureau has attracted favorable 
notice throughout the country. It has been presented before several 
national conferences. 

Through the Bureau, over $20,000 has been raised in the various 
counties to carry on welfare work among the Negroes. .At the 



154 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

request of the Commissioner, Mr. B. N. Duke, of New York gave 
$15,000 to the State Orthopedic Hospital at Gastonia, which was 
for the purpose of erecting a Negro ward for treating Negro crippled 
children. This has been completed and is doing effective work. 

INSTITUTIONS UNDER BOARD 

The State institutions that come under the supervision of the 
State Board of Charities and Public Welfare are: 

Hospital for the Insane at Raleigh. 

Staff} Prison at Raleigh. 

Hospital for the Insane at Morganton. 

Hospital for the Negro Insane at Goldsboro. 

Stonewall Jackson Training School for Delinquent White Boys 
at Concord. 

North Carolina Orthopedic Hospital for Crippled Children at 
Gastonia. 

Caswell Training School for Mental Defectives at Kinston. 

Samarcand Manor for Delinquent White Girls at Samarcand. 
(Moore County.) 

Morrison Industrial School for Delinquent Negro Boys in Rich- 
mond County. , 

Eastern Carolina Industrial Training School for Delinquent 
White Boys at Rocky Mount. 

The State of North Carolina also contributes to the support of 
the Masonic Orphanage and the Orphanage for Colored Children, 
both at Oxford. These institutions are also under the supervision 
of the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare. 

This list does not include the county institutions and the private 
institutions that the State Board supervises. 

MEMBERS OF THE BO.VRD 

W. A. Blair, Chairman .....Winston-Salem 

A. W. McAlister, Vice Chainnan Greensboro 

Rev. W. L. Hutchins, ^ Thomasville 

Mrs. Walter F. Woodard Wilson 



Child Welfake Commission 155 

Dr. C. H. Durham Luniberton 

Mrs. Joseph A. Brown Chadbourn 

Mrs. Herbert F. Seaavell Carthage 

EXECUTIVE STAFF 

Mrs. Kate Burr Johnson Cominissioner 

Roy Eugene Brown Institutional Supervision 

Emeth Tuttle Mothers' Aid and Case Work 

Mary Frances Camp County Organization 

Harry W. Crane Mental Health and Hygiene 

Lucy F. Lay Education and Publicity 

Lieutenant Lawrence A. Oxley Negro Work 

Lily E. Mitchell Case Work Supervisor 

L. G. Whitley Inspector of Penal Institutions 



CHILD WELFARE COMMISSION* 

Art. 1, Ch. 90, C. S. 1919 

E. F. Carter, Executive Secretary, Raleigh 

Members ex officio — Superintendent of Public Instruction, Secre- 
tary State Board of Health, and Commissioner of Public Welfare. 

Duties of tlie Commission 

To administer the laws relating to child labor, seats for women 
employees, and separate toilets for sexes and colors. Authorized 
to make and formulate such rules and regulations for the enior.-.n; 
and carrying out of the provisions of these laws as in its judgment 
it shall deem necessary. Empowered to make exceptions and pre- 
scribe regulations governing the employment of children under 
fourteen years of age in the terms enumerated but not prohibited 
in this act; to make exceptions and prescribe regulations for chil- 
dren under sixteen years of age when (1) such child has symptoms 
of disease contributory to' retardation or disability, or (2) when 
determined by physical examination that employment of such cliild 



* Reprinted from the North Carolina Manual, 1925. The editor regrets thiit 
he has not been able to secure from the Commission tlie data necessary to hnni,- 
the article up to date. 



156 State Depaktmkxts^ Boards, axd Commissioks 

is injurious to its health, or (3) employed when surrounding con- 
ditions are injurious to its morals, or (4) employed when danger- 
ous employment hazards are present. Authorized to prescribe legal 
forms for the employment of all children under sixteen years of 
age. To appoint, employ and specially designate agents to enforce 
the laws, to make inspections, issue certificates and carry out the 
provisions of the laws and rules of the Commission. It is unlawful 
to prevent any person authorized by the Commission from enter- 
ing any of the places enumerated in this act for the purpose of 
making inspections. 

administrative FTJNCTIOTv'S 

The executive officer is in charge of the administrative and regu- 
latory work of the Commission and is also secretary. He is ap- 
pointed by the Commission to serve at its pleasure and receives a 
salary of $3,000. In addition to the primary object of enforcing the 
laws, it is his duty to inform the Commiseion of the conditions 
existing in the State by means of inspections, study, research and 
surveys, to initiate a program and recommend policies for the ap- 
proval of the Commission in governing the administration of these 
acts and the inauguration of plans for the solution of problems that 
may arise in their enforcement, to select and organize the personnel 
ol the department, to publish reports and bulletins, showing the 
Commission's activities, and to prepare the budget. 

The organization is formed to accomplish the specific ends de- 
signed by the laws in providing a statistical bureau for the ac- 
cumulation of facts relating to objects of work and the dissemi- 
nating of same. There is a department of engineering for the 
study and solution of problems arising from the enforcement of 
the provisions of the toilet law for sexes and color and the act re- 
quiring suitable seatsi and resting places for female employees. The 
chief inspector is charged with inspectional work and follow up 
of violations, certificating agents to supervise and assist in the 
certification of children and to follow up physical defective cases. 

Historical Sketch 

The Child Welfare Commission was created by an act of the 
General Assembly of 1919, and became effective July 1 of the same 



Child Welfare Commission 157 

year. The beginning of the administration found the Commission 
facing the necessity of formulating rules and policies for the legal 
prosecution of the work. The funds provided were totally inade- 
quate to meet the responsibilities imposed by the act. A period of 
five years has demonstrated that the unique and original ideas em- 
bodied in this act for the supervision and control of children em- 
ployed in the State are correct in theory, sound in principle and 
effective in methods and results. The Commission has passed the 
experimental stage and is now efficiently handling its own child 
labor problems with satisfaction and promptness. 

RESULTS OF INSPECTIONAL AND CERTIFICATION WORK 

Total inspections and special visits to plants in the State now 
number 14,850 of which 5,356 were accomplished during this period, 
by field agents. An average of approximately 88 per cent of the 
official reports received in the office have been accomplished by field 
agents or through their assistance. 

A total of 22,500 school records have been secured since the Com- 
mission was authorized to take over the administration of child 
employment in North Carolina. This has given the Commission a 
basis upon which to formulate plans for vocational guidance 
and adjustment, in connection with the educational agencies of onr 
State, for this group of children. 

Approximately 22,500 medical examinations have been made 
of children entering employment during the same period. A 
volume of corrective health work has been accomplished for the 
child in employment. 

The first eight months of the biennial period of 1923 were devoted 
to a careful inspection of all cotton, hosiery, furniture, and tobacco 
plants in the State. Also many department stores and miscellaneoi's 
manufacturing plants were visited and inspected. 

The total number of children found working in this State In the 
2,089 plants visited was 4,691. This includes 387 cotton mills. 130 
hosiery mills, 125 furniture plants and 1,209 miscellaneous plants. 

There is a total of 3,160 children between fourteen and sixteen 
years of age in cotton mills. Five hundred ninety-eight children he 
tween fourteen and sixteen in the hosiery mills, 446 children in ihe 



158 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

miscellaneous plants and 360 children in the toibacco plants in the 
State. 

The last few months of the year 1923-24 were devoted to follow- 
ing up cases in child labor, sanitation and the fatigue law of the 
State. Of the 667 children fourteen and fifteen years old working 
without certificates, 350 children were certificated for employment, 
272 were removed from work, and 45 were found to have been over 
sixteen years of age. 

The requirement of this certificate was optional before the amend- 
ment to the child labor law by the special session of the Legislature, 
August, 1924. 

There were 10,425 certificates issued from June 30, 1922, to June 
30, 1923, and 7,739 certificates were issued from July, 1, 1923, to 
June 30, 1924, a reduction of 15 per cent. 

A survey was made of the twelve and thirteen-year-old boys who 
work during vacation and after school. Of 880 children under 
fourteen, the following were found to be actually working: 89 in 
cotton mills, 41 in hosieir mills, 27 in furniture plants, 1 in tobacco 
plant, 6 in workshops, 43 in other manufacturing establishments, 
113 in mercantile, 46 in delivery service, 2 in amusement, 40 in 
miscellaneous, making a total of 404 actually working and 476 not 
working at the time of the survey. This survey. shows that only 
about half of the children certified are working at one time. The 
same result was shown in the eight months' suiwey in which a total 
of 4,691 children were found actually working with a total of 7,739 
certificates issued in 1923-24, or a reduction of 33 per cent in the 
number actually employed. 

Immediately after the amendment was passed by the special ses- 
sion, another survey was made of the boys^ twelve and thirteen 
years of age who are now prohibited in mills, canneries, workshops, 
factories and manufacturing establishments. It was shown con- 
clusively that the manufacturing interests are keeping faith with 
our State child labor law and that every child had been removed 
fiom employment in these places. 

The toilet law was found violated in some of its points in 335 
cases. Approximately 50 per cent of these violations were due to 
not having the toilets lettered or marked for sex and color. The 



Child Welfare Commission 159 

other 50 per cent were more directly related to conditions in con- 
struction, equipment, ventilation and cleanliness, which require 
sanitary engineering services. The cooperation received in this 
particular phase of our work is most gratifying. Some of the ex- 
penditures amount to as much as $10,000 or $12,000. Even more- 
has been involved where sewerage lines have been extended, plant 
disposals installed and other sanitary provisions made. 

SANITARY AND FATIGUE PROBLEMS 

The law providing seats or resting places for female employees 
was found violated in 78 cases. This is one-third of the number 
discovered in our first biennial period which shows a marked ga'n 
in taking care of the fatigue problem in our State. 

Seats for female employees or resting places have been one of the 
most interesting features of our work. A variety of seats have 
been investigated and studies made of the efficiency of their typos 
and the relation to vocations'. Most hearty cooperation has been 
received as a whole in the carrying out of the constructive work in- 
volved in these acts. 

The three surveys made of children employed in North Carolina 
during the last year have informed the Commission of the volume 
of work, and have determined beyond any doubt that the many 
stories circulated of the children of ten to fourteen years of ago 
employed in mills and manufacturing places in North Carolina are 
unfounded. 

A study was made by the Commission of the needs of vocational 
education in the State. The result of this study and the necessity 
for such training was illustrated very forcibly at the Industrial Con- 
ference at Blue Ridge. There was emphasized the necessity of 
giving children who enter the industrial life of the State, at four- 
teen or fifteen years of age, with an average grade of five or six 
years, some incentive and some chance of bettering their education 
and uplifting them with vocational training and guidance. Alto 
it was pointed out that the children of North Carolina are developed 
in height and weight as well as those of Northern and Kastcrn 
States, Canada and England. 



160 State Departments^ Boards^ and Commissions 

Along with the follow-up survey several special studies have been 
made. A thorough investigation of the fishing and canning indus- 
tries of the State was made in regard to child labor. 

The fruit industry such as the canning, packing and shipping of 
strawberries, cantaloupes and peaches has been studied also in 
reference to child labor. 

The Commission has administered the child labor laws and other 
laws which come under its administrative power with the view 
of taking care of the children of North Carolina through the me- 
diums of education, health and welfare. The Commisision's efforts 
were forwarded by the hearty cooperation of the manufacturers 
and public in general. The county superintendents of welfare and 
of schools and the county health officers have cooperated in every 
instance in forwarding the program of the Commission. 

Eequiremeiits of Child Labor Law 

PROHIBITIVE EMPLOYMENTS OF CHILDREN UNDER FOURTEEX 

No child under the age of fourteen years shall be employed or 
permitted to work, in or about or in connection with any mill, 
factory, cannery, workshop, or manufacturing establishment. 

EMPLOYMENT OF CHLLDREN UNDER FOL^RTEEN REGULATED 

No child under the age of fourteen years shall be employed, or 
permitted to work, in or about or in connection with any laundry, 
bakery, mercantile establishment, office, hotel, restaurant, barber 
shop, bootblack stand, public stable, garage, place of amusement, 
brick yard, lumber yard, or any messenger or delivery service, pub- 
lic works, or any form of street trades, except in cases and under 
regulations prescribed by the Commission. 

Exceptions. This section shall not be construed to include bona 
fide boys' and girls' canning clubs recognized by the Agi-icultural 
Department of this State, or vocational training classes authorized 
by the State Board of Education, and such canning clubs and vo- 
cational classes are hereby expressly exempted from the provisions 
of this article. 



Child Welfare Commission KJI 

PROHIBITED EMPLOYMENTS OF CHILDREN UNDER SIXTEEN 

No person under sixteen years of age shall be employed, or 
permitted to work, at night in any of the places or occupations 
referred to in the first preceding section, between the hours of nine 
p.m. and six a.m., and no person under sixteen years of age shall 
be employed or permitted to work in or about or in connection 
with any quarry or mine, nor shall any child under the age of 
sixteen years be employed, except in cases and under regulations 
prescribed by the Commission herein created, when (1> such 
child has symptoms of disease contributory to retardation or dis- 
ability; or (2) when determined by physical examination that em- 
ployment of such child is injurious to its health; or (3) employed 
when surrounding conditions are injurious to its morals; or (4) 
employed when dangerous employment hazards are present. 

The Commission has passed 14 rules and made legal interpreta- 
tions" of the 21 vocations enumerated in the law. 

THE MANDATORY EEQUIRBMEXTS OF THE LAW AND RULES OF THE COM- 
MISSION FOR AGES, HOURS AND CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYJffiNT 

1. No child under fourteen years of age shall be employed in a 
mill, factory, cannery, workshop, or manufacturing establishment. 

2. No child under fourteen years of age shall be engaged in any 
of the occupations enumerated in the law, during school hours 
except in connection with continuation schools, vocational classes 
and bona fide canning clubs. 

3. No child under sixteen years of age shall be employed before 
6 a.m. or after 9 p.m. 

4. No minor shall be worked in a factory or manufacturing bf- 
tablishment for a longer period than sixty hours in one week. 

5. No boy under fourteen years of age shall be employed more 
than eight hours per day. 

6. No girl under sixteen years of age shall be employed in any 
form of street trades. 

7. No girl under fourteen years of age shall be employed in any 
of the places enumerated in the law. 

11 



162 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

8. Girls and boys between fourteen and sixteen years of age are 
required to secure an age certificate for legal employment in the 
places enumerated in the law. 

9. Boys between twelve and fourteen years of age are required 
to secure an employment certificate to be employed in the enumer- 
ated occupations' not prohibited, during the hours the public school 
is not in session and on Saturdays. 

10. A temporary certificate waiving physical examination and 
school record isi required of children under sixteen years of age to 
secure temporary employment not to exceed thirty days. 

11. A badge is required for children under sixteen years of age 
to engage in any form of street trades. 

12. The employer is required to make out an application for the 
employment of a child stating the kind of business and nature of 
work. 

13. The parents must sign their approval of the employment in 
making a statement of the age and birthdate of the child. 

14. A bona fide contemporary record of age is required of all 
children entering employment under sixteen years of age. 

15. A physical examination is required of all children entering 
employment under sixteen years of age. 

16. A school record is required showing the grade completed, 
vocational training, and teacher's observation of the mental, phys- 
ical and moral condition of all children entering employment. 

17. A personal knowledge is required of the physical condition 
of each place employing children under sixteen years of age. 

18. Reasonable physical standards have been prepared for de- 
termining the entry of children into employment. 

19. Tbe prohibition of children from entering places, where dan- 
gerous machinery hazards are present, has resulted in the prepara- 
tion of a tentative draft of safety standards. 

20. Investigation is required of the moral surroundings that may 
effect children in employment. 



The Budget Bureau 163 

THE BUDGET BUREAU 

Ch. S9, P. L. 1925 

Composition— Governor, Director of the Budget ex officio; Advis- 
ory Budget Commission composed of the chairman of the Appro- 
priation and Finance committees of the House and the Senate and 
two other persons appointed by the Governor. 

PersowneZ— Appointed members: R. S. McCoin, Henderson; A. M. 
Dixon, Gastonia. 

Te7'm — Not specified. 

Comptnsatiofi — $10 per diem and expenses. 

Fiinetion 

The purpose of Chapter 89 in creating the Budget Bureau, was 
to vest in the Governor of the State a more direct and effective 
supervision over all agencies and institutions, and for the efficient 
and economical administration of all such agencies and institutions, 
and for the initiation and preparation for each session of the 
General Assembly, of a balanced budget of the State's revenues and 
expenditures. To this end, the Governor is ex officio Director of 
the Budget, and is the head of the Budget Bureau, which is created 
and established in connection with his office. 

The Director of the Budget has power to have examined the books 
and accounts of any of the departments and institutions, and to 
compel the production of all books, papers or other documents; to 
supervise generally the accounting and auditing systems now in 
force, and to inaugurate such changes as may be necessary to ex- 
hibit correct information; to examine any State institution or 
agency, to inspect its property and to inquire into its metirods of 
operation and management. 

He is also empowered to make such surveys, studies and exami- 
nations of departments, institutions and agencies of the State, as 
well as its problems, so as to determine whether there may be any 
overlapping in the performance of the duties of the several depart- 
ments, institutions and agencies. 

He is authorized to secure such help, expert accountants, drafts- 
men, and clerical help, as may be necessary to carry out the duties 
under the act. Under this authority the Budget Bureau is organized 



164 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

into a Staff Control to supervise and direct the various activities 
of the State Government and the expenditures made out of the 
appropriations. 

He is charged with the duty of examining or causing to be ex- 
amined, annually at the close of the fiscal year, the accounts of the 
State Treasurer and of the State Auditor. 

He is charged with the duty of recommending to the General 
Assembly at each biennial session, such changes in the organiza- 
tion, management and general conduct of the various departments, 
institutions and other agencies of the State as in his judgment will 
promote the more efficient and economical operation and manage- 
ment thereof. 

The Advisory Budget Commission, created by the same act, is 
made up of the Chairmen of the Appropriation and Finance Com- 
mittees of the Senate and of the House, and two other persons to 
be appointed by the Governor. It meets in January and July of each 
year and at such other times as the public interest may requfre, at 
the call of the Director. 

The enactments establishing the Executive Budget System and 
creating the Budget Bureau, provide that no money shall be appro- 
priated except in the manner as set forth, and that no money shall 
be disbursed from the State Treasury except as therein provided, 
the general purpose of the enactments being to systematize and to 
pursue in an orderly manner the fiscal operations of the State; to 
present a comprehensive program of the resources and proposed 
expenditures to the General Assembly, as a basis for the appropria- 
tions to be made; to enforce thereafter the legislative will in carry- 
ing out the program so adopted; and finally, to account to the 
General Assembly for the performance under the authorizations 
made. 

Forty-seven states of the Union have adopted some form of a 
budget. Thirty-one have adopted the Executive Budget, with or 
without staff control — four of the thirty-one under constitutional 
amendment, the others under statutory enactment. Ten states have 
an Administrative Board Budget, two of which are under consti- 
tutional amendment, and eight under statutory enactment; five 
states have an Administrative Legislative Board Budget, all of 
which are under statutory enactment; and one state has a Legis- 



N'oRTH Carolina Historical Commission 165 

lative Budget under statutory enactment. The North Carolina 
Budget is on the Executive Budget plan, and is the most complete 
and comprehensive of any so far adopted by any of the states; its 
provisions and methods of carrying into execution have been sought 
as patterns for legislation and proposed legislation by many other 
states of the Union. 



NORTH CAROLINA HISTOKICAL COMMISSION 

Ch. 102, C. S. 

A. R. Newsome, Secretary. Raleigh 

ThC) North Carolina Historical Commission was created by an 
act of the Legislature of 1903. It consists of five members appointed 
by the Governor for terms of six years. They receive no salary 
or per diem, but are allowed their actual expenses when attending 
to their official duties. 

The ofl&ces of the Commission are in the State Administration 
Building, a fireproof structure erected under an act of the General 
Assembly in 1911. 

The duties of the Commission are as follows: 

1. To have collected historical data pertaining to the history of 
North Carolina and the territory included therein from the earliest 
times. 

2. To have such material properly edited, published by the State 
Printer as other State printing, and distributed under the direction 
of the Commission. 

3. To care for the proper marking and preservation of battle- 
fields, houses, and other places celebrated in the history of the 
State. 

4. To diffuse knowledge in reference to the history and resources 
of North Carolina. 

5. To encourage the study of the history of North Carolina in 
the schools of the State, and to stimulate and encourage historical 
investigation and research among the people of the State. 



166 State Departments^ Boards^ and Commissions 

6. To make a biennial report of its receipts and disbursements, 
its work and needs, to the Governor, to be by him transmitted to 
the General Assembly. 

The powers of the Commission are as follows: 

1. To adopt a seal for use in official business. 

2. To adopt rules for its own government not inconsistent with 
the provisions of the law. 

3. To fix a reasonable price for its publications and to devote the 
revenue arising from such sales to extending the work of the 
Commission. 

4. To employ a secretary. 

5. To control the expenditures of such funds as may be appro- 
priated for its maintenance. 

General Summary 

Following is a general summary of the work of the Historical 
Commission: 

1. The Commission has saved from destruction, classified and 
filed many thousands of letters and other documents of the Execu- 
tive and Legislative Departments from colonial times to the present. 

2. It has collected from the counties of the State and preserved 
from destruction 1,318 volumes and cases of valuable records and 
arranged them for use. 

3. It has made an extensive collection, numbering more than 
100,000 pieces of material bearing on North Carolina's part in the 
World War. 

4. It has secured for the State the following collections: 

Ashe, Samuel A'Court. 

Badger, George Edmund, statesman, 1822-1858. 

Bennehan, Richard, merchant, 1771-1790. 

Bolles, Charles P., engineer, 1846-1855. 

Bond, Tillie. MSS., 1690-1828. 

Bragg, Braxton, 1864-1870. 

Branch, John, statesman, 1819-1833. 

Branch, L. O'B., soldier, 1861-1862. 

Brevard family, 1757-1869. 



JN'oETH Carolina Historical Commission 167 

Brooks, A. L., 1750-1875. 

Bryan, John H., statesman, 1773-1906. 

Burgwyn, W. H. S., soldier, banker, 1861-1912. 

Burton, Robert, attorney, 1772-1785. 

Cantwell, John L., soldier, 1855-1896. 

Caswell, Richard, soldier, statesman, 1777-1789. 

Caswell, William, soldier, 1781-1784. 

Clark plantation, 1825-1861. 

Clark, David, soldier, 1861-1863. 

Clark, Walter, 1783-1913. 

Cogdell, Richard, soldier, 1761-1784. 

Collier, George W., soldier, 1861-1865. 

Convention, 1788; 1789. 

Council journals, 1745-1775. 

County records dating from 1724. 

Dartmouth papers, 1720-1783. 

Davie, William R., soldier, statesman, 1778-1817. 

Dickson papers, 1784-1790. 

Dobbin, James C, statesman, 1816-1857. 

Duffy, William, attorney, 1785-1809. 

English Records — American Loyalists. 
Fanning-McCulloh papers, 1762-1806. 

Gaston, William, statesman, 1803-1842. 

Gilmer, John A., statesman, 1860-1861. 

Governor's papers, 1735-1925. 

Grimes, Bryan, soldier, planter, 1844-1912. 

Hale, E. J., editor, 1850-1867. 

Hamlin, Wood John, 1762-1835. 

Hawks, P. L., historian, 1850. 

Henderson, Thomas, statesman, 1810-1811. 

Hogg, Thomas D., papers. 

Howe, Robert, soldier, 1777-1780. 

Iredell, James, judge, 1770-1790. 

Johnston, Samuel, statesman, 1763-1803. 

King, R. H., minister, 1767-1825. 

Lacy, Drury, letters. 

Legislative papers, 1729-1900. 

Lombardy Grove accounts, 1806. 



168 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

McDowell, Charles, soldier, 1782. 

Maclaine, Archibald, statesman, 1783-1790. 

Macon, Nathaniel, statesman, 1804-1837. 

Merrimon, A. S., judge, 1853-1854. 

Miller, R. J., minister, 1799-1831. 

Miscellaneous, 4 vols., 1755-1912. 

Murphey, Archibald DeBow, statesman, 1797-1830. 

Muster rolls, 1861-1865. 

Nash, Frederic, judge, 1764-1863. 

Oath books of governors, commons, conventions, 1816-1875. 

Olds, Fred A. 

Pettigrew papers. Plantation records, 1772-1900. 

Pollock, Thomas,- statesman, 1708-1761. 

Reid, D. S., statesman, 1803-1880. 

Revolutionary Army accounts, 1776-1777. 

Revolutionary committees of safety, 1774-1776. 

Saunders, W. L., statesman, historian, 1866-1888. 

Shaw papers, economic, 1735-1883. 

Shipping records, 1725-1751. 

Spanish Records, 1566 — . 

Spencer, Cornelia Phillips, author, 1859-1903. 

Spottswood, Alexander, colonial governor, 1710-1712. 

Steele, John, statesman, 1777-1831. 

Sumner, Jethro, soldier, 1760-1783. 

Swepson, Geo. W., papers, 1866-1870. 

Vance, Zebulon B., governor and U. S. Senator, 1827-1895. 

Waddell family papers, 1771-1886. 

Wiley, Calvin H., educator, 1835-1902. 

Williams, John, statesman, 1772-1784. 

Williamson, Hugh, historian, 1780-1790. 

Winslow family papers. 

Newspapers, North Carolina, 1751-1800. 

Stevens facsimiles. MSS. in European archives. 1773-1783. 

5. It has issued the following publications: Public Education 
in No7-th Carolina, 1790-1840: A Documentary History, 2 vols.; 
North Carolina Schools and Academies, 1790-1840: A Documentary 
History; The Correspondence of Jonathan Worth, 2 vols.; The Papers 
of Archihald D. Murphey, 2 vols.; The Papers of Thomas Riiffin. Vols. 



North Carolina Historical Commission 169 

I, II, III and IV; Literary and Historical Activities in North Caro- 
lina. 1900-1905; Von Grafferireid's Account of the Founding of New 
Bern; Records of the Moravians in North Carolina, Vols. I and II; 
The Papers of John Steele, 2 vols.; Calendars of Manuscript Collec- 
tions, Vol. I; North Carolina Manual fur 1909, 1911, 1913, 1915, 1917, 
1919, 1921, 1923, and 1925; and thirty-two bulletins. 

6. It recovered for the State, through the gift of the Italian 
Government, Canova's famous statue of Washington. 

7. It has erected in the rotunda of the Capitol a marble bust 
of William A. Graham; and obtained, without cost to the State, 
similar busts of Matt W. Ransom, Samuel Johnston, John M. More- 
head, Calvin H. Wiley, and W. S. Ashe. 

8. The Commission maintains in its Hall of History one of the 
most extensive historical museums in America. It contains about 
15,000 O'bjects, illustrative of every period of the history of North 
Carolina from the earliest colonial times to the present. 

9. It has assisted a large number of students in their investi- 
gations of North Carolina history, given information about the 
history of the State whenever it was possible, and has encouraged 
in many ways the study of our history in the schools of the State. 

THE LEGISLATIVE REFERENCE I.IHKARY 

In addition to its other duties the Historical Commission main- 
tains the Legislative Reference Library. The Legislative Refer- 
ence Library is not a new institution. For 25 years such de- 
partments in other states have been rendering valuable service. 
They have been provided for in thirty states, and in more than 
fifty cities of the United States. Recently there has been estab- 
lished a Legislative Reference Bureau in the Congressional Library 
which is rendering similar aid to the National Government. 

For ten years progressive citizens urged the establishment 
of such a department in North Carolina. In response to that de- 
mand the Legislature of 1915, by a unanimous vote in the Senate 
and House of Representatives, passed a bill entitled "An act to 
establish a Legislative Reference Library," under the supervision 
of the North Carolina Historical Commission. 



170 State Departments^ Boards, and Commissions 

Among the duties of the Librarian set forth in this act are the 
following: "To collect, tabulate, annotate and digest information 
for the use of the members and committees of the General Assembly, 
and the officials of the State, and of the various counties and cities 
included therein, upon all questions of State, county, and municipal 
legislation." 

As indicated by the caption as well as the subject-matter of the 
act, this Department is created primarily for the benefit of the 
members and committees of the General Assembly. 

These representatives of the people serve practically without com- 
pensation and in most cases make considerable personal sacrifice 
ill order to be of service to the State. During the short sessions 
of the General Assembly they do not have time to study and thus 
secure for themselves information about the hundreds of measures 
they are called upon to consider. Heretofore there has been no 
agency to collect and classify the sort of information needed by the 
busy legislator. 

To fill this want is the particular field of service of the Legisla- 
tive Reference Library. For that purpose more than ten thousand 
books, laws, pamphlets, and clippings have been gathered and 
classified so that they are instantly available for use by interested 
persons. Additional material is received daily, and an attempt is 
made to procure as full information as is obtainable about all 
legislation in other states and counties. 

Information relating to the following subjects, which are taken 
from a list of more than fifteen hundred headings, will serve to 
illustrate the scope of service which is rendered: Agriculture, Appro- 
priations, Automobiles, Banks, Bill Drafting, Budgets, Campaign 
Expenses, Capital Punishment, Charities, Child Labor, Civil Service, 
Constitutions, Contracts, Convicts, Cooperative Buying and Mar- 
keting, Corporations, Courts, Credit, Crime and Criminals, Demo- 
cratic Party, Drainage, Education, Elections, Employment, Factories, 
Farm Problems, Finance, Fires, Fish and Game, Food, Forests, 
Freight Rates, Health, Immigration, Initiative and Referendum, In- 
sane, Insurance, Judges, Juries, Labor, Lawyers, Liens, Legisla- 
tion, Loans, Manufacturers, Marriage and Divorce, Medicine, Mili- 
tia, Municipalities, Negroes, Newspapers, Pardons, Parole, Passenger 



JSToRTH Carolina Historical Commissiox 171 

Rates, Pensions, Pharmacy, Platforms, Primaries, Prisons, Pro- 
cedure, Prohibition, Public-Service Corporations, Railroads, Repub- 
lican Party, Roads, Rural Credits, Schools, State( Government, 
Statutes, Strikes, Taxation, Trusts, Universities and Colleges, Vital 
Statistics, Vocational Education, Wages, Woman Suffrage, Women, 
Workmen's Compensation. 

The province of the Legislative Reference Library is not to pro- 
mote legislation, but to furnish data and information so that the 
best and most widely approved laws may be enacted. 

With the cooperation and assistance of the persons for whose bene- 
fit the Legislative Reference Library was created, it hopes to 
achieve the same measure of success that similar agencies have had 
in other states. 

The first Legislative Reference Librarian was W. S. Wilson, 1915- 
1918. Henry M. London has held this position since 1919. 

MEMBERS OF THE HISTORICAL COMMISSION 

W. J. Peele 1903-1919 

J D. HuFMA^^ .' 1903-1905 

F. A. SoNDLEY 1903-1905 

Richard Dillard 1903-1905 

R. D. W. Connor 1903-1907 

Charles L. Raper 1905-1907 

Thomas W. Blount 1905-1911 

J. Bryan Grimes 1905-1923 

M. C. S. Noble 1907- 

D. H. Hill 1907-1922 

Thomas M. Pittman 1911- 

Frank Wood 1919-1926 

Heriot Clarkson 1922- 

W. N. Everett 1923- 

Ben Dixon MacNeill 1926- 



172 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

SECRETARIES 

R. D. W. Connor 1903-1921 

D. H. Hill 1921-1924 

R. B. House 1924-1926 

A. R. Newsome 1926- 



LIBKAKY ( OMMLSSIOX OF NORTH CAROLINA 

Art. 4, Ch. 109, C. S. 

Mrs. Lillian B. Griggs. Secretai-y and Director, Raleigh 

Comiiosition (5) — Superintendent of Public Instruction ex officio; 
State Librarian ex officio; two members appointed by North Caro- 
lina Library Association; one member by Governor. 

Personnel — Mrs. Nancy P. Leak, Chairman, Rockingham; Carrie 
L. Broughton, Vice Chairman, Raleigh; A. T. Allen, Raleigh; Alfred 
M. Scales, Greensboro; Joseph P. Breedlove, Durham. 

Term — Three years, overlapping terms. 

Compensation — Traveling expenses only. 

Function 

To give advice and assistance to all libraries of the State and to 
all communities proposing to establish libraries, as to the best 
means of establishing and administering such libraries in the selec- 
tion of books, cataloging, maintenance, etc.; to aid in organizing new 
libraries; to establish and maintain traveling libraries as may 
be practicable; to receive reports annually from every public library 
in the State in such form as may be prescribed by the commission; 
to employ a secretary trained in library methods, and fix compen- 
sation. 

Reports. To report biennially to Governor. 

Important Activities: 

1. Establishment of Public Libraries. Organizer visits commu- 
nities and directs work of classifying, etc. 

2. Reorganization of old libraries. Organizer visits and advises. 



Library Commission of North Carolina 173 

3. Compilation of library statistics, based on annual reports 
received. 

4. Publication of bulletin (20-page quarterly magazine). 

5. Maintenance of system of traveling libraries of 35-40 vol.: 1.5 
Fiction; 15 Juvenile; 10 Biography, travel, etc. Also traveling 
library for schools consisting of juvenile. 

6. Package libraries: (1) Debate; (2) Farmers; (3) Study Club. 

7. General Loan Collection — Miscellaneous, all subjects to indi- 
viduals. 

The Library Commission of North Carolina was created by the 
General Assembly of 1909, and active work was begun September 
15th of the same year. The Commission consists of five members, 
two of whom are appointed by the North Carolina Library Associa- 
tion and one by the Governor; the State Librarian and the Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction complete the membership. 

The purpose of the Commission, as expressed in the law, is to 
"give assistance, advice, and counsel to all libraries in the State, to 
all communities which may propose to establish libraries, and to all 
persons interested, as to the best means of establishing and admin- 
istering such libraries, as to the selection of books, cataloging, main- 
tenance and other details of library management as may be prac- 
ticable." 

The following are the important lines of activity. 

1. Establishment of Public Libraries. The Commission endeavors 
to secure the establishment of public libraries in localities able to 
support them, and gives advice and assistance in arousing public 
interest. After preliminary correspondence, comuuinities propos- 
ing to establish libraries are visited by the Secretary or organizer, 
and the practical details of organization explained. In many in- 
stances she classifies the books, starts the accession record and 
shelf-list, installs a proper charging system, and teaches the libra- 
rian how to keep the necessary records. The service is rendered 
without cost to the library. 

County Libraries — The Commission sponsors the County Library 
idea — the idea of extending the privileges of the library to the 
rural residents of the county. One good library in each county, 
preferably at the county seat, serving equally the urban ;iii(l rnral 



174 State Depaktmekts, Boards, and Commissions 

residents is a goal particularly desired for the library service of 
the State. The following twelve counties have provided to some ex- 
tent library privileges for their rural residents: 

Burke New Hanover 

Chowan • Rowan 

Durham Stanly 

Forsyth Vance 

Guilford Wake 

Mecklenburg Warren 

2. Reorganization of Old Libraries. The Secretary visits libra- 
ries already established to confer with the Librarian and Library 
Board regarding methods of work and plans for further develop- 
ment. While much information and advice may be given by letters 
and circulars, personal visits are much more effective, as they in- 
variably give new impulse to the local work and enable the Secre- 
tary to become familiar with library conditions in all parts of the 
State. 

3. Lihrary Statistics. Every public library in the State, includ- 
ing free public libraries, subscription libraries, school, college and 
university libraries, Young Men's Christian Association, legal asso- 
ciation, medical association, Supreme Court and State libraries, is 
required by law to make an annual report to the Commission. From 
the data thus secured the Commission compiles an annual report of 
library conditions in North Carolina. 

Library Statistics — There are 292,861 volumes in the public libra- 
ries of the State and $123,753 is appropriated for their maintenance. 
With the population of the State at two and one-half million and 
the recognized standard at one dollar per capita for library service, 
it will readily be seen that the State is not in the front rank of 
those having adequate library facilities. 

4. The Nort?i Carolina Library Bulletin. This is a magazine of 
20 pages, published quarterly. It is sent free to every library in 
the State, and, upon application, to library trustees and to others 
Interested in library extension. The first issue appeared in De- 
cember, 1909. Each number contains important library articles, 
book lists, editorial notes, and general library news. It is intended 
to serve as a means of communication with each and every library, 
to bring the libraries into closer relation with one another, and, 



LiBEARY Commission of JSTorth Carolina 175 

in general, to increase the interest in libraries throughout the State, 
and to improve the quality of their service to the public. 

5. Traveling Libraries. For the benefit of communities without 
library facilities the Library Commission maintains a system of 
free traveling libraries. A library contains from thirty-five to forty 
volumes. The rules governing the loan of libraries are as few and 
simple as possible. Borrowers agree to pay the freight both from 
and to Raleigh, to take good care of the books and to return them 
promptly, to make good any loss or damage beyond reasonable wear 
and tear, and to lend the books without charge to all responsible 
persons in the community. 

Traveling libraries containing only children's books have been 
prepared especially for the use of schools. 

Special collections are loaned to teachers of agriculture and home 
economics for the school year. 

The Commission loaned 411,989 volumes, 1924-26. 

6. Package Lihraries. Package libraries are of two kinds: The 
Debate libraries, and the Study Club libraries. The Debate libraries 
are carefully prepared collections on the political, social, and eco- 
nomic questions which are being debated by schools and societies 
throughout the State. They are not lent to individuals, but to 
schools and debating societies, and on condition that all taking part 
in the debate have the use of the material. Study club libraries are 
prepared for clubs pursuing a definite course of study. 

7. The General Loan Collection. This is a miscellaneous collec- 
tion of books and pamphlets on all subjects and it enables the com- 
mission to send books to individuals and to supplement the various 
fixed collections so that they will meet the needs of the borrower. 
The books from this section are lent for three w-eeks, and the bor- 
rower pays the postage both from and to Raleigh. 

8. Distribution of Library Literature. In addition to the Kvrth 
Carolina Library Bulletin, the following publications have been is- 
sued and distributed by the Commission: 

Free Traveling Libraries. 

Clubwomen and Libraries. 

Agriculture and Country Life. 

North Carolina Package Libraries: Material for debate. 

Select Bibliography of North Carolina, by Stephen B. Weeks. 



176 State Depaetments^ Boards, and Commissions 

How to Start a Public Library. 

Material for Study Clubs. 

Free Debate Libraries. 

Graded List of Children's Books. 

Book for Mothers and Homemakers. 

Other library literature, including tracts of the American Library 
Association, book lists, building plans, etc., is sent out as required. 

9. School Libraries. The development of school libraries is a 
special feature of the work. A close connection has been estab- 
lished with the schools by giving advice on the care and use of 
school libraries, assistance in starting the necessary records, and 
help in the selection and purchase of books. 



STATE LIBRARY 

Art. 1, Ch. 109, C. S. ; Ch. 202, P. L. 1921 

Carrie L. Broughton, State Lihrarian, Raleigh 

Trustees — Governor, ex officio; Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion, ex officio; Secretary of State, ex officio. 

Function 

To maintain the State and document libraries; to make rules and 
regulations by which the librarian shall be governed for the protec- 
tion and preservation of the books and library; to make suitable 
distribution of State-owned books, reports and publications; to pro- 
cure, publish and sell historical documents and books, the Gover- 
nor to designate documents to be preserved; to appoint a committee 
consisting of State Librarian, Superintendent of Public Instruction 
and three other persons to purchase books; to appoint a Librarian 
to serve four years, and the latter is authorized to employ an as- 
sistant. 

To maintain a document library during the sessions of the Gen- 
eral Assembly; to keep two copies each of the laws and journals of 
the General Assembly. 

Reports. To report biennially to the General Assembly. 



State Library 177 

Historical Note 

The North Carolina State Library, like practically all State Libra- 
ries, had its beginning in the miscellaneous collection of books 
which had accumulated in the various offices of the State officials. 
These books were purchased and donated to meet the various needs 
of the members of the General Assembly and the State Officers. 

When the capitol was burned in 1831, the library which was lo- 
cated in that building, was also consumed. The fire that destroyed 
the old building originated on the roof; and owing to an unneces- 
sary panic caused by the announcement that the dome was falling, 
the people fled from the building and left the library to its fate. 

In 1837, the General Assembly passed an act requiring the Secre- 
tary of State to collect books for the State Library and discharge 
the duty of Librarian. It was further enacted by the General As- 
sembly that he be allowed fifty dollars per annum for his services 
as State Librarian during his term of office. No appropriation was 
made for several years, and on the completion of the present capitol 
in 1840, the few books saved from the fire were removed to the 
Capitol building. 

Code 2, Vol. 2, Section 3608, says "The sum of $500 is annually 
appropriated for the increase of the Public Library." 

In March, 1888, the State Lihrary was moved from the Capitol 
building to the new Supreme Court Library Building located on 
the northeast corner of Salibury and Edenton streets, where it re- 
mained until January, 1913, when it was moved to its present loca- 
tion. 

As stated above, in 1840 the Legislature appropriated $500 for the 
purchase of books. This appropriation stood for eighty years, from 
1840 to 1921, when the General Assembly increased it to $3,000. In 
1923 the appropriation was increased to $5,000, and in 1925 to $12.- 
500. This includes not only book fund but also expense of ad- 
ministration. 

The increased interest in the State Library is concrete evidence 
that the educational movement started with Aycock is bearing 
abundant fruit. The library is becoming an agency through which 
the State can see itself from year to year as it progresses from one 
period of development to another. Its people are learning to resur- 
rect the past and to see therein the mistakes, the lessons and the 

12 



178 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

good they teach. This in itself is real and genuine progress. 
The growth of the State Library is a visible evidence of that im- 
portant fact. 

Cooperation between the library and the schools has been marked 
during the past few years. Some days the teachers, both white and 
black, bring a whole class to spend an hour searching through 
some valuable book of reference. There has been a marked increase 
in this use of the library among the negro students in our colleges 
and public schools. They have a separate reading room with full 
access to the entire library. 

The reference service continues to be stressed and also the work 
among club women. Quick service by telephone is more and more 
appreciated. Requests for information or reference which come by 
mail both from the city and from widely scattered parts of the 
country increase every year. A valuable reference aid is given 
from the Periodical division. Recently there have been indexed 
all articles appearing in the magazines about North Carolinians or 
North Carolina. All books written about North Carolinians or 
about North Carolina are preserved. Thousands of volumes give 
emphasis to the fact that here in North Carolina we are not as 
ignorant as we sometimes are pictured, for many North Carolinians 
have written books. We now have in printed form a complete bib- 
liography of North Carolina to be found in the State Library. 

Nearly five thousand State papers have been classified according 
to towns, dates, and missing numbers. Besides this, many articles 
of historical value have been indexed. This is one of the most 
useful features of the library. There is also a printed bibliography 
of all newspapers in the Library. 

Special emphasis has been laid upon books relating to the war 
between the States. The collection is large and has been selected 
with much care. It is especially strong on regimental histories, 
newspaper files, magazines, maps, and photographic scenes. 

The genealogical department is becoming more and more popular. 
Many valuable books and periodicals have been selected for this 
department, with special emphasis on North Carolina, Virginia, 
Georgia, South Carolina and Pennsylvania. Almost every day visi- 
tors from different sections of our own State and from other states 
search through these records to connect their family history. 



Law Library 179 

The State Library is the chief repository for data about the State 
and State affairs. To the legislator and man of public affairs the 
library is a place where he can at his own- convenience and in bis 
own way study intelligently and freely all questions of legislation 
that will affect his people and his State. 

Number of volumes in general Library 40,716 

Number of volumes in government documents 7,521 

Number of volumes in bound newspapers 4,9?8 

Number of volumes in bound magazines 4,880 

Total 58,085 



LAW LIBRARY 

Art. 2, Ch. 109, C. S. 

Marshall DeLancey Haywood, Librarian 
Trustees — Justices of the Supreme Court, ex officio. 

Function 

To maintain the Law Librai-y and prescribe rules for its govern- 
ment. All moneys appropriated for its increase are paid out under 
their direction and supervision. May appoint a librarian who shall 
perform his duties under rules and regulations of trustees. 

The Clerk of the Supreme Coui't, under direction of the trustees, 
is directed to spend annually the amounts paid in by applicants for 
license to practice law, examined by the Court, in the purchase of 
such books as may be necessary to keep the library well appointed 
and no other appropriation for that purpose is allowed. He is also 
allowed $200 annually for binding old books and for other contingent 
purposes. 

Historical Note 

Created by act of the General Assembly of 1883. 



180 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 
AUDUBON SOCIETY OF NORTH CAROLINA 

Part 2, Art. 1, Cli. 38, C. S. 

Miss Placide H. Underwood, Secretary, Raleigh 

Function 

To secure the enactment and enforcement of laws for the preser- 
vation of birds and game of the State; to designate for appointment 
by the Governor, county bird and game wardens for such counties 
as come under itS' jurisdiction, and to prescribe their duties and fix 
compensation; to receive fees for all non-resident hunters' licenses 
through the State Treasurer issued by clerk of Superior Court in 
specified counties, and to revoke such licenses for cause; to issue 
certificates to siiitable persons to collect bird nests and eggs for 
scientific purposes; to promote the study of birds; to stimulate in- 
struction of children by parents and teachers; to arouse public sen- 
timent against destruction of wild birds and their eggs; to prepare 
and distribute literature upon such subjects; to raise funds neces- 
sary to carry out purposes of Society and to defray expenses. 

Report. To make an annual report to the Governor of the re- 
ceipts and expenditures of the Society for the year. 

Note. The Audubon Society of North Carolina was created a 
body politic and corporate in 1903, with eight directors or trustees, 
officers consisting of a president, vice president, secretary, and 
treasurer. Tlie treasurer is designated by Society and commis- 
sioned by Governor. 

At the present time nineteen counties are under the jurisdiction 
of the Society; a bill for the enactment of a State-wide game com- 
mission to take over the enforcement work of the Society was in- 
troduced in 1917, by Senator Kelly, Chairman of Senate Commit- 
tee on game. So many amendments' were offered particularly aimed 
at exemption of certain counties from its provisions, that it was 
finally tajbled after much debate. The Society made the same 
effort to have a bill passed creating a State-wide Game Commission 
at the sessions of the General Assembly of 1919 and 1921, without 
result. 



Audubon Society of North Carolina 181 

In counties not under Society's jurisdiction, game laws are en- 
forced by the county commissioners who constitute county game 
protection commissions. They appoint local game wardens. 

Historical "Sote 

The Audubon Society of North Carolina was incorporated in 1903 
with J. Y. Joyner, T. Gilbert Pearson, R. H. Lewis, A. H. Boydeu, 
H. H. Brimley, P. D. Gold, Jr., J. F. Jordan, and R. N. Wilson as 
incorporators. (Rev. 1905, Sec. 1863.) 

The officers of The Audubon Society of North Carolina are a presi- 
dent, vice president, secretary and treasurer, and such other of- 
ficers as may be fixed by the by-laws. (Rev. 1905, Sec. 1863.) 

The objects for which the corporation is formed are to promote 
among the citizens of North Carolina a better appreciation of the 
value of the song and insectivorous birds to man and the State; to 
encourage parents and teachers to give instruction to children on 
the subject; to stimulate public sentiment against the destruction 
of wild birds and their eggs; to secure the enactment and the en- 
forcement of proper and necessary laws for the protection and 
preservation of the birds and game of North Carolina. Its further 
office is through the appointment of game wardens, to rigidly en- 
force the laws for game and bird protection. 

The funds received by the Treasurer of the State from the license 
tax on non-resident hunters constitutes a fund known as the Bird 
and Game Fund. This fund is paid out by the Treasurer of the 
State on the order of the Treasurer of The Audubon Society of 
North Carolina, who makesi an annual report to the Governor of the 
receipts and expenditures of the society for each year. 

The Governor, upon the recommendation of The Audubon Society, 
appoints bird and game wardens and the Treasurer of the Society, 
whose terms of office, unless otherwise provided for, are during good 
behavior, or until their successors are appointed. The Governor 
issues to the Treasurer of The Audubon Society and to each person 
appointed as warden, a commission. These commissions arc trans- 
mitted to the clerk's office of the Superior Court for the county from 
which the prospective treasurer or bird and game warden is ap- 
pointed. 



182 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

Every person appointed as game warden, before entering upon the 
duties of the office, is required to tal^e oath before the clerk of the 
Superior Court of the county in whicli he resides that he will faith- 
fully perform the duties of said office, and execute a bond in the 
sum of one hundred dollars for the faithful discharge of his duties. 
The compensation of wardens is fixed and paid by the society. 

There are only nineteen counties of the State under the jurisdic- 
tion of The Audubon Society, and there are Game Wardens in ihe 
various counties, each county having one or more wardens. 

Any non-resident of the State who desires to hunt in any of the 
counties under the jurisdiction of The Audubon Society is required 
to make application to the clerk of the Superior Court of any of 
the counties under Audubon control, and the clerk of the court 
issues such license upon the payment of a fee of ten dollars ind 
clerk's fee. A non-resident hunting license issued by the clerk of 
the Superior Court of any one of the counties under the jurisliction 
of The Audubon Society is valid in all the Audubon counties, while 
a non-resident hunting license issued in a county not under the 
jurisdiction of Tlie Audubon Society can be used only in the county 
in which it is) issued. 

In 1909 the General Assembly of North Carolina passed an act 
withdrawing certain counties from Audubon protection. Subse- 
quent to 1909 other counties have been withdrawn so that at the 
present time there are only nineteen counties under the jurisdiction 
of The Audubon Society of North Carolina. The following counties 
are under the jurisdiction of The Audubon Society: 

Alamance Durham Northampton 

Alleghany Greene Rockingham 

Ashe Iredell Rowan 

Brunswick Lenoir Rutherford 

Buncombe McDowell Watauga 

Columbus Mecklenburg Wake > 

Nev/ Hanover 

In its efforts toward education, The Audubon Society has ex- 
pended part of its funds towards the publication of a book on North 
Carolina birds. The Society has had prepared and paid for the 



Audubon Society of jSTortii Cabolina 183 

plates presenting pictures of bird life in North Carolina. During 
the year 1919 The Book on North Carolina Birds, by T. Gilbert 
Pearson, C. S. Brimley, and H. H. Brimley, was published alter a 
period of several years, the material for this book having been de- 
stroyed by fire when the establishment of E. M. Uzzell & Co. was 
burned in November, 1915. This is a joint publication of the 
North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, the State Audubon 
Society and the State Museum. Copies of this publication can be 
secured either from the office of the Secretary of The Audubon 
Society, Raleigh, or from the North Carolina Geological and Eco- 
nomic Survey, Chapel Hill, upon the payment of $2.75 for cloth 
bound copies and $2.00 paper bound. 

The Audubon Society owns two small islands in Pamlico Sound 
which are patrolled by a game warden during the nesting season. 
These islands are Leggett Lump and Royal Shoal. 

In an attempt to increase a State-wide interest in bird and game 
conservation, the secretaries of the Society have given illustrated 
bird lectures and talked on bird study to Teachers' Institutes, Com- 
munity Clubs, Women's Clubs and to many of the schools in tho 
State, and a great many Junior Audubon Societies have been organ- 
ized and several schools and clubs have held "Bird Days" as a result 
of this work. 

A bill providing for the enactment of a State-wide game commis- 
sion to take over the work of The Audubon Society was introduced 
into the Senate by Senator Kelly, Chairman of the Senate Committee 
on Game, at the session of the General Assembly of 1917. This 
bill, amended several times so as to exempt certain counties from 
its provisions, passed its first reading. On its second reading, there 
were so many amendments offered that the bill was transferred to 
the committee. The committee stripped the bill of all amendments 
and reported it back to the Senate with a substitute amendment. 
When the bill came up for passage, however, there were several 
more amendments offered and a parliamentary wrangle followed, 
during which the bill was tabled. It was then so near the end of the 
session of the General Assembly that there was not sufficient time to 
take the matter up in the House, and the matter was dropped. The 
Society made an effort to have a like bill passed at the sessioi*s of 
the General Assembly of 1919 and 1921 without result. 



184 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

Having failed in its efforts to have a bill passed creating a State- 
wide Game Commission at the session of the Legislature of 1921, 
the officers and directors of The Audubon Society decided that it 
would be best for said Society not to undertake to have such a bill 
passed at any future session of the General Assembly, but it would 
heartily endorse any bill providing for better game legislation and 
conservation of wild life in the State of North Carolina. 

When The Audubon Society was organized the office of the Secre- 
tary was at Greensboro, N. C, Mr. T. Gilbert Pearson, now Presi- 
dent of The National Association of Audubon Societies, being Secre- 
tary. In 1913, upon the election of Mr. James W. Cheshire, Secre- 
tary, the office was moved to Raleigh, and since that time 
the work of the Society has been carried on by the various secre- 
taries in Raleigh. 

Having been confined to his home for several months on account 
of ill health, Dr. Richard H. Lewis resigned as President of The 
Audubon Society in December, 1925, and requested that his resig- 
nation be accepted asi he would be unable to give his attention to 
the affairs of the Audubon Society. The resignation of Dr. Lewis 
was accepted with profound regret. Pursuant to the resignation of 
Dr. Lewis as President of the Audubon Society, the Secretary called 
a meeting of both the officers and directors of the Society for the 
purpose of considering the election of a new President and discuss- 
ing other matters of interest to said Society. A quorum could 
not be secured of said officers and directors, and under the advice 
of the Attorney General, the Vice President and Secretary have been 
earring on the work of the Society. 

It is with deep regret that the Secretary reports the death of 
Dr. Richard H. Lewis on August 6, 1926. The Audubon Society 
will always feel the great loss occasioned by the death of Dr. Lewis, 
as his interest and advice were most valuable in the administration 
of the affairs of the said Society. 

Officers of The Audubon Society of North Carolina: 



North Carolina Fisheries Commission Board 185 

officers 

H. H. Brimley. Vice-President Raleigh 

P. H. Underwood, Secretary Raleigh 

K. A. Brown, Treasurer Raleigh 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

Rev. Melton W. Clark Greensboro 

Brook G. Empie Wilmington 

B F. Shelton Speed 

W. H. Swift Greensboro 

Franklin Sherman, Jr Raleigh 

SECRETARIES 

T. Gilbert Pearson 1903-1911 

P. D. Gold, Jr Nov. 22, 1912-June 1, 1915 

J. W. Cheshire June 1, 1913-March 20, 1915 

R. E. Parker June 1, 1915-June 1, 1917 

G. A. Martin June 1, 1917-Oct. 10, 1917 

Miss Placide H. Underwood October 10, 1917 ( — ) ' 



NORTH CAROLINA FISHERIES COMMISSION BOARD 

Ch. 37, Consolidated Statutes, as amended by the General Assembly of 1923. 

personnel 

J. K. Dixon, Chairman Trenton 

Robert Lassiter Charlotte 

Santford Martin Winston-Salem 

Frank H. Stedman Fayetteville 

H. C. Wall Rockingham 

J. Q. Gilkey Marion 

George L. Hampton Canton 

F. S. Worthy Washington 

H. V. Grant Snead's Ferry 

E. S. Askew Windsor 

R. Bruce Etheridge Manteo 



186 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

EXECUTIVE branch 

J. A. Nelson, Fisheries Covimissioner Morehead City 

assistant commissioners 

J. H. Stone ■Wilmington 

E. O. Spencer Swan Quarter 

L. A. QuiDLEY Manteo 

N. R. Webb, Secretary and Chief Clerk Morehead City 

Miss Carita Wade, Stenographer Morehead City 

Frank J. Rieger, Superintendent of Hatcheries ....Waynesville 

Creation and Organization of tlie Board 

The General Assembly of 1923 reorganized the Fisheries Com- 
mission Board as follows: 

It created the Fisheries Commission, consisting of eleven mem- 
bers to be appointed by the Governor and confirmed by the Senate. 
At least six of these members shall have a practical knowledge of 
the fishing industry and shall be denominated the Fisheries 
Commission Board. Four of the members appointed in 1923 were 
to hold office for a term of two years; four for a term of four years, 
and three for a term of six years. After the expiration of these 
special terms of office, the general term of a member of the Board 
is to be six years. The compensation of the members is $4 a day 
and traveling expenses while attending the meeting of the Board, 
provided, the per diem and expenses shall not exceed $250 each per 
year. The chairman of the Board is elected by the Board and 
may receive such compensation as the Board sees fit to allow. 

The Fisheries Commission is empowered to appoint a Fisheries 
Commissioner for a term of four years, and the Fisheries Com- 
missioner may appoint two assistants, subject to the approval of 
the Board, to hold office at the pleasure of the Fisheries Commis- 
sioner, and he may appoint such other fish inspectors as may be 
necessary. It is the purpose of the law creating the Fisheries Com- 
mission Board to make this organization self-sustaining, but until 
it becomes so certain appropriations are allowed it for maintenance. 
The powers of the Board in general are to make such regulations 
as may be necessary concerning fish and fisheries, to regulate the 



North Carolina Fisheries Commission Board 187 

shipment of fish products, to make surveys of fish resources of the 
State, and to report on them to the Legislature. The duties of the 
Fisheries Commissioner are as follows: 

To enforce all acts relating to the fish and fisheries of North 
Carolina. By and with the advice and consent of the Fisheries Com- 
mission Board, to make such regulations as shall maintain open for 
the passage of fishes all inlets and not less than one-third of the 
width of all sounds and streams, or such greater proportions of their 
width as may be necessary. To collect and compile statistics show- 
ing the annual product of the fisheries of the State, the capital in- 
vested, and the apparatus employed, and any fisherman refusing 
to give these statistics shall be refused a license for the next year. 
To prepare and have on file in his office maps based on the charts 
of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, of the largest scale 
published, showing as closely as may be the location of all fixed 
apparatus employed during each fishing season. To have surveyed 
and marked in a prominent manner those areas of waters of the 
State in which the use of any or all fishing appliances are prohibited 
by law or regulation and those areas of water in the State in which 
oyster tonging or dredging is prohibited by law. To prosecute all 
violation of the fish laws, and wherever necessary he may employ 
counsel for this purpose. To remove, pending trial, nets or other 
appliances he finds being fished or used in violation of the fisheries 
laws of the State. To cai^ry on investigations relating to the mi- 
grations and habits of the fish in the waters of the State, also in- 
vestigations relating to the cultivation of the oyster, clam and other 
mollusca, and of the terrapin and crab, and for this purpose he 
may employ such scientific assistance as may be authorized by the 
Fisheries Commission Board. The commissioner shall be respon- 
sible for the collection of all license taxes, fees, rentals, or other 
imports on the fisherias, and shall pay same into the State Treasury 
to the credit of the Fisheries Commission fund. He shall on or 
before the twenty^fifth day of each month mail to the Treasurer 
of the State a consolidated statement showing the amount of taxes 
and license fees collected during the preceding month, and by and 
from whom collected. He shall, in an official capacity, have power 
to administer oaths and to send for and examine persons and papers. 



188 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

If any fisherman fail or refuse to give statistics as required in this 
section, the Board may extend the time of his operations, and the 
Fisheries Commission Board is empowered to make such rules 
and regulations as they think proper to procure statistics as to 
the annual products of the fisheries of the State. 



PRINTING COMMISSION 

Art. 1, Ch. 120, C. S. ; Chs. 134. 247, P. L. 1925 

Composition (7) — 'Governor, Council of State, Commissioner of 
Labor and Printing, Attorney-General, ex officio members. 

Function 

To contract for all printing and binding done for the State defined 
as "public printing," which is construed to mean all printing done 
directly for the State and paid for out of the General Fund, and in- 
cluded in all annual or biennial reports required under the law, all 
blanks and blank books and office stationery required and no more. 

The Commissioner of Labor and Printing is directed to superin- 
tend letting of contracts, and the person with whom such contract is 
made is designated as the public printer who shall give bond for 
$5,000. The Commission regulates the size of books and publica- 
tions, general style of publication, style of type and paper to be 
used; determines what details of Department activities shall be 
included in Department reports, and also determines the number of 
laws and resolutions to be printed. The Commissioner of Labor 
and Printing purchases for the use of the State the paper and sta- 
tionery used for public printing. He and the Budget Bureau allo- 
cate to the several departments the public printing appropriation 
which is made by the General Assembly in one lump sum to the 
Commissioner of Labor and Printing. 

Historical Note 

Created by act of the General Assembly of 1919. 



Salary and Wage Commission lb9 

SALARY AjVD WAGE COMIIISSION 

Ch. 125, P. L. 1925. 

H HoYLE Sink, Executive Secretary, Raleigh 

Composition — Five members. 

Personnel — Julian Price, Chairman, Greensboro; Ernest V. Webb, 
Kinston; R. N. Page, Aberdeen; P. H. Hanes, Jr., Winston-Salem; 
Frank Tate, Morganton. 

Aj)pointment — By the Governor. Executive Secretary and cleri- 
cal force to be appointed by the Commission and paid at its discre- 
tion. 

Term — At the will of the Governor. 

Compensation — $5 per day and expenses. 

Function 

To adopt necessary rules and regulations for carrying out the 
provisions of the law. To report to the Governor as to salaries, 
working hours and conditions of employment within the state ser- 
vice and upon his approval the report becomes the standard for 
salaries and wages of state employees; to reassemble at the dis- 
cretion of the Governor to reconsider and readjust the salary classi- 
fication and schedule, subject to the approval of the Governor. 

Historical >'ole 

Created by act of the General Assembly of North Carolina of l!t25. 



JUDICIAL (ONFKKKX'E 

Ch. 244, V. L. 192.) 

Composition — Forty-six members: Judges of the Supremo and 
Superior Courts and the Attorney-General, ex officio: one practicing 
attorney from each judicial district. 

Personnel — The attorneys: J. C. 13. Eliringhaus, Elizabeth City: 
H. G. Connor, Jr., Wilson; R. C. Dunn, Enfield; G. K. Freeman. 
Goldsboro; J. B. James, "Greenville; G. V. Cowper, Kinston; .1. C. 
Biggs, Raleigh; J. O. Carr, Wilmington; J. B. Clark. Kayetleville; 



190 State Departments, Boabds, and Commissions 

B. S. Wonible, Winston-Salem; H. F. Seawell, Carthage; C. W. Til- 
lett, Jr., Charlotte; A. H. Price, Salisbury; C. R. Hoey, Shelby; J. J. 
Hayes, North Wilkesboro; J. S. Ferguson, Waynesville; D. E. Hud- 
gins, Marion; J. G. Merrimon, Asheville; A. L. Brooks, Greensboro. 

Appointment — By Governor. 

Te7-7n — Two years. 

Compensation — None. Expenses not exceeding $250 per year 
allowed the Conference for clerical help. 

Function 

To report annually to the Governor the work of the various parts 
of the judicial system, with recommendations of reforms in the 
system and in the practice and procedure of the courts; to submit 
suggestions relating to rules of practice and procedure for the 
consideration of the judges of the various courts. 

The Chief Justice and the Clerk of the Supreme Court are, 
respectively, president and secretary of the Conference. Two 
meetings yearly are required, at which a quorum is to consist of 
two justices of the Supreme Court, six judges of the Superior Court, 
and six attorneys. The Conference may hold public meetings and 
has power to administer oaths and to require the attendance of 
witnesses and the production of books and papers. 

Historical Note 

Created by act of the General Assembly of 1925. 



STATE PRISON (Esileigli) 

Ch. 130, C. S.; Ch. 163, P. L. 192.5 

Geo. Ross Pou, Superintendent, Raleigh 

Board of Directors — One Chairman; six other members; State 
Treasurer, Treasurer, ex officio. 

Personnel — J. A. Leake, chairman, Wadesboro; H. K. Burgwyn, 
Jackson; A. E. White, Lumberton; R. M. Chatham, Elkin; J. M. 
Brewer, Wake Forest; B. B. Everett, Palmyra; J. P. Wilson, Warsaw. 



State Prison 191 

ADimintment — By Governor, with consent of Senate. 

Term — Four years. 

Compensation — $4 per diem and 5 cents mileage. 

Function 

To direct and manage the affairs of the State Prison and State 
Hospital for the Dangerous Insane; to provide for the accommoda- 
tion, maintenance, training, regulation, discipline, classification and 
employment of all persons committed to the State Prison and for 
the accommodation, maintenance, regulation and treatment of the 
criminally insane committed to its custody or transferred from 
the State Prison. 

To employ such officers and employees as it deems necessary and 
to fix their compensation and prescribe their duties; to adopt and 
enforce such rules and regulations for the government of the in- 
stitutions, its agents and employees and the inmates confined therein 
as they may deem just and proper; to provide for the employment of 
inmates of the State Prison as prescribed by law and to maintain 
and operate a State farm and prison camps in which inmates may 
be quartered and worked. 

To have charge of all construction work, enlargements and per- 
manent improvements; to purchase necessary supplies, equipment 
and materials; to carry out the purpose of the law, to make the 
State Prison self-supporting. 

Chairman of Board. The Board may allow its chairman a salary 
in lieu of per diem and mileage, and confer such authority, and im- 
pose such duties upon him in reference to the management of the 
institution as it may think proper; to act as member of Advisory 
Board of Control. 

Treasurer. The State Treasurer is the ex officio Treasurer of 
the State Prison and State Hospital for the Dangerous Insane, and 
as such shall keep all accounts of the institutions and shall pay out 
all moneys upon the warrant of the respective chief officers, counter- 
signed by the chairman of the Board of Directors. He shall perform 
his duties under such regulations as prescribed by tlio Board with 
the approval of the Governor. Canceled vouchers to lie deposited 
with the institutions annually. 



192 State Depaktments, Boards, and Commissions 

Inspection. Construction of State camps must be in accordance 
with plans approved by the State Highway Commission and the 
State Board of Health. The sanitary and hygienic care of prisoners 
shall be under the direction, supervision and regulation of the State 
Board of Health, same applying to the State Prison, State farm, and 
State and county camps, and such regulations regarding clothes, 
bedding, tableware and bathing for the prisoners shall be carried 
out by the Board of Directors. 

Reports. Board of Directors shall make to the Governor or the 
Budget Bureau, a full report of the financial and physical condition 
of the State Prison on the first day of July of each year and at such 
other times as the Governor or director of the budget may require. 

Object and Purpose. To execute the law with reference to per- 
sons confined in the State Prison; to provide for their maintenance, 
care, and for their moral betterment as far as practicable; to regu- 
late their conduct, employment and activities; to direct the classi- 
fication of all prisoners according to the provisions of the law. 

Established 1869 

Assets in excess of liabilities $2,117,657.26 

Acreage 7,300 

Inmates 1,500 

Employees 233 

Earnings in excess of expenditures (year ending 

June 30, 1926) I 40,000.00 



STATE BUKEAU OF IDENTIFICATION 

Ch. 228. P. L. 1925 

H. H. Honeycutt. Director. Raleigh 

Title — Director. 

Appointment — A Deputy Warden of the State Prison is designated 
Director by the Act. 

Qualification — Finger-print expert and familiar with other means 
of identifying criminals. 

Term — Not specified. 



Commissioner of Pardons 193 

Fnnction 

To receive and collect police information; to assist in locating, 
identifying, and keeping records of criminals in this State and 
from other States; to compile, classify and publish all such in- 
formation for the use of all officials of the State requiring it; to 
conduct surveys; and to determine the source of crime. 

Every chief of police and sheriff in the State is required to 
furnish the bureau, on special forms supplied by the bureau, the 
finger prints of every person convicted of a felony and of any person 
arrested for a crime when deemed advisable by any chief of police 
or sheriff, and to advise the bureau of the final disposition of all 
persons finger-printed. 

The bureau is maintained by the Board of Trustees of the peni- 
tentiary out of the general appropriation to the State Prison. 

The director is required to use the Henry system; to submit to 
the Governor in his annual report for each year ending February 
1, a full account of all funds received and expended; and to provide 
a seal for the bureau. 

Historical Note 

Created by act of the General Assembly of 1925. 



COMMISSIONER OF PARDONS 

Ch. 29. P. L. 1925. 

H HoYLE Sink, Commissioner of Pardons, Raleigh 

Appointment — By the Governor. 
Term — At the w^iil of the Governor. 

Salary — Maximum of $4,000; maximum of $200 per year for 
traveling expenses. 

Function 

To assist the Governor in connection with all applications for 
executive clemency; to perform any other duties assigned by the 
Governor; to perform his duties under rules and regulations to 
be prescribed by the Governor; to be assisted by a stenographer 
at a maximum salary of $150 per month. 

13 



194 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

Historical >'ote 

Created by an act of the General Assembly of 1925. 



EDlCATIO\AL t 0>niISSIO.\ 

Ch. 203, P. L. 1925 

Composition — Twelve members. 

Personnel — J. 0. Carr, Chairman, Wilmington; J. Y. Joyner, 
Executive Secretary. Raleigh; Mrs. E. L. McKee, Sylva; J. K. Nor- 
fleet, Winston-Salem; Mrs. J. A. Brown, Chadbourn; C. E. Teague, 
Sanford; Mrs. J. G. Fearing, Elizabeth City; T. W. Andrews, High 
Point; S. C. Lattimore, Shelby; E. W. Pharr, Charlotte; Stanley 
Winborne, Murfreesboro; Nathan O'Berry, Goldsboro. 

Appointment — By Governor. 

Term — Discretion of the Governor. 

Compensation — Expenses, not exceeding $6 per day. 

Function 

To make a complete survey of the systems of common school and 
higher education in the State; to investigate the State equalizing 
fund and its administration in the counties; to investigate the 
method of determining the cost of the various phases of the 
operation of the State educational system; to collect and dissemi- 
nate educational data on the costs and results of the State's edu- 
cational activities; to perform any other duty which seems proper 
in reference to the relation of the public to the present educational 
system; to file a report with the Governor when the purposes of the 
act shall have been fulfilled. 

The commission elects its own officers — a chairman and a 
secretary. 

Historical Note 

Created by act of the General Assembly of 1925. 



Eqi-alizixg Fund Co^rMissiON 195 

THE EQUALIZING FUND COMMISSION 

Sec. 2a, Ch. 275, P. L. 1925 

Composition — Five members. 

Person7iel~E. C. Brooks, Raleigh; C. A. Webb, Asheville; W. C. 
Femister, Newton; Mrs. W. J. Jones, Salemburg; E. D. Broadhurst, 
Greensboro. 

Apjwintment — By Governor within 30 days after ratification of the 
act. 

Compensation — $10 per day for not more than 10 days per year. 

Function 

To apportion the remainder of the equalizing fund for the years 
1925-26, 1926-27 (in excess of the amount of the fund, in 1924, 
which fund shall be apportioned on the same basis as in 1924) so 
as to result in a more equalized distribution of the fund, provided 
that no county shall receive any of the remainder until it has levied 
a tax of at least 44 cents on the $100 of its present valuation for 
salaries of teachers, principals, and superintendents. 

The Commission shall meet and organize within ten days after 
appointment and shall certify, on or before the first day of June 
each year, its decision and findings to the State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, who shall put the same into effect. 



STATE BOARD OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION 

Alt. 4, Ch. 95, C. S.; Cli. 172, P. L. 1921 

Composition (4) — Superintendent of Public Instruction ex officio 
chairman and executive officer; three members to represent Agi-i- 
culture. Home Economics, Trades and Industries, respectively. 

Personnel — Leonard Tufts, Pinehurst — Agriculture; W. F. Carr, 
Durham — Trades and Industries; Miss Mary Arrington, Rocky 
Mount — Home Economics. 

Apjiointment — By Governor. 

Term — Four years. 

Comjicnsation — Not specified. 



196 State Departments^ Boards, and Commissions 

Function 

To administer the Federal and State laws in relation to voca- 
tional education and funds appropriated therefor; to formulate 
plans for promotion of vocational education in the public school 
system and to provide for preparation of teachers in such subjects; 
to make studies and investigations relating to such subjects and to 
publish results of same; to promote and aid in establishing by 
local communities of schools, departments or classes giving in- 
struction in such subjects; to prescribe qualification of teachers, 
etc., and to provide for certification of such teachers; to cooperate 
in the maintenance of classes supported or controlled by the public 
for the preparation of teachers, etc., or to maintain own classes; 
to cooperate with county boards; to enforce provisions of the law 
through the State Superintendent of Public Instruction; and to 
report annually to the Governor the conditions of vocational educa- 
tion in the State, schools benefited and detailed statement of funds 
received from both State and Federal governments — State appropria- 
tion to match Federal appropriation. 

To provide for maintenance and vocational rehabilitation and 
the return to civil employment of persons injured in industry or 
otherwise, who go into training under provisions of the Federal 
Industrial Rehabilitation Act, by cooperating with Federal agen- 
cies; to administer Federal and State appropriations; to pay not 
more than $10 for twenty weeks to a single person; to keep record 
of expenditures and report annually to Governor. ($15,000 appro- 
priated by State.) 

The State Treasurer is directed to act as custodian of the funds 
of the Board and to receive and disburse same. 

Historical IVote 

Created by act of the General Assembly of 1919. 



COLLEGE COMMISSION 

(For Regulation of Degrees) 

Art. 5, Ch. 95, C. S. 

Composition (5) — Superintendent of Public Instruction, Chair- 
man ex officio; four other members appointed by Governor. 



State Committee on High School Tkxt-Books 197 

Term — Five years. 
Compensation — Not specified. 

Function 

To prescribe and enforce rules and statutes regulating the con- 
ferring of degrees by educational institutions; to investigate finan- 
cial conditions, equipment and facilities and standards of educa- 
tional institutions applying for authority to confer degrees, and to 
grant licenses to same when requirements are met; to revoke li- 
censes in failure to maintain standards, subject to right of review 
by a judge of the Superior Court. 

The Commission has full authority to send an expert to any in- 
stitution for purpose of examining same. The authority and power 
of commission are applicable only to educational institutions created 
or established after enactment of this law, viz., 1919. 



STATE COMMITTEE OIV HIGH SCHOOL TEXT-BOOKS 

Art. 42, Ch. 95, C. S. ; Art. 31, Ch. 136, P. L. 1923. 

Composition — Five members. 

Personnel~R. H. Latham, chairman, Winston-Salem; John C. 
Lockhart, secretary, Raleigh; Guy B. Phillips, Salisbury; Edgar W. 
Knight, Chapel Hill; A. J. Hutching, Canton. 

Appointment— By the Governor and the Superintendent of Public 
Instruction. 

Term — Five years. 

Qualifications — None specified. 

Compensation — Necessary expenses. 

Function 

To examine contents, quality and price of each book submitted 
by the publisher to determine whether or not same is suitable for 
use in the public high schools; to submit to the Superintendent 
of Public Instruction every five years a report of its findings with 
recommendations as to books to be placed on the State approved 



198 State Departments^ Boards, and Commissions 

list, which list constitutes tlie State adopted list for a period of 
five years when approved by the State Board of Education. The 
county is the unit of adoption of High School Textbooks, such adop- 
tions being made from State approved list to be used for a period of 
five years except for science and history which may be adopted for 
two years. 

Historical >'^ote 

Created by act of the General Assembly of 1919, and changed by 
Chapter 136, Public Laws of 1923. 



TEXTBOOK C0M3nSSI0:V 

Cli. 145, P. L. 1921 

Composition — Seven members. 

Personnel — Supt. Thos. R. Foust, Chairman, Greensboro; Supt. T. 
Wingate Andrews, High Point; Supt. N. F. Steppe, Marion; Supt. 
C. S. Warren, Lenoir; Miss Jane Sullivan, Asheville; Miss Mary 
Graham, Charlotte; Miss Celeste Henkel, Statesville. 

ApiJointrnent — By Governor and Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion. 

Term — Five years. 

Qualification — Active teacher, supervisor, principal or superin- 
tendent. 

Compensatioyi — $200 and expenses for each member, and $225 and 
expenses for chairman for first year; $5 per diem and expenses 
thereafter. 

Function 

To prepare subject to the approval of the Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, an outline course of study indicating subjects to be 
taught in the elementary schools of the State, outlining basal and 
supplementary books on each subject used in each grade; to prepare 
multiple lists of basal books selected in conformity with the outline 
course of study, from which lists the State Board of Education se- 
lects and adopts the basal books for each subject; and upon adop- 
tion the State Board may contract with publisher to furnish books 
for a period of five years or less; to furnish new lists to Board when 



Transportation Advisory Commission 199 

requested or to recommend substitutions, with approval of State 
Superintendent, where adopted books prove unsatisfactory. 

To elect chairman and seci-etary and adopt rules and regulations 
governing its work, subject to approval of State Superintendent, 
same to be published in the daily papers and copy sent to all pub- 
lishers submitting bids and samples of books for adoption; to meet 
on call of State Board of Education or independently. 

Subjects to be selected are divided into two classes: 

1. Major subjects — readers, arithmetics, language and grammar, 
history and geography. 

2. Minor subjects — all other books on all other subjects. Supple- 
mentary books in the outline course of study are for guidance of 
ccunty and city boards of education which are authorized to adopt 
necessary supplementary books, but such shall not replace adopted 
basal books. 

Object. To prepare, subject to the approval of the Superintend- 
ent of Public Instruction, an outline course of study covering sub- 
jects to be taught in the elementary public schools; and to submit 
to the State Board of Education multiple lists of approved books 
selected in conformity with the outline course of study for its guid- 
ance in adopting the books to be used. 

Historical >iote 

Created by act of the General Assembly of 1921. 



TRA\SrORTATIO\ ADVISORY ( O.M:»riSS10\ 

Ch. 266, P. L. 192:. 

Composition — Twelve members. 

Personnel — J. A. Taylor, Wilmington; E. K. Bishop, New Born; 
J. A. Gray, Winston-Salem; J. W. House, Wilson; George Marsh, 
Raleigh; T. J. Purdee, Fayetteville; M. O. Blount, Hothol; D. M. 
Ausley, Statesville; Fred Kent, Asheville; J. L. Spencer, Charlotte; 
T. A. Finch, Thomasville; C. G. Yates, Greensboro. 

Appointment — By Governor, who also appoints the cliairniau and 
vice-chairman. 



200 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

Term — Not specified. 

Qualification — Experience in business and shipping. 

Compensation — $4 per day and mileage. 

Function 

To adopt rules for its administration; to make a complete and 
thorough survey of freight rates to, from and within North Carolina 
to ascertain if there is discrimination against receivers and ship- 
pers of freight; to determine the probable causes thereof and to 
recommend a remedy; to ascertain if the State can aid in the 
development of water transportation to and from North Carolina 
ports in cooperation with the Federal government or otherwise. 
To this end it may take testimony, hold meetings within or without 
the State, and incur necessary expenses not exceeding $25,000 in 
the succeeding biennium. 

To report to the Governor from time to time and to make rec- 
ommendations as to legislative action or the institution of pro- 
ceedings by the Corporation Commission before the Interstate 
Commerce Commission, the Shipping Board or in the courts in 
respect to freight rates. 

Historical Kote 

Created by act of the General Assembly of 1925. 



STATE SINKOG FUND COaOHSSION 

Chapter 62. P. L. 1925 

Composition — Governor, chairman; Auditor, Secretary; State 
Treasurer, Treasurer — ex officio members. 
Term — Four years. 

Function 

It is the duty of the commission to see that the provisions of all 
sinking fund laws are complied with and to provide for the custody, 
investment and application of all sinking funds. The commission 
and its members may call upon the Attorney General for legal advice 
as to their duties, powers and responsibilities hereunder. 



State Sinking Fund Commission 201 

The commission shall adopt rules for its organization and govern- 
ment and the conduct of its affairs. The clerks in the ofTice of 
the Governor, Auditor and Treasurer may be called upon to assist 
the commisision. 

The State Treasurer is ex officio treasurer of the commission and 
the custodian of the sinking fund and the investments thereof. He 
and the sureties upon his official bond as State Treasurer are liable 
for any breach of faithful performance of his duties as treasurer 
of the commission as well as his duties as State Treasurer, and his 
official bond must comply with this requirement. 

The moneys in the sinking fund cannot be loaned to any depart- 
ment of the State but must be invested in: 

(a) Bonds of the United States; 

(b) Bonds or notes of the State of North Carolina; 

(c) Bonds of any other state whose faith and credit are pledged 
to the payment of the principal and interest thereof; 

(d) Bonds of any county in North Carolina having a popula- 
tion of fifteen thousand or more, any city in North Carolina 
having a population of four thousand or more and any school 
district in North Carolina having a population of two thou- 
sand five hundred or more, provided such bonds are general 
obligations of the subdivision or municipality issuing the 
same and provided that there is no limitation of the rate of 
taxation for the payment of principal and interest of the 
bonds; such population of cities and towns is to be determined 
by the last preceding Federal census, that of the school dis- 
tricts by the commission. 

Securities cannot be purchased at more than market price thereof 
and must not be sold for less than the market price. No securities 
may be purchased by the commission except bonds of the United 
States or bonds or notes of the State of North Carolina unless 
the vendor shall deliver with the securities the opinion of an at- 
torney believed by the commission to be competent and to be rec- 
ognized by investment companies as an authority upon the law of 
public securities, to the effect that the securities purchased are 
valid obligations and are securities which the commission is author- 
ized to purchase, it being the intention of this roriuirompnt to as- 



202 State DEPARTiiENTs, Boards, and Commissio:xs 

sure the commission not only that such securities are valid and 
eligible for purchase under the law but that the same may not be 
unsalable by the commission because of doubts as to the validity 
thereof. The commission is empowered to appoint one or more 
of its members for the purpose of making purchases and sales of 
securities. 

Historic^al Note 

Created by the General Assembly of 1925. The Act of 1925 
provides penalties and repeal or amends certain sections of chapter 
188, Public Laws 1923, which created the Sinking Fund. 



STATE BOARD OF ELECTIONS 

Art. 3 et seq., Ch. 97, C. S. ; Ch. Ill, P. L. 1923 

Composition — Five members. 

Personnel — Walter H. Neal, Chairman. Laurinburg; Clarence Call, 
Wilkesboro; R. W. Herring, Fayettevllle ; T. B. Ward, Wilson; W. 
E. Breese, Brevard. 

Appointmtint — By Governor. 

Term. — Two years. 

Qualification — Not more than three of same party. 

Compensation — $5 per diem and expenses. 

Function 

To enforce State and county election laws; to prepare and dis- 
tribute to county boards, ballots, poll books, forms of returns; to 
order elections in accordance with law; to make recounts and to 
promulgate general regulations and perform such other functions 
as may be prescribed by law; to appoint for each county, a county 
board of elections, consisting of three members, whose terms of office 
shall be two years, not more than two of whom shall belong to thei 
same political party, such appointments being made on the recom- 
mendation of the State Chairman of each political party but power of 
removal on cause rests with the State Board and such vacancies 
shall be filled by said board; to appoint county primary election 



State Board Canvassers 203 

boards; to tabulate returns, declare nominees; and such other func- 
tions as may be prescribed by law. 

The Board elects its own chairman and secretary. 

Historical Note 

Created by act of General Assembly of 1901. 



STATE BOARD OF CANVASSERS 

Art. 13, Ch. 97, C. S. ; Ch. Ill, P. L. 1923 

Composition — Five members: Governor, four members State 
Board of Elections, ex officio members. 
Term — Two years. 

QuaUflcatio7i— Members of State Board of Elections to be named 
and selected by said Board. 

Function 

To ascertain and declare from abstracts of votes cast and prepared 
by boards of county canvassers and submitted to the Secretary of 
State by clerks of the Superior Courts, the results of the elections 
of Governor and all State officers, justices of the Supreme Court, 
judges of the Superior Court, solicitors, congressmen and United 
States senators; to cause results to be certified to the Secretary of 
State; to estimate the votes cast for officers of the Executive Depart- 
ment from the abstracts forwarded to the Secretary of State, and pub- 
lish a statement of the result of such calculation, but this statement 
shall be for information of the public only, and shall not have the ef- 
fect to determine what candidates have been elected to office. Their 
election shall be ascertained and declared according to Sec. 3. 
Article III of the Constitution. 

Historical >o(e 

Created by act of the General Assembly of 1901. 



204 State Departments, Boaeds, and Commissions 
STATE BOARD OF PENSIONS 

Art. 3, Ch. 92, C. S.; Ch. 69, P. L. 1920 — Extra Session; Ch. 189, P. L. 1921; 
Ch. 106, P. Li. 1924 — Extra Session; Ch. 107, P. L. 1925 

Composition (3) — Governor, Attorney-General, Auditor, ex officio 
members. 

Function 

To examine each applicant for a pension; and to prescribe rules 
and regulations governing the operation of the pension law. 

The Auditor is directed to appoint three reputable ex-Confed- 
erate soldiers or sons of ex-Confederate soldiers in each county who, 
with the Clerk of the Superior Court, shall constitute the County 
Board of Pensions for their county whose duty is to examine and 
classify applicants for relief and to certify such applicants as are 
passed to the Governor, and to perform such other functions as are 
prescribed by law. The Auditor is further directed to provide form 
of application, to issue warrants to clerks of the Superior Courts 
semi-annually, to apportion, distribute and divide the money appro- 
priated by the State for pensions, and to issue warrants to the sev- 
eral pensioners pro rata in their respective grades so that the entire 
annual appropriation shall be paid each year to the pensioners, 
notwithstanding the amounts so paid may be in excess of the 
amounts fixed in this article for the several grades, provided the 
total appropriation shall not exceed $1,000,000 annually. 

In addition to the appropriation made by the General Assembly, 
there is levied a county tax of 2 cents on each $100 of assessed 
value of property and 6 cents on each taxable poll. These taxes are 
collected by a sheriff or other tax collector, and the net proceeds 
are applied each year to increase pro rata the pensions of persons 
on the county pension roll. Such funds are disbursed pro rata by 
the County Commissioners. 

Classes and amounts of pensions for Confederate soldiers, their 
widows and orphans are as follows: 

1. Wounded so as to be totally incompetent $100 per year 

2. Blind widows 100 per year 

3. Loss of leg or arm above knee or elbow 90 per year 

4. Loss of leg or arm below knee or elbow 70 per year 



Commissioner of the Yeterans Loan Fund 205 

5. Loss of one eye. Widows and all soldiers disabled 
from any cause and unfit to perform manual 
labor $ 60 per year 

In distributing the $1,000,000 appropriation, the above amounts 
have been increased pro rata as follows: Classes 1 and 2 receive 
$150, class 3, $135; class 4, $120; class 5, $105. 

