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Full text of "North Carolina manual [serial]"

THE LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 




THE COLLECTION OF 
NORTH CAROLINIANA 



NORTH C/l 



STOKES 




ROLINA 




NORTH CAROLINA MANUAL 

1977 




Issued by 

THAD EURE 

Secretary of State 



Edited by 

John L. Cheney, Jr. 

Director ofPu blications 



Raleigh 



TO THE 

1977 MEMBERS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY 
OF NORTH CAROLINA 



TO THE 
STATE, COUNTY, CITY AND TOWN OFFICIALS 

AND TO THE 

PEOPLE OF THE OLD NORTH STATE 
AT HOME AND ABROAD 



THIS MANUAL IS RESPECTFULLY 
DEDICATED 




Secretary of State 








in 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Introduction, Thad Eure, Secretary of State ijj 

Preface xv 

PARTI 
HISTORICAL MISCELLANEA 

Chapter One, The State of North Carolina 

A Brief History of the State 3 

Chief Executives 9 

Lieutenant Governors 14 

The North Carolina State Capitol 15 

Description of the Capitol, by Architect David Patton 19 

"The Capitol," by Edwin Gill 20 

The Legislative Building 23 

The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina 25 

The State Flag 33 

Name and Nicknames of the State 37 

The State Motto 37 

The State Colors 37 

The State Bird, Flower, and Insect 39 

The State Tree and Mammal 41 

The State Shell and Salt Water Fish 43 

The State Precious Stone 45 

The State Toast 45 

The State Song 46 

The Halifax Resolution 47 

The Mecklenburg Declaration of 20th May, 1775 48 

Public Holidays 49 

Chapter Two, The United States of America 

Presidents of the United States 51 

The Declaration of Independence 53 

The Constitution of the United States 57 

Amendments to the Constitution 67 

The American Flag, Its Origin 75 

The Proper Display of the Flag 77 

The Pledge to the Flag 80 

The American's Creed 81 

The Capitol at Washington, D.C 83 

Governors of the States and Territories 85 

Chapter Three, The Constitutional Development of North Carolina 

A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina, 

by John L. Sanders 87 

The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 101 

Proposed Constitutional Amendments 129 



PART II 

CENSUS 

Population of the State of North Carolina, 19th Census: 1970 135 

State Population Statistics 137 

County Population Statistics 138 

Population of Incorporated Places of 10,000 or More 140 

Population of Incorporated Places of 2,500-9,999 141 

Population of Incorporated Places of 1,000-2,499 143 

Population of Incorporated Places of Less than 1,000 146 

Resident Population of the United States as of April 1, 1970 152 



PART III 
POLITICAL PARTIES 

Chapter One, The Democratic Party 

North Carolina Democratic Party Platform 157 

Plan of Organization 185 

Democratic Party Executive Council 209 

County Chairmen 210 

Chapter Two, The Republican Party 

North Carolina Republican Party Platform 213 

Plan of Organization (State Republican Constitution) 222 

State Executive Committee, 1977 242 

County Chairmen, 1977 242 



PART IV 
THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES 

Chapter One, The Executive Branch 

President of the United States 247 

Presidential Cabinet 249 

Secretary, United States Department of Commerce 251 

Chapter Two, The United States Congress 

Senate Officers and Standing Committees 253 

North Carolina Members of the Senate 255 

House of Representatives Officers and Standing Committees 259 

North Carolina Members of the House of Representatives 261 

Chapter Three, The United States Judicial System 

The United States Supreme Court 283 

The United States Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals 283 

The United States District Courts in North Carolina 283 

Biographical Sketches of Judges 285 



VI 



PARTV 
NORTH CAROLINA STATE GOVERNMENT 

Introduction 297 

Chapter One, The Legislative Branch 

Introduction 301 

1977 North Carolina Senate: 

Officers 305 

Senators 305 

Biographical Sketches 307 

Occupations 338 

Committee Assignments 340 

Rules of the Senate 349 

1977 North Carolina House of Representatives: 

Officers 365 

Representatives 365 

Biographical Sketches 369 

Occupations 434 

Committee Assignments 438 

Rules of the House of Representatives 452 

Legislative Services Officer 469 

Chapter Two, The Executive Branch 

Officer of the Governor: 

Governor 471 

The Office of the Governor 473 

Office of the Lieutenant Governor: 

Lieutenant Governor 477 

The Office of the Lieutenant Governor 479 

Department of the Secretary of State: 

Secretary of State 48 1 

The Department of the Secretary of State 483 

Department of the State Auditor: 

State Auditor 487 

The Department of the State Auditor 489 

Department of the State Treasurer: 

State Treasurer 493 

The Department of the State Treasurer 495 

Department of Public Education: 

Superintendent of Public Instruction 50 1 

The Department of Public Education 5° 3 

Department of Justice: 

Attorney General ^ 

The Department of Justice ^ll 

Department of Agriculture: 

Commissioner of Agriculture _ ' 

The Department of Agriculture 519 

Department of Labor: 



VII 



Commissioner of Labor 523 

The I )epart merit of Later 525 

Department of Insurance: 

( lommissioner of Insurance 531 

The I )epartment of Insurance 533 

Department of Administration: 

Secretary 537 

The I Vpartment of Administration 539 

Department of Commerce: 

Secret ary 543 

The Department of Commerce 545 

Department of Correction: 

Secret ary 549 

The Department of Correction 551 

Department of Crime Control and Public Safety: 

Secretary 555 

The Department of Crime Control and Public Safety 557 

Department of Cultural Resources: 

Secretary 561 

The Department of Cultural Resources 563 

Department of Human Resources: 

Secretary 569 

The Department of Human Resources 571 

Department of Natural Resources and Community Development: 

Secretary 577 

The Department of Natural Resources and Community Development 579 

Department of Revenue: 

Secretary 583 

The Department of Revenue 585 

Department of Transportation: 

Secretary 591 

The Department of Transportation 593 

State Board of Elections: 

Director 597 

The State Board of Elections 599 

Chapter Three, The Judicial Branch 

Introduction 601 

The North Carolina Supreme Court (Biographical Sketches) 607 

The North Carolina Court of Appeals (Biographical Sketches) 615 

The North Carolina Superior Court 624 

The North Carolina District Courts 626 

District Attorneys 629 

Administrative Office of the Courts: 

Director 630 

The Administrative Office of the Courts 631 

Chapter Four, The University of North Carolina System 

Higher Education in North Carolina 634 

President, University of North Carolina 637 

Chancellors of the Constituent Institutions 639 



Vlll 



Chapter Five, North Carolina Agencies, Boards, Commissions, 
and Councils 

Department of the State Auditor 655 

Department of the State Treasurer 656 

Department of Public Education 658 

Department of Justice 659 

Department of Agriculture 660 

Department of Labor 662 

Department of Insurance 663 

Department of Administration 664 

Department of Commerce 668 

Department of Correction 671 

Department of Crime Control and Public Safety 672 

Department of Cultural Resources 673 

Department of Human Resources 677 

Department of Natural Resources and Community Development 683 

Department of Revenue 689 

Department of Transportation 690 

Miscellaneous 691 

Licensing Boards 695 



PART VI 

ELECTION RETURNS AND VOTER REGISTRATION 

STATISTICS 

Chapter One, Voter Registration Statistics, 1976 

Introduction 705 

Presidential Preference Primary 706 

Primary Elections 708 

General Elections 710 

Chapter Two, North Carolina Election Districts 

Congressional Districts 713 

Apportionment of Senators by Districts 715 

Apportionment of Members of the House of Representatives 

by District 717 

Judicial and Solicitorial Districts 719 

Chapter Three, President of the United States 

North Carolina Presidential Primary, 1976 723 

Popular and Electoral Vote, 1972 725 

Popular and Electoral Vote, 1976 726 

Popular Vote, 1960-1968 (National) 727 

County Tabulation, 1976 728 

Popular Vote, 1960-1972 (County) 730 



IX 



Chapter Four, United States Congress 

First Primary for House of Representatives, 1976 733 

Second Primary for House of Representatives, 1976 737 

General Flections for House of Representatives, 1972-1976 738 

General Flections for I louse of Representatives, 1968-1970 743 

Chapter Five, Primary Elections for State Officers, 1976 

Governor, First Primary 717 

Lieutenant Governor, First Democratic Primary 750 

Lieutenant Governor, First Republican Primary 752 

Secretary of State and State Treasurer, First Primary 754 

State Auditor and Commissioner of Insurance, 

First Democratic Primary 756 

Commissioner of Labor and Superintendent of Public 

Instruction, First Democratic Primary 758 

Governor and Lieutenant Governor, Second Primary 760 

State Auditor and Commissioner of Labor, Second Primary 762 

Chapter Six, General Elections for State Officers 

Governor, 1976 765 

Lieutenant Governor, 1976 767 

Secretary of State and State Treasurer, 1976 768 

State Auditor and Attorney General, 1976 770 

Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1976 772 

Commissioner of Agriculture and Commissioner of Insurance, 1976 773 

Commissioner of Labor, 1976 775 

Governor, 1960-1972 776 

Chapter Seven, Tabulations of Total Votes 

United States Senator, Primaries 779 

Governor, Primaries 781 

State Officers, Primaries 783 

General Elections 791 



PART VII 
NORTH CAROLINA COUNTY GOVERNMENT 

Chapter One, A Brief History of County Government in 
North Carolina 799 

Chapter Two, County Officials 

Alamance 809 

Alexander 809 

Alleghany 810 

Anson 810 

Ashe 811 



Avery 812 

Beaufort 812 

Bertie 813 

Bladen 813 

Brunswick 814 

Buncombe 814 

Burke 815 

Cabarrus 816 

Caldwell 816 

Camden 817 

Carteret 817 

Caswell 818 

Catawba 819 

Chatham 819 

Cherokee 820 

Chowan 820 

Clay 821 

Cleveland 821 

Columbus 822 

Craven 822 

Cumberland 823 

Currituck 823 

Dare 824 

Davidson 825 

Davie 825 

Duplin 826 

Durham 826 

Edgecombe 827 

Forsyth 827 

Franklin 828 

Gaston 829 

Gates 829 

Graham 830 

Granville 830 

Greene 831 

Guilford 831 

Halifax 832 

Harnett 833 

Haywood 833 

Henderson 834 

Hertford 834 

Hoke 835 

Hyde 836 

Iredell 836 

Jackson 837 

Johnston 837 

Jones 838 

Lee 839 

Lenoir 839 

Lincoln 840 



XI 



Macon 840 

Madison 841 

Martin 841 

Mc I Well 842 

Mecklenburg 843 

Mitchell 843 

Montgomery 844 

Moore 844 

Nash 845 

Now I lanover 846 

Northampton 846 

Onslow 847 

Orange 847 

Pamlico 848 

Pasquotank 849 

Pender 849 

Perquimans 850 

Person 850 

Pitt 851 

Polk 851 

Randolph 852 

Richmond 853 

Robeson 853 

Rockingham 854 

Rowan 854 

Rutherford 855 

Sampson 856 

Scotland 856 

Stanly 857 

Stokes 857 

Surry 858 

Swain 859 

Transylvania 859 

Tyrrell 860 

Union 860 

Vance 861 

Wake 861 

Warren 862 

Washington 863 

Watauga 863 

Wayne 864 

Wilkes 864 

Wilson 865" 

Yadkin 866 

Yancev 866 



Ml 



TABLE OF DIAGRAMS AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTS 

North Carolina State Government, Organizational Chart 296 

The Legislative Branch, Organizational Chart 300 

North Carolina State Senate, Seating Diagram 304 

North Carolina State House of Representatives, Seating Diagram 364 

Office of the Governor, Organizational Chart 472 

Office of the Lieutenant Governor, Organizational Chart 478 

Department of the Secretary of State, Organizational Chart 482 

Department of the State Auditor, Organizational Chart 488 

Department of the State Treasurer, Organizational Chart 496 

Department of Public Education, Organizational Chart 502 

Department of Justice, Organizational Chart 510 

Department of Agriculture, Organizational Chart 520 

Department of Labor, Organizational Chart 526 

Department of Insurance, Organizational Chart 532 

Department of Administration, Organizational Chart 538 

Department of Commerce, Organizational Chart 544 

Department of Correction, Organizational Chart 552 

Department of Crime Control and Public Safety, Organizational Chart 558 

Department of Cultural Resources, Organizational Chart 564 

Department of Human Resources, Organizational Chart 570 

Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, 

Organizational Chart 580 

Department of Revenue, Organizational Chart 586 

Department of Transportation, Organizational Chart 592 

The Judicial Branch, Organizational Chart 600 

The University of North Carolina System, Organizational Chart 634 



TABLE OF MAPS 

White Map, 1585 2 

Ogliby Map, 1672 4 

Mouzon Map, 1775 6 

North Carolina Highway Districts 594 

North Carolina Congressional Districts, 1971- 712 

North Carolina State Senate Districts, 1971- 714 

North Carolina State House of Representatives, 1971- 716 

North Carolina State Judicial Districts 720 

North Carolina Counties 798 



TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND PHOTOGRAPHS* 

The Capitaol Building 16 

The Legislative Building 22 

Seal of the Lords Proprietors, 1663 25 



xni 



Seal of the Government of Albemarle, 1665-1730 2(5 

Seal of the Province of North Carolina, 1730-1767 26 

Seal of the Province of North Carolina. 1767-1776 27 

Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1779-1794 29 

Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1794-1836 30 

Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1836-1893 30 

( Ireat Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1893-1971 31 

Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1971- 32 

The Stat e Flag 34 

The State Bird, Flower, and Insect 38 

The State Tree and Mammal 40 

The State Shell and Salt Water Fish 42 

The State Precious Stone 11 

The American Flag 76 

The United States Capitol Building 82 

Symbol of the Democratic Party 156 

Symbol of the Republican Party 212 

The White House 246 

The United States Supreme Court Building 280 



xiv 



PREFACE 



The editor would like to express his apologies for the delay in publishing the 1977 edition 
of the NORTH CAROLINA MANUAL. The Department of the Secretary of State felt that 
with the numerous reorganizational changes in our State government resulting from legisla- 
tion passed by the 1977 General Assembly, it would be better to publish a manual that was 
late, but which incorporated these changes into its content, rather than one in error from 
the outset. We hope you will agree. 

This 1977 NORTH CAROLINA MANUAL has been greatly expanded over previous edi- 
tions with the inclusion of several new sections of narrative material, as well as new 
statistical material. In future editions we hope to expand our present narratives, and to in- 
clude additional ones that will cover other areas of state and local government. At a time 
when our schools and civic organizations are expanding scholastic programs to increase the 
awareness of our children and the general public as to the various aspects of state and local 
government, we feel that anyway the Department of the Secretary of State can help to 
strengthen these efforts is important. The more aware our children, and indeed, the citizenry 
as a whole, are of the functions and responsibilities of government and their responsibilities 
to government, the better equipped they will be to assume leadership roles in assisting 
governments with solving the continual problems they incur. The more informed we are, the 
better citizens we will be. 

In some small way we hope that this 1977 NORTH CAROLINA MANUAL will aid in 
helping inform the people of North Carolina and to increase their understanding of our state 
and local governments. 

JOHN L. CHENEY, JR. 

Editor nnil Director of Publications 
North Carolina Depart nn lit of tin 1 
Secretory of State 



xv 



PART I 
HISTORICAL MISCELLANEA 



North Carolina Manual 







w 



<r 
00 



State of North Carolina 

Chapter One 
THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 



A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE STATE 

The first known European exploration of North Carolina occurred during the 
summer of 1524. A Florentine navigator — Giovanni da Verrazzano, in the service 
of France, explored the coastal area of North Carolina between the Cape Fear and 
Kitty Hawk. A report of his findings was sent to Francis I, and published in Richard 
Hakluyt's Divers Voyages touching the Discoverie of America; however, no attempt 
was made to colonize the area. 

Between 1540 and 1570 several Spanish explorers from the Florida Gulf region 
explored portions of North Carolina, but no permanent settlements were estab- 
lished. 

Coastal North Carolina was the scene of the first attempt to colonize America 
by English-speaking people. Under a charter granted by Queen Elizabeth to Sir 
Walter Raleigh, two colonies were begun in the 1580's. The first, in 1585 under the 
leadership of Ralph Lane, ended in failure. 

A second expedition under the leadership of John White began in the spring 
of 1587 with 110 settlers including seventeen women and nine children set sail for 
the new world. The White colony arrived off Hatteras in June, 1587 and went on to 
Roanoke Island, where they found the houses built by the previous expedition still 
standing. Shortly after the arrival of the colony two significant events occurred — 
the baptism of two "friendly" Indians and the birth of Virginia Dare, the first 
child of English-speaking parents born in the new colony. As supplies ran short 
problems beset the colonists and White, under pressure from the colonists was 
forced to return to England for provisions. Once in England White was unable to 
immediately return to Roanoke due to an impending attack by the Spanish 
Armada. When he was able to return in 1590 he found only the remnants of what 
was once the settlement. There were no signs of life. Carved on a nearby tree he 
found the word "CROATOAN". Many have speculated as to the fate of the "Lost 
Colony" but none have ever explained it. 

The first permanent English settlers to North Carolina came from the tide- 
water area of Virginia around 1650. These overflow immigrants moved into the 
Albemarle area of northeast North Carolina. 

In 1663 Charles II granted to eight Lords Proprietors a charter for the territory 
lying "within six and thirty degrees of the northern latitude, and to the west as far 
as the south seas, and so southerly as far as the River St. Mattias, which bordereth 
upon the coast of Florida, and within one and thirty degrees of northern latitude, 
and so west in a direct line as far as the south seas aforesaid; . . . "and the colony 
was called Carolina. In 1665 another charter was granted in order to clarify 



North Carolina Manual 







o 



i 



State of North Carolina 



territorial questions not answered in the first charter. This charter extended the 
limits of Carolina so that the northern line was 36 degrees and 30 minutes north 
latitude, and the southern line was 29 degrees north latitude, and both of these lines 
extended westward to the South Seas. 

Between 1663 and 1729 North Carolina was under the control of the Lords 
Proprietors and their decendents who commissioned colonial officials and autho- 
rized the governor and his council to grant lands in the name of the Lords Proprie- 
tors. In 1669 John Locke wrote the Fundamental Constitutions as a model for the 
government of Carolina. Albemarle County was divided into local governmental 
units called precincts. Initially there were three precincts — Berkeley, Carteret 
and Shaftesbury — but as the colony expanded to the south and west new precincts 
were created. By 1729, there were a total of eleven precincts — six in Albemarle 
County and five in Bath County which had been created in 1696. Although the 
Albemarle Region was the first permanent settlement in the Carolina Area, 
another region was developed around present-day Charleston, South Carolina. 
Because of the natural harbor and easier access to trade with the West Indies, 
more attention was given to developing the Charleston area than her northern 
counterparts. For a twenty-year period, 1692-1712, the two colonies of North and 
South Carolina existed as one unit of government. Although North Carolina still 
had her own assembly and council, the governor of Carolina resided in Charleston 
and, a deputy governor was appointed by him for the northern colony. On December 
7, 1710 Carolina was divided into two distinct colonies; however, it was not until 
May, 1712 that a governor was appointed for North Carolina. 

In 1729 seven of the Lords Proprietors sold their interest in North Carolina to 
the Crown and North Carolina became a royal colony. The eighth proprietor Lord 
Granville, retained economic interest and continued granting land in the northern 
half of North Carolina. All political functions were under the supervision of the 
crown until 1775. 

Colonial government in North Carolina was essentially the same during both 
the proprietary and royal periods. The major difference being who appointed 
colonial officials. Government was conducted by two distinct groups — the governor 
and his council, on the one hand, and the popularly elected colonial general assem- 
bly on the other. There were colonial courts, but unlike today, they were rarely 
involved in the formulation of government policy. All colonial officials were 
appointed by either the Lords Proprietors prior to 1729, or the crown afterwards. 
Members of the colonial assembly were elected from the various precincts and from 
certain towns which had been granted representation. The term "precinct" as a 
geological unit ceased to exist after 1735 and these areas became known by the 
term "county" as they are today. About this same time "Albemarle County" and 
"Bath County" also ceased to exist as governmental units. 

The governor was an appointed official — as were the colonial secretary, 
attorney general, surveyor general, and receiver general. All served at the pleasure 
of either the Lords Proprietors or the crown. The council during the proprietary 
period was comprised of persons appointed as agents by the proprietors to look after 
their interest in the new world. Many council members were also colonial officials. 
The council during both the proprietary and royal periods served as an advisory 
group to the governor, and one of its members was chosen president. The council 



North Carolina Manual 




State of North Carolina 



also served as the upper house of the legislature when the assembly was in session. 
The Governor was authorized to carry out all mandates of the proprietors, or crown, 
and could, when vacancies occurred in colonial offices or on the council, make a 
temporary appointment until the vacancy was filled by proprietary or royal com- 
mission. When a governor, or deputy governor, was unable to carry on as chief 
executive either by illness, death, resignation or absence from the colony, the 
president of the council became the chief executive and exercised all the powers of 
a governor until such time the governor returned or a new governor commissioned. 

The colonial assembly was made up of men elected from each precinct (county 
after 1735), or town where representation had been granted. Not all counties were 
entitled to the same number of representatives. Many of the older counties had five 
representatives each while the new ones — those formed after 1696 — were allowed 
only two each. Each town granted representation was allowed one representative. 
The presiding officer of the colonial assembly was called the speaker and was 
elected from the entire membership of the house. When a vacancy occurred a new 
election was ordered by the speaker to fill it. At the end of each session the bills 
passed by the legislature were signed by both the speaker and the president of the 
council. 

The colonial assembly could not meet arbitrarily, but rather convened only 
when called into session by the governor. Since the legislature was the only body 
authorized to grant a salary to the governor and was also responsible for spending 
tax monies, they met on a regular basis until just before the Revolutionary War. 
However, there was a constant battle for authority between the governor and his 
council on the one hand and the general assembly on the other, and two of the most 
explosive issues were the power of the purse and the electing of the treasurer, both 
privileges of the assembly. Another issue which raised itself was who had the 
authority to create new counties. On more than one occasion elected representatives 
from counties created by the governor and council, without consultation and proper 
legislative action by the lower house, were refused seats until the matter was 
resolved. These conflicts between the executive and legislative bodies were to have 
a profound effect on the organization of state government after Independence. 

North Carolina, on April 12, 1776, authorized her delegates in the Continental 
Congress to vote for independence, and on December 18, 1776, adopted a constitu- 
tion. Richard Caswell became the first governor under this constitution. On 
November 21, 1789, the state adopted the United States Constitution, being the 
twelfth state to enter the Federal Union. North Carolina, in 1788, had rejected the 
Constitution on the grounds that certain amendments were vital and necessary 
to a free people. 

A Constitutional convention was held in 1835 and among several changes made 
in the Constitution was the method of electing the governor. After this change the 
governor was elected by the people for a term of two years instead of being elected 
by the Legislature for a term of one year. Edward Bishop Dudley was the first 
governor elected by the people. 

A new State Constitution was adopted in 1868 and since that date the governor 
has been elected by the people for four-year terms and he cannot succeed himself. 
Numerous amendments were added to this Constitution and it was completely 
revised and amended by a vote of the people in 1970. 



8 North Carolina Manual 



North Carolina has had two permanent capitals — New Bern and Raleigh — and 
there have been three capitol buildings. Tryon's Palace in New Bern was con- 
structed in the period, 1767-1770, and the main building was destroyed by fire 
February 27, 1798. The first capitol in Raleigh was completed in 1794 and was 
destroyed by fire on June 21, 1831. The present capitol was completed in 1840. 

In 1790 North Carolina ceded her western lands, which was composed of 
Washintgon, Davidson, Hawkins, Greene, Sullivan, Sumner, and Tennessee coun- 
ties, to the Federal government. Between 1790 and 1796 the territory was known 
as Tennessee Territory, but in 1796 it became the fifteenth state in the Union. 

When North Carolina adopted the Federal Constitution on November 21, 1789, 
she was authorized to send two senators and five representatives to the Congress 
of the United States according to the constitutional apportionment. In 1792, when 
the first federal census had been completed and tabulated, it was found that North 
Carolina was entitled to ten representatives. It was then that the General Assembly 
divided the state into ten congressional districts. In 1812, the state had grown and 
increased in population until it was entitled to thirteen representatives in Congress. 
Between 1812 and 1865, however, the population decreased so much in proportion 
to the population of other states of the Union that North Carolina was by that time 
entitled only to seven representatives. After 1865 the population of the state showed 
a steady increase so that beginning in 1943 North Carolina was entitled to twelve 
representatives in Congress. The 1970 census showed that the state had more than 
a half million more people than in 1960, but this increase was not nearly as much 
in proportion to that of some of the other states. North Carolina is now entitled 
to only eleven representatives in Congress. 



State of North Carolina 



CHIEF EXECUTIVES* 
GOVERNORS OF "VIRGINIA" 

Name Qualified Term 

Ralph Lane [April 9], 1585 1585-1586 

John White [April 26], 1587 1587 



PROPRIETARY GOVERNORS 

Name Qualified Term 

(Samuel Stephens) [1622-1664] 

William Drummond February 23, 1665 1665-[1667] 

Samuel Stephens , 1667 [1667-1670] 

Peter Carteret March 10, 1670 1670-1671 

Peter Carteret , 1671 1671-1672 

John Jenkins [May — ], 1672 1672-1675 

Thomas Eastchurch October — , 1675 1675-1676 

[Speaker-Assembly] [Spring, 1676] 1676 

John Jenkins March—, 1676 1676-1677 

Thomas Eastchurch 

Thomas Miller July — , 1677 1677 

[Rebel Council] December—, 1677 1677-1679 

Seth Sothel 

John Harvey July — , 1679 1679 

John Jenkins December—, 1679 1679-1681 

Henry Wilkinson 

Seth Sothel , [1682] [1682]-1689 

John Archdale December—, 1683 1683-1686 

John Gibbs November — , 1689 1689-1690 

Phillip Ludwell May—, 1690 1690-1691 

Thomas Jarvis July—, 1690 1690-1694 

Phillip Ludwell November—, 1693 1693-1695 

Thomas Harvey July — , 1694 1694-1699 

John Archdale June — , 1695 1695 

John Archdale January—, 1697 1697 

Henderson Walker July — , 1699 1699-1703 

Robert Daniel July — , 1703 1703-1705 

Thomas Cary March 21, 1705 1705-1706 

William Glover July 13, 1706 1706-1707 

Thomas Cary August — , 1707 1707 

William Glover October 28, 1707 1707-1708 

Thomas Cary July 24, 1708 1708-1711 

[William Glover] [1709-1710] 



* The names which are indented first are those who served as chief executive, but were appointed 
either deputy or lieutenant governor. Those indented second served while president of the council. 



10 North Carolina Manual 

Edward Hyde January 22, 1711 1711-1712 

Edward Hyde May 9, 1712 1712 

Thomas Pollock September 12, 1712 1712-1714 

Charles Eden May 28, 1714 1714-1722 

Thomas Pollock March 30, 1722 1722 

William Reed September 7, 1722 1722-1724 

George Burrington January 15, 1724 1724-1725 

Edward Moseley October 31, 1724 1724 

Sir Richard Everard July 17, 1725 1725-1731 



ROYAL GOVERNORS 

Name Qualified Term 

George Burrington February 25, 1731 1731-1734 

Nathaniel Rice April 17, 1734 1734 

Gabriel Johnston November 2, 1734 1734-1752 

Nathaniel Rice July 17, 1752 1752-1753 

Matthew Rowan February 1, 1753 1753-1754 

Arthur Dobbs November 1, 1754 1754-1765 

James Hasell October 15, 1763 1763 

William Tryon April 3, 1765 1765 

William Tryon December 20, 1765 1765-1771 

James Hasell July 1, 1771 1771 

Josiah Martin August 12, 1771 1771-1775 

James Hasell October 8, 1774 1774 



ELECTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY 

Name Residence Qualified Term 

Richard Caswell Dobbs December 21, 1776 1776-1777 

Richard Caswell Dobbs April 18, 1777 1777-1778 

Richard Caswell Dobbs April 20, 1778 1778-1779 

Richard Caswell Dobbs May 4, 1779 1779-1780 

Abner Nash Craven April 21, 1780 1780-1781 

Thomas Burke Orange June 26, 1781 1781-1782 

Alexander Martin Guilford October 5, 1781 1781-1782 

Alexander Martin Guilford April 22, 1782 1782-1783 

Alexander Martin Guilford April 30, 1783 1783-1784 

Alexander Martin Guilford May 3, 1784 1784-1785 

Richard Caswell Dobbs May 13, 1785 1785 

Richard Caswell Dobbs December 12, 1785 1785-1786 

Richard Caswell Dobbs December 23, 1786 1786-1787 

Samuel Johnston Chowan December 20, 1787 1787-1788 

Samuel Johnston Chowan November 18, 1788 1788-1789 

Samuel Johnston Chowan November 18, 1789 1789 



State of North Carolina 11 

Name Residence (Qualified Term 

Alexander Martin Guilford December 17, 1789 1789-1790 

Alexander Martin Guilford December 9, 1790 1790-1792 

Alexander Martin Guilford January 2, 1792 1792 

Richard Dobbs Spaight Craven December 14, 1792 1792-1793 

Richard Dobbs Spaight Craven December 26, 1793 1793-1795 

Richard Dobbs Spaight Craven January 6, 1795 1795 

Samuel Ashe New Hanover November 19, 1795 1795-1796 

Samuel Ashe New Hanover December 19, 1796 1796-1797 

Samuel Ashe New Hanover December 5, 1797 1797-1798 

William R. Davie Halifax December 7, 1798 1798-1799 

Benjamin Williams Moore November 23, 1799 1799-1800 

Benjamin Williams Moore November 29, 1800 1800-1801 

Benjamin Williams Moore November 28, 1801 1801-1802 

John Baptiste Ashe 1 Halifax 

James Turner Warren December 6, 1802 1802-1803 

James Turner Warren December 6, 1803 1803-1804 

James Turner Warren November 29, 1804 1804-1805 

Nathaniel Alexander Mecklenburg December 10, 1805 1805-1806 

Nathaniel Alexander Mecklenburg December 1, 1806 1806-1807 

Benjamin Williams Moore December 1, 1807 1807-1808 

David Stone Bertie December 12, 1808 1808-1809 

David Stone Bertie December 13, 1809 1809-1810 

Benjamin Smith Brunswick December 5, 1810 1810-1811 

William Hawkins Warren December 9, 1811 1811-1812 

William Hawkins Warren December 8, 1812 1812-1813 

William Hawkins Warren December 7, 1813 1813-1814 

William Miller Warren December 7, 1814 1814-1815 

William Miller Warren December 7, 1815 1815-1816 

William Miller Warren December 7, 1816 1816-1817 

John Branch Halifax December 6, 1817 1817-1818 

John Branch Halifax December 5, 1818 1818-1819 

John Branch Halifax December 7, 1819 1819-1820 

Jesse Franklin Surry December 7, 1820 1820-1821 

Gabriel Holmes Sampson December 7, 1821 1821-1822 

Gabriel Holmes Sampson December 7, 1822 1822-1823 

Gabriel Holmes Sampson December 6, 1823 1823-1824 

Hutchings G. Burton Halifax December 7, 1824 1824-1825 

Hutchings G. Burton Halifax December 6, 1825 1825-1826 

Hutchings G. Burton Halifax December 29, 1826 1826-1827 

James Iredell, Jr Chowan December 8, 1827 1827-1828 

John Owen Bladen December 12, 1828 1828-1829 

John Owen Bladen December 10, 1829 1829-1830 

Montford Stokes Wilkes December 18, 1830 1830-1831 

Montford Stokes Wilkes December 13, 1831 1831-1832 

David L. Swain Buncombe December 6, 1832 1832-1833 

David L. Swain Buncombe December 9, 1833 1833-1834 

David L. Swain Buncombe December 10, 1834 1834-1835 

Richard Dobbs Spaight, Jr Craven December 10, 1835 1835-1836 



12 North Carolina Manual 



ELECTED BY THE PEOPLE 

Name Residence Qualified Term 

Edward B. Dudley New Hanover December 31, 1836 1836-1838 

Edward B. Dudley New Hanover December 29, 1838 1838-1841 

John M. Morehead Guilford January 1, 1841 1841-1842 

John M. Morehead Guilford December 31, 1842 1842-1845 

William A. Graham Orange January 1, 1845 1845-1847 

William A. Graham Orange January 1, 1847 1847-1849 

Charles Manly Wake January 1, 1849 1849-1851 

David S. Reid Rockingham January 1, 1851 1851-1852 

David S. Reid Rockingham December 22, 1852 1852-1854 

Warren Winslow Cumberland December 6, 1854 1854-1855 

Thomas Bragg Northampton January 1, 1855 1855-1857 

Thomas Bragg Northampton January 1, 1857 1857-1859 

John W. Ellis Rowan January 1, 1859 1859-1861 

John W. Ellis 2 Rowan January 1, 1861 1861 

Henry T. Clark Edgecombe July 7, 1861 1861-1862 

Zebulon B. Vance Buncombe September 8, 1862 1862-1864 

Zebulon B. Vance Buncombe December 22, 1864 1864-1865 

William W. Holden 3 Wake May 29, 1865 1865 

Jonathan Worth Randolph December 15, 1865 1865-1866 

Jonathan Worth Randolph December 22, 1866 1866-1868 

William W. Holden 4 Wake July 1, 1868 1868-1870 

Tod R. Caldwell Burke December 15, 1870 1870-1873 

Tod R. Caldwell 5 Burke January 1, 1873 1873-1874 

Curtis H. Brogden Wayne July 14, 1874 1874-1877 

Zebulon B. Vance Buncombe January 1, 1877 1877-1879 

Thomas J. Jarvis Pitt February 5, 1879 1879-1881 

Thomas J. Jarvis Pitt January 18, 1881 1881-1885 

James L. Robinson Macon September 1, 1883 1883 

Alfred M. Scales Rockingham . ...January 21, 1885 1885-1889 

Daniel G. Fowle 6 Wake January 17, 1889 1889-1891 

Thomas M. Holt Alamance April 8, 1891 1891-1893 

Elias Carr Edgecombe January 18, 1893 1893-1897 

Daniel L. Russell Brunswick January 12, 1897 1897-1901 

Charles B. Aycock Wayne January 15, 1901 1901-1905 

Robert B. Glenn Forsyth January 11, 1905 1905-1909 

William W. Kitchin Person January 12, 1909 1909-1913 

Locke Craig Buncombe January 15, 1913 1913-1917 

Thomas W. Bickett Franklin January 11, 1917 1917-1921 

Cameron Morrison Mecklenburg January 12, 1921 1921-1925 

Angus W. McLean Robeson January 14, 1925 1925-1929 

Oliver Max Gardner Cleveland January 11, 1929 1929-1933 

John C. B. Ehringhaus Pasquotank January 5, 1933 1933-1937 

Clyde R. Hoey Cleveland January 7, 1937 1937-1941 



State of North Carolina 13 



John Melville Broughton Wake January 9, 1941 1941-1945 

Robert Gregg Cherry Gaston January 4, 1945 1945-1949 

William Kerr Scott Alamance January 6, 1949 1949-1953 

William B. Umstead 7 Durham January 8, 1953 1953-1954 

Luther H. Hodges Rockingham November 7, 1954 1954-1957 

Luther H. Hodges Rockingham February 7, 1957 1957-1961 

Terry Sanford Cumberland January 5, 1961 1961-1965 

Daniel K. Moore Jackson January 8, 1965 1965-1969 

Robert W. Scott Alamance January 3, 1969 1969-1973 

James E. Holshouser, Jr. . . .Watauga January 5, 1973 1973-1977 

James B. Hunt, Jr Wilson January 8, 1977 1977- 



i Ashe died before he could take office. 

2 Ellis died July 7, 1861. 

3 Holden, a republican, was appointed provisional governor by the occupation commander. 

* Holden was removed from office. Following his convictions on six of eight impeachment charges. 

5 Caldwell died July 11, 1874. 

6 Fowledied April 7, 1891. 

7 Umstead died November 7, 1954. 



1 1 



North Carolina Manual 



LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR 



Na t 



Residence 



Qualified 



Term 



Tod R. Caldwell 2 Burke July 1, 1868 

Curtis H. Brogden :i Wayne January 1 

Thomas J. Jarvis 4 Pitt January 1 

James L. Robinson 5 Macon January 18 

Charles M. Stedman New Hanover . . . January 21 

Thomas M. Holt 6 Alamance January 17 

Rufus A. Doughton Alleghany January 18 

Charles A. Reynolds Forsyth January 12 

Wilfred D. Turner Iredell January 15 

Francis D. Winston Bertie January 11 

William C. Newland Caldwell January 12 

Elijah L. Daughtridge Edgecombe January 15 

Oliver Max Gardner Cleveland January 11 

William B. Cooper New Hanover . . .January 12 

Jacob E. Long Durham January 14 

Richard T. Fountain Edgecombe January 11 

Alexander H. Graham Orange January 

Wilkins P. Horton Chatham January 

Reginald L. Harris Person January 

Lynton Y. Ballentine Wake January 

Hoyt Patrick Taylor Anson January 

Luther H. Hodges 7 Rockingham . . . . January 

Luther E. Barnhardt Cabarrus February 

Harvey Cloyd Philpott 8 Davidson January 

Robert W. Scott Alamance January 

Hoyt Patrick Taylor, Jr Anson January 

James B. Hunt, Jr Pitt January 

James C. Green Bladen January 



1868-1870 

1873 1873-1874 

1877 1877-1879 

1881 1881-1885 

1885 1885-1889 

1889 1889-1891 

1893 1893-1897 

1897 1897-1901 

1901 1901-1905 

1905 1905-1909 

1909 1909-1913 

1913 1913-1917 

1917 1917-1921 

1921 1921-1925 

1925 1925-1929 

1929 1929-1933 

1933 1933,1937 

1937 1937-1941 

1941 1941-1945 

1945 1945-1949 

1949 1949-1953 

1953 1953-1954 

1957 1957-1961 

1961 1961 

1965 1965-1969 

1969 1969-1973 

1973 1973-1977 

1977 1977- 



i The office of Lieutenant Governor was created by the North Carolina Constitution of 1868. 

2 Caldwell became governor following the removal of Holden from office in 1870. 

3 Brogden became governor following the death of Caldwell. 

* Jarvis became governor following the resignation of Vance. 
5 Robinson resigned from office on October 13, 1884. 
8 Holt became governor following the death of Fowle. 

7 Hodges became governor following the death of Umstead. 

8 Philpott died on August 18, 1961. 



State of North Carolina 15 



THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE CAPITOL 

The North Carolina State Capitol is one of the finest and best preserved ex- 
amples of a major civic building in the Greek Revival Style of architecture. 

Prior to 1792, North Carolina legislators met in various towns throughout 
the state — Halifax, Hillsboro, and New Bern were the most frequent locations. 
Meetings were held in local plantation houses, court houses, and even churches — 
whatever was available; however, when the City of Raleigh was established as 
the permanent seat of the Government of North Carolina in 1792, a simple, two- 
story brick State House was built on Union Square. The State House was com- 
pleted in 1796. 

The State House was enlarged in 1820-24 by the architect William Nichols. 
A third floor and eastern and western wings were added to the building, and a 
domed rotunda was constructed at its center to house Antonio Canova's statue of 
President George Washington, acquired by the State in 1821. When the State 
House burned on June 21, 1831, the statue of Washington was damaged beyond 
repair. 

The General Assembly of 1832-33 ordered that a new Capitol (as the present 
building has always been called) be built as an enlarged version of the old State 
House — that is, a cross-shaped building with a central, domed rotunda. The sum 
of $50,000 was appropriated, and a commission appointed to initiate the plan. The 
Commissioners for Rebuilding the Capitol first employed William Nichols, Jr., to 
help them prepare plans for the building. In August of 1833, Nichols was re- 
placed by the distinguished New York architectural firm of Ithiel Town and Alex- 
ander Jackson Davis. They modified and greatly improved the earlier design, 
giving the Capitol essentially its present appearance and plan. David Paton 
(1802-82), an Edinburgh-born architect who had worked for John Seoane, the 
noted English arhitect, was hired in September, 1834, to superintend the construc- 
tion of the Capitol. Paton replaced Town and Davis as the Commissioners' ar- 
chitect early in 1835. The Capitol was built under Paton's supervision except for 
the exterior stone walls, which were largely in place when he got to Raleigh. 
Paton made several modifications in the Town and Davis plans for the interior. 
He is responsible for the cantilevered or overhanging gallery at the second floor 
level of the rotunda, the groined masonry vaulting of the first floor office and 
corridor ceilings, and the interior arrangement of the east and west wings. After 
clearing away the rubbish of the old State House, excavations were made and a 
new foundation laid. On July 4, 1833, the corner stone was set in place. Following 
this, work progressed more slowly, and the original appropriation soon exhausted. 
At the next session of the Legislature, an additional appropriation of $75,000 was 
necessary so that work could begin on the stone and finer work. Many skilled 
artisans were brought over from Scotland and other countries to carry out this 
phase of construction. 

Most of the architectural details — columns, mouldings, ornamental plaster- 
work, and the honeysuckle crown atop the dome, for example — were carefully 



State of North Carolina 17 



patterned after features of particular ancient Greek temples: The exterior 
columns are Doric in style and modeled after those of the Parthenon, the House 
of Representatives Chamber follows the semicircular plan of a Greek theater and 
its architectural ornament is in the Corinthian style of the Tower of the Winds, 
and the Senate Chamber is decorated in the Ionic style of the Erechtheum. The 
only non-classical parts of the building are two large rooms on the third floor 
which were finished in the Gothic Style, then just beginning its rise to popularity 
in America. 

The ornamental ironwork, chandeliers, hardware, and marble mantels of the 
Capitol came from Philadelphia, as did the man who executed all of the orna- 
mental plasterwork. The desks and chairs in the House and Senate Chambers 
were made by a Raleigh Cabinetmaker, William Thompson. 

The Capitol was completed in 1840 at a total cost (including furnishings) of 
$532,682.34, or more than three times the yearly general income of the State at 
that time. 

In plan, the Capitol is a cross-shaped building, centering on a domed rotunda 
where the wings join. It is 160 feet from north to south, 140 feet from east to west 
(including the porticoes), and stands 97 V2 feet from the base of the rotunda to 
the crown atop the dome. The exterior walls are built of gneiss (a form of 
granite). This stone was quarried in southeastern Raleigh and hauled to the site 
on the horse-drawn Experimental Rail Road, the first railway in North Carolina. 
The interior walls are of stone and brick. The massive, original wooden truss sys- 
tem still carries the roof. 

The first floor contains eight offices in the north and south wings and smaller 
rooms in the east and west wings. (These offices originally housed all of the 
executive branch of state government — a total of six full-time officials in 1840.) 
The rotunda contains a duplicate original of Canova's statue of Washington, 
acquired in 1970. In inches around the rotunda are busts of three Governors and 
a United States Senator. Stairways in the east and west wings give access to the 
second floor, where the Senate and House Chambers and related offices are located. 
Rooms in the east and west wings, built as legislative committee rooms, have been 
converted to other uses. On the third floor are the galleries of the Senate and 
House Chambers, and in the east and west wings are the original State Supreme 
House Chambers, and in the east and west wings are the original State Supreme 
domed, top-lit vestibules of those two rooms are especially note-worthy. 

The Capitol housed all of the state government until the 1880's. The Supreme 
Court moved to its own building in 1888. The General Assembly moved to the 
State Legislative Building (the State's first building erected exclusively for 
legislative use) in 1963. Today the only official occupants of the Capitol are 
some of the personnel of the Governor and the Secretary of State. 

The Capitol probably has been less changed in appearance, inside and out, 
than any major American civic building of its era. The stonework, the ornamental 
plaster and ironwork, the furniture of the legislative chambers, and all but one 
of the marble mantels that the visitor sees today are original, not restorations or 



l y North Carolina Manual 



reproductions. Yet continuous and heavy use since 1840 has left its marks on the 
building, and to cope with them the Capitol currently is undergoing a careful re- 
habilitation. This work was begun in 1971 and is intended to preserve and enhance 
the architectural splendor and decorative beauty of the Capitol for future genera- 
tions. Work done to date includes replacing the leaky copper roof, cleaning and 
sealing the exterior stone, and repainting the rotunda in colors similar to those 
originally used. More recently completed phases include repairing plaster-work 
damaged by roof leaks, replacing obsolete wiring and plumbing, reworking the 
heating and cooling systems in the upper floors to make them less conspicuous, 
replacing worn carpets and draperies, and repainting the rest of the interior 
according to the original color scheme. 

1976 was an eventful year not only for our nation, but for our State Capitol 
building as well. After several years of work, the old senate and house chambers 
and the executive offices on the first floor were completed. Shortly after his elec- 
tion, Governor James B. Hunt, Jr. announced his intention of moving the Office of 
the Governor back into the Capitol. This move is now complete and Governor Hunt 
joins Secretary of State Thad Eure as a working resident in this symbol of 
government in North Carolina. 

In an effort to make the newly renovated Capitol more accessable to the people 
of North Carolina, the building has been opened to the public on weekends with- 
guided tours available for all visitors. 



State of North Carolina 19 

DESCRIPTION OF THE CAPITOL 
By Architect David Paton 

The State Capitol is 160 feet in length from north to south by 140 feet from 
east to west. The whole height is 97Vfe feet in the center. The apex of pediment is 
64 feet in height. The stylobate is 18 feet in height. The columns of the east and 
west porticoes are 5 feet 2V2 inches in diameter. An entablature, including blocking 
course, is continued around the building 12 feet high. 

The columns and entablature are Grecian Doric, and copied from the Temple of 
Minerva, commonly called the Parthenon, which was erected in Athens about 500 
years before Christ. An octagon tower surrounds the rotunda, which is ornamented 
with Grecian cornices, etc., and its dome is decorated at top with a similar ornament 
to that of the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, commonly called the Lanthorn of 
Demosthenes. 

The interior of the Capitol is divided into three stories: First, the lower story, 
consisting often rooms, eight of which are appropriated as offices to the Governor, 
Secretary, Treasurer, and Comptroller, each having two rooms of the same size — 
the one containing an area of 649 square feet, the other 528 square feet — the two 
committee rooms, each containing 200 square feet and four closets: also the rotunda, 
corridors, vestibules, and piazzas, contain an area of 4,370 square feet. The vesti- 
bules are decorated with columns and antae, similar to those of the Ionic Temple 
on the Ilissus, near the Acropolis of Athens. The remainder is groined with stone 
and brick, springing from columns and pilasters of the Roman Doric. 

The second story consists of Senatorial and Representatives' chambers, the 
former containing an area of 2,545 and the latter 2,849 square feet. Four apartments 
enter from Senate Chamber, two of which contain each an area of 169 square feet, 
and the other two contain each an area of 154 square feet; also, two rooms enter 
from Representatives' chamber, each containing an area of 170 square feet; of two 
committee rooms, each containing an area of 231 square feet; of four presses and the 
passages, stairs, lobbies, and colonnades, containing an area of 3,204 square feet. 

The lobbies and Hall of Representatives have their columns and antae of the 
Octagon Tower of Andronicus Cyrrhestes and the plan of the hall is of the formation 
of the Greek theatre and the columns and antae in the Senatorial chamber and 
rotunda are of the Temple of Erectheus, Minerva, Polias, and Pandrosus, in the 
Acorpolis of Athens, near the above named Parthenon. 

Third, or attic story, consists of rooms appropriated to the Supreme Court 
and Library, each containing an area of 693 square feet. Galleries of both houses 
have an area of 1,300 square feet; also two apartments entering from Senate gallery, 
each 169 square feet, of four presses and the lobbies' stairs, 988 square feet. These 
lobbies as well as rotunda, are lit with cupolas, and it is proposed to finish the 
court and library in the florid Gothic style. 



20 North Carolina Manual 



THE CAPITOL 

by 

Edwin Gill* 

I am the Capitol; upon my copper dome, I wear a crown. If it were gilded, it 
would flash a signal to the sun. This crown is more than decoration. It is a symbol 
of sovereignty. 

When the sun is bright and the arch of heaven is clear, the greenish-blue of 
my dome is bold against the sky. But sometimes, when the sun is veiled, the grey 
of my dome appears to blend with infinity. 

Between 1833 and 1840, I was constructed of stone quarried nearby, which 
time has mellowed. These stones were precision cut and, nicely balanced. The 
traffic of human feet has worn some stones, and, occasionally, I have been roughly 
used. The edges of steps have been broken. But I am hale and hearty and will, of 
course, endure. 

The Court, the Legislature and the Auditor have left me for more modern 
homes. It is rumored that others may go. However, I am assured I shall become 
a shrine. Now what is a shrine? No one seems to know, except they say it has 
something to do with memory and Glory. 

I am complimented that many people are concerned about my condition. 
Questions have been raised. Let me assure one and all that I am solid and sound 
of body. My problems are mostly superficial. 

My roof has leaked a bit, and inquiries should be made into the soundness of 
the timbers that undergird it. Also, at appropriate intervals, my electrical wiring 
should be carefully examined. 

In fairness to the past, a sprinkler system was installed beneath my roof in 
1939, and my exterior was cleaned effectively in 1952. 

But it is well to have the Governor, the Council of State and others concerned 
about my future. It is good to know there are those who care — to have a flutter of 
interest in my behalf. Even the pigeons and squirrels are concerned! 

Some time before the year is out, I am informed, we will dedicate, in an ap- 
propriate ceremony, the receipt from Italy of the figure of Washington carved in 
marble. It is meet and proper in anticipation of this event that I be cleaned, re- 
furnished and made in every way presentable. Incidentally, my architect told me 
that in the original plans I was to have this statue. So, in a sense, I am unfinished 
until it is in place. 



" Mr. Gill was State Treasurer of North Carolina from 1953-1977. The above was ordered spread 
upon the minutes of the Council of State on June 17, 1970. 



State of North Carolina 21 



There are those who think I should be restored to my former splendor. The 
doctors of history suggest I should be arrayed in the mode of 1840. This, I suppose 
has something to do with my ultimate status as a shrine. 

I favor this restoration. But I doubt that such a project can be completely 
achieved. After all, in recent times, I have become a creature of modern con- 
veniences, such as central heating, inside plumbing and electricity — all unavailable 
in 1840. Whatever is done, my comfort should be considered. Especially, I would 
like to have hot, as well as cold, running water ! 

In my bosom laws were made. Through the deoades, I have heard the thunders 
of eloquence. I have been amused at the wit and tall tales of statesmen. 

Today my halls are silent. People come and go and look at me, and marvel 
at the stories of the past. They say 1 am a symbol of all that has been achieved 
within the borders of our State. So be it. I am a symbol. 



State of North Carolina 23 



THE LEGISLATIVE BUILDING 

The need for larger quarters for legislators and their respective staffs, and 
the growth of services provided by the legislative branch of government led the 
General Assembly of 1959 to appropriate funds for the formation of a Building 
Commission for the construction of a new building for the Legislature. A statute 
creating such a commission was ratified on June 12, 1959. It was to "consist of 
two persons who have served in the State Senate, appointed by the President of 
the Senate; two persons who have served in the House of Representatives, appoint- 
ed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives; and three persons appointed 
by the Governor." 

Lieutenant Governor Luther E. Barnhardt, President of the Senate, appointed 
Archie K. Davis and Robert F. Morgan, who was elected Vice-chairman of the 
Commission; Speaker of the House Addison Hewlett appointed B. I. Satterfield 
and Thomas J. White, who was elected Chairman of the Commission ; and Governor 
Hodges appointed A. E. Finley, Edwin Gill, and Oliver R. Rowe. In addition to 
these members, Paul A. Johnston, Director of the Department of Administration, 
was elected Executive Secretary. The Commission elected Frank B. Turner, State 
Property Officer as Executive Secretary upon the resignation of Mr. Johnson. 

The Commission selected Edward Durell Stone of New York with John S. 
Holloway and Ralph B. Reeves, Jr., Associated as the architectural consultants. 

After a thorough study by the Commission, a site for construction was select- 
ed — a h x h acre area one block North of the Capitol. This site, encompassing two 
blocks, is bounded by Jones, Salisbury, Lane and Wilmington Streets. A section 
of Halifax Street between Jones and Lane was closed and made a part of the new 
site. 

Bids on the new building were received in December, 1960 and construction 
began early the following year. The 1961 General Assembly appropriated an ad- 
ditional $1 million for furnishings and equipment. This brought the total ap- 
propriation to $5% million or $1.24 for each citizen of North Carolina. (This 
figure based on the 1960 census.) 

One of the consulting architects wrote the following description of the new 
building: 

The State Legislative Building, though not an imitation of historic 
classical styles, is classical in character. Rising from a 340 foot wide podi- 
um of North Carolina granite, the building proper is 242 feet square. The 
walls and the columns are of Vermont marble, the latter forming a 
colonnade encompassing the building and reaching 24 feet from the podi- 
um to the roof of the second floor. 

Inset in the south podium floor, at the main entrance, is a 28 foot 
diameter terrazzo mosaic of the Great Seal of the State. From the first 
floor main entrance (at Jones Street) the carpeted 22 foot wide main 
stair extends directly to the third floor and the public galleries of the 
Senate and House, the auditorium, the display area, and the roof gardens. 



24 North Carolina Manual 



The four garden courts are located at the corners of the building. 
These courts contain tropical plants, and three have pools, fountains, and 
hanging planters. The main floor areas of tl e courts are located in the 
first floor, and messanines overlook the courts from the second floor. The 
skylights which provide natural lighting are located within the roof gar- 
dens overhead. The courts provide access to committee rooms in the first 
floor, the legislative chambers in the second floor, and Lo members' offices 
in both floors. 

The Senate and House chambers, each 5,180 square feet in area, 
occupy the east and west wings of the second floor. Following the tradi- 
tional relationship of the two chambers in the Capitol, the two spaces 
are divided by the rotunda; and when the main brass doors are open, 
the two presiding officers face one another. Each pair of brass doors 
weigh 1,500 pounds. 

The five pyramidal roofs covering the Senate and House chambers, 
the auditorium, the main stair, and the rotunda are sheathed with copper, 
as is the Capitol. The pyramidal shape of the roofs is visible in the point- 
ed ceilings inside. The structural ribs form a coffered ceiling; and inside 
the coffered patterns, concentric patterns are outlined in gold. In each 
chamber, the distance from the floor to the peak of the ceiling is 45 feet. 

Chandeliers in the chambers and main stair are 8 feet in diameter and 
weigh 625 pounds each. The 12 foot diameter chandelier of the rotunda, 
like the others, is of brass, but its weight is 750 pounds. 

Because of the interior environment, the garden courts and rotunda 
have tropical plants and trees. Outside, however, the shrubs and trees 
are of an indigenous type. Among the trees in the grounds, on the roof 
areas are sugar maples, dogwoods, crabapples, magnolias, crepe myrtles, 
and pines. 

Throughout the building, the same color scheme is maintained: Wal- 
nut, white, gold and red, with green foliage. In general, all wood is 
American walnut, metal is brass or other gold colored material, carpets 
are red, and upholstery is gold or black. 

The enclosed area consists of 206,000 square feet of floor area with a 
volume of 3,210,000 cubic feet. Heating equipment pro /ides over 7,000,000 
B.T.U. per hour; and the cooling equipment has a capacity of 620 tons. 
For lighting, motors, and other electrical equipment, the building has a 
connected service load of over 2,000,000 watts. 



State of North Carolina 



25 



THE GREAT SEAL OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

The use of a seal for attesting to important documents began before the imple- 
mentation of government in North Carolina. In the colonial period North Carolina 
used successively four different seals. Since the colony became a state, five distinct 
seals have been used. 

Shortly after they were issued their charter in 1663, the Lords Proprietors 
thought it proper to adopt for their newly acquired domains in America, a seal of 
which no official description has been found, but which is to be seen in the British 
Public Record Office in London. The Seal — pictured below — had two sides. The size 
of this seal was three and three-eighths inches in diameter, and it was made by 
placing together two wax cakes with tape between before being impressed. The 
impression after being made was about one-fourth inch thick. This seal was used on 
all official papers of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina, embracing both North 
Carolina and South Carolina. 





Seal of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina 

About 1665 the Government of Albemarle was organized and it adopted for a 
seal the reverse side of the seal of the Lords Proprietors. Between the coats-of-arms 
the word A-L-BE-M-A-R-L-E was fixed in capitals, beginning with the letter "A" 
between the arms of Clarendon and Albemarle, "L" between Albemarle and Craven, 
"BE" between the Craven arms and those of Lord John Berekeley, et cetera. 

This was a small seal — one and seven-sixteenths inches in diameter, with one 
face only — and is now frequently to be found attached to colonial papers. It is 
generally impressed on red wax, but is occasionally seen impressed on a wafer 
which is stuck to the instrument with soft wax. It was first used for the govern- 
ment of the county of Albemarle, and then became the seal of the Province of North 
Carolina, being used until just after the purchase by the crown. During the 
troublous times of the Cary Rebellion the Albemarle seal was not used. In 1708 
Cary used his family arms on a large seal to his official papers. A fine specimen of 
this seal showing the Cary arms is preserved in the papers of the secretary of state 
located in the North Carolina Archives. During William Glover's presidency (1710) 
he used his private seal. 



26 



North Carolina Manual 




Seal of the Government of Albemarle and Province of North Carolina, 1665-1730 



When North Carolina was purchased by the Crown in 1729, the old "Albemarle" 
seal was no longer applicable. On February 3, 1729/30, the Board of Trade recom- 
mended to the king that he order a public seal for the Province of North Carolina. 

On February 21, 1729/30, his Majesty in council was pleased to approve the 
recommendations and ordered ". . . that a Publick Seal be prepared and given to the 
Governor of the said Province of North Carolina, And that the said Lords Com- 
missioners for Trade and Plantations do cause a Draft of such Seal, to be prepared 
and laid before His Majesty at the Board, for his Royall Approbation." 

On March 25, 1730, The Board of Trade laid before his Majesty for his royal 
approbation a draft of a proposed seal for the Province of North Carolina. On the 
10th day of April, 1730, the king approved the recommendations, except that it 
appears "Georgius Secundus" was to be substituted for the original "Geo. II.," and 
his chief engraver of seals was ordered to "engrave a silver Seal according to said 
draught. ..." A certain Rollos, his Majesty's engraver was ordered to prepare a 
draft of the seal. 





Obverse Reverse 

Seal of the Province of North Carolina, 1730-1767 



State of North Carolina 



27 



There was some delay in receiving the new seal, for at a council held at Eden- 
ton, March 30, 1731, it was "Ordered that the old seal of the Colony be used till the 
new seal arrives." The latter part of April the seal came, and "The Messenger that 
went to Cape Fear to fetch the Publick Seal of this Province" was paid the sum of ten 
pounds for his journey. This seal was made by placing two cakes or layers of wax 
together, between which was the ribbon or tape with which the instrument was 
interlaced and by which the seal was appended. It was customary to put a piece of 
paper on the outside of three cakes before they were impressed. The complete seal 
was four and three-eighths inches in diameter and from one-half to five-eighths 
inches thick and weighed about five and one-half ounces. 

At a council held at New Bern, December 14, 1767, Governor Tryon produced to 
the Board a new Great Seal for the province with his Majesty's Royal Warrant 
bearing date at the Court of St. James the 9th day of July, 1767. The old seal was 
sent to New York by Captain [John Abraham] Collet, commander of Fort John- 
ston, to be returned to his Majesty's Council office at Whitehall. Accompanying 
his Majesty's warrant was a description of the new seal. This seal was to be used in 
sealing all patents and grants of lands and all public instruments passed in the 
king's name for service within the province. It was four inches in diameter, one- 
half to five-eighths inches thick, and weighed four and one-half ounces. 





Observe Reverse 

Seal of the Province of North Carolina, 1767-1776 



It appears that sometimes a smaller seal than the Great Seal was used, as 
commissions and grants with a small heart-shaped seal about one inch wide and a 
quarter of an inch thick which was impressed with a crown have been used. Also 
a seal was occasionally used about three inches long and two inches wide and half 
an inch thick, in the shape of an ellipse. These impressions were evidently made 
by putting the wax far enough under the edge of the Great Seal to take the impres 
sion of the crown. The royal governors also sometimes used their private seals on 
commissions and grants. 



28 North Carolina Manual 



Lord Granville, on the grants issued by him, used his private seal. The last 
reference found to the colonial seal is in a letter from Governor Martin to the Earl 
of Hillsborough in November, 1771, in which he said "that the Province Seal was 
broke," but that he had had it repaired and that it had been "awkwardly mended 
but in such manner as to answer all purposes." 

When the government of the State of North Carolina was organized, the con- 
stitution adopted at Halifax, December 18, 1776, provided in Section XVII, "That 
there shall be a Seal of this State, which shall be kept by the Governor, and used 
by him as occasion may require; and shall be called the Great Seal of the State of 
North Carolina, and be affixed to all grants and commissions." The Constitutional 
Convention of 1835 brought this section forward unchanged. 

The convention of 1868 adopted a new constitution, and the convention of 1875 
brought the section referring to the seal forward as adopted in 1868. Article III, 
Section 16 of the constitution reads: "There shall be a seal of the State, which shall 
be kept by the Governor, and used by him, as occasion may require, and shall be 
called "The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina' All grants and commissions 
shall be issued in the name and by the authority of the State of North Carolina, 
sealed with 'The Great Seal of the State,' signed by the Governor and counter- 
signed by the Secretary of State." 

On December 22, 1776, an ordinance was passed by the Provincial Congress at 
Halifax appointing William Hooper, Joseph Hewes and Thomas Burke commis- 
sioners to procure a Great Seal for the State of North Carolina, but no record of a 
report being made by this commission could be found. The ordinance provided that 
the governor should use his "private seal at arms" until the Great Seal for the state 
was procured. On April 29, 1778, a bill which directed the procurement of a Great 
Seal for the state and which became law on May 2, was introduced in the lower 
house of the general assembly held in New Bern. It provided that "William Tisdale, 
Esq., be and he is hereby appointed to cut and engrave a Seal, under the Direction 
of his Excellency the Governor, for the use of the State; . . . ." On Sunday, Novem- 
ber 7, 1779 the senate concurred in the resolution passed by the house of commons 
allowing William Tisdale, Esq., the sum of one hundred and fifty pounds for making 
the Great Seal of the State. Under this act a seal was procured which was used until 
1794. The actual size of the seal was three inches in diameter and one-fourth inch 
thick. It was made by putting two cakes of wax together with paper wafers on the 
outside and pressing them between the dies, thus forming the obverse and reverse 
sides of this seal. The seal press must have been very large and unwieldy, for 
Governor Richard Dobbs Spaight in writing to Colonel Abisha Thomas in Febru- 
ary, 1793 said: "Let the screws by which the impression is to be made be as 
portable as possible so as it may be adapted to our present itinerant government. 
The one now in use by which the Great Seal is a present made is so large and 
unwieldy as to be carried only in a cart or wagon and of course has become 
stationart at the Secretary's office which makes it very convenient." Governor 
Spaight in January, 1793 in writing of the Tisdale Seal then in use says: "This old 
seal is not only nearly worn out but in my opinion has always been a reproach to 
the genius of the State." An official description of this seal cannot be found, but 
many of the seals are still in existence in an almost perfect state of preservation. 



State of North Carolina 



29 





Obverse 



Reverse 



Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1779-1794 

In January, 1792 the general assembly in session at New Bern passed an act 
authorizing and requiring the governor to procure for the state a seal, and provided 
that it should "be prepared with only one side, and calculated to make the impres- 
sion on the face of such grant, commission, record or other public acts, . . . ." 
Governor Alexander Martin commissioned Colonel Abisha Thomas, the agent of 
North Carolina in Philadelphia for the settlement of the State's Revolutionary 
claims against the Federal Government, to have one made and, at the same time 
sent him a design therefor. After correspondence between Governor Martin and 
Colonel Thomas concerning the seal, in which suggestions were made by Dr. Hugh 
Williamson and Senator Samuel Johnston, they concluded that the sketch sub- 
mitted by Governor Martin would not do and Colonel Thomas submitted a sketch 
by an artist. This sketch, with some modification, was finally accepted by Governor 
Spaight, and Colonel Thomas had the seal made accordingly. The seal was cut 
some time dui'ing the summer of 1793, and Colonel Thomas brought it home with 
him in time for the meeting of the legislature in November, 1793, at which session 
it was "approbated." The screw to the seal would not work, so in 1795 the general 
assembly passed an act authorizing the use of the old seal of 1778 until the new 
one could be put in order. The new seal was two and one half inches in diameter 
and was used until around 1835. 

The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1794-1836 



In the winter of 1834-35 the legislature passed an act authorizing the governor 
to procure a new seal. The preamble to the act states that the old seal had been in 
use since the first day of March, 1793. The seal adopted in 1835, which was not 
changed until 1839, was very similar to its predecessor. It was two and one-fourth 
inches in diameter. In 1868 the legislature authorized the governor to procure a 
Great Seal and required him to provide a new seal whenever the old one was lost 
or so worn or defaced as to render it unfit for use. 



30 



North Carolina Manual 




In 1883 Colonel S. McD. Tate introduced a bill in the legislature which became 
law. This act did not provide that a new seal be procured but it described in more 
detail what the seal should be like. In 1893 Jacob Battle introduced a bill which 
became law. This made no change in the seal except to add at the foot of the coat- 
of-arms of the state as part thereof the motto .Esse Quam Videri and to provide 
the words "May 20, 1775," be inscribed at the top of the coat-of-arms. 




The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1836-1893 



State of North Carolina 



31 



At this time the ship that appeared in the offing in the seals of George II and 
George III and in our seal from 1835-1893 seems to have disappeared, and the 
designer of the seal shows mountains in the background instead of both moun- 
tains and the sea as formerly. 

The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1893-1971 

The preceding history illustrates the great variety in seals and the liberty that 
was taken in the design in the official State seal from time to time. The 1971 
General Assembly, in an effort to "provide a standard for the Great Seal of the 




State of North Carolina," passed the following Act amending the General Statutes 
provision relative to the State Seal : 

The Governor shall procui'e for the State a Seal, which shall be called 
the great seal of the State of North Carolina, and shall be two and one- 
quarter inches in diameter, and its design shall be a representation of the 
figures of Liberty and Plenty, looking toward each other, but not more 
than half- fronting each other and otherwise disposed as follows: Liberty, 
the first figure, standing, her pole with cap on it in her left hand and a 
scroll with the word "Constitution" inscribed thereon in her right hand. 
Plenty, the second figure, sitting down, her right arm half extended toward 
Liberty, three heads of grain in her right hand, and in her left, the small 
end of her horn, the mouth of which is resting at her feet, and the contents 
of the horn rolling out. 

The background on the seal shall contain a depiction of mountains run- 
ning from left to right to the middle of the seal. A side view of a three- 
masted ship shall be located on the ocean and to the right of Plenty. The 
date "May 20, 1775" shall appear within the seal and across the top of the 
seal and the words "esse quam videri" shall appear at the bottom around 
the perimeter. No other words, figures or other embellishments shall 
appear on the seal. 



32 



North Carolina Manual 



It shall be the duty of the Governor to file in the office of the Secre- 
tary of State an impression of the great seal, certified to under his hand 
and attested to by the Secretary of State, which impression so certified 
the Secretary of State shall carefully preserve among the records of this 
Office. 




The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1971 — 



State of North Carolina 33 



THE STATE FLAG 

The flag is an emblem of antiquity and has commanded respect and reverence 
from practically all nations from the earliest times. History traces it to divine 
origin, the early peoples of the earth attributing to it strange, mysterious, and 
supernatural powers. Indeed, our first recorded references to the standard and the 
banner, of which our present flag is but a modified form, are from sacred rather 
than from secular sources. We are told that it was around the banner that the 
prophets of old rallied their armies and under which the hosts of Israel were led to 
war, believing, as they did, that it carried with it divine favor and protection. 

Since that time all nations and all peoples have had their flags and emblems, 
though the ancient superstition regarding their divine merits and supernatural 
powers has disappeared from among civilized peoples. The flag now, the world over, 
possesses the same meaning and has a uniform significance to all nations wherever 
found. It stands as the symbol of strength and unity, representing the national 
spirit and patriotism of the people over whom it floats. In both lord and subject, 
the ruler and the ruled, it commands respect, inspires patriotism, and instills loyalty 
both in peace and war. 

In this country we have a national flag which stands as the emblem of our 
strength and unity as a nation, a living representation of our national spirit and 
honor. In addition to our national flag, each of the states in the Union has a "state 
flag" symbolic of its own individuality and domestic ideals, which is expressive of 
some particular trait, or commemorative of some historical event, of the people 
over whom it floats. The flags of most of the states, however, consist of the coat of 
arms of that state upon a suitably colored field. It is said that the first state flag of 
North Carolina was built on this model, but so far as we can learn from the records 
the first legislation on this subject of establishing and recognizing a "state flag" 
was in year 1861. 

The constitutional convention of 1861, which passed the ordinance of secession, 
adopted what is termed a state flag. On May 20, 1861, the day the secession resolu- 
tion was adopted, Col. John D. Whitford, a member of the convention from Craven 
County, introduced the following ordinance, which was referred to a select com- 
mittee of seven. 

Be it ordained. That the flag of this State shall be a blue field with a white V thereon, 
and a star, incircling which shall be the words "Surgit astrum. May 20th, 1775." 

Colonel Whitford was made chairman of the committee to which this ordinance 
was referred. The committee secured the aid and advice of William Jarl Browne, 
an artist of Raleigh. Browne prepared and submitted a model to this committee. 
And this model was adopted by the convention of June 22, 1861. It will be observed 
that the Browne model, to be hereafter explained, was vastly different from the one 
originally proposed by Colonel Whitford. Here is the ordinance as it appears in 
the ordinance and resolutions passed by the convention: 

AN ORDINANCE IN RELATION TO A STATE FLAG 

Be it ordained by this Convention, and it is hereby ordained by the authority of the sum,. 
That the Flag of North Carolina shall consist of a red field with a white star in the centre, 
and with the inscription, above the star, in a semi-circular form, of "May 20th. 1776," 



:u 



North Carolina Manual 




State of North Carolina 35 



and below the star, in a semicircular form, of "May 20th, 1861." That there shall be two 
bars of equal width, and the length of the field shall be equal to the bar. the width of the 
field being equal to both bars: the first bar shall be blue, and the second shall be white; 
and the length of the flag shall be one-third more than its width. [Ratified the ttnd 
day of June, 1861 .] 

This state flag, adopted in 1861, is said to have been issued to North Carolina 
regiments of state troops during the summer of that year and was borne by them 
throughout the war, being the only flag, except the national and Confederate colors, 
used by the North Carolina troops during the Civil War. This flag existed until 
1885, when the Legislature adopted a new model. 

As stated above the Legislature of 1885 adopted a new state flag. The bill, 
which was introduced by General Johnstone Jones on February 5, 1885, passed its 
final reading one month later after little or no debate. This act reads as follows: 

AN ACT TO ESTABLISH A STATE FLAG 

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

SECTION 1. That the flag of North Carolina shall consist of a blue union, containing 
in the centre thereof a white star with the letter N. in gilt on the left and the letter C. in 
gilt on the right of said star, the circle containing the same to be one-third the width of 
the union. 

SEC. 2. That the fly of the flag shall consist of two equally proportioned bars; the upper 
bar to be red, the lower bar to be white; that the length of the bars horizontally shall be 
equal to the perpendicular length of the union, and the total length of the flag shall be one- 
third more than its width. 

SEC. 3. That above the star in the centre of the union there shall be a gilt scroll in 
semi-circular form, containing in black letters this inscription "May 20th, 1775," and 
that below the star there shall be a similar scroll containing in black letters the inscrip- 
tion: "April 12th, 1776." 

SEC. 4. That this act shall take effect from and after its ratification. 

In the General Assembly read three times and ratified this 9th day of March, A.D. 1885. 

Perhaps, it may be of interest to make a passing reference to the siginficance of 
the dates found on each flag. The first date, "May 20th, 1775," refers to the Meck- 
lenburg Declaration of Independence, the authenticity of which we shall not here 
stop either to doubt or to defend. The second date appearing on the state flag of 
1861 is that of "May 20th, 1861." This date commemorated the secession of the 
State from the Union; but as the cause of secession was defeated this date no 
longer represented anything after the Civil War. So when a new flag was adopted 
in 1885, this date was removed, and another, "April 12th, 1776," took its place. 
This date commemorates the adoption of the Halifax Resolves — a document that 
places the Old North State in the very front rank, both in point of time and in 
spirit, among those that demanded unconditional freedom and absolute independence 
from any foreign power. This document stands out as one of the great landmarks 
in the annals of North Carolina history. 

Since 1885 there has been no change in our state flag. For the most part, it has 
remained unknown and a stranger to the good people of our State. However, as 
we became more intelligent, and therefore, more patriotic and public spirited, the 
emblem of the Old North State will assume a station of greater prominence among 



36 North Carolina Manual 



our people. One hopeful sign of this increased interest was the act passed by the 
Legislature of 1907, requiring the state flag to be floated from all state institutions, 
public buildings, and courthouses. In addition to this, many public and private 
schools, fraternal orders, and other organizations now float the state flag. This is 
right. The people of the State should become acquainted with the emblem of that 
government to which they owe allegiance and from which they secure protection. 

AN ACT TO PROMOTE LOYALTY AND GREATER RESPECT 
FOR THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE STATE 

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

SECTION 1. That for the purpose of promoting greater loyalty and respect to the state 
and inasmuch as a special act of the Legislature has adopted an emblem of our government 
known as the North Carolina State flag, that it is meet and proper that it shall be given 
greater prominence. 

SEC. 2. That the board of trustees or managers of the several state institutions and 
public buildings shall provide a North Carolina flag, of such dimensions and material as 
they may deem best, and the same shall be displayed from a staff upon the top of each and 
every such building at all times except during inclement weather, and upon the death of 
any state officer or any prominent citizen the flag shall be put at half-mast until the burial 
of such person shall have taken place. 

SEC. 3. That the Board of County Commissioners of the several counties in this state 
shall likewise authorize the procuring of a North Carolina flag, to be displayed either on a 
staff upon the top, or draped behind the judge's stand, in each and every courthouse in the 
state, and that the state flag shall be displayed at each and every term of court held, and on 
such other public occasions as the Commissioners may deem proper. 

SEC. 4. That no state flag shall be allowed in or over any building here mentioned that 
does not conform to section five thousand three hundred and twenty-one of the Revisal of 
one thousand nine hundred and five. 

SEC. 5. That this act shall be in force from and after its ratification. 

In the General Assembly read three times, and ratified this the 9th day of March, A.D. 
1907. 

The "first flag of 1861 had the date "May 20, 1861" as well as that of May 20, 
1775. The date of May 20, 1861 represented the date North Carolina seceded from 
the union; however, since the secession cause no longer existed after 1865, the date 
"April 12, 1776" was substituted in 1885. This date is known to most North Caro- 
linians as the date of the Halifax Resolves, a document which was one of the first 
calls by the colonies for unconditional independence from Great Britain. The latter 
date, May 20, 1775, is the date of the alledged signing of the Mecklenburg Declara- 
tion of Independence. Historians have for many years debated the authenticity of 
the document since no original document exists. The only documentation is a 
reproduction from memory many years later by one of the delegates attending the 
convention. The main argument of historians against the authenticity of the 
document — other than its non-existence in original documentation — is that the 
Mecklenburg Resolves adopted just eleven days after the alledged adoption of the 
Declaration are comparatively weak in tone, almost to the point of complete oppo- 
sites. It is difficult for historians to believe that the irreconcilable tone of the 
Declaration could have been the work of the same people who produced the 
resolves. Efforts have been made to have the date taken off both the flag and the 
seal, but as yet, these have proved fruitless. Removal from the seal would be simple 
enough, for the date of the Halifax Resolves could be substituted easily without 
changing the basic intention of the date. The flag is another matter, for there is 
no other date of significance which could be easily substituted. 



State of North Carolina 37 



NAME OF STATE AND NICKNAMES 

In 1629 King Charles the First of England "erected into a province," all the 
land from Albemarle Sound on the north to the St. John's River on the south, 
which he directed should be called Carolina. The word Carolina is from the word 
Carolus, the Latin form of Charles. 

When Carolina was divided in 1710, the southern part was called South Caro- 
lina and the northern or older settlement was called North Carolina, or the "Old 
North State." Historians had recorded the fact that the principal products of 
this State were "tar, pitch and turpentine." It was during one of the fiercest 
battles of the War Between the States, so the story goes, that the column support- 
ing the North Carolina troops was driven from the field. After the battle the 
North Carolinians, who had successfully fought it out alone, were greeted from 
the passing derelict regiment with the question: "Any more tar down in the Old 
North State, boys?" Quick as a flash came the answer: "No; not a bit; old Jeff's 
bought it all up." "Is that so; what is he going to do with it?" was asked. "He 
is going to put it on you-uns heels to make you stick better in the next fight." 
Creecy relates that General Lee, hearing of the incident, said: "God bless the 
Tar Heel boys," and from that they took the name. — Adapted from Grandfather 
Tales of North Carolina by R. B. Creecy and Histories of North Carolina Regi- 
ments, Vol. Ill, by Walter Clark. 

THE STATE MOTTO 

The General Assembly of 1893 (chapter 145) adopted the words "Esse Quam 
Videri" as the State's motto and directed that these words with the date "20 May, 
1775," should be placed with our Coat of Arms upon the Great Seal of the State. 

The words "Esse Quam Videri" mean "to be rather than to seem." Nearly 
every State has adopted a motto, generally in Latin. The reason for their mottoes 
being in Latin is that the Latin tongue is far more condensed and terse than the 
English. The three words, "Esse Quam Videri," require at least six English 
words to express the same idea. 

Curiosity has been aroused to learn the origin of our State motto. It is found 
in Cicero in his essay on Friendship (Cicero de Amicitia, Chap. 26) 

It is a little singular that until the act of 1893 the sovereign State of North 
Carolina had no motto since its declaration of independence. It was one of the 
very few states which did not have a motto and the only one of the original 
thirteen without one. (Rev., s 5320; 1893, c. 145; G. S. 144-2.) 

THE STATE COLORS 

The General Assembly of 1945 declared Red and Blue of shades appearing in 
the North Carolina State Flag and the American Flag as the official State Colors. 
(Session Laws, 1945, c. 878.) 



State of North Carolina 39 



THE STATE BIRD 

By popular choice the Cardinal was selected for adoption as our State Bird 
as of March 4, 1943. (Session Laws, 1943 c. 595; G. S. 145-2.) 

This bird is sometimes called the Winter Redbird because it is most con- 
spicuous in winter and is the only "redbird" present at that season. It is an all 
year round resident and one of the commonest birds in our gardens and thickets. 
It is about the size of a Catbird with a longer tail, red all over, except that the 
throat and region around the bill is black; the head is conspicuously crested and 
the large stout bill is red; the female is much duller — the red being mostly con- 
fined to the crest, wings and tail. There are no seasonal changes in the plumage. 

The Cardinal is a fine singer, and what is unusual among birds the female 
is said to sing as well as the male, which latter sex usually has a monopoly of 
that art in the feathered throngs. 

The nest is rather an untidy affair built of weed stems, grass and similar 
materials in a low shrub, small tree or bunch of briars, usually not over four feet 
above the ground. The usual number of eggs to a set is three in this State, usually 
four further North. Possibly the Cardinal raises an extra brood down here to 
make up the difference, or possibly he can keep up his normal population more 
easily here through not having to face inclement winters of the colder North. A 
conspicuous bird faces more hazards. 

The Cardinal is by nature a seed eater, but he does not dislike small fruits 
and insects. 

THE STATE FLOWER 

The General Assembly of 1941 designated the dogwood as the State flower. 
(Public Laws, 1941, c. 289; G. S. 145-1.) 

The Dogwood is one of the most prevalent trees in our State and can be 
found in all parts of the State from the mountains to the coast. Its blossoms 
which appear in early spring and continue on into summer, are most often found 
in white, although shades of pink are not uncommon. 

THE STATE INSECT 

The General Assembly of 1973 designated the Honey Bee as the official State 
Insect. (Session Laws, 1973, c. 55) 

This industrious creature is responsible for the production of more than $2 
million worth of honey in the state each year. However, its greatest value results 
from the pollination of North Carolina crops which is estimated to be worth nearly 
$50 million annually. 



State of North Carolina 41 



THE STATE TREE 

The pine was officially designated as the State tree by the General Assembly 
of 1963. (Session Laws, 1963, c. 41). 

This choice was not unexpected as the pine is the most common of the trees 
found in North Carolina, as well as the most important one in the history of our 
State. During the Colonial and early Statehood periods, the pine was a vital part 
of the economy of North Carolina. From it came many of the "naval stores" — 
resin, turpentine, and timber — which was needed by merchants and the navy for 
their ships. It has continued to provide North Carolina with a supply of pro- 
ducts. 



THE STATE MAMMAL 

The General Assembly of 1969 designated the Gray Squirrel as the official 
State Mammal. (Session Laws, 1969 c. 1207; G. S. 145-5.) 

The gray squirrel is a common inhabitant of most areas of North Carolina 
from "the swamps of eastern North Carolina to the upland hardwood forests of 
the piedmont and western counties." He feels more at home in an "untouched 
wilderness" environment, although a large portion of their population inhabit 
our city parks and suburbs. During the fall and winter months the gray squirrel 
survives on a diet of hardwoods, with acorns providing carbohydrates and other 
nuts protein. In the spring and summer their diet consists of "new growth and 
fruits" supplemented by early corn, peanuts and insects. 



State of North Carolina 43 



THE STATE SHELL 

The General Assembly of 1965 designated the Scotch Bonnet (pronounced 
bonay) as the State Shell. (Session Laws, 1965, c. 681.) 

A colorful and beautifully shaped shell, the Scotch Bonnet is abundant in 
North Carolina coastal waters between 500 and 200 feet deep. The best source of 
live specimens is from offshore commercial fishermen. 



THE STATE SALT WATER FISH 

The General Assembly of 1971 designated the Channel Bass (Red Drum) as 

the official State Salt Water Fish. (Session Laws, 1971, c. 274; G.S. 145-6) 

Channel Bass usually occur in great supply along the Tar Heel coastal 
waters and have been found to weigh up to 75 pounds although most large ones 
average between 30 and 40 pounds. 



State of North Carolina 45 



THE STATE PRECIOUS STONE 

The General Assembly of 1973 designated the emerald as the official State 
precious stone. (Session Laivs, 1973, c. 136.) 

A greater variety of minerals, more than 300, have been found in North Caro- 
lina than any other state. 

These include some of the most valuable and unique gems in the world. The 
largest Emerald in North Carolina (pictured on the opposite page) is a 1,438- 
carat specimen found at Hiddenite, near Statesville. Also, the "Carolina Em- 
erald," now owned by Tiffany & Company of New York was found at Hiddenite in 
1970. When cut to 13.14 carats, the stone was valued at $100,000 and became the 
largest and finest cut emerald on this continent. 



THE STATE TOAST* 

Officially adopted as the toast of North Carolina by the General Assembly of 
1957. (Session Laws, 1957, c. 777.) 

Here's to the land of the long leaf pine, 

The summer land where the sun doth shine, 

Where the weak grow strong and the strong grow great, 

Here's to "Down Home," the Old North State! 

Here's to the land of the cotton bloom white, 
Where the scuppernong perfumes the breeze at night, 
Where the soft southern moss and jessamine mate, 
'Neath the murmuring pines of the Old North State! 

Here's to the land where the galax grows, 
Where the rhodoendron's rosette glows, 
Where soars Mount Mitchell's summit great, 
In the "Land of the Sky," in the Old North State! 

Here's to the land where maidens are fair, 
Where friends are true and cold hearts rare, 
The near land, the dear land whatever fate, 
The blest land, the best land, the Old North State ! 



•Composed in 1904 by Leonora Martin and Mary Burke Kerr. 



n; 



North Carolina Manual 



THE STATE SONG 

The song known us "The Old North State" was adopted as the official song of 
the State of North Carolina by the General Assembly of 1 927. (Public Laws, 1927, 
c. 26; G.S. 149-1). 



THE OLD NORTH STATE 



(Traditional air an Bung in 1926) 



William Gastoh 

With spirit 



Collected and abbanqbg 
bt Mas. E. E. Randolph 




fefc 



I I 



mm 



^=S=S: 



:j=t2 



1. Car- o - 

2. Tho' she 

3. Then let 



li - na! Car 
en - vies not 
all those who 



li - nal heav-en's bless-ings at - tend her, 
oth - ers, their mer - it - ed glo - ry, 
love us, love the land that we live in, 




While we live we will ther - ish, pro 

Say whose name stands the fore - most, in 

As haD • py a re - gion as 



on 



tect and 

lib - er 

this side 



de fend her, Tho' the 
ty's sto • ry, Tho' too 
of heav-en, Where 




dt 



E§= 



S 



^=f: 






scorn - er -nay sneer at and wit - lings de - fame her, Still our hearts swell with 
true to her - self e'er to crouch to op -pres-sion, Who can yield to just 
plen - ty and peace, love and joy smile be - fore us, Raise a-loud, rais; to- 



3= 



==F 



m 



£ta;Eb^==g— jd»3 



^ 



*=? : 



Chorus 



p^fel 



=t 



glad - ness when ev • er we name her. 

rule i more loy - al sub - mis-sion. Hur - rahl 

geth - er the heart thrill - ing chorus. 



Hur - rahl 



the 



Z=l=i : 



Sv2: 



Bt 



tr 



~txz 



^^ 



■fSZ 




State of North Carolina 47 



THE HALIFAX RESOLUTION 

"The Select Committee taking into Consideration the usurpations and violences 
attempted and committed by the King and Parliament of Britain against 
America, and the further Measures to be taken for frustrating the same, and for 
the better defence of this province reported as follows, to wit, 

"It appears to your Committee that pursuant to the Plan concerted by the 
British Ministry for subjugating America, the King and Parliament of Great 
Britain have usurped a Power over the Persons and Properties of the People un- 
limited and uncontrouled; and disregarding their humble Petitions for Peace, 
Liberty and safety, have made divers Legislative Acts, denouncing War Famine 
and every Species of Calamity against the Continent in General. That British 
Fleets and Armies have been and still are daily employed in destroying the People 
and commiting the most horrid devastations on the Country. That Governors in 
different Colonies have declared Protection to Slaves who should imbrue their 
Hands in the Blood of their Masters. That the Ships belonging to America are 
declared prizes of War and many of them have been violently seized and confiscated 
in consequence of which multitudes of the people have been destroyed or from 
easy Circumstances reduced to the most Lamentable distress. 

"And whereas the moderation hitherto manifested by the United Colonies and 
their sincere desire to be reconciled to the mother Country on Constitutional Prin- 
ciples, have procured no mitigation of the aforesaid Wrongs and usurpations and 
no hopes remain of obtaining redress by those Means alone which have been 
hitherto tried, Your Committee are of Opinion that the house should enter into 
the following Resolve, to wit 

"Resolved that the delegates for this Colony in the Continental Congress be 
impowered to concur with the delegates of the other Colonies in declaring Inde- 
pendency, and forming foreign Alliances, resolving to this Colony the Sole, and 
Exclusive right of forming a Constitution and Laws for this Colony, and of ap- 
pointing delegates from time to time (under the direction of a general Representa- 
tion thereof) to meet the delegates of the other Colonies for such purposes as 
shall be hereafter pointed out." 



is 



North Carolina Manual 



THE MECKLENBURG DECLARATION OF 20TH MAY, 1775* 

NAMES OF THE DELEGATES PRESENT 



Col. Thomas Polk 
Ephriam Brevard 
Hezekiah J. Balch 
John Phifer 
James Harris 
William Kennon 
John Ford 
Richard Barry 
Henry Downs 



Ezra Alexander 
William Graham 
John Quary 
Abraham Alexander 
John MeKnitt Alexander 
Hezekiah Alexander 
Adam Alexander 
Charles Alexander 
Zacheus Wilson, Sen. 



Waightstill Avery 
Benjamin Patton 
Mathew McClure 
Neil Morrison 
Robert Irwin 
John Flenniken 
David Reese 
Richard Harris, Sen. 



OFFICERS 

Abraham Alexander, Chairman 
John MeKnitt Alexander, Clerk 

The following resolutions were presented: 

1. Resolved. That whosoever directly or indirectly abetted or in any 
way form or manner contenanced the unchartered and dangerous in- 
vasion of our rights as claimed by Great Britain is an enemy to this coun- 
tory, to America, and to the inherent and inalienable rights of man. 

2. Resolved. That we the citizens of Mecklenburg County, do hereby 
dissolve the political bonds which have connected us to the mother coun- 
try and hereby absolve ourselves from all allegiance to the British 
Crown and abjure all political connection contract or association with that 
nation who have wantonly trampled on our rights and liberties and in- 
humanly shed the blood of American patriots at Lexington. 

3. Resolved. That we do hereby declare ourselves a free and independent 
people, are, and of right ought to be a sovereign and self-governing as- 
sociation under the control of no power other than that of our God and the 
General Government of the Congress to the maintenance of which inde- 
pendence we solemnly pledge to each other our mutual cooperation, our 
lives, our fortunes, and our most sacred honor. 

4. Resolved, That as we now acknowledge the existence and control of 
no law or legal officer, civil or military within this County, we do hereby 
ordain and adopt as a rule of life all, each and every of our former laws — 
wherein nevertheless the Crown of Great Britain never can be considered 
as holding rights, privileges, immunities, or authority therein. 

5. Resolved, That it is further decreed that all, each and every Military 
Officer in this County is hereby reinstated in his former command and 
authority, he acting conformably to these regulations. And that every 
member present of this delegation shall henceforth be a civil officer, viz., 
a justice of the peace, in the character of a "committee man" to issue 
process, hear and determine all matters of controversy according to said 
adopted laws and to preserve peace, union and harmony in said county, 
and to use every exertion to spread the love of Country and fire of free- 
dom throughout America, until a more general and organized government 
be established in this Province. 



•This document is found in Vol. IX, pages, 1263-65 of the Colonial Records of North Carolina; 
however, the authenticity of the declaration has become a source of controversy among historians. 



State of North Carolina 49 



PUBLIC HOLIDAYS 



January 1 — New Year's Day. 

January 19 — Birthday of General Robert E. Lee. 

February, third Monday — Birthday of George Washington. 

Easter Monday, (applies to State and National Banks only). 

April 12 — Anniversary of the Resolution adopted by the Provincial Congress 
of North Carolina at Halifax, April 12, 1776, authorizing the delegates 
from North Carolina to the Continental Congress to vote for a Declara- 
tion of Independence. 

May 10 — Confederate Memorial Day. 

May 20 — Anniversary of the "Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence". 

May, last Monday — Memorial Day (Applies to State and National Banks 
only). 

July 4 — Independence Day. 

September, first Monday — Labor Day. 

October, second Monday — Columbus Day. 

October, fourth Monday — Veterans Day. 

November, Tuesday after first Monday — General Election Day. 

November, fourth Thursday — Thanksgiving Day. 

December 25 — Christmas Day. 

(G.S. 103-4) 



United States of America 51 

Chapter Two 

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES 

No Name Native State Born 1 nau. 

1 George Washington (F) Va 1732 1789 

2. John Adams (F) Mass 1735 1797 

3. Thomas Jefferson (D-R) Va 1743 1801 

4. James Madison (D-R) Va 1751 1809 

5. James Monroe (D-R) Va 1758 1817 

6. John Quincv Adams (D-R) Mass 1767 1825 

7. Andrew Jackson (D) S. S 1767 1829 

8. Martin Van Buren (D) N. Y 1782 1837 

9. William H. Harrison' (A) Va 1773 1841 

10. John Tyler (W) Va 1790 1841 

11. James Knox Polk (D) N. C 1795 1845 

12. Zachary Taylor 2 (A) Va 1784 1849 

13. Millard Fillmore (A) N. Y 1800 1850 

14. Franklin Pierce (D) N. H 1804 1853 

15. James Buchanan (D) Pa 1791 1857 

16. Abraham Lincoln' (R) Ky 1809 1861 

17. Andrew Johnson 4 (-) N. C 1808 1865 

18. Ulysses S. Grant (R) Ohio 1822 1869 

19. Rutherford B. Hayes (R) Ohio 1822 1877 

20. James A. Garfield 5 (R) Ohio 1831 1881 

21. Chester A. Arthur (R) Vt 1830 1881 

22. Grover Cleveland" (D) N. J 1837 1885 

23. Benjamin Harrison (R) Ohio 1833 1889 

24. Grover Cleveland 7 (D) N. J 1837 1893 

25. William McKinley s (R) Ohio 1843 1897 

26. Theodore Roosevelt (R) N. Y 1858 1901 

27. William H. Taft (R) Ohio 1857 1909 

28. Woodrow Wilson (D) Va 1856 1913 

29. Warren G. Harding" (R) Ohio 1865 1921 

30. Calvin Coolidge (R) Vt 1872 1923 

31. Herbert C. Hoover (R) Iowa 1874 1929 

32. Franklin D. Roosevelt'" (D) N. Y 1882 1933 



1 Harrison died on April 4, 1841. 

Baylor died on July 9, 1850. 

3 Lineoln was shot April 14, 1865 and died the following day. 

^Andrew Johnson — a Democrat, nominated vice president by Republicans and elected with Lincoln 
on National Union ticket. 

5 Garfield was shot July 2, 1881 and died September 19. 

BAccording to a ruling of the State Dept., Grover Cleveland is counted twice, as the 22nd and the 
24th President, because his two terms were not consecutive. Only 37 individuals have been President 

7 See footnote 6. 

8 McKinley was shot September 6, 1901 and died September 11 

"Harding died on August 2, 1923. 

10 Roosevelt died on April 12, 1945. 



52 North Carolina Manual 



No. Name Nativ, Stati Born Inau. 

33. Harry S. Truman (D) Missouri 1884 1945 

34. Dwight D. Eisenhower (R) Texas 1890 1953 

35. John F. Kennedy" (D) Massachusetts .1917 1961 

36. Lyndon B. Johnson (D) .... Texas 1908 1963 

37. Richard M. Nixon" (R) California 1913 1969 

38. Geiald R. Ford (R) ... Michigan 1913... 1974 

39. James Earl Carter (D) Georgia 1924 1977 

"Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963. 

u Nixon resigned August 9, 1974 following several months of pressure over the "Watergate" cover- 
up and related issues. 



United States of America 53 

THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 

(Unanimously Adopted in Congress, July 4, 1776, at Philadelphia) 

When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to 
dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to as- 
sume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the 
Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitles them, a decent respect to the opinions 
of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the 
separation. 

We hold these truths to be self-evident: That all men are created equal; 
that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable Rights; that 
among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That, to secure 
these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers 
from the consent of the governed; That, whenever any Form of Government be- 
comes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish 
it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundations on such principles, and 
organizing its powers in such forms, as to them shall seem most likely to effect 
their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments 
long established should not be changed for light and transient causes ; and, ac- 
cordingly, all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, 
while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to 
which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, 
pursuing invariably the same Object, evinces a design to reduce them under abso- 
lute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, 
and to provide new Guards for their future security. Such has been the patient 
sufferance of these Colonies, and such is now the necessity which constrains them 
to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of 
Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in 
direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove 
this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world. 

He has refused his assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the 
public good. 

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing im- 
portance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; 
and, when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them. 

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts 
of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the 
Legislature — a right inestimable to them, and formidable to tyrants only. 

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable 
and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of 
fatiguing them into compliance with his measures. 

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly 
firmness his invasions on the rights of the people. 

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be 



54 North Carolina Manual 



elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned 
to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining, in the meantime, 
exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within. 

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States for that purpose 
obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to 
encourage their migration hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropria- 
tions of Lands. 

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his assent to 
laws for establishing Judiciary Powers. 

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their 
offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries. 

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers 
to harass our people, and eat out their substance. 

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Con- 
sent of Our Legislature. 

He has affected to render the Military independent of, and superior to, the 
Civil power. 

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our 
constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of 
pretended Legislation. For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: 

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders 
which they should commit on the inhabitants of these States : 

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world : 

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: 

For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by jury: 

For transporting us beyond Seas, to be tried for pretended offenses ; 

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighboring Province, 
establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries, so 
as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same 
absolute rule into these Colonies: 

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and alter- 
ing fundamentally, the Forms of our Governments : 

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with 
power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. 