In addition all ex-Confederate soldiers and sailors who have be- 
come totally blind since the war, or who have lost their sight, or 
both hands and feet, or one arm and one leg, in the Confederate 
service, or who have become paralyzed and are totally disabled by 
reason thereof, shall receive from the public treasury $180 a year, 
such moneys being paid out of the General Fund and not from the 
pension appropriation. Applicants for relief under this provision 
are certified to the Governor by the clerk of the Superior Court of 
the county in which such applicants reside. Such pensioners are 
thereupon paid monthly by the State Auditor at the rate of $15 
a month. 



COMMISSIONER OF THE VETERANS LOAN FUND 

Ch. 155, P. L. 1925 

John Hall Manning, Commissioner, Raleigh 

Appointment — By Board of Advisers. 
Compensation — $3,500. 

Board of Advisers — Five members: Secretary of State, chairman, 
ex officio; Commissioner of Agriculture; Attorney General; Com- 
missioner of Labor and Printing; State Treasurer, Treasurer, ex 
officio. 

P'linetion 

Chapter 155, Public Laws of 1925, known as The World War Vet- 
erans Loan Act, authorizes the submission to the voters in 1926 
of the question of contracting a bonded indebtedness of the State to 
the amount of two million dollars for the purpose of making loans 
to any resident of North Carolina who served honorably in the 
World War. The vote in November, 1926, was favorable. 



206 State Departments, Boakds, and Commissions 

The administration of the act is under the control of a Board 
of Advisers' who appoint a Commissioner of the Veterans Loan 
Fund. 

The Commissioner, with the approval of the Board of Advisers, 
may appoint assistants and appraisers. He shall cause each appli- 
cation for a loan to be considered and the property offered as se- 
curity to be appraised. No loan shall be made unless approved by 
the commissioner and two members of the Board of Advisers. 

Not more than one loan, which shall not exceed $3,000 nor ex- 
tcnd for more than 20 years, shall be made to any one person. 
No loan shall exceed seventy-five per cent of the appraised value 
of the real property offered as security, and no loan for 20 years 
shall be made unless application is filed before January 1, 1931. The 
applicant shall pay in advance the expense of appraisal and shall 
pay all costs incurred in the investigation of his property. 

All loans are repayable in not more than 20 equal annual or 40 
equal semi-annual payments and bear interest at six per cent, pay- 
able semi-annually. All payments on loans shall be made to the 
State Treasurer who shall deposit and hold them as a separate 
fund to be applied to the payment of the bonds when they become 
due. 

The cost of administering the act, including salaries, shall be 
paid from the difference between the interest received from the 
loans made hereunder (6 per cent) and the interest on the bonds 
of the State to be issued (not exceeding 5 per cent), provided 
that until such time as the income herein provided for shall become 
suflacient to pay the cost of administration of this act, the ex- 
pense thereof shall be paid out of the general fund. 



BOARD OF PUBLIC BUILDIXGIS A>D GROUNDS 

Ch. 117. C. S.; Ch. 315, P. L. 1925. 

Composition (4) — Governor, Secretary of State, Ti'easurer, Attor- 
ney-General, ex ofjicio members. 



Municipal Board of Control 207 

Function 

To take charge of and keep in repair public buildings of State in 
city of Raleigh; to procure necessary furniture and equipment for 
General Assembly and public offices; to certify, through the Secre- 
tary of State, all accounts for labor and fuel; to assign rooms and 
offices where not specified by law; to authorize repair of walks, 
grounds and trees in and about the Capitol square; to appoint a 
keeper of the Capitol, a Custodian of the Administration building; 
and a custodian and a janitor for the State Department Building. 

Keeper of the Capitol. To have charge of janitorial work and 
care of trees and grounds of Capitol and Executive Mansion; to 
appoint and supervise all employees and laborers; to supervise all of 
the public lots in the city of Raleigh belonging to the State; to 
contract under supervision of Board for repairs to walks, convict 
labor to be used where practicable, and accounts for labor and 
material to be audited. He must execute a bond of at least $250 for 
the faithful discharge of his duties. The Keeper of the Capitol is 
also ex officio the State Standard Keeper in case of vacancy. 

Custodian op State Department Buildings. Appointed by 
Board with duties similar to those of the Keeper of the Capitol. 

Custodian of Administration Building. Appointed by the Board, 
with duties similar to those of the Keeper of the Capitol. 

Historical Note 

Created by act of General Assembly of 1871. 
W. D. Terry Superintendent 



MIMCIPAL BOARD OF COATKOL 

Art. 13, Ch. 56, C. S. 

Composition (3)— Attorney-General, Chairman; Secretary of 
State, Secretary; Chairman Corporation Commission, ex officio 
members. 

Fiin('li<»ii 

To hear petitions for incorporation of municipalities; to ilct er- 
mine if requirements of law have been fulfilled by the petitioners 



208 State Departments^ Boards, and Commissions 

and that the facts stated are true; to enter orders creating territory 
into a town, and to provide for holding the first election of mayor 
and commissioners, the number to be determined by the Board. 

Historical ]Vote 

Created by act of the General Assembly of 1917. 



STATE STANDARD KEEPER 

Art. 2, Ch. 133, C. S. 

T. F. Brockwell, Raleigh 

Title — State Standard Keeper. 
Appointment — By Governor. 
Term — Not specified. 
Compensation — $100 per annum. 

Function 

To take care of the balances, weights and measures and perform 
the duties relating to weights and measures hitherto imposed on 
the Governor, and such other duties as the Governor may prescribe; 
to procure and furnish at prime cost, under direction of the 
Governor, to any of the counties upon an order from board of 
county commissioners, any of the standard sealed weights and 
measures required by law to be kept; to contract for manufacture 
of plain sealed weights substantially made of iron, steel or brass, 
as the county ordering may direct, standard yard sticks, gauge 
sticks, etc., dry and liquid sealed measures; to keep an account of 
all weights and measures delivered by him, and expenses incurred 
by him in the purchase of said weights and measures, subject to 
the inspection of the State Treasurer and the General Assembly. 

Historical Note 

Created by act of the General Assembly in 1S67. 



BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS OF NAVIGATIOX A>I> PILOTAGE 

Ch. 79, P. L. 1921 

Composition — Five members. 

Personnel— n. C. McQueen, C. W. Worth, D. H. Scott, and J. A. 
Taylor, Wilmington; and Richard Dosher, Southport. 
Appointment — By Governor; vacancies filled by board. 
Term — Pour years. 

Qualification — Four to be residents of New Hanover County; none 
to be licensed pilots. 

Function 

To make and enforce rules regulating pilotage service and other 
matters relating to the navigation of the Cape Fear River from 
seven miles above Negro-Head Point downwards and out of the bar 
and inlets. 

To appoint annually a harbor master for the Port of Wilmington; 
to appoint a clerk who shall record all the rules, orders and pro- 
ceedings of the Board; to examine or cause to be examined appli- 
cants as pilots for Cape Fear River and bar, and to license those 
approved; to renew licenses annually upon payment of fee of $5, and 
to revoke licenses for cause; to make and enforce rules relating to 
pilots' apprentices; to organize pilots licensed by Board into a 
mutual association, each member to pay two per cent of each 
pilotage fee for expenses of Board, surplus to be placed in fund 
for benefit of widows and orphans of deceased pilots; to issue 
permits to run regularly as pilots of steamers plying between 
Wilmington and other U. S. Ports; to retire pilots and to provide 
compensation under suitable rules; to exercise jurisdiction over 
disputes as to pilotage and between pilots; to renew licenses an- 
nually upon receipt of a fee of $5. 

Pilotage. Fees fixed by law — two classes: (1) Sea to Southport 
or vice versa; (2) Southport to Wilmington or vice versa. Fees 
are based on ship's draught, 6' to 30' and vary in class 1 from $10.76 
to $267.66, and in class 2 from $6.46 to .$163.36 The first pih)t 
speaking a vessel is entitled to pilotage fees. 

Licenses. Two classes: (1) To Apprentices, of not more than 
three years service — license covers vessel not exceeding 15' draught. 

14 



210 State Departaients^ Boards^ and Commissions 

Age limitations, 21-25 years; (2) Unlimited license — to those 
who have served at least one year under a license of the first class. 
Harbor Master. To keep channel-way clear; to berth vessels at 
appropriate docks; to collect fees (?3 to $10) from incoming vessels; 
to arrest violators. 

Object. To promote the efficiency of pilotage service and to pro- 
tect and promote the commerce of the port of Wilmington and the 
State of North Carolina. 

Historical Note 

Created by act of the General Assembly of 1921. 



CKOP PEST COMMISSION 

Art. 16, Ch. 84, C. S. 

Composition (11) — Board of Agriculture ex officio. 

Function 

To prepare and publish from time to time list of dangerous 
crop pests, methods of exterminaiion, repression and prevention 
of spread; to adopt regulations for prevention of introduction of 
dangerous crop pests from without the State and for governing 
common carriers in transporting plants liable to harbor such 
pests to and from the State, such regulations having the force of 
law; to investigate and inspect premises suspected of being in- 
fected, and where found may remove pest or have same removed 
by owner, costs in either case to be borne by owner. 

Historical Note 

Created by act of the General Assembly of 1909. 



NATIONAL PABK COMMISSION OF NORTH CAROLINA 

Resolutions Nos. 16 and 29, Extra Session, 1924 

Composition — Eleven members: three chosen by President of the 
Senate; five by Speaker of the House; the present Speaker of the 



The Canova Statue Commission 211 

House and the presidents of State College and the University, mem- 
bers ex officio. 

Personnel — Mark Squires, Chairmari. Lenoir; E. C. Brooks, Secre- 
tary-Treasurer, Raleigh; D. M. Buck, Bald Mountain; H. W. Chase, 
Chapel Hill; J. G. Dawson, Kinston; J. H. Dillard, Murphy; Plato 
Ebbs, Asheville; A. M. Kistler, Morganton; Frank Linney, Boone; 
E. S. Parker, Jr., Greensboro. 

Function 

To present the claims of North Carolina to the Commission ap- 
pointed by the United States for the purpose of effecting the loca- 
tion of a National Park in the Southern Appalachian Mountains; 
to incur expenses not exceeding $2,500 in gathering information 
and data. 



C03OII.SSI0X ON THE KEPRODUCTIOX OF THE ( ANOVA 
STATUE OF WASHIXiTON 

Ch. 253, P. L, 1923 ; Ch. 303, P. L. 1925 

The General Assembly of North Carolina by resolution in 1S15 
instructed the Governor of the State "to purchase on behalf of this 
State a full length statue of General Washington." Governor 
William Miller, under that authority, secured the services of 
Canova, the Roman sculptor. The statue was received in Raleigh 
December 24, 1821, and set up in the rotunda of the State House. 
In 1831 the State House was burned and the statue destroyed. The 
General Assembly at its next annual session held in 1831 appointed 
a committee, of which William Gaston was chairman, to provide 
for the restoration of the statue and appropriated five thousand 
dollars for that purpose. The services of Ball Hughes, an English 
sculptor, were secured; but the ruins of the statue were so complete 
that he was unable to reproduce it, and the matter of reproduction 
was, therefore, allowed to drop. 

In 1908, the Secretary of the North Carolina Historical Commis- 
sion learned through a former Ambassador to Austria that the 
original model made by Canova still existed in the Canova Museum 
at Possagno, Italy. Thereafter Italy, at its own expense, had a 
plaster replica of the statue made and presented it (o th(> Xorlli 



212 State Departments^ Boakds, and Commissions 

Carolina Historical Commission. This replica was received in 1910, 
and is now preserved in the North Carolina Hall of History. 

The General Assembly of North Carolina, at its 1923 session, 
provided for a Commission on the Reproduction of the Canova 
Statue of Washington, of which R. D. W. Connor, Walter Woodson, 
and R. 0. Everett were appointed members. The Commission was 
charged with the duty of collecting data and making recommenda- 
tions relative to the reproduction of the statue. R. O. Everett made 
a trip to Possagno, Italy, to view the original model made by 
Canova, and thereafter a report of the Commission was presented 
to the General Assembly and ordered printed, in which report 
recommendations were made that the statue be reproduced. The 
General Assembly of North Carolina at its session in 1925 provided 
for the continuation of the Commission and its enlargement by 
the addition of W. N. Everett and Governor A. W. McLean. The 
Commission was authorized and directed to have reproduced in 
Carara marble, from the model now owned by North Carolina, the 
Canova Statue of Washington, and to have it set up in a suitable 
place in one of the buildings or on the public grounds of the State 
of North Carolina. The cost of the reproduction was to be pro- 
vided for by private subscription. 

The services of Gutzon Borglum have been secured to reproduce 
the statue, but the actual work is being delayed until the com- 
mittee shall raise a sufficient amount by private subscription. The 
next General Assembly will be requested to supplement the funds 
received from private sources, if necessary. 



BENNETT PLACE MEMORIAL C0M3IISSI0N 

Ch. 77, P. L. 1923; Cli. 7, P. L. 1925. 

The General Assembly of 1923 appointed a commission consisting 
of Bennehan Cameron (deceased), J. S. Carr (deceased), R. D. W. 
Connor, F. C. Brown, W. T. Bost, R. 0. Everett, and D. H. Hill 
(deceased) to arrange for the acceptance in the name of the State 
from the heirs of Samuel T. Morgan of a memorial to mark the 
spot where the Confederate War practically ended with the sur- 
render of the army of General Joseph E. Johnston to that of General 



Board of Medical Exaaiiners 213 

W. T. Sherman at the Bennett House near Durham, AprU 18, 1865. 
The memorial is a graceful double shaft situated in a park of 
nearly thirty-one acres of land, all of which is deeded in perpetuity 
to the State for use as a public park which the board of county com- 
missioners of Durham county is authorized to maintain. The Gen- 
eral Assembly of 1925 appointed Mrs. Benjamin N. Duke as suc- 
cessor to J. S. Carr, Mrs. Edward J. Parish as successor to D. H. 
Hill; and increased the Commission by appointing Miss Lida Carr 
Vaughan and Samuel Tate Morgan, Jr. The Secretary of State is 
the custodian of the monument and grounds. 



BOARD OF MEDICAL EXAMINEES 

Art. 1, Cli. 110, 0. S.; Ch. 47, P. L. 1921; Ch. 44, P. L. 1921— E.xtra Session. 

Composition — Seven members. 

Personnel — Dr. Foy Roberson, Durham; Dr. Paul H. Ringer, Ashe- 
ville; Dr. W. Houston Moore, Wilmington; Dr. J. W. MacConnell, 
Davidson; Dr. T. W. M. Long, Roanoke Rapids; Dr. W. W. Dawson, 
Grifton; Dr. J. K. Pepper, Charlotte. 

Appointment — By North Carolina Medical Society. 

Term — Six years. 

Qualification — Members of Medical Society. 

Compensation — $10 per diem and expenses. 

Function 

To meet once each year in Raleigh and at such other times and 
places as may be advisable, five members constituting a quorum; 
to determine the qualifications of applicant by examination, and to 
issue a license or diploma upon satisfactory proof as agreed by at 
least four members of Board; to grant, as conditions warrant, lim- 
ited or permanent licenses without examination under provisiong 
of the law; to rescind license upon cause; to keep records of appli- 
cants and proceedings; to prescribe such rules and regulations as 
are not inconsistent or in conflict with laws. 

Each applicant is required to pay $15 upon application. A fee of 
$50 is charged if license is issued without examination. This applies 



214 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

to physicians coming into the State. The Board elects its own 
officers. 

Reports. No reports are required, but annual reports are made 
to the Medical Society which publishes them in its annual volume 
of proceedings. 

Historical JJ^ote 

Created by act of General Assembly of 1858-1859. 



BOARD OF CHIROPODY EXAMINERS 

Art. 11, Ch. 110, C. S. 

Composition — Three members. 

Personnel — Dr. L. C. Weathers, Raleigh; Dr. M. P. Buetner, Wil- 
mington; Dr. 0. C. MacRae, Greensboro. 

Appointment — By North Carolina Pedic Association. 
Term — Three years overlapping. 

Qualification — One year's practice in North Carolina. 
Compensation — $4 per diem and expenses. 

Function 

To adopt suitable rules and regulations; to examine qualified ap- 
plicants to practice chiropody upon payment of fee of $15.00 and to 
issue certificates upon completion of satisfactory examination and 
payment of additional fee of $10; to issue certificates without ex- 
amination under certain conditions; to revoke or suspend certifi- 
cates for cause; to keep record of its transactions and register of 
applicants and licensees; to hold at least one examination annually. 

The Board elects its own officers, and two members constifute a 
quorum. 

Reports: No reports are required. 

Historical Note 

Created by act of the General Assembly of 1919. 



Board of Nurse Examiners 215 

THE BOARD OF JfURSE EXAMINERS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

Arf,. 7, Ch. 110, C. S.; Ch. 87, P. L. 1925. 

Composition — Two physicians, three registered nurses. 

Personnel — Mary P. Laxton, President, Biltmore; Dorothy Con- 
yers, Secretary-Treasurer, Greenshoro; E. A. Kelly, Fayetteville; 
Oren Moore, Charlotte; R. Duval Jones, New Bern. 

Appointment — One physican by North Carolina Medical Society, 
one by the North Carolina State Hospital Association, and three 
nurses by the North Carolina State Nurses' Association. The Presi- 
dent and Secretary-Treasurer are elected by the Board from its nurse 
members. 

Term — Three years overlapping. 

Compensation — $5 per diem and expenses; the Secretary-Treas- 
urer, $5 per diem and $300 per year, 

Function 

To adopt necessary rules and by-laws; to adopt and have custody 
of a seal; to examine qualified applicants for licenses to register as 
trained nurses and to practice their profession upon payment of a 
fee of $10, and to issue licenses upon satisfactory completion of 
examination; to issue licenses without examination under certain 
conditions; to revoke licenses for cause; to appoint three membei-s 
of the Board who together with three members from the North 
Carolina State Hospital Association, constitutes a joint committee 
on standardization which advises with the Board in regard to regu- 
lations covering applicants for license, admission to examinations, 
and the standardization of schools of nursing in North Carolina; 
to fix in cooperation with the standardization board, the duties and 
compensation of an educational director of schools of nursing, who 
is appointed annually by the North Carolina State Nurses' Associa- 
tion and who reports annually to the Board of Nurse Examiners and 
to the North Carolina State Hospital Association; to meet at least 
annually and oftener as retiuired by law, three members, two of 
whom must be nurses, constituting a quorum. 



216 State Depaktments, Boards, and Commissions 

Historical Note 

The Board of Examiners of Trained Nurses was created by an 
act of the General Assembly of 1917. The name of the board was 
changed to The Board of Nurse Examiners of North Carolina and 
certain new provisions were made by an act of the General As- 
sembly of 1925. 



BOARD OF PHARMACY 

Art. 3, Ch. 110. C. S. ; Ch. 57, P. L. 1921; Ch. 82, P. L. 1923 

Composition — Five members. 

Personnel— F. W. Hancock, Secretary-Treasurer, Oxford; C. P. 
Greyer, Morganton; E. V. Zoellner, Tarboro; Dr. I. W. Rose, Rocky 
Mount; J. G. Ballew, Lenoir. 

Appointment — Elected by North Carolina Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation and commissioned by Governor. 

Term — Five years overlapping. 

Qualification — Licensed pharmacists of North Carolina. 

Comi)ensation— Secretary's salary fixed by Board; other members, 
•$10 per diem and expenses. 

Function 

To adopt rules and regulations not inconsistent with laws for 
proper discharge of duties as prescribed; to examine at least once 
annually qualified applicants for licenses to, practice pharmacy 
upon payment of fee of $10, and to issue licenses after applicant 
has passed satisfactory examination; to issue license without ex- 
amination under certain conditions; to refuse or revoke a license 
for cause; to renew licenses annually upon payment of a fee of $5; 
to keep record of its proceedings, register of all applications, licen- 
ses and renewals; and to supervise and enforce law in relation to 
proprietary medicines, a majority of the Board required for trans- 
action of all business. The Board elects its own officers. 

Reports. The Board is required to make annually to the Governor 
written reports of its proceedings and of its receipts and disburse- 



Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners 217 

ments and of all persons licensed to practice as pharmacists and 
assistant pharmacists in this State. 

Historical ?i'ote 

Created by act of the General Assembly of 1905. 



NORTH CAROLIJVA BOARD OF YETERINARY MEDICAL 

EXAMINERS 

Art. 10, Ch. 110, C. S. 

Composition — Five members. 

Personnel — Dr. J. I. Neal, Sanford; Dr. R. H. Parker, Gastonia; 
Dr. Wm. Moore, Raleigh; Dr. M. J. Ragland, Salisbury; Dr. L. F. 
Koonce, Raleigh. 

Appointment — By Governor. 

Tvrm — Five years overlapping. 

Qualification — Member of North Carolina Veterinary Medical As- 
sociation. 

Compensation — $4 per diem and expenses. 

Function 

To adopt suitable rules and regulations; to examine qualilied 
applicants for license to practice veterinary medicine or surgery 
upon payment of fee of $10 and to issue licenses upon satisfactory 
completion of examination; to issue temporary licenses under 
certain conditions and to rescind licenses for cause; to keep records 
of its proceedings and register of all applicants of licenses; to 
meet at least once a year, concurrence of majority of Board being 
necessary before licenses may be issued. The Board elects its own 
oflBcers. 

Reports. No reports are required. 

Historical No(e 

Created by act of the General Assembly of 1903. 



218 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 
N. C. STATE BOAKD OF DENTAL EXAMINERS 

Art. 2. Ch. 110, C. S. 

Composition — Six members. 

Personnel — Dr. J. S. Betts, President, Greensboro; Dr. H. O. Line- 
berger, Secretary-Treasurer, Raleigh; Dr. J. H. Wheeler, Greens- 
boro; Dr. H. L. Keith, Wilmington; Dr. W. T. Martin, Benson; Dr. 
J. S. Spurgeon, Hillsboro. 

Aiipointment — Elected by North Carolina Dental Society and com- 
missioned by Governor. 

Term — Three years overlapping. 

Qualification — Members of Society. 

Compensation — Fixed by Board, not to exceed $10 per diem and 
expenses. 

Function 

To prescribe rules' and regulations to carry out the provisions of 
the law; to receive and record applications and fees for licenses; to 
hold both written and clinical examinations upon the payment of 
fee of $20; to issue permanent licenses upon proof of proficiency; 
to issue temporary or limited licenses; to renew licenses annually 
upon fee of $1.00; to revoke license upon cause; to keep neces- 
sary records and reports; to turn over to State Treasurer for use of 
the general school fund any sum in excess of $500 remaining after 
meeting the per diem and other expenses. Four members of Board 
constitute a quorum, and agreement of quorum is necessary before 
applicant will be passed. 

The Board elects its own officers. 

Reports. The Board is required to submit to the Governor on 
or before February 25th of each year a report of its proceedings 
and all moneys received and disbursed by it. 

Historical Note 

Created by act of the General Assembly of 1915. 



Board of Accountancy 219 

STATE BOARD OF ACCOUNTANCY 

Ch. 116, C. S.; Ch. 261, P. h. 1925 

Composition — Four members. 

Personnel — George Adams, Charlotte; J. B. McCabe, Wilmington; 
Walter Charnley, Charlotte; Wright Dixon, Raleigh. 
Appointment — By Governor. 
Term — Three years. 

Qualification — Resident public accountant. 
Compensation — $10 per diem and traveling expenses. 

Function 

To formulate rules for the government of the board and for the 
examination of applicants for certificates; to hold examinations at 
least once a year; to issue certificates of qualification to such quali- 
fied applicants as may have passed an examination in "theory of 
accounts," "practical accounting," "auditing," "commercial law," 
and other related subjects; to grant certificates to those who hold 
certificates issued by other States; to charge a fee of $25 for each ex- 
amination and certificate; to hold reexaminations within 18 months 
from date of application, upon receipt of fee of |15 per applicant; to 
revoke certificates for cause; to require renewal of all certificates an- 
nually on July 1 and to collect a fee not exceeding $5 for each re- 
newal; to submit to the Commissioner of Revenue the names of all 
persons who have qualified; to keep a complete record of all its pro- 
ceedings; to elect from its members a president, vice president, and 
secretary-treasurer; to employ necessary legal and clerical 
assistance. 

Reports. The Board Is required to submit annually a full report 
to the Governor and also an account of all fees collected and ex- 
penses incurred to the State Treasurer. 

Jlislorical Nolo 

Created by act of the General Assembly of l!)i;'.. which was super- 
ceded by act of General Assembly of 1925. 



220 State Depaetments, Boards, and Commissions 

STATE BOARD OF ARCHITECTURAL EXAMINATION AND 

REGISTRATION 

Ch. 86, C. S. 

Composition — Five members. 

Personnel — Harry Barton, Greensboro; W. G. Rogers, Charlotte; 
J. B. Lynch, Wilmington; W. C. Northrup, Winston-Salem; W. H. 
Lord, Asheville. 

Appointment — By Governor. 

Term — Five years overlapping. 

Qualification — Ten years practice, residents of North Carolina. 

Compensation — Fixed by Board and paid from fees. 

Function 

To receive and register applications for examination which shall 
be accompanied by $25; to hold examinations of such applicants at 
least once each year and to issue upon satisfactory evidence as to 
qualification and proficiency, certificates to practice architecture in 
North Carolina; to reexamine applicants at regular meeting with- 
out payment of additional fee; to refuse, revoke or suspend certifi- 
cates on cause; to renew annually, for fee of $5, certificates, and 
to prescribe such regulations as they may deem necessary, provided 
they are not in conflict with laws of North Carolina. 

The Board elects its own officers, and three members constitute 
a quorum. 

REa-OETS. No reports are required. 

Historical Note 

Created by act of General Assembly of 1915. 



STATE BOARD OF CHIROPRACTIC EXAMINERS 

Art. 6, Ch. 110, C. S. 

Composition— Three members. 

Personnel— Br. C. I. Carlson, Greensboro; Dr. C. C. Cox, Durham; 
Dr. E. L. Cox, Winston-Salem. 



State Board of Embalmers 221 

Appointment — By Governor from list of five recommended by the 
North Carolina Board of Chiropractors annually. 
Term — Three years overlapping. 
Qualification — Resident practicing chiropractor. 
Compensation — Expenses only, no salary. 

Function 

To adopt necessary rules and regulations; to examine qualified 
applicants for license to practice chiropractic upon payment of fee of 
$25, and to issue licenses upon completion of satisfactory examina- 
tion; to issue temporary or permanent licenses without examination 
under certain conditions; to refuse or revoke licenses for cause; 
to renew licenses annually upon payment of fee of $2 ; to keep record 
of its proceedings, register of all applications, licenses and renewals; 
to meet annually. 

The Board elects its own officers' and two members constitute a 
quorum for the transaction of regular business, but agreement of the 
entire Board is necessary before a license will be issued. 

Reipobts. No reports are required. 

Historical JVote 

Created by act of the General Assembly of 1917. 



STATE BOARD OF EMBALMERS 

Art. 12, Ch. 110, C. S. 

Composition — Three members State Board of Health; two prac- 
tical embalmers. 

Personnel — J. Horace Way, M.D., Waynesville; Chas. O'H. Laugh- 
inghouse, M.D., Raleigh; Thos. E. Anderson, M.D., Statesville; Wm. 
Vogler, Winston-Salem; J. M. Harry, Charlotte. 

Appointment — Elected by State Board of Health. 

Term — Five years overlapping. 

Compensation — Per diem and expenses allowed, but amount is not 
stated. 



222 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

Function 

To adopt suitable rules and by-laws to regulate embalming of 
dead bodies; to examine qualified applicants upon payment of fee 
of $5 and to issue license upon satisfactory completion of examina- 
tion; ^to renew licenses annually upon payment of fee of $2.00; to 
revoke licenses for cause; to keep records of its proceedings and 
register all applicants, licensees, and renewals; to meet at least once 
each year, majority of the Board constituting a quorum. 

The Board elects it own officers annually. 

Reports. No reports are required. 

Historical >'ote 

Created by act of the General Assembly of 1901. 



STATE BOARD OF EXAMINERS IN OPTOMETRY 

Art. 4. Ch. 110, C. S. ; Ch. 42, P. L. 1923 

Composition — Five members. 

Personnel — Dr. W. L. Best, Greenville; Dr. Sam Levy, Charlotte; 
Dr. A. P. Staley, High Point; Dr. W. W. Parker, Lumberton; Dr. R. 
N. Walker, Winston-Salem. 

Aijpointment — By Governor. 

Term — Five years overlapping. 

Qualification — Five years practice in North Carolina and member- 
ship in Optometric Society of North Carolina. 

Compensation — $10 per diem and expenses. 

Function 

To adopt necessary rules and regulations for carrying out pro- 
visions of the law; to examine qualified applicants for licenses to 
practice optometry upon payment of fee of $20 and a further fee 
of $5 if applicant passes examination, and to issue licenses there- 
upon; and to renew same annually upon payment of fee of $3; to 
revoke licenses upon cause; to keep register of licenses; to meet at 



Board of Osteopathic Examination and Registration 223 

least twice annually, a majority constituting a quorum, and to keep 
record of all proceedings. The Board elects its own officei's. 

Reports. The Board is required to make an annual report of it:? 
proceedings to the Governor on the first Monday in January of each 
year which report shall contain an account of moneys received and 
disbursed by them. 

Historical IVote 

Created by act of the General Assembly of 1909. 



STATE BOARD OF OSTEOPATHIC EXAMINATION AM) 

REdJISTRATION 

Art. 5, Ch. 110, C. S. 

Composition — Five members. 

Personnel — Dr. Geo. A. Griffiths, Wilmington; Dr. S. W. Hoffman, 
Statesville; Dr. F. R. Heine, Greensboro; Dr. T. T. Spence, Raleigh; 
Dr. F. C. Sharp, High Point. 

Appointment — By Governor from list of ten recommendations by 
Society; subsequent appointments, one from list of five. 
Term — Five years overlapping. 
Qualification — Reputable practitioners. 
Salary — $10 per diem and expenses. 

Fun ot ion 

To adopt rules for proper discharge of its duties as prescribed; to 
examine qualified applicants for license to practice osteopathy, 
and upon payment of fee of $25 to issue certificates after applicants 
have passed satisfactory examination; to issue certificates without 
examination under certain conditions; to refuse or revoke a certifi- 
cate for cause; to keep a record of its proceedings, and a register 
of all applicants and licenses; to meet annually in July and at such 
other times as may be necessary. Three members of the Board are 
necessary to constitute a quorum. The Board elects its own officers. 

Reports. No reports are required. 

Historicjil Note 

Created by act of the General Assembly of 1907. 



224 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

STATE BOARD OF REGISTKATION FOR ENGmEERS AND 

LAND SURVEYORS 

Ch. 1, P. L. 1921 

Composition — Five members. 

Personnel — Chas. E. Waddell, Asheville; N. S. Mullican, WalnuL 
Cove; P. H. Daggett, Chapel Hill; Gilbert C. White, Durham; Harry 
St. George Tucker, Raleigh. 

Appointment — By Governor. 

Term — Four years overlapping. 

Qualification — Two from engineering faculties of University of 
N. C. and A. and E. College ; not more than three from same branch 
of engineering. Resident of State, practice or teaching for ten years. 

Compensatioti — $10 per diem and expenses. 

Function 

To adopt suitable by-laws and regulations necessary to carry 
out provisions of act; to elect annually a chairman, vice-chairman 
and secretary, and a quorum of three is required; to meet twice a 
year or oftener; to examine, upon payment of fee of $25 by engi- 
neers, or $10 by land surveyors, qualified applicants to practice engi- 
neering or land surveying and to issue a certificate of registration to 
those successfully completing prescribed examination; to renew 
certificate annually upon payment of $5; to revoke a certificate for 
cause; to keep a record of its proceedings and a register of all ap- 
plicants and registrants; to prepare, publish and distribute annually 
roster of registrants. 

Reports. The Board is required to submit to the Governor an- 
nually, before March 1st, a report of its transactions and state- 
ment of receipts and expenditures'. 

Secretary. To receive and account for all moneys derived 
through fees and pay them to the State Treasurer who shall 
keep such money in a separate fund, which shall be continued 
from year to year. All certified expenses of Board shall be paid 
out of this fund on warrant of Auditor issued on requisition signed 
by chairman and secretary of Board, provided, however, that at 
no time shall the total of warrants issued exceed the total amount 



State Licensing Board for Contractors 225 

of funds accumulated under this act. The secretary is required 
to give bond satisfactory to State Treasurer, premium to be paid 
out of fund. 

Historical Note 
Created by act of the General Assembly of 1921. 



STATE LICENSING BOARD FOR CONTRACTORS 

Ch. 318, P. L. 192o 

Membershii)— Five members. 

Personnel — C. D. Riggsbee, Durham; H. C. Caldwell, Asheville; 
U. 0. Underwood, Wilmington; H. P. Grier, Jr., Statesville; F. M. 
Laxton, Charlotte. 

Appointment — By Governor. 

Term — Five years overlapping. 

Qualification — At least one member to be engaged primarily in 
highway construction, one in construction of public utilities, and 
one in construction of buildings. 

Compensation — Expenses. 

Eiinotiou 

To select a chairman, a vice chairman, and a secretary-treasurer 
and to make by-laws and regulations; to adopt a seal; to meet in 
April and in October and at such special times as it may decide 
upon, three members constituting a quorum; to receive applications 
for examination, when accompanied by $20; to give examination 
to any acceptable applicant and to issue certificate of license for 
practice as a general contractor, if the result of the examination 
is satisfactory; to give reexamination without extra charge; to 
revoke' licenses for cause; to hear and act on charges made against 
any licensed general contractor; to turn over for equal division 
between the engineering departments of the State University and 
the State College of Agriculture and Engineering all funds above 
the expenses of the board for the current year; to submit to the 
Governor by March 1 of each year a report of its transactions for 
the preceding year. 

15 



226 State Departments, Boards, and Commissions 

The secretary-treasurer shall keep a roster of all licensed general 
contractors in the State, a register of all applicants for license, 
and a record of the proceedings and finances of the board. 

Historical Note 

Created by act of the General Assembly of 1925. 



PART V 
STATE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



1. University of North Carolina. 

2. North Carolina State College of Agriculture and 

Engineering. 

3. North Carolina College for Women. 

4. CuLLOwHEE State Normal School. 

5. Appalachian State Normal School. 
C. East Carolina Teachers College. 

7. North Carolina School for the White Blind and for 

THE Colored Blind and Deaf. 

8. North Carolina School for the Deaf (Morgantoii). 

9. Stonewall Jackson Manual Training and Industrial 

School. 

10. North Carolina Normal Schools and Colleges for the 

Colored Race and for the Cherokee Indians of 
Robeson County. 

11. Fayette viLLE Colored Normal School. 

12. Elizabeth City Colored Normal School. 

13. Winston-Salem Teachers College at Winston-Salem. 

14. North Carolina College for Negroes. 

15. Cherokee Indian Normal School of Robeson County. 

16. Negro Agricultural and Technical College of North 

Carolina. 

17. Caswell Training School. 

18. East Carolina Industrial Training School for Boys. 

19. State Training School for Negro Boys. 

20. State Home and Industrial School for Girls and 

Women. 



UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA (Chapel Hill) 

Sees. 6, 7, 14, Art. IX, Constitution; Art. I. Cli. 96, C. S. 

H. W. Chase, President 

Board of Trustees (102) — One hundred elected by joint ballot of 
the General Assembly; Governor, President ex officio; Superintend- 
ent of Public Instruction ex-officio; Treasurer, Secretary, elected by 
Board. 

Term — Eight years. 

Compensation — Not stated. 

Qualiflcatin7i — Sixteen must reside near University or capital. 

Function 

Trustees. To meet annually at such time and place as prescribed 
by law or by the Governor, ten trustees constituting a quorum compe- 
tent to exercise full power and authority of the Board; to remove 
trustees for cause; to make suitable rules and regulations for the 
management of the University, not inconsistent with the laws and 
Constitution; to appoint an executive committee from their own 
number with such powers as they may grant; to appoint the pres- 
ident, professors, tutors and other officers as they deem necessary, 
and to remove same for cause; to exercise such financial control 
and powers as prescribed by law and are vested in a body politic 
and corporate. The trustees may appoint special meetings as nec- 
essary, subject to statutory limits thereon. 

To have charge of all construction, enlargement and permanent 
improvements; to purchase all supplies, materials and equipment. 

GovEaiNOR. To preside over meetings of Trustees or to appoint 
some member to act for him; to appoint special meetings of board, 
but no special meeting shall have power to revoke or alter any 
order, resolution or vote of an annual meeting; to fill temporarily 
vacancies in oflSce of Secretary and Treasurer. 

President and FacX'Lty. To have the power, by and witli the 
consent of the Trustees, of conferring all such degrees or marks of 
literary distinction as are usually conferred by colleges or uni- 
versities; to make suitable laws and regulations for the govern- 



230 State Educational Institutions 

ment of the University and preservation of order and good morals 
therein. 

Reports. To liave annual reports made to the Governor, to be 
transmitted by him to the General Assembly, showing the receipts 
of the corporation from all sources and expenditures of same. 

OB.TECTS AND PURPOSES. To instruct the youth of the State in 
the arts, sciences, professions, and higher branches of learning; 
to inculcate the principles of good citizenship, and to advance 
knowledge and standards of education. 

Departments. Collegiate, Applied Science, Teacher Training, 
Graduate, Law, Medicine, Pharmacy, Bureau of Extension. 

Established .-. 1789 

Acreage 598 

Value of buildings, equipment and land $6,492,413.64 

Invested funds $2,132,575.69 

Students, regular, 1925-26 2,480 

Students, Summer School, 1926 2,312 

Faculty, 1925-26 178 

Appropriation, 1925-26 $712,500.00 

Historical ]Vote 

The University of North Carolina is at Chapel Hill, Orange 
County, near the middle of the State. Its charter was granted in 
1789: the cornerstone of the first building was laid in 1793 and 
students were admitted in 1795. The campus of 48 acres and 
about 550 acres of forest contiguous to it were given by the citizens 
of the county. All the buildings put up for 112 years were given 
by friends of the University, the first direct appropriation from the 
Legislature for construction being $50,000 for a chemistry building 
in 1905. Of the total amount received by the institution from all 
sources, since its foundation, one-half has been contributed by 
alumni and other friends. 

During the Reconstruction period after the Civil War the Uni- 
versity was stripped of its funds, and much of its property and 
equipment was destroyed. From 1870 to 1875 its doors were closed. 



University of North Carolina 231 

For the first eighty years of its existence, the University received 
no money from the State for maintenance. When it was reopened 
in 1S75, with practically nothing but empty halls and meagre con- 
tributions from friends, the interest from the Land-Script Fund 
($7,500) was turned over to it, but this was later withdrawn. 
In 1881, the Legislature made its first direct appropriation for 
maintenance, granting $5,000 to cover one year. 

The annual upkeep fund voted by the State was increased little 
by little, but for a score of years the University was barely able 
to exist. Toward the end of the century, when the movement for pub- 
lic education was carried to a definite triumph through the efforts 
of Governor Aycock and others, the institution at Chapel Hill 
came upon better days. Maintenance appropriations were augmented 
until now the yearly allowance from the Legislature is $750,000 
and a number of new buildings have been erected on the campus 
since the support of higher education was accepted as a fixed policy 
of the State. 

The University property now consists of: 

Campus 48 acres, and woodland 550 acres $ 327,548.66 

Equipment, books, apparatus, furniture, etc 987,234.69 

Buildings and faculty houses 5,177,630.49 

$6,492,413.64 
Endowment, including loan funds $2,132,575.69 

Total $8,624,989.33 

The income of the University was derived from the following 
sources for the year 1925-26. 

M.^INTEN.VXCE 

State appropriation $712,500.00 

Student fees 278,049.10 

Invested funds 84,256.03 

Other sources 21,998.22 



Total $1,096,803.35 



232 State Educational Institutions 

BUILDINGS AND IMPROVEMENTS 

State appropriation $547,102.41 

Escheats 150.00 

Special Funds 140,998.94 

Total $688,251.35 

The University comprises the following divisions: colle- 
giate, applied science, commerce, engineering, teachers' training, 
graduate, public welfare, law, medicine, pharmacy, the division of 
extension, the Library, and the University Press. 

The University of North Carolina is a member of the Association 
of American Universities and is on the accredited list of Cam- 
bridge University. This means that its standing as a graduate and 
undergraduate institution is on a par with the highest standards 
of the University world. Likewise, the professional schools are 
recognized as of first grade by admission to membership in the 
associations of "A" grade professional schools of America. 

Instruction was given by the University for the years 1921-1926 
as follows: 

Resident 

Students Summer School Extension lotai 

1921-1922 1679 1096 157 2926 

1922-1923 1975 1348 401 3724 

1923-1924 2307 1492 1277 5076 

1924-1925 2480 1703 2092 6275 

1925-1926 2505 1733 2823 7061 

The parents of the students represent all professions, creeds, and 
parties in the State. The leading professions represented are 
farmers, merchants, lawyers, physicians, manufacturers, ministers, 
teachers. The leading churches are: Methodist, Baptist, Presby- 
terian, Episcopal. 

Over one-half of the students earn or borrow, in part or in 
whole, the money for their education. Some 87 of them earn their 
board by waiting at the table. Few of the families from which 
these students come are able to stand the strain of the support of 
a son at college without stringent economy or even many sacrifices. 
About one-half of the graduates start out as teachers. 



University of North Carolina 233 

There is a splendid spirit of democracy about the institution, 

which opens the doors of achievement to all alike and places at- 
tainment upon merit alone. It is emphatically a place "where 
wealth is no prejudice and poverty is no shame." 

SUMMARY 

Charter granted 1789 

Opened 1795 

Acres of land owned 598 

Value of buildings, equipment and land $6,492,413.64 

Invested funds $2,132,575.69 

Number of volumes in library, 1925 147,500.00 

Number of students, 1925-26 7,013 

Number of faculty, 1925-26 178 

Income from State, 1925-26 $ 712,500.00 

Income from students $ 278,049.10 

Invested funds $ 84,256.03 

PRESIDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY 

No president 1795-1804 

Joseph Caldwell 1804-1835 

David L. Swain 1835-1868 

Solomon Pool -.. , 1869-1870 

University closed 1870-1876 

Kemp P. Battle 1876-1891 

George T. Winston 1891-1896 

Edwin A. Alderman 1896-1900 

Francis P. Venable 1900-1914 

Edward K. Graham 1914-1918 

Harry W. Chasp: 1919- 



234 State Educational Institutions 

KOKTH t AKOLINA STATE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE A^D 

ENGINEERING (Raleigh) 

Public Laws of North Carolina, Session 1923, Chapter 47 

Eugene Clyde Brooks, President 

Board of Trustees (62) — Sixty, elected by joint ballot of both 
Houses of the General Assembly; Governor, President ex officio; 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction, ex officio. 

Term — Eight years, overlapping. 

Function 

Trustees. There shall be an annual meeting of the Board of 
Trustees in the city of Raleigh. At any of the annual meetings of 
the Board any number of trustees, not less than twenty, shall con- 
stitute a quorum and be competent to exercise full power and au- 
thority to transact any of the business of the corporation, and the 
Board or the Governor shall have power to appoint special meet- 
ings of the trustees at such time and place as, in their opinion, the 
interest of the corporation may require. 

The Board of Trustees shall have power to vacate the appoint- 
ment and remove a trustee for improper conduct, stating the cause 
of such removal on their journal; but this shall not be done except 
at an annual meeting of the Board, and there shall be present at 
the doing thereof at least twenty members of the Board. 

Whenever any vacancy shall happen in the Board of Trustees it 
shall be the duty of the Secretary of the Board of Trustees to 
communicate to the General Assembly the existence of such vacancy, 
and thereupon there shall be elected by joint ballot of both Houses 
a suitable person to fill the same. 

The trustees shall have power to make such rules and regula- 
tions for the management of the North Carolina State College of 
Agriculture and Engineering as they may deem necessary and 
expedient, not inconsistent with the constitution and laws of the 
State. 

The trustees shall have power to appoint from their own number 
an executive committee of seven members, which shall meet at the 
call of the Governor or president of the Board of Trustees. 



College of Agriculture and Engineering 235 

The trustees shall have the power of appointing a president of 
the North Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engineering 
and such professors, tutors, and other officers as to them shall ap- 
pear necessary and proper, whom they may remove for misbehavior, 
inability, or neglect of duty. 

GovERXoR. The Governor shall preside at all the meetings of the 
Board at which he may be present. 

President and Faculty. The Faculty of the North Carolina State 
College of Agriculture and Engineering, that is to say, the President 
and professors, by and with consent of the trustees, shall have the 
power of conferring all such degrees or marks of literary distinction 
as are usually conferred by colleges. 

Reports. It shall be the duty of the trustees to cause annual 
reports to be made to the Governor, to be transmitted by him to the 
General Assembly, showing the receipts of the corporation from all 
sources, and the expenditures thereof, with the objects for which 
such expenditures were made. 

Historical >ote 

The North Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engineering 
is the outgrowth of an idea fostered by two distinct movements, 
each somewhat different in its original aims. One movement, rep- 
resented by a group of progressive young North Carolinians, banded 
together in Raleigh as the Watauga Club, sought to bring about the 
organization of an industrial school for the teaching of "woodwork, 
mining, metallurgy, and practical agriculture." The other move- 
ment, originating among the farmers in North Carolina, and ac- 
tively sponsored by Colonel L. L. Polk, then editor of the Progressive 
Fancier, had as its object the establishment of an agricultural col- 
lege supported by State appropriations and by the Land Script 
Fund of the Federal Government. 

On March 7, 1885, a bill introduced by the Honorable Augustus 
Leazar of Iredell County looking to the founding of an "industrial 
school" was passed. The Board of Agriculture, by authority of this 
bill, accepted as the best offer for the location of the "school" tne 
proposal of the City of Raleigh. As the idea of the "school" ma- 
tured, it broadened; and with the prospect of an appropriation by 
Congress, supplementing the first Morrill Land Grant Act, for the 



236 State Educational Institutions 

support of agricultural and mechanical colleges, the "school" was, 
by Act of the General Assembly of 1887, changed into The North 
Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. 

The newly created College was allotted the Congressional Land 
Script Fund and "any surplus from the Department of Agriculture." 
Mr. R. Stanhope Pullen, a broadminded, generous citizen of Raleigh, 
gave a beautiful site for the College in a tract of eighty-three acres 
of land adjacent to the city on the west. Appropriations by the 
State, which have been continued and enlarged as needs increased, 
were made for buildings and maintenance. 

The first building was completed in 1889, and in October of that 
year the doors of the College were first opened for students. Seventy- 
two, representing thirty-seven counties, enrolled. The faculty con- 
sisted of six professors and two assistants. 

Congressional appropriation for immediate college use made in 
the Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862 was increased by the Second 
Morrill Act of 1890 and by the Nelson Act of 1907. The College 
also receives from the Federal Government under Acts of 1887 and 
1906 funds for the Agricultural Experiment Station, and under an 
Act of 1914 funds for Extension Work in Agriculture. Since July 
1, 1925, the College receives an annual Federal appropriation under 
the Purnell Act. The War Department maintains at the College a 
Unit of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps. 

Acting on the suggestion from the alumni and other friends of 
the College, the General Assembly in 1917 changed the name of the 
College from the North Carolina College of Agriculture and Me- 
chanic Arts to North Carolina State College of Agriculture and 
Engineering. 

During the history of the College, covering a period now ap- 
proaching thirty-eight years, five presidents have directed its prog- 
ress, namely: 

Aj.kxa.\dek Q. Holladay 1889-1899 

Geokge Tayloe Winston 1899-1908 

Dani£l Harvey Hill 1908-1916 

Wallace Carl Riddick 1916-1923 

EiGKNE Clyde Brooks (June) 1923- 



College of Agriculture and Engineering 237 

The Organization of State College 

THE SCHOOLS AND THEIR PROFESSIONAL OBJECTIVES 

The College is divided into five closely related schools: (1) The 
School of Agriculture, (2) The School of Engineering, (3) The 
School of Science and Business, (4) The Textile School, and (5) 
The Graduate School. The courses offered in each are grouped ac- 
cording to definite vocational aims, and students entering will be 
directed first to elect a vocation. 

There are thirty-six major vocations open to young men in the 
State, for which State College offers from four to seven years train- 
ing in technical, scientific, and professional service. 

PURPOSES OF THE SClfOOLS 

The purpose of the School of Agriculture is threefold: (1) To 
secure through scientific research, experimentation, or demonstra- 
tion, accurate and reliable information relating to soils, plants, 
and animals, and to secure from every available source reliable 
statistical, technical, and scientific data relating to every phase of 
agriculture that might be of advantage to our State; (2) to pro- 
vide instruction in College for young men who desire to enter the 
field of general agriculture, or who wish to become professionals in 
agricultural education, or specialists in any field of science related 
to agriculture; and (3) to disseminate reliable information through 
publications and through extension agents, and through a wise use 
of this information to give instruction to the agricultural workers 
of the State in the scientific, experimental, and practical progress 
in the various lines of agriculture. 

The purpose of the School of Engineering is threefold: (1) to 
educate men for professional service in Architectural, Chemical, 
Ceramic, Civil, Electrical, Highway, and Mechanical Engineering, 
and at the same time to equip them to participate in public affairs 
and to develop their capacities for intelligent leadership; (2) to 
aid in the development of our commerce and industry through re- 
search and experimentation, to open up our undeveloped natural re- 
sources and demonstrate their value to the people of the State; 
(3) to cooperate with private and municipal corporations for the 
purpose of improving our public utilities, and with commercial and 



238 State Educational Institutions 

industrial organizations througli scientific research for increasing 
technical skill, improving the value of manufactured products, and 
eliminating w^aste. 

In order to make effective these purposes, the School of Engineer- 
ing is organized into five departments: Civil (including Architecture 
and Highway Engineering), Electrical, Mechanical, Ceramic, and 
Chemical Engineering, and in addition The Engineering Experiment 
Station and Extension Service. 

The purpose of the School of Science and Business is: (1) To pro- 
vide systematic instruction for young men desiring to enter manage- 
rial positions in business or industry, the technical training being 
secured in the Schools of Agriculture, Engineering and Textiles; 
(2) To train teachers of Science, of Agriculture, and of the Trades 
and Industries, and so to organize their technical or professional 
courses that the modern pedagogical principles of teaching may be 
applied; (3) To supply those broadening courses required of stu- 
dents in each of the five Schools of the College, and to supplement 
the technical training in Agriculture and Engineering by systematic 
instruction in Language, Literature, History, Citizenship, Econom- 
ics, and the other Social Sciences, in order to give the young men 
trained for technical service a higher conception of their duties 
and obligations as citizens and leaders in our State and Nation; 
(4) To secure through economic research, reliable data pertaining 
to social and industrial organizations and the business of agricul- 
ture, and to collect from all available sources useful information 
concerning farm statistics, marketing, industrial management, and 
social cooperation, that this information may be available for the 
students and be disseminated through publications and Extension 
Agents in order to increase wholesome instruction in proper human 
relationships, that our people may learn how to cooperate as the 
demands for cooperation increase. 

The purpose of the Textile School is: (1) To promote the textile 
industries of the State by giving instruction in the theory anu 
practice of all branches of the textile industry; (2) To cooperate 
with the textile mills of the State in securing, through scientific 
research and experimentation, reliable data pertaining to the tex- 
tile industry; (3) To educate men for professional service in Tex- 
tile Manufacturing, Textile Design, Textile Chemistry and Dyeing, 



College of Agriculture and Engineering 239 

and at the same time to develop their capacities for intelligent 
leadership, so they may participate in public affairs; (4) To demon- 
strate the value of economic diversification and to aid in the de- 
velopment of the textile industry through research and experimen- 
tation. 

The purpose of the Graduate School is to provide advanced study 
and research for college graduates desiring to specialize in the 
following subjects: Agricultural Economics, Agronomy, Animal 
Husbandry, Horticulture, Poultry Science, the Biological Sciences, 
Rural Sociology, Chemistry, Physics, Business Administration, In- 
dustrial Management, Agricultural Engineering, Chemical Engineer- 
ing, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engi- 
neering, Textile Manufacturing, Textile Engineering, Textile Chem- 
istry and Dyeing, and Vocational Education. In addition to the 
above specialization, it offers courses for those desiring to become 
teachers in colleges. 

A six weeks Summer School is conducted at the College each 
year. The purpose of the Summer School is to serve farmers and 
farm women of the State, teachers of agriculture, extension work- 
ers, teachers of industrial arts and of industrial education, prin- 
cipals and teachers of high schools, especially teachers of science, 
and persons interested in executive and administrative positions in 
inoustry — a service State College is well equipped to render. 

SUMMARY 

Established '. 1887 

Number of buildings 33 

Number of acres of land 490 

Value of buildings, equipment and land $3,903,709.72 

Number of students 1444 

Number of teaching faculty 133 

Income from State $ 361,000.00 

Income from Students $ 154,146.47 

Other income for instruction (Federal 

Government) $ 41,000.00 



240 State Educational Institutions 

SHORT COURSES AND CORRESPONDENCE COURSES 

Summer School Enrollment 750 

Short Courses and Correspondence Courses: 

In Agriculture 2171 

In Engineering 489 

In Science and Business 123 

In Textiles 1 

Total 3534 

AGRICULTURAU COOPKKATl VE EXTENSION SERVICE 

No. Extension Specialists -. 39 

Income from State $175,000.00 

Income from Federal Government $227,356.06 

No. County Farm Agents (White) 76 

No. County Farm Agents (Colored) 18 

No. County Home Agents (White).- 48 

No. County Home Agents (Colored) 6 

agricultural RESEARCH 

No. Research Specialists. 23 

Income from State Department of Agriculture ..$ 60,000.00 
Income from Federal Government $ 60,000.00 



NORTH CAROLINA COLLEGE FOR WOMEN (Greensboro) 

Art. 4, Ch. •rid. C. S. 

Julius I. Foust, President 

Board of Directors (11)- — Ten members; Superintendent of Pub- 
lic Instruction, Chairman ex officio. 

Personnel — A. J. Conner, Rich Square; Mrs. Cameron Morrison, 
Charlotte; C. H. Mebane, Newton; T. D. Murphy, Asheville; J. L. 
Nelson, Lenoir; Joe Rosenthal, Goldsboro; Mrs. J. A. Brovi^n, Chad- 
bourn; Miss Easdale Shaw, Rockingham; J. D. Grimes, Washington; 
Mrs. W. T. Bost, Raleigh. 

Appointment — State Board of Education, with consent of Senate. 



Worth Carolina College for Women 241 

Term — Six years, overlapping. 

Qualification — No two from same Congressional District. 

Function 

Board of Directors. To make rules and regulations for the gov- 
ernment of the corporation and the admission of students, but shall 
not discriminate against any county in the number of students al- 
lowed it in case all applicants cannot be accommodated ; each county 
to have representation in proportion to its white school population. 

To appoint a president, professors, tutors and other offlcers as 
necessary for such terms and conditions as they may prescribe; to 
make such regulations for the government of the college as shall not 
conflict with the laws of the State; to have charge of all construc- 
tion, enlargement and permanent improvements; to purchase nec- 
essary supplies, materials and equipment. Vacancies on the Board 
are filled by appointment by the Board of Education with the con- 
sent of the Senate. 

Faculty. To confer degrees by and with consent of the Board; 
to extend the influence and usefulness of the college to the persons 
of the State who are unable to avail themselves of its advantages as 
resident students, by extension courses, by lectures and by other 
suitable means. 

Reports. To report biennially, before the meeting of each Gen- 
eral Assembly to the Governor the operations of the corporation. 

Objects and Purpose. To teach young white women all branches 
of knowledge essential to a liberal education; to make special pro- 
vision for training in the science and art of teaching, school man- 
agement and school supervision; to provide women with such train- 
ing in the arts, sciences and industries as may be conducive to their 
self-support and community usefulness; to render to the people of 
the State such aid and encouragement as will tend to disseminate 
knowledge, foster loyalty and patriotism and promote the general 
welfare; to provide free tuition to those who are to teach in the 
schools of North Carolina or enter other fields of public service. 

The chief mission of the institution lies in furnishing the public 
school system of the State well-equipped teachers; more than 15,000 
students have been enrolled during the thirty-four years of its life, 

16 



242 State Educational Institutions 

two-thirds of whom and nine-tenths of the graduates of which be- 
come teachers in North Carolina. 

Historical >ote 

The State Normal and Industrial College was established by an 
act of the General Assembly of 1891. The General Assembly of 1919 
changed the name of this institution to The North Carolina College 
for Women. The purpose of the College, as stated in chapter 199 
of the Public Laws of North Carolina, session 1919, amending the 
charter is as follows: 

The objects of the institution shall be (1) to teach young 
white women all branches of knowledge recognized as essential to 
a liberal education, such as will familiarize them with the world's 
best thought and achievement and prepare them for intelligent and 
useful citizenship; (2) to make special provision for training in 
the science and art of teaching, school management, and school 
supervision; (3) to provide women with such training in the arts, 
sciences, and industries as may be conducive to their self-support 
and community usefulness; (4) to render to the people of the State 
such aid and encouragement as will tend to the dissemination of 
knowledge, the fostering of loyalty and patriotism, and the promo- 
tion of the general welfare. Tuition shall be free, upon such 
conditions as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors, to those 
who signify their intention to teach in the schools of North Caro- 
lina; and also, in the discretion of said board, to those who signify 
their intention to enter other fields of public service. 

. . . That it shall be the duty of the faculty of the North Caro- 
lina College for Women to extend its influence and usefulness as far 
as possible to the persons of the State who are unable to avail them- 
selves of its advantages as resident students, by extension courses, 
by lectures, and by such other means as may seem to them most 
effective. 

In 1892 the institution began with $80,000 donated by the city 
of Greensboro; ten acres of land, the gift of R. S. Pullen, R. T. Gray, 
E. P. Wharton, and others; and an annual appropriation of $10,000 
from the State. In addition to the State appropriation and tuition 
fees, the institution received during the first few years about $3,000 
annually from the Peabody Fund and for three years received 
$2,500 annually from the General Education Board. It also received 



North Carolina College for Women 243 

about $11,000 from the faculty and students, a small amount from 
Mr. George Foster Peabody, and a library building from Andrew 
Carnegie. The plant is now worth about $5,800,000 according to 
the audited reports of state experts; the annual State appropriation 
is $425,000 and the loan, fellowship and scholarship funds received 
from various sources in the State and out of it now amount to 
$62,833.70. The faculty numbers 168. There have been enrolled 
during the present session (1925-26,) 1,668 students, and during the 
summer session (1926) 1,909 students; total 3,769, including exten- 
sion students. 

The chief mission of the institution lies in furnishing the public 
school system of the State well-equipped teachers who are capable 
of rendering the State intelligent and useful service. It provides 
regular degree courses, whose admission requirements, curricula 
of instruction, and standards of scholarship are in keeping with 
the requirements of our best Southern colleges for men and women. 

Special industrial and commercial courses are open to those who 
do not have free tuition and are not under contract to teach. Pro- 
vision is also made for teachers who may wish to take brief courses 
in pedagogy and in the subjects taught in the public schools. For 
those who cannot remain longer, a two-year course is offered. For 
various reasons a number of ambitious teachers are not able to avail 
themselves of the two-year course, and to meet the demands of 
these a regular summer session has been inaugurated. The ad- 
vantages of the institution are thus open to every worthy young 
white woman who has availed herself of the opportunities offered in 
the public schools of the State. 

The patronage of the institution has justified the wisdom of 
the founders. During the thirty-four years of its life, beginning 
October, 1892, and closing with the session of June, 1926, there have 
been enrolled more than 15,000 young women as students. These 
students have come from all of the 100 counties of the State, and 
in their political and religious faith, their financial condition, their 
professional and social life, their intellectual ability and previous 
educational opportunities, are representative of the people of North 
Carolina. Of the more than 15,000 young women who have soug'ht 
the help and strength thus provided, more than SO per cent received 
their training in the rural public schools, one-third defrayed their 
own expenses, and two-thirds, according to their own written state- 



244 State Educational Institutions 

ment would not have attended any other North Carolina college. In 
brief, one of the strongest forces of the college, and a prime source 
of its usefulness, has been the representative character of its pat- 
ronage. This coming together of all classes from all sections of the 
State necessarily creates an atmosphere of wholesome democracy 
and equal opportunity. The spirit of the State College for Women 
is, therefore, what the spirit of every state college should be, and, 
as a result, its representatives acquire that larger sympathy, that 
breadth of vision, and that intelligent insight into the needs of 
their State that no textbooks or lectures or mere academic training 
can ever hope to give. 

Some indication of the serviceableness of the college is suggested 
by what has been said of the scope and character of its patronage. 
It has, since its establishment, been an open door of opportunity for 
the white women of North Carolina. Through it the State has added 
to its resources over 15,000 educated women, who have taught lessons 
of patriotism and right living to at least 650,000 North Carolina 
children. Two-thirds of all the students enrolled and nine-tenths of 
all who graduate become teachers in North Carolina. No large 
movement for the uplift of the State has failed to have support from 
its faculty and students, and today there is not a county in the 
State where representatives of the college are not to be found 
actively engaged in public service. 

SUMMER SESSION 

The special purpose of the North Carolina College for Women in 
organizing the Summer Session was to offer the advantages of 
its instruction to those women in the State whose occupation during 
other months of the year prevents their attendance upon the regular 
session. In the selection and arrangement of its summer courses 
the college has in view the needs of the following classes: 

First. Teachers wishing special work in the principles and 
methods of teaching (Primary, Grammar, and High School), with op- 
portunities for practice and observation work under experienced 
supervisors. 

Second. Teachers desiring advanced or collegiate courses in 
Philosophy, Science, Psychology, and the History of Education. 

Third. Teachers of special subjects, such as Domestic Science, 
V^ocal Music, Drawing, and Manual Arts. 



CuLLOWHEE State Normal School 245 

Fourth. High school teachers who desire advanced or extra 
work along the line of their specialties with free use of good 
department libraries and well-equipped laboratories. 

Fifth. College students who wish to earn advanced credit or to 
remove conditions. 

Sixth. Students preparing for college. 

Seventh. Mothers, wives, and home-makers who feel the need of 
practical help in such subjects as food and food values, cookery, 
kitchen conveniences, home nursing, sanitation, and household dec- 
oration. 

SUMMARY OF ENROLLMENT DURING THE SESSION 1925-1926 

Enrolled during the regular session 1668 

Enrolled during the summer session 1909 



Total number taught at the college during the session 

1925-26 3577 

SUMMARY 

Established 1891 

Buildings (including 7 faculty residences) 40 

Acreage 350 

Value $5,800,000 

Students, regular session 1668 

Students, Summer School 1909 

Faculty (including officers, physicians and clerks) 168 

Appropriation, 1925-1926 $ 425,000 



CULLOWHEE STATE NORMAL SCHOOL (Cullowhee) 

Art. 5, Ch. 96, C. S. ; Ch. 61, P. L. 1921; Ch. 270, P. L. 192.^i 

H. T. Hunter, President 

Board of Trustees — Nine members. 

Personnel — Reuben Robertson, Canton; Mrs. Giles Cover, An- 
drews; J. E. Coburn, Bryson City; T. H. Shipman, Brevard; Mrs. 
J. W. Pless, Sr., Marion; Alex Moore, Franklin: Dr. J. N. Hill, 
Murphy; Don Elias, Asheville. 



246 State Educational Institutions 

Appointment — By Governor and Senate. 
Term — Four years. 
Qualifications — None specified. 
Compensation — Actual expenses. 

Function (»!' School 

Section S of tlie new charter for Cullowhee states tlie purpose of 
the school as follows: 

"That the central purpose of the Cullowhee State Normal School 
shall be to prepare teachers for the public schools of North Caro- 
lina. To that end the President shall prepare courses of study, 
subject to the approval of the State Superintendent of Public In- 
struction. It shall be the duty of the State Superintendent to visit 
the Cullowhee State Normal School from time to time, and to advise 
with the President about standards, equipment and organization, 
to the end that a normal school of high grade shall be maintained. 
The standards shall not be lower, in the main, than the average 
standard of normal schools of like rank in the United States." 

Cullowhee is thus committed in its charter to the training of 
teachers as its central purpose. At present, it is devoting its ener- 
gies to the training of elementary teachers. It is possible that, a 
little later, it may undertake to prepare teachers for the high schools 
as well as for the elementary schools. But, with the present limi- 
tations as to plant, it is not thought that any considerable extension 
of the program could be justified. 

The Board of Trustees meets annually, elects its own officers, 
holds the property of the school in trust for the State, selects the 
President and fixes his salary, and, upon recommendation of the 
President, elects all teachers and employees and fixes their duties, 
tenure of office, and salaries. 

Reports — The Secretary of the Board (President of the School) 
shall submit annually a detailed report of the school for the pre- 
ceding year to the Board and to the State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction. 

For a quarter of a century The Cullowhee Normal was a four- 
year high school, and in addition offered certain academic and 
educational courses. Up to 1923-24, the high school students con- 
stituted a majority of the student body. The past three years have 
witnessed the elimination of the high school department, so that 



Appalachian State Normal School 247 

after 1927, there will be no high school students under the control 
of the Normal at Cullowhee. The school will, therefore, be free to 
devote its energies and its resources to the training of teachers. 
The authorities at Cullowhee feel that the legislative appropriation 
to Cullowhee State Normal School was made solely for the purpose 
of guaranteeing more and better teachers for the Public Schools of 
North Carolina. 

summary 

Founded 1889 

Buildings— For school purposes 5 

Buildings — Faculty residences, etc 6 

Acreage 385 

Instructors 20 

Normal Students, Regular Session 157 

Normal Students, Summer..... 388 

Value of Plant $600,000 

Annual Appropriation for Maintenance $ 50,000 



APPALACHIAN STATE NOEMAL SCHOOL (Boone) 

Art. 8, Ch. 96, C. S. : Ch. 61, P. L. 1921; Ch. 204, Priv. Laws, 1925 

B. B. Dougherty, President 

Board of Trustees — Nine members. 

Personnel — J. M. Barnhardt, Lenoir; W. C. Newland, Lenoir; 
Eugene Transou, Sparta; G. H. Geitner, Hickory; T. C. Bowie, 
Jefferson; T. H. Coffey, Blowing Rock; Miss Celeste Henkle, States- 
ville; H. H. Sullivan, Asheville. 

Appointment — By Governor with confirmation of the Senate. 

Term — Four years overlapping. 

Compensation — Expenses only. 

Fuiu'tioii 

To give a two-year normal college course based upon high school 
graduation to teachers of elementary schools in North Carolina. 



248 State Educational Institutions 

SUMMARY 

Established , 1903 

Buildings 16 

Acreage 435 

Value of buildings and equipment $730,500 

Value of land ? 81,000 

Students 1,496 

Faculty 22 

Appropriation, 1926-27 $ 50,000 



EAST CAROLINA TEACHERS COLLEGE (Greenyille) 

Art. 9. Ch. 96, C. S. ; Ch. 68, P. L. 1920 — Extra Session; Ch. 27. P. h. 
1921. Extra Session; Ch. 306, P. L. 1925. 

Robert H. Wright, President 

Board of Trustees (10) — Nine members appointed by the Gov- 
ernor; Superintendent of Public Instruction, chairman ex officio. 

Personnel — P. C. Harding, Greenville; L. W. Tucker, Greenville; 
D. S. Boyken, Wilson; Mrs. H. G. Connor, Jr., Wilson; J. S. Hargett, 
Trenton; J. L. Griffin, Pitts'boro; H. C. Bridges, Tarboro; Wayne 
Mitchell, Kinston. 

Term — Four years. 

Function 

To prescribe course of study, laying emphasis on subjects taught 
in public schools of the State, and on the art and science of teach- 
ing; to waive tuition charges to those who agree to teach; to make 
no rules that discriminate against one county in favor of another 
in the admission of pupils into said school; to present diplomas 
of graduation and certificates of proficiency upon the recommenda- 
tion of the faculty, and to confer degrees. 

To have charge of all construction, enlargement and permanent 
repairs; to purchase necessary supplies, material and equipment. 

Reports. The trustees report biennially to the Governor before 
the meeting of each General Assembly, the operation, condition and 
needs of the school. 



East Carolina Teachers College 249 

Historical Note 

East Carolina Teachers College was established by act of the 
General Assembly of 1907. The school is located at Greenville. 
The site contains 91 acres of land, a large part of which is a natural 
forest. 

Twenty-one buildings have been erected; Ave dormitories with a 
capacity for 820 students; an administration building containing 
the offices, auditorium, and class rooms; a building for the kitchen 
and dining-room (this building contains store rooms for supplies 
and a refrigerating plant) ; an infirmary, a building containing 
the power plant and laundry, an eight-room model school and a 
residence for the president, a library, auxiliary power plant, four 
residences for the faculty, and a social-religious building. 

The buildings and equipment are modern in every sense and are 
valued at 12,500,000. The town of Greenville and county of Pitt 
voted $100,000 in bonds for this school, and the State has made 
an appropriation of $1,954,325.57 for buildings and equipment. 
These buildings have not yet been thoroughly equipped, but enough 
equipment has been installed to enable the school to do efficient 
work. The equipment installed is of the best type procurable. 

Section 5864 of the charter reads: "That the said college shall 
be maintained by the State for the purpose of giving to young 
white men and women such education and training as shall fit and 
qualify them to teach in the public schools of North Carolina." 

This clearly sets forth the purpose of the college. To those 
students who agree to teach there is no charge for tuition. Prac- 
tically all of the students sign this agreement. This shows that 
the management is adhering to the purpose of the college as stated 
In its charter. 

The school was first opened for students on October 5, 1909. 
During the past seventeen years, including the summer terms, 
there have been enrolled 11,743 students. Number of graduates, 
1909 to 1926, 1,391. 

SIMMAKV 

Founded 1907 

Number of buildings 21 

Number of acres of land 91 



250 State Educational Institutions 

V'alue of buildings and grounds $2,500,000 

Number of students, 1909-1926 11,743 

Annual appropriation (1926-27) $ 160,000 

Number of graduates 1,391 

PRESIDENT 

Robert H. Wright 1907-... 



NORTH CAROLINA SCHOOL FOR THE WHITE BLIND AND FOR 
THE COLORED BLIND AND DEAF 

Art. 10, Ch. 96, C. S. ; Chs. 120, 306, P. L. 1925 

G. E. LiNEiBERRY, Superintendent, Raleigh 

Board of Directors — Eleven members: State Treasurer, Treasurer 
ex officio. 

Personnel— R. L. McMillan, Raleigh; C. M. Wilson, Wilsons Mills; 
J. R. Baggett, Lillington; W. N. Keener, Durham; R. H. Crichton, 
Lumberton; J. T. Alderman, Henderson; A. L. McNeill, Sanford; 
J. A. Oates, Fayetteville; Dr. W. A. Rogers, Franklin; Miss Beatrice 
Cobb, Morganton; K. M. Barnes, Lumberton. 

Appointment — By Governor with consent of Senate. 

Term — Four years. 

Compensation — Traveling expenses. 

Function 

The trustees make by-laws regulating the government of the 
institution; they elect a president, executive committee, superintend- 
ent and other officers and fix their compensation; they erect nec- 
essary buildings, make improvements, regulate admission of pupils 
from this and other states, and confer upon the recommendation of 
the superintendent and faculty such degrees or marks of literary 
distinction as may be necessary to encourage merit; they meet at 
stated times and also at such other times as may be necessary. 

The treasurer reports to the Board showing receipts, expenditures 
and balance. 



School for the Blind and the Deaf 251 

The superintendent has charge of the institution in all of its de- 
partments and performs such duties as are incumbent upon such an 
officer; he employs all employees and fixes their compensation, sub- 
ject to the approval of the Board; his term of office is three years; 
he is secretary ex officio of the Board of Trustees. 

BRANCHES OF THE INSTITUTION 

The main department cares for all white blind children of the 
State. It is located in West Raleigh at the end of Ashe Avenue, 
next to Pullen Park, and consists of 16 buildings (not including 6 
farm buildings) on a plot of 85 acres. Value of buildings and equip- 
ment is placed at $950,000; value of land at $80,000. There are at 
present 142 students and a faculty of 25. This department has a 
library of 1,900 volumes in ink print and 5,600 in tactile print. 

The colored department is situated in East Raleigh. It has four 
buildings valued at $75,000; 172 students and a faculty of 18. 
It has a library of 500 volumes in ink print and 1,700 volumes in 
tactile print. 

The white department was founded in January 12, 1845, on Cas- 
well Square in Raleigh, but in 1923 buildings on the new site were 
completed and the school was moved. The colored department was 
founded in 1869 on its present location. 

Both the white and colored departments operate a kindergarten 
and a standard school through the high school courses. In addition 
it gives courses in music, fancy work and sewing, broom and mat- 
tress making and piano tuning, shoemaking, carpentry and agri- 
culture. 

NAMES AND TERMS OF SERVICE OF ALL PRINCIPALS 

W. D. CooKE 1845-1860 

Wiley J. Palmer 1860-1869 

John Nichols 1869-1871 

S. F. Tomlinson 1871-1873 



252 State Educational Institutions 

John Nichols 1873-1877 

Hezekiah a. GuDGEaj 1877-1883 

William J. Young 1883-1896 

Frederick R. Place, June 1896-September 1896 

John E. Ray 1896-1918 

John T. Alderman, January, 1918-August 1918 

G. E. Lineherry 1918- 



NOBTH CAROLINA SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF (Morganton) 

Art. 11, Ch. 96, C. S. ; Chs. 120, 306, P. L. 1925 

E. McK. Goodwin, Superintendent 
Miss Enfield Joiner, Principal 

Board of Directors- — Seven members; State Treasurer, Treasurer 
ex officio. 

Personnel — Dr. Howard Ronthaler, Winston-Salem; W. W. Neal, 
Marion; W. C. Dowd, Sr., Charlotte; Mrs. I. P. Jeter, Morganton; 
J. F. Barrett, Charlotte; Dr. James Morrell, Falkland; A. A. Shu- 
ford, Jr., Hickory. 

Appointment — By Governor with consent of Senate. 

Term — Four years. 

Qualification — Not more than two shall be from same county. 

Function 

To make suitable by-laws for the proper management of the 
school and its officers; to conduct school on self-sustaining basis 
as far as possible; to appoint a president and an executive com- 
mittee whose terms shall be for two years; to elect a superintendent 
and other officers, teachers and agents as deemed necessary, and 
fix their compensation, to fix charges and prescribe rules whereby 
non-resident deaf children may be admitted; to provide for the 
instruction of all pupils in courses of study as prescribed by law 
for public schools, and in such other branches as may be of especial 
benefit to the deaf. 



School for the Deaf 253 

To have charge of all construction, permanent improvements, and 
repairs; to purchase necessary supplies, materials, and equipment. 

SupERINTENDE^'T : Term of three years, e?c officio secretary of the 
Board. Teacher of knowledge, skill and ability in his profession 
and experience in the management and instruction of the deaf; chief 
executive officer; to devote whole time to supervision of the institu- 
tion; to see that pupils are instructed In various branches of learn- 
ing and industrial pursuits as prescribed by law and board; to 
recommend to Board teachers and subordinate officers. 

Branches; 1. Literary Department, Methods — (1) Oral; (2) 
Manual. 
2. Vocational and Industrial Departments. 

Boys: Farming and Gardening, Woodwork and Carpentry, Print- 
ing, Shoemaking and Tailoring. 

Girls: General Domestic work, including cooking, plain sewing 
and dressmaking. 

Inspections: State Board of Charities and Public Welfare. 

Reports: None specified. 

Object and Purpose: "To receive into the school for purpose of 
education all white deaf children resident of the State, not of con- 
firmed immoral character nor imbecile or unsound in mind or in- 
capacitated by physical infirmity for useful instruction who are be- 
tween the ages of seven and twenty-one years." Only bona fi^de 
residents of two years standing eligible for free tuition and main- 
tenance. 

Established 1894 

Buildings 5 

Acreage 327 

Value of buildings and equipment $1,060,000 

Value of land $ 90,000 

Students 310 

Teachers 38 

Appropriation, 1926-1927 $ 180,000 



254 State Educational Institutions 

STONEWALL JACKSON MANUAL TRAINING AND INDUSTRIAL 

SCHOOL (Concord) 

Art. 1, Ch. 12J, C. S.; Chs. 120, 306, P. L. 1925. 

Charles E. Bogee, Superintendent 

Board of Trustees — Eleven. 

Personnel—Mrs. I. W. Faison, Charlotte; Mrs. Cameron Morrison, 
Charlotte; Mrs. W. N. Reynolds, Winston-Salem; Miss Easdale Shaw, 
Rockingham; Miss Katharine McD. Robinson, Fayetteville; J. S. 
Efird, Albemarle; C. A. Cannon, Concord; D. B. Coltrane, Concord; 
Herman Cone, Greensboro; J. P. Cook, Concord; P. C. Whitlock, 
Charlotte. 

Appointment — By Governor. 
Term — Four years. 
Compensation — Expenses. 

Function 

To have management and control of school; to employ superin- 
tendent and other assistants, prescribe their duties and fix their 
salaries; to establish and conduct such workshops, agricultural, 
horticultural and other pursuits as they may deem expedient so as 
to keep regularly at work all able-bodied inmates; to make suitable 
rules and regulations necessary to the proper government of the 
school; to receive gifts, donations, etc.; to secure homes for inmates. 

To have charge of all construction, enlargement and permanent 
improvements; to purchase necessary supplies, materials and 
equipment. 

Superintendent. To receive all children under the age of 16 
years, committed to the institution by competent authority; to 
cause them to be instructed in rudimentary branches of useful 
knowledge, and taught useful trades and given manual training 
subject to discretion of Board; to maintain discipline. The Govern- 
nor may transfer prisoners under 16, from jail, chain-gang or 
penitentiary to the reformatory and vice versa. 

Inspection. State Board of Charities. Governor to visit once 
a year or oftener, to make suggestions to the Board of Trustees. 

Reports. To report receipts and expenditures. Time and manner 
of report not specified, nor to whom report shall be made. 



Schools foe the Colored and Cherokee Indians 255 

Objects and Pukpose. To establish and operate a school for 
the training, and moral and industrial development of the crimi- 
nally delinquent children of the State under 16 years. 

Established 1907 

Buildings 38 

Acreage 423.32 

Value of buildings and equipment $675,827 

Value of land $ 85,000 

Pupils 398 

Appropriation, 1926-27 $140,000 



^'ORTH CAROLOA NORMAL SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES FOR 

THE COLORED RACE AND FOR THE CHEROKEE 

INDIANS OF ROBESON COUNTY 

N. C. Newbold, Director, Raleigh 

The State maintains three colleges and two standard normal 
schools for the training of Negro teachers and one for the training 
of the Cherokee Indians of Robeson County. The Agricultural and 
Technical College, at Greensboro, trains teachers in Vocational 
Agriculture, Trades and Industries; Winston-Salem Teachers' 
College, at Winston-Salem, emphasizes the training of elementary 
school teachers, supervisors and principals; North Carolina College 
for Negroes, at Durham, is offering courses for the training of high 
school teachers, and liberal arts and pre-medical courses. The 
normal schools for Negroes are located at Fayetteville and Elizabeth 
City. The school for the Cherokee Indians of Robeson County is 
located at Pembroke. 

The first superintendent of these schools was Charles L. Coon, 
elected in 1904. In January, 1907, he was succeeded by John 
Duckett, who died, November 16, 1908. J. A. Bivens was superin- 
tendent from January, 1909, until his death, March 2, 1913. E. E. 
Sams was superintendent from March, 1913, to June 1, 1919. A. T. 
Allen was superintendent from June 1, 1919, to June 30, 1921. Tlie 
Legislature of 1921 created a Division of Negro Education in the 
Department of Public Instruction with the following personnel; 



256 State Educatioisal Institutions 

N. C. Newbold, director; G. H. Ferguson, assistant director; W. A. 
Robinson, supervisor of Teacher-Training and High Schools; W. F. 
Credle, supervisor of The Julius Rosenwald Fund; G. E. Davis, 
supervisor of Rosenwald Buildings; Mrs. Annie W. Holland, super- 
visor of Elementary Schools; Frank R. Hufty, supervisor of Con- 
struction; Miss Annabel Pratt, secretary; Miss Margaret N. Little, 
clerk for Jeanes and Rosenwald Funds: S. A. Dickerson, stenog- 
rapher. The director of this division is an ex officio member of 
the Boards of Trustees of these schools (except the colleges in 
Durham and Greensboro), and this division has general super- 
vision of the schools. 

In 1921 the Legislature made available appropriations for im- 
provement and maintenance for Negro education to the amount of 
$829,000. 

In 1921 the Legislature made available appropriations for im- 
provement and maintenance for the Indian Normal School to the 
amount of $84,200. 

In 1923 the General Assembly made available the following ap- 
propriations for the purposes indicated : 

For building and improvements at the Negro State 

Normal schools $469,000 

For a similar purpose at the Agriculture and 

Technical College 455,000 

For the establishement of a reformatory for de- 
linquent Negro boys 50,000 



Total for building (two year period) $974,000 

Maintenance appropriation for the Indian Normal 
schools, Agricultural and Technical College, 
Division of Negro Education, Teacher Training 
in private schools, summer schools, high schools 316,000 



Grand total $1,290,000 



Fayetteville Colobed Normal School 257 

Maintenance appropriation for the Indian Normal 

School (annual) $ 18,000 

Buildings and improvements $ 37,000 

Total $ 55,000 

In 1925 the General Assembly made available appropriations for 
the purposes indicated: 

For building and improvements at the Negro State 

colleges „ $100,000 

For building and improvements' at the Negro State 

Normal schools 60,000 

For a similar purpose at the Cherokee Indian 
Normal School 50,000 

Total for building (two year period) $210,000 

Maintenance appropriation for the Cherokee Indian 
Normal School, Negro colleges, Negro normals, 
Morrison Training School, Division of Negro 
Education, Teacher Training in private schools, 
summer schools and rural school supervision....$554,530 

Grand total $764,530 

All of the property of these normal schools is held by the State 
Board of Education. 



FAYETTEVILLE COLORED NORMAL SCHOOL 

Art. 7, Ch. 96, C. S. ; Ch. 61, P. L. 1921; Ch. 306, P. L. 1925 

E. E. Smith, Principal, J. W. Seabrook, Vice Principal 
N. C. Newbold, Director, Raleigh 

Board of Trustees — Nine members. 

Personnel — G. K. Grantham, Dunn; Archie Graham, Clinton; 
M. B. Glover, Bailey; Dr. Allen McLean, Wagram; Dr. J. C. Grady, 

17 



258 , State Educational Institutions 

Kenly; H. U Cook, Fayetteville ; Dr. H. W. Lilly, Fayetteville; 
V. C. BuUard, Fayetteville; Henderson Steele, Lillington. 

Appointment — By the Governor with confirmation of the Senate. 

Term — Four years. 

Qualification — Genuine interest in Negro Education. 

Compensation — Actual expenses. 

Function 

To elect its own president, secretary and treasurer; to have 
general management of the school; to elect teachers and to have 
such other powers of management as are not vested in the State 
Board of Education. For additional powers of State Board, see 
Cherokee Normal. 

Sec. 17, Ch. 146, P. L. 1921. This statute creates a Director of 
Negro Education, appointed by State Board of Education upon the 
recommendation of Superintendent of Public Instruction, who shall 
have supervision of the Negro Normal Schools. 

Object and Purpose. To teach and train young men and women 
of the colored race, from the ages of 15 to 25 years, for teachers 
in the common schools of the State for the colored race, provided 
students, who are educated at State expense, agree to teach for 
not less than three years. 

Most of the Negro teachers in the section where the school is 
located received training at this school. Industrial training, espe- 
cially in domestic science, is required of all. The law provides that 
a preparatory department may be established. 

SUMMARY 

Founded 1877 

Number of buildings - 11 

Number of acres of land 50 

Value of buildings $330,964 

Value of land $ 35,000 

Value of furniture and equipment $ 67,000 

Number of students below seventh grade 123 



Elizabeth City Colored Nokmal Scjiuol 259 

Number of students above seventh grade 584 

State appropriation (maintenance), 1926-27 $ 36,000 

State appropriation (buildings and permanent 

improvements), 1926-27 $ 30,000 



ELIZABETH CITY COLORED NORMAL SCHOOL 

Art. 7, Ch. 96, C. S. ; Ch. 61, P. L. 1921; Ch. 306, P. L. 1925 

. P. W. Moore, Principal; J. H. Bias. Vice Principal 
N. C. Newbold, Director, Raleigh 

Board of Trustees — Nine Members. 

Personnel — H. G. Kramer, Elizabeth City; C. A. Cook, Elizabeth 
City; Clyde McCallum, Hertford; Rev. S. A. Cotton, Washington; 
T. W. Costen, Gatesville; W. G. Gaither, Elizabeth City; T. S. 
White, Hertford; H. R. Leary, Edenton; Mrs. J. G. Fearing, Eliz- 
abeth City. 

Appointment — By the Governor with confirmation of the Senate. 

Term — Four years. 

Qualification — Genuine interest in Negro Education. 

Compensation — Actual expenses. 

Function 

Separate Board of Directors. Method of appointment, function, 
object and purpose of school same as at Fayetteville Negro Normal 
School. 

SUMM.4KY 

Founded 1892 

Number of buildings 15 

Number of acres of land 43 

Value of buildings $433,820 

Value of land $ 25,000 

Value of furniture and equipment...! $141,650 

Number of students below seventh grade 98 



260 State Educational Institutions 

Number of students above seventh grade 364 

State appropriation (maintenance), 1926-27 $ 38,000 

State appropriation (building and improvements 

used in new buildings), 1926-27 $ 30,000 



WINSTON-SALEM TEACHERS' COLLEGE AT WINSTON-SALEM 

Art. 7, Ch. 96, C. S. ; Ch. 61, P. L. 1921; Ch. 306, P. L. 1925 

S. G. Atkins, President ; H. Liston, Vice President 
N. C. Newbold, Director, Raleigh 

Board of Trustees— Nine members. 

Personnel — Mrs. Lindsay Patterson, Winston-Salem; J. D. 
Humphreys, Danbury; A. D. Folger, Dobson; N. C. Newbold, 
Raleigh; H. E. Fries, Winston-Salem; W. A. Blair, Winston-Salem; 
H. G. Chatham, Winston-Salem; A. H. Eller, Winston-Salem; R'. S. 
Montgomery, Reidsville. 

Appointment — By the Governor with confirmation of the Senate. 

Term — Four years. 

Qualification — ^Genuine interest in Negro Education. 

Compensation — Actual expenses. 

Function 

Separate Board of Directors. Method of appointment, function, 
object and purpose of school same as at Elizabeth City, except that 
this school gives a four-year course leading to the B.S. Degree in 
Education for the training of elementary school teachers, super- 
visors and principals; also special courses are offered for the 
training of Home Economics teachers. 

SUMMARY 

Founded 1895 

Number of acres of land 52 

Number of buildings 18 



Value of buildings $408,31 



I^ORTH Carolina College for Negroes 261 

Value of land $137,500 

Other property, including furniture and fixtures $ 83,000 

Number students below seventh grade none 

Number students above seventh grade 792 

State appropriation (maintenance), 1926-27 $ 44,000 

State appropriation (buildings and improvements 

used in new building), 1926-27 $ 30,000 



NORTH CAEOLIIVA COLLEGE FOR NEGROES 
(Durham) 

James E. Shep^uid, President 

Board of Trustees — Twelve members. 

Personnel — N. W. Walker, Chapel Hill; L. M. Carlton, Roxboro; 
E. P. Wharton, Greensboro; W. P. Lawrence, Elon College; J. C. 
Clifford, Dunn; S. E. Douglas, Raleigh; J. A. McMillan, Wake 
Forest; R. L. Flowers, Durham; J. B. Mason, Durham; W. A- 
Erwin, Durham; E. A. Muse, Hamlet. 

Avpointmcnt — By the Governor with confirmation of the Senate. 

Term — Four years. 

Qualification — Genuine interest in Negro Education. 

Compensation — Actual expenses. 

Function 

Separate Board of Directors. This school is offering courses for 
the training of high school teachers and liberal arts and pre-medical 
courses. 

SUMMARY • 

Founded — Under private control until 1923 

Number of buildings 10 

Number of acres of land 33 

Value of buildings $90,000 

Value of land $40,000 

Value of equipment $10,000 



262 State Educational Institutions 

Number of students below seventh grade none 

Number of students above seventh grade 172 

State appropriation (maintenance) 1926-27 $30,000 

State appropriation (buildings and improvements), 

1926-27 $30,000 



CHEROKEE INDIAN NORMAL SCHOOL OF ROBESON COUNTY 

(Pembroke) 

Alt. 6, Ch. 96, C. S. ; Cli. 61, P. L. 1921; Ch. 306, P. L. 192."> 

S. B. Smithey, Principal 

N. C. New^old, Director, Raleigh 

Board of Trustees — Nine members. 

Personnel — N. C. Newbold, Chairman ex officio, Raleigh; James 
Deal, Lumberton; Ralph Lowry, Pembroke; O. R. Sampson, Pem- 
broke; W. D. Oxendine, Buies; Henry Godwin, Pembroke: C. B. 
Brayboy, Pembroke; G. G. Locklear, Pembroke; Edmund Lowery, 
Pembroke; A. A. Locklear, Pembroke. 

Appointment — By the Governor with confirmation of the Senate. 

Term — Four years. 

Qualification — Cherokee Indians. 

Compensation — E/bcpenses and $2.50 per diem. 

Function 

To elect the president of Board and define duties; to employ and 
discharge teachers; to exercise the usual functions of control and 
management of said school, action being subject to the approval 
of State Board of Education. The State Board shall make all need- 
ful rules and regulations concerning expenditure of funds, selection 
of principal, teachers and employees and concerning selection of 
Board of Trustees. In the fall of 1926 a Junior Normal class 
was organized, taking work similar to courses offered at Cullowhee 
and Appalachian Training Schools. 

Reports. Monthly to Division of Negro Education, Raleigh. 



Xegro Agricultural and Technical College 263 

Object and Purpose. To establish and maintain a school of high 
grade for teachers of Cherokee Indians in Robeson County. 

Admission and Qualifications. Cherokee Indians of either sex, 
of Robeson County, not under 11 years of age, who can pass an 
approved examination in spelling, reading, writing, primary 
geography, and fundamental rules of arithmetic, and who agree 
to teach the youth of the race of Cherokee Indians of Robeson 
County, may be admitted. 

summary 

Founded , 1887 

Number of buildings 11 

Number of acres of land 16 

Value of buildings $178,700 

Value of land $ 13,500 

Value of furniture and equipment $ 71,550 

Number of students below seventh grade 96 

Number of students above seventh grade 132 

State appropriation (maintenance), 1926-27 $ 25,000 

State appropriation (buildings and improvements 

used in new buildings), 1926-27 $ 50,000 



NEGRO AGBICULTURAL AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE OF NORTH 

CAROLINA (Greensboro) 

Art. 3, Ch. 96, C. S. 

F. D. Bluford, President 

Board of Trustees — Fifteen. 

Personnel — F. W. Dunlap, Wadesboro; S. P. Collier, Winston- 
Salem; J. H. Coward, Ayden; E. H. Bellamy, Wilmington; L. S. 
Covington, Rockingham; S. W. Finch, Lexington; O. F. Crowson, 
Burlington; R. F. Beasley, Monroe; D. Alexander Graham, Char- 
lotte; M. C. S. Noble, Chapel Hill; A. M. Scales, Greensboro; C. M. 
Vanstory, Greensboro; W. L. Poteat, Wake Forest; W. R. Vaughan, 
Henderson; Dr. Archibald Johnson. Thomasville. 

Appointment — Elected by General Assembly. 



264 State Educational Institutions 

Term — Six years, each group of five overlapping. 

Compensation — Traveling expenses only, not exceeding four 
times a year. 

Function 

To prescribe rules for the management of the institution and 
preservation of good order and morals; to appoint the president, 
instructors and other oflBcers and servants and fix their salaries; 
to have general and entire supervision of the establishment and 
maintenance of the college; to regulate admission of pupils with 
respect to representation from the several congressional districts; 
to have charge of the disbursement of funds; to receive any dona- 
tion of property or funds made to the college, and invest or expend 
same for benefit of college; to elect an executive board; to elect 
a chairman of the Board annually. 

To have charge of all construction, permanent enlargement and 
repairs; to purchase necessary supplies, material and equipment. 

Executive Board. Consists of three trustee members elected 
by Board of Trustees, who shall have the immediate management 
of the institution when the full board is not in session. 

President and Instructors. By and with consent of Board, to 
have power to confer certificates of proficiency or marks of merit 
and diplomas. 

Reports. None specified. 

Object and Purpose. To teach practical agriculture and the 
mechanic arts and such branches of learning as relate thereto, not 
excluding academical and classical instruction, to the Negro boys 
of this State. 

The college confines its courses of study entirely to agriculture 
and mechanical education and related subjects. No purely academic 
courses are offered. The purpose of the Agricultural Department is 
to train practical farmers and teachers of agriculture, of the Me- 
chanical Arts Department, to give a thorough knowledge of the 
trades offered. 

Established 1891 

Buildings 18 

Acreage 130 



Caswell Training School 265 

Value of Buildings and Equipment $850,000 

Value of land $ 64,000 

Number of students, regular session 434 

Number of students, summer session 369 

Faculty 34 

Appropriation, 1925-26 $ 59,675 



CASWELL TRAINING SCHOOL (Kinston) 

Art. 12, Ch. 96, C. S. (except Sec. 5896, which is repealed) ; Ch. 183, P. L. 

1921; Ch. 193, P. L. 1921. 

W. H. Dixon, M.D., Superintendent 

Board of Directors — Nine; State Treasurer, Treasurer ex officio. 

Personnel — Dr. Gideon H. Macon, Warrenton; C. W. Lassiter, 
Spring Hope; L. A. Bethune, Clinton; L. P. Tapp, Kinston; T. E. 
Whitaker, Oak Ridge; S. F. McCotter, Vandemere; Dr. W. W. Daw- 
son, Grifton; V. 0. Parker, Raleigb. 

Appointment — By Governor with consent of Senate. 

Term — -Four Years. 

Qualification — No two shall be residents of same county. 

Function 

See State Hospital at Raleigh. Function and powers of the 
Board are the same. 

Object and Purpose. (Sec, 5895 C.S.) To segregate, care for, 
train and educate as their mentality will permit, the State's mental 
defectives; to disseminate knowledge concerning the extent, nature 
and menace of mental deficiency; to suggest and initiate methods 
for its control, reduction and ultimate eradication; to maintain an 
extension bureau for instructing the public in the care of the mental 
defectives who remain in their homes and for the after-care of 
discharged inmates; to create and maintain a psychological clinic 
for the study and observation of mental defectives charged with 
crime, and to give expert advice in all cases of mental defect. 



266 State Educational Ikstitutions 

SUMMARY 

Established 1911 

Buildings 3S 

Acreage ^ 1016 

"Value of buildings and equipment $1,500,000 

Value of land $ 115,000 

Pupils 412 

Employees 65 

Appropriation 1924 $ 125,000 



EAST CAROLINA INDUSTRIAL TRAINING SCHOOL 

FOR BOYS 

(Rocky Mount) 

Ch. 254, P. L. 1923; Chs. 120, 306, P. L. 1925 

Samuel E. Leonard, Superintendent 

Board of Trustees — Five. 

Personnel — J. C. Braswell, Rocky Mount; R. T. Fountain, Rocky 
Mount; Wilson Lamb, Williamston; S. C. Sitterson, Kinston; Dr. 
C. F. Strosnider, Goldsboro. 

Appointment — By Governor with consent of Senate. 

Term — Pour years. 

Compensation — Expenses. 

Function 

The trustees are empowered to establish and operate a school in 
Eastern North Carolina for the training and moral and industrial 
development of the criminally delinquent white boys of the State; 
to receive therein such persons under 18 years of age as may be 
sent thereto by order of Superior Court judges, judges of juvenile 
courts, or the recorders or other presiding officers of city or criminal 
courts; to keep and control them during their minority or until 
such time as the board shall deem proper for their discharge; to 
employ a superintendent and assistants and to make all regulations 
necessary for the management of the school; to expend all moneys 
received in the operation of the school and to account for the same. 



State Training School for Negro Boys 267 

All boys committed to the school shall be instructed in useful 
trades and manual labor and "shall, if possible, be taught the pre- 
cepts of the Holy Bible, good moral conduct, how to work and to 
be industrious." 

The school was opened in January, 1926. 

SUMMARY 

Established 1923 

Buildings 2 

Acreage 130 

Value of buildings $40,000 

Value of land $13,000 

Present capacity 30 

Appropriation, 1926-27 $12,500 



STATE TRAINING SCHOOL FOR NEGRO BOYS 

(Hoffman, Richmond County) 

Ch. 190, p. L. 1921; Chs. 120, 306, P. L. 192,-) 

Leonard L. Boyd, Superintendent 

Board of Trustees — Five. 

Personnel — W. L. Parsons, Rockingham; Fred Tate, Charlotte; 
C. C. Spaulding, Durham; R. D. Phillips, Laurinburg; T. C. Coxe, 
Wadesboro. 

Appointment — By Governor with confirmation of Senate. 

Term — Four years. 

Compensation — Expenses. 

Function 

To select a location and prepare for the opening of the school; 
to have general superintendence and control of the institution, 
grounds and buildings, officers, employees, inmates; to appoint and 
dismiss at will a superintendent and other employees; to control 
the inmates and to determine the time of their discharge; to act 
as a board of parole of the institution; to determine the actual cost 
per capita of the training and maintenance. 



268 State Educational Institutions 

Delinquent negro boys under sixteen years of age may be com- 
mitted to the institution by any juvenile, State, or other court hav- 
ing jurisdiction over such boys, but no boy can be sent until the 
agency desiring to commit him has secured permission from the 
superintendent of the school. The cost of sending inmates shall 
be paid by the agency which sends them. 

The school was opened January 1, 1925. 

SUMMARY 

Established 1921 

Buildings 4 

Acreage 400 

Value of buildings and equipment $40,000 

Value of land $10,000 

Number of inmates enrolled 106 

Faculty 5 

Appropriation, 1926-27 $11,000 



STATE HOME A>D INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS AND 

WOMEN (Saraarcand) 

Art. 2, Ch. 121, C.S. ; Ch. 69, P. L. 1921 — E.xtra Session; Chs. 120, 

306, P. L. 1925 

Agnes MacNaughton, Superintendent 

Board of Managers — Five. 

Personnel — Rev. A. A. McGeachy, President, Charlotte; Dr. Eliza- 
beth Delia Dixon-Carroll, Vice President, Raleigh; Mrs. J. R. Page, 
Secretary-Treasurer, Aberdeen; Mrs. W. N. Everett, Rockingham; 
Leonard Tufts, Pinehurst. 

Appointment — By Governor with consent of Senate. 

Term — Four years. 

Qualifications — Three women and two men. 

Compensation — Necessary expenses. 

Function 

To have general superintendence, management and control of the 
institution; of the grounds and buildings and officers and employees 
thereof; of the inmates therein and all matters relating to the 



Industeial School for Girls and Women 269 

government, discipline, contracts and fiscal concerns thereof; and 
may make suitable rules and regulations to carry out the purpose 
of the institution; to receive in its discretion all persons committed 
by competent authority or voluntarily; to act as the Board of Parole 
and to discharge or parole any inmate at any time, provided that 
period of detention shall in no case exceed three years, and that 
girls committed under 21 may be kept until they are 21 years old; 
to make suitable provision for care and maintenance of children 
born in the institution or infants of inmates; to provide industi'ial 
training for each inmate. 

To appoint from its members a president, secretary and a treas- 
urer whose term shall be for one year; to appoint a woman superin- 
tendent; to fix the compensation of the superintendent, all oflBcers 
and employees and prescribe duties of each; to adopt by-laws, fixing 
time and place of board meetings, and making such other provisions 
as may be necessary for the proper management of the institution; 
to accept gifts, bequests, etc., made to the institution. 

To have charge of all construction, enlargement and permanent 
improvements; to purchase all supplies, material and equipment. 

Superintendent. Woman of experience and training. Term and 
duties not specified. To secure the safe-keeping, obedience and good 
order of inmates, the superintendent has same power as given to 
keepers of jails and other penal institutions. 

Reports. None specified. 

Inspection. State Board of Charities. 

Object and Purpose. To establish and maintain a detention home 
and industrial school for immoral, neglected, and wayward girls, 
and to provide for their safe-keeping, employment and rehabilitation. 
The school was established in 1917. 

SUMMARY 

Established 1917 

Opened July, 1918 

Buildings 18 

Acreage 352 

Value of buildings and equipment $244,779.12 

Value of land $ 40,000 

Average attendance, 1926-27 204 

Appropriation, 1926-27 $107,500.00 



PART VI 



STATE CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS 



1. State Hospital at IIaleigh. 

2. State Hospital at Morgaxton. 

3. State Hospital at Goldsboko. 

4. North Carolina Sanatorit'ji for the Treatjieivt of 

Tuberculosis. 

5. North Carolina Orthopaedic Hospital. 

6. Oxford Orphanage. 

7. North Carolina Orphanage for the Colored Raue. 

8. The Soldiers" Home. 

9. Confederate Women's Home. 



STATE HOSPITAL AT RALEIGH 

Ch. 103, C. S. (except Sees. 6156-7-8-9, which are repealed) ; Ch. 183, P. L. 
1921; Ch. 193, P. L. 1921; Chs. 120, 306, P. L. 1925 

Albekt Anderson, M.D., Superintendent 

Board of Directors — Nine; State Treasurer, Treasurer tx officio. 

Personnel — Dr. L. B. Evans, Windsor; Felix Harvey, Kinston; 
A. L. James, Laurinburg; H. R. Dwire, Winston-Salem; Dr. J. C 
Baum, Poplar Branch; W. S. O'B. Robinson, Goldsboro; Joseph G. 
Brown, Raleigh; Mrs. M. F. Williams, Faison; Dr. T. D. Kitchin, 
Wake Forest. 

Appointment — By Governor with consent of Senate. 

Term — Four years. 

Qualification — No two shall be residents of same county. 

Function 

To direct and manage affairs of State Hospital at Raleigh and 
to adopt rules and regulations governing same; to provide for the 
accommodation, maintenance, care, training and treatment of legally 
committed white insane patients from the district served, white 
epileptics, inebriates and drug addicts from all parts of the State; 
insane and inebriate Indians and epileptics from the entire State 
and to care for criminal insane of white race from the entire State. 

To appoint from its own members a building committee of three 
who shall have charge of all construction work, enlargements and 
all permanent improvements. 

To appoint a superintendent; to fix the number of assistant physi- 
cians and compensation of all officers and employees; to be respon- 
sible for the disbursements of appropriations for maintenance and 
permanent enlargements and repairs; to purchase necessary sup- 
plies, equipment and materials. 

SupEiKiNTENDENT. Appointed by the Board for a term of six years; 
must be a skilled physician. Duties are to appoint the assistant 
physicians, matrons, steward and all other employees; to have 
exclusive direction and control over all subordinate officers and 
employees, and to direct generally, the internal administration of 
the hospital. 
18 



274 State Charitable Institutions 

Treasurer. To keep all accounts and pay out all moneys upon 
warrant of the Superintendent and countersigned by two members 
of the Board, under rules and regulations prescribed by the Board. 

Inspections. By Board of Directors, General Assembly, State 
Board of Charities and Public Welfare, and the State Board of 
Health. 

Reports. To file with Governor bi-monthly statement showing 
prices paid for all classes of articles purchased and from whom 
purchased. To report annually to the Governor on the condition 
of the institution and' biennially to the General Assembly as to 
its receipts and disbursements. 

Object and Purpose. To provide for the accommodation, mainten- 
ance, care and treatment of legally committed white insane patients 
and inebriates in the district served, inebriates and insane Indians 
and epileptics of the entire State, and criminal insane of white race 
of entire State. 

Established 1856 

Buildings 25 

Acreage 1500 

Patients (June 30th, 1926) 1504 

Attendants and nurses 135 

Appropriations, 1926 $444,000 

statistical summary 

Male Female Total 

Patients remaining June 30th, 1924 651 671 1322 

Admitted during last two years (insane) 565 471 1036 

Admitted during last two years 

(criminal insane) 78 6 84 



Total number under treatment 1294 1148 2442 

Average daily population 1474 

Total number discharged and dead (insane) 526 391 917 
Total number discharged and dead 

(criminal insane) 18 3 21 



Remaining June 30th, 1926 750 754 1504 



State Hospital at Morganton 275 

STATE HOSPITAL AT MORGANTON 

(Western Hospital for the Insane) 

Ch. 103, C. S. (except Sees. 6156-7-8-9 which are repealed); Chs. 183, 193, P. L. 
1921; Chs. 120, 306, P. L. 1925 

John McCampbell, M.D., Superintendent 

Board of Directors^ — Nine; State Treasurer, Treasurer ex offlcio. 

Personnel — J. H. Beall, Lenoir; R. R. Clark, Statesville; J. R. 
Boyd, Waynesville; J. M. Scott, Charlotte; O. M. Mull, Shelby; C. E. 
Brooks, Hendersonville; J. H. Giles, Glen Alpine; Dr. G. S. Kirby, 
Marion; S. M. Robinson, Gastonia. 

Appointment — By Governor with consent of Senate. 

Term — Four years. 

Qualification — No two shall be residents of same county. 

Function 

See State Hospital at Raleigh. Morganton differs in that it does 

not receive Indian patients or epileptics. 

Object and Purpose: To provide for the accommodation, mainte- 
nance, care and treatment of legally committed white insane and 
inebriates from within the western hospital district. 

Established 1875 

Open for Patients 1883 

Buildings 23 

Acreage 1,130 

Patients, June 30, 1926 1,986 

Appropriation, 1926-27 $450,000 



STATE HOSPITAL AT GOLDSBOKO 

(Eastern Hospital for the Colored Insane) 

Ch. 103, C. S. (except Sees. 6156-7-8-9, which are repealed): Ch. 183. P. L. 
1921; Ch. 193, P. L. 1921; Chs. 120 and 306, P. L. 1925 

W. W. Faison, M.D., Superintendent 

Board of Directors — Nine; State Treasurer, Treasurer, ex offiicio. 

Personnel— Nathan O'Berry, Goldsboro; Dr. J. E. Hart, Wadesboro; 

Jno. D. Robinson, Wallace; E. W. Timberlake. Wake Forest; W. P. 



276 State Charitable Institutions 

Anderson, Wilson; C. P. Aycock, Pantego; L. M. Blue, Gibson; R. 
T. Wade, Morehead City. 

Appoiyitment — By Governor with consent of Senate. 

Term — Four years. 

Qualification — No two shall be residents of same county. 

Function 

See State Hospital at Raleigh. Goldsboro differs in that it re- 
ceives only colored insane. 

Object and Purposes. To provide for the accommodation, main- 
tenance, care and treatment of legally committed colored insane 
patients and inebriates, resident in the State of North Carolina. 

Established 1880 

Buildings, (not including employees residences, 27) .... 25 

Acreage 741 

Value of buildings and equipment $1,971,390 

Value of land $ 130,000 

Patients 1,535 

Attendants, 75 

Appropriation, 1926-27 $ 267,300 



JfORTH CAROLINA SANATOEIUM FOR THE TREATMEJfT 

OF TUBERCULOSIS 

Ch. 964, P. L. 1907; Ch. 96, P. L. 1923; Chs. 120, 306, P. L. 1925 

P. P. McCain, M.D., Superintendent, Sanatorium 

Board of Directors — Nine. 

Personnt;! — J. R. Jones, Sanford; Jonas Oettinger, Wilson; Dr. 
J. C. Braswell, Whitakers; W. E. Harrison, Rockingham; A. B. 
Croom, Winston-Salem; Dr. T. W. M. Long, Roanoke Rapids; U. L. 
Spence, Carthage; Mrs. Max Payne, Greensboro; J. R. McQueen, 
Lakeview. 

Appointment — By Governor with consent of Senate. 

Term — Four years. 

Compensation — $2 per diem and expenses. 



Sanatorium for the Treatment of Tuberculosis 277 

The North Carolina Sanatorium for the Treatment of Tuberculosis 
was established by an act of the General Assembly in 1907, which 
appropriated for the purpose $15,000 for construction and $5,000 
for annual maintenance. 

The control of the Sanatorium was at first vested in a board of 
directors composed of twelve members appointed by the Governor 
and the Secretary of the State Board of Health, who was ex officio 
a member of the board. The special session of the General As- 
sembly in 1913 transferred the control of the Sanatorium from the 
board of directors to the State Board of Health. 

At the same session the General Assembly provided for the estab- 
lishment of the Bureau of Tuberculosis, the purpose of which should 
be to receive reports of cases of tuberculosis from physicians and 
the executive officers of every private or public hospital, institu- 
tion for the treatment of disease or dispensary, on forms provided 
for the purpose; to keep a record of all persons in the State known 
to be afflicted with tuberculosis; to develop and maintain a cor- 
respondence school with those of the State's tuberculous population 
to the end that they shall be properly advised and directed both as 
to the methods for obtaining cures and as to the methods of pre- 
venting the spread of the disease to other persons. 

During the session of 1923 the General Assembly transferred the 
control of the institution from the State Board of Health to a 
board of nine directors, whose appointment should be made by the 
Governor and confirmed by the Senate and whose term of office 
should be four years. 

The institution has steadily grown and is now modern in every 
respect. It has a white unit which will accommodate 185 patients, 
a colored unit which will accommodate 64 patients, a prison unit 
which will accommodate 48 patients, and is almost ready to open 
the children's building which will accommodate 50 patients. There 
is a central power house and laundry, and dining room and kitchen 
facilities in each unit are large enough to take care of twice the 
number of patients for which there is now hospital space. The 
need of more room for patients is great, since there are almost as 
many on the waiting list as there are patients in the institution. 

The work previously done by the Bureau of Tuberculosis is now 
carried on by the Extension Department of the Sanatorium. Last 



278 State Charitable Iastitutiojn's 

year there was established a monthly tuberculosis periodical, The 
Sanatorium Sun. Teaching and diagnostic clinics are held in the 
State wherever they may be desired, and special clinics are held 
for children. For these purposes, two whole-time physicians are 
employed. Efforts are made constantly to interest and to assist 
counties in the establishment of local sanatoria. 

SUMMAKY 

Established 1907 

Buildings 39 

Value $1,021,019 

Acreage 2,000 

Value - $ 113,351 

Patients 350 

Appropriation, 1926-1927 $ 165,000 

Sanatorium $ 165,000 

Extension Department $ 20,000 

SUPEKINTtlNDENTS 

J. E. Brooks. M.D., 1907-1912 

M. E. Street, M.D., 1912-1914 

L. B. McBrayer. M.D 1914-1924 

P. P. McCain, M.D 1924- 



JfORTH CABOLIIVA ORTHOPAEDIC HOSPITAL (Gastania) 

Art. 1, Ch. 119, C. S. 

Robert B. B.vbington, Founder — President 

Board of Trustees — Nine. 

Personnel — Miss Evelyn K. Nimrocks, Fayetteville; J. G. Hackett, 
North Wilkesboro; W. C. Bivens, Gastonia; Geo. Blanton, Shelby; 
R. R. Ray, McAdenville; J. L. Robinson, Gastonia; R. B. Babington, 
Gastonia; M. B. Spier, Charlotte; P. C. Whitlock, Charlotte. 

Appointment — By Governor. 

Term — Six years, three classes with overlapping terms. 

Compensation — None. 



Oxford Orphanage 279 

Function 

To direct and manage the affairs of the institution; to provide 
for the accommodation, maintenance and treatment of crippled 
children committed to its care; to elect from its members a presi- 
dent, secretary, treasurer and an executive committee of three; to 
prescribe the duties of the executive committee; to appoint a 
superintendent, and to perform such other functions as are neces- 
sary to the proper administration of the hospital. 

To have charge of all construction, enlargement and permanent 
improvements; to purchase necessary supplies, materials and equip- 
ment. 

A complete unit v^'as built, dedicated and opened for the treat- 
ment of colored children March 1, 1926. This unit has twenty beds 
for colored children and is located several hundred yards, on the 
estate, from the white units. 

Object and Pukpose. To treat, heal and teach scientifically the 
orphaned poor and neglected crippled and deformed children of 
sound mind of North Carolina. 

Founded 1909 

Opened 1921 

Acreage 34% 

Value of land $ 35,000 

Value of buildings $220,000 

Maintenance appropriation, 1925-26 $ 70,000 



OXFORD ORPHANAGE (Oxford) 

No Statutoi'V reference. A semi-private Institution subsidized l)y Slate funds. 

R. L. Brown, Superintendent 

Board of Directors — 

Appointment — Three by Governor. Other members appointed by 
Grand Lodge A. F. and A. M. 

Funcfion 

To provide adequate quartirs, maintenance and educational laiili- 
ties for homeless children. 



280 State Chaeitable Institutions 

"The institution is providing the necessities of life for homeless 
children, the opportunity to acquire an English education, indus- 
trial training in cottages, kitchen, sewing room, domestic science, 
laundry, shoe shop, printing office, electric repair, telegraphy and 
typewriting, commercial course, dairy and on farm. Each child is 
in school at least the half of each school day during the school term 
of nine and a half months, but higher grades in school for eleven 
months. Moral and religious instruction is prominent in the work." 
(Red Book, 1921, page 197.) 

Reports. Annual report of operations made to Governor, State 
Board of Public Charities and to the Grand Lodge A. F. and A. M. 
of North Carolina. Monthly report of disbursements to the State 
Auditor. 

Inspection. By State Board of Charities. 

Object and Pukpose. To provide a home and training school for 
the education, industrial and moral instruction of destitute and 
homeless white children of the State, not over twelve years of age, 
who are of sound mind and body. 

SUMMARY 

Established 1872 

Buildings 28 

Acreage 276 

Value of buildings and lands $750,000.00 

Children 400 

Officers and teachers 59 

State appropriation, 1926-27 $ 30,000.00 

Income, other sources 1129,784.29 



NORTH CAROLIXA ORPHAIfAGE FOR THE COLORED RACE 

(Oxford) 

Henry P. Cheatham, Superintendent 

The North Carolina Orphanage for the Colored Race was founded 
in 1883 as the result of the joint efforts of Rev. Augustus Shepard, 
then pastor of the colored Baptist Church in Henderson, and Henry 
P. Cheatham, then a teacher in the Henderson public schools. Their 



Orphanage for the Colored Race 281 

plans contemplated the establishment of an orphanage in North 
Carolina for the fatherless and homeless children of the colored race 
without regard to religious sects. Calling together certain leaders 
of the colored race, they laid their plans before them. The plans 
were adopted, a board of directors elected, and a site purchased for 
the orphanage about a mile and a half south of the town of Oxford. 
Upon this site were two old and dilapidated buildings, which were 
repaired and put ir^to immediate use. During the first ten years of 
its existence the Orphanage was entirely dependent upon the 
churches, Sunday schools, and sympathetic individuals for support 
together with what the children could earn by cultivating the six 
acres of land then belonging to the Orphanage. In 1892 the Grand 
Lodge of Masons of North Carolina adopted a provision allowing the 
Orphanage annually ten per cent of its gross receipts, and in 1893 
the General Assembly began to make a small annual appropriation 
which now amounts to $20,000. 

summary 

Founded 1883 

Number of buildings 16 

Number of acres of land 245 

Value of land, buildings and equipment $160,000 

Number of children in institution 287 

Number of officers, teachers and helpers 13 

Annual appropriation from State $ 20,000 

Other sources (1926) $ 5,000 

Farm, garden and dairy (estimated) $ 4,500 

Annual per capita cost $103.86 

superintendents 

Rev. Joshua Perry 1883-1884 

Miss Bessie Hackins 1884- 

Rev. Walter A. Patillo 1886-1887 

Rev. Robert Shepherd 1887-1907 

Henry P. Cheatham 1907- 



282 State Charitable Instititions 

SOLDIERS' HOME 

Art. 1, Ch. 92, C. S. 
W. T. Mangum, Superintendent, Raleigh 

Board, of Directors — Seven. 

Personnel — Miss Martha Haywood, Raleigh; W. B. Jones, Raleigh; 
Mrs. R. E. Little, Wadesboro; W. J. Andrews, Raleigh; C. B. Barbee, 
Raleigh; Baxter Durham, Raleigh; Mrs. H. M. London, Raleigh. 

Appointment — Four by the Governor and three by the Soldiers' 
Home Association. 

Term — One year. 

So far as can be ascertained from the records on file in the office 
of the Soldiers' Home, a home for indigent Confederate soldiers was 
first established in a rented house at the corner of Polk and Blood- 
worth streets, in the city of Raleigh, and declared to be open on 
October 15, 1890, with five inmates. W. C. Stronach, under the aus- 
pices of the Daughters of the Confederacy, acted as superintendent 
and looked after the personal comforts of the men. 

The General Assembly of 1891, chapter 60. Private Laws, incor- 
porated Gen. Robert F. Hoke, Col. William L. Saunders, Col. A. B. 
Andrews, Capt. S. A. Ashe, Gen. Rufus Barringer, Gen. A. M. Scales, 
Gen. Robert B. Vance, Gen. Thomas Clingman, Gen. W. P. Roberts, 
Gen. Julian S. Carr, Capt. Thomas J. Jarvis, Col. W. P. Wood, Gen. 
Matt. W. Ransom and other members of the Confederate Veterans' 
Association, under the name and style of "The Soldiers' Home Asso- 
ciation," and conferred upon this association the usual corporate 
powers. The act gave to the Soldiers' Home Association a tract of 
land near the eastern section of the city of Raleigh, known as Camp 
Russell, to be used for the purpose of a soldiers' home, and, if it 
should cease to be so used, to revert to and belong to the State. The 
same act appropriated $3,000 for the maintenance of the Soldiers' 
Home and the support of its inmates. Section 6 of the act is as 
follows: 

"The directors shall cause to be kept a minute-book of the Home, 
in which full entries shall be kept concerning memorable incidents 
in the lives of its inmates. They shall also take steps to form a 
museum of Confederate relics and to perpetuate such historical 



SoLBiERs Home 283 

records of the Confederate soldiers of North Carolina as they shall 
find it practicable to do." 

The act was ratified February 4, 1901. 

On April 27, 1891, the number of inmates of the Soldiers' Home 
having increased to nine, they were removed to an old building at 
Camp Russell which had been fitted up for the purposes of the Home. 
Miss Mary Williams was appointed matron, and served in that ca- 
pacity until February 15, 1893, when Capt. J. H. Fuller was made 
resident superintendent. On February 1, 1898, Superintendent 
Fuller resigned. Feebleness of age and the increase in number of 
inmates had made the duties too arduous for one of his strength. 

Capt. R. H. Brooks was elected to succeed Captain Fuller, and 
served until his death on June 14, 1910. The number of inmates 
continued to increase during his term, and the necessity for new and 
larger buildings became urgent. A dormitory was built to accommo- 
date 70 inmates, and furnished by liberal donations from the Daugh- 
ters of the Confederacy and others. A large hospital was built, 
medical attention given, nurses employed, water, sewerage, and elec- 
tric lights provided, and the grounds made attractive. Such heavy 
expenses exceeded the appropriation made by the State, and at the 
close of Captain Brooks^s term the books showed the Home to be in 
arrears to the extent of $6,000; but all felt confident that the Legis- 
lature would provide for the deficiency. 

Capt. W. S. Lineberry was elected to succeed Captain Brooks, and 
entered upon his duties July 20, 1910. 

Colonel D. H. Milton, who was elected to succeed Capt. W. S. Line- 
berry, September 26, 1916, took charge October 1, 1916. Colonel 
Milton resigned October 1, 1920, and was succeeded by J. A. Wiggs. 
Mr. Wiggs resigned in February, 1924, and was succeeded by W. T. 
Mangum, February 9, 1924. 

An appropriation of $35,000 was made by the Legislature of 1915 
for the support of the Home. The Home is now out of debt; the 
buildings bright with new paint; the grounds ornamented with trees 
and shrubbery, and walks clean. The comrades are, as a rule, con- 
tented. The fare is good, the rooms comfortable, the regulations 
reasonable, and an air of cheerfulness pervades. All this has come 
from the humble beginning of October, 1890. 



284 State Charitable Institutions 

superintendents 

Miss Mary Williams 1891-1893 

Capt. J. H. Fuller 1893-1898 

Capt. R. H. Brooks 1898-1910 

Capt. W. S. Lineberry 1910-1916 

Col. D. H. Milton 1916-1920 

J. A. WiGGS 1920-1924 

W. T. Mangum 1924- 



COXFEDEEATE WOMEN'S HOME (FayetteTille) 

Art. 2, Ch. 92, C. S. ; Corporate name "Confederate Women's Home Association." 

Mrs. M. B. Beaman, Superintendent 

B.oard of Directors — Seven. Board elects own president and sec- 
retary. State Treasurer, Treasurer ex officio. 

Personnel — ^Charles G. Rose, chairman, Fayetteville; Mrs. Hunter 
G. Smith, Fayetteville; Mrs. N. A. Townsend, Dunn; A. H. Boyden, 
Salisbury; W. H. Wliite, Oxford; J. W. McLaughlin, Raeford; 
Spencer T. Thorne, Rocky Mount. 

Appointment — By Governor. 

Term — Two years. 

Compensation — Actual expenses. 

Function 

To appoint all officers and employees and prescribe their duties; to 
establish rules and regulations for the government and maintenance 
of the Home and to have entire control and management of it; to 
prescribe rules for admission and discharge; to take necessary ac- 
tion in reference to the collection and disbursement of subscriptions 
to the Home or to needy Confederate women elsewhere in the State; 
to have their accounts duly audited and published; to appoint an 
advisory board of lady managers. 

Advisory Board of Lady Managers. Appointed by the Board of 
Directors, one from each congressional district, for a term of two 
years; to assist the Board in the management of the Home and 
solicit contributions. 



Confederate Woman''s Home 285 

Treasurer. For duties see Board of Directors Central Hospital 
for the Insane (Raleigh). 

Reports. Reports of receipts and disbursements and the general 
affairs of the Home shall be made annually to the Governor to be 
by him laid before the General Assembly at its biennial session. To 
report on the 15tli of each month to the State Auditor, disbursements 
of month preceding. 

Object and Purpose. To establish, maintain and govern a Home 
for the deserving wives and widows of North Carolina Confederate 
soldiers and other worthy dependent women of the Confederacy who 
are bona fide residents of North Carolina. The Home was estab- 
lished in 1913. The State appropriation for 1925-26 by the State 
was $10,000, and for 1926-27, $14,000. The General Assembly of 1925 
authorized the issuance of bonds of the State to the amount of 
$26,500 for permanent improvements (ch. 192, P.L. 1925.) 



PART VII 



MISCELLANEOUS 



1. The Worth Carolina Railroad Company. 

2. The Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad Company. 

3. The Appalachian and Western I^orth Carolina Rail- 

road Company. 

4. The ISTorth Carolina Agricultural Society. 

5. The ISTorth Carolina State Capitol. 

6. State Administration Building. 

7. North Carolina Day. 

8. Legal Holidays in North Carolina. 

9. The State Flag. 

10. The Great Seal. 

11. State Motto and Its Origin. 

12. The Confederate Museum at Richmond. 



The jSTorth Carolina Railroad Company 289 

THE :\0IITH CAROLINA KAILROAD (03IPAM* 

Wiley G. Barnes, Secretary and Treasurer 

One of the greatest enterprises so far attempted ])y the State of 
North Carolina in the nature of a public or internal improvement 
was the building of the North Carolina Railroad from Goldsboro by- 
way of Raleigh, Greensboro and Salisbury, to Charlotte. 

Considering the experimental state of railroading at that time, the 
dread of public or private indebtedness, and the limited resources, 
the movement was a monumental enterprise — and one in advance of 
anything attempted by almost any other state in the Union. The 
success, however, which has crowned the labors and sacrifices of our 
fathers has established beyond all question that their wisdom was 
equal to, or superior to, any displayed before or since their day. 

In 1833 the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad Company and the Wil- 
mington and Raleigh, afterwards known as the Wilmington and Wel- 
don Railroad Company, were chartered, and later these roads were 
built. In 1848 the former was in the hands of the State, and was in 
a bankrupt condition for the want of patronage. It was necessary 
to give it some connection, or to extend it. At the session of Novem- 
ber, 1848, the western counties urged a charter for a road from 
Charlotte to Danville, asking no State aid; but the eastern members 
opposed that project. The finances of the State were in such an 
impoverished condition that it was generally deemed impracticable 
for the State to give any considerable aid to any railroad; but Wil- 
liam S. Ashe, the Democratic Senator from New Hanover, intro- 
duced a bill to construct a road from Goldsboro to Charlotte, under 
the name of the North Carolina Railroad, and appropriating two mil- 
lions of dollars for that purpose, on condition, however, that private 
parties would subscribe one million, and to secure the payment of 
the State bonds when issued, a lien was given on the State's stock. 

When the western men brought up the Charlotte and Danville bill 
in the House, Stanly and other eastern men opposed it so bitterly 
that it could not pass, and then in a dramatic scene, the friends of 
internal improvement agreed to send to the Senate and take the 
Ashe bill from the files and offer it as a substitute. After a great 



*This article is brought forward with some revision, from tlie Manuai, of 
1913, in which aeknow^ledKinent is iiuule to ('iil>t. S. A. Aslie for the historiciil 
data contained in this sketch. 
19 



290 Miscellaneous 

and prolonged struggle the bill passed the House of Commons. In 
the Senate it failed by an adverse majority of one; but the Senator 
from Cumberland was led to support it by passing the bill for the 
State to build the plank road from Fayetteville to Salem; and then 
the vote in the Senate was a tie. Speaker Graves, who had up to 
that moment maintained an impenetrable silence as to the measure, 
broke the tie in favor of building the road by State aid; and the 
measure was passed. Speaker Graves was never again elected to 
any office by the vote of his people. 

To secure the needed one million of private stock, Speaker Graves, 
Governor Morehead and Mr. William Boylan made great exertions, 
and by their efforts, aided by Joseph Caldwell, Governor W. A. Gra- 
ham, Paul C. Cameron and others, the necessary stock was eventu- 
ally raised. On January 29, 1856, the railroad was ready for passage 
of trains from Goldsboro to Charlotte, and charters had been granted 
for two other roads — from Goldsboro to Morehead City and from 
Salisbury to the Tennessee line. 

By act ratified 14th of February, 18-55, the General Assembly in- 
creased the capital stock to $4,000,000, and subscribed for the State 
the whole of the added capital. From that time till now the State 
has owned three-fourths and individuals one-fourth of this road. 

The first president of the company was Governor John M. More- 
head, to whom so much was due for securing the subscription of the 
private stock, and under his direction the road was constructed. His 
successors were Charles F. Fisher, of Rowan; Paul C. Cameron, 
Josiah Turner, Jr., of Orange, and William A. Smith, of Johnston. 
During the administration of Mr. Smith the road was, on the 11th 
day of September, 1871, leased to the Richmond and Danville Rail- 
road Company for thirty years, at a rental of 6 per cent per annum. 
The subsequent presidents of the company have been: Thomas M. 
Holt, Lee S. Overman, S. B. Alexander,- J. F. Kornegay, R. M. Nor- 
ment, J. L. Armstrong, H. G. Chatham, Charles M. Stedman, 
Bennehan Cameron, and Word H. Wood. 

On the 16th day of August, 1895, in view of the approaching termi- 
nation of the lease, the property was leased to the Southern Rail- 
way Company for a term of ninety-nine years at an annual rental 
of 6^/^ per cent for six years and 7 per cent for the remaining ninety- 
three years, and the stock of the company was selling at $186 per 
share until the panic of 1907. 



The JSToeth Carolina Railroad Company 291 

On the readjustment of the debt of the State, the State renewed 
the bonds issued for the purchase of the North Carolina Railroad 
stock, pledging the original lien on the stock for the payment of 
the debt. 

Col. Peter B. RufRu for more than thirty years was the faithful 
and efficient secretary and treasurer of the company. 

The secretaries of the company in the order of their election and 
service are as follows: Cyrus P. Mendenhall, Julius B. Ramsey, 
R. M. Mills, F. A. Stagg, J. A. McCauley, W. F. Thornburg, P. B. 
Ruffin, H. B. Worth, Spencer B. Adams, D. H. McLean. A. H. Eller, 
J. P. Cook, R. B. White, and Wiley G. Barnes. 

The State, as is well known, has continued to own its $3,000,000 
of the original capital stock, and has acquired two (2) additional 
shares, thus giving it .30,002 shares, at par value amounting to 
$3,000,200, which, however, at the recent market value aggregates 
$5,580,372. And it is confidently believed that if the State desired 
to part with a controlling interest in the company, its stock would 
command a much greater price, and those who have watched the 
constant advance in the price of this stock expect it to go to $200 
per share at an early day. 

Under the lease of 1871 to the Richmond and Danville Railroad 
Company, the company could not have claimed the betterments made 
))y the lessee; but under the present lease the company is not only 
amply secured by bond for the prompt payment of its lease money 
and organization expenses, to wit, $143,000, on the first day of Janu- 
ary and July of each year, but upon the termination of said lease 
for any cause the company acquires the betterments made thereon. 

In addition to the railroad and rolling stock leased to the South- 
ern Railway Company, the company still owns valuable land in and 
about company shops, now known as the city of Burlington. 

When the board of directors appointed by Governor Aycock took 
charge of the company's affairs, there was a floating indebtedness 
of $10,000. The May balance, 1912, of the secretary and treasurer 
showed that said indebtedness had been paid and a special dividend 
of one-half of one per cent, amounting to $20,000, and the company 
had to its credit in the bank the sum of $21,128.64, all of which 
except a small balance, was drawing 4 per cent interest. Again, on 
August 1, 1912, an extra one-half of one per cent dividend, amount- 



292 Miscellaneous 

ing to $20,000, was paid. Since then tlie regular 7 per cent dividend 
on the stock has been paid and occasional dividends of i^ per cent 
out of cash received from the sale of property. Promptly upon the 
payment of the lease money on the first of January and July in 
each year, the directors declare a dividend, and the secretary and 
treasurer pays to the State Treasurer immediately $105,000, and a 
like dividend is paid to the private stockholders on the first day of 
February and August of each year. 

A true sketch of this company would be incomplete without calling 
attention to the long and invaluable service of Gen. R. F. Hoke as 
director and Mr. Word H. Wood as president. Gen. Hoke's experi- 
ence and great knowledge of affairs, and life-long devotion to the 
best interest of the company, entitle him to the gratitude of the 
State, as well as the private stockholders. His death on July 3, 
1912, was deeply and universally lamented. President Wood's long 
and valuable service is unique in the history of the company. He 
has been elected by the Board of Directors at the requests of four 
successive governors of North Carolina: Locke Craig, Thomas W. 
Bickett, Cameron Morrison and Angus W. McLean. 

The question is sometimes asked why the organization of the 
North Carolina Railroad Company is kept up, and what particular 
functions it performs. 

This company does not, as some people think, belong to the State 
of North Carolina. It is a quasi-public corporation like all other 
railroad companies, in which the State owns three-fourths of the 
stock. It is managed practically as any private corporation would 
be managed, the principal difference being that the Governor has 
the appointment of eight of the directors, while the private stock- 
holders have the election of four of the directors. 

The organization is maintained for the purpose of enforcing the 
terms of the lease to the Southern Railway Company, and, in case 
of the termination of that lease for any cause, to resume the opera- 
tion of the road. 

It is required to see that the bonds given for the prompt payment 
of the rent, and also the bond to maintain the rolling stock in good 
condition, are kept in force. It receives the rent money of $280,000 
per year, payable semi-annually, and declares a dividend and pays 
the same to the stockholders of record. It transfers stock like 
other corporations. 



Atlantic and ISTorth Carolina Kailroad Company 293 

In leasing its property to the Southern Railway Company it re- 
served its office building, which is tlie residence of the secretary and 
treasurer, containing its vault and records, at Burlington, N. C. It 
owns certain real estate in and about the city of Burlington, which 
is sold by its land committee fi"om time to time. 

The secretary and treasurer is required to give a bond in the sum 
of $50,000 and his books and accounts are audited by a finance com- 
mittee at stated times. It is required to file a report annually 
with the State Corporation Commission and one with the Interstate 
Commerce Commission, as other railroad companies must do. It 
also reports its income for Federal taxation like other corporations. 
Its stock is the most valuable holding that the State of North 
Carolina has amongst its assets, and whether it will be the policy of 
the State to hold its stock perpetually or to dispose of the same is 
a matter for the Legislature of the future. 

The present officers and directors of the road are as follows: 

Word H. Wood. President Charlotte 

Alexander Weisb, Vice President Raleigh 

• Wiley G. Barnes, Secretary and Treasurer Raleigh 

J. Bayard Clark. Counsel Fayetteville 

directors 

W. H. Wood Robert W. LAssm;i; 

John F. Bowles Alexander Wehb 

Gilbert C. Wiiiit: Hugh MAcR.\ii 

A. M. Dixon W. E. Holt 

M. O. Dickerson G. W. Montcastle 

G. A. Hunt, Jr. Julius Cone 



THE ATLANTIC AM) NOKTH (AKOLINA KAILHO Al> (OMI'AM* 

The Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad was chartered by the 
General Assembly of North Carolina in 1852, duration of the charter 
being ninety-nine years. The charter was amended in 1S54 and 1S55. 



* Reprinted from the North Carolina Manual, 191.5. The editor regrets that he 
has not been able to secure from the company data necessary to brini; the article 
up to date. 



294 Miscellaneous 

Work on the railroad was begun shortly afterwards, and pushed to 
completion from Goldsboro to a point on the seacoast now known 
as Morehead City, a distance of 95 miles, in 1858. 

Not having the necessary data at hand, I state from memory, and 
from information gained from other sources, the names of the differ- 
ent presidents of the railroad company, in the order of their service 
from the beginning up to the time when the railroad was leased to 
the Howland Improvement Company, during the administration of 
Hon. C. B. Aycock as Governor of North Carolina, on September 1, 
1904, as follows: John D. Whitford, Charles R. Thomas, John D. 
Whitford, E. R. Stanly, R. W. King, L. W. Humphrey, John Hughes, 
John D. Whitford, Washington Bryan, W. S. Chadwick, Robert Han- 
cock, D. W. Patrick, James A. Bryan. 

The road was capitalized at $1,800,000; the par value of the stock 
was fixed at $100 per share. The State of North Carolina owns 
12,666 shares of the stock. The county of Craven owns 1,293 shares, 
the county of Lenoir owns 500 shares,* the county of Pamlico owns 
202 shares. The balance of the stock of the road is owned by private 
individuals. The equipment of the road was by no means complete 
when the War Between the States began (1861), and by reason of 
the fact that a good portion of the road was under the control 
of the Federal arms from the fall of New Bern in 1862 to the 
close of the war in 1865, the road when turned over to its rightful 
owners was little more, if any, than a burden to carry, which was 
in part the cause of no i*eturns to the stockholders on their invest- 
ments for thirty-four years after the road was constructed. 

During the administration of Hon. T. J. Jarvis, Governor of 
North Carolina, the railroad was leased to W. J. Best, who had 
control and operated same for a short time only, and then returned 
it to its owner. 

There is an outstanding bonded indebtedness against the road of 
$325,000, bearing interest at 6 per cent per annum, the interest 
payable semi-annually. t During the last year of the presidency of 
James A. Bryan two suits were instituted in the Federal Court for 
the Eastern District of North Carolina for the appointment of re- 
ceivers of the road — first by K. S. Finch of New York, and the 



* Sold to private individuals. 
t Written in 1914. 



Appalachian and W. 'N. C. Railroad 295 

second by John P. Cuyler of New Jersey. Receivers were appointed 
in both cases, but relief was granted by higher courts. 

The vast amount of unsettled business in which the Atlantic and 
North Carolina Railroad Company was in any way interested at the 
time the Howland Improvement Company, "lessees," assumed con- 
trol of the railroad, was very largely adjusted during the first two 
years. The expiration of the third year of the lease found only a 
small amount of difference to be looked after, which in time was 
settled. Suit was brought in the Superior Court of Craven County, 
in 1906, to annul the lease to the Howland Improvement Company, 
resulting in a decision upholding the lease, which decision was 
affirmed by the Supreme Court. 

The contract for lease with the Howland Improvement Company 
terminates in ninety-one years and four months from the date of 
its execution, and the stipulations contained in same have, up to 
the last meeting of the stockholders of the Atlantic and North Caro- 
lina Railroad Company, in 1912, been largely complied with, as 
will be seen from the annual reports to the stockholders' meeting 
of the president, treasurer and expert of the lessor company. The 
Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad has, with some other short 
lines in Eastern North Carolina, been merged" into and now forms 
part of the Norfolk-Southern Railway system. 

The following have been presidents of the company: James A. 
Bryan, J. W. Grainger, S. W. Perrebee, L. P. Tapp, H. H. Grainger 
and Thomas D. Warren. 



THE APPALACHIAN AND WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA 
RAILROAD C03IPANY 

Chapter 148, Public Laws of 1921, authorized the Governor to 
appoint a special commission of five to investigate the advisability 
of selling the stock owned by the State in the North Carolina and 
Atlantic and North Carolina railroads and investing the proceeds in 
certain railroads in Western North Carolina. The Commission in its 
report recommended the construction of such roads as would result 
in a trunk line of railroads from the northwestern part of the State 
to the seacoast. Wherefore by chapter 116, Public Laws of 1923, the 
General Assembly authorized A. A. Woodruff of Alleghany County, 
J. D. Thomas of Ashe County, B. B. Daugherty of Watauga County, 



296 Miscellaneous 

Charles Cowies of Wilkes County, J. H. Burke of Alexander County, 
Mark Squires of Caldwell County, D. M. Ansley of Iredell County, A. 
H. Wolf of Surry County, G. T. White of Yadkin County, and others 
to incorporate as the Appalachian and Western North Carolina Rail- 
road Company. The law provides in general that when fifty-one per 
cent of the stock shall have been subscribed in good faith to con- 
struct the whole road or any particular division of it, the State shall 
subscribe forty-nine per cent of the stock. 

The Special Commission appointed Bennehan Cameron, T. C. 
Bowie, and W. C. Heath as an executive committee to make surveys 
of proposed routes. Three routes were surveyed and a petition was 
filed with the Interstate Commerce Commission requesting a certi- 
ficate of public convenience and necessity. The petition was dis- 
missed without prejudice. The Interstate Commerce Commission 
stated that, if a particular and specific route was designated, it 
would not stand in the way of the construction of the road. The 
amended petition has not yet been filed with the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY 

H. M. London, Secretary, Raleigh 

The North Carolina Agricultural Society, which operates the 
State Fair annually in Raleigh during the month of October, was 
chartered by special act of the Legislature in 1852 "to provide a 
place for the holding of annual fairs, that the citizens may be en- 
couraged by exhibitions, premiums and other means to develop and 
improve the productions of agriculture and every species of native 
industry; and to this end, and for these great and valuable pur- 
poses, and to no other, shall the corporation apply all the funds 
which by any means it may acquire." 

No capital stock was provided for in that charter. Various public- 
spirited citizens loaned to the Society a sum of money sufficient to 
purchase grounds and erect buildings for the purposes of an annual 
fair, taking therefor the bonds of the Society. 

By an amendment to the charter enacted by the 1925 General As- 
sembly it was provided that "the board of directors shall consist 
of seventeen members, five of whom shall be ex officio as follows: 



The North Carolina State Capitol 297 

The Governor of North Carolina, the president of the North Caro- 
lina State College of Agriculture and Engineering, the Commissioner 
of Agriculture, the Mayor of the City of Raleigh, and the president 
of the North Carolina Agricultural Society; the remaining mem- 
bers of the board of directors shall be appointed as follows: two 
by the Governor of North Carolina; two by the president of the 
North Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engineering; two 
by the Commissioner of Agriculture; four by the members of the 
North Carolina Agricultural Society and two by the Mayor of the 
city of Raleigh. The directors shall hold office for one year and 
until their successors are elected and qualified, and shall have the 
usual powers with reference to the affairs of the society as do direc- 
tors of other corporations, and shall elect officers of the society in 
such manner as the by-laws of the society may prescribe." 

On account of the inadequacy of the old buildings and grounds, 
it was deemed advisable in 1926 to sell the old Fair grounds, located 
within the limits of the city of Raleigh, and secure another and 
larger site on which to erect new buildings of a more permanent 
nature looking toward an expansion of the State Fairs held annually. 



THE ]NORTH CAROLINA STATE CAPITOL 

On the morning of June 21, 1831, the State Capitol of North Caro- 
lina was destroyed by fire. Though the public records of the State 
were saved, the State Library, containing many valuable books and 
manuscripts, was lost. 

The citizens of Raleigh naturally bemoaned the destruction of the 
building but Governor Stokes did not regard it as a great loss. In 
his opinion there were some mitigating circumstances. In his mes- 
sage to the General Assembly, when it met the following November, 
he said that the calamity was not so great, because the old State- 
house, built in 1794, was almost ready to tumble down of its own 
accord, and that perhaps many valuable lives had been saved by its 
being destroyed by fire instead of tumbling down on the Legislature 
while in session. 

At once Senator Seawell of Wake brought forward a bill provid- 
ing for the erection of a new Capitol on the site of the old one. At 
the same time a similar bill was introduced in the House of Com- 



298 Miscellaneous 

mons. As there was a strong sentiment in tlie State favorable to the 
removal of the capital from Raleigh to Fayetteville, these two bill-3 
to rebuild at Raleigh met with vigorous opposition. Accordingly, 
Senator Seawell's bill was quickly disposed of. Senator Wilson of 
Edgecombe moved to table it, and it was tabled. The House bill 
was longer discussed. The discussion was prolonged for two days, 
but on a yea and nay vote the bill failed, 65 to 68. The Assembly 
of 1831 refused to rebuild. 

A year passed, and the ruins of the old Statehouse still marked 
the site of the former Capitol. But the Constitution, or rather the 
Ordinance, of 1789, located the capital at Raleigh, and the Legisla- 
ture had no power to move it. It was even questioned with great 
seriousness whether the Assembly could hold its sessions in the 
Governor's Mansion, at the end of Fayetteville Street, as that was 
outside of the limits of the town. To move the capital a conven- 
tion was necessary, and a majority of the Legislature was not 
favorable to a convention. 

At the session of November, 1832, the Assembly, by a vote of 
35 to 28 in the Senate and 73 to 60 in the House, resolved to rebuild 
on the old site, and $50,000 was appropriated for the purpose. 

William Boylan, Duncan Cameron, Henry Seawell, Romulus M. 
Saunders and William S. Mhoon were appointed commissioners to 
have the work done. The commissioners, with $50,000 at their 
command, did not dally. The rubbish was cleared away, the exca- 
vations made and the foundations were laid. On July 4, 1833, the 
cornerstone was set in place. Up to that time W. S. Drummond 
was the superintendent and chief architect, and he was one of the 
pi'incipal persons in the ceremony of laying the cornerstone. 

After the foundation was laid the work progressed more slowly, 
and it was so expensive that the appropriation was exhausted. The 
Legislature at its next session appropriated $75,000 more. To do 
the stone and finer work many skilled artisans had been brought 
from Scotland and other countries. Part of the work was con- 
ducted under the supervision of W. S. Drummond and another part 
under Colonel Thomas Bragg, but these arrangements did not prove 
satisfactory, and a year later, in September, 1834, Mr. L Tlieil Town 
of New York, acting for the commissioners, contracted with David 
Paton to come to Raleigh and superintend the work. 



The North Carolina SxAxp Capitol 299 

Mr. Paton was an architect who had come from Scotland the year 
before. He was then thirty-three years of age. He was the son of 
John Paton, of Edinburgli, who was an extensive builder in that city 
and vicinity and who had built the greater part of the new town and 
constructed the famous Dean Bridge across the water of Leith, and 
he ranked high in his profession. Having received a liberal educa- 
tion at the University of Edinburgh, David Paton took up the pro- 
fession of his father and was regularly bred as an architect and 
builder under his father and under Sir John Sloan, R. A., professor 
of architecture to the Royal Academy of London. He soon demon- 
strated his capacity. When he first came to Raleigh the cost of 
overseeing the work on the Capitol was $25 a day. He reduced that 
cost to $9. Twenty-eight stonecutters were paid $81 a day. This he 
reduced to $56. He made a saving in these two items alone of $42 
a day. He found himself to be not merely supervisor of the work, 
but the superintendent; not merely the superintendent, but the 
bookkeeper and paymaster. He had every detail of the work on his 
shoulders. And then he had to make the working drawings. He 
was the builder, the architect, the designer. 

Both the commissioners and the architect had large ideas. The 
former were wise enough to expend the original $50,000. which the 
General Assembly expected would complete the structure, on its 
foundation. Their work being severely critized, they resigned 
January 1, 1835. Their successors were Beverly Daniel, chairman, 
Samuel F. Patterson, Charles Manly and Alfred Jones. The Legis- 
lature was compelled to make appropriations for the work from 
time to time. The following is a table of the several appropriations 
made: 

Session of 1832-33 $ 50,000.00 

Session of 1833-34 - 75,000.00 

Session of 1834-35 75,000.00 

Session of 1835 75,000.00 

Session of 1836-37 120,000.00 

Session of 1838-39 105,300.00 

Session of 1840-41 31,374.46 



Total $531,674.46 



300 . Miscellaneous 

It must be remembered that the stone with which the building 
was erected was the property of the State. Had the State been 
compelled to purchase this material the cost of the Capitol would 
have been considerably increased. 

The following is a description of the Capitol, written by David 
Paton, the architect: 

"The State Capitol is 160 feet in length from north to south by 
140 feet from east to west. The whole height is 97 1/^ feet in the 
center. The apex of pediment is 64 feet in height. The stylobate 
is 18 feet in height. The columns of the east and west porticoes 
are 5 feet 2i/4 inches in diameter. An entablature, including block- 
ing course is continued around the building, 12 feet high. 

"The columns and entablature are Grecian Doric, and copied from 
the Temple of Minerva, commonly called the Parthenon, which was 
erected in Athens about 500 years before Christ. An octagon tower 
surrounds the rotunda, which is ornamented with Grecian cornices, 
etc., and its dome is decorated at top with a similar ornament to 
that of the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, commonly called the 
Lanthorn of Demosthenes. 

"The interior of the Capitol is divided into three stories: First, 
the lower story, consisting of ten rooms, eight of which are appro- 
priated as offices to the Governor, Secretary, Treasurer, and Comp- 
troller, each having two rooms of the same size — the one contain- 
ing an area of 649 square feet, the other 528 square feet — the two 
committee rooms, each containing 200 square feet, and four closets; 
also the rotunda, corridors, vestibules, and plazas, contain an area of 
4.370 square feet. The vestibules are decorated with columns and 
antsee, similar to those of the Ionic Temple on the Ilissus, near the 
Acropolis of Athens. The remainder is groined with stone and 
brick, springing from columns and pilasters of the Roman Doric. 

"The second story consists of Senatorial and Representatives' 
chambers, the former containing an area of 2,545 and the latter 
2,849 square feet. Four apartments enter from Senate Chamber, two 
of which contain each an area of 169 square feet; and the other 
two contain each an area of 154 square feet; also, two rooms enter 
from Representatives' Chamber, each containing an area of 170 square 
feet; of two committee rooms, each containing an area of 231 feet; 
of four presses and the passages, stairs, lobbies, and colonnades, 
containing an area of 3,204 square feet. 



The North Carolina State Capitol 301 

"The lobbies and Hall of Representatives have their columns and 
antaee of the Octagon Tower of Andronicus Cyrrhestes and the plan 
of the hall is of the formation of the Greek theater and the columns 
and antaee in the Senatorial Chamber and rotunda are of the Temple 
of Erechetus, Minerva Polias, and Pandrosus, the Acropolis of 
Athens, near the above-named Parthenon. 

"Third, Oir attic story, consists of rooms appropriated to the Su- 
preme Court and Library, each containing an area of 693 square 
feet. Galleries of both houses have an area of 1,300 square feet; 
also, two apartments entering from Senate gallery, each 169 square 
feet, of four presses and the lobbies' stairs, 988 square feet. These 
lobbies, as well as rotunda, are lit with cupolas, and it is proposed 
to finish the court and library in the florid Gothic style." 

In the summer of 1840 the work was finished. The Assembly had, 
in December, 1832, appropriated $50,000 for the building. Mr. Boy- 
Ian, Judge Cameron and State Treasurer Mhoon and their associ- 
ates spent that sum in the foundation. They proposed to have a 
Capitol worthy of the State. At every subsequent session the As- 
sembly made additional appropriations. There was some caviling, 
and the commissioners resigned; but the Legislature and the new 
commissioners took no step backwards. Year by year they pressed 
on the work as it had been begun, until at last, after more than 
seven years, the sum of $531,674.46 was expended. As large as that 
sum was for the time, when the State was so poor and when the 
entire taxes for all State purposes reached less than $100,000, yet 
the people were satisfied. The building had been erected with rigor- 
ous economy, and it was an object of great pride to the people. In- 
deed, never was money better expended than in the erection of this 
noble Capitol. r 

Speaking of this structure, Samuel A. Ashe, in an address on 
David Paton, delivered in 1909, says: 

"Not seventy years have passed since the completion of this build- 
ing, yet it has undying memories. It was finished the year Henry 
Clay was set aside and his place as the Whig leader given to Gen- 
eral Harrison. Four years later Clay spoke from the western por- 
tico; but, like Webster and Calhoun, the prize of presidency was 
denied him. The voices of other men of large mould also have been 
heard within this Capitol. Here, too, our great jurists— Gaston, 
Ruffin, Pearson and their associates— held their sessions and brought 



302 Miscellaneous 

renown to North Carolina. Here, Badger, Mangum, Dobbin and 
scores of men known to fame held high debates. Here was brought 
forth in great travail our system of internal improvements, and of 
education, ramifying the State, disseminating enlightenment and 
opening the pathways to prosperous, contented and happy homes for 
our people. 

"Here Ellis and Clark and the mighty Vance directed the affairs 
of State in trying days of war and suffering and desolation, the 
glories mingled with pain and sorrow, and fading away in heart- 
rending defeat; but through it all the women and men, alike heroes, 
worthy the poets' loftiest strains. Then, when the people were still 
bowed in anguish, Carolinians turned their faces to the future, and, 
with resolution and intelligence, themselves modified their laws and 
institutions to meet the new conditions; but in vain, for these mute 
walls are witnesses of the saturnalia of Reconstruction, still 
awaiting some Dante to portray the scenes with realistic power. 
Yet the dark cloud had its silver lining, and the courageous devo- 
tion of Jarvis, John Graham and their Spartan band adds historic 
interest to that time of fearful storm. 

"Later, here was the scene of the great State trial, the impeach- 
ment of the Chief Magistrate of the Commonwealth and the contest 
between the intellectual giants of that generation. Governor Graham 
and Bragg and Merrimon, contesting with Smith and Coningland and 
Richard Badger. 

"And these walls have witnessed the reversal of that State policy 
forced on an unwilling people by the mailed hand of the conquering 
power, and the full restoration of Anglo-Saxon control. Never in 
history has a people been so clearly and effectually vindicated as 
those gallant souls of North Carolina, who, emulating the constancy 
of Hamilcar, swore their children to undying opposition to those 
who would destroy their civilization. Let the oppressed of future 
ages gaze on the scene and take courage. Already hallowed are the 
memories that these chambers evoke. What grand occasions yet 
await them. We may not lift the veil of the future, but experience 
warns us that history constantly repeats itself, and as the web 
woven by destiny unrolls itself there will yet occur within these 
enduring walls occasions of surpassing magnitude affecting the weal 
and woe of our posterity." 



State Admia-istration Building 303 



STATE ADMIMSTRATIOIV BUILDING 

Mindful of the fact that only a little more than a generation ago 
the State Capitol of North Carolina was destroyed by fire, entailing 
the loss of many valuable records and papers, for some years prior 
to the convening of the 1911 session of the General Assembly the 
demand had been insistent for a safer housing of several depart- 
ments of the State Government at Raleigh, notably the books and 
records of the North Carolina Historical Commission, which has now 
grown to be one of the most important branches of the work at the 
seat of government. 

Early in the session a movement was started for the building of 
a State administration building at the capital, and after numerous 
conferences and compromises of differences as to the amount that 
should be appropriated for that purpose, a bill was at length unani- 
mously passed by both houses, appropriating the sum of $250,000 
for this purpose and conferring upon the government the appoint- 
ment of a State Building Commission for the consummation of this 
worthy undertaking. Soon after the adjournment of the Legislature 
Governor W. W. Kitchin named as the members of the Commission 
Ashley Home of Clayton, William E. Springer of Wilmington, Julian 
S. Carr of Durham, W. L. Parsons of Rockingham, A. S. Rascoe of 
Windsor, J. A. Long of Roxboro, and J. Elwood Cox of High Point, 
men of affairs and recognized business ability in the State. 

The State Building Commission held its first meeting in the office 
of the State Auditor at 12:30 p. m., May 9, 1911, and organized by 
the election of Ashley Home of Clayton, as chairman, and William 
E. Springer of Wilmington, as secretary. Following organization, a 
conference was held with the Board of Public Buildings and 
Grounds, composed of the Governor, Secretary of State, Treasurer, 
and Attorney-General. It was stated as the purpose of the General 
Assembly to provide ample room for the Supreme Court, all valu- 
able State records, the State Library, offices for the Attorney- 
General, and several of the other State departments. The grounds 
were carefully gone over, the situation canvassed, and a subcom- 
mittee composed of Chairman Horne, Secretary Springer, and Com- 
missioner Cox was appointed to go further into the matter of a 
building and site. 



304 Miscellaneous 

At a subsequent meeting, on May 19, 1911, the committee reported 
that it had secured an option on three sites, and recommended the 
purchase of the Grimes tract for $45,000. This recommendation was 
accepted by the Commission as a wliole, and on June 6, 1911, plans 
as prepared by P. Thornton Marye of Atlanta, were accepted after 
hearing a number of others and after several conferences. These 
plans were later reviewed by Glenn Brown of Washington, D. C, 
another expert in building construction, and were declared eminently 
proper and in order in every respect. The plans called for a modern 
fireproof building four stories in height and admirably adapted to 
the purpose to w^hich it would be put. 

On November 1, 1911, the Commission met again in Raleigh, after 
proposals had been invited for the building, and after considering a 
number of bids for the construction, the contract was at length 
awarded to the John T. Wilson Company, of Richmond, Va., at a 
cost of $188,000, the building to be completed and ready for occu- 
pancy by January 19, 1913. 

How well the State Building Commission wrought is attested by 
the splendid building which now stands opposite the Capitol grounds 
and which was occupied in January, 1914, by the several depart- 
ments of government as agreed upon after the numerous confer- 
ences of the Commission. The departments occupying the building 
are as follows: First floor, State Library; second floor, North Caro- 
lina Historical Commission; third floor, the Supreme Court and 
Attorney-General; fourth floor. Supreme Court Library. 



NORTH CAROLIXA DAY 

The following act entitled '"An Act to Provide for the Celebration 
of North Carolina Day in the Public Schools," is chapter 164 of the 
Public Laws of 1901: 

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

Section 1. That the 12th day of October in each and every year, 
to be called "North Carolina Day" may be devoted, by appropriate 
exercises in the public schools of the State, to the consideration of 
some topic or topics of our State history, to be selected by the Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction. Provided, that if the said day shall 
fall on Saturday or Sunday, then, the celebration shall occur on the 



JSToKTH Carolina Day 305 

Monday next following: Provided, ftirther, that if the said day shall 
fall at a time when any such schools may not be in session, the 
celebration may be held within one month from the beginning of the 
term, unless the Superintendent of Public Instruction shall desig- 
nate some other time. 

Sec. 2. This act shall be in force from and after its ratification. 
In the General Assembly read three times and ratified this the 
9th day of February, A.D. 1901. 

October 12th, the date selected for North Carolina Day, is the 
anniversary of the laying of the cornerstone of the University of 
North Carolina, October 12, 1793. In accordance with the provisions 
of this act, the Superintendent of Public Instruction has had pre- 
pared and distributed to the schools of the State each year a pro- 
gram of exercises devoted to the study of some phase of North 
Carolina history. 

Since the creation of North Carolina Day the following subjects 
have been studied each year (back numbers of the programs can 
be secured from the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
Raleigh, N. C): 

1901. The Roanoke Island Colonies. Prepared by Fred A. Olds. 

1902. The Albemarle Section. Prepared by a Committee. 

1903. The Lower Cape Fear Section. Prepared by R. D. W. Connor. 

1904. The Pamlico-Neuse Section. Prepared by Charles L. Coon. 

1905. The Scotch Highlanders in North Carolina. Prepared by R. D. W. 
Connor. 

1906. Charles D. Mclver Memorial Day. Prepared by R. D. W. Connor. 

1907. The Scotch-Irish in North Carolina. Prepared by Charles PI. Mebane. 

1908. The German Settlements in North Carolina. N 

1909. Western North Carolina. I Y,nc\\ prepared by 

1910. North Carolina Poets and Poetry. \ jj jj ^y_ Connor. 

1911. Local and County History. i 

1912. Charles B. Aycock Memorial Day. / 

1913. North Carolina Rural Life and Knapp Memorial Day. Edited by 
N. C. Newbold. 

1914. Community Service. 

1915. School and Neighborhood Improvement Day. 

1916. Murphey Day: Archibald DeBow Murphcy. Prepared by Edgar W. 
Knight. 

1917. Thrift, Conservatism, Patriotism. 

1919. Aycock School Improvement Day. Prepared by the State Superintendent 

of Public Instruction. 
1921. Armistice Day. Prepared by R. B. House. 

1924. American Education Week. 

1925. The State Flag of North Carolina and "Some Makers of the Flag-" 
Prepared by Miss Susan Fulghum and ,T, Henry Hiirh smith. 

20 



306 Miscellaneous 



LEfiAL HOLIDAYS IN NORTH CAROLINA 

Although certain great days in each year — such as New Year's 
Day, Fourth of July, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day — have 
long been observed as general holidays, there were no "legal" holi- 
days, in North Carolina prior to 1881. The Legislature of that year, 
in the interest of commercial transactions, passed an act to make 
these customary holidays "legal" holidays. It is in chapter 294, 
Public Laws of 1881, and was brought forward in The Code of 1883 
as sections 3784-3786 of chapter 61. It provides: 

"That the first day of January, twenty-second day of February, 
tenth day of May, twentieth day of May, fourth day of July, and a 
day appointed by the Governor of North Carolina as a thanksgiving 
day, and the twenty-fifth day of December of each and every year be, 
and the same are hereby declared to be public holidays; and that 
whenever any such holiday shall fall upon Sunday, the Monday next 
following shall be deemed a public holiday, and papers due on such 
Sunday shall be payable on the Saturday next preceding, and papers 
which would otherwise be payable on said Monday shall be payable 
on the Tuesday next thereafter. 

"Sec. 2. Be it further enacted. That whenever either of the above 
named days shall fall on Saturday, the papers due on the Sunday 
following shall be payable on the Monday next succeeding. 

"Sec. 3. Be it further enacted, That whenever the above named 
days shall fall on Monday, the papers which should otherwise be 
payable on that day shall be payable on Tuesday next succeeding." 

Ten years later, the nineteenth of January was made a "legal" 
holiday, by chapter 58, Public Laws of 1891, which provides: 

"That the nineteenth day of January, the birthday of the peerless 
Robert E. Lee, in each and every year hereafter, shall be a public 
holiday." 

In 1899, the first Thursday in September was designated as Labor 
Day and made a "legal" holiday. The Legislature of 1901 amended 
this Act by changing the holiday from the first Thursday to the 
first Monday in September. The reason for this change was recited 
in the preamble of the act as follows: 

"Whereas it is desirable that the same date should be set aside by 
both State and Federal statutes for the observance of the same 
holiday; 

"And whereas the first Monday in September is designated by stat- 
utes in various states and also by Federal Statutes as Labor Day, 



Legal Holidays in North Carolina 307 

while the first Thursday in September is designated as Labor Day 
by statute of this State, thereby causing confusion and annoyance in 
mercantile transactions, therefore," etc. 

These several acts were all brought forward in the Revisal of 
1905 as section 283S. 

The Legislature of 1907 added another legal holiday to the list 
by setting aside as a holiday "Tuesday after the first Monday in 
November, when a general election is held." This is chapter 996, 
Public Laws of 1907. 

The twelfth day of April was made a legal holiday by chapter 888, 
Public Laws of 1909, which is as follows: 

"Whereas the Provincial Congress which met at Halifax, in this 
State, in April, one thousand seven hundred and seventy-six, after 
providing for the military organization of the State, did, on the 
twelfth day of April, one thousand seven hundred and seventy-six, 
adopt the following resolution, generally known as the 'Halifax 
Resolutions,' to wit: 

" 'Resoh^ed, That the delegates for this colony in the Continental 
Congress be empowered to concur with the delegates of the other 
colonies in declaring independency, and forming foreign alliances, 
reserving to this colony the sole and exclusive right of forming a 
constitution and laws for this colony.' 

"And whereas said resolution is the first declaration in favor of 
independence by the people of the whole State, through their duly 
authorized representatives and was adopted more than two months 
before the Declaration of Independence by the Continental Con- 
gress; and wliereas an occurrence so momentous in the history of 
our State and Nation, and so illustrative of the patriotism and wis- 
dom of the whole people of- North Carolina, should be commem- 
orated, therefore. 

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

"Section 1. That the twelfth day of April in each and every year 
be, and the same is hereby made a legal holiday in North Carolina." 

The latest of our legal holidays is the eleventh of November, 
designated by chapter 287, Public Laws of 1919, which provides: 

"Section 1. That the eleventh day of each and every November 
be, and the same is hereby designated, declared and set apart as a 
legal holiday for all the citizens of North Carolina. 

"Sec. 2. That the Governor shall annually issue his proclamation 
proclaiming the eleventh day of November as a legal holiday and 
calling upon the people to appropriately celebrate and observe the 
same." 



308 Miscellaneous 

Legal Holidays in North Carolina, therefore, are as follows: 
January 1. — New Year's Day. 

January 19 — Birthday of General Robert E. Lee. 
February 22 — Birthday of George Washington. 

April 12 — Anniversary of the Resolutions adopted by the Pro- 
vincial Congress of North Carolina, at Halifax, April 12, 1776, em- 
powering the delegates from North Carolina to the Continental 
Congress to vote for a Declaration of Independence. 

May 10 — Confederate Memorial Day. 

May 20 — Anniversary of the "Mecklenburg Declaration of Inde- 
pendence." 

July 4 — Independence Day. 

September, first Monday — Labor Day. 

November, Tuesday after first Monday — General Election Day. 

November 11 — Armistice Day. 

November, last Thursday — Thanksgiving Day. 

December 25 — Christmas Day. 



THE STATE FLAG 

The first legislation on the subject of a State flag was enacted 
by the Convention of 1861. May 20, 1861, the Convention adopted 
the Ordinance of Secession. 

On that same day Col. John D. Whitford, a member of the Con- 
vention from Craven County, introduced the following ordinance, 
which was passed and referred to a select committee of seven: 

"Be it ordained that the flag of this State shall be a blue field 
with a white V thereon, and a star, encircling which shall be the 
words 'Surgit astrum, May 20th, 1775.' " 

Colonel Whitford was made chairman of the committee to which 
this ordinance was referred. The committee secured the aid and 
advice of William Garl Brown, an artist of Raleigh. Brown pre- 
pared and submitted a model to this committee. And this model 
was adopted by the Convention on the 22d day of June, 1861. It 
will be observed that the Brown model, to be hereafter explained, 



The State Flag 309 

was vastly different from the one originally proposed by Colonel 
Whitford. Here is the ordinance as it appears on the Journal of 
the Convention: 

"an ordinance in relation to a state FLA(i" 

"Be it ordained by this Convention, and it is hereby ordained by 
the authority of the same, That the flag of North Carolina shall 
consist of a red field vv'ith a white star in the center, and with the 
inscription, above the star, in a semi-circular form of 'May 20, 
1775,' and below the star, in a semi-circular form of 'May 20, 1861.' 
That there shall be two bars of equal width, and the length of the 
field shall be equal to the bar, the width of the field being equal to 
both bars; the first bar shall be blue, and the second shall be white; 
and the length of the flag shall be one-third more than its width." 
(Ratified the 22d day of June, 1861.) 

This State flag, adopted in 1861, is said to have been issued to 
the first ten regiments of State troops during the summer of that 
year, and was borne by them throughout the war, being the only 
flag, except the National and Confederate colors, used by the North 
Carolina troops during the Civil War. This flag existed until 1885, 
when the Legislature of that year adopted a new model. 

The bill, which was Introduced by General Johnstone Jones on 
the 5th of February, 1885, passed its final reading one month later 
after little or no debate. This act reads as follows: 

AN ACT TO ESTABLISH A STATE FLAG 

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

Section 1. That the flag of North Carolina shall consist of a blue 
union, containing in the center thereof a white star with the letter 
N in gilt on the left and the letter C in gilt on the right of said 
star, the circle containing the same to be one-third the width of 
the union. 

Sec. 2. That the fly of the flag shall consist of two equally pro- 
portioned bars; the upper bar to be red, the lower bar to be white; 
that the length of the bars horizontally shall be equal to the per- 
pendicular length of the union, and the total length of the flag shall 
be one-third more than its width. 

Sec. 3. That above the star in the center of the union there shall 
be a gilt scroll in semi-circular form, containing in black letters 
this inscription: "May 20th 1775," and that below the star there 
shall be a similar scroll containing in black letters the inscription: 
"April 12, 1776." 



310 Miscellaneous 

In the General Assembly read three times and ratified this 9th 
day of March, A.D., 1885. 

No change has been made in the flag since the passage of this 
act. By an act of 1907 it is provided: 

"That the board of trustees or managers of the several State in- 
stitutions and public buildings shall provide a North Carolina flag, 
of such dimensions and material as they may deem best, and the 
same shall be displayed from a staff upon the top of each and every 
such building at all times except during inclement weather, and 
upon the death of any State officer or any prominent citizen the flag 
shall be put at half-mast until the burial of such person shall have 
taken place. 

"That the Board of County Commissioners of the sevei'al counties 
in this State shall likewise authorize the procuring of a North Caro- 
lina flag, to be displayed either on a staff upon the top, or draped 
behind the judges' stand, in each and every courthouse in the State, 
and that the State flag shall be displayed at each and every term of 
court held, and on such other public occasions as the Commissioners 
may deem proper." 



THE OREAT SEAL* 

The Constitution of North Carolina, Article III, section 16, re- 
quires that 

"There shall be a seal of the State which shall be kept by the 
Governor, and used by him as occasion may require, and shall be 
called 'The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina.' All grants 
and commissions shall be issued in the name and by the authority 
of the State of North Carolina, sealed with 'The Great Seal of the 
State,' signed by the Governor and countersigned by the Secretary 
of State." 

The use of a Great Seal for the attestation of important docu- 
ments began with the institution of government in North Carolina. 
There have been at various times nine different seals In use in the 
colony and State. The first seal was adopted by the Lords Proprie- 
tors of Carolina soon after receiving their charters from the Crown 
in 1665. This seal is to be seen in the Public Record Office in Lon- 
don. It is described as follows: 



* Abridged from "Tlie Great Seal of North Carolina," by J. Bryan Grimes; 
Publications of the the North Carolina Historical Commission, Bulletin No. 5. 



The Great Seal 311 

"The obverse side has a shield bearing on its face two cornucopias 
crossed, filled with products and having for supporters, on the sin- 
ister side, an Indian chief holding an arrow. On the dexter is an 
Indian squaw with a papoose by her side and one in her arms. 
These natives, I imagine, are supposed to be bringing tribute. The 
crest is a stag upon a wreath above a helmet from which there is a 
mantling. On the scroll below the shield is the motto, Domitus 
Cultor-ibus OrHs. Around the shield are the words MAGNUM 
SIGILLUM CAROLINAE DOMINORUM. On the reverse side is a 
disc bearing a cross, around which are arranged the coats-of-arms 
of the Lords Proprietors in the following order: Clarendon, Albe- 
marle, Craven, John Berkeley, Cooper, Carteret, William Berkeley, 
and Colleton. The size of this seal is 3% inches in diameter, and 
was made by placing together two wax cakes with tape between 
before being impressed, and was about 14 inch thick. This seal 
was used on all the official papers of the Lords Proprietors for 
Carolina, embracing North and South Carolina." 

About 1665 the government of Albemarle County was organized, 
and for a seal the reverse side of the seal of the Lords Proprietors 
was adopted. It bore the word A-L-B-E-M-A-R-L-E, beginning with 
the letter A between the names of Clarendon and Albemarle, L be- 
tween the arms of Albemarle and Craven, BE between the arms of 
Craven, Lord John Berkley, etc. 

This was a small seal I'^g inches in diameter, with one face only, 
and is now frequently to be found attached to colonial papers. It 
was first used for the government of the county of Albemarle, and 
then became the seal of the Province of North Carolina, being used 
until just after the purchase by the Crown. 

In 1730, after the purchase of the colony by the Crown, the Lords 
of Trade proposed to the King a new seal "whereon Liberty is rep- 
resented introducing Plenty to your Majesty with this motto. Quae 
sera tamen respexit, and this inscription around the circumference, 
Sigillum Province Nostrae CaroUnae, Septentrionalis:' The back- 
ground on which the King and these figures stand is a map of 
the coast of North Carolina, and in the offing is a ship. On the 
reverse of this seal are the Royal Arms, Crown, Garter, Supporters, 
and Motto, with this inscription around the circumference, Georgius 
Secundus Dei Gratia Magnae Britaniae, Franciae, et Hiberniae, Rex, 
Fidei Defensor, Brunsvici et Lunenbergi Dux, SaciH Romani Im- 
perii Archi Thesaurarius, et Elector. 

This seal was made by placing two cakes or layers of wax to- 
gether, between which was the ribbon or tape with which the in- 



312 Miscellaneous 

strument was interlaced and by which the seal was appended. It 
was customary to put a piece of paper on the outside of these cakes 
before they were impressed. The seal complete was 4% inches 
in diameter and from % to % inch thick and weighed about 5^4 
ounces. 

In 1767 Governor Tryon received from the King a new Great 
Seal for the Province. The new seal was engraved on the one side 
with the Royal Arms, Garter, Crown, Supporters, and Motto, and 
this inscription around the circumference "Georgius III D: G: Mag. 
Bri. Fr. et Hih. Rex, F. D. Brun, ct Lun, Dux, S. R. I. ar Thes. et 
El." On the other side are figures of the King and Liberty who is 
introducing Plenty to the King with this motto, Quae Sera Tamen 
Resptxit. Around the circumference is the following legend: Sig- 
illium, Provinciae Nostrae CaroUnae, Septentrionalls. This seal 
was 4 inches in diameter, Vo to % inches thick, and weight iV-z 
ounces. 

Sometimes a smaller seal than the Great Seal was used, as com- 
missions and grants are often found with a small heart-shaped seal 
about one inoh wide and a quarter of an inch thick which was 
impressed with a crown. Also a seal was occasionally used about 
three inches long and two inches wide and a half an inch thick, in 
the shape of an ellipse. These impressions were evidently made by 
putting the wax far enough under the edge of the Great Seal to 
take the impression of the crown. The royal governors also some- 
times used their private seals. 

When the government of the independent State of North Carolina 
was organized, the Constitution adopted at Halifax, December 18, 
1776, provided. Section XVII, "That there shall be a seal of this 
State, which shall be kept by the Governor, and used by him as 
occasion may require; and shall be called the Great Seal of the 
State of North Carolina and be affixed to all grants and commis- 
sions." 

The Convention of 1868 changed the section of the Constitution, 
with reference to the seal, to read as it now stands. 