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and 
waging War against us. 

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed 
the lives of our people. 



United States of America 55 



He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign mercenaries to com- 
plete the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances 
of Cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally 
unworthy the Head of a civilized nation. 

He has constrained our fellow-Citizens, taken captive on the high Seas, to 
bear Arms against their County, to become the executioners of their friends and 
Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands. 

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to 
bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose 
known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and 
conditions. 

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the 
most humble terms ; Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated 
injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define 
a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people. 

Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have 
warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an un- 
warrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances 
of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice 
and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred 
to disavow these usurpation, which inevitably interrupt our connections with cor- 
respondence. They, too, have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. 
We must .therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, 
and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind — Enemies in War, in Peace Friends. 

We, Therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in 
General Congress Assembled; appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the 
rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name and by authority of the good People 
of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, 
and of Right ought to be free and independent States; that they are Absolved 
from All Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connections between 
them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved; and that 
as Free and Independent States, they have full power to levy War, conclude Peace, 
contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which 
Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with 
a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each 
other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor. 

John Hancock 

Button Gwinnett Edward Rutledge 

Lyman Hall Thomas Heyward, Junr. 

Geo[rge] Walton Thomas Lynch, Junr. 

W[illia]m Hooper Arthur Middleton 

Joseph Hewes Samuel Chase 



56 



North Carolina Manual 



John Penn 

Tho[ma]s Stone 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton 

James Wilson 

Geo[rge] Ross 

Caesar Rodney 

Geo[rge] Reed 

Tho. M. Kean 

W[illia]m Floyd 

Phil [lip] Livingston 

Fran[ci]s Lewis 

Lewis Morris 

Rich[ar]d Stockton 

J[onatha]n Witherspoon 

Fras. Hopkinson 

John Hart 

Abra Clark 

George Wythe 

Richard Henry Lee 

Th[omas] Jefferson 

Benja[min] Harrison 

Tho[ma]s Nelson, Jr. 

Francis Lightfoot Lee 



W[illia] Paca 
Carter Braxton 
Rob[er]t Morris 
Benjamin Rush 
Benja[min] Franklin 
John Morton 
Geo[rge] Clymer 
Ja[me]s Smith 
GeoTrge] Taylor 
Josiah Bartlett 
W[illia]m Hippie 
Sam[ue]l Adams 
John Adams 
Rob[er]t Treat Payne 
Eldridge Gerry 
Step [hen] Hopkins 
William Ellery 
Roger Sherman 
Samuel Huntington 
W[illia]m Williams 
Oliver Woolcott 
Matthew Thornton 



United States of America 57 

THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES 

Preamble 

We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, 
establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, 
promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and 
our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of 
America. 

Article I 

Section 1— All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Con- 
gress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Repre- 
sentatives. 

Sec. 2 — 1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members 
chosen every second year by the people of the several States, and the electors in 
each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous 
branch of the State Legislature. 

2. No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the 
age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and 
who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of the State in which he shall be 
chosen. 

3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several 
States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective 
numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free per- 
sons, including those bound to service for a term of years and excluding Indians 
not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made 
within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, 
and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by 
law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty 
thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative; and until such 
enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to 
choose 3; Massachusetts, 8; Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, 1; Con- 
necticut, 5; New York, 6; New Jersey, 4; Pennsylvania, 8; Delaware, 1; Mary- 
land, 6; Virginia, 10; North Carolina, 5; South Carolina, 5; and Georgia, 3.* 

4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State the Execu- 
tive Authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies. 

5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers, 
and shall have the sole power of impeachment. 

Sec. 3 — 1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Sen- 
ators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof for six years; and each 
Senator shall have one vote.f 



•See Article XIV, Amendments. 
tSee Article XVII, Amendments. 



58 North Carolina Manual 



2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first elec- 
tion, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of 
the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second 
year; of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year; and of the third 
class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen every 
second year, and if vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the 
recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary 
appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such 
vacancies.! 

3. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of 
thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, 
when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen. 

4. The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, 
but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided. 

5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tem- 
pore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of 
President of the United States. 

6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting 
for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the 
United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside; and no person shall be con- 
victed without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present. 

7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to re- 
moval from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, 
or profit under the United States; but the party convicted shall nevertheless be 
liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law. 

Sec. 4 — 1. The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators 
and Representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof, 
but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except 
as to the places of choosing Senators. 

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting 
shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a 
different day. 

Sec. 5 — 1. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and quali- 
fications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to 
do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be 
authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under 
such penalties as each House may provide. 

2. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its mem- 
bers for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a 
member. 

3. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time 



United States of America 59 

publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy; 
and the yeas and nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at 
the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal. 

4. Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent 
of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that 
in which the two Houses shall be sitting. 

Sec. 6 — 1. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation 
for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the 
United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the 
peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their 
respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any 
speech or debate in either House they shall not be questioned in any other place. 

2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was 
elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States 
which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased 
during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States shall 
be a member of either House during his continuance in office. 

Sec. 7 — 1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Rep- 
resentatives ; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other 
bills. 

2. Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the 
Senate shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President of the United 
States; if he approves, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it, with his ob- 
jections, to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the ob- 
jections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such 
reconsideration two-thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be 
sent together with the objectives, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be 
reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that House, it shall become a law 
But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, 
and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the 
journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the Presi- 
dent within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to 
him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the 
Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a 
law. 

3. Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and 
House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) 
shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the same shall 
take effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed 
by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules 
and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill. 

Sec. 8. The Congress shall have power: 

1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and 
provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; but all 
duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States; 



60 North Carolina Manual 

2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States; 

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, 
and with the Indian tribes; 

4. To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the 
subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States; 

5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the 
standards of weights and measures; 

6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current 
coin of the United States; 

7. To establish postoffices and postroads; 

8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for limited 
times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings 
and discoveries; 

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court; 

10. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and 
offenses against the law of nations; 

11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules con- 
cerning captures on land and water; 

12. To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use 
shall be for a longer term than two years; 

13. To provide and maintain a navy; 

14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval 
forces ; 

15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, 
suppress insurrections, and repel invasions; 

16. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for 
governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United 
States, reserving to the State respectively the appointment of the officers and the 
authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress; 

17. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever over such district 
(not exceeding ten miles square) as may by cession of particular States and the 
acceptance of Congress, become the seat of Government of the United States, and 
to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the Legisla- 
ture of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, 
arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings; — and 

18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into 
execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution 
in the Government of the United States, or any department or officer thereof. 

Sec. 9 — 1. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States 
now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress 
prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be 
imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person. 

2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless 
when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it. 

3. No bill of attainer or ex post facto law shall be passed. 



United States of America 61 



4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the 
census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken.* 

5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State. 

6. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to 
the ports of one State over those of another; nor shall vessels bound to, or from, 
one State be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another. 

7. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in consequence of ap- 
propriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and 
expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time. 

8. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; and no person 
holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the 
Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, 
from any king, prince, or foreign state. 

Sec. 10 — 1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; 
grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make any- 
thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of at- 
tainer; ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant 
any title of nobility. 

2. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or 
duties on imports or exports except what may be absolutely necessary for executing 
its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and imports, laid by any 
State on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United 
States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Con- 
gress. 

3. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, 
keep troops, or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact 
with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually 
invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit delay. 

Article II 

Section 1 — 1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the 
United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, 
and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected as fol- 
lows: 

2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof may 
direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Repre- 
sentatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress ; but no Senator or 
Representative or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United 
States shall be appointed an elector. 

3. The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for two 
persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same stair with 
themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for. ami of the 
number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit, stal- 
ed, to the seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President ot 



*See Article XVI, Amendments. 



62 North Carolina Manual 

the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and 
House of Representatives open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be 
counted. The person having 1 the greatest number of votes shall be the President, 
if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if 
there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of 
votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of 
them for President; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest 
on the list the said House shall in like manner choose the President. But in choos- 
ing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each 
State having one vote; a quorum, for this purpose, shall consist of a member or 
members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be 
necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person 
having the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be the Vice President. 
But if there shall remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall 
choose from them by ballot the Vice President.* 

4. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors and the day 
on which they shall give their votes, which day shall be the same throughout the 
United States. 

5. No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States, 
at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of 
President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have 
attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within 
the United States. 

6. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resigna- 
tion or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same 
shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by law provide for the 
case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the President and Vice 
President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall 
act accordingly until the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected. 

7. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensa- 
tion which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which 
he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other 
emolument from the United States, or any of them. 

8. Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall take the following 
oath or affirmation : 

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of 
President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, pro- 
tect, and defend the Constitution of the United States." 

SEC. 2- — 1. The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Army and 
Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several States, when called 
into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, 
of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject re- 
lating to the duties of their respective offices ; and he shall have power to grant 
reprieves, and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of 
impeachment. 



*This clause is superseded by Article Xll, Amendments. 



United States of America 63 



2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to 
make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall 
nominate and, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint 
ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, 
and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein 
otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law; but the Congress 
may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers as they think proper in 
the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments. 

3. The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen 
during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at 
the end of their next session. 

SEC. 3 — He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the 
State of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he 
shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene 
both Houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them with 
respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall 
think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall 
take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers 
of the United States. 

Sec. 4 — The President, Vice President, and all civil officers of the United 
States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, trea- 
son, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. 

Article III 

Section 1 — The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one 
Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to 
time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the Supreme and inferior courts, 
shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, at stated times, receive 
for their services a compensation which shall not be diminished during their con- 
tinuance in office. 

Sec. 2 — 1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, 
arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, 
or which shall be made, under their authority; — to all cases affecting ambassadors, 
other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime juris- 
diction; — to controversies to which the United States shall be a party; — to con- 
troversies between two or more States; — between a State and citizens of another 
State; — between citizens of different States; — between citizens of the same Stair, 
claiming lands under grants of different States, and between a State, or the citi- 
zens thereof, and foreign States, citizens, or subjects. 

2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and 
those in which a State shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have original 
jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned the Supreme Court shall 
have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and under 
such regulations as the Congress shall make. 

3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury, 



64 North Carolina Manual 



and such trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes shall have been 
committed; but when not committed within any State the trial shall be at such 
place or places as the Congress may by law have directed. 

Sec. 3 — 1. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying 
war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. 
No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses 
to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. 

2. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason; but 
no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture except dur- 
ing the life of the person attainted. 

Article IV 

Section 1 — Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public 
acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other State. And the Congress 
may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and pro- 
ceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof. 

Sec. 2 — 1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and im- 
munities of citizens in the several States. 

2. A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime, who 
shall flee from justice and be found in another State, shall, on demand of the 
Executive authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed 
to the State having jurisdiction of the crime. 

3. No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof, 
escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be 
discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered upon claim of the 
party to whom such service or labor may be due. 

Sec. 3 — 1. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; 
but no new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other 
State; nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more States, on parts 
of States, without the consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned, as well 
as of the Congress. 

2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules 
and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United 
States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any 
claims of the United States or of any particular State. 

Sec. 4 — The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a 
republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion, 
and, on application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature 
cannot be convened), against domestic violence. 

Article V 

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, 
shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the Legis- 
latures of two-thirds of the several States, shall call a convention for proposing 



United States of America 



65 



amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as 
part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three-fourths of 
the several States, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the 
other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided that no 
amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and 
eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the Ninth Section 
of the First Article; and that no State, without its consent, shall be deprived of 
its equal suffrage in the Senate. 

Article VI 

1. All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adoption of 
this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitu- 
tion, as under the Confederation. 

2. This Constitution and the laws of the United States which shall be made 
in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the 
authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the 
judges in every State shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws 
of any State to the contrary notwithstanding. 

3. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of 
the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the 
United States and of the several States, shall be bound by oath or affirmation to 
support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualifi- 
cation to any office or public trust under the United States. 



Article VII 

The ratification of the Convention of nine States shall be sufficient for the 
establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the same. 

Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the 
Seventeenth Day of September, in the Year of Our Lord one thousand seven hun- 
dred and eighty-seven, and of the Independence of the United States of America 
the Twelfth. In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names. 



GEO[RGE] WASHINGTON, 

President and deputy from Virginia 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

John Langdon 
Nicholas Gilman 

MASSACHUSETTS 
Nathaniel Gorham 
Rufus King, 

CONNECTICUT 

W[illiai]m Sam[ue]l Johnson 
Roger Snerman 



NEW YORK 

Alexander Hamilton 

NEW JERSEY 

Wil[liam] Livingston 
David Brearley 
W[illia]m Patterson 
Jona[than] Dayton 

PENNSYLVANIA 
B[enjamin] Franklin 
Rob[er]t Morris 
Tho[ma]s Fitzsimmons 
James Wilson 
Thomas Mifflin 



»;.; 



North Carolina Manual 



Geo[rge] Clymer 
Jared Ingersoll 
Gouv. Morris 
DELAWARE 
Geo[rge] Read 
John Dickinson 
Jaco[b] Broom 
Gunning Bedford, Jr. 
Richard Bassett 

MARYLAND 

James McHenry 
Dan[ie]l Carroll 
Dan[iel] of St. Thos. Jenifer 



VIRGINIA 
John Blair 



Ja[me]s Madison, Jr. 

NORTH CAROLINA 

W[illia]m Blount 
Hufgh] Williamson 
Rich[ar]d Dobbs Spaight 

SOUTH CAROLINA 
J[ames] Rutledge 
Charles Pinckney 
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney 
Pierce Butler 

GEORGIA 

William Few 
Abrfaham] Baldwin 



ATTEST: 
William Jackson, Secretary 



Tho Constitution was declared in eifect on the first Wednesday in March, 1789. 



United States of America 67 

AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION 
OF THE UNITED STATES 

THE TEN ORIGINAL AMENDMENTS* 

The following amendments to the Constitution, Article I to X, inclusive, were 
proposed at the First Session of the First Congress, begun and held at the City 
of New York, on Wednesday, March 4, 1789, and were adopted by the necessary 
number of States. The original proposal of the ten amendments was preceded by 
this preamble and resolution: 

"The conventions of a number of the States having, at the time of 
their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent 
misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and re- 
strictive clauses should be added, and as extending the ground of public 
confidence in the Government will best insure the benefiicent ends of its in- 
stitution : 

"RESOLVED, By the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America, in Congress assembled, two-thirds of both 
Houses concurring that the following articles be proposed to the Legisla- 
tures of the several States, as amendments to the Constitution of the 
United States; all or any of which articles, when ratified by three- 
fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes, 
as part of the said Constitution, namely": 



Article I 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or pro- 
hibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech or of the 
press ; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Gov- 
ernment for a redress of grievances. 

Article II 

A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the 
right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. 

Article III 

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the con- 
sent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner to be prescribed by law. 

Article IV 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects 
against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants 
shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and par- 
ticularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. 

•Sometimes called our BUI of Rights, were declared in force December 15. 1791. 



t;s North Carolina Manual 



Article V 

No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, 
unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in 
the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war 
or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice 
put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be 
a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without 
due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without 
just compensation. 

Article VI 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy, and 
public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall 
have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, 
and be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation ; to be confronted with 
the witnesses against him ; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in 
his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense. 

Article VII 

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty 
dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved and no fact tried by a jury 
shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States than according 
to the rules of the common law. 

Article VIII 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and 
unusual punishments inflicted. 

Article IX 

The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed 
to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 

Article X 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor pro- 
hibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. 



SUBSEQUENT AMENDMENTS 



Article XI 



The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to 
any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United 
States, by citizens of another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign State. 

(Proposed to the Legislatures uf the seve.al States by the Thitd Congress on the 5th of March. 
1794, and declared to have been ratified by Executive Proclamation, January 8, 1.98.) 



United States of America 69 



Article XII 

The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for Pres- 
ident and Vice President, one of whom at least shall not be an inhabitant of the 
same State with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for 
as President, and in distinct ballots the persons voted for as Vice President; and 
they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all 
persons voted for as Vice President, and of the number of votes for each, which 
lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; the Presi- 
dent of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted; the 
person having the greatest number of votes for President shall be the Presi- 
dent, if such number he a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; 
and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest 
numbers, not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the 
House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But 
in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation 
from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a 
member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States 
shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose 
a President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth 
day of March next following, then the Vice President shall act as President, as in 
the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The per- 
son having the greatest number of votes as Vice President shall be the Vice Presi- 
dent, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and 
if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the 
Senate shall choose the Vice President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of 
two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number 
shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the 
office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice President of the United States. 

(Proposed by the Eighth Congress on the 12th of December, 1803, declared ratified by the Secretary 
of State, September 25, 1804. It was ratified by all the States except Connecticut, Delaware. Massa- 
chusetts, and New Hampshire.) 

Article XIII 

1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for 
crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the 
United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. 

2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legisla- 
tion. 

(Proposed by the Thirty-eighth Congress on the 1st of February 1865 declared ratified I by the Sec- 
retary of State. December 18. 1805. It was rejected by Delaware and Kentucky; was wndltionallj rati 
fied by Alabama and Mississippi; and Texas took no action.) 

Article XIV 

1 All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the 
jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein 



70 North Carolina Manual 



they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the 
privileges of immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State de- 
prive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny 
to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. 

2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according 
to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, 
excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the 
choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Repre- 
sentatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a State, or the mem- 
bers of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such 
State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any 
way abridged, except for participation in rebellion or other crime, the basis of 
representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such 
male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of 
age in such State. 

3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of 
President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United 
States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member 
of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State 
Legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Con- 
stitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion 
against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress 
may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. 

4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, 
including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in 
suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the 
United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred 
in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the 
loss of emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations, and claims shall 
be held illegal and void. 

5. The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate legislation the 
provisions of this article. 

(The Reconstruction Amendment, by the Thirty-ninth Congress on the 16th day of June. 1866, was 
declared ratified by the Secretary of State. July 28. 1868. The amendment got the support of 23 Nor- 
thern States; it was rejected by Delaware. Kentucky. Maryland, and 10 Southern States. California 
took no action. Later it was ratified by the 10 Southern States.) 

Article XV 

1. The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied 
or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or 
previous condition of servitude. 

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legis- 
lation. 

(Proposed by the Fortieth Congress the 27th of February, 1869, and was declared ratified by the 
Secretary of State, March 30, 1870. It was not acted on by Tennessee; it was rejected by California, 
Delaware. Kentucky, Maryland and Oregon; ratified by the remaining 30 States. New York rescinded 
its ratification January 5, 1870. New Jersey rejected it in 1870, but ratified it in 1871.) 



United States of America 71 



Article XVI 

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from 
whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and 
without regard to any census or enumeration. 

(Proposed by the Sixty-first Congress, July 12, 1909, and declared latified Februa-y 25, 1913. The 
income tax amendment was ratified by all the States excapt Connecticut, Florida, Pennsylvania, Rhode 
Island, Utah, and Virginia.) 

Article XVII 

1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from 
each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall 
have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for 
electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislatures. 

2. When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, 
the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such 
vacancies; Provided, That the Legislature of any State may empower the Execu- 
tive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by 
elections as the Legislature may direct. 

3. This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term 
of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution. 

( Proposed by the Sixty-second Congress on the 16th day cl May, 1912, and declared latified May 31, 
1913. Adopted by all the States except Alabama, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, 
Maryland, Mississippi. Rhode Island, South Carolina, Utah and Virginia.) 

Article XVIII 

1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, 
or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or 
the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the 
jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. 

2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce 
this article by appropriate legislation. 

3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an 
amendent to the Constitution by the Legislatures of the several States as provided 
in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to 
the States by the Congress. 

(Proposed by the Sixty-fifth Congress, December 18, 1917, and ratified by 36 States; was declared in 
effect on January 16, 1920.) 

Article XIX 

1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or 
abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. 

2. Congress shall have power, by appropriate legislation, to enforce the pro- 
visions of this article. 

(Proposed by the Sixty-fifth Congress. On August 26, 1920, it v>as proclaimed in effect, having 
been ratified (June 19, 1919— August 18, 1920) by three-Quarters of the States. The Tennessee House, 
August 31st, rescinded its ratification, 4< to 24.) 



72 North Carolina Manual 



Article XX 

1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th 
day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3rd 
day of January of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article 
had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin. 

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting 
shall begin at noon on the 3rd day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a 
different day. 

3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the 
President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. 
If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of 
his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice Presi- 
dent elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the 
Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a 
Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, 
or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act 
accordingly, until a President or Vice President shall have qualified. 

4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the 
persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President when- 
ever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the 
death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President 
when the right of choice shall have devolved upon them. 

5. Section 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the 
ratification of this article. 

6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an 
amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several 
States within seven years from the date of its submission. 

(Proposed by the 72nd Congress, First Session. On February 6, 1933. it was proclaimed in effect, 
having been ratified by thrity-nine states.) 

Article XXI 

1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United 
States is hereby repealed. 

2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession 
of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in viola- 
tion of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited. 

3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an 
amendment to the Constitution by convention in the several States, as provided 
in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to 
the States by the Congress. 

(Proposed by the 72nd Congress, Second Session. Proclaimed in effect on December 5, 1933, having 
been ratified by thrity-six States. By proclamation of the same date, the President p.oclaimed that the 
eighteenth amendment to the Constitution was repealed on December 5, 1933.) 



United States of America 73 



Article XXII 

1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, 
and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more 
than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall 
be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this article shall not 
apply to any person holding the office of President when this article was proposed 
by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office 
of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this article 
becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President 
during the remainder of such term. 

2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an 
amendment to the constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several 
States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the 
congress. 

(Proposed by the 80th Congress in 1947 and became effective on Feb. 26, 1951. having been ratified 
by thirty-six States.) 

Article XXIII 

1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States 
shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: 

A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole 
number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would 
be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; 
they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be con- 
sidered, for the purpose of the election of President and Vice President, to be 
electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform 
such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment. 

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legis- 
lation. 

(Proposed by the 86th Congress in June of I960 and ratified by the 38th State. March 29. 1961 and 
proclaimed a part of the Constitution, April 3, 1961.) 

Article XXIV 

1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other 
election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice Presi- 
dent, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged 
by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other 
tax. 

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legis- 
lation. 

(Proposed by the 87th Cong. ess, August 27, 1962 and ratified by the 38th State. January _3, 1964.) 

Article XXV 

1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resig- 
nation, the Vice President shall become President. 



74 North Carolina Manual 



2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the Presi- 
dent shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a 
majority vote of both Houses of Congress. 

3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the 
Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration 
that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he 
transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties 
shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President. 

4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers 
of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law pro- 
vide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the 
House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable 
to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immedi- 
ately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President. 

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of 
the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declara- 
tion that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office 
unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the 
executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, 
transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the 
Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the Presi- 
dent is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Con- 
gress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose 
if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the 
latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days 
after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both 
Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his 
office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; 
otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office. 

(Submitted tu the Legislatures of the fifty States July 6, iytT>. Ratified by the 3Sth State (Nevada) 
February 10, 1967. ) 

Article XXVI 

1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age 
or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State 
on account of age. 

2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate 
legislation. 

Pioposed to the States by Congress on March 23, 1971 and ratification completed June 3U, 1971.) 



United States of America 75 



THE AMERICAN FLAG, IT'S ORIGIN 

In 1775, the Philadelphia Troop of Light Horse carried a standard with thir- 
teen alternate blue and silver stripes in the upper left-hand corner. At Cambridge 
on January 2, 1776, Washington without authorization of the Continental Con- 
gress raised a flag consisting of thirteen alternate white and red stripes with the 
crosses of St. George and St. Andrew in the blue field in the upper left-hand 
corner. It was called the "Union Flag," "Grand Union Flag," and the "Continen- 
tal Flag," and was employed until displaced by the Stars and Stripes adopted by 
the Continental Congress. 

The beautiful tradition that Betsy Ross, as early as June 1776, made a Stars 
and Stripes flag from a pencil sketch supplied by Washington but changed the 
points of the stars from six to five, has become a classic. Historians doubt its 
accuracy. Half a dozen localities claim to have been the place where the Stars 
and Stripes was first used. Within New York State such contention has been for 
Fort Ann on July 8, Fort Stanwix on August 3, Bennington on August 13, and 
Saratoga on September 19, 1777. The flag with thirteen stripes and thirteen stars, 
authorized on June 14, 1777, continued to be used as the national emblem until 
Congress passed the following act, which President Washington signed: 

"That from and after May 1, 1795, the flag of the United States be 
fifteen stripes, alternate red and white; and that the union be fifteen 
stars, white in a blue field." 

This action was necessitated by the admission of the States of Vermont and 
Kentucky to the Union. 

The flag of 1795 had the stars arranged in three rows of five each instead of 
in a circle, and served for 23 years. 

With the admission of more new states, however, it became apparent that the 
1795 flag would have to be further modified; hence in 1818 a law was passed by 
Congress providing: 

"That from and after the fourth day of July next, the flag of the 
United States be thirteen horizontal stripes, alternate red and white; 
that the union have twenty stars, white in a blue field. 

"That on the admission of every new state into the Union, one star 
be added to the union of the flag; and that such addition shall take effect 
on the Fourth of July next succeeding such admission." 

Since 1818 additional stars have been added until today they are 50 on the 
flag. No law has been passed to designate how the stars shall be arranged. At one 
time they formed a design of a larger star. Now they form five rows of six stars 
each and four rows of five stars each. 

Betsy Ross, it is now said, lived at 233 Arch Street, Philadelphia, and 
not at 239. She made flags, but says Theodore D. Gottlieb, she never made 
the first Stars and Stripes. He adds: 

The Department of State, the War and Navy departments, the His- 
torical Sites Commission of Philadelphia and other official bodies repu- 
diate the legend. The book and pamphlet material available is over- 
whelmingly against the legend. 



7i ; 



North Carolina Manual 




United States of America 77 



The story arose for the first time on March 14, 1870, when William 
J. Canby read a paper before the Pennsylvania Historical Society in 
which he states that in 1836, when his grandmother, Betsy Ross, was 84 
years old and he was 11, she told him the story. He apparently thought 
little of it because nothing was done until 1857, when at the suggestion 
of his Aunt Clarissa, oldest daughter of Betsy, he wrote out the notes as 
he remembered the conversation. 

Nothing further was done until 1870 when he wrote his paper. The 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania thought so little of the paper it 
neither catalogued nor kept a copy of it. Even George Canby, younger 
brother of William, disputed several points in the paper. 

The legend grew to strength from 1888 to 1893 when promotors se- 
cured an option on the so-called Flag House. 

Modern historical researchers are giving much thought to Francis 
Hopkinson of New Jersey as the possible designer and the Fillmore or 
Bennington flag as the first flag. 

THE PROPER DISPLAY OF THE AMERICAN FLAG* 

Sec. 171. When the national anthem is played and the flag is not displayed, 
all present should stand and face toward the music. Those in uniform should 
salute at the first note of the anthem, retaining this position until the last note. 
All others should stand at attention, men removing the headdress. When the flag 
is displayed, all present should face the flag and salute. 

Sec. 172. The following is designated as the pledge of allegiance to the flag: 
"I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America and to the Republic 
for which it stands, one Nation, under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for 
all." Such pledge should be rendered by standing with the right hand over the 
heart. However, civilians will always show full respect to the flag when the pledge 
is given by merely standing at attention, men removing the headdress. Persons in 
uniform shall render the military salute. 

Sec. 174. (a) It is the universal custom to display the flag only from sunrise 
to sunset on buildings and on stationary flagstaff's in the open. However, the flag 
may be displayed at night upon special occasions when it is desired to produce a 
patriotic effect. 

(b) The flag should be hoisted briskly and lowered ceremoniously. 

(c) The flag should not be displayed on days when the weather is inclement. 

(d) The flag should be displayed un all days when the weather permits, 
especially on New Year's Day, January 1; Inauguration Day, Jan. 20; Lincoln's 
Birthday, February 12; Washington's Birthday, February 22; Army Day, April 
6; Easter Sunday (variable); Mother's Day, second Sunday in May; Memorial 
Day (half staff until noon), May 30; Flag Day, June 14; Independence Day, July 
4; Labor Day, first Monday in September; Constitution Day, September 17; Co- 
lumbus Day, October 12; Navy Day, October 27; Veteran's Day, November 11; 
Thanksgiving Day, fourth Thursday in November; Christmas Day, December 25; 

•(The United States Code, 1958) 
(Chapter 10, Sections 171-172, 174-178) 



78 North Carolina Manual 

such other days as may be proclaimed by the President of the United States; the 
birthdays of States (dates of admission) ; and on State holidays. 

(e) The flag should be displayed daily, weather permitting, on or near the 
main administration building of every public institution. 

(f) The flag should be displayed in or near every polling place on election 
days. 

(g) The flag should be displayed during school days in or near every school- 
house. 

Sec. 175. The flag, when carried in a procession with another flag or flags, 
should be either on the marching right; that is, the flager's own right, or, if there 
is a line of other flags, in front of the center of that line. 

(a) The flag should not be displayed on a float in a parade except from a 
staff, or as provided in subsection (i) of this section. 

(b) The flag should not be draped over the hood, top, sides, or back of a ve- 
hicle or of a railroad train or a boat. When the flag is displayed on a motorcar, 
the staff should be fixed firmly to the chasis or clamped to the radiator cap. 

(c) No other flag or pennant should be placed above or, if on the same level, 
to the right of the flag on the United States of America, except during church 
services conducted by naval chaplains at sea, when the church pennant may be 
flown above the flag during the church services for the personnel of the Navy. 

No person shall display the flag of the United Nations or any other national 
or international flag equal, above or in a position of superior prominence or honor 
to or in place of, the flag of the United States at any place within the United 
States or any Territory or possession thereof: Provided, That nothing in this sec- 
tion shall make unlawful the continuance of the practice heretofore followed or 
displaying the flag of the United Nations in a position of superior prominence or 
honor, and other national flags in positions of equal prominence or honor, with 
that of the flag of the United States at the Headquarters of the United Nations. 

(d) The flag of the United States of America, when it is displayed with 
another flag against a wall from crossed staffs, should be on the right, the flag's 
own right, and its staff should be in front of the staff of the other flag. 

(e) The flag of the United States of America should be at the center and at 
the highest point of the group when a number of flags of States or localities or 
pennants of societies are grouped and displayed from staffs. 

(f) When flags of States, cities, or localities, or pennants of societies are 
found on the same halyard with the flag of the United States, the latter should 
always be at the peak. When the flags are flown from adjacent staffs, the flag 
of the United States should be hoisted first and lowered last. No such flag or pen- 
nant may be placed above the flag of the United States or to the right of the flag 
of the United States. 

(g) When flags of two or more nations are displayed, they are to be flown 
from separate staffs of the same height. The flags should be of approximately 
equal size. International usage forbids the display of the flag of one nation above 
that of another nation in time of peace. 



United States of America 79 



(h) When the flag of the United States is displayed from a staff projecting 
horizontally or at an angle from the window sill, balcony, or front of a building, 
the union of the flag should be placed at the peak of the staff unless the flag is at 
half staff. When the flag is suspended over a sidewalk from a rope extending 
from a house to a pole at the edge of the sidewalk, the flag should be hoisted out, 
union first, from the building. 

(i) When the flag is displayed otherwise than by being flown from a staff, 
it should be displayed flat, whether indoors or out, or so suspended that its folds 
fall as free as though the flag were staffed. 

(j) When the flag is displayed over the middle of the street, it should be 
suspended vertically with the union to the north in an east and west street or to 
the east in the north and south street. 

(k) When used on a speaker's platform, the flag, if displayed flat, should be 
displayed above and behind the speaker. When displayed from a staff in a 
church or public auditorium, if it is displayed in the chancel of a church, or on 
the speaker's platform in a public auditorium, the flag should occupy the position 
of honor and be placed at the clergyman's or speaker's right as he faces the con- 
gregation or audience. Any other flag so displayed in the chancel or on the plat- 
form should be placed at the clergyman's or speaker's left as he faces the congre- 
gation or audience. But when the flag is displayed from a staff in a church or 
public auditorium elsewhere than in the chancel or on the platform it shall be 
placed in the position of honor at the right of the congregation or audience as 
they face the chancel or platform. Any other flag so displayed should be placed on 
the left of the congregation or audience as they face the chancel or platform. 

(1) The flag should form a distinctive feature of the ceremony of unveiling 
a statue or monument, but it should never be used as the covering for the statue 
or monument. 

(m) The flag, when flown at half-staff, should be first hoisted to the peak for 
an instant and then lowered to the half-staff position. The flag should be again 
raised to the peak before it is lowered for the day. By "half-staff" is meant lower- 
ing the flag to one-half the distance between the top and bottom of the staff. Crepe 
streamers may be affixed to spear heads or flagstaff's in a parade only by order of 
the President of the United States. 

(n) When the flag is used to cover a casket, it should be so placed that the 
union is at the head and over the left shoulder. The flag should not be lowered 
into the grave nor allowed to touch the ground. 

Sec. 176. No disrespect should be shown to the flag of the United States of 
America; the flag should not be dipped to any person or thing. Regimental colors, 
State flags, and organization or institutional flags are to be dipped as a mark of 
honor. 

(a) The flag should never be displayed with the union down save as a signal 
of dire distress. 

(b) The flag should never touch anything beneath it, such as the ground, 
the floor, water, or merchandise. 



80 North Carolina Manual 



(c) The flag should never be carried flat or horizontally, but always aloft 
and free. 

(d) The flag should never be used as drapery of any sort whatsoever, never 
festooned, drawn back, nor up, in folds, but always allowed to fall free. Bunting 
of blue, white and red, always arranged with the blue above, the white in the 
middle, and the red below, should be used for covering a speaker's desk, draping 
the front of a platform, and for decoration in general. 

(e) The flag should never be fastened, displayed, used, or stored in such a 
manner as will permit it to be easily torn, soiled, or damaged in any way. 

(f) The flag should never be used as a covering for a ceiling. 

(g) The flag should never have placed upon it, nor on any part of it, nor at- 
tached to it any mark, insignia, letter, word, figure, design, picture or drawing of 
any nature. 

(h) The flag should never be used as a receptacle for receiving, holding, 
carrying, or delivering anything. 

(i) The flag should never be used for advertising purposes in any manner 
whatsoever. It should not be embroidered on such articles as cushions or handker- 
chiefs and the like, printed or otherwise impressed on paper napkins or boxes or 
anything that is designed for temporary use and discard; or used as any portion 
of a costume or athletic uniform. Advertising signs should not be fastened to a 
staff or halyard from which the flag is flown. 

(j) The flag, when it is such condition that it is no longer a fitting emblem 
for display, should be destroyed in a dignified way, preferably by burning. 

Sec. 177. During the ceremony of hoisting or lowering the flag or when the 
flag is passing in a parade or in a review, all persons present should face the flag, 
stand at attention, and salute. Those present in uniform should render the mili- 
tary salute. When not in uniform, men should remove the headdress with the 
right hand holding it at the left shoulder, the hand being over the heart. Men 
without hats should salute in the same manner. Aliens should stand at attention. 
Women should salute by placing the right hand over the heart. The salute to the 
flag in the moving column should be rendered at the moment the flag passes. 

Sec. 178. Any rule or custom pertaining to the display of the flag of the 
United States of America, set forth in sections 171-178 of this title, may be altered, 
modified, or repealed, or additional rules with respect thereto may be prescribed, 
by the Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, whenever 
he deems it to be appropriate or desirable; and any such alteration or additional 
rule shall be set forth in a proclamation. 



THE PLEDGE TO THE FLAG 

'I pledge allegiance to the flag 

of the United States of America, 

And to the Republic for which it stands. 



•(The pledge is taught in many of the schools and repeated by pupils daily.) 



United States of America 81 



One Nation under God, indivisible, 
With liberty and justice for all." 

The Pledge to the Flag, according to a report of the Historical Committee of 
the United States Flag Association (May 18, 1939), was written by Francis 
Bellamy (August 1892), a member of the editorial staff of The Youth's Com- 
panion, in Boston, Massachusetts. . It was first repeated at the exercises in con- 
nection with the celebration of Columbus Day (October 12, 1892, Old Style). The 
idea of this national celebration on Columbus Day was largely that of James B. 
Upham, one of the junior proprietors of The Youth's Companion. 

Francis Hopkinson, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, was the 
designer of the Stars and Stripes — not Betsy Ross of Philadelphia, who made 
flags. He also designed the first Great Seal of the United States, a number of 
coins and several items of paper currency in the early days of the Republic. 

Hopkinson, born in Philadelphia (September 21, 1737), and a graduate of the 
University of Pennsylvania, was the first native American composer of a secular 
song, "My Days Have Been So Wondrous Free." He was a lawyer and later a 
judge in New Jersey and then in Pennsylvania. He died in Philadelphia (May 9, 
1791). His portrait, painted by himself, hangs in the rooms of the Pennsylvania 
Historical Society, Philadelphia. He played the organ and harpischord. 



THE AMERICAN'S CREED 

I believe in the United States of America, as a government of the people, by 
the people, for the people; whose just powers are derived from the consent of the 
governed; a democracy in a republic; a sovereign nation of many sovereign 
states; a perfect union, one and inseparable; established upon those principles of 
freedom, equality, justice and humanity for which American patriots sacrificed 
their lives and fortunes. I therefore believe it is my duty to my country to love it, 
to support its constitution, to obey its laws, to respect its flag, and to defend it 
against all enemies. 



United States of America 83 



THE CAPITOL AT WASHINGTON 

The Capitol building in Washington, D. C, is situated on a plateau 88 feet 
above the level of the Potomac River and covers an area of 153,112 square feet, or 
approximately three and one-half acres. Its length, from north to south, is 751 
feet, four inches; its width, including- approaches, is 350 feet; and its location is 
described as being in latitude 38°53'20.4" N. and longitude 70°00'35.7" W. from 
Greenwich. Its height above the base line on the east front to the top of the 
Statue of Freedom is 287 feet, five and one-half inches. The dome is built of iron, 
and the aggregate weight of material used in its construction is 8,909,200 pounds. 

The Statue of Freedom surmounting the dome is of bronze and weighs 14,985 
pounds. It was modeled by Thomas Crawford, father of Francis Marion Craw- 
ford, the novelist, in Rome, and the plaster model shipped to this country. It was 
cast in bronze at the shops of Clark Mills, on the Bladensburg Road, near Wash- 
ington. The cost of the casting and the expenses in connection were $20,796.82, 
and the sculptor was paid $3,000 for the plaster model. It was erected and placed 
in its present position December 2, 1863. 

The grounds have had an area of 58.8 acres, at one time a part of Cern Abby 
Manor, and at an early date was occupied by a subtribe of the Algonquin Indians 
known as the Powhatans, whose council house was then located at the foot of the 
hill. By subsequent purchase of ground at the North of the Capitol and at the 
west of the new House Office building the area of the grounds has been increased 
to 139 Vz acres. 

The Rotunda is 97 feet 6 inches in diameter, and its height from the floor to 
the top of the canopy is 180 feet, 3 inches. 

The Senate Chamber is 113 feet, 3 inches, in length by 80 feet, 3 inches, in 
width and 36 feet in height. The galleries will accommodate 682 persons. 

The Representatives' Hall is 139 feet in length by 93 feet in width and 36 feet 
in height. 

The room, until 1935 the meeting place of the Supreme Court, was, until 
1859, occupied as the Senate Chamber. Previous to that time the court occupied 
the room immediately beneath, now used as a law library. 

The Capitol has a floor area of 14 acres, and 430 rooms are devoted to office, 
committee, and storage purposes. There are 14,518 square feet of skylights, 679 
windows, and 550 doorways. 

The dome receives light through 108 windows, and from the architect's office 
to the dome there are 365 steps, one for each day of the year. 

The southeast cornerstone of the original building was laid September 18, 
1793, by President Washington, with Masonic ceremonies. It is constructed of 
sandstone from quarries on Aquia Creek, Va. The original designs wore prepared 
by Dr. William Thornton, and the work was done under the direction of Stephen 
H. Hallet, James Hoban, George Hadfield, and B. H. Latrobe, architects. 



84 North Carolina Manual 



The north wing was finished in 1800 and the south winy in 1811. A wooden 
passageway connected them. On August 24, 1814, the interior of both wings was 
destroyed by fire, set by the British. The damage to the building was immediately 
repaired. 

In 1818 the central portion of the building was commenced under the archi- 
tectural superintendence of Charles Bullfinch. The original building was finally 
completed in 1827. Its cost, including the grading of the grounds, alterations, and 
repairs, up to 1827. was $2,483,844.13. 

The cornerstone of the extensions was laid on the Fourth of July, 1851, by 
President Fillmore, Daniel Webster officiating as orator. The work was prosecuted 
under the architectual direction of Thomas U. Walter until 1865, when he resign- 
ed, and it was completed under the supervision of Edward Clark. The material 
used in the walls is white marble from the quarries of Lee, Massachusetts, and 
that in the columns from the quarries from Cockeysville, Maryland. The House 
extension was first occupied for legislative purposes December 16, 1857, and the 
Senate January 4, 1859. 

The House office building was begun in 1905 and occupied on January 10, 
1908; later a story on top was added. The Senate office building was started in 
1906 and occupied on March 5, 1909. The House building cost, with site, $4,860,155; 
the Senate structure, $5,019,251. 

Among the paintings in the Capitol are: 

In Rotunda: Signing of the Declaration of Independence, Surrender of Gen- 
eral Burgoyne, Surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown, Va., George Washing- 
ton Resigning His Commission as Commander in Chief of the Army, all by John 
Trumbull. 

Baptism of Pocahontas, by John G. Chapman; Landing of Columbus, by John 
Vanderlyn; Discovery of the Mississippi River by DeSoto, by William H. Powell; 
Embarkation of the Pilgrims, by Robert W. Weir. 

In House Wing: Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way, by Emanuel 
Leutze; First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation, by Francis Bicknell 
Carpenter. 

In Senate Wing: Battle of Lake Erie, by William H. Powell; Battle of 
Chapultepec, by James Walker. 



United States of America 85 

GOVERNORS OF THE STATES AND TERRITORIES 

George C. Wallace Alabama State Capitol, Montgomery 

Jay S. Hammond Alaska State Capitol, Juneau 

Earl B. Ruth American Samoa Government House, Pago Pago 

Raul H. Castro Arizona State House, Phoenix 

David H. Pryor Arkansas State Capitol, Little Rock 

Edmund G. Brown, Jr California State Capitol, Sacramento 

Richard D. Lawson Colorado State Capitol, Denver 

Ella T. Grasso Connecticut State Capitol, Hartford 

Pierre du Pont IV Delaware Legislative Hall, Dover 

Reubin O. D. Askew Florida State Capitol, Tallahassee 

George Busbee Georgia State Capitol, Atlanta 

Ricvardo J. Bordallo Guam Executive Chambers, Agana 

George R. Anyoshi Hawaii Iolani Palace, Honolulu 

Cecil D. Andrus Idaho State Capitol, Bois,; 

James R. Thompson Illinois State Capitol, Springfield 

Otis R. Bowen Indiana State Capitol, Indianapolis 

Robert D. Ray Iowa State Capitol, Des Moines 

Robert F. Bennett Kansas State House, Topeka 

Julian M. Carroll Kentucky State Capitol, Frankfort 

Edwin Edwards Louisiana State Capitol, Baton Rouge 

James B. Longley Maine State House, Augusta 

Marvin Mandel Maryland State House, Annapolis 

Michael S. Dukakis Massachusetts State House, Boston 

William G. Miliken Michigan State Capitol, Lansing 

Wendell R. Anderson Minnesota State Capitol, St. Paul 

William L. Waller Mississippi State Capitol, Jackson 

Joseph P. Teasdale Missouri State Capitol, Jefferson City 

Thomas L. Judge Montana State Capitol, Helena 

James Exon Nebraska State Capitol, Lincoln 

Mike J. N. O'Callaghan Nevada State Capitol, Carson City 

Meldrim Thomson, Jr New Hampshire State House, Concord 

Brendan T. Byrne New Jersey State House, Trenton 

Jerry Apodaca New Mexico State Capitol, Santa Fe 

Hugh L. Carey New York State Capitol, Albany 

James B. Hunt, Jr. North Carolina State Capitol, Raleigh 

Arthur A. Link North Dakota State Capitol, Bismarck 

James A. Rhodes Ohio State House, Columbus 

David L. Borpn Oklahoma State Capitol, Oklahoma City 

Robert W. Straub Oregon State Capitol, Salem 

Milton B. Shapp Pennsylvania State Capitol, Harrisbuiv 

Carlos Romero Barcalo Puerto Rico La Fortaleza, San Juan 

Joseph J. Garrahy Rhode Island State House, Providence 

James R. Edwards South Carolina State House, Columbia 

Richard S. Kneip South Dakota State Capitol, Pierre 

Ray Blanton „.. Tennessee State Capitol, Nashville 

Dolph Briscoe Texas State Capitol, Austin 

Scott M. Matheson Utah State Capitol, Salt Lake City 

Richard Snelling Vermont State House, Montpelier 

Miles E. Godwin, Jr Virginia State Capitol, Richmond 

Cyril L. Rampton Virgin Islands Government House, Charlotte 

Amalie, St. Thomas 

Dixy Lee Ray Washington State Capitol, Olympia 

John D. Rockefeller, IV West Virginia State Capitol, Charleston 

Patrick J. Lucey Wisconsin . State Capitol, Madison 

Ed Herschler Wyoming State Capitol, Cheyenne 



The Constitution of North Carolina 87 

Chapter Three 

THE CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT 
OF NORTH CAROLINA 



A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE 
CONSTITUTIONS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

North Carolina has had three Constitutions in her history as a State: the Consti- 
tution of 1776, the Constitution of 1868, and the Constitution of 1971. 

Constitution of 1776 

Drafted and promulgated by the Fifth Provincial Congress in December, 1776, 
without submission to the people, the Constitution of 1776 and its separate but ac- 
companying Declaration of Rights sketched the main outlines of the new state 
government and secured the rights of the citizen from governmental interference.* 
While the principle of separation of powers was explicitly affirmed and the familiar 
three branches of government were provided for, the true center of power lay in the 
General Assembly. That body not only exercised full legislative power; it also chose 
all the state executive and judicial officers, the former for short terms and the 
judges for life. 

Profound distrust of the executive power is evident throughout the document. 
The Governor was chosen by the legislature for a one-year term and was eligible 
for only three terms in six years. The little power granted him was hedged about in 
many instances by requiring for its exercise the concurrence of a seven-member 
Council of State chosen by the legislature. 

Judicial offices were established, but the court system itself was left to legislative 
design. No system of local government was prescribed by the Constitution, although 
the offices of justice of the peace, sheriff, coroner, and constable were created. 

The system of legislative representation was based on units of local government. 
The voters of each county elected one Senator and two members of the House of 
Commons, while six (later seven) towns each elected one member of the House. 
It was distinctly a property owner's government, for only landowners could vote for 
Senators until 1857, and progressive property qualifications were required of mem- 
bers of the House, Senators, and the Governor until 1868. Legislators were the only 
state officers who were elected by the people until 1836. 

Dissatisfaction with the legislative representation system, which gave no direct 
recognition to population, resulted in the Convention of 1835. Extensive consti- 
tutional amendments adopted by that Convention were ratified by vote of the people, 
26,771 to 21,606, on November 9, 1835. The Amendments of 1835 fixed the member- 
ship of the Senate and House at their present levels, 50 and 120. The House ap- 
portionment formula then devised gave one seat to each county and distributed the 
remainder of the seats — nearly half of them at that time — according to a mathe- 
matical formula favoring the more populous counties. From 1836 until 1868, 
Senators were elected from districts laid out according to the amount of taxes paid 



* This article was written by John L. Sanders. Vice President for Planning for the University of 
North Carolina System. The editor has made some changes to bring portions of the text up to date. 



ss North Carolina Manual 



to the State from the respective counties, thus effecting senatorial representation 
in proportion to property values. 

The Amendments of 1835 also made the Governor popularly elective for a two- 
year term, greatly strengthening that office; relaxed the religious qualifications for 
office holding; abolished free Negro suffrage; equalized the capitation tax on slaves 
and free white males; prohibited the General Assembly from granting divorces, 
legitimating persons, or changing personal names by private act; specified proce- 
dures for the impeachment of state officers and the removal of judges for disability; 
made legislative sessions biennial instead of annual; and provided methods of 
amending the Constitution. Following the precedent established in amending the 
United States Constitution, the 1835 amendments were appended to the Constitution 
of 1776, not incorporated in it as is the modern practice. 

The Convention of 1861-62, called by act of the General Assembly, took the State 
out of the Union and into the Confederacy and adopted a dozen constitutional 
amendments. These were promulgated by the Convention without the necessity of 
voter approval, a procedure that was permitted by the Constitution until 1971. 

The Convention of 1865-66, called by the Provisional Governor on orders of the 
President, nullified secession and abolished slavery, with voter approval, in 1865. 
It also drafted a revised Constitution in 1866. That document was largely a restate- 
ment of the Constitution of 1776 and the 1835 amendments, plus several new 
features. It was rejected by a vote of 21,770 to 19,880 on August 2, 1866. 

Constitution of 1868 

The Convention of 1868, called upon the initiative of Congress but with a popular 
vote of approval, wrote a new Constitution which the people ratified in April of 
1868 by a vote of 93,086 to 74,016. Drafted and put through the Convention by a 
combination of native Republicans and a few Carpetbaggers, the Constitution was 
highly unpopular with the more conservative elements of the State. For its time it 
was a progressive and democratic instrument of government. In this respect it 
differed markedly from the proposed Constitution of 1866. The Constitution of 1868 
was an amalgam of provisions copied or adapted from the Declaration of Rights of 
1776, the Constitution of 1776 and its amendments, the proposed Constitution of 
1866, and the constitutions of other states, together with some new and original 
provisions. Although often amended, a majority of the provisions of that document 
remained intact until 1971, and the Constitution of 1971 brought forward much of 
the 1868 language with little or no change. 

The Constitution of 1868 incorporated the 1776 Declaration of Rights into the 
Constitution as Article I and added several important guarantees. To the people was 
given the power to elect all significant state executive officers, all judges, and all 
county officials, as well as legislators. All property qualifications for voting and 
office holding were abolished. The plan of representation in the Senate was changed 
from a property to a popular basis, and the 1835 House apportionment plan was 
retained. Annual legislative sessions were restored. 

The executive branch of government was strengthened by popular election for 
four-year terms of office and the Governnor's powers were increased significantly. 

A simple and uniform court system was established with the jurisdiction of each 
court fixed in the Constitution. The distinctions between actions at law and suits 
in equity were abolished. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 89 



For the first time, detailed constitutional provision was made for a system of 
taxation, and the powers of the General Assembly to levy taxes and to borrow 
money were limited. Homestead and personal property exemptions were granted. 
Free public schools were called for and the maintenance of penal and charitable 
institutions by the State was commanded. A uniform scheme of county and township 
government was prescribed. 

The declared objective of the Conservative Party (under whose banner the older 
native political leaders grouped themselves) was to repeal the Constitution of 1868 
at the earliest opportunity. When the Conservative Party gained control of the 
General Assembly in 1870, a proposal to call a convention of the people to revise the 
constitution was submitted by the General Assembly to the voters and rejected in 
1871 by a vote of 95,252 to 86,007. 

The General Assembly thereupon resorted to the legislative initiative for amend- 
ing the Constitution. That procedure then called for legislative approval of each 
proposed amendment at two successive sessions, followed by a vote of the people on 
the amendment. The 1871-72 legislative session adopted an act calling for about 
three dozen amendments to the Constitution which had the general purpose of 
restoring to the General Assembly the bulk of the power over local government, the 
courts, and the public schools and the University that had been taken from it by 
the Constitution of 1868. The 1872-73 session of the General Assembly approved for 
the second time and submitted to the people only eight of those amendments, all of 
which were approved by the voters in 1873 by wide margins. These amendments 
restored biennial sessions of the General Assembly, transferred control of the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina from the State Board of Education to the General 
Assembly, abolished various new state offices, altered the double office-holding 
prohibition, and repealed the prohibition against repudiation of the state debt. 

In 1875, the General Assembly called a convention of the people to consider con- 
stitutional revision. No confirmation of that action by popular referendum was had, 
and none was then constitutionally required. The Convention of 1875 (the most 
recent in the State's history) sat for five weeks in the fall of that year. It was a 
limited convention, certain actions — for example, the reinstatement of property 
qualifications for office-holding or voting — being forbidden to it. 

The Convention of 1875 adopted and the voters on November 7, 1876, approved 
by a vote of 120,159 to 106,554 a set of 30 amendments affecting 36 sections of the 
Constitution. These amendments (which took effect on January 1, 1877) prohibited 
secret political societies, moved the legislative convening date from November of 
even-numbered years to January of odd-numbered years, fixed in the Constitution 
for the first time the rate of legislative compensation, called for legislation estab- 
lishing a State Department of Agriculture, abandoned the simplicity and uniformity 
of the 1868 court system by giving the General Assembly power to determine the 
jurisdiction of all courts below the Supreme Court and to establish such courts 
inferior to the Supreme Court as it might see fit, reduced the Supreme Court from 
five to three members, required Superior Court judges to rotate among all judicial 
districts of the State, disqualified for voting persons guilty of certain crimes, estab- 
lished a one-year residency requirement for voting, required non-discriminatory 
racial segregation in the public schools, gave the General Assembly full power to 
revise or abolish the form and powers of county and township governments, and 
simplified the procedure for constitutional amendment by providing that the General 
Assembly might by act adopted by three-fifths of each house at one legislative 



90 North Carolina Manual 



session submit an amendment to the voters of the State (thus eliminating the 
former requirement of enactment by two successive sessions of the General 
Assembly). The principal effect of the amendments of 1873 and 1875 was to restore 
in considerable measure the former power of the General Assembly, particularly as 
to the courts and local government. 

The amendments framed by the Convention of 1875 seem to have satisfied most 
of the need for constitutional change for a generation, for only four amendments 
were submitted by the General Assembly to the voters throughout the remainder 
of the nineteenth century. Three of them were ratified; one failed. 

In 1900 the suffrage article was revised to add the literacy test and poll tax 
requirement for voting (the latter provision was repealed in 1920). A slate of ten 
amendments prepared by a constitutional commission and proposed by the General 
Assembly in 1913 was rejected by the voters in 1914. With the passage of time and 
amendments, the attitude towards the Constitution of 1868 had changed from re- 
sentment to a reverence so great that until the second third of the twentieth century, 
amendments were very difficult to obtain. Between 1900 and 1933, the voters rati- 
fied 15 and rejected 20 amendments. During the first third of this century, never- 
theless, amendments were adopted lengthening the school term from four to six 
months, prohibiting legislative charters to private corporations, authorizing special 
Superior Court judges, further limiting the General Assembly's powers to levy 
taxes and incur debt, and abolishing the poll tax requirement for voting and reduc- 
ing the residence qualification for voters. Amendments designed to restrict the 
legislature's power to enact local, private, and special legislation were made partly 
ineffective by judicial interpretation. 

A significant effort at general revision of the Constitution was made in 1931-33. 
A Constitutional Commission created by the General Assembly of 1931 drafted and 
the General Assembly of 1933 approved a revised Constitution. Blocked by a 
technicality raised in an advisory opinion of the State Supreme Court, the proposed 
Constitution of 1933 never reached the voters for approval. It would have granted 
the Governor the veto power; given to a Judical Council composed of all the judges 
of the Supreme and Superior Courts power to make all rules of practice and 
procedure in the courts inferior to the Supreme Court; required the creation of 
inferior courts by general laws only; removed most of the limitations on the taxing 
powers of the General Assembly; required the General Assembly to provide for the 
organization and powers of local governments by general law only; established an 
appointive State Board of Education with general supervision over the public school 
system; and set forth an enlightened policy of state responsibility for the mainte- 
nance of educational, charitable, and reformatory institutions and programs. 

Several provisions of the proposed Constitution of 1933 were later incorporated 
into the Constitution by individual amendments, and to a limited extent it served as 
a model for the work of the 1957-59 Constitutional Commission. 

Between the mid-1930's and the late 1950's, greater receptiveness to consti- 
tutional change resulted in amendments authorizing the classification of property 
for taxation; strengthening the limitations upon public debt; authorizing the 
General Assembly to enlarge the Supreme Court, divide the State into judicial 
divisions, increase the number of Superior Court judges, and create a Department 
of Justice under the Attorney General; enlarging the Council of State by three 
members; creating a new, appointive State Board of Education with general super- 
vision of the schools; permitting women to serve as jurors; transferring the 



The Constitution of North Carolina 91 



Governor's power to assign judges to the Chief Justice and his parole power to a 
Board of Paroles; permitting the waiver of indictment in non-capital cases; raising 
the compensation of the General Assembly and authorizing legislative expense 
allowances; increasing the general purpose property tax levy limitation and the 
maximum income tax rate, and authorizing the closing of public schools on a local 
option basis and the payment of educational expense grants in certain cases. 

The increased legislative and public willingness to accept constitutional change 
between 1934 and 1960 resulted in 32 constitutional amendments being ratified by 
the voters while only six were rejected. 

At the request of Governor Luther H. Hodges, the General Assembly of 1957 
authorized the Governor to appoint a fifteen-member Constitutional Commission 
to study the need for changes in the Constitution and to make recommendations 
to the Governor and the 1959 General Assembly. 

That Commission recommended rewriting the whole Constitution and submitting 
it to the voters for approval or disapproval as a unit, the changes suggested being 
too numerous to be effected by individual amendments. The proposed Constitution 
drafted by the Commission represented in large part a careful job of editorial 
pruning, rearrangement, clarification, and modernization, but it also included 
several significant substantive changes. The Senate would have been increased 
from 50 to 60 members and the initiative (but not the sole authority) for decennial 
redistricting of the Senate would have been shifted from the General Assembly to 
an ex-officio committee of three legislative officers. Decennial reapportionment of 
the House of Representatives would have been made a duty of the Speaker of the 
House, rather than of the General Assembly as a whole. Problems of succession 
to constitutional State executive offices and of determination of issues of officers' 
disability would have been either resolved in the Constitution or their resolution 
assigned to the General Assembly. The authority to classify property for taxation 
and to exempt property from taxation would have been required to be exercised 
only by the General Assembly and only on a uniform, statewide basis. The require- 
ment that the public schools constitute a "general and uniform system" would have 
been eliminated, and the constitutional authority of the State Board of Education 
reduced. Fairly extensive changes were recommended in the judicial article of the 
Constitution, including the establishment of a General Court of Justice with an 
Appellate Division, a Superior Court Division, and a Local Trial Court Division. 
A uniform system of District Courts and Trial Commissioners would have replaced 
the existing multitude of inferior courts and justices of the peace, the creation of 
an intermediate Court of Appeals would have been provided for, and uniformity 
of jurisdiction of the courts within each division would have been required. Other- 
wise, the General Assembly would have retained essentially its then-existing power 
over the courts, their jurisdiction, and their procedures. 

The General Assembly of 1959 also had before it a recommendation for a consti- 
tutional amendment with respect to the court system that had originated with a 
Court Study Committee of the North Carolina Bar Association. In general, the 
recommendations of that Committee called for more fundamental changes in the 
courts than those of the Constitutional Commission. The principal difference be- 
tween the two sets of recommendations lay in the extent of the proposed authority 
of the General Assembly over the courts. The Constitutional Commission generally 
favored legislative authority over the courts and proposed only moderate curtail- 
ment of it; the Court Study Committee accepted more literally the concept of an 



92 North Carolina Manual 



independent judiciary and its proposals would have minimized the authority of the 
General Assembly over the courts of the State, though structurally, its system 
would have been much like that of the Constitutional Commission. 

The proposed Constitution received extended attention from the General Assembly 
of 1959. The Senate modified and passed the bill to submit the proposed Consti- 
tution to the voters, but it failed to pass the House, due chiefly to the inability of 
the supporters of the two divergent approaches to court revision to reach agreement. 

As had been true of the proposed Constitution of 1933, the proposed Constitution 
of 1959, though not adopted as a whole, subsequently provided the material for 
several amendment proposals that were submitted individually to the voters and 
approved by them during the next decade. 

In the General Assembly of 1961, the proponents of court reform were successful 
in obtaining enactment of a constitutional amendment, approved by the voters in 
1962, creating a unified and uniform General Court of Justice for the State. Other 
amendments submitted by the same session and approved by the voters provided 
for the automatic decennial reapportionment of the State House of Representatives, 
clarified the provisions for succession to elective State executive offices and dis- 
ability determination, authorized a reduction in the residence period for voters for 
President, allowed increases in the compensation of elected state executive officers 
during their terms, and required that the power of the General Assembly to classify 
and exempt property for taxation be exercised by it alone and only on a uniform, 
statewide basis. 

The session of 1963 submitted two amendments: One to enlarge the rights of 
married women to deal with their own property was approved by the voters; one to 
enlarge the Senate from fifty to seventy members and allocate one Representative 
to each county was rejected by the voters. The General Assembly of 1965 submitted 
and the voters approved an amendment authorizing the legislative creation of a 
Court of Appeals. 

The 1967 General Assembly proposed and the voters approved amendments 
authorizing the General Assembly to fix its own compensation and revising the 
legislative apportionment scheme to conform to the judicially-established require- 
ment of representation in proportion to population in both Houses. 

Constitution of 1971 

From 1869 through 1968, there were submitted to the voters of North Carolina a 
total of 97 propositions for amending the Constitution of the State. All but one of 
these proposals originated in the General Assembly. Of those 97 amendment pro- 
posals, 69 were ratified by the voters and 28 were rejected by them. The changing 
attitude of the voters toward constitutional amendments is well illustrated by the 
fact that from 1869 to 1933, 21 of the 48 amendment propositions were rejected by 
the voters, a failure rate of three out of seven. Between 1933 and 1968, only seven 
of 49 proposed amendments were rejected by the voters, a failure rate of one out of 
seven. 

After the amendments of the early 1960's, the pressure for constitutional change 
seemed at the time to have abated. Yet while an increasingly frequently used amend- 
ment process had relieved many of the pressures that otherwise would have 
strengthened the case for constitutional reform, it had not kept the Constitution 
current in all respects. Constitutional amendments usually were drafted in response 
to particular problems experienced or anticipated and generally they were limited 



The Constitution of North Carolina 93 



in scope so as to achieve the essential goal, while arousing minimum unnecessary 
opposition. Thus amendments sometimes were not as comprehensive as they should 
have been to avoid inconsistency in result. Obsolete and invalid provisions had been 
allowed to remain in the Constitution to mislead the unwary reader. Moreover, in 
the absence of a comprehensive reappraisal, there had been no recent occasion to 
reconsider constitutional provisions that might be obsolescent but might not have 
proved so frustrating or unpopular in their effect as to provoke curative amend- 
ments. 

It was perhaps for these reasons that when Governor Dan K. Moore recommended 
to the North Carolina State Bar in the fall of 1967 that it take the lead in making a 
study of the need for revision of the State Constitution, the response was prompt 
and affirmative. The North Carolina State Bar and the North Carolina Bar Associa- 
tion joined to create the North Carolina State Constitution Study Commission as a 
joint agency of the two organizations. The 25 members of that commission (fifteen 
attorneys and ten laymen) were chosen by a steering committee representative of 
the sponsoring organizations. The Chairman of the Commission was former state 
Chief Justice Emery B. Denny. 

The State Constitution Study Commission worked throughout most of 1968. It 
became clear early in the course of its proceedings that the amendments the Com- 
mission wished to propose were too numerous to be submitted to the voters as 
independent propositions. On the other hand, the Commission did not wish to 
embody all of its proposed changes in a single document, to be approved or dis- 
approved by the voters on a single vote. The compromise procedure developed by 
the Commission and approved by the General Assembly was a blend of the two 
approaches. The Commission combined in a revised text of the Constitution all of 
the extensive editorial changes that it thought should be made in the Constitution, 
together with such substantive changes as the Commission deemed not to be con- 
troversial or fundamental in nature. These were embodied in the document that 
came to be known as the Constitution of 1971. Those proposals for change that were 
deemed to be sufficiently fundamental or potentially controversial in character as 
to justify it, the Commission set out as independent amendment propositions, to be 
considered by the General Assembly and by the voters of the State on their in- 
dependent merits. Thus the opposition to the latter proposals would not be cumu- 
lated. The separate proposals framed by the Commission were ten in number, 
including one extensive revision of the finance article of the Constitution which was 
largely the work of the Local Government Study Commission, a legislatively- 
established group then at work on the revision of constitutional and statutory 
provisions with respect to local government. The amendments were so drafted that 
any number or combination of them might be ratified by the voters and yet produce 
a consistent result. 

The General Assembly of 1969, to which the recommendations of the State Consti- 
tution Study Commission were submitted, received a total of 28 proposals for consti- 
tutional amendments. Constitutional revision was an active subject of interest 
throughout the session. The proposed Constitution of 1971, in the course of seven 
roll-call votes (four in the House and three in the Senate), received only one negative 
vote. The independent amendments fared variously; ultimately six were approved 
by the General Assembly and submitted to the voters. These were the executive 
reorganization amendment, the finance amendment, an amendment to the income 
tax provision of the Constitution, a reassignment of the benefits of the escheats, 



94 North Carolina Manual 



authorization for calling extra legislative sessions on the petition of members of the 
General Assembly, and abolition of the literacy test for voting. All but the last two 
of these amendments had been recommended by the State Constitution Study Com- 
mission. At the election held on November 3, 1970, the proposed Constitution of 
1971 was approved by a vote of 393,759 to 251,132. Five of the six separate amend- 
ments were approved by the voters; the literaracy test repeal was rejected. 

The Constitution of 1971 took effect under its own terms on July 1, 1971 (hence 
its designation as the "Constitution of 1971"). So did the executive reorganization 
amendment, the income tax amendment, the escheats amendment, and the amend- 
ment with respect to extra legislative sessions, all of which amended the Consti- 
tution of 1971 at the instant it took effect. The finance amendment, which made 
extensive revisions in the Constitution of 1971 with respect to debt and local 
taxation, took effect on July 1, 1973. The two-year delay in its effective date was 
occasioned by the necessity to conform state statutes with respect to local govern- 
ment finance to the terms of the amendment. 

The Constitution of 1971, the State Constitution Study Commission stated in its 
report recommending its adoption, 

effects a general editorial revision of the constitution. . . . The deletions, reorganizations, and 
improvements in the clarity and consistency of language will be found in the proposed consti- 
tution. Some of the changes are substantive, but none is calculated to impair any present right 
of the individual citizen or to bring about any fundamental change in the power of state and 
local government or the distritution of that power. 

In the new Constitution, the old fourteen-article organization of the Consti- 
tution was retained, but the contents of several articles — notably Articles I, II, III, 
V, IX, and X — were rearranged in more logical sequence. Sections were shifted 
from one article to another to make a more logical subject-matter arrangement. 
Clearly obsolete and constitutionally invalid matter was omitted, as were provisions 
essentially legislative in character. Uniformity of expression was sought where 
uniformity of meaning was important. Directness and currency of language were 
also sought, together with standardization in spelling, punctuation, capitalization, 
and other essentially editorial matters. Greater brevity of the Constitution as a 
whole was a by-product of the revision, though not itself a primary objective. 

The Declaration of Rights (Article I), which dates from 1776 with some 1868 
additions, was retained with a few additions. The organization of the article was 
improved and the frequently used subjunctive mood was replaced by the imperative 
in order to make clear that the provisions of that article are commands and not 
mere admonitions. (For example, "All elections ought to be free" became "All 
elections shall be free.") To the article were added a guarantee of freedom of speech, 
a guarantee of equal protection of the laws, and a prohibition against exclusion from 
jury service or other discrimination by the State on the basis of race or religion. 
Since all of the rights newly expressed in the Constitution of 1971 were already 
guaranteed by the United States Constitution, their inclusion simply constituted 
an explicit recognition by the State of their importance. 

In the course of reorganizing and abbreviating Article III (the Executive), 
the Governor's role as chief executive was brought into clear focus. The scattered 
statements of the Governor's duties were collected in one section, to which was 
added a brief statement of his budget powers, formerly merely statutory in origin. 
No change was made in the Governor's eligibility or term, or in the list of state 
executives previously elected by the people. To the Council of State (formerly seven 



The Constitution of North Carolina 95 



elected executives with the Governor as presiding officer) were added the Governor, 
Lieutenant Governor, and Attorney General as ex-officio members. 

Having been entirely rewritten in 1962, the judicial article (Article IV) was 
the subject of little editorial alteration and of no substantive change. 

The editorial amendments to Article V, dealing with finance and taxation, were 
extensive. Provisions concerning finance were transferred to it from four other 
articles. The former finance provisions were expanded in some instances to make 
clearer the meaning of excessively condensed provisions. The only substantive 
change of note gave a wife who is the primary wage-earner in her family the same 
constitutionally guaranteed income tax exemption now granted a husband who is 
the chief wage-earner; she already had that benefit under statute. 

The revision of Article VI (voting and elections) added out-of-state and federal 
felonies to felonies committed against the State of North Carolina as grounds for 
denial of voting and office-holding rights in this State. The General Assembly was 
directed to enact general laws governing voter registration. 

The provision that has been interpreted to mean that only voters can hold office 
was modified to limit its application to popularly elective offices only; thus it is left 
to the legislature to determine whether one must be a voter in order to hold an 
appointive office. 

The Constitution of 1971 prohibits the concurrent holding of two or more 
elective state offices or of a federal office and an elective state office. It expressly 
prohibits the concurrent holding of any two or more appointive offices or places of 
trust or profit, or of any combination of elective and appointive offices or places of 
trust or profit, except as the General Assembly may allow by general law. 

The power to provide for local government remains in the legislature, confining 
the constitutional provisions on the suject to a general description of the General 
Assembly's plenary authority over local government, a declaration that any unit 
formed by the merger of a city and a county should be deemed both a city and a 
county for constitutional purposes, and a section retaining the sheriff as an elective 
county officer. 

The education article (Article IX) was rearranged to improve upon the former 
hodgepodge treatment of public schools and higher education, obsolete provisions 
(esecially those pertaining to racial matters) were eliminated, and other changes 
were made to reflect current practice in the administration and financing of schools. 

The constitutionally-mandated school term was extended from six months (set 
in 1918) to a minimum of nine months (where it was fixed by statute many years 
earlier). The possibly restrictive age limits on tuition-free public schooling were 
removed. Units of local government to which the General Assembly assigns a share 
of the responsibility for financing public education were authorized to finance from 
local revenues education programs, including both public schools and technical 
institutes and community colleges, without a popular vote of approval. It was made 
mandatory (it was formerly permissive) that the General Assembly require school 
attendance. 

The Superintendent of Public Instruction was eliminated as a voting member 
of the State Board of Education but retained as the Board's secretary. He was 
replaced with an additional at-large appointee. A potential conflict of authority 
between the Superintendent and the Board (both of which previously had consti- 
tutional authority to administer the public schools) was eliminated by making the 
Superintendent the chief administrative officer of the Board, which is to supervise 
and administer the schools. 



96 North Carolina Manual 



The provisions with respect to the state and county school funds were retained 
with only minor editorial modifications. Fines, penalties, and forfeitures continue 
to be earmarked for the county school fund. 

The former provisions dealing with The University of North Carolina were 
broadened into a statement of the General Assembly's duty to maintain a system of 
higher education. 

The General Assembly was authorized by the changes made in Article X 
(Homesteads and Exemptions) to set the amounts of the personal property exemption 
and the homestead exemption (constitutionally fixed at $500 and $1,000 respectively 
since 1868) at what it considers to be reasonable levels, with the constitutional 
figures being treated as minimums. The provision protecting the rights of married 
women to deal with their own property was left untouched. The protection given 
life insurance taken out for the benefit of the wife and children of the insured was 
broadened. 

The provisions prescribing the permissible punishments for crime and limiting 
the crimes punishable by death (Article XI) were left essentially intact. 

The procedures for constitutional revision (Article XIII) were made more 
explicit. 

The five constitutional amendments ratified at the same time as the Consti- 
tution of 1971 deserve particular mention. 

By the end of the 1960's, North Carolina state government consisted of over 
200 state administrative agencies. The State Constitution Study Commission 
concluded on the advice of witnesses who had tried it that no governor could 
effectively oversee an administrative apparatus of such disjointed complexity. The 
Commission's solution was an amendment, patterned after the Model State Consti- 
tution and the constitutions of a few other states, requiring the General Assembly 
to reduce the number of administrative departments to not more than 25 by 1975, 
and to give the Governor authority to effect agency reorganizations and consolida- 
tions, subject to disapproval by action of either house of the legislature if the 
changes affected existing statutes. 

The second separate constitutional amendment ratified in 1970 supplemented 
the existing authority of the Governor to call extra sessions of the General 
Assembly with the advice of the Council of State. The amendment provides that on 
written request of three-fifths of all the members of each house, the President of 
the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall convene an 
extra session of the General Assembly. Thus the legislative branch is now able to 
convene itself, notwithstanding the contrary wishes of the Governor. 

The most significant of the separate amendments and in some ways the most 
important of the constitutional changes ratified in 1970 was the finance amendment. 
The changes it effected are especially important in the financing of local govern- 
ment. The amendment became effective on July 1, 1973. Its principal provisions 
are as follows: 

(1) All forms of capitation or poll tax are now prohibited. 

(2) The General Assembly is authorized to enact laws empowering counties, 
cities, and towns to establish special taxing districts less extensive in 
area than the entire county or city in order to finance the provision within 
those special districts of a higher level of governmental service than is 
available in the unit at large, either by supplementing existing services or 
providing services not otherwise available. That provision eliminates the 



The Constitution of North Carolina 97 



previous necessity of creating a new, independent governmental unit to 
accomplish the same result. 

(3) For a century, the Constitution required that the levying of taxes and the 
borrowing of money by local governments be approved by a vote of the 
people of the unit, unless the money were to be used for a "necessary 
expense." The court, not the General Assembly, was the final arbiter of 
what was a "necessary expense," and the State Supreme Court took a 
rather restrictive view of the embrace of that concept. The determination 
of what types of public expenditures should require voter approval and 
what types should be made by a governing board on its own authority 
was found by the General Assembly to be a legislative and not a judicial 
matter. In that conviction, the finance amendment provided that the 
General Assembly, acting on a uniform, statewide basis, should make the 
final determination of whether voter approval must be had for the levy of 
property taxes or the borrowing of money to finance particular activities 
of local government. 

(4) To facilitate governmental and private cooperative endeavors, the state 
and local governmental units were authorized by the amendment to enter 
into contracts with an appropriate money to private entities "for the ac- 
complishment of public purposes only." 

(5) The various forms of public financial obligations were more precisely 
defined than in the previous constitution, with the general effect of requir- 
ing voter approval only for the issuance of general obligation bonds and 
notes or for governmental guarantees of the debts of private persons or 
organizations. The General Assembly was directed to regulate by general 
law (permitting classified but not local acts) the contracting of debt by 
local governments. 

(6) The amendment retained the existing limitation that the state and local 
governments may not, without voter approval, borrow more than the 
equivalent of two-thirds of the amount by which the unit's indebtedness 
was reduced during the last fiscal period, except for purposes listed in the 
Constitution. This list was lengthened to include "emergencies im- 
mediately threatening public health or safety." 

(7) No change was made in the provisions with respect to the classification 
and exemption of property for purposes of property taxation. The limitation 
of 20£ on the $100 valuation previously imposed on the general county 
property tax was omitted. 

The fourth independent amendment also dealt with taxation. It struck out a 
schedule of specified minimum exemptions from the constutional provision on the 
state income tax, leaving those exemptions to be fixed by the General Assembly. 
This change enabled the legislature to provide for the filing of joint tax returns by 
husbands and wives and to adopt a "piggy-back" state income tax to be computed 
as a percentage of the federal income tax, thus relieving the taxpayer of two sets 
of computations. The amendment retains the maximum tax rate at ten per cent. 

The final amendment ratified in 1970 assigns the benefits of property escheat- 
ing to the State for want of an heir or other lawful claimant to a special fund, to be 
available to help needy North Carolina students attending public institutions of 
higher education in the State. Property escheating prior to July 1, 1971, continues 
to be held by The University of North Carolina. 



98 North Carolina Manual 



The one amendment defeated by the voters in 1970 tould have repealed the 
state constitutional requirement that in order to register as a voter, one must be 
able to read and write the English language. That requirement was already in- 
effective by virtue of federal legislation and therefore the failure of repeal had no 
practical effect. 

The General Assembly of 1971 submitted to the voters five state constitutional 
amendments, all of which were ratified by the voters on November 7, 1972. Those 
amendments set the constitutionally-specified voting age at 18 years, required the 
General Assembly to set maximum age limits for service as justices and judges of 
the state courts, authorized the General Assembly to prescribe procedures for the 
censure and removal of state judges and justices, added to the Constitution a state- 
ment of policy with regard to the conservation and the protection of natural re- 
sources, and limited the authority of the General Assembly to incorporate cities and 
towns within close proximity to existing municipalities. 

The General Assembly at it 1973 session submitted to the voters for action in 
November 1974 an amendment changing the title of the solicitor to that of district 
attorney. The 1974 session submitted an additional amendment authorizing the use 
of revenue bonds for constructing industrial facilities. The voters ratified the amend- 
ment changing the title of solicitor, but rejected the one on revenue bonds for 
industrial facilities. 

Two amendments were submitted to the people by the 1975 Legislature. Both 
of these dealt with the using of revenue bonds to finance construction. The first for 
health care facilities and the second for industrial facilities — a modification of the 
amendment rejected in 1974. Both amendments were ratified by the voters on 
March 23, 1976. 

Conclusion 

The people of North Carolina have treated their constitution with conservatism 
and respect. The fact that we have adopted only three constitutions in two centuries 
of existence as a state is the chief evidence of that attitude. (Some states have 
adopted as many as five or ten constitutions in a like period.) The relative fewness 
of amendments, even in recent years, is another point of contrast to many states. 
It reflects the fact that North Carolina has been less disposed than have many 
states to write into its state constitution detrailed provisions with respect to transi- 
tory matters better left to legislation. The Constitution has allowed the General 
Assembly wide latitude for decision on public affairs, and legislators have been 
willing to accept responsibility for and act on matters within their authority instead 
of passing the responsibility for difficult decisions on to the voters in the form of 
constitutional amendments. 

Constitution draftsmen have not been so convinced of their own exclusive hold 
on wisdom or so doubtful of the reliability of later generations of legislators that 
they found it necessary to write into the Constitution the large amount of regulatory 
detail often found in state constitutions. Delegates to constitutional conventions 
and members of the General Assembly have acted consistently with the advice of 
the late John J. Parker, Chief Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the 
Fourth Circuit (1925-58), who observed: 

The purpose of a state constitution is two-fold: (1) to protect the rights 
of the individual from encroachment by the State; and (2) to provide a 



The Constitution of North Carolina 99 



framework of government for the State and its subdivisions. It is not the 
function of a constitution to deal with temporary conditions, but to lay 
down general principles of government which must be observed amid 
changing conditions. It follows, then, that a constitution should not 
contain elaborate legislative provisions, but should lay down briefly and 
clearly fundamental principles upon which the government shall proceed, 
leaving it to the people's representatives to apply these principles through 
legislation to conditions as they arise. 



100 North Carolina Manual 

Appendix 1 

NORTH CAROLINA 

CONSTITUTIONAL PROPOSITIONS 

VOTED ON BY THE PEOPLE, 1868-1972 



Year 






Year 






of Vote 


Ratified 


Rejected 


of Vote 


Ratified 


Rejected 


1868 


1 





1944 


5 


o 


1873 


s 





1946 


1 


1 


1876 


1 





1948 


1 


3 


1880 


2 


o 


1950 


5 





1888 


1 





1952 


3 





1892 


ti 


1 


1954 


4 


1 


1900 


1 





1956 


1 


(i 


1914 





K) 


1958 





1 


1916 


1 





1962 


6 





1918 


2 





1964 


1 


1 


1920 


2 


o 


1966 


1 





1922 





1 


1968 


2 


II 


1924 


3 


1 


1970 


6 


1 


1926 


1 


(i 


1972 


5 


(1 


1928 


1 


2 


1974 


1 


1 


1930 


o 


3 


1976 


2 





1932 


1 


3 














Totals 


SI 


30 


1936 


f> 


o 








1938 


2 


() 








1942 


2 












In the above table, each issue on which the people have voted is counted as 
one, whether it involved only a single section (as was often the case), a whole article 
(as in the case of the 1900 suffrage amendment and the 1962 court amendment, or 
a revision of the entire Constitution (as in 1868 and 1970). 



The Constitution of North Carolina 101 

CONSTITUTION 

of the 

STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 



PREAMBLE 

We, the people of the State of North Carolina, grateful to Almighty God, the 
Sovereign Ruler of Nations, for the preservation of the American Union and the 
existence of our civil, political and religious liberties, and acknowledging our 
dependence upon Him for the continuance of those blessings to us and our pos- 
terity, do for the more certain security thereof and for the better government of 
this State, ordain and establish this Constitution. 

ARTICLE I 

Declaration of Rights 

That the great, general and essential principles of liberty and free govern- 
ment may be recognized and established, and that the relations of this State to the 
Union and government of the United States and those of the people of this State 
to the rest of the American people may be defined and affirmed, we do declare that: 

Section 1. The equality and rights of persons. We hold it to be self-evident 
that all persons are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with 
certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, the enjoyment of the 
fruits of their own labor, and the pursuit of happiness. 

Sec. 2. Sovereignty of the people. All political power is vested in and derived 
from the people; all government of right originates from the people, is founded 
upon their will only, and is instituted solely for the good of the whole. 

Sec. 3. Internal government of the State. The people of this State have the 
inherent, sole, and exclusive right of regulating the internal government and 
police thereof, and of altering or abolishing their Constitution and form of govern- 
ment whenever it may be necessary to their safety and happiness; but every such 
right shall be exercised in pursuance of law and consistently with the Constitution 
of the United States. 

Sec. 4. Secession prohibited. This State shall ever remain a member of the 
American Union; the people thereof are part of the American nation; there is no 
right on the part of this State to secede; and all attempts, from whatever source 
or upon whatever pretext, to dissolve this Union or to sever this Nation, shall be 
resisted with the whole power of the State. 

Sec. 5. Allegiance to the United States. Every citizen of this State owes 
paramount allegiance to the Constitution and government of the United States, 



102 North Carolina Manual 



and no law or ordinance of the State in contravention or subversion thereof can 
have any binding force. 

Sec. 6. Separation of powers. The legislative, executive, and supreme judicial 
powers of the State government shall be forever separate and distinct from each 
other. 

Sec. 7. Suspending laws. All power of suspending laws or the execution of 
laws by any authority, without the consent of the representatives of the people, is 
injurious to their rights and shall not be exercised. 

Sec. 8. Representation and taxation. The people of this State shall not be 
taxed or made subject to the payment of any impost or duty without the consent of 
themselves or their representatives in the General Assembly, freely given. 

Sec. 9. Frequent elections. For redress of grievances and for amending and 
strengthening the laws, elections shall be often held. 

Sec. 10. Free elections. All elections shall be free. 

Sec. 11. Property qualifications. As political rights and privileges are not 
dependent upon or modified by property, no property qualification shall affect the 
right to vote or hold office. 

Sec. 12. Right of assembly and petition. The people have a right to assemble 
together to consult for their common good, to instruct their representatives, and to 
apply to the General Assembly for redress of grievances; but secret political socie- 
ties are dangerous to the liberties of a free people and shall not be tolerated. 

Sec. 13. Religious liberty. All persons have a natural and inalienable right to 
worship Almighty God according to the desires of their own consciences, and no 
human authority shall, in any case whatever control or interfere with the rights 
of conscience. 

Sec. 14. Freedom of speech and press. Freedom of speech and of the press 
are two of the great bulwarks of liberty and therefore shall never be restrained, 
but every person shall be held responsible for their abuse. 

Sec. 15. Education. The people have a right to the privilege of education, and 
it is the duty of the State to guard and maintain that right. 

Sec. 16. Ex post facto laivs. Retrospective laws, punishing acts committed 
before the existence of such laws and by them only declared criminal, are oppres- 
sive, unjust, and incompatible with liberty, and therefore no ex post facto law- 
shall be enacted. No law taxing retrospectively sales, purchases, or other acts 
previously done shall be enacted. 

Sec. 17. Slavei-y a>id i>ivoluntary servitude. Slavery is forever prohibited. 
Involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the parties have 
been adjudged guilty, is forever prohibited. 

Sec. 18. Courts shall be open. All courts shall be open; every person for an 
injury done him in his lands, goods, person, or reputation shall have remedy by 



The Constitution of North Carolina 103 



due course of law; and right and justice shall be administered without favor, 
denial, or delay. 

Sec. 19. Law of the land; equal protection of the laws. No person shall be 
taken, imprisoned, or disseized of his freehold, liberties, or privileges, or outlawed, 
or exiled, or in any manner deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by the law 
of the land. No person shall be denied the equal protection of the laws; nor shall 
any person be subjected to discrimination by the State because of race, color, re- 
ligion, or national origin. 

Sec. 20. General warrants. General warrants, whereby any officer or other 
person may be commanded to search suspected places without evidence of the act 
committed, or to seize any person or persons not named, whose offense is not par- 
ticularly described and supported by evidence, are dangerous to liberty and shall 
not be granted. 

Sec. 21. Inquiry into restraints on liberty. Every person restrained of his 
liberty is entitled to a remedy to inquire into the lawfulness thereof, and to remove 
the restraint if unlawful, and that remedy shall not be denied or delayed. The 
privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended. 

Sec. 22. Modes of prosecution. Except in misdemeanor cases initiated in the 
District Court Division, no person shall be put to answer any criminal charge but 
by indictment, presentment, or impeachment. But any person, when represented 
by counsel, may, under such regulations as the General Assembly shall prescribe, 
waive indictment in noncapital cases. 

Sec. 23. Rights of accused. In all criminal prosecutions, every person charged 
with crime has the right to be informed of the accusation and to confront the ac- 
cusers and witnesses with other testimony, and to have counsel for defense, and 
not be compelled to give self-incriminating evidence, or to pay costs, jail fees, or 
necessary witness fees of the defense, unless found guilty. 

Sec. 24. Right of jury trial in criminal cases. No person shall be convicted 
of any crime but by the unanimous verdict of a jury in open court. The General 
Assembly may, however, provide for other means of trial for misdemeanors, with 
the right of appeal for trial de novo. 

Sec. 25. Right of jury trial in civil cases. In all controversies at law respect- 
ing property, the ancient mode of trial by jury is one of the best securities of the 
rights of the people, and shall remain sacred and inviolable. 

Sec. 26. Jury service. No person shall be excluded from jury service on ac- 
count of sex, race, color, religion, or national origin. 

Sec. 27. Bail, fines, and punishments. Excessive bail shall not be required, 
nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishments inflicted. 

Sec. 28. Imprisonment for debt. There shall be no imprisonment for debt in 
this State, except in cases of fraud. 

Sec. 29. Treason against the State. Treason against the State shall consist 
only of levying war against it or adhering to its enemies by giving them aid and 



104 North Carolina Manual 



comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two 
witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. No conviction of 
treason or attainder shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture. 

Sec. 30. Militia ami the right to bear anus. A well regulated militia being 
necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear 
arms shall not be infringed; and, as standing armies in time of peace are dan- 
gerous to liberty, they shall not be maintained, and the military shall be kept 
under strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power. Nothing herein 
shall justify the practice of carrying concealed weapons, or prevent the General 
Assembly from enacting statutes against that practice. 

Sec. 31. Quartering of soldiers. No soldier shall in time of peace be quartered 
in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner 
prescribed by law. 

Sec. 32. Exclusive emoluments. No person or set of persons is entitled to ex- 
clusive or separate emoluments or privileges from the community but in considera- 
tion of public services. 

Sec. 33. Hereditary emoluments and honors. No hereditary emoluments, priv- 
ileges, or honors shall be granted or conferred in this State. 

Sec. 34. Perpetuities and monopolies. Perpetuities and monopolies are con- 
trary to the genius of a free state and shall not be allowed. 

Sec. 35. Recurrence to fundamental principals. A frequent recurrence to 
fundamental principles is absolutely necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty. 

Sec. 36. Other rights of the people. The enumeration of rights in this Article 
shall not be construed to impair or deny others retained by the people. 



ARTICLE II 

Legislative 

Section 1. Legislative power. The legislative power of the State shall be vested 
in the General Assembly, which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Repre- 
sentatives. 

Sec. 2. Number of Senators. The Senate shall be composed of 50 Senators, 
biennially chosen by ballot. 

Sec. 3. Senate districts; apportionment of Senators. The Senators shall be 
elected from districts. The General Assembly, at the first regular session conven- 
ing after the return of every decennial census of population taken by order of 
Congress, shall revise the senate districts and the apportionment of Senators 
among those districts, subject to the following requirements: 

(1) Each Senator shall represent, as nearly as may be, an equal number of 
inhabitants, the number of inhabitants that each Senator represents being de- 



The Constitution of North Carolina 105 



termined for this purpose by dividing the population of the district that he repre- 
sents by the number of Senators apportioned to that district; 

(2) Each senate district shall at all times consist of contiguous territory; 

(3) No county shall be divided in the formation of a senate district; 

(4) When established, the senate districts and the apportionment of Senators 
shall remain unaltered until the return of another decennial census of population 
taken by order of Congress. 

Sec. 4. Number of Representatives. The House of Representatives shall be 
composed of 120 Representatives, biennially chosen by ballot. 

Sec. 5. Representative districts; apportionment of Representatives. The Rep- 
resentatives shall be elected from districts. The General Assembly, at the first 
regular session convening after the return of every decennial census of population 
taken by order of Congress, shall revise the representative districts and the ap- 
portionment of Representatives among those districts, subject to the following re- 
quirements : 

(1) Each Representative shall represent, as nearly as may be, an equal num- 
ber of inhabitants, the number of inhabitants that each Representative represents 
being determined for this purpose by dividing the population of the district he 
represents by the number of Representatives apportioned to that district; 

(2) Each representative district shall at all times consist of contiguous terri- 
tory ; 

(3) No country shall be divided in the formation of a representative district; 

(4) When established, the representative districts and the apportionment of 
Representatives shall remain unaltered until the return of another decennial cen- 
sus of population taken by order of Congress. 

Sec. 6. Qualifications for Senator. Each Senator, at the time of his election, 
shall be not less than 25 years of age, shall be a qualified voter of the State, and 
shall have resided in the State as a citizen for two years and in the district for 
which he is chosen for one year immediately preceding his election. 

Sec. 7. Qualifications for Representative. Each Representative, at the time 
of his election, shall be a qualified voter of the State and shall have resided in the 
district for which he is chosen for one year immediately preceding his election. 

Sec. 8. Elections. The election for members of the General Assembly shall 
be held for the respective districts in 1972 and every two years thereafter, at the 
places and on the day prescribed by law. 

Sec. 9. Term of office. The term of office of Senators and Representatives 
shall commence at the time of their election. 

Sec. 10. Vacancies. Every vacancy occurring in the membership of the Gen- 
eral Assembly by reason of death, resignation, or other cause shall be filled in the 
manner prescribed by law. 



106 North Carolina Manual 



Sec. 11. Sessions. 

(1) Regular Sessions. The General Assembly shall meet in regular session in 
1973 and every two years thereafter on the day prescribed by law. Neither house 
shall proceed upon public business unless a majority of all of its members are 
actually present. 

(2) Extra sessions on legislative call. The President of the Senate and the 
Speaker of the House of Representatives shall convene the General Assembly in 
extra session by their joint proclamation upon receipt by the President of the 
Senate of written requests therefor signed by three-fifths of all the members of 
the Senate and upon receipt by the Speaker of the House of Representatives of 
written requests therefor signed by three-fifths of all the members of the House 
of Representatives. 

Sec. 12. Oath of members. Each member of the General Assembly, before 
taking his seat, shall take an oath or affirmation that he will support the Con- 
stitution and laws of the United States and the Constitution of the State of North 
Carolina, and will faithfully discharge his duty as a member of the Senate or 
House of Representatives. 

Sec. 13. President of the Senate. The Lieutenant Governor shall be Presi- 
dent of the Senate and shall preside over the Senate, but shall have no vote unless 
the Senate is equally divided. 

Sec. 14. Other officers of the Senate. 

(1) President Pro Tempore - succession to presidency. The Senate shall elect 
from its membership a President Pro Tempore, who shall become President of the 
Senate upon the failure of the Lieutenant Governor-elect to qualify, or upon suc- 
cession by the Lieutenant Governor to the office of Governor, or upon the death, 
resignation, or removal from office of the President of the Senate, and who shall 
serve until the expiration of his term of office as Senator. 

(2) President Pro Tempore - temporary succession. During the physical or 
mental incapacity of the President of the Senate to perform the duties of his office, 
or during the absence of the President of the Senate, the President Pro Tempore 
shall preside over the Senate. 

(3) Other officers. The Senate shall elect its other officers. 

Sec. 15. Officers of the House of Representatives. The House of Representa- 
tives shall elect its Speaker and other officers. 

Sec. 16. Compensation and allowances. The members and officers of the Gen- 
eral Assembly shall receive for their services the compensation and allowances 
prescribed by law. An increase in the compensation or allowances of members 
shall become effective at the beginning of the next regular session of the General 
Assembly following the session at which it was enacted. 

Sec. 17. Journals. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, which 
shall be printed and made public immediately after the adjournment of the General 
Assembly. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 107 



Sec. 18. Protests. Any member of either house may dissent from and protest 
against any act or resolve which he may think injurious to the public or to any 
individual, and have the reasons of his dissent entered on the journal. 

Sec. 19. Record votes. Upon motion made in either house and seconded by one 
fifth of the members present, the yeas and nays upon any question shall be taken 
and entered upon the journal. 

Sec. 20. Powers of the General Assembly. Each house shall be judge of the 
qualifications and elections of its own members, shall sit upon its own adjournment 
from day to day, and shall prepare bills to be enacted into laws. The two houses 
may jointly adjourn to any future day or other place. Either house may, of its 
own motion, adjourn for a period not in excess of three days. 

Sec. 21. Style of the acts. The style of the acts shall be: "The General As- 
sembly of North Carolina enacts:". 

Sec. 22. Action on bills. All bills and resolutions of a legislative nature shall 
be read three times in each house before they become laws, and shall be signed by 
the presiding officers of both houses. 

Sec. 23. Revenue bills. No law shall be enacted to raise money on the credit 
of the State, or to pledge the faith of the State directly or indirectly for the pay- 
ment of any debt, or to impose any tax upon the people of the State, or to allow 
the counties, cities, or towns to do so, unless the bill for the purpose shall have 
been read three several times in each house of the General Assembly and passed 
three several readings, which readings shall have been on three different days, and 
shall have been agreed to by each house respectively, and unless the yeas and nays 
on the second and third readings of the bill shall have been entered on the journal. 

Sec. 24. Limitations on local, private, and special legislation. 

(1) Prohibited subjects. The General Assembly shall not enact any local, 
private, or special act or resolution: 

(a) Relating to health, sanitation, and the abatement of nuisances; 

(b) Changing the names of cities, towns, and townships; 

(c) Authorizing the laying out, opening, altering, maintaining, or discon- 
tinuing of highways, streets, or alleys ; 

(d) Relating to ferries or bridges ; 

(e) Relating to non-navigable streams; 

(f) Relating to cemeteries; 

(g) Relating to the pay of jurors; 

(h) Erecting new townships, or changing township lines, or establishing or 

changing the lines of school districts; 
(i) Remitting fines, penalties, and forfeitures, or refunding moneys legally 

paid into the public treasury ; 
(j) Regulating labor, trade, mining, or manufacturing; 
(k) Extending the time for the levy or collection of taxes or otherwise re- 



108 North Carolina Manual 



lieving any collector of taxes from the due performance of his official 
duties or his sureties from liability; 

(1) Giving effect to informal wills and deeds; 

(m) Granting a divorce or securing alimony in any individual case; 

(n) Altering the name of any person, or legitimating any person not born in 
lawful wedlock, or restoring to the rights of citizenship any person con- 
victed of a felony. 