The Assembly of 1778 appointed William Tisdale to cut and en- 
grave the first State seal, under the direction of the Governor. This 
seal was used until 1794. Its actual size was three inches in diame- 
ter and Yi incb thick. It was made by putting two cakes of wax 



The Great Seal 313 

together with paper wafers on the outside and pressed between the 
dies forming the obverse and reverse sides of this seal. 
The seal of 1778 is described as follows: 

"On one side is the figure of Minerva or Liberty holding in the 
right hand the pole with cap and in the left hand with arm ex- 
tended is held a large scroll on which appears in large capital let- 
ters the word 'Constitution.' Under the figure the words, IN LEGI- 
BUS SALUS. Around the circumference are the words, THE GREAT 
SEAL OP THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA. On the other side 
of the shield is the figure of a woman, probably Plenty. The right 
arm is folded across her breast and in her right hand inclining 
toward her left shoulder is held a distaff. In the left hand with 
arm extended is held an ear of corn. In the distance beyond a tree 
browses a cow. Under these figures appear the word and letters 
INDEPENDENCE— MDCCLXXVI.' Around the circumference ap- 
pear the words O. FORTUNATOS, NIMIUM, SUA. SI. BONA. 
NORINT, COLONOS." 

In December, 1781, the General Assembly authorized the Gov- 
ernor to procure a seal that should "be prepared with one side only, 
and calculated to make the impression on the face of such grant, 
commission, record, or other public act," etc. An artist in Phila- 
delphia submitted a sketch to the Governor as follows: Minerva is 
represented in the act of introducing Ceres with her horn of plenty 
to Liberty, who is seated on a pedestal holding in her right hand 
a book on which is inscribed the word "Constitution." In the 
background are introduced a pyramid, denoting strength and dura- 
bility, and a pine tree which relates immediately to the products of 
the State. 

This sketch, omitting Minerva and with some minor charges, 
was accepted by Governor Spaight. The new seal was very much 
like the present one. It has two figures. Liberty and Plenty. Lib- 
erty is seated on a pedestal with her pole in her right hand, and 
her cap on the pole; in her left hand is a scroll with the word 
"Constitution" upon it. Plenty is standing to the left and front of 
Liberty; around her head is a circlet of flowers; in her right hand, 
leaning against her shoulder, is her cornucopia, mouth upwards, 
overflowing with fruits and produce. In her left is an ear of corn. 
Around the circumference are the words THE GREAT SEAL OF 
THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

This seal was 2V2 inches in diameter, slightly larger than the 
present one, and was used until about 1835. 



314 Miscellaneous 

In 1834 the Legislature authorized the Governor to procure a new 
seal. The preamble to the act states that the old seal had been in 
use since the first day of March, 1793. The seal adopted in 1835, 
which was used until 1883, was very similar to its predecessor. 
On it Liberty and Plenty faced each other. Liberty was standing, 
her pole with cap on it in her left hand, and a scroll with the word 
"Constitution" inscribed thereon in her right hand. Plenty is sit- 
ting down, her right arm half extended towards Liberty, three 
heads of wheat in her right hand, and in her left the small end 
of her horn, the mouth of which is resting at her feet, and the 
contents of her horn rolling out. Around the circumference were 
the words THE GREAT SEAL OF THE STATE OF NORTH CARO- 
LINA. This seal was 2^/4 inches in diameter. 

In 1883 an act was passed relative to the seal, which was incor- 
porated in the Code as section 3329. The seal therein provided for 
is described as follows: 

"The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina shall be two and 
one-quarter inches in diameter, and its design shall be a representa- 
tion of the figures of Liberty and Plenty, looking toward each other, 
but not more than half fronting each other, and otherwise disposed 
as follows: Liberty, the first figure, standing, her pole with cap on 
it in her left hand and a scroll with the word 'Constitution' in- 
scribed thereon in her right hand. Plenty, the second figure, sitting 
down, her right arm half extended towards Liberty, three heads of 
wheat in her right hand, and in her left the small end of her horn, 
the mouth of which is resting at her feet, and the contents of the 
horn rolling out." 

In 1893 an act, introduced by Jacob Battle, added at the foot of 
the coat of arms of the State as a part thereof the motto "Esse 
Quam Videri," and required that the words, "May 20, 1775," be in- 
scribed at the top of the coat of arms. 

The present Great Seal of the State of North Carolina is described 
as follows: 

"The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina is two and one- 
quarter inches in diameter, and its design is a representation of 
the figures of Liberty and Plenty, looking towards each other, but 
not more that half fronting each other, and otherwise disposed as 
follows: Liberty, the first figure standing, her pole with cap on it 
in her left hand and a scroll with the word 'Constitution' inscribed 
thereon in her right hand. Plenty, the second figure, sitting down, 
her right arm half extended toward Liberty, three heads of wheat 



State Motto and Its Origin 315 



in her right hand, and in her left the small end of her horn, the 
mouth of which is resting at her feet, and the contents of horn roll- 
ing out. In the exergue is inserted the words May 20, 1775, above 
the coat of arms. Around the circumference is the legend. "The 
Great Seal of the State of North Carolina,' and the motto, 'Esse 
Quam Videri.' " 



STATE MOTTO AND ITS ORIGIN* 

The General Assembly of 1893 (chapter 145) adopted the words 
"Esse Quam Videri" as the State's motto and directed that these 
words with the date, "20 May, 1775," should be placed with our 
Coat of Arms upon the Great Seal of the State. 

The words "Esse Quam Videri" mean "to be rather than to seem." 
Nearly every state has adopted a motto, generally in Latin. The 
reason for their mottoes being in Latin is that the Latin tongue 
is far more condensed and terse than the English. The three 
words, "Esse Quam Videri," require at least six English words to 
express the same idea. 

Curiosity has been aroused to learn the origin of our State motto. 
It is found in Cicero in his essay on Friendship (Cicero De Ami- 
citia, chap. 26). He says, "Virtute enim ipsa non tam multi prediti 
esse quam videri," i.e, "Virtue is a quality which not so many 
desire to possess as desire to seem to possess," or, translated liter- 
ally, "For indeed not so many wish to be endowed with virtue as 
wish to seem to be." 

The phrase is a striking one, and Cicero's version of it has been 
caught up and often used as a motto. No less than three houses of 
British nobility have adopted it, to wit: the Earl of Winterton. 
Earl Brownlow, and Lord Lurgan. 

It has been adopted by many associations, especially literary 
societies. In this State it is the motto of Wilson Collegiate Insti- 
tute and, and with some modifications of one of the societies at 
"Wake Forest College. 

The figures on our State Coat of Arms are Liberty and Plenty. 
It has been objected that the motto has no reference or application 
to the figures on the coat of arms. It is very rarely that such 



*Adapted from an article by Chief Justice Walter Clark in The North Carolina 
Booklet, Vol. IX, No. 3. 



316 MiSCELLAiS'EOUS 

is the case. The national motto, "E Pluribus Unum," has no refer- 
ence to the Eagle and Shield and the Thunderbolts on the national 
coat of arms. Nor have the "Excelsior" of New York, the "Dirigo" 
of Maine, the "Qui Transtulet, Sustinet" of Connecticut any appli- 
cation to the figures above them. Indeed, Virginia's "Sic Semper 
Tyrannis" is one of the very few instances in which the motto 
bears such reference. But, in fact, is our motto so entirely with- 
out reference to the coat of arms as is usually the case? The fig- 
ures are, as just stated. Liberty and Plenty. Is it inappropriate to 
say we prefer to he free and prosperous than seem to be so? There 
have been states that had all the appearance of liberty and pros- 
perity, when in truth having lost the reality of both, they were 
tottering to their fall. 

It is a little singular that until the act of 1893 the sovereign State 
of North Carolina had no motto since its declaration of independ- 
ence. It was one of the very few states which did not have a 
motto, and the only one of the original thirteen without one. 

It may be noted that up to the time it became a "sovereign and 
independent state" the Colony or Province of North Carolina bore 
on its great seal "Quae sera tamen respexit." This was taken from 
the first Eclogue of Virgil (line 27) and, referring to the figure of 
Liberty, meant "Which, though late, looked upon me"— the full line 
in Virgil being "Liberty which, though late, looked upon me indo- 
lent." No wonder that this was dropped by the new State. Noth- 
ing could possibly have been more inappropriate. Liberty came not 
to her late; and it came not to a people inert or unseeki!ng her 
rewards. To such, liberty never comes. 

It may be mentioned, to prevent any misunderstanding as to the 
scope of the act of 1893 (now Revisal, sec. 5320), that it does not 
apply to county seals. Each county is authorized to adopt its own 
seal. Revisal, sec. 1318 (24). Many counties now have on their 
county seals the appropriate phrase. "Leges Jaraque Vindicamus." 
Some have adopted the State motto. But this is a matter left to 
the discretion of the county commissioners in each county. 

Note by the E'ditors (of The Booklet). The bill which was passed 
in 1S93 to adopt our State motto was introduced by Senator Jacob 
Battle, of Nash, afterwards Judge of the Superior Court. We have 
before us a letter from him in which he states that the motto was 
selected by Judge— since Chief Justice — Walter Clark, who also 



The Confederate Museum at Richmond 317 

drew the bill and requested him to present it. He adds that the 
words "20 May 1775," secured the hearty cooperation of Senator 
Brevard McDowell of Mecklenburg, and by their joint efforts the 
bill passed by the unanimous vote of both houses of the General 
Assembly, and without amendment. 



THE CONIEDEKATE MUSEUM AT RICHMOJ<D 

In the house in Richmond, Virginia, which was the Executive 
Mansion of the Confederate States, and as such was occupied by 
President Davis from 1861 to 1865, is in charge of the Confederate 
Memorial Literary Society, and is filled with relics of the Con- 
federacy. Each Southern state has a room, to which the Daughters 
of the Confederacy contribute to the endowment fund. To the sup- 
port of the North Carolina Room, the General Assembly appropriates 
$200 annually. About eight years ago it was decided that each 
room would raise an endowment of $2,000. This amount was not 
sufficient so it was increased to $3,000. North Carolina, South 
Carolina, and Virginia have gone over the top and most of the 
rooms have reached their goal. The North Carolina Room con- 
tains a large collection of relics and the largest collection of portraits 
in the museum. About 15,000 persons visit the Museum annually. 
Each Confederate State has a regent who is expected to collect 
relics, etc., and funds for its room and a vice regent who gives 
personal supervision to the room and its needs. Mrs. Latta C. 
Johnson is the Regent and Mrs. J. A. Hodges, the Vice Regent for 
North Carolina. 



PART VIII 



PLATFORMS OF POLITICAL PARTIES, 1926 



1. State Democratic Platform. 

2. State Republican Platform. 



State Democratic Platform, 1926 321 



STATE DEMOCRATIC PLATFOKM, 1920 

We, the representatives of the Democratic Party of North Caro- 
lina, in convention assembled, rededicate our allegiance to the 
fundamental principles which have given strength and power of 
service to our Party from the beginning of the Republic, and wel- 
come the opportunity to give account of its stewardship, to renew 
its solemn pledges of fidelity to the public welfare, and to those 
causes which most surely promote the happiness and prosperity of 
all the people. 

For an unbroken period of a quarter of a century this Party 
has held responsibility for the administration of the executive, leg- 
islative and judical departments of the State government. In all 
this time it has assumed and exercised responsibility of leadership 
in constructive policies designed to build a great commonwealth. 

For the intelligence and wisdom with which these policies have 
been conceived, and the faithfulness with which they have been 
executed, we submit our cause with confidence to the whole people of 
North Carolina — a State which enjoys, by reason of successful 
promotion of these policies, distinction of leadership in educational 
progress, in humane consideration of its unfortunate classes, in 
agricultural and industrial development and in construction and 
maintenance of public highways — an achievement which could not 
have been attained without a substantial measure of unanimity of 
support of the liberal thought and forward-minded people of the 
State. These achievements give honor to every administration 
which has furnished the leadership and to all our people who have 
cooperated to achieve these great results. 

It is not a finished task, but a continuing obligation and oppor- 
tunity to all our people to work out with continuing wisdom and 
devotion to the public good a destiny that may not be surpassed 
by any people. 

We pledge the Party to a continuation of this constructive pro- 
gram until every reasonable demand of these causes has been met 
and as rapidly as by the exercise of rigid economy it may be done 
within the limits of a sound fiscal policy and by taxation that is 
not oppressive to any class of taxpayers. 

21 



322 Platforms of Political Parties 

ENDORSEMENT OF STATE ADMINISTRATION 

We heartily endorse and commend the administration of Governor 
McLean and the other Democratic State officials, and the measures 
enacted by the General Assembly of 1925. The progressive program 
of development and service inaugurated under previous administra- 
tions has not only been continued but has been greatly strengthened 
by the Executive Budget System and other measures recommended 
by Governor McLean and enacted by the General Assembly of 1925, 
for improving and systematizing the administration of State affairs 
and to provide against waste or extravagance in any department or 
institution of the State. 

We approve and commend all the acts of the General Assembly 
of 1925, tending to apply methods of sound business economy within 
all departments of the State government and its institutions. 

We commend the careful manner in which the last General 
Assembly revised our revenue la.ws to meet the necessities of State 
revenue without resort to any tax on property or by placing upon 
the farmers and working people of North Carolina the sales tax, 
which is based upon consumption instead of ability to pay, and 
which the Democratic Party has always opposed and which we still 
oppose. We reaffirm our opposition to the ad valorem property tax 
for State purposes. 

We observe with deep satisfaction and we heartily commend 
the adoption in many counties of improved methods of adminis- 
tering county affairs. This policy is becoming more and more 
necessary by reason of the expanding functions of county govern- 
ment in order that there may be at all times an economical and 
businesslike expenditure of the funds raised by taxation to carry 
on the constantly enlarging activities of the counties. 

While we believe in the time-honored principle of local self- 
government, we are convinced that the State can and should co- 
operate with the counties in devising general methods of improv- 
ing county government. In this connection we observe with interest 
that the Association, composed of the Commissioners of the various 
counties in the State, have requested the Governor to appoint, and 
he has appointed, a commission to study and report to the next 
meeting of that association for their consideration and action, a plan 
of simplifying and improving the methods of county administration. 



State Democratic Platform, 1926 323 

THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

Believing that a democracy must rely upon an adequate system 
of public education for the perpetuation of its free institutions and 
for the preservation of liberty to its citizens against the encroach- 
ment of selfish and dominant interests, the Democratic Party has 
always fostered a system of free schools for all the people. Our 
public school system is at the foundation of our material progress. 
From year to year, it has been expanded to meet the widening 
needs of the people. 

Progress in education, like every other kind of progress, is a 
matter of growth. The principal requisite in our present educa- 
tional system is to equalize the school facilities of the rural chil- 
dren, particularly those who live in the less wealthy counties, so 
that we may provide as nearly as possible equality of opportunity 
in educational advantages for all the children of the State, as fast 
as our resources will permit. We must constantly strive to reach 
this goal. The last General Assembly, realizing the need for 
further progress in education, provided for an Educational Com- 
mission to make a complete investigation of the cost of our present 
system and the means of collecting and disseminating accurate in- 
formation as to the educational needs of the State, in respect to 
its system of public schools as well as its institutions of higher 
learning. In accordance with this act, the Governor has appointed 
a commission composed of able and conscientious men and women 
to make the investigation and survey authorized by the act and 
report their findings of fact and recommendations thereon to the 
session of the General Assembly which convenes in January next. 
We believe that the report of said commission will be of great 
value to the next General Assembly when it comes to determine 
what shall be the future policy of the State in respect to our entire 
system of public education. 

GOOD KOADS 

We rejoice in the remarkable progress that has been made toward 
the fulfillment of the promise of our platform of 1920, for the 
establishment and maintenance of a State system of highways. 
This great achievement is being carried on and will be completed 
without levying any taxes on property by the State for this or 
any other purpose, and with a system of financing that will ade- 



324 Platforms of Political Parties 

Quately maintain all roads in the State system, pay interest on 
indebtedness contracted, provide for the full payment of all bonds 
as they become due and payable, and a substantial additional sum 
for new construction. It illustrates anew the capacity of the 
Democratic Party to provide for the State's large needs as well as 
small, honestly, economically and efficiently, and free from narrow 
partisanship. We pledge the party to a continuance of the present 
highway construction program as rapidly as practical from the 
sources of revenue heretofore set aside and dedicated to that pur- 
pose. The State should render every assistance possible, after 
providing for the completion and maintenance of the State sys- 
tem, to aid the counties in organizing efficient systems of connect- 
ing county roads. 

FISHING INDUSTRY 

We endorse the program commenced several years ago of con- 
serving and building up a great fishing industry. The commercial 
fisheries of our State are very important and destined to become 
one of the State's chief assets. 

The worlt of stocking and restocking the numerous fine streams, 
ponds and lakes of the State by artificial propagation of fish through 
our State-owned and operated hatcheries is very important, and 
fast becoming popular throughout the entire State. 

We recommend and urge the next General Assembly to work out 
a plan by which the work of conserving and devolping our com- 
mercial fisheries, as well as continuing on a larger scale the work 
now being done by the State fish hatcheries may be continued. 

rail and water transportation 

Our State should have the benefit of fair, just and equitable 
freight rates, and any discrimination against our people in this 
resipect must be removed at any cost. We endorse and commend 
the efforts of the Legislative, Executive and Administrative de- 
partments of the State government under Democratic control that 
have for many years labored in cooperation with shippers of this 
State to remove discriminations that have existed in interstate rates 
to the detriment and prejudice of our commerce. We rejoice that 
substantial measures of relief have been obtained and pledge our 
unrelenting efforts to this cause until all discriminations are re- 



State Democratic Platform, 1926 325 

moved. The Democratic Party is likewise committed to the policy 
of the State's encouraging the development of our water transporta- 
tion. One of the most important considerations in connection with 
our rate situation is to do whatever we can without violating sound 
business principles toward establishing rate basing ports and 
developing a system of water transportation. The Inland Waterway 
is a great and constructive project for which the vision and leader- 
ship of North Carolina Senators and Representatives in Congress 
have constantly labored. This great national undertaking is only 
partially completed and will not develop the volume of water-borne 
commerce which should be transported through it until it is com- 
pleted. The completion of the Inland Waterway to Wilmington 
would add a volume of commerce over this route that would make 
available regular, frequent and dependable service to all interme- 
diate points. We commend this great enterprise and call upon our 
Senators and Representatives in Congress to use their best efforts 
to bring about its completion at the earliest possible moment. 

We commend the last General Assembly for its action in provid- 
ing for a commission charged with the duty of making a complete 
survey and investigation of the entire rate situation in North 
Carolina and reporting to the General Assembly the facts which 
they may find to exist with respect to existing discrimination in 
rates, the probable causes thereof, the action which in the judg- 
ment of the commission will afford a remedy and particularly what 
action, if any, the State should take in cooperation with the 
Federal government or otherwise to aid in the develoipment of 
water transportation to and from North Carolina ports. 

primaries and elections 

The Democratic Party believes that all government should be 
controlled by the people themselves. Every member of our party 
has a right freely to participate in the choice of our candidates for 
public office. Every voter has the right freely to participate in the 
selection of those who fill our offices. The Democratic Party favors 
all necessary laws to preserve and insure these rights to the in- 
creased and increasing number of voters. 

No other political i)arty in North Carolina permits its member- 
ship to have any part in the choice of candidates, but reserves 



326 Platforms of Political Parties 

such selection to a small coterie of selfish politicians, usually Fed- 
eral oflSce holders. 

More than thirty years ago the National Republican Party sought 
to subject North Carolina to the infamous Force Bill. Today 
again the threat of that comes from the enemy within our gates, 
the State organization of that party, in its recently adopted plat- 
form. We meet that challenge. We renew our pledge to preserve 
within the State itself control of all elections. So long as the 
Democratic Party remains in control of government in this State 
it will protect the right of every legally qualified voter to exercise 
the elective franchise uncontrolled and unawed by any centralized 
authority from without the State. 

capital and labor 

Capital and labor are partners in the joint enterprise of produc- 
tion, industry and commerce. Each has rights and the rights of 
each should be safeguarded and protected. We rejoice that this 
relationship is generally so cordially recognized and acted upon by 
these two great forces in the economic life of our State. 

The State needs the impetus which comes from the investment 
of capital in its industries and the development of its natural 
resources. Every honest business enterprise should be encouraged 
and jiistly treated by the government in the enactment and adminis- 
tration of law, and the imposition of taxes. The policy of our party 
has been to aid and protect all men in the enjoyment of the fruits 
of their industry and to restrain and prevent any unjust or illegal 
practices in the conduct of business. Equal and exact justice to all 
men has been the cardinal tenet of the Democratic Party since 
the days of its founder. That policy will continue under Democratic 
administration in North Carolina. 

The Democratic Party has always been the firm friend of the 
toiler. The effective labor legislation on our statute books in both 
State and Nation came from Democratic leadership. Our party 
established the Departments of Labor both here and in Washington. 
It has stood for the inherent right of the laborer to organize and 
has protected that right by just laws in harmony with the advancing 
social thought of the time. It has written indelibly into the struc- 
ture of our law the great principle that labor is not a commodity. 



State Demockatic Platform, 1926 327 

The party will continue to stand for these fundamental principles 
and for such legislation as will protect and promote the interests 
of the laborer. 

SMOKY mountain NATIONAL PARK 

The preservation of the natural and distinctive objects of beauty 
of a State should be one of the prime objects of its people. 

We commend the North Carolina Park Commission in its efforts 
to assist in the establishment of a National Park in North Carolina 
and thus in some measure to preserve a part of the State's scenic 
beauty. The efforts of the State should be further exerted toward 
making The Smoky Mountain National Park an accomplishment. 

ENDORSEMENT OF SENATORS AND REPRESENTATIVES IN CONGRESS 

We endorse the record of our Senators and Representatives in 
Congress and express our pride and gratification in the outstanding 
part played by them in the passage of the recent tax reduction bill, 
relieving the overburdened taxpayers of the country of $387,000,000 
of taxes, not required to meet the needs of the government. 

THE TARIFF 

We re-declare our firm faith in the time-honored position of the 
Democratic Party upon the tariff question — in favor of a tax on 
commodities entering the customs houses that will promote effective 
competition, protect against monopoly and at the same time 
produce a fair revenue to support the government. 

The abundant benefits of this policy translated into law were 
strikingly evidenced under the Underwood-Simmons Tariff Act of 
the Woodrow Wilson administration. Under that act, American 
business flourished and unprecedented prosperity blessed our people 
in every walk of life. Our export trade steadily expanded and the 
products of American farms and factories found ready and profit- 
able markets in every quarter of the world and under every flag. 

We denounce and condemn the Fordney-McCumber Tariff Act, 
which was enacted by the Republican administration to redeem 
that party's secret campaign obligations to the great favor-seeking 
interests that have so completely dominated the government 
throughout the Harding-Coolidge administrations. This iniquitous 
tariff act, in coordination with trust combinations, enables the 



328 Platforms of Political Parties 

beneficiaries of Republican legislation and administration to 
penalize the American consumers without interference, maintaining 
at home abnormally high prices on the products of trust and 
favored interests, which our people must buy, while impairing our 
foreign markets in which the exportable surplus products of our 
farms and factories must be sold. 

This is strikingly evidenced by the fact that for the first quarter 
of 1926 the value of our exports for the first time in more than a 
decade, fell below the value of our imports, turning the balance 
of trade against the United States, according to the official reports of 
the United States Department of Commerce, in the sum of 
$125,143,976. 

AGRICULTURE 

Agriculture is the basic industry in all civilized lands. Out of 
its fruits a people are fed and clothed. It furnishes the raw ma- 
terial from which others gather their gains. Above all other indus' 
tries, this should receive the fostering care of government. 

The American farmer enjoyed his greatest period of prosperity 
under the just and beneficent measures of the Wilson administra- 
tion. During those eight years the purchasing power of the farmer's 
dollar averaged $1.04. With the coming of a Republican adminis- 
tration that value began to fall, has steadily decreased, and is now 
only 60 cents. Since 1921 the farm lands of America have decreased 
in value in an amount equal to the national debt. These conditions 
have resulted in such an increase of farm mortgages as to con- 
stitute a menace to the whole structure of our rural civilization. 

During these five years Republican administrations have made 
no effort to meet this national problem. They have been responsive 
to the demands of predatory wealth and the favored few, but have 
been callously indifferent to the bitter distress of the farmer. 

National legislation and action must be had if the farmer is 
to be given any adequate relief. It is the duty of the National 
government to exercise its every constitutional power to furnish 
aid in marketing the surplus of our staple crops. We demand that 
action to this end be taken by the Congress before it adjourns its 
present session. 



State Republican Platform, 1926 329 

^ federal centralization 

We believe the powers not granted to the general government by 
the constitution are reserved to the States. Our dual form of 
government, founded by our fathers upon this principle in order to 
secure liberty, must be maintained. State's sovereignty, State's 
rights and the right of the State in the administration of local 
affairs should be observed. 

There are too many bureaus, boards and commissions — some of 
them dealing with purely local matters. In Washington we have 
an almost unlimited number of administrative boards that seem to 
be functioning as governments — governments within governments — 
those that are necessary have an almost unlimited number of 
employees and are answerable to no one in particular and are 
maintained at an unnecessarily enormous expense to the taxpayers. 

Many of these boards and commissions can and should be 
abolished and the control of the life of our people more largely 
left to the States and communities. 

CONCLUSION 

For twenty-five years we have striven to serve the great people 
who have trusted us with the administration of their public affairs. 
We have kept the faith. We go on with the great task. We do 
not make our appeal for continued confidence upon empty pledges 
not expected to be redeemed, but upon the actual performances of 
these fruitful years. In all confidence, we submit this platform to 
a just people, content that it be appraised in the light of our party's 
record. 

We rejoice that in recent elections many members of the opposite 
party have joined us in the support of the principles and policies 
here enunciated. We welcome these and all other forward looking 
men and women to the task of promoting the social, economic and 
material development of our State. 



STATE REPUBLICAN PLATFORM, lJ)2fi 

Feeling just pride in the achievements of the party in the past, 
and looking forward to equally great accomplishments in the future, 
we, the Republican Party of North Carolina, adopt as the basis of 



330 Platforms of Political Parties 

our appeal for the support of the people of North Carolina in the 
coming election the following declaration of principles and policies: 

national administration 

At the close of the world's greatest war, when the national debt 
had reached its highest peak and when business was unstable, de- 
pressed and chaotic, the people of the United States again turned to 
the Republican Party with just confidence in its ability to restore 
business to a normal condition and lift from the people the heavy 
burden of a national taxation. 

At the close of the first administration, public credit had been re- 
established, the public debt had been reduced from six to three billion 
dollars per annum. Taxation had been reduced eight hundred mil- 
lion dollars per annum. Business had been restored, and by the 
International Agreement for the Limitation of Armaments, America 
first led the way for universal peace and the fanciful dream of a 
League of Nations no longer threatened the peace and national 
independence of our country. 

The second Republican administration since the war has also 
proved the party true to its traditions. The strictest economy has 
been enforced in every department of the Government. The highest 
standard of efficiency has been established and by the application 
of sound business principles to every branch of the Government, 
every dollar of taxes has paid a dollar of indebtedness. Taxation 
has decreased and liquidation has increased. The Government debt 
is no longer a burden and taxation no longer a menace. 

With the continuance of the Republican Party in power, we confi- 
dently expect the final repeal of all direct taxation. The business 
of the country is again content with fair and reasonable profits, 
and labor is satisfied with constant employment at gratifying 
wages. The people are prosperous and happy, and at no period in 
our history have they had more faith in their Government and 
greater confidence in their President than today. By thoughtful, 
far-isighted, wise decisions in five years of successful administra- 
tion, our President leaves the Democratic Party without an issue 
and without a leader. Issues are not developed, nor leaders made 
battling against success. Three words are expressive of the present 
administration: Economy, Efficiency and Prosperity. 



State Eepublican Platform, 1926 331 

PROTEXITION 

We believe that the great industrial development of our State is 
in a great measure the result of the protective tariff laws enacted 
by the Republican Party. Our continued prosperity depends on the 
continuance of this policy. While our people vote for free trade, 
they have grown rich as the result of the protective tariff laws 
that are national in scope and effect. Political conditions now con- 
front us that make it necessary for the continuation of this great 
policy — that our State should vote its real convictions. The South 
is not now, nor will it ever be again, a free trade section. The party 
that has made the State rich should receive an expression of grati- 
tude at the coming election. It is no longer safe for North Carolina 
to vote for free trade and pray for protection. The dormant Whig 
sentiment should assert itself and the protective tariff sentiment in 
this State should be represented in Congress and the Senate. 

STATE AFFAIRS 

We favor the progressive administration of the affairs of the 
State. We do not believe in extravagance nor in unnecessarily 
burdening the people with debt, but the growing life of North 
Carolina demands a progressive administration of State affairs. 
We believe in encouraging the activities of the State to meet the 
expanding life of the people. 

NATURAT. RESOURCES 

For the development of our State's abundant natural resources, 
we need to invite into the State more abundant capital, and in order 
to do this, we must extend to them every legal advantage offered 
by the other progressive states of the Nation. 

The development of the waterpower of our State in the last few 
years has added millions of wealth and multiplied our industries 
until we are fast becoming one of the greatest industrial states of 
the Union. We believe that every reasonable effort should be made 
to encourage the further development of our water power and other 
natural resources, and that the aim of State legislation should be 
to benefit and encourage, not to destroy. 



332 Platforms of Political Parties 

STATE highways 

We favor the early completion of the State system of hard sur- 
face highways, and the extension of this system so as to serve 
equitably and fairly every section of the State. The Republican 
party has consistently favored the construction of State highways, 
and on the hustings and in the legislature has consistently sup- 
ported the legislation directed to that end. Much credit is due 
the Republican party for its efforts in the legislature to eliminate 
the highway question from politics. While the Democratic 
party was timidly advocating a small bond issue for State 
highways. Republican members of the legislature introduced 
a bill providing for the sale of $100,000,000 in bonds to be expended 
in the construction and maintenance of State highways. Although 
the McGuire bill was defeated by a small vote in the House the 
State has since recognized the wisdom of this measure and has 
expended the sum provided for in this bill in the building of high- 
ways. The increased income derived from taxes on gasoline and 
automobiles will justify the State's extending its systems into every 
rural community of the State and we favor the continuation of 
this until every section of North Carolina is put in easy touch with 
an improved highway. 

SCHOOLS 

We favor a liberal policy in the matter of public education. The 
Republican party in North Carolina has always favored the educa- 
tion of the people of the State and has consistently advocated 
the extension and betterment of the public school system. The 
constitution of the State provides for a State system of public 
schools. We favor such a system supported by a State system 
of taxation. There is no defensible reason why a |100 worth 
of property in one county should pay in taxes 94c for public 
schools, while $100 worth of property in an adjoining county 
pays 29c. Kqual taxation means equal opportunity. Under the 
present system an eight-months school term would bankrupt the 
poorer counties. With a uniform State system of taxation, an 
eight-months term could be maintained in every school district in 
the State without being a burden to any of the counties, and we 
pledge our best efforts to the adoption of a uniform system that 
will give to all the children of the State an equal opportunity to 
secure an equal education. Under the present system, extrava- 



State Republican Platform, 1926 333 

gance prevails in the rich counties, with long terms of school, 
while the weaker counties are struggling with a burden too great 
to bear in their efforts to maintain their short-term schools. 
Taxes from all the people in the State should be used to educate 
all the children in the State. We demand a school system not as 
weak as the poorest county but as strong as the richest county in 
the State. 

taxation 

The present Democratic State government boasts that the State 
is now operating without the levy of any ad valorem tax for State 
purposes. This is a deception. The public school tax is a tax levied 
under State laws and under the State Constitution and is a State 
tax pure and simple, and this tax now higher than for the support 
of all other departments of the State and County governments com- 
bined, is shifted to the counties and ingeniously called a County 
tax, and all the odium of high taxes is thereby charged to the 
counties. The school tax should be levied and collected as a State 
tax apportioned equitably and rateably and justly to the counties 
according to the school population to maintain a six months school 
term over the State. This will insure a lower tax rate in a 
majority of the counties, enforce uniformity, abolish the equalizing 
fund, stop the borrowing of money by the State Treasury for school 
purposes, stop the issuance and sale of more State bonds for this 
purpose, stimulate more interest in popular education in the State 
and hasten the day when the people will welcome and support an 
amendment to our State Constitution providing for an eight months 
school term over the State, now so much desired by the educational 
leaders of the State. 

A(iKICULTURE 

Agriculture is one of our chief industries, and the basis of our 
economic life. It has not, and is not, receiving the aid and en- 
couragement from the State that its importance demands. Not- 
withstanding the fact that the Democratic party has been in com- 
plete control of the government for a third of a century, not one 
act has been placed on the statute books for the benefit of the 
farmer. Our lands are fertile and our farmers industrious, l)ut 
the increased cost of farm labor and the annual increase of the 
State tax burden so diminishes the returns that farming is unprofit- 
able. The only laws the Democratic party has enacted for the 



334 Platforms of Political Parties 

farmer's relief are those that annually increase his tax burden, 
and we presume that it thereby intends to stimulate his industry. 
Taxation does not stimulate but destroys. The great need of the 
farmer today is not increased production, but better marketing 
facilities. With farm products high to the consumer, the producer 
is not receiving a fair return for labor. The State should, by ap- 
propriate legislation, convert the agricultural department into a 
direct agency for aiding the farmer in finding a market for his 
products. The effort the farmer is making by attempted coopera- 
tive marketing is evidence of the lack of effort on the part of the 
state in his behalf. Under the present system, the state through 
its agricultural department is encouraging production, and then 
leaving the producer to the mercy of the speculator. The farmer 
must receive from his products the necessary 90 per cent of the 
consumer's price if agriculture is to prosper. 

LABOR 

We regard it as shameful that North Carolina, one of the greatest 
industrial states of the nation, should have done so little to better 
the condition of the great laboring classes of our people. We favor 
legislation limiting the hours of labor and properly safe-guarding 
employees and laborers engaged in dangerous occupations. 

Almost all of the great industrial states have adopted a work- 
men's compensation law. The wisdom of such laws has appealed 
to both the employer and the employees. Repeated efforts have 
been made before the North Carolina legislature to secure such 
legislation for this State. The labor organizations have demanded 
such legislation, the employers have favored it, but our legislature 
has persistently refused these demands. We call upon the people of 
the State in the next election to demand of their prospective repre- 
sentatives pledge that they pass a just workmen's compensation law 
for this State. 

WOMAN SUFFRAGE 

Woman suffrage was fii'st endorsed and has been consistently 
supported in North Carolina by the Republican party. We rejoice 
that the women of the State have been given the franchise by the 
Federal Government, and regret that North Carolina did not join 
in extending to them this right. We recognize in the women voters 



State Eepublican Platform, 1926 335 

of the State a power for progress and an uplifting influence in our 
political life, and see evidences of this in their present demands for 
a just and fair election law in the State. 

ELECTION LAWS 

No Republican form of gov-ernment can long endure that does 
not provide for the free expression of the will of the people at the 
ballot box. Fraud in elections and unfair election laws strike at 
the very heart of a free state. Nothing can be done that will 
increase crime and encourage criminals more than to give to the 
ofl5cial whose duty it is to enforce the law, a tainted commission. 
The election laws of North Carolina should no longer be tolerated 
by a free people. The general law makes registration a prerequisite 
to voting. It gives to the registrar the right to judicially pass upon 
the qualifications of every citizen. The registrar is made the most 
important official connected with the election, and the registrar is 
always a Democract, and no other party is given representation in 
registering voters. 

In practice the registrar is a law unto himself, exercising his 
judicial discretion arbitrarily, and often giving to those of his politi- 
cal party opportunities to register that are not accorded others. 
Often he places upon the registration books the names of prospec- 
tive voters who never appear before him, and strikes from the 
poll books the names of those he does not desire to vote. If the 
registrar acts arbitrarily, and if a citizen vigorously protests, he is 
liable to indictment for felony and for disturbing this high judicial 
official. Drastic laws are passed to protect him, and little if any 
law is provided for the citizen who is deprived of franchise. 

A wide-open door for fraud is provided by what is known as the 
Absentee Voters Law. This law was passed primarily for the 
benefit of the soldiers fighting in the field. Many of them never 
saw the ballots which were cast for them. Under this law thou- 
sands of voters are caused to vote without either their knowledge 
or consent, and in many instances the dead are voted. 

In recent years, many of the Republican counties have been 
singled out and private election laws have been passed for them. 
These laws are falsely denominated the Australian Ballot Law. In 
the name of the Australian Ballot, the most infamous laws ever 



336 Platforms of Political Parties 

forced on a free people have been given many of the Republican 
counties. Under these laws the registrars are all Democrats, and 
all markers provided to aid electors in voting are Democrats, and 
all ballots are permitted to be handled only by democratic officials, 
and the least mark or scratch on a ballot vitiates it. Under these 
laws, at the first election Republican counties are made Democratic, 
not by the vote of the people but by the fraud permitted by these 
laws. One such act was passed designed for two certain counties, 
and after its passage in the House the names of six other coun- 
ties by forgery were placed in the act. We as a party have long 
tolerated these unfair laws. We have often appealed to the Legis- 
lature to give us a fair law with equal representation on all election 
boards. Our petitions are answered by special, infamous laws de- 
signed for Republican counties. 

We again request and demand the enactment of a just and fair 
election law that will give representation on all election boards 
to each of the political parties. If we can not be given this relief 
by a just law, it shall become our duty to petition the Congress of 
the United States to enact a National Election Law that will give 
to each political party equal representation on all election boards 
and guarantee to each citizen qualified under the law the right to 
vote and have that vote counted as cast by the elector, in all Na- 
tional elections. 



PART IX 



ELECTION RETURNS 



1. Vote for President by States^ 1912-1924. 

2. Vote for President by Counties, 1916-1924. 

3. Vote by Counties for Governor in Democratic Pri- 

maries, 1920-1924. 

4. Vote for State Officers in Democratic Primaries, 

1924. 

5. Democratic Primary Vote, June 5, 1926, for United 

States Senator. 

6. Vote for Governor by Counties, 1920-1924. 

7. Vote for United States Senator, 1920-1926. 

8. Vote for Members of Congress, 1922-1926. 

9. Vote for Constitutional Amendment and Referen- 

dum by Counties, 1926. 

10. Vote for Solicitors, 1926. ' 



22 



Vote for President 



339 



POPULAR AND ELECTORAL VOTE FOR PRESIDENT BY 

STATES, 1924 



State 


o 
Q 


> 

C 


1— < 


Coolidge 
Plurality 


Davis 
Plurality 


o n 
o o 


2 


C3 0) 


fn bc 
032 




45,066 

30,481 

40,394 

733,250 

193,956 

246,322 

52,441 

30,633 

30,300 

69,789 

1,453,321 

703,042 

537,635 

407,671 

298,966 

24,670 

138,440 

162,414 

703,476 

871,400 

420,7.59 

8,370 

650,283 

74,138 

218,585 

11,243 

100,078 

675,162 

54,470 

1,820,058, 

191,753 

94,931 

1,176,100 

225,947 

142,579 

1,401,481 

125,286 

1,123 

100,420 

131,064 

128,240 

77,381 

80,498 

72,902 

220,224 

288,635 

311,614 

41,858 


112,966 

26,231 

84,823 

105,514 

75,238 

110,184 

33,445 

62,083 

123,200 

24,256 

576,975 

492,247 

162,600 

156,319 

274,855 

93,218 

41,964 

148,072 

280,831 

151,600 

55,913 

100,475 

572,753 

33,805 

137,289 

5,909 

57,576 

297,743 

48,473 

950,796 

284,270 

13,856 

477,888 

255,815 

67,589 

409,192 

76,606 

49,008 

26,481 

158,537 

478,425 

47,061 

16,124 

139,717 

42,842 

257,232 

68,096 

12,868 


8,084 

17,148 

13,169 

424,649 

69,903 

42,416 

4,917 

8,625 

12,691 

54,160 

432,027 

71,678 

272,242 

98,461 

38,159 

* 

11,382 

46,157 

141,225 

121,200 

339,192 

3,494 

84,160 

61,105 

106,701 

9,569 

9,200 

108,901 

9,248 

474,905 

6,651 

89,865 

357,948 

45,841 

68,463 

307,567 

7,628 

620 

74,668 

10,473 

42,541 

32,671 

5,943 

10,369 

150,727 

36,723 

453,678 

25,174 




67,960 


3 


9 






4,250 

"308^60i' 

118,718 

136,138 

18,996 




Arkansas . . 


44,429 










13 
6 
7 
3 

"~i 
29 
15 
13 
10 
13 

6 

8 

18 

15 

12 

"is" 

4 
8 
3 
4 

14 
3 

45 

""5" 
24 
10 

5 
38 

5 

'5" 

"4" 
4 

""7" 
8 






Colorado - 
















Delaware . -- 










31,450 
92,900 


6 
14 




Georsfia 






Idaho 


15,629 
876,346 
210,795 
265,392 
251,352 

24,111 












Indiana - - 
















Kansas - 












"io" 






68,540 




Maine -- 


96,476 

14,342 

422,645 

719,800 

81,567 




Maryland. -_ 






Massachusetts _ 
















Minnesota 








Mississinni 


92,105 


10 




Missouri 


77,530 

13,033 

81,296 

1,674 

42,502 

377,419 

5,997 

869,262 




Montana . -. _ 


- 






Nebraska.- 






Nevada 








New Hampshire 

New Jersey 










---- 










New York _ 








North Carolina . . 


92,517 


12 




North Dakota . . 


5,066 
698,212 




Ohio 








Oklahoma 


29,868 






Oregon. 


74,116 

992,289 

48,680 






Pennsylvania 








Rhode Island 








South Carolina 


47,885 


9 






25,752 




Tennessee 


27,473 
350,185 


12 
20 




Texas - -.- 






Utah 


30,320 
64,374 




Vermont 








Virginia 


66,815 


12 






69,497 
31,403 














** 




13 




16,684 


3 














Totals ._ _ . 


15,718,789 


8,387,962 


4,822,319 


7,339,827 




392 


126 


13 









'Louisiana, 4063 (scattering) most of which intended for LaFollette. 
**Wisconsin, LaFallotte's plurality 142,064. 



340 



Election Returns 



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341 



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342 



Election Hetukns 



VOTE FOR PRESIDENT BY COUNTIES, 1916-1924 



Counties 



Alamance. -- 
Alexander. . 
Alleghany . . 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick.. 
Buncombe -- 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell-.. 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham.. - 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland... 
Columbus - - 

Craven 

Cumberland 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe . 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson.. 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee - - 



1916 



2,476 

954 

796 

2,046 

1,898 

360 

1,957 

1,461 

1,261 

810 

4,229 

1,621 

2,080 

1,725 

368 

1,165 

849 

2,569 

1,839 

1,362 

610 

400 

2,764 

2,143 

1,780 

1,971 

945 

470 

2,675 

910 

1,824 

2,463 

2,028 

4,115 

2,057 

3,019 

826 

476 

1,713 

1,066 

4,616 

2,312 

1,992 

2,403 

1,166 

977 

780 

840 

3,335 

1,306 

3,468 

712 

1,054 






2,278 

1,187 

641 

301 

1,930 

1,158 

1,274 

116 

651 

989 

3,830 

1,474 

2,314 

1,659 

86 

1,246 

338 

2,614 

1,501 

1,362 

91 

453 

1,497 

1,327 

542 

1,217 

87 

363 

2,801 

1,245 

1,527 

1,837 

135 

3,585 

396 

2,542 

309 

460 

648 

294 

3,670 

299 

1,603 



,523 

,795 

209 

110 

277 

2,073 

1,288 

2,857 

233 

573 



22 



24 
238 



1920 



10 



11 



o 
O 



5,255 
2,045 
1,409 
3,175 
3,431 

397 
3,522 
1,840 
1,939 
1,253 
10,167 
3,262 
4,418 
2,931 

540 
2,070 

1,23;9 

5,404 
3,186 
1,761 
1,091 

755 
5,181 
3,111 
3,413 
3,233 
1,000 

825 
4,797 
1,624 
3,398 
4,646 
3,343 
8,123 
2,742 
7,148 

796 

644 
2,622 
1,649 
9,615 
3,429 
3,919 
4,229 
2,496 
1,104 
1,266 
1,134 
6,470 
2,385 
6,030 

964 
2,327 



bO 
C 



a 



4,619 

2,643 

1,201 

433 

3,808 

2,503 

2,266 

212 

1,064 

1,362 

8,917 

3,592 

5,148 

3,298 

142 

2,315 

505 

5,935 

2,9Q6 

2,506 

209 

911 

2,953 

1,783 

731 

1,972 

86 

632 

590 

2,591 

2,697 

3,550 

24 

)2 

589 

5,803 

327 

915 

833 

439 

7,920 

524 

3,311 

3,000 

3,337 

221 

166 

530 

4,402 

2,355 

5,588 

385 

1,143 



6,792 



1924 



> o 



4,859 
2,291 
1,643 
2,372 
4,333 

357 
3,048 
1,785 
1,551 
1,118 
10,098 
4,137 
4,449 
3,348 

436 
2,261 
1,075 
5,754 
3,446 
1,742 

714 

953 
3,749 
2,757 
2,942 
2,923 

670 

826 
6,507 
1 , 795 
2,924 
4,837 
2,274 
7,404 
1,991 
6,554 

679 

841 
2,220 
1,119 
8,804 
3,232 
3,296 
4,582 
3,007 

932 
1,146 

653 
6,449 
3,100 
4,656 

692 
1,834 



o " 
o » 

aw 



3,217 

2,437 

1,234 

225 

3,952 

2,189 

1,502 

159 

786 

1,296 

6,285 

3,190 

3,510 

2,503 

132 

1,854 

467 

5,998 

2,755 

2,314 

98 

1,090 

1,743 

1,629 

325 

1,372 

52 

629 

6,227 

2,672 

1,542 

3,093 

171 

5,315 

302 

3,566 

215 

907 

461 

182 

6,822 

268 

2,895 

2,440 

3,548 

164 

141 

305 

3,565 

2,788 

4,910 

179 

710 



<a 



V 



Js to 

o o 

03 iJ 

iJW 



93 
20 

6 
25 

3 
14 
93 

5 

23 

41 

467 



189 
26 

9 
15 

4 

167 

15 

23 

5 
18 
37 
26 
44 
37 
13 

2 

56 

13 

37 

221 

109 

459 

13 

82 

1 
11 
14 

317 
83 
11 

8 
48 

3 

4 

16 

136 

17 

23 

2 
10 



Vote for President 



343 



VOTE FOR PRESIDENT— Continued 



Counties 



Lenoir 

Lincoln _- 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin.- _- 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg... 

Mitchell 

Montgomery--- 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover. 
Northampton . 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank. . 

Pender - 

Perquimans 

Person _. 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham. - 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania. 
Tyrrell 



Union. 
Vance . 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington. 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 



1916 



Totals. 



1,666 
1,521 
1,146 

972 
1,472 
1,274 
4,508 

462 
1,222 
1,337 
2,189 
2,355 
1,518 
1,197 
1,230 

710 
1,177 

970 

645 

953 
2,839 

679 
2,747 
1,553 
2,894 
2,316 
3,053 
2,445 
1,369 

938 
2,110 
1,569 
2,029 

829 

821 

416 
2,662 
1,451 
4,627 
1,217 

651 
1,141 
2,625 
1,632 
2,052 

879 
1,273 






168,383 



667 

1,369 

1,069 

1,965 

281 

1,218 

1,257 

1,298 

1,196 

1,047 

826 

492 

45 

785 

1,158 

527 

270 

400 

288 

917 

719 

750 

3,031 

650 

1,453 

1,957 

2,320 

1,871 

2,727 

137 

1,941 

1,852 

2,977 

1,128 

841 

392 

702 

558 

2,461 

227 

486 

1,352 

1,446 

3,470 

730 

1,721 

1,082 



PQ 



18 



120,890 



509 



1920 



o 
O 



53 



2,560 
3,331 
2,177 
1,340 
2,561 
2,809 
11,313 
697 
2,321 
2,679 
4,031 
4,102 
2,305 
1,557 
1,993 
1,286 



736 
580 
042 
646 
196 
1,361 
5,110 
3,341 
6,183 
4,507 
6,421 
5,101 
2,426 
1,705 
3,843 
1,999 
3,547 
1,434 
1,542 
718 
4,168 
2,461 
8,020 
1,865 
1,116 
1,721 
4,794 
2,843 
3,496 
1,350 
2,280 



a 






305,447 



1,153 

3,137 

2,050 

3,616 

530 

2,561 

3,421 

2,153 

2,304 

2,279 

1,556 

712 

165 

853 

1,737 

1,008 

507 

699 

487 

1,566 

864 

1,326 

6,297 

1,124 

2,220 

3,605 

4,888 

4,015 

5,353 

306 

4,312 

2,926 

5,170 

2,239 

1,680 

532 

1,404 

816 

3,653 

295 

971 

2,631 

2,822 

6,451 

1,374 

3,301 

2,596 



> o 



232,848 



2,191 
2,909 
2,178 
1,471 
1,999 
3,023 
8,443 

689 
2,483 
2,771 
3,129 
4,735 
1,662 
1,122 
1,879 

798 
1,236 
1,175 

550 
1,576 
3,197 
1,613 
5,397 
2,475 
4,064 
4,467 
4,816 
5,101 
2,021 
1,469 
3,832 
2,309 
4,418 
1,769 
1,776 

638 
2,721 
2,013 
8,376 
1,742 

883 
2,365 
3,366 
3,586 
2,619 
1,381 
2,592 



284,270 



1924 



J" 

T3 o 

o ^ 
o « 



514 

2,658 

2,015 

3,252 

216 

2,590 

2,572 

1,540 

2,077 

1,974 

823 

1,190 

144 

423 

1065 

459 

305 

253 

295 

1 , 025 

512 

1,445 

6,336 

599 

314 

2,566 

3,560 

3,897 

3,188 

205 

3,59 4 

2,482 

4,990 

2,178 

1,814 

442 

672 

470 

2,975 

166 

834 

2,665 

1,379 

6,131 

574 

2,889 

2,156 



191,753 






25 

42 

18 

74 

9 

25 

437 

8 

5 

38 

131 

405 

17 

31 

66 



12 

17 

8 

3 

56 
13 
24 

163 
14 
89 

738 
29 
35 
11 
50 
44 
66 
24 
22 
1 
32 
21 

485 
62 



42 
U 
81 
11 
21 



6,651 



344 



Electiois: Ketlka's 



TOTE BY COUNTIES FOR GOVERNOR IN DEMOCRATIC 
PRIMARIES,* 1920-1924 



Counties 



Alamance 

Alexander 

Alleghany. __ 

Anson 

Ashe_ 

A very 

Beaufort 

Bertie _ 

Bladen 

Brunswick _ _ 
Buncombe . . 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell. _._ 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus -- 

Craven 

Cumberland- 
Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe.. 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 





1920 




1920 






First Prim 


ary 


Second Primarj 


iyz4 


c 

o 






o 


t^ 


c 






a 




m 


c 


03 


>i 


(h 




C' 


u> 


-0 


«; 


V 


J; 


^ 


M 






h^ 






C3 




o 


cS 


a 


c3 


s 


o 


f^ 


s 


O 


s 


PQ 


134 


488 


182 


358 


488 


1,.349 


491 


187 


183 


14 


375 


203 


375 


81 


131 


60 


60 


320 


200 


1,002 


162 


590 


834 


569 


986 


1,082 


1.883 


1.516 


214 


107 


45 


429 


173 


2.153 


202 


18 


157 


9 


41 


308 


216 


193 


438 


1.086 


73 


579 


1,220 


2,153 


1.167 


694 


229 


3 50 


627 


517 


1,069 


1.131 


694 


229 


316 


1,037 


3.34 


2,623 


901 


01 


306 


172 


209 


445 


295 


116 


1.873 


1,443 


217 


2,052 


1,967 


5,297 


2.007 


633 


146 


00 


737 


359 


1,492 


194 


303 


149 


284 


532 


321 


1,172 


123 


270 


262 


31 


361 


443 


1,663 


464 


161 


277 


106 


142 


158 


334 


615 


449 


427 


136 


382 


273 


987 


.337 


89 


219 


375 


292 


433 


505 


637 


891' 


292 


343 


1 , 033 


401 


980 


418 


535 


349 


319 


689 


390 


1,400 


1,375 


147 


195 


17 


315 


106 


298 


78 


282 


247 


137 


232 


186 


590 


593 


101 


13 


26 


103 


26 


100 


42 


46 


2,219 


521 


390 


3,248 


3,341 


1,204 


806 


699 


420 


1,011 


1,322 


2,961 


1,117 


1,263 


718 


124 


1.451 


951 


1 . 738 


1.728 


413 


957 


443 


840 


1,323 


1,908 


1,128 


408 


99 


184 


450 


1.35 


863 


416 


202 


68 


30 


189 


13 


.501 


188 


553 


281 


833 


886 


752 


1,831 


538 


160 


50 


237 


277 


211 


402 


145 


265 


697 


1.33 


741 


757 


2,036 


817 


752 


608 


410 


1,106 


584 


3,609 


924 


1 , 254 


713 


457 


1,604 


767 


1,798 


1,402 


514 


1,094 


510 


936 


1,410 


2,802 


504 


1,323 


715 


547 


1 , .349 


632 


1,351 


1,860 


956 


1,258 


279 


1,375 


1,494 


3,080 


369 


128 


196 


120 


189 


145 


448 


314 


53 




2 


180 




353 


77 


518 


627 


282 


847 


713 


1,314 


1,303 


209 


373 


70 


284 


576 


348 


1,266 


497 


692 


1,298 


1,031 


1,307 


2,222 


1,616 


359 


1,177 


607 


915 


999 


2,721 


1,840 


368 


595 


542 


783 


682 


1,285 


1,834 


1,674 


395 


113 


1,162 


5,53 


3,222 


1,321 


378 


228 


22 


478 


257 


869 


474 


250 


576 


213 


406 


592 


512 


926 


450 


177 


233 


469 


189 


745 


448 


92 


254 


201 


492 


444 


421 


812 


1,578 


478 


313 


1,959 


1,011 


4.082 


930 



Primary Vote for Governor 



345 



VOTE BY COUNTIES FOR GOVERNOR IN DEMOCRATIC PRIMARIES* 

1920-1924— CofthftMed 



Counties 



Jackson 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg. 

Mitchell 

Montgomery _ 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 
Northampton. 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank- _. 

Pender 

Perquimans.-, 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham _ 

Rowan 

Rutherford. . . 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania - 

Tyrrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington 

Watauga 

\\',i\-ne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 

Totals 



1920 
First Primary 



397 
1,154 
464 
458 
240 
2 27 
175 
215 
537 
309 
1.022 
108 
205 
298 
953 
615 
398 
418 

85 
201 
188 
215 

69 

62 

896 

177 

,031 

853 

,974 

76 
733 
453 
194 
401 
316 
154 
315 
210 
245 

11 

528 

215 

,090 

485 

36 

92 
690 
915 
,161 
130 
386 



O 



49,070 



297 
577 
251 
230 
900 
543 
73 
226 
274 
421 
496 
160 
49 
69 
521 

1,097 

1,023 
313 
358 
327 
332 
268 
435 
170 

1,392 
138 
147 
274 

2,536 
546 

1,104 

1,158 
183 
205 
333 
103 
294 
98 
91 
146 

1,152 
500 

2,281 
541 
247 
25 
917 
117 
292 
130 
464 



48,983 






30 
178 

32 
.346 
290 
398 

21 

22 
118 

21 
2,048 

14 
615 
697 
321 
482 
399 

98 
256 

28 
3,50 
430 
141 
164 
792 
1 
811 
686 
615 
290 
535 

88 
162 
276 
468 
100 
377 

16 

17 

31 
898 
398 
1,593 
315 
137 

43 
462 

61 
354 
140 

11 



1920 
Second Primary 



30,180 



266 

1,924 

4.53 

788 

530 

364 

350 

269 

632 

42 2 

3,443 

62 

474 

695 

1,395 

1,167 

957 

431 

181 

246 

420 

691 

112 

180 

1,457 

256 

1,373 

1,077 

1,861 

447 

856 

613 

331 

557 

721 

384 

580 

28 6 

345 

51 

791 

376 

2,131 

678 

151 

271 

1,106 

1,435 



,640 
261 
285 



70,332 



O 



339 

1,240 
378 
368 

1,0.50 
595 
224 
147 
361 
.507 

1,506 
182 
304 
202 
873 
735 
835 
298 
440 
220 
279 
235 
219 
277 

1,480 
177 
512 
785 

2,472 
718 
878 

1,029 
206 
424 
464 
197 
715 
78 
286 
107 

1,463 
412 

2,. 585 
542 
124 
24 
955 
186 
823 
195 
392 



61,073 



1924 



o 



1,568 

2,725 

455 

1,113 

2,049 

1,429 

678 

496 

1,598 

1,149 

5,958 

202 

881 

1,431 

1,593 

2,393 

1,523 

835 

701 

615 

1,261 

874 

5.54 

556 

2,795 

1,024 

1,408 

2,731 

5,536 

1,212 

2,984 

2,699 

634 

1,871 

651 

318 

1,512 

527 

284 

182 

2,838 

939 

4, ,556 

857 

534 

711 

2,109 

1,772 

1,962 

339 

856 



151,197 






350 

1.927 

304 

532 

1,480 

430 

382 

186 

783 

653 

2,449 

189 

136 

622 

1,712 

1,463 

1,455 

402 

770 

171 

736 

686 

320 

954 

2,492 

125 

594 

660 

1,314 

1,0.55 

1,218 

1,682 

722 

633 

231 

156 

576 

23 

633 

340 

1,.559 

1,418 

4,854 

S75 

275 

S3 

1,551 

822 

1 . 575 

153 

515 



83,573 



*The Republican party held no gubernatorial primary. 



346 Election Returns 



VOTE FOR STATE OFFICERS IN DEMOCRATIC PRIMARIES, 1924 

FOR governor- 
Angus Wilton McLean 151, 197 

JosiAH William Bailbt ...///. 83,574 

FOR LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR— 

J. Elmeb Long 80,231 

R. R. Reynolds 68!676 

T. C. Bowie 62!o86 

FOR ATTORNEY-GENERAL— 

Dennis G. Brummitt 78,411 

Charles Ross 70 i 448 

Frank Nash " 53] 137 

FOR COMMISSIONER OF LABOR AND PRINTING- 
First Primary: 

M. L. Shipman 81,011 

Frank D. Grist. __ ].^"'"-""]]]]]]' 69!l58 

O.J.Peterson _ . 3L556 

L. M. Nash i 19,180 

Second Primary: 

M. L. Shipman... 36,847 

Frank D. Grist 69,382 

FOR CORPORATION COMMISSION— 

George P. Pell ...123, 558 

Oscar B. Carpenter 78,240 

FOR STATE AUDITOR— 

Baxter D urham 119, 900 

James P. Cook ^.^.^^'^"^""!'""^^I 83!l62 

FOR COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE— 

W. A. Graham 92,561 

Fred P. Latham '_ 76^808 

T. B. Parker 37i776 

FOR INSURANCE COMMISSIONER— 

Stagey W. Wade 61,463 

J. Frank Flowers 4li340 



VoTK FOR U. S. Senator 



347 



DEMOCRATIC PRIMARY VOTE, JUNE 5, 1926 FOR 
UNITED STATES SENATOR 



Counties 


d 

C3 

s 

> 

O 
m 
►J 


R. R. Reynolds 


Counties 


a 

Cj 

S 

u 

> 

o 

m 


R. R. Reynolds 




633 

58 

632 

1,918 

111 

■285 

1,484 

781 

1,506 

350 

2,911 

1,313 

806 

2,096 

602 

1,129 

867 

973 

2,589 

700 

536 

322 

2,725 

1,676 

1,863 

2,183 

474 

185 

725 

310 

1,796 

3,212 

1,562 

2,962 

1,959 

3,385 

281 

162 

1,495 

1,059 

2,117 

3,455 

1,473 

2,300 

684 

568 

466 

517 

4,567 

743 

2,254 


135 

107 

341 

1,040 

232 

644 

437 

1.081 

972 

68 

6.973 

524 

143 

365 

331 

852 

272 

549 

1,179 

419 

505 

169 

2,191 

1,780 

1,171 

913 

883 

407 

518 

77 

716 

1,900 

638 

1,196 

1,239 

1,019 

389 

151 

877 

464 

857 

1,100 

1,115 

3,278 

1,199 

955 

141 

542 

887 

1,761 

1,255 




641 

1,107 

2,330 

989 

253 

499 

226 

1,306 

6,708 

381 

761 

1,187 

2,125 

2,147 

1,767 

944 

1,249 

527 

756 

814 

174 

1,127 

3,108 

290 

1,106 

3,033 

4,864 

2,251 

3,2.34 

2,260 

559 

1,.541 

1,309 

625 

481 

628 

431 

178 

2,480 

1,217 

5,586 

1,257 

228 

185 

3,381 

484 

1,342 

163 

948 


369 


Alexander 


Lee 


1,187 




Lenoir 


1,467 




Lincoln -- 


507 


Ashe 


McDowell 


368 




Macon .- 


890 






388 


Bertie 


Martin -_ .- 


981 


Bladen 


Mecklenburg 

Mitchell - --- . -- 


2,645 


Brunswick 


336 


Buncombe. _ 


Montgomery — 

Moore 


324 




1,141 




Nash 


.1,778 


Caldwell 


New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow. .. - 


1,564 




1,050 




463 


Caswell 


Orange .- 


586 


Catawba 


Pamlico 


460 




Pasquotank 


454 


Cherokee 


Pender - 


478 


Chowan 


Perquimans - - 


821 


Clav 


Person 


361 


Cleveland 


Pitt 


2.379 




Polk 


409 


Craven 


Randolph.- - 


94 




Richmond 


1,652 


Currituck 


Robeson 


1,689 




Rockingham 


242 


Davidson 


Rowan . 


628 




Rutherf ord 


1,263 


Diinlin 


Sampson 


105 




Scotland 


663 


Edereconibe 


Stanly 


415 


Forsyth 


.Stokes 


290 


Franklin 


Surry 


192 




Swain. . 


702 


Gates 


Transylvania 


714 




TvrroU 


321 


Oranvillc 


Union 


1.144 




Vance 


1.309 


Guilford 


Wake 


6.782 


Halifax 


Warren 


1.251 




Washington. - 


223 


Havwood 


Watauga 


15 


Henderson. _ _ .- 


Wavnc 

Wilkes 


1 , 583 


Hertford 


226 


Hoke .- 


Wilson 

Yadkin 


382 


Hyde 


55 


Iredell . 


Yancey 

Totals 


839 


Jackson 




140,260 




Johnston 


91,914 







348 



Election Returns 



VOTE FOR GOVER>OR BY COOTIES, 1920-1924 



Alamance 

Alexander 

Alleghanj'... 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick- _ 
Buncombe. _ 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell.... 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus . . 

Craven 

Cumberland. 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe . 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 



Counties 




Vote foe Governor 



349 



VOTE FOR GOVERNOR,. 1920-192i~Continued 



Counties 



Jackson 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg _- 

Mitchell 

Montgomery _- 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover. 
Northampton- 
Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico. _ 

Pasquotank 

Pender 

Perquimans-.- 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham __ 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes _-_ 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania. _ 

Tyrrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 



1920 



o 

c 

o 



C3 

o 



Totals- 



2 
3 

2 
1 

2 
2 

11 

2 
2 
4 
4 

2 

1 

2 

1 

1 

I, 

1, 

1, 

4, 

1, 

5, 

3, 

6, 

4, 

6. 

5. 

2, 

1, 

3, 

2. 

3, 

1, 

1, 

4, 
2, 
8, 
1, 
1, 
I, 
4, 
2, 
3, 
1, 
2, 



398 
076 
999 
,319 
882 
,326 
101 
330 
,.577 
,821 
,221 
736 
,30.5 
,708 
.072 
,342 
,329 
,.578 
.081 
,291 
,816 
,611 
,057 
,629 
,1.56 
,387 
,066 
,219 
,18.5 
,469 
.427 
.092 
,428 
,671 
,901 
,001 
,.569 
,418 
549 
717 
025 
459 
145 
891 
115 
753 
847 
884 
530 
355 
306 



308,151 



03 
PL, 



O 
1-5 



2,354 

5,336 

328 

1,155 

1,024 

3,127 

2,037 

3 , 609 

496 

2,563 

3.360 

2,2.35 

2,309 

2,242 

1,518 

472 

126 

822 

1,786 

1,011 

417 

672 

480 

1,582 

834 

1.349 

6,243 

1.134 

2.111 

3.592 

4.8.53 

4.002 

5,333 

296 

4,273 

2,899 

5,173 

2,2.52 

1 , 659 

5.35 

1 , 499 

804 

3,349 

244 

971 

2,600 

2,776 

6,453 

1 , 296 

3,295 

2,574 



1924 



230, 175 






3,170 
4,727 

711 
1,862 
2,294 
2,948 
2,651 
1,430 
2,012 
3 , 084 
8,978 

747 
2,510 
2,872 
3,253 
5,295 
1,705 
1,163 
2,015 

909 
1,020 
1,219 

557 
1,603 
3,362 
1,659 
5,395 
2,719 
4,778 
4,481 
5,333" 
5,170 
2,089 
1,511 
3.968 
2,298 
4,504 
1 , 795 
1,842 

493 
2,782 
2,271 
9,300 
1,827 

846 
2,405 
3.801 
3,563 
2,659 
1 , 389 
2,649 



294,441 



g 



2,779 

4,842 

150 

677 

395 

2,679 

2,218 

3,110 

193 

2,557 

2,128 

1,604 

2,060 

1,848 

765 

558 

101 

364 

1,193 

393 

548 

208 

283 

1,004 

433 

1,407 

6,286 

504 

610 

2,569 

3,638 

3.842 

3,316 

138 

3,529 

2,490 

4,979 

2,177 

1,775 

599 

613 

,357 

2,267 

94 

834 

2,747 

1,203 

6, 148 

467 

2,880 

2,132 



185,627 



W. B. Taylor, Socialist, 336. 



350 



Electioa^ Eeturns 



VOTE FOR UNITED STATES SENATOR, 1920-1926 



Counties 



Alamance... 
Alexander. . 
Alleghany- . 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick.. 
Buncombe.. 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell.--. 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay.- 

Cleveland--. 
Columbus. - 

Craven 

Cumberland 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe. 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford-... 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson. - 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 



1920 


1924 


n 


26 


G 




m 






05 


03 




a 




a 


s 


s 


a 

O 


o 
E 




03 

S 

u 


03 


o 


w 


r/3 


^ 


> 

o 


a 




03 


« 


g 


■< 


W 


a 

J3 


h^ 


< 


f^ 


< 


iJ 


o 

1-5 


5,289 


4,604 


4,955 


3,180 


4,360 


3,304 


2,045 


2,639 


2,297 


2,424 


2,320 


2,203 


1,426 


1,182 


1,658 


1,220 


1,412 


1,073 


3,375 


423 


2,404 


209 


1,694 


64 


3,630 


3,793 


4,350 


3,891 


3,908 


3,404 


404 


2,496 


461 


2,150 


416 


1,499 


3,564 


2.214 


3.084 


1,276 


1,242 


197 


1,887 


145 


1.836 


83 


729 


21 


2,000 


1,003 


1,703 


584 


1,457 


439 


1,317 


1,378 


1,130 


1,227 


1,173 


1,026 


10,413 


7,914 


10 536 


5,982 


8,699 


4,411 


3,311 


3,562 


4,097 


3,199 


3,550 


3,185 


4,429 


5,208 


4,533 


3,596 


4,804 


3,997 


2,966 


3,208 


3,383 


2,464 


2,893 


1,580 


563 


118 


433 


136 


152 


14 


2,094 


2,289 


2,311 


1,822 


2,389 


1,112 


1,253 


493 


1,085 


439 


817 


273 


5,436 


5,907 


5,845 


6, 173 


5,171 


4,688 


3,229 


2.894 


3,430 


2,731 


3,133 


2,002 


1,753 


2,473 


1.765 


2.. 308 


1,842 


2,063 


1,133 


172 


735 


79 


228 


11 


763 


913 


1,008 


1.122 


845 


952 


5,202 


2,945 


3,795 


1,789 


3,040 


797 


3,337 


1,639 


2,848 


1,425 


3,126 


1,002 


3,463 


603 


3,081 


221 


1,237 


81 


3,. 341 


1,836 


3,316 


1,085 


1,835 


902 


974 


67 


590 


36 


.346 


12 


845 


624 


837 


625 


713 


508 


4,933 


5,819 


6,431 


6,191 


6,144 


5,971 


1,636 


2,579 


1,813 


2,676 


1,9.53 


2,450 


3,442 


2,699 


2,995 


1,498 


2,100 


650 


4,772 


3,472 


5,200 


2,793 


3,228 


1,213 


3,413 


247 


2,452 


87 


794 


16 


8,309 


6,717 


7.871 


5,243 


4,790 


2,849 


2,799 


.540 


1,998 


268 


843 


138 


7,236 


5,743 


6, 693 


3,484 


4,443 


2,054 


812 


294 


672 


194 


950 


175 


653 


914 


865 


909 


858 


976 


2,671 


793 


2,243 


430 


1,006 


109 


1,662 


427 


1,136 


151 


503 


31 


9,808 


7,7.33 


9,373 


6,435 


6,589 


4,445 


3,. 547 


404 


3,. 342 


184 


1,139 


109 


3,918 


3,312 


3,349 


2,823 


3,278 


2,705 


4,225 


2,962 


4,569 


2,476 


3,672 


1,568 


2,522 


3,498 


3,084 


3,252 


3,273 


3,683 


1,168 


210 


985 


106 


472 


31 


1 , 274 


154 


1,165 


112 


753 


35 


1,169 


476 


676 


320 


.307 


54 


6,493 


4,384 


6,512 


3,600 


4,774 


2,423 



Vote for U. S. Senators 



351 



VOTE FOR UNITED STATES SENATOR, 1920-1925— Continued 



Counties 



Jackson 

Johnston. . _. 

Jones 

Lee.. 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon. 

Madison 

Martin. 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg .. 

Mitchell 

Montgomery... 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover. 
Northampton . 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 

Pender 

Perquimans 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry. 

Swain 

Transylvania . _ 

TyrrelL. 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 



1920 



Totals. 



6 
1 
2 
2 
3 
2 
1 
2 
2 
11 



,399 
,081 
,000 
,364 
881 
337 
,106 
,335 
574 
,817 
542 
737 
337 
747 
,084 
342 
330 
,574 
127 
291 
817 
606 
060 
656 
201 
390 
078 
368 
297 
512 
438 
111 
433 
702 
911 
009 
581 
419 
.549 
717 
203 
508 
307 
894 
115 
757 
867 
884 
539 
360 
306 



310,504 



c 

o 

"o 

w 



1,51 



2,354 

5,332 

337 

1,124 

1,021 

3,125 

2,033 

3,610 

498 

2,568 

3,253 

2,554 

2,294 

23 

511 

472 

127 

821 

1,727 

1,010 

416 

672 

478 

1,565 

821 

1 , 350 

6,239 

1,098 

2,055 

3,587 

4,888 

3,993 

5,289 

286 

4,275 

2,988 

5, 153 

2.2.52 

1,604 

535 

1,365 

768 

3,278 

240 

970 

2,598 

2,766 

6,4,-),S 

1,319 

3,290 

2,574 



1924 



229,343 



« 
§ 
fe 



3,138 
4,787 

717 
1,874 
2,285 
2,948 
2,648 
1,414 
2,022 
3,082 
8,970 

745 
2,517 
2,878 
3,281 
5,268 
1,713 
1,172 
2.036 

909 
1,317 
1,229 

570 
1 , 639 
3,403 
1,656 
5,452 
2,724 
4,777 
4,489 
5,350 
5,171 
2.097 
1,498 
3,959 
2,314 
4,511 
1 , 795 
1,837 

648 
2,782 
2,263 
9,318 
1,829 

.802 
2,405 
3,797 
3,573 
2.777 
1,393 
2,635 



295,404 






2,800 

4,826 

146 

675 

396 

2,673 

2,212 

3,045 

190 

2,543 

2,110 

1,604 

2,059 

1,849 

757 

501 

96 

364 

1,185 

393 

236 

209 

270 

982 

416 

1,408 

6,285 

503 

614 

2,573 



,696 

,847 

3,279 

145 

3,520 

2,485 

4,970 

2,177 

1,770 

448 

607 

354 

2,084 

94 

812 

2,659 

1,203 

6,147 

468 

2,874 

2,126 



184,393 



1926 



O 

h4 



2,550 

6,079 

425 

1,374 

1,375 

3,115 

2,542 

955 

910 

2,934 

2,877 

429 

2,266 

2,091 

1,833 

1,050 

941 

744 

1,547 

436 

609 

681 

476 

1,124 

1,617 

1,711 

5,440 

2,414 

2,352 

3,188 

3,372 

3,909 

2,564 

716 

3,263 

2,137 

4,623 

1,870 

1,919 

500 

1,359 

1,382 

4,, 554 

1,033 

988 

2,923 

2.731 

3.5.50 

896 

935 

2,219 



218,934 



a 
o 



o 

1-9 



2,624 

4,946 

30 

291 

277 

2,847 

2,079 



789 
38 
,815 
424 
925 
,465 
,170 
242 
103 
118 
104 
741 
103 
84 



72 

408 

127 

1,366 

5,487 

265 

252 

1,944 

1,561 

2,861 

2,620 

61 

2,879 

2,607 

4,607 

1,840 

1,908 

278 

228 

105 

493 

20 

618 

2,895 

997 

6,014 

110 

2,131 

2.259 



142,891 



352 



Election Returns 



VOTE FOR MEMBERS OF CONGRESS, 1922-1926 

FIRST CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT 





1922 


1924 


1926 


Counties 


X 


a 

w 


c 
o 
u 

ca 

d 
>, 

tn 
C 
3 


i 

3 
W 

Q 

QJ 


c 
o 

C3 

6 

i m 
>^ 
cS 

■V 

d 

2 


Beaufort 


1,854 
223 
312 
368 
648 
708 
438 
470 

1,030 
607 
455 

1,653 
611 
824 


557 

6 

2 

10 

473 

141 

28 

79 

39 

150 

108 

89 

307 

432 


3,097 
443 
708 
606 
809 
668 
971 
712 

1,927 

1,178 
550 

3,285 
584 
849 


1,193 

125 

69 

18 

559 

176 

81 

202 

173 

172 

235 

354 

380 

741 


1 , 235 


Camden ._ . 


167 


Chowan . 


232 


Currituck . _ . . -. - 


348 


Dare .. 


785 


Gates 


940 


Hertford 


471 


Hyde 


339 


Martin. ._. . . 


880 


Pasquotank . . 


611 


Perquinaans 


478 


Pitt- 


1,622 


Tvrrell 


496 


Washington, . 


897 






Totals . 


10,201 


3,401 


16,387 


4,478 


9,501 







SECOND CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT 





1922 


1924 


1926 


Counties 


IS 


>-5 


o 

> 


u 

o 

o 

►-2 


Bertie. 


765 
1,228 

826 
1,314 
1,402 

806 

978 
1,214 


1,844 
2,098 
1,080 
3,219 
2,092 
1,734 
1,761 
2,484 


45 

30 

113 

188 

292 

74 

57 

370 


736 


Edgecombe _ 

Greene 


806 
4 98 


Hahfax. 


1,161 


Lenoir. 


1,374 


Northampton 

Warren 


1,033 

987 


Wilson 


889 






Totals 


8,533 


16,312 


1,169 


7,484 



Vote fok Members of Congress 



353 



VOTE FOR MEMBERS OF CONGRESS, 1922-192&— Continued 
THIRD C0NGRESSI0N.\L DISTRICT 





1922 


1924 


1926 




Q 


rt 


















t. 








>> 


-o 


>. 


o 


>> 




Counties 


d 


§ 




.2 


a 


t4 




a 


"-5 


o 


K 


o 


3 




jd 




XI- 




-^ 


m 




-< 


C3 


■< 


S 


< 


ID 
O 




J 


3 


1-4 




J 


3 




O 


H 


O 


^ 


d 


tf 


Carteret - - 


2,583 
1,867 
2,621 


1,563 

57 

669 


2,213 
3,112 
2,931 


1,556 
151 

1,367 


2,597 
2,225 
2,091 


976 




• 61 


Duplin 


624 




494 
833 
838 
900 
1,494 


53 

161 

280 

242 

3,117 


662 
1,044 

843 
1,126 
2,067 


132 
312 
283 
173 
3,325 


420 
743 
436 
674 
2,595 


28 


Onslow 


93 




95 


Pender _ 


44 




2,608 


Wayne - 


2,471 


782 


3,687 


1,132 


2,739 


969 






Totals -- 


14,101 


6,925 


17,685 


8,431 


13,520 


5,498 







FOURTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT 





1922 


1924 


1926 




d 


d 










Counties 


3 

o 




3 
O 




3 




a 

03 








T3 


si 










^ 




br 


tH 








3 


<S 




c3 


S 




•s 


W 


'$ 


^ 


js 


Xi 




TS 




-a 


o 


13 


o 




W 


f^ 


W 


> 


w 


ffi 


Chatham 


3,326 
1,135 
5,271 
2,277 
921 
4,275 


2,814 
111 

4,240 
104 
155 
662 


8,336 
1,864 
4,847 
3,125 
2,072 
8,813 


2,637 
245 

4,643 
682 
327 

1,971 


3,105 
844 
6,140 
1,775 
1.361 
4,775 


1,959 


Franklin 


128 




4,931 


Nash - - 


238 




152 


Wake 


473 






Totals 


16,205 


8,086 


24,057 


10,505 


17,700 


7,881 





23 



354 



Election Retubns 



VOTE FOR MEMBERS OF CONGRESS, 1922-1926-Coafnu/frf 
FIFTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT 





1922 


1924 


1926 


Counties 


a 

S 

-0 

S 
m 

id 

^■— 

O 


o 

m 
i-, 
a) 
-^ 

cS 
fin 

pq 

3 


■5 

s 

03 

o 


O 

d 

S 
O 


a 

S 
T3 

03 

o 


c 

cj 

c 
d 
d 


Alam ance 


3,851 

860 

3,194 

5,748 


1,579 

191 

1,478 

3,479 


4,766 
1,036 
4,590 
7,689 
2.075 
9,384 
1,849 
1,438 
4,419 
2,256 
4,546 


3,270 

440 

2,738 

5.232 

412 

6,171 

1,149 

871 

2.556 

2,435 

4,981 


4,375 

809 

2,906 

4,798 

999 

6,. 540 

1,378 

993 

3,168 

2,142 

4,619 


3,292 


Caswell 


331 


Durham 


1,066 


Forsyth - . 


2,811 


Granville. . 


107 


Guilford 

Orange 


5,553 
1,697 
1,647 
4,155 
1.818 
3,755 


3.598 
868 
827 
2,071 
2.067 
4,020 


4,408 
648 


Person 

Rockingham 

Stokes 

Surrv 


336 
1,912 
2,517 

4,588 






Totals 


33,694 


20,380 


44,048 


30,255 


32,727 


22,014 







SIXTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT 





1922 


1924 


1926 


Counties 


D 

a 
o 

o 

g 
o 


2 
c 

C 



a 

i 


c 
o 
>i 

6 
o 

w 


2 
a 

O 

Q 

o 

£ 
1 


a 
o 

1-1 

►4 

e 

o 
K 


oi 

m 

c 

01 

s 

OJ 

aj 
h4 


Bladen. 


2,325 
1.138 
2.241 
1,163 
3,529 
1,871 
2,729 


569 
1,109 

466 

373 

2,098 

85 

566 


1,602 
1,126 
2,847 
3,305 
3,301 
5,176 
4,325 


534 
1,238 
1,369 
1,151 
2,613 
501 
717 


1,210 
1,179 
2,426 
1,904 
3,030 
1,052 
2,087 


703 


Brunswick. . 


1,04 


Columbus 


1,704 


Cumberland. 


973 


Harnett 


2,750 


New Hanover 


84 


Robeson 


592 






Totals 


14,996 


5.266 


21,682 


8,153 


12,888 


7.846 



Vote for Members of Congress 



355 



VOTE FOR MEMBERS OF CONGRESS, 1922-m2Q— Continued 
SEVENTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT 





19 


22 


1924 


1926 












L, 






<u 




<v 




V 
























a 




a 




















c 




s 


r3 


s 


03 


Counties 


03 


g 












•Q 


a 




^ 




^ 




o" 




d 


u< 


6 






^ 


^^ 


p 


u 


g 


















ci 




CS 




ai 






2 


w 


:=; 


6 


^ 


o 




^ 


^ 


^ 


yj 


^ 


aj 


.\nson - __ _ 


1,753 
5,753 
1,617 
627 
1,.363 
2,491 


70 

5,100 

1,980 

20 

318 

2,119 


2,407 
6,542 
1,805 
1,172 
1,808 
2,489 


206 

6,139 

2,464 

104 

670 

2,044 


1,707 
6,217 
1,963 

758 
1,373 

2,247 


59 


D a vidson 


5,930 


Davie _ - 


2,426 


Hoke. . 


32 


Lee 


274 


M ont gomery 


1,466 


Moore 


2,468 


1,708 


2,889 


1,842 


2,127 


1,112 


Randolph 


5,691 


5,. 558 


5,516 


6,165 


5,486 


5,410 


Richmond 


2,440 
858 


218 
30 


2,737 
1,491 


481 
160 


2,466 
715 


227 


Scotland- _ 


58 


Union 


1,362 


234 


2,746 


582 


1,370 


233 


Wilkes 


3,051 


4,. 354 


3,463 


6,035 


3,888 


5,640 


Yadkin 


1,1.55 


1,883 


1,426 


2,760 


1,015 


1,902 


Totals 


30,629 


23,592 


36,491 


29.650 


31,332 


24,769 



EIGHTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT 





1922 


1924 


1926 




c 


.^ 


c 




a 






o 


K 


o 




o 






j3 


■ — 






J3 






M 


^ 


bjO 




M 




Counties 


O 


-2 


3 

o 


^ 


3 
O 









n 


Q 


0) 


Q 






. '— >. 


e 




u 








^d 


C3 

O 




o 

p 


iJ 


o 




u 
















^ 


<v 


Q 


a> 


hi 




o 




o 




o 






rt 


>-5 


Pi 


1-5 


Pi 


o 


Alexander 


2,192 
1,584 
4,089 
4,236 
3,396 
5,481 
4,6.33 
3,673 


2,221 
1,105 
3,629 
3,929 
2,782 
2,468 
2,620 
3,620 


2,316 
1,7.56 
4,436 
4,516 
3,392 
6,568 
5,225 
3,963 


2,419 
1,046 
3,816 
3,5,52 
2,475 
3,562 
3,756 
3,520 


2,373 
1 , 733 
4,106 
4,817 
2,944 
4,911 
3,364 
3,284 


2.197 


Alleghany 


892 


Ashe . _ 


3,267 


Cabarrus 


3,996 


Caldwell . 


1,5.55 


Iredell 


2,362 


Rowan ... . . 


1,539 


Stanly 


2,875 


Watauga _. _. 


2,056 


2,119 


2,520 


2,520 


2,988 


2,860 






Totals . 


31,340 


24,235 


34,692 


26,675 


30,520 


21,543 







356 



Election Returns 



VOTE FOR MEMBERS OF CONGRESS, l922-l926~Co7itinued 
NINTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT 



Counties 



Avery 

Burke 

Catawba 

Cleveland 

Gaston 

Lincoln 

Madison 

Mecklenburg. 

Mitchell 

Yancey 



1922 



m 



552 
3,963 
5,595 
2,532 
4,212 
3,014 
1,390 
3,976 

634 
2,728 



Totals 28,596 



=1 



1,605 
2,881 
4,923 

981 
1,147 
2,255 
1,919 

677 
1,191 
1,589 



19,168 



1924 



a 



3 



527 
4,137 
5,795 
3,767 
6,592 
2,917 
1,470 
8,657 

781 
2,727 



37,370 



T3 



a 

1-5 



1,735 
3,190 
5,900 
1,723 
3,388 
2,637 
3,114 
2,153 
1,458 
2,129 



27,427 



1926 



"3 



578 
3,521 
4,999 
3,047 
4,510 
3,120 
1,026 
2,970 

481 
2,102 



26,354 






m 



O 



1,201 

3,122 

4,664 

800 

1.952 

2,833 

1,743 

395 

911 

2,424 



20,045 



TENTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT 





1922 


1924 


19 


26 


Counties 


> 
o 

O 

N 


5 
< 
"a 
Pi 


O 

N 


w 

.23 
1-1 


> 

V 


_o 

a 
N 


i-, 

s 
s 

a 


Buncombe 


9,356 
1,994 
950 
785 
4,224 
2,874 
2,798 
3,231 
2,539 
1,364 
4,194 
1,572 
1,745 


5,331 
2,019 
935 
931 
1,728 
2,580 
2,, 533 
2,522 
1,982 
1 , 384 
2,838 
1,497 
1,912 


10,816 
1,789 
1,005 
870 
4,572 
3,098 
3,129 
3,080 
2,644 
1,610 
4,932 
1,705 
1,780 


6,086 
2,274 
1,120 
893 
2,357 
3,421 
2,791 
2,557 
2,216 
1,403 
3,800 
2,113 
1,840 


8,765 
2,077 
860 
871 
3,635 
3,184 
2,576 
2,922 
2,488 
1,713 
3,928 
1,883 
1,927 


4,540 


Cherokee . . 


2,028 


Clay. 


960 


Graham,. . 


970 


Haywood . 


1,605 


Henderson. 


3,716 


Jackson 


2 621 


McDowell 


2,830 
2,099 
1 359 


Macon. .. 


Polk 


Rutherford.. 


2 767 


Swain. .. . . 


1,855 


Transylvania. ._ 


1 850 






Totals - ._ 


37,626 


28,192 


41,030 


32,871 


36,829 


29,200 





Amendment and Referendum 357 



VOTE ON COiVSTITUTIOiVAL AMENDMENT AND KEFEREN- 
DUM BY COUNTIES, 1926 

Proposed Ameiidmeut to the Constitution of North Carolina Sub- 
mitted to a Vote of the People at the General Election 
Noyember 2, 1926 

CONSTITUTIONAI, AMENDMENT ADOPTED: 

Amendment to section 3, Article III — Relating to election returns 
for officers of the executive department. 