(2) Repeals. Nor shall the General Assembly enact any such local, private, 
or special act by the partial repeal of a general law; but the General Assembly 
may at any time repeal local, private, or special laws enacted by it. 

(3) Prohibited acts void. Any local, private, or special act or resolution en- 
acted in violation of the provisions of this Section shall be void. 

(4) General latvs. The General Assembly may enact general laws regulating 
the matters set out in this Section. 



ARTICLE III 

Executive 

Section 1. Executive power. The executive power of the State shall be vested 
in the Governor. 

Sec. 2. Governor and Lieutenant Governor : election, term, and qualifications. 

(1) Election and term. The Governor and Lieutenant Governor shall be 
elected by the qualified voters of the State in 1972 and every four years thereafter, 
at the same time and places as members of the General Assembly are elected. 
Their term of office shall be four years and shall commence on the first day of 
January next after their election and continue until their successors are elected 
and qualified. 

(2) Qualifications. No person shall be eligible for election to the office of 
Governor or Lieutenant Governor unless, at the time of his election, he shall have 
attained the age of 30 years and shall have been a citizen of the United States for 
five years and a resident of this State for two years immediately preceding his 
election. No person elected to either of these two offices shall be eligible for elec- 
tion to the next succeeding term of the same office. 

Sec. 3. Succession to office of Governor. 

(1) Succession as Governor. The Lieutenant Governor-elect shall become 
Governor upon the failure of the Governor-elect to qualify. The Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor shall become Governor upon the death, resignation, or removal from office 
of the Governor. The further order of succession to the office of Governor shall be 
prescribed by law. A successor shall serve for the remainder of the term of the 
Governor whom he succeeds and until a new Governor is elected and qualified. 

(2) Succession as Acting Governor. During the absence of the Governor from 



The Constitution of North Carolina 109 



the State, or during the physical or mental incapacity of the Governor to perform 
the duties of his office, the Lieutenant Governor shall be Acting Governor. The 
further order of succession as Acting Governor shall be prescribed by law. 

(3) Physical incapacity. The Governor may, by a written statement filed 
with the Attorney General, declare that he is physically incapable of performing 
the duties of his office, and may thereafter in the same manner declare that he is 
physically capable of performing the duties of his office. 

(4) Mental incapacity. The mental incapacity of the Governor to perform the 
duties of his office shall be determined only by joint resolution adopted by a vote 
of two-thirds of all the members of each house of the General Assembly. 
Thereafter, the mental capacity of the Governor to perform the duties of his 
office shall be determined only by joint resolution adopted by a vote of a majority 
of all the members of each house of the General Assembly. In all cases, the General 
Assembly shall give the Governor such notice as it may deem proper and shall 
allow him an opportunity to be heard before a joint session of the General Assem- 
bly before it takes final action. When the General Assembly is not in session, the 
Council of State, a majority of its members concurring, may convene it in extra 
session for the purpose of proceeding under this paragraph. 

(5) Impeachment. Removal of the Governor from office for any other cause 
shall be by impeachment. 

Sec. 4. Oath of office for Governor. The Governor, before entering upon the 
duties of his office, shall, before any Justice of the Supreme Court, take an oath 
or affirmation that he will support the Constitution and laws of the United States 
and of the State of North Carolina, and that he will faithfully perform the duties 
pertaining to the office of Governor. 

Sec. 5. Duties of Governor. 

(1) Residence. The Governor shall reside at the seat of government of this 
State. 

(2) Information to General Assembly. The Governor shall from time to time 
give the General Assembly information of the affairs of the State and recommend 
to their consideration such measures as he shall deem expedient. 

(3) Budget. The Governor shall prepare and recommend to the General As- 
sembly a comprehensive budget of the anticipated revenue and proposed expendi- 
tures of the State for the ensuing fiscal period. The budget as enacted by the 
General Assembly shall be administered by the Governor. 

(4) Execution of laws. The Governor shall take care that the laws be faith- 
fully executed. 

(5) Commander in Chief. The Governor shall be Commander in Chief of the 
military forces of the State except when they shall be called into the service of the 
United States. 

(6) Clemency. The Governor may grant reprieves, commutations, and par- 
dons, after conviction, for all offenses (except in cases of impeachment), upon 



no North Carolina Manual 



such conditions as he may think proper, subject to regulations prescribed by law 
relative to the manner of applying for pardons. The terms reprieves, commuta- 
tions, and pardons shall not include paroles. 

(7) Extra sessions. The Governor may, on extraordinary occasions, by and 
with the advice of the Council of State, convene the General Assembly in extra 
session by his proclamation, stating therein the purpose or purposes for which 
they are thus convened. 

(8) Appointments. The Governor shall nominate and by and with the advice 
and consent of a majority of the Senators appoint all officers whose appointments 
are not otherwise provided for. 

(9) Information. The Governor may at any time require information in 
writing from the head of any administrative department or agency upon any sub- 
ject relating to the duties of his office. 

(10) Administrative reorganization. The General Assembly shall prescribe 
the functions, powers, and duties of the administrative departments and agencies 
of the State and may alter them from time to time, but the Governor may make 
such changes in the allocation of offices and agencies and in the allocation of those 
functions, powers, and duties as he considers necessary for efficient administra- 
tion. If those changes affect existing law, they shall be set forth in executive 
orders, which shall be submitted to the General Assembly not later than the six- 
tieth calendar day of its session, and shall become effective and shall have the 
force of law upon adjournment sine die of the session, unless specifically disap- 
proved by resolution of either house of the General Assembly or specifically modi- 
fied by joint resolution of both houses of the General Assembly. 

Sec. 6. Duties of the Lieutenant Governor. The Lieutenant Governor shall be 
President of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless the Senate is equally divided. 
He shall perform such additional duties as the General Assembly or the Governor 
may assign to him. He shall receive the compensation and allowances prescribed 
by law. 

Sec. 7. Other elective officers. 

(1) Officers. A Secretary of State, an Auditor, a Treasurer, a Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, an Attorney General, a Commissioner of Agriculture, a 
Commissioner of Labor, and a Commissioner of Insurance shall be elected by the 
qualified voters of the State in 1972 and every four years thereafter, at the same 
time and places as members of the General Assembly are elected. Their term of 
office shall be four years and shall commence on the first day of January next 
after their election and continue until their successors are elected and qualified. 

(2) Duties. Their respective duties shall be prescribed by law. 

(3) Vacancies. If the office of any of these officers is vacated by death, resig- 
nation, or otherwise, it shall be the duty of the Governor to appoint another to 
serve until his successor is elected and qualified. Every such vacancy shall be 
filled by election at the first election for members of the General Assembly that 
occurs more than 30 days after the vacancy has taken place, and the person 



The Constitution of North Carolina i 1 1 



chosen shall hold the office for the remainder of the unexpired term fixed in this 
Section. When a vacancy occurs in the office of any of the officers named in this 
Section and the term expires on the first day of January succeeding the next 
election for members of the General Assembly, the Governor shall appoint to fill 
the vacancy for the unexpired term of the office. 

(4) Interim officers. Upon the occurrence of a vacancy in the office of any one 
of these officers for any of the causes stated in the preceding paragraph, the Gov- 
ernor may appoint an interim officer to perform the duties of that office until a 
person is appointed or elected pursuant to this Section to fill the vacancy and is 
qualified. 

(5) Acting officers. During the physical or mental incapacity of any one of 
these officers to perform the duties of his office, as determined pursuant to this 
Section, the duties of his office shall be performed by an acting officer who shall be 
appointed by the Governor. 

(6) Determination of incapacity. The General Assembly shall by law pre- 
scribe with respect to those officers, other than the Governor, whose officers are 
created by this Article, procedures for determining the physical or mental in- 
capacity of any officer to perform the duties of his office, and for determining 
whether an officer who has been temporarily incapacitated has sufficiently recover- 
ed his physical or mental capacity to perform the duties of his office. Removal of 
those officers from office for any other cause shall be by impeachment. 

Sec. 8. Council of State. The Council of State shall consist of the officers 
whose offices are established by this Article. 

Sec. 9. Compensation and allowances. The officers whose offices are establish- 
ed by this Article shall at stated periods receive the compensation and allowances 
prescribed by law, which shall not be diminished during the time for which they 
have been chosen. 

Sec. 10. Seal of State. There shall be a seal of the State, which shall be kept 
by the Governor and used by him as occasion may require, and shall be called "The 
Great Seal of the State of North Carolina". All grants are commissions shall be 
issued in the name and by the authority of the State of North Carolina, sealed 
with "The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina", and signed by the Governor. 

Sec. 11. Administrative departments. Not later than July 1, 1975, all ad- 
ministrative departments, agencies, and offices of the State and their respective 
functions, powers, and duties shall be allocated by law among and within not more 
than 25 principal administrative departments so as to group them as far as prac- 
ticable according to major purposes. Regulatory, quasi-judicial, and temporary 
agencies may, but need not, be allocated within a principal department. 



ARTICLE IV 

Judicial 

Section. 1. Judicial power. The judicial power of the State shall, except as 
provided in Section 3 of this Article, be vested in a Court for the Trial of Impeach- 



112 North Carolina Manual 



ments and a General Court of Justice. The General Assembly shall have no power 
to deprive the judicial department of any power or jurisdiction that rightfully per- 
tains to it as a co-ordinate department of the government, nor shall it establish 
or authorize any courts other than as permitted by this Article. 

Sec. 2. General Court of Justice. The General Court of Justice shall con- 
stitute a unified judicial system for purposes of jurisdiction, operation, and admini- 
stration, and shall consist of an Appellate Division, a Superior Court Division, 
and a District Court Division. 

Sec. 3. Judicial powers of administrative agencies. The General Assembly 
may vest in administrative agencies established pursuant to law such judicial 
powers as may be reasonably necessary as an incident to the accomplishment of 
the purposes for which the agencies were created. Appeals from administrative 
agencies shall be to the General Court of Justice. 

Sec. 4. Court for the Trial of Impeachments. The House of Representatives 
solely shall have the power of impeaching. The Court for the Trial of Impeach- 
ments shall be the Senate. When the Governor or Lieutenant Governor is im- 
peached, the Chief Justice shall preside over the Court. A majority of the mem- 
bers shall be necessary to a quorum, and no person shall be convicted without the 
concurrence of two-thirds of the Senators present. Judgment upon conviction 
shall not extend beyond removal from and disqualification to hold office in this 
State, but the party shall be liable to indictment and punishment according to law. 

Sec. 5. Appellate division. The Appellate Division of the General Court of 
Justice shall consist of the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals. 

Sec. 6. Supreme Court. 

(1) Membership. The Supreme Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and six 
Associate Justices, but the General Assembly may increase the number of As- 
sociate Justices, but the General Assembly may increase the number of Associate 
Justices to not more than eight. In the event the Chief Justice is unable, on ac- 
count of absence or temporary incapacity, to perform any of the duties placed upon 
him, the senior Associate Justice available may discharge those duties. 

(2) Sessions of the Supreme Court. The sessions of the Supreme Court shall 
be held in the City of Raleigh unless otherwise provided by the General Assembly. 

Sec. 7. Court of Appeals. The structure, organization, and composition of 
the Court of Appeals shall be determined by the General Assembly. The Court 
shall have not less than five members, and may be authorized to sit in divisions, 
or other than en banc. Sessions of the Court shall be held at such times and 
places as the General Assembly may prescribe. 

Sec. 8. Retirement of Justices and Judges. The General Assembly shall pro- 
vide by general law for the retirement of Justices and Judges of the General Court 
of Justice, and may provide for the temporary recall of any retired Justice or 
Judge to serve on the court from which he was retired. The General Assembly 
shall also prescribe maximum age limits for service as a Justice or Judge. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 113 



Sec. 9. Superior Courts. 

(1) Superior Court districts. The General Assembly shall, from time to time, 
divide the State into a convenient number of Superior Court judicial districts and 
shall provide for the election of one or more Superior Court Judges for each dis- 
trict. Each regular Superior Court Judge shall reside in the district for which 
he is elected. The General Assembly may provide by general law for the selection 
or appointment of special or emergency Superior Court Judges not selected for a 
particular judicial district. 

(2) Open at all times; sessions for trial of cases. The Superior Courts shall 
be open at all times for the transaction of all business except for trial of issues of 
fact requiring a jury. Regular trial sessions of the Superior Court shall be held 
at times fixed pursuant to a calendar of courts promulgated by the Supreme 
Court. At least two sessions for the trial of jury cases shall be held annually in 
each county. 

(3) Clerks. A Clerk of the Superior Court for each county shall be elected 
for a term of four years by the qualified voters thereof, at the same time and 
places as members of the General Assembly are elected. If the office of Clerk of 
the Superior Court becomes vacant otherwise than by the expiration of the term, 
or if the people fail to elect, the senior regular resident Judge of the Superior 
Court serving the county shall appoint to fill the vacancy until an election can be 
regularly held. 

Sec. 10. District Courts. The General Assembly shall, from time to time, 
divide the State into a convenient number of local court districts and shall pre- 
scribe where the District Courts shall sit, but a District Court must sit in at least 
one place in each county. District Judges shall be elected for each district for a 
term of four years, in a manner prescribed by law. When more than one District 
Judge is authorized and elected for a district, the Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court shall designate one of the judges as Chief District Judge. Every District 
Judge shall reside in the district for which he is elected. For each county, the 
senior regular resident Judge of the Superior Court serving the county shall ap- 
point for a term of two years, for nominations submitted by the Clerk of the 
Superior Court of the county, one or more Magistrates who shall be officers of the 
District Court. The number of District Judges and Magistrates shall, from time 
to time, be determined by the General Assembly. Vacancies in the office of District 
Judge shall be filled for the unexpired term in a manner prescribed by law. Vacan- 
cies in the office of Magistrate shall be filled for the unexpired term in the manner 
provided for original appointment to the office. 

Sec. 11. Assignment of Judges. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, 
acting in accordance with rules of the Supreme Court, shall make assignments of 
Judges of the Superior Court and may transfer District Judges from one district 
to another for temporary or specialized duty. The principle of rotating Superior 
Court Judges among the various districts of a division is a salutary one and shall 
be observed. For this purpose the General Assembly may divide the State into a 
number of judicial divisions. Subject to the general supervision of the Chief 
Justice of the Supreme Court, assignment of District Judges within each local 
court district shall be made by the Chief District Judge. 



114 North Carolina Manual 



Sec. 12. Jurisdiction of the General Court of Justice. 

(1) Supreme Court. The Supreme Court shall have jurisdiction to review 
upon appeal any decision of the courts below, upon any matter of law or legal in- 
ference. The jurisdiction of the Supreme Court over "issues of fact" and "ques- 
tions of fact" shall be the same exercised by it prior to the adoption of this Article, 
and the Court may issue any remedial writs necessary to give it general super- 
vision and control over the proceedings of the other courts. 

(2) Court of Appeals. The Court of Appeals shall have such appellate juris- 
diction as the General Assembly may prescribe. 

(3) Superior Court. Except as otherwise provided by the General Assembly, 
the Superior Court shall have original general jurisdiction throughout the State. 
The Clerks of the Superior Court shall have such jurisdiction and powers as the 
General Assembly shall prescribe by general law uniformly applicable in every 
county of the State. 

(4) District Courts; Magistrates. The General Assembly shall, by general law 
uniformly applicable in every local court district of the State, prescribe the juris- 
diction and powers of the District Courts and Magistrates. 

(5) Waiver. The General Assembly may by general law provide that the 
jurisdictional limits may be waived in civil cases. 

(6) Appeals. The General Assembly shall by general law provide a proper 
system of appeals. Appeals from Magistrates shall be heard de novo, with the 
right of trial by jury as denned in this Constitution and the laws of this State. 

Sec. 13. Forms of action; rules of procedure. 

(1) Forms of Action. There shall be in this State but one form of action for 
the enforce or protection of private rights or the redress of private wrongs, which 
shall be denominated a civil action, and in which there shall be a right to have 
issues of fact tried before a jury. Every action prosecuted by the people of the 
State as a party against a person charged with a public offense, for the punish- 
ment thereof, shall be termed a criminal action. 

(2) Rules of procedure. The Supreme Court shall have exclusive authority 
to make rules of procedure and practice for the Appellate Division. The General 
Assembly may make rules of procedure and practice for the Superior Court and 
District Court Divisions, and the General Assembly may delegate this authority to 
the Supreme Court. No rule of procedure or practice shall abridge substantive 
rights or abrogate or limit the right of trial by jury. If the General Assembly 
should delegate to the Supreme Court the rule-making power, the General Assembly 
may, nevertheless, alter, amend, or repeal any rule of procedure or practice adopt- 
ed by the Supreme Court for the Superior Court or District Court Divisions. 

Sec. 14. Waiver of jury trial. In all issues of fact joined in any court, the 
parties in any civil case may waive the right to have the issues determined by a 
jury, in which case the rinding of the judge upon the facts shall have the force 
and effect of a verdict by a jury. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 115 

Sec. 15. Administration. The General Assembly shall provide for an ad- 
ministrative office of the courts to carry out the provisions of this Article. 

Sec. 16. Terms of office and election of Justices of the Supreme Court, Judges 
of the Court of Appeals, and Judges of the Superior Court. Justices of the Su- 
preme Court, Judges of the Court of Appeals, and regular Judges of the Superior 
Court shall be elected by the qualified voters and shall hold office for terms of 
eight years and until theirsuccessors are elected and qualified. Justices of the 
Supreme Court and Judges of the Court of Appeals shall be elected by the qualified 
voters of the State. Regular Judges of the Superior Cour may be elected by the 
qualified voters of the State or by th voters of their respective districts, as the 
General Assembly may prescribe. 

Sec. 17. Removal of Judges, Magistrates and Clerks. 

(1) Removal of Judges by the General Assembly. Any Justice or Judge of 
the General Court of Justice may be removed from office for mental or physical 
incapacity by joint resolution of two-thirds of all the members of each house of 
the General Assembly. Any Justice or Judge against whom the General Assembly 
may be about to proceed shall receive notice thereof, accompanied by a copy of the 
causes alleged for his removal, at least 20 days before the day on which either 
house of the General Assembly shall act thereon. Removal from office by the 
General Assembly for any other cause shall be by impeachment. 

(2) Additional method of removal of Judges. The General Assembly shall 
prescribe a procedure, in addition to impeachment and address set forth in this 
Section, for the removal of a Justice or Judge of the General Court of Justice for 
mental or physical incapacity interfering with the performance of his duties 
which is, or is likely to become, permanent, and for the censure and removal of a 
Justice or Judge ofthe General Court of Justice for wilful misconduct in office, 
wilful and persistent failure to perform his duties, habitual intemperance, convic- 
tion of a crime involving moral turpitude, or conduct prejudicial to the administra- 
tion of justice that brings the judical office into disrepute. 

(3) Removal of Magistrates. The General Assembly shall provide by general 
law for the removal of Magistrates for misconduct or mental or physical incapacity. 

(4) Removal of Clerks. Any Clerk of the Superior Court may be removed 
from office for misconduct or mental or physical incapacity by the senior regular 
resident Superior Court Judge serving the county. Any Clerk against whom pro- 
ceedings are instituted shall receive written notice of the charges against him at 
least ten days before the hearing upon the charges. Any Clerk so removed from 
office shall be entitled to an appeal as provided by law. 

Sec. 18. District Attorney and Prosecutorial Districts. 

(1) District Attorneys. The General Assembly shall, from time to time, divide 
the State into a convenient number of solicitorial districts, for each of which a 
District Attorney shall be chosen for a term of four years by the qualified voters 
thereof, at the same time and places as members of the General Assembly are 
elected. The District Attorney shall advise the officers of justice in his district, be 



116 North Carolina Manual 

responsible for the prosecution on behalf of the State of all criminal actions in the 
Superior Courts of his district, perform such duties related to appeals therefrom 
as the Attorney General may require, and perform such other duties as the 
General Assembly may prescribe. 

(2) Prosecution in District Court Division. Criminal actions in the District 
Court Division shall be prosecuted in such manner as the General Assembly may 
prescribe by general law uniformly applicable in every local court district of the 
State. 

Sec. 19. Vacancies. Unless otherwise provided in this Article, all vacancies 
occurring in the offices provided for by this Article shall be filled by appointment 
of the Governor, and the appointees shall hold their places until the next election 
for members of the General Assembly that is held more than 30 days after the 
vancancy occurs, when elections shall be held to fill the offices. When the unexpired 
term of any of the offices named in this Article of the Constitution in which a 
vacancy has occurred, and in which it is herein provided that the Governor shall 
fill the vacancy, expires on the first day of January succeeding the next election 
for members of the General Assembly, the Governor shall appoint to fill that 
vacancy for the unexpired term of the office. If any person elected or appointed 
to any of these offices shall fail to qualify, the office shall be appointed to, held, and 
filled as provided in case of vacancies occurring therein. All incumbents of these 
offices shall hold until their successors are qualified. 

Sec. 20. Revenues and expenses of the judicial department. The General 
Assembly shall provide for the establishment of a schedule of court fees and costs 
which shall be uniform throughout the State within each division of the General 
Court of Justice. The operating expenses of the judicial department, other than 
compensation to process servers and other locally paid non-judicial officers, shall 
be paid from State funds. 

Sec. 21. Fees, salaries, and emoluments. The General Assembly shall pre- 
scribe and regulate the fees, salaries, and emoluments of all officers provided for 
in this Article, but the salaries of Judges shall not be diminished during their 
continuance in office. In no case shall the compensation of any Judge or Magistrate 
be dependent upon his decision or upon the collection of costs. 

ARTICLE V 

Finance 

Section 1. No capitation tax to be levied. No poll or capitation tax shall he 
levied by the General Assembly or by any county, city or town, or other taxing 
unit. 

Sec. 2. State and local taxation. 

(1) Power of taxation. The power of taxation shall be exercised in a just and 
equitable manner, for public purposes only, and shall never be surrendered, sus- 
pended, or contracted away. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 117 



(2) Classification. Only the General Assembly shall have the power to classify 
property for taxation, which power shall be exercised only on a State-wide basis and 
shall not be delegated. No class of property shall be taxed except by uniform rule, 
and every classification shall be made by general law uniformly applicable in every 
county, city and town, and other unit of local government. 

(3) Exemptions. Property belonging to the State, counties, and municipal 
corporations shall be exempt from taxation. The General Assembly may exempt 
cemeteries and property held for educational, scientific, literary, cultural, charitable, 
or religious purposes, and, to a value not exceeding $300, any personal property. 
The General Assembly may exempt from taxation not exceeding $1,000 in value of 
property held and used as the place of residence of the owner. Every exemption shall 
be on a State-wide basis and shall be made by general law uniformly applicable 
in every county, city and town, and other unit of local government. No taxing 
authority other than the General Assembly may grant exemptions, and the General 
Assembly shall not delegate the powers accorded to it by this subsection. 

(4) Special tax areas. Subject to the limitations imposed by Section 4, the 
General Assembly may enact general laws authorizing the governing body of any 
county, city, or town to define territorial areas and to levy taxes within those areas, 
in addition to those levied throughout the county, city, or town, in order to finance, 
provide, or maintain services, facilities, and functions in addition to or to a greater 
extent than those financed, provided, or maintained for the entire county, city, or 
town. 

(5) Purposes of property tax. The General Assembly shall not authorize any 
county, city or town, special district, or other unit of local government to levy taxes 
on property, except for purposes authorized by general law uniformly applicable 
throughout the State, unless the tax is approved by a majority of the qualified voters 
of the unit who vote thereon. 

(6) Income tax. The rate of tax on incomes shall not in any case exceed ten 
per cent and there shall be allowed the following minimum exemptions, to be 
deducted from the amount of annual incomes: to the income-producing spouse of 
a married couple living together, or to a widow or widower having minor child or 
children, natural or adopted, not less than $2,000; to all other persons not less than 
$1,000; and there may be allowed other deductions, not including living expenses, 
so that only net incomes are taxed. 

(7) Contracts. The General Assembly may enact laws whereby the State, any 
county, city or town and any other public corporation may contract with and appro- 
priate money to any person, association, or corporation for the accomplishment of 
public purposes only. 

Sec. 3. Limitations upon the increase of State debt . 

(1) Authorized purposes; two-thirds limitation. The General Assembly shall 
have no power to contract debts secured by a pledge of the faith and credit of the 
State, unless approved by a majority of the qualified voters of the State who vote 
thereon, except for the following purposes: 

(a) to fund or refund a valid existing debt; 

(b) to supply an unforeseen deficiency in the revenue; 



118 North Carolina Manual 



(c) to borrow in anticipation of the collection of taxes due and payable within 

the current fiscal year to an amount not exceeding 50 per cent of such 

taxes; 

(d) to suppress riots or insurrections, or to repel invasions; 

(e) to meet emergencies immediately threatening the public health or safety, 
as conclusively determined in writing by the Governor; 

(f) for any other lawful purpose, to the extent of two-thirds of the amount by 
which the State's outstanding indebtedness shall have been reduced during 
the next preceding biennium. 

(2) Gift or loan of credit regulated. The General Assembly shall have no power 
to give or lend the credit of the State in aid of any person, association, or corpora- 
tion, except a corporation in which the State has a controlling interest, unless the 
subject is submitted to a direct vote of the people of the State, and is approved by 
a majority of the qualified voters who vote thereon. 

(3) Definitions. A debt is incurred within the meaning of this Section when 
the State borrows money. A pledge of the faith and credit within the meaning of 
this Section is a pledge of the taxing power. A loan of credit within the meaning of 
this Section occurs when the State exchanges its obligations with or in any way 
guarantees the debts of an individual, association, or private corporation. 

(4) Certain debts barred. The General Assembly shall never assume or pay 
any debt or obligation, express or implied, incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion 
against the United States. Neither shall the General Assembly assume or pay any 
debt or bond incurred or issued by authority of the Convention of 1868, the special 
session of the General Assembly of 1868, or the General Assemblies of 1868-69 and 
1869-70, unless the subject is submitted to the people of the State and is approved 
by a majority of all the qualified voters at a referendum held for that sole purpose. 

(5) Outstanding debt. Except as provided in subsection (4), nothing in this 
Section shall lie constmed to invalidate or impair the obligation of any bond, note, 
or other evidence of indebtedness outstanding or authorized for issue as of July 1, 
1973. 

Sec. 4. Limitations upon the increase of local government debt. 

(1) Regulation of borrowing and debt. The General Assembly shall enact general laws 
relating to the borrowing of money secured by a pledge of the faith and credit and the con- 
tracting of other debts by counties, cities and towns, special districts, and other units, 
authorities, and agencies of local government. 

(2) Authorized purposes; two-thirds limitation. The General Assembly shall have no 
power to authorize any county, city or town, special district, or other unit of local govern- 
ment to contract debts secured by a pledge of its faith and credit unless approved by a ma- 
jority of the qualified voters of the unit who vote thereon, except for the following purposes: 

(a) to fund or refund a valid existing debt; 

(b) to supply an unforeseen deficiency in the revenue; 

(c) to borrow in anticipation of the collection of taxes due and payable within the 
current fiscal year to an amount not exceeding 50 per cent of such taxes; 

(d) to suppress riots or insurrections; 



The Constitution of North Carolina 119 



(e) to meet emergencies immediately threatening the public health or safety, as con- 
clusively determined in writing by the Governor; 

(f) for purposes authorized by general laws uniformly applicable throughout the State, 
to the extent of two-thirds of the amount by which the unit's outstanding in- 
debtedness shall have been reduced during the next preceding fiscal year. 

(3) Gift or loan of credit regulated. No county, city or town, special district, or other 
unit of local government shall give or lend its credit in aid of any person, association, or cor- 
poration, except for public purposes as authorized by general law, and unless approved by a 
majority of the qualified voters of the unit who vote thereon. 

(4) Certain debts barred. No county, city or town, or other unit of local government 
shall assume or pay any debt or the interest thereon contracted directly or indirectly in aid or 
support of rebellion or insurrection against the United States. 

(5) Definitions. A debt is incurred within the meaning of this Section when a county, 
city or town, special district, or other unit, authority, or agency of local government borrows 
money. A pledge of faith and credit within the meaning of this Section is a pledge of the tax- 
ing power. A loan of credit within the meaning of this Section occurs when a county, city or 
town, special district, or other unit, authority, or agency of local government exchanges its 
obligations with or in any way guarantees the debts of an individual, association, or private 
corporation. 

(6) Outstanding debt. Except as provided in subsection (4), nothing in this Section shall 
be construed to invalidate or impair the obligation of any bond, note, or other evidence of in- 
debtedness outstanding or authorized for issue as of July 1, 1973. 

Sec. 5. Acts levying taxes to state objects. Every act of the General Assembly levying 
a tax shall state the special object to which it is to be applied, and it shall be applied to no 
other purpose. 

Sec. 6. Inviolability of sinking funds and retirement funds. 

(1) Sinking funds. The General Assembly shall not use or authorize to be used any part 
of the amount of any sinking fund for any purpose other than the retirement of the bonds for 
which the sinking fund has been created, except that these funds may be invested as 
authorized by law. 

(2) Retirement funds. Neither the General Assembly nor any public officer, employee, 
or agency shall use or authorized to be used any part of the funds of the Teachers' and State 
Employees' Retirement System or the Local Governmental Employees' Retirement System 
for any purpose other than retirement system benefits and purposes, administrative ex- 
penses, and refunds; except that retirement system funds may be invested as authorized by 
law, subject to the investment limitation that the funds of the Teachers' and State Em- 
ployees' Retirement System and the Local Governmental Employees' Retirement System 
shall not be applied, diverted, loaned to, or used by the State, any State agency. State officer, 
public officer, or public employee. 

Sec. 7. Drawing public money. 

(1) State treasury. No money shall be drawn from the State Treasury but in conse- 
quence of appropriations made by law, and an accurate account of the receipts and expen- 
ditures of State funds shall be published annually. 



120 North Carolina Manual 



(2) Local treasury. No money shall be drawn from the treasury of any county, city or 
town, or other unit of local government except by authority of law. 



ARTICLE VI 

Suffrage and Eligibility to Office 

Sec. 1. Who may vote. Every person born in the United States and every 
person who has been naturalized, 18 years of age, and possessing the qualifications 
set out in this Article, shall be entitled to vote at any election by the people of the 
State, except as herein otherwise provided. 

Sec. 2. Qualifications of voter. 

(1) Residence period for State elections. Any person who has resided in the 
State of North Carolina for one year and in the precinct, ward, or other election 
district for 30 days next preceding an election, and possesses the other qualifica- 
tions set out in this Article, shall be entitled to vote at any election held in this 
State. Removal from one precinct, ward, or other election district to another in 
this State shall not operate to deprive any person of the right to vote in the pre- 
cinct, ward, or other election district from which that person has removed until 30 
days after the removal. 

(2) Residence period for presidential elections. The General Assembly may 
reduce the time of residence for persons voting in presidential elections. A person 
made eligible by reason of a reduction in time of residence shall possess the other 
qualifications set out in this Article, shall only be entitled to vote for President 
and Vice President of the United States or for electors for President and Vice 
President, and shall not thereby become eligible to hold office in this State. 

(3) Disqualification of felon. No person adjudged guilty of a felony against 
this State or the United States, or adjudged guilty of a felony in another state 
that also would be a felony if it had been committed in this State, shall be per- 
mitted to vote unless that person shall be first restored to the rights of citizenship 
in the manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 3. Registration. Every person offering to vote shall be at the time legally 
registered as a voter as herein prescribed and in the manner provided by law. The 
General Assembly shall enact general laws governing the registration of voters. 

Sec. 4. Qualification for registration. Every person presenting himself for 
registration shall be able to read and write any section of the Constitution in the 
English language. 

Sec. 5. Elections by people and General Assembly. All elections by the people 
shall be by ballot, and all elections by the General Assembly shall be viva voce. A 
contested election for any office established by Article III of this constitution shall 
be determined by joint ballot of both houses of the General Assembly in the man- 
ner prescribed by law. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 121 



Sec. 6. Eligibility to elective office. Every qualified voter in North Carolina 
who is 21 years of age, except as in this Constitution disqualified, shall be eligible 
for election by the people to office. 

Sec. 7. Oath. Before entering upon the duties of an officer, a person elected 
or appointed to the office shall take and subscribe the following oath: 

"I, , do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and 

maintain the Constitution and laws of the United States, and the Constitution and 
laws of North Carolina not inconsistent therewith, and that I will faithfully dis- 
charge the duties of my office as , so help me God." 

Sec. 8. Disqualifications for office. The following persons shall be disqualified 
for office: 

First, any person who shall deny the being of Almighty God. 

Second, with respect to any office that is filled by election by the people, any 
person who is not qualified to vote in an election for that office. 

Third, any person who has been adjudged guilty of treason or any other felony 
against this State or the United States, or any person who has been adjudged 
guilty of a felony in another state that also would be a felony if it had been com- 
mitted in this State, or any person who has been adjudged guilty of corruption 
or malpractice in any office, or any person who has been removed by impeachment 
from any office, and who has not been restored to the rights of citizenship in the 
manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 9. Dual office holding. 

(1) Prohibitions. It is salutary that the responsibilities of self-government 
be widely shared among the citizens of the State and that the potential abuse of 
authority inherent in the holding of multiple offices by an individual be avoided. 
Therefore, no person who holds any office or place of trust or profit under the 
United States or any department thereof, or under any other state or government, 
shall be eligible to hold any office in this State that is filled by election by the 
people. No person shall hold concurrently any two offices in this State that are 
filled by election of the people. No person shall hold concurrently any two or more 
appointive offices or places of trust or profit, or any combination of elective and 
appointive offices or places of trust or profit, except as the General Assembly 
shall provide by general law. 

(2) Exceptions. The provisions of this Section shall not prohibit any officer 
of che military forces of the State or of the United States not on active duty for an 
extensive period of time, any notary public, or any delegate to a Convention of the 
People from holding concurrently another office or place of trust or profit under 
this State or the United States or any department thereof. 

Sec. 10. Continuation in office. In the absence of any contrary provision, all 
officers in this State, whether appointed or elected, shall hold their positions until 
other appointments are made or, if the offices are elective, until their successors 
are chosen and qualified. 



122 North Carolina Manual 

ARTICLE VII 

Local Government 

Section 1. General Assembly to provide for local gover)n>ient. The General 
Assembly shall provide for the organization and government and the fixing of 
boundaries of counties, cities and towns, and other governmental subdivisions, 
and, except as otherwise prohibited by this Constitution, may give such powers 
and duties to counties, cities and towns, and other governmental subdivisions as 
it may deem advisable. 

The General Assembly shall not incorporate as a city or town, nor shall it 
authorize to be incorporated as a city or town, any territory lying within one mile 
of the corporate limits of any other city or town having a population of 5,000 or 
more according to the most recent decennial census of population taken by order 
of Congress, or lying within three miles of the corporate limits of any other city 
or town having a population of 10,000 or more according to the most recent decen- 
nial census of population taken by order of Congress, or lying within four miles 
of the corporate limits of any other city or town having a population of 25,000 or 
more according to the most recent decennial census of population taken by order of 
Congress, or lying within five miles of the corporate limits of any other city or 
town having a population of 50,000 or more according to the most recent decennial 
census of population taken by order of Congress. Notwithstanding the foregoing 
limitations, the General Assembly may incorporate a city or town by an act adopt- 
ed by vote of three-fifths of all the members of each house. 

Sec. 2. Sheriffs. In each county a Sheriff shall be elected by the qualified 
voters thereof at the same time and places as members of the General Assembly 
are elected and shall hold his office for a period of four years, subject to removal 
for cause as provided by law. 

Sec. 3. Merged or consolidated counties. Any unit of local government form- 
ed by the merger or consolidation of a county or counties and the cities and towns 
therein shall be deemed both a county and a city for the purposes of this Con- 
stitution, and may exercise any authority conferred by law on counties, or on cities 
and towns, or both, as the General Assembly may provide. 

ARTICLE VIII 

Corporations 

Section 1. Corporate charters. No corporation shall be created, nor shall its 
charter be extended, altered, or amended by special act, except corporations for 
charitable, educational, penal, or reformatory purposes that are to be and remain 
under the patronage and control of the State; but the General Assembly shall pro- 
vide by general laws for the chartering, organization, and powers of all corpora- 
tions, and for the amending, extending, and forfeiture of all charters, except those 



The Constitution of North Carolina 123 



above permitted by special act. All such general acts may be altered from time 
to time or repealed. The General Assembly may at any time by special act repeal 
the charter of any corporation. 

Sec. 2. Corporations defined. The term "corporation" as used in this Section 
shall be construed to include all associations and joint-stock companies having 
any of the powers and privileges of corporations not possessed by individuals or 
partnerships. All corporations shall have the right to sue and shall be subject to 
be sued in all courts, in like cases as natural persons. 



ARTICLE IX 

Education 

Section 1. Education encouraged. Religion, morality, and knowledge being 
necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools, libraries, and 
the means of education shall forever be encouraged. 

Sec. 2. Uniform system of schools. 

(1) General and uniform system; term. The General Assembly shall provide 
by taxation and otherwise for a general and uniform system of free public schools, 
which shall be maintained at least nine months in every year, and wherein equal 
opportunities shall be provided for all students. 

(2) Local responsibility. The General Assembly may assign to units of local 
government such responsibility for the financial support of the free public schools 
as it may deem appropriate. The governing boards of units of local government 
with financial responsibility for public education may use local revenues to add to 
or supplement any public school or post-secondary school program. 

Sec. 3. School attendance. The General Assembly shall provide that every 
child of appropriate age and of sufficient mental and physical ability shall attend 
the public schools, unless educated by other means. 

Sec. 4. State Board of Education. 

(1) Board. The State Board of Education shall consist of the Lieutenant 
Governor, the Treasurer, and eleven members appointed by the Governor, subject 
to confirmation by the General Assembly in joint session. The General Assembly 
shall divide the State into eight educational districts. Of the appointive members 
of the Board, one shall be appointed from each of the eight educational districts 
and three shall be appointed from the State at large. Appointments shall be for 
overlapping terms of eight years. Appointments to fill vacancies shall be made by 
the Governor for the unexpired terms and shall not be subject to confirmation. 

(2) Superintendent of Public Instruction. The Superintendent of Public In- 
struction shall be the secretary and chief administrative officer of the State Board 
of Education. 



124 North Carolina Manual 



Sec. 5. Powers and duties of Board. The State Board of Education shall 
supervise and administer the tree public school system and the educational funds 
provided for its support, except the funds mentioned in Section 7 of this Article, 
and shall make all needed rules and regulations in relation thereto, subject to laws 
enacted by the General Assembly. 

Sec. 6. State school fund. The proceeds of all lands that have been or here- 
after may be granted by the United States to this State, and not otherwise ap- 
propriated by this State or the United States; all moneys, stocks, bonds, and other 
property belonging to the State for purposes of public education; the net proceeds 
of all sales of the swamp lands belonging to the State; and all other grants, gifts, 
and devises that have been or hereafter may be made to the State, and not other- 
wise appropriated by the State or by the terms of the grant, gift, or devise, shall 
be paid into the State Treasury and, together with so much of the revenue of the 
State as may be set apart for that purpose, shall be faithfully appropriated and 
used exclusively for establishing and maintaining a uniform system of free public 
schools. 

Sec. 7. County school fund. All moneys, stocks, bonds, and other property be- 
longing to a county school fund, and the clear proceeds of all penalties and for- 
feitures and of all fines collected in the several counties for any breach of the 
penal laws of the State, shall belong to and remain in the several counties, and 
shall be faithfully appropriated and used exclusively for maintaining free public 
schools. 

Sec. 8. Higher education. The General Assembly shall maintain a public 
system of higher education, comprising The University of North Carolina and 
such other institutions of higher education as the General Assembly may deem 
wise. The General Assembly shall provide for the selection of trustees of The 
University of North Carolina and of the other institutions of higher education, in 
whom shall be vested all the privileges, rights, franchises, and endowments here- 
tofore granted to or conferred upon the trustees of these institutions. The General 
Assembly may enact laws necessary and expedient for the maintenance and man- 
agement of The University of North Carolina and the other public instructions of 
higher education. 

Sec. 9. Benefits of public instructions of higher education. The General As- 
sembly shall provide that the benefits of The University of North Carolina and 
other public institutions of higher education, as far as practicable, be extended to 
the people of the State free of expense. 

Sec. 10. Escheats. 

(1) Escheats prior to July 1, 1971. All property that prior to July 1, 1971, 
accrued to the State from escheats, unclaimed dividends, or distributive shares of 



The Constitution of North Carolina 125 



the estates of deceased persons shall be appropriated to the use of The University 
of North Carolina. 

(2) Escheats after June 30, 1971. All property that, after June 30, 1971, 
shall accrue to the State from escheats, unclaimed dividends, or distributive shares 
of the estates of deceased persons shall be used to aid worthy and needy students 
who are residents of this State and are enrolled in public institutions of higher 
education in this State. The method, amount, and type of distribution shall be 
prescribed by law. 



ARTICLE X 

Homesteads and Exemptions 

Section 1. Personal property exemptions. The personal property of any resi- 
dent of this State, to a value fixed by the General Assembly but not less than $500, 
to be selected by the resident, is exempt from sale under execution or other final 
process of any court, issued for the collection of any debt. 

Sec. 2. Homestead exemptions. 

(1) Exemption from sale; exceptions. Every homestead and the dwellings 
and buildings used therewith, to a value fixed by the General Assembly but not 
less than $1,000, to be selected by the owner thereof, or in lieu thereof, at the option 
of the owner, any lot in a city or town with the dwellings and buildings used there- 
on, and to the same value, owned and occupied by a resident of the State, shall be 
exempt from sale under execution or other final process obtained on any debt. But 
no property shall be exempt from sale for taxes, or for payment ot obligations 
contracted for its purchase. 

(2) Exemption for benefit of children. The homestead, after the death of the 
owner thereof, shall be exempt from the payment of any debt during the minority 
of the owner's children, or any of them. 

(3) Exemption for benefit of widow. If the owner of a homestead dies, leav- 
ing a widow but no children, the homestead shall be exempt from the debts of her 
husband, and the rents and profits thereof shall inure to her benefit during her 
widowhood, unless she is the owner of a homestead in her own right. 

(4) Conveyance of homestead. Nothing contained in this Article shall operate 
to prevent the owner of a homestead from disposing of it by deed, but no deed 
made by the owner of a homestead shall be valid without the signature and acknol- 
edgement of his wife. 

Sec. 3. Mechanics' and laborers' liens. The General Assembly shall provide 
by proper legislation for giving to mechanics and laborers an adequate lien on 
the subject-matter of their labor. The provisions of Sections 1 and 2 of this Article 
shall not be so construed as to prevent a laborer's lien for work done and perform- 



126 North Carolina Manual 



ed for the person claiming the exemption or a mechanic's lien for work done on the 
premises. 

Sec. 4. Property of married women secured to them. The real and personal 
property of any female in this State acquired before marriage, and all property, 
real and personal, to which she may, after marriage, become in any manner en- 
titled, shall be and remain the sole and separate estate and property of such fe- 
male, and shall not be liable for any debts, obligations, or engagements of her 
husband, and may be devised and bequeathed and conveyed by her, subject to such 
regulations and limitations as the General Assembly may prescribe. Every married 
woman may exercise powers of attorney conferred upon her by her husband, in- 
cluding the power to execute and acknowledge deeds to property owned by herself 
and her husband or by her husband. 

Sec. 5. Insurance. The husband may insure his own life for the sole use and 
benefit of his wife or children or both, and upon his death the proceeds from the 
insurance shall be paid to or for the benefit of the wife or children or both, or to a 
guardian, free from all claims of the representatives or creditors of the insured 
or his estate. Any insurance policy which insures the life of a husband for the 
sole use and benefit of his wife or children or both shall not be subject to the claims 
of creditors of the insured during his life-time, whether or not the policy reserves 
to the insured during his lifetime any or all rights provided for by the policy and 
whether or not the policy proceeds are payable to the estate of the insured in the 
event the beneficiary or beneficaries predecease the insured. 

ARTICLE XI 

Punishments, Corrections, and Charities 

Section 1. Punishments. The following punishments only shall be known to 
the laws of this State: death, imprisonment, fines, removal from office, and disquali- 
fication to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under this State. 

Sec. 2. Death punishment. The object of punishments being not only to 
satisfy justice, but also to reform the offender and thus prevent crime, murder, 
arson, buglary, and rape, and these only, may be punishable with death, if the 
General Assembly shall so enact. 

Sec. 3. Charitable and correctional institutions and agencies. Such charitable, 
benevolent, penal, and correctional institutions and agencies as the needs of human- 
ity and the public good may require shall be established and operated by the State 
under such organization and in such manner as the General Assembly may pre- 
scribe. 

Sec. 4. Welfare policy; board of public welfare. Beneficent provision for the 
poor, the unfortunate, and the orphan is one of the first duties of a civilized and 
a Christian state. Therefore the General Assembly shall provide for and define the 
duties of a board of public welfare. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 127 



ARTICLE XII 

Military Forces 

Section 1. Governor is Commander in Chief. The Governor shall be Com- 
mander in Chief of the military forces of the State and may call out those forces 
to execute the law, suppress riots and insurrections, and repeal invasion. 

ARTICLE XIII 

Conventions; Constitutional Amendment and Revision 

Section 1. Convention of the People. No Convention of the People of this 
State shall ever be called unless by the concurrence of two-thirds of all the mem- 
bers of each house of the General Assembly, and unless the proposition "Conven- 
tion or No Convention" is first submitted to the qualified voters of the State at the 
time and in the manner prescribed by the General Assembly. It a majority of the 
votes cast upon the proposition are in favor of a Convention, it shall assemble on 
the day prescribed by the General Assembly. The General Assembly shall, in the 
act submitting the convention proposition, propose limitations upon the authority 
of the convention; and if a majority of the votes cast upon the proposition are in 
favor of a Convention, those limitations shall become binding upon the Conven- 
tion. Delegates to the Convention shall be elected by the qualified voters at the 
time and in the manner prescribed in the act of submission. The Convention 
shall consist of a number of delegates equal to the membership of the House of 
Representatives of the General Assembly that submits the convention proposition 
and the delegates shall be apportioned as is the House of Representatives. A Con- 
vention shall adopt no ordinance not necessary to the purpose for which the Con- 
vention has been called. 

Sec. 2. Power to revise or amend Constitution reserved to people. The people 
of this State reserve the power to amend this Constitution and to adopt a new or 
revised Constitution. This power may be exercised by either of the methods set 
out hereinafter in this Article, but in no other way. 

Sec. 3. Revision or amendment by Convention of the People. A Convention 
of the People of this State may be called pursuant to Section 1 of this Article to 
propose a new or revised Constitution or to propose amendments to this Constitu- 
tion. Every new or revised Constitution and every constitutional amendment 
adopted by a Convention shall be submitted tD the qualified voters of the State at 
the time and in the manner prescribed by the Convention. If a majority of the 
votes cast thereon are in favor of ratification of the new or revised Constitution 
or the constitutional amendment or amendments, it or they shall become effective 
January first next after ratification by the qualified voters unless a different ef 
fective date is prescribed by the Convention. 

Sec. 4. Revision or amendment by legislative initiation. A proposal of a new 
or revised Constitution or an amendment or amendments to this Constitution may 
be initiated by the General Assembly, but only if three-fifths of all the im>mbers of 
each house shall adopt an act submitting the proposal to the qualified voters of the 



128 North Carolina Manual 



State for their ratification or rejection. The proposal shall be submitted at the 
time and in the manner prescribed by the General Assembly. If a majority of the 
votes cast thereon are in favor of the proposed new or revised Constitution or 
constitutional amendment or amendments, it or they shall become effective January 
first next after ratification by the voters unless a different effective date is pre- 
scribed in the act submitting the proposal or proposals to the qualified voters. 



ARTICLE XIV 

Miscellaneous 

Section 1. Seat of government. The permanent seat of government of this 
State shall be at the City of Raleigh. 

Sec. 2. State boundaries. The limits and boundaries of the State shall be and 
remain as they now are. 

Sec. 3. General laws defined. Whenever the General Assembly is directed or 
authorized by this Constitution to enact general laws, or general laws uniformly 
applicable throughout the State, or general laws uniformly applicable in every 
county, city and town, and other unit of local government, or in every local court 
district, no special or local act shall be enacted concerning the subject matter 
directed or authorized to be accomplished by general or uniformly applicable laws, 
and every amendment or repeal of any law relating to such subject matter shall 
also be general and uniform in its effect throughout the State. General laws may 
be enacted for classes defined by population or other criteria. General laws uni- 
formly applicable throughout the State shall be made applicable without classifica- 
tion or exception in every unit of local government of like kind, such as every 
county, or every city and town, but need not be made applicable in every unit of 
local government in the State. General laws uniformly applicable in every county, 
city and town, and other unit of local government, or in every local court district, 
shall be made applicable without classification or exception in every unit of local 
government, or in every local court district, as the case may be. The General As- 
sembly may at any time repeal any special, local or private act. 

Sec. 4. Continuity of laws; protection of office holders. The laws of North 
Carolina not in conflict with this Constitution shall continue in force until law- 
fully altered. Except as otherwise specifically provided, the adoption of this Con- 
stitution shall not have the effect of vacating any office or term of office now filled 
or held by virtue of any election or appointment made under the prior Constitution 
of North Carolina and the laws of the State enacted pursuant thereto." 

Sec. 5. Conservation of natural resources. It shall be the policy of this State 
to conserve and protect its lands and waters for the benefit of all its citizenry, and 
to this end it shall be a proper function of the State of North Carolina and its 
political subdivisions to acquire and preserve park, recreational, and scenic areas, 
to control and limit the pollution of our air and water, to control excessive noise, 
and in every other appropriate way to preserve as a part of the common heritage of 
this State its forests, wetlands, estuaries, beaches, historical sites, openlands, and 
places of beauty. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 129 



To accomplish the aforementioned public purposes, the State and its counties, 
cities and towns, and other units of local government may acquire by purchase or 
gift properties or interests in properties which shall, upon their special dedication 
to and acceptance by resolution adopted by a vote of three-fifths of the members 
of each house of the General Assembly for those public purposes, constitute part 
of the 'State Nature and Historic Preserve", and which shall not be used for other 
purposes except as authorized by law enacted by a vote of three-fifths of the 
members of each house of the General Assmbly. The General Assembly shall pre- 
scribe by general law the conditions and procedures under which such properties 
or interests therein shall be dedicated for the aforementioned public purposes. 



130 North Carolina Manual 



PROPOSED CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS 

The following amendments are to be voted on by the people of North Carolina in the 1977 
General Elections. 

AMENDMENT I 

ARTICLE III, SECTION 2(2) 

Sec. 2(2). Qualifications. No person shall be eligible for election to the office 
of Governor or Lieutenant Governor unless, at the time of his election, he shall 
have attained the age of 30 years and shall have been a citizen of the United 
States for five years and a resident of this State for two years immediately preced- 
ing his election. No person elected to the office of Governor or Lieutenant Governor 
shall be eligible for election to more than two consecutive terms of the same office." 

(1977 Session Laws, Chapter 363) 



AMENDMENT II 
ARTICLE III, SECTION 5(3) 

The total expenditures of the State for the fiscal period covered by the budget 
shall not exceed the total of receipts during that fiscal period and the surplus re- 
maining in the State Treasury at the beginning of the period. To insure that the 
State does not incur a deficit for any fiscal period, the Governor shall continually 
survey the collection of the revenue and shall effect the necessary economies in State 
expenditures, after first making adequate provision for the prompt payment of 
the principal of and interest on bonds and notes of the State according to their 
terms, whenever he determines that receipts during the fiscal period, when added 
to any surplus remaining in the State Treasury at the beginning of the period, will 
not be sufficient to meet budgeted expenditures. This section shall not be construed 
to impair the power of the State to issue its bonds and notes within the limitations 
imposed in Article V of this Constitution, nor to impair the obligation of bonds and 
notes of the State now outstanding or issued hereafter. 

(1977 Session Laws, Chapter 690) 



AMENDMENT III 

ARTICLE V, SECTION 10 

Sec. 10. Joint ownership of generation and t)-a)tsmission facilities. In addition 
to other powers conferred upon them by law, municipalities owning or operating 
facilities for the generation, transmission or distribution of electric power and 
energy and joint agencies formed by such municipalities for the purpose of owning 
or operating facilities for the generation and transmission of electric power and 
energy (each, respectively, "a unit of municipal government") may jointly or 
severally own, operate and maintain works, plants and facilities, within or without 
the State, for the generation and transmission of electric power and energy, or 
both, with any person, firm, association or corporation, public or private, engaged 



The Constitution of North Carolina 131 



in the generation, transmission or distribution of electric power and energy for 
resale (each, respectively, "a co-owner") within this State or any state contiguous 
to this State, and may enter into and carry out agreements with respect to such 
jointly owned facilities. For the purpose of financing its share of the cost of any 
such jointly owned electric generation or transmission facilities, a unit of municipal 
government may issue its revenue bonds in the manner prescribed by the General 
Assembly, payable as to both principal and interest solely from and secured by a 
lien and charge on all or any part of the revenue derived, or to be derived, by such 
unit of municipal government from the ownership and operation of its electric 
facilities; provided, however, that no unit of municipal government shall be liable, 
either jointly or severally, for any acts, omissions or obligations of any co-owner, 
nor shall any money or property of any unit of municipal government be credited 
or otherwise applied to the account of any co-owner or be charged with any debt, 
lien or mortgage as a result of any debt or obligation of any co-owner. 

(1977 Session Laws, Chapter 528) 



AMENDMENT IV 
ARTICLE X, SECTION 2(3) AND SECTION 2(4) 

Sec. 2(3). Exemption for benefit of surviving spouse. If the owner of a home- 
stead dies, leaving a surviving spouse but no minor children, the homestead shall 
be exempt from the debts of the owner, and the rents and profits thereof shall inure 
to the benefit of the surviving spouse until he or she remarries, unless the surviving 
spouse is the owner of a separate homestead. 

Sec. 2(4). Conveyance of homestead. Nothing contained in this Article shall 
operate to prevent the owner of a homestead from disposing of it by deed, but no 
deed made by a married owner of a homestead shall be valid without the signature 
and acknowledgement of his or her spouse. 

(1977 Session Laws, Chapter 80) 



AMENDMENT V 

ARTICLE X, SECTION 5 

Sec. 5. Insurance. A person may insure his or her own life for the sole use 
and benefit of his or her spouse or children or both, and upon his or her death the 
proceeds from the insurance shall be paid to or for the benefit of the spouse or 
children or both, or to a guardian, free from all claims of the representatives or 
creditors of the insured or his or her estate. Any insurance policy which insures the 
life of a person for the sole use and benefit of that person's spouse or children or 
both shall not be subject to the claims of creditors of the insured during his or her 
lifetime, whether or not the policy reserves to the insured during his or her lifetime 
any or all rights provided for by the policy and whether or not the policy proceeds 
are payable to the estate of the insured in the event the beneficiary or beneficiaries 
predecease the insured. 

(1977 Session Laws, Chapter 115) 



PART II 

CENSUS 



Census 135 

POPULATION OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

Nineteenth Census of the United States: 1970 

The population of North Carolina's urban places continued to grow faster 
than of the rural areas between 1960 and 1970, according to the nineteenth decen- 
nial census, issued by George H. Brown, Director of the Bureau of the Census, 
Department of Commerce. 

Final figures show that the urban population increased from 1,801,921 in 1960 
to 2,285,168 in 1970, or 26.8 per cent, while the rural population increased from 
2,754,234 in 1960 to 2,796,891 in 1970 or an increase of only 1.5 percent. The final 
count of the Nineteenth Census for the State on April 1, 1970, was 5,082,059 com- 
pared to 4,556,155 in 1960, or an increase of 11.5 per cent. Urban residents ac- 
counted for 45 per cent of the State's population in 1970 as compared with 39.5 
per cent in 1960. Rural areas in 1970 accounted for 55 per cent of the total popu- 
lation. The Census Bureau considers as urban areas the incorporated places of 
2,500 or more, or unincorporated places of 2,500 or more located outside urbanized 
areas. The remaining territory is classified as rural. 

There were 38 incorporated places of 10,000 or more in 1970. Three of these 
(Asheboro, Eden and Morganton) reached that size since 1960. Charlotte remains 
the State's largest city with a population of 241,178 followed in order by Greens- 
boro with 144,076 and Winston-Salem with 132,913. 

According to final figures of the 1970 census, 62, of the counties gained in 
population. Cumberland County showed the greatest gain with an increase of 42.9 
per cent. Wake County placed second with an increase of 35.1 per cent while 
Orange was third with a 34.3 per cent gain. 

The first census of North Carolina was taken in 1790, returning a population 
of 393,751. The population has shown an increase at every census since that time. 
The population passed 1,000,000 between 1860 and 1870, 2,000,000 between 1900 
and 1910, 3,000,000 between 1920 and 1930, 4,000,000 between 1940 and 1950, 
4,500,000 between 1950 and 1960, and 5,000,000 between 1960 and 1970. The present 
population (1970) represents a density of 96.4 inhabitants per square mile. North 
Carolina's total area in square miles is 52,712. Land area is 48,798 square miles; 
water area is 3,914 square miles. 

The tables that follow give various population figures based on tabulations 
made during the 1970 census and corrections of initial errors and subsequent 
changes that have occured since April 1, 1970. 



Census 



137 



TABLE 1. STATE POPULATION STATISTICS 



1-A. Statewide 



Change from preceding Census 



Census Date Population (Number) (Percent) 

July 1, 1973* 5,273,000 191,000 3.8 

April 1, 1970 5,082,059 525,904 11.5 

April 1, 1960 4,556,155 494,226 12.2 

April 1, 1950 4,061,929 490,306 13.7 



•This is an estimate based on reported birth, deaths, etc. since the tfncia! census of 1970. 
are rounded off to the nearest thousand. 



Numbe. e 



1-B. Urban Areas 



Centus Date 

April 1, 1970 



Places of 

2500 or 

More 



Population 

138 2,285,168 483,247 

April 1, 1960 125 1,801,921 433,820 

April 1, 1950 107 1,368,101 



Change from 

Preceding Census 

(Number) (Percent) 



26.8 
31.7 



Percent of 
Total State 
Population 

45.0 
39.5 
33.7 



1-C. Rural Areas 



Census Date Population 

April 1, 1970 2,796,891 42,657 

April 1, 1960 2,754,234 60,406 

April 1, 1950 2,693,828 



Change from 
Preceding Census 
( Nximber) (Percent) 



1.5 
2.2 



Percent of 
Total State 
Population 

55.0 
60.5 
66.3 



i;*s 



North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 2. COUNTY POPULATION STATISTICS, 1970 



1970 Population 



La nd 

area in 

square 

miles, 

1970 

Alamance 428 

Alexander 259 

Alleghany 225 

Anson 533 

Ashe 426 

Avery 245 

Beaufort 826 

Bertie 698 

Bladen 883 

Brunswick 856 

Buncombe 657 

Burke 511 

Cabarrus 363 

Caldwell 469 

Camden 239 

Carteret 536 

Caswell 428 

Catawba 394 

Chatham 709 

Cherokee 452 

Chowan 173 

Clay 209 

Cleveland 468 

Columbus 945 

Craven 699 

Cumberland 654 

Currituck 246 

Dare 391 

Davidson 549 

Davie 265 

Duplin 815 

Durham 295 

Edgecombe 510 

Forsyth 419 

Franklin 491 

Gaston 356 

Gates 337 

Graham 292 

Granville 537 

Greene 267 

Guilford 655 

Halifax 734 

Harnett 603 

Haywood 551 

Henderson 378 

Hertford 353 

Hoke 389 

Hyde 613 

Iredell 572 

Jackson 491 

Johnston 797 

Jones 467 



Tot 


a! 


Vrlia» 


Rural 


Population 


Populat 


ion 


Popul 


at ion 




Per 




Pi rc< nt 




Pi rci nt 




square 




of 




of 


Number 


mile 


Total 


Total 


Total 


Total 


96,362 


225.1 


60.497 


52.4 


45,865 


47.6 


19,466 


75.2 


- 




19,466 


ioo.o 


8,134 


36.2 






8,134 


100.0 


23,488 


44.1 


3,977 


16.9 


19,511 


83.1 


19,571 


45.9 






19,571 


100.0 


12,655 


51.7 


— 


. 


12,655 


100.0 


35,980 


43.6 


8,961 


24.9 


27.019 


75.1 


20,528 


29.4 


- 


— 


20,528 


100.0 


26,477 


30.0 


— 


— 


26,477 


100.0 


24,223 


28.3 


— 


— - 


24.223 


100.0 


145,056 


220.8 


75,655 


52.2 


69 401 


47.8 


60,364 


118.1 


17,186 


28.5 


43.178 


71.5 


74,629 


205.6 


47,763 


64.0 


26.866 


36.0 


56,699 


120.9 


17,525 


30.9 


39,174 


69.1 


5,453 


22.8 


— 


— 


5,453 


11)0.0 


31,603 


59.0 


8,601 


27.2 


23,002 


72.8 


19.055 


44.5 


— 


— 


19.055 


100.0 


90,873 


230.6 


38,943 


42.9 


51,930 


57.1 


29,554 


41.7 


4,689 


15.9 


24,865 


84.1 


16,330 


36.1 


— 


— 


16,330 


100.0 


10,764 


62.2 


4,766 


44.3 


5 99S 


55.7 


5.180 


24.8 


— 


— 


5,180 


100.0 


72,556 


155.0 


24.651 


34.0 


47,905 


66.0 


46,937 


49.7 


4,195 


8.9 


42,742 


91.1 


62,554 


89.5 


34,549 


55.2 


28.005 


54.8 


212.042 


324.2 


161,370 


76.1 


50,672 


23.9 


6,976 


28.4 


- 


 - 


6,976 


100.0 


6 995 


17.9 


— 


— 


6,995 


100.0 


95,627 


174.2 


35,450 


37.1 


60,177 


62.9 


18,855 


71.2 


2,529 


13.4 


16,326 


86.6 


38,015 


46.6 


5,648 


14.9 


32 367 


85.1 


132,681 


449.8 


100,768 


75.9 


31.913 


74.1 


52.341 


102.6 


24,677 


47.1 


27,664 


52.9 


215,118 


513.4 


147,399 


68.8 


66,949 


31.2 


26,820 


54.6 


2.941 


11.0 


23,879 


89.0 


148,415 


416.9 


89,523 


60.3 


58,892 


39.7 


8,524 


25.3 


— 


— 


8,524 


100.0 


6,562 


22.5 


- - 


— 


6,562 


100.0 


32,762 


61.0 


10,716 


32.7 


22,046 


67.3 


14,967 


56.1 


— 


— 


14,967 


100.0 


288,590 


440.6 


220,127 


76.3 


68 463 


23.7 


53,884 


73.4 


19,649 


36.5 


34.235 


63.5 


49,667 


82.4 


11.154 


22.5 


38,513 


77.5 


41.710 


75.7 


11,646 


27.9 


30,064 


72.1 


42,804 


113.2 


12,003 


28.0 


30,801 


72.0 


23 529 


66.7 


8,613 


36.6 


14,916 


63.4 


16,436 


42.3 


3,180 


19.3 


13,256 


80.7 


5,571 


9.1 


— 


— 


5,571 


100.0 


72,197 


126.2 


31,883 


44.2 


40,314 


55.8 


21,593 


44.0 


— 


— 


21,593 


100.0 


61,737 


77.5 


14,136 


22.9 


47,601 


77.1 


9.779 


20.9 


— 


— 


9,779 


100.0 



Census 



139 



TABLE 2. (Continued) 



Land 

area in 

square 

miles, 

1970 

Lee 256 

Lenoir 400 

Lincoln 297 

McDowell 436 

Macon 513 

Madison 450 

Martin 455 

Mecklenburg 530 

Mitchell 215 

Montgomery 488 

Moore 704 

Nash 544 

New Hanover 185 

Northampton 536 

Onslow 765 

Orange 400 

Pamlico 338 

Pasquotank 228 

Pender 871 

Perquimans 246 

Person 401 

Pitt 655 

Polk 239 

Randolph 798 

Richmond 475 

Robeson 949 

Rockingham 569 

Rowan 523 

Rutherford 563 

Sampson 945 

Scotland 319 

Stanly 398 

Stokes 457 

Surry 536 

Swain 524 

Transylvania 382 

Tyrrell 390 

Union 639 

Vance 249 

Wake 858 

Warren 424 

Washington 343 

Watauga 317 

Wayne 557 

Wilkes 757 

Wilson 375 

Yadkin 336 

Yancey 312 



1970 Population 



Total 




Urba 


n 


Rural 


Populat 


ton 


Populat 


ion 


Population 




Per 




Percent 




Percent 


i 


iquare 




of 




of 


Number 


mile 


Total 


Total 


Total 


Total 


30,467 


119.0 


11,716 


38.5 


18,751 


61.5 


55,204 


138.0 


24,867 


45.0 


30,337 


55.0 


32,682 


110.0 


5,293 


16.2 


27,389 


83.8 


30.648 


70.3 


9,384 


30.6 


21,264 


69.4 


15,788 


30.8 


— 


— 


15,788 


100.0 


16,003 


35.6 


— 


— 


16,003 


100.0 


24,730 


54.4 


6,570 


26.6 


18,160 


73.4 


354,656 


669.2 


282,461 


79.6 


72,195 


20.7 


13,447 


62.5 








13 447 


100.0 


19.267 


39.5 


— 


— 


19,267 


100.0 


39,048 


55.5 


5,937 


15.2 


33,111 


84.8 


59 122 


108.7 


19,032 


32.2 


40,090 


67.8 


82,996 


448.6 


57,645 


69.5 


25.351 


30.5 


24,009 


44.8 


— 





24.009 


100.0 


103,126 


134.8 


59.269 


57.5 


43,857 


42.5 


57,707 


144.3 


29,005 


50.3 


28,702 


49.7 


9.467 


28.0 


— 


— 


9,467 


100.0 


26,824 


117.6 


14,069 


52.4 


12,755 


47.6 


18,149 


20.8 


— 





18,149 


100.0 


8,351 


33.9 


— 


— 


8,351 


100.0 


25,914 


64.6 


5 370 


20.7 


20,544 


79.3 


73,900 


112.8 


36,937 


50.0 


36,963 


50.0 


11,735 


49.1 


— 


— 


11,735 


100.0 


76,358 


95.7 


23,060 


30.2 


53,298 


69.8 


39,889 


84.0 


13,337 


33.4 


26,552 


66.6 


84,842 


89.4 


23,171 


27.3 


61.671 


72.7 


72,402 


127.2 


32,382 


44.7 


40,020 


55.3 


90,035 


172.2 


37,931 


42.1 


52,104 


57.9 


47,337 


84.1 


14,272 


30.1 


33,065 


69.9 


44 954 


47.6 


7,157 


15.9 


37,797 


84.1 


26,929 


84.4 


8 859 


32.9 


18,070 


67.1 


42,822 


107.6 


11,126 


26.0 


31,696 


74.0 


23,782 


52.0 


— 


— 


23.782 


100.0 


51,415 


95.9 


12,859 


25.0 


38.556 


75.0 


8,835 


16.9 


— 


— 


7,861 


100.0 


19,713 


51.6 


5,243 


26.6 


14,470 


73.4 


3,806 


9.8 


— 


— 


3,806 


100.0 


54,714 


85.6 


13,851 


25.3 


40.863 


74.7 


32,691 


131.3 


13.896 


42.5 


18,795 


57.5 


229,006 


267.7 


159,013 


69.6 


69,440 


30.4 


15,810 


37.3 


— 


— 


15,810 


100.0 


14,038 


40.9 


4,774 


34.0 


9 264 


66.0 


23,404 


73.8 


8.754 


37.4 


14.650 


62.6 


85,408 


153.3 


39,854 


46.7 


45.554 


53.3 


49.524 


65.4 


3,357 


6.8 


46.167 


93.2 


57,486 


153.3 


29.347 


51.1 


28,139 


48.9 


24,599 


73.2 


— 


— 


24.599 


100.0 


12,629 


40.5 


— 


— 


12.629 


100.0 



140 North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 3. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
10,000 OR MORE 

1970 1960 Percent 

City or Town County Population Population Change 

Albemarle Stanly 11,126 12,261 -9.3 

Asheboro Randolph 15,241 9,449 66.3 

Asheville Buncombe 57,929 60,192 —4.1 

Burlington Alamance 35,930 33,199 8.2 

Cary Wake 14,677 3,356 337.3 

Chapel Hill . ... Durham, Orange 25,537 12,573 103.1 

Charlotte Mecklenburg 241,178 201,178 19.9 

Concord Cabarrus 18,299 17,799 3.7 

Durham Durham 95,438 78,302 21.9 

Eden Rockingham 15,871 — 

Elizabeth City Pasquotank 14,381 14,062 2.3 

Fayetteville Cumberland 53,504 47,106 13.3 

Gastonia Gaston 47,142 37,276 26.5 

Goldsboro Wayne 26,960 28,873 -7.0 

Greensboro Guilford 144,076 119,574 20.7 

Greenville Pitt 29,063 22,860 27.1 

Henderson Vance 13,896 12,740 9.1 

Hickory Burke, Catawba 20,569 19,328 6.4 

Davidson, Guilford, 

High Point Randolph 63,259 62,063 1.8 

Jacksonville Onslow 16,289 13,491 21.8 

Kinston Lenoir 23,020 24,819 -5.0 

Lenoir Caldwell 14,705 10,257 43.4 

Lexington Davidson 17,205 16,093 6.9 

Lumberton Robeson 16,961 15,305 66.6 

Monroe Union 11,282 10,882 7.3 

Morganton Burke 13,625 9,186 48.3 

New Bern Craven 14,660 15,717 -6.7 

Raleigh Wake 122,830 93,931 30.8 

Reidsville Rockingham 13,636 14,267 -4.4 

Roanoke Rapids Halifax 13,999 13,320 1.4 

Rocky Mount Edgecombe, Nash 34,284 32,147 6.6 

Salisbury Rowan 22,515 21,297 5.7 

Sanford Lee 11,716 12,253 -4.4 

Shelby Cleveland 16,328 17,698 -7.7 

Statesville Iredell 20,007 19,844 1.0 

Thomasville Davidson 15,230 15,190 0.3 

Wilmington New Hanover 46,169 44,013 4.9 

Wilson Wilson 29,347 28,753 2.1 

Winston-Salem Forsyth 133,683 111,135 20.1 



Census 141 



TABLE 4. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
2,500-9,999 INHABITANTS 

1970 
City or Town County Population 

Ahoskie Hertford 5,105 

Archdale Randolph 4,874 

Ayden Pitt 3,450 

Beaufort Carteret 3,368 

Belmont Gaston 5,054 

Bessemer City Gaston 4,991 

Black Mountain Buncombe 3,204 

Boone Watauga 8,754 

Brevard Transylvania 5,412 

Canton Haywood 5,158 

Carrboro Orange 7,686 

Cherryville Gaston 5,258 

Clayton Johnston 3,103 

Clinton Sampson 7,893 

Conover Catawba 3,355 

Dallas Gaston 4,059 

Davidson Mecklenburg 2,931 

Dunn Harnett 8,302 

Edenton Chowan 4,956 

Elkin Surry, Wilkes 2,899 

Enfield Halifax 3,272 

Erwin Harnett 2,852 

Fairmont Robeson 2,827 

Farmville Pitt 4,424 

Forest City Rutherford 7,179 

Fuquay-Varina Wake 3,576 

Garner Wake 4,923 

Graham Alamance 8,172 

Hamlet Richmond 4,627 

Havelock Craven 3,012 

Hendersonville Henderson 6,443 

Hudson Caldwell 2,820 

Kernersville Forsyth 4,992 

Kings Mountain Cleveland, Gaston 8,465 

La Grange Lenoir 2,679 

Laurinburg Scotland 8,859 

Lincolnton Lincoln 5,293 

Longview Burke, Catawba 3,360 

Louisburg Franklin 2,941 

Lowell Gaston 3,307 

Madison Rockingham 2,598 

Marion McDowell 3,335 

Mayodan Rockingham 2,875 

Mocksville Davie 2,529 

Mooresville Iredell 8,808 



142 North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 4. (Continued) 

1970 
City or Tnwii County Population 

Morehead City Carteret 5,233 

Mount Airy Surry 7,325 

Mount Holly Gaston 5,107 

Mount Olive Duplin, Wayne 4,914 

Murfreesboro Hertford 3,508 

Newton Catawba 7,857 

North Wilkesboro Wilkes 3,357 

Oxford Granville 7,178 

Plymouth Washington 4,774 

Raeford Hoke 3,180 

Red Springs Robeson 3,383 

Rockingham Richmond 6,255 

Roxboro Person 5,370 

Rutherfordton Rutherford 3,245 

Scotland Neck Halifax 2,869 

Selma Johnston 4,356 

Siler City Chatham 4,689 

Smithfield Johnston 6,677 

Southern Pines Moore 5,937 

Spencer ..Rowan 3,075 

Spindale Rutherford 3,848 

Spring Lake Cumberland 1,790 

Tarboro Edgecombe 9,425 

Valdese Burke 3,182 

Wadesboro Anson 3,977 

Wake Forest Wake 3,148 

Wallace Duplin 2,905 

Warsaw Duplin 2,701 

Washington Beaufort 8,961 

Waynesville Haywood 6.488 

Whiteville Columbus 5,292 

Williamston Martin 6,570 

Wingate Union 2,569 

Woodfin Buncombe 2,831 

Wrightsville Beach New Hanover 2,525 



Census 143 



TABLE 5. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
1,000 TO 2,499 

1970 
City or Town County Population 

Aberdeen Moore 1,592 

Andrews Cherokee 1,384 

Angier Harnett 1,431 

Apex Wake 2,234 

Belhaven Beaufort 2,259 

Benson Johnston 2,267 

Bethel Pitt 1,514 

Beaulaville Duplin 1,156 

Biltmore Forest Buncombe 1,298 

Biscoe Montgomery 1,244 

Bladenboro Bladen 2,027 

Boiling Springs Cleveland 2,284 

Bryson City Swain 1,290 

Burgaw Pender 1,744 

Burnsville Yancey 1,348 

Carolina Beach New Hanover 1,663 

Carthage Moore 1,034 

Chadbourn Columbus 2,213 

China Grove Rowan 1,788 

Coats Harnett 1,051 

Cornelius Mecklenburg 1,296 

Cramerton Gaston 2,142 

Creedmore Granville 1,405 

Denton Davidson 1,017 

Drexel Burke 1,431 

East Spencer Rowan 2,217 

Elizabethtown Bladen 1,418 

Elm City Wilson 1,201 

Elon College Alamance 2,150 

Fair Bluff Columbus 1,039 

Fletcher Henderson 1,164 

Four Oaks ■. Johnston 1,057 

Franklin Macon 2,336 

Franklinton Franklin 1,459 

Fremont Wayne 1,596 

Gaston Northampton 1,105 

Gibsonville Alamance, Guilford 2,019 

Granite Falls Caldwell 2,388 

Granite Quarry Rowan 1,344 

Grifton Lenoir, Pitt 1,860 

Haw River Alamance 1,944 

Hazelwood Haywood 2,057 

Hertford Perquimans 2,023 

Hillsboro Orange 1,444 

Hope Mills Cumberland 1,866 



144 North Carolina Manual 

TABLE 5. (Continued) 

1970 
City or Town County Population 

Huntersville Mecklenburg 1,538 

Jamestown Guilford 1,297 

Jonesville Yadkin 1,659 

Kenly Johnston 1,370 

Landis Rowan 2,297 

Liberty .. Randolph 2,167 

Lillington Harnett 1,155 

Locust Stanly 1,484 

Long Beach Brunswick 1,656 

Maiden Catawba 2,416 

Mars Hill Madison 1,623 

Marshville Union 1,405 

Maxton Robeson 1,885 

Mebane Alamance, Orange 2,433 

Mount Gilead Montgomery 1,286 

Mount Pleasant Cabarrus 1,174 

Murphy Cherokee 2,082 

Nashville Nash 1,670 

Newport Carteret 1,735 

Norwood Stanly 1,896 

Pembroke Robeson 1,982 

Pilot Mountain Surry 1,309 

Pinetops Edgecombe 1,379 

Pineville Mecklenburg 1,948 

Pittsboro Chatham 1,447 

Princeton Johnston 1,044 

Princeville Edgecombe 1,511 

Ramseur Randolph 1,328 

Randleman Randolph 2,312 

Ranlo Gaston 2,092 

Rich Square Northampton 1,254 

Robbins Moore 1,059 

Robersonville Martin 1,910 

Roseboro Sampson 1,235 

Rose Hill Duplin 1,448 

Rowland Robeson 1,358 

St. Pauls Robeson 2,011 

Snow Hill Greene 1,359 

Southport - Brunswick 2,220 

Sparta Alleghany 1,304 

Spring Hope Nash 1,334 

Spruce Pine Mitchell 2,333 

Stanley Gaston 2,336 

Stoneville Rockingham 1,030 

Swansboro Onslow 1,207 



Census 145 

TABLE 5. (Continued) 

1970 
City or Town County Population 

Sylva Jackson 1,561 

Tabor City Columbus 2,400 

Taylorsville Alexander 1,231 

Troy Montgomery 2,429 

Tryon Polk 1,951 

Walnut Cove Stokes 1,213 

Warrenton Warren 1,035 



Waxhaw Union 1,248 

Weaverville Buncombe 1,280 

Weldon Halifax 2,304 

Wendell Wake 1,929 

Wilkesboro Wilkes 2,038 

Windsor Bertie 2,199 

Winterville Pitt 1,437 

Yadkinville Yadkin 2,232 

Zebulon Wake 1,914 



146 North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
LESS THAN 1,000 

1970 
Cilu or Town County Population 

Alexander Mills Rutherford 988 

Alliance Pamlico 577 

Ansonville Anson 694 

Arapahoe Pamlico 474 

Arlington Yadkin 711 

Askewville Bertie 247 

Atkinson Pender 325 

Atlantic Beach Carteret 300 

Aulander Bertie 947 

Aurora Beaufort 620 

Autryville Sampson 213 

Bailey Nash 724 

Bakersville Mitchell 409 

Banner Elk Avery 754 

Bath Beaufort 231 

Battleboro Edgecombe, Nash 562 

Bayboro Pamlico 821 

Beargrass Martin 99 

Black Creek Wilson 449 

Blowing Rock Caldwell, Watauga 801 

Boiling Spring Lakes Brunswick 245 

Bolivia Brunswick 185 

Bolton Columbus 534 

Boonville Yadkin 687 

Bostic Rutherford 289 

Bridgeton Craven 520 

Broadway Lee 694 

Brookford Catawba .„ 590 

Brunswick Columbus 206 

Bunn Franklin 284 

Calypso Duplin 462 

Cameron Moore 204 

Candor Montgomery 561 

Cape Carteret Carteret 616 

Cashiers Jackson 230 

Castalia Nash 265 

Catawba Catawba 565 

Centerville Franklin 123 

Cerro Gordo Columbus 322 

Chadwick Acres Onslow 12 

Chocowinity Beaufort 566 

Claremont Catawba 788 

Clarkton Bladen 662 

Cleveland Rowan 614 



Census 147 
TABLE 6. (Continued) 

1970 
City or Town County Population 

Clyde Haywood 814 

Cofield Hertford 318 

Colerain Bertie 373 

Columbia Tyrrell 902 

Columbus Polk 731 

Como Hertford 211 

Conetoe Edgecombe 160 

Conway Northampton 694 

Cove City Craven 485 

Creswell Washington 633 

Crossnore Avery 264 

Culberson Cherokee 83 

Danbury _ Stokes 152 

Dellview Gaston 11 

Dillsboro Jackson 215 

Dobson Surry 933 

Dover Craven 585 

Dublin Bladen 283 

Dudley Wayne 199 

Dundarrach Hoke 53 

East Bend Yadkin 485 

East Laurinburg Scotland 487 

Elk Park Avery 503 

Ellenboro Rutherford 465 

Ellerbe Richmond 913 

Emerald Isle Carteret 122 

Eureka Wayne 263 

Everetts Martin 198 

Faison Duplin 598 

Faith Rowan 506 

Falcon Cumberland 357 

Falkland Pitt 130 

Fountain Pitt 434 

Franklinville Randolph 794 

Garland Sampson 656 

Garysburg Northampton — - 231 

Gatesville Gates 338 

Gibson Scotland 502 

Glen Alpine Burke ~»< 

Godwin Cumberland 129 

Gold Point Martin 108 

Goldston Chatham 

Grimesland Pitt 

Grover Cleveland 555 

Guilford College Guilford 61 

Halifax Halifax 335 



148 North Carolina Manual 

TABLE 6. (Continued) 

1970 
City or Town County Population 

Hamilton Martin 579 

Harmony Iredell 377 

Harrells ...Duplin, Sampson 249 

Harrellsville Hertford 165 

Hassell Martin 160 

Hayesville Clay 428 

High Shoals Gaston 563 

Highlands Macon 583 

Hildebran Burke 521 

Hobgood Halifax 530 

Hoffman Richmond 434 

Holden Beach Brunswick 136 

Holly Ridge Onslow 415 

Holly Springs Wake 697 

Hookerton Greene 441 

Hot Springs Madison 653 

Indian Beach Carteret 245 

Indian Trail Union 405 

Jackson Northampton 762 

Jamesville Martin 533 

Jefferson Ashe 943 

Jupiter Buncombe 208 

Kelford Bertie 295 

Kenansville Duplin 762 

Kill Devil Hills Dare 357 

Kittrell Vance 427 

Knightdale Wake 815 

Kure Beach New Hanover 394 

Lake Lure Rutherford 456 

Lake Waccamaw Columbus 924 

Lansing Ashe 283 

Lasker Northampton 114 

Lattimore Cleveland 257 

Laurel Park Henderson 581 

Lawndale Cleveland 544 

Lewiston Bertie 327 

Lilesville Anson 641 

Linden Cumberland 205 

Littleton Halifax, Warren 903 

Love Valley Iredell 40 

Lucama Wilson 610 

Lumber Bridge Robeson 117 

McAdenville Gaston 950 

McDonald Robeson 80 



Census 149 

TABLE 6. (Continued) 

1970 
City or Town County Population 

McFarlan Anson 140 

Macclesfield Edgecombe 536 

Macon Warren 179 

Maggie Valley Haywood 159 

Magnolia Duplin 614 

Manteo Dare 547 

Marietta Robeson 70 

Marshall Madison 982 

Matthews Mecklenburg 783 

Maury Greene 421 

Maysville Jones 912 

Micro Johnston 300 

Middleburg Vance 149 

Middlesex Nash 729 

Milton Caswell 235 

Minnesott Beach Pamlico 41 

Montreat Buncombe 581 

Morrisville Wake 209 

Morven Anson 562 

Nags Head Dare 414 

Newland Avery 524 

New London Stanly 285 

Newton Grove Sampson 546 

Norlina Warren 969 

Oakboro Stanly 568 

Oak City Martin 559 

Ocean Isle Beach Brunswick 78 

Old Fort McDowell 676 

Oriental Pamlico 445 

Orrum Robeson 162 

Palmyra Halifax 27 

Pantego Beaufort 

Parkton Robeson 550 

Parmele Martin 373 

Peachland Anson 

Pikeville Wayne •['*" 

Pinebluff Moore 

Pine Level Johnston 9 ^ 3 

Pink Hill Lenoir : '~ 

Polkton Anson 

Polkville Cleveland 

Pollocksville Jones 45 6 

Powellsville Bertie 

Proctorville Robeson J jj ' 

Red Oak Nash ™* 

Rhodhiss Burke, Caldwell .... '» 4 



150 North Carolina Manual 

TABLE 6. (Continued) 

1970 
City nr Town County Population 

Richfield Stanly 306 

Richlands Onslow 935 

Robbinsville Graham 777 

Rockwell Rowan 999 

Rolesville Wake 533 

Ronda Wilkes 465 

Roper Washington 649 

Rosman Transylvania 407 

Roxobel Bertie 347 

Ruth Rutherford 360 

Salemburg Sampson 669 

Saluda Polk 546 

Saratoga Wilson 391 

Seaboard Northampton 611 

Seagrove Randolph 354 

Seven Springs Wayne 188 

Severn Northampton 356 

Shallotte Brunswick 597 

Sharpsburg Edgecombe, Nash, Wilson 789 

Simpson Pitt 383 

Sims Wilson 205 

South Wadesboro Anson 109 

Speed Edgecombe 142 

Spencer Mountain Gaston 300 

Staley Randolph 239 

Stanfield Stanly 458 

Stantonsburg Wilson 869 

Star Montgomery 892 

Stallings Union 726 

Stedman Cumberland 505 

Stem Granville 242 

Stonewall Pamlico 335 

Stovall Granville 405 

Sunset Beach Brunswick 108 

Surf City Pender 166 

Tarheel Bladen 87 

Teacheys Duplin 219 

Topsail Beach Pender 108 

Trenton Jones 539 

Trent Woods Craven 719 

Troutman Iredell 797 

Turkey Sampson 329 

Vanceboro Craven 758 

Vandemere Pamlico 379 

Vass Moore 885 

Waco Cleveland 245 

Wade Cumberland 315 



Census 151 

TABLE 6. (Continued) 

1970 
City or Town County Population 

Wagram Scotland 718 

Walstonburg Greene 176 

Washington Park Beaufort 517 

Watha Pender 181 

Webster Jackson 181 

West Jefferson Ashe 889 

Whispering Pines Edgecombe, Nash 926 

Whitakers Moore 362 

White Lake Bladen 232 

Winfall Perquimans 581 

Winton Hertford 917 

Woodland Northampton 744 

Woodville Bertie 253 

Yaupon Beach Brunswick 334 

Youngsville Franklin 555 






152 



North Carolina Manual 



RESIDENT POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES 

AS OF APRIL 1, 1970 

Area Population Change, 1960 to 1970 

(1970) (1960) (Number) (Percent) 

Alabama 3,444,165 3,266,740 177,425 5.4 

Alaska 302,173 226,167 76,006 33.6 

Arizona 1,772,482 1,302,161 470,321 36.1 

Arkansas 1,923,295 1,786,272 137,023 7.7 

California 19,953,134 15,717,204 4,235,930 27.0 

Colorado 2,207,259 1,753,947 453,312 25.8 

Connecticut 3,032,217 2,535,234 496,983 19.6 

Delaware 548,104 446,292 101,812 22.8 

District of Columbia 756,510 763,956 -7,446 -1.0 

Florida 6,789,443 4,951,560 1,837,883 37.1 

Georgia 4,589,575 3,943,116 646,459 16.4 

Hawaii 769,913 632,772 137,141 21.7 

Idaho 713,008 667,191 45,817 6.9 

Illinois 11,113,976 10,081,158 1,032,818 10.2 

Indiana 5,193,669 4,662,498 531,171 11.4 

Iowa 2,825,041 2,757,537 67,504 2.4 

Kansas 2,249,071 2,178,611 70,460 3.2 

Kentucky 3,219,311 3,038,156 181,155 6.0 

Louisiana 3,643,180 3,257,022 386,158 11.9 

Maine 993,663 969,265 24,398 2.5 

Maryland 3,922,399 3,100,689 821,710 26.5 

Massachusetts 5,689,170 5,148,578 540,592 10.5 

Michigan 8,875,083 7,823,194 1,051,889 13.4 

Minnesota 3,805,069 3,413,864 391,205 11.5 

Mississippi 2,216,912 2,178,141 38,771 1.8 

Missouri 4,677,399 4,319,813 357,586 8.3 

Montana 694,409 674,767 19,642 2.9 

Nebraska 1,483,791 1,411,330 72,461 5.1 

Nevada 488,738 285,278 203,460 71.3 

New Hampshire 737,681 606,921 130,760 21.5 

New Jersey 7,168,164 6,066,782 1,101,382 18.2 

New Mexico 1,016,000 951,023 64,977 6.8 

New York 18,190,740 16,782,304 1,408,436 8.4 

North Carolina 5,082,059 4,556,155 525,904 11.5 

North Dakota 617,761 632,446 -14,685 -2.3 

0h io 10,652,017 9,706,397 945,620 9 7 

Oklahoma 2,559,253 2,328,284 230,969 9 9 

Ore gon 2,091,385 1,768,687 322,698 18.2 

Pennsylvania 11,793,909 11,319,366 474,543 4.2 

Rhode Island 949,723 859,488 90,235 10.5 

South Carolina 2,590,516 2,382,594 207,922 8.7 

South Dakota 666,257 680,514 -14,257 -2 1 

Tennessee 3,924,164 3,567,089 357,075 10 

Texas 11,196,730 9,579,677 1,617,053 16.9 

Utah 1,059,273 890,627 168,646 18.9 

Vermont 444,732 389,881 54,851 14.1 

Virginia 4,648,494 3,966,949 681,545 17.2 

Washington 3,409,169 2,853,214 555,955 19.5 

West Virginia 1,744,237 1,860,421 -116,184 -6.2 



Census 153 



Area Population 

(1970) (1960) (Number) (Percent) 

Wisconsin 4,417,933 3,951,777 466,156 11.8 

Wyoming 332,416 330,066 2,350 0.7 

United States 203,184,772 179,323,175 23,861,597 13.3 



PART III 
POLITICAL PARTIES 







•' 










V 

r w 






Democratic Party 157 

Chapter One 

THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY 



NORTH CAROLINA DEMOCRATIC PARTY PLATFORM 

I. INTRODUCTION 

On behalf of the State Democratic Executive Committee, the Resolutions and 
Platform Committee submits this 1976 Platform for consideration by the State 
Convention as a sincere and concise statement of the policies and goals established 
by the Democratic Party as serving the best interests of all North Carolinians. 

The philosophy expressed in this Platform is partisan only in the sense that it 
represents dedication to the great principles that have inspired and guided the 
Democratic Party from its inception. 

It reflects faith and pride in our political, social, and economic systems. It calls 
for government responsive to the will of the people — government that looks to the 
future with confidence in its ability to serve, unhesitatingly aligning itself with 
justice and progress, and striving always to support and preserve the dignity and 
enhance the well-being of the individual. 

Each element in this Platform is the product of much study and deliberation. It 
represents the views and input of hundreds of individuals who participated in its 
preparation. 

It is based upon the conviction that the opportunity to earn a productive, 
secure and prosperous life is the birthright of every North Carolinian. 

Good government — the kind of government that has become traditional under 
Democratic leadership in our state during this century — is not the product of 
chance. It is the product of vision, determination, and sacrifice flowing from people 
dedicated to the principles of the Democratic Party. 

This Platform offers a challenge to every Democrat. It establishes or reaffirms 
broad goals for our Party. Their attainment will serve the best interests of all our 
citizens. 

This "Platform for Progress" was developed with a deep awareness of the 
problems we face, and of the responsibility and capacity of the Democratic Party to 
address those problems. 



158 North Carolina Manual 



We submit this Platform with pride in the past, confidence tempered with 
concern for the present, and with full enthusiasm for what the future can bring 
under Democratic leadership. 

The North Carolina Democratic Party commends to Tar Heel voters the full, 
active, and continuing support of its Platform. It does so on the strength of its 
principles, its performance, and its promise for the future. 

We call upon our delegates to the Democratic National Convention to seek 
incorporation of similar elements and philosophy in our Party's National Platform. 
We urge North Carolina voters to support for office at every level candidates who 
pledge support for the Party consensus reflected in the 1976 Platform of the North 
Carolina Democratic Party. 

The Democratic Party represents the aspirations and interests of the broad 
cross section of the American people. This election year of 1976 finds many of our 
people deeply concerned about the conduct and direction of our government. 

A prominent North Carolina Democrat recently summarized those concerns. 
The Resolutions & Platform Committee found his reasoning both cogent and 
persuasive. The basic philosophy he expressed, and the view of the Party's role 
and function he set forth, gave inspiration to the Committee in its deliberations. 
For that reason, excerpts from his remarks are presented here, and commended for 
consideration and guidance to all North Carolina Democrats. 

"We know that the Democratic Party in the Congress is by and large a party 
committed to conserving the best in our system. Yet, increasingly, we see the 
rhetoric of the radical right which tries to preempt some of these legitimate 
conserving traditions. 

"I hope our platform will speak to this. There is nothing anti-progressive or 
anti-Democratic Party about a call for reorganizing the federal government. 
To do so is not to admit the failure of any party or any tradition. It is only 
to acknowledge a process of history. Jackson and Roosevelt showed that 
government could be used on behalf of the people. We need to carry on that 
faith, but we need to balance it with the skepticism of Jefferson who feared 
that strong central government could be the enemy of the people because of the 
dangers of concentrated power. We need to shape our government anew by 
scaling it down and tightening it up so that it continues to be the servant of the 
people rather than their master. 

"If we give voice to the idea that some reversal in the growth of government 
is needed, that will not be Democratic heresy. It will only be a part of an 
evolutionary process that is our Democratic heritage. Our most consistent 
dictum is that of Andrew Jackson — that we "know the people's problems and 
make them our own." To acknowledge that the problems change is not to deny 
the mandate. 

"While I respect the contributions and the good faith of those Americans who 
find themselves comfortable on the extremes of right and left, I have always 
found moderation a more satisfying approach to public issues and I believe 
that center position is shared by the great majority of Americans. Ideologues 
do a good job of posing questions but a poor job of finding answers. I would 



Democratic Party 159 



hope that our platform would strive to reassert that centrist faith that has 
served the Democratic Party so well for so long." 

Much of what he had to say about the federal government can apply equally to 
government at state and local levels. 

If our nation and our state are to curb the excesses and abuses of the 
Republican administrations in Washington and in Raleigh, and achieve the positive 
new direction the times demand, we need a return to sound Democratic administra- 
tion at all levels, firmly rooted in the principles set forth in this statement. 

Justice and progress for all our citizens can be obtained only if we avoid radical 
extremes and enlist "Mainstream America" in full understanding and support of 
Democratic leadership, dedicated to responsible public service and the attainment 
of a better life for all Americans. 

It is against this background that the 1976 North Carolina Democratic Party 
Platform is tendered. 

II. DEMOCRATIC PARTY AFFAIRS 

The Democratic Party must remain true to its traditions as 'the Party of 
Faith, the Party of Progress, and the Party of the People." 

We can do so only if we maintain a strong Party organization, beginning at 
Precinct Level and extending through County, District, and State levels to the 
Democratic National Committee. 

We must remain an "open" Party. We must continue to foster and encourage 
full participation of all responsible elements at every level of Party operations and 
in all Party affairs, including such traditionally under-represented groups as 
women, minorities, the aging, and the young. 

The North Carolina Republican Party has proved a poor steward of the public 
trust. Our current Republican Administration has produced a vacuum in leadership 
from the executive branch of state government, remarkable only by the ineptitude 
of its appointive leadership, its abuses of the patronage system, and its poor man- 
agement of the people's affairs. 

The Democratic majority in the North Carolina House and Senate moved to 
fill that void. In a time of financial crises produced by declining state revenues 
generated by inflation, recession, and unemployment, the General Assembly acted 
cooly, responsibly, and without thought of partisan gain to discharge North Caro- 
lina's constitutional mandate for a balanced budget. 

The North Carolina Democratic Party stands pledged to continued orderly 
administration of government, supported by election of a Democratic President and 
Congress, a Democratic Governor backed by Democratic members of the Council of 
State, overwhelming Democratic majorities in both Houses of the General Assembly, 
and Democratic leadership in local offices across the state. 

We stand for fiscal responsibility in government, in which every program and 
proposal is assessed on a priority of need, and all appropriations are measured 
against the volume and quality of the services they will deliver. 



160 North Carolina Manual 



The North Carolina Democratic Party commits its full prestige and authority 
to the promotion of economy and efficiency in government at all levels, curbing a 
burgeoning bureaucracy, and maintaining executive control and legislative over- 
sight in all government operations. 

We stand committeed to addressing the causes, as well as the symptoms, of the 
economic and social ills of our nation. 

The North Carolina Democratic Party pledges its full resources and influence 
at all levels of government to support of responsible initiatives to address the prob- 
lem of unemployment through creation of new jobs and upgrading of existing jobs 
in both the public and the private sectors. 

We back in strongest possible terms the recent initiatives of the Democratic 
leadership in Congress for "a massive realignment of legislative priorities for the 
next five years, aimed at restoring national economic prosperity by creating 12 
million new jobs and cutting taxes by $10-billion." 

We agree that a Democratic President backed by a Democratic Congress can 
begin to work our way back to fiscal responsibility, integrity in government, and 
restored respect for our political institutions. Concerted and coordinated effort can 
revitalize our national economy, and produce federal budget surpluses by 1980. 
This will permit increased federal expenditures in support of badly needed national 
health, educational, energy, and environmental programs. 

Vital to this process is reform of tax laws to simplify tax returns, and to 
increase federal revenues by plugging "loopholes" whose cost is expected to rise 
above $135-billion annually by 1981 if left unchecked. 

In our view, this must be accompanied by support for low interest loans and 
tax incentives to small businesses in an effort to help make them more competitive 
with the major corporations. 

The North Carolina Democratic Party supports stronger protection for con- 
sumers through tighter regulation of utilities, combatting price fixing through 
broader enforcement of anti-trust laws, strengthened standards for testing of 
products, and more effective controls over dubious advertising claims and promises. 

Specific recommendations for legislative or executive action by Democratic 
leadership in Raleigh and in Washington follow: 

A. AGRICULTURE 

Agriculture remains fundamental to the economic health and well-being of 
North Carolina. The Democratic Party is committed to maintaining our State's 
leadership in Agriculture. 

We reassert our belief in the necessity for maintaining the "family farm" as 
a foundation for this sector of our economy, and our support for all responsible pro- 
grams designed to assure that the farmer receives his fair share for his labor and 
investment in producing our food and agricultural services. 



Democratic Party 161 

To this end, we pledge continuing leadership from our North Carolina Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and all components of the University system to protect and 
support the farmer, backed by appropriate legislative and gubernatorial action. 

We commend continuing efforts to broaden and expand our agricultural base 
by developing new "money" crops and strains, improving productivity and profit- 
ability through modern technology, expanding agriculture- related employment 
through new processing or packaging plants, expanding current markets and open- 
ing new markets overseas, and increasing efficiency of farm operations. 

We encourage establishment of a North Carolina School of Veterinary Medicine 
to provide badly needed support of North Carolina agriculture in this area. 

The North Carolina Democratic Party restates in strongest possible terms its 
commitment to continuing review of tax laws and land use laws to assure maximum 
protection to the farmer, resisting any legislative or administrative action which 
would unfairly and adversely affect the farmer, or act to discourage use of land for 
farming. 

B. CAMPAIGN REFORM 

The Democratic Party of North Carolina supports all responsible efforts at 
campaign reform. We salute Democratic leadership in the Congress and the General 
Assembly for the initiatives they have undertaken in this area, and pledge 
continuing support from the Party for further efforts at campaign reform. We 
repudiate Nixonian tactics, and solicit new initiatives designed to control abuses 
and help restore public faith in the political process. 

C. INSURANCE 

The North Carolina Democratic Party opposes any unfair discrimination in 
either rates or access for all forms of insurance. We urge the General Assembly to 
give serious consideration to some form of "No Fault" automobile insurance in order 
to provide better protection to North Carolina citizens. 



D. CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS AND GUARANTEES, 

AND ELECTIONS 

The Democratic Party of North Carolina continues its support of efforts to 
assure that the right to vote is extended to all our citizens without regard to race, 
sex, creed, color, or economic circumstance. 

All citizens who support the principles and ideals of the Democratic Party are 
encouraged to take a full and active part in the affairs and operations of the Party. 

We urge a greater use of measures which will make voter registration more 
accessible and easier, particularly for those who are elderly or infirm, or for any 
other reason unable to register at the Board of Elections on weekdays during 
regular business hours. In addition, we urge the Democratic Party of North Caro- 



162 North Carolina Manual 



lina to encourage all public libraries to initiate voter registration programs during 
their hours of operation, in accordance with the recently enacted legislation 
permitting such efforts. 

We urge our Boards of Elections to consider any reasonable measures which 
would render the process of voting quicker, more efficient, or less subject to abuse. 
This would include consideration of such actions as placing important referenda or 
issues near the top of the ballot, or positioning candidates on the ballot by random 
drawing instead of in strict alphabetical order. 

North Carolina Democratic condemn abuse of position or power by any officer 
or agency of government which has the effect of harassing or illegally and without 
proper authority invading the privacy of our people. 

We support all responsible measures and controls designed to ensure that the 
privacy and the rights of our citizens remain inviolate from indiscriminate forms of 
information gathering by both governmental and private agencies, and from im- 
proper or unauthorized dissemination or use of information reflected in the records 
of such agencies. 

We urge continued and concerted efforts by the Party organization at all levels 
to encourage maximum voter registration and turnout in all elections, so that the 
results will truly represent the "will of the people." 

To this end, we endorse efforts to educate the electorate to a fuller under- 
standing and comprehension of the issues and the record in every campaign. 

E. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 

The Democratic Party supports economic development in North Carolina that 
attracts responsible business and industry showing strong promise of being good 
corporate citizens. 

Such business and industry provides good jobs at good pay, while benefiting 
and reaping a legitimate profit from the stability and productivity of our North 
Carolina workers. This produces a wholesome business climate in which labor and 
management can work cooperatively for the mutual benefit of all concerned. 

We support efforts in both the public and the private sectors to combat un- 
employment by creating new jobs through the expansion of existing industry and 
the attraction of good new industry. 

We salute the Democratic leadership and membership in the North Carolina 
General Assembly for their role in passing and helping gain public approval of the 
Constitutional Amendment which for the first time provides authority in our state 
for financing industrial development through tax-free bonds. 

We commend our legislators for their insistence that such bonds be tightly 
controlled, subject to review and approval at four levels, bound by law to strong 
concern for the ecology, and committed to paying at least the average minimum 
wage prevailing in the county in which the industry locates. 

We urge responsible and aggressive use of this new tool by all North Carolina 
counties having a need for industrial development, enlisting support from the North 



Democratic Party 163 



Carolina Department of Natural and Economic Resources and from the private 
sector. 

We commend to those involved in such efforts concentration on industry which 
relates directly to North Carolina resources, particularly those which help process, 
package, distribute, or create new markets for our agricultural products and such 
natural resources as our timber, minerals, or marine life. 

We commend and pledge continued support from our Community Colleges and 
Technical Institutes and other components in our educational system in training 
and helping equip with the requisite job skills the workers need to man our 
industry. 

We encourage cooperative efforts by the public and the private sectors to sup- 
port and promote Tourism as an important factor in North Carolina's economic 
system. 

North Carolina Democrats strongly support small business as the bulwark of 
our economy. Recognizing that in periods of recession and inflation small business 
usually suffers first, longest, and most severely, we encourage measures which ease 
their plight, help assure their survival, and enable them to compete more equally 
with their larger counterparts. Particular attention should be paid to small busi- 
nesses, as they are usually the first and most severely affected. 

We condemn and deplore any effort to attract new business or industry by 
suggesting that North Carolina workers are ripe for exploitation, willing to work 
productively for minimum wage at skilled jobs, under marginal working conditions, 
and with substandard fringe benefits. Such advertising, underwritten with public 
funds through a State agency, has been a pattern under the current Republican 
administration. 

The quantity of new jobs attracted through efforts at economic development 
is less important than their quality. North Carolina needs more jobs, but they 
should be good jobs! 

We pledge the full support and active cooperation and participation of the 
Democratic Party and its leadership in behalf of economic development which 
attracts responsible industry providing good jobs for our people without polluting 
our environment. 

North Carolina's increasing penetration of international markets with both 
agricultural and manufactured goods lends urgency to further development of our 
State Port facilities to help hold down transportation costs and keep North Carolina 
competitive. Both development and administration of our ports has suffered under 
Republican administration. We pledge to reverse this trend. 

F. EDUCATION 

1. Public Schools 

Our young people are our greatest resource. No activity of government is more 
important than their education, and no investment of our tax dollars yields better 
return than those spent in this area. 



164 North Carolina Manual 



The Democratic Party has traditionally recognized this fact, and provided the 
leadership and the resources to keep our state among the leaders in education. 

We pledge continued strong support and leadership to maintain and improve a 
strong educational system — a system founded on a well-rounded relevant public 
school system. 

This system should extend to include meaningful early childhood education, 
particularly for children from a socially or culturally deprived environment. 

Provision of resources for expanding the kindergarten system in the face of 
major budget cuts in other areas is evidence that the Democratic majority in the 
General Assembly fully supports this view. 

The Democratic Party remains committed to providing equal educational 
opportunity for all children — opportunity that will permit them to develop to the 
limit of their capabilities without regard to race, sex, creed, ability, or economic 
circumstance. 

Realizing the importance of a low teacher/pupil ratio in providing quality 
education for the children of North Carolina, the Democratic Party totally supports 
the current class size legislation, and will work toward an even further reduction 
in class size. 

We endorse and strongly urge the provision throughout the public school 
system of special programs serving students with learning problems, and other 
programs for gifted students with capacity to learn more quickly and more easily 
than their contemporaries. 

Such programs will support improved performance and progress not only for 
the students at either extreme, but for the vast majority of "average" students as 
well. That group will be able to progress at their own pace, unintimidated by the 
gifted student, and unimpeded by the slow learner. 

The Democratic Party calls for support of efforts to improve discipline and 
order, and establish a climate conducive to learning in our schools, recognizing 
that our teachers and administrators cannot achieve this goal without strong 
support and participation from parents. 

We support improved pay and fringe benefits, and better working conditions, 
and more professional status for our teachers. 

Recognizing that ad valorem taxes have reached a level exceeding the ability of 
many of our citizens to pay without real hardship, while educational costs are rising 
sharply, we urge the General Assembly to investigate alternatives to the property 
tax as a primary source of revenue in support of education. 

North Carolina Democrats call for a return to stronger emphasis on the "3-R's" 
in our schools, and a requirement that all students demonstrate acceptable progress 
before promotion. There can be no acceptable rationale which could justify even a 
small number of high school "graduates" unable to read or spell at 6th grade level, 
or perform the simple arithmetic necessary to make change. 

We believe in the principle of accountability, and urge parents and educators to 
evaluate our schools in terms of the achievement of students as indicated by per- 



Democratic Party 165 



formance on accepted measuring devices which make appropriate allowance for 
cultural differences. 

When we have provided our teachers with professional status, adequate salaries 
and working conditions, have relieved them of duties not related to teaching, and 
have backed them in restoring discipline and order in the classroom, we will have 
every right to expect professional performance from them. Those who consistently 
fail to impart enough knowledge to their students for them to demonstrate reason- 
able progress should then be weeded out. 

To help assure that the best qualified personnel available are hired to fill all 
vacancies occuring in the schools, we urge that administrators be required to 
publicize all vacant positions within the system through professional publications 
and agencies, and in the public media. This would substitute an "active process" 
of recruitment for the "passive process" currently all too common. In every instance, 
first consideration should be given to promotion of qualified employees within the 
system. Second consideration should be given to qualified North Carolina applicants. 
In no instance should there be any element of discrimination. 

In order to broaden the base and representation of the public at policy-making 
level in our public school system, we urge the General Assembly to initiate action 
to achieve the Constitutional change needed to expand North Carolina's County 
Boards of Education from five members to seven. 

We commend recent progress in vocational education at high school level. We 
support expansion of all programs designed to equip students who elect not to go to 
college with a marketable skill or trade that will support them after graduation. 
We urge increased emphasis on guidance programs designed to recognize talent and 
abilities and encourage development of every student to his maximum potential. 

2. Higher Education 

The Democratic Party expresses its pride in the continuing strength, growth, 
and development of North Carolina's university system. We have full confidence in 
that system and in its leaders at every level. 

We commend the mutual respect and cooperation prevailing among the consti- 
tuent institutions and their administrators, and between the various Boards of 
Trustees and the Board of Governors. 

We solicit a continuing review of curricula and needs to assure that instruction 
is offered in all needed areas, and that all instruction offered is needed. We support 
sustained emphasis on quality education, and endorse expansion of programs 
producing graduates with professional and para-professional skills for which there 
is demand in North Carolina. 

We support remedial and tutorial programs designed to address deficiencies in 
the high school backgrounds of those university students who otherwise might be 
unable to cope with the demands of the university, but who have strong potential 
given such assistance. 

We encourage continued innovations in both curricula and methodology de 
signed to keep pace with improvements in educational techniques, and the changing 
demands of our complex society. 



166 North Carolina Manual 



A continuing decline in the number of students eligible for VA assistance under 
the "G.I. Bill", compounded by the increasing cost of college education, has 
produced a need for expanded "self-help" and student aid programs within the 
university system. Full use and coordination of all available governmental and 
private sector assistance in this area is urged, and suggestions for supportive 
action by the General Assembly is solicited. 

3. Commiaiity Colleges ayid Technical Institutes 

The Democratic Party of North Carolina reaffirms its traditional strong 
support of our Community Colleges and Technical Institutes as a fundamental and 
vital part of our educational system. 

Their performance to date clearly justifies the faith in the concept that led to 
their establishment under a Democratic administration, and has prompted their 
funding over the years by the Democratic majority in the General Assembly. 

We commend them for their strong performance and the positive contributions 
they have made to the economic progress and well-being of their students and the 
economy of the state. 

Their adult education classes have opened new vistas for illiterates taught to 
read. Thousands of "droupouts" have been given the opportunity to qualify for high 
school diplomas. Thousands of students have graduated equipped with skills com- 
manding pay far beyond what they could have received without the training. 

Thousands of students who lacked the means or the opportunity to go to college 
upon completion of high school have begun their college-level work in community 
colleges, and gone on to successful performance at universities on the base obtained 
there. 

Many communities have been heavily dependent upon the Technical Institutes' 
capacity to train workers in demanding skills in their successful recruitment of new 
industry. 

The health sector has been increasingly dependent upon the graduates equipped 
with para-professional skills through CC/TI training, and graduates of their 
secretarial and administrative courses have already proved their worth to business 
and industry. 

These institutions have become a primary source of skilled workmen in the 
crafts and trades, and the "mandatory related classroom training" they offer has 
become a requirement in every apprenticeship program administered through the 
North Carolina Department of Labor. 

The Community Colleges and Technical Institutes have become a cultural force 
in the areas they serve, and their varied offerings in hobbies, crafts, and the arts 
have broadened the horizons and contributed to the happiness of thousands of 
citizens. 

Key to the success of all these programs has been the highly flexible and 
personal approach to defining community needs, and the professional manner in 
which they moved to meet those needs. 



Democratic Party 167 



They have made a strong contribution to North Carolina's economic growth 
and development, and have become a truly indispensable element in the areas they 
serve. They have grown until one of the 57 units is now within easy reach of more 
than 95% of the state's population. 

For all these reasons, the North Carolina Democratic Party commends the 
administrators, staff and students of our Community Colleges and Technical Insti- 
tutes, and pledges its strong continued support for that system. 

4. Private Colleges 

North Carolina Democrats recognize the historical contribution of our private 
colleges and universities to our state. We further recognize their current plight, 
and appreciate their continuing contribution to both the volume and the quality of 
higher education in North Carolina. 

Because they provide training for large numbers of North Carolina students 
who otherwise would either be denied a college education or would be forced to turn 
to a state system unequipped to handle that additional demand, we support continu- 
ation of state assistance in the form of tuition grants to North Carolina students 
attending the state's private institutions of higher learning. 

The alternative would be to accomodate these students in the state system, but 
at a far greater cost. 

G. ENERGY 

North Carolina Democrats feel that our rapidly increasing consumption of 
energy in all its forms, out dwindling reserves, of coal and oil, and our increasing 
dependence upon foreign oil flowing from the politically unstable Middle East, pose 
a serious threat to our economy, and to the security of our nation. 

The North Carolina Democratic Party supports the operations of the various 
commissions charged with studying all aspects of the nation's energy problems and 
preparing recommendations for measures they feel are indicated for dealing with 
the problems. 

Meanwhile, we urge North Carolina to pioneer in the development of alternative 
energy sources through its university system, researching practical applications of 
such theoretical prospects as tapping solar energy for both residential and indus- 
trial applications, capitalizing upon its ready availability and non-depletive nature. 

We also urge consideration of measures to reduce power consumption by 
strengthening building codes to cut heat loss in all new construction, and we urge 
the General Assembly to initiate the legislation needed to provide tax incentives 
for citizens who incorporate improvements that significantly reduce energy demand. 

As a potentially significant North Carolina contribution to lowering demand 
for foreign oil, the Democratic Party calls upon state government to evidence 
greater concern over energy requirements in the design of all new state con- 
struction, and in the operation of all current state facilities and vehicles. 



168 North Carolina Manual 



H. ENVIRONMENT 

North Carolina has been blessed with an environment and natural resources 
unsurpassed in the nation. It is ours to enjoy, and represents a sacred trust we 
must pass on unspoiled to future generations. 

Unplanned growth, uncoordinated development and deliberate exploitation 
and abuse of our resources continue to threaten the quality of our environment. 
Unless this trend is checked and reversed, those very elements which have con- 
tributed so much to the quality of life for generations of North Carolinians may be 
damaged beyond recovery. 

Not just the happiness, but the health of future generations may be in jeopardy. 
For these reasons, environmental concerns are given high priority by the North 
Carolina Democratic Party. 

We remain committed to application of a comprehensive land use policy which 
will emphasize that local governments bear primary responsibility for developing 
and administering plans for the regulation and orderly development of our land and 
water resources. 

We commend the Legislature for its responsible leadership in passing measures 
designed to protect the environment, but urge them to provide appropriations 
affording more effective enforcement of measures designed to control such areas as 
sedimentation, oil pollution, effluent limitations, septic tanks, land conservancy, 
and air and water pollution. 

We urge the General Assembly to consider legislation which would encourage 
the recycling of containers. 

We continue to support educational programs in our schools designed to pro- 
mote awareness of environmental problems and concerns, and efforts at their 
solution. 

We affirm our support for measures which will manage our resources so as to 
retain prime agricultural land for farming purposes, protect our watersheds, pre- 
serve open spaces for parks and recreational use, and promote expansion and 
improvements of our State Park system. 

North Carolina Democrats are convinced that the proposed dam on the New 
River, which would flood thousands of acres of our land to serve the power needs of 
Virginia, would not serve the best interests of North Carolina or her citizens. We 
call for continuing concerted action by Democratic leaders in state government and 
at federal level to assure defeat of the New River Dam proposal so that preservation 
of this ancient river — oldest on the North American continent, and one of the oldest 
in the world — may be preserved unspoiled. 

I. HANDICAPPED 

The North Carolina Democratic Party remains pledged to active support of 
both public and private sector programs designed to develop to the maximum extent 
skills, interests, attitudes and facilities which contribute to the health, happiness, 
and productive lives of our handicapped citizens. 



Democratic Party 169 



State government must work actively to assure that every citizen — regardless 
of his handicap — may participate in community affairs to the full extent of his 
potential. 

Educational opportunities tailored to the needs of the blind, the deaf, the 
physically handicapped, the retarded, and those with emotional problems must be 
provided, and provided (where feasible) at community levels. 

All appropriate job opportunities must be opened to the handicapped, and these 
citizens must be trained and encouraged to seek that employment, and actively 
assisted in job placement. 

We commend marked recent progress in equipping public facilities to ac- 
comodate the handicapped, and urge continuation and expansion of this effort to 
private business and industry, supported by tax incentives for the necessary capital 
investment where appropriate. 

State agencies assisting our handicapped citizens need additional staff and 
support. A program should be developed to educate the public at large to the 
potential for active, productive lives of most of our handicapped citizens, and they 
should be encouraged to perform at their maximum potential. 

J. HEALTH 

The North Carolina Democratic Party considers access to high quality health 
care to be a fundamental right of all North Carolinians. We, therefore, support the 
Kennedy-Corman Health Security Act which provides for comprehensive national 
health insurance for all Americans. 

No one should be denied treatment because of inability to pay, and our families 
should be protected from the financially crippling burden of long-term or cata- 
strophic illness. 

1. Preventive Medicine 

The Party commends efforts at prevention of physical and emotional illness 
through improved nutrition, pre-natal care, immunization, and early diagnosis and 
intervention through such devices as multi-phasic screening on a periodic basis. 
Health education courses in the schools and in the community make a positive con- 
tribution in this area, and should be strengthened and expanded. 

2. Area Health Education Centers 

Many areas of our state still lack adequate medical and health care resources. 
The new Area Health Care Centers (AHEC's) provided by a Democratic legislature 
will help address this problem, and are already making a positive contribution to 
the quality of health care in North Carolina. They merit continued support. 

3. Innovative Approaches 

The Democratic Party commends to the medical community further considera- 
tion of such programs as physicians' assistants, nurse practitioners, paramedics, 
home health specialists, community clinics and other innovative means having 
potential for helping meet the health needs of our people. 



170 North Carolina Manual 



4. T mining Assistance 

We advocate both state and federal assistance for programs that will recruit 
and train health service personnel at all levels, provide continuing education both 
on the job and in the classroom or laboratory, and seek to place health workers in 
areas of active need. 

We urge financial assistance through grants or loans to medical students and 
students in allied health fields, with loans forgiven to graduates who agree to serve 
an appropriate time in underserved areas of North Carolina. 

5. Family Practitioners 

We support increased emphasis in all medical schools on producing "Family 
Practitioners" who can provide help for the entire family's medical problems, 
reversing recent trends toward concentration of doctors in urban areas. 

6. Mental Health 

We support the emphasis given to community-based mental health programs, 
and call for their continued expansion. 

We support increased funding for alcohol and drug detoxification programs, 
drug abuse programs, alcoholic rehabilitation programs, and the pioneering re- 
search underway at UNC Medical School to identify and develop chemotherapy for 
physical causes of alcohol abuse. 

Much progress has been made in upgrading facilities, staff, and treatment pro- 
grams in North Carolina's mental institutions. Further upgrading of our Mental 
Hospitals is indicated, backed by stronger staffing and funding for "half-way 
houses" and other programs designed to aid the former mental patient as he 
prepares to re-enter society. 

7. Family Playining 

The global problem of an overpopulated planet, compounded by the recurring 
problem of unplanned, unwanted, or illegitimate children, dictates increasing 
support for comprehensive community-based family planning services, and their 
active promotion. 

8. Funding Sources 

As federal funding for comprehensive community mental health centers, alcohol 
detoxification and rehabilitation programs, and drug abuse programs diminishes, 
alternative sources of funding must be found, or state support increased. 

We advocate that insurance companies operating in the health insurance field 
in North Carolina be required to make available coverage for mental illness and 
alcoholism, on the grounds that both are diseases amenable to medical treatment. 

We urge that any funds saved in the operation of mental hospitals by increased 
dependence upon outpatient clinics or community mental health centers should be 
diverted to other community- based mental health programs, not reverted to the 
General Fund. 



Democratic Party 171 



9. Pilot Programs 



The Democratic Party supports the re-examination, updating, funding and 
implementation of appropriate "pilot programs" recommended to the General 
Assembly by the Mental Health Study Commission. 

K. HERITAGE AND CULTURE 

North Carolina is blessed with a history, heritage, and culture that should be 
preserved. 

The Democratic Party supports preservation and restoration of historic sites 
and structures so that our own people and visitors may be better informed about 
North Carolina's glorious past. 

We urge strong continued support for the N.C. School of the Arts, the N.C. 
State Theater, the N.C. Symphony, the State Art Museum, and similar insti- 
tutions. 

North Carolina has a number of outdoor historical dramas, from the "Lost 
Colony" on the coast to "Unto These Hills" in Cherokee, which dramatize and help 
preserve our historic past. All merit support and attendance. 

We commend the work of such groups as the National Register of Historic 
Places to identify and preserve our historic landmarks, and endorse all responsible 
efforts from both the public and the private sector to further the preservation and 
restoration of our historic sites and structures. 

L. HOUSING 

The North Carolina Democratic Party believes that every person should have 
a safe and sanitary place in which to live. 

We urge the Congress and the General Assembly to enact legislation designed 
to help enable lower income families to attain home ownership in the face of rapidly 
rising building costs. 

We deplore all forms of discrimination in housing, and urge their total elimina- 
tion. 

M. HUMAN RELATIONS 

Every citizen — regardless of race, creed, color, sex, or national origin — deserves 
an opportunity to progress as far as his aspirations and abilities will take him. 
Every citizen also bears a responsibility to accept and discharge his obligations 
and responsibilities to society. 

The North Carolina Democratic Party has initiated an Affirmative Action 
Plan to assure full opportunity for active participation in Party operations and 
affairs to all our citizens. We pledge to remain sensitive to the needs and wishes of 
our people and urge a similar commitment upon every sector of our society. 

Harmony between groups and among races depends substantially upon a 
citizenry which fosters a spirit of cooperation, consideration, and mutual reaped 
among its different elements. 



172 North Carolina Manual 



The N. C. Human Relations Council affords a vital bridge to establishing such 
relationships, and helping deal with any breakdown in communications or any mis- 
understandings which might arise. 

There are federal means to enforce laws against discrimination in employment, 
housing, education, and other areas. However, the North Carolina Democratic Party 
believes that its traditional enlightened leadership, backed by strong support of its 
citizens, has historically made a more positive contribution to resolving North 
Carolina's problems in this area than imposition of or dependence upon federal 
authority. Because of this belief, and because of our Party's historic commitment to 
equality and justice, we call upon the General Assembly to provide adequate funding 
to the North Carolina Council on Human Relations and afford it appropriate powers 
to discharge its function. 

N. LABOR 

We restate our fundamental belief in the right of all North Carolina citizens 
to productive employment without discrimination in a safe environment at reason- 
able wages and with adequate "fringe" protections. 

To that end, we support the following principles: 

1. Improved Pay Benefits. North Carolina Democrats are deeply concerned 
about our State's low average hourly industrial wages, despite a work force whose 
stability and productivity have placed it among the top ten in the nation. 

We urge concerted action from every sector of government, supported by co- 
operative efforts of management and labor, to address this imbalance. 

Efforts at industrial expansion and economic development should stress 
quality over quantity in attracting new jobs, concentrating on non-polluting 
industry affording stable employment under impi-oved working conditions at better 
pay, backed by stronger "fringe" benefits. 

We support an increase in North Carolina's minimum wage, so that workers 
who bear the brunt of inflation will be better able to provide for the security, health, 
and well-being of their families. 

We urge legislative action providing more adequate protections under the law, 
including improved Workmen's Compensation and Unemployment Insurance, and 
extension of these protections to both domestic and migratory workers. 

2. Collective Bargaining. We reassert our fundamental belief in the collective 
bargaining process as the best means of promoting industrial harmony in our State 
and supporting the legitimate interests of both the employer and the workers. 

Collective bargaining establishes a base for cooperative effort through better 
communications and understanding of the problems of both management and labor. 

The courts have vindicated prior stands of the North Carolina Democratic 
Party by ruling that government employees at all levels have a constitutional right 
to organize for their mutual protection. 

We reassert our belief that they should also be extended the right to collective 
bargaining with their employers. We believe that the public interest can best be 



Democratic Party 173 



served by restricting the right of public employees to strike, and substituting a 
mechanism for impartial and binding arbitration. 

We believe that both management and labor should be free of any coercion 
from government in regards to collective bargaining, and that "Agency Shop" 
agreements offer the best safeguard against compulsory union memberships, while 
assuring payment of fees commensurate with the representation, services and 
protection which must be provided under federal law to workers where a collective 
bargaining agreement exists. 

3. Training. We endorse strengthened apprenticeship and on-the-job training 
programs designed to develop marketable skills and create job opportunities for 
our young people, particularly minority youth whose unemployment rate remains 
extremely high. 

We commend the cooperative approach and unanimity of opinion evidenced by 
the management and labor representatives on the N.C. Department of Labor Joint 
Apprenticeship Council, and endorse legislative and administrative initiatives 
increasing its powers. 

4. Equal Opportunity. We support the concept of "equal pay for equal work", 
and strongly oppose any form of discrimination whether based on race, age, sex, 
religion, or national origin in the hiring, promotion or retention of workers. 

5. Effective Administration. We call for a return to the sound administration 
and cooperative involvement of both management and labor that were the hallmarks 
of N.C. Department of Labor operators under the late Labor Commissioner Billy 
Creel and his Democratic predecessors, particularly in such areas as OSHA enforce- 
ment of safety standards, and the administration of job training programs. 

O. LAW AND JUSTICE 

The Democratic Party of North Carolina remains pledged to full protection of 
the rights, lives, and property of all our citizens. We have an abiding faith in the 
desire and ability of most of our people to live together in order and harmony, 
setting any differences through established legal procedures. Those willing to live 
by society's rules deserve protection from those who are not. 

Our administration of law enforcement, our courts, and our penal system must 
be directed to achievement of equal justice for all, affording full protection to 
society while stressing rehabilitation of the offender, not retribution. 

We support affirmative programs which make it clear that we do not condone 
dual standards of justice, but clearly evidence our conviction that justice in the 
North Carolina system is not a commodity to be bought or sold to the privileged, 
but is equally available to all without regard to race, creed, color, national origin, 
or economic circumstance. 

To support attainment of these goals, we affirm the following principles: 



174 North Carolina Manual 



1. Law Enforcement: 

The increasing demands made upon law enforcement officers at every level, 
and the threat posed to them in the execution of their duties, dictate better pay 
and improved benefits if we are to attract and retain personnel of the caliber re- 
quired. We commend positive action in this area to all levels of government employ- 
ing police officers. 

We endorse continued and increased emphasis on professional training for our 
police officers, and provision of every practical tool modern technology can provide 
for their support, including improved communications networks and Police Infor- 
mation Network terminals for every police authority. 

We commend the contribution being made in support of local law enforcement 
by the Attorney General's Justice Academy, and the new training and standards 
requirements passed by the Democratic General Assembly. 

We endorse legislative action which would require every candidate for employ- 
ment as a sworn police officer exercising power of arrest to demonstrate emotional 
stability and aptitude for police work through psychological screening of the type 
already required of State Highway Patrolmen. 

We support increased emphasis on crime prevention and control, stronger police 
community relations programs, and the increased funding necessary to provide 
greater support to local authorities from the State Bureau of Investigation and its 
"Crime Laboratory." 

We support measures at all levels of government designed to provide actuarily 
sound pension programs for police officers, affording them comfortable retirement 
in recognition of their service. We advocate major improvements in the death 
benefits and survivor benefits paid to the families of law enforcement personnel 
killed or disabled in the line of duty. The society they risk their lives to protect 
owes reasonable comfort and security to the families they leave behind. 

We reject all forms of discrimination in the recruitment, assignment, or 
promotion of law enforcement personnel. 

2. Drug Abuse: 

Recognizing the growing problem posed by drug abuse in North Carolina, and 
the spread of this problem into communities heretofore little affected, we call for 
strong, continuing, and coordinated efforts to combat this threat to our society. 

Strengthened efforts at prevention of drug abuse through intensive positive 
educational programs in our schools and in our communities are indicated, in order 
to alert our young people to the tragic consequences of drug abuse. 

Early detection of drug abuse, and active intervention in an effort at rehabilita- 
tion have proved beneficial. Such efforts merit increased support. 

We call for consistent strong enforcement of drug laws, and imposition of stiffer 
mandatory minimum sentences for "pushers" and distributors of addictive narcotic 
drugs to discourage this traffic in human misery and degradation. 



Democratic Party 175 



We urge legislative review of all our laws relating to drug abuse, including 
those dealing with marijuana, to assure that the penalty is commensurate with the 
gravity of the offense. 

3. Speedy Trial. 

North Carolina Democrats agree with Justice Holmes that "justice delayed is 
justice deniedV Both the accused and his victim have a right to speedy administra- 
tion of justice in all criminal cases. Swift resolution of the issue also serves the best 
interests of both plaintiff and defendant in civil matters. 

Strong efforts should be made to maintain current both criminal and civil 
dockets throughout our court system. This can be done only if we provide our courts 
with the tools necessary to do the job — sufficient courts, courtrooms, judges, 
prosecutors, public defenders, reporters, bailiffs, clerks, and other support personnel 
and resources to do the job. 

We urge early action by the legislature to provide the authority and the funds 
necessary to underwrite the necessary expansion of our court facilities to assure 
speedy trial of both criminal and civil cases throughout North Carolina Courts. 

The Democratic Party hails the success of the State's small Claims Courts in 
handling civil litigation involving less than $500.00. We urge the legislature to 
recognize this positive performance, and the effects of inflation, by substantially 
increasing the jurisdiction of our Small Claims Courts in an effort to bring civil 
dockets down to a manageable level. 

4. Consumer Protection: 

We hail the efforts of the N.C. Department of Justice to protect the consumer 
and promote confidence in the marketplace through the operations of the Consumer 
Protection Section of the Attorney General's office. 

This program for the education and protection of the consumer against deceptive 
or fraudulent advertising and business practices has saved millions of dollars for 
North Carolina consumers. 

We commend the outstanding cooperation extended these efforts by the over- 
whelming majority of North Carolina business through such private sector agencies 
at the Better Business Bureaus of the State. 

We call for increased support for Consumer Protection from the General As- 
sembly, both in increased appropriations for Consumer Protection operations and in 
strengthened legislation for dealing with the abuses and deceptive practices of a 
small minority of business which would defraud or exploit the consumer. 

5. Penal Reform: 

The Democratic Party reaffirms its view that the ultimate goal of our system 
is to deliver justice, not deal in retribution. This can best be done by emphasis on 
rehabilitation of the criminal offender through positive programs designed to 
support his early return to society, motivated to discharge his responsibilities and 
curb his anti-social behavior. 



176 North Carolina Manual 



To this end, we support employment of alternatives to prison for "first of- 
fenders" who pose no apparent threat of violence to life or property. 

We support wider use of pre-sentence investigations into the background and 
potential for rehabilitation of those convicted of crimes, as a guide to judges in 
determining the type and severity of the sentence they will impose. We urge 
adoption and funding of "pilot" programs to test this approach, believing that its 
benefits and savings far outweigh its costs. 

We urge a planned and coordinated program for addressing North Carolina's 
dire need for new prison construction, phasing out current outmoded and inadequate 
facilities as the new facilities are completed. 

We support improved psychological screening and services for prison inmates, 
and increased opportunities for education and vocational training. 

We support wider use under appropriate controls and on an "earned" basis for 
such approaches as "work release" and the use of "halfway houses", family counsel- 
ling, employment assistance, and similar measures designed to facilitate the return- 
ing prisoners' re-entry into society. 

Against this background of positive approach and emphasis on rehabilitation, 
we also call for tighter controls, especially in the areas of probation and parole, 
over those convicted of crimes which posed a clear threat to the safety and well- 
being of their fellow citizens. 

A major step towards positive reform of our Corrections system was accom- 
plished by the Democratic majority's action in passing legislation transferring 
Youth Services from the N.C. Department of Corrections to the N.C. Department of 
Human Resources. 

6. Public Safety: 

The Democratic Party supports the mandatory imposition of stiffer penalties 
on all criminals convicted for offenses involving the use of guns or other deadly 
weapons and the accompanying threat of death or injury to the innocent victims of 
the crime involved. We support any necessary statutory change to achieve this 
goal. 

Current law forbids the discharge of firearms in our cities. We urge legislative 
action to render illegal and subject to appropriate penalty the firing of a gun that 
poses a threat to an occupied dwelling in suburban areas or in the open country. 

7. Death Penalty: 

The question of the constitutionality of any death penalty is currently before 
the United States Supreme Court. 

The North Carolina Democratic Party recognizes division within its ranks on 
this issue. 

If the death penalty should be found constitutional by the nation's highest court 
the Democratic Party would support its application in North Carolina only in 
extreme cases. 



Democratic Party 177 

We recommend to the Attorney General and to the General Assembly a through 
review of all North Carolina statutes under which the death penalty might be 
imposed to assess their fairness in application and the appropriateness of the 
penalty to the offense. 

P. LEGISLATIVE AND GOVERNMENTAL REFORM 

The Democratic Party of North Carolina salutes progress under Democratic 
leadership in reforms of our legislative and governmental processes, but believes 
further reforms are indicated to fully establish a better "balance of powers" among 
the legislative, judicial, and executive branches. 

To that end, we suggest to the General Assembly consideration of action in the 
following areas: 

1. Gubernatorial Succession: 

Constitutional change that would permit North Carolina Governors to serve 
two consecutive terms in office. 

2. Gubernatorial Veto 

Constitutional provision for gubernatorial veto; 

3. Legislative Pay Increase 

Increases in the pay and allowances for members of the General Assembly in 
order to more adequately compensate them for the demands made upon them in 
delivering the services required of them, and to make legislative service more 
practical for persons of low or modest income. 

4. Standing Committees and Legislative Staffing 

Establishment of permanent standing committees with professional year-round 
staffing in both houses of the General Assembly to perform necessary research and 
support functions; and provision of more adequate professional staff support to 
both the Lieutenant Governor and the Speaker of the House. 

5. Lobby Control: 

Tighter control of lobbyists before the General Assembly, with stronger regula- 
tion of their efforts and expenditures in support of or in opposition to measuivs 
affecting their interests; 

6. Ethics — Legislative: 

Adoption of a strict Code of Ethics for the General Assembly, administered by 
a joint committee on Ethics with representation from Houses; and 

7. Ethics — Administrative- 
Legislative action establishing a clear Code of Ethics for state government 

employees at all levels, and a mechanism for enforcement of that code, as a statutory 



1 7S North Carolina Manual 



bar against the kind of excesses and abuses that have market the current Republican 
administration. 

8. Poivers of Lieutenant Governor: 

The office of Lieutenant Governor of North Carolina has had the authority to 
appoint members and chairmen of State Senate committees for over 100 years, and 
is the second-highest position in North Carolina. The Lieutenant Governor is 
elected by all the people of this state and acts on behalf of all the people. The 
influence of an official elected statewide by the people is needed in the General 
Assembly. The removal of this authority would tend to disturb the traditional 
balance between the executive and legislative branches of government. 

For these reasons, the North Carolina Democratic Party supports the tradi- 
tional authority of the Lieutenant Governor to appoint Senate committees and 
urges the North Carolina Senate to retain that authority. 

Q. MILITARY AND VETERANS AFFAIRS 

The Democratic Party and its members acknowledge the contribution made to 
the security of the nation by our veterans. We urge continuance and further 
expansion of programs designed to assist them in securing housing, employment, 
educational opportunities and medical benefits. 

We pledge continuing support through all appropriate agencies to the widows 
and orphans of veterans. 

We acknowledge the strong continuing contribution to our state in time of 
disaster or civil disorder by the North Carolina National Guard, and urge recogni- 
tion of their service and continuing support for these citizen-soldiers through the 
North Carolina Department of Military & Veterans Affairs. 

R. SENIOR CITIZENS 

The health, happiness, and welfare of our Senior Citizens are matters of great 
concern to the North Carolina Democratic Party. 

In their retirement years, they find the purchasing power of their fixed incomes 
eroded by inflation, and the economic independence they have spent a lifetime in 
building threatened. 

Efforts to coordinate services for Senior Citizens through the Governor's Co- 
ordinating Council on Aging have proved less than ideally effective, particularly 
under the current Republican administration. 

To better serve the needs of our Senior Citizens, the Democratic Party suggests 
establishment of an "Office for the Aging" within the North Carolina Department 
of Human Resources, charged with responsibility for monitoring and coordinating 
all programs, funds, and services flowing through state government in support of 
health, nutrition housing, recreation, employment, and other needs of our Senior 
Citizens. 

We commend to the General Assembly consideration of tax advantages for our 
Senior Citizens in both property and income taxes, recognizing their reduced earn- 
ing capacity. 



Democratic Party 179 

We suggest active initiatives to take full advantage of such federal programs 
as "Meals on Wheels" in support of Senior Citizens, with state government serving 
as their advocate in pursuit of such funds, and in the administration and supervision 
of such programs. 

We urge consideration of measures and programs that will permit Senior Citizens 
to enjoy the comfort and familiarity of their own homes as long as possible, assisted 
by home nursing vists and other supportive services as may be needed. 

Where circumstances dictate placement in a nursing home, a home for the 
aging, or public housing for the elderly, we pledge active inspection and enforcement 
of standards to protect their welfare. 

Recognizing that age along is no valid criterion against which to measure 
any individual's capacity for service, we pledge to support hiring of Senior Citizens 
on an equal basis in any employment they are able to undertake, backed by the full 
resources of the N.C. Employment Security Commission in their placement, and the 
full enforcement of the State's "equal employment" authority as a protection against 
discrimination based on age. 

Every effort must be made to provide for every Senior Citizen an opportunity 
for participation in family and community life as self-respecting members of society 
who have contributed much to their community and who still have much to offer. 

Recognizing the need for recreational outlets and social contact with their 
peers, we pledge strong support for "Senior Opportunity Centers" at community 
level, operated through state or local agencies, and with state assistance in planning, 
preparation of grant applications, pursuit of funding sources, and coordination of 
activities. 

We propose formation of a Commission on Aging, to survey the needs of our 
Senior Citizens and the efficiency of current programs in meeting those needs. This 
Commission would report its findings and recommendations to the Governor, the 
Secretaiy of Human Resources, and the legislature for appropriate action. 

Emphasis should also be placed on pre-retirement planning designed to help 
the middle-aged develop the financial base and cultivate the skills and interests 
that will serve them when they reach retirement age. 

Attainment of all these goals will require total coordination of all funding and 
activities in support of Senior Citizens at local, state, and federal levels. This co- 
ordination will be a principal activity of the proposed "Office for the Aging" in the 
North Carolina Department of Human Resources. 

The Democratic Party pledges operation of this agency without discrimination 
based on race, creed, sex, or national origin. 

We invite full participation in all Party affairs by all Senior Citizens on the 
same basis. 

S. SOCIAL SERVICES 

The Department of Social Services administered at County level through the 
North Carolina Department of Human Resources have become fundamental to 
maintaining the social health and well-being of our communities. 



180 North Carolina Manual 



The Democratic Party recognizes the importance of their programs serving the 
elderly, the disabled, the handicapped, abused or neglected children, families with 
dependent children, the poor and disadvantaged, and others. 

We pledge strong support for those services. At the same time, we support 
reforms designed to preserve the dignity and integrity of the family wherever 
possible. 

We must maintain a basic standard of living for our less fortunate neighbors, 
while emphasizing positive programs providing the counselling, education, voca- 
tional training, encouragement and moi'al support necessary to enable as many of 
these families to become self-sufficient as possible. 

We commend to the General Assembly consideration of specific legislation in 
four areas: 

(1) Allocation of additional funds to help meet the inflated cost of caring for 
children by "foster parents." 

(2) Provision of public funds to help underwrite costs of day care centers, 
freeing mothers of small children to seek employment in an effort to better 
provide for their families; 

(3) Allocation of sufficient funds to more adequately meet the needs of families 
with dependent children grants; and 

(4) Adoption of meaningful standards for all day cai-e facilities for children 
and all facilities for the elderly, and provision of adequate funding, staffing, 
and authority for their enforcement. 

T. STATE EMPLOYEES 

The Democratic Party commends North Carolina's thousands of state employees 
for their strong performance and positive contribution to the operation of state 
government in the face of partisan abuse and the absence of effective leadership 
under a Republican administration. 

We pledge that no state employee who is both competent and diligent in the 
performance of his duties need ever feel that his job is threatened for purely 
political reasons under a Democratic administration, On the other hand, no state 
employee who is not competent and diligent in his performance — regardless of Party 
affiliation — has any grounds to assume that his job will be protected for political 
reasons under a Democratic administration. 

The growing demands for state government services, compounded by the 
increasing costs of those services and declining revenues, make it more necessary 
than ever that every employee deliver a dollar's worth of service for every dollar 
received in pay. 

The Democratic Party recognizes that pay and fringe benefits for teachers and 
state employees have not kept pace with inflation under the Republican administra- 
tion. 



Democratic Party 181 



We pledge to upgrade their salaries and fringe benefits until they are once 
again more nearly competitive with those for comparable positions in the private 
sector, and their losses of the last three years made up. Once that position is at- 
tained, the Democratic Party will exert every effort to see that it is maintained in 
recognition of the contribution made by dedicated teachers and state employees 
to the orderly and efficient conduct of state government operations. 

We solicit active participation of all employees in an effort to identify and 
eliminate areas of waste and duplication, and achieve increased economy and 
heightened efficiency of government operations. 

The strength of the Democratic Party commitment to serving the best 
interests of state employees is attested to by the strong employee protections 
written into the State Personnel Act which became effective earlier this year by 
action of the Democratic majorities in the North Carolina House and Senate. 

The Democratic Party strongly supports the right of state employees under the 
Constitution and statutes of North Carolina to engage in political activity in sup- 
port of the Party of their choice in their off-duty hours, and to do so without 
political harassment and intimidation. 

U. TAXES AND TAX REFORM 

Already burdened with record continuing inflation, North Carolina taxpayers 
can ill-afford any imposition of new taxes or increase in existing taxes. 

The solution to the increasing cost of government services must lie primarily 
in better management of resources to yield a better return on tax dollars already 
flowing. 

There is prospect for additional revenue through plugging loopholes identified 
by the North Carolina Senate Commission which has been studying North Carolina's 
tax rate structure. 

This commission has charged that many North Carolina taxes are regressive 
and pose an unfair burden on our poorer citizens least able to pay. 

We commend for careful study and analysis in the 1977 session of the North 
Carolina General Assembly the recommendations made by the Senate Commission 
regarding tax reform. 

If sufficient additional revenue can be realized by plugging "loopholes" to 
offset the revenue loss which would be generated by lowering or dropping such 
regressive measures as the North Carolina sales tax on food, consideration should 
be given to the Commissions proposal to equalize the tax burden on North Carolina 
citizens in accordance with the principles of progressive tax reform. 

Such action would be in keeping with the Democratic Party's continuing com- 
mitment to a fair and equitable tax structure. 

V. TRANSPORTATION 

Good roads are fundamental to development of our full potential in business. 
agriculture, industry, education, and tourism. They are keys to both the economic 
and social development of our state. 



182 North Carolina Manual 



Innovative thinking and professional approaches unmarked by partisan con- 
siderations will be required to restore North Carolina to its former position as a 
leader among the states in the planning and the execution of its highway program. 

Both primary and secondary roads should be built and improved on a priority of 
need. Input from local citizens familiar with the current requirements and plans for 
future development of an area should be an integral part of the design process, and 
should be strongly considered in assigning priorities. 

The desirability of conservation of fuel to reduce dependence on foreign oil, the 
soaring price of gasoline, and a rising level of pollution from automobile emissions 
combine to make development of successful mass transit systems more important 
than ever. 

The Democratic Party supports allocation of funds to finance studies and pilot 
projects for mass transit systems and other alternatives to traditional approaches 
in transportation. 

Portions of highway funds should be allocated for development of bicycle trails 
across the state. 

New methods and materials in highway design and construction must be 
developed and tested to reduce soaring costs. 

We support research and testing aimed at protecting our environment by 
reducing levels of pollution from traditional internal combustion engines. 

Our State Ports are an integral part of our transportation system for moving 
our agricultural and our manufactured goods to the market place, and deserve 
stronger support in both current development and in planning to meet future needs. 

We call for both legislative and administrative action to help curb highway 
deaths, injuries, and property damage. A principal target in this effort must be the 
drinking driver who endangers his own life and the lives and property of his fellow 
citizens. 

We call for stronger enforcement of highway safety through an expanded State 
Highway Patrol freed of political involvement. 

The Democratic Party solicits voluntary participation and support from every 
North Carolina motorist in a comprehensive highway safety program. 

We urge that high priority be given to early completion of the interstate high- 
way system connectiong North Carolina with her neighbors on the north, south, and 
west, and linking her cities in a transportation network that will permit passage 
from Murphy to Manteo on an uninterrupted interstate system. 

W. WOMEN'S RIGHTS 

The Democratic Party both acknowledges and deplores the persistence in our 
society of inequalities in the status and treatment of women. 

We call, first, or the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment by the General 
Assembly. The passage of this constitutional amendment will, in time, eliminate 
discrimination against women under the law and will extend to them the full 
protection of the Constitution of the United States, which they are now denied. 



Democratic Party 183 



We call for active enforcement of the laws forbidding discrimination in educa- 
tion, including physical education, in employment and in commerce, and for govern- 
mental budgets commensurate with enforcement needs. We call for the General 
Assembly to increase the budget of the Council on Human Relations; to provide 
that Council with subpoena powers and with a mandate which extends their charge 
to cover sex discrimination. 

We underscore our belief that there should be equal pay for equal work; we 
call for promotion in employment on the basis of performance and ability without 
regard to sex; and for employer sponsorship of educational and developmental 
processes which will bridge the gap created by past exclusion from such develop- 
mental processes. We call further for the state as employer to implement such 
processes, including in-grade training, an upgrade and transfer program, fringe 
benefits for part time workers and flexible scheduling. 

Women should and must be equitably represented in management and super- 
visory positions in both the public and private sectors; on the committees and 
commissions of state government; in top staff jobs at the policy-making levels of 
government, and in our political organizations. 

We are aware of the fact that women who are over 65 and alone are the poorest 
single segment of our population and that, for them, age discrimination must be 
added to that of sex and, sometimes, race. We call for immediate action in this area 
by our government and representatives. 

Since it is clear that some further mandate is required to ensure fair repre- 
sentation in Democratic Party councils and delegations, we call for reinstitution of 
language which indicates that there shall be an attempt to have reasonable repre- 
sentation of the population elements of the Democratic electorate on its bodies and 
councils at all levels of the Party, including and especially women, blacks, and 
Indians. This in no way refers to mandatory quotas. 

Since the Democratic electorate is composed of over 50% women, and women 
do much of the work of the Party, it is not quite appropriate for this plank to say, 
"We encourage the full participation of women." Rather, we encourage present 
party leaders, at every level, to recognize the importance of women to the Party, 
and to make sure that women have the opportunity to take their places in the 
decision-making and councils of the Party. 

X. YOUTH 

Our youth are the foundation upon which we build the future. We recognize 
their achievements, and reaffirm our confidence in them. 

We urge them to obtain the best possible education to prepare them for life and 
the fulfillment of their obligation as citizens. 

The Democratic Party pledges continuing efforts to instill in our youth an 
understanding and appreciation of good government, not only by example, but by 
encouraging their active involvement in Party affairs. 

Y. VOLUNTEER FIREMEN & RESCUE SQUADS 

The Democratic Party recognizes and commends the invaluable contribution 
to the protection of life and property made by the thousands of our citizens who 



184 North Carolina Manual 



donate freely of their time in service with Volunteer Fire Departments, Rescue 
Squads, REACT Teams, and similar service organizations across the state. 

The time they donate, both in training and in actual service, would be beyond 
the capacity of state or local government to pay for. The highly professional per- 
formance they deliver compares most favorably with that of full-time salaried 
personnel in their fields. 

We urge the legislature to provide every possible assistance to these groups, 
including support where possible in their training and equipment, and extension 
of such basic protections as Workmen's Compensation when they are injured on the 
job protecting their fellow citizens, and survivor benefits for their families when 
they are killed in the line of duty. 

We urge the Governor to proclaim a "Good Samaritan Week" each year, calling 
attention to their invaluable and selfless community service, and affording ap- 
propriate public recognition for the contribution they make 'to the protection of life 
and property across the State. 



Democratic Party 185 



PLAN OF ORGANIZATION 
PREAMBLE 

We, the members of the Democratic Party in North Carolina, in order to 
make more effective the principles of our Party, to embrace and serve all peoples 
of our Party without regard to race, age or sex, to insure the blessings of liberty 
and equal opportunity and to work together for the welfare and happiness of all 
citizens, do hereby adopt and establish this Plan of Organization. 

STATEMENT OF PRINCIPLES OF THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY 

(a) All public meetings at all levels of the Democratic Party in North Carolina 
shall be open to all members of the Democratic Party regardless of race, sex, 
age, color, creed, national origin, religion, ethnic identity, economic status, or 
philosophical persuasion. 

(b) Special efforts shall be made to encourage traditionally underrepresented 
groups to participate in delegate selection processes and in Party organiza- 
tions at all levels to the end that all electc 1 or appointed Democrats to any 
positions reasonably reflect the Democratic electorate of the unit with regard 
to age, race, sex and ethnic origin. 

(c) No test for membership in, nor any oath of loyalty to, the Democratic Party 
in North Carolina shall be required or used which has the effect of requiring 
prospective or current members of the Democratic Party to acquiesce in, con- 
done or support discrimination on the grounds of race, sex, age, color, creed, 
national origin, religion, ethnic identity or economic status. 

(d) The time and place for all public meetings of the Democratic Party on all 
levels shall be publicized fully and in such a manner as to assure timely notice 
to all interested persons. Such meetings must be held in places accessible to 
all Party members and large enough to accommodate all interested persons. 

(e) The Democratic Party, on all levels, shall actively support the broadest pos- 
sible registration without discrimination on grounds of race, sex, age, color, 
creed, national origin, religion, ethnic identity, or economic status. 

(f) The Democratic Party in North Carolina shall publicize fully and in such a 
manner as to assure notice to all interested parties a full description of the 
legal and practical procedures for selection of Democratic Party officers and 
representatives on all levels. Publication of these procedures should be done in 
such fashion that all prospective and current members of the Democratic 
Party will be fully and adequately informed of the pertinent procedures in 
time to participate in each selection procedure at all levels of the Democratic 
Party organization. 

(g) The Democratic Party in North Carolina shall publicize fully and in such a 
manner as to assure notice to all interested parties a complete description of 
the legal and practical qualifications of all officers and representatives of the 
Democratic Party. Such publication should be done in timely fashion so that 
all prospective candidates or applicants for any elected or appointed position 
within the Democratic Party will have full and adequate opportunity to 
compete for office. 



186 North Carolina Manual 

ARTICLE I 
PRECINCT ORGANIZATION 

Section 1. Precinct Committee: The unit of the Democratic Party organiza- 
tion in the State of North Carolina shall be the voting precinct. In each precinct, 
there shall be a Precinct Committee consisting of ten active Democrats, who re- 
side in the precinct, and who should, but need not necessarily, be present when 
elected by the active Democrats of said precinct present at the biennial precinct 
meeting. The composition of the Precinct Committee should bear a reasonable re- 
lationship to the make-up of the active Democrats of said precinct as to sex, age, 
ethnic background and, where practical, geographic. 

No two officers of the Precinct Committee shall be from the same immediate 
family. The terms of office of the members and officers of the Precinct Committee 
shall expire on the date set for the next succeeding biennial precinct meeting or 
when their successors shall be elected or appointed, whichever shall occur first. 

SECTION 2. Precinct Meetings: Precinct meetings shall be held annually in 
accordance with the dates announced by the State Chairman pursuant to Article 4, 
Section 7. These meetings shall be convened prior to June 1 at the polling place of 
each precinct. In the event a quorum is not present, there shall be a second meeting 
of the precinct one week following the date set by the State Chairman for the first 
meeting. These meetings shall convene at the polling place of each precinct. 

The first order of business at the biennial precinct meetings, held in odd- 
numbered years, shall be the election of five officers of the Precinct Committee, 
followed by the election of five other active Democrats to the Precinct Committee 
and the election of delegates to county conventions. The officers of the Precinct 
Committee shall be a Chairman, three Vice-Chairmen and a Secretary-Treasurer. 

The first order of business at the biennial precinct meetings, held in even- 
numbered years, shall be the election of delegates to county conventions. Active 
Democrats in attendance may nominate delegates and alternates to represent the 
county in the District and State Conventions. The second order of business shall be 
the filling of vacancies that exists among the officers and other positions on the 
Precinct Committee. 

The precinct meetings shall be presided over by the Chairman of the Precinct 
Committee; but, in his absence, the Vice-Chairman of the Committee in order of 
succession shall preside, and in the absence of both the Chairman and the several 
Vice-Chairmen, any member of the Committee may preside. In the event that none 
of the above named are present, any active Democrat residing in the precinct may 
preside. 

Section 3. Quorum: A quorum for any precinct meeting shall consist of not 
less than ten active Democrats in such precinct. In the event a quorum is not 
present at the first date set for the biennial precinct meeting, a second meeting 
shall be held as provided in Article I, Section 2. In precincts having fewer than 
twenty registered and active Democrats, one-half of such registered active Demo- 
crats shall be sufficient to comprise the Precinct Committee and to constitute a 
quorum at the biennial precinct meeting. 



Democratic Party 187 



Section 4. Voting: Each active Democrat present at the biennial precinct 
meeting shall be entitled to cast one vote at said meeting. 

Section 5. Business Permitted: At every precinct meeting, if requested, a 
vote shall be taken on the different questions, nominations, and elections anticipated 
to come before the County Convention, and in that event, the Chairman or presid- 
ing officer and the Secretary of the precinct meeting shall certify to the County 
Convention, and in that event, the Chairman or presiding officer and the Secretary 
of the precinct meeting shall certify to the County Convention the vote so cast, 
and the relative vote as cast in the precinct meeting shall be reflected in the vote of 
the precinct delegates at the County Convention on said matters. 

Section 6. Representation: No precinct shall be entitled to send delegates to 
any County Convention unless those delegates were elected at a biennial precinct 
meeting at which a quorum was present. No precinct shall be entitled to represen- 
tation on the County Executive Committee unless a Precinct Committee and Pre- 
cinct Committee officers were elected at a biennial precinct meeting at which a 
quorum was present. 

Section 7. Election of Delegates: Each precinct shall be entitled to cast at 
any County Convention one vote for every fifty Democratic votes or major fraction 
thereof cast by the precinct for Governor at the last gubernatorial election; pro- 
vided that every precinct shall be entitled to cast at least one vote in the County 
Convention. 

At the annual precinct meeting, the active Democrats in attendance shall elect 
delegates and alternates to represent the precinct at the annual County Convention 
to cast said votes, and in even-numbered years may nominate delegates and 
alternates to represent the county in the District and State Conventions. Each 
precinct may elect as many delegates to the annual County Convention as it may see 
fit, not exceeding three delegates and three alternates for each vote to which said 
precinct is entitled at the biennial County Convention; provided that each precinct 
shall elect at least one delegate for each vote to which it is entitled at the County 
Convention. 

The Chairman, or presiding officer and the Secretary-Treasurer of the Pre- 
cinct Committee shall certify to the County Chairman the names of the delegates 
and alternates elected at the annual pi-ecinct meeting. 

Section 8. Removal of Officers and Committee Members: Any Precinct 
Chairman, Vice-Chairman or Precinct Committee member who gives support to, 
aids, or helps any opposing political Party or candidate of any other political 
Party, or who refuses or fails to perform his or her duties in organizing the pre- 
cinct, or who is convicted of a crime involving moral turpitude, shall be removed 
from office in the following manner : 

(1) A complaint setting forth all details and duly verified shall be filed with 
the County Chairman by three active Democrats registered in the county of the 
said officer or committee member. The County Chairman shall upon the approval 
of a majority of the other committee officers and after giving five days notice 



iss North Carolina Manual 



thereof, call a meeting of the County Executive Committee to hear the complain- 
ant, the alleged offender and any other interested parties or witnesses. A two- 
thirds vote of those members present and voting, as provided in Article II, Section 
2, shall be necessary to remove a precinct officer or committee member. The de- 
cision of the County Executive Committee shall be final. 

(2, [f the complainant so desires, rather than the approach listed above, a 
complaint setting forth full details and duty verified shall be filed by the County 
Chairman or by three active Democrats with the State Chairman who shall, upon 
the approval of a majority of the other committee officers, and after giving five 
days notice thereof, call a meeting of the Council of Review to hear the complain- 
ant, the alleged offender and any other interested parties or witnesses. A majority 
vote of those members of the Council of Review present and voting shall be neces- 
sary to remove an officer or committee member. The decision of the Council of 
Review shall be final. 

(3) When a vacancy exists because of removal for cause, the vacancy shall 
be filled by the remaining members of the Precinct Committee at a meeting called 
by the County Chairman within thirty days after such removal for cause. Notice 
of the filling of such vacancy shall be given to the County Chairman. The County 
Chairman shall cause a detailed account of any removal and replacement to be 
filed with the State Chairman. 



ARTICLE II 

COUNTY ORGANIZATIONS 

Section 1. Composition of County Executive Committee: The officers of the 
County Executive Committee; the Chairman and First Vice-Chairman of the 
several Precinct Committees; the Presidents of the duly organized Democratic- 
Men's Clubs within the county; the Presidents of the duly organized Democratic- 
Women's Clubs within the county; the Presidents of the duly organized Young 
Democratic Clubs within the county; the Presidents of the duly organized College 
Federation Clubs within the county; and the Presidents of the duly organized 
Teen Dem Clubs within the county shall compose the County Executive Committee. 

The County Chairman shall determine what shall constitute a duly organized 
Democratic Men's Club within a county and certify the name of the member who 
is to represent such club on the County Executive Committee. 

The President of the Democratic Women of North Carolina shall determine 
what shall constitute a duly organized Democratic Women's Club within a county 
and shall certify the name of the member who is to represent such club on the 
County Executive Committee to the County Chairman. 

The President of the Young Democratic Clubs of North Carolina shall de- 
termine what shall constitute a duly organized Young Democratic Club and Col- 
lege Federation Club within a county and shall certify the name of the member 
who is to represent such club on the County Executive Committee to the County 
Chairman. 



Democratic Party 189 



The State Teen Dem Advisor shall determine what shall constitute a duly 
organized Teen Dem Club within a county and shall certify the name of the mem- 
ber who is to represent such club on the County Executive Committee to the 
County Chairman. 

Section 2. Voting on the County Executive Committee: Each officer of the 
County Executive Committee shall be entitled to one vote. 

The several Precinct Chairmen and First Vice-Chairman shall be entitled as 
members of the County Executive Committee to cast for their precinct one vote 
for each fifty Democratic votes or major fraction thereof cast by their precinct for 
Governor at the last preceding gubernatorial election, provided that each Precinct 
Chairman and First Vice-Chairman together shall be entitled to cast for their 
precinct a minimum of one vote. In the event that the two members should dis- 
agree on how their precinct's votes will be cast, then each member shall cast ex- 
actly one-half of the votes which their precinct is entitled to cast. In the event 
that only one precinct officer who is a member of the County Executive Committee 
is present at a meeting of said committee and the other precinct officer who is a 
member of the County Executive Committee has not designated a Democrat as his, 
or her, alternate, in accord with Article IX, Section 3, who is present, then the 
precinct officer who is present shall be entitled to cast only one-half of the votes 
to which said precinct is entitled. 

A properly certified member of a Democratic Men's Club, Democratic Wo- 
men's Club, County Young Democratic Club, College Federation Club, and Teen 
Dem Club, respectively shall be entitled to one vote subject to the provisions that 
where there are two or more Democratic Men's Clubs organized within a county, 
the properly certified members of the various clubs shall share one vote, with each 
club having a portion of said vote in proportion to the ratio of its membership to 
the total membership of the combined clubs. This same provision shall apply where 
there are two or more Democratic Women's Clubs, two or more County Young 
Democratic Clubs, two or more College Federation Clubs, or two or more Teen 
Dem Clubs. 

Section 3. Officers of the County Executive Committee: The County Execu- 
tive Committee shall have as officers a Chairman, three Vice-Chairmen, a Secre- 
tary and a Treasurer. The First Vice-Chairman must be of opposite sex to the 
Chairman. If the Chairman and First Vice-Chairman are of the same race, the 
Second Vice-Chairman must be of that race other than the race of the Chairman 
and First Vice-Chairman, which constitutes at least twenty percent of the register- 
ed Democratic voters in the county. The Third Vice-Chairman shall be thirty 
years of age or under, if none of the other officers of the County Executive Com- 
mittee are thirty years of age or under. Officers of a County Executive Commit- 
tee shall be active Democrats residing within the county. 

Each county that contains two or more municipalities of a population of more 
than sixty thousand persons each shall have, in addition to the officers specified 
above, one Vice-Chairman for each such municipality; provided, that the Vice- 
Chairman so elected shall be a resident of such municipality and shall be elected 
by the Precinct Chairman and First Vice-Chairman for the precincts constituting 
such a municipality. 



190 North Carolina Manual 



Should any precinct official be elected as an officer of the County Executive 
Committee, he or she automatically vacates the precinct office. Should a Precinct 
Chairman or First Vice-Chairman be elected as President of a Democratic Men's 
Club, Democratic Women's Club, County Young Democratic Club, College Federa- 
tion Club, or Teen Dem Club, some other member of said organization shall be 
certified as the representative of that organization on the County Executive Com- 
mittee. 

A person who has served as an officer of a County Executive Committee for 
two full consecutive terms shall not be eligible for re-election to that particular 
office, provided that after such office has been held by another individual (s) for 
one full term such person shall be eligible for election to that office again. Time 
served since the Party meetings held in the spring of 1968 shall be considered in 
the enforcement of this provision. 

If for any reason there should occur any vacancy in the Chairmanship of the 
County Executive Committee, by death, resignation, or removal, the Vice-Chair- 
men in their order of succession, and thereafter the Secretary, shall in such order 
of succession, be vested with full authority and power of the Chairman until such 
time as the County Executive Committee has met and duly elected a successor to 
such Chairman. 

If a County Chairman should be incapacitated then upon written notice to 
such Chairmen signed by the remaining officers of the County Executive Commit- 
tee, the Vice-Chairman in their order of succession, and thereafter the Secretary 
and the Treasurer, shall in such order of succession, be vested with the full 
authority and power of the Chairman until such time as the County Executive 
Committee has met and duly elected a successor to such Chairman. 

When the County Executive Committee is not in session, the officers of the 
County Executive Committee shall act in the place of the County Executive Com- 
mittee on all matters; unless this Plan of Organization states that action is to be 
by the entire County Executive Committee. 

Section 4. County Executive Committee Meetings: The County Chairman 
shall issue a call for a meeting of the County Executive Committee periodically, 
but not less than once annually. In addition to the other business specified in the 
call, the said committee may adopt resolutions fixing a day, time, and place for the 
holding of additional Precinct Committee meetings; and, may provide for precinct 
meetings for the election of a Precinct Committee and precinct officers in any pre- 
cinct created by the Board of Elections since the immediate preceding general 
election, or in any precinct in said county which is not properly organized. Such 
committee and officers shall serve until the subsequent biennial precinct meeting 
fixed by this Plan of Organization. The call and resolutions herein above referred 
to shall be posted at the courthouse door of the county and copies thereof shall be 
sent as a news item to each news media published in the county. Any precinct 
meeting provided for in this section shall be held more than two weeks before the 
day fixed by this Plan of Organization for the biennial precinct meeting. 

Section 5. Duties of County Officers: The duties of the County Executive 
Committee officer., ihall be: 



Democratic Party 191 



(1) The Chairman shall be responsible for the organization of the county of 
political instruction classes for Precinct Committees, obtaining- all materials neces- 
sary for the proper performance of his, or her, duties and doing all other x hings 
necessary for the proper carrying out of the best interest of the Party. 

The Chairman shall appoint a Publicity Chairman who shall have the duties 
and responsibilities of disseminating information to registered Democrats of the 
county describing the qualifications and the procedures for selection of delegates 
and officrs at all levels of the Democratic Party. 

Thirty days prior to the annual County Convention, the County Chairman 
shall designate the exact place at which such convention is to be held. In addition, 
the County Chairman shall perform such duties as are set forth in Article IV, 
Section 6. 

(2) The Vice-Chairman of the County Executive Committee shall have such 
duties and responsibilities as may be assigned by the Chairman. 

(3) The Secretary shall have the duty and responsibility of keeping all 
records of the County Executive Committee, including attendance at all meetings, 
of issuing all notices, preparing all correspondence, and any other duties that may 
be assigned to him, or her, by the Chairman. 

(4) The Treasurer shall have the duty of raising all money required for the 
operation and activities of the Democratic Party, keep records of all money re- 
ceived and expended in behalf of the Party and maintain a list of the name and 
address of all donors. The Treasurer shall also submit any and all reports, as 
required by the law, of the finances of the County Executive Committee. 

Section 6. Board of Elections: The County Chairman shall, before submit- 
ting to the State Chairman recommendations for the Democratic members of the 
County Board of Elections in such county, call a meeting of the County Executive 
Committee and submit such recommendations for the approval of the County Ex- 
ecutive Committee and only when such recommendations are approved by a ma- 
jority of the committee members present and voting as provided in Section 2 of 
this Article, shall the same be submitted to the State Chairman by the County 
Chairman. The time of such meeting of the respective County Executive Commit- 
tees for the purpose of passing on such recommendations shall be fixed by the 
State Chairman. 

No member or officer of a County Executive Committee shall be eligible to 
serve as a member of a County Board of Elections, nor as a Precinct Registrar, 
or Judge of Elections. 

No person, while acting as a member of a County Board of Elections, shall 
serve as a state, district or county campaign manager or treasurer of any candi- 
date in a primary election or as a chairman of any state, district or county political 
organization. 

SECTION 7. Rules: The County Executive Committee shall have power to 
make any rules with regard to the holding of precinct meetings which it may deem 
proper, not inconsistent with this Plan of Organization. It shall be the duty of the 



192 North Carolina Manual 



County Executive Committee to notify the Precinct Chairman or person who is to 
preside at the biennial precinct meeting of the date, time and place of the biennial 
County Convention and the votes that each precinct is entitled to cast at the County 
Convention; to prepare and furnish all forms and blanks needed in making the 
returns from the precinct meetings and any reported challenges and appeals there- 
from ; and it shall have the power to raise the funds necessary to pay for the ex- 
penses thereof. 

The County Secretary shall forward a copy of each precinct organization and 
officers of the county organization to the State Chairman. 

Section 8. Removal of County Officers: Any officer of the County Executive 
Committee who gives support to, aids, or helps any opposing political Party or 
candidate of any other political Party, or who refuses or fails to perform his, or 
her, duties in organizing the county, or who is convicted of a crime involving moral 
turpitude, shall be removed from office in the following manner: 

(1) A complaint setting forth full details and duly verified shall be filed with 
the State Chairman by three active Democrats in the county. The State Chair- 
man shall, upon the approval of a majority of the other State Executive Commit- 
tee elected officers, after giving five days notice thereof, call a meeting of the 
Council of Review to hear the complainant, the alleged offender and any other in- 
terested parties or witnesses. A majority vote of those members of the Council of 
Review present and voting shall be necessary to remove a county officer. The de- 
cision of the Council of Review shall be final. 

(2) If, in the opinion of the State Chairman, a County Chairman or other 
officer is disloyal or refuses to perform his or her duty, he or she shall, after the 
approval of a majority of the other State Executive Committee elected officers, 
file a complaint with the Chairman of the Council of Review outlining his or her 
charges and after giving five days notice thereof, call a meeting of the Council of 
Review to sit in executive session unless otherwise requested by the accused and 
determine whether the county officer named in the complaint should be removed 
from office. The officer can be represented by counsel if he or she desires. A ma- 
jority vote of those members of the Council of Review present and voting shall be 
necessary to remove a county officer. The decision of the Council of Review shall 
be final. 

ARTICLE III 

SECTIONAL ORGANIZATION 

Section 1. Congressional District Executive Committee : There shall be a 
Congressional District Executive Committee for each Congressional District in 
the state. It shall be composed of two members from each county in the district. 
These members shall be elected at their respective biennial County Conventions 
held in even-numbered years. These two members shall be entitled to cast for their 
county one vote for each three hundred Democratic votes or major fraction thereof 
cast by their county for Governor at the last preceding gubernatorial election. In 
the event that the two members should disagree on how their county's votes will 
be cast, then each member shall cast exactly one-half of the votes which their county 



Democratic Party 193 



is entitled to cast. If only one representative of a county is present at a meeting of 
this committee and the other member from that county on this committee has not 
designated a Democrat as his or her alternate, in accord with Article IX, Section 3, 
who is present, then such representative shall be entitled to cast all of the votes 
which the county is entitled to cast. 

Section 2. Judicial District Executive Committee: There shall be a Judicial 
District Executive Committee for each Judicial District in the state. It shall be 
composed of two members from each county in the district. These members shall 
be elected at their respective biennial County Conventions held in even-numbered 
years. These two members shall be entitled to cast for their county one vote for each 
three hundred Democratic votes or major fraction thereof cast by their county for 
Governor at the last preceding gubernatorial election. In the event that the two 
members should disagree on how their county's votes will be cast, then each member 
shall cast exactly one-half of the votes which their county is entitled to cast. This 
committee shall, in addition to its other duties, perform such duties as may be im- 
posed upon a Solicitorial District Executive Committee by the General Statutes of 
North Carolina and as would normally be performed by a Solicitorial District 
Executive Committee. If only one representative of a county is present at a meeting 
of this committee and the other member from that county has not designated a 
Democrat as his or her alternate, in accord with Article IX, Section 3, who is 
present, then such representative shall be entitled to cast all of the votes which 
the county is entitled to cast. 

Section 3. State Senatorial District Executive Committee ; There shall be a 
State Senatorial District Executive Committee for each State Senatorial District 
in the state. It shall be composed of two members from each county in the district. 
These members shall be elected at their respective biennial County Conventions 
held in even-numbered years. These two members shall be entitled to cast for their 
county one vote for each three hundred Democratic votes or major fraction thereof 
cast by their county for Governor at the last preceding gubernatorial election. In 
the event that the two members should disagree on how their county's votes will be 
cast, then each member shall cast exactly one-half of the votes which their county is 
entitled to cast. If only one representative of a county is present at a meeting of this 
committee and the other member from the county on this committee has not de- 
signated a Democrat as his or her alternate, in accord with Article IX, Section 3, 
who is present, then such representative shall be entitled to cast all of the votes 
which the county is entitled to cast. 

Section 4. House of Representatives District Executive Committee: There 
shall be a House of Representatives District Executive Committee for each House 
of Representatives District in the state. It shall be composed of two members 
from each county in the district. These members shall be elected at their respec- 
tive biennial County Conventions held in even-numbered years. These two members 
shall be entitled to cast for their county one vote for each three hundred Democratic 
votes or major fraction thereof cast by their county for the Governor at the last 
preceding gubernatorial election. In the event that the two members should disagree 
on how their county's votes will be cast, then each member shall cast exactly one- 
half of the votes which their county is entitled to cast. If only one representative of 
a county is present at a meeting of this committee and the other member from that 



194 North Carolina Manual 

county on this committee has not designated a Democrat as his or her alternate, in 
accord with Article IX, Section 3, who is present, then such representative shall be 
entitled to cast all of the votes which the county is entitled to cast. 

Section 5. Officers of District Executive Committees: It shall be the duty of 
the State Chairman as soon as practical after the biennial County Conventions held 
in even-numbered years to appoint one member as Chairman and one member as 
Secretary of each of the District Executive Committees provided for in Sections 1-4 
of this Article; provided, that the first order of business at the biennial Congres- 
sional District Convention held in even-numbered years shall be the election of a 
Congressional District Chairman who shall preside at said Congressional District 
Convention and serve as Chairman of the Congressional District Executive Com- 
mittee until the next biennial Congressional District Convention. The State Chair- 
man shall fill by appointment any vacancies in the Chairmanship or Secretaryship 
of the various District Executive Committees. A person appointed as Chairman of 
any District Executive Committee shall retain his or her voting rights as a member 
of the particular District Executive Committee to which he or she was elected. 

Section 6. One County Districts: Should any Congressional, Judicial, Solici- 
torial, State Senatorial or House of Representatives District be composed of only 
one county then the County Executive Committee of said county shall be the Con- 
gressional, Judicial, State Senatorial or House of Representatives District Execu- 
tive Committee for the respective district. 

Section 7. Removal of District Committee Officers and Members: Any officer 
or member of a District Executive Committee who gives support to, aids or helps 
any opposing political Party or candidate of any other political Party, or who re- 
fuses or fails to perform his or her duties, or who is convicted of a crime involving 
moral turpitude, shall be removed from office in the following manner: 

(1) A complaint setting forth full details and duly verified shall be filed with 
the State Chairman by three active Democrats in the district . The State Chairman 
shall, upon the approval of a majority of the other State Executive Committee 
elected officers, after giving five days notice thereof, call a meeting of the Council 
of Review to hear the complainant, the alledged offender and any other interested 
parties or witnesses. A majority vote of those members of the Council of Review 
present and voting shall be necessary to remove an officer or member of a District 
Executive Committee. The decision of the Council of Review shall be final. 

(2) If, in the opinion of the State Chairman, an officer or member of a District 
Executive Committee is disloyal or refuses to perform his or her duties, he or she 
shall, after the approval of a majority of the other State Executive Committee 
elected officers, file a complaint with the Chairman of the Council of Review out- 
lining his or her charges and after giving five days notice thereof, call a meeting 
of the Council of Review to sit in executive session unless otherwise requested by 
the accused and determine whether the District Executive Committee officer or 
member named in his complaint should be removed from office. The officer can be 
represented by counsel if he or she desires. A majority vote of those members of 
the Council of Review present and voting shall be necessary to remove a county 
officer. The decision of the Council of Review shall be final. 



Democratic Party 195 

ARTICLE IV 

STATE ORGANIZATION 

Section 1. State Executive Committee: The State Democratic Executive 
Committee shall consist of its elected officers, appointed officers, ex-officio officers, 
ex-officio members and a person or persons from each county in the State who 
shall be elected at the County Convention held on odd-numbered years. Each 
county is entitled to one member of the State Executive Committee for each three 
thousand Democratic votes or major fraction thereof cast by that county for 
Governor at the last preceeding gubernatorial election, provided, however, that 
each county shall have at least one member. The County Chairman shall be the 
member or one of the members elected from the county ; provided that in counties 
which are entitled to only one member of the State Democratic Excutive Commit- 
tee, the County Chairman may be the member elected from the county. 

When the State Executive Committee is not in session, the elected, appointed, 
and ex-officio officers of the State Executive Committee shall act in the place of the 
State Executive Committee in all matters, except those requiring action by the en- 
tire Executive Committee as stated by this Plan of Organization. The officers of the 
State Executive Committee must meet at least once every three months upon call 
of the State Chairman or upon request of a majority of the officers. 

The term of office of the members of the State Executive Committee shall be 
for two years and shall expire on the date set for the next succeeding biennial 
County Convention following their election or when their successors shall be elect- 
ed, whichever shall occur first. 

Vacancies occurring on the State Executive Committee shall be filled by the 
County Executive Committee of the county in which such vacancies exist. Within 
sixty days following the creation of a vacancy, the County Chairman shall call a 
meeting of the County Executive Committee to fill the vacancy. The meeting shall 
be held not less than ten days following formal notice of said meeting. 

Section 2. Elected Officers: In each odd-numbered year, the State Chairman 
shall convene the State Executive Committee prior to March 1st for the purpose of 
electing its officers. The State Executive Committee shall have as its elected 
officers a Chairman, three Vice-Chairmen and a Secretary. The First Vice-Chair- 
man must be of opposite sex to the Chairman. If the Chairman and First Vice- 
Chairman are of the same race, the Second Vice-Chairman must be of that race, 
other than the race of the Chairman and First Vice-Chairman, which constitutes 
at least twenty percent of the registered Democratic voters in he State. 

If for any reason there should occur a vacancy in the Chairmanship of the 
State Executive Committee, the Vice-Chairman of the Committee in order of suc- 
cession shall be vested with full authority and power of the Chairman until such 
time as the State Executive Committee has met and duly elected a successor to 
such Chairman. 

Section 3. Appointed Officers: The Chairman of the State Executive Com- 
mittee shall appoint a Chairman of Minority Affairs, a Treasurer and State Ad- 
visor of the Teenage Democrats to serve at his or her pleasure. 



196 North Carolina Manual 



Section 4. Ex-officio Officers: lhe President of the Democratic Women of 
North Carolina and the President of the Young Democratic Clubs of North Caro- 
lina shall serve as ex-officio officers of the State Executive Committee. 

Section 5. Ex-officio Members: The other members of the Democratic Na- 
tiunal Committee from North Carolina and the National Committeeman and Na- 
tional Committeewoman of the Young- Democratic Clubs shall be ex-officiu mem- 
bers of the State Executive Committee. 

SECTION 0. Voting on the State Executive Committee : All members of the 
State Executive Committee whether elected, appointed or ex-officio shall be entitled 
to one vote. 

SECTION 7. Duties of the Chairman and Certain officers: (1) The Chair- 
man shall be responsible for State Party organization and for doing all things 
necessary in carrying out the best interest of the Party. He, or she, shall convene 
the State Executive Committee at least annually, set dates of state-wide annual 
meetings and conventions, appoint appropriate committees for carrying out neces- 
sary activities of the Party, and obtain all materials necessary for the proper per- 
formance of his, or her, duties. 

(2) The Secretary shall have the duty and responsibility of having kept all 
records of the State Executive Committee including attendance at all meetings, 
having issued all notices, having all correspondence prepared, and carrying out any 
other duties that may be assigned by the Chairman. 

(3) The Treasurer shall have the duty of directing the raising and disbursing 
of funds for the operation and activities of the State Democratic Party. He, or 
she, shall have kept records of all money received and expended in behalf of the 
Party and shall have prepared lists of all donors and shall have prepared all re- 
ports as may be required by State or Federal regulations. 

(4) The State Advisor of the Teenage Democrats shall have the duty of pro- 
pagating Teen Dem Clubs throughout North Carolina and of providing guidance 
and coordination for Teenage Democratic operations and activities. 

Section 8. State Executive Director: A full time Executive Director shall be 
selected by the elected officers of the State Executive Committee and shall be em- 
ployed by contractual agreement. The performance and contract of the Executive 
Director shall be subject to annual review by the elected officers. The Executive 
Director shall serve without vote as an ex-officio member of the State Executive 
Committee. The administrative staff of the State Democratic Headquarters shall 
be employed by and under the supervision of the Executive Director. 

Section 9. Call for Party Meetings: At least 10 days prior to any meeting of 
the State Executive Committee notices shall be mailed stating date, time, place 
and proposed agenda of such meeting. 

Upon written receipt of petition from 40% of the State Executive Committee, 
the State Chairman shall call a meeting of the full State Executive Committee 
within thirty days. 



Democratic Party 197 



SECTION 10. Order of Business of the State Executive Committee : Each year, 
the State Chairman shall convene the State Executive Committee prior to March 
1st. In the even-numbered years at such meeting of the State Executive Commit- 
tee, it shall be the duty of the State Chairman to publicly announce and enter into 
the proceedings of that meeting the following as the first order of business: 

(1) The exact day on which the precinct meetings are to be held in accordance 
with Article I, Section 2. 

(2) The exact date and time at which County Conventions are to be held in 
accordance with Article V, Section 1. 

(3) The exact date and time at which Congressional District Conventions are 
to be held in accordance with Article VI, Section 1. In addition, the State Chair- 
man shall designate the town or city in which such Conventions shall be held. 

(4) The exact date, time and place at which the State Convention is to be held 
in accordance with Article VI, Section 2. 

(5) In promulgating the dates for County, District and State Conventions, 
the State Chairman shall set the dates for such Conventions so as to provide a 
reasonable time between all such meetings for the resolutions adopted by the 
various Conventions to the Resolutions and Platform Committee of the State Con- 
vention. 

(6) In each even-numbered year the State Chairman shall announce the 
number of votes to which each county is entitled at the biennial Congressional 
District Conventions and at the biennial State Convention; the number of persons 
which each county shall elect as members of the State Democratic Executive Com- 
mittee; and the total number of votes which the representatives of a county are 
entitled to cast as members of the several District Executive Committees provided 
for in Article III. 

(7) The State Party Chairman shall designate a temporary Chairman to 
preside at the Congressional District Convention until such time as a Congres- 
sional District Chairman is elected. It shall be the duty of said temporary Chair- 
man to make arrangements for the holding of said District Convention. 

(8) In each even-numbered year the financial statement and the proposed 
biennial budget shall be presented for approval. 

Section 11. Notice of Party Meetings: Each year immediately after the adjourn- 
ment of the above mentioned meeting of the State Executive Committee, it shall be 
the duty of the State Chairman to publish the proceedings of the same and it shall 
be the duty of the State Secretary to notify, in writing, the several County Chairmen 
of the date and places so fixed for the holding of precinct meetings and the date, 
time and places for holding Conventions; in even-numbered years the number of 
delegates to which each county is entitled at District and State Conventions; the 
number of members to which each county is entitled on the State Executive Com- 
mittee; and the total number of votes to which each county is entitled on the several 
District Executive Committees. 

Two weeks prior to the date set for the precinct meetings, the County Conven- 
tion, the Congressional District Convention, and the State Convention, the State 



198 North Carolina Manual 



Chairman shall disseminate by means of press release to all news media in the 
State, the time, location (except for County Conventions) and function of each 
meeting or Convention, and urge all active Democrats to participate. The County 
Chairman shall disseminate similar information (including the locations for 
County Conventions) to the news media within his county and shall post a copy 
of the call forwarded to him by the State Secretary at the courthouse door of this 
county. Four weeks prior to the date set for the Congressional District Conven- 
tion, the State Chairman shall disseminate by means of all news media in the 
State the exact location (within the town or city previously designated) at which 
such Convention shall be held. In addition to the procedures outlined above, the 
State Chairman and the County Chairman shall use such other means and methods 
as will insure full and timely knowledge of the functions and times of all Party 
meetings. 

Section 12. Audit Committee: The State Executive Council shall appoint a 
committee of three persons whose duty it shall be to audit annually the financial 
accounts and balances of the State Executive Committee. 

Section 13. Removal of Elected Officers and Members of the State Executive 
Committee: Any elected officer or member of the State Executive Committee who 
gives support to, aids, or helps any opposing political Party or candidate of any 
other political Party, or who refuses or fails to perform his or her duties, or who 
is convicted of a crime involving moral turp.tude, shall be removed from office in 
the following manner: 

(1) State Chairman. Upon receipt of a petition of complaint setting forth 
full details and duly verified from a majority of the State Executive Committee, 
the First Vice-Chairman of the State Executive Committee shall, after giving five 
days notice thereof, call a meeting of the Council of Review to hear the complain- 
ant, the alleged offender and any other interested parties or witnesses. A majority 
vote of those members of the Council of Review present and voting shall be neces- 
sary to remove the State Chairman. The State Chairman can be represented by 
counsel if he or she desires. The decision of the Council of Review may be appealed 
to the State Convention. 

(2) Other Elected Officers and Members of the State Executive Committee. 
If, in the opinion of the State Chairman, a State Vice-Chairman, Secretary or 
member of the State Executive Committee is disloyal or refuses to perform his or 
her duty, the State Chairman shall, after the approval of a majority of the other 
State Executive Committee elected officers, file a complaint with the Chairman of 
the Council of Review outlining his or her charges and after giving five days 
notice thereof, call a meeting of the Council of Review to sit in executive session 
unless otherwise requested by the accused and determine whether the elected 
officer or member of the State Executive Committee named in the complaint should 
be removed from office. The officer can be represented by counsel if he or she de- 
sires. A majority vote of those members of the Council of Review present and 
voting shall be necessary to remove a county officer. The decision of the Council 
of Review shall be final. 



Democratic Party 199 



If three active Democrats in a county submit a written complaint over a mem- 
ber of the State Executive Committee from their county, setting forth full details 
and duly verified, the State Chairman shall, upon the approval of a majority of 
the other State Executive Committee elected officers, after giving five days notice 
thereof, call a meeting of the Council of Review to hear the complainant, the al- 
leged offender and any other interested parties or witnesses. A majority vote of 
those members of the Council of Review present and voting shall be necessary to 
remove a member of the State Executive Committee. The decision of the Council 
of Revie'v shall be final. 

ARTICLE V 

COUNTY CONVENTIONS 

Section 1. Meeting and Function: Annually each county shall hold a County 
Convention in accordance with the date and the time designated by the State Chair- 
man pursuant to Article IV, Section 7. The County Chairman shall, thirty days 
prior to the date such Convention is to be held, designate the exact place where 
such Convention is to be held and the same shall be announced prior to the adjourn- 
ment of the annual precinct meetings. 

All County Conventions shall be called to order by the County Chairman, and 
in his, or her, absence, by the Vice-Chairman or by one of the Vice-Chairmen in 
order of succession and in his, or her, or their absence, by any member of the 
County Executive Committee that may be present at the Convention, and in case 
none of the foregoing persons shall be present, then by any delegate to the Con- 
vention; and he, or she, shall preside until a permanent Chairman is elected by the 
Convention. 

The County Convention, held in odd-numbered years, shall, from among the 
active Democrats of the county, elect: 

1. The officers of the County Executive Committee. 

2. The members of the State Executive Committee, to which the county is 
entitled. 

The County Convention, held in even-numbered years, shall, from among the 
active Democrats of the county, elect : 

1. Delegates and alternates to the biennial Congressional District Convention 
and to the biennial State Convention. The County Chairman shall notify in writing 
within five days all persons elected as delegates and alternates. 

2. Two members to each of the following: the Congressional District Executive 
Committee, the Judicial District Executive Committee, the State Senatorial District 
Executive Committee, the House of Representatives District Executive Committee, 
provided that a county that is not a part of a multi-county Congressional, Judicial, 
Senatorial or House of Representatives District shall not elect members to that 
particular District Executive Committee. 

Section 2. Rules: (1) The County Chairman shall provide the Convention 
with a sufficient number of secretaries or accountants, who shall reduce the votes 



200 North Carolina Manual 



to decimals and tabulate the same, disregarding all tractions after second or 
hundredths column. 

(2) Nothing herein contained shall prevent the Convention from making 
nominations, holding elections and conducting business viva voce or by acclamation 
where a vote by precincts is not demanded by 25 f /i of the certified votes present. 

(3) After a vote is cast, there shall be no change in such vote until after the 
roll call is completed and before the final result of the ballot shall be announced by 
the Chairman of the Convention. 

(4) It shall be the duty of the delegates from the several precincts to choose 
one of their number as chairman, whose name shall be reported to the Chairman 
of the Convention; and whose duty it shall be to cast the vote of his or her precinct 
as directed, and the vote as announced by him or her shall be recorded unless some 
delegate from that precinct shall challenge its accuracy, in which case it shall be 
the duty of the Chairman of the Convention to cause the roll of delegates from 
that precinct to be called upon which the vote of such precinct shall be tabulated 
and recorded according to the response of the delegates; but in no event shall the 
vote of one precinct be challenged by a delegate from another precinct. 

(5) The County Executive Committee shall have the power to make such 
other rules and regulations for the holding of County Conventions not inconsistent 
with this Plan of Organization, as may be deemed necessary or expedient. 

Section 3. Voting: Each precinct sha'l be entitled to cast in the County 
Convention one vote for every fifty Der..ocratic votes or major fraction thereof 
cast by the precinct for Governor at the last preceding gubernatorial election ; 
provided that every precinct shall be entitled to cast at least one vote at the 
County Convention. The precinct delegates or alternates, or such of them as shall 
attend the biennial County Convention, shall be entitled to vote the full strength 
of their precinct upon all matters of business which may come before said Conven- 
tion. 

SECTION 4. Nomination Convention Where County Not Under Primary Law: 
In all counties in which the selection of candidates for members of the General 
Assembly and county and township offices is not provided for by the primary law, 
nominations shall be made in the following manner: 

(1) The County Executive Committee shall meet and set a time and place for 
holding a County Convention for the nomination of candidates for the aforesaid 
offices, and shall also set the time and places for holding the necessary preliminary 
precinct meetings, and thereupon the County Chairman shall issue a call for the 
precinct meetings and the County Convention, which call shall be sent to the pre- 
cinct officials and published in such manner and form as directed by Article IV, 
Section 11. 

(2) At the meeting held in each precinct pursuant to said call, delegates and 
alternates to represent the precinct at the County Convention shall be elected from 
the active Democrats of the precinct ; and said delegates or alternates, or such of 
them as shall attend the County Convention, shall be entitled to vote the full 
strength of their precinct in the nomination of candidates and upon all questions 
which may come before the County Convention. 



Democratic Party 201 



(3) Each precinct shall be entitled to cast at the County Convention one vote 
for every fifty Democratic votes, or a major fraction thereof cast by the precinct 
for Governor at the last preceding gubernatorial election; provided that every 
precinct shall be entitled to cast at least one vote in the County Convention, and 
each precinct may appoint as many delegates to said Convention as it may see fit, 
not exceeding three delegates and three alternates for each vote to which said pre- 
cinct may be entitled in the County Convention ; provided that each precinct shall 
elect at least one delegate for each vote to which it is entitled at the County Con- 
vention. 

(4) The precinct meetings shall be presided over by the Precinct Chairman, 
but in his or her absence, the Precinct Vice-Chairmen, in order of succession and 
in the absence of both the Chairman and Vice-Chairmen, any member of the com- 
mittee may preside. In the absence of any of the above, any active Democrat may 
preside. 

(5) The County Executive Committee shall have power to make any rules 
with regard to holding precinct meetings which it may deem proper, not incon- 
sistent with this Plan of Organization; it shall be the duty of said committee to 
prepare and furnish all forms and blanks needed in making the returns from said 
precinct meetings, and any reported challenges and appeals therefrom. 



ARTICLE VI 
DISTRICT, STATE AND NATIONAL CONVENTIONS 

SECTION 1. Congressional District Conventions: A biennial Congressional 
District Convention shall be held within the geographical boundaries of each Con- 
gressional District each even-numbered year. It shall be composed of delegates 
elected by the several biennial County Conventions. It shall be held from six to 
twenty-nine days following the holding of biennial County Conventions. The State 
Chairman shall designate the day, the time and the city or town in which such 
Convention shall be held. Each county in a Congressional District shall be entitled 
to cast at a Congressional District Convention one vote for every three hundred 
Democratic votes or major fraction thereof cast in that county for Governor at 
the last preceding gubernatorial election and to elect one delegate and one alter- 
nate to said Convention for each vote it is entitled to cast; provided that each 
County shall be entitled to cast at least one vote. 

This Convention shall, from among the active Democrats of the district: 

(1) As the first order of business, elect a Congressional District Chairman 
in accord with Article III, Section 5. 

(2) Elect one member of the biennial State Convention's Committee on Perm- 
anent Organization, Rules and Order of Business. 

(3) Elect one member of the biennial State Convention's Committee on Cre- 
dentials and Appeals. 

(4) Elect one member of the Council of Review. 



202 North Carolina Manual 



(5) In each Presidential election year, elect from among the active Demo- 
crats in the district the number of delegates first and then alternates to the Na- 
tional Convention allotted to each Congressional District. 

(6) In each Presidential election year, nominate one Presidential elector 
from that Congressional District. 

(7) Elect one member of the State Legislative Policy Committee. 

(8) In each Presidential election year, elect one member of the Delegate Nomi- 
nating Committee. 

Section 2. State Conventions: A biennial State Convention shall be held 
each even-numbered year. It shall be held from six to twenty-nine days following 
the date set by the State Chairman for the holding of the biennial Congressional 
District Conventions. The State Chairman shall designate the day, the time and 
the location of such Convention. The State Convention shall be composed of dele- 
gates elected by the biennial County Conventions. 

Each county in the State shall be entitled to cast at a State Convention one 
vote for every three hundred Democratic votes or major fraction thereof cast in 
that county for Governor at the last preceding gubernatorial election and to elect 
one delegate and one alternate to said Convention for each vote it is entitled to 
cast; provided that each county shall be entitled to cast at least one vote. 

Section 3. Rales: (1) The delegates or alternates, or such of them as shall 
attend a District or State Convention, shall be entitled to vote the full strength 
of their county upon all questions, nominations or elections which may come before 
the respective District or State Convention. 

(2) In both District and State Conventions, after a vote is cast, there shall 
be no change in such vote until after the roll call is completed and before the final 
result of the ballot shall be announced by the Chairman of said Convention. 

(3) The County Chairmen shall certify to the State Chairman and State 
Secretary the list of delegates and alternates from their county to the District 
and State Conventions. 

(4) The State Secretary shall make up a roll of all delegates and alternates 
from the several counties to the District and State Conventions and transmit the 
same to the Chairman of the District and State Conventions. 

(5) In District and State Conventions, an election or a nomination may be 
made by any majority, even though it be a fraction of a vote. 