Chapter 88, Public Laws 1925 

An Act to Amend the Coi^stitution of North Cakolina, Relating 
TO Election Retxtrns for Officers of the Executive Department 

The General Asscvihh) of North Carolina to enact: , 

Section 1. That section three of article three of the Constitution 
of North Carolina be and the same is hereby amended by striking 
out all of section three and inserting in lieu thereof the following: 
"Section three. The return of every election for officers of the 
executive department shall be sealed up and transmitted to the 
seat of government by the returning officer, directed to the Secretary 
of State. The' return shall be canvassed and the result declared in 
such manner as may be prescribed by law. Contested elections 
shall be determined by a joint ballot of both Houses of the General 
Assembly in such manner as shall be prescribed by law." 

Sec. 2. That this amendment shall be submitted at the next 
general election to the qualified voters of the State, in the same 
manner and under the same rules and regulations as provided in 
the law regulating general elections in this State. 

Sec. 3. That at said election, into a ballot box labeled "Ballot 
Box for Constitutional Amendment" or "Ballot Box for Constitu- 
tional Amendments," those persons desiring to vote for such amend- 
ment shall cast a separate printed ballot with the words "For 
Constitutional Amendment Relating to Election Returns for Officers 
of the Executive Department"; and those with a contrary opinion 
may cast a separate ballot with the words "Against Constitutional 



358 Election Keturns 

Amendment Relating to Election Returns for Officers of the Execu- 
tive Department" thereon. 

Sec. 4. That the said election shall be held and the votes re- 
turned, compared, counted and canvassed, and the result announced 
under the same rules and regulations as are in force at the general 
election in the year one thousand nine hundred and twenty-six for 
returning, comparing, counting and canvassing the votes for 
Governor; and if a majority of the votes cast be in favor of the 
amendment, ■ it shall be the duty of the Governor of the State to. 
certify said amendment under the seal of the State to the Secretary 
of State, who shall enroll the said amendment so certified among 
the permanent records of his office. 

Sec. 5. All laws and clauses of laws in conflict with the provisions 
of this act are hereby repealed. 

Sec. 6. That this act shall be in force from and after its 
ratification. 

Ratified this the 28th day of February, A.D. 1925. 

REFERENDUM 

World War Veterans Loan Fund — Providing for a bond issue of 
two million dollars to be loaned to World War veterans for the 
purchase of homes. 

A.\- Act to Provide a World War Veterans Loan Fund 

To authorize a bond issue of two million dollars at an interest rate 
of not exceeding .5 per cent, the proceeds to be loaned World War 
Veterans in amounts not in excess of three thousand dollars 
at six per cent to each veteran and not exceeding 75 per cent of 
the appraised value of the real property offered as security, the 
loan to be used in the purchase of homes. The fund is to be 
administered by a Board of Advisers consisiting of the Secretary 
of State, the Commissioner of Agriculture, the Attorney-General, the 
Commissioner of Labor and Printing and the State Treasurer who 
shall appoint a person known as the "Commissioner of the Veterans 
Loan Fund" drawing an annual salary of $3,500. (Ch. 155, P.L. 1925.) 



Vote on Constitutional Amendment 



359 



VOTE ON FOREGOING AMENDMENT 
Relating to Election Returns 



Counties 



Alamance 

Alexander -.- 

Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick- -- 
Buncombe. -- 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland — 

Columbus 

Craven 

Cumberland- 
Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe-. 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson - - 

Hertford 

Hoke--- 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 

Johnston 



For 



125 
6 

46 

700 

5 

18 
685 
278 
170 

56 

6,943 

179 

1,007 

31 
115 
149 
144 

55 
882 
209 

93 

78 
412 
109 
1,017 
851 
126 
143 

86 
140 
903 
755 
335 
1,702 
425 
1,860 

70 



Against 



307 
1.53 

1,4B0 
521 

1,794 
626 
237 
171 
338 
132 

1,222 



1.925 



75 
2 

56 

459 

13 

20 

119 

80 

371 

126 

981 

428 

173 

58 

12 

56 

173 

16 

1,031 

18 

15 

8 

207 

579 

74 

818 

27 

36 

58 

53 

504 

293 

125 

258 

136 

275 

114 



314 

145 

720 

294 

1,351 

155 

67 

86 

164 

11 

642 



1,319 



Counties 



Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin- - 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg - 

Mitchell 

Montgomery - 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 
Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasqviotank -. 

Pender 

Perquimans. . 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham - 

Rowan 

Rutherford.-- 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transvlvania- 

Tyrreil 

Union -- 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington . . 

Watauga 

Wayne.- 

Wilkes 

Wilson --- 

Yadkin 

Yancey.- 

Totals.... 



For 



Against 



170 


56 


518 


199 


331 


130 


488 


576 


101 


32 


166 


135 


379 


95 


173 


45 


880 


355 


9 


5 


41 


245 


852 


406 


578 


159 


224 


98 


421 


193 


115 


139 


391 


191 


140 


50 


229 


174 


106 


206 


262 


44 


99 


143 


650 


420 


161 


30 


53 


643 


831 


321 


1,365 


434 


558 


195 


517 


447 


969 


648 


348 


80 


48 


32 


639 


1,011 


115 


341 


42 


46 


132 


21 


9 


201 


320 


59 


391 


150 


275 


99 


1,921 


723 


218 


348 


350 


124 


23 


103 


620 


918 


228 


449 


209 


111 


147 


44 


12 


2 



47,618 



24,800 



360 



ELECTioisr Returns 



TOTE ON REFERENDUM 



Counties 


For 


Against 


Counties 


For 


Against 


Alamance « . 


486 
67 
147 
866 
265 
282 
700 
354 
246 
437 

5,512 

1,602 

2,435 

120 

48 

1,041 
193 
334 

1,568 

527 

49 

93 

422 

492 

1,000 
958 
177 
208 
222 
348 
935 
765 
259 

1,482 
469 

2,417 
39 


141 

4 

61 

412 

13 

11 

103 

88 

367 

7 

1,136 

417 

280 

61 

74 

28 

109 

40 

995 

24 

92 

2 

343 

452 

111 

1,070 

35 

20 

146 

115 

744 

420 

250 

316 

157 

186 

166 


Jones _ - 


147 

537 

384 

907 

267 

531 

300 

464 

991 

126 

518 

1,173 

643 

369 

374 

129 

316 

144 

143 

160 

284 

249 

618 

479 

325 

1,150 

1,199 

1,423 

910 

1,161 

73 

109 

828 

172 

728 

383 

214 

371 

375 

■ 358 

2,471 

170 

555 

69 

806 

1,016 

220 

204 

329 


97 


Alexander . 


Lee - ._ 


277 


Alleghany.. _._ 

Anson 


Lenoir 


288 


Lincoln 


720 


Ashe - - - 


Macon _ _ _ _ 


15 


Avery _ 


Madison . 


154 




Martin 


211 


Bertie- 


McDowell 


106 


Bladen 


Mecklenburg 


457 




Mitchell — - 


3 




Montgomery 


218 


Burke 


Moore 


342 


Carbarrus 


Nash 


199 


Caldwell 


New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 


125 


Camden.- 


242 


Carteret - . 


138 


Caswell 


Orange 


248 




32 


Chatham 


PasQuotank 


288 


Cherokee . 


Pender 


269 






72 


Clay 




194 


Cleveland 


Pitt 


492 


Columbus. 


Polk 


47 


Craven 


Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockino-hani _ . 


703 


Cum berland 


300 


Currituck 


450 


Dare 


1.54 






595 




Rutherford 

Sampson 


743 


Duplin 


188 


Durham *.. 


Scotland. 


35 

978 


Forsyth _. 




456 


Franklin 


Surry .... 


61 


Gaston 


Swain . 


22 


Gates- . 


Transylvania 




Graham. 


Tyrrell 


38 


Granville . . 


428 
139 

2,234 
665 

2,055 

1,277 

30 

159 

453 

180 

1,544 


269 
161 
537 
265 
959 
140 

10 
105 
158 

34 
427 


Union 


282 


Greene 


Vance 

Wake 


188 


Guilford 


681 


Halifax 

Harnett 


Warren 

Washington. _ _ 


459 
101 




Watauga 

Wavne 

Wilkes 




Henderson 

Hertford 


1,181 
415 


Hoke 


Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 

Totals 


169 


Hyde 

Iredell 


49 
3 


Johnst on 


3,350 


538 


65,951 


26,084 



Vote for Solicitors 



361 



VOTE FOR SOLICITORS, 1926 



FIRST JUDICIAL DISTRICT 


THIRD JUDICIAL DISTRICT 


Counties 


s 

m 


Counties 


fr4 

PM 

3 

K 


Camden 


168 
1,121 
344 
243 
665 
1,245 
304 
870 
502 
572 


Bertie. 


737 


Gates - 


Hertford 


463 


Currituck 


Northampton 


1,028 




Halifax 


1,234 


Pasquotank 


Warren 


1,038 


Beaufort . 


Vance . . 


1,428 


Hyde 


Total.. 






5,928 


Perquimans 






Tyrrell 








Total _ 


6,0.34 









SECOND JUDICIAL DISTRICT 


FOURTH JUDICIAL DISTRICT 


Counties 


Donnell 
Gilham 


Wheeler 
Martin 


Counties 


i4 


R. H. Dixon, Jr. 


Nash 


1,902 
926 
796 
902 

1,001 




Lee ..... . 


1,379 
3,095 
7,073 
2,817 
3,344 


277 


Wilson 


76 


Chatham 


1,972 


Edgecombe 


Johnston 


5,119 


Martin 


50 
687 


Wayne 


983 




Harnett 


2,711 




Total 




Total 


5,527 


813 


17,708 


11,062 









362 



Election Returns 



VOTE FOR SOLICITORS, 1Q2Q— Continued 



FIFTH JUDICIAL DISTRICT 


SEVENTH JUDICIAL DISTRICT 


Counties 


O 

Q 


Counties 


2 

"a! 

« 


o 

Oh 
tS! 


Pitt 


1,636 

1,272 

2,625 

458 

455 

511 


Wake 


4,571 
855 


481 




Franklin 


126 




Toral 




Pamlico 


5,426 


607 








Greene - - 








Total 


6,957 






1 


SIXTH JUDICIAL DISTRICT 


EIGHTH JUDICIAL DISTRICT 


Counties 


CD O 


s 


Counties 


B 

3 

-a 
o 
o 


a 

•3 
o 
o 
O 

'5 
o 




830 
2,154 
2,540 
1,481 


94 

620 

2,741 

437 




1,198 

3,429 

1,026 

464 


1,006 


Dunlin 


Columbus 


1,026 


.Sampson 

Lenoir 




104 


Pender. 






Total 




Total 


7,005 


3,892 


6,117 


2,136 









Vote for Solicitors 



363 



VOTE FOR SOLICITORS, 192&-ConHnued 



NINTH JUDICIAL DISTRICT 


ELEVENTH JUDICIAL DISTRICT 


Counties 


< 


a 
'a 

o 

Q 

d 
d 


Counties 


o 

<v 
o 

a, 
m 


cS 

a 

u 

d 


Rohpson 


2,330 

1,677 

746 

2,017 


278 

478 

29 

950 


Ashe . 


3,979 
4,862 
3,217 
879 
4,865 
1,589 


3,302 


Bladen 


Forsyth 


2,790 


Hoke .- 


Rockingham. 


1,957 




Caswell 


252 






4 358 


Total --- 


6,770 


1,735 




1,072 




Total.- 






19.391 


13,731 



TENTH JUDICIAL DISTRICT 


TWELFTH JUDICIAL DISTRICT 


Counties 


-a 

a 
m 


Ti 
0) 

M 
3 
W 

a 
W 


Counties 


'5 

1-5 


c 
c 
en 

■s 




1,045 
1,338 
4,340 
3,482 
1,640 




Davidson 


6,306 
6,745 
2,268 


5,948 






Guilford 


4,370 








2,628 






Total 




OrEnge 


732 


15,319 


12,946 








Total.. 


11,845 


732 









364 



Election Returns 



VOTE FOR SOLICITORS, W26— Continued 



THIRTEENTH JUDICIAL DISTRICT 



Counties 






m2 

. o 
OS 



FIFTEENTH JUDICIAL DISTRICT 



Counties 



a 
o 



Richmond 

Stanly 

Union 

Moore 

Anson 

Scotland .. 

Total . 



2,107 
2,926 
1,382 
2,153 
1,701 
718 



230 

2,804 

224 

1,133 

47 

49 



10,986 



4,487 



Montgomery 

Randolph 

Iredell 

Cabarrus 

Rowan 

Total 



2,208 
5,281 
4,951 
4,816 
3,420 



20,676 



FOURTEENTH JUDICIAL DISTRICT 


SIXTEENTH JUDICIAL DISTRICT 


Counties 


a a 


'a 
is 

V 

6 


Counties 


C 
3 

a 


m 

d 
o 

1-5 

>> 

> 
I-> 

C3 


Mecklenburg 


2,745 
4,610 


282 
1,974 


Lincoln 

Cleveland 

Caldwell.. 


3,135 
3,191 
3,010 
3,731 
4,961 


2,896 
830 


Gaston .. .. . 




1,501 
3,225 


Total 


7,355 


2,256 




Catawba. 


4,677 




Total 






18,028 


13,129 









Vote for Solicitors 



365 



VOTE FOR SOIJCITORS. Id26— Continued 



SEVENTEENTH JUDICIAL DISTRICT 


NINETEENTH JUDICIAL DISTRICT 


Counties 


3 

o 


a 
o 

d 

a 

■B 


Counties 




a 

3 

o 

6 

a 
o 
Q 


Avery 


536 
2,076 

445 
3,986 

992 
3,118 
2,319 


1,6.55 
2,403 
1,017 
5,482 
2,087 
2,785 
2,198 


Buncombe.- 


8,318 
919 


4,951 


Davie 


Madison 


2,112 




Total 




Wilkes - 


9,237 


7,063 


Yadkin 






Watauga 




Alexander 








Total 


13,472 


17,627 








EIGHTEENTH JUDICIAL DISTRICT 


TWENTIETH JUDICIAL DISTRICT 


Counties 


1-^ 


Counties 


a 

d 

> 

o 




2,944 
1,928 
2,065 
3,971 
3,195 
1,719 


Haywood 


3,696 


Transvlvania 


Swain 


1,869 




Cherokee 


1,981 


Rutherford 


Macon 


2,527 




Graham 


• 863 


Polk 


Clay 


855 






2,537 


Total 


15,822 


Total - - - 








14,328 


1 1 









PART X 

1. The Halifax Resolution of April 12, 1776. 

2. The Declakation of Independence. 



THE HALIFAX RESOLUTION 

Adopted hy the Provincial Congress of North Carolina 
in session at Halifax, Ajiril 12, 1770 

It appears to your committee that pursuant to the plan concerted 
by the British Ministry for subjugating America, the King and Parli- 
ament of Great Britain have usurped a power over the persons and 
properties of the people unlimited and uncontrolled; and disregard- 
ing their humble petitions for peace, liberty and safety, have made 
divers legislative acts, denouncing war, famine, and every species 
of calamity, against the Continent in general. The British fleets 
and armies have been, and still are, daily employed in destroying 
the people, and committing the most horrid devastations on the 
country. The Governors in different Colonies have declared pro- 
tection to slaves who should imbrue their hands in the blood of 
their masters. That ships belonging to America are declared prizes 
of war, and many of them have been violently seized and confiscated. 
In consequence of all of which multitudes of the people have been 
destroyed, or from easy circumstances reduced to the most lamen- 
table distress. 

And whereas the moderation hitherto manifested by the United 
Colonies and their sincere desire to be reconciled to the mother 
country on constitutional principles, have procured no mitigation 
of the aforesaid wrongs and usurpations, and no hopes remain of 
obtaining redress by those means alone which have been hitherto 
tried, your committee are of opinion that the House should enter 
into the following resolve, to wit: 

Resolved, That the delegates for this Colony in the Continental 
Congress be impowered to concur with the delegates of the other 
Colonies in declaring Independency, and forming foreign alliances, 
reserving to this Colony the sole and exclusive right of forming 
a Constitution and laws for this Colony, and of appointing dele- 
gates from time to time (under the direction of a general repre- 
sentation thereof), to meet the delegates of the other Colonies for 
such purposes as shall be hereafter pointed out. 



370 Declaration of Independence 



THE DECL AKATIO> OF INDEPENDENCE 

In Congress, July -'i, 1116 

The UiXANiMOUs Declakation of the Thirteen United States 

OF America 

When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one 
people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them 
with another, and to assume among the Powers of the earth, the 
separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of 
Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of man- 
kind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them 
to the separation. 

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created 
equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalien- 
able Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of 
Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted 
among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the 
governed. That whenever any Form of Government becomes destruc- 
tive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish 
it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such 
principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall 
seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, 
indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be 
changed for light and transient causes and accordingly all experi- 
ence hath shown, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while 
evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms 
to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and 
usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to 
reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their 
duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for 
their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these 
Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to 
alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the pres- 
ent King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurp- 
ations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute 
Tyranny over these States. To provide this, let Facts be submitted 
to a candid world. 



Declaration of Independence 



o( 



He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and 
necessary for the public good. 

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Lawe of immediate and 
pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his 
Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly 
neglected to attend to them. 

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large 
districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right 
of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them 
and formidable to tyrants only. 

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncom- 
fortable, and distant from the depository of their Public Records, 
for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his 
measures. 

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing 
with manly firmness his invasion on the rights of the people. 

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause 
others to be elected; whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable 
of annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exer- 
cise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the 
dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within. 

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States; for 
that purpose obstructing the L0,ws of Naturalization of Foreigners; 
refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and 
raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands. 

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his 
Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers. 

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure 
of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries. 

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms 
of Officers to harass our People, and eat out their substance. 

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies with- 
out the Consent of our legislature. 

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior 
to the Civil Power. 

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction 
foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving 
his Assent to their acts of pretended legislaton: 



372 Declaration of Independence 

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: 
For protecting tlaem, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any 
Murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these 
States: 

For cutting off of Trade with all parts of the world: 
For imposing taxes on us without our Consent: 
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury: 
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offenses: 
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighboring 
Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarg- 
ing its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit in- 
strument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies: 
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, 
and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments. 

For suspending our own Legislature, and declaring themselves in- 
vested with Power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. 

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his 
Protection and waging War against us. 

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, 
and destroyed the lives of our people. 

He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercena- 
ries to complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already 
begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled 
in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a 
civilized nation. 

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high 
Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners 
of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands. 
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeav- 
oured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontier, the merciless 
Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished 
destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions. 

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Re- 
dress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been 
answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is 
thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be 
the ruler of a free People. 



Declaeatioa" of Independence 373 

Nor have We been wanting in attention to our British brethren. 
We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legis- 
lature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have 
reminded them of the circumstances of our eimigratlon and settle- 
ment here. We have appealed to their native justice and magna- 
nimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kin- 
dred to disavow these usurpations which would inevitably interrupt 
our connection and correspondence. They too have been deaf to 
the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, ac- 
quiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold 
them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace, 
Friends. 

We, therefore, the Representatives of the United States of Amer- 
ica, in General Congi'ess, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge 
of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and 
by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish 
and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to 
be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all 
Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection 
between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be 
totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they 
have full Power to Levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, 
establish Commerce, and do all other Acts and Things which Inde- 
pendent States may of right do. And for the support of this Decla- 
ration, with a firm reliance on the Protection of Divine Providence, 
we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our 
sacred Plonor. JOHN HANCOCK. 

Isleio Hampshire — Josiah Bartlett, Wm. Whipple, Matthew 
Thornton. 

Massachusetts Bay — Saml. Adams, John Adams, Robt. Treat 
Paine, Elbridge Gerry. 

Rhode Island — Step. Hopkins, William Ellery. 

Connecticut — Roger Sherman, Sam'el Hun'ongton, Wm. Wil- 
liams, Oliver Wolcott. 

2Vew York — Wm. Floyd, Phil. Livingston, Frans. Lewis, Lewis 
Morris. 



o74 Declaration of Independence 

ATeio Jersey — Riciid. Stockto:v, Jno. Witherspoon, Fras. Hopkin- 
SON, John Hart, Abra. Clark. 

Pennsylvania — Robt. Morris, Benjamin Rush, Benja. Franklin, 
John Morton, Geo. Clymer, Jas. Smith, Geo. Taylor, James Wilson, 
Geo. Ross. 

DeUnoare — Caesar Rodney, Geo. Read, Tho. M'Kean. 

Maryland — Samuel Chase, Wm. Paca, Thos. Stone, Charles Car- 
roll of Oarrolton. 

Yirginia — George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, Th. Jefferson, 
Benja. Harrison, Thos. Nelson, Jr., Francis Lightfoot Lee, Carter 
Braxton. 

l^orth Carolina — Wm. Hooper, Joseph He\vtes, John Penn. 

South Carolina — Edward Rutledge, Thos. Heywood, junr., Thomas 
Lynch, junr., Arthur Middleton. 

Georgia — Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, Geo. Walton.* 



* This arrangement of the names is made for convenience. Tlie States are 
not mentioned in the original. 



PART XI 



CONSTITUTIONS 



1. Constitution of the United States of America. 

2. Constitution of the State of Nokth Carolina. 

3. Index to the Constitution of North Carolina. 



CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 

We. the People of the United States, in order to form a more per- 
fect Union, establisli Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide 
for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, iind secure 
the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain 
and establish this Constitftiox for the United States of America. 

Article I 

Section 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested 
in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate 
and House of Representatives. 

Sec. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of 
Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several 
States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications 
requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State 
Legislature. 

No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained 
to the Age of twenty-five years, and been seven Years a Citizen of 
the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant 
of that State in which he shall be chosen. 

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the 
several States which may be included within the Union, according 
to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding 
to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to 
Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three- 
fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made 
within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the 
United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in 
such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The number of Repre- 
sentatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each 
State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enu- 
meration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled 
to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence 
Plantations one, Connecticut five. New York six. New Jersey four, 
Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten. 
North Carolina five. South Carolina five, and Georgia three. 



378 Constitutions 

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the 
Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such 
vacancies. 

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other 
Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment. 

Sec. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of 
two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for 
six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote. 

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the 
first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three 
Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated 
at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the 
Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expira- 
tion of the sixth Year, so that one-third may be chosen every second 
Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during 
the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof 
may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the 
Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies. 

No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the 
Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United 
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that 
State for which he shall be chosen. 

The Vice-president of the United States shall be President of the 
Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided. 

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President 
pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice-president, or when he shall 
exercise the Office of President of the United States. 

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. 
When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. 
When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice 
shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Con- 
currence of two-thirds of the Members present. 

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than 
to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any 
Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the 
Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indict- 
ment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law. 



Constitution of the United States 379 

Sec. 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for 
Senator and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State 
by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by 
Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the places of 
chusing Senators. 

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such 
Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall 
by Law appoint a different Day. 

Sec. 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns 
and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each 
shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number 
may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the 
Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner and under such 
Penalties as each House may provide. 

Each House may determine the Rules of the Proceedings, punish 
its Members for disorderly Behavior, and, with the Concurrence of 
two-thirds, expel a Member. 

Each Plouse shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time 
to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their 
Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members 
of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one-fifth of 
those Present, be entered on the Journal. 

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the 
Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any 
other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting. 

Sec. 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Com- 
pensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out 
of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, ex- 
cept Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from 
Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective 
Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any 
Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in 
any other Place. 

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he 
was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of 
the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments 
whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person 



380 Constitutions 

holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of 
either House during his Continuance in Office. 

Sec. 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House 
of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with 
Amendments as on other Bills. 

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives 
and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the 
President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but 
if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which 
it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on 
their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsid- 
eration two-thirds of the House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall 
be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which 
it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of 
that House, it shall become a law. But in all such Cases the Votes 
of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the 
Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be en- 
tered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall 
not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays ex- 
cepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be 
a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by 
their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not 
be a Law. 

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which Concurrence of the 
Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on 
a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of 
the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be 
approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by 
two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives according to 
the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill. 

Sec. 8. The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, 
Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the 
common Defense and General Welfare of the United States; but 
all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the 
United States; 

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States; 
To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the sev- 
eral States, and with the Indian Tribes; 



CONSTITUTIOK^ OF THE UnITED StaTES 381 

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform 
Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States; 

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, 
and to fix the Standard of "Weights and Measures; 

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities 
and current Coin of the United States; 
To establish Post Offices and post Roads; 

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing 
for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to 
their respective Writings and Discoveries; 

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court; 
To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high 
Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations; 

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make 
Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water; 

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to 
that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years; 

To provide and maintain a Navy; 

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land 
and naval Forces; 

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the 
Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions; 

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the Militia, 
and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the 
Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, 
the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the 
Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress; 

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over 
such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession 
of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the 
Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like 
Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legis- 
lature of the State in which the same shall be, for the Erection of 
Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Build- 
ings; — And 

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carry- 
ing into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers 



382 Constitutions 

vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, 
or in any Department or Officer thereof. 

Sec. 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any 
of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be 
prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight 
hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Im- 
portation not exceeding ten dollars for each Person. 

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be sus- 
pended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public 
Safety may require it. 

No bill or Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed. 

No Capitation, or other direct, Tax should be laid, unless in Pro- 
portion to the Census or Enumeration hereinbefore directed to be 
taken. 

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State. 

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or 
Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another; nor shall 
Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or 
pay Duties in another. 

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence 
of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Ac- 
count of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be 
published from time to time. 

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: and no 
Person holding any office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, with- 
out the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, 
Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince or 
foreign State. 

Sec. 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Con- 
federation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; 
emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a 
Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post 
facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant 
any Title of Nobility. 

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Im- 
posts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be abso- 
lutely necessary for executing its inspection Laws: and the net 



Constitution of the United States 383 

Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or 
Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; 
and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Control of 
the Congress. 

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of 
Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into 
any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign 
Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such immi- 
nent Danger as will not admit of Delay. 

Article II 

Section 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of 
the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the 
Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice-President, chosen 
for the same Term, be elected, as follows: 

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature there- 
of may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of 
Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in 
the Congress; but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding 
an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be ap- 
pointed an Elector. 

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by 
Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhab- 
itant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List 
of all Persons voted for, and of the Number of votes for each; 
which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the 
Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the Presi- 
dent of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the 
Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the 
Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person hav- 
ing the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such 
Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; 
and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an 
equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall 
immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no 
Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the 
said House shall in like manner chuse the President. But in chusing 
the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation 



384 Constitutions 

from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall 
consist of a Member or Members from two-thirds of the States, and 
a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every 
Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the great- 
est Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice-president. 
But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the 
Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President. 

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, 
and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall 
be the same throughout the United States. 

No person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the 
J^Jnlted States, at the time of the Adoption of the Constitution, shall 
be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be 
eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of 
thirty-five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the 
United States. 

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his 
Death, Resignation, or Inability to Discharge the Powers and Duties 
of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, 
and the Congress may by law provide for the Case of Removal, 
Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice 
President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President and 
such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, 
or a President shall be elected. 

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a 
Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished dur- 
ing the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not 
receive within that Period any other Emoluments from the United 
States, or any of them. 

Before he enters on the Execution of his office, he shall take the 
following Oath or Affirmation: — 

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the 
Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my 
Ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United 
States." 

Sec. 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army 
and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several 
States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; 



Constitution of the United States 385 

he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in 
each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the 
Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant 
Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except 
in Cases of Impeachment. 

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the 
Senate, to make Treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators 
present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice 
and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public 
Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other 
Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein 
otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but 
the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior 
Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts 
of Law, or in the Heads of Departments. 

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may 
happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions 
which shall expire at the End of their next Session. • 

Sec. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress Infor- 
mation of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consider- 
ation such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he 
may, oh extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either 
of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to 
the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he 
shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public 
Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed 
and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States. 

Sec. 4. The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of 
the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, 
and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Mis- 
demeanors. 

ARTICLE III 

Section 1. The judicial Power of the United States, shall be 
vested in one supreme Court, and such inferior Courts as the 
Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, 
both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices dur- 
ing good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their 

25 



386 Constitutions 

Services a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during 
their Continuance in Office. 

Sec. 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law 
and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United 
States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Au- 
thority; — to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers 
and Consuls; — to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction; 
— to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party; — to 
Controversies between two or more States; — ^between a State and 
Citizens of another State; — ^between Citizens of different States; — 
between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of 
different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and 
foreign States, Citizens, or Subjects. 

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and 
Consuls, and those in which a State shall be a Party, the supreme 
Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before 
mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both 
as to» Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regula- 
tion as the Congress shall make. 

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be 
by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said 
Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within 
any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress 
may by Law have directed. 

Sec. 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in 
levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving 
them Aid and Comfort. . No Person shall be convicted of Treason 
unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or 
on Confession in open Court. 

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishhment of 
Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of 
Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted. 

ARTICLE IV 

Section 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to 
the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other 
State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Man- 



Constitution of the United States 387 

ner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, 
and the Effect thereof. 

Sec. 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privi- 
leges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States. 

A person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other 
Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, 
shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which 
he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdic- 
tion of the Crime. 

No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws 
thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law, or 
Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but 
shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Serv- 
ice or Labour may be due. 

Sec. 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this 
Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the 
Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the 
Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Con- 
sent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the 
Congress. 

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all need- 
ful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property 
belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution 
shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United 
States, or any particular State. 

Sec. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in 
this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each 
of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or 
of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against 
domestic Violence. 

article V 

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it 
necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the 
Application of the Legislatures of two-thirds of the several States, 
shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which in either 
Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes as part of this Con- 
stitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three-fourths of the 
several States, or by Conventions in three-fourths thereof, as tlu- one 



388 CoA'STITUTIONS 

or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; 
Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year 
One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect 
the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of tlie first Article; 
and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal 
Suffrage in the Senate. 

ABTKJLE VI 

AH Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the 
Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United 
States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation. 

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall 
be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall 
be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the 
supreme Law of the Land ; and the Judges in every State shall be 
bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State 
to the Contrary notwithstanding. 

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Mem- 
bers of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial 
Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall 
be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but 
no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any 
Office or public Trust under the United States. 

ABTICLE VII 

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States shall be suf- 
ficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States 
so ratifying the Same. 

THE AMENDMENTS 
I 
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of re- 
ligion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the 
freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peace- 
ably to assemble, and to petition the Government for redress of 
grievances. 

II 

A well-regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free 
State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be 
infringed. 



Constitution of the United States 389 

III 

No Soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house, with- 
out the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner 
to be prescribed by law. 

IV 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, 
papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall 
not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable 
cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing 
the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. 



No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise in- 
famous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand 
Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the 
Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; 
nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put 
in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any Crimi- 
nal Case to be witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, 
liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private 
property be taken for public use, without just compensation. 

VI 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a 
speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district 
wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall 
have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the 
nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the wit- 
nesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining Wit- 
nesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his 
defence. 

VII 

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall ex- 
ceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and 
no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court 
of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law. 



390 Constitutions 



VIII 



Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, 
nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. 



IX 



The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not 
be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 



The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, 
nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respec- 
tively, or to the people. 

XI 

The Judicial power of the United' States shall not be construed to 
extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against 
one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens 
or Subjects of any Foreign State. 

XII 

The Electors shall meet in their respective States and vote by 
ballot for President and Vice President, one of whom, at least, shall 
not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall 
name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in dis- 
tinct ballots the person voted for as Vice President, and they shall 
make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all 
persons voted for as Vice President, and of the number of votes for 
each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to 
the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the 
President of the Senate; — The President of the Senate shall, in the 
presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the 
certificates and the votes shall then be counted; — The person having 
the greatest number of votes for Presidest shall be the President, 
if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors ap- 
pointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the per- 
sons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of 
those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall 
choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the 
President, the vote shall be taken by States, the representation from 



Constitution of the United States 391 

each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist 
of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a ma- 
jority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the 
House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever 
the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day 
of March next following, then the Vice President shall act as Presi- 
dent, as in the ease of the death or other constitutional disability of 
the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as 
Vice President shall be Vice President, if such number be a ma- 
jority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person 
have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the 
Senate shall choose the Vice President; a quorum for the purpose 
shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a 
majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But 
no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall 
be eligible to that of Vice President of the United States. 

xui 

Sectiox 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a 
punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly con- 
victed, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to 
their jurisdiction. 

Sec. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by ap- 
propriate legislation. 

XIV 

Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, 
and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United 
States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make 
or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities 
of citizens of the United States, nor shall any State deprive any per- 
son of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor 
deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of 
the laws. 

Sec. 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several 
States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole 
number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But 
when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for 
President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives 



392 Constitutions 

in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the 
members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male in- 
habitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens 
of the United States, or in any way abridged except for participation 
in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall 
be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citi- 
zens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one 
years of age in such State. 

Sec. 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Con- 
gress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, 
civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, 
having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an 
officer of the United States, or as a member of any State Legislature, 
or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the 
Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection 
or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies 
thereof. But Congress may by a vote of tw^o-thirds of each House, 
remove such disability. 

Sec. 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, au- 
thorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions 
and bounties for services in supressing Insurrection or rebellion, 
shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State 
shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insur- 
rection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the 
loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and 
claims shall be held illegal and void. 

Sec. 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate 
legislation, the provisions of this article. 

XV 

Section 1. The right of the citizens of the United States to vote 
shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any 
State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 

Sec. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article 
by appropriate legislation. 



Constitution of the United States 393 

XVI 

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, 
from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the 
several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration. 

XVII 

Sectiox 1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of 
two Senators' from each State, elected by the people thereof, for 
six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in 
each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the 
most numerous branch of the State legislatures. 

Sec. 2. When vacancies happen in the representation of any State 
in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs 
of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of 
any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary 
appointment until the people fill the vacancies by election as the 
legislature may direct. 

Sec. 3. This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the 
election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as 
part of the Constitution. 

XVITI 

Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the 
manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, 
the importation thereof into, the exportation thereof from the United 
States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof, for 
beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. 

Sec. 2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent 
power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

xix 

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall 
not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on 
account of sex. 

Sec. 2. Congress shall liave power by appropriate legislation, to 
enforce the provisions of this Article. 



£94 Constitutions 

RATIFICATION OF THE CONSTITUTION 

The Constitution was ratified by the thirteen original States in 
the following order: 

Delaware, December 7, 1787; Pennsylvania, December 12, 1787; 
New Jersey, December 18, 1787; Georgia, January 2, 1788; Con- 
necticut, January 9, 1788; Massachusetts, February 6, 1788; Mary- 
land, April 28, 1788; South Carolina, May 23, 1788; New Hampshire, 
June 21, 1788; Virginia, June 25, 1788; New York, July 26, 1788; 
North Carolina, November 21, 1789; Rhode Island, May 29, 1790. 

RATIFICATION OF THE AMENDMENTS 

The First to Tenth, inclusive, were declared in force December 15, 
1791; the Eleventh, January 8, 1798; the Twelfth, September 25, 
1804; the Thirteenth was proclaimed December 18, 1865; the Four- 
teenth, July 28, 1868; the Fifteenth, March 30, 1870; the Sixteenth, 
February 25, 1913; the Seventeenth, May 31, 1913; the Eighteenth, 
January 29, 1919; the Nineteenth, August 26, 1920. 



CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

Adopted Aprh. 24, 1868, With Amendments to 1927 

(See Freeman v. Lide, 176-434.) 
PREAMBLE 

We, the people of the State of North Carolina, grateful to Al- 
mighty God, the Sovereign Ruler of nations, for the preservation of 
the American Union and the existence of our civil, political and 
religious liberties, and acknowledging our dependence upon Him 
for the continuance of those blessings to us and our posterity, do, 
for the more certain security thereof, and for the better govern- 
ment of this State, ordain and establish this Constitution. 

Const. 1S6H. 

ARTICLE I 

DECLARATION OF RIGHTS 

That the great, general and essential principles of liberty and 
free government may be recognized and established, and that the 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 395 

relations of this State to the Union and Government of the United 
States, and those of the people of this State to the rest of the 
American people may be defined and affirmed, we do declare: 

Const. 1868. 

Section 1. The equality and rights of men. That we hold it to 
be self-evident that all men are created equal; that they are en- 
dowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among 
these are life, liberty, the enjoyment of the fruits of their own 
labor, and the pursuit of happiness. 

Const. 1868 ; Decl. Independence. 

State V. Hay, 126-1006; State v. Hill, 126-139. 

Sec. 2. Political power and government. That all political power 
is vested in, and derived from, the people; all government of right 
originates from the people, is founded upon their will only, and is 
instituted solely for the good of the whole. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, Decl. Rights, s. 1. 

Quinn v. Lattimore, 120-428; Nichols v. McKee, 68-430, 

Sec. 3. Internal government of the State. That the people of 
this State have the inherent, sole and exclusive right of regulating 
the internal government and police thereof, and of altering and 
abolishing their Constitution and form of government whenever it 
may be necessary for their safety and happiness; but every such 
right should be exercised in pursuance of the law, and consistently 
with the Constitution of the United States. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, Decl. Rights, s. 2. 

State V. Railway, 145-496; State v. Herring, 145-418; State v. Hicks, 143-689; 
State V. Lewis, 142-626; Durham v. Cotton Mills, 141-616; State v. Sutton, 
139-574; State v. Holoman, 139-642; State v. Patterson, 134-612; State v. Gallop, 
126-979; Humphrey v. Church. 109-132; Window v, Winslow, 95-24. 

Sec. 4. That there is no right to secede. That this State shall 
ever remain a member of the American Union; that the people 
thereof are part of the American nation; that there is no right 
on the part of the State to secede, and that all attempts, from what- 
ever source or upon whatever pretext, to dissolve said Union, or 
to sever said nation, ought to be resisted with the whole power of 
the State. 

Const. 1868. 

Sec. 5. Of allegiance to the United States Government. That 
every citizen of this State owes paramount allegiance to the Con- 
stitution and Government of the United States, and that no law 



396 Constitutions 

or ordinance of the State in contravention or subversion thereof 
can have any binding force. 

Const. 186.S. 

Sec. 6. PuhliG debt; bonds issutd under ordinanee of Convention 
of 1868. 68-69, 69-70, declared invalid: exception. The State shall 
never assume or pay, or authorize the collection of any debt or 
obligation, express or implied, incurred in aid of insurrection or 
rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or 
emancipation of any slave; nor shall the General Assembly assume 
or pay, or authorize the collection of any tax to pay, either directly 
or indirectly, expressed or implied, any debt or bond incurred, or 
issued, by authority of the Convention of the year one thousand 
eight hundred and sixty-eight, nor any debt or bond incurred or 
issued by the Legislature of the year one thousand eight hundred 
and sixty-eight, either at its special session of the year one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight or at its regular sessions 
of the years one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight and one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty-nine, and one thousand eight 
hundred and seventy except the bonds issued to fund the interest on 
the old debt of the State, unless the proposing to pay the same shall 
have first been submitted to the people and by them ratified by the 
vote of a majority of all the qualified voters of the State, at a regular 
election held for that purpose. 

Const. 1868; 1872-3, c. 8.5; 1879, c. 26!S. 

Const. 1, s. 6 — Annot. 

Comrs. V. Snug&^s, 121-409; Baltzer v. State, 104-26.5; Home v. State, 84-362; 
Bi-ickell V. Comrs., 81-240; Davis v. Comrs. 72-441; Lance v. Hunter, 72-178; 
Jjosan V. Plummer, 70-388; Ranrt v. State. 65-197; R. R. v. Holden. 63-414; 
Galloway v. Jenkins, 63-152. 

Const. 1, s. 7. 

Sec. 7. Exclusive emoluments, etc. No man or set of men are 
entitled to exclusive or separate emoluments or privileges from the 
community but in consideration of public services. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, Decl. Rights, s. 3. 

Power Co. v. Power Co., 175-668, 171-248; Reid v. R. R., 162-355; State v. 
Perry, 151-661; St. George v. Hardie, 147-88; State v. Cantwell, 142-604; In re 
Spease Ferry, 138-219; Bray v. Williams, 137-391; Mial v. Ellington, 134-131; 
Ewbank v. Turner, 134-82; State v. Biggs, 133-729; Jones v. Comrs., 130-451; 
Hancock v. R. R., 124-255; Motley v. Warehouse Co., 122-350, 124-232; State 
V. Call, 121-645; Broadfoot v. Fayetteville, 121-418; Rowland v. Loan Assn., 
116-879; R. R. Comrs. v. Tel. Co., 113-213; State v. Van Doran, 109-864; State 
V. Stovall, 103-416; Gregory v. Forbes, 96-77; Bridge Co. v. Comrs., 81-491; 
State V. Morris. 77-512; Simonton v. Lanier. 71-503; Barrington v. Ferry Co., 
69-165; Kingsbui-j- v. R. R., 66-284; Long v. Beard, 7-57; Bank v. Taylor. 6-266. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 397 

Sec. 8. The legislative, executive and judicial ijowers distinct. 
The legislative, executive and supreme judicial powers of the 
government ought to be forever separate and distinct from each 
other. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, Deel. Rights, s. i. 

Lee V. Beard, 146-361; State v. Turner, 143-641; White v. Auditor, 126-605 
Bird V. Gilliam, 125-79; Wilson v. Jordan, 124-705; Miller v. Alexander, 122-718 
Garner v. Worth, 122-257; Caldwell v. Wilson, 121-476; Carr v. Coke, 116-236 
Goodwin V. Fertilizer Works, 119-120; In re Sultan, 115-62; Herndon v. Ins. 
Co., 111-386; Horton v. Green, 104-401; Kencher v. Anderson, 93-105; Burton 
V. Spiers, 92-503 ; In re Oldham, 89-23 ; Brown v. Turner, 70-93 ; Railroad v. 
.Jenkins, 68-503; Barnes v. Barnes, 53-372; Houston v. Bogle, 32-504; Hoke v. 
Henderson, 15-1; Robinson v. Barfield, 6-391. 

Sec. 9. Of the poicer of susiyending laws. All power oi sus- 
pending laws, or the execution of laws, by any authority, without 
the consent of the representatives of the people, is injurious to 
their rights and ought not to be exercised. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, Decl. Rights, s. 5. 

Jones V. Comrs., 130-470; Abbott v. Beddingfield, 125-268 (dissenting opin- 
ion) ; White v. Auditor, 126-605. 

Sec. 10. Elections /ree. All elections ought to be free. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, Decl. Rights, s. 6. 

Sec. 11. I7i criminal prosecutions. In all criminal prosecutions 
every man has the right to be informed of the accusation against 
him and to confront the accusers and witnesses with other testi- 
mony, and to have counsel for his defense, and not be compelled 
to give evidence against himself, or to pay costs, jail fees, or nec- 
essary witness fees of the defense, unless found guilty. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, Decl. Rights, s. 7. 

State V. Neville, 175-731; State v. Fowler, 172-905; State v. Cherry, 154-624 
State V. Dry, 152-813; State v. Whedbee, 152-770; State v. Leeper, 146-655 
State V. Cline, 146-640; State v. Railway, 145-495; State v. Dowdy, 145-433 
State V. Harris, 145-456; State v. Hodge, 142-683; Stale v. Cole 132-1073; In 
re Briggs, 135-118; Sheek v. Sain, 127-266; State v. Mitchell, 119-785; Smith 
V. Smith, 116-386; Holt v. Warehouse Co., 116-488; State v. Shade, 115-759; 
State V. Massey, 104-880; State v. Canuady, 78-540; State v. Morris, 84-756; 
State V. Hodson, 74-153; State v. Collins, 70-247; State v. Alman, 64-366; State 
V. Thomas, 64-76; State v. Tilghman, 33-513. 

Sec. 12. Answers to criminal charges. No per.son shall be put 
to answer any criminal charge, except as hereinafter allowed, but 
by indictment, presentment or impeachment. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, Decl. Rights, s. 8. 

Stale V. Newell, 172-933; State v. Hyman, 164-411; State v. Harris, 145-456; 
Ex parte McCown, 139-95; State v. Lytle, 138-742; State v. Hunter, 106-800; 
State V. Dunn, 95-699; State v. Powell, 86-642; Stale v. Moore, 104-750; State 
V. Cannady, 78-540; Kane v. Haywood, 66-31; State v. Simons, 68-379; State 
V. Moss 47-68. 



398 Constitutions 

Skc. 13. I'ifiht of jury. No person shall be convicted of any 
crime but by the unanimous verdict of a jury of good and lawful 
men in open court. The Legislature may, however, provide other 
means of trial for petty misdemeanors, with the right of appeal. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, Uecl. Rights, s. 9. 

Jones V. Briukley, 174-23; State v. Newell. 172-933; State v. Hyman, 164-411 
State V. Rogeis, 162-656; State v. Brittain, 143-668; Ex parte McCown, 139-95 
State V. Lytle, 138-742; State v. Thorntnn, 136-616; Hargett v. Bell, 134-396 
Smith V. Paul, 133-68; State v. Ostwalt, 118-1211; State v. Gadberry, 117-818 
State V. Whitaker, 114-819; State v. Best, 111-646; State v. Cutshall, 110-543 
State V. Hunter, 106-800; State v. Dunn, 95-698; State v. Powell, 97-417 
State V. Divine, 98-781; State v. Powell. 86-642; State v. Dudley, 83-661; State 
V. Cannady, 78-541; State v. Dixon, 75-275; Barnes v. Barnes, 53-366; State v. 
Moss, 47-68. 

Sec. 14. Excessive bail. Excessive bail should not be required, 
nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishment 
inflicted. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, Det-l. Rit;-hts, s. 10. See p:nslish Bill of Rights 
(1689), c. 1, s. 10. 

State V. Smith, 174-804; State v. Woodlief, 172-885; State v. Blake, 157-608 
State V. Lance, 149-551; State v. Farrincton. 141-844; State v. Hanbv, 126-1066 
Bryan v. Patrick, 124-661; State v. Ballard, 122-1025; State v. Apple, 121-585 
State T. Reid, 106-716; State v. Pettie, 80-369; State v. Cannady, 78-543; State 
V. Driver, 78-423; State v. Reid, 18-377. 

Skc. 15. General xoarrants. General warrants, whereby any offi- 
cer or messenger may be commanded to search suspected places, 
without evidence of the act committed, or to seize any person or 
persons not named, whose offense is not particularly descrilaed and 
supported by evidence, are dangerous to liberty and ought not to be 
granted. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776. Decl. Rights, s. 11. 
Brewer v. Wynne, 163-319; State v. Fowler, 172-905. 

Sec. 16. Imprisonment for debt. There shall be no imprison- 
ment for debt in this State, except in cases of fraud. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, Decl. Rights, s. 39. 

State V. Williams, 150-802; Ledford v. Emerson. 143-527; State v. Morgan, 
141-726; State v. Torrence, 127-550; Stewart v. Bryan, 121-49; Lockhart, v. 
Bear, 117-301; Preiss v. Cohen, 117-59; Fertilizer Co. v. Grubbs, 114-471; 
Burgwyn v. Hall, 108-490; State v. Earnhardt, 107-789; State v. Norman, 
110-489; Winslow v. Winslow, 95-24; Kiney v. Lougenour, 97-325; Long v. 
McLean, 88-3; State v. Beasley, 75-212; Melvin v. Molvin, 72-384; Daniel v. 
Owen, 72-340; State v. Davis, 82-610; State v. Wallin, 89-578; State v. Cannady, 
78-539; Pain v. Pain. 80-322; Moore v. Mullen, 77-327; Moore v. Green, 73-394; 
State V. Green. 71-173; State v. Palin, 63-471; Bunting v. Wright, 61-295; Bur- 
ton V. Dickens, 7-103. 

Se€. 17. No person taken, etc., \but by law of land. No person 
ought to be taken, imprisoned, or disseized of his freehold, liber- 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 399 



ties or privileges, or outlawed or exiled, or in any manner deprived 
of his life, liberty or property, but by the law of the land. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, Decl. Rights, s. 12; Mag. Carta, (1215) c 39, 
(1225), c. 29. 

Bradshaw v. Lumber Co., 179-501; State v. Kirkpatrick, 179-747; I'arker v. 
Comrs., 178-92; Comrs. v. Boring, 175-105; Comrs. v. State Treasurer, 174141; 
Lang V. Development Co., 169-662; State v. Collins, 169-323; State v. Bullock, 
161-223; Dalton v. Brown, 159-175; Lawrence v. Hardy, 151-123; Starnes v. 
Mfg. Co., 147-556; Caldwell Land, etc., Co. v. Smith, 146-199; State v. Williams, 
146-618; Dewey v. R. R., 142-392; Anderson v. Wilkins, 142-154; State v. 
Morgan, 141-726; Daniels v. Home, 139-237; State v. Jones, 139-613; Cozard v. 
Hardware Co., 139-296; Porter v. Armstrong, 139-179; E.\ parte McCown, 139- 
95; Mial v. Ellington, 134-172; Lumber Co. v. Lumber Co., 135-742; Parish v. 
Cedar Co.. 133-478; Jones v. Comrs., 130-461; Dyer v. Ellington, 126-941; State 
V. Hill, 126-1139; Herring v. Piigh, 126-852; Hutton v. Webb, 124-479, 126-897; 
Southport V. Stanly, 125-464; Hogan v. Brown, 125-251; Morris v. House, 125- 
559; Day's Case, 124-362; Caldwell v. Wilson, 121-477; Wood v. Bellamy, 120- 
212; Hilliard v. Asheville, 118-845; Call v. Wilkesboro, 115-337; State v. War- 
ren, 113-683; Lance v. Harris, 112-480; Williams v. Johnson, 112-435; Bass v. 
Navigation Co., 111-439; Staton v. R. R., 111-278; State v. Cutshall, 110-543; 
State V. Hunter, 106-800; Moose v. Carson, 104-431; London v. Headen, 76-72; 
Rhea v. Hampton, 101-53; State v. Wilson, 107-865; Woodard v. Blue, 103-109; 
Railroad v. Ely, 95-77; Winslow v. Winslow, 95-24; Worth v. Co.\, 89-44; White- 
head V. Latham, 83-232; Vann v. Pipkin, 77-410; State v. Morris, 77-512; White- 
head v. R. R., 87-255; Bridge Co. v. Comrs., 81-491; Pool v. Trexler, 76-297; 
Privett V. Whitaker, 73-554; State v. Dixon, 75-275; Wilson v. Charlotte, 74-756; 
State V. Mooney, 74-100; Brown v. Turner, 70-93; King v. Hunter, 65-603; Bank 
V. Jenkins, 64-719; Norfleet v. Cromwell, 70-634; Johnson v. Rankin, 70-550; 
Franklin v. Vannoy, 66-151; Sedberry v. Comrs., 66-486; Miller v. Gibbon, 
63-635; Schenck Ex parte, 65-353; Koonce v. W'allace, 52-194; Barnes v. Barnes, 
53-372; Gotten v. Ellis, 52-545; Cornelius v. Glen, 52-512; State v. Glen, 52-321; 
Stanmire v. Taylor, 48-207 ; State v. Matthews, 48-452 ; McNamara v. Kearns, 
24-66; Houston v. Bogle, 32-496; State v. Allen, 23-183; Mills v. Williams, 33- 
558; State v. Johnson, 33-647; R. R. v. Davis, 19-451; Hoke v. Hender.son, 15-1; 
Pipkin v. Wynne, 13-402; Hamilton v. Adams, 6-161; Oats v. Darden. 5-500; 
University v. Foy, 5-58, 3-310. 

See, also, section 19 of (his article. 

Sf:c. 18. Persons restrained of liherty. Every person restrained 
of his liberty is entitled to a remedy to inquire into the lawfulness 
thereof, and to remove the same, if unlawful; and such remedy 
ought not to be denied or delayed. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, Decl. Rights, s. 13. 

Harkins v. Catliey, 119-663; State v. Herndon, 107-935; In re Schenck. 74-607. 

Sec. 19. Controversies at law respecting property. In all on- 
troversies at law respecting property, the ancient mode of trial 
by jury is one of the best securities of the rights of the p(Mipl(\ and 
ought to remain sacred and inviolable. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, Decl. Rights, s. 14. 

In re Stone, 176-336; Crews v. Crews, 175-168; Walls v. Strickland, 174-298; 
Silvey v. R. R.. 172-110; State v. Rogers, 162-656; Williams v. R. R., 140-623; 
Kearns v. R. R.. 139-482; Smith v. Paul, 133-66: Boutton v. R. R. 128-340; 
Caldwell v. Wilson, 121-465; Wilson v. Keatherstono. 120-447: Hiirkins v. 
Cathey, 119-662; State v. Mitchell, 119-786; Driller Co. v. Worth. 117-517: -Mc- 
Queen v. Bank. 111-515; Smith v. Hicks, 108-248; LiissKcr v. I'liclui rdi. 107- 



400 Constitutions 

411; Kailroad v. Parker, 105-246; StteveJison v. Felton, 99-58; Harris v. Shaffer, 
92-30; Grant v. Hughes, 96-177; Pasour v. Lineberger, 90-159; Worthy v. 
Shields, 90-192; Wessel v. Ratlyohn, 89-377; Grant v. Reese, 82-72; Chasteen v. 
Martin, 81-51; Overby v. Association, 81-62; Bernlieim v. Waring, 79-56; At- 
kinson V. Whithead, 77-418; Perry v. Tupper, 77-413; Womble v. Fraps, 77-198; 
Wilson V. Charlotte, 74-756; Armfield v. Brown, 73-81; Lippard v. Troutman, 
72-551; Isler v. Murphy, 71-436; Witkowsky v. Wasson, 71-460; Pearson v. 
Caldwell, 70-291; Armfield v. Brown, 70-27; Green v. Castlebury, 70-20; Maxwell 
V. Maxwell, 70-267; Klutts v. Mckenzie, 65-102; Andrews v. Pritchett, 66-387; 
White V. White, 15-257; Smith v. Campbell, 10-590; Bayard v. Singleton, 1-5. 

Sec. 20. Freedom oj the press. The freedom of the press is one 
of the great bulwarks of liberty, and therefore ought never to be 
restrained, but every individual shall be held responsible for the 
abuse of the same. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, Decl. Rights, s. 15. 

Osborn v. Leach, 135-628; Cowan v. Fairbrother, 118-406. 

Sfx. 21. Haheas corpus. The privileges of the writ of habeas 
corpus shall not be suspended. 

Con.st. 1868. 

Ex parte Moore, 64-802. 

■Sec. 22. Property qualification. As political rights and privi- 
leges are not dependent up, or modified by, property, therefore 
no property qualification ought to affect the right to vote or hold 
office. 

Const. 1868. 

Wilson V. Charlotte, 74-736. 

Sec. 23. Representation and taxation. The people of the State 
ought not to be taxed or made subject to the payment of any im- 
post or duty, without the consent of themselves, or their represen- 
tatives in General Assembly, freely given. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, Decl. Rights, s. 16. 

State V. Wheeler, 141-773; Winston v. Taylor, 99-210; Moore v. Fayetteville, 
80-154; Worth v. Comrs., 60-617. 

Sec. 24. Militia and the right to bear arms. A well-regulated 
militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right 
of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed: and, 
as standing armies in time of peace are dangerous to liberty, they 
ought not to be kept up, and the military should be kept under 
strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power. Nothing 
herein contained shall justify the practice of carrying concealed 
weapons, or prevent the Legislature from enacting penal statutes 
against said practice. 



Constitution of the State of North Cakoli^'a 401 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, Decl. Rights, s. 17; Convention 1875. 
State V. Barrett, 138-637; State v. Boone, 132-1107; State v. Reams, 121-556; 
State- V. Speller, 86-697. 

Sec. 25. Right of the peoule to assemble together. The people 
have a right to assemble together to consult for their common good, 
to instruct their representatives, and to apply to the Legislature 
for redress or grievances. But secret political societies are dan- 
gerous to the liberties of a free people and should not be tolerated. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, Decl. Rights, s. 18; Convention 187.5. 

Sec. 26. Religious liberty. All men have a natural and un- 
alienable right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates 
of their own consciences, and no human authority should, in any 
case whatever, control or interfere with the rights of conscience. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, Dec!. Rights, s. 19. 

Rodman v. Robinson, 134-503; Lord v. Hardie, 82-241; Melvin v. Easlev, 
52-356. 

Sec. 27. Education. The people have the right to the privilege 
of education, and it is the duty of the State to guard and maintain 
that right. 

Const. 1868. 

Collie v. Comrs., 145-170, overruling Barksdalo v. Conirs., 93-483; Lowery v. 
School Trustees, 140-33; Bear v. Comrs., 124-212. 

Sec. 28. Elections should be frequent. For redress of griev- 
ances, and for amending and strengthening the laws, elections 
should be often held. 

Const. 1868; Const, 1776, Bed. Rights, s. 20. 

Sec. 29. Recurrence to fundamental pr\nvii)les. A frequent re- 
currence to fundamental principles is absolutely necessary to pre- 
serve the blessings of liberty. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, Decl. Rights, s. 21. 

Sec. 30. Hereditary emoluments, etc. No hereditary emoluments, 
privileges, or honors ought to be granted or conferred in this State. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, Decl. Rights, s. 22. 

State v. Cantwell, 142-614; Bryan v. Patrick, 124-661; Bridge Co. v. Comrs., 
81-504. 

Sec. 31. Perpetuities, etc. Perpetuities and monopolies are con- 
trary to the genius of a free state, and ought not to be allowed. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, Decl. Rights, s. 23. 

State V. Kirkpatrick, 179-747; Alien v. Reidsville, 178-513; State v. Perry, 

151-661; St. George v. Hardie, 147-88; State v. Cantwell, 142-614; In re Spease 

Perry, 138-259; State v. Biggs, 133-729; Robinson v. Lamb, 126-492; Garsed v. 

Greensboro, 126-160; Bennett v. Comrs., 125-468; Bryan v. Patrick, 124-661; 

26 



402 Constitutions 



Guy V. Comrs., 122-471; Tlirift v. Elizabeth City, 122-31; Railway v. Railway, 
114-725; State v. Moore, 104-718; Hughes v. Hodges, 102-236; Bridge Co. v. 
Comrs., 81-504; Railroad v. Reid, 64-155; Simonton v. Lanier, 71-503; State v. 
McGowen, 37-9; State v. Gerrard, 37-210; Griffin v. Graham, 8-96; Bank v. 
Taylor, 6-266. 

Sec. 32. Ex post facto laios. Retrospective laws, punishing acts 
committed before the existence of such laws, and by them only de- 
clared criminal, are oppressive, unjust and incompatible with liberty; 
wherefore no ex post facto law ought to be made. No law taxing 
retrospectively sales, purchases, or other acts previously done ought 
to be passed. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, Decl. Rights, s. 24. 

State V. Broadway, 157-598; Penland v. Barnard. 146-378; Anderson v. 
Wilkins, 142-154; Robinson v. Lamb, 129-16; City of Wilmington v. Cronly, 
122-383; Culbreth v. Downing, 121-205; Morrison v. McDonald, 113-327; Kelly 
V. Fleming, 113-133; Lowe v. Harris, 112-472; State v. Ramsour, 113-642; Gil- 
christ V. Middeton, 108-705; Leak v. Gay, 107-468; Williams v. Weaver, 94-134; 
State V. Littlefleld, 93-614; Burton v. Speers and Clark, 92-503; King v. Foscue, 
91-116; Strickland v. Draughan, 91-103; Wilkerson v. Buchanan, 83-296; White- 
head V. Latham, 83-232; Tabor v. Ward, 83-291; Pearsall v. Kenan, 79-472; 
Lilly V. Purcell, 78-82; Young v. Henderson, 76-420; Libbett v. Maultsby, 71- 
345; Etheridge v. Vernoy, 71-184; Franklin v. Vannoy, 66-145; .Johnson v. 
Winslow, 64-27; Jacobs v. Smallwood, 63-112; State v. Keith, 63-144; Robeson 
V. Brown, 63-554; State v. Bell, 61-76; Hinton v. Hinton, 61-410; Cooke v. 
Cooke, 61-583; Parker v. Shannonhouse, 61-209; Barnes v. Barnes, 53-366; State 
V. Bond 49-9; Phillips v. Cameron, 48-391; Salter v. Bi-yan, 26-494; Taylor v. 
Harrison. 13-374; Oats v. Darden, 5-500. 

Sec. 33. Slavery jiroMMted. Slavery and involuntary servitude, 
otherwise than for crime, whereof the parties shall have been duly 
convicted, shall be, and are hereby, forever prohibited within the 
State. 

Const. 1868. 

state V. Hairston. 63-451. 

Sec. 34. State boundaries. The limits and boundaries of the 
State shall be and remain as they now are. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, Decl. Rights, s. 25. 

Sec. 35. Courts shall be open. All courts shall be open; and 
every person for an injury done him in his lands, goods, person, or 
reputation, shall have remedy by due course of law, and right and 
justice administered without sale, denial or delay. 

Const. 1868. 

Osborn v. Leach, 135-628; Jones v. Comrs., 130-461; Driller Co. v. Worth, 
118-746; Dunn v. Underwood, 116-526; Hewlett v. Nutt, 79-263. 

Sec. 36. Soldiers in time of peace. No soldier shall in time of 
peace be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; 
nor in time of war but in a manner prescribed by law. 

Const. 1868. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 403' 

Sec. 37. Other rights of the people. This enumeration of rights 
shall not be construed to impair or deny others retained by the 
people; and all powers not herein delegated remain with the 
people. 

Const. 1868. 

State V. Williams. 146-618, Daniels v. Homer, 139-237; Tlirift v. Elizabeth 
City, 122-38; Railroad v. Holden, 63-410; Nichols v. McKee, 68-430; State v. 
Keith, 63-144; Railroad v. Reid, 64-15.'5. 

ARTICLE II 
legislative department 

Sectiox 1. Two branches. The legislative authority shall be 
vested in two distinct branches, both dependent on the people, to 
wit: a Senate and House of Representatives. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, s. 1. 

Wilson V. Jordon, 124-719; Comrs. v. Call, 123-323. 

Sec. 2. Time of assembly. The Senate and House of Represen- 
tatives shall meet biennially on the first Wednesday after the 
first Monday in January next after their election; and when assem- 
bled shall be denominated the General Assembly. Neither house 
shall proceed upon public business unless a majority of all the 
members are actually present. 

Const. 1868; 1872-3, c. 82; Convention 1875; Const. 1776, ss. 4, 46; Con- 
vention 1835, art. 1. s. 4. cl. 7. 
Herring v. Pugh, 126-862. 

Sec. 3. Number of senators. The Senate shall be composed of 
fifty senators, biennially chosen by ballot. 

Const. 1868; Convention 1835. art. 1. s. 1. cl. 1. 

Sec. 4. Regulations in relation to districting the State for sen- 
ators. The Senate districts shall be so altered by the General As- 
sembly, at the first session after the return of every enumeration 
by order of Congress, that each Senate district shall contain, as 
near as may be, an equal number of inhabitants, excluding aliens 
and Indians not taxed, and shall remain unaltered until the return 
of another enumeration, and shall at all times consist of contiguous 
territory; and no county shall be divided in the formation of a 
Senate district, unless such county shall be equitably entitled to 
two or more senators. 

Const. 1868; 1872-3, c. 81. 



404 CoNSTITUTIOKS 

t 

Sec. 5. Regulations in relation to apportionment of representa- 
tives. The House of Representatives shall be composed of one 
hundred and twenty representatives, biennially chosen by ballot, 
to be elected by the counties respectively, according to their popula- 
tion, and each county shall have at least one representative in the 
House of Representatives, although it may not contain the requisite 
ratio of representation; this apportionment shall be made by the 
General Assembly at the respective times and periods when the 
districts of the Senate are hereinbefore directed to be laid off. 

Const. 1868; 1872-3, c. 82; Convention 1835, art. 1. s. 1, els. 2, 3. 
Comrs. V. Ballard, 69-18; Mills v. Williams, 33-563. 

Sec. 6. Ratio of representation. In making the apportionment 
in the House of Representatives the ratio of representation shall be 
ascertained by dividing the amount of the population of the State, 
exclusive of that comprehended within those counties which do not 
severally contain the one hundred and twentieth part of the popu- 
lation of the State, by the number of representatives, less the num- 
ber assigned to such counties; and in ascertaining the number of 
the population of the State, aliens and Indians not taxed shall not 
be included. To each county containing the said ratio and not 
twice the said ratio there shall be assigned one representative; 
to each county containing two but not three times the said ratio 
there shall be assigned two representatives, and so on progressively, 
and then the remaining representatives shall be assigned severally 
to the counties having the largest fractions. 

Const. 1868; Convention 1835, art. 1, s. 1, cl. 4. 
Moffitt V. Asheville, 103-237; Comrs. v. Balhud, 69-18. 

Sec. 7. Qualifications for Senators. Each member of the Senate 
shall not be less than twenty-five years of age, shall have resided 
in this State as a citizen two years, and shall have usually re- 
sided in the district for which he was chosen one year immediately 
preceding his election. 

Const. 1868. 

Sec. 8. Qualifications for representatives. Each member of the 
House of Representatives shall be a qualified elector of the State, 
and shall have resided in the county for which he is chosen for 
one year immediately preceding his election. 

Const. 1868. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 405 

Sec. 9. Election of officers. In the election of all officers, whose 
appointment shall be conferred upon the General Assembly by the 
Constitution, the vote shall be viva voce. 

Const. 1868; Convention 1835, art. 1, s. 4, cl. 1. 

Cherry v. Burns, 124-766; Stanford v. Ellington, 117-161. 

Sec. 10. Powers in relation to divorce and alimony. The Gen- 
eral Assembly shall have power to pass general laws regulating 
divorce and alimony, but shall not have power to grant a divorce 
or secure alimony in any individual case. 

Const. 1868; Convention 1835, art. 1, s. 4, cl. 3. 

Cooke V. Cooke, 164-2 72; In re Boyett, 136-415; Ladd v. Ladd, 121-118; 
Baity v. Cranfill. 91-293. 

Sec. 11. Private laics in relation to names of persons, etc. The 
General Assembly shall not have power to pass any private law, 
to alter the name of any person, or to legitimate any person not 
born in lawful wedlock, or to restore to the rights of citizenship any 
person convicted of any infamous crime, but shall have power to 
pass general laws regulating the same. 

Const. 1868; Convention 1835, art. 1, s. 4, cl. 4. 

Sec. 12. Thirty days notice shall he given anterior to passage of 
private laws. The General Assembly shall not pass any private 
law, unless it shall be made to appear that thirty days' notice 
of application to pass such a law shall have been given, under such 
direction and in such manner as shall be provided by law. 

Const. 1868; Convention 1835, art. 1, s. 4, cl. 5. 

Power Co. v. Power Co., 175-668; Cox v. Comrs., 146-584; Bray v. Williams, 
137-390; Comrs. v. Coke, 116-235; Gatlin v. Tarboro, 78-119; Broadnax v. 
Comrs., 64-244. 

Sec. 13. Vacancies. If vacancies shall occur in the General As- 
sembly by death, resignation or otherwise, writs of elections shall 
be issued by the Governor under such regulations as may be pre- 
scribed by law. 

Const. 1868; Convention 1835, art. 1, s. 4, cl. 6. 

Sec. 14. Revenue. No law shall be passed to raise money on 
the credit of the State, or to pledge the faith of the State, directly 
or indirectly, for the payment of any debt, or to impose any tax 
upon the people of the State, or allow the counties, cities or towns 
to do so, unless the bill for the purpose shall have been read three 
several times in each house of the General Assembly and passed 
three several readings, which readings shall have been on three 



406 Constitutions 

different days, and agreed to by each house respectively, and un- 
less the yeas and nays on the second and third readings of the 
bill shall have been entered on the journal. 

Const. 1868. 

Road Com. v. Comrs., 178-61; Guire v. Comrs., 177-516; Wagstaff v. Highway 
Com., 177-354; Woodall v. Highway Com., 176-377; Wagstaff v. Highway Com., 
174-377; Claywell v. Comrs., 173-657; Brown v. Comrs., 173-598; Cottrell v. 
Lenoir, 173-138; Hargrave v. Comrs., 168-626; Gregg v. Comrs., 162-479; 
Pritchard v. Comrs., 160-476, 159-636; Russell v. Ti-oy, 159-366; Comrs., v. 
Comi-s., 157-515; Comrs. v. Bank, 152-387; Tyson v. Salisbury, 151-468; Bank 
V. Lacy, 151-3; Battle v. Lacy, 150-573; Wittowsky v. Comrs., 150-90; Lutterloh 
V. Fayetteville, 149-65; Cox v. Comrs., 146-584; Improvement Co. v. Comrs., 
146-353; Comrs. v. Trust Co., 143-110; Fortune v. Comrs., 140-329; Comrs. v. 
Stafford, 138-453; Bray v. Williams, 137-390; Graves v. Comrs., 135-49; Brown 
V. Stewart, 134-357; Wilson v. Markley, 133-616; Debnam v. Chitty, 131-657 
Hooker v. Greenville, 130-293 ; Cotton Mills v. Waxhaw, 130-293 ; Armstrong v 
Stedman, 130-219; Comrs. v. DeRossett, 129-275; Black v. Comrs., 129-122 
Glenn v. Wray, 126-730 ; Edgerton v. Water Co., 126-96 ; Smathers v. Comrs. 
125-480; Slocurab v. Fayetteville, 125-362; Comrs. v. Payne, 123-486, 123-432 
McGuire v. Williams, 123-349; Comrs. v. Call, 123-308; Charlotte v. Shepard, 
122-602; Robinson v. Goldsboro, 122-211; Rodman v. Washington, 122-39 
Mavo V. Comrs., 122-5; Comrs. v. Snuggs, 121-394; Bank v. Comrs., 119-214 
Bank v. Comrs., 116-339; Jones v. Comrs., 107-265; Wood v. O.xford, 97-227 
Galloway v. Jenkins, 63-147. 

Sec. 15. Entails. The General Assembly shall regulate entails, 
in such manner as to prevent perpetuities. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, s. 43. 

Sec. 16. Journals. Each house shall keep a journal of its pro- 
ceedings, which shall be printed and made public immediately after 
the adjournment of the General Assembly. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, s. 46. 

Wilson V. Markley, 133-616; Carr v. Coke, 116-234. 

Sec. 17. Protest. Any member of either house my dissent from, 
and protest against, any act or resolve which he may think in- 
jurious to the public, or any individual, and have the reason of 
his dissent entered on the journal. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, s. 45. 

Sec. 18. Officers of the House. The House of Representatives 

shall choose their own speaker and other officers. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, s. 10. 
Nichols V. McKee, 68-432. 

Sec. 19. President of the Senate. The Lieutenant-Governor shall 
preside in the Senate, but shall have no vote unless it may be 
equally divided. 

Const. 1868. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 407 

Sec. 20. Other senatorial officers. The Senate shall choose its 
other officers and also a speaker (pro tempore) in the absence of 
the Lieutenant-Governor, or when he shall exercise the office of 
Governor. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, s. 10. 
Nichols V. McKee, 68-432. 

Sec. 21. Style of the acts. The style of the acts shall be: "The 
General Assembly of North Carolina do enact." 

Const. 1868. 

State V. Patterson, 98-664. 

Sec. 22, Powers of the General Assembly. Bach house shall be 
judge of the qualifications and election of its own members, shall 
sit upon its own adjournment from day to day, prepare bills to 
be passed into laws; and the two houses may also jointly adjourn 
to any future day, or other place. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, s. 10. 
State V. Pharr, 179-699. 

Sec. 23. Bills and resolutions to he read three times, etc. All 
bills and resolutions of a legislative nature shall be read three 
times in each house before they pass into laws, and shall be signed 
by the presiding officers of both houses. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, s. 11. 

State V. Patterson, 134-620; Wilson v. Markle.v, 133-616; Cotton Mills v. Wax- 
haw, 130-293; Smathers v. Comrs., 12.5-486; Comrs. v. Snuggs, 121-400; Russell 
V. Ayer. 120-211; Bank v. Comrs., 119-222; Cook v. Mears, 116-592; Carr v. 
Coke, 116-234; Scarborough v. Robinson, 81-409. 

Sec. 24. Oath of members. Each member of the General As- 
sembly, before taking his seat, shall take an oath or affirmation 
that he will support the Constitution and laws of the United States, 
and the Constitution of the State of North Carolina, and will faith- 
fully discharge his duty as a member of the Senate or House of 
Representatives. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, s. 12. 

Sec. 25. Terms of office. The terms of office for Senators and 
members of the House of Representatives shall commence at the 
time of their election. 

Const. 1868; Convention 1875. 
Aderholt v. McKee, 65-259. 

Sec. 26. Yeas and nays. Upon motion made and seconded in 
either house by one-fifth of the members present, the yeas and nays 
upon any question shall be taken and entered upon the journals. 

Const. 1868. 



408 Constitutions 

Sec. 27. Election for members of the General Assemhly. The ^ 
election for members of the General Assembly shall be held for 
the respective districts and counties, at the places where they are 
now held, or may be directed hereafter to be held, in such manner 
as may be prescribed by law, on the first Thursday in August, in 
the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy, and every two 
years thereafter. But the General Assembly may change the time 
of holding the elections. 

Const. 1868; Convention 1875. 

Aderholtv. McKee, 65-259; Doftin v. Sowers, 65-251. 

Sec. 28. Paij of members and officers of the General Assembly; 
extra session. The members of the General Assembly for the term 
for which they have been elected shall receive as a compensation 
for their services the sum of four dollars per day for each day 
of their session, for a period not exceeding sixty days; and should 
they remain longer in session they shall serve without compensa- 
tion. They shall also be entitled to receive ten cents per mile, 
both while coming to the seat of government and while returning 
home, the said distance to be computed by the nearest line or 
route of public travel. The compensation of the presiding officers 
of the two houses shall be six dollars per day and mileage. Should 
an extra session of the General Assembly be called, the members 
and presiding officers shall receive a like rate of compensation for 
a period not exceeding twenty days. 

Convention 1875. 

Kendall v. Stafford, 178-461; Bank v. Worth, 117-153. 

Sec. 29. Limitations upon power of General Assembly to en- 
act 2)rivate or special legislation. The General Assembly shall not 
pass any local, private, or special act or resolution relating to the 
establishment of courts inferior to the Superior Court; relating to 
the appointment of justices of the peace; relating to health, sani- 
tation, and the abatement of nuisances; changing the names of 
cities, towns and townships; authorizing the laying out, opening, 
altering, maintaining or discontinuing of highways, streets, or 
alleys; relating to ferries or bridges; relating to non-navigable 
streams; relating to cemeteries; relating to the pay of jurors; 
erecting new townships, or changing township lines, or estab- 
lishing or changing the lines of school districts; remitting fines, 
penalties, and forfeitures or refunding moneys legally paid into the 



CONSTITL-TIOX OF THE StaTE OF NoRTH CAROLINA 409 

public treasury; regulating labor, trade, mining, or manufacturing; 
extending the time for the assessment or collection of taxes or other- 
wise relieving any collector of taxes from the due performance of his 
official duties or his sureties from liability; giving effect to in- 
formal wills and deeds; nor shall the General Assembly enact 
any such local, private or special act by the partial repeal of a 
general law, but the General Assembly may at any time repeal 
local, private or special laws enacted by it. Any local, private or 
special act or resolution passed in violation of the provisions of 
this section shall be void. The General Assembly shall have power 
to pass general laws regulating matters set out in this section. 

1915, c. 99. In effect Jan. 10, 1917. See Reade v. Durham, 173-668; Mills 
V. Comrs., 175-215. 

Davis V. Lenoir County, 178-668; Comrs. v. Pruden, 178-394; Comrs. v. Trust 
Co., 178-170; Martin County v. Trust Co., 178-26; Parvin v. Comrs., 177-508; 
Mills V. Comrs., 175-215; Highway Com. v. Malone, 173-685; Richardson v. 
Comrs., 173-685; Ranklin v. Gaston County, 173-683; Reade v. Durham, 173-668; 
Brown v. Comrs., 173-598. 

Sec. 30. The General Assembly shall not use nor authorize to 
be used any part of the amount of any sinking fund for any 
purpose other than the retirement of the bonds for which said 
sinking fund has been created. 

ARTICLE III 

EXECUTIVE DEPAETMENT 

Section 1. Officers of the executive department; terms of office. 
The executive department shall consist of a Governor, in whom 
shall be vested the supreme executive power of the State; a Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, a Secretary of State, an Auditor, a Treasurer, 
a Superintendent of Public Instruction, and an Attorney-General, 
who shall be elected for a term of four years by the qualified 
electors of the State, at the same time and place and in the 
same manner as members of the General Assembly are elected. 
Their term of office shall commence on the first day of January 
next after their election, and continue until their successors a 
elected and qualified: Provided, that the officers first elected shall 
assume the duties of their office ten days after the appro v;il of 
this Constitution by the Congress of the United States, and shall 
hold their office four years from and after the first day of 
January. 



410 Constitutions 

Const. 1868; Convention 1835, art. II, s. 1. 

Wilson V. .Jordan, 124-719; Rliyne v. Lipscombe, 122-652; Caldwell v. Wilson, 
121-476; Winslow v. Morton, 118-490; Battle v. Molver, 68-467; Howerton v. 
Tate, 68-546. 

Sec. 2. Qualifications of Governor and Ldeutenant-Governor. No 
person shall be eligible as Governor or Ueutenant-Governor unless 
he shall have attained the age of thirty years, shall have been a 
citizen of the United States five years, and shall have been a 
resident of this State for two years next before the election; nor 
shall the person elected to either of these two offices be eligible 
to the same office more than four years in any term of eight 
years, unless the office shall have been cast upon him as Lieutenant- 
Governor or President of the Senate. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, s. 15. 

Sec. 3. ReUirns of elections. The return of every election for 
officers of the executive department shall be sealed up and trans- 
mitted to the seat of government by the returning officer, directed 
to the Secretary of State. The return shall be canvassed and the 
result declared in such manner as may be prescribed by law. Con- 
tested elections shall be determined by a joint ballot of both houses 
of the General Assembly in such manner as shall be prescribed by 
law. 

Const. 1868; Convention 1835, art. II, ss. 3, 4. 
Winslow V. Morton, 118-486; O'Hara v. Powell, 80-108. 

Sec. 4. Oath of office for Governor. The Governor, before enter- 
ing upon the duties of his office, shall, in the presence of the 
members of both branches of the General Assembly, or before any 
justice of the Supreme Court, take an oath or affirmation that he 
will support the Constitution and laws of the United States and of 
the State of North Carolina, and that he will faithfully perform 
the duties appertaining to the office of Governor to which he has 
been elected. 

Const. 1868; Convention 1835, art. II. s. 5. 

Sec. 5. Duties of Governor. The Governor shall reside at the 
seat of government of this State, and he shall, from time to time, 
give the General Assembly information of the affairs of the State. 
and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall 
deem expedient. 

Const. 1868. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 411 

Sec. 6. Reprieves, commutations, and pardons. The Governor 
shall have power to grant reprieves, commutations and pardons, 
after conviction, for all offenses (except in cases of impeachment), 
upon such conditions as he may think proper, subject to such regu- 
lations as may be provided by law relative to the manner of ap- 
plying for pardons. He shall biennially communicate to the Gen- 
eral Assembly each case of reprieve, commutation or pardon 
granted, stating the name of each convict, the crime for which he 
was convicted, the sentence and its date, the date of commutation, 
pardon or reprieve, and the reasons therefor. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, s. 19. 

In re Williams, 149-436; State v. Bowman, 145-425; Herring v. Pugli, 
126-862; In re McMalion, 12.5-40; State v. Mathis, 109-815; Stat« v. Cardwell, 
95-643; State v. Alexander. 76-231; State v. Moonev, 74-98; State v. Blalock, 
61-242. 

Sec. 7. Annual reports from officers of executive department and 
of puMic institutions. The officers of the executive department and 
of the public institutions of the State shall, at least five days pre- 
vious to each regular session of the General Assembly, severally 
report to the Governor, who shall transmit such reports, with his 
message, to the General Assembly; and the Governor may, at any 
time, require information in writing fiom the officers in the execu- 
tive department upon any subject relating to the duties of their 
respective offices, and shall take care that the laws be faithfully 
executed. 

Const. 1868. 

Arendell v. Worth. 125-122; Welker v. Bledsoe, 68-46;i ; Nichols v. McKee, 
68-435. 

Sec. 8. Comniander-in-Chief. The Governor shall be Commander- 
in-Chief of the militia of the State, except when they shall be called 
into the service of the United States. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, s. 18. 
Winslow V. Morton, 118-486. 

Sec. 9. Extra session of General Assembly. Tlu' Governor sliall 
have power on extraordinary occasions, by and with the adviie of 
the Council of State, to convene the General Assembly in extra 
session by his proclamation, stating therein the purpose or purposes 
for which they are thus convened. 

Const. 1868. 

Sec. 10. Officers ivhose appointments arc not otherxcise pro- 
vided for. The Governor shall nominate, and by and with the 



412 Constitutions 

advice and consent of a majority of the senators-elect, appoint all 
officers whose offices are established by this Constitution and whose 
appointments are not otherwise provided for. 

Const. 1868; Convention 1875. 

Salisbury v. Groom, 167-223; State v. Baskerville, 141-811; Day's Case 
124-366; Ewart v. Jones, 116-570; University v. Mclver, 72-76; Cloud v. 
Wilson, 72-155 ; Battle v. Mclver, 68-467 ; Nichols v. McKee, 68-429 ; Howerton 
v. Tate, 68-546; Rogers v. McGowan, 68-520; Badger v. Johnson, 68-471; 
Welker v. Bledsoe, 68-457; Clark v. Stanley, 66-59; State v. Pender, 66-317; 
Railroad v. Holden, 63-410. 

Sec. 11. Duties of the Lieutenant-Governor. The Lieutenant- 
Governor shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote 
unless the Senate be equally divided. He shall, whilst acting as 
President of the Senate, receive for his services the same pay which 
shall, for the same period, be allowed to the Speaker of the House 
of Representatives; and he shall receive no other compensation 
except when he is acting as Governor. 

Const. 1868. 

Sec. 12. In case of impeachment of Governor, or vacancy caused 
bif death or resignation. In case of the impeachment of the Gov- 
ernor, his failure to qualify, his absence from the State, his ina- 
bility to discharge the duties of his office, or in case the office of 
Governor shall in anywise become vacant, the powers, duties and 
emoluments of the office shall devolve upon the Lieutenant-Governor 
until the disabilities shall cease or a new Governor shall be elected 
and qualified. In every case in which the Lieutenant-Governor 
shall be unable to preside over the Senate, the senators shall elect 
one of their own number president of their body; and the powers, 
duties and emoluments of the office of Governor shall devolve upon 
him whenever the Lieutenant-Governor shall, for any reason, be 
prevented from discharging the duties of such office as above pro- 
vided, and he shall continue as acting Governor until the disabil- 
ities are removed or a new Governor or Lieutenant-Governor shall 
be elected and qualified. Whenever, during the recess of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, it shall become necessary for the President of the 
Senate to administer the government, the Secretary of State shall 
convene the Senate, and they may elect such president. 

Const. 1868. 

Rodwell V. Rowland, 137-626; Cadwell v. Wilson. 121-476. 

Sf:c. 13. Duties of other executive officers. The respective duties 
of the Secretary of State, Auditor, Treasurer, Superintendent of 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 41S' 

Public Instruction and Attorney-General shall be prescribed by- 
law. If the office of any of said officers shall be vacated by death, 
resignation, or otherwise, it shall be the duty of the Governor to 
appoint another until the disability be removed or his successor 
be elected and qualified. Every such vacancy shall be filled by 
election at the first general election that occurs more than thirty 
days after the vacancy has taken place, and the person chosen shall 
hold the office for the remainder of the unexpired term fixed in the 
first section of this article. 

" Const. 1868. 
Rodwell V. Rowland. 137-626; Sneed v. Bullock, 80-13.3; Cloud v. Wil.son, 
72-163; Clark v. Stanley. 66-59; Nichols v. McKee, 68-429; Battle v. Mclver, 
68-467; Boner v. Adams, 65-639. 

Sec. 14. Council of State. The Secretary of State, Auditor, Treas- 
urer and Superintendent of Public Instruction shall constitute, ex 
officio, the Council of State, who shall advise the Governor in 
the execution of his office, and three of whom shall constitute a 
quorum; their advice and proceedings in this capacity shall be 
entered in a journal, to be kept for this purpose exclusively, and 
signed by the members present, from any part of which any 
member may enter his dissent; and such journal shall be placed 
before the General Assembly when called for by either house. The 
Attorney-General shall be, ex officio, the legal adviser of the ex- 
ecutive department. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, s. 16. 

Sec. 15. Compensation of executive oficers. The officers men- 
tioned in this article shall, at stated periods, receive for their 
services a compensation to be established by law, which shall 
neither be increased nor diminished during the time for which 
they shall have been elected, and the said officers shall receive no 
other emolument or allowance whatever. 

Const. 1868. 

Sec. 16. Seal of State. There shall be a seal of the State, which 
shall be kept by the Governor, and used by him, as occasion may 
require, and shall be called "The Great Seal of the State of North 
Carolina." All grants and commissions shall be issued in the 
name and by the authority of the State of North Carolina, sealed 
with "The Great Seal of the State," signed by the Governor and 
countersigned by the Secretary of State. 



414 Constitutions 



Const. 1868; Const. 1776, ss. 17, 36. 

Howell V. Hurley, 170-798; Richards v. Lumber Co., 15854. 

Sec. 17. Department of Agriculture, Immigration and Statistics. 
The General Assembly shall establish a Department of Agriculture, 
Immigration and Statistics, under such regulations as may best 
promote the agricultural interests of the State, and shall enact 
laws for the adequate protection and encouragement of sheep hus- 
bandry. 

Const. 1868; Convention 1875. 

Cunningham v. Sprinkle, 124-638; Chemical Co. v. Board of Agriculture, 
111136. 

ARTICLE IV 

JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT 

Section 1. Abolishes distinction between actions at laiv and 
suits in equity, and feigned issues. The distinction between actions 
at law and suits in equity, and the forms of all such actions and 
suits, shall be abolished; and there shall be in this State but one 
form of action for the enforcement or protection of private rights 
or the redress of private wrongs, which shall be denominated a 
civil action; and every action prosecuted by the people of the State 
as a party, against a person charged with a public offense, for the 
punishment of the same, shall be termed a criminal action. Feigned 
issues shall also be abolished, and the fact at issue tried by order 
of court before a jury. 