(6) In all District and State Conventions, it shall be the duty of the delegates 
from the several counties to choose one of their number chairman, whose name 
shall be reported to the Chairman of such Convention, and whose duty it shall be 
to cast the vote of his or her county as directed, and the vote as announced by him 
or her shall be recorded unless some delegate from that county shall challenge its 
accuracy, in which event it shall be the duty of the Chairman of the Convention to 
cause the roll of delegates from that county to be called, upon which the vote of 



Democratic Party 203 



such county shall be tabulated and recorded according to the response of its dele- 
gates: but in no event shall the vote of one county be challenged by a delegate 
from another county. 

(7) Nothing herein contained shall prevent the District and State Conven- 
tions from making nominations, hold elections and conducting business viva voce 
or by acclamation where a vote of counties is not demanded by any delegate present. 



ARTICLE VII 

POLICY COMMITTEES 

Section 1. Resolutions and Platform Committee: At the meeting of the 
State Executive Committee referred to in Article IV, Section 5, the State Execu- 
tive Committee shall elect one person from each Congressional District to the 
Resolutions and Platform Committee of the biennial State Convention. In addi- 
tion, the State Chairman shall appoint four members to said Committee. 

The State Chairman shall designate from among the elected members of the 
Committee a Chairman, a Vice-Chairman and a Secretary. 

The Committee shall meet at the call of its Chairman. It shall prepare the 
proposed platform of the Party for submission to the State Convention and shall 
consider all resolutions addressed to the biennial State Convention. The Commit- 
tee is encouraged to hold one or more public hearings and to invite testimony from 
all citizens. 

Section 2. State Legislative Policy Committee: There is established the State 
Legislative Policy Committee. It shall be composed of the Democratic Governor or 
his, or her, representative (or the nominee), the Democratic Lieutenant Governor, 
the Democratic Speaker of the State House of Representatives, the State Chair- 
man, the several State Vice-Chairmen, the National Committee members, the 
Chairman of the Democratic Caucus of the State Senate and State House of Rep- 
resentatives, a member from each Congressional District elected at the biennial 
Congressional District Convention and five persons appointed by the officers of the 
State Executive Committee. 

The State Chairman shall serve as Chairman of this Committee. 

This Committee shall meet at least once monthly while the General Assembly 
is in session and at other times upon the call of the Chairman. 

This Committee shall formulate recommendations for state and national Dem- 
ocratic legislative policy. It shall communicate to state and national legislators 
grassroots sentiment on legislative issues. It shall assist in sponsoring public 
forums throughout the State on state and national issues. 

Section 3. County Issues Committees: Each County Chairman may appoint 
"Issue Committees" of between five and fifteen members, and a Chairman of each 
to serve until the succeeding County Convention. 



204 North Carolina Manual 



The substantive concerns of these committees shall be determined and an- 
nounced by the County Chairman who shall endeavor to make such committees 
relevant to the concerns of citizens of his or her county. 

Such committees shall solicit the views of citizens of the county and shall 
formulate and adopt, by simple majority vote, resolutions and/or proposed legis- 
lation for submission to the County Executive Committee. 

The County Executive Committee shall meet at the call of its Chairman to 
vote to endorse or not endorse such resolutions or proposals but shall in any event 
pass a records of such proposals and their action to the Democratic State Head- 
quarters for submission to the appropriate State Party Committees and to ap- 
propriate local elected officials. 

ARTICLE VIII 

COUNCIL OF REVIEW 

Section 1. Purpose: There is hereby established a Council of Review for the 
purpose of hearing and rendering fair and impartial decisions on such disputes and 
controversies which have arisen on which may hereafter arise wthin the Party 
when the same are filed with said Council by the State Chairman, or by the State 
Executive Committee, or when they are brought to the attention of the Chairman 
of the Council of Review by an aggrieved Democrat. 

Section 2. Composition : The Council of Review shall consist of one member 
from each Congressional District who shall be elected by the biennial Congression- 
al District Conventions, and two members at large to be appointed by the officers 
of the State Executive Committee, 

Members of the Council of Review shall serve for a term of two years begin- 
ning January 1st following their election. The Council of Review shall elect from 
among its membership a Chairman. The Chairman of the Council of Review shall 
always be entitled to a vote. 

Members of the Council of Review shall serve for a term of two years begin- 
ning January 1st following their election, provided that persons elected to the 
Council of Review at the 1970 biennial Congressional District Conventions shall 
take office immediately upon their election. The Council of Review shall elect from 
among its membership a Chairman. The Chairman of the Council of Review shall 
always be entitled to a vote. 

Section 3. Rules and Decisions: A majority of the entire membership of the 
Council of Review shall constitute a quorum. All decisions concurred in by a ma- 
jority of the Council of Review present and voting shall be final and binding upon 
all North Carolina Democratic Party meetings, conventions and officials, except 
that any decision of the Council of Review may be appealed to the State Conven- 
tion. The State Chairman is hereby directed to issue such further and supple- 
mentary directives as may be necessary and proper to implement the decisions and 
directives of this Council. The Council of Review is further empowered and di- 
rected to adopt necessary and appropriate rules to assure that each dispute and 
grievance is settled impartially, equitably and according to the rules of justice and 
fairness. 



Democratic Party 205 



Section 4. Rights Reserved: The State Executive Committee shall have the 
right to remove from office any member of the Council of Review upon two-thirds 
of said Committee present and voting being satisfied that the Council member has 
been disloyal to the Party or guilty of any misconduct which is not in keeping with 
his or her high position of honor in the Democratic Party. 

Section 5. Vacancies : A vacancy in the membership of the Council of Review 
shall be filled by the Congressional District Executive Committee of the Congres- 
sional District in which such vacancy exists, provided that vacancies in members 
at large shall be filled by the officers of the State Executive Committee. 

Section 6. Notification: The Council of Review shall assume jurisdiction of 
matters and disputes arising from any Party meeting or convention provided for 
in this Plan of Organization, provided such dispute or grievance is brought to the 
attention of the Chairman of the Council of Review within seventy-two hours after 
such meeting or convention was convened or was to have been convened. Any 
grievances not brought to the attention of the Chairman of the Council of Review 
within the seventy-two hour period shall be deemed to have been waived. An ag- 
grieved Democrat shall be deemed to have brought such to the attention of the 
Chairman of the Council of Review if written notice was filed with or deposited in 
the mail to the Chairman of the Council of Review, the State Chairman or State 
Democratic Headquarters within the seventy-two hour period. Additionally, the 
Council of Review is directed to assume jurisdiction of all matters and disputes 
pending and hereafter brought to its attention by the State Chairman. 

Section 7. Calls: Upon receipt of the grievance by the Council of Review, it 
shall immediately notify the County Chairman of the county in which the aggriev- 
ed party resides, of the nature of the grievance filed and the time and place that 
the Council of Review will hear the matter. 

Section 8. Exceptions : Nothing herein shall prevent preliminary adjudica- 
tion of grievances by appropriate Credentials or Grievance Committees at the 
county or district level, provided that the seventy-two hour notice period shall be- 
gin at the time of the decision by the said County or District Credentials or Griev- 
ances Committee. 

ARTICLE IX 
MISCELLANEOUS 

Section 1. Committee Meetings: All committees shall meet at such times 
and places as the Chairman of the respective committee may from time to time 
appoint and designate in the call. 

Section 2. Quorum: Forty percent of the entire membership of any commit- 
tee shall constitute a quorum. 

Section 3. Proxy Voting: (1) State Executive Committee. A member of the 
State Executive Committee may designate an active Democrat who is a member of 
the County Executive Committee or Precinct Committee from his, or her, county 
to serve as his or her, alternate for a particular State Executive Committee meet- 



206 North Carolina Manual 



ing by notifying the State Chairman, State Secretary or Executive Director of 
such designation in writing prior to the call to order of any such meeting, pro- 
vided, however, that no one person may serve as an alternate for more than one 
member at any meeting and no member or alternate may be entitled to more than 
one vote. 

(2) District Executive Committees. A member of a District Executive Com- 
mittee may designate an active Democrat who is a member of the County Executive 
Committee or Precinct Committee from his, or her, county to serve as his, or her, 
alternate for a particular District Executive Committee meeting by notifying the 
committee chairman or committee secretary of such designation in writing prior 
to the call to order of any such meeting provided, however, that no person may 
serve as an alternate for more than one member at any meeting and no member 
can also serve at the same meeting as an alternate. 

(3) County Executive Committee. A member of the County Executive Com- 
mittee may designate an active Democrat who is a member of his or her precinct 
committee to serve as his, or her, alternate for a particular County Executive 
Committee meeting by notifying the County Chairman or County Secretary of such 
designation in writing prior to the call to order of any such meeting provided, 
however, that no one person may serve as an alternate for more than one member 
at any meeting and no member can also serve at the same meeting as an alternate. 

Section 4. Vacancies: Vacancies occurring on any District or State Execu- 
tive Committee shall be filled by the County Executive Committee of the county in 
which such vacancies exist. Vacancies occurring in the elected officer positions of 
the County and State Executive Committee shall be filled by the Executive Com- 
mittee in which such vacancies exist. Within sixty days following notice of the 
creation of a vacancy in the Office of Chairman of the State Executive Committee, 
the person serving as State Chairman shall call a meeting of the State Executive 
Committee to fill the vacancy. Vacancies occurring among the membership or in 
any officer positions of any Precinct Committee shall be filled by the remaining 
members of the Precinct Committee. Within thirty days following notice of the 
creation of a vacancy which is to be filled by a County Executive Committee or by 
a Precinct Committee, the County Chairman shall call a meeting of such Commit- 
tee to fill the vacancy. 

Section 5. Candidacies in Primary: Any member of any Executive Commit- 
tee—Precinct, County, District or State — or any officer thereof, who announces his, 
or her, candidacy for an elective office in the Democratic primary shall resign im- 
mediately, his or her, Party office and the vacancy shall be filled as hereinbefore 
provided. Any officer of a County, District or State Executive Committee who 
manages a campaign for a candidate in a Democratic primary shall resign im- 
mediately his Party office and the vacancy shall be filled as provided for in the 
Plan of Organization. 

Section 6. Sub -Committees : All Executive Committees shall have the power 
to appoint sub-committees or special committees for such purposes and with such 
powers in their respective jurisdictions as may be deemed necessary or desirable. 

Section 7. Filling Vacancies Among Candidates: Vacancies shall be filled 
among candidates, and the selection of candidates shall be as prescribed by statute. 



Democratic Party 207 



Section 8. Municipal Committee: In the nomination of candidates for muni- 
cipal offices to be voted for in any town or city election, where the same is not con- 
trolled by charter or legislative enactment, a Municipal Executive Committee may 
be created for the purpose of facilitating the orderly selection of such candidates. 
The Committee shall be composed of five active Democrats who are residents of 
the municipality. This Committee shall be elected biennially at a meeting of all 
members of the County Executive Committee who reside in the municipality, the 
meeting to be called and presided over by the County Chairman. It shall be the 
sole function of any Municipal Executive Committee created under the provisions 
of this section to supervise and direct the selection of candidates for municipal 
offices, and to that end, the Committee may formulate such rules and regulations as 
may be deemed necessary or practical. Those persons present at the meeting 
'•ailed by the County Chairman shall elect from the membership of the Municipal 
Executive Committee a Chairman, three Vice-Chairmen and a Secretary-Treasurer. 
All vacancies in membership shall be filled by the Municipal Executive Committee. 

Section 9. Appeals: Unless a grievance has been filed with the Council of 
Review, the right of appeal shall lie from any subordinate committee or conven- 
tion to the committee or convention next superior thereto, and in all County, Dis- 
trice or State Conventions, appeals shall first be referred to the Committee on 
Credentials and Appeals, or a special committee provided by the Convention, and 
the findings and reports of such committee had before action thereon by the Con- 
vention. 

Section 10. Reports: It shall be the duty of the County Executive Commit- 
tees and their Chairman to make such reports and furnish such information to the 
State Chairman and Chairman of the several District Committees as the said 
State and District Chairmen may desire. 

Section 11. "Active Democrat" Defined: An "active Democrat" is defined to 
mean a person who is registered to vote as a Democrat, and who, as a volunteer, 
takes part in Party affairs, giving of his, or her, time and/or means to further the 
interest and efforts of the Democratic Party. 

Section 12. Plan-vs-Law : In the several counties of the State where pri- 
maries are provided for by law, whether optional or mandatory, the Plan of Or- 
ganization shall nevertheless be followed in all matters not inconsistent with such 
laws. 

Section 13. General Rules: Procedural or parliamentary questions not spe- 
cifically covered by this Plan or rules adopted pursuant to authority granted herein 
shall be governed by the provisions of Robert's Rules of Order Revised. 

Section 14. Unit Rule Abolished: The use of the unit rule is prohibited in 
all activities and at all levels in the Democratic Party in North Carolina. 

ARTICLE X 

AMENDMENTS 

Section 1. Power to Amend: The State Executive Committee, shall at any 
regularly called meeting duly held, have power to amend this Plan of Organization. 



208 North Carolina Manual 



Any amendment adopted by the State Executive Committee including' those 
herein contained shall be effective immediately and remain in effect until and un- 
less the same is repealed or amended by action of the next State Convention. All 
amendments to this Plan of Organization must be approved by a two-thirds vote 
of the members or delegates present and voting at the State Executive Committee 
meeting or State Convention considering same. 

The foregoing is the Plan of Organization of the Democratic Party in North 
Carolina as adopted by the State Democratic Executive Committee at a meeting 
held in the City of Raleigh on the 10th day of January, 1970, amended the third 
day of April, 1970, and the 11th day of January, 1972, and the 11th day of May, 
1974. 



Democratic Party 209 



DEMOCRATIC PARTY EXECUTIVE COUNCIL 

Office Officer Address 

Chairman Mrs. John L. McCain Wilson 

First Vice-Chairman E. B. Turner Lumberton 

Second Vice-Chairman Mrs. Martha Wilburn Pilot Mountain 

Third Vice-Chairman Wayne Hurder Raleigh 

Secretary Mrs. Sally Howard Concord 

Treasurer Bruce A. Elmore Asheville 

President, State Teen Dems Martha Ann Kimball Fayetteville 

State Advisor, Teen Dems Noel Allen Raleigh 

Chairman, Minority Affairs Dr. Alfreda Webb Greensboro 

National Committeewomen Johnsie Setzer Claremont 

Mrs. Jane Patterson Greensboro 

National Committeemen Rowe Motley Charlotte 

Charlie Winberry Rocky Mount 

President, Democratic Women . . . .Mrs. Angie Elkins Durham 

President, State YDC M. C. Teague Raleigh 

YDC National Committeeman .... Larry Leake Asheville 

YDC National Committeewoman . . Nancy Hall Dunn 

Executive Director F. Stephen Glass Cary 



210 North Carolina Manual 



COUNTY CHAIRMAN* 

County Chairperson Residence 

Alamance Wallace Gee Burlington 

Alexander Glenn Watts Taylorsville 

Alleghany George Finney Sparta 

Anson Avery Hightower Wadesboro 

Ashe Bernard Goss West Jefferson 

Avery Dennis Sudderth Montezuma 

Beaufort W. M. Hodges Washington 

Bertie W. L. Cooke Windsor 

Bladen David K. Clark Elizabethtown 

Brunswick John Hughes Shallotte 

Buncombe Max Cogburn Asheville 

Burke J. D. Baker Morganton 

Cabarrus Frank McCray Kannapolis 

Caldwell Ted West Lenoir 

Camden Elwyn P. Leary Shiloh 

Carteret Edward S. Dixon Morehead City 

Caswell R. Lee Farmer Yanceyville 

Catawba James O. Icenhour Hickory 

Chatham Wade Barber, Jr Pittsboro 

Cherokee L. L. Mason, Jr Murphy 

Chowan George Byrum Edenton 

Clay Aaron Martin Hayesville 

Cleveland Mrs. Joyce Cashion Kings Mountain 

Columbus Brooks Stanley Whiteville 

Craven Jimmie L. Morris Vanceboro 

Cumberland John P. Beasley Fayetteville 

Currituck Robert L. Turner Jarvisburg 

Dare John S. Bone Manteo 

Davidson Ted S. Royster, Jr Lexington 

Davie Dr. Ramey Kemp Mocksville 

Duplin Doug Clark Kenansville 

Durham A. J. Howard Clement, III Durham 

Edgecombe Mrs. Nina Fountain Tarboro 

Forsyth Wayne Corpening Winston-Salem 

Franklin Mrs. Martha Speed Louisburg 

Gaston Max L. Childers Mt. Holly 

Gates Curtis Powell Corapeake 

Graham C. P. Sawyer Robbinsville 

Granville Claude A. Renn Oxford 

Greene Mrs. Seroba A. Aiken Snow Hill 

Guilford Mrs. Jane Patterson Greensboro 

Halifax Mrs. Elizabeth Gillette Enfield 

Harnett Ronald Coats Coats 

Haywood Charles Hipps Waynesville 

Henderson Edwin R. Groce Hendersonville 

Hertford Joseph M. Parker Ahoskie 

Hoke Sam C. Morris Raeford 

Hyde Marshall Parvin Belhaven 



*Some of the above names will change on June 18. 1977 when new county chairmen are elected. 
Because of the energy crisis meetings originally scheduled for February and March were cancelled 
until May and June. 



Democratic Party 211 



Iredell Isaac T. Avery Statesville 

Jackson Paul E. Cowan Sylva 

Johnston Mrs. J. Don Johnson Benson 

Jones Mrs. Les Parker Trenton 

Lee Ralph Monger, Jr Sanford 

Lenoir Thomas H. Morris Kinston 

Lincoln Clark Parker Lincolnton 

Macon James Downs Franklin 

Madison Zeno H. Ponder Marshall 

Martin A. B. Ayers, Jr Williamston 

McDowell Ernest J. House, Jr Marion 

Mecklenburg Arnold Stone Charlotte 

Mitchell Rex 0. Wilson Spruce Pines 

Montgomery Benton T. Haithcock Mt. Gilead 

Moore J. E. Causey Lakeview 

Nash Mrs. Pearl L. Finch Bailey 

New Hanover Herbert McKim Wilmington 

Northampton T. G. Joyner Garysburg 

Onslow H. M. Ennett, Jr Sneeds Ferry 

Orange Hugh Wilson Hillsborough 

Pamlico E. S. Venters Stonewall 

Pasquotank Mrs. Gladys Daniels Elizabeth City 

Pender Dr. John Dees Burgaw 

Perquimans Mrs. Estelle Felton Hertford 

Person Mrs. Ben W. Tillett Roxboro 

Pitt Betty Speir Bethel 

Polk Mrs. Sue A. Cochran Columbus 

Randolph Charles W. Sanford Randleman 

Richmond Hugh Lee Rockingham 

Robeson Rev. E. B. Turner Lumberton 

Rockingham Hugh P. Griffin Reidsville 

Rowan John Erwin Ramsay Salisbury 

Rutherford Charles D. Owens Forest City 

Sampson Larry Barnes Newton Grove 

Scotland Jim Ollis Laurinburg 

Stanly G. A. Rudisill Badin 

Stokes Simpson Garner King 

Surry Mr. Carroll Gardner Mt. Airy 

Swain R. V. Jenkins Bryson City 

Transylvania Mrs. Molly Wilmot Pisgah Forest 

Tyrrell George G. Owens Columbia 

Union William D. Mclnnis Monroe 

Vance L. Nelson Falkner, Jr Henderson 

Wake W. G. Ransdell, Jr Raleigh 

Warren Mrs. Eva M. Clayton Warrenton 

Washington R. Wendell Hutchins Plymouth 

Watauga Gordon H. Winkler Boone 

Wayne Mike Bruce Mt. Olive 

Wilkes Edward Rizoti Wilkesboro 

Wilson Douglas B. Whitley Wilson 

Yadkin Dale W. Thomasson Hamptonville 

Yancey Mack B. Ray Bumsville 










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Republican Party 213 

Chapter Two 

THE REPUBLICAN PARTY 



NORTH CAROLINA REPUBLICAN PARTY PLATFORM 

1976 

I. PREAMBLE 

The Republican Party of today has been entrusted by the people of North Caro- 
lina to uphold those principles which have made our State and County great: 

Among these principles are the conviction that the framers of the Constitution 
wisely reserved to the states those powers not expressly granted to the federal 
government; 

That the free enterprise system is the economic system most compatible with 
personal and political liberty; 

That it is a function of government to assure that equal rights, equal justice, 
and equal opportunity are given to all, but government has no responsibility to 
provide an equal distribution of society's wealth; 

That the operation of the free market is the most efficient and responsive sup- 
plier of human needs and that the free market should be left as unrestrained as 
possible in order that it might perform its natural function of allocating economic 
resources and setting the equilibrium among the various components of our capital- 
ist system; 

That human experience has shown that periods of freedom are rare in history, 
and that personal liberty can be infringed by the growth and interference of one's 
own government as much as by external foes, that, therefore, the framers of our 
government were wise to insist on limited government and a separation of its 
powers; 

That the foremost criterion on which to judge our foreign policy must be 
whether it serves the just interests of the United States. 

We rejoice in life, in the belief that Creation is good and in the conviction that 
our State is one of the better spots within it. With affection and respect for the past 
and hope for the future, we Republicans, working together, can make it even better. 



214 North Carolina Manual 



II. STATE GOVERNMENT 

In order to provide for more effective executive leadership, we endorse the 
concept of giving the Governor the power to veto legislation and the right to succeed 
himself for a second term of office. 

We believe that legislative redistricting should be on a fair and impartial basis 
without regard to political gerrymandering. We condemn the establishment of 
multi-county, multi-person districts which tend to deny representation in the 
General Assembly to minority groups and the minority party. 

We recommend that State government be reviewed every four years in order 
to eliminate unnecessary and inefficient agencies. Great effort should be taken to 
prevent the proliferation of the State bui'eaucracy. 

We abhor the efforts of the 1975-76 self-serving, Democrat-controlled General 
Assembly to abrogate the powers, duties, and responsibilities of the Executive 
Branch of our State in the Office of the Governor and the Office of the Lieutenant 
Governor, ignoring the principles set forth in the Constitution by our founding 
fathers, which recognize the importance of the balance of power shared by the three 
branches of our government. 

We recommend that Superior Court judges be elected from the district in which 
they serve and not on a statewide basis, thus permitting those to be judged to select 
their judges. 

We applaud our Governor for his many efforts to restore confidence in our 
government by bringing government closer to our individual citizens through his 
Peoples' Days, Peoples' Tours, and Ombudsmen programs and strongly support 
efforts in the future to allow direct contact between representatives of State govern- 
ment and our citizens. We call for the elimination of subsidization of the campaigns 
of candidates out of tax funds. 



III. TRANSPORTATION 

We urge that professional, long-range transportation planning not be restricted 
only to road construction, but must include rapid-transit systems for the future, 
airport construction, railways, and the development of our natural and manmade 
waterways. 

Through a cooperative process involving State, local, and regional agencies, an 
urban transportation improvement program should also be developed for each urban 
area. 



IV. LAW ENFORCEMENT 

We commend our system of law as the principal bulwark of ordered civilization. 
We enjoin greater respect and support for our law enforcement officers and our 
system of criminal justice and deplore those who would belittle and slur these men 
and women who stand between us and anarchy. 

We favor the enforcement of capital punishment for first degree murder. 



Republican Party 215 



V. CORRECTIONS 

The Republican Party believes that the following goals must be reached in 
order to realize an effective correctional system in North Carolina: 

(1) Elimination of overcrowding by constructing new cells and utilization of 
county facilities for the housing of misdemeanants. Our correctional institutions 
should be converted from dormitory-type cells to single cell units. 

(2) Vocational training opportunities should be further expanded through the 
use of community college and technical institute resources and the Prison 
Enterprise System. This effort should be geared to jobs for which there is a 
current and continuing demand. 

(3) The implementation of a well-designed program that combines traditional 
parole functions, pre-release training and counseling. The new case-load man- 
agement system and the combining of parole responsibilities with probation has 
permitted more efficient use of supervisory personnel. The assistance of 

volunteer aides has been promoted and efforts to gain additional citizen 
participation should be expanded. 

(4) The development of training standards for all employees of the correction 
system. 

VI. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND CONSERVATION 

Great strides have been made during the Republican Administration in main- 
taining the natural and scenic beauty of North Carolina. These efforts include 
parkland acquisition and development, land use planning legislation, regulation of 
oil refineries and oil spills, floodway designation legislation, land conservancy 
legislation, sedimentation control, advances in water and air pollution control, and 
the beginning of a State scenic rivers program. 

We heartily commend Governor Holshouser on obtaining greater appropriations 
for State parks than ever before in our history. We encourage continued advances 
in our park system. We applaud the State's new policy of "putting parks where the 
people are." However, we point out that efforts in this area should not be limited 
only to parks. We urge the phased development of such areas as greenways and 
better landscaping along our roads, more recreational facilities, scenic trails, open 
space in and around our cities, and river parks. We support the efforts of the 
Governor to obtain scenic river designations for the Linville and New Rivers. 

We must continue to work for the development of an environmental manage- 
ment policy which recognizes not only the importance of our natural resources, but 
also the need to seek an optimum balance between environmental protection and 
economic development. 

We recognize the current "energy crisis" and recognize also that our State 
has few energy resources. The frailty of our energy supply should inspire us to seek, 
through research, alternate sources, such as solar and nuclear energy. We especially 
encourage conservation of resources by recycling wastes, especially for use as 
energy. 



216 North Carolina Manual 



As Republicans, we rejoice in the belief that our State's natural endowment is 
a treasure which should not lie despoiled for economic gain. We support the State's 
efforts to protect Jockey's Ridge and other unique natural sites. 

We support the preservation of significant historic sites and genealogical 
materials. 

Steps must be continued to protect against water and air pollution in our State. 
W r e are especially concerned about pollution along our coast which threatens our 
shellfish and seafood industry. 

We applaud the Governor's decision to create by executive order the North 
Carolina Land Policy Council. We believe this action played an important role in 
stimulating the General Assembly to establish the Council as a statutory body. We 
encourage the Council to develop a State land use policy, including a land classi- 
fication system, with the cooperation and direct involvement of local governments. 
We support a land use planning process in which local governments are allowed to 
develop their own land use plans. 

The land classification system should be drawn to protect fragile lands such 
as wetlands, floodplains, steep slopes, erosive areas, and unique natural areas which 
have a natural and cultural value of such significance as to warrant preservation. 
In addition, we urge the Council to develop a strategy to insure that decisions on 
the location of key public facilities take into account land use impact. 

In the area of water resources we support the concept of developing regional 
water supply systems. We urge the formulation of a State plan to evaluate and 
establish priorities on federal water resources development projects. An extensive 
survey and classification of the State's ground water supplies is also needed. 

The Federal Water Quality Act of 1972 established stringent federal guide- 
lines in the area of water quality. Some of the guidelines have been helpful, but 
others appear to be detrimental to the State's water resources program. State 
officials should continue to seek changes in the federal law which will be consistent 
with North Carolina's environmental policy. 



VII. ENERGY 

Under Republican leadership, North Carolina has met the energy crisis head 
on. Though the Nation as a whole was unprepared for this crisis, many states, 
including North Carolina, have responded quickly to alleviate existing hardships 
and to prevent future emergency situations. 

The Republican Party has proven itself to be an outspoken and active proponent 
of energy conservation. Conservation must continue to be a technique employed for 
coping with present and future energy problems. 

Adequate generation of electrical power and the cost of that power continue 
to be a major energy issue in North Carolina, but conservation must accompany 
our efforts to provide an adequate supply of energy at a cost which North Caro- 
linians can afford or we will continue to experience a crisis in the near future. 



Republican Party 217 



In the past, some utility rate structures have been counter productive in light 
of our conservation measures. We support the concept of devising utility pricing 
systems which will promote energy conservation. 

Governor Holshouser and Senator Helms have worked continuously for de- 
regulation of natural gas pricing in order that North Carolina might obtain 
adequate supplies of this fuel. Until the goal of deregulation is achieved, North 
Carolina will not be able to compete effectively in the market to secure an increased 
share of the national supply. We urge State officials to continue their efforts to 
seek alternate fuels, as well as to locate new sources of natural gas. 

While the generation of electiical power and acquisition of necessary fossil 
fuels are issues of immediate concern, the future is likely to see a greater dependence 
on nuclear energy. We must follow through on the groundwork laid by the current 
Administration in the field of nuclear site selection. Since nuclear power will 
determine energy capacity in future years, we must not delay in planning for that 
future. 

On nuclear plant in North Carolina is nearly operational, and others are 
proposed. Suitable sites for nuclear plants will become more difficult to find due to 
the extraordinary quantities of water required for cooling purposes. Advance siting 
procedures must be impi-oved in order to take into account the diminishing avail- 
ability of environmentally suitable nuclear power plant sites. Currently, certification 
and licensing of nuclear plants remains a costly and fragmented process requiring 
an eleven year lead time. Early identification of sites, an analysis of environmental 
factors, and reservation of selected sites would serve to markedly reduce these 
proti'acted waiting periods. 

Planned nuclear site selection and streamlined nuclear site certification 
processes, then, will temper effects of future energy shortages in North Carolina. 



VIII. EFFICIENCY IN GOVERNMENT 

In its findings the Governor's Efficiency Study Commission suggested 676 
changes in State government operation. The total value in savings to the State 
was predicted to be $80 million. 

The concern of the present Republican Administration in Raleigh for a more 
efficient State government is a concern shared by all North Carolina Republicans. 

Consolidation of printing and computer operations, restructuring State pur- 
chasing procedures, and reduction in the use of State-owned motor vehicles are 
specific examples of Republican efforts to reduce the cost of government. 

The Republican Party shall continue to lead the fight in this area. 



IX. REVENUE 

We acknowledge that our libei-ties are impaired by excessive taxation, since 
such denies to a person the freedom to decide how to dispose of the fruits of his own 
labor. 



218 North Carolina Manual 



We recommend that income tax credit be granted for intangible taxes paid, 
thus providing a tool to encourage more investment in our State without eroding 
tin- local government tax base. 

We recommend the implementation of joint income tax returns for State income 
taxes. 

We recommend that counties and cities be given optional taxing power with the 
consent of their voters. 

X. AGRICULTURE 

We owe a great debt to our farmers and pay special homage to our small family 
farmers, the backbone of America. It is crucial to their survival that the State aid 
them in the development of alternate cash crops and dependable marketing facilities 
so that fanning may remain attractive to our youth and provide a dignified income 
to our farmers. There must be more practical and applied research in the area of 
farm production and management, with increased emphasis on making the benefits 
of research available to the farmer himself. 

XI. CONSUMER PROTECTION 

We support absolute repeal of the prohibition against below cost sales of milk. 
Furthermore, we oppose the regulation of rebates and other efforts intended to 
eliminate milk pricing competition at the retail level. If necessary, the General 
Assembly should not shrink from abolishing the Milk Commission, thus permitting 
free price competition among retailers while assuring a secure market to our dairy- 
men. 

XII. HEALTH 

We endorse the Governor's efforts to provide quality health care to citizens 
throughout the State, in rural as well as urban areas. The initiatives which the 
Administration has launched in such areas as rural health clinics and Area Health 
Education Centers must be continued. 

The past four years have seen a significant expansion in other health services, 
including child health screening, emei"gency medical services, community health 
programs, and group homes for emotionally disturbed children. 

Greater efforts are needed to attract physicians to rural areas and small towns 
in the State. We encourage the Department of Human Resources to offer alternatives 
to achieve this goal. 

We support and encourage the greatest possible utilization of medical para- 
professionals in the delivery of health care. 

In the area of mental health we support the concept of providing compensation 
for working mental health patients. We believe that continuous review and monitor- 
ing of mental patients' rights, especially in commitment proceedings, is needed. 

Efforts to improve direct patient care in mental institutions should be con- 
tinued. Finally, we believe that the time is right for the State to begin to focus 
attention on the prevention of mental retardation. The steady expansion of mental 



Republican Party 219 



health services and the attendant costs, as well as humanitarian concern, compel 
the State to consider carefully the possibilities for improved prevention. 

We urge the cooperation of all concerned parties in the completion of the 
Medical School at ECU. 

We support the principle that malpractice insurance for physicians and other 
health care-related personnel should be available on a competitive basis. The recent 
malpratice insurance crisis poses a severe threat to the citizens of North Carolina 
in that it is causing talented and experienced physicians and other health care- 
related personnel to discontinue their practices and to seek careers in other medical 
specialties such as research, teaching, and private industry. With the current short- 
age of physicians in North Carolina we cannot afford such a tremendous loss in the 
quantity nor quality of our health care specialists. 

XIII. CIVIL RIGHTS 

We maintain that all persons should be viewed as individuals who stand on 
their own feet and are entitled to advance on their own intrinsic merit, irrespective 
of race, creed or sex. We, therefore, oppose as discriminatory and degrading, the use 
of quota systems. 

We applaud the Republican initiative to make State government an equal 
opportunity employer in reality as well as in rhetoric. 

XIV. SENIOR CITIZENS 

Senior citizens usually live on fixed incomes and are hardest hit by inflation 
and the price-income squeeze. It is manifestly unfair to deny them the full social 
security benefits for which they have paid during their working lives, simply be- 
cause they must work to make ends meet. Our citizens should receive the full 
benefits of social security regardless of their amount of outside income or whether 
or not they work. 

XV. STATUS OF WOMEN 

We recognize the contribution of North Carolina women throughout the history 
of our State. We urge business, industrial educational and governmental leaders to 
exert responsible leadership in providing equal opportunity for women in such a 
way as to insure equal pay for equal work and to encourage the career advancement 
of women. 

We commend the Governor for his leadership in eliminating sex discrimination 
as evidenced by his appointment of the first woman Cabinet Secretary and by his 
having appointed more women to positions of responsibility in State government 
than any Governor in the history of North Carolina. 

XVI. YOUTH 

We recognize the youth of our State as our most vital resource. We encourage 
the State to make working and learning opportunities available to young people 
through a State continuation of government internship programs. 



220 North Carolina Manual 



We commend the Administration for appointing qualified young people to 
positions of responsibility in State government. We urge a continuation of this 
policy. 

XVII. EDUCATION 

We urge that our State Department of Public Instruction recur to the funda- 
mental principle that its duty is to educate our youth to become citizens and 
patriots, to produce men and women who can read, write, and figure effectively. 
We deplore the lack of emphasis on the teaching of economics and North Carolina 
History in our schools. We strongly support the traditional concept of education. 

We urge that the State immediately implement uniform, standarized and 
objective testing to be given our students in the public schools so that their school- 
ing in relation to other schools across the State and in the Nation can be evaluated. 

As much as possible we feel our teachers should be left free to teach. The 
Department of Public Instruction should emphasize the quality of instruction that 
can be obtained through utilizing teachers' aides and secretaries who can relieve 
teachers of paper-shuffling duties. 

We approve of continued and increased aid for students who choose to attend 
private higher educational institutions. 

We are concerned with the current trend of diluting the major statutory 
purpose of the community college system, which is the provision of vocational educa- 
tion and technical training. We believe that wholesale conversion of technical insti- 
tutes into community colleges is both unwise and unnecessary. 

We support the immediate provision of educational opportunities to handi- 
capped and retarded children on a par with normal children in our State. 

XVIII. ETHICS IN GOVERNMENT 

We recognize that no government, no matter how structured, will be better 
than the quality of the people who serve it. We see that the heart of the ethics 
problem is that government officials should be honorable and moral individuals, 
qualified for the office they hold. 

XIX. LABOR 

We believe that one of the rights essential to a free people is the right to con- 
tract freely for our own labor. We, therefore, urge the retention of our Right to 
Work Law. 

We commend both labor and management for the relative industrial harmony 
and good will which has marked labor-management relations in North Carolina. 

XX. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 

The State has undergone a period of industrial growth in the early 1970's 
unparalleled in our history. The Republican Administration has attempted to 
introduce sensible planning to accompany this industrial expansion. Emphasis has 



Republican Party 221 



been placed on stimulating both agricultural and industrial development within a 
framework that considers environmental impact. 

In 1973, the Holshouser Administration initiated an Economic Development 
Study that produced a goal of raising the per capita income of the State to 10 per 
cent above the average for Southeastern United States by 1990. The strategy de- 
vised by the Administration to reach this goal is to recruit capital-intensive, high 
wage industries that will diversify the State's industrial mix. In 1974, a record 
growth of $872 million in industrial plant expansion and construction occurred in 
North Carolina. 

The Republican Party believes that North Carolina should seek the benefits of 
foreign trade and investment. We support continuation of the efforts of the present 
Administration in this regard. Governor Holshouser's trade missions have resulted 
in avenues of trade with other countries. A vital part of this foreign trade strategy 
has been the creation of a North Carolina office in both Canada and Europe. These 
offices should continue to promote economic development in our State. 

In line with this emphasis on foreign trade we urge that the State continue 
our current policy of upgrading our major port facilities to accommodate present 
and future demands. Transportation routes from the State ports to inland markets 
must also be improved. 

The Republican Party believes it essential to emphasize the importance of 
industrial development in our rural areas in order to achieve balanced growth. This 
has been one of North Carolina's most important industrial development strategies 
during the current Administration, and the success has been remarkable. Greater 
numbers of our people are being given an opportunity to remain in less populated 
areas, thereby avoiding the problem of massive migration to urban centers. Part of 
the State's rural economic development strategy should be geared to the prevention 
of the out-migration of rural populations, and we believe that the Administration is 
succeeding in this goal of bringing industry to the people and not people to the 
industry. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Jim Atkins 

Joe Beard 

Philip J. Kirk 

Herb Lee 

Jack Lee 

George D. Little 

Douglas Markham 

Tom Morgan 

Ann Morrison 

Robert Oakes 

Jim Peden 

William Westphal, Jr. 

Fred Yoder 

G. Douglas Carroll, Chairman 



222 North Carolina Manual 

PLAN OF ORGANIZATION OF THE REPUBLICAN PARTY 

OF NORTH CAROLINA 

(STATE REPUBLICAN CONSTITUTION) 

PREAMBLE 

We, the members of the Republican Party of North Carolina, dedicated to 
the sound principles fostered by that Party, conscious of our civic responsibilities 
and rights, firm in our determination to give our strength to preserving the 
American principle that government ought and must be of all the people, by all 
the people, and for all the people do, for the purpose of uniting and co-ordinating 
our efforts for maximum power and efficiency, herewith establish this instrument, 
The Plan of Organization of the Republican Party of North Carolina. 

ARTICLE I 

MEMBERSHIP 

Members 

All citizens of North Carolina who are registered Republicans are members 
of the Republican Party of North Carolina and shall have the right to participate 
in the official affairs of the Republican Party in accordance with these rules. All 
reference herein to delegates, alternates, officers, and members shall, in all cases, 
mean persons identified and registered with the Republican Party in the precinct 
of their residence. 

ARTICLE II 
PRECINCT MEETINGS 

I. Biennial Precinct Meetings 

A. In every odd-numbered year, the County Chairman shall call precinct 
meetings within the dates designated by the State Central Committee, 
after giving ten (10) days' written notice of the timee and place of hold- 
ing same to each Precinct Chairman, and after giving one week's notice 
of such meeting in a newspaper of general circulation within the County. 
Failure of the County Chairman to act in compliance with the provision 
above shall be cause for any registered Republican within the precinct to 
call said precinct meeting by notice in a newspaper of general circulation 
within the County. Every Republican registered within the precinct, in 
attendance, shall be entitled to cast one vote. 

B. Biennial precinct meetings shall elect a Precinct Committee consisting a 
Chairman, Vice Chairman (of the opposite sex), Secretary and as many 
members-at-large as deemed necessary to conduct the business of the 
precinct. Members of the Precinct Committee shall hold their places for 
two years or until their successors are chosen. Precinct meetings shall 
elect one delegate and one alternate to the County Convention, plus one 
additional delegate and alternate for every fifty (50) votes, or major 



Republican Party 223 



fraction thereof, cast for the Republican candidate for governor in general election, 
or in accordance with their county plan of organization, choose to elect one ad- 
ditional delegate for every one hundred (100) vote or major portion thereof, cast for 
the Republican candidate for governor in the last general election. 

C. The Chairman and Secretary of each Precinct shall certify election of 
officers, committee members, and delegates and alternates to the County 
Convention, on forms stipulated by the State Central Committee and 
furnished by the County Chairman. Complete Credentials shall be in the 
hands of the County Secretary by the deadline set by the County Chair- 
man. 

II. Presidential Election Year Precinct Meetings 

A. In each precinct in every Presidential Election year, the County Chair- 
man shall call precinct meetings within the dates designated by the State 
Central Committee after giving ten (10) days' written notice of the time 
and place of holding same to each Precinct Chairman, and after giving 
one week's notice of such meeting in a newspaper of general circulation 
within the County. Failure of the County Chairman to act in compliance 
with this provision shall be cause for any registered Republican within 
the precinct to call said precinct meeting by notice in a newspaper of 
general circulation within the County. Every Republican registered 
within the precinct, in attendance, shall be entitled to cast one vote. 

B. Presidential Election Year Precinct Meetings shall elect one delegate 
and one alternate to the Presidential Election Year County Convention. 
They shall also elect one additional delegate and alternate for every fifty 
(50) votes, or major fraction thereof, cast for the Republican candidate for 
Governor in the last general election, or, in conformity with their county 
Plan of Organization, choose to elect one additional delegate and alternate 
for every one hundred (100) votes, or major fraction thereof, cast for the 
Republican candidate for Governor in the last general election. No organi- 
zational changes shall take place except as provided in this section. 

C. The Chairman and Secretary of each precinct shall certify election of 
delegates and alternates to the Presidential Election Year County Con- 
vention, on forms stipulated by the State Central Committee and furnish- 
ed by the County Chairman. Complete credentials shall be in the hands 
of the County Secretary by the deadline set by the County Chairman. 

III. Other Precinct Meetings 

A. Other meetings of the Precinct general membership may be held at such 
time as shall be designated by the Chairman of the Precinct Committee 
after giving five (5) days' notice of such meeting; or upon similar call 
of one-third of the members of the Precinct Committee, or ten (10) 
members of the general precinct membership. There shall be no proxy 
voting. 

B. In the event a Precinct fails to properly organize or the Precinct Chair- 
man fails to act, the County Executive Committee shall direct the County 



224 North Carolina Manual 



Chairman to appoint a Temporary Precinct Chairman to serve until a 
general membership meeting can be called and a new Chairman elected. 
The County Chairman shall call such a meeting within thirty (30) days 
after appointment of the Temporary Chairman. 



ARTICLE III 
PRECINCT COMMITTEE 

I. Duties of Committee 

The Precinct Committee shall cooperate with the County Executive Commit- 
tee in all elections and Party activities; provide the County Chairman with a 
list of Party members within the precinct suitable for appointment as regis- 
trar, election judge, markers, counters, and watchers at the polls; and promote 
the objectives of the Party within the Precinct. 

II. Duties of Officers 

The Chairman of the Precinct Committee, with the advice and consent of the 
Precinct Committee, shall have general supervision of the affairs of the Party 
within his precinct, shall preside at all meetings of the precinct, and shall 
perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the Precinct Committee 
or the County Executive Committee. The Vice Chairman shall function as 
Chairman in the absence of the Chairman. The Secretary shall keep all min- 
utes and records, and shall maintain a list of registered Republican voters and 
workers within the Precinct. 

III. Meetings 

Meetings of the Precinct Committee may be held at such times as shall be 
designated by the Chairman of the Precinct Committee after giving five (5) 
days' notice of such meetings; or upon similar call of one-third of the mem- 
bers of the Precinct Committee. There shall be no proxy voting. 

IV. Vacancies and Removals 

A. In case of death, resignation, discontinuance of residency within the pre- 
cinct, removal of any officers or members of the Precinct Committee, or 
other vacancy, the resulting vacancy shall be filled by the remaining mem- 
bers of the Precinct Committee. 

B. Any member of the Precinct Committee may be removed by a two-third 
vote of the Precinct Committee after being furnished with notice of the 
charges against him, signed by not less than one-third of the members of 
the Committee and allowing him twenty (20) days to appear and defend 
himself; provided further that said cause for removal shall be confined 
to gross inefficiency, Party disloyalty, or failure to comply with the 
County or State Party Plans of Organization. Such removal may be ap- 
pealed to the County Executive Committee, within twenty (20) days, and 
their decision shall be final. 



Republican Party 225 



For the purposes of this plan of organization, "party disloyalty shall be 
defined as actively supporting a candidate of another party or independent 
candidate running in opposition to a nominee of the Republican Party. 

ARTICLE IV 
COUNTY CONVENTION 

I. Biennial Conventions 

A. A County Convention shall be called in every odd-numbered year, by the 
Chairman of the County Executive Committee, at the County seat, within 
the month of March, after giving fifteen (15) days' notice of such Con- 
vention in a newspaper of general circulation within the County The 
delegates and alternates elected at the biennial precinct meetings, unless 
successfully challenged, shall sit as delegates and alternates at the County 
Convention. If the County Chairman fails, refuses, or neglects to call a 
County Convention as required by this article, it shall become the duty of 
the Vice Chairman to act in this capacity. The Vice Chairman shall give 
five (5) days notice thereof to all Precinct Chairmen and County Executive 
Committee members and shall give five (5) days notice of such Convention 
in a newspaper of general circulation within the County. 

B. Convention Action 

1. Plan of Organization 

The County Convention shall adopt a County Plan of Organization 
not inconsistent with this State Plan of Organization, a current copy 
of which shall be on file at County Headquarters and at State Head- 
quarters. 

2. Elections 

a. The County Convention shall elect a Chairman and Vice Chairman 
(of the opposite sex), a Secretary, a Treasurer, and such other 
officers as may be deemed necessary, who shall serve for a term 
of two years or until their successors are elected. 

b. Elect a County Executive Committee of five (5) or more voters, 
in addition to the County officers, who shall hold their places for 
a term of two years or until their successors are elected. The County 
Plan of Organization may provide for the County Executive Com- 
mittee to elect additional members of the County Executive Com- 
mittee elected by the County convention. The number of which 
additional members shall not exceed one-fifth of the number of 
members elected by the county convention and for additional mem- 
bers of the County Executive Committee ex-officio. 

c. In accordance with the County Plan of Organization, elect one 
delegate and one alternate to the Congressional District and State 
Conventions, plus one additional delegate and alternate for every 



226 North Carolina Manual 



200 votes, or major fraction thereof, cast for the Republican can- 
didate for Governor in the last General Election in said County. 
Each County shall further elect one delegate and alternate for 
each Republican elected to the State Legislature and to public 
office on the state or national level from said County in preceding 
election. 

C. Credentials 

The Chairman and Secretary of the County Executive Committee shall 
certify the election of officers, committee members, delegates and alter- 
nates to the District and State Conventions, on forms furnished by the 
State Central Committee. Completed Credentials shall be in the hands 
of the Congressional District Secretary and the State Headquarters by 
the deadline set by the State Chairman. Credentials received shall be con- 
sidered official for mailing purposes only. 

II. Presidential Election Year County Convention 

A. A County Convention shall be called in every Presidential Election year 
by the Chairman of the County Executive Committee, after giving fifteen 
(15) days' notice thereof to all chairmen and County Executive Committee 
members, and after giving fifteen (15) days' notice of such Convention in a 
newspaper of general circulation within the County. The delegates and 
alternates elected at the Presidential Election Year Precinct Meetings, 
unless successfully challenged, shall sit as delegates and alternates in the 
County Convention. If the County Chairman fails, refuses, or neglects to 
call a county convention as required by this article, it shall become the 
duty of the Vice Chairman to act in this capacity. The Vice Chairman 
shall give five (5) days notice thereof to all Precinct Chairmen and County 
Executive Committee members and shall give five (5) days notice of such 
convention in a newspaper of general circulation within the County. 

B. The Presidential Election Year County Convention shall elect one dele- 
gate and one alternate to the Congressional District and State Conven- 
tions, plus one additional delegate and alternate for every 200 votes, or 
major fraction thereof, cast for the Republican candidate for Governor 
in the last General Election in said County. Each County shall further 
elect one delegate and one alternate for each Republican elected to the 
State Legislature and to public office on the state or national level from 
said County in the preceding election. No organizational changes shall 
take place except as provided in this section. 

C. The Chairman and Secretary of the County Executive Committee shall 
certify election of delegates and alternates to the Presidential Election 
Year District and State Convention, on forms furnished by the State 
Central Committee. Completed Credentials shall be in the hands of the 
Congressional District Secretary and the State Headquarters by the 
deadline set by the State Chairman. Credentials received shall be con- 
sidered official for mailing purposes only. 



Republican Party 227 



ARTICLE V 
COUNTY EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

I. Membership 

The County Executive Committee shall consist of the County Officers and 
other persons elected by the County Convention (in accordance with ARTICLE 
IV, and the County Finance Chairman). 

II. Powers and Duties 

The County Executive Committee shall cooperate with the District and State 
Committees in all elections and Party activities; shall encourage qualified 
candidates to office within the County; adopt a budget; and shall have active 
management of Party affairs within the County. It shall approve a Finance 
Committee an Auditing Committee of not less than three members each and 
may approve such other Committees as may be deemed necessary. The County 
Chairman and Vice Chairman shall be an ex-officio member of all committees 
indicated in this paragraph. 

Within 90 days after the State Convention, the County Executive Committee 
shall amend the County Plan of Organization so as to bring it into compliance 
with the State Plan of Organization. 

III. Meetings 

The County Executive Committee shall meet at least twice a year upon call 
of the County Chairman after giving ten (10) days' notice to all members; 
or upon similar call of one-third of the members of the Committee. One-third 
of the members shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. 
There shall be no proxy voting. 

V. Duties of Officers 

The Chairman of the County Executive Committee, with the advice and con- 
consent of the County Executive Committee, shall have general supervision of 
the affairs of the Party within his County. He shall issue the call for Biennial 
Precinct Meetings and Presidential Election Year Precinct Meetings, the 
County Convention, the Presidential Election Year County Convention, and 
Executive Committee meetings, and shall preside at all the meetings of the 
County Executive Committee. He shall make quarterly reports on the status 
of the Party within his County to the District Chairman, on forms furnished 
by the State Central Committee. He shall be responsible for the creation and 
maintenance of a Republican organization in every precinct within his County. 
He shall obtain and preserve a list of all registered Republicans within the 
County and shall perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the 
County, District or State Committee. 

The Vice Chairman shall function as Chairman in the absence of the Chair- 
man and shall have such other duties as may be prescribed by the County 



228 North Carolina Manual 



Executive Committee. 

The Secretary shall keep all minutes and records and shall maintain a roster 
of all precinct officers and Executive Committee Members. Such record shall 
be available, upon request to any registered Republican within the County. 

The Secretary shall furnish to the Congressional District Chairman and to 
State Headquarters up-to-date lists of all Precinct Chairmen. The Treasurer 
shall receive and disburse all funds for Party expenditures pursuant to au- 
thority duly given by the County Executive Committee and will make a 
financial report to all County Executive Committee meetings. 

V. Vacancies and Removals 

A. In case of death, resignation, discontinuance of residency within the 
County, removal of any officer or member of the County Executive Com- 
mittee, or other vacancy, the resulting vacancy shall be filled by the 
County Executive Committee. 

B. Any officer or member of the County Executive Committee may be re- 
moved by a two-thirds vote of the Committee after being furnished with 
notice of the charges against him, signed by not less than one-third of the 
members of the Committee and allowing him thirty (30) days to appear 
and defend himself; provided further that said cause for removal shall 
be confined to gross inefficiency, Party disloyalty, or failure to act in 
compliance with the County or State Plans of Organization. Such re- 
moval may be appealed, within twenty (20) days to the Congressional 
District Chairman and members of the State Executive Committee with- 
in the District, and their decision shall be final. 

ARTICLE VI 
COUNTY FINANCE AND AUDITING COMMITTEES 

I. Finance Committee 

The County Finance Committee shall be composed of the County Finance 
Chairman, the County Chairman, the County Treasurer, and not less than 
three persons appointed by the County Executive Committee. They shall co- 
operate with the Congressional District and State Finance Committees and 
shall have active management of fund-raising efforts within the County. 

II. Auditing Committee 

The Auditing Committee shall conduct a yearly audit of the financial records 
of the County and report such audit to the County Executive Committee for 
approval. 



Republican Party 229 



ARTICLE VII 

JUDICIAL, SENATORIAL, AND LEGISLATIVE 
DISTRICT EXECUTIVE COMMITTEES 

I. Membership 

A. In one-County District, the County Executive Committee shall serve as 
the District Committee. 

B. In those Districts encompassing more than one county, membership shall 
consist of those persons elected under ARTICLE V (II) of this Plan, 
plus all members of the State Executive Committee within the District. 

II. Election of Officers 

At some time preceding the State Convention, the District Committees shall 
meet at a time and place designated by a member of the Committee stipulated 
by the County Chairman from that County within the District having the 
largest population and shall elect, from among their membership, a Chair- 
man and such other officers as may be deemed necessary. The officers shall 
have such duties as may be prescribed by the State Executive Committee. The 
Chairman shall report to the State Chairman names of elected officers. 

III. Powers and Duties of Committees 

A. The Judicial District Committee shall encourage qualified candidates for 
Solicitor, District Judge, and Superior Court Judge and shall assist and 
cooperate with the County and State Executive Committees in all cam- 
paigns. 

B. The Senatorial District Committee shall encourage qualified candidates 
for State Senator and shall assist and cooperate with the County and 
State Executive Committee in all campaigns. 

C. The Legislative District Committee shall encourage qualified candidates 
for the State House of Representatives and shall assist and cooperate 
with the County and State Executive Committees in all campaigns. 

D. Committees herein elected shall serve as the appropriate District Execu- 
tive Committee as they are referred to in North Carolina G.S. 163-114. 

ARTICLE VIII 
CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT CONVENTIONS 

I. Biennial Convention 

A. A Congressional District Convention shall be called in every odd-num- 
bered year by the Chairman of the Congressional District Committee, 
within the dates designated by the State Central Committee, upon twenty 
(20) days' written notice of the time and place for holding same to all 
members of the District Committee and to the County Chairmen within 



230 North Carolina Manual 



said District. The delegates and alternates elected in the County Con- 
ventions, unless successfully challenged, shall sit as delegates and al- 
ternates in the Congressional District Convention. 

B. Convention Action 

1. The Congressional District Convention shall adopt a District Plan of 
Organization, a current copy of which shall be on file at State Head- 
quarters. 

2. The Congressional District Convention shall elect a Chairman and a 
Vice-Chairman (of the opposite sex), a Secretary, a Treasurer, and 
such other officers as may be deemed necessary, who shall serve for a 
term of two years or until their successors are elected. 

3. The Congressional District Convention shall further elect one mem- 
ber of the State Executive Committee, plus one additional member for 
every 6,000 votes or major fraction thereof cast within the District 
for the Republican candidate for Governor in the preceding General 
Election. 

C. Credentials 

The Chairman and Secretary of the Congressional District shall certify 
election of officers, State Executive Committee members, delegates and 
alternates on forms furnished by the State Central Committee. Completed 
District Credentials, plus completed Credentials for the Counties with- 
in the District, shall be in the hands of the State Credentials Committee 
Chairman by the deadline set by the State Chairman. Credentials re- 
ceived shall be considered official for mailing purposes only. 

II. Presidential Election Year Congressional District Convention 

A. A Presidential Election Year Congressional District Convention shall 
be called in every Presidential Election Year by the Chairman of the 
Congressional District Committee, within the dates designated by the 
State Central Committee, upon twenty (20) days' written notice of the 
time and place for holding same to all members of the District Commit- 
tee and to the County Chairmen within said District. The delegates and 
alternates elected in the Presidential Election Year County Conventions, 
unless successfully challenged, shall sit as delegates and alternates in 
the Presidential Election Year Congressional District Convention. 

B. The Presidential Election Year Congressional District Convention shall 
elect two delegates and two alternates to the Republican National Con- 
vention, and shall nominate one Presidential Elector. No organizational 
changes shall take place except as provided in this section. 

C. The Chairman and Secretary of the Congressional District shall certify 
election of delegates and alternates, and nominee for Presidential Elector 
on forms furnished by the State Central Committee. Completed District 
Credentials, plus completed Credentials for the counties within the Dis- 



Republican Party 231 

trict, shall be in the hands of the State Credentials Committee Chairman 
by the deadline set by the State Chairman. Credentials received shall be 
considered official for mailing purposes only. 

ARTICLE IX 
CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

I. Membership 

Membership of the Congressional District Executive Committee shall be com- 
posed of: 

A. The officers elected at the District Convention. 

B. All duly elected County Chairmen and Vice Chairmen within the District. 

C. All members of the State Executive Committee who are elected by the 
District Convention under the provisions in ARTICLE VIII, Section B, 3. 

D. Such others as the District Plan of Organization may provide. 

II. Powers and Duties 

The Congressional District Executive Committee shall encourage qualified 
candidates for Congress; cooperate with the Judicial, Senatorial, and Legis- 
lative Executive Committees in encouraging qualified candidates for those 
offices, especially in multi-county districts; appoint a finance chairman; and 
cooperate with the County and State Executive Committees in all campaigns. 

III. Meetings 

The Congressional District Executive Committee shall meet at least twice a 
year upon call of the Congressional District Chairman. One-third of the 
members of the Committee shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of 
business. There shall be no proxy voting. 

IV. Duties of Officers 

A. The Congressional District Chairman, with the advice and consent of the 
District Executive Committee, shall have general supervision of the af- 
fairs of the Party within its District. He shall assist the State Chairman 
in carrying out State Programs, supervise the Congressional campaigns 
until such time as a Campaign Manager shall have been appointed, main- 
tain contact with all Counties within his District, and shall be responsible 
for the proper organization and functioning of those Counties. He shall 
maintain constant liaison with all County Chairmen with regard to a 
Republican organization in every precinct within his District. In addi- 
tion, he shall furnish, upon request, each County Chairman and each 
County Executive Committee officer an accurate and up-to-date list of 
all County Executive Committee officers within his District to include 
title, name, address, and zip code. These lists shall be updated periodical- 
ly to insure that the latest information is provided to those to whom it is 



232 North Carolina Manual 



required to be provided. He shall have such other duties as may be pre- 
scribed by the State Executive Committee. 

B. The Vice-Chairman shall be Chief Assistant to the District Chairman 
and shall act as Chairman in the absence of the Chairman; shall main- 
tain liaison with the County Vice-Chairman throughout the District 

(where applicable) and shall have such other duties as may be prescrib- 
ed by the District Committee. 

C. The Secretary shall keep all minutes and records and shall maintain a 
roster of all officers of the Counties within the District. 

D. The Treasurer shall receive and disburse all funds for Party expendi- 
tures pursuant to authority duly given by the District Committee and 
will make a financial report to all District Executive Committee meet- 
ings. 

V. Vacancies ayid Removals 

A. In case of death, resignation, discontinuance of residency within the Dis- 
trict, removal of any officer of the Congressional District Executive Com- 
mittee, or other vacancy, the resulting vacancy shall be filled by the re- 
maining members of the Committee. 

B. Any officer of the Congressional District Executive Committee may be 
removed by a two-thirds vote of the Congressional District Executive 
Committee after being notified by the charges against him signed by not 
less than one-third of the members of the Committee, and allowing him 
thirty (30) days to appear and defend himself; provided further that 
said cause for removal shall be confined to gross inefficiency, Party dis- 
loyalty, or failure to act in compliance with the District or State Plans of 
Organization. Such removal may be appealed, within twenty (20) days, 
to the State Central Committee, and their decision shall be final. 

ARTICLE X 
DISTRICT FINANCE COMMITTEE 

I. The District Finance Chairman shall serve as Chairman of the Congressional 
District Finance Committee, which shall be composed of the Finance Chair- 
men of all the Counties within the District, the Congressional District Chair- 
man, and the Congressional District Treasurer, plus three additional mem- 
bers to be elected by the members of the Finance Committee. Other officers 
as may be deemed necessary may be elected by and from the members of the 
Committee. This Committee shall cooperate with the State Finance Committee 
and with the County Finance Committees in all fund-raising efforts. 



Republican Party 233 



ARTICLE XI 
STATE CONVENTIONS 

I. Biennial State Convention 

A. A biennial State Convention shall be called in every odd-numbered year 
to be held between September 1 and December 1 of said odd-numbered 
year, by the Chairman of the Republican State Executive Committee 
after giving sixty (60) days' written notice of the time and place for 
holding same to all members of the State Executive Committee and to 
all County Chairmen. Delegates and alternates elected at the County 
Conventions, unless successfully challenged, shall sit as delegates and al- 
ternates at the Biennial State Convention. 

B. In every odd-numbered year, the Biennial State Convention shall elect a 
State Chairman and a Vice-Chairman (of the opposite sex) who shall 
serve for a term of two years or until their successors are elected. 

II. Presidential Election Year State Convention 

A. A Presidential Election Year State Convention shall be called in every 
Presidential Election Year between the date of the First Primary Elec- 
tion and July 1 of said Presidential Election Year, by the Chairman of 
the Republican State Executive Committee after giving sixty (60) days' 
written notice of the time and place for holding same to all members of 
the State Executive Committee and to all County Chairmen. Delegates 
and alternates elected at the Presidential Election Year County Conven- 
tions, unless successfully challenged shall sit as delegates and alternates 
at the Presidential Election Year State Convention. 

B. In every Presidential Election Year the Presidential Election Year Con- 
vention shall elect delegates and alternates to the National Convention, 
in addition to those specified under ARTICLE VIII, in the number stipu- 
lated by the State Chairman as determined by the National Rules. They 
shall further elect a National Committeeman and a National Committee- 
woman who shall serve for a term of four years or until their successors 
are elected; and nominate two Presidential Electors at Large. 



ARTICLE XII 
STATE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

I. Membership 

The State Executive Committee shall be composed of the following: 

A. The Congressional District Chairmen, the Congressional District Vice- 
Chairmen, the Congressional District Finance Chairmen, and those per- 
sons elected by the District Conventions under ARTICLE VIII, Section I, 
Subsection B-3, of this Plan. 



234 North Carolina Manual 



B. The State Chairman, Vice-Chairman, National Committeeman, National 
Committeewoman, Secretary, Assistant Secretary, Treasurer, Finance 
Chairman, General Counsel, and a Director of Minority Affairs. 

C. The Chairman, National Committeeman and National Committeewoman 
of the Young: Republican Federation. The President-Elect, and Past 
President of the Republican Women's Federation. The Chairman of the 
North Carolina College Republicans and the Chairman of the North Car- 
olina Teenage Republicans, provided they fullfill the requirements of 
Article I; otherwise, they will be non-voting members. 

D. All current Republican members of the United States Congress, the State 
Legislature, and the State Board of Elections. 

E. All past Republican members of the United States Congress, Governors, 
Member of the Council of State, State Legislative and the State Board of 
Elections. 

F. All County Chairmen and Vice Chairmen. 
II. Powers and Duties of Committee 

The State Executive Committee shall elect a Secretary and an Assistant Sec- 
retary, a Treasurer, a Finance Chairman, and a General Counsel, who shall 
serve for a term of two years or until their successors are elected. The Com- 
mittee shall formulate and provide for the execution of such plans and 
measures as it may deem conducive to the best interests of the Republican 
Party. It shall appoint an Auditing Committee of at least three members to 
conduct a yearly audit; approve such audit; adopt a budget; and shall have 
active management of all affairs of the Party within the State. It may dele- 
gate such duties as it deems proper to the State Central Committee. 

When monies are raised and expenditures authorized by other than the State 
Central Committee or the State Executive Committee on behalf of any can- 
didate for state or national office, the Party shall not be held liable; except, 
however, that the State Executive Committee, by a two-thirds vote of a quo- 
rum present, may assume any portion of such debts it deems advisable. 

III. Committee Meetings 

The State Executive Committee shall meet at least twice per calendar year, 
upon call of the Chairman at such times as the State Chairman shall de- 
termine, after giving fifteen (15) days' written notice to all Committee mem- 
bers; or upon petition of one-third of the members of the Committee. One- 
third of the members shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of busi- 
ness. There shall be no proxy voting. 

IV. Duties of Officers 

A. The State Chairman, with the advice and consent of the Central Com- 
mittee, shall have general supervision of the affairs of the Party within 
the state. He shall preside at ail meetings of the State Executive Commit- 
tee and shall perform such duties as may be prescribed by the State 



Republican Party 235 



Executive Committee. He shall appoint, with the consent of the Central 
Committee, a Director of Minority Affairs (who shall be a member of a 
minority race) who shall serve at the pleasure of the State Chairman. He 
shall be responsible for the campaigns of the Governor and Lieutenant 
Governor until such time as a permanent campaign manager may be ap- 
pointed. The State Chairman may delegate authority to the District 
Chairman to act in his behalf on any matter. 

B. The Vice-Chairman shall be Chief Assistant to the Chairman and shall 
act as Chairman in the absence of the Chairman. If a woman, the Vice- 
Chairman should be designated as Director of the Women's Division of 
the Republican Party, which shall be supported by the State Committee. 
The Vice-Chairman shall maintain close liaison with the District and 
County Vice-Chairmen, encourage and direct the women's activities in 
the Party structure. The Vice-Chairman shall work with the National 
Committeewoman to fund the National Program and provide her with 
information and assistance on the State matters. The Vice-Chairman 
shall have such other duties as may be prescribed by the State Executive 
Committee. 

C. The National Committeeman and National Committeewoman shall main- 
tain liaison with the National Republican Party. 

D. The Secretary shall keep minutes of all meetings. The Assistant Secre- 
tary shall assist the Secretary in the above duties and shall act as Secre- 
tary in the absence of the Secretary. 

E. The State Treasurer shall receive and disburse all funds collected or 
earned by the State Party and all disbursements shall be made by him. 
All funds shall be deposited in a central location at the Treasurer's direc- 
tion. The treasurer shall be bonded in an amount fixed by the State Cen- 
tral Committee — the premium to be paid from Party funds. 

F. The General Counsel shall advise the Executive Committee on all legal 
matters and shall act as Parliamentarian at all meetings of the Commit- 
tee. 

G. The Director of Minority Affairs shall develop the means to attain support 
for the State Executive Committee from minority groups as those groups 
are predetermined by age, sex, creed or color within the State. 

V. Vacancies and Removals 

A. In case of death, resignation, discontinuance of residency within the state, 
or removal of any officer of the State Executive Committee, the resulting 
vacancy shall be filled by the State Executive Committee. In case of 
death, resignation, discontinuance of residency within the District, or re- 
moval of any member representing a Congressional District, the vacancy 
shall be filled by the remaining members of the Congressional District in 
which such vacancy occurs. 

B. Any officer or member may be removed by a two-thirds vote of the Com- 



236 North Carolina Manual 



mittee after being furnished with notice of the charges against him, 
signed by not less than one-third of the members of the Committee and al- 
lowing him thirty (30) days to appear and defend himself; provided 
further that said cause for removal shall be confined to gross inefficiency, 
Party disloyalty, or failure to act in compliance with this Plan of Or- 
ganization. The decision of the State Executive Committee shall be final. 

ARTICLE XIII 
STATE CENTRAL COMMITTEE 

I. Membership 

The State Central Committee shall be composed of the following: 

A. The Congressional District Chairmen; the Congressional District Vice- 
Chairmen shall act in the absence of the Chairman. 

B. The Chairman, Vice-Chairman, National Committeeman, National Com- 
mitteewoman, Secretary, Assistant Secretary, Treasurer, General Coun- 
sel, Director of Minority Affairs and Finance Chairman of the State 
Executive Committee. 

C. The Chairman of the Young Republican Federation and the President of 
the Republican Women's Federation. The Chairman of the North Caro- 
lina College Republicans and the Chairman of the North Carolina Teen- 
age Republicans shall be voting members, provided they fulfill the re- 
quirements of Article I; otherwise, they will be non-voting members. 

D. The Immediate Past State Chairman and the Permanent Chairman of the 
previous State Convention. 

E. The Congressional District Finance Chairmen shall be non-voting, ex- 
officio members of this Committee. 

F. The Republican Joint Caucus Leader of the General Assembly. 
II. Potvers and Duties 

The State Central Committee shall have the power to appoint a Campaign 
Committee, a Publicity Committee, a Committee on Senior Citizens Affairs, 
State Convention Committees and Temporary Convention Officers, and such 
other Committees as it may deem necessary for the proper conduct of the af- 
fairs of the Party; to manage the affairs of the Party between meetings of 
the State Executive Committee; to formulate fiscal policy, establish quotas, 
prepare a budget; to set the dates for the Biennial Precinct Meetings, Con- 
gressional District, and State Conventions between September 1 and December 
1 of the odd-numbered years and the Presidential Election Year Precinct 
Meetings, County, Congressional District, and State conventions, between 
the date of the First Primary Election and July 1 of the Presidential Election 
years, in accordance with National Rules; and to do all things pertaining to 
Party affairs which it may be authorized to do by the State Executive Com- 



Republican Party 237 



mittee. It shall be responsible for initiating' all campaigns for the United 
States Senate and Council of State and co-ordinating them as determined 
feasible. The State Central Committee shall keep accurate accounts of its 
proceedings and shall make annual reports to the State Executive Committee. 

The Committee shall contract with, as full-time Executive Director, a person of 
highest character and political competence to prosecute on a day-by-day basis 
the mission of the Committee. The Committee shall provide on a full-time basis 
in the Capital city of North Carolina adequate offices for the Executive Di- 
rector and such staff as the Committee shall provide for him, which offices 
shall be known as Headquarters, North Carolina Republican Party. The 
Central Committee is charged with, in addition to all other duties, the mis- 
sion of creating an effective Republican organization in every political pre- 
cinct in North Carolina. 

III. Meetings 

The State Central Committee shall meet at least six times a year upon call of 
the Chairman upon ten (10) days' notice to all members or upon petition of 
one-third of the members of the Committee. One-third of the members shall 
constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. There shall be no proxy 
voting. 

V. Duties of Officers 

The Officers of the State Executive Committee shall act as officers of the State 
Central Committee, with corresponding duties. 



ARTICLE XIV 
STATE FINANCE COMMITTEE 

I. Membership 

The Finance Committee shall consist of the State Finance Chairman, the 
Congressional Finance Chairmen, the State Chairman, plus six additional 
members to be elected by the members of the Finance Committee. The State 
Finance Chairman shall serve as Chairman of the State Finance Committee. 
Other officers as may be deemed necessary may be elected by and from the 
members of the Committee. 

II. Powers arid Duties 

It shall be the duty of the State Finance Committee to develop ways and 
means to properly finance the General Election Campaigns and other busi- 
ness and affairs of the Republican Party. The Committee shall manage a 
united fund-raising effort in cooperation with the State Central Committee 
only in those counties with the approval of the County Executive Committee; 
and cooperate with District and County organizations for effective fund-rais- 
ing campaigns. Said Committee shall not, directly or indirectly, raise or col- 
lect funds for the benefit of any candidates for Primary Elections. All per- 



238 North Carolina Manual 



sons making contributions to the Stale Finance Committee of $10.00 or more 
shall be furnished with a receipt thereof. Contributions going directly to the 
National Committee or to any candidate shall not be acknowledged by the 
State Treasurer or recorded as a regular contribution to the Republican 
Party of North Carolina. 

Permanent record of all contributors shall be maintained by the State Chair- 
man and State Treasurer, and such records shall be available, upon request, 
to the appropriate County and District Chairmen. 

III. Duties of Officers 

The Finance Chairman shall preside at all meetings of the Committee and 
shall be the chief liaison between the Finance Committee and the State Central 
Committee. Other officers shall have such duties as may be prescribed by the 
Committee. 

ARTICLE XV 
GENERAL CONVENTION PROCEDURE 

I. Biennial Conventions and Presidential Election Year Conventions 

The County, Congressional District, and State Conventions shall be called to 
order by their respective Chairmen, or, in the absence of the Chairman, by 
the Vice Chairman or Secretary, in order stated, who shall have the power to 
appoint the necessary Convention Committees and temporary officers at, or 
before, the convening of the Convention. 

II. Voting Procedure 

No delegate, alternate, or other member of a Convention shall cast any vote 
by proxy; provided, however, that any delegate or delegates present shall 
have the right to cast the entire vote of the County in District and State Con- 
ventions. No precinct shall cast more votes than it has duly elected delegates 
on the floor at the County Convention. No person shall be seated as a delegate 
or alternate in any County, District, or State Convention unless such person 
shall have been duly elected a delegate or alternate by the appropriate pre- 
cinct meeting or County Convention; EXCEPT the registered Republican, or 
Republicans, present at a County Convention from an unorganized precinct, 
which has not had its credentials accepted, shall have the right to vote on 
vote per precinct, pro-rated among those present from that precinct. 

III. Special Conventions 

The State Central Committee, at any time, in the interests of the Republican 
Party, may direct the State Chairman or the Congressional District Chair- 
men, to issue call for special Senatorial, Judicial, or Legislative organizational 
meetings, and special County and Congressional District Conventions, in any 
or all of the Counties and Districts of the state. The procedure for calling 
regular biennial meetings and Conventions shall apply to the calling of special 
meetings and Conventions so far as applicable and not inconsistent with this 
Plan of Organization. 



Republican Party 239 

ARTICLE XVI 
OFFICIAL RECORDS 

I. Minutes of Official Actions 

Minutes shall be kept by all Committees and Conventions of official actions 
taken and a copy shall be filed with the Chairman of the appropriate Com- 
mittee on Convention. 

II. Financial Accounts 

The Chairman, Treasurer, and Finance Chairman of the County, District, 
and State Committees shall keep faithful and accurate records of any and 
all monies received by them for the use of said Committees and shall make 
faithful and accurate report thereof when so requested. 

ARTICLE XVII 
APPOINTMENTS 

I. Notification 

It shall be the duty of the State Chairman to transmit to each County Chair- 
man notice of all known vacancies in appointive positions in the County, in 
order that eligible Republicans from that County may be considered and rec- 
ommended for such positions. The State Chairman shall further transmit 
notice of all known vacancies on a District or State level to those persons 
having jurisdiction in such appointments. 

II. County Appointments 

When a vacancy occurs in a governmental office in any properly organized 
County, such vacancy shall be filled by recommendation of the State Chair- 
man, only upon majority vote of the Executive Committee of the County in- 
volved, at a meeting called for that purpose. 

III. District Appointments 

When a vacancy occurs in a governmental office on a District level, such va- 
cancy shall be filled by recommendation of the State Chairman, only upon 
majority vote of the National Committeeman and National Committeewoman, 
and members of the State Executive Committee from the counties embraced 
in the territory served by the office in question, at a meeting called for that 
purpose. 

IV. State Appointments 

When a vacancy occurs in a governmental office on the state level, such va- 
cancy shall be filled by recommendation of the State Chairman, only upon 
majority vote of the State Executive Committee at a meeting called for that 
purpose. 



240 North Carolina Manual 

ARTICLE XVIII 
FORFEITURE OF OFFICIAL PRIVILEGES 

Any officer or member of a Precinct Committee, County Executive Commit- 
tee, District Committee, State Executive Committee, or State Central Committee 
who, for any reason, is removed or resigns from said position shall forfeit all 
rights and privileges in any way connected with that position. 

ARTICLE XIX 
NATIONAL CONVENTION RULES 

The first ballot vote of the North Carolina delegates to the Republican National 
Presidential Convention shall equal, rounded off to the nearest delegate, the per- 
centage vote received in the North Carolina Presidential Preferential Primary by 
each candidate, subject to limitation that no candidate who received less than 
twenty percent (20%) of the total vote in said primary shall be entitled to receive 
votes cast by the North Carolina delegation. "After the vote on the first ballot by a 
political party at its national convention, as required by this Article, all responsi- 
bility under this Article shall terminate and further ballotting shall be the pre- 
rogative of the political parties as might be prescribed by the rules of such political 
parties." (GS 163-213.8) In the event of the death or withdrawal of a candidate 
prior to the first ballot, any delegate votes which would otherwise be allocated to 
him, shall be considered uncommitted. 

ARTICLE XX 
APPLICABILITY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF THIS PLAN 

I. Rules as to Towns and Cities 

This Plan of Organization is not intended to extend to, or establish organiza- 
tions for the Republican Party of the various towns and cities of the State 
of North Carolina as separate units from the precinct and county organiza- 
tions. Qualified and registered Republican voters of the towns and cities of 
the state may organize and promulgate their own rules not inconsistent with 
these rules and the organizations herein established. 

II. Rules as to Counties and Districts 

The Precinct and County Committees and County Conventions, and the Dis- 
trict Committees and Conventions are authorized to promulgate such addi- 
tional rules and establish such additional Party officers or committees for 
their respective organizations, not inconsistent with these rules, as shall be 
deemed necessary. 

III. Controversies 

Controversies in any County or District with respect to the Organizations set 
up therein under this Plan, shall be referred to the State Chairman, National 



Republican Party 241 



Committeeman, National Committeewoman, and General Counsel for arbitra- 
tion. Ruling shall be made within sixty (60) days and their decision shall be 
final. 

IV. Parliamentary Authority 

Robert's Rules of Order Revised shall govern all proceedings, except when 
inconsistent with this State Plan of Organization or Convention Rules prop- 
erly adopted. 

V. Effective Date of this Plan 

This Plan of Organization shall become effective and repeal and supercede 
all other rules, except as specifically noted, immediately following adjourn- 
ment of the State Convention in Charlotte, North Carolina, on April 16, 1977. 
This, however, shall not invalidate any action taken under the previous rules 
prior to the above date. 

Archie Bunn, Chairman 

Revision of the Plan of Organization Committee 



242 North Carolina Manual 



STATE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 
NORTH CAROLINA REPUBLICAN PARTY 

1977 

STATE ORGANIZATION 

Offia Officer Address 

Chairman Jackson F. Lee Fayetteville 

Vice Chairman Mrs. Mary Jane Hollyday Asheville 

Secretary Erick Little Raleigh 

Assistant Secretary Wilson J. Bryan, Jr Charlotte 

Treasurer Bob McBurney Raleigh 

National Committeeman Dr. John East Greenville 

National Committeewoman Mrs. Betty Lou Johnson Raleigh 



YOUNG REPUBLICAN FEDERATION 

Chairman Dick Levy Greensboro 

National Committeeman Bob Freeman Charlotte 

National Committeewoman Mrs. Eloise Howard Greenville 



WOMEN'S FEDERATION 

President Mrs. Barbara Boyce Charlotte 

Past President Mrs. Ginger Heglar Lincolnton 

Director of Minority Affairs Marcus Street Greensboro 



NORTH CAROLINA REPUBLICAN COUNTY CHAIRMEN 

1977 

County Chairman Address 

Alamance Kenneth F. Corbett Burlington 

Alexander Dot Teague Taylorsville 

Alleghany Tom Douglas Piney Creek 

Anson John B. Christie Wadesboro 

Ashe Harold Stanly Jefferson 

Avery Jack Hughes Newland 

Beaufort Miss Frances Ratcliff Pantego 

Bertie Glen Lancaster Winsor 

Brunswick William A. Kopp, Jr Bolivia 

Bladen Timmy Thomas Elizabethtown 

Buncombe Forest Ball Weaverville 

Burke Stephen A. Blahut Morganton 

Cabarrus A. E. Partridge Concord 

Caldwell Mike K. Holt Lenoir 

Camden Warren E. Riggs Old Trap 

Carteret H. Burton Daniels, Jr Cedar Island 

Caswell Tommy Davis Yancey ville 

Catawba Tom Dlugos Hickory 



United States 243 



Chatham Ovide E. de st Aubin Siler City 

Cherokee Irene J. Mills Murphy 

Chowan Terrence W. Boyle Edenton 

Clay B. Howard Wimpey Hayesville 

Cleveland Charles R. McCartney Shelby 

Columbus Delores Derosa Tabor City 

Craven Trawick Stubbs, Jr New Bern 

Cumberland Charles H. Burgardt Fayetteville 

Currituck Porcius F. Crank, Jr Harbinger 

Dare Elton A. Gammage Buxton 

Davidson Clark Smith Lexington 

Davie H. R. Hendricx, Jr Mocksville 

Duplin Dr. Corbett L. Quinn Magnolia 

Durham Thomas D. Wright Bahama 

Edgecombe George Alton Grayiel Tarboro 

Forsyth Edward Powell Winston-Salem 

Franklin Charles Eaves Henderson 

Gaston William G. Quarles Gastonia 

Gates E. M. Rountree Corapeake 

Graham Delmas Shuler Robbinsville 

Granville J. P. Johnson, Jr Oxford 

Greene E. C. Newcomb Snow Hill 

Guilford Jackie Manzi Greensboro 

Halifax T. A. Merritt, Jr Roanoke Rapids 

Harnett Mahlon R. Parker Dunn 

Haywood John Nations Canton 

Henderson Fred C. Mason Hendersonville 

Hertford John R. Moore Ahoskie 

Hoke J. H. Blue, Jr Reaford 

Hyde Russel Blanchard Englehard 

Iredell Frank P. Fields Mooresville 

Jackson James Allman Sylva 

Johnston Leo Daughtry Smithf ield 

Jones Mr. W. W. Wicks Maysville 

Lee Charles McBryde Sanford 

Lenoir Calvin Jackson Kinston 

Lincoln Joe L. Kiser Vale 

Macon Harold Corbin Franklin 

Madison Dr. Larry Stern Mars Hill 

Martin Kenneth Hawkins Williamston 

McDowell Gilbert Hollifield, Jr Marion 

Mecklenburg Mitchell Grant Charlotte 

Mitchell Lloyd Hise, Jr Spruce Pines 

Montgomery Dr. J. W. Owen Troy 

Moore George W. Little Southern Pines 

Nash Jack Bailey Rocky Mount 

New Hanover Fries Shaffner Wrightsville Beach 

Northampton W. T. Outland Woodland 

Onslow William R. Grady Jacksonville 

Orange Raymond Montgomery Hillsborough 

Pamlico C. Ralph Forrest Vandemere 

Pasquotank Leo J. Sheetz Elizabeth City 

Pender Ellen Futch Hampstead 

Perquimans Cecil E. Winslow Hertford 

Person Donald Waldo Roxboro 



244 North Carolina Manual 



Pitt Barbara Ellis Greenville 

Polk Paul Butler Tryon 

Randolph Aian V. Pugh Asheboro 

Richmond Joe Richardson Rockingham 

Robeson Norma Morton Lumberton 

Rockingham Hugh Williams Eden 

Rowan William Allison Cleveland 

Rutherford Mrs. Carolyn S. Gardner Forest City 

Sampson Robert L. Williams Autryville 

Scotland Jackie Williamson Laurinburg 

Stanly H. Otha Carter New London 

Stokes Betty Davis King 

Surry William F. Huckaby Pilot Mountain 

Swain Odell Grant Bryson City 

Transylvania Ladson F. Hart Brevard 

Tyrrell Irvin R. Swain Columbia 

Union Roger L. Austin Marshville 

Vance Scott Peace Henderson 

Wake Thomas L. Lucas, Jr Raleigh 

Warren John J. Hawkins Warrenton 

Washington John A. Lamm Plymouth 

Watauga F. Cecil Miller Boone 

Wayne Gene S. Baker Pikeville 

Wilkes John Garwood North Wilkesboro 

Wilson Augusta Haberyan Wilson 

Yadkin James L. Graham Yadkinville 

Yancey Steve Boone Green Mountain 



PART IV 

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE 

UNITED STATES 




WufMwMw&s&:<- 



United States Government 247 

Chapter One 
THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH 



JIMMY CARTER 
(JAMES EARL CARTER, JR.) 

PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES 

Jimmy Carter was born in Plains, Georgia October 1, 1924, the son of James 
Earl (deceased) and Lillian (Gordy) Carter. He was named James Earl Carter, Jr. 
but prefers "Jimmy". His Father owned a large warehouse, cotton gin and a large 
peanut farm, and his mother was a registered nurse. Attended the public schools 
around Plains. Student at Georgia Southwestern University, 1941-42; Georgia 
Institute of Technology, 1942-43; and graduated U.S. Naval Academy, (BS), 1946. 
Served in U.S. Navy, 1946-1954 working with Admiral Hyman Rickover in develop- 
ing the world's first atomic submarines. Resigned his Commission in 1954 following 
death of his Father. Returned to Plains to take over family business. Served on local 
Board of Education. Former Deacon and Sunday School Teacher at First Baptist 
Church. Member of Rotary and Lions Clubs. Elected to Georgia Senate, 1962; served 
1962-1966; Defeated for Governor, 1966; elected in 1970. His pattern for reorganizing 
state government in Georgia (reducing some 300 agencies into 22) has served as a 
plan for other state governments who were planning similar reorganizations. He 
also initiated the Zero-base budgeting concept for government financing. Chairman, 
National Democratic Campaign Committee, 1974. Announced his desire to run for 
President of the United States in 1974. During the 1976 Primary Campaign he won 
in 19 of 31 primaries establishing himself as the clear-cut Democratic candidate for 
President. Defeated Gerald R. Ford in November, 1976 for the Presidency. Married 
Rosalyn Smith, July 7, 1946. Four children: John William (Jack), 1947; James Earl, 
III (Chip), 1950; Donnel Jeffrey (Jeff), 1952 and Amy, 1968. 




41 




United States Government 249 



PRESIDENTIAL CABINET 

Vice President Walter E. Mondale Minnesota 

Secretary of State Cyrus R. Vance New York 

Secretary of Agriculture Robert S. Bergman Minnesota 

Secretary of Commerce Dr. Juanita M. Kreps North Carolina 

Secretary of Defense Dr. Harold Brown California 

Secretary of Energy James R. Schlesinger New York 

Secretary of Health, Education, 

and Welfare Joseph A. Califano, Jr California 

Secretary of Housing and 

Urban Development Patricia R. Harris Washington, DC 

Secretary of the Interior Cecil D. Andrus Idaho 

Secretary of Labor F. Ray Marshall Texas 

Secretary of Transportation Brock Adams Washington 

Secretary of the Treasury W. Michael Blumenthal Michigan 

Ambassador to the United Nations . . .Andrew Young Georgia 

Attorney General Griffin Bell Georgia 

OTHER MAJOR APPOINTMENTS 

Press Secretary Jody Powell Georgia 

Director of Management and 

the Budget (Vacancy) 

Assistant, National Security Affairs . .Dr. Zbigniew Brzezinski New York 

Chairman, Council of 

Economic Advisors Charles L. Schultz 

Director, CIA Admiral Stansfield Turner 

Director, FBI Clarence Kelly 

Chief Arms Negotiator Paul C. Warnke 



United States Government 251 

JUANITA MORRIS KREPS 
(Mrs. Clifton H. Kreps, Jr.) 

SECRETARY, UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

Juanita Morris Kreps, Democrat was born in Kentucky on January 11, 1921. 
Daughter of Mr. and Mrs. E. M. Morris. Graduated Berea College, 1942 A.B., Duke 
University, 1944 M.A., Duke University, 1948 Ph.D. Member Council on the Aging; 
Vice-chairman, North Carolina Manpower Council; Committee on Research, Na- 
tional Manpower Advisory Committee (U.S. Department of Labor). Author of Sex 
in the Marketplace: American Women at Work, 1971. Lifetime Allocation of Work 
and Income, 1971. Co-author, Principles of Economics (1962 and 1964). Editor, 
Employment, Income and Retirement Problems of the Aged (1963). 50 Articles. 
Married Clifton H. Kreps, Jr. August 11, 1944. Address: 1407 West Pettigrew Street, 
Durham, 27705. 



United States Government 253 

Chapter Two 
THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS 



SENATE 

OFFICERS 

Walter F. Mondale, President — Minnesota 
James 0. Eastland, President Pro tempore — Mississippi 

STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE SENATE 

Aeronautical and Space Sciences Foreign Relations 

Agriculture and Forestry Government Operations 

Appropriations Interior and Insular Affairs 

Armed Services Judiciary 

Banking, Housing and Urban Labor and Public Welfare 

Affairs Post Office and Civil Service 

Commers Public Works 

District of Columbia Rules and Administration 

Finance Veterans' Affairs 



United States Government 255 



NORTH CAROLINA MEMBERS 

JESSE HELMS 

Jesse Helms, Republican, was born in Monroe October 18, 1921. Son of Jesse A. 
Helms and Ethel Mae (Helms) Helms. Graduated Monroe High School; Wingate 
College; Wake Forest University. Executive Vice-president, vice-chairman of the 
board and assistant chief executive officer of Capitol Broadcasting Company. For 
twelve years was editorialist for WRAL Television Station, eighty radio stations in 
North Carolina and two hundred newspapers across the country; was City Editor 
for the Raleigh Times. At age twenty became the youngest reporter to win the 
annual N. C. Press Association Award for enterprising reporting. In 1952, directed 
the radio-television of the Presidential campaign of Democratic Senator Richard B. 

Russell of Georgia. Executive Director of the N. C. Bankers Association 1953-60; 
during that time served as editor of The Tarheel Banker. Administrative assistant 
to United States Senator Willis Smith; following Senator Smith's death, served in 
same position to U. S. Senator Alton Lennon. Member Raleigh City Council 1957-61; 
served as chairman of the Council's Law and Finance Committee. Has served as 
President and Vice-president of the Raleigh Rotary Club and President of the 
Raleigh Exchange Club. Former trustee of Campbell College, Wingate College, 
Meredith College. Now a trustee of John F. Kennedy College, Douglas MacArthur 
Freedom Academy, Delaware Law School and Camp Willow Run (a Youth Camp for 
Christ). Recipient of Southern Baptist National Award for Service to Mankind and 
Especially on Behalf of Crippled children. Honorary director of the N. C. Cerebral 
Palsy Hospital at Durham. Member of the North Carolina Tobacco Council; a 
director of the United Fund of Raleigh; state advisor to the "Young Americans 
for Freedom"; a director of the Raleigh Chamber of Commerce. Holds the annual 
Freedoms Foundation Award for the television editorial judged to be the best in 
America. Mason, member Raleigh Lodge No. 500; Grand Orator, Grand Lodge 
of North Carolina, 1966. Members Hayes Barton Baptist Church of Raleigh; dea- 
con and Sunday school teacher. Married Dorothy Jane Coble October 31, 1942. 
Three children: Jane (Mrs. Charles R. Knox), Nancy (Mrs. John C. Stuart), and 
Charles. Address: 1513 Caswell Street, Raleigh; Room 3229, Dirksen (New Senate 
Office) Building, Washington, D. C. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS: 
Agriculture and Forestry 
Banking, Housing and Urban Development 
Joint Committee on Congressional Operations 
Senate Steering Committee 



United States Government 257 



ROBERT B. MORGAN 

Robert B. Morgan, Democrat, a native of Lillington, North Carolina, was born 
October 5, 1925. Son of James Harvey and Alice (Butts) Morgan. Attended public 
schools, graduating from Lillington High School in 1942; East Carolina College 
(now East Carolina University), B.S. degree, 1947; Wake Forest College Law 
School, LL.B., 1959; J.D., 1972. While a student at Wake Forest Law School he 
filed for the office of Clerk of Superior Court of Harnett County and was elected. 
Served in this position for four years and then resigned to enter the private prac- 
tice of law. Member of the local, State and American Bar Associations. Mason and 
Rotarian. State Senator in the General Assembly of 1955, 1959, 1963, 1965 and 
1967; President Pro Tern of Senate in 1965. While a member of the Senate he was 
recognized as a forceful and effective advocate of jail reform, mental health pro- 
grams, better facilities for higher education, and numerous other programs. Won 
the Democratic nomination for the office of Attorney General in May of 1968 and 
elected to this office in the General Election of November 5, 1968. Was re-elected 
for a four-year term in November, 1972. Won Democratic nomination for office 
of United States Senator in May of 1974 and was elected to this office in the 
General Election of November 5, 1974. Served nine terms as Chairman of the East 
Carolina Board of Trustees. Member of Board of Trustees of Lees McRae College. 
Lt. Col. Ret. in the U. S. Air Force Reserve. Baptist. Married Katie Earle Owen 
of Roseboro, N. C. Two daughters, Mary and Margaret, and a foster son, Rupert 
Morgan Tart. Home address: Lillington, N. C. Official address: P. O. Drawer 2712, 
Raleigh, N. C. 27602. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS: 

Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs 

Public Works Committee 

Select Committee on Intelligence 

Chairman, Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Subcommittee on Small Business 

Chairman, Building and Grounds Subcommittee of the Public Works Committee 



Jnited States Government 



259 



HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



OFFICERS 

Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr., Speaker — Massachusetts 
W. Pat Jennings, Clerk — Virginia 

STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE HOUSE 



Agriculture 
Appropriations 
Armed Services 
Banking and Currency 
District of Columbia 
Education and Labor 
Foreign Affairs 
Government Operations 
House Administration 
Interior and Insular 
Affairs 



Interstate and Foreign Commerce 

Judiciary 

Merchant Marine and 

Fisheries 
Post Office and Civil Service 
Public Works 
Rules 

Science and Astronautics 
Standards of Official Conduct 
Veterans' Affairs 
Ways and Means 



United States Government 261 

NORTH CAROLINA MEMBERS 
WALTER BEAMAN JONES 



(First District — Counties: Beaufort, Bertie, Camden, Carteret, Chowan, Cra- 
ven, Currituck, Dare, Gates, Greene, Hertford, Hyde, Jones, Lenoir, Martin, Pam- 
lico, Pasquotank, Perquimans, Pitt, Tyrrell and Washington. Population 459,543.) 

Walter Beaman Jones, Democrat, was born in Fayetteville, N. C, August 19, 
1913. Son of Walter G. and Fannie M. (Anderson) Jones. Attended Elise Academy, 
1926-1930; North Carolina State College, B.S. in Education, 1934. Office equipment 
dealer. Director Farmville Savings & Loan Association; member Board of Com- 
missioners, Town of Farmville, 1947-1949; Mayor pro tern, 1947-1949; Mayor 
Town of Farmville and Judge Farmville Recorder's Court, 1949-1953. Member 
Masonic Lodge; Scottish Rite; Rotary Club, President, 1949; Loyal Order of 
Moose; Junior Order; Elks Lodge. Representative in the General Assembly in 
1955, 1957 and 1959; State Senator, 1965. Elected to Eighty-ninth Congress in 
Special Election of February 5, 1966 to fill unexpired term of the late Herbert C. 
Bonner. Re-elected to Ninetieth Congress, 1966; to Ninety-first Congress, 1968; to 
Ninety-second Congress, 1970, to the Ninety-third Congress, 1972, Ninety-fourth 
Congress, 1974 and Ninety-fifth Congress, 1976. Baptist; Deacon since 1945. 
Married Doris Long, April 26, 1934. Children: Mrs. Robert Moye and Walter B. 
Jones, II. Address: Farmville. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS: 

Agriculture 
Merchant Marine and Fisheries 



United States Government 263 



L. H. FOUNTAIN 

(Second District — Counties: Caswell, Edgecombe, Franklin, Granville, Hali- 
fax, Nash, Northampton, Orange, Person, Vance, Warren and Wilson. Population 
457,601.) 

L. H. Fountain, Democrat, was born in the village of Leggett, Edgecombe 
County, North Carolina, April 23, 1913. Son of the late Sallie (Barnes) and the 
late Lawrence H. Fountain. Educated in the public schools of Edgecombe County 
and at the University of North Carolina, A.B. and J.D. degrees. Active attorney- 
at-law from 1936 until elected to Congress. Member, local, and state Bar Associa- 
tions; Kiwanis, Farm Bureau, American Legion, Grange and Elks Clubs; Execu- 
tive Committee East Carolina Council Boy Scouts of America; retired Jaycee; 
Recipient, Distinguished Service Award, North Carolina Citizens Association, 
1971; Recipient, Distinguished Service Award, University of North Carolina 
School of Medicine, 1973; Recipient, Distinguished Service Award, North Carolina 
League of Municipalities, 1976; Reading Clerk North Carolina State Senate, 1936- 
1941; North Carolina State Senator, 1947-1952. World War II veteran of four years 
service. Elected to 83rd Congress; re-elected to 84th, 85th, 86th, 87th, 88th, 89th, 
90th, 91st, 92nd, 93rd, 94th and 95th Congresses. Presbyterian. Elder. Married 
Christine Dail of Mount Olive, N. C. One daughter, Nancy Dail Fountain. Address: 
Tarboro, N. C. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS: 
International Relations 
Government Operations 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS SUBCOMMITTEES: 

International Security and Scientific Affairs 

Special Subcommittee on Investigations 



United States Government 265 



CHARLES ORVILLE WHITLEY 

(Third District — Counties: Bladen, Duplin, Harnett, Johnston, Lee, Onslow, Pender, 
Sampson and Wayne. Population 458,000.) 

Charles Orville Whitley (Charlie) was born in Siler City January 3, 1927. Son 
of John Whitley and Mamie Goodwin. Attended Siler City Public Schools; Wake 
Forest University, BA, 1948 and LLB, 1950; George Washington University, MA 
(Legislative Affairs), 1974. Attorney. Town Attorney of Mount Olive, 1952-1958. 
Administrative Assistant to Congressman David Henderson, 1961-1976. Member 
North Carolina and Wayne County Bar. Member Masonic Order, WOW, American 
Legion, former Jaycee, Rotary Club. Army- Lieutenant, Active, 1944-46; Reserve, 
1946-50. Baptist. Deacon, Sunday School Teacher since 1952. Married Audrey 
Kornegay Whitley June 11, 1949. Children: Charles, Jr., Martha, and Sara. Address: 
PO Box 64, Mount Olive 28365. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENT: 
Arms Services 



United States Government 267 

IKE FRANKLIN ANDREWS 

UNITED STATES REPRESENTATIVE 

(Fourth District — Counties: Chatham, Durham, Randolph and Wake. Pop- 
ulation 467,046.) 

Ike Franklin Andrews, Democrat ,of Chatham County, was born in Bonlee, 
Chatham County, N. C, September 2, 1925. Son of Archie Franklin and Ina (Dun- 
lap) Andrews. Attended Bonlee High School, 1931-1941; Fork Union Military 
Academy, Fork Union, Va., 1941-1942; Mars Hill College, 1942-1943; University 
of North Carolina, 1946-1952, B.S. and LL.B. degrees. Lawyer. Member North 
Carolina State Bar; North Carolina Bar Association; American Bar Association; 
District Bar Association Executive Committee, 1958-1959; N. C. Bar Association 
Standing Committee on Legislation and Law Reform; N. C. Judicial Council, 1959- 
1961. President Junior Chamber of Commerce, member Board of Trustees, Uni- 
versity of North Carolina since 1959 and member of the Executive Committee 
since 1969; served as Chairman of the Chancellor Selection Committee of the 
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Board of Directors, Siler City 
Chamber of Commerce; Board of Trustees and Executive Committee, Chatham 
Hospital; Executive Committee Occoneechee Council, Boy Scouts of America; 
Chairman Chatham District, Boy Scouts of America; Chatham County Civil 
Defense; American Legion Oratorical Contest. Young Man of the Year, Siler 
City, 1958. Solicitor, Tenth-A District, July 1961-December, 1962. Elected Poet 
Laureate of the Senate, 1959. Field Artillery Forward Observer, United States 
Army, 1943-1945, Master Sergeant; awarded Bronze Star and Purple Heart, 
European Theatre, World War II. State Senator in the General Assembly of 1959; 
Representative in the General Assembly of 1961, 1967, 1969 and 1971. He served 
as Democratic Majority Leader, Chairman of the Rules Committee and as Speaker 
pro tempore during the latter session. Chairman, Board of Deacons, First Baptist 
Church of Siler City. Two daughters: Alice Cecelia and Nina Patricia. Address: 
Siler City, N. C. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS: 

Education and Labor 

Select Committee on Aging 



United States Government 269 



STEPHEN LYBROOK NEAL 

Fifth District — Counties: Alleghany, Ashe, Davidson, Forsyth, Stokes, Surry, 
and Wilkes. Population, 462,401.) 

Stephen Lybrook Neal, Democrat, was born in Winston-Salem, N.C., November 
7, 1934. Son of Charles Herbert and Mary Martha (Lybrook) Neal. Attended Uni- 
versity of California at Santa Barbara and University of Hawaii, A.B. (Psychology), 
1959. Former mortgage banker and small newspaper publisher. Member Sigma 
Delta Chi. Elected to U.S. House of Representatives, 1974. Reelected, 1976. Banking, 
Currency and Housing; Post Office and Civil Service. Chairman, Domestic Monetary 
Policy Subcommittee (Banking). Member of Episcopal Church. Married Rachel 
Landis Miller Neal, June 6, 1963. Two children: Mary Piper Neal, 11, and Stephen 
L. Neal Jr., 9. Address: 1001 Wellington Rd., Winston-Salem, 27106. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS: 

Banking, Currency and Housing 

Post Office and Civil Service 

Chairman, Domestic Monetary Policy Subcommittee (Banking) 



( 

1 





United States Government 271 



LUNSFORD RICHARDSON PREYER 

(Sixth District — Counties: Alamance, Guilford and Rockingham. Population 
457,354.) 

Lunsford Richardson Preyer, Democrat, was born in Greensboro, N. C., Jan- 
uary 11, 1919. Son of W. Y., Sr., and Mary Norris (Richardson) Preyer. Attended 
Greensboro Schools, Woodberry Forest School, 1934-1937; Princeton University, 
A.B., 1941; Harvard Law School, LL.B., 1949. Lawyer in Greensboro from 1950 
until July, 1956 when appointed to N. C. Superior Court. City Judge, 1953-54; 
appointed Federal Judge of the Middle District Court in October, 1961 ; September, 
1963, resigned Judgeship to become candidate for Governor of N. C. ; November, 
1964 became Senior Vice President and Trust Officer of N. C. National Bank, 
Greensboro, N. C; May, 1966 became City Executive for Greensboro of N. C. 
National Bank. 91st Congress, 1968; to 92nd Congress, 1970; to 93rd Congress, 
1972; to the 94th Congress, 1974, and to the 95th Congress, 1976. Served in U. S. 
Navy (Lt. USNR). Four years on destroyer duty in Atlantic and South Pacific as 
Torpedo Officer, Gunnery Officer and Executive Officer, World War II; awarded 
Bronze Star for action in Okinawa. Member First Presbyterian Church of Greens- 
boro, Elder and former Clerk of Session for the Church and a teacher of the Men's 
Bible Class. Married Emily Irving Harris of Greensboro. Five children: L. Richard- 
son Preyer, Jr., Mary Norris Preyer, Britt Armfield Preyer, Jane Bethell Preyer, 
Emily Harris Preyer. Address: 603 Sunset Drive, Greensboro, N. C. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS: 

Government Operations 

Interstate and Foreign Commerce 

Select Committee on Assassinations 



United States Government 273 



CHARLES GRANDISON ROSE, III 

(Seventh District — Counties: Brunswick, Columbus, Cumberland, Hoke, New 
Hanover and Robeson. Population, 467,476.) 

Charles Grandison Rose, III, Democrat, was born in Fayetteville August 10, 
1939. Son of Charles G. Rose and Frances Duckworth Rose. Graduated Fayette- 
ville High School, 1957; Davidson College, 1969, B.A. ; University of North Caro- 
lina Law School, 1964, LL.B. Attorney. Member Cumberland County Bar Associa- 
tion and North Carolina State Bar. Editor, Davidson College yearbook. Chief 
District Court Prosecutor, 12th Judicial District, 1967-70. Member First Presby- 
terian Church, Fayetteville; Sunday school teacher. Married Sara Richardson 
June 30, 1962. One son : Charles G. Rose, IV, a daughter, Sara Louise. Address: 
9500 Spinet Court, Vienna, Virginia. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS: 

Agriculture 

House Recording Studio 




* 



United States Government 275 



W. G. (BILL) HEFNER 

(Eighth District — Counties: Anson, Cabarrus, Davie, Montgomery, Moore, 
Richmond, Rowan, Scotland, Stanly, Union and Yadkin. Population, 

W. G. (Bill) Hefner, Democrat, was born in Elora, Tennessee, April 11, 1930. 
President of WRKB Radio Station, Kannapolis, N. C. Enteilainer- Harvesters 
Quartet; Television performer. Member Board of Directors, Cabarrus County 
Chapter of American Cancer Society; member Board of Directors of Cabarrus 
County Boys Club; member Board of Directors of Cabarrus County Humane Society; 
President of Odell School PTA; Publicity Committee for Cabarrus County United 
Appeal; member of Concord Noon Optimist Club. Elected to U. S. House of Repre- 
sentatives, 1974. Member North Kannapolis Baptist Church. Married Nancy Hefner 
of Gadsden, Alabama. Two children: Stacye Hefner, and Shelly Hefner. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS: 

Veterans Affairs Com. 

Public Works & Trans. Com. 








( 



United States Government 277 



JAMES GRUBBS MARTIN 

(Ninth District — Counties: Iredell, Lincoln and Mecklenburg. Population, 
459,535.) 

James Grubbs Martin, Republican, was born in Savannah, Georgia December 
11, 1935. Son of Reverend Arthur M. Martin and Mary Julia Grubbs Martin. 
Graduated Mt. Zion Institute, Winnsboro, S. C., 1953; Davidson College, 1957, 
B.S.; Princeton University, 1900, Ph.D. in Chemistry. Associate Professor of 
Chemistry, Davidson College. Member Beta Theta Pi (social) Fraternity; Na- 
tional Vice President, 1966-69. Former member of Charlotte Symphony, 1962-66. 
Mecklenburg County Commissioner, 1966-72, Chairman, 1967-68 and 1970-71. 
President of N. C. Association of County Commissioners, 1970-71. Founder and 
first chairman of Centralina Council of Governments, 1968-70; vice-president of 
National Association of Regional Councils, 1969-71. Elected to 93rd, 94th and 95th 
Congresses, Presbyterian; deacon, 1969-71. Mason. Shriner. Married Dorothy Ann 
McAulay June 1, 1957. Three children: Jimmy, age 16, Emily, age 14, and Benson, 
age 5. Address: Box 697, Davidson. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS: 

Ways and Means 

Subcommittees: Oversite; Taxation; Health 



United States Government 279 



JAMES THOMAS BROYHILL 

(Tenth District — Counties: Alexander, Burke, Caldwell, Catawba, Cleveland, 
Gaston and Watauga. Population, 471,777.) 

James Thomas Broyhill, Republican, was born in Lenoir, August 19, 1927. 
Son of James Edgar and Satie Leona (Hunt) Broyhill. Attended Lenoir Public 
Schools 1933-1946; graduated Lenoir High School, 1946; University of North Caro- 
lina, 1950, B.S. degree in Commerce. Before election to Congress was a furniture 
manufacturer; member Southern Furniture Manufacturers Association; North 
Carolina Forestry Association; Industrial Planning Committee of the North West 
North Carolina Development Association; past President and member of the Board 
of the Lenoir Chamber of Commerce; past member of: City of Lenoir Recreation 
Commission; City of Lenoir Planning and Zoning Commission; Treasurer Caldwell 
County Republican Executive Committee. Young Man of the Year Award, Lenoir 
and Caldwell County, 1957. Honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Catawba College, 
Salisbury, North Carolina, 1966. Formerly served on Board of Advisors, Lees- 
McRae College, Banner Elk, Board of Visitors. Lenoir-Rhyne College and Board of 
Trustees, Wake Forest University. Member Hibriten Lodge No. 262, A.F. & A.M.; 
Oasis Temple of the Shrine. Elected to 88th Congress, 1962; and succeeding 
Congresses. Now serving 8th term. Member First Baptist Church of Lenoir, N. C. 
Married Louise Horton Robbins, Durham, June 2, 1951. Children: Marilyn Louise, 
(Mrs. Robert Beach); James Edgar, II, (Married to Melanie Pennell) and Philip 
Robbins. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS: 

Interstate and Foreign Commerce 

Committee on Budget Control 



United States Government 281 



LAMAR GUDGER 

(Eleventh District — Counties: Avery, Buncombe, Cherokee, Clay, Graham, 
Haywood, Henderson, Jackson, McDowell, Macon, Madison, Mitchell, Polk, Ruther- 
ford, Swain, Transylvania, and Yancey. Population, 467,051.) 

Lamar Gudger, Asheville, North Carolina, (Democrat) was born in Asheville, 
April 30, 1919. Son of Vonno Lamar and Elizabeth (Wilson) Gudger. Attended Lee 
H. Edwards High School, Asheville, graduated 1936, University of North Carolina, 
Chapel Hill, A.B. Degree 1940, LL.B. Degree 1942. Captain USAF, 305th Bomb 
Group, 8th Air Force, 1942-45, awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross, the Air 
Medal with Five Oak Leaf Clusters and other decorations. Senior Member of Law 
Firm, Gudger, McLean and Parker, Asheville. Member N.C. State Bar and former 
President and continuing Member of the Buncombe County Bar Association. 
Permanent Member Judicial Conference for the Fourth Circuit, and Member of the 
North Carolina Judical Council 1973-76. Representative in North Carolina General 
Assembly, 1951. Solicitor 19th Solicitorial District, 1951-54. State Senate 1971-76. 
Served in Legislative Research Commission 1971-72; Chairman, Legislative Com- 
mission on Children with Special Needs, 1974-76, And Chairman, Legislative Com- 
mission on Correctional Programs and Speedy Trials, 1975-76. Served as Secretary, 
State Democratic Party 1962-63, and Member, State Party Council, 1965-66. Active 
member, Member Board of Stewards and Sunday School Teacher, Central United 
Methodist Church, Asheville. Married to former Eugenia Reid of Surry County, 
October 24, 1947. Children: Carol Eugenia Gudger (Perkins), Martha Elizabeth, 
Lamar, Jr., and Eugene Reid Gudger. Address: 189 Kimberly Avenue, Asheville. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Judiciary 

Interior and Insular Affairs 



United States Government 283 



Chapter Three 



THE UNITED STATES 
JUDICIAL SYSTEM 



The United States Supreme Court 

Warren E. Burger Chief Justice Minnesota 

Potter Stewart Associate Justice Ohio 

William H. Rehnquist Associate Justice Arizona 

Byron R. White Associate Justice Colorado 

Thurgood Marshall Associate Justice New York 

William J. Brennan, Jr Associate Justice New Jersey 

Lewis F. Powell, Jr Associate Justice Virginia 

Harry A. Blackmun Associate Justice Minnesota 



United States Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals 

(Vacancy) Judge 



UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT— NORTH CAROLINA 

JUDGES 

Eastern District Algernon L. Butler, Chief Judge Clinton 

John D. Larkins, Jr., Judge Trenton 

Franklin T. Dupree, Jr., Judge Raleigh 

Middle District Eugene A. Gordon, Chief Judge Burlington 

Hiram H. Ward Denton 

Western District Woodrow W. Jones, Chief Judge Asheville 

James B. McMillan, Judge Charlotte 

Wilson Warlick, Senior Judge Newton 

CLERKS 

Eastern District Samuel A. Howard Raleigh 

Middle District Carmon J. Stuart Greensboro 

Western District J. Toliver Davis Asheville 

UNITED STATES ATTORNEYS 

Eastern District George M. Anderson Raleigh 

Middle District Henry M. Michaux Durham 

Western District Harold M. Edwards Asheville 



United States Government 285 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

JAMES BRAXTON CRAVEN, JR.* 

JUDGE, UNITED STATES FOURTH CIRCUIT OF APPEALS 

James Braxton Craven, Jr. was born in Lenoir, North Carolina April 3, 1918, 
the son of James Braxton and Katherine Simmons Craven. Received degrees, 
Duke University, A.B., 1939; LL.B., Harvard, 1942. Admitted North Carolina 
Bar, 1946; Solicitor, Burke County, Criminal Court, 1947; Assistant United States 
Attorney, Justice Department, Charlotte-Asheville, North Carolina, 1948-1952; 
Judge, North Carolina Superior Court, Morganton, 1956-1961; Judge, United 
States District Court, Western District North Carolina, 1961-1966; Judge, United 
States 4th Circuit Court of Appeals, 1966—. Served United States Naval Re- 
serve, 1942-1946. Visiting professor in Constitutional Law, University of North 
Carolina Law School, Summers 1967, 1970; Visiting Professor on Federal Courts, 
University of Texas Law School, Austin, Texas, summer, 1968. Member American 
Judicature Society; American Law Institute; Order of Coif, Phi Beta Kappa, 
Omicron Delta Kappa. Trustee, Duke University. Married Jean Bible, August 
15, 1952. Children: James Braxton, III, Stephen K., and Elizabeth Bible. Office: 
P. O. Drawer 491, Asheville, N. C. 28802. 



Judge Craven died May 3, 1977. 



United States Government 287 



ALGERNON LEE BUTLER 

CHIEF JUDGE, UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 
EASTERN DISTRTCT— NORTH CAROLINA 

Algernon Lee Butler, Republican, was born in Clinton, N. C, August 2, 1905. 
Son of George Edwin Butler and Eva Boykin Lee Butler. Attended Duke Univer- 
sity and University of North Carolina. (Law School UNC) Member of Sampson 
County Bar Association, President in 1958; member Sixth District Bar Associa- 
tion, President in 1953; Member N. C. Bar Association; member American Bar 
Association; and member of Sigma Nu. Member of N. C. General Assembly, 
Sampson County, 1931. Elected Eastern District Court Judge. Member St. Pauls 
Episcopal Church; former Senior Warden of Vestry. Married Josephine Lydia 
Broadwell, June 5, 1935. Three Children: Eva Josephine Daniel (Mrs. Louis B. 
Daniel, Jr.), Algeron L. Butler, Jr. and George Edwin Butler II. Address: 403 
Butler Drive, Clinton, N. C. 28328. 



JOHN DAVIS LARKINS, JR. 

JUDGE, UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 
EASTERN DISTRICT— NORTH CAROLINA 

John Davis Larkins, Jr., Democrat, was born in Morristown, Tennessee, June 
8, 1909. Son of Charles H. Larkins and Mamie Dorsett Larkins. Foster son of 
John Davis Larkins and Emma Cooper Larkins. Attended schools in Cedartown, 
Georgia, 1914-1920; Fayetteville, N. C, 1920-1922; Hazelhurst, Georgia, 1922- 
1924; Greensboro, N. C. 1924-25. Wake Forest (College) University, B.A. 1929. 
Attended Wake Forest University Law School, 1929-30. Member North Carolina 
State Bar; Member American Bar, Member Federal Bar. Received Distinguished 
Service Award, American Cancer Society; Received Distinguishd Alumni Award, 
Wake Forest University. Private, US Army, 1945. Served as State Senator, 1936, 
1937, 1938, 1939, 1941; President Pro Tern, 1943, 1949, 1951, 1953; State Chair- 
man-Secretary of Democratic Executive Committee 1952, 1954, 1956, 1958; Na- 
tional Committeeman, 1958, 1960. Elected US District Judge. Baptist. Chairman 
of Board of Deacons, 1930, 1960. Married Pauline A. Murrell Larkins, March 13, 
1930. Two children: Emma Sue (Mrs. D. H. Loften) and Paulene (Mrs. J. H. 
Bearden). Address: Federal Building, Trenton, N. C. 28583. 



United States Government 289 



FRANKLIN TAYLOR DUPREE, JR. 

JUDGE, UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 
EASTERN DISTRICT— NORTH CAROLINA 

Franklin Taylor Dupree, Jr., Republican, was born in Angier, N. C, October 
18, 1913. Son of Franklin T. Dupree, Sr. and Elizabeth Mason (Wells) Dupree. 
Attended Angier High School 1925-28; Campbell College High School 1928-29. 
Graduated University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1933, A.B.; University of 
North Carolina Law School, 1936, LL.B. Member Wake County Bar Association; 
North Carolina Bar Asssociation; American Bar Association; American Judicature 
Society; Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. US District Judge 1970. Served 
US Navy, Lieutenant, 1943-46. Member Hayes Barton Baptist Church. Married 
Rosalyn Dupree, December 30, 1939. Two Daughters: Elizabeth D. DeMent, born 
October 17, 1940; Nancy D. Miller, Born August 10, 1942. Address: P. O. Box 
27585, Raleigh, N. C. 27611; 713 Westwood Dr., Raleigh, N. C. 27607. 



EUGENE ANDREW GORDON 

CHIEF JUDGE, UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 
MIDDLE DISTRICT— NORTH CAROLINA 

Eugene Andrew Gordon, Democrat, was born in Brown Summit, N. C, July 
10, 1917. Son of Charles Robert Gordon and Carrie Scott Gordon. Graduated Elon 
College, 1939, A.B.; Duke University Law School, 1941, L.L.B. Member of Ameri- 
can Judicature Society. Member Federal Bar Association; Member American Bar 
Association; Member N. C. Bar Association. Member Phi Delta Phi International 
Legal Fraternity. Captain, Field Artillery January 4, 1942-May 1, 1946. Elected 
Chief Judge U. S. District Court — -Middle, N. C. Member Starmount Presbyterian 
Church. Married Virginia Stoner Gordon, January 1, 1943. Two children: Eugene 
Andrew Gordon, May 1, 1948; Rosemary Ann Gordon, born July 2, 1953. Address: 
P. O. Box 3283, Greensboro, N. C. 27410. 



United States Government 291 



HIRAM HAMILTON WARD 

JUDGE, UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 
MIDDLE DISTRICT— NORTH CAROLINA 

Hiram Hamilton Ward was born in Thomasville, N. C, April 29, 1923. Son of 
0. L. Ward and Margaret A. (Lowdermilk) Ward. Attended Denton High School; 
Wake Forest University. Graduated Wake Forest University School of Law, 1950, 
J.D. Member American Judicature Society; American Bar Association; North 
Carolina Bar Association. Member Mason; Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity. 
Served U. S. Air Force, October 4, 1940-May 20, 1945; Pilot and Lt. Col., Civil 
Air Patrol. Served 3 terms N. C. State Board of Elections 1964-1972; Chairman 
Federal Land Condemnation Commission 1964-65. U. S. District Judge July 12, 
1972. Member Baptist Church; Deacon; Sunday School Teacher; Trustee Liberty 
Baptist Association; Trustee Wingate College. Married Evelyn McDaniel Ward, 
June 1, 1947. Two sons: William M. Ward, born March 17, 1951; James Randolph 
Ward, April 8, 1953. Address: P. 0. Box 325, Denton, N. C. 27239. 



WOODROW WILSON JONES 

CHIEF JUDGE, UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 
WESTERN DISTRICT— NORTH CAROLINA 

Woodrow Wilson Jones, Democrat, was born near Rutherfordton, N. C, Jan- 
uary 26, 1914. Son of Bernard B. Jones and Karl Jane Nanney Jones. Attended 
Public Schools of Rutherford County from 1920-1932. Graduated Mars Hill Col- 
lege, May 1934, A.S.; Wake Forest University Law School, June, 1937, LL.B. 
Member North Carolina Bar Association; Member American Beer Association; 
Member Rutherford County Bar Assosciation. President Rutherford County Bar 
Association 1946. Presented Outstanding Service Award by Rutherfordton Lions 
Club, October 23, 1950. Director Citizens Federal Savings & Loan Association of 
Rutherfordton 1957-1967; Director Union Trust Company of Shelby 1960-1967. 
Awarded Special Citation for outstanding service by Gardner-Webb College, May 
12, 1965; Member Board of Trustees for Gardner-Webb College. Former member 
and president, Rutherfordton Kiwanis Club; former director and member, Ruther- 
fordton Chamber of Commerce. Engaged in private practice Law in Rutherford- 
ton, August 1937-August 1967; Served 2 years United States Naval Reserves; 6 
years as member of Congress. Served as Solicitor of Recorder's Court of Ruther- 
ford County, January 1, 1941-December 6, 1943; member House of Representatives 
of N. C. General Assembly 1947-1949 sessions; member 81st, 82nd, 83rd, 84th Con- 
gressses of U. S. from 11th Congressional District; November 7, 1950-January 3, 
1957; Chairman North Carolina Democratic Executive Committee, 1938-1960. 
Elected as Chief Judge U. S. District Court. Member First Baptist Church, 
Rutherfordton, N. C; teacher and deacon. Married Rachel Phelps, November 22, 
1936. Two children: W. Wilson Jones, Jr., born March 7, 1940; Michael A. Jones, 
Born March 12, 1942. Address : 1018 North Main Street, Rutherfordton, N. C. 
28139. 



United States Government 293 

JAMES BRYAN McMILLAN 

JUDGE, UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 
MIDDLE DISTRICT— NORTH CAROLINA 

James Bryan McMillan, Democrat, was born in Goldsboro, N. C, December 
19, 1916. Son of Robert Hunter McMillan and Sarah Outlaw McMillan. Attended 
Public Schools of Lumberton, N. C. Attended Presbyterian Junior College (now 
St. Andrews), 1932-34, Associate of Arts Degree. Graduated University of North 
Carolina, 1935-37, A.M.; Harvard Law School, J.D., 1940. Member Mecklenburg 
County Bar Association; North Carolina Bar Association; American Bar As- 
sociation; North Carolina State Bar, Inc.; American Judicature Society. Fellow, 
International Academy of Trial Lawyers, President North Carolina Bar Associa- 
tion 1960-61; President Mecklenburg Bar Association 1957-58; President St. An- 
drews Alumni Association 1965-66; Member Board of Visitors Davidson College. 
Member Omicron Delta Kappa; Davidson; Order of The Golden Fleece, University 
of N. C. at Chapel Hill. Served U. S. Navy February 19, 1942-January, 1946. 
Author of opinions and orders in numerous district court and a few Circuit Court 
of Appeals Cases. Served as Chairman for Precinct 15 from about 1948 to about 
1964. Elected to U. S. District Court. Member First Presbyterian Church; Deacon 
1957-63; Treasurer 1962-63; Ruling Elder 1963-71, 1975-83. Married Margaret 
Blair Miles, February 27, 1944. Two children: James Bryan McMillan, Jr., born 
June 19, 1946; Marjorie Miles McMillan Rodell, born August 26, 1950. Address: 
1930 Mecklenburg Avenue, Charlotte, N. C. 28205. 



WILSON WARLICK 

JUDGE, UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 
WESTERN DISTRICT— NORTH CAROLINA 

Wilson Warlick, Democrat, was born in Newton, N. C, March 8, 1892. Son 
of Thomas M. Warlick and Martha Elizabeth Wilson Warlick. Attended Public 
Schools of Hickory 1898-1904; Hown's School for Boys 1904-1905; Professor 
Barb's School for Boys 1905-1906; Lenoir Rhyne College 1907-1908. Graduated 
Catawba College, B.S., 1910; University of North Carolina Law School, 1911, 
1912, 1913, LL.B. Member N. C. Bar Association; N. C. State Bar; Catawba 
County YMCA; Catawba County Historical Association. Received Honorary LL.D 
Catawba College 1936. Member Mason; Moose; Elk; American Legion; V.F.W.; 
WWI, and 40 & 8. Member Catawba County Country Club; Sons American Rev- 
olution; Hound Ears. Served G-2 SOS - American Expeditionary Forces France 
and AFC Intelligence Section - Cops of Intelligence Police; 1917-1918-1919. Served 
as Judge Superior Court, 16th Judicial District January 1, 1931-February 13, 
1949. Appointed Life Commission February 2, 1949. Member Presbyterian Church; 
Elder late 1930's to late 1960's. Married Kittie Reed Hipp, October 24, 1925. Two 
children: Martha Reed Warlick (Mrs. William John Brame) ; Thomas Wilson 
Warlick. Address: Box 6, Newton, N. C. 28658. 



PART V 

NORTH CAROLINA STATE 

GOVERNMENT 



296 



North Carolina Manual 



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North Carolina Government 297 

INTRODUCTION 



Under provisions in the Constitution of North Carolina, the three major 
branches of state government — legislative, executive and judicial — are "distinct 
and separate from each other" (Article I, Section 6). This separation of powers 
has been a primary principal of government since our independence. In the nearly 
two hundred years since the forming of the State of North Carolina, many 
changes have occurred in her governmental organization. North Carolina state 
and local government has grown from a small, ill-funded endeavor of a few hundred 
"employees" in 1776, to a multi-billion dollar enterprise of nearly three hundred 
thousand employees in 1977. Along with this growth came many problems, most 
important of which was the existence of over 200 independent state agencies. As a 
result steps toward reorganizing state government, particularly the executive 
branch began to be formulated. 



STATE GOVERNMENT REORGANIZATION 

In a speech on October 27, 1967, Governor Dan K. Moore urged the North 
Carolina State Bar to take the lead in sponsoring a study to determine the need 
for revising or rewriting the Constitution of North Carolina. The Council nf the 
North Carolina State Bar and the North Carolina Bar Association joined in ap- 
pointing a steering committee which selected twenty-five persons to constitute the 
North Carolina State Constitution Study Commission. The report of the commis- 
sion, submitted on December 16, 1968, contained a proposed amendment which 
would require the General Assembly to reduce the administrative departments of 
state government to 25 and authorize the governor to reorganize the administrative 
departments subject to legislative approval. 

The 1969 General Assembly submitted the proposed constitutional amend- 
ment to a vote of the people and also authorized the governor to begin a study of 
consolidation of state agencies and to prepare recommendations for the General 
Assembly. Governor Robert W. Scott established the State Government Reorgani- 
zation Study in October of 1969. Later, in May 1970, a fifty member citizens Com- 
mittee on State Government Reorganization was appointed by the governor to 
review the study and make specific recommendations. 

The constitutional amendment requiring the reduction of the number of state 
administrative departments to not more than 25 by 1975 was adopted in the Gen- 
eral Election on November 3, 1970, and the Committee on State Government Re- 
organization submitted its recommendations to the governor on February 4, 
1971. 

The committee recommended implementation of the amendment in two phases: 
Phase I would begin with general legislation in 1971 grouping agencies together in 
a limited number of functional departments; Phase II would consist of the period 
between 1971 and 1973 when the agencies would work together. Bills to revise the 
existing statutes would be drafted on the basis of the agencies' experience and 
presented to the 1973 General Assembly. 



298 North Carolina Manual 



With strong support from Governor Scott, the Executive Organization Act of 
1971 was ratified July 14, 1971. It created 1!) principal offices and departments 
consisting of ten offices and departments headed by elected officials and nine other 
departments formed by the grouping of agencies along' functional lines. The Act 
provided for two types of transfers to accomplish the first phase of reorganization. 
Under the Act a Type 1 transfer meant the transferring of all or part of an 
agency, including its statutory authority, powers and duties, to a principal depart- 
ment. A Type II transfer meant the transferring intact of an existing agency to a 
principal department with the transferring agency retaining its statutory author- 
ity and functions, except for management functions, which would be performed 
under the direction and supervision of the head of the principal department. 

All offices and departments called for by the Executive Organization Act of 
1971 were created by executive order of Governor Scott prior to the July 1, 1972, 
deadline set by the Act. The principal offices and departments created were: 
Office of the Governor, Office of the Lieutenant Governor, Department of the Sec- 
retary of State, Department of the State Auditor, Department of State Treasurer, 
Department of Public Education, Department of Justice, Department of Agri- 
culture, Department of Labor, Department of Insurance, Department of Admini- 
stration, Department of Transportation and Highway Safety, Department of 
Natural and Economic Resources, Department of Human Resources, Department 
of Social Rehabilitation and Control (now Department of Correction), Depart- 
ment of Commerce, Department of Revenue, Department of Art, Culture and 
History (now Department of Cultural Resources), and Department of Military 
and Veterans' Affairs. By executive order issued June 26, 1972, an Executive 
Cabinet was formed consisting of the heads of these offices and departments. 
Meetings of the Cabinet have been a major tool in solving the problems of Phase 
II of reorganization. 

Between 1972 and 1977 some additional alterations were made which further 
implemented reorganization of state government in North Carolina. In 1973, the 
Legislature passed the Executive Organizations Act of 1973 which affected four of 
the newly created departments — Cultural Resources, Human Resources, Military 
and Veterans Affairs and Revenue. Broadly speaking, the 1973 law vested final 
administrative and managerial powers for the Executive Branch in the hands of the 
governor and gave him powers to appoint a secretary for each of the departments 
named. The law also set forth the powers of the secretaries, but left intact specifi- 
cally designed areas and decisions already vested in various commissions — these 
cannot be countermanded by either the governor or departmental secretary. 

Specifically, the 1973 act changed the name of the Department of Art, Culture 
and History to the Department of Cultural Resources. Various Boards, Commissions, 
Councils, and Societies which relate to a cultural orientation were brought under 
the umbrella of the Department of Cultural Resources. 

Two previously created Departments, Human Resources and Revenue, were 
recreated making some technical changes not found in the original law. Specifically, 
in the Department of Human Resources, a Board of Human Resources was created 
to serve as an Advisory Board to the Secretary on any matter which might be 
referred to it by the Secretary. 



North Carolina Government 299 



In the 1973 Act, the Department of Military and Veterans Affairs was specifi- 
cally charged with providing National Guard troops trained to Federal Standards; 
being responsible for military and civil preparedness; and assisting veterans and 
their families and dependents. A new Veterans' Affairs Commission was created to 
assist the Secretary with veterans services programs. 

Reorganization was to have been completed by the end of 1975, and, as provided 
for in the 1971 and 1973 Laws, it was. However, the present administration spon- 
sored several legislative proposals aimed at further reorganizational changes — 
most of which affect four state departments — Commerce, Military and Veterans 
Affairs, Natural and Economic Resources, and Transportation. 

The 1977 General Assembly enacted several laws implementing the new pro- 
posals. The old Department of Military and Veteran's Affairs has been replaced 
by a new Department of Crime Control and Public Safety. The Veterans Affairs 
Commission formerly in MVA is now under the Department of Administration. All 
of the other divisions — except the Energy Division formerly in MVA have been 
transferred by a Type I Transfer to the Department of Crime Control and Public 
Safety. Also the State Highway Patrol, formerly in the Division of Motor Vehicles, 
Department of Transportation, has been transferred by a Type I Transfer to the 
new department. A newly created Governor's Crime Commission is also part of the 
new department. 

In reorganizing the old Department of Military and Veterans Affairs, the 
Energy Division and the Energy Policy Council were transferred to the Department 
of Commerce. Also transferred to the Department of Commerce are three agencies 
previously under the Department of Transportation — the State Ports Authority, 
and two commissions on Navigation and Pilotage. Other legislative changes were 
enacted to further reorganize the Department of Commerce by transferring to it 
the Economic Development Division of the Department of Natural and Economic 
Development and to create a new council — the Labor Force Development Council — 
to coordinate the needs of Industry with the programs offered in our educational 
institutions. There was some opposition to moving Economic Development from 
NER because the current setup allows new prospective industry to deal with only 
one department in finding out economic opportunities within the State and what 
environmental requirement and restrictions there might be. 



300 



North Carolina Manual 



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Legislative Branch 301 

Chapter One 
THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH 



INTRODUCTION 

The general assembly is the oldest governmental body in North Carolina. 
According to tradition a "legislative assembly of free holders" met sometime 
in 1666; however, there is no extant proof that such a meeting took place. Actual 
provisions for a representative assembly did not exist prior to the adoption of 
the Concessions and Agreements of 1665. Then an unicameral body composed 
of the governor, his council, and "twelve men . . . chosen annually" sat as a legis- 
lature. This system of representation prevailed until 1670 when Albemarle County 
was divided in three "precincts" — Berkely, Carteret and Shaftsbury. At that time 
each precinct was apparently allowed five representatives. Around 1682, four new 
precincts were created from the original three as population and western expan- 
sion increased. The number of representatives allowed new precincts was usually 
two, although some had more. Beginning with the Assembly of 1723, some of the 
larger, more important towns were allowed representatives. Edenton was the first, 
followed by Bath, New Bern, Wilmington, Brunswick, Halifax, Cambellton (now 
Fayetteville) , Salisbury, Hillsborough and Tarborough (now Tarboro). By the 
middle of the eighteenth century, the term "precinct" had been replaced by 
"county" in reference to the geographical subdivisions. 

The unicameral form of the legislature continued until around 1697 when a 
bicameral form was adopted. The "upper house" was composed of the governor, or 
chief executive at the time, and his council; the elected "precinct" representative 
sat as the "lower house" or "House of Burgesses." The lower house could adopt 
its own rules of procedure and elect its own speaker and other officers; however, 
it could only meet when the governor called it into session and only at a location 
designated by him. This did not prove a disadvantage since the lower house had 
"the power of the purse. As a result, the governor usually called them into session 
at least once during a biennium, and usually more often, in order that he might be 
paid his salary. Throughout the colonial period, this "power of the purse" was a 
source of constant controversy between the governor and the lower house, and the 
house used it effectively to increase its influence and prestige. 

In 1776, when our first State Constitution was adopted, the effects of the ex- 
ecutive-legislative conflicts of the colonial period were reflected in its provisions. 
The legislature was the primary organ of state government with control over all 
phases of government. Its most important power was its elective power which 
provided that all officials in the executive and judicial branches would be elected 
by joint ballot of the two houses. This continued until 1835 when the governor be- 
came a popularly elected official; however, it was not until 1868, that the remain- 
ing executive officials and the judiciary were popularly elected. 



302 North Carolina Manual 



The Constitution of 1776 provided for a bicameral legislature, both elected by 
the people. The senate was composed of one representative from each county, and 
the house of commons was composed of two representatives from each county and 
one from each town listed in the Constitution. This arrangement continued until 
1835 when several amendments were adopted affecting the general assembly. The 
membership of the senate was set at fifty and the state was divided into districts 
with representation based on the population of the district. The membership of 
the house of commons was set at 120 with representation based on the population 
of the county in accordance with provisions set forth in the amendment; however, 
each county was entitled to at least one representative. Provisions were made so 
that future representation would be based on the federal census taken every ten 
years. 

In 1868, a new constitution was adopted which changed the name of the 
"house of commons" to the "house of representatives" and eliminated the pre- 
viously unfair "property qualifications" for holding office. Also the current or- 
ganizational structure with the lieutenant governor as president of the senate 
and provisions for the election of a president pro tempore came into existance. 

In 1966, the house of representatives adopted a district setup similar to that 
used by the senate. Today, the general assembly is the legislative branch of state 
government. It is equal with, but independent of, the executive and judicial 
branches. The legislative body is composed of two chambers, the senate and the 
house of representatives, which convene in odd-year biennial sessions on the first 
Wednesday after the second Monday in January. (By parliamentary means, the 
general assembly may divide the biennial session into annual segments.) (The 
senate has fifty members and the house has 120 members, all of whom are elected 
biennially from districts containing approximately equal populations.) However, 
one of the distinct disadvantages of the district system, particularly as it relates 
to the house of representatives, is that an increasingly large number of counties 
are without a "resident" legislator. 

As the legislative branch of government, the general assembly has three ma- 
jor functions: to enact general and local laws governing the affairs of the state, 
to provide and allocate funds for operating the government by enacting tax and 
appropriation laws, and to conduct investigations into such operations of the state 
as it deems necessary for regulation and funding. The main work of the general 
assembly is the enactment of substantive legislation. 

Much of the legislative work of the general assembly is done in committees 
composed of members of the respective houses. Senate Committees are appointed 
by the lieutenant governor, who serves as presiding officer of the senate (President 
of the Senate) ; House Committees are appointed by the Speaker of the House, 
who is elected from among the membership of the house of representatives. 

Administrative authority for the general assembly is vested in the Legislative 
Services Commission. The president pro tempore of the senate and the speaker 
of the house are ex officio chairmen of the Services Commission; each appoints 
six members from his respective house to serve on the commission. The Services 
Commission employs a legislative services officer as chief staff officer, a director of 
fiscal research to deal with money matters, and a director of research to handle all 



Legislative Branch 303 



other informational needs. The Legislative Research Commission is separated 
from the Legislative Services Commission, and its authority is limited to research 
projects. Again, the president pro tempore and the Speaker are ex officio chair- 
men of the Research Commission ; each appoints five members to sit on this com- 
mission. 

The staff and elective officers of the general assembly assist the membership 
in accomplishing legislative tasks. The Legislative Services Commission is re- 
sponsible for general and fiscal research, disbursing supplies and materials, pro- 
duction and storage of legislative documents, personnel management, supervision 
and maintenance of the legislative building, contracting for services, and pay- 
ment of accounts. The commission employs a staff, directed by the legislative ser- 
vices officer, to carry out these functions. The Legislative Research Commission 
produces extensive study documents and drafts legislation for consideration by 
the general assembly. Special study commissions are set up to investigate difficult 
or technical subjects for later reports to the legislature. In addition, standing 
committees of the general assembly have been authorized to meet during interim 
periods to carry on committee business and to conduct related studies. The Ser- 
vices Commission provides, or arranges, for staff assistance to the Research Com- 
mission and standing committees and coordinates staff work with the special com- 
missions. 



Mil 



North Carolina Manual 






PRESIDE^ 



Legislative Branch 



305 



1977 NORTH CAROLINA SENATE 

(Democratic Unless Indicated Otherwise) 

Officers 

President James C. Green Clarkton 

President Pro Tern John T. Henley Hope Mills 

Assistant Majority Leader . . Kenneth C. Royal, Jr Durham 

Principal Clerk Sylvia M. Fink Raleigh 

Reading Clerk LeRoy Clark, Jr Raleigh 

Sergeant-at-Arms Vinson Bridges, Jr Raleigh 



Senators 



Name County District 

Alexander, Fred D Mecklenburg 22nd . . 

Alford, Dallas Nash 7th . . 

Allsbrook, Julian R Halifax 6th. . 

Ballenger, T. Cass (R) Catawba 23rd . . 

Barnes, Henson P Wayne 8th . . 

Britt, Luther J., Jr Robeson 12th . . 

Childers, Jack Davidson 21st . . 

Combs, Bobby Lee Catawba 23rd . . 

Crawford, I. C Buncombe 26th . . 

Daniels, Melvin R., Jr Pasquotank 1st . . 

Davis, E. Lawrence, III Forsyth 20th. . 

Garrison, James B Stanly 17th . . 

Gray, Rachel G Guilford 19th . . 

Hardison, Harold W Lenoir 5th . . 

Harrington, J.J Bertie 1st . . 

Harris, Ollie Cleveland 25th . . 

Henley, John T Cumberland 10th . . 

Hill, Cecil Transylvania 27th. . 

Jordan, Robert B., Ill Montgomery 17th. . 

Kincaid, Donald R. (R) Caldwell 24th. . 

Lake, I. Beverly, Jr Wake 14th . . 

Lawing, Craig Mecklenburg 22nd . . 

McDuffie, Jim Mecklenburg 22nd . . 

Marion, George W., Jr Surry 15th . . 

Marvin, Helen Rhyne Gaston 25th . . 

Mathis, Carolyn (R) Mecklenburg 22nd . . 

Palmer, Joe H Haywood 27th . . 

Popkin, Jerry Onslow 3rd . . 

Rauch, Marshall A Gaston 25th . . 

Raynor, Joe B Cumberland 10th . . 

Renfrow, Edward Johnston 9th . . 

Royall, Kenneth C, Jr Durham 13th . . 

Scott, Ralph H Alamance 18th . . 

Sebo, Katherine H Guilford 19th . . 



Address Seat 

Charlotte 11 

Rocky Mount 9 

.Roanoke Rapids 1 

Hickory 37 

Goldsboro 30 

. Lumberton 27 

Lexington 14 

Hickory 16 

.Asheville 13 

.Elizabeth City 26 

.Winston-Salem 23 

Albemarle 21 

High Point 44 

. Deep Run 8 

. Lewiston 25 

. Kings Mountain 3 

. Hope Mills 7 

Brevard 32 

Mount Gilead 48 

. Lenoir 39 

. Raleigh 18 

. Charlotte 12 

Charlotte 31 

. Dobson 15 

. Gastonia 42 

.Charlotte 43 

.Clyde 33 

Jacksonville 49 

. Gastonia 4 

. Fayetteville 50 

Smithfield 6 

Durham 46 

Haw River 24 

. Greensboro 45 



306 



North Carolina Manual 



Sharpe, Roger Burke 24th . 

Smith, McNeill Guilford 19th . 

Smith, William G New Hanover .... 4th . 

Soles, R. C, Jr Columbus 11th . 

Somers, Robert Vance (R) . Rowan 21st. 

Speed, James D Franklin 7th . 

Stallings, D. Livingstone . . . .Craven 2nd . 

Swain, Robert S Buncombe 26th . 

Totherow, Carl D Forsyth 20th . 

Vickery, Charles E Orange 16th . 

Walker, Russell Randolph 16th . 

Webster, Wesley D. 1 Rockingham 15th . 

Whichard, Willis P Durham 13th . 

White, Vernon E Pitt 6th . 

Winters, John W. 2 Wake 14th . 

Wynne, Robert W Wake 14th . 

Lightner, Clarence E. :! Wake 14th . 

Duncan, Conrad R. 4 Rockingham 22nd 

1 Resigned effective September 15, 1977. 

2 Resigned effective July 1, 1977. 

1 Appointed August 3, 1977, to replace Winters. 
4 Appointed October 6, 1977 to replace Webster. 



. . Morganton 36 

. . Greensboro 29 

..Wilmington 28 

. .Tabor City 35 

. .Salisbury 38 

. . Louisburg 10 

. . New Bern 17 

. . Asheville 34 

. .Winston-Salem 22 

. .Chapel Hill 41 

. . Asheboro 40 

. . Madison 5 

. . Durham 47 

. .Winterville 2 

. . Raleigh 19 

. .Raleigh 20 

. . Raleigh 19 

. . Stoneville 5 



Legislative Branch 



307 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 




JOHN TANNERY HENLEY 

PRESIDENT PRO TEM OF THE SENATE 

(Democrat — Cumberland County) 
(Tenth Senatorial District — County: Cumberland. Two Senators.) 

John Tannery Henley was born in Wadesboro, August 10, 1921. Son of Frank C. 
and Melissa (Hamilton) Henley. Attended Mt. Vernon Goodwin Elementary School, 
1929-1935: Cary High School, 1935-1939; University of North Carolina, B.S. in 
Pharmacy, 1943. Pharmacist, owner of Clinic Pharmacy in Hope Mills and Profes- 
sional Drug in Fayetteville. Member of North Carolina Pharmaceutical Association; 
National Association of Retail Druggists; Mayor, Town of Hope Mills, 1946-1952; 
member of town Commissioners, 1952-1956. Member Kappa Psi Pharmacy Frater- 
nity and Masonic Order. Staff Sergeant in U. S. Army from November, 1943 to 
December, 1945; served in Europe with Ninth Division. Served as State Purchasing 
Officer, 1963-1965; Representative in the General Assembly of 1957, 1959, 1961, 
1963; and Senator, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973-74 and 1975-76. Member of the Advisory 
Budget Commission 1971-73. Methodist; Stewart for fifteen years and Superin- 
tendent of Sunday School for six years. Married Rebecca Ann Beddingfield, July 28, 
1943. Children: Three sons, Douglas, Robert, John, Jr. Address: 216 Lakeshore 
Drive, Hope Mills, 28348. 



308 



North Carolina Manual 



FREDERICK DOUGLAS ALEXANDER 



(Twenty-second 

Four Senators. ) 



( Democrat — Mecklenburg- County) 
Senatorial District — Counties: Cabarrus and Mecklenburg. 



^^ Frederick Douglas Alexander was born in Charlotte, 

N. C, February 21, 1910. Son of Zechariah Alexander, Sr., 

.^^^jpBk and Louise B. McCullough. Attended Myers Street Elemen- 

£>y tary School, Charlotte, 1916-1923; Second Ward High School, 

Charlotte, 1923-1927. Graduated Lincoln University, Pen- 

\. nsylvania, A.B., 1931. Housing Management. Member, 

Rotary Club; Chamber of Commerce; Mason; Ancient and 

.j^ffff, t\ Accepted Scottish Rite of Free Masonry; Shriner's Club; 

Royal Arch Mason; Knight Templar; J.B. P.O. Elks of W.; 

Omega Psi Phi Fraternity. Served City Councilman May 1965-November 1974; 

Mayor Pro Tern 1971-73. Member University Park Baptist Church; Chair-man Board 

of Trustees; Chairman Finance Committee; Sunday School Teacher. Married 

Frances Mauvene Dugas Alexander, September 18, 1935. One daughter: Theodora 

Eugenia Alexander Witherspoon. Address: 2140 Senior Drive, Charlotte. 



DALLAS L. ALFORD, JR. 

(Democrat- — Nash County) 

(Seventh Senatorial District — Counties: Franklin, Nash, Warren, and Wilson. 
Two Senators.) 

Dallas L. Alford, Jr. was born in Durham. Son of Dallas 
L. Alford, Sr. and Sally Catherine Pope Alford. Attended 
public schools of Durham; Duke University. Real Estate and 
Insurance Business, Alford-Tanner Realty Company. Past 
President Rocky Mount Realtors Association and Rocky 
Mount Mutual Insurance Agents Association. Director of 
Carbisco Flour and Feed Mills. Member Board of Aldermen, 
city of Rocky Mount, 1939-42; Nash County Board of Com- 
missioners, 1948-58, Chairman 1952-58. N. C. Traffic Safety 
Authority, 1966; Chairman Nash County Board of Health 1952-58; Chairman of 
Commission to study Welfare Problems for State of North Carolina, 1962. Mutual 
Insurance Agent for the Year for North Carolina and South Carolina 1966-67-68. 
Member, Lodge 1038, B.P.O.E.: 40 and 8; Kiwanis Club; Benevenue Country Club, 
Rocky Mount; Delta Sigma Phi (social Fraternity). Lieutenant Commander, U. S. 
Navy 1942-46. Past N. C. Junior Chamber of Commerce and N. C. County Commis- 
sioners Association; Director Peoples Bank and Trust Company, and Citizens Sav- 
ings and Loan Assoc, Rocky Mount; Rocky Mount Chamber of Commerce. Com- 
mander American Legion, 1948. State Senator in the General Assembly of 1959, 
1961, 1965, 1967, 1973-74 and 1975-76. Methodist; member of Official Board of First 
Methodist Church of Rocky Mount, 1938-65. Married Margarette Glenn Griffin, 
November 17, 1945. Four children. Address: 100 Wildwood Avenue, Rocky Mount. 





Legislative Branch 309 

JULIAN RUSSELL ALLSBROOK 

(Democrat — Halifax County) 

(Sixth Senatorial District — Counties: Edgecombe, Halifax, Pitt and Martin.) 

Julian Russell Allsbrook was born in Roanoke Rapids, 

North Carolina, February 17, 1903. Son of William Clemmons 
and Bennie Alice (Waller) Allsbrook. Graduated from Roa- 
noke Rapids Public Schools in 1920; University of North 
Carolina, 1920-1924; University of North Carolina Law 
School, 1922-1924; President, student body, 1923-1924; 
permanent Vice President, class of 1924. Lawyer. Member 
Halifax County Bar Assn.; North Carolina Bar Assn.; North 
Carolina and United States Supreme Court Bars. United 
States Court of Appeals. Member of the American Judicature Society; Registered 
in Who's Who in the South and The National Register of Prominent Americans; 
Presidential Elector from Second Congressional District, 1936; former member 
Board of Trustees, Roanoke Rapids School District; Board of City Commissioner 
of Roanoke Rapids for one term. State Senator in the General Assembly of 1935, 
1947, 1949, 1951, 1965, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973-74 and 1975-76; Representative from 
Halifax County in the General Assembly of 1941; Democratic nominee to State 
Senate, 1942, resigned to enter U. S. Naval Reserve as Lieutenant, 1942, and served 
until placed on inactive duty, 1945; Now Lieutenant Commander, U. S. Naval 
Reserve, Chairman, Committee on Platform and Resolutions, State Democratic 
Convention, 1956-1958; received the 1965 North Carolina Public Health Association 
Award for Distinguished Service Citation for Genuine Interest in Public Health 
Needs of Our Citizens in All Walks of Life Throughout North Carolina and for Un- 
selfish and Untiring Efforts in Promoting the Programs in Public Health that 
Would Meet These Needs. Appointed as delegate to Southern Regional Educational 
Board, Legislative Work Conference by Governor Moore, held in Asheville, North 
Carolina, July, 1966. Member Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity; Golden Fleece; 
Order of the Grail; Tau Kappa Alpha Debating Fraternity; American Legion, 
AMVETS; Woodmen of the World; Roanoke Rapids Kiwanis Club; Mason, Widow's 
Lodge No. 519. Past Director, Medical Foundation of North Carolina, Inc. Past 
Member North Carolina Committee on Nursing and Patient Care; Trustee North 
Carolina Symphony, Inc.; Secretary, State Municipal Road Commission: Trustee, 
Chowan College, Murfreesboro, North Carolina, 1950-1954. Baptist. Member of The 
Governor's Study Commission on the Public School System of North Carolina, 
1967 — . Chairman, Commission for the Study of the Rules of Civil Procedure, 1967 — . 
Presented Distinguished Service Award by Roanoke Rapids Lions Club, Roanoke 
Rapids, May 14, 1974, "In Sincere Appreciation and Recognition of a Lifetime of 
Loyal and Distinguished Service to the Civic and Political Life of Roanoke Rapids 
and the Area"; Presented the Special Honor Award for Service by the North Caro- 
lina Association of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, officially presented 
at its 27th Annual Convention in Charlotte, November, 1974. Married Frances 
Virginia Brown (now deceased) of Garysburg June 24, 1926. Children: Richard 
Brown, Mary Frances and Alice Harris. Address: 423 Washington St., Roanoke 
Rapids, 27870. 




310 North Carolina Manual 

THOMAS CASS BALLENGER 

(Republican — Catawba County) 

(Twenty-third Senatorial District — Counties: Alexander, Catawba, Iredell, and 
Yadkin. Two Senators.) 

Thomas Cass Ballenger was born in Hickory, N. C, 
December 6, 1926. Son of Richard E. and Dorothy (Collins) 
Ballenger. Graduated Episcopal High School, 1944; UNC- 
Chapel Hill 1944-45; Amherst, 1945-48, B.A. President 
Hickory Paper Box Co.; President Plastic Packaging. Served 
Catawba County Commissioner 1966-1974; Chairman 1970- 
1974. Served U. S. N. Air Corps, 1944-1945. Member Episco- 
pal Church; Senior; Junior Warden; Lay Reader. Married 
Donna Davis Ballenger, June 14, 1952. Three Daughters: 

Lucinda Garrison, Mellissa Jane, Dorothy Davis. Address: 867 20th Ave. Dr., N.W., 

Hickory 28601. 



HENSON PERRYMOORE BARNES 

(Democrat — Wayne County) 

(Eighth Senatorial District — Counties: Greene and Wayne. One Senator.) 

^MH^^. Henson Perrymoore Barnes was born in Bladen, Novem- 

iT~ ^k ber 18, 1934. Son of Rev. Lalon L. and Mable Cumbee Barnes. 

Graduated Garland High School, Sampson County, 1953. 
Graduated Wilmington College, 1958, A. A.; University of 
North Carolina, 1959, A.B.; University of North Carolina 
Law School, 1961, J.D. Attorney. Member Wayne County Bar 
Association; North Carolina Bar Association; American Bar 
Association; American Trial Lawyers Association. Member 
Masons; Shriners; Elks Lodge; American Legion; Moose 
Lodge. Outstanding Young Man Award, Goldsboro, 1963. Served U. S. Army Para- 
troop, 1953-1956. Served in the House of Representatives representing the 9th 
House District during the 1975-1976 Session of the General Assembly. Awarded the 
Robert H. Futrelle Good Government Award for 1975. Member First Baptist Church, 
Goldsboro; Deacon; Sunday School Teacher; Chairman of Budget, Finance Board. 
Married Kitty Allen Barnes, August 27, 1961. Two Daughters: Rebecca and Amy. 
Address: 707 Park Avenue, Goldsboro 27530. 




LUTHER J. BRITT,JR. 

(Democrat — Robeson County) 
(Twelfth Senatorial District — Counties: Hoke and Robeson. One Senator.) 



Legislative Branch 



311 




Luther J. Britt, Jr. was born in Lumberton, August 10, 
1931. Son of Luther J. and Beta Brooks (Elkins) Britt. At- 
tended Lumberton City Schools, 1937-1949; Wake Forest 
College, 1949-1952; Wake Forest Law School, LL.B. degree, 
1955. Lawyer. Member Robeson County Bar Assn., President, 
1955-1966; Sixteenth Judicial Bar Assn., President, 1967- 
1968; North Carolina State Bar Assn.; American Bar Assn. 
Member, North Carolina Jaycees, President 1967; United 
States Jaycees; President, Lumberton Jaycees; State Vice 
President, North Carolina Jaycees; National Director United States Jaycees. Only 
man in the history of the North Carolina Jaycees, on three successive years, to be 
selected the outstanding State Vice President, the outstanding National Director, 
and one of five outstanding State Presidents in the United States Jaycees in 1967. 
Received the Clayton Frost Award as one of five outstanding Presidents of United 
States Jaycees, and led the North Carolina Jaycees to the Number 3 position of 
fifty-one State organizations. Past Chairman, Mayor's Advisory Committee, City of 
Lumberton: past President, Tanglewood P.T.A.; twice selected the outstanding 
young man in Lumberton. Chairman, Robeson County Democratic Executive Com- 
mittee, 1967-1970; City Attorney, Lumberton, 1966. Member Board of Directors, 
Waccamaw Bank & Trust Company; has served on seven different Study Commis- 
sions under appointment from the Governor of the State of North Carolina; Judical 
Council of North Carolina. Served in U.S. Army, 1956-1957. Member First Baptist 
Church, Lumberton; Sunday School Teacher. Married Sarah Williams, August 19, 
1955. Four children: Sallie B., Luther Johnson, III. Hewett Brooks, and Lee Elkins. 
Address: P.O. Box 1015, 603 W. 25th Street, Lumberton 28358. 



JACK CELY CHILDERS 



(Democrat — Davidson County) 

(Twenty-First Senatorial District — Counties: Davidson, Davie and Rowan. 

Two Senators.) 

Jack Cely Childers was born in Anderson, S.C., Decem- 
ber 30, 1909. Son of James W. and Delia Cely Childers. At- 
tended public schools of Greenville, S.C. Graduated Clemson 
University, B.S. Textile Eng., 1931; Harvard Business School 
1946. Retired Textile Manufacturer; Former President of 
Enlarger Mills, Inc., Lexington, N.C. Former president North 
Carolina Textile Manufacturers Association. Served Army as 
Tank Battalion Commander: Active 1941-46; Reserves, 
1931-32. Member Presbyterian Church; Superintendent 

Sunday School; Deacon; Ruling Elder. Married Edith Anderson Childers. Children: 

Dr. Jack C, Jr. and James A. Five Grandchildren. Address: One Childers Court, 

Lexington 27292. 




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North Carolina Manual 



BOBBY LEE COMBS 



(Democrat — Catawba County) 

(Twenty-third Senatorial District — Counties: Alexander, Catawba, Iredell, 
Yadkin. Two Senators.) 

^^ Bobby Lee Combs was born in North Wilkesboro, March 

25, 1930. Son of Cuester Lee and Vivian McKoy Combs. 
Attended Huntersville High School. Graduated Wingate 
L. .-^ College, Associate, 1950; Davidson College, B.S., 1952; 

Union Theological Seminary, Richmond, B.D., 1955; Mc- 
Mormich Theological Seminary, Chicago, 111., 1961. Pastor 
Sweetwater Presbyterian Church; Partner in Little Folks 
School, Hickory, Troutman and Mooresville. Member Moores- 
ville Chamber of Commerce; Catawba County Chamber of 
Commerce; Hickory and Mooresville Retail Merchants Association. Served N. C. 
Senate 1971-72. Served 378th Combat Engineers, 30th Division, 1948-1950. Member 
Presbyterian Church. Married Elsie Hunter Combs, July 13, 1950. Three Children: 
Robert Lee Combs; Pamela Combs Bruner; Ray Cuester Combs. Address: 500 21st 
St., Hickory 28610. 



IRVIN COOPER CRAWFORD 



(Democrat — Buncombe County) 

(Twenty-sixth Senatorial District — Counties: Buncombe, Madison, McDowell 

and Yancey. Two Senators) 

Irvin Cooper Crawford, representing the Twenty-sixth 
Senatorial District, was born in Bryson City. Son of Gordon 
Lee and Mary Jane (Cooper) Crawford. Attended Cullowhee 
High School, 1919-1922; Duke University; Wake Forest 
College. Lawyer. Member, Swain County Board of Educa- 
tion, 1933-1934; Mayor, Bryson City, 1935-1936; Chairman, 
Swain County Democratic Executive Committee, 1932-1940. 
University Board of Trustees, Advisory Budget Commission. 
Representative in the General Assembly of 1957, 1959, 1961, 

1963 and 1965. Senator in the General Assembly, 1971, 1973-74, and 1975-76. 

Trustee of U. N. C, Asheville. Member of the Judicial Council. Member of Asheville 

Countiy Club. Methodist. Married Evelyn Gregory, August 20, 1935. One son, 

Stephen G. Crawford. Address: 10 Hampshire Circle, Asheville. 




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313 



MELVIN ROY DANIELS, JR. 

(Democrat — Pasquotank County) 

(First Senatorial District — Counties: Beaufort, Bertie, Camden, Chowan, Cur- 
rituck, Dare, Gates, Hertford, Hyde, Northampton, Pasquotank, Perquimans, Tyrrell, 
Washington. Two Senators.) 

Melvin Roy Daniels, Jr. was born in Wanchese, October 
7, 1925. Son of Melvin Roy Daniels and Carrie Daniels. Grad- 
uated Manteo High School. Attended Campbell College; 
North Carolina State College; Virginia Polytechnical Insti- 
tute. Banker; Senior Vice-President People's Bank and Trust, 
Elizabeth City. Member N. C. Marine Science Council; Vice 
Chairman Elizabeth City Airport Commission. Member 
Lions; Elks; Masonic Order, Scottish Rite. Served U. S. 
Army Air Force 1943-1944. Member, Methodist Church. 
Married Gladys Toxey Daniels, August 18, 1950. Three children: Melvin Roy 
Daniels, III, Linda Diane Daniels and Donna Delane Daniels. Address: 1618 
Rochelle Drive, Elizabeth City 27909. 




E. LAWRENCE DAVIS, III 

(Democrat — Forsyth County) 

(Twentieth Senatorial District — County: Forsyth. Two Senators.) 
^■■^^ Egbert Lawrence Davis, III was born in Winston-Salem, 

j|^^^k December 30, 1937. Son of Egbert L. Davis, Jr. and Eleanor 

Layfield Davis. Graduated R. J. Reynolds High School 1956; 
Princeton University, 1960, A.B. (Woodrow Wilson School of 
Public and International Affairs); Duke Law School, 1963, 
L.L.B., Editorial Board of Duke Law Journal 1962-63; George 
Washington University, 1966, M.B.A. Attorney. Member, 
Forsyth Bar Association; North Carolina Bar Association; 
American Bar Association; American Judicature Society. 
Member, Winston-Salem Rotary Club; Newcomen Society; Winston-Salem Chamber 
of Commerce; Board Member of Winston-Salem Goodwill Industries Rehabilitation 
Center, Inc.; Forsyth County Red Cross; Forsyth County Y.M.C.A.; Winston-Salem 
Jaycees; Forsyth County and North Carolina Kidney Foundations; N.C. Children's 
Home Society; N.C. Mental Health Association and N.C. Baptist Hospitals, Inc. 
Recipient of Winston-Salem Jaycees Distinguished Service Award 1972; Winston- 
Salem Mayors Committee on Employment of Handicapped "Citizen of the Year" 
Award 1971; N.C. and U.S. Jaycees Freedom Guard Awards 1973; Served as Lieute- 
nant and Captain, U.S. Army, 1963-1965. Elected to N.C. House of Representatives, 
1970-72 and 1972-74 and N.C. Senate, 1974-76 and 1976-78. Member of Legislative 
Study Commissions on Local Property Tax Reform, Emergency Medical Services, 
Human Tissue Donations, Mass Transit and Inter-governmental Relations. Member 
Knollwood Baptist Church; Deacon; Sunday School Teacher. Married Sandra 




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North Carolina Manual 



Holdemess Davis, August 25, 1962. Four Children: Alexandra Fortune Davis, 
Egbert L. Davis, IV, Adelaide Lucinda Davis and Pamela Layfield Davis. Address: 
321 Banbury Road, Winston-Salem 27104. 



JAMES B. GARRISON 

(Democrat — Stanly County) 

(Seventeenth Senatorial District — Counties: Anson, Montgomery, Richmond, 
Scotland and Union. Two Senators.) 

James Banks Garrison, representing the Seventeenth 
Senatorial District, was bom in Badin May 25, 1925. Son of 
B. T. Garrison and Myrtle Kirk Garrison. Graduated Badin 
High School, Stanton Military Academy, and the University 
of North Carolina, 1950, B. A. in Economics. Gasoline Dis- 
tributor, President of South Central Oil Company, Inc. Presi- 
dent, Delta Buyers Co-op of North Carolina, South Carolina 
and Virginia. Past President, N. C. Jobbers Association. 
Served four year terms as Albemarle City Councilman and 
four years as Mayor of Albemarle. Vice-chairman, Stanly County Industrial 
Commission; member, Executive Committee of Stanly County Hospital; Stanly 
County Health Department Board; past President, Albemarle-Stanly County 
Chamber of Commerce; past President, Stanly County Welfai-e Board; past 
President, Albemarle Junior Chamber of Commerce. Young Man of the Year, 
1956. United States Marine Corps, Corporal, 1943-46. Member First Presbyterian 
Church, Albemarle; past Chairman, Board of Deacons. Married Betty Jane 
Hearne, 1948. Two children: James Banks Garrison, Jr. and Jane Heame Garri- 
son. Address: 819 North Sixth Street, Albemarle. 




RACHEL GILLEAN GRAY 
(Mrs. William Bruce Gray) 

(Democrat — Guilford County) 

(Nineteenth Senatorial District — County: Guilford. Three Senators.) 

Rachel Gillean Gray was born in Rowan County, Sep- 
tember 26, 1930. Daughter of Jesse Frank Gillean and Janet 
(Miller) Gillean. Attended Frank B. John Elementary School; 
High Point Jr. and Sr. High Schools; Graduated from Boyden 
High School, 1948 and was Valedictorian of her Class. At- 
tended Catawba College 1948-1950; High Point College 
Evening School in the early 1960's. Co-manages "Pymwymi 
Gift Shop." Member of the Junior League, Past President of 
the High Point Garden Council and Past President of the 
Mental Health Association. Member - First United Methodist Church. Vice- 
President of Women's Society of Christian service in the early 60's. Serving on the 




Legislative Branch 



315 



Finance Committee. Served two terms as Mayor Pro-tem of the City of High Point, 
1973 and 1975. Married William Bruce Gray, June 26, 1950. Three children: William 
Bruce, Jr., James Frank, and Thomas Edward. Address: 612 Gatewood Ave., High 
Point 27260. 



HAROLD WOODROW HARDISON 

(Democrat — Lenoir County) 

(Fifth Senatorial District — Counties: Duplin, Jones and Lenoir. One Sena- 
tor.) 

Harold Woodrow Hardison was born in Deep Run, 
Lenoir County, September 8, 1923. Son of Rutha and Annie 
(Stroud) Hardison. Attended Deep Run High School; Atlantic 
Christian College. Member, House of Representatives, 1971; 
President, Humphrey-Hardison Oil Company of Deep Run 
and Mount Olive. Charter member, Deep Run Ruritan Club; 
board member, Selective Service Board No. 55, Lenoir 
County; Chairman, Deep Run School Board and South Lenoir 
School Board; member Neuse River Economic Development 
Commission; Kinston Lenoir County Industrial and Agricultural Development Com- 
mission. Helped organize Deep Run Water Corp., first president, now member, 
Board of Directors; Board of Directors of Parrott Memorial Hospital, Kinston; 
Past Master, Pleasant Hill Masonic Lodge No. 304; Shriner, member Sudan Temple, 
former Lt. Commander of the Legion of Honor. U. S. Air Force, 1942-1947. Past 
Chairman, Lenoir County United Fund. Member, Board of Directors Mount Olive 
College, and Executive Board; Board of Directors of NCNB, Kinston. Baptist, mem- 
ber, Deep Run Free Will Baptist Church; Sunday School Teacher; Chairman, 
Finance Committee, 1963 — . Married Arlene Humphrey, June 14, 1944. One 
daughter, Pamela Jane. Address: Box 128, Deep Run 28525. 




JOSEPH JULIAN HARRINGTON 

(Democrat — Bertie County) 

(First Senatorial District — Counties: Beaufort, Bertie, Camden, Chowan, 
Currituck, Dare, Gates, Hertford, Hyde, Northampton, Pasquotank, Perquimans, 
Tyrrell and Washington. Two Senators.) 

^ ^ Joseph Julian Harrington was born in Lewiston, Febru- 

^^^^ ary IK, 1!>1D. Son of Julian Picott and Ethel Mac (Barnes) 

Harrington. President, Harrington Mfg. Co., Lewiston. Mem- 
ber, Farm Bureau Federation; Southern Farm Equipment 
Association; Davie Lodge No. 39, Lewiston; 32nd Degree 
Scottish Rite; Shriner, Sudan Temple, New Bern; Trustee of 
Chowan College, Murfreesboro. Member, Lewiston-Woodville 
Local School Board, 1955-1959; Town Commissioner, Lewis- 
ton, 1948. Trustee, Chowan College, Murfreesboro and 




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North Carolina Manual 



Roanoke-Chowan Technical Institute, Ahoskie. State Senator in the General As- 
semblies of 1963, 1965, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76 and 1977. Technical 
Sergeant, World War II, 1942-1945. Baptist; Sunday School Superintendent and 
Deacon, Lewiston Baptist Church. Married Lettie Leigh Early, August 7, 1947. 
Children: Robert E. H. Harrington, Julian Picott Harrington, II, Victoria Leigh 
Harrington. Address: Lewiston 27849. 



JOHN OLLIE HARRIS 

(Democrat — Cleveland County) 

(Twenty-fifth Senatorial District — Counties: Cleveland, Gaston, Lincoln, 
Rutherford. Three Senators.) 

John Ollie Harris was born in Anderson, S. C, Septem- 
ber 2, 1913. Son of J. Frank and Jessie Hambright Harris. 
Graduated Shelby High School 1931; Gupton-Jones College of 
Embalming, 1935. Funeral Director and Embalmer. Presi- 
dent and Treasurer, Harris Funeral Home, Inc. Member, 
N. C. Funeral Directors Association; National Funeral 
Director Association; National Selected Morticians. Past 
President, N. C. Corner's Association; N. C. Funeral Direct- 
ing and Embalming Board. Mason; Shriner. Served Army, 
85th Field Hospital, European Theatre 1943-1946; Holder, Bronze Star. Served in 
N. C. Senate, 1971, 1975 and 1977. Cleveland County Corner 1946-1970. Baptist 
Church. Married Abbie Jane Wall, May 4, 1934. Two children: Ollie Harris, Jr., 
Mrs. Becky Harris Hambright. Four Grandchildren. Address: Box 627, 921 Sharon 
Dr., Kings Mountain 28086. 




CECIL JAMES HILL 

(Democrat — Transylvania County) 

(Twenty-seventh Senatorial District — Counties: Cherokee, Clay, Graham, 
Haywood, Henderson, Jackson, Macon, Polk, Swain, Transylvania. Two Senators.) 

Cecil James Hill was born in Asheville, November 20, 
1919. Son of Burton Harrison and Vallie Staton Hill. Grad- 
uated Valley Springs High School, 1939; Mars Hill College, 
1941, Associate in Arts; University of North Carolina, 1943, 
B.S.; University of North Carolina, 1945, Doctor of Laws. 
Lawyer. Member, Transylvania County Bar Association; 
North Carolina Bar Association; North Carolina State Bar. 
Director, First Union National Bank; Past President, 1956, 
Transylvania County Bar Association. Member Order of the 
Coif; Scottish Rite Mason, Delta Sigma Pi. Former Elk. 
Member, Brevard Lions Club, 1945 — . Editor in Chief, North Carolina Law Review, 
1944-45. Contributor, Union of South Africa Law Review; The Progressive Farmer. 
Precinct Chairman, Member of Executive Committee, Secretary of Executive Com- 





Legislative Branch 317 



mittee — Transylvania County Democrat Party. N. C. State Senate, 1975. Town 
Attorney, Brevard, 1959-1965 and Rosman, 1965 — . Married Elizabeth T. Richardson 
of Raleigh. Children: Elizabeth and James. Address: P.O. Box 242, Woodside Drive, 
Brevard 28712. 



ROBERT BYRD JORDAN III 

(Democrat — Montgomery County) 

(Seventeenth Senatorial District — Counties: Anson, Montgomery, Richmond, 

Scotland, Stanly and Union. Two Senators.) 

Robert Byrd Jordan, III was born in Mt. Gilead October 
11, 1932. Son of Robert Byrd Jordan, Jr., and Irene (Pritchett) 
Jordan. Attended Mt. Gilead Elementary. Graduated Mt. 
Gilead High School, 1950; N. C. State University, 1954, B.S., 
Forestry. Lumber Executive. Director — National Associ- 
ation Independent Lumbermen, Washington, D.C. Past 
President of Southeastern Lumber Manufacturers Associa- 
tion, Atlanta Georgia. Director, N. C. Forestry Foundation. 
Outstanding Young Alumnus, N. C. State University, 1966. 

Montgomery County Jaycees Distinguished Service Award, 1967. Member of 

Masons and Lions. U.S. Army, 1st Lieutenant January 1955-December, 1956. 

Member United Methodist Church. Chairman Stewardship Committee, Chairman 

Administrative Board, 1970-72; Bishop's Committee on higher education, 1974. 

Married Sarah Cole June 21, 1958. Children: Betsy Lynn; Robert Byrd, IV; Janie 

Cole. Address: P.O. Box 98, East Allenton St., Mt. Gilead 27306. 



DONALD RAYVAUGHN KINCAID 

(Republican — Caldwell County) 

(Twenty-fourth Senatorial District — Counties: Avery, Burke, Caldwell, 
Mitchell, Watauga and Wilkes. Two Senators.) 

P« Donald Rayvaughn Kincaid was bom in Caldwell 

County, June 2, 1936. Son of Hugh T. and Myrtle (McCall) 
Kincaid. Attended Gamewell Elementary School. Graduated 
Gamewell High School, 1954; Appalachian State Teachers 
College, 1955-1959, B.S.; Clevenger's Business College, 1955. 
School Teacher and owner of Kincaid Insurance Agency, 
Lenoir. Member, Lenior Lions Club, Lion Tamer, immediate 
past Secretary; past member, N.C.A.E.; Gamewell Ruritan 
Club. Served in North Carolina National Guard for nine 
years, 5-E; N. C. Cattlemen's Association; Representative in the General Assembly 
of 1967, 1969 and 1971. Served in the N. C. Senate 1973, 1975 and 1977; member, 
N. C. Board of Agriculture; Advisory Committee, Southeastern Parks, U. S. 
Department of Interior. Member Carolina Association of Mutual Insurance Agents. 



Jrih 



318 



North Carolina Manual 



Member Grandview Park Baptist Church; Assistant Teacher, Young Married Men's 
Class; past Teacher of Young Peoples Class. Married Syretha Weatherford, June 30, 
1956. Three children. Address: 113 Spencer Heights, Lenoir 28645. 



I. BEVERLY LAKE, JR. 

(Democrat — Wake County) 



(Fourteenth Senatorial District 
Senators.) 



-Counties: Harnett, Lee and Wake. Three 



I. Beverly Lake, Jr. was born in Raleigh January 30, 
1934. Son of I. Beverly Lake and Gertrude Bell. Attended 
Wake Forest Grammar and High School, 1940-1951. Attended 
Mars Hill College, 1950. Graduated Wake Forest University, 
1955 B.S. Degree. Graduated Wake Forest University Law 
School, 1960, J.D. Degree. Attorney At Law. Assistant At- 
torney General, 1969-1974; Deputy Attorney General, 1974- 
1976. Member North Carolina State Bar; NC Bar Association; 
Wake County Bar Association. Received NC Consumers 
Council Commendation, 1976. Vice-chairman, Executive Committee, Wake County 
Bar, 1967. Member Lambda Chi Alpha and Phi Alpha Delta. Military Intelligence, 
Captain, 1955-1968. Member Ridge Road Baptist Church; Finance and Budget 
Committee, 1972; Board of Trustees, 1970-73; Chairman, Board of trustees, 1973. 
Married Susan Joanne Deichmann Lake, February 2, 1975. Children: Lynn Eliza- 
beth; Guy Vernon; Laura Ann; I. Beverly, IV (Lee). Address: 3703 Shadybrook Dr., 
Raleigh 27609. 




WILLIAM CRAIG LAWING 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 



(Twenty-second Senatorial 
Four Senators.) 



District — Counties: Cabarrus and Mecklenburg. 



William Craig Lawing was born in Mecklenburg County, 
July 6, 1925. Son of Samuel Oliver and Essie O. (Dunn) 
Lawing. Attended Mecklenburg County Public Schools, 1931- 
1942. University of Chattanooga as Aviation Cadet, United 
States Army Air Force, 1943-1944; Repperts School of 
Auctioneering, 1958. President of Lawing, Inc., dealing in 
real estate, insurance and auction business. Member Charlotte 
Board of Realtors; North Carolina Association of Realtors; 
National Association of Real Estate Boards; Auctioneers 
Association of North Carolina, President, 1962-1965; National Auctioneers Associa- 
tion, on Board of Directors, three-year term, 1969-1972. Member Paw Creek 
American Legion Post No. 353, Commander, 1948-1951; Voiture 1400 Forty and 
Eight, Voiture Correspondent, 1952-1953; Grand Chiminot Forty and Eight, 1954- 




Legislative Branch 319 



1955. Member Excelsior Lodge No. 261, A.F. & A.M.; Carolina Consistory Scottish 
Rite; Oasis Temple of the Shrine. Chairman, Legislative Committee of Paw Creek 
American Legion Post, 1961-1971 Commander, Mecklenburg County Council of 
American Legion Post, 1968-1969. Member of North Carolina House of Repre- 
sentatives, 1971, 1973, 1975; Chairman Local Government Committee, 1973 Session; 
Chairman of Economy Committee, 1975 Session; and Chairman of the Mecklenburg 
Legislative Delegation, 1975-75 Session. Received "Go-Getter" designation and 
star for past 23 years in American Legion. Member Board of Mecklenburg County 
Commissioners, 1952-1956, 1958-1964, Vice Chairman, 1954-1956, 1962-1964. Chosen 
one of 10 Outstanding Men of the Year by Charlotte Jaycees, 1959, 1960. Awarded 
City of Charlotte Citizenship Award, 1964, and Certificate of Appreciation by 
Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, 1964. Served on Mecklenburg County 
Welfare Board, 1961-1964. Served in United States Army Air Force as Aviation 
Cadet and Gunnery Instructor, 1943-1946. Member United Methodist Church; 
Official Board, 1960-1968, Chairman, 1966-1968; Chairman, Membership and Evan- 
gelism Committee, 1968-1970; Teacher Glenn Lackey Adult Sunday School Class 
since 1958; taught Men's Bible Class, Pleasant Grove United Methodist Church, 
1956-1958. Married Jane Gaffney December 31, 1943. Two daughters, Diane Lawing 
Hagler and Sally Ann Lawing. Address : RFD No. 9, Box 195-G, Charlotte 28208. 



JAMES DOYLE McDUFFIE 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 

(Twenty-second Senatorial District — Counties: Cabarrus and Mecklenburg. 
Four Senators.) 

James Doyle McDuffie was born in Kannapolis, N. C, 
November 17, 1929. Son of James Dewey (deceased) and 
Viola Cress McDuffie (deceased). Graduated Cannon High 
School, 1946. Attended Lenoir Rhyne College, 1946. Grad- 
uated Phiffer College, A.A., 1948; Catawba College, B.A., 
1950; University of Denver, M.A., 1953. Self-employed, In- 
^^4%Mi -^^^^ surance Agency. Member East Mecklenburg Optimist Club; 

12 J American Legion; Tar Hill Cyclists; Board — Carolinas 

^■ro^^^B Chapter Multiple Society. Sergeant, U. S. Air Force, 1950- 
1953. Charlotte City Council. Member Pritchard Memorial Baptist Church. Married 
M. Darlene (Pat) McDuffie, April 10, 1953. Four Children: James David McDuffie, 
Mark Stephen McDuffie, Patricia Karen McDuffie, John Patrick McDuffie. Address: 
1800 Eastway Drive, Charlotte 28205. 



GEORGE W. MARION, JR. 

(Democrat — Surry County) 

(Fifteenth Senatorial District — Counties: Alleghany, Ashe, Caswell, Rocking- 
ham, Stokes, and Surry.) 




320 North Carolina Manual 



George W. Marion, Jr. was born in Surry County, April 
A i 14, 1 935. Son of George W., Sr. and Stanley Marion. Attended 

Dobson High School, graduated, 1953; Appalachian Univer- 
sity, four years. Housewares distributors and real estate. 
Member Lions Club, President Dobson Lions Club, 1969; 
P.T.A., Northwest Dev. Assoc. Director; President, Dobson 
^L -x^fc P.T.A., 1966-1967, 1968-1969. President, Surry County Y.D.C., 

^ 1969; President, 5th District, Y.D.C., 1969. U. S. Army, 

1954-1956, Spec. 3. Representative in N. C. General Assembly, 
1971; Senator, 1975-76. Member, Dobson Baptist Church. Married Patty Hodges, 
1959. Three daughters. Address: Forest Oaks Drive, Dobson. 



HELEN RHYNE MARVIN 

(Mrs. Ned I. Marvin) 

(Democrat — Gaston County) 

(Twenty-fifth Senatorial District— Counties: Cleveland, Gaston, Lincoln, and 
Rutherford. Three Senators.) 

Helen Rhyne Marvin was born in Gastonia November 30, 
1917 to Dane S. Rhyne and Tessie (Hastings) Rhyne. Gradu- 
ated Gastonia High School, 1934. Graduated Furman Uni- 
versity, 1938, B.A. in History and Political Science; Louisi- 
ana State University, 1939, M.A. in Government; Winthrop 
College, 1954, graduate work in education; UNC-Chapel Hill, 
1963 and 1968, graduate work in Political Science and Eco- 
nomics; UNC-Charlotte, 1971, University of Vermont, 1971; 
University of Oslo (Norway), 1974 — graduate work in politi- 
cal science and history. Community College Teacher. Currently head, Department 
of Social Sciences, Gaston College. Member, American, Southern and North Carolina 
Political Science Associations; Eastern Community College Social Science Associa- 
tion; NC Community College Social Science Association; Rho Chapter of Delta 
Kappa Gamma (Association of Women Educators). President-Elect, N.C.P.S.A. 
Chairman, Advisory Committee, NCCCSSA; Past President, Gaston College Unit, 
NCAE; Past President, Community College Division, NC Association of Educators; 
Past President, Gaston College Faculty Senate. Member Altrusa Club of Gastonia; 
Gaston County Democratic Women, Co-Chairman, Gaston County United Way 
Campaign, 1976; Member of Board, Gaston County United Way; Secretary, South- 
ern Piedmont Health Services Agency; Member, Project Review Committee, 
SPHSA; Member, Gaston County Bicentennial Committee. Appointed by Governor 
Terry Sanford: NC State Textbook Commission, 1961-65. Appointed by Governor 
Bob Scott: Governor's Council on Comprehensive Health Planning, 1969-72. Has 
served as member of County and State Democratic Executive Committees. Served 
two terms as President, Gaston County Democi-atic Women. 10th District Delegate 
to National Presidential Nominating Convention, 1972. Member Gaston County 
Democrat Century Club. Member — First Presbyterian, Gastonia. Has held, Sunday 
School teacher, chairman of primary department. Circle Bible Moderator. Currently 




Legislative Branch 



321 



serving as Deacon. Married Ned I. Marvin, November 21, 1941. Children: Kathiyn 
Andrea (Marvin) Nisbet; Richard Morris Marvin; David Rhyne Marvin. Grand- 
children: Alicia Nisbet and Amy Nisbet. Address: 119 Ridge Lane, Gastonia, N. C. 
28052. 



CAROLYN MATHIS 

(Mrs. Ray Mathis) 

(Republican — Mecklenburg County) 



(Twenty-second Senatorial District- 
Four Senators. 



-Counties: Cabarrus and Mecklenburg. 



Carolyn Mathis was born in Sampson County in 1942 
to Mr. and Mrs. Horace Williamson. Graduated Clinton High 
School, 1959; UNC-G, 1963, B.S. in Home Economics; UNC- 
CH, 1970, M.Ed, in Special Education. Educational Dis- 
abilities teacher in the Charlotte- Mecklenburg School System. 
Appointed by Governor to Council on Educational Services 
for Exceptional Children, 1974. Appointed by Governor to 
the Juvenile Code Commission, 1976. Member Children 100, 
Council for Exceptional Children, Mecklenburg Association 
for Retarded Citizens, Charlotte Classroom Teachers Association. Member of Sexual 
Assault Study Committee of Legislative Research Commission. Married to Ray 
Mathis. One daughter: Bentley. Member Myers Park United Methodist Church. 
Address: 8045 Regent Park Lane, Charlotte 28210. 




JOE H. PALMER 

(Democrat — Haywood County) 

(Twenty- seventh Senatorial District — Counties: Cherokee, Clay, Graham, 
Haywood, Henderson, Jackson, Macon, Polk, Swain, and Transylvania. Two Sen- 
ators.) 

Joe H. Palmer was born in Haywood, N. C, September 
17, 1919. Son of Glenn C. Palmer and Fannie (Ferguson) Pal- 
mer. Attended Clyde High School 1933-37; N. C. State Uni- 
versity, B.S., 1942. Farmer. Member Farm Bureau; Ameri- 
can Forestry Association; American Legion; Cattleman's 
Association. Former President, Haywood Fruit and Vege- 
table Association; Former President, N. C. Tomato Associa- 
tion. Served Sgt., Marine Corps, 1942-1945. Representative 
in NC General Assembly, 1953; Senator, 1975-76. Member, 
Crabtree Methodist Church; Lay Leader. Married Elise Palmer, 1949. Four Chil- 
dren: John, Amy, Kim, Chris. Address: Route 3, Clyde. 




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North Carolina Manual 



JERRY JOSEPH POPKIN 



(Democrat — Onslow County) 

(Third Senatorial District — County: Onslow. One Senator.) 

Jerry Joseph Popkin was horn February 3, 1923 in 
Trenton, New Jersey. Son of Samuel Popkin and Katie 
Barker. Sales - Retail; Radio Station. Jewish. Married 
Shirley, August 29, 1950. Children: Samuel Stuart; Francine 
Holly; and Yale Marc. Address: 1009 Vernon Drive, Jack- 
sonville 28540. 




MARSHALL ARTHUR RAUCH 




(Democrat — Gaston County) 

(Twenty-fifth Senatorial District — Counties: Cleveland, Gaston, Lincoln, and 
Rutherford. Three Senators.) 

Marshall Arthur Rauch, representing the Twenty-fifth 
Senatorial District, was born in New York City February 2, 
19215. Son of Nathan A. and Tillie (Wohl) Rauch. Attended 
Woodmere High School, Class of 1940; Duke University, 
varsity basketball and Fraternity President; Chairman of 
the Board, Director and Treasurer of Rauch Industries, Inc., 
Director and Treasurer of E. P. Press, Inc., Gastonia and 
The Rauch Foundation, Inc., Gastonia. Director, Plastivac 
'*■ ^^^™ Corporation, Charlotte; Director, Mid-South Life Insurance 
Company, Fayetteville; Majestic Insurance Financing Corporation, Gastonia. 
Mayor Pro Tern, City of Gastonia, 1952-1954, 1961-1963; City Councilman, City of 
Gastonia, 1952-1954, 1961-1965; Governor's Good Neighbor Council, 1963-1970; 
North Carolina Jail Study Commission, 1968; Advisory Council, North Carolina 
Committee for Children and Youth, 1968-1969; Legislative Research Committee on 
Interest Rates, 1968-1969; Chairman Gastonia Human Relations Committee, 1964- 
1967; Chairman North Carolina Committee on Population and Family, 1968-1969; 
Employ the Handicapped Committee, 1964-1965. Senior Advisor, Gastonia Boys 
Club, 1947-1963; Big Brother, 1951-1960; member North Carolina Citizens Com- 
mittee for Dental Health, 1968-1969; Vice President and Director, Community 
Concert Association, 1960-1961; Top Management Advisory Committee, Gaston 
County Industrial Management Club, 1963-1965; Consulting Commission, Pioneer 
Girl Scout Council, 1968-1969; President, Duke University Gaston Alumni Associa- 
tion, 1961-1962; President, Associated Industries, 1964-1965. Director: Gastonia 
Chamber of Commerce, 1965-1966; Gaston Skills, 1964-1966; Salvation Army Boys 
Club since 1963; United Fund, 1963-1967; Gaston Boys Club since 1964; Carolinas 
A.A.U., 1951-1953; Gaston Museum of Natural History, 1963-1964; Holy Angels 
Nursery, Belmont, 1960-1970; Planned Parenthood and World Population, New 
York, N. Y., 1968-1969; Gaston Community Action, Inc., 1966; Gaston-Cleveland 
Tuberculosis Association for 1968; Gastonia YMCA, 1959-1962, 1967-1969, also 



Legislative Branch 323 



since 1971. Member Board of Trustees of U.N.C. since 1969; First Vice President 
Gaston County Y.M.C.A., 1970, President Gaston County Y.M.C.A., 1971; Board 
of Advisors, Gardner Webb College; awarded Man & Boy Award, Salvation Army 
Red Shield Boys Club, 1970. Trustee, University of North Carolina at Greens- 
boro. Man of the Year, Gastonia Junior Chamber of Commerce, 1957; Man of the 
Year, Gastonia Junior Woman's Club, 1964; Man of the Year, Gaston County 
Omega Psi Phi, 1966; Man of the Year, North Carolina Health Department, 1968; 
National Recreation Citation, National Recreation Association, 1965; State Senator 
in the General Assembly of 1967; also Advisory Budget Commission, 1974 and 1977; 
Trustee U.N.C. 1971-1973; Chairman Joint Advisory Committee on Dental Educa- 
tion, 1969-1971. Biography listed in "Who's Who in World Jewery", "Who's Who in 
the South and Southwest" and "Leading Men in the United States." President, Tem- 
ple Emanuel, Gastonia, 1962-1964; President, Frank Goldbei-g Lodge, Bnai Brith, 
1951-1952; Chairman, Gaston Jewish Welfare Fund, 1958-1962, 1968-1969; Di- 
rector, North Carolina United Jewish Appeal Cabinet, 1968-1969; First Vice Presi- 
dent, North Carolina Association of Jewish Men, 1966; National Council American 
Jewish Joint Distributions Committee, 1968-1971; Sunday School Teacher, 1951- 
1956; Board of Governors, North Carolina Jewish Home for the Aged, Inc., since 
1968. Married Jeanne Girard, May 18, 1946. Children: John, Ingrid, Marc, Pete 
and Stephanie. Address: 1121 Scotch Drive, Gastonia. 



JOSEPH BRYANT RAYNOR, JR. 

(Democrat — Cumberland County) 

(Tenth Senatorial District — Cumberland. Two Senators.) 

Joseph Biyant Raynor, Jr. was born in Cumberland 
County, N. C, January 26, 1923. Son of Joseph Biyant, Sr. 
and Beatrice (Owen) Raynor. Attended Haymount Grade 
School, 1929-1932; Seventy-first Elementary School, 1933- 
1936, graduated Seventy-first High School, 1940; Electronic 
and Engineering School, 1944. Owner of Raynor Supply 
Company, dealer of automotive wholesale supplies. Member 
of Camp Ground Methodist Church, Fayetteville Exchange 
Club; Seventy-first Ruritan Club; Cumberland County Young 
Democratic Club; Cumberland County mental Health Association; Past President 
of the Cumberland County Chapter N. C. Society for Crippled Children and Adults; 
Past President of the Carousel Club; member of the Cumberland County Wildlife 
Association; Exchangite of the year, 1959; Member of Knights of Pythias; Loyal 
Order of Moose; United Commercial Travelers of America; The Ancient Mystic 
Order of Bagmen of Bagdad. Appointed by the late John F. Kennedy, April 2, 1963, 
as a member of the Board of Selective Service; resigned from this office after 




324 North Carolina Manual 



making decision to run for N. C. House of Representatives. Was given a certificate 
of recognition for service to the Nation and Selective Service System in the Ad- 
ministration of the Universal Military Training and Service Act by President 
Lydon B. Johnson on June 30, 1D64. He is listed in Who's Who in American Politics; 
listed in the National Register of Prominent Americans. Served in the General 
Assembly for five terms. Has been a member of every major committee in the 
House, and was chairman of the Committee on Mental Health in the Senate. 
Selected by his colleagues as Chairman of the Democratic 7th Congressional 
District for the 1971 session. He has served on the Governor's Study Commission 
on Emotionally Disturbed Children, which recently created the State Child 
Advocacy Office. Has been a member of the Study Commission on Alcoholism, Vice 
President of TIHE (The study of Human Ecology). Appointed by the Legislative 
Research Commission to study the State Mental Health facilities. Selected to serve 
on the Commission enacted by legislation to study the problems of Exceptional 
Children, 1975. Chosen in 1975 to serve as a Consultant to the Department of Public 
Insti-uction. Married Mildred Home, January 15, 1944. Address: 5234 Raeford 
Road, Fayetteville. 



EDWARD RENFROW 

(Democrat — Johnston County) 

(Ninth Senatorial District — Counties: Johnston and Sampson. One Senator.) 

Edward Renfrow was born in Kenly, September 17, 1940. 
Son of Donnie T. Renfrow and Ilamae Lewis Renfrow. Grad- 
uated Clayton High School May, 1958; Hardbargers Busi- 
ness College. Attended Atlantic Christian College. Account- 
ant. Member North Carolina Society of Accountants; Na- 
tional Society of Public Accountants; Phi Theta Fi Fra- 
ternity. President North Carolina Society of Accountants 
1972-73; Seminar Speaker. National Society of Public Ac- 
countants; First Vice-President, Smithfield-Selma Chamber 
of Commerce 1974; Treasurer, N. C. Democratic Executive Committee 1973-March 
1974. Received Distinguished Service Award Smithfield Jaycees 1974. Boss of The 
Year Award, 1975. Chairman, Commission on Public School Laws, First President, 
North Carolina Society of Accountants Scholarship Foundation, 1973-74. N. C. 
National Guard, Specialist 4th Class, 1962-1966. Member, Sharon Baptist Church; 
Chairman of Deacon Board, two terms; Sunday School Teacher; Member of General 
Board of Baptist State Convention 1970-1974; Current Treasurer, Johnston Baptist 
Association. Married Rebecca Stephenson Renfrow, December 4. 1960. Two Chil- 
dren: Candy and Paige. Address: P. O. Box 731, Smithfield 27577. 





Legislative Branch 325 

KENNETH CLAIBORNE ROY ALL, JR. 

(Democrat— Durham County) 

(Thirteenth Senatorial District. — Counties: Durham, Person and Granville. 
Two Senators.) 

Kenneth Claiborne Royall, Jr. was born in Warsaw, 
North Carolina, September 2, 1918. Son of Kenneth Claiborne 
and Margaret Pierce (Best) Royall. Attended Goldsboro 
High School, Goldsboro, 1932-34; Episcopal High School 
Alexandria, Virginia 1934-36; University of North Carolina, 
Chapel Hill, North Carolina 1939-40. A.B. Degree; University 
of Virginia Law School 1940-41; Wake Forest Law School, 
1941-42. U. S. Marine Corps, 1942-45, rank, Major. Received 
the Bronze Star with Combat V while serving as a platoon 
leader in South Pacific area during World War II. Owner, retail furniture store. 
Member Southern Retail Furniture Association; Director, North Carolina Mer- 
chants Association; Rotary Club; Elks Club; Delta Kappa Epsilon Fraternity; 
Board of Directors, Durham Chamber of Commerce, 1962-72, Vice-President, 1972; 
President, Durham Merchants Association 1959. Member Durham County Board of 
Education, 1957-66, Chairman 1959-66. Representative in the General Assembly, 
1967, 1969, 1971, 1973-74; Senator, 1975-76. Legislative Research Commission, 
Chairman, Sub-committee on Health 1969; Chairman, House of Appropriations 
Committee 1971-72; Member, Advisory Budget Commission, 1971-72; North Caro- 
lina Legislative Building Governing Commission, 1971-72; Advisory Council of 
National Conference for State Legislative Leaders, 1972; Executive Residence 
Building Commission 1972. Senator in the General Assembly of 1973, 1975; Chair- 
man, Mental Health Study Commission 1973-74; Legislative Services Commission, 
1973, 1974, 1975; Courts Commission, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974; Chairman, Senate 
Health Committee, 1973-74; Vice-Chairman, Governmental Expenditures Study 
Commission, 1974. Steering Committee, Fiscal Affairs and Government Operations 
Committee of the Council of State Governments, 1974; Citizens Advisory Council to 
the UNC-CH Center for Alcohol Studies, 1974-75; Standardization Committee, 
1971-1972; Board of Governors of the National Society of Legislators, 1972; North 
Carolina Prevention of Blindness, Second Vice President, 1972, Board of Directors, 
1973, 1974, 1975; Director, Training Center for Hearing Impaired Children; Board 
of Higher Education, 1971, 1972. Member St. Phillips Episcopal Church, Durham; 
Junior Warden, 1959; Senior Warden, 1964; Member of Vestry 3 terms. Married 
Julia Bryan Zollicoffer, February 10, 1945. Children: Kenneth Claiborne, III, Jere 
Zollicoffer and Julia Bryan. Address: 64 Beverly Drive, Durham. 