Const. 1868. 

Tillotson V. Currin, 176-479; Jerome v. Setzer, 175-391; Hardware Co. v. 
Lewis, 173-290; Makuen v. Elder, 170-510; Fowle v. McLean, 168-537; Wilson 
V. Ins. Co., 155-173; Hauser v. Morrison, 146-248; Levin v. Gladstein, 142-484; 
Turner v. McKee, 137-259; Staton v. Webb, 137-38; Boles v. Caudle, 133-528; 
Parker v. Express Co., 132-131; Harrison v. Hargrove, 116-418; Peebles v. 
Gay, 115-41; Moore v Beaman, 112-560; Hood v. Sudderth, 111-219; Markham 
V. Markham, 110-356; Conley v. R. R., 109-692; Vegelhan v. Smith, 95-254; 
Lumber Co. v. Wallace, 93-25; Blake v. Askew, 76-326; Abrams v. Cureton, 
74-526; Bitting v. Tliaxton, 72-541; Tidline v Hickerson, 72-421; Belmont v. 
Reilly, 71-262; Froelich v. Express Co., 67-4; Harkey v. Houston, 65-137; 
Tate V. Towe, 64-647; State v. Mcintosh, 64-607; Mitchell v. Henderson, 63-640; 
State V. Baker. 63-276. 

See, also under C S., section 399. 

Sec. 2. Division of judicial poKcrs. The judicial power of the 
State shall be vested in a court for the trial of impeachments, a 
Supreme Court, Superior Courts, courts of justices of the peace, 
and such other courts inferior to the Supreme Court as may be 
established by law. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 415 

Const. 1868; Convention 1875. 

State V. Burnett, 179-735; State v. Collins, 151-648; Hauser v. Morrison, 
146-248; E.x parte McCown, 139-105; State v. Uvtle, 138-741; State v. Basker- 
ville, 141-813; Mott v. Comrs., 126-869; State v. Gallop, 126-983; Rhyne v. Lips- 
combe, 122-650; Caldwell v. Wilson, 121-476; McDonald v. Morrow, 119-670; 
Ewart V. Jones, 116-572; Express Co. v. It. Rj, 111-463; Wool v. Saunders, 
108-739; State v. Weddington, 103-364; State' v. Speaks, 95-689; State v. 
Spurtin, 80-363; State v. Glierry. 72-123; State v. Ketchey, 70-621; State v. 
Davis, 69-495 ; Rowark v. Gaston, 67-292 ; Froelicli v. Express Co., 67-1 ; 
State V. Pender, 66-313; Wilmington v. Davis, 63-583; Edenton v. Wool, 
65-379; Washington v. Hammons, 76-34; State v. Threadgill, 76-17; State v. 
Baker, 63-278; McAdoo v. Benbow, 63-461. 

Sec. 3. Trial court of impeachment. The court for the trial of 
impeachments shall be the Senate. A majority of the members 
shall be necessary to a quorum, and the judgment shall not extend 
beyond removal from and disqualification to hold office in this State; 
but the party shall be liable to indictment and punishment accord- 
ing to law. 

Const. 1868; Convention 1835, art. Ill, s. 1, els. 2, 3. 
Caldwell v. Wilson, 121-476. 

Sec. 4. Impeachment. The House of Representatives solely shall 
have the power of impeaching. No person shall be convicted with- 
out the concurrence of two-thirds of the senators present. When 
the Governor is impeached the Chief Justice shall preside. 

Const. 1868; Convention 1835, ait. Ill, s. 1, cl. 3. 

Sec. 5. Treason against the State. Treason against the State 
shall consist only in levying war against it, or adhering to its ene- 
mies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of 
treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same 
overt act, or on confession in open court. No conviction of treason 
or attainder shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture. 

Const. 1868. See Const. U. S., art. Ill, s. 3. 

Sec. 6. Supreme Court justices. The Supreme Court shall con- 
sist of a Chief Justice and four associate justices. 

Const. 1868; Convention 1875; 1887, c. 212. 

Sec. 7. Terms of the Supreme Court. The terms of the Supreme 
Court shall be held in the city of Raleigh, as now, until otherwise 
provided by the General Assembly. 

Const. 1868; Convention 1875. 
State V. Marsh. 134-197. 

Sec. 8. Jurisdiction of Supreme) Court. The Supreme Court 
shall have jurisdiction to review, upon appeal, any decision of tlie 
courts below, upon any matter of law or legal inference. And ihe 



416 COKSTITUTIOKS 

jurisdiction of said court over 'issues of fact" and "questions of 
fact" shall be tlie same exercised by it before the adoption of the 
Constitution of one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, and 
the court shall have the power to issue any remedial writs nec- 
essary to give it a general supervision and control over the pro- 
ceedings of the inferior courts. 

Convention 1875. See Const. 1868, art. IV, s. 10. 

R. R. V. Cherokee County, 177-86; Taylor v. Johnson, 171-84; State v. Tripp, 
168-150; State v. Lee, 166-250; Page v. Page, 166-90; In re Wiggins, 165-457; 
Mott V. R. R., 164-367; Johnson v. R. R., 163-431; Pender v. Ins. Co, 163-98; 
Overman v. Lanier, 156-537; State v. Webb, 155-426; In re Holley, 154-163; 
Harvey v. R. R., 153-567; Stokes v. Cogdell, 153-181; In re Applicants for 
License, 143-1 ; Hollingswortli v. Skelding, 142-256 ; Slocumb v. Construction 
Co., 142-354; State v. Lilliston, 141-867; Brown v. Power Co., 140-348; Barker 
V. R. R., 137-222; State v. Marsh, 134-185; Mott v. Comrs., 126-869; Wilson 
V. Jordan, 124-719; State v. Hinson, 123-757; Harkins v. Cathey, 119-658 
McDonald v. Morrow, 119-670; Carr v. Coke, 116-242; State v. Whitaker, 
114-818; Express Co. v. R. R., 111-463; State v. Herndon, 107-934; Farrar 
V. Staton, 101-78; Rencher v. Anderson, 93-3 05; Railroad v. Warren, 92-620 
Coats V. Wilkes, 92-381; Murrill v. Murrill, 90-120; Worthy v. Shields, 90-192 
Young V. Rollins, 90-125; Wessel v. Rathjohn, 89-377; McMillan v. Baker 
85-291; Greenboro v. Scott, 84-184; Shields v. Whitaker, 82-516; Simmons v 
Foscue, 81-86; Jones v. Boyd, 80-258; State v. McGimsey, 80-383; Battle v, 
Mavo. 102-435; In re Schenck, 74-609; Keener v. Finger, 70-42; Long v 
Holt, 68-53; Rush v. Steamboat Co., 68-74; Isler v. Brown, 67-175; State v 
Jefferson, 66-309; Rogers v. Goodwin, 64-279; McKimmon v. Faulk, 63-279 
Biggs Ex parte, 64-202; Heilig v. Stokes, 63-612; Foushee v. Pattershall 
67-453; Perry v. Shepherd, 78-85; Graham v. Skinner, 57-94. 

See. also. C. S. sec. 1411. 

Sec. 9. Claims against the State. The Supreme Court shall 
have original jurisdiction to hear claims against the State, but its 
decisions shall be merely recommendatory; no process in the nature 
of execution shall issue thereon; they shall be reported to the 
next session of the General Assembly for its action. 

Const. 1868. 

Miller v. State, 134-272; Moody v. State Prison. 128-14; White v. Auditor, 
126-598; Printing Co. v. Hoey, 124-795; Railroad v. Dortch, 124-675; Pate v. 
R. R.. 122-878; Garner v. W^orth, 122-250; Blount v. Simmons, 119-51; 
Burton v. Purman, 115-171; Cowles v. State, 115-173; Baltzer v. State, 109-187, 
104-270; Martin v. Worth, 91-45; Clodfelter v. State, 86-51; Bain v. State, 
86-49; Home v. State, 82-382, 84-362; Sinclair v. .State, 69-47; Bayne v. .Jen- 
kins, 66-358; Bledsoe v. State, 64-392; Reynolds v. State, 64-460; Rand v. 
State, 65-194; Battle v. Thompson, 65-408; Boner v. Adams, 65-644. 

Sec. 10. Judicial districts for Superior Courts. The State shall 
be divided into nine judicial districts, for each of which a judge 
shall be chosen; and there shall be held a Superior Court in each 
county at least twice in each year, to continue for such time in 
each county as may be prescribed by law. But the General As- 
sembly may reduce or increase the number of districts. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 417 

Const. 1868; Convention 1875. 

State V. Shuford, 128-588; Wilson v. Jordan, 124-705; Rhyne v. Lipscombe, 
122-650: Ewart v. Jones. 116-578; State v. Spurtin, 80-363; State v. Taylor, 
76-64; State v. Adair, 66-298. 

Sec. 11. Residences of judges; rotation in judicial districts; 
special terms. Every judge of the Superior Court shall reside in 
the district for which he is elected. The judges shall preside in 
the courts of the different districts successively, but no judge shall 
hold the courts in the same district oftener than once in four 
years; but in case of the protracted illness of the judge assigned 
to preside in any district, or of any other unavoidable accident to 
him, by reason of which he shall be unable to preside, the Governor 
may require any judge to hold one or more specified terras in said 
district in lieu of the judge assigned to hold the courts of the said 
district; and the General Assembly may by general laws provide 
for the selection of special or emergency judges to hold the Superior 
Courts of any county or district when the judge assigned thereto, 
by reason of sickness, disability, or other cause, is unable to attend 
and hold said court, and when no other judge is available to hold 
the same. Such special or emergency judges shall have the power 
and authority of regular judges of the Superior Courts, in the 
courts which they are so appointed to hold; and the General Assem- 
bly shall provide for their reasonable compensation. 

Const. 1868; Convention 1873; 1915, c. 99. Last part of section, providing for 
"special or emergency judges," took effect Jan. 10, 1917. See Reade v. Dur- 
ham, 173-668. 

Watson V. R. R., 152-215; State v. Shuford, 128-588; Mott v. Comrs., 
126-866; Rhyne v. Lipscombe, 122-650; State v. Turner, 119-841; McDonald 
V. Morrow, 119-670; Delatield v. Stafford, 114-239; State v. Lewis, 107-967; 
State V. Speaks, 95-689; State v. Bowman, 80-437; State v. Mctfimsey, 80-377; 
State v. Mnnroe, 80-373; State v. Watson, 75-136; State v. Kelchey, 70-622; 
Howes v. Mauney, 66-222; State v. Adair, 66-298; Myers v. Hamilton, 65-568. 

Sec. 12. Jurisdiction of courts inferior to Supreme Court. The 
General Assembly shall have no power to deprive the judicial de- 
partment of any power or jurisdiction which rightfully pertains 
to it as a coordinate department of the government; but the Gen- 
eral Assembly shall allot and distribute that portion of this power 
and jurisdiction which does not pertain to the Supreme Court 
among the other courts prescribed in this Constitution or which 
may be established by law, in such manner as it may doom best; 
provide also a proper system of appeals; and regulate by law, when 
necessary, the method of proceeding, in the exercise of their pow- 

27 



418 CONSTITUTIOISrS 

ers, of all courts below the Supreme Court, so far as the same 
may be done without conflict with other provisions of this Con- 
stitution. 

Convention 1875. 

State V. Little, 175 743; Cole v. Sanders, 174-112; Jones v. Brinkley, 174- 
23; Corp. Com. v. R. R.. 170-560; Oil Co. v. Grocery Co., 169-521; State v. 
Brown, 159-467; State v. Collins, 151-648; State v. Shine, 149-480; Lee v. 
Beard, 146-361 ; Duckworth v. Mull, 143-469 ; In re Applicants for License, 
143-1; State v. Baskerville, 141-813; Settle v. Settle, 141-564; Corp. Com. 
V. R. R., 139-126; E.k parte MeCowan, 139-105; State v. Lytle, 138-741; State 
V. Low, 133-666; Brinkley v. Smith, 130-225; In re Gorham, 129-490; State 
V. Brown, 127-564; Mott v. Comrs., 126-868; State v. Davis, 126-1007; State 
V. Battle, 126-1036; McCall v. Webb, 125-243; Wilson v. Jordan, 124-690; State 
V. Ray, 122-1098; Pate v. R. R., 122-877; Tate v. Comrs., 122-661; Rhyne v. 
Lipscombe, 122-650; Malloy v. Fayetteville, 122-480; Caldwell v. Wilson, 121-477; 
McDonald v. Morrow, 119-670; Springer v. Shavender, 118-42; Ewart v. Jones, 
116-575; Express Co. v. R. R., 111-463; State v. Flowers, 109-841; In re 
Deaton 105-62; State v. Moore, 104-751; Walker v. Scott, 102-487; State v. 
Powell, 97-417; Bynum v. Powe, 97-374; Freight Discrimination Cases, 95-435; 
Rencher v. Anderson, 93-105; Murrill v. Murrill, 90-120; Cheek v. Watson, 
90-302; In re Oldham, 89-23; Simpson v. Jones, 82-324: State v. Munroe, 
80-373; State v. Spurtin, 80-362; Walton v. Walton, 80.26; Bratton v. Davidson, 
79-423; Washin2;ton v. Hammond, 76-35; State v. Upchurch, 72-33; State v. 
Burk, 73-266; Bryan v. Rousse.au. 71-194; Credle v. Gills, 65-192; Wilmington 
V. Davis, 63-582; Donaldson v. Waldrop, 63-507. 

Sec. 13. In case of waiver of trial by jury. In all issues of 
fact, joined in any court, the parties may waive the right to have 
the same determined by a jury; in which case the finding of the 
judge upon the facts shall have the force and effect of a verdict by 
a jury. 

Const. 1868. 

Lumber Co. v. Lumber Co., 137-439; Wilson v. Featherstone, 120-447; Taylor 
V. Smith, 118-127; Driller Co. v. Worth, 117-518; Nissen v. Mining Co., 
104-309; Battle v. Mayo, 102-434; Passour v. Lineberger, 90-159; Keener v. 
Finger, 70-42; Armfleld" v. Brown, 70-29. 

See, also, C. S., Sees. 568, 1502. 

Sec. 14. Special courts in cities. The General Assembly shall 
provide for the establishment of special courts, for the trial of 
misdemeanors, in cities and towns, where the same may be nec- 
essary. 

Const. 1868. 

Oil Co. v. Grocery Co., 169-521; State v. Brown, 159-467: State v. Doster, 

157-634; State v. Collins, 151-648; State v. Ba.skerville, 141-811; State v. 

Lytle, 138-741: Mott v. Comrs., 126-878; State v Higgs, 126-1019; State v. 

Powell, 97-417; Washington v. Hammond, 76-34; State v. Ketchey, 70-622; 

State V. Pender, 66-318; State v. Walker. 65-462; Edenton v. Wool, 65-381; 
Wilmington v. Davis, 63-583. 

Sec. 15. Clerk of the Supreine Court. The Clerk of the Supreme 
Court shall be appointed by the Court, and shall hold his ofRce for 
eight years. 

Const. 1868. 



COKSTITUTION OF THE StATE OF NoRTH CaKOLINA 419 

Sec. 16. Election of Superior Court clerk. A clerk of the Super- 
ior Court for each county shall be elected by the qualified voters 
thereof, at the time and in the manner prescribed by law for the 
election of members of the General Assembly. 

Const. 1868. 

Rodwell V. Rowland, 137-620; White v. Murray, 126157; Clarke v. Carpen- 
ter, 81-311; University v. Mclver, 72-85. 

Sec. 17. Term of office. Clerks of the Superior Courts shall hold 
their offices for four years. 

Const. 1868. 

Rod-nell v. Rowland, 137-620. 

Sec. 18. Fees, salaries and emoluments. The General Assembly 
shall prescribe and regulate the fees, salaries and emoluments of 
all officers provided for in this article; but the salaries of the 
judges shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. 

Const. 1868; Convention, 1835, art. Ill, s. 2. 

In re taxation of judges' salaries, 131-692; Mott v. Comrs., 126-869; In re 
Walker, 82-94-; Burton v. Comrs., 82-91; Bunting v. Gales, 77-451; King v. 
Hunter, 65-603. 

Sec. 19. What laws are, and shall he, in force. The laws of 
North Carolina, not repugnant to this Constitution or the Constitu- 
tion and laws of the United States, shall be in force until lawfully 
altered. 

Const. 1868. 

State V. Baskerville, 141-811; Mott v. Comrs., 126-878; Ewart v. Jones, 
116-577; State v. King, 69-422; State v. Hairston, 63-452; State v. Baker, 
63-278; State v. Colbert, 75-368; Boyle v. New Bern, 64-664 State v. Under- 
wood, 63-98; State v. Jarvis, 63-556. 

Sec. 20. Disposition of actions at lato and suits in equity pend- 
ing tohen this Constitution shall go into effect, etc. Actions at law 
and suits in equity pending when this Constitution shall go into 
effect shall be transferred to the courts having jurisdiction thereof, 
without prejudice by reason of the change; and all such actions 
and suits commenced before and pending at the adoption by the 
General Assembly of the rules of practice and procedure herein 
provided for shall be heard and determined according to the prac- 
tice now in use, unless otherwise provided for by said rules. 

Const. 1868. 

Lasli v. Tliomas, 86-316; Patton v. Shil)nian, 81-349; .'^liarp.- v. Williams, 
76-91; Baldwin v. York, 71-466; Green v. ^Moore, 66-425; .lolmsoii v. Srdberry, 
65-1; Foard v. Alexander, 64-71; Teaguo v. Jones, 6:5-91; (Jailhor v. Gibson, 
63-93. 



420 Constitutions 

Sec. 21. Election, terms of office, etc., of justices of the Supreme 
and judges of the Superior Courts. The justices of the Supreme 
Court shall be elected by the qualified voters of the State, as is 
provided for the election of members of the General Assembly. 
They shall hold their offices for eight years. * The judges of the 
Superior Courts, elected at the first election under this amendment, 
shall be elected in like manner as is provided for justices of the 
Supreme Court, and shall hold their offices for eight years. The 
General Assembly may from time to time provide by law that the 
judges of the Superior Courts, chosen at succeeding elections, in- 
stead of being elected by the voters of the whole State, as is herein 
provided for, shall be elected by the voters of their respective 
districts. 

Const. 1868; Convention 1875. 

Rodwell V. Rowland, 137-626; Tate v. Comrs., 122-663; Appendix. 114-927; 
Hargrove v. Hilliard, 72-169; Cloud v. Wilson, 72-155; University v. Mclver, 
72-76; Loftin v. Sowers, 65-251. 

Sec. 22. Transaction of busi7iess in the Superior Courts. The 
Superior courts shall be, at all times, open for the transaction of 
all business within their jurisdiction, except the trial of issues of 
fact requiring a jury. 

Const. 1868. 

Mott V. Comrs., 126-869; Delafield v. Construction Co., 115-21; Bynum v. 
Powe, 97-374; Comrs. v. Cook, 86-19; Harrell v. Peebles, 79-26; Hervey v. 
Edmunds, 68-243: Hunt v. Sneed, 64-180; Green v. Moore, 66-426; McAdoo 
V. Benbow, 63-463 ; Foard v. Alexander, 64-69. 

Sec. 23. Solicitors for each judicial district. A solicitor shall 
be elected for each judicial district by the qualified voters thereof, 
as is prescribed for members of the General Assembly, who shall 
hold office for the term of four years, and prosecute on behalf of 
the State in all criminal actions in the Superior Courts, and advise 
the officers of justice in his district. 

Const. 1868. 

Rodwell V. Rowland, 137-626; "Wilson v. Jordan, 124-690; Tate v. Comrs., 
122-663. 

Sec. 24. Sheriffs and Coroners. In each county a sheriff and 
coroner shall be elected by the qualified voters thereof, as is pre- 
scribed for members of the General Assembly, and shall hold their 
offices for two years. In each township there shall be a constable 
elected in like manner by the voters thereof, who shall hold his office 
for two years. When there is no coroner in a county, the clerk 
of the Superior Court for the county may appoint one for special 



Constitution of the State of InTorth Carolina 421 

cases. In case of a vacancy existing for any cause in any of the 
offices created by this section, the commissioners of the county 
may appoint to such office for tlie unexpired term. 

Const. 1868; Const. 1776, s. 38. 

Rodwell V. Rowland, 137-620; Rhyno v. Lipscombe, 122-6."j0 ; State v. Siffinan, 
106-730; King v. McLure, 84-153; Worley v. Smith, 81-307; Wittkowsky v. 
Wasson, 69-38. 

Sec. 25. Vacancies- All vacancies occurring in the offices pro- 
vided for by this article of the Constitution shall be filled by the 
appointments of the Governor, unless otherwise provided for, and 
the appointees shall hold their places, until the next regular elec- 
tion for members of the General Assembly, when elections shall be 
held to fill such offices. If any person elected or appointed to any of 
said offices, shall neglect and fail to qualify, such offices shall be 
appointed to, held and filled as provided in case of vacancies oc- 
curring therein. All incumbents of said offices shall hold until 
their successors are qualified. 

Const. 1868; Convention 1875. 

State V. Baskerville, 141-811; Rodwell v. Rowland, 137-620; Ewart v. 
Jones, 116-570; Appendix C. S., 114-927; State v. Lewis. 107-976; Gilmer v. 
Holton, 98-26; King v. McLure, 84-153; Worley v. Smith, 81-307; Buchanan 
V. Comrs., 80-126; Hargrove v. Hilliard, 72-169; Cloud v. Wilson, 72-155; 
Nichols V. McKee, 68-429. 

Sec. 26. Terms of office of first officers. The officers elected at 
the first election held under this Constitution shall hold their 
offices for the terms prescribed for them respectively, next ensuing 
after the next regular election for members of the General Assembly. 
But their terms shall begin upon the approval of this Constitution 
by the Congress of the United States. 

Const. 1868. 

Opinion of Judges, 114 925; Adcrholt v. McKee, 6-')-2.")8; Loftin v. Sowers, 
65-254. 

Sec. 27. Jurisdiction of justices of the 'peace. The several jus- 
tices of the peace shall have jurisdiction, under such regulations as 
the General Assembly shall prescribe, of civil actions founded on 
contract, wherein the sum demanded shall not exceed two hun- 
dred dollars, and wherein the title to real estate shall not be in 
controversy; and all of criminal matters arising within their coun- 
ties where the punishment cannot exceed a fine of fifty dollars or 
imprisonment for thirty days. And the General Assembly may 
give to justices of the peace jurisdiction of other civil actions 



422 CONSTITUTIOKS 

wherein the value of the property in controversy does not exceed 
fifty dollars. When an issue of fact shall be joined before a justice, 
on demand of either party thereto he shall cause a jury of six men 
to be summoned, who shall try the same. The party against whom 
the judgment shall be rendered in any civil action may appeal to 
the Superior Court from the same. In all cases of a criminal nature 
the party against whom the judgment is given may appeal to the 
Superior Court, where the matter shall be heard anew. In all 
cases brought before a justice, he shall make a record of the pro- 
ceedings, and file the same with the Clerk of the Superior Court 
for his county. 

Const. 1868; Convention 1875. 

Comrs. V. Sparks, 179-581; Jerome v. Setzer, 175-391; Oil Co. v. Grocery 
Co., 169-521; State v. Doster, 157-634; Wilson v. Ins. Co., 155-173; Riddle v. 
Milling Co., 150-689; Hauser v. Morrison, 146-248; State v. Bossee, 145-579 
Duckworth v. Mull, 143-461; Brown v. Southerland, 142-614; State v. Kasker 
ville, 141-811; Stale v. Lylle, 138-745; State v. Moore, 136-582; State v 
(files, 134-735, overruling State v. Ostwalt, 118-1209; Knight v. Taylor 
131-85; Cowell v. Gregory, 130-85; State v. Davis, 129-570; Mott v. Comrs. 
126-869; State v. White, 125-674; State v. Ray, 122-1098; Rhyna v. Lipscombe 
122-650; Malloy v. f ayetteville, 122-480; State v. Addington, 121-540; McDonald 
V. Morrow, 119-674; Harkins v. Cathey, 119-665; State v. Nelson, 119-801 
State V. Ivie, 118-1230; Alexander v. Gibbon, 118-805; Gambling v. Dickey 
118-986; State v. Wynne, 116-985; Williams v. Bowling, 111-295; Martin v 
Goode, 111-289; Slocumb v. Shingle Co., 110-24; State v. Biggers, 108-762 
Henderson v. Davis, 106-91; Durham v. Wilson, 104-598; Peck v. Culberson 
104-428; State v. Powell, 97-417, 86-640; Montague v. Mial, 89-137; Allen 
V. Jackson, 86-321; MoiTis v. Saunders, 85-140; Katzenstein v. R. R., 84-694 
Boing V. R. R., 87-360; Hannah v. R. R., 87-351; Lutz v. Thompson, 87-334 
Love V. Rhyne, 86-576; McLane v. Layton, 76-571; McAdoo v. Galium, 86-419 
Allen V. .Jackson, 86-321; Coggins v. Harrell, 86-317; Brickell v. Bell, 84-85 
Fisher v. Webb, 84-44: State v. Dudley, 83-661; State v. Jones, 83-659; Derr 
V. Stubbs, 83-559; State v. Moore, 82-659; Dalton v. Webster, 82-282 
Murphy v. McNeill, 82-221; McDonald v. Cannon, 82-247; State v. Edney 
80-360; Evans v. Williamson, 79-86; State v. Styles, 76-156; Heyer v. Beatty 
76-29; State v. Threadgill, 76-18; Nance v. R. R., 76-9; Pullen v. Green 
75-218; Hinton v. Davis, 75-18; Forsyth v. Bullock, 74-137; Hendrick v. May 
field, 74-626; State v. Buck, 73-631; State v. Bailey, 73-70; Latham v. Rollins 
72-455; State v. Quick, 72-244; State v. Presley, 72-205; State v. Upchurch 
72-148; State v. Cherry, 72-123: State v. Perry, 71-523; Templeton v. Summers 
71-270; State v. Vermington, 71-263; Bi-j-an v. Rousseau, 71-194; Bullinger 
v. Marshall, 71-520; Railroad v. Sharpe, 70-510; State v. Heidelburg, 70-496 
State V. Yarborough, 70-250; Fell v. Porter, 69-140; Caldwell v. Beatty, 69 
364; Davis v. Baker, 67-388; Froelich v. Express Co., 67-1; State v. Pendleton 
65-618; State v. Deaton. 65-497; Edenton v. Wool. 65-379; Hedgecock v. Davis 
64-650; State v. Johnson, 64-581; Wilmington v. Davis, 63-584; Winslow v 
Weith, 66-432; Durlin v. Howard, 66-433; Froniburger v. Lee, 66-333; State v 
Pender, 66-313; Creedle v. Gibbs, 65-192; Rives v. Guthrie, 46-84. 

See, also, C. S., sees. 1473, 1474, 1481. 

Sec. 2S. Vacancies in office of justice. When the office of justice 
of the peace shall become vacant otherwise than by expiration of 
the term, and in case of a failure by the voters of any district 



Constitution of the State of N^orth Carolina 423' 

to elect, the clerk of the Superior Court for the county shall appoint 
to fill the vacancy for the unexpired term. 

Const. 1868. 

Rodwell V. Rowland, 137-628; Gilmer v. Holton, 98-26; Cloud v. Wilson, 
72-155. 

Sec. 29. Vacancies in office of Superior Court clerk. In case 
the office of clerk of a Superior Court for a county shall become 
vacant otherwise than by expiration of the term, and in case 
of a failure by the people to elect, the judge of the Superior Court 
for the county shall appoint to fill the vacancy until an election can 
be regularly held. 

Const. 1868. 

Rodwell V. Rowland, 137-628; White v. Murray, 126-157; Willianis v. Bow- 
ling, 111-295; Martin v. Goode, 111-289. 

Sec. 30. Officers of other courts inferior to Supreme Court. In 
case the General Assembly shall establish other courts inferior to 
the Supreme Court, the presiding officers and clerk thereof shall 
be elected in such manner as the General Assembly may from time 
to time prescribe, and they shall hold their office for a term not 
exceeding eight years. 

Convention 1875. 

White V. Murray. 126-157; Evvart v. Jones, 116-572; State v. Weddington, 
103-364. 

Sec. 31. Removal of jxulges of the variotis courts for inability. 
Any judge of the Supreme Court, or of the Superior Courts, and 
the presiding oflBcers of such courts inferior to the Supreme Court 
as may be established by law, may be removed from office for men- 
tal or physical inability, upon a concurrent resolution of two- 
thirds of both houses of the General Assembly. The judge or pre- 
siding officer against whom the General Assembly may be about 
to proceed shall receive notice thereof, accompanied by a copy of 
the causes alleged for his removal, at least twenty days before the 
day on which either house of the General Assembly shall act thereon. 

Convention 1875. See Convention 1835, art. Ill, s. 2, el. 1. 

Sec. 32. Removal of clerks of the various courts for inability. 
Any clerk of the Supreme Court, or of the Superior courts, or of 
such courts inferior to the Supreme Court as may be established 
by law, may be removed from office for mental or physical inability; 
the clerk of the Supreme Court by the judges of said court, the 
clerks of the Superior courts by the judge riding the district, and 



424 Constitutions 

the clerks of such courts inferior to the Supreme Court as may 
be established by law by the presiding officer of said courts. The 
clerk against whom proceedings are instituted shall receive notice 
thereof, accompanied by a copy of the causes alleged for his re- 
moval, at least ten days before the day appointed to act thereon, 
and the clerk shall be entitled to an appeal to the next term of the 
Superior court, and thence to the Supreme Court, as provided in 
other cases of appeal. 

Convention 1875. 

Sec. 33. Amendments not to vacate existing offices. The amend- 
ments made to the Constitution of North Carolina by this conven- 
tion shall not have the effect to vacate any office or term of office 
now existing under the Constitution of the State, and filled, or held, 
by virtue of any election or appointment under the said Constitu- 
tion, and the laws of the State made in pursuance thereof. 

Convention 1875. 

State V. Moore. 136-581; Appendix, 114-928. 

ARTICLE V 

RE\'ENXJE AND TAXATION 

Section 1. Capitation tax; exemptions. The General Assembly 
may levy a capitation tax on every male inhabitant of the State 
over twenty-one and under fifty years of age, which said tax shall 
not exceed two dollars, and cities and towns may levy a capitation 
tax which shall not exceed one dollar. No other capitation tax 
shall be levied. The commissioners of the several counties and of 
the cities and towns may exempt from the capitation tax any spe- 
cial cases on account of poverty or infirmity. 

Davis V. Lenoir. 178-668; R. R. v. Comrs., 178-449; Guire v. Comrs.. l^'l'^l^: 
Parvin v. Comis., 177-508; Wagstaff v. Central Higlnvay Com., 177-3o4; K. K. 
V. Cherokee County, 177-86; Hill v. Lenoir County, 176-572; Bennett v. Comrs., 
173-625; Ingram v. .Johnson, 172-676; Moore v. Comrs., 172-419; Hargrave v. 
Comrs., 168-627; Kitchin v. Wood, 154-565; Bd. of Education v. Comrs^ ISO- 
lie; Perry v. Comrs., 148-521; R. R. v. Comrs., 148-248; R. R. v. Comrs., 
148-220- CoUie v. Comrs., 145-172; State v. Wheeler, 141-774; Pace v. Raleigh 
140-67; Bd. of Ed. v. Comrs., 137-313; Wingate v. Parker, 136-369; State v. 
Ballard, 122-1026; Comrs. v. Snugg, 121-409; Russell v. Aver, 120-180; Wil- 
liams v. Comrs., 119-520; Bd. of Ed. v. Comrs., 111-578; 107-112; Jones v. 
Comrs.. 107-248; Redmond v. Comrs., 106-137; Parker v. Comrs., 104168; 
Barksdale v. Comrs., 93-472; Ciomartie v. Comrs., 87-139, 8a-217; Clifton v. 
Wvnne, 80-145; French v. Wilmington, 75-477; Griffin v. Comrs, 74-701; French 
v" Comrs., 74-692; Brown v. Comrs., 72-388; Mauiiey v. Comrs., 71-486; Broth- 
ers V Comrs., 70-726; Street v. Comrs.. 70-644; Johnson v. Comrs., 67-101; 
Sedberrv v. Comrs.. 66-486; University v. Holden, 63-410; R. R. v. Holden, 
63-400;' Gardner v. Hall. 61-21. 



Constitution^ of the State of North Carolina 425 

Sec. 2. Application of proceeds of State and county capitation 
tax. The proceeds of the State and county capitation tax shall be 
applied to the purposes of education and the support of the poor, but 
in no one year shall more than twenty-five per cent thereof be ap- 
propriated to the latter purpose. 

Const. 1868. 

Wagstaft' V. Central Highway Com., 177-354; Hill v. Lenoir County, 176-572; 
Moose V. Comrs., 172-419; Board of Ed. v. Comrs., 150-116; Perry v. Comrs., 
148-521; R. R. v. Comrs., 148-248; Collie v. Comrs., 145-170; State v. Wheeler, 
141-774; Crocker v. Moore, 140-432; Board of Ed. v. Comrs., 137-311; School 
Directors v. Comrs., 127-263; Bd. of Ed. v. Comrs,, 113-379; Redmond v. Comrs., 
106-137; Parker v. Comrs., 104-168; Durham v. Bostick, 72-353; Jacobs v. 
Smallwood, 63-112. 

Sec. 3. Taxation shall be by uniform rule and ad valarem; ex- 
emptions. Laws shall be passed taxing, by a uniform rule, all mon- 
eys, credits, investments in bonds, stocks, joint-stock companies, 
or otherwise; and, also, all real and personal property, according 
to its true value in money. 

Provided, notes, mortgages, and all other evidences of indebtedness 
or any renewal thereof, given in good faith to build, repair or 
purchase a home, when said loan does not exceed eight thousand 
dollars ($8,000), and said notes and mortgages and other evidences 
of indebtedness, or any renewal thereof, shall be made to run for not 
less than one nor more than thirty-three years, shall be exempt 
from taxation of every kind for fifty per cent of the value of the 
notes and mortgages: Provided, the holder of said note or notes 
must reside in the county where the land lies and there list it for 
taxation: Provided further, that when said notes and mortgages 
are held and taxed in the county where the home is situated, then 
the owner of the home shall be exempt from taxation of every 
kind for fifty per cent of the value of said notes and mortgages. 
The word 'home' is defined to mean lands, Avhether consisting of 
a building lot or a larger tract, together with all the buildings 
and outbuildings which the owner in good faith intends to use as 
a dwelling place for himself or herself, which shall be conclusively 
established by the actual use and occupancy of such promises as 
a dwelling place of the purchaser or owner for a period of three 
months. 

The General Assembly may also tax trades, professions, fran- 
chises, and incomes: Provided, the rate of tax on incomes shall 
not in any case exceed six per cent (6%), and there shall be al- 



426 Constitutions 

lowed the following exemptions, to be deducted from the amount 
of annual incomes, to wit: for married man with a wife living 
with him, or to a widow or widower having minor child or chil- 
dren, natural or adopted, not less than $2,000; to all other persons 
not less than $1,000, and there may be allowed other deductions 
(not including living expenses) so that only net incomes are taxed. 

Const. 1868; 1917, c. 119. Adding provisions 1 and 2, making limited exemption 
for purchase price of homes. 

Brown v. Jackson, 179-363; Motor Corp. v. Flynt, 178-399; Bickett v. Tax 
Com., 177-433; Smith v. Wilkins, 164-135; State v. Bullock, 161-223; Comrs., 
V. Webb, 160-594; Dalton v. Brown, 159-175; Stat© v. Williams, 158-610; 
Guano Co. v. Biddle, 158-212; Pullen v. Corp. Com., 152-548; Wolfenden v. 
Comrs., 152-83; State v Danenburg, 151-718; Land Co. v. Smith, 151-70; R. R. 
V. New Bern, 147-165; Lumber Co. v. Smith, 146-198; Collie v. Comrs., 145-170; 
State V. Wheeler, 141-773; In re Morris Estate, 138-259; State v. Roberson, 
136-587; Plymouth v. Cooper, 135-1; Lacy v. Packing Co., 134-567; Jackson v. 
Comrs., 130-387; State v. Hunt, 129-686; State v. Carter, 129-560; State v. 
Irvin, 126-989; State v. Sharp, 125-631; Collins v. Pettitt, 124-727; State v. 
Ballard, 122-1026; Cobb v. Comrs., 122-307; Hilliard v. Asheville, 118-845; 
Schaul V. Charlotte, 118-733; Rosenbaum v. Newbern, 118-83; State v. Worth, 
116-1007; Loan Assn. v. Comrs., 115-410; Stale v. Moore, 113-697; State v. 
Georgia Co., 112-34; Wiley v. Comrs., 111-400; Raleigh v. Peace, 110-38; State 
V. Wessel, 109-735; State v. Stevenson, 109-733; State v. French, 109-722; 
Jones V. Comrs., 107-257; Redmond v. Comrs., 106-137; Puitt v. Comrs., 94-709; 
Holton V. Comrs., 93-430; Biisbee v. Comrs., 93-143; Wilmington v. Macks, 
86-91; Busbee v. Comrs., 93-143; Railroad v. Comrs., 91-454; Jones v. Arring- 
ton, 91-125; Cain v. Comrs., 86-8; Railroad v. Comrs., 84-504; Worth v. Comrs., 
82-420; Worth v. Railroad, 89-301; Evans v. Comrs., 89-154; Belo v. Comrs., 
82-415; Mowery v. Salisbiiry, 82-175; Hewlett v. Nutt, 79-263; Gatlin v. Tar- 
boro, 78-119; Young v. Henderson, 76-420; Railroad v. Comrs., 75-477; French 
V. Wilmington, 75-477; Kyle v. Comrs., 75-445; Wilson v. Charlotte, 74-748; 
Rwy. Co. V. Wilmington, 72-73; R. R. v. Comrs., 72-10; Ruffin v. Comrs., 69- 
498; Lilly v. Comrs., 69-300; Pullen v. Comrs, 68-451; Universitv v. Holden, 
43-410. 

Sec. 4. Restrictions upo77, the increase of the jmblic debt ex- 
cejit in certain contingencies. Except for the refunding of valid 
bonded debt, and except to supply a casual deficit, or for suppress- 
ing invasions or insurrections, the General Assembly shall have no 
power to contract any new debt or pecuniary obligation in behalf 
of the State to an amount exceeding in the aggregate, including the 
then existing debt recognized by the State, and deducting sinking 
funds then on hand, and the par value of the stock in the North 
Carolina Railroad Company and the Atlantic and North Carolina 
Railroad Company owned by the State, seven and one-half per cent 
of the assessed valuation of taxable property within the State as last 
fixed for taxation. 

And the General Assembly shall have no power to give or lend 
the credit of the State in aid of any person, association, or cor- 
poration, except to aid in the completion of such railroads as may 



Constitution of the State of l^o^rn Carolina 427 

be unfinished at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, or 
in which the State has a direct pecuniary interest, unless the subject 
be submitted to a direct vote of the people of the State, and be 
approved by a majority of those who shall vote thereon. 

Const. 1868. 

Comrs. V. State Treasurer, 174-141; Moran v. Comrs., 168-289; Comrs. v. 
SnuKSjs, 121-402; Mauney v. Comrs., 71-486; R. R. v. Jenkins, 65-173; Uni- 
versity V. Holden, 63-410; Galloway v. R. R., 65-147. 

Sec. 5. Property exempt from taxation. Property belonging to 
the State or to municipal corporations shall be exempt from taxation. 
The General Assembly may exempt cemeteries and property held 
for educational, scientific, literary, charitable, or religious purposes; 
also wearing apparel, arms for muster, household and kitchen furni- 
ture, the mechanical and agricultural implements of mechanics and 
farmers; libraries and scientific instruments, or any other personal 
property, to a value not exceeding three hundred dollars. 

Const. 1868; 1872-3, c. 83. 

Wagstaff V. Central Higliway Com., 177-354; Leary v. Comrs., 172-25; South- 
ern Assembly v. Palmer, 166-75; Davis v. Salisbury, 161-56; Comrs., v. Webb, 
160-594; Corp. Com. v. Construction Co., 160-582; Bd. of Ed. v. Comrs., 137- 
314; United Brethren v. Comrs., 115-489; Loan Assn. v. Comrs., 115-410; 
State V. Stevenson, 109-730; R. R. v. Comrs., 75-474, 84-504. 

Sec. 6. Taxes levied for counties. The total of the State and 
county tax on property shall not exceed fifteen cents on the one 
hundred dollars value of property except when the county property 
tax is levied for a special purpose and with the special approval of 
the General Assembly, which may be done by special or general act: 
Provided, this limitation shall not apply to taxes levied for the 
maintenance of the public schools of the State for the term required 
by article nine, section three, of the Constitution: Provided, further, 
the State tax shall not exceed five cents on the one hundred dollars 
value of property. 

Comrs. v. Spitzer, 179-436. 

Sec. 7. Acts levying taxes shall state object, etc. Every act of 
the General Assembly levying a tax shall state the special object to 
which it is to be applied, and it shall be applied to no other purpose. 

Const. 1868. 

Parker v. Comrs., 178-92; Bd. of Ed. v. Comrs., 137-311; McCless v. Mwkins, 
117-34; Parker v. Comrs., 104-170; Clifton v. Wynne, 80-145; R. R. v. Holdon, 
63-410. 



428 Constitutions 



ARTICLE VI 

SUFFRAGE AND ELIGIBIUITY TO OFFICE 

Section- 1. Who may vote. Every male person born in the United 
States, and every male person who has been naturalized, twenty-one 
years of age, and possessing the qualifications set out in this article, 
shall be entitled to vote at any election by the people in the State, 
except as herein otherwise provided. 

1899, c. 213,; 19G0. c. 2. 

Woodal! V. Highway Co., 176-377; Ingram v. Johnson, 172-676; State v. 
Knight, 169-333; Gill v. Comrs.. 160-176; Pace v. Raleigh, 140-68; Clarke v. 
Statesville, 139-492; Quinn v. Lattimore, 120-428; In re Reid, 119-641; Harris 
V. Scarborough, 110-232; Hannon v. Grizzard, 89-115; State v. Jones, 82-685; 
Lee V. Dunn, 73-595; Van Bokkelen v. Canady, 73-198; Railroad v. Comrs., 72- 
486; University v. Mclver, 72-76; Pei-ry v. Whitaker, 71-475; Jacobs v. Small- 
wood, 63-112; Roberts v. Cannon, 20-256. 

Sec. 2. Qualifications of voters. He shall reside in the State of 
North Carolina for one year and in the precinct, ward, or other 
election district in which he offers to vote four months next preced- 
ing the election: Provided, that removal from one precinct, ward or 
other election district to another in the same county shall not oper- 
ate to deprive any person of the right to vote in the precinct, 
ward or other election district from which he has removed until 
four months after such removal. No person who has been convicted, 
or who has confessed his guilt in open court upon indictment, of 
any crime the punishment of which now Is, or may hereafter be, 
imprisonment in the State's Prison shall be permitted to vote, un- 
less the said person shall be first restored to citizenship in the man- 
ner prescribed by law. 

Convention 1875; 1899, c. 218; 1900, c. 2, s. 2. 

State V. Windley, 178-670; Woodall v. Highway Com., 176-377; State v. 
Smith, 174-804; Watson v. R. R., 152-215; Cox v. Comrs., 146-584; Harris v. 
Scarborough, 110-232; Pace v. Raleigh, 140-68; Clark v. Statesville, 139-492; 
Quinn v. Lattimore, 120-428; DeBerry v. Nicholson, 102-465; Van Bokkelen v. 
Canady, 73-198; Railroad v. Comrs., 72-486; Perry v. Whitaker, 71-475. 

See, also, C. S., sees. 5036, 5937. 

Sec. 3. Yoter to te registered. Every person offering to vote shall 
be at the time a legally registered voter as herein prescribed, and in 
the manner hereafter provided by law, and the General Assembly of 
North Carolina shall enact general registration laws to carry into 
effect the provisions of this article. 

1899, c. 218; 1900, c. 2, s. 3. 

Cox V. Comrs., 146-584; Pace v. Raleigh, 140-68; Harris v. Scarborough, 
110-232. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 429 

Sec. 4. Qualifications for registration. Every person presenting 
himself for registration shall be able to read and write any section 
of the Constitution in the English language. But no male person 
who was, on January 1, 1867, or at any time prior thereto, entitled 
to vote under the laws of any State in the United States wherein he 
then resided, and no lineal descendant of any such person, shall be 
denied the right to register and vote at any election in this State by 
reason of his failure to possess the educational qualifications heroin 
prescribed: Provided, he shall have registered in accordance with 
the terms of this section prior to December 1, 1908. The General 
Assembly shall provide for the registration of all persons entitled 
to vote without the educational qualifications herein prescribed, and 
shall, on or before November 1, 1908, provide for the making of a 
permanent record of such registration, and all persons so registered 
shall forever thereafter have the right to vote in all elections by 
the people in this State, unless disqualified under section two of this 
article. 

Const. 1868; 1899, c. 218; 1900, c. 2, s. 4. 

Ingram v. .Johnson, 172-676; Moose v. Comrs., 172-419; State v. Knight, 
169-333; Perry v. Comrs., 148-521; Cox v. Comrs., 3 46-584; Collie v. Comrs., 
145-3 75; Pace v. Raleigh, 140-68; Clarke v. Statesville, 139-492; Harris v. 
Scarborough, 110-232; Hcinnon v. Grizzard, 89-115. 

Sec. 5. Indivisible plan; legislature intent. That this amendment 
to the Constitution is presented and adopted as one indivisible plan 
for the regulation of the suffrage, with the intent and purpose to so 
connect the different parts, and to make them so dependent upon 
each other that the whole shall stand or fall together. 

1900, c. 2, s. 5. 

Sec. 6. Elections hy people and General Assembly. All elections 
by the people shall be by ballot, and all elections by the General As- 
sembly shall be viva voce. 

Const. 1868; 1899, c. 218. 

Sec. 7. Eligibility to office; official oath. Every voter in North 
Carolina, except as in this article disqualified, shall be eligible to 
office, but before entering upon the duties of the oflSce, he shall take 
and subscribe the following oath: 

"I, , do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will 

support and maintain the Constitution and laws of the United States, 
and the Constitution and laws of North Carolina not inconsistent 



430 Constitutions 

therewith, aud that I will faithfully discharge the duties of my 
ofHce as ; so help me, God." 

1899, c. 218; 1900, c. 2, s. 7. 

Cole V. Saunders, 174-112; State v. Knight, 169-333; St. v. Bateman, 162-588. 

Sec. 8. Disg^iaUfication for office. The following classes of per- 
sons shall be disqualified for office: First, all persons who shall deny 
the being of Almighty God. Second, all persons who shall have been 
convicted, or confessed their guilt on indictment pending, and 
whether sentenced or not, or under judgment suspended, of any 
treason or felony, or of any other crime for which the punishment 
may be imprisonment in the penitentiary, since becoming citizens 
of the United States, or of corruption or malpractice in office, unless 
such person shall be restored to the rights of citizenship in a man- 
ner prescribed by law. 

1899, c. 218; 1900, c. 2, s. 8. 

State V. Windley, 178-670; Bank v. Redwine, 171-559; State v. Kniglit, 169- 
333. 

Sec. 9. When this chapter operative. That this amendment to 
the Constitution shall go into effect on the first day of July, nineteen 
hundred and two, if a majority of votes cast at the next general 
election shall be cast in favor of this suffrage amendment. 

1899, c. 218; 1900, c. 2, s. 9. 

ARTICLE VII 

MUNICIPAL CORPOEATIONS 

Section 1. County officers. In each county there shall be elected 
biennially by the qualified voters thereof, as provided for the elec- 
tion of members of the General Assembly, the following officers: A 
treasurer, register of deeds, surveyor, and five commissioners. 

Const. 1868. 

Rhodes v. Lewis. 80-136; Van Bokkelen v. Canady, 73-198; Aderholt v. Mc- 
Kee, 65-257. 

Sec. 2. Duty of county commissioners. It shall be the duty of the 
commissioners to exercise a general supervision and control of the 
penal and charitable Institutions, schools, roads, bridges, levying of 
taxes and finances of the county, as may be prescribed by law. The 
register of deeds shall be, ex officio, clerk of the board of commis- 
sioners. 

Const. 1868. 

Hohiies V. Bullock, 178-376; Wilson v. Holding, 170-352; Comrs. v. Comrs., 
165-632; Bunch v. Comrs., 159-335; Southern Audit Co. v. McKensie, 147-461; 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 431 



Crocker v. Moore, 140-433; In re Spease Fen-y, 138-219; Barringtoii v. Ferry 
Co., 69-165; Canal Co. v. McAllister, 74-1C3; Lane v. Stanley, 6.5-156; R. R. v. 
Holden, 63-434. 

See, also, C. S., sees. 1297, 1299, 1300. 

Sec. 3. Counties to he divided into districts. It shall be the duty 
of the commissioners first elected in each county to divide the same 
into convenient districts, to determine the boundaries and prescribe 
the name of the said districts, and to report the same to the General 
Assembly before the first day of January, 1869. 

Const. 1868. 

Road Com. v. Comrs., 178-61; Motor Co. v. Flynt, 178-399; Wittkovvsky v. 
Comrs., 150-90; Wallace v. Trustees, 84-164; Gamble v. McCrady, 75-509; 
McNeill V. Green, 75-329; Tucker v. Raleigh, 75-267; Wilson v. Charlotte, 74- 
748; Canal Co. v. McAllister, 74-159; Grady v. Comrs., 74-101; Wade v. Comrs., 
74-81; Bladen Co. v. Clarke, 73-255; Mitchell v. Trustees, 71-400; Harrington 
V. Ferry Co., 69-165; University v. Holden, 63-410; Gooch v. Gregory, 65-142; 
Lane v. Stanley, 65-153. 

Sec. 4. Townships have corpoi-ate powers. Upon the approval of 
the reports provided for in the foregoing section by the General 
Assembly, the said districts shall have corporate powers for the 
necessary purposes of local government, and shall be known as 
townships. 

Const. 1868. 

Road Com. v. Comrs., 178-61; Motor Co. v. Flynt, 178-399; Mann v. Allen, 
171-219; Jones v. New Bern, 152-64; Wittkowsky v. Comrs., 150-90; Crocker v. 
Moore, 140-429; Cotton Mills v. Waxhaw, 130-295; Brown v. Comrs., 100-92; 
Wallace v. Trustees, 84-164; Mitchell v. Trustees, 71-400; Payne v. Caldwell, 
65-488; Lane v. Stanley, 65-153. 

Sec. 5. Officers of townships. In each township there shall be 
biennially elected, by the qualified voters thereof, a clerk and two 
justices of the peace, who shall constitute a board of trustees, and 
shall, under the supervision of the county commissioners, have 
control of the taxes and finances, roads and bridges of the townsITips, 
as may be prescribed by law. The General Assembly may provide 
for the election of a larger number of justices of the peace in cities 
and towns, and in those townships in which cities and towns are 
situated. In every township there shall also be biennially elected a 
school committee, consisiting of three persons, whose duty shall be 
prescribed by law. 

Const. 1868. 
. Road Com. v. Comrs., 178-61; Wallace v. Trustees, 84-164; Simpson v. Comrs., 
84-158; Mitchell v. Trustees, 71-400; Haughlon v. Comrs., 70-406; Edenton 
V. Wool, 65-379; Conoley v. Harris, 64-662; Wilmington v. Davis, 63-582. 

Sec. 6. Trustees shall assess property. The township board of 
trustees shall assess the taxable property of their townships and 



432 Constitutions 



make return to the county commissioners for revision, as may be 
prescribed by law. The clerk shall be, ex officio, treasurer of the 
township. 

Const. 1868. 

R. R. V. Comi-ss., 178-449; Road Com. v. Comrs., 178-62; Guire v. Comrs., 177- 
516; Parvin v. Comrs., 177-508; Jones v. Comrs., 107-261; R. R. v. Comrs., 
84-508 ; R. 11. v. Comrs, 82-261 ; Cobb v. Klizabeth Cit.v, 75-1 ; R. R. v. Comrs., 
72-12. 

Sec. 7. No debt or loan except hy a maiority of voters. No county, 
city, town or other municipal corporation shall contract any debt, 
pledge its faith or loan its credit, nor shall any tax be levied or 
collected by any officers of the same except for the necessary ex- 
penses thereof, unless by a vote of the majority of the qualified 
voters therein. 

Const. 1868. 

Comrs. V. Spitzer, 179-436; Davis v. Lenoir County, 178-668; Guire v. 
Comrs., 177-."il6; Parvin v. Comrs., 177-516; Hill v. Lenoir, 176-572; Williams 
V. Comrs., 176-554; Woodall v. Highway Com., 176-377; Comrs. v. Boring, 175- 
105; Comrs. v. State Treasurer, 174-141; Comrs. v. Spitzer, 173-147; Cottrell 
V. Lenoir, 173-138; Arcber v. Joyner, 173-75; Swindell v. Belhaven, 173-1; 
Stephens v. Cliarlotte, 172-564; Moose v. Comrs., 172-419; Keith v. Locktiart, 
171-451; Kinston v. Trust Co., 169-207; Hargrave v. Comrs., 168-626; Moran 
v. Comrs., 168-289; Comrs. v. Comrs., 165-632; Sprague v. Comi'S., 165-603; 
Withers v. Comrs., 163-341; Pritchard v. Comrs., 160-476; Russell v. Troy 159- 
366; Winston v. Bank, 158-512; Tripp v. Comrs., 158-180; Ellis v. Trustees, 
156-10; Board of Tru.stees v. Webb, 155-379; Sanderlin v. Luken, 152-738; 
Highway Com. v. Webb, 152-710; Underwood v. Ashboro, 152-641; Ellison v. 
Williamston. 152-147; Burgin v. Smith, 151-561; Hightower v. Raleigh, 150- 
569; Smith v. Belhaven, 150-156; Wittkowsky v. Comrs., 150-90; Henderson- 
villo' V. Jordan, 150-35; Wharton v. Greensboro, 149-62; Perry v. Comrs., 148- 
521; Hollowell v. Borden, 148-255; R. R. v. Comrs., 148-248; R. R. v. Comrs, 
148-220; Comrs. v. McDonald, 148-125; Comrs., v. W'ebb, 148-120; McLeod v. 
Comrs., 148-77; Swinson v. Mount Olive, 147-611; Wharton v. Greensboro, 
146-356; Collie v. Comrs., 145-178; Crocker v. Moore, 140-432; Greensboro v. 
Scott, 138-184; Smith v. Trustees, 141-151; Jones v. Comrs., 137-579; Wingate 
V. Parker, 136-369; Faucett v. Mount Airy, 134-1; Cotton Mills v. Waxhaw, 130- 
293; Black v. Comrs., 129-122; Broadfoot v. Fayetteville, 128-529; State v. 
Trvin, 126-992; Garsed v. Green.sboro, 126-161; Edgerton v. Water Co., 126-93; 
Smatiiers v. Comrs., 125-488; Slocomb v. Fayetteville, 125-362; Bear v. Comrs., 
124-204; Comrs. v. Payne, 123-432; Tate v. Comrs., 122-812; Charlotte v. 
Shepard, 122-602; Herring v. Dixon, 122-420; Rodman v. Washington, 122-39; 
Thrift v. Elizabeth City, 122-31; Mayo v. Comrs., 122-5; Comrs. v. Snugg, 121- 
403; Charlotte v. Shepard, 120-411; Williams v. Comrs., 119-520; Vaughn v. 
Comrs., 117-435; McCless v. Meekins, 117-34; R. R. v. Comrs., 116-563; Bank 
V. Comrs.. 116-339; Bd. of Ed. v. Comrs., 113-379; Graded School v. Broad- 
hurst, 109-228; R. R. v. Comrs., 109-159; Jones v. Comrs., 107-248; Parker v. 
Comrs., 104-168; Brown v. Comrs,, 100-92; Rigsbee v. Durham, 99-341, 98-81; 
Gardner v. New Bern, 98-228; Wood v. Oxford, 97-227; McDowell v. Construc- 
tion Co., 96-514; Markham v. Manning. 96-133; Duke v. • Brown, 96-127; 
Southerland v. Goldsboro, 96-49; Halcombe v. Comrs., 89-346; EvanS 
V. Comrs., 89-154; Shuford v. Comrs.. 86-553; Norment v. Charlotte, 
85-387; Simpson v. Comrs., 84-158; Gatlin v. Tarboro, 78-119; Young v. 
Hender.son, 76-420: French v. Wilmington. 75-477: Kyle v. Comrs.. 75-445; 
Tucker v. Raleigh, 75-267; Wilson v. Charlotte. 74-748: French v. Comrs., 74- 
692; Van Bokkelen v. Canady, 73198; R. R. v. Comrs.. 72-486: Trull v. Comrs., 



Constitution of the State of Nokth Carolina 43< 



72-388; "Weinstein v. Comrs., 71-525; Reiger v. Comrs., 70-;519; Payne v. 
Caldwell. 65-488: Lane v. Stanly, 65-153; Broadnax v. Groom, 64-244; Winslow 
V. Comrs., 64-218; University v. Holden, 63-410. 
See, also, C. S., sees. 1297, 2691. 

Sec. 8. No money clraivn except by law. No money shall be 

drawn from any county or township treasury, except by authority 

of law. 

Const. 1868. 

Faison v. Comrs., 171-411; Grady v. Comrs., 74-101. 

Sec. 9. Taxes to he ad valorem. All taxes levied by any county, 
city, town or township shall be uniform and ad valorem upon all 
property in the same, except property exempted by this Constitution. 

Const. 1868. 

Marshburn v. Jones, 176-516; Keith v. Lockhart, 171-451; Board of Trustees 
V. Webb, 155-379; Comrs., v. Webb, 160-594; Perry v. Comrs., 148-521; McLeod 
V. Comrs., 148-77; Smith v. Trustees, 141-151; Jones v. Comrs., 137-600; Win- 
gate V. Parker, 136-369; Harper v. Comrs., 133-106; Winston v. Salem, 131- 
404; Ins. Co. v. Stedman, 130-223; State v. Irvin, 126-993; Hilliard v. Ashe- 
ville, 118-845; Loan Assn. v. Comrs., 115-410; Wiley v. Comrs., 111-397; Raleigh 
V. Peace, 110-32; Redmond v. Comrs., 106-122; Jones v. Comrs., 106-122; Moore 
V. Comrs., 80-154; Young v. Henderson. 76-420; Cain v. Comrs., 86-15; Kyle 
V. Comrs., 75-447; Cobb v. Elizabeth City, 75-7; Wilson v. Charlotte, 74-754; 
Rwy. Co. V. Wilmington, 72-73: Grady v. Comrs. 74-101; Weinstein v. Comrs., 
71-535; Pullen v. Raleigh, 68-451. 

See, also, C. S., sec. 2678. 

Sec. 10. When officers enter on duty. The county officers first 
elected under the provisions of this article shall enter upon their 
duties ten days after the approval of this Constitution by the Con- 
gress of the United States. 

Const. 1868. 

Sec. 11. Governor to appoint justices. The Governor shall ap- 
point a sufficient number of justices of the peace in each county, who 
shall hold their places until sections four, five and six of this 
article shall have been carried into effect. 

Const. 1868. 

Nichols V. McKee, 68-429. 

See, also, C. S., sees. 1462-1472. 

Sec. 12. Charters to remain in force until legally changed. All 
charters, ordinances and provisions relating to municipal corpora- 
tions shall remain in force until legally changed, unless inconsis- 
tent with the provisions of this Constitution. 

Const. 1868. 

Ward V. Elizabeth City, 121-1; Dare Co. v. Currituck Co., 95-189. 

Sec. 13. Debts in aid of the rebellion not to be paid. No county, 
city, town or other municipal corporation shall assume to pay, nor 

28 



434 Constitutions 



shall any tax be levied or collected for the payment of any debt, or 
the interest upon any debt, contracted directly or indirectly in aid 
or support of the rebellion. 

Const. 1868. 

Board of Trustees v. Webb, 155-379; R. R. v. Comrs., 148-220; Smith v. School 

Ti-ustees, 141-157; -Jones v. Comrs., 137-600; Wingate v. Parker, 136-369; Brickell 

V. Comrs., 81-242; Weith v. Wilmington, 68-24; Poinde.xter v. Davis, 67-112 

Davis V. Poindexter, 72-441; Lance v. Hunter, 72-178; Logan v. Plummer, 70-388 

Rand v. State, 65-194; Setzer v. Comrs., 64-516; Winslow v. Comrs., 64-218 
Leak v. Comrs., 64-132. 

Sec. 14. Poiccrs of General Assembly over municipal corpora- 
tions. The General Assembly shall have full power by statute to 
modify, change, or abrogate any and all of the provisions of this 
article, and substitute others in their place, except sections seven, 
nine, and thirteen. 

Convention 1875. 

Motor Co. V. Flynt, 178-399; Road Com. v. Comrs., 178-61; Cole v. Sanders, 
174-112; Mann v. Allen, 171-219; Comrs. v. Comrs., 165-632; Bunch v. Comrs; 
159-335; Board of Trustees v. Webb, 155-379; Southern Audit Co. v. McKenzie, 
147-461; Smith v. School Trustees, 141-157; Crocker v. Moore, 140-433; Jones v. 
Comrs., 137-600; Wingate v. Parker, 136-369; In re Spease Perry, 138-220; 
Gattis v. Griffin, 125-334; Harris v. Wright, 121-172; Bd. of Ed. v. Comrs., 111- 
578; Sneed v. Bullock, 80-132; Jones v. Jones, 80-127. 

ARTICLE VIII 

CORPORATIONS OTHER THAN MUNICIPAL 

Section 1. Corporations under general laws. No corporation shall 
be created nor shall its charter be extended, altered, or amended by 
special act, except corporations for charitable, educational, penal, 
or reformatory purposes that are to be and remain under the patron- 
age and control of the State; but the General Assembly shall pro- 
vide by general laws for the chartering and organization of all 
corporations and for amending, extending, and forfeiture of all 
charters, except those above permitted by special act. All such 
general laws and special acts may be altered from time to time or 
repealed; and the General Assembly may at any time by special act 
repeal the charter of any corporation. 

1915, c 99. In effect Jan. 10, 1917; see Reade v. Durham, 173-668; Mills v. 
Comrs., 175-215; Woodall v. Highway Com., 176-377. 

Mills V. Comrs., 175-215; Board of Education v. Comrs., 174-47; Stagg v. 
Land Co., 171-583; Mann v. Allen, 171-219; R. R. v. Gates, 164-167; Reid v. 
R. R. 162-355; Power Co. v. \\Tiitney Co., 150-31; State v. Cantwell, 142-614; 
Coleman v. R. R., 138-354; Debnam v. Tel. Co., 126-843; Gattis v. Griffin, 125-334- 
Railroad v. Dortch, 124-673; Griffin v. Water Co., 122-210; Ward v. Elizabeth 
City, 121-1; Wilson v. Leary, 120-92; Winslow v. Morton, 118-486; Hanstein v. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 435 

Johnson, 112-253; R. R. v. Comrs., 108-60; McGowan v. Railroad, 95-417; E. R. 
V. Rollins, 82-523; State v. Jones. 67-210; Clark v. Stanley, 66-59; R. R. v. 
Reid, 64-226, 155; State v. Matthews, 56-451; State v. Petwas', 55-396. 

Sec. 2. Dehts of corporations, how secured. Dues from corpora- 
tions shall be secured by such individual liabilities of the corpora- 
tions, and other means, as may be prescribed by law. 

Const. 1868. 

Reade v. Durham, 173-668; Van Bokkelen v. Canady, 73-198. 

Sec. 3. What corporations shall include. The term "corporation" 
as used in this article, shall be construed to include all associations 
and joint-stock companies having any of the powers and privileges 
of corporations not possessed by individuals or partnerships. And 
all corporations shall have the right to sue, and shall be subject to 
be sued, in all courts, in like cases as natural persons. 

Const. 1868. 

Barker v. R. R., 137-223; Hanstein v. Johnson, 112-253. 

Sec. 4. Legislature to provide for organizing cities, towns, etc. 
It shall be the duty of the Legislature to provide by general laws 
for the organization of cities, towns, and incorporated villages, and 
to restrict their power of taxation, assessment, borrowing money, 
contracting debts, and loaning their credit, so as to prevent abuses 
in assessment and in contracting debts by such municipal corpora- 
tions. 

Const. 1868; 1915, c. 99, which added "by general laws" after "to provide" 
and before "for the organization," and changed "assessments" to "assessment" 
after "abuses in" and before "and". In effect Jan. 10, 1917, see under sec. 1 
of this article. 

Taylor v. Greensboro, 175-423; Mills v. Comrs., 175-215; Reade v. Durham, 
173-668; Bramham v. Durham, 171-196; Winston v. Bank, 158-512; Murphy v. 
Webb, 156-402; Ellison v. WiUiams, 152-147; Bradshaw v. High Point, 151-517; 
Perry v. Comrs., 148-521; Cox v. Comrs., 146-584; Wingate v. Parker. 136-369; 
Robinson v. Goldsboro, 135-382; Brorkonbrough v. Comrs., 134-17; Wadsworth 
V. Concord, 133-587; State v. Green, 12^6-1032; Cotton Mills v. Waxhaw, 130-293; 
State V. Irvin, 126-993; Hutton v. Webb, 124-749; Rosenbaum v. No.wbern, 118- 
84; Railway v. Railway, 114-725; Raleigh v. Peace, 110-32; .Tones v. Comrs., 107- 
263; Gatlin v. Tarboro, 78-119; French v. Wilmington, 75-477; Tucker v. Raleigh, 
75-267; Wilson v. Charlotte, 74-748; Van Bokkelen v. Canady, 73-198; PuUen v. 
Raleigh, 68-451 ; Dellinger v. Tween, 66-206. 

ARTICLE IX 

EDUCATION 

Section 1. Education shall he encouraged. Religion, morality 
and knowledge being necessary to good government and tlio hap- 
piness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever 
be encouraged. 



436 Constitutions 



CaiKst. 1868; Const. 1776, sec. 41. 

Bd. of Ed. V. Comrs., 178-305; Bd. of Ed. v. Comrs., 174-469; Comrs., v. Bd. 
of Ed., 163-404; Corp. Com. v. Construction Co., 160-582; Collie v. Comrs., 145- 
170; Green v. Owen, 125-223; Bd. of Ed. v. Comrs., 111-582; Lane v. Stanley, 
65-153; Barksdale v. Comrs., 93-472. 

Sec. 2. General Assevibly shall provide for schools; separation of 
the races. The General Assembly, at its first session under this Con- 
stitution, shall provide by taxation and otherwise for a general and 
uniform system of public schools, wherein tuition shall be free of 
charge to all the children of the State between the ages of six and 
twenty-one years. And the children of the white race and the 
children of the colored race shall be taught in separate public 
schools; but there shall be no discrimination in favor of, or to the 
prejudice of, either race. 

Const. 1868; Convention 1875. 

Bd. of Ed. V. Comrs., 178-305; Bd. of Ed. v. Comrs., 174-469; Moose v. Comrs., 
172-419; School Comrs. v. Bd. of Ed., 169-196; Johnson v. Bd. of Ed., 166-468; 
Comrs., V. Bd. of Ed., 163-404; Williams v. Bradford, 158-36; Bontiz v. School 
Trustees, 154-375; State v. Wolf, 145-440; Collie v. Comrs.,, 145-178 ; Lowery v. 
School Trustees, 140-39; Bd. of Ed. v. Comrs., 137-314; Hooker v. Greenville, 
130-474; Bear v. Comrs., 124-213; Bd. of Ed. v. State Board, 114-313; Bd. of 
Ed. V. Comrs., 111-578; Markham v. Manning, 96-132; Puitt v. Comrs., 94-709; 
Riggsbee v. Durham, 94-800; R. R. v. Holden, 63-436. 

Sec. 3. Counties to be divided into districts. Each county of the 
State shall be divided into a convenient number of districts, in which 
one or more public schools shall be maintained at least six months 
in every year; and if the commissioners of any county shall fail to 
comply with the aforesaid requirements of this section, they shall 
be liable to indictment. 

Const. 1868; 1917, c. 192, inserting "six months" for "four months" for annual 
school term. 

Bd. of Ed. V. Comrs., 178-305; Hill v. Lenoir County, 176-572; Bd. of Ed. v. 
Comrs., 174-469; Bennett v. Comrs., 173-625; Bd. of Ed. v. Comrs., 150-116; B. 
R. V. Comrs., 148-220; Collie v. Comrs., 145-172; Bd. of Ed. v. Comrs., 111-578; 
113-379; Barksdale v. Comrs., 93-172. 

Sec. 4. What property devoted to educational purposes. The pro- 
ceeds of all lands that have been or hereafter may be granted by 
the United States to this State, and not otherwise appropriated by 
this State or the United States; also all moneys, stocks, bonds, and 
other property now belonging to any State fund for purposes of edu- 
cation; also the net proceeds of all sales of the swamp lands be- 
longing to the State, and all other grants, gifts or devises that have 
been or hereafter may be made to the State, and not otherwise ap- 
propriated by the State, or by terms of the grant, gift, or devise, 
shall be paid into the State treasury, and, together with so much 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 437 

of the ordinary revenue of the State as may he hy law set apart for 
that purpose, shall be faithfully appropriated for establishing and 
maintaining in this State a system of free public schools and for no 
other uses or purposes whatsoever. 

Const. 1868; Convention 1875. 

Collie V. Comrs., 145-186; Bear v. Comrs., 124-212; McDonald v. Morrow, 119- 
674; Sutton v. Phillips, 116-434; Bd. of Ed. v. Comrs., 111-578; University v. 
Holden, 63-410. 

See, also, C. S., sec. 3480. 

Sec. 5. County school fund: 'proviso. All moneys, stocks, bonds, 
and other property belonging to a county school fund ; also the net 
proceeds from the sale of estrays; also the clear proceeds of all 
penalties and forfeitures and of all fines collected in the several 
counties for any breach of the penal or military laws of the State; 
and all moneys which shall be paid by persons as an equivalent for 
exemption from military duty, shall belong to and remain in the 
several counties, and shall be faithfully appropriated for estab- 
lishing and maintaining free public schools in the several counties 
of this State: Provided, that the amount collected in each county 
shall be annually reported to the Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion. 

Const. 1868 ; Convention 1875. 

In re Wiggins, 171-372; Collie v. Comrs., 145-178; State v. Maultsby, 139-584; 
School Directors v. Asheville, 137-507 ; Bearden v. Fullam, 129-479 ; School Di- 
rectors v. Asheville, 128-249; Bd. of Ed. v. Henderson, 126-689; Carter v. R. R. 
126-437; Godwin v. Fertilizer Works, 119-120; Sutton v. Phillips, 116-502; Bur- 
rell V. Hughes, 116-434: Bd. of Ed. v. Comrs., 111-578; Hodge v. R. R., 108-25; 
Katzpnstein v. R. R., 84-688; University v. Mclver, 72-76. 

Sec. 6. Election of trustees, and provisions for maintenance, of 
University. The General Assembly shall have power to provide for 
the election of trustees of the University of North Carolina, in whom, 
when chosen, shall he vested all the privileges, rights, franchises 
and endowments thereof in anywise granted to or conferred upon 
the trustees of said University; and the General Assembly may make 
such provisions, laws and regulations, from time to time, as may 
be necessary and expedient for the maintenance and management of 
said University. 

1872-3, c. 86. See Const. 1776, see. 41. 

Finger v. Hunter, 130-529; Brewer v. University, 110-26; University v. K. R. 
76-103 ; University v. Mclver, 72-76. 

• Sec. 7. Benefits of the University. The General Assembly shall 
provide that the benefits of the University, as far as practicable, be 



438 Constitutions 

extended to the youth of the State free of expense for tuition; also, 
that all the property which has heretofore accrued to the State, or 
shall hereafter accrue, from escheats, unclaimed dividends, or dis- 
tributive shares of the estate of deceased persons, shall be appro- 
priated to the use of the University. 

Const. 1868. 

University v. R. R., 76-103; University v. Maultsby, 43-257. 

Sec. 8. Board of Education. The Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, 
Secretary of State, Treasurer, Auditor, Superintendent of Public In- 
struction, and Attorney-General shall constitute a State Board of 
Education. 

Const. 1868. 

Sec. 9. President and secretary. The Governor shall be president 
and the Superintendent of Public Instruction shall be secretary of 
the Board of Education. 

Const. 1868. 

Sec. 10. Poioers of the hoard. The Board of Education shall 
succeed to all the powers and trusts of the president and directors 
of the Literary Fund of North Carolina, and shall have full power to 
legislate and make all needful rules and regulations in relation to 
free public schools and the educational fund of the State, but all 
acts, rules and regulations of said board may be altered, amended 
or repealed by the General Assembly, and when so altered, amended 
or repealed they shall not be reenacted by the board. 

Const. 1868. 

Board v. Makely, 139-34; Dosh v. Lumber Co., 128-85; Bd. of Ed. v. State 
Board, 114-317. 

Sec. 11. First session of the board. The first session of the Board 
of Education shall be held in the capital of the State within fifteen 
days after the organization of the State government under this Con- 
stitution; the time of future meetings may be determined by the 
board. 

Const. 1868, 

Sec. 12. Quorum. A majority of the board shall constitute a 
quorum for the transaction of business. 

Const. 1868. 

Sec. 13. Experises. The contingent expenses of the board shall 
be provided by the General Assembly. 

Const. 1868. 

Ewart V. Jones, 116-578. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 439 

Sec. 14. Agricultural department. As soon as practicable after 
the adoption of this Constitution, the General Assembly shall estab- 
lish and maintain, in connection with the University, a department 
of agriculture, of mechanics, of mining, and of normal instruction. 

Const. 1868. 

Chemical Co. v. Board of Agriculture, 111-136. 

Sec. 15. Children must attend school. The General Assembly is 
hereby empowered to enact that every child, of sufficient mental and 
physical ability, shall attend the public schools during the period 
between the ages of six and eighteen years, for a term of not less 
than sixteen months, unless educated by other means. 

Const. 1868. 

State V. Wolf. 145-440; Bear v. Comrs., 124-212. 

ARTICLE X 

HOMESTEADS AND EXEMPTIOiS^S 

Section 1. Exceptions of personal property. The personal prop- 
erty of any resident of this State, to the value of five hundred dollars, 
to be selected by such resident, shall be and Is hereby exempted 
from sale under execution or other final process of any court, is- 
sued for the collection of any debt. 

Const. 1868. 

Befarrah v. Spell, 178-231; Grocery Co. v. Bails, 177-298; Gardner v. McCon- 
naughey, 157-481; Cromer v. Self, 149-164; McKeithan v. Blue, 142-352; Lynn 
V. Cotton Mills, 130-021; Chitty v. Chitty, 118-647; Lockhart, v. Bear, 117-301; 
Jones V. Alsbrook, 115-49; Wilmington v. Sprunt, 114-310; Dickens v. Long, 
109-165; Shepherd v. Murrill, 90-208; Slaughter v. Winfrey, 85-159; Smith v. 
McMillan, 84-583; Durham v. Speeke, 82-87; Gheen v. Summey, 85-187; Gamble v. 
Rhyne, 80-183; Earle v. Hardie, 80-177; Richardson v. Wicker, 80-172; Welch v. 
Macy, 78-240; Pemberton v. McRae, 75-497; Vann v. B. & L. Assn., 75-494; 
Gaster v. Hardie, 75-460; Comrs., v. Riley, 75-144; Curlee v. Thomas, 74-51; 
Duvall V. Rollins, 71-218; Garrett v. Cheshire, 69-396; Burns v. Harris, 67-140, 
66-509; Dellinger v. Tweed. 66-206; Watts v. Leggett, 66-197; Johnson v. Cross, 
66-167; Horton v. McCall, 66-159; McKeithan v. Terry, 64-25; Hill v. Kessler, 
63-437; Dean v. King, 35-20. 

See, also. C. S., sec. 728. 

Sec. 2. Homestead. Every homestead, and the dwellings and 
buildings used therewith, not exceeding in value one thousand dol- 
lars, to be selected by the owner thereof, or in lieu thereof, at the 
option of the owner, any lot in a city, town or village, with the 
dwelling and buildings used thereon, owned and occupied by any 
resident of this State, and not exceeding the value of one thousand 
dollars, shall be exempt from sale under execution or other final 
process obtained on any debt. But no property shall be exempt 



440 Constitutions 

from sale for taxes, or for payment of obligations contracted for 
the purchase of said premises. 

Const. 1868. 

Kirkwood v. Peden, 173-460; Sash Co. v. Parker, 153-130; Simmons v. Respass 
151-5; Carpenter v. Duke, 144-291; McKeithan v. Blue, 142-352; Smith v. Bruton 
137-79 ; Vann v. Edwards, 135-661 ; Joyner v. Snugg, 132-580 ; Cawfield v. Owens, 
129-286, 130-G43; Lynn v. Cotton Mills, 130-621; Finger v. Hunter, 130-529 
Watts ex parte, 130-237; Vann v. Edwards, 128-428; Coffin v. Smith, 128-255 
Tiddy v. Graves, 126-620, 127-503; Toms v. Flack, 127-423; Brinkley v. Ballance, 
126-396; McLamb v. McPhail, 126-618; Jennings v. Hinton, 126-48; Walton v 
Bristol, 125-419; Weathers v. Borders, 124-615; Slocumb v. Ray, 123-571; Moore 
V. Wolf, 122-716; McGowan v. McGowan, 122-168; Campbell v. Potts, 119-533 
Chitty V. Chitty, 118-647; Springer v. Colwell, 116-520; Jones v. Alsbrook, 115-52 
Gardner v. Batts, 114-496; Fulton v. Roberts, 113-421; Vanstory v. Thornton 
112-196; Lovick v. Life Assn., 110-93; Tucker v. Tucker, 110-333; Vanstory v 
Thornton, 110-10; Dickens v. Long, 109-169; Tucker v. Tucker, 108-237 
Long V. Walker, 105-116; Ducker v. Wilson, 104-595; Hardy v. Carr, 104-33 
Peck V. Culberson, 104-425; Hughes v. Hodges, 102-252; Jones v. Briton, 102-168 
Lee V. Moseiev, 101-311; Miller v. Miller, 89-402; Mebane v. Layton, 89-395 
Campbell v. White, 95-491; Toms v. Fite, 93-274; Wilson v. Patton, 87-318; But- 
ler V. Stainback, 87-216; Burton v. Spiers, 87-87; Cumniing v. Bloodworth, 87 
83; Murchison v. Plyler, 87-79; Gill v. Edwards, 87-76; Gregory v. Ellis, 86-579 
Grant v. Edwards, 86-513; McDonald v. Dickson, 85-248; Wyche v. Wyche, 85-96 
Smith V. High, 85-93; Gamble v. Watterson, 83-573; Watkins v. Overby, 83-165 
Adrian v. Shaw, 82-474; Murphy v. McNeill, 82-221; Bruce v. Strickland, 81 
267; Gheen v. Summey, 80-169; Richardson v. Wicker, 80-172; Wharton v. Leg- 
gett, 80-169; Suit v. Suit, 78-272; Bank v. Green, 78-247; Spoon v. Reid, 78-244 
Bunting v. Jones, 78-242; Welsh v. Macy, 78-240; Littlejohn v. Egerton, 77-379 
Pemberton v. McRae, 75-497; Edwards v. Kearsey, 75-411; Comrs., v. Riley, 75 
144; Brodie v. Batchelor, 75-51; Whitaker v. Elliott, 73-186; Abbott v. Cromartie 
72-292; Branch ex parte, 72-106; McAfee v. Bettis, 72-28; Mayho v. Cotton 
69-289; Hagar v. Nixon, 69-108; Crummen v. Bennett, 68-494; Cheatham v 
Jones, 68-153; Martin v. Hughes, 67-293; Dellinger v. Tweed, 66-206; Watts v 
Leggett, 66-197; Ladd v. Adams, 66-164; Poe v. Hardie, 65-447; Lute v. Reilly 
65-20; Sluder v. Rogers, 64-289; McKeithan v. Terry, 64-25. 

See, ahso C. S., sec. 728. 

Sec. 3. Homestead exemption from debt. The homestead, after 
the death of the owner thereof, shall be exempt from the payment 
of any debt during the minority of his children, or any of them. 

Const. 1868. 

Simmons v. Respass, 151-5; Joyner v. Sugg, 132-580; Jackson v. Comrs., 
130-387; Spence v. Goodman, 128-273; Bruton v. McRae, 125-201; Chitty, v. 
Chitty, 118-647; Stern v. Lee, 115-430; Duckers y. Long, 112-317; Vanstory v. 
Thornton, 112-218; Hughes v. Hodges, 102-252; Jones v. Britton, 102-168; Saylor 
V. Powell, 90-202; Gregory v. Ellis, 86-597; Gamble v. Watterson, 83-573; 
Simpson v. Wallace, 83-477; Wharton v. Leggett, 80-169; Welch v. Macy, 
78-240; Beavan v. Speed, 74-544; Allen v. Shields, 72-504; Hagar v. Nixon, 
69-108; Poe v. Hardie, 65-447; Hill v. Kessler, 63-437. 

Sec. 4. Laborer's lien. The provisions of sections one and two 
of this article shall not be so construed as to prevent a laborer's 
lien for work done and performed for the person claiming such 
exemption, or a mechanic's lien for work done on the premises. 



Constitution of the State of Xorth Carolina 441 



Const. 1868. 

Isler V. Dixon, 140-530; Vann v. Edwards, 128-425; Broyhill v. Gaither, 119- 
443; Paper Co. v. Chicnicle, 115-146; McMillan v. Williams, 109-252; Cumming 
V. Bloodworth, 87-83. 

Sec. 5. Benefit of loidow- If the owner of a homestead die, 
leaving a widow but no children, the same shall be exempt from 
the debts of her husband, and the rents and profits thereof shall 
inure to her benefit during her widowhood, unless she be the owner 
of a homestead in her own right. 

Const. 1868. 

Caudle v. Morris, 160-168; Thomas v. Bunch, 158-175; Fulp v. Brown, 153-531; 
Simmons v. Respass, 151-5; Joyner v. Suggs, 132-580; Spence v. Goodwin, 
128-277; Campbell v. Potts, 119-532; Vanstory v. Thornton, 112-218; Tucker 
V. Tucker, 108-237; Hughes v. Hodges, 102-252; .Jones v. Britton, 102-168; 
Saylor v. Powell, 90-202; Simpson v. Wallace, 83-477; Ricnardson v. Wicker, 
80-172; Wharton v. Leggett, 80-169; Beaven v. Speed, 74-544; Hagar v. 
Nixon, 69-108; Watts v. Leggett, 66-197; Johnson v. Cross, 66-167; Poe v. 
Hardie, 65-447. 

See, also, C. S., sec. 748. 

Sec. 6. Property of married women secured to them. The real 
and personal property of any female in this State acquired before 
marriage, and all property, real and personal, to which she may, 
after marriage, become in any manner entitled, shall be and re- 
main the sole and separate estate and property of such female, 
and shall not be liable for any debts, obligations or engagements 
of her husband, and may be devised and bequeathed, and, with 
the written assent of her husband, conveyed by her as if she were 
unmarried. 

Const. 1868. 

Sills V. Bethea, 178-315; Lancaster v. Lancaster, 178-22; Dcese v. Deese, 
176-527; Freeman v. Lide, 176-434; Stallings v. Walker, 176-321; Gooch 
V. Bank, 176-213; Kilpatrick v. Kilpatrick, 176-182; Everett v. Ballard, 
174-16; Freeman v. Belier, 173-581; Satterwhite v. Gallagher, 173-525; 
Graves v. Johnson, 172176; McCurry v. Purgason, 170-463; Warren v. Dail, 
170-406; Butler v. Butler, 169-584; Royal v. Southerland, 168-405; Patter- 
son V. Franklin, 168-75; McKiiinon v. Caulk, 167-411; Norwood v. Totten, 
166-648; Jackson v. Beard, 162-105; Greenville v. Gornto, 161-341; Sipe 
V. Herman, 161-107; Planner v. Flanner, 160-126; Rea v. Rea, 156-529; 
Council V. Pridgen, 153-443 ; Richardson v. Richardson, 150-549 ; .Jones v. 
Smith, 149-317; State v. Robinson, 143-620; Hodgin v. R. R., 143-93; Ball 
V. Paquin, 140-88; Smith v. Bruton, 137-83; Vann v. Edwards, 135-661; 
Perkins v. .Brinklev, 133-154; State v. Jonm, 132-1046; Hallyburton v. 
Slagle, 132-947; Ray v. Long, 132-891; Finger v. Hunter, 130-529; Watts 
px parte, 130-237; Cawfleld v. Owens, 129-286; Vann v. Edwards, 128-428; 
Coffin V. Smith, 128-255; Tiddy v. Graves, 126-620, 127-503; Toms v. Flack, 
127-423; l'.rinkloy v. Ballance, 126-396; McLamb v. McPhail, 126-218; Jen- 
nings v. Hintnn, 126-48; Walton v. Bristol, 125-419; Weathers v. Borders, 
124-615; Strather v. R. R., 123-198; Slocumb v. Ray. 123-571; Moore v. Wolf, 
122-716; McLeod v. Willi.Tms, 122-455; Green v. Bennett, 120-396; Barrett 
V. Barrett, 120-131; Houck v. Somers, 118611; Hall v. Walker, 118-380; 
Bank v. Howell, 118-273; Kirby v. Boyette. 118-258, 116-165; Bates v. Saltoii, 
117-101; Zimmerman v. Robinson, 114-39; Strouse v. Cohen, 113-349; Jonrs v. 



442 CojN'stitutions 



Coffey, 109-515; Walker v. Long, 109-510; Thompson v. Wiggins, 109-508; 
Osborne v. Withers, 108-677 ; Kirkpatrick v. Holmes, 108-209 ; Ferguson v. 
Kinsland, 93-337; Southerland v. Hunter, 93-310; Long v. Barnes, 87-329; 
Cecil V. Smith. 81-285; O'Connor v. Harris, 81-279; Hall v. Short, 81-273; 
Holliday v. McMillan, 79-315; Manning v. Manning, 79-300; Manning v. 
Manning, 79-293; Kirkman v. Bank, 77-394; King v. Little, 77-138; Atkinson 
V. Richardson, 74-455 ; Rountree v. Gay, 74-447 ; Pippen v. Wesson, 74-437 ; 
Purvis V, Carstaphan, 73-575; Harris v. Jenkins, 72-183; Shuler v. Milsaps, 
71-297; Teague v. Downs, 69-230; Woody v. Smith, 65-116; Rowland v. Perry, 
64-578. 