RALPH HENDERSON SCOTT 

(Democrat — Alamance County) 
(Eighteenth Senatorial District — County: Alamance. One Senator.) 



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North Carolina Manual 




Ralph Henderson Scott was born near Haw River De- 
cember 12, 1!H)3. Son of Robert Walter and Elizabeth 
(Hughes) Scott. Graduated Hawfields High School, 1920; 
North Carolina State College, B.S., 1924. President of 
Melville Dairy, Inc. Member, Kiwanis Club, President 1942; 
^k Chamber of Commerce, President, 1944-1945; Merchants 

&. ^^ Association; North Carolina Dairy Products Association, 

President, 1947; North Carolina Jersey Breeders Association, 
President, 1939; Chairman of Board, Alamance Daily Foods; 
Chairman of Board, Carolina Casualty Company, Jacksonville, Florida; Raleigh, 
Durham, Burlington Dairy Council, President, 1945-1946; Alamance County 
Tuberculosis Association, President, 1942, 1953 and 1954; North Carolina State 
Grange; North Carolina Farm Bureau; member, Advisory Budget Commission, 
1961-1964, 1967-1968, 1969-1971, 1973-1974, 1975-76, Chairman, 1973-74, 1975-76; 
Chairman, N. C. Department of Human Resources' Council on Developmental 
Disabilities. County Commissioner, 1944-1950. Mason; member Burlington Moose 
Lodge; Bula Lodge No. 409, A.F. & A.M.; Burlington BPO Elks No. 1633; Knights 
Templar; Royal Arch Masons; Amran Temple. State Senator in the General As- 
sembly of 1951, 1953. 1955, 1961, 1963, 1965, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973-74 and 1975-76. 
Trustee, Elon College, Trustee, Memorial Hospital of Alamance, Burlington; 
Member of Board of First Federal Savings & Loan, Burlington. Received the 
National Education Association's Dept. of Rural Education, 1966; National Distin- 
guished Legislative Service Award; North Carolina Dairy Products Association's 
Distinguished Service Award, Jan., 1971. Honorary member of Order of Golden 
Fleece at UNC-CH and Gamma Sigma Delta at N. C. State University. 1975 
received First Annual Ralph H. Scott Award for Exemplary Concern for N. C. 
Children. 1976 received Better Life Award for the North Carolina Health Care 
Facilities Association for leadership and service to N. C.'s senior citizens. 1976 
received citation for Humanitarian Service and Outstanding Cooperation from 
United Cerebral Palsy on N. C, In 1976 received an honorary doctorate of laws 
degree from Elon College. Presbyterian; Elder since 1950; Chairman Board of 
Deacons, 1938-1950; Moderator of Orange Presbytery, 1970. Married Hazeleene 
Tate, November 11, 1925. Children: Miriam Scott Mayo, Tarboro; Ralph Henderson 
Scott, Jr. and William Clevenger Scott. Address: Rt. 1, Box 400, Haw River 27258. 



KATHERINE ANN HAGEN SEBO 



(Democrat — Guilford County) 

(Nineteenth Senatorial District — County: Guilford. Three Senators.) 

Katherine Ann Hagen Sebo was born in Minneapolis, 
Minnesota, July 9, 1944. Daughter of Kristofer Hagen and 
Bertha Elvira Johanson Hagen. Attended Edina Jr. and Sr. 
High School, Edina, Minn., 1956-1959; Kodaikanal High 
School, Kodaikanal, South India, 1960-61; University of 
Minnesota 1961-62; Oberlin College, 1962-65, B.A.; The 
American University School of International Service, M.A., 
1968, Ph.D., 1973. College Professor. Member American As- 
sociation of University Professors; American Political Sci- 




I, 



Legislative Branch 



327 



ence Association; Pi Gamma Mu; Altrusa International, Inc.; YWCA; League of 
Women Voters. Appointed Chairman, Mayor's Committee on the Status of Women 
in Greensboro, 1972-73. American Civil Liberties Union. Member Centenary United 
Methodist Church. Married Paul Gustav Sebo, June 10, 1967. Address: 907 W. 
McGee Street, Greensboro. 



ROGER DEAN SHARPE 



(Democrat — Burke County) 



Avery, Burke, Caldwell, 




(Twenty- fourth Senatorial District — Counties; 
Mitchell, Watauga, and Wilkes. Two Senators.) 

Roger Dean Sharpe was born in Iredell County on Au- 
gust 29, 1947. Son of Henry Woodrow Sharpe, Sr., and Hattie 
Belle Shore. Graduated Harmony High School, 1965. Attended 
North Carolina State University, 1965-72; Forsyth Technical 
Institute, Caseworker Training Workshop 1972; North Caro- 
lina Agricultural and Technical University, Instructor in 
Corrections Theory and Deviant Behavior, Department of 
Psychology, 1972; Guilford College, Greensboro, Theory and 
' A ^^^* Practice of Group Counseling 1972; East Carolina University, 
Institute of Correctional Administration, 1974; East Carolina University, B.S. 
Degree, Social Work and Correctional Services 1975; Appalachian State University, 
1975 — . Coordinator of Corrections Program, Department of Criminal Justice and 
teacher of law enforcement and correctional officers from 15 Western North Caro- 
lina counties, Western Piedmont Community College. Member First Baptist, 
Morganton; three year term (presently serving) State Baptist Convention's Council 
on Christian Life and Public Affairs. Address: P. O. Box 237, Morganton 28655. 



i A 



john McNeill smith, jr. 

(Democrat — Guilford County) 

(Nineteenth Senatorial District — County: Guilford. Three Senators.) 

John McNeill Smith, Jr., representing the Nineteenth 
Senatorial District, was born in Rowland, April 9, 1918. Son 
of John McNeill Smith, Sr. and Roberta Olivia (Andrew) 
Smith. Attended Rowland Public Schools, 1924-1934; Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, A.B. degree, 1938; 
Columbia University Law School, LL.B., 1941. Member, 
Greensboro, N. C, American, and International Bar Associa- 
tions; Member ABA House of Delegation 1976-77; admitted 
to practice U. S. Supreme Court; life member Judicial Con- 
ference, U. S. Court of Appeals; International Association of Insurance Counsel; 
American Judicature Society; Delta Kappa Epsilon Fraternity; Phi Delta Phi 
(legal); Phi Beta Kappa, Vice President; Order of Golden Fleece; Order of the Grail; 




328 North Carolina Manual 



Chairman, ABA Section on Individual Rights and Responsibilities 1972-73; member, 
ABA National Commission on Rights of Mentally Disabled 1973-77; Board of 
Ti'ustees of Legis 50 — The Center for Legislative Improvement (1976-78); Chair- 
man, Crime Study Commission (1976-77), Senate Commission Revenue Laws 
(1974-75); N. C. Commission on Children and Youth (1972-73); Winner N. C. 
Consumers Advocate Award (1976); Director, Greensboro Chamber of Commerce, 
1961-62; Chairman, Downtown Improvement Committee 1961-64; winner, North 
Carolina Planning Award, 1963; and Chamber of Commerce Award for Outstanding 
Service, 1965; State Chairman of International Relations when a Jaycee; an 
incorporator, 1954, and past President, American Freedom Association, and Chair- 
man for several years, Southeastern World Affairs Institute. Past President, 
American Business Club; member, Executive Committee, Southern Regional 
Council 1966-70, and Board of Trustees, North Carolina Outward Bound School; 
charter member, Greensboro Citizens for Greensboro College; charter member, 
Secretary and Director, Excellence Fund, UNC-G, and member, Board of Directors, 
Hayes-Taylor YMCA. Editor, Equal Protection of the Laws in North Carolina, 
1963, Report of the N. C. Advisory Committee, Chairman, 1959-63. Visiting 
Professor, Constitutional Law, UNC Law School, 1964-65. Served in U. S. Navy, 
1941-45; Lt. Commander, USNR; Reserve Officers Association, USA. N. C. State 
Graufe; Methodist; elected several terms, Lay Leader, Guilford and Rockingham 
counties; Sunday School teacher since 1945; President, Men's Fellowship, 1958-59; 
member Official Board and Chairman, Ecumenical Affairs Commission, West Mar- 
ket Street United Methodist Church; President, (1972) Greensboro Association of 
Churches and Synagogues; Vice President, (1972-73) North Carolina Council of 
Churches. House of Representatives, 1970-71; Senate 1971, 1973, 1975 and 1977. 
Married Louise Huske Jordan, May 19, 1941. Children: Mrs. Louise Jordan Smith 
Nichols, Anne Talbott Smith, John McNeill Smith, III and Eleanor Huske Smith. 
Address: 2501 West Market Street, Greensboro 27403. 



WILLIAM GREY SMITH 

(Democrat — New Hanover County) 

(Fourth Senatorial District — Counties: New Hanover and Pender. One 
Senator.) 

William Grey Smith was born in Goldsboro, January 3, 
1922. Son of Walter G. Smith and Eloise (Price) Smith. Grad- 
uated Tarboro High School, 1939; Wake Forest College, 1948, 
A.B.; UNC Law School, 1950, LL.B. Lawyer. Member, N. C. 
Bar Association; State Bar, Inc.; American Bar Association; 
N. C. Academy of Trial Lawyers; American Judicature 
Society; American Trial Lawyers Association; Board of 
Governors for the N. C. Trial Lawyers; President, New 
Hanover Bar Association. Served Corporal, U. S. Army, 
March, 1944-October, 1945. Member, Methodist Church; Church Board; Sunday 
School Teacher. Married Helen Smith, December 28, 1945. Three Children: Julia 
Smith Capone, Walter M. Smith, Barbara Smith. Address: P. O. Box 1490, Wilming- 
ton 28401. 




Legislative Branch 



329 



ROBERT CHARLES SOLES, JR. 



(Democrat — Columbus County) 

(Eleventh Senatorial District — Counties: Bladen, Brunswick and Columbus. 

Robert Charles Soles, Jr. was born in Tabor City Decem- 
ber 17, 1934. Son of Robert C. and Myrtle (Norris) Soles. At- 
tended Tabor City High School; Wake Forest University, 
B.S., 1956 and University of N. C. School of Law, J.D., 1959. 
Lawyer. Member American Bar Association; N. C. Bar As- 
sociation; American Trial Lawyers Association and N. C. 
Association of County Attorneys. Article concerning Do- 
mestic Relations published in N. C. Law Review. Former 
Member University of North Carolina Board of Trustees, 
and Board of Trustees University of N. C. at Wilmington; President of Southeastern 
Community College Foundation. Member of Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity; 
Rotary Club, past President. Representative in the General Assembly of 1969, 1971, 
1973 and 1975. Served in U. S. Army, 1957-67, (Reserve), Captain. Member Tabor 
City Baptist Church. Address : Box 275, Tabor City 28463. 




ROBERT VANCE SOMERS 



(Republican — Rowan County) 



(Twenty-first Senatorial 
Two Senators. 



District — Counties: Davidson, Davie and Rowan.) 



Robert Vance Somers was born in Iredell County Novem- 
ber 21, 1937. Son of W. Vance Somers and Ethel Owens. 
Graduated Cleveland School, May 1955. University of North 
Carolina School of Law, 1963, J.D. (East Tennessee State Uni- 
versity, 1960, B.S.) Attorney. Member NC Bar Association; 
Association of Trial Lawyers of America; North Carolina 
Academy of Trial Lawyers. Served in General Assembly 
1973-74. Prosecuting Attorney of Rowan County 1966-68; 
Judge of Randolph County 1964-66; Solicitor of Randolph 

County, 1964. Member Methodist Church. Address: 612 Wiltshire Village, Salisbury 

28144. 




JAMES DAVIS SPEED 

(Democrat — Franklin County) 

(Seventh Senatorial District — Counties: Franklin, Nash, Vance, Warren and 
Wilson. Two Senators.) 



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North Carolina Manual 




James Davis Speed was born in Louisburg, January 30, 
1915. Son of Henry P. Speed and Addie J. Speed. Fanner- 
Businessman. Member of Farm Bureau and NC Agribusiness 
Council. Mason and Shriner. Member of House of Representa- 
tives, 1961, 1963, 1965, 1967, 1969 and 1971. Member of 
Baptist Church. Married to Martha Speed on November 29, 
1947. Children: Claudia; Tommy; and James M. Address: 
Rt. 6; Box 474, Louisburg 27549. 



D. LIVINGSTONE STALLINGS 






(Democrat — Craven County) 

(Second Senatorial District — Counties: Carteret, Craven and Pamlico. One 
Senator.) 

D. Livingstone Stallings was bora in Bridgeton, July 19, 
1917. Graduated New Bern High School, 1934; Mars Hill 
College, 1936; University of North Carolina, 1938, B.S. 
degree in Business Administration. Insurance business, gen- 
eral insurance agency; Member, North Carolina Independent 
- Insurance Agents Association and Carolina Association of 

^rfB^__^^^^ Mutual Insurance Agents. Member, Craven County Board of 

Commissioners, 1962-72, Chairman, 1962-70. President N. C. 
Association of County Commissioners, 1970. Member N. C. 
Senate, 1973, 1975. Chairman Senate Local Government Subcommittee 1973-74. 
Chairman Appropriations Committee on Education, 1975-76. Past president, Neuse 
River Regional Planning and Development Council; President Atlantic and North 
Carolina Railroad. Member Masonic Order, 32nd degree; Sudan Temple; New Bern 
Scottish Rite Bodies; New Bern York Rite Bodies; B.P.O.E., Lodge 764, Loyal 
Order of the Moose; Woodmen of the World; Civitan, Recipient of "Civitan of the 
Year" award, 1960; "Citizen of the Year" award, 1962; "Distinguished Citizen of 
the Year" award, N. C. District East, Civitan International, 1971. Phi Beta Kappa, 
University of North Carolina, 1938. Member, West New Bern Presbyterian Church, 
member of Session 1966-72; Moderator, Albemarle Presbytery, 1970. Married 
Evelyn Ricks, April 7, 1948. Children: Daniel L. Stallings, Jr.; Mrs. Hugh B. Mills, 
Jr.; Mrs. Hal F. Humphrey, Jr. and Joseph H. Stallings. Address: P. O. Box 1733, 
New Bern 28560. 



ROBERT STRINGFIELD SWAIN 



(Democrat — Buncombe County) 

(Twenty-Sixth Senatorial District — Counties: Buncombe, Madison, McDowell 
and Yancey. Two Senators.) 



Legislative Branch 



331 



Robert Stringfield Swain was born in Asheville July 25, 
1921. Son of John Edward Swain and Mozelle Brewster 
Stringfield. Graduated Lee H. Edwards High School, 1939. 
Attended Mars Hill (Wake Forest — Meredith Summer School) 
1939; UNC 1939-1940, Biltmore College 1940, University of 
New Mexico, 1941-1942. UNC Law School 1946-1949, LLB. 
Lawyer. Member Buncombe County Bar Association; NC 
Bar Association; NC Trial Lawyer's Association. Member 
Moose International, Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity. US 
Commissioner, 1951 to 1954; Solicitor 19th District, Buncombe and Madison Coun- 
ties, 1955 to 1967. US Army Air Corps, First Lieutenant — January of 1943 to Janu- 
ary of 1946. Methodist. Member of Board of Stewards and Sunday School Teacher. 
Divorced. Children: Jennifer Ellen; Barbara Giffen; Patricia Ann; Robert Edward; 
and Katherine Anne. Address: Rt. 5, Box 1112, Asheville 28803. 




CARL DANIEL TOTHEROW 



(Democrat — Forsyth County) 

(Twentieth Senatorial District — County: Forsyth. Two Senators.) 

Carl Daniel Totherow was born in Belmont April 16, 
1921. Son of Clark C. and Mattie Hicks Totherow. Graduated 
R. J. Reynolds High School, 1937. Attended NC State Univer- 
* j^ sity and Philco School of Engineering. President, Rawley and 

Apperson, Inc. (Office Suppliers) Sergeant, U.S. Air Force, 
a 1942-46. Charter Member, Past President, District Governor, 

^^^^!*.-lfc» Intel-national Director, Winston-Salem Sertoma Club. 

WL , Chapter chairman, American Red Cross. Past Director, 

Greater Winston-Salem Chamber of Commerce. Past presi- 
dent, Retail Merchants Association, past vice-president, Winston-Salem/Forsyth 
County Civil Preparedness Board. Winston Masonic Lodge No. 167 A.F.A.M. 
Winston-Salem Consistory, 32° Mason Shriner Oasis Temple. Life Member, Greater 
Winston-Salem Chamber of Commerce. Life member, Sertoma International. Sena- 
tor, 20th District, General Assembly, 1975-76. Member, Ardmore United Methodist 
Church. Trustee; Chairman, Administrative Board; Chairman, Council on Minis- 
tries; Chairman, Pastor Parish Committee; Chairman, Finance Committee. Married 
Thelma Hunter January 23, 1943. Children: Mrs. James D. Peterson; (Carol) Mrs. 
Joseph G. Seay (Beverly). Address: 713 Longbow Road, Winston-Salem 27104. 



CHARLES EUGENE VICKERY 

(Democrat — Orange County) 

(Sixteen Senatorial District — Counties: Chatham, Moore, Orange, Randolph. 
Two Senators.) 



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North Carolina Manual 



Charles Eugene Vickery was born in Greenville, S. C, 
September 22, 1943. Son of Victor Van Vickery, and Edna B. 
Freeman Vickeiy. Attended Cool Springs High School, Forest 
City; The Citadel, 1965, B.S.; University of North Carolina 
of North Carolina Law School, 1968. Attorney. Member, 
Orange County Bar Association; Fifteenth Judical District 
Bar Association; North Carolina Bar Association; American 
Bar Association; Phi Delta Theta Legal Fraternity. Assistant 
District Attorney, 29th Judicial District, 1970; Assistant 
District Attorney, 29th Judicial District, 1970; Assistant District Attorney, loth 
Judicial District, 1970-71; Active in Orange County Democratic Party and State 
Democratic Party Affairs. Served U. S. Army Reserves, 1968-1974. Member Baptist 
Church. Married Jean Marshall Vickery, June 4, 1970. One Son: Andrew Marshall 
Vickeiy. Address: 515 Morgan Creek Road, Chapel Hill 27514. 




RUSSELL GRADY WALKER 



(Democrat — Randolph County) 



(Sixteenth Senatorial District- 
Two Senators.) 



-Counties: Chatham, Moore, Orange, Randolph. 



Russell Grady Walker was horn in Conetoe, August 26, 
1918. Son of Ashley Walker and Alleen Bryant Walker. Grad- 
uated, High Point High School; Graduate Army Air Force 
Pilot Training School. Chain Super Market Operator; Presi- 
dent Food Line Super Markets, Inc. Member, North Carolina 
Food Dealers Association; Super Market Institute of North 
Carolina. Member Masonic Order, Balfour Lodge, Asheboro, 
N. C. Served Army Air Corps, 1941-1946; U. S. Air Force, 
1947-1955. Served Asheboro City Council (2 terms) 1961- 
1965. Member First Baptist Church, Asheboro, N. C; Deacon 1968-1971. Married 
Ruth Brunt Walker, July 13, 1941. Three Children: Russell G. Walker, Jr., Mrs. 
Susan Walker Smith, Stephen Allen Walker. Address: 1004 Westmont Drive, Ashe- 
boro 27203. 




WESLEY DAVIS WEBSTER* 

(Democrat — Rockingham County) 

(Fifteenth Senatorial District — Counties: Alleghany, Ashe, Caswell, Rocking- 
ham, Stokes and Surry. Two Senators.) 



Resigned September 15. Hi77 to become an Administrative Aide in the Department of Trans- 
portation. 



Legislative Branch 



333 



Wesley Davis Webster was born in Madison, September 
15, 1923. Son of Henry Samuel and Mabel Gray (Davis) 
Webster. Attended Madison City Schools, 1942. Represen- 
tative in the General Assembly, 1971; Senator, 1973-74. 
Retired Merchant; Vice President People's Bank of North 
Carolina. Commissioner, Rockingham County, 1958-1970; 
Chairman, Rockingham County Commissioners, 1964-1970. 
Member, Board of North Carolina Association of County 
Commissioners, two years. Trustee Rockingham Community 
College; Rockingham County Health Board; Dan River District Scout Executive 
Committee. Past President, Madison Merchants Assn.; presently Director, Madison 
Merchants Assn.; past Commander, American Legion; past Commander, Madison 
V.F.W. Served in U. S. Army, 1943-1945, Staff Sergeant. Member Madison United 
Methodist Church, Madison. Married Wanda Grogan, July 10, 1943. One son, Wesley 
Dodd Webster, and one daughter, Mrs. Connie Webster Fearing; two grandchildren, 
Todd and Wendy. Address: Madison. 




WILLIS PADGETT WHICHARD 




(Democrat — Durham County) 

(Thirteenth Senatorial District — Counties: Durham, Granville and Person. 
Two Senators.) 

Willis Padgett Whichard was born in Durham, May 24, 
1940. Son of the late Willis Guilford Whichard and Beulah 
Padgett Whichard. Attended Durham City Schools, 1946- 
1958; University of North Carolina, A.B., 1962; University of 
North Carolina School of Law, J.D., 1965. Practicing attorney 
with law firm of Powe, Porter, Alphin and Whichard, P.A., 
Durham. Member, American Bar Assn.; North Carolina Bar 
Assn.; Durham County Bar Assn.; North Carolina State 
Bar; Phi Beta Kappa; Phi Alpha Delta; Phi Delta Phi; Order 
of the Coif. Co-author, article entitled "Limiting Confidential Communications in 
Counseling" published in September, 1970 issue of the Personnel and Guidance 
Journal. Author, article entitled "The Legislature and the Legislator in North Caro- 
lina," Spring 1975 issue of Popular Government. Law Clerk to Justice (later Chief 
Justice) William H. Bobbitt, North Carolina Supreme Court, 1965-1966; member, 
North Carolina General Statutes Commission, 1969-1973; Summer Intern in State 
Government, 1962. Enlisted man, Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment, 
North Carolina Army National Guard, 1966-1972. Life member, North Carolina 
National Guard Association, (Judge Advocate, 1972-73). Baptist. Member, Durham 
Jaycees, 1966-, (Program Chairman, 1967-1968; Secretary 1968-1970; Legal Counsel, 
1970-1971); Durham County Campaign Director for March of Dimes, 1968 and 1969; 
Chapter Chairman, Durham County Chapter, National Foundation, March of Dimes, 
1969-1974; Board Member, Durham County Chapter, American Red Cross, 1971-; 
Board Member, Transition of Youth, Inc., 1971- ; Board Member, Senior Citizens 
Coordinating Council, 1972-75; Board Member, U.N.C. Law Alumni Assn., 1971- 
1974; Board Member, Southern Growth Policies Board, 1971- ; (Vice-Chairman 



x\ l North Carolina Manual 



1975-). Board Member, Durham Y.M.C.A., 1973-; Representative, N. C. General 
Assembly, 1970-74; Senator, 1975- ; Member, N. C. Legislative Research Commis- 
sion, 1971-73, (Chairman of Subcommittee on Motor Vehicle Laws) 1975; Member, 
Governor's Advisory Committee on Youth Development, 1972-73. Member, Kiwanis 
Club of Tobaccoland, 1974-. Recipient of Distinguished Service Award as "Young 
Man of Year" in Durham, 1971; Outstanding Legislator Award, N. C. Academy of 
Trial Lawyers, 1975; Outstanding Youth Service Award, N. C. Juvenile Correctional 
Society, 1975. Married Leona Irene Paschal, June 4, 1961. Two children, Jennifer 
Diane Whi chard, and Ida Gilbert Whichard. Address: 5608 Wood berry Rd., Durham 
27707. 



VERNON E.WHITE 

(Democrat- Pitt County) 

(Sixth Senatorial District-Counties: Edgecombe, Halifax, Martin and Pitt. 
Two Senators.) 

Vernon E. White, representing the Sixth Senatorial 
District, was born in Hertford County, April 27, 1906, son of 
Charles Thomas and Emma Dale (Liverman) White. Attended 
Aulander High School, class of 1925; Wake Forest Univer- 
sity, B.S. degree 1929 and B.A. degree, 1931. Farmer, Princi- 
pal and teacher, 1929-1940; County Supervisor, Farmer's 
Home Administration 1941-1943; Chairman, Board of 
Trustees of Pitt Technical Institute; Member, Board of 
Trustees of Chowan College; Board of Advisors to Chowan 
College; Former Chairman, Pitt County Planning Board; Former member and 
Treasurer of Pitt County Development Commission; Former member Pitt County 
Draft Board and Chairman for three years. Former member Pitt County Board of 
Health, Chairman 1966; Former member of Board of Trustees Shepherd Memorial 
Library, Greenville. Member, Pitt County Board of Commissioners, 1963-1966, 
Chairman, 1966. Member, Ruritan Club; Kiwanis International; Loyal Order of 
Moose; President of Winterville Kiwanis Club in 1963. Veteran of World War II. 
State Senator in the General Assembly of 1969, 1971, 1973, and 1975. Member 
Winterville Missionary Baptist Church Board of Deacons for eighteen years and 
four times chairman; Director, Sunday School for twenty-one years. Married Louise 
Ange of Winterville, 1931. One son, Charles Vernon White. Address: P. O. Box 41, 
Winterville. 



JOHN WESLEY WINTERS* 

(Democrat — Wake County) 

(Fourteenth Senatorial District — Counties: Harnett, Lee, Wake. Three Sen- 
ators.) 




(* Resigned July 1, 1977 following his appointment to the North Carolina Utilities Commission.) 



Legislative Branch 



335 




John Wesley Winters was born in Raleigh, N. C, Janu- 
ary 21, 1920. Son of Charlie and Lillie (Summerville) Winters. 
Graduated Boys High School 1939. Attended Virginia State 
College; Shaw University; Long Island University. Real 
Estate-Construction; Member Wake County Homebuilders 
Association; National Association of Home Builders; Delta 
^^^g/^^^ Mu Delta — National Honor Society in Business Administra- 
y^ ^k tion; Phi Beta Alpha — Honor Society St. Augustine's Col- 

^^^ l lege; Doctor of Law — Shaw University; Omega Psi Phi 

Fraternity. Author of Getting It Together (Published by: Berkely Burrell & John 
Seder). Served Raleigh City Council, 1961-1963, 1963-1965, 1965-1967; Board of 
Governors, 1973-1974. Senator in NC General Assembly, 1975-76. Member St. Mary's 
Roman Catholic Church; Board of Consultants to Bishop-President; Vice-President 
Parrish Advisory Council — Cardinal Gibbons School Board. Married Marie Monta- 
que Winters, February 3, 1941. Seven Children: Frances, W. Carter, John W., Jr., 
Donna W. LaRoche, Naomi Regina , Rebecca Joyce, Roland Edward, and Seanne 
Marie. Address: 8001 Caddy Road, Raleigh. 



ROBERT WEBB WYNNE 




(Democrat — Wake County) 

(Fourteenth Senatorial District — Counties: Harnett, Lee and Wake. Three 
Senators.) 

Robert Webb Wynne (Bob) was born September 24, 1937 
in Raleigh. Son of Robert W. Wynne, Jr. and Marian Womble. 
NC House of Representatives, 1973 — Delegate to Town 
Council, Arlington, Mass. 1960. Attended Needham B. 
Broughton High School, 1950-1955. Graduated Davidson Col- 
lege, 1959, A.D. Degree. Cincinnati College of Mortuary Sci- 
ence, 1963-64. President, Brown-Wynne Funeral Homes, Inc. 
President — Raleigh Jaycees, 1968-69; Vice-president — Ra- 
leigh Lions Club, 1975-76; Board of Visitors — Peace College, 
1975-76; Member — NC Tax Study Commission, 1969-73; Member — NC Citizens 
Task Force on Public Education, 1972; NC Democratic Executive Committee, 1974- 
76; Vice-President — Wake County Chapter of American Red Cross, 1976-77; Vice 
Chairman — Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice Committee of the National 
Legislative Conference, 1973-74; Member — Inter-govemmental Relations Committee 
(the Planning Board) of the National Legislative Conference, 1973-74; Representa- 
tive from NC House of Representatives to Interstate Cooperation Commission and 
Council of State Governments, 1971-74; Represented NC on Atlantic States Marine 
Fisheries Commission, 1973-74; President — Wake County Chapter, NC Symphony 
Society, 1969-70; President — Pine Valley Easter Seal Society, 1970-71. Served as 
member of Board of Directors on following: Raleigh Lions Clinic for the Blind, 
1973-76; Salvation Army, 1968-74; Raleigh Jaycee Zoological Foundation, 1966-68; 
Raleigh Chamber of Commerce, 1968-70; 1972-73; United Fund of Raleigh Trustee, 
1969-71, 1976-78; Rex Hospital Foundation, 1969-73; Hilltop Home for Retarded 
Children, 1968-73; Raleigh Boys Club, 1972-74; Community Ambassador, 1969-71; 



336 North Carolina Manual 



NC Easter Seal Society, 1972-73; Youth Development Advisory Board, 1973. Ra- 
leigh's "Layman of the Year", 1967; Raleigh's "Young Man of the Year", 1969; 
"One of the Five Outstanding Young Men in NC", 1969; Named "The Outstanding 
Local Jaycee President in NC", 1968-69; Named "One of the Outstanding Local 
Presidents in United States", 1968-69. Army Counter Intellegence Corps, First 
Lieutenant, 1959-1961. Member Edenton Street United Methodist Church. Superin- 
tendent of the Church School, 1971-73; Budget Chairman, 1968; Chairman of the 
Commission on Finance, 1969; Youth Coordinator, 1970-71; Delegate to Annual 
Conference, 1968-69; Sunday School Teacher, 1961-68; Administrative Board; NC 
Conference Long-Range Planning Committee, 1968-72. Married Margaret (Maggie) 
H. Wynne, 1958. Children: Elizabeth Brookshire Wynne; Dana Woodson Wynne; 
Rebecca Morton Wynne; David Allen Biggs. Address: 412 Hillandale Drive, Raleigh 
27609. 



CLARENCE E. LIGHTNER 

(Democrat — Wake County) 

(Fourteenth Senatorial District — Counties: Harnett, Lee and Wake. Three 
Senators.) 

Lightner was appointed on August 3, 1977 to replace John W. Winters (Demo- 
crat — Wake County; however, a picture or biographical sketch could not be ob- 
tained in time for publication. 

CONRAD R. DUNCAN, JR. 

(Democrat — Rockingham County) 

(Fifteenth Senatorial District — Counties: Alleghany, Ashe, Caswell, Rocking- 
ham, Stokes and Surry. Two Senators.) 

Duncan was appointed on October 6, 1977 to replace Wesley D. Webster. A 
picture and biographical sketch is found on page 387. Duncan was a member of the 
House of Representatives at the time of his appointment. 



Legislative Branch 



337 



SYLVIA MORRIS FINK 



PRINCIPAL CLERK OF THE SENATE 

Sylvia Morris Fink was born in Charlotte, North Caro- 
lina on August 8, 1936. Daughter of Warren Reid (deceased) 
and Effie Howard Morris. Graduated (honor student) from 
Mount Holly High School, Mount Holly, North Carolina, 
1954; attended Pfeiffer College, Misenheimer, North Carolina 
1955-1956. A registered Democrat, active in Wake Democratic 
Women and the American Society of Legislative Clerks and 
Secretaries. She has served on the staff of the General As- 
sembly in the following positions: Senate Committee Clerk — 
1967; Assistant Senate Journal Clerk — 1973, 1974; Senate Journal Clerk — 1975, 
1976; elected Principal Clerk — July 1, 1976, being the first female to serve in this 
capacity. Affiliated with the United Methodist Church, she has served as organist, 
chancel choir member, vice president and president of the Women's Society of 
Christian Service (holding two life memberships in this organization presented by 
separate churches), MYF counsellor and Sunday School teacher; currently a mem- 
ber of Benson Memorial United Methodist Church. Daughter: Paige Elizabeth Fink, 
Address: 1108 Whippoorwill Lane, Raleigh. 




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North Carolina Manual 



Accountant 



OCCUPATIONS OF SENATE MEMBERS 

Farmer 



Renfrow, Edward 

Attorney 

Allsbrook, Julian R. 
Barnes, Henson Perrymore 
Britt, Luther J., Jr. 
Crawford, I. C. 
Davis, E. Lawrence 
Hill, Cecil 

Lake, I. Beverly, Jr. 
Smith, J. McNeill 
Smith, William G. 
Soles, Robert Charles, Jr. 
Somers, Robert Vance 
Swain, Robert Stringfield 
Vickery, Charles E. 
Whichard, Willis P. 

Auction Business 

Lawing, William Craig 

Automotive Supplies 

Raynor, Joseph Bryant, Jr. 

Banker 

Daniels, Melvin R., Jr. 
Webster, Wesley D. 

College Professor 

Sebo, Katherine H. 

Coordinator - Correction Program 

Sharpe, Roger Dean 

Dairy Business 

Scott, Ralph H. 



Childers, Jack (retired) 
Palmer, Joe H. 
Speed, James Davis 
White, Vernon E. 

Funeral Business 

Harris, Ollie 
Wynne, Robert Webb 
Lightner, Clarence E. 

Furniture Business 

Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 

Hardware Dealer 

Webster, Wesley D. 

Housing Management 

Alexander, Fred D. 

Insurance 

Alford, Dallas L., Jr. 
Kincaid, Donald 
Lawing, William Craig 
McDuffie, Jim 
Stallings, D. Livingstone 

Lumber 

Jordan, Robert Byrd, III 

Manufacturer - Farm Machinery 

Harrington, J.J. 

Manufacturer - Textiles 

Rauch, Marshall A. 

Merchant 

Gray, Rachel Gillean 
Totherow, Carl D. 
Walker, Russell 



Legislative Branch 



339 



Oil Business 

Garrison, James B. 
Hardison, Harold W. 



Pastor 

Combs, Bobby Lee 

Pharmacist 

Henley, John T. 

Plastic Packaging 

Ballenger, T. Cass 



Real Estate 

Alford, Dallas L., Jr. 
Lawing, William Craig 
Marion, George W., Jr. 
Winters, John W. 

Sales - Retail 

Popkin, Jerry Joseph 

Teacher 

Kincaid, Donald R. 
Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
Mathis, Carolyn 
Sharpe, Roger Dean 



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North Carolina Manual 



1977 SENATE COMMITTEES 



COMMITTEE ON AGRICULTURE 

White, Vernon E. — Chairman 

Speed, James D. — Vice Chairman 

Palmer, Joe H. — Vice Chairman 



Barnes, Henson P. 
Davis, E. Lawrence 
Hardison, Harold W. 
Harrington, J. J. 
Kincaid, Donald R. 



Renfrow, Edward 
Scott, Ralph H. 
Soles, R. C, Jr. 
Whichard, Willis P. 



COMMITTEE ON ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE CONTROL 



Combs, Bobby Lee 
Lawing, Craig 
Smith, William G. 
Gray, Rachel G. 



Winters, John W. — Chairman 
Popkin, Jerry — Vice Chairman 



Stalling?, D. Livingstone 
Walker, Russell 
Swain, Robert S. 



COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS 

Hardison, Harold W. — Chairman 

Garrison, James B. — Vice Chairman 

White, Vernon E. — Vice Chairman 



Alford, Dallas 
Allsbrook, Julian R. 
Ballenger, T. Cass 
Barnes, Henson P. 
Childers, Jack 
Combs, Bobby Lee 
Crawford, I. C. 
Daniels, Melvin R., Jr. 
Davis, E. Lawrence 
Harrington, J. J. 
Harris, Ollie 
Henley, John T. 
Jordan, Robert B., Ill 
Kincaid, Donald R. 
Lake, I. Beverly, Jr. 
Lawing, Craig 
Marion, George W., Jr. 



Mathis, Carolyn 
McDuffie, Jim 
Palmer, Joe H. 
Rauch, Marshall A. 
Renfrow, Edward 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
Scott, Ralph H. 
Sebo, Katherine H. 
Sharpe, Roger 
Smith, McNeill 
Stallings, D. Livingstone 
Swain, Robert S. 
Totherow, Carl D. 
Vickery, Charles E. 
Winters, John W. 
Whichard, Willis P. 



Legislative Branch 



341 



Lake, I. Beverly Jr. 
Smith, McNeill 
Ballenger, T. Cass 
Marion, George W., 
Garrison, James B. 
Henley, John T. 
Lawing, Craig 



BASE BUDGET COMMITTEE 

Davis, E. Lawrence — Chairman 

Jordan, Robert B., Ill — Vice Chairman 

Kincaid, Donald R. — Vice Chairman 



Jr. 



Harrington, J. J. 
Hardison, Harold W. 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
Stallings, D. Livingstone 
Rauch, Marshall A. 
White, Vernon E. 



APPROPRIATIONS COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION 



Barnes, Henson P. 
Childers, Jack 
Vickeiy, Charles 



Renfrow, Edward — Chairman 
Mathis, Carolyn — Vice Chairman 



White, Vernon E. 
Winters, John W. 



APPROPRIATIONS COMMITTEE ON GENERAL GOVERNMENT 

AND TRANSPORTATION 



Combs, Bobby Lee 
McDuffie, Jim 
Allsbrook, Julian R. 



Daniels, Melvin R., Jr. — Chairman 
Totherow, Carl D. — Vice Chairman 



Palmer, Joe H. 
Garrison, James B. 



APPROPRIATIONS COMMITTEE ON HUMAN RESOURCES 

AND CORRECTIONS 



Alford, Dallas 
Harris, Ollie 
Sebo, Katherine H. 
Scott, Ralph 



Crawford, I. C. — Chairman 
Whichard, Willis P. — Vice Chairman 



Swain, Robert S. 
Sharpe, Roger 
White, Vernon E. 



COMMITTEE ON BANKING 

Lawing, Craig — Chairman 
Garrison, James B. — Vice Chairman 



Alexander, Fred D. 
Alford, Dallas 
Daniels, Melvin R., Jr. 
Hardison, Harold W. 



Hill, Cecil 
Popkin, Jerry 
Totherow, Carl D. 
Webster, Wesley D. 



:iil' 



North Carolina Manual 



COMMITTEE ON CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS 



Alexander, Fred D. 
Britt, Luther J., Jr. 
Crawford, I. C. 
Davis, E. Lawrence 
Harrington, J. J. 
Kincaid, Donald R. 



Hill, Cecil — Chairman 
Allsbrook, Julian R. — Vice Chairman 



Lawing, Craig 
Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
Renfrow, Edward 
Sebo, Katherine H. 
Soles, R. C, Jr. 



COMMITTEE ON COURTS AND JUDICIAL DISTRICTS 



Barnes, Henson P. 
Britt, Luther J., Jr. 
Hill, Cecil 
Lake, I. Beverly, Jr. 



Marion, George W., Jr. — Chairman 
Vickery, Charles E. — Vice Chairman 



Smith, McNeill 
Somers, Robert Vance 
Swain, Robert S. 



COMMITTEE ON CRIMINAL JUSTICE 



Alexander, Fred D. 
Allsbrook, Julian R. 
Britt, Luther J., Jr. 
Davis, E. Lawrence 
Harris, Ollie 
Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
Mathis, Carolyn 



Smith, McNeill — Chairman 
Sharpe, Roger — Vice Chairman 



Raynor, Joe B. 
Sebo, Katherine H. 
Sharpe, Roger 
Somers, Robert Vance 
Smith, William G. 
Wynne, Robert W. 



THE ECONOMY COMMITTEE 



Childers, Jack 
Daniels, Melvin R., Jr. 
Garrison, James B. 
Hardison, Harold W. 
Harrington, J. J. 
Henlev, John T. 



Alford, Dallas — Chairman 
Scott, Ralph H. — Vice Chairman 



Mathis, Carolyn 
Rauch, Marshall A. 
Royall, Kenneth C, 
Totherow, Carl D. 
Webster, Wesley D. 
White, Vernon E. 



Jr. 



Legislative Branch 



343 



COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION 



Stallings, D. Livingstone — Chairman 
Sebo, Katherine H. — Vice Chairman 



Britt, Luther J., Jr. 
Childers, Jack 
Gray, Rachel G. 
Marion, George W., Jr. 
Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
Mathis, Carolyn 
Renfrow, Edward 



Scott, Ralph H. 
Sharpe, Roger 
Soles, R. C, Jr. 
Speed, James D. 
Vickery, Charles E. 
White, Vernon E. 
Wynne, Robert W. 



COMMITTEE ON HIGHER EDUCATION 



Wynne, Robert W. — Chairman 
Alexander, Fred D. — Vice Chairman 



Daniels, Melvin R., Jr. 
Rauch, Marshall A. 
Sharpe, Roger 
Smith, McNeill 
Stallings, D. Livingstone 



Vickery, Charles E. 
Winters, John W. 
Jordan, Robert B., Ill 
Swain, Robert S. 



Britt, Luther J., Jr. 
Renfrow, Edward 
Winters, John W. 
Scott, Ralph H. 
Davis, E. Lawrence 



ELECTIONS LAWS 

McDuffie, Jim — Chairman 
Harrington, J. J. — Vice Chairman 



Garrison, James B. 
Kincaid, Donald R. 
Crawford, I. C. 
Speed, James D. 



FINANCE COMMITTEE 

Rauch, Marshall A. — Chairman 
Webster, Wesley D. — Vice Chairman 
Britt, Luther J., Jr. — Vice Chairman 

Alford, Dallas — Vice Chairman 



Alexander, Fred D. 
Britt, Luther J., Jr. 
Gray, Rachel G. 
Hardison, Harold W. 
Harrington, J. J. 
Henley, John T. 
Hill, Cecil 
Lawing, Craig 
Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
Popkin, Jerry 



Raynor, Joe B. 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr 
Smith, William G. 
Soles, R. C, Jr. 
Somers, Robert Vance 
Speed, James D. 
Walker, Russell 
White, Vernon E. 
Wynne, Robert W. 



344 



North Carolina Manual 



COMMITTEE ON HUMAN RESOURCES 



Allsbrook, Julian R. 
Barnes, Henson P. 
Crawford, I. C. 
Daniels, Melvin R., Jr. 
Gray, Rachel G. 
Hardison, Harold W. 
Henley, John T. 



Harris, Ollie — Chairman 
Raynor, Joe B. — Vice Chairman 



Royall, Kenneth C, Jr 
Scott, Ralph H. 
Walker, Russell 
Whichard, Willis P. 
Winters, John W. 
Wynne, Robert W. 



COMMITTEE ON INSURANCE 



Totherow, Carl D. — Chairman 
Walker, Russell — Vice Chairman 



Alford, Dallas 
Ballenger, T. Cass 
Childers, Jack 
Jordan, Robert B., Ill 
Kincaid, Donald R. 



Lawing, Craig 

Soles, R. C, Jr. 

Stallings, D. Livingstone 

Harris, Ollie 

Britt, Luther J., Jr. 



COMMITTEE ON JUDICIARY I 



Allsbrook, Julian R. — Chairman 
Vickery, Charles E. — Vice Chairman 



Barnes, Henson P. 
Lake, I. Beverly, Jr. 
Mathis, Carolyn 
Raynor, Joe B. 
Somers, Robert Vance 



Swain, Robert S. 
Totherow, Carl D. 
Whichard, Willis P. 
Smith, William G. 



COMMITTEE ON JUDICIARY II 

Britt, Luther — Chairman 

Hill, Cecil — Vice Chairman 

Soles, R. C, Jr. — Vice Chairman 



Alford, Dallas 
Crawford, I. C. 
Davis, E. Lawrence 
Lawing, Craig 
Marion, George W., Jr. 



Sebo, Katherine H. 
Sharpe, Robert 

Smith, McNeill 



Legislative Branch 345 



LAW ENFORCEMENT & CRIME CONTROL 

Raynor, Joe B. — Chairman 
Somers, Robert Vance — Vice Chairman 

Alford, Dallas Renfrow, Edward 

Barnes, Henson P. Smith, McNeill 

Harrington, J. J. Smith, William G. 

Harris, Ollie Speed, James D. 

Marvin, Helen Rhyne Sharpe, Roger 

COMMITTEE ON LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND 
REGIONAL AFFAIRS 

Soles, R. C, Jr. — Chairman 
Marion, George W., Jr. — Vice Chairman 

Alexander, Fred D. McDuffie, Jim 

Ballenger, T. Cass Stallings, D. Livingstone 

Gray, Rachel G. Swain, Robert S. 

Hill, Cecil Walker, Russell 

Marvin, Helen Rhyne Whichard, Willis P. 

COMMITTEE ON MANUFACTURING, LABOR AND COMMERCE 

Childers, Jack — Chairman 
Rauch, Marshall A. — Vice Chairman 

Ballenger, T. Cass Rauch, Marshall A. 

Jordan, Robert B., Ill Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 

Kincaid, Donald R. Somers, Robert Vance 

Mathis, Carolyn Totherow, Carl D. 
Popkin, Jerry 

COMMITTEE ON NATURAL AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES 

Speed, James D. — Chairman 
Ballenger, T. Cass — Vice Chairman 

Combs, Bobby Lee Sebo, Katherine H. 

Daniels, Melvin R., Jr. Smith, William G. 

Gray, Rachel G. Totherow, Carl D. 

Jordan, Robert B., Ill Walker, Russell 

Lake, I. Beverly, Jr. Hardison, Harold W. 

Palmer, Joe H. Wynne, Robert W. 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 



346 



North Carolina Manual 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC UTILITIES AND ENERGY 



Allsbrook, Julian R. 
Childers, Jack 
Crawford, I. C. 
Hardison, Harold W. 
L awing, Craig- 



Webster, Wesley D. — Chairman 
Lake, I. Beverly, Jr. — Vice Chairman 



Garrison, James B. 
Palmer, Joe H. 
Popkin, Jerry 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr 
Walker, Russell 



COMMITTEE ON RULES AND OPERATION OF THE SENATE 



Allsbrook, Julian R. 
Britt, Luther J., Jr. 
Crawford, I. C. 
Davis, E. Lawrence 
Garrison, James B. 
Hardison, Harold W. 



Henley, John T. — Chairman 
Harrington, J. J. — Vice Chairman 



Kincaid, Donald 
Lawing, Craig 
Rauch, Marshall 
Royall, Kenneth 
Webster, Weslev 



R. 

A. 
C, 

D. 



Jr, 



COMMITTEE ON STATE GOVERNMENT 



Whi chard, Willis P. — Chairman 
Lake, I. Beverly, Jr. — Vice Chairman 



Garrison, James B. 
Henley, John T. 
Hill, Cecil 

Jordan, Robert B., Ill 
McDuffie, Jim 



Rauch, Marshall A. 
Renfrow, Edward 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
Stallings, D. Livingstone 
Winters, John W. 



COMMITTEE ON TRANSPORTATION 



Combs, Bobby Lee 
Crawford, I. C. 
Davis, E. Lawrence 
Garrison, James B. 
Gray, Rachel G. 
Rauch, Marshall A. 
Soles, R. C, Jr. 



Harrington, J. J. — Chairman 
McDuffie, Jim — Vice Chairman 



Alford, Dallas 
Henley, John T. 
Palmer, Joe H. 
Renfrow, Edward 
Winters, John W. 
Popkin, Jerry 



Legislative Branch 



347 



UNIVERSITY BOARD OF GOVERNORS COMMITTEE 



Alford, Dallas 
Ballenger, T. Cass 
Harrington, J. J. 
Henley, John T. 



Scott, Ralph H. — Chairman 
Jordan, Robert B., Ill — Vice Chairman 



Swain, Robert S. 
Webster, Wesley D. 
Winters, John W. 



COMMITTEE ON VETERANS AND MILITARY AFFAIRS 



Childers, Jack 
Combs, Bobby Lee 
Harris, Ollie 



Palmer, Joe H. — Chairman 
Popkin, Jerry — Vice Chairman 



McDuffie, Jim 
Webster, Wesley D. 
Raynor, Joe B. 



COMMITTEE ON WAYS AND MEANS 

Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. — Chairman 
Lawing, Craig — Vice Chairman 
Henley, John T. — Vice Chairman 



Alexander, Fred D. 
Alford, Dallas 
Allsbrook, Julian R. 
Ballenger, T. Cass 
Barnes, Henson P. 
Britt, Luther J., Jr. 
Childers, Jack 
Combs, Bobby Lee 
Crawford, I. C. 
Daniels, Melvin R., Jr. 
Davis, E. Lawrence 
Mathis, Carolyn 
McDuffie, Jim 
Palmer, Joe H. 
Popkin, Jerry 
Rauch, Marshall A. 
Raynor, Joe B. 
Renfrow, Edward 
Scott, Ralph H. 
Sebo, Katherine H. 
Sharpe, Roger 
Smith, McNeill 
Smith, William G. 
Soles, R. C, Jr. 



Garrison, James B. 
Gray, Rachel G. 
Hardison, Harold W. 
Harrington, J. J. 
Harris, Ollie 
Hill, Cecil 

Jordan, Robert B., Ill 
Kincaid, Donald R. 
Lake, I. Beverly, Jr. 
Marion, George W., Jr. 
Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
Somers, Robert Vance 
Speed, James D. 
Stallings, D. Livingstone 
Swain, Robert S. 
Tothf/ow, Carl D. 
Vickery, Charles E. 
Walker, Russell 
Webster, Wesley 
Whichard, Willis P. 
White, Vernon E. 
Winters, John W. 
Wynne, Robert W. 



•MS North Carolina Manual 



COMMITTEE ON WILDLIFE 

Combs, Bobby Lee — Chairman 
Daniels, Melvin R., Jr. — Vice Chairman 

Kincaid, Donald R. Speed, James D. 

Marion, George W., Jr. Walker, Russell 

Palmer, Joe H. White, Vernon E. 



Legislative Branch 349 

RULES OF THE SENATE 1977 SESSION 

I. Order of Business, Rules 1-7 

II. Conduct of Debate, Rules 8-17 

III. Motions, Rules 18-24 

IV. Voting, Rules 25-30 

V. Committees, Rules 31-37 

VI. Handling Bills, Rules 38-59 

VII. Legislative Officers and Employees, Rules 60-65 

VIII. General Rules, Rules 66-77 

I. Order of Business 

RULE. 1. Rules controlling the Senate of North Carolina and its Commit- 
tees. — The following rules shall govern and control all actions and procedures of 
the Senate and its committees. 

RULE 2. Convening hour. — The President shall take the chair at the hour 
fixed by the Senate upon adjournment on the preceding legislative day, and shall 
call the members to order. In case the Senate adjourned on the preceding legis- 
lative day without having fixed the hour of reconvening, the Senate shall recon- 
vene on the next legislative day at 1:00 p.m. 

RULE 3. Opening the session. — The President shall, upon order being ob- 
tained, have the sessions of the Senate opened with prayer. 

RULE 4. Convening in absence of President. — In the absence of the Presi- 
dent, the President pro tempore shall reconvene the Senate and preside, and dur- 
ing such time shall be vested with all powers of the President except that of cast- 
ing a vote in case of tie when he has already voted on the question as a Senator. 
In the event of the absence of the President and President pro tempore at any 
time fixed for the reconvening of the Senate, the Principal Clerk of the Senate, 
or in his absence also, some member of the Senate Committee on Rules and 
Operation of the Senate, shall call the Senate to order and designate some member 
to act as President. 

RULE 5. Quorum. — (a) A quorum consists of a majority of all the quali- 
fied members of the Senate. 

(b) When a lesser number than a quorum convene, the Senators present may 
send the doorkeeper or any person, for any or all absent Senators, as a majority 
of the Senators present determine. 

RULE. 6. Approval of Journal. — After the prayer, and upon appearance 
of a quorum, the President shall cause the Journal of the preceding day to be 



350 North Carolina Manual 



read and approved, unless the Chairman of the Committee on Rules and Opera- 
tion of the Senate or some member of the Senate by motion sustained by a ma- 
jority of the members present, has the reading thereof dispensed with and the 
same approved as written. 

RULE. 7. Order of business. — After approval of the Journal, the order of 
business shall be as follows: 

(1) Reports of standing committees. 

(2) Reports of select committees. 

(.'5) Introduction of bills, petitions, and resolutions. 

(4) Messages from the House of Representatives. 

(5) Unfinished business of preceding day. 
(G) Special orders. 

(7) General Orders: 

(a) Local bills in numerical order, Senate bills first 

(i) Third reading roll call and electronic voting system votes 

(ii) Second reading roll call and electronic voting system votes 

(iii) Second reading viva voce 

(iv) Third reading viva voce 

(b) Public bills in numerical order, Senate bills first 

(i) Third reading roll call and electronic voting- system votes 

(ii) Second reading roll call and electronic voting system votes 

(iii) Second reading viva voce 

(iv) Third reading viva voce. 

II. Conduct of Debate 

RULE 8. President to maintain order. — The President shall have general 
direction of the Hall of the Senate and shall be authorized to take such action as 
is necessary to maintain order, and in case of any disturbance or disorderly con- 
duct in the galleries or lobbies, he shall have the power to order those areas clear- 
ed. 

RULE 9. Substitution for President. — The President shall have the right to 
call on any member to perform the duties of the Chair, but substitution shall not 
extend beyond one day. 

RULE 10. Poi)its of order. — (a) The President shall preserve order and 
decorum and proceed with the business of the Senate according to the rules adopt- 
ed. He shall decide all questions of order, subject to an appeal to the Senate by 
any member, on which appeal no member shall speak more than once unless by 
leave of the Senate. A two-thirds vote of the members present is necessary io 
sustain any appeal from the ruling of the Chair. 

(b) In the event the Senate Rules do not provide for, or cover any point of 
order raised by any Senator, the rules of the United States House of Represen- 
tatives shall govern. 

(c) When a Senator is called to order he shall take his seat until the President 
determines whether he was in order or not; if decided to be out of order, he shall 



Legislative Branch 351 



not proceed without the permission of the Senate; and every question of order 
shall be decided by the President, subject to an appeal to the Senate by any Sen- 
ator; and if a Senator is called to order for words spoken, the words excepted to 
shall be immediately taken down in writing, that the President or Senate may be 
better able to judge the matter. 

RULE 11. Debating and voting by Lieutenant Governor. — The Lieutenant 
Governor, as President of the Senate, being a Constitutional Officer shall not have 
the right to debate any question or to address the Senate upon any proposition 
unless by permission of the majority of members present, and shall have the right 
to vote only when there is a tie vote upon any question or election. 

RULE 12. Obtaining recognition. — (a) When any Senator is about to speak 
in debate or deliver any matter to the Senate, he shall rise from his seat and re- 
spectfully address the President. No member shall speak until recognized by the 
President, and when two or more members rise at the same time, the President 
shall name the member to speak. 

(b) A Senator who has the floor may yield the floor to another Senator only 
for the purpose of allowing another Senator to state a question. Only the Chair 
may award the floor to any Senator for the purposes of allowing that Senator to 
engage in general debate. 

RULE 13. Recognition for extending courtesies. — (a) Courtesies of the floor 
and galleries shall be extended only by the President on his own motion or upon 
the written request of a member of the Senate to former members of the General 
Assembly or to distinguished visitors. 

(b) Members may designate Honorary Pages by a statement delivered to the 
Principal Clerk who will have a certificate issued therefor. 

(c) The President may upon written request at intervals between various orders 
of business extend courtesies to schools or other special large groups visiting in 
the galleries while they are present, and the President shall, at such times as he 
deems appropriate, express to those visitors in the galleries the pleasure of the 
Senate for their presence. 

RULE 14. Limitations on individual debate. — (a) No Senator shall speak 
or debate more than three times nor longer than forty-five minutes on the sama 
day on the same subject without leave of the Senate. 

(b) By permission of the President any member of the Senate may address the 
Senate from the lectern located on the floor before the dais for the purpose of ex- 
plaining a bill or resolution, stating a point of personal privilege or for the pur- 
pose of debate. 

RULE 15. Priority of business. — All questions relating to priority of busi- 
ness shall be decided without debate. 

RULE 16. Reading of papers. — When the reading of a paper, other than a 
a petition, is called for, and any Senator objects to the reading, the question shall 
be determined by the Senate without debate. 

RULE 17. General decorum. — (a) Senators and visitors shall uncover their 
heads upon entering the Senate Chamber while the Senate is in session and shall 



352 North Carolina Manual 



continue uncovered during their continuance in the Chamber, unless one's religion 
requires his head to be covered. 

(b) No remark reflecting personally upon the action of any Senator shall be 
in order upon the floor of the Senate unless preceded by a motion or reso ution o. 
censure. 

(c) When the President is putting a question, or a division by counting is in 
progress, no Senator shall walk out of or across the Chamber, nor when a Senator 
is speaking, pass between him and the President. 

(d) When a motion to adjourn or for recess is affirmatively determined, no 
member or officer shall leave his place until adjournment or recess is declared by 
the President. 

(e) Smoking shall not be allowed in the galleries of the Senate during sessions. 
Smoking shall not be allowed on the floor of the Senate during the first hour of the 

session. 

(f) No remark soliciting the donation of funds for the support of any person 
or organization shall be in order upon the floor of the Senate, unless the remark 
has some relevance to a bill or resolution before the body. 

III. Motions 

RULE 18. Motions generally. — All motions shall be reduced to writing, if 
desired by the President or a Senator, delivered at the table, and read by L he 
President or Reading Clerk before the same are debated; but any motion may ba 
withdrawn by the introducer at any time before decision or amendment. Exceot 
as otherwise specifically provided in these rules, no second is required. 

RULE 19. Motions; order of precedence. — When a question is before the 
Senate no motion shall be received except those herein specified, which motions 
shall have precedence as follows: 

(1) To adjourn. 

(2) To lay on the table. 

(3) For the previous question. 

(4) To postpone indefinitely. 

(5) To postpone to a certain day. 

(6) To commit to a standing committee. 

(7) To commit to a select committee. 

(8) To amend. 

(9) To substitute. 

RULE 20. Motions to adjourn and to lay on the table. — The motions to ad- 
journ and to lay on the table shall be decided without debate, and the motion to 
adjourn shall always be in order when made by a Senator entitled to the floor. 

RULE 21. Motions to postpone to certain day and to commit. — The respec- 
tive motions to postpone to a certain day, or to commit to a standing or select 
committee, shall preclude debate on the main question. 

RULE 22. Action when previous question pending. — When a motion for the 
previous question is made and is pending, debate shall cease. After a motion for 



Legislative Branch 353 



the previous question is made, pending: a second thereto, any member may give 
notice that he desires to offer an amendment to the bill or other matter under con- 
sideration; and after the previous question is seconded such member shall be en- 
titled to offer his amendment in pursuance of such notice. 

RULE 23. Motion for previous question. — The previous question shall be as 
follows: "Shall the main question be now put?" and until it is decided shall pre- 
clude all amendments and debate. If this question is decided in the affirmative, 
the "main question" shall be on the passage of the bill, resolution, or other matter 
under consideration ; but when amendments are pending, the question shall be 
taken upon such amendments in their inverse order, without further debate or 
amendment: Provided, that no one shall move the previous question except the 
chairman of the committee submitting the report on the bill or other matter under 
consideration, and the member introducing the bill or other matter under con- 
sideration or the member in charge of the measure, who shall be designated by 
the chairman of the committee reporting the same to the Senate at the time the 
bill or other matter under consideration is reported to the Senate or taken up for 
consideration. 

RULE 24. Motion to reconsider — When a question has been once put and 
decided, any Senator who voted in the majority may move to reconsideration there- 
of; but no motion for the reconsideration of any vote shall be in order after the 
bill, resolution, message, report, amendment, or motion upon which the vote was 
taken has gone out of the possession of the Senate; nor shall any motion for re- 
consideration be in order unless made on the same day or in the next following 
legislative day on which the vote proposed to be reconsidered took place, unless 
the motion is made by the Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate for 
verbal or grammatical errors in the bills, when the motion may be made at any 
time: Provided, that when the next legislative day has by motion of the Senate, 
been restricted as to matters which may be considered, a motion to reconsider 
shall be in order on the next succeeding day upon which regular business is con- 
ducted. No question shall be reconsidered more than once. 



IV. Voting 

RULE 25. Use of electronic voting system. — (a) Votes on the following 
questions shall be taken on the electronic voting system, and the ayes and noes 
shall be recorded on the Journal: 

(1) All questions on which the Constitution of North Carolina requires that 
the ayes and noes be taken and recorded on the Journal. 

(2) All questions on which a call for the ayes and noes under Rule 26(b) has 
been sustained. 

(3) Both second and third readings of bills proposing amendment of the Con- 
stitution of North Carolina. 

(b) Votes on the following questions shall be taken on the electronic voting 
system, and a copy of the machine print-out of the votes shall be filed in the Legis- 
lative Library where it shall be open to public inspection: 



354 North Carolina Manual 



(1) Second reading of all public bills, all amendments to public bills offered 
after second reading, third reading if a public bill was amended after 
second reading, and all conference reports on public bills. 

(2) Any other question upon direction of the Chair or upon motion of any 
Senator supported by one-fifth of the Senators present. 

(c) When the electronic voting system is used, the Chair shall fix and announce 
the time, not to exceed one minute, which shall be allowed for voting on the ques- 
tion before the Senate. The system shall be set to lock automatically and to record 
the vote when that time has expired. Once the system has locked and recorded a 
vote, the vote shall be printed by the system. 

(d) The voting station at each Senator's desk in the Chamber shall be used only 
by the Senator to which the station is assigned. Under no circumstances shall any 
other person vote at a Senator's station. It is a breach of the ethical obligation of 
a Senator either to request that another vote at the requesting Senator's station, 
or to vote at another Senator's station. The Chair shall enforce this rule without 
exception. 

(e) When the electronic voting system is used, the Chair shall state the ques- 
tion and shall then state substantially the following: "All in favor vote 'aye'; 
all opposed vote 'no'; — seconds will be allowed for voting on this question; the 
Clerk will unlock the machine." After the machine locks and records the vote, 
the Chair shall announce the vote and declare the result. 

(f) One copy of the machine print-out of the vote record shall be filed in the 
office of the Principal Clerk, and one copy shall be filed in the Legislative Library 
where it shall be open to public inspection. 

(g) When the Chair ascertains that the electronic voting system is inoperative 
before a vote is taken or while a vote is being taken on the electronic system, he 
shall announce that fact to the Senate and any partial electronic system voting 
record shall be voided. In such a case, if the Constitution of North Carolina or 
the Rules of the Senate require a call of the ayes and noes, the Clerk shall call the 
roll of the Senate, and the ayes and noes shall be taken manually and shall be re- 
corded on the Journal. All other votes shall be taken by voice vote as prescribed 
in Senate Rule 26(a). If, after a vote is taken on the electronic system, it is dis- 
covered that a malfunction caused an error in the electronic system print-out, the 
Chair shall direct the Reading Clerk and the Principal Clerk to verify and correct 
the print-out record and so advise the Senate. 

(h) For the purpose of identifying motions on which the vote is taken on the 
electronic system (the identification codes having no relation to the order of 
precedence of motions), the motions are coded as follows: 

1. To lay on the table. 

2. For the previous question. 

3. To postpone indefinitely. 

4. To postpone to a day certain. 

5. To refer to a committee. 

6. To reconsider. 

7. To adopt. 



Legislative Branch 355 



8. To concur. 

9. To take from the table. 
10. Miscellaneous. 

RULE 26. Voice votes; call for ayes and noes. — (a) When the electronic 
voting system is not used, all votes on which a call of the roll of the Senate is not 
required shall be taken by voice vote. The question shall be put as follows: "Those 
in favor say 'aye'," and, after the affirmative vote is expressed, "Opposed 'no'"; 
after which the Chair shall announce the result. If a division on any vote is de- 
sired, it must be called for immediately before the result of the voting is announc- 
ed on any question, and upon such call, the Chair shall require the members 10 
stand and be counted for and against the proposition under consideration. 

(b) The ayes and the noes may be called for on any question before the vote is 
taken. If a Senator desires the ayes and noes recorded on the Journal on a ques- 
tion, he shall address the Chair and obtain recognition and say "Upon that ques- 
tion I call for the ayes and noes." Whereupon the Chair shall say, "Is the call 
sustained?" If one-fifth of the Senators present then stand, the vote shall be taken 
on the electronic voting system if it is operative, and the ayes and noes shall be 
recorded on the Journal. If the electronic voting system is inoperative, the roll 
of the Senate shall be called and the ayes and noes taken manually and recorded 
on the Journal. If fewer than one-fifth of the Senators present stand to sustain 
the call, the Chair shall announce "An insufficient number up" and a vote by 
electronic voting or by voice, whichever is appropriate under the Rules of the 
Senate, shall be taken. 

RULE 27. Pairs. — If a Senator is paired with another Senator on a ques- 
tion, the Senator shall announce the pair as follows: "Mr. President, I desire to 

announce a pair. If Senator were present, he would vote ; if I 

were free to vote, I would vote (the opposite)." The Senator shall send 

forward at that time a written statement of the pair on a form provided by the 
Principal Clerk. The Clerk shall record the pair on the Journal, and neither 
member of the pair shall vote on the question. A pair shall be announced before 
the vote is taken viva voce, or, if the electronic voting system is used, before che 
machine is unlocked. 

RULE 28. Dividing question. — If any question contains several distinct 
propositions, it shall be divided by the President, at the request of any Senator, 
provided each subdivision, if left to itself, forms a substantive proposition. 

RULE 29. Duty to vote; excuses. — (a) Every Senator who is within the 
bar of the Senate when the question is stated by the Chair shall vote thereon un- 
less he is excused by the Senate. The bar of the Senate shall include the entire 
Senate Chamber. 

(b) Any Senator may request to be excused from voting, either immediately 
before or after the vote has been called for and before a viva voce vote result has 
been announced or before the electronic voting system has been unlocked. Th? 
Senator may make a brief statement of the reasons for making such request, and 
shall send forward to the Principal Clerk, on a form provided by the Clerk, a 
concise statement of the reason for the request, and the Clerk shall include this 
statement in the Journal. The question on granting of the request shall be taken 
without debate. 



356 North Carolina Manual 



RULE 30. Explanation of vote. — Any Senator may explain his vote on any 
bill pending by obtaining 1 permission of the President before the vote is taken: 
Provided, that not more than three minutes shall be consumed in such explanation. 

V. Committees 

RULE 31. Appointment of Connnittees — The President of the Senate, un- 
less he has by law disqualified himself from that office, shall have the exclusive 
right and authority to appoint all Committees, regular or select, and to appoint 
Committee Chairmen and Vice Chairmen, and he is specifically authorized to ap- 
point four Chairmen of four subcommittees of the Committee on Appropriations; 
but he may delegate said authority in any instance, as he may choose. Upon the 
recommendation of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate, the 
Senate may authorize additional standing committees. 

RULE 32. List of Standing Committees. — The standing committees shall be ; 

Agriculture 

Alcoholic Beverage Control 

Appropriations 

Appropriations Committee on Human Resources and Corrections 

Appropriations Committee on Education 

Appropriations Committee on General Government and Transportation 

Base Budget 

Banking 

Constitutional Amendments 

Courts and Judicial Districts 

Criminal Justice 

The Economy 

Education 

Election Laws 

Finance 

Higher Education 

Human Resources 

Insurance 

Judiciary I 

Judiciary II 

Law Enforcement and Crime Control 

Local Government and Regional Affairs 

Manufacturing, Labor and Commerce 

Natural and Economic Resources 

Public Utilities and Energy 

Rules and Operation of the Senate 

Criminal Justice and Corrections 

State Government 

Transportation 

University Board of Governors 

Veterans and Military Affairs 

Ways and Means 

Wildlife 



Legislative Branch 357 



RULE 33. Notice of Committee Meetings. — Public notice of all committees 
meetings shall be given in the Senate. The required notice may be waived as to 
any meeting by the attendance at that meeting of all of the members of the com- 
mittee, or by personal waiver. 

RULE 34. Membership of Committees; quorum. — Membership on standing 
committees shall consist of not more than 22 or less than 8 Senators, including 
the Chairman and Vice Chairman who shall be designated by the President: 
Provided, the committee membership on the Appropriations Committee, Finance 
Committee, and Ways and Mean Committee shall not be limited as to membership 
but shall be left to the discretion of the President. No Senator shall hold member- 
ship on more than 12 standing committees unless the Committee on Rules and 
Operation of the Senate provides otherwise. A quorum of any committee shall 
consist of a majority of the committee. 

RULE 35. Roll Call vote in Committee. — A roll call vote may be taken in any 
committee upon a call for the ayes and noes sustained by one-third of the members 
present. 

RULE 36. Committee Meetings. — No committee or subcommittee shall hold 
a secret meeting, and all meetings of committees and subcommittees shall be open 
to the public: Provided, that any committee or subcommittee has the inherent 
right to hold an executive session when it determines that it is absolutely necessary 
to have such a session in order to prevent personal embarrassment, or when it is 
in the best interest of the State; and in no event shall final action be taken by 
any committee or subcommittee except in open session. 

RULE 37. (Reserved for interim operations rule) 



VI. Handling Bills 

RULE 38. Construction of rules. — All provisions of these rules applying to 
bills shall apply also to resolutions, memorials and petitions. 

RULE 39. Foi-m and copies of bills. — (a) Unless variation is authorized by 
the Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate, bills submitted for introduc- 
tion shall be in a computer-typed form prepared by the Legislative Services 
Office. When a bill which is introduced is not in the prescribed form, the Princi- 
pal Clerk shall cause the bill to be retyped in the prescribed form, and the re- 
typed copy shall become the official copy of the bill for all purposes. The original 
bill shall then be returned to the introducer of the bill and shall not become a part 
of the records or documents of the Senate. 

(b) Whenever a bill is introduced, 20 copies shall be submitted to the Principal 
Clerk. Any bill submitted without the required number of copies shall be im- 
mediately returned to the introducer. 

RULE 40. Introduction of bills. — (a) Every bill filed for introduction shall 
contain on the outside cover the title of the document and the name of the Senator 
or Senators presenting it. Bills shall be delivered by the primary sponsor of the 
document or with the prescribed authorization form signed by the primary sponsor 



358 North Carolina Manual 



to the office of the Senate Principal Clerk who shall receive them during regular 
session according to the following schedule: 

Monday until 8:30 o'clock P.M.; 

Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday until 
4:00 o'clock P.M.; 

Friday until 3:00 o'clock P.M. 
All bills shall be numbered by the Office of the Principal Clerk when filed and shall 
be considered introduced when presented to the Senate on the next following legisla- 
tive day for the first reading and reference to committee. 

(b) Filing of bills during the interim shall be under the direction of the Rules 
and Operation of the Senate Committee as approved by the Senate. 

RULE 41. Deadline on introduction of certain bills. — All bills prepared to 
be introduced by departments, agencies or institutions of the State must be in- 
troduced in the Senate not later than April 1, of the session. All local bills must 
be introduced not later than April 1 of the session. All resolutions, except those 
honoring the memory of deceased persons, must be introduced not later than April 
1 of the session. 

RULE 41.1. Relationship between Ways aiid Means Committee and other 
committees dealing with money matters; relationship between these other com- 
mittees dealing with money matters. — The Committee on Ways and Means shall 
have responsibility for final consideration of bills dealing with money matters 
before the bills are considered on the floor of the Senate. All bills referred by the 
President to the Committee on Appropriations, the Committee on Finance, and the 
Committee on Economy shall be referred by the chairman of the respective com- 
mittee to the Committee to the Committee on Ways and Means for consideration 
before the bills go to the floor of the Senate, except that bills referred to the Ap- 
propriations or Finance Committees may be reported directly back to the floor with 
the agreement of the Chairmen of the Ways and Means, Approp nations, and Finance 
Committees. Bills referred to the Committee on Appropriations by the President 
may be referred by the Chairman of the Committee on Appropriations to the Ap- 
propriations Committee on Human Resources and Corrections, the Appropriations 
Committee on Education, the Appropriations Committee on General Government 
and Transportation, or the Committee on Base Budget for a report back to the Com- 
mittee on Appropriations. 

RULE 42. References of appropriations and finance bills. — All bills intro- 
duced in the Senate providing for appropriations from the State, or any sub- 
division thereof, shall, before being considered by the Senate, be referred to the 
Committee on Appropriations, and bills referred to other committees carrying any 
such provisions shall be reported to the Senate as being bills to be referred to the 
Appropriations Committee before proper action may be taken by the Senate. All 
bills introduced in the Senate providing for bond issues, levying taxes, or in any 
manner affecting the taxing power of the State or any subdivision thereof, shall, 
before being considered by the Senate, be referred to the Committee on Finance, 
and bills referred to other committees carrying any such provisions shall be re- 
ported to the Senate as being bills to be referred to the Finance Committee before 
proper action may be taken by the Senate. 



Legislative Branch 359 



RULE 43. First reading; reference to Committee. — All bills filed, upon pre- 
sentation to the Senate, shall be read in regular order of business by their number 
and title which shall constitute the first reading of the bill and unless otherwise 
disposed of, the President or presiding officer shall announce the referral of the 
document. The title and referral shall be entered on the Journal. 

RULE 44. Bills to receive three readings. — Every bill shall receive three 
readings previous to being passed, and the President shall give notice at each 
whether it be the first, second, or third. After the first reading, unless a motion 
is made by some Senator, the President shall refer the bill to an appropriate com- 
mittee. No bill shall be amended upon the floor of the Senate until it has been 
twice read. Senate simple resolutions shall not require three readings. 

RULE 45. Reports of Committees. — Every Senator presenting a report of 
a committee shall endorse the report with the name of the committee and, in casa 
of a minority report, with the names of the members making the report. The 
report of the committee shall show that a majority of the committee were present 
and voted. Every report of the committee upon a bill or resolution shall stand 
upon the general orders with the bill or resolution. 

RULE 46. Unfavorable report by Committee. — (a) All bills reported un- 
favorably by the committee to which they were referred, and having no minority 
report, shall lie upon the table, but may be taken from the table, and placed upon 
the calendar by a two-thirds vote of those present and voting. 

(b) When a bill is reported by a committee with an unfavorable report, but 
accompanied by a minority report, signed by at least three members of the com- 
mittee who were present and who voted on the bill when the bill was considered 
in committee, then the minority report shall be placed on the calendar and con- 
sidered the following day, and the question before the Senate shall be "The adop- 
tion of the Minority Report". If the minority report is adopted by a majority 
vote, the bill shall be placed upon the calendar; if the minority report is not 
adopted, the bill shall lie upon the table. 

RULE 47. Recall of bill from Committee. — When a bill has been introduced 
and referred to a committee, if after 10 days the committee has failed to report 
thereon, then the author of the bill may, after three days' public notice given in 
the Senate, on motion supported by a vote of two-thirds of the Senators present 
and voting, recall the bill from the committee to the floor of the Senate for con 
sideration and such action thereon as a majority of the Senators present may 
direct. 

RULE 48. Calendar; order to be followed. — The President and the Princi- 
pal Clerk of the Senate shall see that all bills are acted upon by the Senate in the 
order in which they stand upon the calendar, unless otherwise ordered as herein- 
after provided. The published calendar shall include all bills reported favorably 
from committees, or reported with a minority report attached, or placed on the 
calendar on motion: Provided, that the published local calendar may carry the 
number of each bill, the county or counties referred to, and an abbreviated state- 
ment of the title of the bill. 



360 North Carolina Manual 



RULE 49. Considering hills out oj regular order. — Except as provided in 
Rule 50, any bill or other matter may be taken up out of order upon order of the 
President or upon motion sustained by a majority of the membership present and 
voting. 

RULE 50. Thin! reading requirements. — No bill on its third reading shall 
be acted upon out of the regular order in which it stands on the calendar, and 
no bill shall be acted upon on its third reading the same day on which it passed its 
second reading, unless so ordered by two-thirds of the Senators present. 

RULE 51. Special orders. — Any bill or other matter may be made a special 
order for a particular day or hour by a vote of the majority of the Senators 
voting, and if action on the bill is not completed on that day, it shall be returned 
to its place on the calendar, unless it is made a special order for another day; 
and when a special order is under consideration it shall take precedence over any 
special order or subsequent order for the day, but such subsequent order may b'j 
taken up immediately after the previous special order has been disposed of. 

RULE 52. Procedure when necessary number of Senators not present. — If, 
on taking the question on a bill, it appears that a constitutional quorum is not 
present, or if the bill requires a vote of a certain proportion of all the Senators 
to pass it, and it appears that such number is not present, the bill shall be again 
read and the question taken thereon; if the bill fails a second time for the want 
of the necessary number being present and voting, the bill shall not be finally 
lost, but shall be returned to the calendar in its proper order. 

RULE 53. Effect of defeated bill.— (a) After a bill has been tabled or has 
failed to pass on any of its readings, the contents of such bill or the principal pro- 
visions of its subject matter shall not be embodied in any other measure. Upon the 
point of order being raised and sustained by the Chair, such measure shall be 
laid upon the table, and shall not be taken therefrom except by a vote of two- 
thirds of the qualified membership of the Senate: Provided, no local bill shall be 
held by the Chair as embodying the provisions, or being identical with any state- 
wide measure which has been laid upon the table or failed to pass any of its read- 
ings. 

(b) When a bill has been postponed indefinitely by the Senate, the bill shall lie 
upon the table, and shall not be taken therefrom except by a vote of two-thirds uT 
the Senators present. 

RULE 54. Taking bill from table. — No bill which has been laid upon the 
table shall be taken therefrom except by a vote of two-thirds of the Senators pres- 
ent. 

RULE 55. Amending titles of bills. — When a bill is materially modified or 
the scope of its application extended or decreased, or if the county, or counties, 
to which it applies is changed, the title of the bill shall be changed by the Sen- 
ator introducing the bill or by the committee having it in charge, or by the 
Principal Clerk, so as to indicate the full support of the bill as amended and the 
county or counties to which it applies. 



Legislative Branch 361 



RULE 56. Corrections of typographical errors in bills. The Enrolling Clerk 
is authorized to make corrections of typographical errors in the text of bills at any 
time prior to ratification. Before the correction is made, the Enrolling Clerk 
shall have the approval of the Chairman of the Committee on Rules and Opera- 
tion of the Senate. 

RULE 57. Conference Committees. — Whenever the Senate declines or re- 
fuses to concur in amendments put by the House to a bill originating in the Sen- 
ate, or refuses to adopt a substitute adopted by the House for a bill originating in 
the Senate, a conference committee shall be appointed upon motion and the bill 
under consideration shall thereupon go to and be considered by the joint conferees 
on the part of the Senate and House. In considering matters in difference between 
the Senate and House committed to the conferees, only such matters as are in 
difference between the two houses shall be considered by the conferees, and the 
conference report shall deal only with such matters. The conference report shall 
not be amended. Except as herein set out, the rules of the United States House 
of Representatives shall govern the appointment, conduct, and reports of the 
conferees. 

RULE 57.1. Senate concurrence in House amendments to Senate Bills or 
Senate adoption of House Committee Substitutes for Senate Bills. — The Senate 
shall not concur in a House amendment to a bill originating in the Senate, and the 
Senate shall not adopt a House committee substitute for a bill originating in the 
Senate, until the next legislative day following the day on which the Senate receives 
the House amendment or House committee substitute. 

RULE 58. Certification of passage of bills. — The Principal Clerk shall 
certify the passage of bills by the Senate, with the date thereof, together with the 
fact whether passed by vote of three-fifths or two-thirds of the Senate, when- 
ever such vote may be required by the Constitution or laws of the State. 

RULE 59. Transmittal of bills to House. — No bill shall be sent from the 
Senate on the day of its passage except on the last day of the session, unless 
otherwise ordered by a vote of two-thirds of the Senators present. 



VII. Legislative Officers and Employees 

RULE 60. Pages. — The President of the Senate shall appoint pages. The 
President, or such person as he may designate, shall supervise the pages and as- 
sign to them their duties. Each page shall be at least 14 years of age. 

RULE 61. Sergeant-at-Arms. — (a) There shall be 14 positions of Assist- 
ant Sergeants-at-Arms to be appointed by the Sergeant-at-Arms who are to 
work under his supervision and to be assigned such duties and powers as he shall 
direct. 

(b) The Sergeant-at-Arms shall be responsible for the safety of the members 
and employees of the Senate while in the Senate Chamber, or any place in which 
the Senate or its committees are in session. 



M2 North Carolina Manual 



(c) The Sergeant-at-Arxns shall serve all warrants and subpoenas issued by 
orders of the Senate and signed by the President of the Senate, and said warrants 
and subpoenas shall be returnable to the Principal Clerk of the Senate. 

RULE 62. Principal Clerk's staff.— The Principal Clerk of the Senate shall 
employ all necessary employees and clerks required to carry out the duties of his 
office. The Principal Clerk shall have supervision and control, and shall assign 
such duties and powers as he shall direct to his employees and clerks. 

RULE 63. Committee Clerks.— (a) The President of the Senate shall ap- 
point clerks to such committees as he may deem necessary and appropriate. 

(b) All Committee Clerks, when not in attendance upon the direct duties con- 
nected with their committee shall report to the Supervisor of Committee Clerks 
for such duties as may be assigned to them upon approval by Committee Chair- 
men. 

RULE 64. Senate Journal. — The Principal Clerk shall prepare and be re- 
sponsible for the Journal. The Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate 
shall examine the Journal to determine if the proceedings of the previous day 
have been correctly recorded. 

RULE 65. (Reserved for future addition to rules) 



VIII. General Rules 

RULE 66. President to sign papers. — All acts, addresses and resolutions, 
and all warrants and subpoenas issued by order of the Senate shall be signed by 
the President. 

RULE 67. Admission to the floor of the Senate. — No person except members 
of the Senate, members of the House of Representatives, staff of the General As- 
sembly ; Judges of the Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, and Superior Courts; 
the Governor and members of the Council of State; former members of the Gen- 
eral Assembly; and persons particularly invited and extended the privileges of 
the floor by the President shall be admitted to the floor of the Senate during its 
session. No registered lobbyist shall be admitted to the floor of the Senate or 
Senate Chamber while the Senate is in session. 

RULE 68. Privileges of the floor. — Any group or individual other than 
members of the Senate who desires to make remarks upon the floor of the Senate 
will first obtain approval of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate. 

RULE 69. News Media.— The President is authorized to assign area and 
equipment on the floor of the Senate for the use of the representatives of news 
media; and the President shall provide regulations for the operation of the repre- 
sentatives of the news media on the floor of the Senate. 

RULE 70. Absence without leave. — No Senator or officer of the Senate shall 
depart the service of the Senate without leave, or receive pay as a Senator or 
officer for the time he is absent without leave. 



Legislative Branch 363 



RULE 71. Placing material on Senators' desks. — Any person other than a 
member of the Senate desiring to place articles of any kind on or about desks in 
the Senate Chamber of in the offices of the members of the Senate shall make 
written application to, and obtain written approval from, the Principal Clerk of 
the Senate. 

RULE 72. Assignment of Offices. — The Chairman of the Committee on 
Rules and Operation of the Senate, subject to the approval of the Committee, is 
authorized to make assignments of committee rooms and offices to designated 
committees, chairmen, and members of the Senate. The office adjacent to any 
committee room assigned to a principal committee by the Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Rules and Operation of the Senate, subject to the approval of the Com- 
mittee on Rules and Operation of the Senate, shall be automatically assigned to 
the chairman of the principal committee. In making such assignments of individ- 
ual offices, the said Rules Committee Chairman shall give preferential considera- 
tion to the respective members according to the length of service which each 
member has rendered in the General Assembly. 

RULE 73. Administrative rules and regulations involving Senate employ- 
ees. — All administrative rules, regulations and orders involving all individuals 
employed to perform duties for the Senate, other than those appointed by the 
Principal Clerk and the Sergeant-at-Arms, shall be first approved by the Commit- 
tee on Rules and Operation of the Senate. 

RULE 74. Notice of public hearings. — Notice shall be given not less than 
five calendar days prior to public hearings. Such notices shall be issued as in- 
formation for the press and the information shall be posted in the places desig- 
nated by the Principal Clerks. 

RULE 75. Public hearings, filing of written statements. — Persons desiring 
to appear and be heard at a public hearing are encouraged to file a brief or a 
written statement of the remarks to be made at least 24 hours before the time of 
the hearing. 

RULE 76. Voting in Joint Sessions. — When any Senate Committee sits 
jointly with the House Committee, the Senate Committee reserves the right to vote 
separately from the House Committee. 

RULE 77. Alterations, suspension or rescission of rules. — No rule of the 
Senate shall be altered, suspended, or rescinded except on a two-thirds vote of 
the Senators present. 



364 



North Carolina Manual 





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CLERKS 



SPEAKER 



CLERKS 



Legislative Branch 



365 



NORTH CAROLINA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

(Democrat Unless Indicated Otherwise) 

Officers 

Speaker Carl J. Stewart, Jr Gastonia 

Speaker Pro Tern H. Horlon Rountree Greenville 

Principal Clerk Grace A. Collins Fuquay-Varina 

Reading Clerk Sam J. Burrows, Jr Asheboro 

Sergeant-at-Arms Larry J. Eagles Tarboro 



Representatives 



Name County 

Adams, Allen Wake 

Auman, T. Clyde Moore 

Baker, T. J Duplin 

Barbee, Allen C Nash . 



District 

. 15th . . . 
. 25th . . . 
. 10th . . . 
, 7th .. . 



Barker, Chris S., Jr Craven 3rd . . . 

Beard, R. D Cumberland 20th . . . 

Bell, E. Graham Gaston 38th. . . 

Bissell, Marilyn R. (R) Mecklenburg 36th. . . 

Brennan, Louise S Mecklenburg 36th. . . 

Bright, Joe L Craven 3rd . . . 

Brubaker, Harold J. (R) ... .Randolph 24th. . . 

Bumgardner, David W., Jr. . .Gaston 38th . . . 

Bundy, Sam D Pitt 8th .. . 

Campbell, A. Hartwell Wilson 7th-. . . 

Chapin, Howard B Beaufort 2nd . . . 

Chase, Mrs. John B Wayne 9th .. . 

Church, John T Vance 13th . . . 

Clarke, James McClure Buncombe 43rd . . . 

Collins, P. C, Jr Alleghany 28th . . . 

Cook, Ruth E Wake 15th . . . 

Creech, William A Wake 15th . . . 

Cullipher, George P Martin 6th . . . 

Davenport, John Ed Nash 7th . . . 

DeBruhl, Claude Buncombe 43rd . . . 

DeRamus, Judson D., Jr Forsyth 29th . . . 

Diamont, David H Surry 28th . . . 

Dorsey, Fred R. (R) Henderson 42nd . . . 

Duncan, Conrad R., Jr. 1 Rockingham 22nd . . . 

Easterling, Ruth M Mecklenburg 36th . . . 

Economos, Gus Mecklenburg 36th . . . 

Edwards, James H Caldwell 34th. . . 

Ellis, T. W., Jr Vance 13th . . . 

Enloe, Jeff H., Jr Macon 45th . . . 

Erwin, Richard C Forsyth 29th . . . 

Ezzell, James E., Jr Nash 7th .. . 

Falls, Robert Z Cleveland 40th . . . 

Farmer, Robert L Wake 15th . . . 

Foster, Jo Graham Mecklenburg 36th . . . 

Frye, Henry E Guilford 23rd . . . 

Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr Carteret 4th . . . 



Address Seat 

Raleigh 81 

. West End 78 

.Wallace 37 

. Spring Hope 20 

. New Bern 1 

. Fayetteville 29 

. Gastonia 59 

. Charlotte 104 

. Charlotte 106 

. Vanceboro 57 

.Asheboro 117 

. Belmont 58 

. Farmville 26 

.Wilson 21 

.Washington 50 

. Eureka 32 

.Henderson 34 

. Faii-view 63 

.Laurel Springs 91 

. Raleigh 82 

.Raleigh 79 

. Williamston 35 

.Nashville 22 

.Candler 41 

.Winston-Salem 76 

.Pilot Mountain 93 

.East Flat Rock 115 

.Stoneville 65 

. Charlotte 105 

. Charlotte 95 

.Granite Falls 119 

.Henderson 108 

. Franklin 87 

.Winston-Salem 88 

. Rocky Mount 49 

Shelby Jl 

. Raleigh 9 

. Charlotte 4 

. Greensboro 73 

.Atlantic Beach Ill 



:■:»;»; 



North Carolina Manual 



Gamble, John R., Jr Lincoln 38th . 

Gardner, J. M Johnston 14th . 

Gentiy, J. Worth Stokes 28th . 

Gilmore, Thomas O Guilford 23rd . 

Grady, Richard R Wayne 9th . 

Gregory, Carson Harnett 18th . 

Griffin, Pat O Durham 16th . 

Greenwood, Gordon H Buncombe 43rd . 

Hairston, Peter W Davie 30th. 

Hall, Daniel A. C., Jr Alamance 22nd. 

Harris, Fletcher Lee 18th . 

Harris, W. S., Jr. 2 Alamance 22nd . 

Helms, H. Parks Mecklenburg 36th . 

Hightower, Foyle, Jr Anson 26th . 

Holmes, Edward S Chatham 17th . 

Holroyd, W. Casper, Jr Wake 15th . 

Holt, Bertha Alamance 22nd . 

Holt, Charles Cumberland 20th . 

Hunt, Patricia Stanford Orange 17th . 

Hunter, Thomas B Richmond 27th . 

Hurst, Mrs. Wilda Onslow 4th . 

Huskins, J. P Iredell 35th . 

Hux, George A Halifax 6th . 

James, Vernon G Pasquotank 1st . 

Jernigan, Robert H., Jr Hertford 5th . 

Johnson, Joseph E Wake 15th . 

Johnson, Joy J Robeson 21st . 

Jones, Robert A Rutherford 40th . 

Kaplan, Ted Forsyth 29th . 

Lachot, W. H., Jr Burke 39th. 

Lambeth, Jim Davidson 30th . 

Lilley, Daniel T Lenoir 3rd . 

Locklear, Horace Robeson 21st . 

Lutz, Edith L Cleveland 40th . 

McMillan, William H Iredell 35th. 

Martin, Albert Yadkin 34th . 

Mason, Ronald E Carteret 4th . 

Messer, Ernest B Haywood 44th. 

Michaux, H. M., Jr. :t Durham 16th . 

Miller, George W., Jr Durham 16th . 

Morgan, James F Guilford 23rd . 

Morris, Glenn A McDowell 41st . 

Nash, Robie L Rowan 31st . 

Nesbitt, Mary C Buncombe 43rd. 

Nye, Edd Bladen 19th . 

Parnell, David R Robeson 21st . 

Pickler, Janet W Stanly 32nd . 

Plyler, Aaron W Union 33rd . 

Poovey, J. Reid (R) Catawba 37th. 

Pugh, J. T Randolph 24th . 

Quinn, Dwight W Cabarrus 33rd . 

Ramsey, Liston B Madison 44th . 

Ray, Hector Cumberland 20th . 

Revelle, J. Guy, Sr Northampton 5th . 

Rhodes, S. Thomas (R) New Hanover . . . .12th. 



. . Lincolnton 60 

. . Smithfield 13 

. . King 92 

. . Greensboro 62 

. . Seven Springs 97 

. . Angier 3 

. . Durham 68 

. Black Mountain .... 64 

. . Advance 114 

. . Burlington 53 

. .Sanford 107 

. . Graham 54 

. . Charlotte 6 

. . Wadesboro 46 

. . Pittsboro 69 

. . Raleigh 80 

. . Burlington 66 

. . Fayetteville 27 

. Chapel Hill 70 

. . Rockingham 38 

. . Hubert 28 

. .Statesville 14 

. Halifax 96 

. .Elizabeth City 24 

. . Ahoskie 16 

. . Raleigh 10 

. . Fairmont 33 

. .Forest City 55 

. Winston-Salem 89 

. . Morganton 100 

. .Thomasville 113 

. . Kinston 2 

. . Lumberton 118 

. . Lawndale 12 

. .Statesville 99 

. Boonville 110 

. . Beaufort 19 

. .Canton 18 

. . Durham 45 

. . Durham 44 

. .High Point 85 

. . Marion 42 

. .Salisbury 102 

. . Asheville 52 

. . Elizabethtown 83 

. . Parkton 40 

. . New London 31 

. . Monroe 36 

. .Hickory 116 

. . Asheboro 39 

. . Kannapolis 7 

. . Marshall 47 

. .Fayetteville 17 

. . Conway 15 

. Wilmington 72 



Legislative Branch 



367 



Rountree, H. Horton Pitt 8th . 

Sawyer, Thomas B Guilford 23rd. 

Schwartz, B. D New Hanover .... 12th . 

Setzer, Frances E Catawba 37th . 

Seymour, Mary P Guilford 23rd . 

Short, W. M Guilford 23rd . 

Smith, A. Neal Rowan 31st . 

Smith, Ned R Forsyth 29th . 

Spoon, Roy (R) Mecklenburg 36th . 

Stewart, Carl J., Jr.* Gaston 38th . 

Tally, Lura Cumberland 20th . 

Taylor, Ron Bladen 19th . 

Tennille, Margaret Forsyth 29th . 

Thomas, Betty Dorton Cabarrus 33rd. 

Tison, Ben Mecklenburg 36th . 

Tyson, Henry M Cumberland 20th . 

Varner, Dr. John Davidson 30th . 

Ward, Allen C Brunswick 11th . 

Watkins, William T Granville 13th . 

Webb, Charles E Guilford 23rd . 

White, Eugene M Caldwell 34th . 

White, W. Stanford Dare 1st . 

Wiseman, Myrtle E Avery 39th. 

Woodard, Barney Paul Johnston 14th. 

Wright, Richard Columbus 19th . 

Clement, A. J. Howard, III 4 . Durham 16th 

McDowell, Timothy H. 5 Alamance 22nd 

Robert McAlister 6 Rockingham 22nd 

* Speaker 



. Greenville 25 

. Greensboro 75 

Wilmington 71 

. Newton 56 

. Greensboro 61 

. Greensboro 86 

.Woodleaf 101 

.Winston-Salem 90 

. Charlotte 103 

.Gastonia 120 

. Fayetteville 30 

. Elizabethtown 84 

.Winston-Salem 77 

. Concord 8 

. Charlotte 5 

. Fayetteville 51 

. Lexington 112 

. Shallotte 98 

. Oxford 48 

. Greensboro 74 

.Hudson 109 

. Manns Harbor 23 

. Spruce Pine 94 

. Princeton 43 

.Tabor City 67 

. Durham 45 

. Mebane 54 

.Ruffin 65 



1 Duncan resigned October 10, 1977. 

2 Harris resigned effective September 2, 1977. 

3 Michaux resigned effective July 18, 1977, following his appointment as United 
States Attorney for the Western District. 

4 Clement was appointed August 3, 1977, to replace Michaux. 

5 McDowell was appointed September 19, 1977, to replace Harris. 

6 McAlister was appointed October 13, 1977, to replace Duncan. 



Jtk 







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Legislative Branch 369 

CARL JEROME STEWART, JR. 

(Speaker, Democrat — Gaston County) 

(Thirty-eighth House District — Counties: Gaston and Lincoln. Four Repre- 
sentatives.) 