See, also, C. S., sec. 2506, et seq. 

Sec. 7. ^Husband may insure his life for the benefit of wife 

and children. The husband may insure his own life for the sole 

use and benefit of his wife and children, and in case of the death 

of the husband the amount thus insured shall be paid over to the 

wife and children, or to the guardian, if under age, for her or 

their own use, free from all the claims of the representatives of 

her husband, or any of his creditors. 

Const. 1868. 

Herring v. Sutton, 129-112; Hooker v. Sugg, 102-115; Burton v. Fairin- 
holt, 86-260; Burwell v. Snow, 107-82. 

Sec. 8. Hoto deed for homestead may be made. Nothing con- 
tained in the foregoing sections of this article shall operate to 
prevent the owner of a homestead from disposing of the same by 
deed; but no deed made by the owner of a household shall be 
valid without the voluntary signature and assent of his wife, 
signified on her private examination according to law. 

Const. 1868. 

Power Co. v. Power Co., 168-219; Dalrymple v. Cole, 156-353, 170-102; 
Davenport v. Fleming. 154-291; Sash Co. v. Parker, 153-130; Ball v. Paquin, 
140-97; Joyner v. Sugg, 132-580; Cawfield v. Owen, 129-286, 130-644; Spence v. 
Goodwin, i28-276; Jordan v. Newsome, 126-558; Wittkowsky v. Gidney, 124- 
437; McLeod v. Williams, 122-455; Bevan v. Ellis, 121-224; Barrett v. Barrett, 
120-131; Chitt>' v. Chitty, 118-648; Thomas v. Fulford, 117-673; Shaffer v. 
Bledsoe, 117-144; Stern v. Lee, 115-442; Allen v. Volen, 114-564; Vanstory 
V. Tliornton, 112-196; Leak v. Gay, 107-482; Long v. Walker, 105-116; Hughes 
V. Hodges, 102-252; Adrian v. Shaw, 82-474; Little.iohn v. Egerton, 76-468; 
Beavan v. Speed, 74-544; Lambert v. Kinnery, 74-348; Mayho v. Cotton, 69-289; 
Poe V. Hardie, 65-447. 

See, also, C. S., sec. 729. 

ARTICLE XI 

PUNISHMENTS, PENAL INSTITUTIONS AND PUBLIC CHARITIES 

Section 1. Punishments: convict labor; proviso. The following 
punishments only shall be known to the laws of this State, viz.: 
Death, imprisonment with or without hard labor, fines, removal 
from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor. 



CONSTITUTIOISr OF THE StATE OF ISToRTH CAROLINA 443 

trust or profit under this State. The foregoing provision for im- 
prisonment with hard labor shall be construed to authorize the 
employment of such convict labor on public works or highways, or 
other labor for public benefit, and the farming out thereof, where 
and in such manner as may be provided by law; but no convict 
shall be farmed out who has been sentenced on a charge of murder, 
manslaughter, rape, attempt to commit rape, or arson: Provided, 
that no convict whose labor may be farmed out shall be punished 
for any failure of duty as a laborer, except by a responsible officer 
of the State; but the convict so farmed out shall be at all times 
under the supervision and control, as to their government and 
discipline, of the penitentiary board or some officer of this State. 

Const. 1868; Convention 1875. 

State V. Nipper. 166-272; State v. Young, 138-574; State v. Burke, 73-83; 
State V. King, 69-419. 

Sec. 2. Death punishment. The object of punishments being 
not only to satisfy justice, but also to reform the offender, and 
thus prevent crime, murder, arson, burglary and rape, and these 
only, may be punishable with death, if the General Assembly shall 
so enact. 

Const. 1868. 

State V. Burnett, 179-735; State v. Lytle, 138-744; State v. Burke, 73-83; 
State V. King, 69-419. 

Sec. 3. Penitentiary. The General Assembly shall, at its first 
meeting, make provision for the erection and conduct of a State's 
prison or penitentiary, at some central and accessible point within 
the State. 

Const. 1868. 

Day's Case, 124-367; Welker v. Bledsoe, 68-457; R. R. v. Holden, 63-436. 

Sec. 4. Houses of correction. The General Assembly may pro- 
vide for the erection of houses of correction, where vagrants and 
persons guilty of misdemeanors shall be restrained and usefully 
employed. 

Const. 1868. 

In re Watson, 157-340; Moffitt v. Asht-ville, 103-237. 

Sec. 5. Houses of refuge. A house or houses of refuge may be 
established whenever the public interest may require it, for the 
correction and instruction of other classes of offenders. 

Const. 1868. 



444 CoisSTITUTIONS 

Sec. 6. The sexes to be seimrated. It shall be required, by com- 
petent legislation, that the structure and superintendence of penal 
institutions of the State, the county jails, and city police prisons 
secure the health and comfort of the prisoners, and that male and 
female prisoners be never confined in the same room or cell. 

Const. 1868. 

Moffitt V. Asheville. 103-237. 

Sec. 7. Provision for the T>oor and orphans. Beneficent provi- 
sion for the poor, the unfortunate and orphan, being one of the 
first duties of a civilized and Christian state, the General Assembly 
shall, at its first session, appoint and define the duties of a Board 
of Public Charities, to whom shall be entrusted the supervision 
of all charitable and penal State institutions, and who shall an- 
nually report to the Governor upon their condition, with sugges- 
tions for their improveme'nt. 

Const. 1868. 

Conirs. V. Spitzer, 173-147; Bd. of Ed. v. Comrs., 137-314; Miller v. Atkinson, 
63-540. 

Sec. S. Orphan houses. There shall also, as soon as practicable, 
be measures devised by the State for the establishment of one or 
more orphan houses, where destitute orphans may be cared for, 
educated, and taught some business or trade. 

Const. 1868. 

Miller v. Atkinson, 63-537. 

Sec. 9. Inebriates and idiots. It shall be the duty of the Legis- 
lature, as soon as practicable, to devise means for the education 
of idiots and inebriates. 

Const. 1868. 

Board of Education v. State Board, 114-313. 

Sec. 10. Deaf-mutes, blind and insane. The General Assembly 
may provide that the indigent deaf-mute, blind and insane of the 
State shall be cared for at the charge of the State. 

Const. 3 868; 1879, cc. 314, 254, 268. 

In re Boyette, 136-418; Hospital v. Fountain, 128-25; In re Hybart, 119-359. 

Sec. 11. Self-supporting. It shall be steadily kept in view by 
the Legislature and the Board of Public Charities that all penal 
and charitable institutions should be made as nearly self-supporting 
as is consistent with the purposes of their creation. 

Const. 1868. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 445 



ARTICLE XII 

MILITIA 

Section 1. Who are liable to militia diitij. All able-bodied male 
citizens of the State of North Carolina, between the ages of twenty- 
one and forty years, who are citizens of the United States, shall 
be liable to duty in the militia: Provided, that all persons who may 
be averse to bearing arms, from religious scruples, shall be exempt 
therefrom. 

Const. 1868. 

Sec. 2. Organizing, etc. The General Assembly shall provide 
for the organizing, arming, equipping and discipline of the militia, 
and for paying the same, when called into active service. 

Const. 1868. 

Winslow V. Morton, 118-486; Worth v. Comrs. 118112. 

Sec. 3. Governor Com7nander-in-Chief. The Governor shall be 

Commander-in-iChief, and shall have power to call out the militia 

to execute the law, suppress riots or insurrection, and to repel 
invasion. 

Const. 1868. 

Winslow V. Morton, 118-486; Worth v. Conirs., 118-112. 

Sec. 4. Exemptions. The General Assembly shall have power to 
make such exemptions as may be deemed necessary, and to enact 
laws that may be expedient for the government of the militia. 

Const. 1868. 

ARTICLE XIII 

AMENDMENTS 

Section 1. Convention, Tioio called- No convention of the peo- 
ple of this State shall ever be called by the General Assembly 
unless by the concurrence of two-thirds of all the members of each 
house of the General Assembly and except the proposition, conven- 
tion or no convention, be first submitted to the qualified voters of the 
whole State, at the next general election, in a manner to be pre- 
scribed by law. And should a majority of the votes cast be in 
favor of said convention, it shall assemble on such day as may 
be prescribed by the General Assembly. 

Const. 1868; Convention 1875; Convention 183.j; art. 4, sec. 1. 
Moose V. Comrs., 172-461. 



446 Constitutions 

Sec. 2. Hoio the Constitution may he altered. No part of the 
Constitution of this State shall be altered unless a bill to alter the 
same shall have been agreed, to by three-fifths of each house of 
the General Assembly. And the amendment or amendments so 
agreed to shall be submitted at the next general election to the 
qualified voters of the whole State, in such manner as may be 
prescribed by law. And in the event of their adoption by a majority 
of the votes cast, such amendment or amendments shall become a 
part of the Constitution of this State. 

Const. 18G8; Convention 1875; Convention 1835, art. 4, sec. 1. 
Reade v. Durham, 173-668; Moose v. Comrs., 172-461; University v. Melver, 
72-76. 

ARTICLE XIV 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Section 1. Indictments. All indictments which shall have been 
found, or may hereafter be found, for any crime or offense com- 
mitted before this Constitution takes effect, may be proceeded upon 
in the proper courts, but no punishment shall be inflicted which is 
forbidden by this Constitution. 

Const. 1868. 

Debnam v. Tel. Co., 126-835; Morris v. Hauser, 125-559; Day's Case, 124-365; 
State v. Moore, 120-567. 

Sec. 2. Penalty for fighting duel. No person who shall hereafter 
fight a duel, or assist in the same as a second, or send, accept, 
or knowingly carry a challenge therefor, or agree to go out of the 
State to fight a duel, shall hold any office in this State. 

Con.st. 1868. 

Cole V. Sanders, 174-112; State v. Lord, 145-479. 

Sec. 3. Drawing money. No money shall be drawn from the 
treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and 
an accurate account of the receipts and expenditures of the public 
money shall be annually published. 

Const. 1868. 

Martin v. Clark, 135-180; White v. Auditor, 126-602; White v. Hill, 125-200; 
Garner v. Worth, 122-252; Cotton Mills v. Comrs., 108-685. 

Sec. 4. Mechanic's lien. The General Assembly shall provide, 
by proper legislation, for giving to mechanics and laborers an ade- 
quate lien on the subject-matter of their labor. 

Const. 1868. 

Mfg. Co. V. Andrews. 165-285; Moore v. Industrial Co., 138-306; Finger v. 
Hunter. 130-529; Tedder v. R. R., 124-344; Lester v. Houston, 101-605; Whitaker 
V. Smith, 81-341. 



Constitution of the State of North Carolina 447 

Sec. 5. Governor to make appointments. In the absence of any 
contrary provision, all officers of the State, whether heretofore 
elected or appointed by the Governor, shall hold their positions only 
until other appointments are made by the Governor, or, if the offi- 
cers are elective, until their successors shall have been chosen and 
duly qualified according to the provisions of this Constitution. 

Const. 1868. 

Markham v. Simpson, 175-135. 

Sec. 6. Seat of government. The seat of government in this 
State shall remain at the city of Raleigh. 

Const. 1868. 

Sec. 7. Holding office. No person who shall hold any office or 
place of trust or profit under the United States, or any department 
thereof, or under this State, or under any other state or government, 
shall hold or exercise any other office or place of trust or profit under 
the authority of this State, or he eligible to a seat in either house of 
the General Assembly: Provided, that nothing herein contained shall 
extend to officers in the militia, justices of the peace, commissioners 
of public charities or commissioners for special purposes. 

Const. 1868; 1872-3, c. 88; Convention 1835, art. 4, sec. 4. 

Kendall v. Staflford, 178-461; Cole v. Sanders, 174-112; Bank v. Redwine, 
171-559; State v. Knight, 169-333; Graves v. Barden, 169-8; Whitehead v 
Pittman. 165-89; Midgett v. Gray 1.38-133; McCullers v. Conirs., 158-75 
State v. Lord, 145-479; State v. Smith, 145-476; Dunham v. Anders, 128-207 
White V. Murrary, 126-153; Dowtin v. Beardsley, 126-116; Barnhill v. Thomp 
son, 122-493; Wood v. Bellamv, 120-223; Harkins v. Cathey, 119-659; Bank 
V. Worth, 117-152; McNeill v. Somers, 96-467; Doyle v. Raleigh, 89133. 

See, also, C. S., sec. 3200. 

Sec. 8. Intermarriage of whites and negroes prohibited. All 
marriages between a white person and a negro, or between a white 
person and a person of negro descent to the third generation in- 
clusive, are hereby forever prohibited. 

Convention, 1875. 

Johnson v. Bd. of Ed„ 166-468; Ashe v. Mfg. Co., 154-241; Kerrall v. 
Ferrall, 153-174; Hopkins v. Bowers, 111-175. 



448 Constitutions 



Index to the Constitution of North Carolina 

Abuses in assessments and contracting debts by municipal corporations, general 

assembly to prevent. A. 8, S. 4. 
Actions at law and equity suits, no distinction. A. 4, S. 1. 

pending when constitution took effect. A. 4, S. 20. 

Acts of general assembly, style of. A. 2, S. 21. 

levying taxes, must state object. A. 5, S. 7. 
Agricultural department. A. .3, S. 17. 

in connection with, university. A. 9, S. 14. 
Alimony, general asssmbly does not secure. A. 2, S. 10. 
Allegiance to United States government. A. 1, S. 5. 
Alleys, laws authorizing, etc. A. 2, S. 29. 
Amendments. A. 13. 

do not vacate existing office. A. 4, S. 33. 

Answer to criminal charge. A. 1, S. 12. 

Apportionment of senators and representatives. A. 2, SS. 4, 5, 6. 

Arms, right to bear. A. 1, S. 24. 

Article seven, general assembly may modify or repeal certain sections. A. 7, S. 14. 

Assemblage, right of. A. 1, S. 25. 

Assessment or collection of taxes, extending time for. A. 2, S. 29. 

Attorney-General advises executive. A. 3, S. 14. 

duties of. A. 3, S. 13. 
Auditor, duties of. A. 3, S. 13. 
Bail, excessive. A. 1, S. 14. 
Ballot, elections to be by. A 6. S. 6. 

Bills of general assembly, read three times. A. 2, S. 23. 
Blind provided for. A. 11, S. 10. 
Board of charities. A. 11, S. 7. 
Boundaries of state. A. 1. S. 34. 
Bridges, laws relating to. A. 2, S. 29. 
Capital punishment. A. 11, S. 2. 
Capitation tax. A. 5, S. 1. 

application of proceeds from. A. 5, S. 2. 

exemptions. A. 5, S. 1. 

Cemeteries, laws relating to. A. 2, S. 29. 
Charities, public. A. 11. 

deaf-mutes and the blind. A. 11, S. 10. 

idiots and inebriates. A. 11, S. 9. 

provisions for orphans and the poor. A. 11, S. 7. 

self-supporting as far as possible. A. 11, S. 11. 
Cities, laws changing names of. A. 2, S. 29. 

organized by legislation. A. 8, S. 4. 
Citizenship, reetoration to. A. 2, S. 11. 
Civil and criminal actions. A. 4, S. 1. 
Claims against the state. A. 4, S. 9. 
Clerk of superior court, election of. A. 4, S. 16. 

removal for inability. A. 4, S. 32. 

terms of office of. A. 4. S. 17. 



Index to thk Constitution of North Cakolixa 449 

Clerk of supreme court. A. 4, S. 15. 

removal of. A. 4, S. 32. 

term of office of. A. 4, S. 15. 
Collection of taxes, extending time for. A. 2, S. 29. 
Collector of taxes, law relieving. A. 2, S. 29. 
Communications. A. 3, S. 6. 

Compulsory education, general assembly may provide. A. 9, S. 15. 
Concealed weapons, carrying not justified. A. 1, S. 24. 
Constitution, how changed. A. 13, S. 2. 
Controversies at law about property. A. 1, S. 19. 
Convention, liow called. A. 13. 
Convict labor. A. 11, S. 1. 
Coroner and sheriff. A. 4, S. 24. 
Corporations, municipal. A. 7. 

charters remain in force till legally changed. A. 7, S. 12. 

power of general assembly over. A. 7, S. 14 ; A. 8, S. 4. 
Corporations other than municipal. A. 8. 

debts of, how secured. A. 8, S. 2. 

special charters prohibited. A. 8, S. 1. 
Correction, houses of. A. 11, S. 4. 
Council of state. A. 3, S. 14. 
Counsel allowed defendant. A. 1, S. 11. 
Counties, commissioners divide into districts. A. 7, S. 3. 

districts have corporate powers as townships. A. 7, S. 4. 

majority of voters necessary to levy taxes, etc. A. 7, S. 7. 

money, how drawn from treasury. A. 7. S. 8. 

officers enter on duty. when. A. 7, S. 10. 
of townships. A. 7, S. 5. 

school distircts. A. 9, S. 3. 
fund. A. 9, S. 5. 

Counties, taxes to be ad valorem. A. 7, S. 9. 

township trustees assess property. A. 7, S. 6. 

County treasurer. A. 7, S. 1. 

County commissioners, election and duty of. A. 7, SS. 1, 2. 

Courts to be open. A. 1, S. 35. 

inferior, laws relating to establishment of. A. 2, .S. 29; A. 4, S. 12. 

kinds of. A. 4, S. 2. 

Criminal and civil action. A. 4, S. 1. 

courts for cities and towns. A. 4, S. 14. 

prosecutions. A. 1, S. 11. 
Criminal charges, answer to. A. 1, S. 12. 
Deaf-mutes provided for. A. 11, S. 10. 
Death punishment. A. 11, S. 2. 
Debt does not affect homestead. A. 10, S. 3. 

countj', city or town cannot contract, (■xc(>l)t bv majority nf ([imlitii'd voters. 
A. 7. S. 7. 

imprisonment for. A. 1, S. 16. 

in aid of rebellion, void. A. 7. S. 13. 

restrictions upon increase of public, etc. A. 5, S. 4. 

what bonds declared invalid. A. 1. S. 6. 
Declaration of rights. A. 1. 
Deeds, laws giving effect to. A. 2, S. 29. 

29 



450 Constitutions 



Department of Agriculture. A. 3, S. 17. 
DisQualification for oflice. A. 6, S. 8; A. 14, S. 7. 

dueling disqualifies. A. 14, S. 2. 
Divorce, general assembly does not grant. A. li, S. 10. 
Education, board of. A. 9, S. 8. 

county school fund. A. 9, S. 5. 

encouraged. A. 1, S. 27; A. 9. S. 1. 

expenses. A. 9, S. 13. 

first session of. A. 9, S. 11. 

ofticers. A. 9. S. 9. 

power of. A. 9, S. 10. 

property devoted to. A. 9, SS. 4, 5. 

quorum. A. 9, S. 12. 
Election of officers by general assembly, viva voce. A. 2, S. 9. 
Elections, by people by ballot and by general assembly, viva voce. A. 6, S. 6. 

contested, returns of. A. 3, S. 3. 

fee. A. 1, S. 10. 

frequent. A. 1, S. 28. 
Electors, qualifications of. A. 6, SS. 1, 2, 3. 

registration of. A. 6, SS. 3, 4. 

Eligibility to oiifice. A. 6. 

Emergancy judges. A. 4, S. 11. 

Emoluments, exclusive, none. A. 1, S. 7. 
hereditary. A. 1. S. 30. 

Entails to be regulated. A. 2, S. 15. 

Enumeration of rights not to impair others retained by people. A. 1, S. 37. 

Equity suits and actions' at law, distinction abolished. A. 4, S. 1. 

pending when constitution took effect. A. 4, S. 20. 
Evidence against himself, criminal not compelled to give. A. 1, S. 11. 
Executive, attorney-general advises. A. 3, S. 14. 
department of. A. 3. 

distinct. A. 1. S. 8. 
officers. A. 3, S. 1. _ ^ 

compensation. A. 3, S. 15. 
duties. A. 3, S. 13. 
reports of. A. 3. S. 7. 
terms of office d?. A. 3, S. 1. 
seal of state. A. 3, S. 16. 
vacancy in, how filled. A. 3. S. 13. 

Exemption, personal property. A. 10, S. 1. 

by reason of military duty, etc. A. 12, S. 4. 

property of feme covert not liable for husband's debts. A. 10, S. 6. 

Ex vast facto laws. A. 1, S. 32. 

Extra session of general assembly. A. 3, S. 9. 

Feigned issues abolished. A. 4, S. 1. 

Ferries, laws relating to. A. 2, S. 29. 

Fines, excessive. A. 1, S. 14. 

laws remitting fines, etc. A. 2, S. 29. 
Forfeitures, laws remitting. A. 2, S. 29. 
Freedom of the press. A. 1, S. 20. 

Fundamental principles, frequent recurrence to. A. 1, S. 29. 
General assembly, acts, style of. A. 2, S. 21. 

article seven may be modified or repealed by. A. 7, S. 14. 

bills and resolutions read three times. A. 2, S. 23. 



Index to the Constitution of JSToeth Carolina 451 



compulsory education may be enforced by. A. 9, S. 15. 

elections by, to be viva voce. A. 6, S. 6. 

entails regulated by. A. 2, S. 15. 

extra sessions. A. 2, S. 28; A. 3, S. 9. 

journals kept. A. 2, S. 16. 

protest entered on. A. 2, S. 17. 
General assembly, meetings of, when. A. 2, S. 2. 

members, election for, when. A. 2, S. 27. 
oath of. A. 2, S. 24. 

office a disqualification. A. 14, S. 7. 

terms commence with election. A. 2, S. 25. 

vacancies, how filled. A. 2, S. 13. 

municipal corporations controlled by. A. 7, S. 14. 

names, personal, not changed by. A. 2, S. 11. 

nonnavigable streams, laws relating to. A. 2, S. 29. 

officers of, election, viva voce. A. 2, S. 9. 

pay of. A. 2, S. 28. 

president of senate. A. 2. S. 19. 

speaker of house. A. 2, S. 18. 

powers of. A. 2, S. 22. 

in relation to divorce and alimony. A. 2, S. 10. 

in relation to private or special legislation. A. 2, S. 29 

representation apportioned by. A. 2, SS. 4, 5. 

revenue. A. 2, S. 14. 

schools provided by. A. 9, S. 2. 

university to be maintained by. A. 9, SS. 6, 7. 

use of sinking fund, by, regulated. A. 2, S. 30. 

yeas and nays. A. 2. SS. 14, 26. 
Government, allegiance to United States. A. 1, S. 5. 

internal, of state. A. 1, S. 3. 

origin of. A. 1, S. 2. 

seat of. remains at Raleigh. A. 14, S. 6. 
Governor, commands militia. A. 3, S. 8. ' 

commutations, pardons, reprieves. A. 3, S. 6. 

compensation. A. 3, S. 15. 

duties performed by the lieutenant-governor, when. ^\. 3, S. 1'. 

extra sessions called by. A. 3. S. 9. 

impeachment of. A. 3, S. 12. 

.iustices of peace, appointed by, when. A. 7, S. 11. 

lieutenant, qualification of. A. 3, S. 2. 

oath of office. A. 3, S. 4. 

officers appointed by. A. 3, S. 10; A. 14, S. 5. 

qualifications of. A. 3, S. 2. 

resident of. A. 3, S. 5. 

vacancy in office of. A. 3, S. 12. 
Health, laws relating to. A. 2, S. 29. 

nabens Corvus. A. 1, S. 21. 
Hereditary emoluments. A. 1, S. 30. 
Highways, laws authorizing, etc. A. 2, S. 29. 
Homestead and exemption. A. 10, S. 2. 

benefit of widow in. A. 10, S. 5. 

exempted from debt. A. 10, S. 3. 

laborer's lien attaches. A. 10, S. 4. 

notes, exempt from tax. A. 5, S. 3. 

privy examination of wife to dispose of. A. 10, S. 8. 
Houses of correction. A. 11, S. 4. 
Houses of refuge. A. 11. S. 5. 



452 Constitutions 

House of Representatives, representatives, apportionment. A. 2, S. o. 

ofticprs of. A. 2, S. 18. 

(Iiialification for. A. 2, S. 8. 

ratio of. A. 2, S. 6. 

term begins when. A. 2, S. 2,3. 
Husband can insure life for benefit of family. A. 10, S. 7. 
Idiots provided for. A. 11, S. 9. 
Immisration, department of. A. 3, S, 17 
Impeachment. A. 4, S. 4. 

court of. A. 4, S. 3. 

of governor. A. 3, S. 12. 

Imprisonment for debt. A. 1, S. 16. 

except by law, wrong. A. 1, S, 17. 

income tax. A. .3, S. 3. 
Indictments for crime committed before constitution took effect. A. 14, !s. 1. 
Inebriates. A. 11, S. 9. 

Inferior courts. A. 4, S. 12. 

officers of. A. 4, S. 30. 
Insane provided for. A. 11, S. 10. 
Institutions, charitable. A. 11. 

penal. A. 11. 

public, annual reports from. A. 3, S. 7. 

self-supporting as far as possible. A. 11, S. 11, 

sexes to be separated. A. 11, S. 6. 
Instruction, superintendent of public. A. 3, S. 13. 
Intermarriage of whites and negroes prohibited. A. 14. S. 8. 
Internal government of state. A 1, S. 3. 

Issues of fact, by whom tried and how waived. A. 4. S. 13. 
Judges, election, teiins of, etc. A. 4, S. 21. 

fees, salaries, emoluments. A. 4, S. 18. 

removal of, for inability. A. 4, S. 31. 

residence of. A. 4, .S. 11. 

special or emergency. A. 4. S. 11. 

Judicial department. A. 4. 

districts for superior courts. A. 4, S. 10. 

general assembly not to deprive of jurisdiction, A. 4, S. 12. 

powers, division of. A. 4, S. 2. 

terms of first officers under constitution. A. 4. S. 26. 

vacancies. A. 4, S. 2.5. 
Judicial remedy, allowed all. A. 1, S. 3.3. 
Judiciary distinct. A. 1, S. 8. 
Jurisdiction, courts inferior to supreme. A. 4, S. 12. 

justices of the peace. A. 4, S. 27. 

supreme court. A. 4, S. 8. 
Jurors, laws relating to pay of. A. 2. S. 20. 

Jury, right of. A. 1, S. 13 

sacred and inviolable, A. 1, S. 19. 

trial by, waived, A. 4. S, 13, 
.Justices of the peace, governor appoints, when. A. 7. S. 11. 

.iurisdiction of. A. 4. S 27. 

laws relating to appointment of. A. 2, S. 20. 

vacancies in office. A. 4. S. 28. 
Labor, etc., laws reg\ilating. A. 2. S. 29. 



Index to the Constitution of North Carolina 453 

Laborers' and mechanics' lien. A. 14, S. 4. 
attaches to homestead. A. 10, S. 4. 

Law of the land, no peison imprisoned, or deprived of life, etc., but by. A. 1, 
S. 17. 

Laws, ex jwst facto and retrospective. A. 1, S. 32. 

private, thirty days notice before passage. A. 2, S. 12. 

what in force. A. 4, S. 19. 
Legislative department, distinct. A. 1, S. 8. 
Legislature, two branches of. A. 2, S. 1. 

provide for organizing towns, etc. A. 8, S. 4. 

trials other than jury. A. 1, S. 13. 

Legitimation, general assembly can pasal general laws for. A. 2, S. 11. 
Liberty, deprivation of, except by law. A. 1, S. 17. 

religious. A. 1, S. 26. 

restraint of, remfdied. A. 1, S. 18. 

warrants without evidence, dangerous to. A. 1, S. 15. 

Lien of laborers and mechanics. A. 14, S. 4. 

Lieutenant-governor, president of senate, duties of. A. 3, S. 11. 
when governor. A. 3, S. 12. 

Literary fund, board of education to succeed to rights of. A. 9, S. 10. 

Local legislation prohibited. A. 2, S. 29. 

Manufacturing, laws regulating. A. 2, S. 29. 

Marriages between whites and negroes forbidden. A. 14, S. 8. 

Married woman, husband can insure life for benefit of. A. 10, S. 7. 

privy examination of to dispose of homestead. A. 10, S. 8. 

property of, not liable for husband's debts. A. 10, S. 6. 
Mechanics' lien. A. 14, S. 4. 
Men, equality, rights of. A. 1, S. 1. 
Militia. A. 1, S. 24; A. 12. 

exemptions from duty. A. 12, S. 4. 

governor commands. A. 3, S. 8; A. 12, S. 3. 

organization of. A. 12, S. 2. 

who liable to bear arms. A. 12, S. 1. 
Mining, laws regulating. A. 2, S. 29. 
Money, how drawn from state treasury. A. 14, kS. 3. 

county or township treasury. A. 7, S. 8. 

paid into treasury, refunding. A. 2, S. 29. 

Monopolies are injurious. A. 1, S. 31. 

Mortgages given for price of home, etc. A. 5, S. 3. 

Municipal corporations. A. 7. 

cannot contract debt except by majority of qualified voters. A. 7, S. 7. 

charters remain in force till changed. A. 7, S. 12. 

general assembly to provide for organization of; taxation, etc., l)v. A. 8, 
S. 4. 

power of general assembly over. A. 7, S. 14; A. 8. S. 4. 

special charter prohibited. A. 8, S. 4. 
Names of cities, towns and townships, laws changing. A. 2, S. 29. 
Names, personal, how changed. A. 2, S. 11. 

Normal school, to be maintained by general assembly at university. A. 9, S. 14. 
Notes given for price of home, not taxable. A. 5, S. 3. 
Nuisances, laws relating to abatement of. A. 2, S. 29. 
Oath of Governor. A. 3, S. 4. 



454 Constitutions 



Oath of member of general assembly. A. 2, S. 24. 

Oath of Office. A. 6, S. 7. 

Office, cannot hold two. A. 14, S. 7. 

disqualification. A. 6, S. 8. 

dueling disqualifies for. A. 14, S. 2. 

eligibility to. A. 6. 

qualification, property, none. A. 1, S. 22. 
Officers, county. A. 7. SS. 1, 10. 

first elected. A. 4, S. 26. 

what, appointed by governor. A. 3, S. 10; A. 14, S. 5. 
Orphans, houses for. A. 11, S. 8. 

provisions for. A. 11, S. 7. 
Pardons. A. 3, S. 6. 

Peace, soldiers quartered in time of. A. 1, S. 36. 
Penalties, laws remitting. A. 2, S. 29. 

Penitentiary. A. 11, S. 3. 

convict labor. A. 11, S. 1. 

self-supporting as far as possible. A. 11, S. 11. 

sexes separated. A. 11, S. 6. 
People, right of, to assemble together. A. 1, S. 25. 
Perpetuities, injurious. A. 1, S. 31. 

general assembly shall prevent. A. 2, S. 15. 
Political power and government. A. 1. S. 2. 

societies in secret dangerous. A. 1, S. 25. 

Poll tax. A. 5, S. 1. 

Poor, provision for. A. 11, S. 7. 

Power of general assembly. A. 2, S. 22. 

to suspend laws injurious. A. 1, S. 9. 

Powers, executive, judicial and legislative, distinct. A. 1, S. 8. 

judicial, division of. A. 4, S. 2. 

Press, freedom and abuse of. A. 1, S. 20. 
Principles, recurrence to fundamental. A. 1, S. 29. 
Prisoners, health and comfort secured. A. 11, S. 6. 
Private laws. A. 2, SS. 11, 12. 

local or special legislation. A. 2, S. 29. 
Privileges exclusive, none. A. 1, S. 7. 

Property, controversies at law about. A. 1, S. 19. 

deprivation of, except by law, wrong. A. 1, S. 17. 

devoted to education. A. 9, S. 4. 

exemptions from taxation. A. 5, S. 5. 

qualifications, none. A. 1, S. 22. 
Prosecution, criminal. A. 1, S. 11. 

Protest, against act or resolves, by whom and when made. A. 2, S. 17. 
Public debt, increase of, restricted, etc. A. 5, S. 4. 

what bonds declared invalid. A. 1, S. 6. 
Public money, how drawn. A. 14, S. 3. 

Public schools, general assemibly to provide for. A. 9, S. 2. 
Punishment, penal Institutions and public charities. A. 11. 

cruel or unusual. A. 1, S. 14; A. 14, S. 1. 

Qualification and election of members of general assembly, each house judge of. 
A. 2, S. 22. 

Rebellion, debt in aid of, not to be paid. A. 7, S. 13. 



Index to the Constitution of North Carolina 455 

Recurrence to fundamental principles. A. 1, S. 29. 
Refuge, houses of. A. 11, S. 5. 
Register of deeds. A. 7, S. 1. 
Registration of electors. A, 6, SS. 3, 4. 
Religious liberty. A. 1, S. 26. 

scruples against bearing arms. A. 12, S. 1. 
Removal of judges. A. 4. S. 31. 

of clerks. A. 4, S. 32. 
Representation and taxation. A. 1. S. 23. 
Reprieves. A. 3, S. 6. 
Retrospective laws. A. 1, S. 32. 
Revenue. A. 2, S. 14; A. 5. 
Right of assemblage. A. 1, S. 25. 

of jury. A. 1, S. 13. 

of secession, none. A. 1, S. 4. 
to boar arms. A. 1, S. 24. 

to suspend laws, injurious. A. 1, S. 9. 
Rights, declaration of. A. 1. 

of men. A. 1, SS. 1, 37. 

Salaries and fees of officers of judicial department, general assemblv regulates. 

A. 4, S. 18. 
Sanitation, laws relating to. A. 2, S. 29. 

School districts, laws establishing or changing lines. A. 2, S. 29. 
Schools, attendance of children. A. 9, S. 15. 

county, divided into districts. A. 9, S. 3. 

fund. A. 9, S. 5. 

provided by legislature. A. 9, S. 2. 

races separate. A. 9, S. 2. 

term, six months required. A. 9, S. 3. 
Seal of state. A. 3, S. 16. 

Search warrants without evidence, wrong. A. 1, S. 15. 
Seat of government at Raleigh. A. 14, S. 6. 
Secession, no right of. A. 1, S. 4. 
Secretary of State, duties of. A. 3, S. 13. 
Senate, presiding officer. A. 2, S. 19. 

pro tern, speaker, when elected. A. 2, S. 20. 
Senators, number of. A. 2, S. 3. 

president of. A. 2. S. 19. 

qualifications for. A. 2, S. 7. 

regulating senatorial districts. A. 2, S. 4. 

senatorial officers. A. 2. S. 20. 
Separation of governmental powers. A. 1, S. 8. 
Sexes separated in confinement. A. 11, S. 6. 
Sheriff and coroner. A. 4, S. 24. 
Sinking funds, regulation of use. A. 2, S. 30. 
Slavery prohibited. A. 1, S. 33. 
Societies, secret political, dangerous. A. 1, S. 25. 
Soldiers, how quartered. A. 1, S. 36. 
Solicitor how elected. A. 4, S. 23. 
Special courts. A. 4, S. 14. 

Special legislation, powers of genera! assembly as to. A. 2, S. 29. 
State boundaries. A. 1, S. 34. 

claims against. A. 4, S. 9. 

internal government. A. 1, S. 3. 
Statistics, department of. A. 3, S. 17. 
Streets, laws authorizing, etc. A. 2, S. 29. 
Suffrage and eligibility to office. A. 6. 



456 COKSTITUTIOKS 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. A. 3, S. 13. 

reports of county school fund to be made. A. 9, S. o. 
Superior court, open at all times except for jury trials. A. 4, S. 'I'Z. 

clerk, his election. A. 4. S. 16. 

removal from office. A. 4, S. 32. 
term. A. 4, S. 17. 

vacancy. A. 4. SS. 2, 9. 

districts. A. 4, S. 10. 

judges, election and term. A. 4, S. 21. 
residence. A. 4, S. 11. 
rotation. A. 4, S. 11. 

solicitor for each district. A. 4, S. 23. 

special term. A. 4, S. 11. 

terms, annually in counties. A. 4, S. 10. 

transaction of business, to be open for. A. 4, S. 22. 
Supreme court, clerk. A. 4, S. 15. 

clerk, removal from office. A. 4, S. 32. 

jurisdiction. A. 4, SS. 8, 9. 

justices. A. 4, S. 6. 

election and terms of. A. 4, S. 21. 

terms of. A. 4, S. 7. 
Surveyor, county. A. 7, S. 1. 

Suspending laws without consent of representatives, forliidden. A. 1, S. 9. 
Taxation, ad valorem and uniform. A. 5, S. 3. 

and revenue. A. 1, S. 23 ; A. 5. 

except for necessary expenses, not levied by county, city or town without 
assent of majority of voters. A. 7, S. 7. 

homestead notes exempt. A. 5, S. 3. 

income. A. 5, S. 3. 

levied by county commissioners. A. 5, S. 6. 

of county to be ad valorem. A. 7, S. 9. 

of purchase and sales retrospectively not to be passed. A. 1, S. 32. 

property', exemptions from. A. 5, S. 5. 
Taxes, acts to levy, to state object. A. 5, S. 7. 
Towns, etc., organized by legislature. A. 8, S. 4. 
Towns, laws changing names of. A. 2, S. 29. 
Townships, officers of. A. 7, S. 5. 

laws changing names of. A. 2, S. 29. 

laws erecting, changing lines. A. 2, S. 29. 
Trade, laws regulating. A. 2, S. 29. 
Trials on against state. A. 4, S. -5. 
Treasurer, duties of. A. 3, S. 13. 

University, agricultural departraent of, mechanics, mining and normal instruc- 
tion connected with. A. 9, S. 14. 

benefits of. A. 9. S. 7. 

election of trustees. A. 9, S. 6. 

general assembly shall maintain. A. 9, S. 7. i 

maintenace of. A. 9, S. 6. 

property devoted to. A. 9, S. 7. 
Vacancies in general assemblv. A. 2, S. 13. 

other. A. 3, SS. 12, 13; A. 4, SS. 25, 28, 29. 
Vagrants, houses of correction for. A. 11, S. 4. 
Warrants without evidence injurious. A. 1, S. I.t. 
Whites and negroes cannot intermarry. A. 14, S. 8. 

separated in schools. A. 9, S. 2. 
Widow, homestead benefits. A. 10, S. 5. 
Wills, laws giving effect to. A. 2, S. 29. 
Yeas and nays, when entered. A. 2, SS. 14, 26. 



PART XII 
CENSUS 

1. Population akd Area of the Several States a>-d 

Territories, 1910-1920. 

2. Population (Estimated) of North (^\kolixa, 1675- 

1786. 

3. Census of North Carolina, 1790-1840. 

4. Census of North Carolina, 1850-1920. 

5. Population of North Carolina Cities and Towns, 

1900-1920. 

6. North Carolina Counties and County Seats. 

7. Economic Development of North Carolina. 



Population and Area of United States 



459 



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POPULATION (Estimated) OF NORTH CAROLINA, 1675-1786 



1675 4,000 

1701 5,000 

1707 7,000 

1715 11,000 

1729 35,000 

1752 100.000 

1765 200,000 

1771 250,000 

1786 350,000 



462 



Census 



CENSUS OF NORTH CAROLINA, 1790-1840 



Counties 


Date of 
Forma- 
tion 


1790 


1800 


1810 


1820 


1830 


1840 


1 Alamance 


1840 
1847 
1859 
1749 
1799 














2 Alexander 














3 Alleghany 














4 Anson 


5,133 


8,146 
2,783 


8,831 
3,694 


12,534 
4,335 


14,095 
6,987 


15 077 


5 Ashe 


7,467 


6 Averv 






7 Beaufort 


1705 
1722 
1734 
1764 
1791 
1777 
1792 
1841 
1777 
1722 
1777 
1842 
1770 
1839 
1672 
1861 
1841 
1808 
1712 
1754 
1672 
1870 
1822 
1836 
1749 
1881 
1732 
1849 
1779 
1846 
1779 
1872 
1746 
1799 
1770 
1758 
1855 
1808 
1838 
1759 


5,462 

12,606 

5,084 

3,071 


6,242 
11,249 
7,028 
4,110 
5,812 
9,929 
5,094 


7,203 

11,218 

5,671 

4,778 

9,277 

11,007 

6,158 


9,850 
10,805 

7,276 

5,480 
10,542 
13,411 

7,248 


10,969 

12,262 

7,811 

6,516 

16,281 

17,888 

8,810 


12 225 


8 Bertie 


12,175 


9 Bladen 


8,022 


10 Brunswick 

11 Buncombe 


5,265 
10,084 


12 Burke 


8,118 


15,799 


13 Cabarrus 


9 259 


14 Caldwell 






15 Camden 


4,033 

3,732 

10,096 


4,191 
4,399 
8,701 


5,347 

4,823 

11,757 


6,347 

5,609 

13,253 


6,733 

6,597 

15,785 


5,663 


16 Carteret 


6 592 


17 Caswell 


14,693 


18 Catawba 




19 Chatham 


9,221 


11,861 


12,977 


12,661 


15,405 


16,242 
3 427 


20 Cherokee 






5,011 


5,132 


5,297 


6,464 


6,697 


6,690 


22 Clay 


23 Cleveland 




















3,022 
12,676 

9,382 
6,985 


3,912 
13,394 
14,446 

8,098 


4,141 
13,734 
14,834 

7,655 


3,941 
13,438 


25 Craven 


10,469 
8,671 
5,219 


10,245 
9,264 
6,928 


26 Cumberland _ 

27 Currituck 

28 Dare 


15,284 
6,703 


29 Da^adson..- 










13,389 


14,606 


30 Davie 










7,574 
11,182 


31 Duplin 


5,662 


6,796 


7,863 


9,744 


11,291 


32 Durham.. 




33 Edgecombe 

34 Forsvth 


10,225 


10,421 


12,423 


13,276 


14,935 


15,708 


35 Franklin 


7,559 


8,529 


10,166 


9,741 


10,665 


10,980 


36 Gaston 


37 Gates 


5,392 


5,881 


5,965 


6,837 


7,866 


8 161 


38 Graham . 




39 Granville -.. 


10,982 
6,983 
7,191 

13,965 


14,015 

4,218 

9,442 

13,945 


15,576 

4,867 
11,420 
13,620 


18,222 

4,533 

14,511 

17,237 


19,355 

6,413 

18,737 

17,739 


18,817 


40 Greene* 


6,595 


41 Guilford 


19,175 


42 Halifax 


16,865 


43 Harnett 




44 Haywood 






2,780 


4,073 


4,578 


4 975 


45 Henderson 






5,129 


46 Hertford 


5,828 


6,701 


6,052 


7,712 


8,537 


4,484 


47 Hoke... 




48 Hyde - . .. 


1705 
1788 
1851 
1746 
1779 
1907 
1791 
1779 
1842 
1828 
1851 
1774 


4,120 
5,435 


4,829 
8,856 


6,029 
10,972 


4,967 
13,071 


6,184 
14,918 


6,458 


49 Iredell 


15,685 


50 .Tncksnn 




51 Johnston. 


5,634 
4,822 


6,301 
4,339 


6,867 
4,968 


9,607 
5,216 


10,938 
5,608 


10,599 


52 Jones 


4,945 


53 Lee 




54 Lenoir 




4,005 
12,660 


5,572 
16,359 


6,799 
18,147 


7,723 
22,455 


7,605 


55 Lincoln 

56 McDowell 


9,224 


26,160 


57 Macon 










5,333 


4,869 


58 Madison 












59 Martin.. 


6,580 


5,629 


5,987 


6,320 


8,539 


7,637 



*In 1758 Dobbs County was formed from part of Johnston. In 1791 Dobbs was divided 
into Lenoir and Glasgow. In 1799 the name of Glasgow was changed to Greene. 



North Carolina 



463 



CENSUS OF NORTH CAROLINA, 1850-1920 



















Land 




1850 


1860 


1870 


1880 


1890 


1900 


1910, 


1920 


Areain 

Square 

xVIiles 




11,444 


11,852 


11,874 


14,613 


18,271 


25,665 


28,712 


32,718 


494 


1 


5,220 


6,022 


6,868 


8,355 


9,430 


10,960 


11,592 


12,212 


297 


2 




3,598 


3,691 


5,486 


6,523 


7,759 


7,745 


7,403 


223 


3 


"i3'489" 


13,664 


12,428 


17,994 


20,027 


21,870 


25,465 


28,334 


551 


4 


8,777 


7,956 


9,573 


14,437 


15,628 


19,581 


19,074 


21,001 
10,335 
31,024 


399 

"'m' 


5 
6 


"is'sie" 


'i4"766' 


"Is'oii" 


'"i7'474' 


'"'2i"672" 


""26"404' 


""30"877' 


7 


12,851 


14,310 


12,950 


16,399 


19,176 


20.5.38 


23,039 


23,993 


712 


8 


9,767 


11,995 


12,831 


16,158 


16,763 


17.677 


18,000 


19,761 


1,013 


9 


7,272 


8,406 


7,754 


9,389 


10,900 


12, 6,57 


14,4.32 


14,876 


812 


10 


13,425 


12,6.54 


15,412 


21,909 


35,200 


44,288 


49.798 


64,148 


624 


11 


7,772 


9,237 


9,777 


12,809 


14,939 


17,699 


21,408 


23,297 


534 


12 


9,747 


10,546 


11,954 


14,964 


18,142 


22,456 


20,240 


33,730 


387 


13 


6,317 


7,497 


8,476 


10,291 


12,298 


15,694 


20,579 


19,984 


507 


14 


6,049 


5,343 


5,361 


6,274 


5,667 


5,474 


5,640 


5,382 


218 


15 


6,939 


8,186 


9,010 


9,784 


10,825 


11,811 


13,776 


15,384 


538 


16 


15,269 


16,215 


16,081 


17,825 


16,028 


15,028 


14,858 


15,759 


396 


17 


8,862 


10,729 


10,984 


14,946 


18,689 


22,123 


27,918 


33,839 


408 


18 


18,449 


19,101 


19,723 


23,453 


25,413 


23,912 


22,635 


23,814 


785 


19 


6,838 


9,166 


8,080 


8,18» 


9,976 


11,860 


14,136 


15,242 


451 


20 


6,721 


6,842 


6,450 


7,900 


9,167 


10,258 


11,303 


10.649 


161 


21 






2,461 
12,696 


3,316 

16,571 


4,197 
20,394 


4,532 
25,078 


3,909 
29,494 


4,646 
34,272 


185 
485 


22 


'10^396" 


'i2'348" 


23 


5.909 


8,597 


8,474 


14,439 


17,856 


21,274 


28,020 


30,124 


937 


24 


14,709 


16,268 


20,516 


19,729 


20,533 


24,164 


25,594 


29,048 


685 


25 


20,610 


16,369 


17,035 


23,836 


27,. 321 


29,249 


35,284 


35,064 


1,008 


26 


7,236 


7,415 


5,131 


6,476 


6,747 


6,529 


7,693 


7,208 


273 


27 






2,778 
17,414 


3,244 
20,333 


3.768 
21,702 


4,7,57 
23,403 


4,841 
29,404 


5,115 
35,201 


405 
563 


28 


"i5"320" 


'ie'eoi' 


29 


7,866 


8,494 


9,620 


11,096 


11,621 


12,115 


13,394 


13,578 


264 


30 


13,514 


15,784 


15,542 


18,773 


18,690 


22,405 


25,442 


30,223 


830 


31 










18,141 
24,113 


26,233 
26,591 


35,276 
32,010 


42,219 
37,995 


284 
515 


32 


"n'isg" 


'i7"376" 


'"22"970" 


"le'isi" 


33 


11,168 


12,692 


13,050 


18,078 


28,434 


35,261 


47,311 


77,209 


369 


34 


11,713 


14,107 


14,135 


20,829 


21,098 


25,116 


24,092 


26,667 


471 


35 


8,173 


9,307 


12,602 


14,254 


17,764 


27,903 


37,063 


51,242 


359 


36 


8,426 


8,443 


7,724 


8,897 


10,2.52 


10,413 


10,455 


10,537 


356 


37 








2,335 
31,286 


3,313 
24,840 


4,343 
23,263 


4,749 
25,102 


4,872 
26,846 


302 
504 


38 


'21^249' 


"23^396" 


""24'83i' 


39 


6,619 


7,925 


8,687 


10,037 


10,039 


12,038 


13,083 


16,212 


258 


40 


19,754 


20,056 


22,736 


23,585 


28,052 


39,074 


60,497 


79.272 


674 


41 


16,589 


19,442 


20,408 


30,300 


28,908 


30,793 


37,646 


43,766 


681 


42 




8,039 


8,895 


10,862 


13,700 


15,988 


22,174 


28,313 


596 


43 


"7'074" 


5,081 


7,921 


10,271 


13,346 


16,222 


21,020 


23,496 


541 


44 


6,853 


10,448 


7,706 


10,281 


12,589 


14,104 


16,262 


18,248 


362 


45 


8,142 


9,504 


9,273 


11,843 


13,851 


14,294 


15,436 


16,294 

11,722 

8,386 


339 
'"'596' 


46 
47 


""7"636' 


"7"732" 


""6'445" 


7^765' 


'""§"903" 


"""'grm' 


"""s'sio" 


48 


14,719 


15,347 


10,931 


22,675 


25,462 


29,004 


34,315 


37,956 


592 


49 




5,515 


6,683 


7,343 


9,512 


11,8.53 


12,998 


13,396 


494 


50 


"1.3' 726' 


15,656 


16,897 


23,461 


27,239 


32,250 


41,401 


48,998 


688 


51 


5,038 


5,730 


5,002 


7,491 


7,403 


8,226 


8,721 
11,376 
22,769 


9,912 
13,400 
29,555 


403 
'"436" 


52 
53 


"7^828" 


"10^220" 


"""l0"434' 


""i.5'344' 


"'i4"879" 


""18^639" 


54 


7,746 


8,195 


9,573 


11,061 


12,586 


15,498 


17,132 


17,862 


296 


55 


0,246 


7,120 


7.592 


9,836 


10,939 


12,. 507 


13,. 538 


16,763 


437 


56 


6,389 


6,004 


6,615 


8,064 


10, 102 


12,104 


12,191 


12,887 


531 


57 




5,908 


8,192 


12,810 


17,805 


20,644 


20,132 


20,083 


431 


58 


"h'MY 


10, 195 


9,647 


13,140 


15,221 


15,383 


17,797 


20,826 


438 


59 



464 



Census 



CENSUS OF NORTH CAROLINA, mO-lMO-Continued 



Counties 


Date of 
Forma- 
tion 


1790 


1800 


1810 


1820 


1830 


1840 


60 Mecklenburg 

61 Mitchell 


1762 
1861 
1779 
1784 
1777 
1729 
1741 
1734 
1752 
1872 
1672 
1875 
1672 
1791 
1760 
1855 
1779 
1779 
1786 
1785 
1753 
1779 
1784 
1899 
1841 
1789 
1771 
1.«71 
1861 
1729 
1842 
1881 
1770 
1779 
1799 
1849 
1779 
1777 
1855 
1850 
1833 


11,395 


10,439 


14,272 


16,895 


20,073 


18,273 


62 Montgomery 

63 Moore 


4,725 
3.770 
7,393 
6,831 
9,981 
5,387 
12,216 


7,677 
4,767 
6,975 
7.060 

12.. 3.53 
5,623 

16,362 


8,430 

6,367 

7,268 

11,465 

13,082 

6,669 

20,135 


8,693 

7.128 

8,125 

10,866 

13,242 

7,016 

23,492 


10,919 
7,745 
8,490 

10,9.59 

13,391 
7,814 

23,908 


10,780 
7,988 
9,047 

13,312 

13,369 
7,527 

24,356 


64 Nash 


65 New Hanover 

66 Northampton 

67 Onslow- 




69 Pamlico 


70 Pasquotank 

71 Pender 


5,497 


5,379 


7,674 


8,008 


8,641 


8,514 


72 Perquimans 

73 Person 


5,440 


5,708 
6;402 
9,084 


6,0.52 
6,642 
9,169 


6,857 

9,029 

10,001 


7,419 
10,027 
12,093 


7,346 

9,790 

11,806 


74 Pitt 


8,275 


75 Polk.... 


76 Randolph 

77 Richmond 

78 Robeson... . 


7,276 
5,055 
5,326 
6,187 
15,828 
7,808 
6.065 


9,234 
5,623 
6,839 
8,277 
20,064 
10,7.53 
6.719 


10,112 
6,695 

7,528 
U),316 
S,543 
13,202 

6.620 


11,331 

7.537 

8.204 

11.474 

26.009 

15.351 

8.908 


12,406 
9,396 
9,433 
12,935 
20,786 
17,5.57 
11.634 


12,875 
8,909 
10,370 
13,442 
12,109 
19,202 
12,157 


79 Rockingham 

80 Rowan 


81 Rutherford.. 

28 Sampson 

83 Scotland 


84 Stanly 








. 




85 Stokes . .. . . 


8.528 
7.191 


11.026 

H..50!t 


11.645 

10.366 


14.033 
12.3^0 


16,196 
\i 504 


16.265 
15.079 


86 Surry 

87 Swain.... 


88 Transylvania 














89 Tvrrell . 


4.744 


3,395 


3,364 


4.319 


4,732 


4,657 


90 Union 


91 Vance 













92 Wake.. 


10.192 
9,397 


13,437 

11,284 

2,422 


17.086 

11.004 

3.464 


20.102 
11,158 
3,986 


20,398 
11,877 
4.552 


21,118 

12,919 

4 5''5 


93 Warren 


94 Washington 


95 Watauga 






96 W'ayne .. 


6,133 
. 8,143 


6,772 

7,247 


8.687 1 
9.054 


9,040 
9,967 


10,331 
11,968 


10,891 


97 Wilkes 


98 Wilson 




99 Yadkin 








"" 1 






lOOYancey 










"'5^962 










j 


Totals 




393.751 


478,103 


.555.500 


638,829 


7.37,987 


753,409 







North Carolina 



465 





CENSUS OF NORTH CAROLINA, 1850-1920— Contitiued 






















Land 




1850 


1860 


1870 


1880 


1890 


1900 


1910 


1920 


Areain 

Square 

Miles 

590 






















13,914 


17,374 


24,299 


34,175 


42,673 


55,268 


67,031 


80,695 


60 






4,705 
7,487 


9,435 
9,374 


12,807 
11,2.39 


15,221 
14,197 


17,245 
14,967 


11,278 
14,607 


362 

489 


61 


"'6"872' 


"7^649" 


62 


9,342 


11,427 


12,048 


16,821 


20,479 


23,622 


17,010 


21,388 


798 


63 


10,6,57 


11,687 


11,077 


17,731 


20,707 


■ 25,478 


.33,727 


41,051 


584 


64 


17,668 


21,715 


27,978 


21,376 


24,026 


25,785 


32,037 


40.620 


199 


65 


13,335 


13,372 


14,749 


20,032 


21,242 


21,150 


22,323 


23,184 


523 


66 


8,283 


8,856 


7,569 


9,829 


10,303 


11,940 


14,125 


14,703 


645 


67 


17,055 


16,947 


17,507 


23,698 


14,948 


14,690 


15,064 


17,895 


386 


68 








6,323 
10,369 


7,146 
10,748 


8,045 
13.660 


9.966 
16,693 


9,060 
17,670 


358 
231 


69 


'"8^9,50' 


"8^940" 


""'sasi' 


70 








12,468 
9,466 


12,514 
9,293 


13,381 
10.091 


15,471 
11,054 


14,788 
11,137 


883 
251 


71 


■"7'332' 


'"7"238" 


'""7"745" 


72 


10,781 


11,221 


11,170 


13,719 


15,151 


16,685 


17,356 


18,973 


386 


73 


13,397 


16,080 


17,276 


21,794 


25,519 


.30,889 


•36,340 


45,569 


644 


74 




4,043 


4,319 


5,062 


5,902 


7,004 


7,640 


8,832 


258 


75 


15,832 


16,793 


17,551 


20,836 


25,195 


28,232 


29,491 


30,856 


795 


76 


9,818 


11,009 


12,882 


18,245 


23,948 


15,855 


19.673 


25,567 


466 


77 


12,826 


15,489 


16,262 


23,380 


31,483 


40,371 


51,945 


54,674 


1,043 


78 


14,495 


16,746 


15,718 


21,744 


25,363 


33,163 


36.442 


44,149 


573 


79 


13,870 


14,589 


16,810 


19,965 


24,123 


31,066 


37,, 521 


44,062 


483 


80 


13,550 


11,573 


13,121 


15,198 


18,770 


25,101 


28,385 


31,426 


547 


81 


14,585 


16,624 


16,436 


22,894 


25,096 


26,380 


29.982 


36,002 


921 


82 












12.5.53 
15,220 


15,363 
19.909 


15,600 
27,429 


387 
413 


83 


"6"922" 


'"7'80i' 


""'s'.zVb' 


"'Vo'.bOc,' 


""nVm 


84 


9,206 


10.402 


11,208 


15, 3,53 


17,199 


19,866 


20,151 


20,5.5 


472 


85 


18,443 


10,380 


1 1,252 


15,302 


19,281 


25,.) 15 


29,705 


32,464 


531 


86 








3,784 
5,340 
4,515 


6,. 577 
5,881 
4,225 


8,401 
6,620 
4,980 


10,403 
7,191 
5,219 


13.224 
9.. 303 

4,849 


560 
371 
397 


87 






""'3^536" 
4,173 


88 


"57133" 


"4"944" 


89 


10,151 


11,202 


12,217 


18,056 


21.2.59 


27,150 


33,277 


36,029 


561 


90 










17,581 
49,207 


1&,684 
54,626 


19,425 
63,229 


22,799 
75,155 


276 
841 


91 


'24'888' 


'28'627" 


'"35'6i7" 


"'47"939" 


92 


13,912 


15,726 


17,768 


22,619 


19,360 


19,151 


20,266 


21,. 593 


432 


93 


5,664 


6,357 


6,516 


8,928 


10,200 


10,608 


11,062 


11,429 


3,34 


94 


3,400 


4,957 


5,287 


8,160 


10,611 


13,417 


13,556 


13,447 


330 


95 


13,486 


14,905 


18,144 


24,951 


26,100 


31,356 


35,698 


43,640 


597 


96 


12,899 


14,749 


15,5,39 


19,181 


22,675 


26,872 


30,282 


32,644 


718 


97 




9,720 


12,258 


16,064 


18,644 


23,596 


28,269 


36,813 


392 


98 




10,714 


10,697 


12,420 


13,790 


14,083 


15.428 


16,391 


334 


99 


""8^20r 


8,655 


5,909 


7,694 


9,490 


11,464 


12,072 


15,093 


302 


100 


869,039 


992,622 


1,071,361 


1,399,750 


1,617,947 


1,893,810 


2,206,287 


2,559,123 


48,580 





30 



466 



Census 



POPULATION OF NOKTII CAROLINA CITIES AND TOWNS 

1900-1920 



City or Town 


County 


1920 


1910 


1900 




Bladen 


78 

858 

183 

280 

1,429 

2,691 


159 
794 






M oore 


559 


Acme 


Columbus - -- 








283 
924 

2,116 
118 
98 
936 
221 
486 
681 
145 
151 

1,865 
18,762 
115 
524 
543 
440 
77 
990 
195 
416 


273 




Hertford 


302 




Stanlv . - 


1,382 




Buncombe ___ 




Almond 


Swain 


146 
1,634 
375 
486 
926 
178 




Andrews 


Cherokee 

Harnett 








Anson vi lie* 


Anson _ 






Wake 


349 




Randolph 


182 


Arden 


Buncombe - 


137 






2,559 
28,504 
296 
610 
803 
524 
99 

1,673 
518 
332 
264 
274 
309 
349 
108 

2,968 

1,816 

2,941 
190 

1,123 
324 

2,176 
817 
354 


992 


Aslieville 


Buncombe - 


14,694 


Atkinson - 


Pender _ 






Carteret _ -- 




Aiilander 


Bertie 


342 


AurorE - 


Beaufort 


314 






61 




Pitt . 


557 


Bailev 


Nash --- 






Mitchell - 


511 


Banner Elk 


Averv 




Bath -- - 


Beaufort 


283 

211 

370 

56 

2,483 

2,863 

1,176 


400 


Battleboro -- 


Edgecombe and Nash 

Pamlico 


229 




292 


Beargrass 








2,195 






383 


Belmont 


Gaston 


145 












800 


384 


Benton Heights 

Bessemer Citv 






Gaston -- -- 


1,529 
569 


1,100 


Bethel ' 


Pitt --- 


457 


Beulahville 


Duplin - 




Big Lick* 


Stanly - 


162 
173 
697 
219 
311 
276 
261 
796 


132 






172 
755 
274 
531 
459 
338 
828 
199 
699 
178 


71 


Biscoe 


Montgomery _ 




Black Creek 




196 


Black Mountain 


Buncombe 


200 


Bladonboro 


Bladen 








331 






604 


Bolivia 


Brunswick 




Bolton - -- 








Bonlee 


Chatham 






Bonsai* 


Chatham and Wake. . 


85 
179 

28 
209 




Boone 


Watauga - - 


374 
162 
206 
418 
1,658 


155 






183 


Bostic 


Rutherford 


97 










Transylvania .. 


919 
50 
348 
149 
725 
612 
66 
249 


584 


Bridgersville* 


Wilson - _ _ 


42 






548 
250 
709 

882 

78 

291 

150 




Broadway 


Lee 




Brookford 


Catawba _ _ _ 








417 


Buie 


Robeson 










Bunn 


Franklin 





Towns marked * are not listed in U. S. Census 



1920. 



Cities and Towns 



467 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS— Continued 



City or Town 



Burgaw 

Burlington 

Burns ville* 

Calypso. 

Cameron.. 

Candor 

Canton 

Carrboro 

Carthage 

Cary.-. 

Castalia 

Catawba 

Cerro Gordo 

Chadbourn 

Chapel Hill 

Charlotte 

Cherry 

Cherry ville. __ 

China Grove 

Chocowinity * 

Claremont 

Clarendon 

Clarkton 

Clayton 

Cleveland 

Clinton 

Clyde 

Coats 

Colerain _ 

Collettsyille 

Columbia 

Columbus 

Concord 

Conetoe 

Conover 

Contentnea* 

Conway 

Cornelius — 

Council 

Cove City 

Creedmoor 

Creswell 

Crouse 

Culberson. 

Cumberland 

Dallas 

Davidson 

Deloo 

Denton 

Denver — 

Dillsboro 

Dobson 

Dover. 

Drexel 

Dublin -- 

Dudley 

Dunn 

Durham 

East Bend 

East Kings Mountain. 

East Laurinburg 

East Lumberton 



County 



Pender 

Alamance 

Yancey 

Duplin. 

Moore. 

Montgomery... 

Haywood 

Orange.- 

Moore 

Wake 

Nash 

Catawba 

Columbus 

Columbus 

Orange 

Mecklenburg... 

Washington 

Gaston 

Rowan 

Beaufort 

Catawba 

Columbus 

Bladen 

Johnston 

Rowan 

Sampson 

Haywood 

Harnett 

Bertie 

Caldwell 

Tyrrell 

Polk 

Cabarrus 

Edgecombe 

Catawba 

Greene 

Northampton. 
Mecklenburg.. 

Bladen 

Craven 

Granville 

Washington — 

Lincoln 

Cherokee 

Cumberland.. 

Gaston. 

Mecklenburg.. 

Columbus 

Davidson 

Lincoln 

Jackson 

Surry 

Craven 

Burke. 

Bladen 

Wayne 

Harnett 

Durham 

Yadkin 

Gaston 

Scotland 

Robeson 



1920 



1,040 
5,952 



405 

241 

267 

2,584 

1,129 

962 

645 

263 

250 

262 

1,121 

1,483 

46,338 

99 

1,884 

1,027 



435 
135 
368 

1,423 
366 

2,110 
363 
526 
215 
123 
738 
168 

9,903 
160 
681 



1, 



294 

1,141 
92 
258 
392 
393 
209 
190 
80 

1,397 
,156 
210 
559 
243 
228 
368 
670 
392 
99 
240 

2,805 

21,719 

.508 

835 

541 

1,011 



1910 



956 

4,808 

422 



259 

160 

1,393 



863 

383 

219 

222 

323 

1,242 

1,149 

34,014 



1,153 
852 
127 
297 
147 
276 

1,441 
426 

1,101 
344 
160 
189 
80 
848 
122 

8,715 
158 
421 
246 



833 
74 
308 
324 
329 
175 



300 
1,065 
1,056 



320 
282 
277 
360 
737 



164 

1,823 

18,241 

522 

383 
.577 
881 



1900 



387 

3,692 

207 



218 
"235 



605 
333 
163 
169 
123 
243 
1,099 
18,091 

"i'008 

887 

"'""ieo 



754 
198 

958 
244 

'""207 
57 
382 
334 
7,910 
132 
413 



224 



343 
514 
904 



199 
279 
327 



1,072 

6,679 

444 



Towns marked * are not listed in U. S. Census, 1920. 



468 



Census 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS— Continued 



City or Town 


County 


1920 


1910 


1900 


East Spencer 


Rowan 


2,239 

2,777 
153 

8,925 
335 
452 

1,195 
383 
473 
425 

1,648 


1,729 
2,789 
171 
8,412 
117 
377 
886 
293 




Edenton 


Chowan. . 


3,046 


Edwards 


Beaufort 


99 


Elizabeth City 


Pasquotank 


6,348 


Elizabethtown .. 


Bladen 


144 


Elk Park* 


Avery. 


498 


Elkin 


Surry 


860 


Ellenboro 


Rutherford 


172 


Ellerbee 


Richmond. . . 




Elon College . 


Alamance. 


200 
1,167 
81 
162 
146 
248 
441 
730 
519 
352 


638 


Enfield 


Halifax 


361 


Enochsville* 


Rowan . 


93 


Eureka. _ .. . 


Wayne 


187 

230 

139 

397 

1,000 

477 

348 

200 

198 

1,780 

8,877 

2,312 


123 


Everetts 


Martin 


127 


Evergreen. . 


Columbus .... 




Fair Bluff... 


Columbus. - 


328 


Fairmont- ... _ . . 


Robeson 


432 


Faison... . 


Duplin.. ... 


308 


Faith 


Rowan 




Falcon .. . 


Cumberland 




Falkland 


Pitt 


132 
816 
7,045 
1,592 
137 
189 
329 
379 


139 


Farniville . . . . 


Pitt. 


262 


Favetteville 


Cumberland.. . 


4,670 


Forest City . 


Rutherford 


1 090 


Forestville* 


Wake 


157 


Fountain.- _ 


Pitt 


243 

583 

773 

631 

1,058 

1,294 

555 

301 

376 

263 

12,871 




Four Oaks . 


Johnston. 


171 


Franklin.. _ . 


MacoD . . _ .. 


335 


Franklinsville 


Randolph . . 




Franklinton.. 


Franklin 


809 
951 
127 


761 


Fremont 


Wavne. _ .. . . 


435 


Fuquay Springs.. 


Wake ._, 




Garland 


Sampson . 




Garner Springs 


Wake 


28i 
169 
5,759 
203 
154 




Garysburg 


Northampton 


269 


Gastonia . 


Gaston 


4.610 


Gatesville* 


Gates. ... 


200 


Germantown. . 


Stokes. .... 


132 
264 

1,302 
346 
132 
90 
261 
130 
11,296 
239 

2,366 

1,101 

466 

19,861 

5,772 
375 
463 
296 
299 
474 

3,808 
175 


129 


Gibson _ 


Scotland 




Gibsonville 

Glen Alpine 


Alamance-Guilford 

Burke 


1,162 
308 
119 
102 
304 
126 

6,107 
240 

2,504 

381 

363 

15,895 

4,101 
291 
330 
209 
314 
452 

2,173 

205 

230 

140 

90 , 


521 
137 


Glenwood 


McDowell 




Godwin 


Cumberland . 




Gold Hill. 


Rowan .. 


514 


Gold Point 


Martin 


124 


G oldsboro 


Wavne 


5 877 


Goldston ... 


Chatham 




Graham 


Alamance .. 


2,052 

277 


Granite Falls 


Caldwell 


Granite Quarry 


Rowan . _ . 




Greensboro... . 


Guilford. 


10,035 

2 565 


Greenville 


Pitt 


Grifton.. . . 


Pitt 


229 


Grimesland 

Grover. 


Pitt. 

Cleveland 

Halifax 


277 
174 


Halifax 


306 


Hamilton 

Hamlet. 


Martin.. 

Richmond 

Rutherford . 


493 
639 


Hampton. 




Hardin Mills* 


Gaston. 


205 


Harrellsville. 


Hertford: 


131 

85 


109 


Hassell 


Martin . 











Towns marked * not listed in the U. S. Census, 1920 



Cities and Towns 



469 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS— Co«<mued 




City or Town 


County 


1920 


1910 


1900 




Clay 


257 

141 

484 

5,222 

3,720 

1,704 

5,076 

14,302 

1,062 

313 

172 

1,180 

336 

385 

333 

107 

294 

783 

495 

403 

833 

447 

224 






Havwoo-d - 


Chatham 


162 

428 

4,, 503 

2.818 

1,841 

3,716 

9,525 

487 

267 

140 

857 

165 

175 

261 

126 

204 

964 

443 

411 

.591 

398 

154 

124 

107 

.527 

505 

398 

60 

184 

799 

621 

111 

316 

270 

726 

1,128 

170 

2,218 

6,995 

242 

1,007 






Haywood . 






Vance 


3,746 
1,917 
1,382 
9 ,525 


TTpTiflorsonville 


Henderson _ - 


Hertford 


Perquimans 


TTifkorv 


Catawba . _._ 


High Point 


Guilford 


4 163 




Catawba.- .- .- 






Macon.. 


249 


l-ril(lpl)rancl 


Burke -.. 


109 






707 




Halifax 


122 


"Hoffman - - 


Richmond 


184 




Wake - 


219 


Hollyville .. 


Pamlico 








139 


TTonp Mills 


Cumberland 


881 






445 




Caldwell 






M eoklenburE 


533 














Ingold*_. 

Iron Station 




86 


Lincoln _ __ - 


223 
579 
656 
389 








441 


.Tapksonville 


Onslow - -- 


309 






235 










Ashe - 


196 
886 
787 
87 
223 
302 
827 

1,219 
113 

2,800 

9,771 
223 

1,399 
237 
972 
196 
262 

2,643 
774 

1,606 


230 






640 


.Tonpsville 


Yadkin 








127 


Kplford 


Bertie 


167 






271 






260 






652 






180 




Cleveland-Gaston 


2,062 




Lenoir 


4.106 


Kittrell 


Vance 


168 






853 












437 
203 
297 

2,322 
568 

1.127 
151 
153 

3,364 
279 
262 

4,163 
474 
386 
380 

2.413 




Laskcr 


Northampton _ - 


121 


Lattiniore 


Cleveland- _, 


108 


Laiirinburff 


Scotland 


1,334 










Rockinffhani 


688 




Beaufort 


100 


Ijpiopstfr* 


Buncombe . 




126 


Lenoir _. 

T.pwarae 


Caldwell... 

Richmond 


3,718 
424 
244 

5,254 
636 
440 
593 

3,390 
191 

1,010 


1.296 




Bertie 


163 


TjPxinffton 


Davidson . 


1 234 




Randolph - 


304 


Tjilesvillp 


Anson 


213 


Lillington .__ 


Harnett - 


65 




828 








Littleton 


Halifax-Warren 


1,152 





Towns marked * are not listed in tlie U. S. Census, 1920 



470 



Census 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS— Co/ihnued 




City or Town 


County 


1920 


1910 


1900 




Stanlv 


95 
755 

1,954 

1,151 
316 
202 

2,691 

1,162 
120 
219 
294 
149 

1,247 
694 

1,266 
141 
394 
99 
166 
147 
8i 

1,784 






Longview 




243 
1,775 
876 
266 
165 
2,230 
983 




Franklin. 


1,178 


Lowell 


Gaston _- 


290 


Tjiipn,ma 


Wilson -- 


236 


Lumber Bridge _ 


Robeson 

Robeson .- -- - 


181 

849 


ATo \dpnville 


Gaston 


1,144 








MoKfirlnnd 


Anson -- 


186 


112 








Macon 


Warren ._ 


189 
1,033 
653 
664 
220 
408 
52 


157 






813 


Magnolia 


Duplin .. . - 


454 






614 




Moore -_. 


176 


Manteo 


Dare _ 


312 


Manleton 


Hertford 




Marble 








Northampton 


107 


123 








Marion 


McDowell 


1,519 
225 
301 
802 
499 
396 
141 


1,116 




Pitt ..- 


111 


Mars Hill _ 


Madison 


364 
748 
828 
310 


289 


Marshall 


Madison ._ - . 


337 






349 






378 




Pitt 




M aury 


Greene 


61 

1,397 

1,886 

536 

1,351 

118 

183 

104 

697 

375 

197 

84 






Robeson, _ 


1,321 
874 
345 
693 
88 
74 
117 
467 
419 


935 


Mavoden 


Rockingham _ _ 


904 




Jones 


98 


Mebane 


Alamance-Orange.- .. 


218 


Merry Oaks 


Chatham 






61 


Middleburff 


Vance .- - - 


169 










Caswell 


490 








Mineral Springs - 

Mint Hill* 




86 
194 

1,063 
100 

4,082 
254 
198 

3,400 

2,039 

2,712 
151 
261 
498 

3,844 
723 
526 

1,071 
753 
347 
809 
977 
750 
160 




Mecklenburg 


192 


Mocksville 


Davie 


1,146 

136 
4,084 

167 

228 
4,315 
2,958 
2,867 

166 
88 

631 
4,752 

975 
1,160 
2,297 

770 


745 


M on pure 


Chatham 




Monroe 


Union 


2,427 




Mitchell 


219 


Mooresboro 


Cleveland 


144 


Mooresville 


Iredell 


1,533 






1,379 




Burke .- - 


1,928 


Morrisville 


W'ake 


100 


Mortimer 


Caldwell 






Anson 


447 


Mount Airy 


Surry 


2,680 




Montgomery . 


395 


Mount Holly 


Gaston 


630 






617 


Mount Pleasant 


Cabarrus -- - 


444 






450 


Murfreesboro __ 


Hertford 


621 

1.314 

939 

243 


657 


Murphy 


Cheroliee - .. 


604 


Nashville 


Nash - -- 


479 


Nebo _- _ . 


McDowell 





Towns marked * are not listed in the U. S. Census, 1920. 



Cities and Towns 



471 



POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS— Con<i;ii^ 


ed 




City or Town 


County 


1920 


1910 


1900 


New Hill*.... 


Wake 




95 




Newland... ... ... 


Avery 


289 

228 

12,198 

404 

3,021 

125 

673 

367 

2,363 

1,221 

282 

397 

49 

931 




New London 

New Bern 

Newport 

Newton 

Newton Grove 

Norlina 


Stanly 

Craven 

Carteret 

Catawba 

Sampson 

Warren 

Robeson 

Wilkes 


.312 
9,961 

321 

2,316 

73 


299 
8,090 

328 

1,583 

75 


North Lumberton 






North Wilkesboro. 


1,902 
928 


918 


Norwood 

Oakboro. . . . 


Stanly 

Stanly 

Martin 

Pitt 


663 


Oak Citv - . 


251 

57 
778 

94 

645 

214 

3,018 

154 

94 
324 

67 
219 
272 

86 
232 
628 
258 

62 
210 
652 
394 

92 
211 
412 
688 

58 

502 

2,165 

287 

227 

75 
354 
627 


115 


Oakley . 




Old Fort . . 


McDowell 

Chatham 


253 


Ore Hill* 




Oriental 


Pamlico _ 


607 

86 

3,606 

210 

103 

335 

76 

382 

355 

183 

196 

838 

329 


300 


Orrum. _ _ 


Robeson 

Granville 




Oxford . 


2,059 


Pactolus - 


Pitt 

Halifax 

Beaufort 

Sampson 

Robeson .. 


52 


Palmyra 

Pantego.. 


131 

253 


Parkersburg 

Parkton... . .. 


57 


Parmele 


Martin 


336 


Patterson. _ .. ... 


Caldwell 




Peachland 


Anson 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Northampton . 


156 


Pee Dee ... _ .. 




Pembroke .. . 




Pendleton* 


86 


Pikeville . 


Wayne... 


333 

707 

373 

165 

465 

332 

650 

166 

584 

1,847 

575 

339 

157 

403 

562 

204 

1,235 

27,076 

1,014 

1,967 

1,018 

5,333 

292 

835 

475 

177 

548 


168 


Pilot Mountain 


Surry 


710 


Pine Level . 




266 


Pine Bluff 


Moore 




Pinetops .. 


Edgecombe. 




Pinetown 


Beaufort 




Pineville 

Pink Hill 


Mecklenburg 


585 


Pittsboro.. 


Chatham 


424 


Plymouth 


Washington 

Anson... 


1,011 


Polkton... 


276 


Pollocksville 


Jones 


198 


Powellsville 


Bertie.. 


44 


Princeton 


Johnston 

Edgecombe 


281 


Princeville 


552 


Proctorville 






Raeford 


Hoke 


580 

19,218 

1,022 

1,950 

1,089 

4,828 

1,179 

370 

367 

210 

445 

147 

1,670 

122 




Raleigh . 


Wake 


13,643 


Ramseur 


Randolph. .. . 


769 


Randleman . _ _. 


Randolph . 


2,190 


Red Springs 


Robeson . 


858 


Reidsville. 


Rockingham 


3,262 






133 


Rhodhiss 


Caldwell . . 






Northampton 


232 


Richfield 


Stanly 


73 




Onslow.. 


160 


Ringwood* 


Halifax 


98 


Roanoke Rapids 


Halifax 


3,369 
119 


1,009 


Robbinsvillo. 


Graham 





Towns marked * are not listed in the U. S. Census, 1920. 



472 



Census 

POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOW SS— Continued 



City or Town 


County 


1920 


1910 


1900 


Roberdel. 


Richmond 

Martin 

Richmond 

Rowan 


476 

1.199 

2.509 

4.53 

12,742 

833 


422 

616 

2.155 
249 

8.051 
480 
170 
819 
364 
183 
145 
787 

1.425 
491 
437 
229 

1.062 
419 

5.. 533 




Robersonville. 


275 


Rockingham 


1 507 


Rockwell 




Rockv Mount 


Edgecombe-Nash 

Nash.. 

Wake - 


2,937 
605 
155 


Rocky Mount Mills. 

Rolesville* 


Roper 


Washington 

Duplin 

Sampson 

Transylvania. 


1,043 
516 
749 
527 
767 

1.651 
330 
442 
275 

1.693 

1,147 




Rose Hill.. 




Roseboro 


63 


Rosman .. 




Rowland 

Roxboro 


Robeson 

Person 

Bertie 

Wake . 


357 
1 O'l 


Roxobel.. . 


227 


Rovall Cotton Mills 




Rutherford College 


B urke 

Rutherford. 




Rutherfordton 


880 


St. Pauls.. 


Robeson . . . . .. 




Salemt 


Forsvth. 


3,642 


Salemburg. . 


Sampson 


215 

13.884 

549 

2,977 




Salisbury 


Rowan... . 


7.153 
235 

2,282 
136 

1,726 
280 


6,277 


Saluda . 


Polk.. 


211 


Sanford .. 


Lee 


1,044 


Saratoga* 


Wilson . 


123 


Scotland Neck ... _. 


Hahfax . 


2,06r 


1,348 


Seaboard*.. . 


Northampton. . 


287 


Seagrove., .. 


Randolph 


189 

1,601 

284 

174 

334 

3,609 

93 




Selma . ... _ 


Johnston .. 


1,331 


816 


Severn 


Northampton,. 




Shallotte... 


Brunswick 


139 
121 

3,127 
315 
308 
895 

1.347 
450 
238 


149 


Sharpsburg .. 


Nash .... 




Shelby 

Shelmerdine . 


Cleveland. 

Pitt 

Yadkin 


1,874 


Shore* 




Siler City... 


Chatham 

Johnston 

Greene 

Buncombe 

Beaufort 

Camden 

Anson 

Moore 

Brunswick 

Alleghany 


1.253 

1.895 

700 

245 

326 

373 

293 

743 

1.664 

159 

2.510 

1.221 

717 

157 

584 

424 

467 

7.895 

121 

245 

138 

179 

472 

218 


440 


Sniithfield 


764 


Snow Hill 


405 


South Biltmore 


312 


South Creek. . 




South Mills . 


390 
202 
542 

1.484 

199 

1.915 

1.246 




South Wadesboro 


'54 


Southern Pines. 


517 


Southport .- . 


1.336 


Sparta 


501 


Spencer.. 


Rowan 

Nash 

Mitchell 

Randolph. 

Gaston 

Wilson ... 




Spring Hope 


666 


Spruce Pine . 




Stale V 






Stanley. 


321 

204 

239 

4,599 


441 


Stantonsburg.- .. 




Star 


Montgomery. 

Iredell 

Cumberland 

Granville 

Pitt 

Guilford.... 

Rockingham 

Pamlico 

Union 


211 


Statesville . 


3.141 


Stedman.. 




Stem 






Stokes . . 


79 
159 
404 
161 

82 
305 
185 
390 
698 
418 
4.129 
662 




Stokesdale 




Stoneyille. 




Stonewall 

Stouts*... . 


168 


Stovall 


Gran\nlle 

Hyde 

Onslow 

Jackson 

Columbus 

Edgecombe. . 


414 
184 
420 
863 
782 
4.568 
1,122 




Swan Quarter . 




Swansboro 

Sylva 


265 
281 


Tabor 




Tarboro... • . . 


2,499 


Taylorsville 


Alexander 


413 



Towns marked * are not listed in the U. S. Census, 1920. 
tReported under Winston-Salem. 



Cities and Towns 

POPULATION OF CITIES AND TOW NS~Continued 



473 



City or Town 


County 


1920 


1910 


1900 


Teachevs . _ . .. 


Duplin '. 


164 
5,676 


154 

3,877 

269 




Thomasville . 




751 


Tillery' 


Halifax 


258 


Todd 


Ashe. -. 


92 




Toisnott 


Wilson 


590 


560 


Townsville 


Vance 


206 
488 
400 
342 

1,102 

1,067 
142 
146 
147 
156 
135 
540 
308 
467 
273 
189 
190 

2.648 
174 

1,425 






Jones. 


331 
.332 
230 
1,055 
700 
43 


338 


Trinity 


Randolph 


274 


Troutman . _ .- 


Iredell 




Troy 


M ontgomery 

Polk 


878 


Tryon 


324 




Hertford 




Turkey 


Sampson 

Hertford 

Rutherford 






139 
155 


176 


Union Mills . . . 




Unionville . 








Craven 


392 
296 
273 
420 
185 


291 


Vandemere _ 


Pamlico .. . . . 


169 


Vass. 


Moore 




Vaughan ._ 


Warren . 






Cleveland . 


160 


Wade 


Cumberland 

Anson 




Wadesboro . - 


2,376 


1.546 


Wagrani- 






Waive Forest- . 


Wake 


1,443 
287 
444 
215 
480 
127 
807 
723 

6,211 
169 
602 

2.008 
442 
227 

1,999 
759 
846 


823 


Wakefield* 


Wake 


142 






648 


218 


Walnut* - 


Madison 




Walnut Cove 




651 

158 

927 

1.108 

6.314 

181 

750 

1.942 

606 

74 

1.872 

1.239 

1.266 

462 


336 


W'alstonburg 


Greene 






Warren 


836 


Warsaw _. 




,576 


Washington , 


Beaufort 


4,812 


Watha 






Waxhaw.. ._ ._ 


Union . . 


752 


Waynesville 




1 . 307 


Weaverville 

Webster 


Buncombe 

Jackson ' ,_ 


329 


Weldon.--. 


Halifax 


1,433 


Wendell 


Wake _ 




West Hickory 


Catawba 


213 


West Jefferson . 






West Lumberton* 




231 

46 

755 

179 

1.368 

216 

45 

799 

53 

1,574 

25,748 

6,717 

684 

289 

353 

17,167 

484 

624 




Westray . ,. 


Nash - 


48 

723 

164 

1.664 

261 




Whitakers 




388 


Whitehall 




114 


Whiteville -^_ 

Whittier 


Columbus 

Jackson-Swain 

Wilson 


643 


Wilbanks .-- 


46 


Wilkesboro . 


Wilkes 


814 


635 


Williams*.. 


Yadkin 




Willi amston 

Wilmington 

Wilson . 


Martin 

New Hanover 

Wilson 


1,800 

33,372 

10,612 

1.210 

288 

470 

48,395 

650 

489 

193 

400 


912 

20,976 

3,525 


Wi n dsor. 

Winfall _ . _ 


Bertie. 


.597 
222 


Wingate . . . 






Winston-Salem 

Winterville 


Forsyth 

Pitt 


10.008 
243 


Winton 

Wood 


Hertford i... 

Franklin 


688 


Woodland 

Woodleaf* _ _ _. 


Northampton .._ 

Rowan _ 


312 
187 


242 


Woodville _. .- 


Bertie 

Randolph 

New Hanover 


381 

367 

20 




Wrightsville Beach 


393 
54 
130 
432 
338 
431 
483 


467 
22 


Yadkin College* 


Davidson . 


210 


Yadkinville _ 


Yadkin 


445 


292 


Yancevville ._ 






Youngsville . 


PVanklin _ _ 


414 
953 


345 


Zebulon 


Wake __ - 





Towns marked * are not listed in the U. S. Census, 1920. 
^Reported under Elm (^ity. 



474 



Census 



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477 



ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF NORTH CAROLINA 



The following tabic is copied by permission of the pubhshers from page 155 of the copy- 
righted pubhcation: Blue Book of Southern Progress, 1924. Published by Manufacturers 
Record, Baltimore, Md. 

Land area, 48, 740 square miles 



Population 

Manufacturers: 

Capital 

Production 

Mines and quarries: 

Capital 

Products 

Cotton mills: 

Spindles, active 

Looms, active 

Cotton used, pounds 

Pig iron made, tons 

Lumber cut, feet 

Mineral products, value 

Iron ore mined, tons 

Farm crops, value 

Cotton crop, bales 

Tobacco crop, pounds. _ 
Grain products: 

Corn, bushels 

Wheat, bushels 

Oats, bushels.^ 

Livestock: 

Cattle 

Sheep 

Swine. 

Railroad mileage 

National banks: 

Resources 

Capital 

Deposits 

Other banks, deposits.. 
Common schools, expen 

ditures 

Assessed value property 



1900 



1,803,810 

68,283,005 
85,274,083 



1,134,909 

25,469 

190,139,000 

^38,049 

,278,399,000 

1,458,848 
** 

68,625,000 

550,000 

127,503,400 

29,790,000 
5,961,000 
5,046,000 

625,000 

302,000 

1,300,000 

3,831 

15,362,182 
3,043,500 
7,477,057 
9,280,798 

950,300 
306,579,715 



1910 



2,206,287 

217,185.588 
216,656,055 

5,985,112 
1,358,617 

3,163.199 

55,000 

317,467,000 

•149,490 

1,824,722,000 

2,616,131 

65,278 

131,072,000 

706,000 

138,813,163 

49,200,000 
6,817,000 
4,022,000 

701,000 

214,000 

1,228,000 

4,932 

55,155,374 
8,010,000 
26,268.062 
41,240,000 

t2, 796. 000 
613,000.000 



1922 



669,144,000 
•943,808,000 



5,281,268 

74,043 

581,852,000 



936,248,000 

t5, 456, 479 

17,279 

344,842,000 

852,000 

252,500,000 

51,540.000 
5,400,000 
4,620,000 

639,000 

81.000 

1,195,000 

*5,522 

170,685,000 

13,340,000 

125,793,000 

182,246,000 

♦12,148,000 
2,576,338,000 



1923 



*2, 559, 123 



t665, 118,000 

♦2,250,434 
•2,744,583 

5,424.090 

76,974 

646,921,000 



$ tt7,268,000 

60,000 

$ 436,800,000 

1,020,000 

386,400,000 

.58,. 568, 000 
6,0.38,000 
5,082,000 

631,000 

82,000 

1,1.59.000 

t5,388 

$ 192.329.000 

$ 13,. 557, 000 

$ 125,170.000 

8 219.972,000 

S tt22,079,000 



•Census 1920. **Incluapd with Georgia. tl921. tl908. ttl922. ^Includes Missuori, 



PART XIII 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



1. Executive Officials. 

2. Justices of the Supreme Court, 

3. Senators and Representatives in Congress. 

4. Members of the Gteneral Assembly. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



EXECUTIVE OFFICIALS 

ANGUS WILTON McLEAN 

GOVERNOR 

Angus Wilton McLean, Democrat, of Robeson County, was born 
in Robeson County, April 20, 1870. Son of Archibald Alexander 
and Caroline (Purcell) McLean. Educated in McMillan Military 
School, Laurinburg High School, University of North Carolina 
(LL.B., 1892). Lawyer, formerly member of firm, McLean, Varser & 
McLean, Lumberton. President of National Bank of Lumberton, 
Robeson Development Company, McLean Trust Company, Atlantic 
Joint Stock Land Bank, Vice President Mansfield Cotton Mills, 
Jennings Cotton Mills. Chairman Robeson County Democratic 
Executive Committee, 1892. Member State Democratic Executive 
Committee, 1910-1921. Delegate to Democratic National Conven- 
tions, 1904 and 1912. Chairman Democratic Presidential Committee 
for North Carolina, 1912 and 1916. Member Democratic National 
Committee, 1916-1924. Director and Managing Director of War 
Finance Corporation, 1918-1922. Assistant Secretai-y of the Treasury 
of the United States in charge of customs and internal revenue 
(Wilson Administration). Member selective service Advisory Com- 
mittee, 1917 and 1918. General Counsel in North Carolina for 
Alien Property Custodian, 1919. Organized Red Cross and Liberty 
Loan work in Robeson County. Chairman of the trustees of Flora 
MacDonald College. Trustee University of North Carolina. Mem- 
ber American Bar Association, North Carolina Bar Association 
(ex president), Clan McLean Association of Glasgow, American 
Academy of Political and Social Science, Scottish Society of 
America (ex president), Sigma Chi. Presbyterian. Married Mar- 
garet French of Lumberton, April 14, 1904. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



31 



482 BlO(il{AI'HK'AL Skktches 

WILLIAM NASH ETERETT 

SKt^RETAIiY OK STATE 

William Nash Everett, Democrat, Secretary of State, was born in 
Rockingham, December 29, 1864. Son of William I. and Fannie 
(LeGrand) Everett. Attended Rockingham High School, 1882; 
University of North Carolina, 1886. Farmer and merchant. State 
Senator, 1917. Member House 1919, 1921, 1923. Appointed Secretary 
of State by Governor Morrison; elected, November 4, 1924. 
Methodist. Married Miss Lena Payne in 1888. Address: Raleigh, 
N. C. 



BAXTER DURHAM 

STATE AIDITOR 

Baxter Durham, Democrat, was born in Durham, N. C., August 
20, 1878. Son of Columbus and Lila (Walters) Durham. Attended 
public schools of Durham and Raleigh, 1884-1892; Raleigh Male 
Academy, 1892-1894; Wake Forest College, 1894-1895. Traveling 
Auditor, Department of State Auditor. Served as private, sergeant, 
captain and major in National Guard, 1907-1919. Elected State 
Auditor, November 2, 1920; reelected. November 4, 1924. Bairtist. 
Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



BENJAMIN RICE LACY 

STATE TREASURER 

Benjamin R. Lacy, Democrat, of Wake County, was born in 
Raleigh, N. C, June 19, 1854. Son of Rev. Drury and Mary Rice 
Lacy, and a grandson of the Revs. Drury Lacy and Benjamin H. 
Rice. Both his grandfathers, his father, his brother and his son 
were Presbyterian ministers, and he is an elder in the First Pres- 
byterian Church in the city of Raleigh. He attended the prepara- 
tory school of R. H. Graves, Graham, N. C, 1868; Bingham School, 
Mebane, N. C, 1869. Then served a regular apprenticeship as a 
machinist in the old Raleigh and Gaston shops, was general fore- 
man of these shops for four years and ran a locomotive engine for 
fifteen years. He is a member of Division No. 339, Brotherhood of 
Locomotive Engineers, was a delegate to three Grand Conventions 



Executive Officials 483 

of the B. of L. E. ; is a member of Manteo Lodge, ludepeudent Order 
of Odd Fellows, also of Walnut Creek Council, No. 55, Jr. 0. U. A. M. 
Is Past Worshipful Master of William G. Hill Lodge, No. 218, 
Raleigh, N. C, and Neuse Lodge, No. 97, Millbrook, N. C, A. F. & 
A. M., and is Grand Treasurer of the Grand Lodge. Was alderman 
of the city of Raleigh. State Commissioner of Labor and Printing 
for six years. Elected State Treasurer in 1900; reelected in 1904, 
1908, 1912, 1916, 1920, and 1924. Term expires 1928. Married, June 
27, 1882, to Miss Mary Burwell. They have seven children. Address: 
Raleigh, N. C. 



ARCH TURNER ALLEN 

SUPEKIXTENDEXT OF PXBLIC IXSTKl CTION 

Arch Turner Allen, Democrat, was born in Alexander County on 
January 10, 1875. Son of George J. and Mary Elizabeth (Campbell) 
Allen. Attended the one-teacher school at Rocky Springs. For 
one year was under the tutelage of Dr. Brantley York. Was prepared 
for college at the Vashti High School and the Patton School at 
Morganton. Graduated from the University of North Carolina in 
1897. Member of the Phi Beta Kappa and Phi Delta Kappa. Spent 
one term at Columbia University. Principal of the Statesville 
Public Schools, 1897-1904; principal Washington. N. C, Public 
Schools, 1904-1905; principal Dilworth School, Charlotte, 1905- 
1907; superintendent of the Graham City Schools. 1907-1910; super- 
intendent Salisbury City Schools, 1910-1917; meauber Text Book 
Commission, 1916; member State Board of Examiners and Institute 
Conductors, 1917-1919; secretary State Board of Examiners, 1919- 
1921; director Teacher Training, State Department of Education, 
1921-1923; appointed Superintendent of Public Instruction, June 11, 
1923, to fill unexpired term of Dr. Brooks; elected Superintendent 
of Public Instruction on November 4, 1924. Identified with the 
North Carolina Teachers' Assembly for many years. President of 
Department of City Superintendents in 1915; President of the 
N. C. Teachers Assembly in 1917; Secretary, 1919-1922. Married 
Miss Claribel McDowell, June 19, 1909. Two children. Arch 
Turner, Jr., and Elizabeth McDowell. Methodist: Jr. O. U. A. M. 



484 . Biographical Sketches 

DENNIS G. BRUMMITT 

attokney-gp:>"Ebal 

Dennis G. Brummitt, Democrat, of Granville County, was born on 
a farm in Granville County, February 7, 1881. Son of Thomas 
Jefferson and Caroline (Bradford) Brummitt. LL.B. of Wake 
Forest College, 1907. Secretary of Ganville County Democratic 
Executive Committee, 1908-1910; chairman, 1910-1914, 1922-1924. 
Member of State Democratic Executive Committee, 1913-1924. 
Mayor of Oxford, 1909-1913. Member Board of Town Commissioners, 
1913-1915. Representative in General Assembly, 1915, 1917, 1919; 
speaker of House of Representatives, 1919. Trustee Oxford Graded 
Schools, 1921-1925. Democratic Elector, 1920. Trustee of State 
College, 1923-1925. Trustee Wake Forest College, 1925. Elected 
Attorney-General, 1924. Mason. Odd Fellow. W. 0. W., M. W. A., 
Jr. O. U. A. M. Baptist. Married, June 25, 1912, Miss Kate Hays 
Fleming. Home address: Oxford, N. C. 



WILLIAM A. GRAHAM 
commissiojVer of agriculture 

William A. Graham, Democrat, of Lincoln County, was born at 
old Graham homestead in same county. Son of Major William A. 
and Julia (Lane) Graham. Attended Piedmont Seminary, Horner 
Military School, and University of North Carolina. Farmer. Presi- 
dent Lincoln County Farmers' Alliance. State Senator from the 
Twenty-fifth Senatorial District, session 1923, Legislature. Chair- 
man of Committee on Agriculture at that session. Appointed Com- 
missioner of Agriculture by Governor Morrison, December 26, 1923, 
to fill unexpired term of his father, deceased. Elected, November 
4, 1924, to succeed himself for a full term. Has been active in 
Democratic party all his life; been member of precinct executive 
committee since becoming twenty-one years of age, now chairman; 
member executive committee, Lincoln County, also of State Demo- 
cratic Executive Committee. K. of P. Baptist. Member executive 
committee National and Southern Associations of Commissioners 
of Agriculture. 



Executive Officials 485 

FRANKLIN DAVIS GRIST 

COMMISSIONER OF LABOR AND PRINTING 

Frank D. Grist, Democrat, was born at Lenoir, Caldwell County, 
July 23, 1891. Son of John Taylor and Mary Nancy (Davis) Grist. 
Elected Commissioner of Labor and Printing, 1924. Served in 
World War with First Regular Army division in France. Member 
House of Representatives, session 1923. Married in 1919 to Miss 
Jessie Deal. Two children. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



STACEY W. WADE 

INSURANCE COMMISSIONER 

Stacey W. Wade, Democrat, was born in Morehead City, N. C, 
August 18, 1875. Son of David B. and Sarah (Royal) Wade. At- 
tended public and private schools of home town. Assistant prin- 
cipal clerk of the State Senate, 1903-05-07-08 and 09; City Clerk, 1906- 
08; Director of the Bank of Carteret, 1907-09; Auditor and member 
Finance Committee Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad Company, 
1911-21; Chief Deputy Insurance Commissioner, 1909-21. Insurance 
Commissioner, ex officio Fire Marshal, January 1, 1921-25. Presi- 
dent Southern Group of Securities Commissioners 1923. President 
of the Fire Marshals Association of North America, 1924. Vice 
President National Association of Securities Commissioners, 1923. 
Member Executive Committee of the National Convention of In- 
surance Commissioners. Reelected for second term, 1924-1928. 
Knights Templar, Scottish Rite, Thirty Second Degree Mason. 
Methodist. Married Miss Clyde Mann, December, 1905; three chil- 
dren. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



RUFUS A. DOUGHTON 

COMMISSIONER OF REVENUE 

Rufus A. Doughton was born in Alleghany County, N. C, January 
10, 1857. Son of J. Horton and Rebecca (Jones) Doughton. Edu- 
cated at Independence (Va.) High School, 1876-1877; University 
of North Carolina. Studied law at University of North Carolina, 



486 Biographical Sketches 

1880. Lawyer, farmer, and banker. President of Bank of Sparta. 
Representative In the General Assembly, 1887, 1889, 1891, 1903, 
1907, 1909, 1911, 1913, 1915, 1917, 1919, and 1921. Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor, 1893-1897. Speaker of the House, 1891. Member of the State 
Highway Commission, but resigned that place upon entering upon 
his duties as Commissioner of Revenue to which he was appointed 
In January, 1923, by Governor Morrison. He was elected Com- 
missioner of Revenue, November 4, 1924. Mason. Methodist. Mar- 
vied, January 3, 1883, Miss Sue B. Parks. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



Justices of the Supreme Court 481 



JUSTICES OF THE SUPKEME COl KT 



WALTER PARKER STACY 

(lUEF JUSTICE 

Walter Parker Stacy was born in Ansonville, N. C, December 
26, 1884. Son of Rev. L. E. and Rosa (Johnson) Stacy. Attended 
Weaverville College (N. C), 1895-1898; Morven (N. C.) High 
School, 1899-1902; University of North Carolina, degree of A.B., 
1908; University of North Carolina Law School, 1908-1909. Mem- 
ber of North Carolina Bar Association. Represented New Hanover 
County in North Carolina General Assembly of 1915. Judge Superior 
Court, Eighth Judicial District, 1916-1920. Elected Associate Justice 
of the Supreme Court of North Carolina, 1920; appointed Chief 
Justice by Governor A. W. McLean, March 16, 1925, to succeed 
Chief Justice Hoke, resigned; nominated without opposition in the 
primary and elected to the same position for a term of eight years, 
1926. President General Alumni Association, University of North 
Carolina, 1925. Lecturer, University of North Carolina Summer 
Law School, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925; tendered deanship of the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina Law School, 1923. LL.D. (University of 
North Carolina, 1923). Lecturer, Northwestern University School 
of Law, Summer Session, 1926. Democrat. Methodist. Residence: 
Wilmington, N. C. Office: Raleigh, N. C. 



HERIOT CLARKSON 

ASSOCIATE JUSTICE 

Heriot Clarkson, Democrat, of Charlotte, N. C, was born at King- 
ville, Richland County, S. C, August 21, 1863. Son of Major William 
and Margaret S. (Simons) Clarkson. Educated at the Carolina Mili- 
tary Institute of Charlotte, University Law School at Chapel Hill. 
Licensed by the Supreme Court of North Carolina to practice law, 
1884. Immediately thereafter began the practice of law at Char- 
lotte, N. C. Alderman and Vice Mayor of Charlotte, 1887-88, same 
posts in 1891-92. In 1899 member of House of Representatives, 



488 Biographical Sketches 

known as "White Supremacy Legislature." City attorney of Char- 
lotte, 1901-04. Twice codified the city ordinances of Charlotte, in 
1887 and 1901; legal adviser under administration of Mayor T. L. 
Kirkpatrick. Solicitor of Twelfth Judicial District, 1904-10. Author 
of "The Hornet's Nest," appearing in the North Carolina Booklet of 
October, 1901. Delivered address to the Society of the Cincinnati 
on "The Heroic Incidents of the Life of General Francis Marion." On 
December 10, 1889, married Miss Mary Lloyd Osborne, of which 
union were born nine children. Mason; life member Lodge No. 31, 
A. F. and A. M. at Charlotte; Noble of the Mystic Shrine (Oasis 
Temple) ; Knight of Pythias; Jr. O. U. A. M. Member the Society of 
Sons of the Revolution, Society of the Cincinnati, and the Huguenot 
Society of South Carolina. At one time was lieutenant of the 
Hornet's Nest Riflemen of Charlotte. Thirty odd years director 
in the Charlotte Y. M. C. A. One of the original founders of 
the Crittendon Home and the Mecklenburg Industrial Home for 
Women. For many years a director of the Chamber of Commerce 
and "Made in the Carolinas" Exposition. Chairman Anti-Saloon 
League when the saloon was voted out of Charlotte, July 5, 1904. 
Also President Anti-Saloon League when the saloon and distillery 
were voted out of the State on May 27, 1908. Governor Robt. B. 
Glenn presented him with the pen with which he signed the Pro- 
hibition proclamation. Trustee State Association Y. M. C. A. of 
North Carolina. Was Chairman of the Good Roads Association 
Committee that drafted the tentative good roads act passed by the 
Legislature of 1921 substantially as drawn. He drafted the Meck- 
lenburg Drainage Act and was the leader in establishing the Bel- 
mont Vocational School at Charlotte, the first of its kind in the 
State. Episcopalian; built St. Andrew's Chapel in Charlotte; 
vestryman and senior warden of St. Peter's Protestant Episcopal 
Church for many years. Appointed Justice of the Supreme Court 
of North Carolina by Governor Morrison, May 26, 1923; elected, 
November 2, 1926. Residence: Charlotte, N. C. Office: Raleigh, N. C. 



JiUSTICES OF THE SuPREME CoURT 489 

GEORGE WHITFIELD CONNOR 

ASSOCIATE JUSTICE 

George W. Connor was born on October 24, 1872, at Wilson, N. C. 
Son of Henry Groves and Kate Whitfield Connor. Prepared for col- 
lege by Rev. B. S. Bronson, Wilson, N. C; University of North 
Carolina, class 1892, A.B. Member of House of Representatives 
from Wilson County, 1909, 1911, 1913; Speaker of House of Repre- 
sentatives, 1913. Judge Superior Court, 1913-1924. Appointed by 
Governor Morrison Associate Justice of the Supreme Court; elected 
at election of 1924. 



WILLIAM JACKSON ADAMS 

ASSOCIATE JUSTICE 

William Jackson Adams, Democrat, Associate Justice of the Su- 
preme Court, was born at Rockingham, January 27, 1860. Son of 
Rev. S. D. and Mary (Jackson) Adams. A.B., University of Nortn 
Carolina, 1881; LL.D., 1924. Two-year law course at the Univer- 
sity; admitted to the bar in 1883 and began practicing at Carthage. 
Member of the North Carolina House of Representatives in 1893; of 
the State Senate in 1895, and of the Board of Internal Improvements, 
1899-1901. Appointed by Governor Glenn as Judge of the Superior 
Court for the unexpired term of Judge Walter H. Neal in December, 
1908; elected to the same office in 1910 and in 1918 for a term each 
of eight years. Resigned in September, 1921, upon appointment by 
Governor Morrison as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court to 
fill the unexpired term of Justice W. R. Allen, deceased; elected to 
same office in 1922 for the unexpired term, and in 1926 for a full 
term. Member of the American and State Bar Associations. Mar- 
ried Miss Florence Wall, of Rockingham. Methodist. Home ad- 
dress: Carthage, N. C; office, Raleigh, N. C. 



4UU Bl<)(iKAPHl('AL SkKTCHES 

WILLIS JAMES BROGDExNT 

ASSOCIATE JUSTICE 

Willis James Brogden, Democrat, Associate Justice of the Su- 
preme Court, was born in Goldsboro, October 18, 1877. Son of Wil- 
lis H. and Virginia (Robinson) Brogden. Attended Goldsboro 
Graded Schools. 1891-1894; Ph.B.. University of North Carolina, 
1898; Trinity College and University Law School. Licensed to 
practice in 1907. Member American and North Carolina Bar As- 
sociations. Mayor of Durham, 1911-1915. A. F. & A. M.; Past 
Master Durham Lodge No. 352; Member Kiwanis Club. Appointed 
by Governor McLean as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court to 
iill the unexpired term of Judge Varser; elected to same office for 
the unexpired term, November 2, 1926. Baptist. Married Miss 
Lila Markham, January 9, 1917. Address: Durham, N. C. 



Members of Congress 491 



irxiTKD STATES SENATORS 



FURNIFOLD McLENDEL SIMMONS 

F. M. Simmons, Democrat, of New Bern, Craven County, was born, 
January 20, 1S54, in the county of Jones. Educated at Wake Forest 
College and at Trinity College, graduating at Trinity College with 
the degree of A.B., in June, 1873. Was admitted to the bar in 1875, 
and practiced the profession of law until his election to the United 
States Senate in 1901. In 1886 was elected a member of the 
Fiftieth Congress from the Second Congressional District of North 
Carolina. In 1893 was appointed Collector of Internal Revenue for 
the fourth (the eastern) Collection District of North Carolina, and 
served in that office during the term of Mr. Cleveland. In the cam- 
paigns of 1892, 1898, 1900, 1902, 1904 and 1906, was chairman of the 
Democratic Executive Committee of the State. LL.D. of Trinity 
College, N. C, 1901; University of N. C, 1915. He was elected to 
the United States Senate to succeed Marion Butler, Populist, for 
the term beginning March 4, 1901, and reelected in 1907, and again in 
1913, having been chosen in the Democratic primary, November 5, 
1912, over two opponents, Governor W. W. Kitchin and Chief Justice 
Walter Clark; Chairman of Finance Committee in the Sixty-third. 
Sixty-fourth and Sixty-tifth Congresses during Democratic control 
of the United States Senate. One of the authors of the Underwood- 
Simmons Tariff Act of 1913-1921, and of the revenue measures 
which provided for the financing of the World War on the part of 
the United States. In 1918, reelected to the Senate for term, 
March 4, 1919 to March 3, 1925. Led the Democrats of the Senate 
in their great fights against the Republican Revenue Bills and the 
Fordney-McCumber Tariff Bill in 1921 and 1922. Member of 
Democratic National Senatorial Committee in campaign of 1922, 
and was offered its chairmanship but declined it. Author of the 
Simmons plan (Income Tax Rates now the law) adopted by the 
Republican Congress of 1924, defeating the Mellon plan proposed by 
the President and Secretary of the Treasury Mellon. Is now the 



492 Biographical Sketches 

senior Democratic member of the United States Senate in length of 
service, and is ranking minority member of the committee on 
Finance, member of the Steering Committee, the Committee on 
Commerce, Committee on Irrigation and Reclamation, and of other 
committees of the Senate. Was honored with the vote of North 
Carolina for the presidency of the United States in the Democratic 
National Convention of 1920. Was chosen as North Carolina mem- 
ber of the Democratic National Committee at the Democratic Na- 
tional Convention of 1924. Reelected to the Senate for his fifth 
term (1925-1931) without opposition in his party. His majority 
in the general election, November 7, 1924, over his Republican op- 
ponent, was 111,011, the largest ever given in North Carolina to 
a Senatorial candidate. 



LEE SLATER OVERMAN 

Lee Slater Overman, Democrat, of Salisbury, was born January 3, 
1854, in Salisbury, Rowan County. Graduated at Trinity College, 
North Carolina, with the degree of A.B., June, 1874; the degree 
of M.A. was conferred upon him two years later. Since that time 
the degree of LD.B., also degree of LL.D. conferred by the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina in 1917; also LL.D. conferred by Davidson 
College, North Carolina, in 1922. Taught school two years. Was 
private secretary to Governor Zebulon B. Vance in 1877-78; private 
secretary to Governor Thomas J. Jarvis in 1879. Began the practice 
of law in his native town in 1880; was five times a member of the 
Legislature, sessions of 1883, 1885, 1887, 1893 and 1899. Was the 
unanimous choice of his party and elected Speaker of the House 
of Representatives, session of 1893. Was president of the North 
Carolina Railroad Company in 1894. Was the choice of the Demo- 
ci-atic caucus for United States Senator in 1895, and defeated in 
open session by Hon. Jeter C. Pritchard, through a combination of 
Republicans and Populists. Was president of the Democratic State 
convention in 1900 and 1911. For ten years a member of the Board 
of Trustees of the State University; is also trustee of Trinity Col- 
lege. Was chosen Presidential Elector for the State-at-large in 
1900. Married Miss Mary P. the eldest daughter of United States 



Members of Congress 493 

Senator (afterwards Chief Justice) A. S. Merrimon, October 31, 
1878. Was elected to the United States Senate to succeed Hon. 
Jeter C. Pritchard, Republican, for the term beginning March 4, 1903, 
and reelected in 1909; was elected on November 3, 1914, for a third 
term, being the first Senator elected to the United States Senate by 
dirct vote of the people of his State. Elected on the 2d day of 
November, 1920, for a fourth term; reelected November 2, 1926, 
for a fifth term. 



KEPEE.SE> TATIVES I\ CONGBESS 

LINDSAY CARTER WARREN 

(First District — Counties: Beaufort, Camden, Chowan, Currituck, 
Dare, Gates, Hertford, Hyde, Martin, Pasquotank, Perquimans, Pitt, 
Tyrrell and Washington. Population (1920) 206,137.) 

Lindsay Carter Warren, Democrat, was born at Washington, N. C, 
December 16, 1889. Son of Charles F. and Elizabeth Mutter (Blount) 
Warren. Received his preparatory education at Bingham School, 
Asheville, 1903-1906. Student University of North Carolina, 1906- 
1908, Law School, U. N. C, 1911-1912. Admitted to the bar, Febru- 
ary, 1912. Chairman Democratic Executive Committee of Beaufort 
County, 1912-1925. County Attorney of Beaufort County, 1912-1925. 
State Senator, 1917 and 1919. President 2»o tempore State Senate, 
1919. Member Code Commission compiling Consolidated Statutes, 
1919. Representative from Beaufort County, 1923. Trustee Uni- 
versity North Carolina, 1921-1925. Director First National Bank of 
Washington. Member Alpha Tau Omega (College) fraternity. Elk. 
Episcopalian. Married Miss Emily D. Harris, February, 1916; three 
children. Elected to Sixty-Ninth Congress, and reelected to Seven- 
tieth Congress, without Republican opposition. 



JOHN HOSEA KERR 

(Second District — Counties: Bertie, Edgecombe, Greene, Halifax, 
Lenoir, Northampton, Warren and Wilson. Population (1920) 
233,111.) 



494 Biographical Sketches 

John Hosea Kerr, Democrat, of Warrenton, was born at Yancey- 
ville, N. C, December 31, 1873. Son of Capt. John H. Kerr, of the 
Confederate Army, and Eliza Katherine (Yancey) Kerr. Was a 
student in Bingham School, and graduated from Wake Forest 
College, North Carolina, with degree of A.B., in 1895; studied law 
and was admitted to the bar in 189.5, when he moved to Warrenton 
and entered upon the practice of his profession. Married Miss 
Ella Foote, of Warrenton, and they have two sons — John Hosea and 
James Yancey. Elected Solicitor of the Third District and served 
eleven years; while solicitor, was elected Judge of the Superior 
Court and served seven years. While serving on the bench, was 
nominated for Congress to succeed Hon. Claude Kitchin, deceased, 
and was elected at a special election held November 6, 1923, only 
one vote being cast against him. Reelected to the Sixty-ninth 
Congress, November 4, 1924, and unopposed for election to the 
Seventieth Congress. 



CHARLES LABAN ABERNETHY 

(Third District — Counties: Carteret, Craven, Duplin, Jones, 
Onslow, Pamlico, Pender, Sampson and Wayne. Population, 202,760.) 

Charles Laban Abernethy, Democrat, from the Third District, 
was born at Rutherford College, N. C, March 18, 1872. He is the 
son of Rev. Turner Abernethy and Martha Ann Scott Abernethy. 
He was educated at Mount Olive preparatory schools, Rutherford 
College, and the Law School of the University of North Carolina. 
Lawyer. Member of the Kiwanis Club of New Bern and New 
Bern Chamber of Commerce. County Attorney of Carteret County, 
1896. Presidential elector, 1900 and 1904. Solicitor Third and 
Fifth Judicial Districts for about twelve years. Elected to the 
Sixty-eighth and Sixty-ninth Congresses. Reelected to Seventieth 
Congress, November 2, 1926. Odd Fellow, K. of P., B. P. O. E., 
Red Men, Jr. 0. U. A. M., Woodman of the World, Mason, Shriner. 
Methodist. Married Miss Minnie May, in 1895. Has one son, 
Charles L. Abernethy, Jr., now practicing law with him. 



Members of Congress 495 

EDWARD WILLIAM POU 

(Fourth District — Counties: Chatham, Franklin, Johnston, Nash, 
Vance and Wake. Population, 238,594.) 

Edward William Pou, Democrat, of Johnston County, was born 
at Tuskegee, Ala., September 9, 1863. Son of E'dward W. and Anna 
Maria (Smith) Pou. Was married to Carrie Haughton Ihrie in 
1887 and has three living children. Presidential Elector in 1888. 
Elected Solicitor of the Fourth Judicial District of North Carolina 
in 1890, 1894 and 1898. Elected to the Fifty-seventh, Fifty-eighth, 
Fifty-ninth, Sixtieth, Sixty-first, Sixty-second, Sixty-third, Sixty- 
fourth, Sixty-fifth, Sixty-sixth, Sixty-seventh, Sixty-eighth and Sixty- 
ninth Congresses. Reelected to Seventieth Congress, November 2, 
1.926. Address: Sraithfield, N. C. 



CHARLES MANLY STEDMAN 

(Fifth District — ^Counties: Alamance, Caswell, Durham, Forsyth, 
Granville, Guilford, Orange, Person, Rockingham, Stokes, Surry. 
Population, (1920) 408,138.) 

Charles Manly Stedman, Democrat, of Greensboro, N. C, was born 
January 29, 1841, in Pittsboro, N. C. He entered the University of 
North Carolina at the age of sixteen, and graduated from that insti- 
tution in 1861. He received his diploma, but before the commence- 
ment exercises responded to a call for volunteers and enlisted as a 
private in the Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry Company, 
which was in the First North Carolina (or Bethel) Regiment. 
Upon the disbanding of this regiment, he joined a company from 
Chatham County; was lieutenant, then captain, and afterwards 
major. He served with Lee's Army during the entire war, and was 
wounded three times. Surrendered at Appomattox. Immediately 
after the war he read law and procured his license to practice. 
On January 8, 1866, he married Miss Katherine deRossett Wright, 
daughter of Joshua G. Wright, of Wilmington, N. C. In 1867 he 
moved to Wilmington and practiced law under the firm name of 
Wright & Stedman. In 1880, was chosen a delegate to the Demo- 
cratic National Convention. Was elected Lieutenant-Governor in 
1884, holding the position until the expiration of the term. In 1888, 



496 Biographical Sketches 

after a prolonged contest, he was defeated for Governor by a very 
small majority. In 1898, moved to Greensboro and practiced law 
under the firm name of Stedman & Cooke. Served as president of 
the North Carolina Bar Association.- In 1909, was appointed by 
Governor Kitchin as director of the North Carolina Railroad Com- 
pany, and afterwards elected its president. Was elected to the 
Sixty-second Congress, and reelected to the Sixty-third, Sixty-fourth, 
Sixty-fifth, Sixty-sixth, Sixty-seventh, Sixty-eighth and Sixty-ninth 
Congresses. Reelected to Seventieth Congress, November 2, 1926. 



HOMER LeGRAND LYON 

{Sixth I)ist7-ict — ^Counties: Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus, Cura- 
berland, Harnett, New Hanover and Robeson. Population 223,434). 

Homer LeGrand Lyon, Democrat, of Whiteville, was born March 
1, 1879, in Elizabethtown. Educated at Davis Military School and 
the University of North Carolina. Licensed to practice law in Sei^ 
tember, 1900. Had been Solicitor of the Eighth Judicial District 
for seven years preceding his election to Congress. Elected to 
the Sixty-seventh, Sixty-eighth, Sixty-ninth Congresses. Reelected 
to the Seventieth Congress. Married Miss Kate M. Burkhead in 
1904. 



WILLIAM C. HAMMER 

(Seventh District — Counties: Anson, Davidson, Davie, Hoke, Lee, 
Montgomery, Moore, Randolph, Richmond, Scotland, Union, Wilkes 
and Yadkin. Population, 295,917.) 

William C. Hammer, Democrat, was born in Randolph County, 
March 24, 1864. Son of William C. and Hannah Jane (Burrows) 
Hammer. Educated in the public schools, Yadkin College, Western 
Maryland College, University of North Carolina Law School. Law- 
yer. Member American Bar Association; North Carolina Bar Asso- 
ciation; National Editorial Association; North Carolina Press Asso- 
ciation. Mayor of Asheboro. Town Commissioner. County Superin- 
tendent of Schools. Solicitor Tenth, afterwards the Fifteenth Ju- 
dicial District, of North Carolina. United States Attorney Western 



Members of Congress 497 

District of North Carolina. Delegate from North Carolina to Demo- 
cratic National Convention, 1896,- at Chicago. Delegate-at-large to 
Democratic National Convention at Baltimore, 1912. President 
North Carolina Press Association, 1914-1915. Elected to the 67th, 
68th and 69th Congresses. Reelected to the 70th Congress, Novem- 
ber 2, 1926. Mason, Odd Fellow, Jr. O. U. A. M.. Woodman of the 
World. Methodist. Married Miss Minnie Lee Hancock, 1893. Ad- 
dress: Asheboro, N. C. 



ROBERT LEE DOUGHTON 

{Eighth Z)isf?-ici— Counties : Alexander, Alleghany, Ashe, Cabar- 
rus, Caldwell, Iredell, Rowan, Stanly and Watauga. Population, 
217,254.) 

Robert L. Doughton, Democrat, Laurel Springs, was born at 
Laurel Springs, November 7, 1863. Educated in the public schools 
and at Laurel Springs and Sparta High Schools Farmer and stock 
raiser. Appointed a member of the Board of Agriculture in 1903. 
Elected to the State Senate from the Thirty-fifth District in 1908. 
Served as a director of the State Prison from 1909 to 1911. Elected 
to the Sixty-second, Sixty-third, Sixty-fourth, Sixty-fifth, Sixty-sixth, 
Sixty-seventh, Sixty-eighth and Sixty-ninth Congresses. Reelected 
to the Seventieth Congress. 



ALBERT LEE BULWINKLE 

Ninth District — Counties: Mecklenburg, Gaston, Cleveland, Lin- 
coln, Catawba, Burke, Madison, Mitchell, Yancey and Avery. Popu- 
lation, 297,996. 

A. L. Bulwinkle, Democrat, Gastonia, born April 21, 1883. At- 
tended school in Dallas. Studied law at the University of North 
Carolina. Lawyer. Member of the firm of Bulwinkle & Cherry. 
Prosecuting Attorney in the Municipal Court of the city of Gas- 
tonia, 1913-1916. Nominated for the State Senate, withdrew on 
account of being in the military service on the Mexican Border. 
Captain, First Infantry, N. C. N. G., 1909-1917. Major, commanding 

32 



498 EioGRAPHirAL Sketches 

Second Battalion, 113th F. A.. 55th F. A. Brigade, 30th Division, 
1917-1919. Married Miss Bessie Lewis', 1911; two children. Elected 
to the Sixty-seventh, Sixty-eighth, and Sixty-ninth Congresses. Re- 
elected to the Seventieth Congress. 



ZEBULON WEAVER 

{Tenth District — Counties: Buncombe, Cherokee, Clay, Graham, 
Haywood, Henderson, Jackson, McDowell, Macon, Polk, Ruther- 
ford, Swain, Transylvania. Population, 231,483.) 

Zebulon Weaver, Democrat, of Buncombe County, was born in 
Weaverville, May 12, 1872. He is the son of W. E. and Hannah E. 
(Baird) Weaver. A.B. of Weaverville College, 1899. Studied law 
at the University of North Carolina, 1894. Lawyer. Represented 
Buncombe County in the General Assembly of North Carolina in 
1907 and 1909. State Senator, 1913 and 1915. After a close contest 
with James J. Britt, Republican, in 1916, was declared elected Rep- 
resentative in the Sixty-fifth Congress. Was elected to the Sixty- 
sixth, Sixty-seventh, Sixty-eighth, Sixty-ninth and Seventieth Con- 
gresses. Methodist. Married Miss Annie Hyman of New Bern. 
Has five children. Address: Asheville, N. C. 



State Senatoes 490 



MEMBERS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMMLV 



SENATORS 

JACOB ELMER LONG 

PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE 

Jacob Elmer Long, Democrat, Lieutenant Governor, was born in 
Yanceyville, July 31, 1880. Son of Jacob A. and Esta T. Long. 
Educated at Graham College, 1888-1890; Elon College, 1891-189.5; 
Horner Military School, 1896-1898; University of North Carolina, 
1900-1903. LL.B., University of North Carolina, 1903. Lawyer. 
Chairman Congressional Executive Committee, Fifth District, 1912- 
1917. Private Secretary to Charles M. Stedman, Member of Con- 
gi-ess from Fifth North Carolina District, 1912-1916. Representa- 
tive in General Assembly from Alamance County, 1911-1913. Sen- 
ator Eighteenth District, 1917 and 1921. Elected Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor, November 4, 1924. Fraternal Orders: Sigma Nu Fraternity 
(college); Omega Tau Legal Fraternity (college); Order of Sphinx 
(college). Presbyterian. Married, November 10, 1909, Miss Lessie 
Ermine Peay. Address: Durham, N. C. 



EDWARD STEPHENSON ASKEW 

(Third District — Counties: Bertie and Northampton. One Sena- 
tor.) 

Edward Stephenson Askew, Democrat, Senator from the Third 
Senatorial District, was born in Windsor, February 17, 1874. Son of 
Richard Watson and Elizabeth (Webb) Askew. Attended Windsor 
Academy and Norfolk Academy, Randolph Macon College, and the 
University of North Carolina, A.B. 1899, cwm laude. Attended Uni- 
versity Law School and was licensed to practice law in 1907. 
Farmer and Banker. Member Windsor Chamber of Commerce; 
Secretary Peanut Congress, Jamestown Exposition; President Citi- 
zens Bank of Windsor; Manager Roanoke-Chowan Telephone Com- 
pany; Ex-Mayor of Windsor; Chairman Bertie County Democratic 
Executive Committee; Member N. C. Fisheries Commission Board. 



oi)0 Biographical Sketches 

Odd Fellow; Phi Delta Theta; Gorgon's Head. Episcopalian; ves- 
tryman. Married Miss Nellie Ashburn Bond, July 15, 1919. Ad- 
dress: Merry Hill, N. C. 



JOHN LEMON BAILEY 

{Sixth District — Counties: Franklin, Nash and Wilson. Two 
Senators.) 

John L. Bailey, Democrat, Senator from the Sixth Senatorial 
District, was born in Wilson County, 1850. Son of Birt and Mahala 
(Braswell) Bailey. Attended public gchool in Wilson County, 1866. 
Farmer, banker and merchant. Justice of the Peace, 1871. Mem- 
ber House of Representatives, 1883, 1915, 1917. State Senator, 1925. 
Mason — Worshipful Master and all the other offices in Masonic 
Lodge. Presbyterian. Married Miss Emma Braswell, 1881. Ad- 
dress: Elm City, N. C. 



MARVIN KEY BLOUNT 

(Fifth District — County: Pitt. One Senator.) 

Marvin K. Blount, Democrat, Senator from the Fifth Senatorial 
District, was born at Bethel, March 18, 1892. Son of Marion Or- 
lando and Florence Blount. Attended Culver Military Academy, 
Culver, Indiana. A.B., 1914. University of North Carolina, 1914- 
1916; LL.B., 1916. Lawyer. Member N. C. Bar Association and 
Kiwanis Club. Director and attorney for Bank and Building and 
Loan Association. Chairman Pitt County Democratic Executive 
Committee, 1924-1926. Special Agent U. S. Department of Justice, 
1918. Member Phi Delta Theta Fraternity. Shriner. Methodist, 
chairman board of stewards, 1926. Married Miss Ruth Elizabeth 
Baldwin, January 22, 1920. Address Greenville, N. C. 



JOSEPH MELVILLE BROUGHTON 

(Thirteenth District — Counties: Wake, Chatham and Lee. Two 
Senators. ) 



State Senators 501 

Joseph M. Broughton, Democrat, Senator from the Thirteenth 
Senatorial District, was born in Raleigh, November 17, 1888. Son 
of Joseph Melville and Sally Elizabeth (Harris) Broughton. At- 
tended Raleigh Public Schools and Hugh Morson Academy; A.B., 
Wake Forest College, 1910; Harvard Law School, 1912-1913. 
Lawyer. Member Wake County Bar Association, North Carolina 
Bar Association and American Bar Association. Chairman Wake 
County Democratic Executive Committee, 1916-1918; City Attorney, 
1921-1923; Member Raleigh Township School Committee, 1925-1926. 
Mason; member Jr. O. U. A. M. Baptist; Deacon; Superintendent of 
Sunday School; Married Miss Alice Harper Willson, December 14, 
1916. Three children. Address: Raleigh, N. C. 



CLARENCE CALL 

{Ticeiity-foxirth District — Counties: Davie, Wilkes and Yadkin. 
One Senator.) 

Clarence Call, Republican, Senator from the Twenty-fourth Sena- 
torial District, was born in Wilkesboro, April 7, 1869. Son of Isaac 
Slater and Martha (Masten) Call. Attended Wilkesboro School and 
Moravian Falls Academy. President and General Manager Oak 
Furniture Company. Merchant. Farmer. Banker. Sheriff and 
Treasurer Wilkes County, 1S94-1898. Member Board of Elections, 
twenty-five years. Mason; Knight of Pythias. Episcopalian — Vestry- 
man, church treasurer, Junior and Senior Warden. Married Miss 
Sallie Green Cook, of Greensboro, December 4, 1901. Delegate Re- 
publican National Convention at Cleveland, 1924. Address: Wilkes- 
boro, N. C. 



CLAUDE CARL CANADAY 

(Eighth District — Counties: Johnston and Wayne. Two Sen- 
ators ) . 

Claude Carl Canaday, Democrat, Senator from the Eighth Sen- 
atorial District, was born in Johnston County, January 8, 1S90. Son 
of John Henry and Lucy D. (Williams) Canaday. Attended Benson 
High School, 1908-1911; University of North Carolina, 1911-1912; 



502 Biographical Sketches 

University Law School, 1912-1914. Lawyer and Farmer. Member 
North Carolina Bar Association. Kiwanis Club. Mayor of Benson, 
1918. Married Miss Willie Duncan, September 12, 1915. Address: 
Benson, N. C. 



WADE HAMPTON CHILDS 

(Tiventy-fifth District — Counties: Catawba, Iredell and Lincoln. 
Two Senators.) 

Wade H. Childs, Democrat, Senator from the twenty-fifth Sena- 
torial District, was born in Lincolnton, May 31, 1890. Son of C. 
E. and Katie (Motz) Childs. Attended Lincolnton Graded Schools. 
Entered University of North Carolina in 1908. Attended University 
Law School. Lawyer. City attorney for Lincolnton, 1913-1923; re- 
elected in September, 1926. Government appeal representative as 
attorney on the Local Exemption Board during the World War. 
Sigma Chi, U. N. C, Mason; Shriner. Presbyterian. Married Miss 
Miriam B. Johnstone, March, 1914. Address: Lincolnton, N. C. 



W. G. CLARK 



{Fourth District — Counties: Edgecombe and Halifax. Two Sen- 
ators). 

W. G. Clark, Democrat, from Edgecombe County, Senator from 
the Fourth District. Address: Tarboro, N. C. 



CLAUDE CURRIE 

{Eighteenth District — Counties: Davidson, Montgomery, Rich- 
mond, and Scotland. Two Senators.) 

Claude Currie, Democrat, Senator from the Eighteenth Senatorial 
District, was born in Candor, December 8, 1890. Son of J. C. and 
Louise (McKinnon) Currie. Attended Oak Ridge Institute, 1911- 
1914; University of North Carolina, 1914-1917; 1923-1926; A.B., 
LL.B., 1926. Lawyer. Sergeant United States Army, 1917-1919. 
Mason. Phi Delta Phi. Presbyterian. Address: Troy, N. C. 



State Senators 503 

FRANK LEMUEL DUNLAP 

(Nineteenth District — Counties: Anson, Stanly and Union. Two 
Senators.) 

Frank L. Dunlap, Democrat, Senator from the Nineteenth Sena- 
torial District. Born at Wadesboro, Anson County. Son of Joseph 
I. and Charlotte B. (Bennett) Dunlap. Educated at Horner's Mili- 
tary School, 1902-1903-1904; University of North Carolina, LL. B., 
1908. Lawyer and farmer. Civitan. Clerk of Superior Court, An- 
son County, 1910. Solicitor Recorder's Court, Anson County, 1911- 
1914. Senator General Assembly, 1921 and 192.5. Served in World 
War, 1917-19; First Lieutenant Infantry, U. S. A., A. E. F. Epis- 
copalian. Address: Wadesboro, N. C. 



PLATO DURHAM EBBS 
(Thirty-first District — County: Buncombe. One Senator.) 
Plato Durham Ebbs, Democrat, Senator from the Thirty-first 
Senatorial District, was born in Madison County. Son of Jasper 
and Tolitha (Flemmons) Ebbs. Wholesale grocer. Director Ashe- 
ville Chamber of Commerce and Merchants Association. Repre- 
sentative from Madison County, 1915-1917; in Senate, 1923-24 and 
1925. United Commercial Travelers. B. P. 0. E. Married Miss 
Katie Sprinkle, December, 1903. Address: Asheville, N. C. 



HORATIO THOMAS FULTON 

(Twenty-seventh District — Counties: Cleveland, Henderson, Mc- 
Dowell, Polk and Rutherford. Two Senators.) 

Horatio Thomas Fulton, Democrat, Senator from the Twenty- 
seventh Senatorial District, was born in Kings Mountain, March 4, 
1874. Son of Horatio Decalb and Sarah Beattie (Dixon) Fulton. 
Attended county public schools, 1880-1886; Kings Mountain High 
School until 1892; Brown School of Embalming in 1921. Funeral 
director. President North Carolina Funeral Directors' Association. 
Member Board of Aldermen, Kings Mountain, 1906-1908; member 
school board, 1908-1910; County Commissioners, 1912-1918, chairman 



504 Biographical Sketches 

from 1914-1918. Private in Bell's Military School, Kings Mountain, 
1887. Knight of Pythias, Mason, Blue Lodge, Royal Arch, Knight 
Templar; Worshipful Master Masons, 1912-1916; Chancellor Com- 
mander Knights of Pythias. Methodist— Steward, 1902-1926; Sun- 
day school Superintendent, 1918-1926. Married Miss Sarah Salina 
Baker, November 30, 1898. Address: Kings Mountain, N. C. 



LEMUEL CLAYTON GRANT 

(Ninth District — Counties: Duplin, Pender, Nevi' Hanover and 
Sampson. Two Senators). 

Lemuel Clayton Grant, Democrat, Senator from the Ninth Sen- 
atorial District, was horn in Wilmington, January 17, 1882. Son of 
Reuben and Elizabeth (McMillan) Grant. Attended Wilmington 
Public Schools, 1889-1901; University of North Carolina, 1901-1902; 
University Law School, 1907. Lawyer. Member Wilmington and 
North Carolina Bar Associations. Chairman Committee Four Min- 
ute Men, New Hanover County, 1917-1918; Chairman Committee 
Public Instruction, 1917-1918. Representative from New Hanover 
County in the General Assemblies of 1917 and 1919. Mason, Knighl 
of Pythias; Chancellor Commander Stonewall Lodge No. 1, Knights 
of Pythias, 1910. Baptist. Married Miss Margaret E. Montgomery, 
November 24, 1908; three children, Margaret, Elizabeth and Eleanor. 
Address: Wilmington, N. C. 



FRANK LUTTRBLL GRIER 

{Ticenty- fifth District — Counties: Catawba, Iredell and Lincoln. 
Two Senators.) 

Frank L. Grier, Democrat, Senator from the Twenty-fifth Sena- 
torial District, was born in Statesville, October 24, 1898. Son of 
H. P. and Marietta (Leinster) Grier. Attended Statesville High 
School, 1914-1917 and Marion Military Institute, 1917-1918; U. S. 
Military Academy. West Point, and University of North Carolina. 
University Law School, 1920-1922. La^\^er. Member Iredell 
■County Bar Association and North Carolina Bar Association. Ki- 



State Senators 505 

wanian. Attorney for City of Statesville, 1922-1926. Cadet Marion 
Military Institute; R. 0. T. C. and United States Military Academy. 
Alpha Tau Omega (social) and Phi Delta Phi (legal) fraternities. 
Associate Reform Presbyterian. Married Miss Juliet Bristol, 
November 21, 1925. Address: Statesville, N. C. 



FRANKLIN WILLS HANCOCK, JR. 

(Fifteenth District — Counties: Granville and Person. One Sen- 
ator.) 

Franklin Wills Hancock, Jr., Democrat, Senator from the Fif- 
teenth Senatorial District, was born in Oxford, November 1, 1894. 
Son of Franklin Wills and Lizzie (Hobgood) Hancock. Attended 
Horner Military School and Warrenton High School and the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina. Lawyer. Member North Carolina Bar 
Association; Oxford Rotary Club. Mason; Sudan Temple, A. A. 
O. N. M. S.; Kappa Alpha Fraternity. Baptist. Married Miss Lucy 
Osborne Landis, May 12, 1917. Address: Oxford, N. C. 



J. S. HARGETT 



., (Seventh District — Counties: Carteret, Craven, Greene, Jones, 
Lenoir and Onslow. Two Senators.) 

J. S. Hargett, Democrat, Senator from the Seventh Senatorial Dis- 
trict, was born May 28, 1874. Attended Richland High School and 
University. Married twice, first wife Olivia Steed, of Richland. 
Of this union six children, four living. Second wife, Mrs. Susan 
Koonce Burt. No children by this union. Methodist — Steward and 
District Lay Leader. Sheriff Jones County, twelve years. Chair- 
man County Democratic Executive Committee since 1916. Member 
State Executive Committee. Mason — Shriner. State Senator since 
1921. Address: Trenton, N. C. 



CLYDE PEEBLES HARRIS 

(Sixth District — Counties: Franklin, Nash and Wilson. Two 
Senators.) 



506 Biographical Sketches 

Clyde Peebles Harris, Democrat, Senator from the sixth Sena- 
torial District, was born in Franklin County, September 19th, 1864. 
Son of Col. Harville and Roxanna (Daniel) Harris. Attended Louis- 
burg Academy, 1880-1881, and rural schools. Farmer. Was Direc- 
tor and Vice President of Farmers and Merchants Bank, Louisburg, 
for many years and in January, 1920, was made President. Bap- 
tist. Church treasurer, 1905-1920. Married Miss Annie Fleming in 
1891. State Senator in 1923. Address: Mapleville, N. C. 



FAB J. HAYWOOD 

(Twentieth JJlstrirt — Counties: Cabarrus and Mecklenburg. Two 
Senators). 

Fab J. Haywood, Democrat, from Cabarrus County, Senator from 
the Twentieth District. Address: Concord, N. C. 



CHARLES ANDERSON HINES 

{Seventeenth District — Counties: Guilford and Rockingham. 
Two Senators.) 

Charles A. Hines, Democrat, Senator from the Seventeenth Sena- 
torial District, was born in Guilford County, February 14, 1886. 
Son of E. D. and Isabel (Wright) Hines. Attended Jefferson 
Academy, Elon College; University of North Carolina Law School. 
1907-1908. Member North Carolina and American Bar associations. 
Director Greensboro Chamber of Commerce. City Attorney, 1917- 
1922. Emergency Judge Superior Court, 1925. Chairman Guilford 
County Democratic Convention, 1908, 1916, 1918. Member State 
Democratic Executive Committee, 1916-1926. Mason, Junior Order; 
Woodmen of World; Moose. Delegate to National Convention of 
Woodman of World, 1917-1927 inclusive. Methodist; Steward; 
Teacher Bible Class. Author Extension Charter of Greater Greens- 
boro, 1923. Married Miss Ida Winstead, November 12, 1912. Three 
children. First president Greensboro Civitan Club; leader in 1922- 
1925, Building and Loan Campaign; director in several business 
companies. Lawyer; member firm of Hines, Kelly & Boren. Ad- 
dress: Greensboro, N. C. 



State Senators 507 

WILLIAM BANKS HORTON 

(Sixteenth District — Counties: Alamance, Caswell. Durham and 
Orange. Two Senators.) 

William B. Horton, Democrat, Senator from the Sixteenth Sena- 
torial District, was born at Corning, Kansas, November 20, 1879. 
Son of Thomas and Mary Ellen (Wilkins) Horton. Attended 
Chapel Hill High School; University of Chicago Law School, 1915- 
1916; Wake Forest College Law School, 1922-1923. Lawyer. 
Twenty years in Navy, resigning with the rank of Lieutenant, July 
20, 1921. Veteran of Spanish American and World War. Cited 
for meritorious service by Federal Government. Mason. Shriner. 
Methodist. Address: Yanceyville, N. C. 



WILKINS FERRYMAN HORTON 

(Thirteenth Senatorial District — Counties: Chatham, Lee and 
Wake. Two Senators.) 

Wilkins Ferryman Horton, Democrat, of Chatham County, Sena- 
tor from Thirteenth District, was born at Kansas City, Kansas, 
September 1, 1889. Son of Thomas B. and Mary E. (Wilkins) 
Horton. Was educated in the public schools of Chatham County; 
Draughn's Business College, 1910-1911. University of North Caro- 
lina, 1912-1914. Lawyer. County Attorney from 1916-1919 and from 
1924-1926. Chairman of Democratic Executive Committee of Chat- 
ham County. Senator from Chatham, 1919. Mason. Methodist. 
Married Miss Cassandra C. Mendenhall, June 12, 1918. 



JAMES LEE HYATT 

(Thirtieth District— Counties: Avery, Madison, Mitchell and 
Yancey. One Senator). 

James Lee Hyatt, Republican, of Yancey County, Senator from 
the Thirtieth District, was born at Burnsville, March 14, 1865. Sou 
of Jason L. and Sarah Eliza (McClelland) Hyatt. Was educated 
at Burnsville Academy, 1899. Real estate dealer. County Super- 



508 Biographical Sketches 

intendent of Schools. State Senator, 1899, 1911, and 1919. Mason; 
Odd Fellow; Knight of Pythias. Methodist. Married Miss Mav- 
garite C. Griffith, June 12, 1892. Four children. Address: Burns- 
ville, N. C. 



RIVERS DUNN JOHNSON 

(Ninth District — Counties: Duplin, New Hanover, Pender and 
Sampson. Two Senators). 

Rivers Dunn Johnson, Democrat, Senator from the Ninth Sen- 
atorial District, was born in Wilson, December 29, 1885. Son of 
Seymour Anderson and Annie E. (Clark) Johnson. Educated at 
James Sprunt Institute, Warsaw High School and Wake Forest. 
Attended Wake Forest Law School, 1908, 1909. Lawyer. Member 
American Bar Association, North Carolina Bar Association, and 
Duplin County Bar Association. Mayor Warsaw, 1909-1910. State 
Senator, 1911, 1915, 1923. Cadet, First Officers Training Camp. 
Fort Oglethorpe, Ga. Thirty-second Degree Mason — Scottish Rite 
Bodies; Shriner— Sudan Temple: Jr. 0. U. A. M.; Eastern Star. 
Member Warsaw Rotary Club. Master Masonic Lodge, 1911-1915; 
Councilor. Jr. O. U. A. M., two years; President Shrine Club, 1919- 
1926; President Rotary Club, 1926-1927. Episcopalian. Married 
Miss Olivia R. Best, May 23, 1921. Address: Warsaw, N. C. 



LLOYD J. LAWRENCE 

(First District — Counties: Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Gates, 
Hertford, Pasquotank and Perquimans. Two Senators.) 

Lloyd J. Lawrence, Democrat, Senator from the First Senatorial 
District, was born at Murfreesboro, in 1871. Son of James N. and 
Mary Elizabeth (Pruden) Lawrence. Attended Murfreesboro High 
School, 1883-1888; Murfreesboro Military Academy, 1888-1890; Uni- 
versity of North Carolina Law School, 1890-1892. Lawyer. Mem- 
ber State Bar Association, Commei'cial Law League of America. 
President of Citizens Bank, 1911-1919; President of the First Na- 
tional Bank of Murfreesboro, 1919-1922; Mayor of Murfreesboro, 
1893-1901; Chairman of Board of Education; Chairman Board of 



State Senators 509 

Elections; County Attorney; Town Attorney; Representative in 
General Assembly of 1901 and 1923. Supervisor first North Caro- 
lina District, 1920 Census. Methodist. Married in 1895, to Miss 
Eva Alberta Eldridge; in 1919 to Miss Olive B. Vinson. Address: 
Murfreesboro, N. C. 



WILLIAM LUNSFORD LONG 

{Fourth District — Counties: Halifax and Edgecombe. Two 
Senators.) 

William Lunsford Long, Democrat, of Halifax County, Senator 
from the Fourth District, was born February 5, 1890, at Garysburg. 
Son of Lemuel McKinney and Bettie Gray (Mason) Long. A.B. 
of the University of North Carolina, 1909. Lawyer and Manufac- 
turer. Director of First National Bank of Roanoke Rapids, and 
Rosemary Banking and Trust Company of Rosemary. President of 
the Rosemary Manufacturing Company, and Vice President and 
Treasurer of the Roanoke Mills Company, of Roanoke Rapids. Rep- 
resentative in the General Assembly, 1915. State Senator, 1917- 
1919, 1921, 1923. S. A. E. (College Fraternity), Gimghoul, Phi 
Beta Kappa of University of North Carolina. Mason; K. of P. 
Married Miss Rosa Arrington Heath of Petersburg, Va. President 
pro tern of North Carolina Senate, 1921 and 1923. Trustee of the 
University of North Carolina. Address: Roanoke Rapids, N. C. 



DANIEL ALLEN McDONALD 

(Twelfth District — Counties: Hartnett, Hoke, Moore and Ran- 
dolph. Two Senators.) 

Daniel A. McDonald, Democrat, Senator from the Twelfth Sena- 
torial District, was born at Currieville, Moore County, June 13, 1851. 
Son of Allan and Mary Ann (Mclver) McDonald. Attended old 
field school at Currieville, and Commercial College, at Lexington, 
Ky., 1874. Farmer. Mason. Shriner. County Surveyor, 1878-1879. 
Clerk Superior Court, 1886-1906. Representative in the General 
Assembly of 1909 and Senator in 1911 and 1923. Director of Insane 
Asylum, six years. President Bank of Carthage at one time and 



510 BioGRAiMiicAL Sketches 

of the Randolph and Cumberhind Railroad. Presbyterian; deacon, 
ISSG-1'JUU; elder since 1900. Married Miss Ida Ann Martin in 1884. 
Address: Carthage, N. C. 



GEORGE B. McLEOD 
{Eleventh District — County: Robeson. One Senator). 
George B. McLeod, Democrat, Senator from the Eleventh Dis- 
trict. Senator in 1913. Address: Lumberton, X. C. 



PETER THURMAN McNEILL 

(Tiventy-ninth District — Counties: Alleghany, Ashe, Watauga. 
One Senator.) 

Peter Thurman McNeill, Democrat, Senator from Twenty-ninth 
District, was born in Jefferson, 1896. Son of P. G. and Cynthia Alice 
(McMillan) McNeill. Attended Jefferson High School, finished in 
1916; King College, Bristol, Va. ; Berea College, Berea, Kentucky. 
Farmer and merchant. Member Ashe County Commercial Club. 
Appointed by Judge Webb of the Federal Court as United States 
Commissioner, February, 1925, for a period of six years. Primitive 
Baptist. Married, September 22, 1918, Miss Martha Ellen Fletcher, 
Somerset, Kentucky. President Jefferson Democratic National Club; 
Campaign Manager of Governor A. W. McLean for Ashe County. 
Address: West Jefferson, N. C. 



DONALD McRACKAN 

(Tenth District — Counties: Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus and 
Cumberland. Two Senators). 

Donald McRackan, Democrat, Senator from the Tenth District, 
was born in Columbus County, in 1866. Educated at Wake Forest 
College. Studied law at Greensboro under Judge Robert P. Dick 
and John H. Dillard. Lawyer. Representative in the General 
Assembly, 1907 and 1917. State Senator, 1915. Married Miss Ada 
:McKeithan. Address: Whiteville, N. C. 



State Senators 511 

SAMUEL OSCAR MAGUIRE 

{Twenty-third District — Counties: Stokes and Surry. One Sen- 
ator). 

Samuel Oscar Maguire, Republican, Senator from the Twenty-third 
District, was born in Madison, Dorchester County, Maryland, Feb- 
ruary 10, 1863. Son of Edwin Oscar and Julia Francis (Williams) 
Maguire. Attended High School, Dorchester County, Maryland, and 
Baltimore City College. Traveling salesman. Member of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, 1919, 1921. Elkin Lodge, No. 545, A. F. &. K. M.; 
North Wilkesboro Chapter Royal Arch Masons, No. 78; Piedmont 
Commandery No. 6, Winston-Salem; Oasis Temple, Charlotte, 
A. A. O. N. M. S.; Jr. O. U. A. M. Held every office in Masonic 
Lodge and elected to Master station twice. Methodist. Married, 
August 20, 1910, Miss Rebecca Emeline Bray. Address: Elkin, N. C. 



CLAYTON MOORE 

(Second District — Counties: Beaufort, Dare, Hyde, Martin, Pam- 
lico, Tyrrell and Washington. Two Senators.) 

Clayton Moore, Democrat, Representative from Martin County, 
was born at Williamston in 1888. Son of James E. and Jane 
Sykes) Moore. Attended Williamston High School; Oak Ridge 
Institute; A. and M. College; Virginia Polytechnic Institute, and 
University of North Carolina Law School. Attorney. Member State 
Bar Association. Representative from Martin County in General 
Assembly of 1921, 1923, 1925. Mason. B. P. O. E. Episcopalian- 
member of vestry. Married Miss Jennie Swanner in 1914. Address: 
Williamston, N. C. 



J. CLYDE RAY 



(Sixteenth District — Counties: Alamance, Caswell, Durham and 
Orange. Two Senators.) 

J. Clyde Ray, Democrat, Senator from the Sixteenth Senatorial 
District. Born in Orange County, February, 1890. Son of John W. 
and Lila (Williams) Ray. Attended Hillsboro High School, 1909- 
1912; University of North Carolina, graduating in 1916 with A.B. 



'>}2 Biographical Sketches 

degree. Attorney. Member North Carolina Bar Association. Private 
in the Army from September 7, 1918, to January 7, 1919. Methodist 
—Steward, 1916-1922. State Senator from the Sixteenth District in 
1923. Married Miss Mamie E. Brown, 1918. Address: Hillsboro, 
X. C. 



ROBERT J. ROANE 

(Thirty-third District — Counties: Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Macon, 
Swain. One Senator.) 

Robert J. Roane, Democrat, Senator from the Thirty-third Dis- 
trict, was born in Macon County, May 30, 1860. Son of William and 
Mary (Munduy) Roane. Attended Franklin common schools. 
Merchant. Sheriff of Swain County, 1910-1914; Member Board of 
Education of Swain County since 1922. Mason. Methodist. Married 
Miss Mary Lewellyn Siler, October 1, 1884. Address: Whittier, N. C. 



KENNETH CLAIBORNE ROYALL 
(Eighth District — Counties: Johnston and Wayne. Two Senators.) 
Kenneth Claiborne Royall, Democrat, Senator from the Eighth 
Senatorial District, was born in Goldsboro, July 24, 1894. Son of 
George C. and Clara Howard (Jones) Royall. Attended Goldsboro 
City Schools, Episcopal High School, Alexandria, Va., 1909-1911. 
University of North Carolina, A.B. 1914; Harvard Law School, LL.B., 
1917. Lawyer. Member North Carolina Bar Association, Amer- 
ican Bar Association, Harvard Law School Association, Harvard 
Law Review Association and American Law Institute. Associate 
Editor Harvard Law Revieiv, 1915-1917. United States Field Ar- 
tillery, May, 1917 to February, 1919; A. E. F., August, 1918 to Febru- 
ary, 1919, 1st Lieutenant F. A. Mason; J. 0. U. A. M.; Rotarian; 
Delta Kappa Epsilon. Episcopalian; vestryman since 1924. Married 
Miss Margaret Best, August 18, 1917. Two children, Kenneth C. Jr., 
and Margaret. Address: Goldsboro, N. C. 



Statk Senators 513 

JOSEPH WATERS RUARK 

{Tenth District — Counties: Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus and 
Cumberland. Two Senators.) 

Joseph' Waters Ruark, Democrat, Senator from the Tenth Sena- 
torial District. Born at Southport in 1885. Son of J. B. and Sallie 
(Longest) Ruark. Attended Southport Academy and Law School 
of the University of North Carolina. Attorney. Member of South- 
port Chamber of Commerce. Elected Attorney for Brunswick 
County, 1922; Mayor of Sanford, 1911-1912; Mayor of Southport, 
1915-1921; Recorder for 'Brunswick County, 1921-1922. State Senator 
1923, Jr. 0. U. A. M.; Past Master Pythogoras Lodge No. 249, A. f! 
& A. M. Methodist. Married Miss Bessie Cross in 1911. Address: 
Southport, N. C. 



NEILL McKAY SALMON 

{Twelfth, District — Counties: Harnett, Hoke, Moore and Randolph. 
Two Senators.) 

Neill McK. Salmon, Democrat, Senator from the Twelfth Sena- 
torial District, was born in Lillington, July 20, 1887. Son of Silas 
A. and Mary Louise (McKay) Salmon. Attended Bingham Military 
School, Asheville, 1913-1915; University of North Carolina, and 
graduated from Trinity College Law School, 1920. Lawyer. Mem- 
ber North Carolina and American Bar associations. Solicitor for 
Harnett County, 1922-1924; Secretary Democratic Executive Com- 
mittee, Harnett County, 1922-1926. Student officer in United States 
Naval Aviation Forces during World War. Mason — held all offices; 
Worshipful Master Lillington Lodge, June, 1926; Jr. O. U. A. M. 
Presbyterian. Address: Lillington, N. C. 



J. CHESLEY SEDBERRY 

(Eighteenth District — Counties: Davidson, Montgomery, Rich- 
mond and Scotland. Two Senators.) 

J. Chesley Sedberry, Democrat, Senator from the Eighteenth 
Senatorial District, was born near Troy, Montgomery County, De- 
cember 13, 1889. Son of John W. and Ellen (Morris) Sedberry. 
33 



514 Biographical Sketches 

Attended country public schools until 1909; Wadesboro High School, 
1909-1912. Attended the University of North Carolina, 1914-1916. 
Lawyer. Member North Carolina and Richmond County Bar Asso- 
ciations. Attorney for town of Rockingham, 1920-1925. Methodist. 
Married Miss Lottie Brigman, June 1, 1916. Address: Rocking- 
ham, N. C. 



JAMES MBRRITTE SHARP 

(Seventeenth District — Counties: Guilford and Rockingham. Two 
Senators.) 

James M. Sharp, Democrat, Senator from the Seventeenth Sena- 
torial District, was born in Rockingham County, September 26, 
1877. Son of James M. and Eliza (Merritte) Sharp. Educated in 
public schools of Rockingham County, Whitsett Institute, Wake 
Forest College Law School. Was a teacher in the public schools of 
the State for several years. Founder and president for seven years 
of Sharp Institute, a private school in Rockingham County. Lawyer 
Kiwanian, Mason, Deputy National Councillor of Junior Order 
United American Mechanics for State of Georgia. Second Lieuten- 
ant, Home Guards, during World War. County Attorney of Rock- 
ingham County. Member State Senate from Seventeenth Senatorial 
District, 1925. Married Miss Annie Britte Blackwell in 1906. 
Address: Reidsville, N. C. 



DAVID BAIRD SMITH 

{Twentieth Diatrict — Counties: Cabarrus and Mecklenburg. Two 
Senators.) 

David Baird Smith, Democrat, Senator from the Twentieth Sena- 
torial District, was born in Greensboro, March 2, 1876. Son of John 
Y. and Delphina Elizabeth (Kersey) Smith. Attended Greensboro 
Public Schools, 1882-1893; Ph.D., University North Carolina, 1897; 
University Law School, 1901. Lawyer. Member North Carolina 
Bar Association. Member Charlotte School Board, 1904-1908; Re- 
corder, City of Charlotte, 1909-1913; Assistant U. S. District Attor- 
ney, 1919-1920: Democratic County Chairman. Elk; Jr. O. U. A. M. 
Methodist. Married Miss Esther Lotton, of Springfield, Ohio, July 
19, 1919. Address: Charlotte, N. C. 



State Senators 515 

WHITMAN ERSKINE SMITH 

{Nineteenth District — Counties: Anson, Stanly and Union. Two 
Senators.) 

Whitman Erskine Smith, Democrat, Senator from the Nineteenth 
Senatorial District, was born in Norwood, February 13, 1896. Son 
of R. L. and Ora (Burgess) Smith. Attended Webb School, Bell 
Buckle, Tennessee, 1910-1913; Morgan School, Fayetteville, Tenn., 
1914-1915. Entered Trinity College in 1915 and graduated from the 
Law School in 1921. Lawyer. Member North Carolina Bar Asso- 
ciation. Prosecuting attorney for Stanly County Court, 1922-1926. 
United States Navy, 1918-1919. Methodist. Address: Albemarle, 
N. C. 



J. F. SPAINHOUR 

{Twenty-eighth District — Counties: Alexander, Burke, and Cald- 
well. One Senator). , 

J. F. Spainhour, Democrat, from Burke County, Senator from the 
Twenty-eighth District. Representative in the General Assembly 
of 1911. Address: Morganton, N. C. 



CARROLL BAXTER SPENCER 

{Second District — Counties: Beaufort, Dare, Hyde, Martin, Pam- 
lico, Tyrrell and Washington. Two Senators.) 

Carroll B. Spencer, Democrat, Senator from the Second Sena- 
torial District, was born at Fairfield, April 23, 1888. Son of F. F. 
and Alice (Harris) Spencer. Educated at Fairfield Academy until 
1905; University of North Carolina, A.B. degree, 1910; U. N. C. Law 
School, 1909-1910, fall of 1910. Summer Law School, Wake Forest 
College, 1911. Lawyer. Member North Carolina Bar Association. 
Chairman Democratic Executive Committee, 1914. State Senator, 
1925. Mason— Shriner, Sudan Temple. Odd Fellow. Methodist. 
Married Miss Lucile Mann, 1913- Address: Swan Quarter. N. C. 



516 Biographical Sketches 

THOMAS STRINGFIELD 

{Thirty-Second District — Counties: Haywood, Jackson and Tran- 
sylvania. One Senator.) 

Thomas Stringfield, Democrat, Senator from the Thirty-second 
District, was born at Mossy Creek, Tennessee, March 18, 1872. Son 
of W. W. and Maria (Love) Stringfield. Attended Waynesville 
schools, Emory and Henry College, Trinity College, and the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina; M.D., Vanderbilt University, 1898. 
Banker; President Citizens Bank and Trust Co., Waynesville. Mem- 
ber Haywood County Medical Society and the North Carolina Medi- 
cal Society. Mayor of Waynesville, 1899-1905. Member North Caro- 
lina National Guard, thirty years; First Lieutenant, N. C. Volunteer 
Infantry, Spanish American War; Major and Inspector General, 
World War; Colonel and Inspector General, North Carolina National 
Guard. Mason; Knight of Pythias: Knight Templar; Odd Fellow; 
Woodman of the World. Methodist. Married Miss Mary Elizabeth 
Moore, 1906. Address: Waynesville, N. C. 



L. P. TAPP 



(Seventh District — Counties: Carteret, Craven, Greene, Jones, 
Lenoir and Onslow. Two Senators.) 

L. P. Tapp, Democrat, Senator from the Seventh Senatorial Dis- 
trict. Born in Orange County, October, 1869. Son of RutRn R. and' 
Malissa (Dunnagan) Tapp. Educated in the free schools and Cald- 
well Institute. Tobacconist. Town Alderman at Kinston for six 
years. President of the Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad. 
State Senator, 1923, 1925. Methodist. Married Miss Lillie Laws. 
Address: Kinston, N. C. 



ROBERT LEE WHITMIRE 

{Ttcenty-seventh District — Counties: Cleveland, Henderson, Mc- 
Dowell, Polk and Rutherford. Two Senators.) 

Robert L. Whitmire, Democrat, Senator from the Twenty-seventh 
Senatorial District, was born in Brevard, January 21, 1898. Son 
of W. P. and Annie Colman (Floyd) Whitmire. Attended Brevard 



State Senators 517 

and Hendersonville High Schools; University of North Carolina; 
University Law School, 1919-1921. Member Henderson County Bar 
Association. Secretary Democratic Executive Committee of Hen- 
derson County, 1922. Chairman Henderson County Board of Elec- 
tions, 1922-1924. Hendersonville City Attorney. 1923-1924. Delegate 
Democratic National Convention, 1924. Sergeant U. S. A. and 
A. E. F., April, 1917 to February, 1919. Mason; K. of P. Lodge. 
Chancellor Commander K. of P. Lodge, 1922-1923. Baptist. Married 
Miss Ii'ene Louise Jones, July 30, 1925. One child, Robert Lee Jr. 
Address: Hendersonville, N. C. 



BUXTON BARKER WILLIAMS 

(Fourteenth Dlstriet — Counties: Vance and Warren. One Senator.) 
Buxton B. Williams, Democrat, Senator from the Fourteenth 
Senatorial District, was born in Ridgeway, April 27, 1881. Son of 
Dr. Thomas B. and Lucy (Jerman) Williams. Attended Graham's 
High School, 1889-1898. A.B., University of North Carolina, 1902; 
Law School, 1904-1905. Lawyer. President Kiwanis Club; Director 
Bank of Warren and of Federal Land Bank, Columbia, S. C. County 
and city attorney, 1910 and 1926. Trustee University of North 
Carolina. Methodist. Married Miss Sue P. Williams, September 4, 
1911. Address: Warrenton, N. C. 



PATRICK HENRY WILLIAMS 

(First District — Counties: Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Gates, 
Hertford, Pasquotank and Perquimans. Two Senators.) 

Patrick H. Williams, Democrat, Senator from the First Senatorial 
District, was born in Camden County, 1869. Son of Robert and 
Marenda (Torksey) Williams. Attended Elizabeth City Schools 
till 1886; Davis's Military School at LaGrange, 1886-1888. Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, 1888-1889; Smith's Business College, 1899, 
at Lexington, Ky. ; Randolph-Macon College, 1892-1896, A.B. degree. 
Law School of the University of North Carolina, 1897. Banker. 
Manager, Secretary-Treasurer Elizabeth City Hosiery Company, 



518 Biographical Sketches 

1902-1918. Director First National Bank, Elizabeth City, 1900-1917. 
President Savings Bank and Trust Company, Elizabeth City, 1916 
to the present time. Director Atlantic Joint Stock Land Bank, 
Raleigh. Alderman, 1921. District Supervisor under Revaluation 
Act, 1919-1920. Kappa Alpha. Odd Fellow— office holder. Methodist 
— Superintendent Sunday school. Board of Stewards, Board of Trus- 
tees, Lay Leader, and Teacher. Member State Senate, 1923 and ' 
1925. Chairman Senate Finance Committee, 1925. Member Ad- 
visory Budget Committee, 1925-1926. Married, 1891, Miss Minnie 
White; in 1898, Miss Ella Kramer. Address: Elizabeth City, N. C. 



ALBERT EDGAR WOLTZ 
{Twenty-sixth District — County: Gaston. One Senator.) 

Albert Edgar "Woltz, Democrat, Senator from the Twenty-sixth 
Senatorial District, was born at Dobson, August, 1877. Son of 
Dr. John R. and Louisa J. (Kingsbury) AVoltz. Received his 
preparatory education at Dobson High School, 1893-1895, and Siloam 
Academy, 1895-1897. Attended the University of North Carolina, 
1897-1901; Central University, 1905-1907; A.B. and A.M., and the 
University Law School, 1909-1911. Member Gaston County and 
American Bar Associations. Mayor Granite Falls, 1902. Member 
Board of Directors, Chamber Commerce, City of Gastonia, 1919-1920; 
Board of Trustees University of North Carolina since 1919; City 
School Board of Gastonia, 1912-1916; Board of Directors Gaston 
Mutual Building and Loan Association, 1919-1920; Legal Advisory 
Board for Gaston County, 1917-1919; Board of Directors of Gaston 
County Fair Association, 1916-1920; Congressional Executive Com- 
mittee, Ninth District, 1920. Superintendent Granite Falls Graded 
Schools, 1901-1902; Lenoir Graded Schools, 1903-1907; Goldsboro 
Graded Schools, 1907-1909. Bursar of University of North Caro- 
lina, 1909-1912. Mason. I. 0. O. F.; Noble Grand, 1919; Grand 
Guardian, 1920; Deputy Grand Master, 1922; Red Men; Knights of 
Pythias; Past Councilor, Jr. 0. U. A. M.; Kiwanian. Methodist- 
Steward, 1914-1926. Vice President Alba Cotton Mill. 1920-1922. 
Married Miss Daisy C. Mackie, 1903. Represented Gaston County in 
the General Assembly of 1921; Senator from Twenty-sixth District 
in 1923. Address: Gastonia, N. C. 



State Senators 519 

BUNYAN S. WOMBLB 

{Txventy-second District — County: Forsyth. One Senator.) 

Bunyan S. Womble, Democrat, Senator from Forsyth County, 
was born in Chatham County, May 2, 1882. Son of Rev. W. F. 
and Olivia (Snipes) Womble. Educated at public schools of 
Lincolnton and Belwood Institute; graduated from Trinity Col- 
lege, A.B. degree, 1904. Trinity College Law School and Columbia 
University. Lawyer. Member North Carolina and American Bar 
associations. Solicitor City Court, Winston-Salem, 1908-1910. Rep- 
resentative in the General Assembly of 1925. Member Judicial Con- 
ference from Eleventh District. Knight of Pythias. Methodist. 
Married, 1914, Miss Edith Willingham. Address: Winston-Salem, 
N. C. 



WALTER H. WOODSON 

{Twenty-first District — County: Rowan. One Senator.) 

Walter H. Woodson, Democrat, Senator from the twenty-first 
Senatorial District, was born in Salisbury, April 20, 1875. Son of 
Horatio Nelson and Margaret Elizabeth (Bostian) Woodson. At- 
tended Salisbury Graded Schools, 1881-1889; James M. Hill's High 
School at Salisbury, 1889-1892; B.S., University of North Carolina, 
1892-1896. University Law School, 1898-1899. Lawyer. Member of 
North Carolina Bar Association. City Attorney of Salisbury, 1910- 
1913. Mayor of City of Salisbury, 1913-1919. . Chairman Salisbury 
City School Board, 1913-1919. Chairman of Democratic Executive 
Committee Rowan County, 1908-1918, and from 1922 to present 
time. Knight of Pythias. Jr. 0. U. A. M. Methodist — Church 
Trustee. President Rowan County University Alumni Association. 
Member Legislature, 1921, 1923, and 1925. Chairman Senate Com- 
mittee on Education, 1921 and 1923. Chairman Senate Committee 
on Appropriation, 1925. Married Miss Pauline Bernhardt, December 
20, 1900. Four sons — Walter, Jr., Paul, Nelson and James Leak. Ad- 
dress, Salisbury, N. C. 



520 Biographical Sketches 



REPRESENTATIVES 



RICHARD TILMAN FOUNTAIN 
Speaker 

Richard Tilman Fountain, Democrat, Representative from Edge- 
combe County, was born in same county, February 15, 1885. Son of 
Almon L. and Louisa (Eagles) Fountain. Was educated in the 
public schools of Edgecombe County and the Tarboro Male Acad- 
emy; University of North Carolina, 1905-1907. Lawyer. Member of 
the North Carolina Bar Association. Vice-President of said Asso- 
ciation, 1922-1923; also member of the American Bar Association. 
President Rocky Mount Bar Association. Judge of the Municipal 
Court of 'Rocky Mount, 1911-1918. Trustee of the Rocky Mount 
Graded Schools; Secretary to the Board, 1917-1921; Chairman of 
the Board since July 1, 1924. Chairman of the Board of Trustees 
of the Eastern Carolina Industrial Training School for Boys. Mem- 
ber of the Legislature, sessions of 1919, 1921, 1923 and 1925. 
Knight of Pythias. Presbyterian. Married Miss Susan Rankin, 
October, 1918. Three children: Susan Rankin, Anne Sloan, and 
Margaret Eagles. Address: Rocky Mount, N. C. 



WILLIAM BRYANT AUSTIN 

William Bryant Austin, Democrat, Representative from Ashe 
County, was born in Laurel Springs, May 3, 1891. Son of George 
Bryant and Alice (Woodie) Austin. Attended public schools of 
Ashe County; Appalachian Training School, 1910-13. A.B., LL.B. 
University North Carolina, 1919. Lawyer. Member Ashe County 
Commercial Club, North Carolina Bar Association, American Bar 
Association, Commercial Law League. President, Ashe County Com- 
mercial Club, 1925-26. Chairman, Democratic Executive Committee 
of Ashe County, 1920-26; Mayor of Jefferson, 1925-26. Private and 
Second Lieutenant, Machine Gun Corps, World War, 1917-19. Theta 
Chi; Mason, member of Jefferson Lodge, 219, and Master, 1925-26. 
Methodist. Married, November 25, 1925, Miss Nona Neal. Address: 
Jefferson, N. C. 



Representatives in General Assembly 521 

VE'STON COULBOURNE BANKS 

Veston C. Banks, Democrat, Representative from Pamlico County, 
was born March 13, 1899, at Grantsboro. Son of N. H. and Deborah 
A. (Downs) Banks. Graduated from Alliance High School, 1917. 
Studied law at Wake Forest College, 1917-1920. Teacher. Member 
North Carolina Education Association. Justice of the Peace. In 
U. S. Army, 1918. Mason. Free Will Baptist^Church clerk. 
Married Miss Daisy Mason, June 25, 1925. Address: Grantsboro, 
N. C. 



DANIEL LONG BELL 

Daniel Long Bell, Democrat, Representative from Chatham 
County, was born in Enfield, April 15, 1894. Son of David and Lila 
(McLin) Bell. Attended Trinity Park School, Durham, 1910-1911; 
University of North Carolina. A.B., 1915; LL.B., 1917. Lawyer. 
Town Commissioner and Secretary-Treasurer, Pittsboro, 1919-1926. 
Second Lieutenant, 25th Field Artillery, 1918-1919. Mason; Knight 
of Pythias. Episcopalian. Married Miss AUie Peoples, April 6, 
1920. Address: Pittshoro, N. C. 



WILLIAM H. BE'LL 
William H. Bell, Democrat, Representative from Carteret County, 
was born at Newport, September 2, 1888. Son of C. A. and Daisy 
(Newberry) Bell. Attended public schools of Newport. Real 
Estate dealer. Mayor of Newport, 1923-1925; member Board of 
Aldermen, 1925-1926. Mason; member Ocean Lodge A. F. and A. M.; 
Chapter 46, R. A. M.; St. John Commandery No. 10, K. T.; Sudan 
Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S.; Elm Camp Woodmen of the World; 
Tent No. 10 The Maccabees; Lodge No. 19 Charitable Brother- 
hood of North Carolina. Married Miss Leah A. Garner, June 30, 
1915. Address: Newport, N. C. 



SAMUEL BLACK 

Samuel Black, Democrat, Representative from Cabarrus County, 
was born in same county, January 24, 1875. Son of John M. and 



522 Biographical Sketches 

Sarah (Erwin) Black. Attended Mooresville High School, 1889-92. 
Farmer and merchant. Justice of the peace for twenty years. 
Presbyterian— Elder. Address: Harrisburg, N. C, R. F. D. No. 2. 



WILLIAM BRYAN BOLICH 

William Bryan Bolich, Democrat, Representative from Forsyth 
County, was born in Salisbury, December 16, 1896. Son of John 
Alonzo and Sallie B. (McMahon) Bolich. Attended Saluda Semi- 
nary, 1903-1913; Trinity College, A.B. degree, 1917; University of 
Budapest, Hungary, Summer School, 1922; Trinity College Law 
School, 1919-1921; Oxford University, England, 1921-1924; B.A. in 
Jurisprudence; M.A. ; Bachelor of Civil Law. Lawyer. Member of 
Winston-Salem Junior Bar Association. Ensign U. S. Navy, June, 
1918-March, 1919. Member Winston Masonic Lodge, 167; Carolina 
Consistory of Scottish Rite Masons; Oasis Temple of the Shrine; 
Kappa Alpha Fraternity; American Legion. Methodist — Chairman 
Junior Board of Stewards, 1926. North Carolina Rhodes Scholar 
to Oxford University, England. Address: Winston-Salem, N. C. 



LUTHER HUBBARD BOST 

Luther H. Bost, Democrat, Representative from Stanly County, 
was born at Mt. Pleasant, January 28, 1874. Son of S. D. and 
Martha (Carter) Bost. Attended Albemarle Academy, 1889-1892; 
Mount Pleasant Collegiate Institute, 1892-1893. Farmer. President 
Stanly County Cotton Growers' Association for the past four years. 
County Commissioner, 1907-1908. Representative from Stanly 
County in the General Assembly of 1915. Member County Board 
of Education since 1919, chairman since 1924. Methodist — District 
Steward. Married Miss Sarka Dry, April 1, 1896. Taught school 
twenty-nine years in Stanly County. Address: Albemarle, N. C, 
Route 6. 



Represkxtatives in General Assembly 523 

JAMES R. BOYD 

James R. Boyd, Democrat, Representative from Haywood County, 
was born in same county on September 5, 1868. Son of John H. 
and Rebecca J. (Brown) Boyd. Attended public schools of Haywood 
County. Banker. Member County Board of Education, 1893-1904. 
Register of Deeds, 1904-1908. Mayor of Waynesville, 1909-12. Chair- 
man Board of County Commissioners, 1912-16. Chairman Graded 
School Board, 1915-24. Chairman Democratic Executive Committee, 
Haywood County, 1910-1914. Odd Fellow; Jr. 0. U. A. M.; Royal 
Arcanum; Noble Grand two terms in I. O. 0. P. and Councilor 
Junior local lodge. Represented 'both these orders in grand lodge 
and council meetings.