Carl Jerome Stewart, Jr. was born in Gastonia, October 2, 1936. Son of Carl 
Jerome and Hazel (Holland) Stewart. Attended Ashley High School, Gastonia, 1950- 
1954; Duke University, A.B. degree, 1958; elected to Phi Beta Kappa; Duke Uni- 
versity Law School, LL.B. degree, 1958-1961. Lawyer, teaching Business Law. 
Member American Bar Assn.; American Trial Lawyers Assn.; N. C. Bar Assn.; 
N. C. State Bar. At Ashley High School, was selected President Sophomore Junior 
and Senior classes, also Firestone Scholar. At Duke University, was Regional 
Scholar; President, Student Body, and Assistant to the Dean; won Southern 
Regional National Moot Court Competition and was national finalist in New York; 
was also Atlantic Coast Conference Debating Champion; President, Duke Alumni 
Assn.; member, Board of Advisers of Gardner-Webb College; Chairman, Duke Uni- 
versity Alumni Admissions Committee for Gaston County. Member Newcomen 
Society; Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks; Gaston Country Club. Director 
and past President, Gaston Skills, Inc., an organization to aid in rehabilitation of 
physically and mentally handicapped adults. Member Board of Directors, Gaston 
Children's Center, and has been their legal advisor; member, Board of Directors, 
Gaston County Chapter for American Cancer Society; past Director; Gastonia 
Junior Chamber of Commerce; 1965 winner, Distinguished Service Award as 
Gastonia's Outstanding Young Man of the Year; Omega Psi Phi Citizen of the Year 
for 1974; Community Service Chairman, North Carolina District, Optimist Inter- 
national. Past Boys Work Chairman; past President, Gastonia Optimist Club; 
General Chairman, 1966 Greater Gastonia United Fund, and Vice Chairman for 
last two years; also President, United Appeal. Winner, DeMolay Legion of Honor 
(1968). Scottish Rite Mason; Shriner; Member Southern Region Education Board. 
Director, Roanoke Historical Association. Representative in the General Assembly 
of 1967, 1969, 1971 and 1973. Member of officer church board, Bradley Memorial 
Methodist Church, Gastonia; Trustee, Greensboro College, Greensboro, N. C. 
Married Kathryn Wesson May 28, 1964. Children: Kathryn Elizabeth, Julie Anne 
and Carl J. Stewart, III. Address: 1855 Westbrook Circle, Gastonia 28052. 



Legislative Branch 371 

HERBERT HORTON ROUNTREE 

SPEAKER PRO TEM 

(Democrat — Pitt County) 

(Eighth House District — Counties: Greene and Pitt. Two Representatives.) 

Herbert Horton Rountree was born in Farmville, May 5, 1921. Son of Charles 
Stanley and Madeline V. (Horton) Rountree. Attended Farmville High School, 
1934-1938; Darlington Prep School, 1938-1939; University of North Carolina, A.B. 
degree, 1943; University of North Carolina Law School, LL.B. degree, 1950. Lawyer. 
Member North Carolina State Bar; Pitt County Bar Assn.; Fifth Judicial Bar Assn.; 
Delta Theta Phi Legal Fraternity; N. C. Academy of Trial Lawyers. Member 
Governor's Industrial Financing Study Group, 1961-1962; North Carolina Judicial 
Council, 1961-1962; Loan Committee, State Employees' Credit Union, 1958-1962. 
Master Farmville Masonic Lodge No. 517, 1955. Member New Bern Consistory 
No. 3, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Free-masonry; Sudan Temple 
A.A.O.N.M.S. of New Bern, N. C; Pitt County Scottish Rite and Shrine Clubs; 
Burnette-Rouse Post No. 9081, Veterans of Foreign Wars Commander, Farmville 
American Legion Post No. 151, 1954; Governor, Greenville Lodge No. 885, Loyal 
Order of Moose, 1965; Exalted Ruler, Greenville Lodge No. 1645, Benevolent and 
Protective Order of Elks, 1966; President, Farmville Junior Chamber of Commerce, 
1952; Jaycee, Distinguished Service Award, 1953. Commissioner, Town of Farmville, 
1955-1957; Solicitor Pitt County Recorder's Court, 1951-1953; Assistant Attorney 
General of North Carolina, 1959-1962. Served in U. S. Naval Reserve, Lt. (J.G.), 
1943-1946, Pacific Theatre. Representative in the General Assembly of 1967, 1969, 
1971, 1973-74, 1975-76 and 1977-78. Member State Courts Commission; Governor's 
Advisoiy Committee on Law and Order; Legislative Research Commission Sub- 
committee to study Shortage of Rural Doctors and General Health Affairs; Gov- 
ernor's Task Force Committee on Apprehension and Suppression. Member, Legisla- 
tive Services Commission, 1971-1972, 1973-1974-1975; Chairman, House Committee 
on Congressional Redisricting, 1971; Chairman, House Committee on Appropria- 
tions, Base Budget, 1973; Member, Commission on Sentencing, Criminal Punish- 
ment and Rehabilitation, 1974; Member, Health Manpower Study Commission, 
1973; Trustee, East Carolina University; Kiwanian; and Recipient of the Greenville 
Outstanding Citizen Award, 1972. Salvation Army Advisory Board; Executive 
Committee on Coastal Plains Mental Health Association. Episcopalian. Member of 
Vestry, Farmville Emmanuel Church, 1952-1956; St. Christopher's Church, Garner, 
1960-1962; St. Paul's Greenville, 1963-1965; Sunday School Teacher and Lay 
Reader. Married Helen Elizabeth Lotz, 1946. Three daughters: Kathryn Rountree 
Cameron; Mary Helen Rountree; Dorene Horton Rountree; one son, Charles S. 
Rountree, III. Address: 1209 Drexel Lane, Greenville 27834. 




372 North Carolina Manual 

JOSEPH ALLEN ADAMS 

(Democrat — Wake County) 

(Fifteenth House District — County: Wake. Six Representatives.) 

Joseph Allen Adams was born in Greensboro, N. C, 
January 15, 1932, the son of Allen and Marion L. (Crawford) 
Adams. Attended Phillips Exeter Academy 1945-48; Cam- 
bridge High and Latin, Massachusetts, 1948; Boston Univer- 
sity, 1948-49. Attended University of North Carolina, 1949-52, 
A.B.; 1952-54, J.D. Attorney. Member Wake County Bar 
Association; North Carolina Bar Association; American Bar 
Association; North Carolina State Bar; North Carolina Aca- 
demy of Trial Lawyers; Naval Reserve Lawyers Association; 
Secretary Wake County Bar 1961. Member Phi Delta Phi. CDR. U. S. Navy— JAG 
Corps. Member Naval Reserve Law Company 6-1, Raleigh. Author N. C. Law 
Review, 1953-54. Served as Chairman Wake County Public Library Board 1970-74; 
Chairman Wake Co. Democratic Party 1968-72; President Wake YDC, 1964. 
Member United Church of Christ; Chairman Finance Committee 1965-66; Chairman 
Institute of Religion 1963. Three Children: Ann Caroline, Jefferson Hodges, Spencer 
Allen. Address: Box 389, Raleigh; 134 Woodburn Road 27605. 

TOFFIE CLYDE AUMAN 

(Democrat — Moore County) 

(Twenty-fifth House District — County: Moore. One Representative.) 

^ Toffie Clyde Auman was born in Jackson Springs, March 

11, 1909. Son of Claude and Lillie Catherine (Graham) 
Auman. Attended Jackson Springs High School; North Caro- 
lina State University. Farmer. Member N. C. Farm Bureau, 
State University. Farmer. Member N. C. Farm Bureau, 
former Director; President National Peach Council, 1965- 
1966; member Horticulture Committee, American Farm 
Bureau, 1956-1962; President, Sandhill Production Credit 
Assn., 1967-1969; Chairman, Board of Directors, Sandhill 
Production Credit Association; President North Carolina Peach Grower's Society, 
1960-1963; past Director, N. C. Farm Bureau Insurance Company; past Director, 
and President, N. C. State University Agricultural Foundation. Advisor to Dean 
of Agriculture, N. C. State University; past Director N. C. State University 
Alumni Assn.; West End School Committee, 1948-1964. Received Gamma Sigma 
Delta Award from N. C. State University for contributions to agriculture. Mem- 
ber, N. C. Board of Juvenile Correction, 1950-1966. Director, Sandhills Mental 
Health Association. N. C. Committee for Better Schools, 1958; Director, N. C. 
Mental Health Association, 1970; Director, N. C. Railroad, 1949-1950. Represen- 
tative in the General Assembly of 1965, 1967, 1969, 1971, and 1973. Presbyterian; 
Elder; Commissioner to General Assembly, 1955; Vice President, Synod's Men's 
Council, 1959; President, Men of the Church, Fayetteville Presbytery. President, 
Moore Friends of the Library, 1969. Chairman, North Carolina Board of Youth 
Development, 1971-1973. Married Sally Watts, August 7, 1936. Children: Clyde 
Watts, Robert M., Nancy (Mrs. Charles Cunningham), and Laura Graham, 




Legislative Branch 



373 



recipient of the Ralph H. Scott Award. An award for a North Carolina citizen who 
has made significant contributions to the field of services for children, U.N.C.-G. 
Three grand-daughters. Address: Route 1, West End. 



THOMAS JAMES BAKER 

(Democrat — Duplin County) 
(Tenth House District — County: Duplin. One Representative.) 

Thomas James Baker was born in Wallace, October 9, 
1920. Son of William B. (dec'd) and Harriett (Southerland) 
Baker. Attended Wallace High School, graduated, 1938; 
Kings Business College, Raleigh, 1939. Oil distributor. Presi- 
dent E & B Oil Co. of Wallace, Inc., Wallace, N. C, President 
Tire Sales Co., Inc., Wallace, President Tri-County Petroleum, 
Inc., Wallace, President E & B Oil Co. of Burgaw, Inc., 
Burgaw, Vice-President B.M.W. Corporation (Rockfish 
Plaza), Wallace. Served as Director, Duplin Industrial Com- 
mission; Wallace Sewing Company; Wallace Development Corp.; Past President, 
Dublin Municipal Assn.; Director Tuscarora Council Boy Scouts of America; Di- 
rector of Bank of North Carolina, NA, Wallace. Member, Lions Club; Wallace 
Masonic Lodge No. 595, past Master; Sudan Temple, A. A. 0. N. M. S., New Bern; 
Duplin Shrine Club. Named "Man of the Year" for Wallace-Rose Hill Community 
by English-Brown Post, No. 9161, Veterans of Foreign Wars, 1969. Served 13 years 
as Town Commissioner, Town of Wallace, 1945-1966. Mayor, Town of Wallace, 
1966-1970. Member, Wallace Baptist Church; Teacher, Men's Sunday School Class; 
Deacon; member Finance Committee. Married Dorothy Edgerton, October 18, 1947. 
Two daughters: Dorothy Sue, student at UNC, Chapel Hill and Laura Faye (Mrs. 
Eddie Lockamy), Wilmington. Address: 306 East Cliff Street, Wallace 28466. 




ALLEN CROMWELL BARBEE 

(Democrat-Nash County) 

(Seventh House District — Counties: Edgecombe, Nash and Wilson. Four 
Representatives.) 

Allen Cromwell Barbee was born in Spring Hope, N. C, 
December 18, 1910. Son of John Lucian and Deborah Lena 
(Vester) Barbee. Attended Spring Hope High School; Uni- 
versity of North Carolina. Farmer; Broker; Developer. 
Member Elk; Mason; Shriner. Served as Captain, Air Force, 
June 18, 1942-June 18, 1946. Served Town Commissioner 
Spring Hope, 1951-52; Mayor Spring Hope, 1952-1960; 
Served House of Representatives, 1961, 1963, 1965, 1967, 
1969, 1971, 1975. Member, Methodist Church; Official Board, 
1946-1976; Chairman, 1947-1957. Married Mabel McClellan Dixon Barbee, March 7, 
1942. Two Children: Mrs. Robert Earl Crumpton, II, Allen Cromwell Barbee II. 
Address: Barbee Building, Spring Hope 27882. 




H 



374 North Carolina Manual 

CHRISTOPHER SYLVANUS BARKER, JR. 

(Democrat — Craven County) 

(Third House District — Counties: Craven, Jones, Pamlico and Lenoir. Three 
Representatives. 

Christopher Sylvanus Barker, Jr. was born in Trenton, 
^fk Kp,x September 7, 1911. Son of the late Dr. Christopher Sylvanus 

Barker and Ruth Jane (Henderson) Barker. Attended New 
Bern High School, Class of 1928; United States Naval Acad- 
emy, 1933. Bachelor of Science; Northwestern University, 
summer, 1946. Registered Securities Representative. Asso- 
^ y ciate Professor of Naval Science, Princeton University, 1945- 

gt; Web/| 1948; Professor of Naval Science, University of South Caro- 

Wk jLI Hna, 1954-1957. Vice Chairman of New Bern USO 1971-1973; 

member and past President (1964-1965) of New Bern Civitan Club; member and 
past President (1965-1966) of the Craven County Chapter for Retarded Citizens; 
member and Director, (1962-1964, 1970-1972) New Bern Craven County Chamber of 
Commerce; Chairman of the Board of Directors, Craven Unit of the Neuse Develop- 
ment Association, 1964-1966; Treasurer of the Coastal Carolina Council, Navy 
League of the United States, 1966-1973; 32nd Mason, Shriner, Sojourner; Elk; 
Moose; American Legion; Veterans of Foreign Wars. New York Yacht Club; East 
Carolina Yacht Club. Representative in the General Assembly of 1969, 1971, 1973 
and 1975. Vice Chairman of the Commercial and Sports Fisheries Advisory Boai-d 
(1969-1974); Chairman of the Study Commission on the Use of Illegal and Harmful 
Drugs in the State of North Carolina in accordance with Resolution 74, 1969 Session 
Laws; Chairman of the North Carolina Drug Authority (1971-1975); Rear Admiral, 
U. S. Navy, 1928-1959; awarded "Legion of Merit" and "Bronze Star" during World 
War II. Registered Securities Representative 1965-1975. Methodist member of 
Official Board, 1963-1966 and Administrative Board, 1972-1975. Married Jean Kou- 
wenhoven, December 30, 1949. Children: Christopher Sylvanus III (married Janet 
Westover, 1976), Marie-Anne (married Elbert H. Lee Jr., 1974) and Gary Cornelius. 
Address: 3911 Trent Pines Drive, New Bern 28560. 

RAYFORD DONALD BEARD 

(Democrat — Cumberland County) 

(Twentieth House District — County: Cumberland. Five Representatives.) 

Rayford Donald Beard was born in Beard, N. C, March 
24, 1923. Son of William A. and Lola (Maxwell) Beard. Grad- 
uated Central High School, 1942; Various Insurance Courses. 
Insurance. Member Carolinas' Association of Mutual Insur- 
ance Agents; N. C. Independent Agents Association; N. C. 
Association of Premium Service Companies. Member, Lions 
Club; Masonic Order; Shriner; Scottish Rite. Member, Snyder 
Memorial Baptist Church; Sunday School Teacher; Deacon 
since 1950; Chairman of Board of Deacons and Church 
Moderation 1960. Married Katherine Beard, July 30, 1944; Three Children: Linda 
B. Kay, Kathy B. Allen, Don Beard, Jr. Address: 2918 Skye Drive, Fayetteville 
28303. 





Legislative Branch 375 

E. GRAHAM BELL 

(Democrat — Gaston County) 

(Thirty-eighth House District — Counties: Gaston and Lincoln. Four Repre- 
senatives.) 

E. Graham Bell was born in Gaston County, April 16, 
1939. Son of J. Clyde Bell and Thelma Henley Bell. Attend- 
ed Gaston County Schools; IBM School, Charlotte; Data 
Programming, IBM School, Atlanta, Georgia; IBM School, 
New York. Owner E. Graham Bell Insurance Agency and 
E. Graham Bell Real Estate. President, Majestic Fin. Cor- 
poration; President Colonial Insurance Brokers, Inc.; Pres- 
ident Cardinal Insurance Agency, Charlotte; E. Graham 
Bell Prop., Inc.; Bells General Store, Inc. President N. C. 
Premium Service Comps., also on the Board 1970-71. President Gaston County 
Young Democratic Club, 1966, Secretary, 1965; Tenth District President NCYDC; 
national committee member 1966-68; one of the top ten young democrats in North 
Carolina 1965. United States Air Force A/2c 1957-60. Member, Holy Communion 
Lutheran Church, Dallas; chairman, Church Council. Married Gayle Walker 
February 7, 1957. Five children: E. Graham, Jr. (Chuck), J. Chris, Martin Craig, 
Ann Margaret and Patrick. Address: Route 3, Kendrick Road, Gastonia 28052. 

MARILYN R. BISSELL 
(Mrs. H. A. Bissell) 

(Republican — Mecklenburg County) 

(Thirty-sixth House District — County: Mecklenburg. Eight Representatives.) 

Mrs. Marilyn R. Bissell was born in Jamestown, New 
York, September 29, 1927. Daughter of John E. Weaver and 
Romaine Cherry Weaver. Attended Jamestown High School, 
1941-1945. Graduated Grove City College, Grove City, Penn- 
sylvania, B.S. degree, June 1949. Payroll Accountant. Vice- 
Chairman, Mecklenburg County Republican Party, 1970- 
1972; Precinct Vice-Chairman, 1968-1970; former school 
teacher. Board member, Charlotte Women's Political Caucus 
(1970-72). Board member (1968-70). Charity League of Char- 
lotte; Member 1972-73, 1974-75 Session; Appears in: Who's Who in Politics (1974, 
1975, 1976 editions), Personalities of the South (1974, 1975, 1976 editions); Criminal 
Justice and Training Standards Council (1974, 1975, 1976); Legislative Commission 
on Governmental Expenditures (1974, 1975, 1976). Policy Council — N. C. Womens 
Political Caucus. Law-Focused Advisory Committee 1975, 1976). Mecklenburg Task 
Force on Reading (1975). Board of Directors — Epilepsy Association of N. C. 
Convenor — Women's Forum of N. C. Member — Coordinating Committee (N. C.) — 
IWY (International Women's Year). Board Member — N. C. Federation of Republican 
Women Member, Trinity Presbyterian Church, Circle Leader and Choir Member. 
Married H. A. Bissell, May 12, 1951. Three children: Karen Romaine, Kathleen 
Martha, and Leslie Kay Marilyn. Address: 2216 Providence Road, Charlotte 28211. 




376 



North Carolina Manual 



LOUISE SMITH BRENNAN 
(Mrs. Stanley L. Brennan) 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 

(Thirty-Sixth House District — County: Mecklenburg. Eight Representatives.) 

Louise Smith Brennan was born in Chester, S. C, No- 
vember 11, 1922. Daughter of Tom Smith and Kate Varna- 
dore. Graduated Hartsell High School, 1939; University of 
North Carolina at Charlotte, 1963-1970 B.A. — Political Sci- 
ence and English. University of North Carolina at Chapel 
Hill, 1974-date: Working toward doctorate in Political Sci- 
ence. College Instructor. Chairman, 9th Congressional Dis- 
trict Democratic Convention, 1975-76; Mecklenburg County 
Democratic Women's Club, 1975-76; Charlotte Women's 
Political Caucus, 1973-74; Chairman, 9th Congressional District Convention, 1973- 
74; Chairman, Mecklenburg County Democratic Party, 1970-72; Co-chairman with 
Governors Scott and Hodges — Citizens for Muskie, 1971-72; Delegate, Democratic 
National Convention, 1972; Consultant, Mecklenburg Democratic Party Campaign 
Committee, 1963, 65, 66, 68, 70, and 72. Member, Governor's Commission on Party 
Reform, 1968-70; Charlotte-Mecklenburg Charter Commission, 1969-71; President, 
Democratic Women's Club of Mecklenburg County, 1967; Chairman, 9th District 
N. C. Women of North Carolina, 1968-71; Chairman, Precinct No. 10, 1972-75. Mem- 
ber, Board of Directors — Heart Association of Mecklenburg County, 1970-71; Unit 
Chairman, United Appeal, 1971; President, Dilworth PTA, 1960-61. Member, Cald- 
well Memorial Presbyterian Church; Elder, Class of 1976-78; Sunday School 
Teacher — Young Adults. Married Robert Thomas Sutton, 1949 (deceased). Stanley 
L. Brennan September 25, 1965. Children: Susan Louise Sutton; Jane Sutton Cole- 
man, Robert T. Sutton, Jr. Address: 2101 Dilworth Road East, Charlotte 28203. 




JOSEPH LEONARD BRIGHT 

(Democrat — Craven County) 



(Third House District — Counties: 
Representatives.) 



Craven, Jones, Lenoir and Pamlico. Three 




Smith. Address: Rt. 2 



Joseph Leonard Bright was born in Vanceboro, January 
6, 1925. Son of George Clifton and Pauline (Hill) Bright. 
Attended Farm Life School, 1931-1942; Merchant Marine 
Academy, California; Kings Business College, 1949. Auto- 
mobile dealer and farmer. Member, Masonic Order and Sudan 
Shrine. Served in Merchant Marines, 1943-1946. Member, 
Vanceboro Methodist Church. Married Rachel C. Allcox, 
May 17, 1947. Children: Joe, Jr. (killed in automobile acci- 
dent, Nov. 29, 1969.), George Clifton and Barbara Bright 
Vanceboro 28586. 



Legislative Branch 



377 



HAROLD JAMES BRUBAKER 



(Republican — Randolph County) 

(Twenty-fourth House District — County: Randolph. Two Representatives.) 

Harold James Brubaker was born in Mount Joy, Pen- 
nsylvania, November 11, 1946. Son of Paul N. Brubaker and 
Verna Mae Miller. Graduated Pennsylvania State University, 
1969 — B.S. Agricultural Economics; North Carolina State 
University, 1971 — Masters of Economics. Marketing Enter- 
prises — President. Non-elected chairman — Randolph County 
Board of Elections. Former National FFA Vice President. 
Member St. Johns Lutheran Church. Chairman — Congre- 
gation and Vice-Chairman Board of Deacons. Married 

Geraldine (Baldwin) Brubaker November, 1972. Address: Rt. 3, Box 200, Asheboro 

27203. 




DAVID WEBSTER BUMGARDNER, JR. 

(Democrat — Gaston County) 

(Thirty-eighth House District — Counties: Gaston and Lincoln. Four Repre- 
sentatives.) 

^^1 David Webster Bumgardner, Jr. was born in Belmont, 

J^^H ^ November ~2, 1921. Son of David Webster and Winnifred 

m B (Ballard) Bumgardner. Attended Belmont Public Schools, 

1927-1938; Belmont Abbey College, 1939-1940; Gupton-Jones 
College of Mortuary Science, Nashville, Tenn., graduated, 
1942. Mortician. President & Treasurer, Bumgardner Fun- 
eral Home, Inc. Director, Belmont Savings and Loan. Mem- 
ber N. C. Funeral Director Assn.; National Funeral Direct- 
ors Assn.; Board of Directors, Conference of Funeral Service 
Examining Boards of the United States, 1952-1956, served as President, 1955-1956; 
N. C. State Board of Embalmers and Funeral Directors, 1950-1955, served as Presi- 
dent, 1954-1955. Received Distinguished Seivice Award from Dallas Institute- 
Gupton-Jones College of Mortuary Science, 1954. Member, Masons, Belmont Lodge 
No. 627; Gastonia York Rite Masonic Orders; Shrine, Oasis Temple. Past President 
of Belmont Kiwanis Club, Past Lieutenant Governor of Division Two, Carolinas Ki- 
wanis District (1966). Appointed to original Planning and Zoning Board of Bel- 
mont; past President, Belmont Chamber of Commerce; Past President, Belmont 
United Fund, Inc. Named 1967 "Man of the Year" by Belmont Chamber of Com- 
merce. Chairman of Commission for the Study of the Local and Ad Valorem Tax 
Structure of N. C, 1970. Served in U. S. Army, 1942-1945; European-African 
Theatre, 1943-1945; U. S. Army Reserve, 1949-1955; N. C. National Guard since 
1955; Lt. Colonel (Retired 1974). Representative in the General Assembly of 1967, 
1969, 1971, 1973 and 1975). Member, First Baptist Church, Belmont; Deacon; Church 
Parliamentarian; formerly served as Chairman Finance Committee; as Depart- 
ment Superintendent in Sunday School and on Building Committee. Married Sara 
Margaret Jones, August 14, 1948. Children: Mrs. Sharon B. Hill, and Sandra Jo. 
Address: 209 Peachtree Street, Belmont 28012. 



378 North Carolina Manual 

SAM D. BUNDY 

(Democrat — Pitt County) 




(Eighth House District — Counties: Greene and Pitt. Two Representatives.) 

^ w Sam D. Bundy represents the Eighth Representative 

£ District. Graduated Farmville High School, 1923; Duke 

m University, A.B., 1927; East Carolina University, M.A., 

^■i jj., L-^rrr 1948. Retired. Former Principal of Schools in Duplin, 

Edgecombe, and Martin Counties; Federal Government 1943- 
1944; Secretary of Farmville Chamber of Commerce and 
Tobacco Board of Trade, 1946-47; Principal of Farmville 
Public Schools, 1947-1965; Principal of Sam D. Bundy 
School, 1965-1970; Member Mount Olive College Board of 
Trustees, President of Pitt County Unit N. C. AE, 1951-52; President North- 
eastern District NCAE, 1952-53. Past Master Tarboro Masonic Lodge 1942; 
Past Master Farmville Masonic Lodge 1950; 32nd Degree Scottish Rite Mason and 
Member of Sudan Temple of the Shrine; District Deputy Grand Master Fifth 
Masonic District N. C. 1951-54; Grand Orator of Grand Lodge of Masons in North 
Carolina 1961-62; Knight Commander of Court of Honor. Past President Tar- 
boro Kiwanis Club 1941; Past District Governor of Carolina Kiwanis District 
1945; Farmville Man of Year 1974. Rotating Panel Member of Carolina Today 
Morning Show, WCNT-TV, Greenville, N. C. Member, North Carolina General 
Assembly, 1971, 1973, 1975, 1977; Vice-Chairman Constitutional Amendments Com- 
mittee, 1973, 1975; Vice-Chairman Education Committee, 1973, 1975. Member, 
Diciples of Christ Church; Teacher Men's Class Farmville Christian Church Sunday 
School 1954. Superintendent Farmville Christian Church Sunday School, 1946- 
1953; President North Carolina Christian Men's Fellowship, 1950-51, 1955-56; 
President State Convention Diciples of Christ, 1954. Member, Advisory Budget 
Commission, 1975-77. Member, Phi Delta Kappa, Pi Kappa Phi, Omicron Delta 
Kappa. Married Bettie Spencer Bundy. Two Sons: Sam D. Bundy, Jr. and James 
Henry Bundy. Three grandchildren. Address: Box 30, Farmville 27828. 

ARTHUR HARTWELL CAMPBELL 

(Democrat — Wilson County) 

(Seventh House District — Counties: Edgecombe, Nash and Wilson. Four 
Representatives.) 

Arthur Hartwell Campbell was born in Buie's Creek, 
October 8, 1916. Son of Dr. Leslie H. Campbell and Viola 
Haire Campbell. Graduated Campbell High School 1932; 
Campbell College, A.A., 1934; Wake Forest College, B.S., 
1936; graduate student, U.N.C., 1937; Yale University, B.D., 
1938-41. Owner and Editor of Radio Station WGTM in 
,4 Wilson. Past President Wilson-Rocky Mount Sales, Market- 

ing and Executive Club. Organized, built and managed 
<* t Eastern Carolina's first television station 1955-1963 in 

Greenville. An organizer and first President of Sentinel Life Insurance Company, 
Greenville. Member, Wilson Rotary Club. Past Director of Rotary Club, Wilson 
Chamber of Commerce. Eastern Carolina Council of Boy Scouts, Carolinas United 





Legislative Branch 379 



Fund and Wilson County United Fund. Member, Greenville City School Board 1958- 
63; Greenville City Council 1963-64; Chairman Wilson County Economic Develop- 
ment Commission 1965- ; trustee of Campbell College. Member N. C. House of Repre- 
sentatives, 1969. Member, First Baptist Church, Wilson; Sunday School Teacher 
1965-70 and Deacon 1967-70. Married Verda Harris October 20, 1942. Three sons: 
Thomas Hartwell, Leslie Vann and Neal Pearson. Address: 1709 Wilshire Boule- 
vard, Wilson 27893. 

HOWARD B. CHAPIN 

(Democrat — Beaufort County) 

(Second House District — Counties: Beaufort and Hyde. One Representative.) 

Howard B. Chapin was born in Ahoskie, N. C, December 
9, 1921. Son of Henry B. Chapin (Deceased) and Lavenia 
(Howard) Chapin. Attended Public Schools of Weldon 
Aurora; Graduated Kinston High School. Graduated At- 
lantic Christian College, 1947, A.B.; Attended Civic In- 
stitute of Government, Chapel Hill; Political Science Courses, 
East Carolina University. Teacher, Belhaven and Washington 
City Schools. Member NEA; NCAE; ACT. Former Coach 
High School Football, Basketball, Baseball; Division Man- 
ager F. E. Compton Company; Past President Belhaven Lions Club; Past President 
Washington Kiwanis Club; Charter Member Tri-Community Ruritan Club. Board 
of Directors of Tri-County Health Services; Personnel Director National Spinning 
Co., Washington, N. C; Past Member Washington Planning Board. Served Sgt. 
8th Air Force, October 1943-November 1945. Member, Christian Church. Married 
Mary Alice (Beasley) Chapin, January 29, 1948. Two Sons: J. Michael Chapin, 
Kenneth E. Chapin. Address: Rt. 5, Box 419, Runyon Hills, Washington 27889. 

NANCY WINBON CHASE 
(Mrs. John B. Chase) 

(Democrat — Wayne County) 

(Ninth House District — County: Wayne. Two Representatives.) 

Nancy Winbon Chase was born in Fremont, October 12, 
1903. Daughter of Robert Edward and Kate (Davis) Winbon. 
Attended Fremont High School, 1910-1921. Housewife. 
Vice-Chairman Eureka Precinct, 1960, 1961; Co-Chairman 
Wayne County Democratic Campaign, 1960; Chairman 
North Carolina Farm Bureau. Women's Committee, 1955- 
1961; North Carolina Farm Bureau, Distinguished Service 
to Agriculture Award, 1956; Member, Board of Trustees 
Wayne Community College; Wayne County "Woman of the 
Year," 1956; member Goldsboro area Chamber of Commerce; honorary member 
Future Homemakers of America; included in 1965 edition of International Bio- 
graphy; received 1965 Progressive Farmer Award for Rural Woman of the Year in 
the South. Included in the 1971 edition of the National Register of Prominent Amer- 
icans and in the 1972 edition of Personalities of the South. Served on Governor's 




380 North Carolina Manual 



Study Commission on the Education and Employment of Women, Vice Chairman of 
Commission; Governor's Study Committee on Architectural Barriers; Member of 
the Charles B. Aycock Memorial Commission, 1972; Treasurer North Carolina 
Council of Women's Organizations, 1959-1961. Vice Chairman, 1957-1959. Member, 
Mental Health Commission. Past member Governor's State Traffic Safety Council; 
Eureka School Board, 1959, 1960; Charles B. Aycock School Board, 1960-1962; 
State Welfare Study Commission, 1961, 1962; State Tobacco Advisory Committee, 
1966; Wayne County Extension Advisoiy Committee, 1964. L mocratic "Woman of 
the Year", Wayne County and Third District, 1962; "Tar Heel of the Week" in The 
News and Observer August 12, 1962. Member, Board of Trustees, Louisburg College. 
Representative in the General Assembly of 1963, 1965, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973, and 
1975. Honorary member Delta Kappa Gamma, 1963, (teachers' organization), mem- 
ber Beta Sigma Phi (social and cultural organization), also honorary international 
members; included in 1962 edition of "North Carolina Lives — The Tar Heel Who's 
Who"; included in 1964 edition of "Who's Who of American Women". Member of 
N. C. Mental Health Association; N. C. National Bank, Goldsboro; N. C. Land Use 
Planning Congress; Wayne County Symphony Board, 1967- ; Goldsboro Chamber of 
Commerce; Business and Professional Women's Club, Legislative Committee of the 
Club; member of the North Carolina Literary and Historical Association; received 
Community Service Award in 1963 given by Eureka Ruritan Club. Citizens Award 
by N. C. Dental Society, 1975; Included in the Bicentennial Edition of Outstanding 
and Patriotic American Citizens, 1976. Methodist; Pi-esident Woman's Society of 
Christian Service; District Treasurer, New Bern District, 1946-1948; District 
President, New Bern District, 1949-1953; Charge Treasurer, 1959-1960; Honorary 
Life Patron, 1952, Life Member, 1944 Award. Teacher Adult Sunday School since 
1947; Treasurer Eureka Church, 1959-1968; member Board of Stewards, 1959-. 
Awarded the 1972 Distinguished Service Award by the North Carolina Public 
Health Association. Manned John B. Chase, January 27, 1922 (now deceased). 
Children: John B. v Jr. and Thomas E. Chase (now deceased). Address: Box 226, 
Eureka 27830. 

JOHN TRAMMEL CHURCH 

(Democrat — Vance County) 

(Thirteen House District — Counties: Caswell, Granville, Person, Vance and 
Warren. Three Representatives.) 

John Trammel Church was born in Raleigh, N. C, Sep- 
tember 22, 1917. Son of Charles Randolph and Lela (Johnson) 
Church. Attended Boyden High School, Salisbury, graduated 
1935; Catawba College, 1936-1938; University of North Caro- 
lina, 1938-1942, B.S. in Pharmacy. Chairman of the Board, 
Rose's Stores, Inc., Member N. C. Merchants Assn., past 
President; Vice Chairman of American Retail Fedei-ation. 
Member Kappa Alpha Order, University of North Carolina; 
Elks; Mason, Shrine; Rotary, past President; Jr. Chamber 
of Commerce, Henderson, past President; member City Council, Henderson, 1965- 
1966; Chairman Democratic Executive Committee of Vance County, 1965-1966. 
Vice Chairman of Board of Trustees of Louisburg College, Louisburg; member 
of the Morehead Scholarship Selection Committee (District); past Chairman 




Legislative Branch 381 



of Alumni Giving Program of the U.N.C.; Trustee of Louisburg College; past 
Chairman of Board of Visitors of Peace College, Raleigh; past News and Observer 
"Tar Heel of the Week"; member of the State Art Museum Building Commission; 
Director, Peoples Bank & Trust Co.; Past Chairman of Kerr Lake Commission; 
Past Trustee of University of N. C; Trustee of Vance-Granville Community College; 
Director, UNC Alumni Association, Chapel Hill; President and member of the 
Executive Board of the Occoneechee Council, Boy Scouts of America; former 
Trustee and member of the Executive Committee of Boys Home, Lake Waccamaw; 
past President of United Fund and past trustee and member of Executive Com- 
mittee of Carolinas United; former member Board of Directors of Henderson 
Chamber of Commerce; past President of Henderson Countiy Club; former member 
of Advisory Board of Salvation Army. Representative in the General Assembly of 
1967 and 1969. Served in the U.S. Marine Corps Reserve (Naval Aviation), Captain, 
1942-1945. Member, First Methodist Church, Henderson. Chairman of Board; past 
Chairman of Finance Committee; past President Men's Bible Class. Married Emma 
Thomas Rose, December 31, 1943. Children: John Trammel, Jr. and Elizabeth 
Howard. Address: 420 Woodland Road, Henderson 27536. 



JAMES McCLURE CLARKE 

(Democrat — Buncombe County) 

(Forty-third House District — Counties: Buncombe and Transylvania. Four 
Representatives.) 

James McClure Clarke, was born in Manchester, Vermont, 
June 12, 1917. Son of Dumont Clarke and Annie Dixon Mc- 
Clure. Attended Biltmore High School 1931-32 and Asheville 
School, 1932-35. Graduated Princeton University, 1939 A.B. 
Assistant to the President, Warren Wilson College; Secre- 
tary, James G. K. McClure Educational and Development 
Fund; Dairy Farm and Orchard Operator. Member South- 
eastern Council of Foundations, Trustee Council on Founda- 
tions. Member Asheville Civitan Club, Former President. 
Chairman, Buncombe County Board of Education, 1969-76. Trustee of the N. C. 
School of the Arts since 1963; vice-chairman, 1971 to present. Former trustee, 
Memorial Mission Hospital, Asheville. Associate Editor, Asheville Citizen-times, 
1960-68, Member, Advisory Board, Highland Hospital, Asheville. U.S. Naval Re- 
serve, Lieutenant Senior Grade: 1942-45 Pacific Theatre. Member Warren Wilson 
Presbyterian Church, Elder, 1970-71. Married Elspeth McClure February 17, 1945. 
Children: Susie Clarke Hamilton; James Gore King McClure Clarke; Annie Clarke 
Ager, DuMont Clarke, IV; Mark Skinner Clarke; William Clarke, and Douglas 
Dixon Clarke. Address: Hickory Nut Gap Farm, Fairview 28730. 

PORTER CLAUDE COLLINS, JR. 

(Democrat — Alleghany County) 

(Twenty-eight Representative District — Counties: Alleghany, Ashe, Stokes, 
Surry and Watauga. Three Representatives.) 




382 



North Carolina Manual 




Porter Claude Collins, Jr., was born in Alleghany County, 
N. C, July 1, 1928. Son of Porter Claude and Nannie (Billings) 
Collins. Attended Glade Valley High School and has attended 
two insurance courses conducted at the University of N. C. 
at Chapel Hill, N. C. Owner of general insurance agency, 
and livestock farmer. Member of Independent Insurance 
Agents of North Carolina. Director of Blue Ridge Electric 
Membership Corporation; member of the New River Develop- 
ment Corp.; former Trustee of the Northwestern Regional 
Library; past Chairman Laurel Springs School Committee, 1958-1963; past Chair- 
man Laurel Springs Community Club, 1956-1962. Served as Member of Executive 
Committee of New River Mental Health Association for Alleghany, Ashe and 
Watauga Counties; Alleghany County Board of County Commissioners. Alleghany 
County Tax Supervisor. Representative in the General Assemblies of 1967 and 
1969. Member, Sparta Masonic Lodge No. 423, past Master; York Rite Masons; 
Oasis Shrine, Grange, "Grange Deputy of the Year" for 1962; past Deputy North 
Carolina State Grange, 1956-1965; past Master Alleghany Pomona Grange, 1957- 
1963. Member, Sparta Methodist Church; Steward; Treasurer of Building Fund; 
member of Official Board. Served as member of the N. C. State Parks and Forests 
Study Commission, which was created by the 1967 General Assembly. Appointed 
member of Governor Scott's Advisory Committee Studying the feasibility of estab- 
lishing a Veterinary School of Medicine in N. C. Married Annie Blanche Pugh, June 
10, 1947. Two daughters: Linda and Susan. Address: Route 1, Box 96, Laurel 
Springs 28644. 



RUTH E. COOK 

(Mrs. John O. Cook) 



(Democrat — Wake County) 

(Fifteenth House District — County: Wake. Six Representatives.) 

Ruth E. Cook was born in Berlin, Germany, November 
11, 1929. Daughter of Samuel and Use (Meyer) Mohr. At- 
tended George Washington High School, 1944-1947; New 
York University. Former Executive Director of The State 
Council For Social Legislation. 1st Vice President N. C. 
Consumers Council; Past Pi^esident Raleigh-Wake League 
of Women Voters; State Board member. N. C. Civil Liberties 
Union. Tar Heel of The Week, News and Observor, 1969. 
Member Unitarian — Universalist Fellowship. Married John 

Oliver Cook (deceased), October 31, 1954. Two Children: Roger Mohr Cook, Judith 

Ellen Cook. Address: 3413 Churchill Road, Raleigh 27607. 





Legislative Branch 383 



WILLIAM AYDEN CREECH 

(Democrat — Wake County) 
(Fifteenth House District — County: Wake. Six Representatives.) 

William Ayden Creech, was born in Smithfield, N. C. 
August 5, 1925. Attended Public Schools of North Carolina; 
University of North Carolina, A.B., 1948; University of Oslo, 
Blindern, Norway, 1947; George Washington University, 
1949, 1952, 1953; Inter- Agency Foreign Trade Course, De- 
partment of State, Agriculture, Commerce and Labor, 1952; 
Near East Area Specialization Course, Foreign Service In- 
stitute, Department of State, 1952-1953; Certificate in Eng- 
lish and Comparative Law, City of London School, 1954; 
Georgetown University Law School, J.D., 1958. Economic Assistant, American 
Embassy, Baghdad, Iraq, 1949-1951; International Economist, Near East and 
African Division, Bureau of Foreign Commerce. Department of Commerce, 1952- 
1954; Economic Officer, American Embassy, London, England, 1954-55; Profes- 
sional Staff Member, U. S. Senate Committee on Small Business, Washington, D. C, 
1955-58; Counsel, U. S. Senate Committee on Small Business, Washington, D. C, 
1958-59; Attorney At Law, Smithfield, N. C, 1959-1961; Chief Counsel and Staff 
Director, Sub-Committee on Constitutional Rights of the U. S. Senate Judiciary 
Committee, Washington, D. C, 1961-1966; Attorney at Law, Raleigh, N. C, 1965. 
Chairman of Board, Edenton Street United Methodist Child Development Center, 
1973; Member, Advisory Committee North Carolina Business and Economic Im- 
provement Corporation, 1973; Member, North Carolina Advisory Council on Small 
Business, 1968; Chairman, N. C. Advisory Council on Small Business, 1969; Vice- 
President Wake County Mental Health Association 1968-1969; President Cameron 
Park Association, 1973; Presidentelect, Raleigh Little Theatre, 1973; Member, 
Board of Directors and Executive Committee North Carolina Mental Health Associ- 
ation, 1971; Member and Vice Chairman, North Carolina American Revolution 
Bicentennial Commission; 1967- ; Member, Board of Associates Meredith Col- 
lege, Raleigh, N. C, 1966; Member, Law Committee North Carolina Council on 
Mental Retardation; Member, Task Force on Social Services and Child Mental 
Health State Study Commission on Emotionally Disturbed Children, 1970; Chair- 
man North Carolina Bar Association Committee on Mental Health, 1971; President 
Wake County Historical Society, Inc., 1971-1972; Member, Board of Trustees North 
Carolina Symphony Society, Inc., 1967; Member, Advisory Committee North Caro- 
lina Symphony Society, Inc., 1964-1967, 1973, 1974; President Raleigh-Wake County 
Chapter North Carolina Symphony Society, Inc., 1967, 1968; Member of Campbell 
College Million Dollar Cabinet (Sixteen Member Fund-Raising Committee for 
Baptist Church related College at Buies Creek, N. C, 1965-1966); Member of 
Bennett Place Centennial Committee, 1965; Member, Board of Directors of National 
Capital Area Chapter of the National Foundation, 1962-1964; Member, Tuscarora 
Council Boy Scouts of America, 1961; North Carolina State Chairman March of 
Dimes, 1960, 1961; Member, Johnston County (N. C.) Board of Public Welfare, 
1960-61. Recipient of Junior Chamber of Commerce Distinguished Service Award, 
1961; Certificate of Appreciation, The National Foundation, 1961; Award for Out- 
standing Service Johnston (N. C.) County Historical Society, 1965; Award for out- 
standing effort for achievement in accreditation Campbell College, 1966. Member, 



:<si 



North Carolina Manual 



American Legion; Mason. Author "Congress Looks to the Serviceman's Rights"; 
American Bar Associatiori Journal, Vol. 49, Number 11, November, 1963; "Psy- 
chological Testing and Constitutional Rights", 1966 Duke Law Journal, p. 332; 
"The Privacy of Government Employees", 1966 Law and Contemporary Problems, 
p. 413; Numerous articles Foreign Commerce Weekly and Publications of Bureau 
of Foreign Commerce, U. S. Dept. of Commerce, 1952-1953; Newspaper articles, 
1947. Attended 1964 National Democratic Convention, aide to Senator Sam J. 
Ervin, Sr. ; 1968 National Convention as alternate delegate; Chairman of Committee 
on Permanent Organization, N. C. Democratic State Convention, 1960. Veteran 
WWII. Member, United Methodist Church; Chairman of Ministry of Social Con- 
cerns; Sunday School Teacher; Married Sally (Wood) Creech. Three Sons: 
Lawrence, Ezekiel, Charles. Address: 1208 College Place, Raleigh; 1208 Branch 
Bank Building, Raleigh 27605. 

GEORGE PRESTON CULLIPHER 






(Democrat- Martin County) 

(Sixth House District — Counties: Halifax, Martin. Two Representatives.) 

George Preston Cullipher was born in Merry Hill, N. C, 
September 23, 1908. Son of Thomas and Sophia J. (Mizzelle) 
Cullipher. Colerain High School, 1923-1927; Campbell Junior 
College, 1929-1931, B.S. Member, Kappa Phi Kappa; Pi 
Kappa Mu; Education Fraternities. Served 42 years Public 

J Schools (Retired). Member, Masons; Lions Club; Board of 

Martin County Mental Health Association; Board of Di- 
IMlL rectors of East Carolina Sheltered Workshop. Served as 

™^- District Governor, Two terms 1958-1968 Roanoke District of 

North Carolina, National Ruritan Clubs. Member, Methodist Church; Sunday School 
Teacher; Lay Leader; Chairman Finance Committee; Member, Pastoral-Parish 
Relationship Committee; Program Chairman Methodist Men's Club. Married Mary 
Adams, July 8, 1933. Two Sons: Bill Cullipher, Joe Cullipher, Address: 102 Christina 
Ave.,Williamston 27892. 



;   



JOHN EDWIN DAVENPORT 



(Seventh House 
Representatives.) 




(Democrat — Nash County) 
District — Counties: Edgecombe, Nash and Wilson. Four 

John Edwin Davenport was born in Nashville, April 28, 
1928. Son of Louis Ludford Davenport and Bybe Rogers 
Davenport. Graduated Nashville High School, 1945; Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, 1948, A.B.; UNC School of Law, 1951, 
J.D. Attorney. Member, Nash-Edgecombe Bar Association, 
President 1969-70 and Secretary 1955-56. Member, Seventh 
Judicial District Bar Association; North Carolina Bar Asso.; 
American Bar Asso. (member Real Estate and Probate Sec- 
tion); N. C. State Bar; American Judicature Society and 



Legislative Branch 



385 



N. C. Academy of Trial Lawyers. Lecturer on Eminent Domain Laws, N. C. Bar 
Association Practical Skills Course 1971 and 1972. Trust Officer, First Citizens 
Bank and Trust Co., 1959-64; Chairman of Board, Sharpsburg Properties, Inc.; 
President, Regency Estates, Inc.; President, Nashville Industrial Development 
Corp. 1964 to date. Member Delta Theta Phi Law Fraternity, District Chancellor 
1958-70. Mason. Prosecuting Attorney, Nash County Recorder's Court 1956-57. 
Real Property Attorney, State of N. C. 1957-59. College Organizer, N. C. Young 
Democratic Club 1955-56; President, Nash County YDC 1956-57. Chairman, Nash 
County Democratic Executive Committee, 1968-1972; member, N. C. Democratic 
Executive Committee 1970-1974, Nashville Young Man of the Year, 1956. District 
Vice-President, N. C. Jaycees 1956-57. Director, Country Doctor Museum. Enlisted 
U.S. Air Force 1951; Officers Candidate School, graduated 1952; Honorable Dis- 
charge as 1st Lieutenant 1953. Captain, U.S.A.F. Reserves 1953-65. Member, Nash- 
ville United Methodist Church; chairman of Work Area on Stewartship member, 
Council of Ministries and Administrative Board; assistant Sunday school teacher. 
Married Mary Elizabeth Pope October 10, 1959. Two children: Mary Elizabeth, 
and Wynn Newman. Address: P. O. Drawer 988, Nashville 27856. 



CLAUDE DeBRUHL 



(Democrat — B ancombe County) 

(Forty-third House District — Counties: Buncombe and Transylvania. Four 
Representatives.) 

Claude DeBruhl was born in Buncombe County, January 
5, 1915. Son of William LeRoy and Levasta (Reece) De- 
Bruhl. Attended Buncombe County Schools; Woodfin High 
School; Asheville Biltmore College; Lenoir Rhyne College; 
Love Law School, Asheville; graduated from "The Anna- 
polis of the Air" at Pensacola, Fla. as naval officer, and 
graduate of the Appraisal School, University of Georgia. 
Farmer, publisher, and builder. Selected "Home Builder of 
the Year" for Western North Carolina, 1967; President, WNC 
Home Builders Assn., 1969-1970. Representative in the General Assembly of 1969 
and 1971. Awarded plaque for "Outstanding Services Rendered" to Disabled 
American Veterans in 1965, 1966, 1967. Past Commander, West Asheville American 
Legion. Member, Asheville, State, and National Boards of Realtors; Chamber of 
Commerce; West Asheville Business Assn. 32nd degree Scottish Rite Mason; 
member, Blackmer Masonic Lodge No. 170, Oasis Temple and Asheville Consistory, 
A&ASR. Member, Montmorenci Methodist Church. President, Allied Publishers, 
Inc. Married Revonda Miller April 13, 1940. Two sons: Captain Claude Michael, 
U. S. Air Force, and William Patrick. Address: Route No. 1, Box 480, Candler 
28715. 




::s»; 



North Carolina Manual 



JUDSON DAVIE DeRAMUS, JR. 




(Democrat — Forsyth County) 

(Twenty-ninth House District — County: Forsyth. Five Representatives.) 

Judson Davie DeRamus, Jr., was Worn in Charlotte, N. C, 
January 6, 1945. Son of Judson Davie DeRamus, Sr., and 
Nina Dixon (Jerome) DeRamus. Attended Reynolds High 
School, Winston-Salem, 1957-1959; The McCallie School, 
Chattanooga, Tennessee, 1959-1962. Graduated Duke Uni- 
versity, B.A., 1965; University of North Carolina Law 
\y School, J.D., 1968. Attorney, Winston-Salem. 1975-76 Session 
of House of Representatives. Member North Carolina Bar; 
» r". J North Carolina Bar Association; Forsyth County Bar Asso- 

ciation; Forsyth County Junior Bar Association; American Judicature Society, 
Member Rotary; Exchange; Elks; Odd Fellows. Served U. S. Army Reserve, 1968- 
1969. Member, Winston-Salem Recreation and Parks Commission, January 8, 1974. 
Member, Centenary United Methodist Church. Married Sarah Lane (Ivey) 
DeRamus, June 28, 1969. Two children: Sarah Ivey and Margaret Lane. Address: 
792 Arbor Road, Winston-Salem 27104. 



DAVID HUNTER DIAMONT 

(Democrat — Surry County) 
(Twenty-eighth House District — Counties: Alleghany, Ashe, Stokes, Surry, 

David Hunter Diamont was born in Greensboro, N. C, 
February 9, 1946. Son of David Elijah and Hyacinth Cleo 
(Hunter) Diamont. Attended East Surry High School, Pilot 
Mountain, N. C, 1961-1963; Frank L. Ashley High School, 
Gastonia, N. C, 1963-64. Graduated Wake Forest University, 
B.A., 1968; Appalachian State University, M.A., 1972. High 
School History Teacher and Assistant Football Coach at 
Mount Aiiy Senior High School, Mt. Airy. Member NEA; 
W/&L NCAE; North Carolina Coaches' Association; Lambda Chi 

Alpha. Member, Pilot Mountain Jaycees; Surry County Young Democrats Club, 

President 1973-74. Member of the North Carolina House of Representatives, 1975. 

Member, First United Methodist Church of Pilot Mountain; President of MYF, 1962. 

Address: P. 0. Box 784, Pilot Mountain 27141. 




Legislative Branch 



387 



FRED RAY DORSEY 



(Republican — Henderson County) 

(Forty-second House District — County: Henderson. One Representative.) 

Fred Ray Dorsey, serving 3rd term, was born January 
19, 1930, in Buncombe County. Son of Fred D. Dorsey and 
Jessie Hensley Dorsey. Graduated Flat Rock High School, 
1948. Attended Blanton's Business College, Asheville. 
Specialist, Physical Distribution, General Electric Lighting 
Systems. Past President North Carolina Wildlife Federation; 
Director North Carolina Wildlife Federation; member, Na- 
tional Wildlife Federation; founder Blue Ridge Wildlife 
Club. Member, National Rifle Association. Sustaining mem- 
ber Boy Scouts. Military service-Sergeant, 1951-53. Charter Member, Flat Rock 
Lions Club. VFW Member — Post 5206. Member, East Flat Rock Methodist Church. 
Married Suzanne Carmichael February 8, 1957. Two children: Deborah Lee and 
Robert Todd. Address: Box 273, East Flat Rock 28726. 




CONRAD R. DUNCAN 



(Democrat — Rockingham County) 

(Twenty- Second House District — Counties: Alamance and Rockingham. Four 
Representatives.) 

Conrad R. Duncan was born October 9, 1928, in Carroll 
County, Virginia. Son of Conrad R. Duncan, Sr. and Bertha 
Birchfield. High School Education. General Contractor. Mem- 
ber AGC of America. Member Mason and Shrine. Air Force — 
Corporal, 1948-1949. Member Centenaiy United Methodist, 
Official Board — Finance & Misc. offices. Married Becky Tuttle 
Duncan June 9, 1951. Children: Patty Duncan Clark, Kathy 
Sue Duncan, Howard Keith Duncan, and Amy Christen 
Duncan. Address: Route 1, Box 282, Stoneville 27048. 




(* Resigned October 10, 1977 following appointment to North Carolina Senate to replace Webster.) 



RUTH MOSS EASTERLING 



(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 
(Thirty-sixth House District — County: Mecklenburg. Eight Representatives.) 




388 North Carolina Manual 



Ruth Moss Easterling was born in Gaffney, S. C. Decem- 
ber 26. Daughter of Benjamin Harrison Moss and Lillie Mae 
Crawley. Appointed to Charlotte City Council in March 
1972, served 20 months to December 1973. Graduated Cen- 
tralized High School, Blacksburg, S. C, 1929. Graduated 
Limestone College, Gaffney, S. C, 1932, with major in 
English, minors in Math and History. Post graduate studies 
at Queens College, Charlotte, in Business Law, Personnel 
Administration, Business Administration. Executive Assis- 
tant to I. D. Blumenthal, President of Radiator Specialty Co. of Charlotte, N. C. 
and Toronto, Canada. Trustee, Wildacres Retreat, dedicated to the betterment of 
human relations. Member American Association of University Women, League of 
Women Voters, Business and Professional Women's Club (National President, 1970- 
71), National Secretaries Association (International Chairman of Public and World 
Affairs, 1975-76), N. C. Women's Political Caucus (State President in 1974), 
Women's Equity Action League. Received WBT Radio Woman of the Year, 1964 — 
Charlotte's Outstanding Career Woman, 1971. Appointed by Governor Terry Sanford 
to the original Governor's Commission on the Status of Women in 1964. Member, 
First Baptist Church, Charlotte. Associate Superintendent of Training for the 
Church, Associate Superintendent of the Intermediate Department of the Sunday 
School. Member of the Library, Financial Planning, and Personnel Committees, 
President of Baptist Business Women in Mecklenburg Baptist Assn., also President 
of Baptist Business Women in the Church, at various times since joining the First 
Baptist Church in 1947. Address: 811 Bromley Road, Apt. 1, Charlotte 28207. 



GUS NICHOLAS ECONOMOS 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 

(Thirty-sixth House District — County: Mecklenburg. Eight Representatives.) 

Gus Nickolas Economos was born in Charlotte, April 22, 
1930. Son of Nickolas Economos and Christine Trohillis. 
Graduated Charlotte Tech. High 1949; Charlotte College — 
UNCC 2V2 years. Restaurateur. Co-owner of the Gondola 
Restaurants, Inc. Member, N. C. Restaurant Association; 
US Chamber of Commerce; Active member of the Charlotte 
Chamber of Commerce; member of the Commerce's State 
Legislation Committee for the past several years; active 
member of the Congressional Action Committee of the Cham- 
ber of Commerce for the past ten years. Member, Charlotte Civitan Club, Ahepa 
Marathon Chapter No. 2. US Army, Corporal 1951-53. Member Greek Orthodox 
Holy Trinity Cathederal — Charlotte. Married Patricia (Swaffer) Economos June 4, 
1952. Children: Nickolas Economos; Robert Economos; Larry Economos; and 
Nancy Economos. Address: 2400 Dalesford Dr., Charlotte 28205. 





Legislative Branch 389 

JAMES HARRELL EDWARDS 

(Democrat — Caldwell County) 

(Thirty-fourth House District — Counties: Caldwell, Wilkes and Yadkin. Three 
Representatives .) 

James Harrell Edwards was born in Ayden, N. C, No- 
S^k. vember 25, 1926. Son of James J. and Ella Stokes Edwards. 

f : Attended Atlantic Christian College; East Carolina Univer- 

sity; University of Miami. Insurance Adjuster; Private 
Detective. Owner and manager of Southeastern Adjustment 
Company, Hickory and President of Southeastern Adjustment 
Company, Inc. Member N. C. Association of Licensed Detec- 
tives; National Association of Independent Insurance Ad- 
justers; N. C. Adjusters Association; Loyal Order of Blue 
Goose International; National Association of Fire Investigators; NWNC Claims 
Association. Member, Shriner; White Shrine of Jerusalem; Veterans of Foreign 
Wars; American Legion, Loyal Order of Moose; Order of Elks; Hickory Lodge No. 
343 AF and AM; Hickory Commandry; Hickory Council; Catawba Chapter; Scottish 
Rite of Free Masonry. Adjuster of the Year, 1970. Member, Governor Scott's Insur- 
ance Study Commission. Served U. S. Naval Reserve, Ensign, November 1944- 
December 1947. Member, Bethlehem Lutheran Church; Deacon (1948-1949). Chicod 
Presbyterian Church, Greenville, N. C. Married Trelby Bumgarner Edwards, June 
30, 1967. Six children: James Loren Edwards; Charles Thomas Edwards; Ella Ann 
Edwards Compton; Johnny Harrell Edwards; Keith Charles Edwards; Greta Lynn 
Edwards. Address: Route No. 3, Box 118, Granite Falls 28630. 



THOMAS WILLIAM ELLIS, JR. 

(Democrat — Vance County) 

(Thirteenth House District — Counties: Caswell, Granville, Person, Vance and 
Warren. Three Representatives.) 

__^ Thomas William Ellis, Jr. was born in Henderson, Janu- 

ary 9, 1919. Son of Thomas William Ellis, Sr. and Verlie 
(Weldon) Ellis. Attended Public Schools of Henderson: Grad- 
uated Henderson High School 1936. Attended Mars Hill Col- 
lege; UNC-Chapel Hill, B.A., 1940; N. C. State College, 1941. 
1L^ Veteran World War II — served European Theater — Infantry 

a Ordnance 29th Division, Rank First Sergeant. Automobile 

ijg ^, Executive; Farmer. Member, N. C. Auto Dealers and Na- 

VSfc. JM tional Auto Dealers Association; Served 14 years as area 

chairman, both groups. President Henderson-Vance County Chamber of Commerce, 
1964. Member, Lions Club; President 1955-56; Zone Chairman 1962-63; Deputy 
District Governor 1963-64; Director 1972-74. Appointed Trustee N. C. College by 
Governor Umstead, 1954; Member, Henderson City School Board, Chairman two 
years, 1958-66; Member, N. C. Seashore Commission 1961-65; Served Vance County 
Board of Health; Chairman Vance County Board of Commissioners, 1967-68-69; 



390 



North Carolina Manual 



Served on National Committee-Taxation and Finance-National Association of 
County Officials 1968-69; Board of Trustees of Maria Parham Hospital; Chairman 
Area Mental Health Board 1971-72; Vice Chairman Cherokee District Boy Scouts, 
1966-1971; 1st Man of the Year Award by Henderson-Vance Chamber of Commerce 
1970. Served 1969-1973 Member, N. C. Highway Commission; Member of Vance 
County Planning Board. Member, First United Methodist Church, Henderson, N. C; 
Board of Stewards, Lay Leader. Mai-ried Dorothy Wiggins Ellis, July 24, 1942. 
Three children: Dorothy Mae Ellis, Dianne Marie Ellis and Thomas William Ellis, 
III. Address: 370 Forrest Road, Henderson 27536. 



JEFF HAILEN ENLOE, JR. 

(Democrat — Macon County) 

(Forty-fifth Representative District — Counties: Cherokee, Clay, Graham and 
Macon. One Representative.) 

Jeff Hailen Enloe, Jr., was born in Franklin, North 
Carolina, on September 2, 1914, the son of Jeff H. and Jessie 
Hester Enloe, Sr. Attended Franklin public schools, grad- 
uated Franklin High School, 1932; North Carolina State 
College, B.S., 1938, in Agriculture Education. Retired after 
34 years of service with the United States Department of 
Agriculture. Served in the United States Navy, 1943-1946, 
Petty Officer 2nd Class. Methodist. Married Duth Drum- 
mond July 20, 1946. Children: William A., Jeff H., Ill, James 
R. and Gregory M. Address: RFD 1, Box 46, Franklin 28734. 




(Twenty-ninth 
tatives.) 



RICHARD CANNON ERWIN 

(Democrat — Forsyth County) 
Representative District — County: Forsyth. Five Represen- 



Richard Cannon Erwin was born in Marion, August 23, 
1923, the son of John Adams and Flora Cannon Erwin. At- 
tended McDowell County Public Schools; Johnson C. Smith 
University (Charlotte, North Carolina), B.A. degree, 1947; 
Howard University School of Law (Washington, D. C), 
LL.B. degree, 1951. Lawyer (Firm of Erwin and Beaty) 
Member Forsyth County and State Bar Association; Bar of 
the United States Supreme Court; Kappa Alpha Psi Frater- 
nity. Winner Silver Cup, Citizens Coalition of Forsyth 
County, August, 1974. Past President, Forsyth County Bar Association. Served 
United States Army, 1943-1946 (First Sergeant). Member, St. Paul United Methodist 
Church; served as National Methodist Layman. Married Demerice Whitley August 
25, 1946. Children: Aurelia Whitley, and Richard Cannon, Jr. Address: P. 0. Box 
995, Winston-Salem, 27102; Home: 628 West 24V 2 Street, Winston-Salem 27104. 







Legislative Branch 



391 



JAMES EARL EZZELL, JR. 

(Democrat — Nash County) 

(Seventh House District — Counties: Edgecombe, Nash, and Wilson. Four 
Representatives .) 

James Earl Ezzell, Jr. was born September 6, 1936, in 
Rocky Mount. Son of James Earl Ezzell, Sr., and Edith 
Batchelor. Attended Rocky Mount Senior High School, 1953- 
1956; Wake Forest University, June 1960, B.A. History; 
Wake Forest University Law School, June 1963, LLB. At- 
torney at Law. Rocky Mount Recorder's Court — Solicitor, 
1964-1968. Member, Nash-Edgecombe, 7th Judicial District, 
North Carolina State and American Bar Associations, North 
Carolina Trial Lawyers Association. Member Scottish Rite 
Mason, Sudan Temple of the Shrine, Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity, Delta Sigma 
Phi Fraternity. Member, Englewood Baptist Church, Building Committee, Consti- 
tution Committee, and Substitute Sunday School Teacher. Married Patsy W. Ezzell 
February 5, 1966. Children: Mark M. Ezzell; James E. Ezzell, III; Stanton W. 
Ezzell. Address: 3405 Winstead Road, Rocky Mount 27801. 



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ROBERT ZEMRI FALLS 



(Democrat — Cleveland County) 

(Fortieth House District — Counties: Cleveland, Polk and Rutherford Three 

Representatives .) 

Robert Zemri Falls was born in Cleveland County, April 
15, 1912. Son of Alfred and Lula (Crowder) Falls. Attended 
Lattimore High School, 1929; The Citadel, (Military), 
R.O.T.C. training, 1929-1930; Gardner-Webb Junior Col- 
lege. Farmer. Member, Shelby Rotary Club; Shelby Cham- 
ber of Commerce; Cleveland County Agricultural Commit- 
tee. Representative in the General Assembly of 1965, 1967, 
1969 and 1971. Member, Westview Baptist Church, Shelby; 
Deacon, 1953. Married Jeannie Blanton November 20, 1935. 

Address: 1308 Wesson Road, Shelby 28150. 




392 



North Carolina Manual 



ROBERT L. FARMER 



(Democrat — Wake County) 

(Fifteenth House District — County: Wake. Six Representatives.) 

Robert L. Farmer was born in Johnston County, July 23, 
1933. Son of Thomas Albert and Oma Martha (Adams) 
Farmer. Attended Smithfield High School, graduated, 1951; 
University of North Carolina, B.S. degree in Business Ad- 
ministration, 1955, with major in Accounting; University 
of North Carolina Law School, LL.B., 1960. Lawyer. Mem- 
ber North Carolina State Bar, Wake County Bar, and North 
Carolina Bar Associations. Solicitor, Wake County Domestic 
Relations Court, 1963-1965. Admitted to practice before 
North Carolina State Courts, U. S. District Courts in North Carolina, and Supreme 
Court of the United States. N. C. Judicial Council, 1973-75. N. C. General Statutes 
Commission, 1975. Member Raleigh Jaycees, President, 1966-1967; Rakdgh Jaycee 
Zoological Foundation, first President, 1967; Raleigh Kiwanis Club. Served in U. S. 
Army, 1955-1957. Member, Hayes Barton United Methodist Church; Chairman, 
Board of Trustees since 1968; member Official Board for past nine years. Repre- 
sentative in the General Assembly, 1971. Married Martha Caroline Lassiter 
September 6, 1959. Children: Joseph Robert, James Thomas, and Caroline Marie. 
Address: 107 Kipling Place, Raleigh 27609. 




JO GRAHAM FOSTER 

(Mrs. James B. Foster) 



(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 



(Thirty-sixth Representative District- 
sentatives.) 



-County: Mecklenburg. Eight Repre- 



Jo Graham Foster was born May 22, 1915. Daughter of 
Rev. Joseph Alexander Graham and Queen McDonald Gra- 
ham. Attended McBee S. C. High School, 1927-1928, and 
Spring Hill Central High School, 1928-1931. Graduated 
Columbia College May 26, 1935. Member Delta Kappa Gam- 
ma, National Education Association, North Carolina Asso- 
ciation of Educators, P.A.C.E., local unit of Charlotte- 
Mecklenburg Educators, National Association of Secondary 
School Principals, Gamma Sigma Sorority, Sigma Tau Delta 
Honorary Sorority, International Platform Association, and precinct committee 
Vice Chairman. A nominee in the field of education as a Salute to Working Women, 
1968, and past president of N.C.A.E. Listed in Who's Who of American Platform. 
President profession. Member, Interin Management Team — Charlotte Mecklen- 
burg Schools. Member, Education Commission of the States (ECS) Commissioner 
serving on their Steering Committee, Resolutions Committee and Policy Committee. 
Member, Dilworth Methodist Church, Charlotte. Board of Stewards, adult Sunday 




Legislative Branch 



393 



School teacher, lay speaker and serves on several committees including Committee 
on Education. Married James Benjamin, June 4, 1937. One daughter, Mary Jo Foster 
McClure (Mrs. Thomas A. McClure). Address: 1520 Maryland Avenue, Charlotte, 
N. C. 28209. 



HENRY E. FRYE 

(Democrat — Guilford County) 

(Twenty-third House District — County: Guilford. Seven Representatives.) 

Henry E. Frye was born in Ellerbe, August 1, 1932. Son 
of Walter A. (deceased) and Pearl Alma (Motley) Frye. At- 
tended Mineral Springs School, Ellerbe; A & T State Uni- 
versity, B.S. (Biological Sciences), 1953; University of North 
Carolina, Chapel Hill, J. D. with Honors, June, 1959. Lawyer. 
Member, Greensboro Bar Association; North Carolina, Ameri- 
'^Mk^^**r can am ' National Bar Associations; Assistant U. S. Attorney, 

m ^91^^ Middle District, 1963-1965; Professor of Law, N. C. Central 

14i University at Durham, 1965-1967; practicing attorney 1967- ; 

organizer and president of Greensboro National Bank 1971- ; Board of Directors, 
North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company. Member, Kappa Alpha Psi Fra- 
ternity. Representative in the General Assembly of 1969, 1971, 1973 and 1975. 
Captain in U. S. Air Force, 1953-1955. Member, Providence Baptist Church; Deacon, 
Youth Sunday School Teacher. Married Edith Shirley Taylor August 25, 1956. Chil- 
dren: Henry Eric and Harlan Elbert. Address: 1401 S. Benboy Road, Greensboro 
27406. 



GERALD MALCOLM FULCHER, JR. 



(Democrat — Carteret County) 



(Fourth House District- 
tives.) 



-Counties: Carteret, and Onslow. Three Representa- 



Gerald Malcolm Fulcher, Jr. was born in Morehead City, 
September 23, 1940. Son of Gerald M. Fulcher, Sr. and Nellie 
Hill. Graduated University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 
1968 B.A. Duke Graduate School — Summer of 1975. N. C. 
State Graduate School, Summer of 1976. Guidance Counselor, 
West Carteret High School. Member North Carolina Associa- 
tion of Education, National Education Association, North 

^■^fc fe. Carolina Personnel and Guidance Association, Classroom 

* TE BHH Teachers Association. Member, Atlantic United Methodist 

Church. Address: P. O. Box 538, Atlantic Beach 28512. 




m 



394 North Carolina Manual 

JOHN REEVES GAMBLE, JR. 

(Democrat — Lincoln County) 

(Thirty-eighth House District — Counties: Gaston and Lincoln. Four Repre- 
sentatives.) 

John Reeves Gamble was born in Lincolnton, March 26, 
1922. Member, N. C. House 1973-74. Son of John Reeves 
Gamble, M.D. and Hope Lucile Seibert Gamble. Graduated 
Lincolnton High School, 1939; Emory University, A.B., 1943; 
University of Maryland School of Medicine, M.D., 1946. 
Physician (surgeon). Past President Lincoln County Medical 
Society; member, N. C. Medical Society, Kappa Alpha Order 
and Phi Chi Medical Fraternity. President and Administrator 
Reeves Gamble Hospital, Inc. 1946-1970. Commanding Officer 
and Chief Surgeon of 48th (mobile) Army Surgical Hospital 1954-1956. Member, 
VFW; Eagle Scout; Cleveland, Gaston and Lincoln Health Planning Council, 
Founders Group; Past Director, N. C. Hereford Association; member Catawba- 
Lincoln-Alexander Health Board 1966-70; Central Piedmont Council of Govern- 
ments, Founders Group; chairman of Constitution and By-Laws, Legislative and 
Nominating Committees of CPCOG. North Carolina Medical Society, Legislative 
Committee 1971-73. Member, N. C. House of Representative 1973 and 1975. Lincoln 
County Board of Commissioners, chairman 1966-70. Member, Southern Medical 
Association; Rotary; Chief of Staff Lincoln County Hospital. N. C. Local Govern- 
ment Commission 1968-73. Member, Emmanuel Lutheran Church (LCA); Council 
member two terms. Married Maiy Elizabeth (Betty) Rhodes March 31, 1945. Chil- 
dren: John R., Ill, Elizabeth Rhodes and Mary Caroline. Address: P. O. Box 250, 
Lincolnton 28092. 

JONAS MELVIN GARDNER 

(Democrat — Johnston County) 

(Fourteenth House District — Counties: Johnston and Franklin. Two Repre- 
sentatives.) 

Jonas Melvin Gardner was born in Johnston County, 
September 11, 1911. Son of Jonas Bailey and Mary Elizabeth 
(Baker) Gardner. Attended Brogden Elementary School, 
1918-1925; Princeton High School, 1925-1929. Attended 
U. N. C, Chapel Hill Business Management School. Oil Job- 
ber. Member, Fellowship Lodge No. 84, Ancient Free and Ac- 
cepted Masons; Master of Fellowship Lodge No. 84, A.F. & 
A.M., Smithfield, 1959; 32nd degree Scottish Rite Mason; 
Shriner; member, Sudan Temple. Town Commissioner, 
Smithfield, 1965-1970; Mayor Pro-Tern, Smithfield, 1967-1970. Past Director, Smith- 
field Chamber of Commerce; past Chairman, Johnston County Oil Men's Assn. 
Served as Private First Class, August 14, 1942 to December 11, 1942. Member of the 
North Carolina Farm Bureau, Johnston County Shrine Club; Restaurant and Ser- 
vice Station business, member, Carolina Country Club in Raleigh; North Carolina 
Jobbers Assoc; charter member of the Smithfield Lions Club; member, Smithfield- 





Legislative Branch 395 



Selma Chamber of Commerce; President of Gardner-Creech Oil Company; Farmer; 
Citrus Grower; and Real Estate Business. Presbyterian. Chairman of the Board of 
First National Bank of Smithfield. Address: P. O. Box 488, Smithfield 27577. 



JAMES WORTH GENTRY 

(Twenty-eight House District — Counties: Alleghany, Ashe, Stokes, Surry and 
Watauga. Three Representatives.) 

James Worth Gentry was born in King, August 4, 1908. 
Son of I. Gaston and Mary Kreeger Gentry; Attended King 
Hiffh School and Draughons Business College; (Semi-retired) 
Grading Contractor and Farming; Chairman of local school 
board 1950 to 1957; County Commissioner 1957-1958; Mem- 
ber of the Board of Trustees Stokes-Reynolds Memorial Hos- 
pital 1952-1977; (Chairman of the Board 1966-1976); Mason; 
Charter member King Lions Club 1948-1977; President of 
Kings Lions Club 1957 and citizen of the year 1958; President 
Stokes County United Fund, 1959; President, North Carolina Agricultural Founda- 
tion 1972-1973; member, Stokes County Industrial Committee, Northwest Develop- 
ment Assn.; Member, Chestnut Grove Methodist Church; State Senator in the Gen- 
eral Assembly in 1961, 1965 and 1967; North Carolina House of Representatives 
1969, 1971, and 1975-76; Married Marguerite Priscilla Slate, June 16, 1934. Chil- 
dren: Marvin D. Gentry and Glenn W. Gentry. Address: Rt. 1, King 27021. 

THOMAS ODELL GILMORE, SR. 

(Democrat — Guilford County) 

(Twenty-third House District — County: Guilford. Seven Representatives.) 

M. t-r n, Thomas Odell Gilmore, Sr. was born in Randolph County, 

jM^Hfcfct November 15, 1936. Son of Glenn G. Gilmore, Sr. and Mary 

i M Elizabeth Harris Gilmore. Graduated Liberty High School, 

$ •*Hh. 1954; American Landscape School, 1957; North Carolina 

State University, 1959, B.S. in Horticulture. Landscape 
Contractor. Vice-President, Gilmore Plant and Bulb Com- 
pany, Inc. Member of North Carolina Association of Nur- 
serymen, Chairman, Board of Directors; American Associa- 
tion Nurserymen. Chairman Highways Committee; National 
Landscape Association, member Board of Directors ; Vice-President, 1973; President, 
1974; Associated Landscape Contractors of America, member Board of Directors; 
Piedmont Association of Nurserymen; Southern Association of Nurserymen; North 
Carolina Horticultural Council, Inc.; member, Advisory Council. Member, Guilford 
County Mental Health Association and North Carolina State University Alumni 
Association. Named Guilford County's "Most Outstanding Farmer", 1969. Member, 
State Board of Agriculture, 1961- 1967; served on National Beautification Clinic, 
1969. Received Industrial Landscaping Award by American Association of Nursery- 
men, 1971; "Outstanding Young Alumnus Award" by the Alumni Association of 
North Carolina State University, 1972. Member, Blue Key, Alpha Zeta, Pi Alpha Xi 




396 North Carolina Manual 



and Farm House. President North Carolina State University Young Democratic 
Club, 1958; State President Young Democrat Club, 1964; delegate to 1964 National 
Democratic Convention and Alternate to 1968 Convention. Member, The Community 
in Christ Presbyterian Church; Elder. Married Betty Lou Shoffner August 16, 1958. 
Three children: Dell, Dwayne, and Dana. Residence: Forest Oaks, Route 13, Ramble- 
wood Drive, Greensboro 27406. Office : Julian. 



""% 




RICHARD RALPH GRADY 

(Democrat — Wayne County) 

(Ninth House District — County: Wayne. Two Representatives.) 

Richard Ralph Grady was born in Seven Springs, May 
12, 1927. Son of Zilphia Ann Smith and Ralph Grady. At- 
tended North Carolina State University, 1946-48. Farmer. 
Received Farm Family of the Year, 1968. Wayne County 
ASCS Committee, 1955-56; Wayne County Board of Com- 
missioners, 1960-70. U. S. Navy, Seaman First Class, March 
1945-May, 1946. Member Seven Springs United Methodist 
Church; Chairman of Finance Committee, 1960-76. Married 
Alma Lee Jones Grady November 1, 1947. Children: Richard 
Dwight Grady and Mack Grady. Address: Route 2; Box 597, Seven Springs 28578. 



CARSON GREGORY 

(Democrat — Harnett County) 
(Eighteenth House District — Counties: Harnett and Lee. Two Representatives.) 

iSHHH Carson Gregory was born in Angier (Harnett County), 

August 11, 1911, the son of Alex and Carra Parrish Gregory. 
Attended Harnett County Schools; Campbell College (one 
year). Farmer and businessman. Member, Erwin Chamber 
of Commerce; President, Good Hope Hospital Board of Di- 
rectors; President, N. C. Spotted Swine Association; Presi- 
dent, Harnett County Farm Bureau; National Board of 
Directors Spot Swine Association; Board of Directors, 
Terri Hill Manufacturing (Coats) ; Board of Directors, 
N. C. Pork Producers; Past President, Board of Directors, Harnett County Men- 
tally Retarded Children; Board of Harnett County Sheltered Workshop. Mem- 
ber, Angier Mason 686; Shriner, Sudan, Dunn Shrine Club; Dunn-Erwin WOW; 
Coats Lions Club; Coats Hunting and Fishing Club. Coats First Baptist Church, 
member, Finance Committee. Married Blanche Williams November 4, 1939. 
Children: Carson W. Gregory, Jr. (deceased); Joe Gregory, and Frances G. Avery. 
Address: Route 2, Angier 27501. 




Legislative Branch 



397 



PAT OAKES GRIFFIN 

(Mrs. Roscoe Dillard Griffin) 

(Democrat — Durham County) 

(Sixteenth House District — County: Durham. Three Representatives.) 

Pat Oakes Griffin was born Pittsylvania County, Vir- 
ginia May 6, 1918, the daughter of James David and Lucille 
Rogers Oakes. Attended Ridgeville High School (Ridgeville, 
Indiana), 1931-1933; Burlington High School, 1934-1935; 
Manchester College (North Manchester, Indiana), 1935-1937; 
Burlington Business College, 1938. Member, Durham's Busi- 
ness and Professional Women; Shi Sigma Alpha Sorority. 
Member, First Baptist Church (Durham); former Sunday 
School Teacher; Trustee, 1973. Married Roscoe Dillard Griffin 
June 30, 1939. Children: Roscoe David Griffin and Patricia Gail Clower. Six Grand- 
children. Address: 2609 West Cornwallis Rd., Durham 27705. 




GORDON HICKS GREENWOOD 

(Democrat — Buncombe County) 

(Forty-Third House District — Counties: Buncombe and Transylvania. Four 
Representatives.) 

Gordon Hicks Greenwood was born in Black Mountain, 
July 3, 1909. Son of James Hix Greenwood and Louella Ray. 
Graduated Barnardsville High School, 1928. Attended N. C. 
State University, 1928; Buncombe County Junior College, 
1930; University of Illinois, 1941, B.S. in Journalism; Uni- 
versity of London, England, 1945. Assistant to President of 
Montreat-Anderson College. House of Representatives, 1959- 
61-63-65-67. Member, Black Mountain Lodge No. 663 A.F. & 
A.M. Asheville Chapter No. 25; Black Mountain Lions Club. 
Army, Staff Sergeant, May 1943-December, 1945. Member Black Mountain United 
Methodist Church; President Methodist Men, 1965; Member official board several 
years, Chairman of Finance Committee, 1976. Married Garnet Elizabeth Carder 
March 9, 1941. Children: G. Gordon and Ricky Eugene. Address: P. O. Box 487, 
Black Mountain 28711. 




PETER WILSON HAIRSTON 

(Democrat — Davie County) 

(Thirtieth House District — Counties: Davidson and Davie. Three Repre- 
sentatives.) 



:ws 



North Carolina Manual 



Peter Wilson Hairston was born in Davie County August 
2, 1913. Son of Peter Wilson Hairston, and Margaret Elmer 
(George) Hairston. Attended Virginia Episcopal School, 
Lynchburg, Virginia 1927-30; University of North Carolina, 
Chapel Hill, A.B. Degree, 1933. University of North Caro- 
lina Law School, Chapel Hill, L.L.B. Degree, 1935. Lawyer. 
Member, North Carolina American Bar Association. Presi- 
dent, 26th Judical District Bar Sigma Nu Fraternity, Phi 
Beta Kappa. Captain, Tank Destroyer Corps, 1942-1946. 
Insurance Advisory Commission. North Carolina Real Estate 
Representative in the General Assembly, 1955. Military Decora- 
tions: Bronze Star, Purple Heart, 5 Battle Stars. Member of the Society of the 
Cincinnati. Literary Productions: Law Review Articles, Historical Review Articles. 
Protestant Episcopal. Vestry. Married Lucy M.T. Dortch Hairston, August 6, 1949. 
Children: George Ryan Hairston and Peter Wilson Hairston, Jr. Address: Cooleemee 
Plantation, Route 2, Advance 27360. 




North Carolina 
Licensing Board. 



DANIEL A. C. HALL, JR. 



(Democrat — Alamance County) 

(Twenty-second House District — Counties: Alamance and Rockingham. Four 
Representatives .) 

Daniel A. C. Hall, Jr., was born in Eden, May 21, 1927. 
Son of Arnold Hall, and Olive Bethea. Attended Burlington 
High School and Elon College. Private Real Estate Investor. 
U.S. Navy, Seaman, World War II. Member of the Board 
of Directors for the Community YMCA of Alamance County; 
member of the Alamance County Health Planning Advisory 
Council, member of the Alamance County chamber of Com- 
merce. Member, First Christian Church, U.C.C.; Board of 
Finance, Deacon. Married Michie Causey Hall March 25, 

1948. Children: Celia Anne Hall Stryon and Mollie Sue Hall. Address: P. 0. Box 

1276, Burlington 27215. 




FLETCHER HARRIS 



(Democrat — Lee County) 



(Eighteenth House Distri 
tives.) 



Counties: Hamett and Lee. Two Representa- 




Fletcher Harris was born September 24, 1926, in Madison 
County, Florida. Son of Dela Fletcher Harris, Jr. and Ruby 
Gibbs. Attended Sanford Public Schools, 1934-1944; Duke 
University, 1944; B.S. in Commerce— U.N. C. Chapel Hill, 
1950. Lee County Democratic Chairman — 1970-1974; State 
Democratic Executive Committee, 1974-1976. President of 
D. F. Harris & Son, Inc. (General Insurance Agency). Sigma 
Chi Fraternity. U. S. Army, Sergeant, 1945-1946. Past Presi- 
dent Sanford Jaycees; Past State Vice President N. C. 



Legislative Branch 399 



Jaycees; Former District Commissioner, Lee District, Boy Scouts of America. Mem- 
ber, Sanford ABC Board, Lee County Wildlife Club, American Legion, Elks, Moose 
and V.F.W. Methodist. Member, Saint Luke United Methodist; Former Chairman of 
Stewardship and Finance Member Administrative Board. Married Florence Buckner 
March 26, 1955. Children: Holly Lee Harris; Gibbs Buckner Harris; Bonny Lou 
Harris; and Dela Fletcher Harris IV. Address: 1314 Hermitage Rd., Sanford 27330. 



WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE HARRIS, JR.* 

(Democrat — Alamance County) 

(Twenty-second House District — Counties: Alamance and Rockingham. Four 
Representatives .) 

William Shakespeare Harris, Jr. was born in Durham, 
July 20, 1924. Son of William Shakespeare Harris, Sr., and 
Eunice (Fairchild) Harris. Attended Mebane High School, 
Mebane, N. C, graduated 1941; University of North Carolina, 
Chapel Hill, B.A. degree, 1948; University of North Carolina 
Law School, Chapel Hill, LL.B. degree, 1950. Lawyer Member 
Alamance County Bar Association; North Carolina Bar 
Association; North Carolina State Bar Assn.; American 
Bar Assn.; past president Graham Kiwanis Club; member 
and Secretary of E. M. Holt School Advisory Council 1964-68 and Chapter Chairman 
of Alamance County Chapter of the American Red Cross, 1965-1968. Member 
Citizens Advisory Council to the Center for Alcoholic Studies at U.N.C., member 
of the Board of Directors of the N.C.R.R., 1969-73. Member Phi Alpha Delta Legal 
Fraternity; 32nd degree Mason; President of U.N.C. Young Democratic Club, 1949; 
President of Alamance County Young Democratic Club, 1951; Treasurer of North 
Carolina Young Democratic Club, 1953 and Precinct Chairman and member of 
Alamance County Democratic Executive Committee, 1964-1968. Served in U. S. 
Navy, 1943-1946. Representative in the General Assembly of 1969-1976. Member 
Graham Presbyterian Church; Board of Deacons and Session; Board of Trustees; 
Chairman of Building Committee, 1964 building project; represented local Church 
at Presbytery meetings; Commissioner to General Assembly, Presbyterian Church 
in the United States 1968, and former member of Orange Presbytery Committee on 
Church Extension. Married Lula C. Chapman, June 20, 1953. Children: Susan Fair- 
child Harris, Charles Brevard Harris, and Frank Chapman Harris. Address: 1628 
Hanford Rd., Graham 27253. 

(* Resigned September 2, 1977 following his appointment as a district court judge for Judicial 
District 15- A.) 



HAROLD PARKS HELMS 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 
(Thirty-sixth House District — County: Mecklenburg. Eight Representatives.) 




400 



North Carolina Manual 



Harold Parks Helms was born in Charlotte, November 5, 
1935. Son of Wade H. Helms and Ida Parks Helms. Attended 
Charlotte Technical High School, graduated 1954. University 
of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, graduated 1959, A.B. Degree. 
University of North Carolina Law School, Chapel Hill, L.L.B. 
Degree, 1961. Attorney. 26th Judical District Bar Associa- 
tion; N. C. State Bar; N. C. Bar Association; American Bar 
Association; American Judicature Society; Phi Delta Theta 
\t^ Legal Fraternity; N. C. Academy of Trial Lawyers. Chi Phi 

Social Fraternity. Elected Charlotte's Outstanding Young Man of the Year in 1970. 
Member, Park Road Baptist Church, Charlotte. Deacon, 1969-1971, 1973 to present. 
Married Eleanor Jean Allen March 26, 1959. Children: Deborah Parks Helms, 
Allen Grant Helms, and William Gray Helms. Address: 4901 Hadrian Way, Char- 
lotte 28211. 




FOYLE ROBERT HIGHTOWER, JR. 

(Democrat — Anson County) 

(Twenty-sixth House District — Counties: Anson and Montgomery. One Repre- 
sentative.) 

^^^^^^^^^ Foyle Robert Hightower, Jr. was born in Wadesboro, 

January 21, 1941. Son of Foyle Robert, Sr. and Mildred (Brig- 
man) Hightower. Attended Wadesboro Public Schools; grad- 
uated Wadesboro High School, 1959; Elon College; Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Vice President, High- 
tower Ice & Fuel Co., Inc. Member, Kilwinning Lodge No. 64, 
Wadesboro, Ancient, Free, and Accepted Masons; 32nd degree 
Mason, Shriner; Woodman of the World; Jaycees; Civitan, 
Director Wadesboro Club. Past Chairman Anson Blood Pro- 
gram; American Red Cross; member, Merit Badge Committee, Boy Scouts of 
America and member Board of Review; past Area Chairman Cancer Drive. Master 
Counsellor Order of DeMolay, Wadesboro Chapter, 1959; Member, North Carolina 
House of Representatives, 1971, 1973, 1975. Served in United States Army Reserve, 
1963-1969; Corporal. Member, First Presbyterian Church, Wadesboro; Sunday 
School Teacher; Secretary-Treasurer, Men of the Church, 1971; President, Men of 
the Church, 1973. Married to former Pauline McEloeen of Lake City, S. C. Address: 
71 S.E. Wade Street, Wadesboro, N. C. 28170. 




EDWARD SHELTON HOLMES 

(Democrat — Chatham County) 

(Seventeenth House District — Counties: Chatham and Orange. Two Repre- 
sentatives.) 



Legislative Branch 



401 



Edward Shelton Holmes was born in Leaksville, Novem- 
ber 20, 1929. Son of James Eugene Holmes and Bessie Estelle 
Shelton Holmes. Graduated Leaksville High School, 1947 
and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, A.B. 
degree, 1951. Graduated University of North Carolina Law 
School, Bachelor of Laws, 1958. Served in United States 
Army 1953-1955. Lawyer in firm of Barber, Holmes and 
Barber. President, Chatham W. Bar 1968-1970; President, 
15th Judicial District Bar 1972-1973; Pittsboro Lions Club; 
Chairman Governor's Committee on Low Income Housing 1965-1968; President of 
North Carolina Legal Aid Association, 1971 to present; Chatham County Library 
Board, 1963-1967; North Carolina Regional Library Board, 1965-1967. Member, 
Pittsboro Presbyterian Church, Deacon since 1971; Member of the General Statutes 
Commission. Married Mary Hayes Barber June 7, 1958. Three children: Edward 
Shelton, Jr., Hayes Barber, Jr., and Agnes Ferebee. Address: Box 126, Pittsboro 
27312. 




WILLIAM CASPER HOLROYD, JR. 

(Democrat — Wake County) 

(Fifteenth House District — County: Wake. Six Representatives.) 

William Casper Holroyd, Jr. was born in Rock Hill, S. C, 
September 16, 1927. Son of William Casper Holroyd and 
Lucille Dacus. Graduated from a public school in Green- 
wood, S. C. Graduated Duke University, 1948, A.B. in Eco- 
nomics. Salesman — Penn Mutual Life Insurance Company. 
Member of Raleigh Board of Education, elected July 1, 1965 
and re-elected 1971. Chairman — December, 1969 to July 1, 
1976 — Served on Wake County Board of Education, July 1, 
1976 to November 3, 1976. Member Chartered Life Under- 
writers, Life and Qualifying Member of Million Dollar Roundtable, Consistent Mem- 
ber of Penn Mutual Top Sales Club — Royal Blue, Raleigh Association of Life Under- 
writers, and N.C. C.L.U. Society. Received Man of the Year — Raleigh Association 
of Life Underwriters; Outstanding Service Award — Raleigh Board of Realtors. 
Member, Raleigh Lions Club. Member, Hayes Barton United Methodist Church; 
Lead teacher in Junior High Department — 1951 — present. Married Betty Ann 
Williams Holroyd, February 13, 1948 — Deceased. Children: Ann Holroyd Young- 
blood; Jane Holroyd, and Kaye Holroyd. Address: 1401 Granada Drive, Raleigh 
27612. 




BERTHA MERRILL HOLT 

(Democrat — Alamance County) 

(Twenty- Second House District — Counties: Alamance, and Rockingham. Four 
Representatives.) 



M)2 



North Carolina Manual 




Bertha Merrill Holt was born August 16, 1916, in Eufaula, 
Alabama. Daughter of William H. Merrill and Bertha H. 
Moore. Attended Eufaula High School; Agnes Scott College, 
Decatur, Ga., A.B. Degree, 1938; UNC Law School, 1939- 
1940; University of Alabama Law School, 1941 — LL.B. 
Degree; George Washington University, Washington, D.C., 
1942 (worked toward Masters). Housewife — Non-practicing 
Lawyer. Worked as an Attorney with Dept. of Interior and 
US Treasury. Pi Beta Phi Sorority. Past President Alamance 
County Democratic Women; Chairman Headquarters Committee, 1962-64; Member 
Democratic Executive Committee, 1964-1975; Vice Chairman Alamance County 
Democratic Executive Committee, 1964-66. Member, English Speaking Union; Les 
Amis du Vin, Historical Society and Travel Organizations. Member, Social Services 
Board. Member, Episcopal Church of Holy Comforter, Burlington. President 
Episcopal Church Women, 1968; Member of Vestry — Senior Warden, 1974; Chair- 
man Finance Committee of Diocese of NC 1973-74; Diocesan Council, 1972-74; 
Standing Committee of Diocese, 1975-77. Teacher — High School Sunday School 
Class. Married Winfield Clary Holt, March 14, 1942. Children: Harriet Holt 
Whitley; William Merrill Holt; Winfield Jefferson Holt; Two Grandchildren: 
Allyson and Anna Whitley. Address: 509 Country Club Drive, Burlington 27215. 



CHARLES B. C. HOLT 



(Democrat — Cumberland County) 

(Twentieth House District — County: Cumberland. Five Representatives.) 

Charles B. C. Holt was born in Fayetteville, N. C, Febru- 
ary 16, 1933. Son of William DeRossett Holt and Hannah 
Pickett (Lilly) Holt. Attended Fayetteville High School, 
1946. Fishburne Military School, 1947-50. University of North 
Carolina, 1957, B.A. History. Army Security Agency School, 
1953. Jobber, Amoco Oil Co.; Chamber of Commerce; Fay- 
etteville Area Industrial Development Committee; First 
Vice President Chamber of Commerce, 1972-73. Delta Kappa 
Epsilion. Member, Sierra Club; Conservation Council of N. C; 
State Wildlife; National Wildlife; Corporal, U. S. Army, 1952-55. Fayetteville City 
Council, 1963-69; Mayor of Fayetteville, 1969-71. Member, Episcopal Church. Vestry 
Member, 1968. N. C. House of Representative, 1975-77. Married Sarah (Edgerton) 
Holt, September 8, 1956. Children: Sarah E. Holt, Hannah L. Holt. Address: Box 
3157, Fayetteville 28303. 




PATRICIA STANFORD HUNT 

(Mrs. Thomas M. Hunt, Sr.) 



(Democrat — Orange County) 

(Seventeenth House District — Counties: Orange and Chatham. Two Repre- 
sentatives.) 



Legislative Branch 



403 




Patricia Stanford Hunt was born in Dunn, June 9, 1928. 
Daughter of Lewis Knox Denning (deceased) and Florence 
Hibbette Cooper Denning. Attended Coral Gables Senior 
High School in Florida 1942-1946. Attended Sweet Briar 
College 1946-1948. Graduated University of North Carolina 
at Chapel Hill, A.B. degree, 1948-1950, University of North 
Carolina at Chapel Hill, M.A. degree, 1961-1963 and Post- 
graduate work 1963-1970. Professional Educator. Member 
Phi Beta Kappa, Alpha Delta Pi, Valkyries, American His- 
torical Association, North Carolina Personnel and Guidance Association, American 
Personnel and Guidance Association, North Carolina Association of Educators, 
National Association of Educators, North Carolina Association Classroom 
Teachers, and Chapel Hill Junior Service League. President, Chapel Hill Associa- 
tion of Educators, 1971; President, Chapel Hill Classroom Teachers Association, 
1969; Chairman, Citizenship Committee, North Carolina Association of Educators, 
1969; President, Chapel Hill Junior Service League, 1961. Co-author North Carolina 
History, Geography, and Government. Received Irene Lee Cup for Outstanding 
Woman Graduate of the University of North Carolina, 1950. Board of Trustees", 
Governor's School, 1975-1979; Board of Visitors, Peace College, 1972-1976; Gover- 
nor's Council on Advocacy of Youth and Children, 1973-1977. Appointed to the 
North Carolina General Assembly to fill first husband's term, 1969 (Donald Mc- 
Iver Stanford). Recreation Commission, Town of Chapel Hill, 1971. Member, 
University Presbyterian Church, Chapel Hill. Married Donald Mclver Stanford 
June 30, 1947 (died May 1970). Married Thomas Montague Hunt, Sr. June 17, 1972. 
Four children: Donald Mclver, Jr., Randolph Lewis, Charles Ashley and James 
Cooper Stanford. Address: 1079 Burning Tree Drive, Chapel Hill 27514. 



THOMAS BELL HUNTER 

(Democrat — Richmond County) 

(Twenty-seventh House District — County: Richmond. One Representative.) 

Thomas Bell Hunter was born in Rockingham, October 
20, 1916. Son of Dr. N. C. and Carrie (Jones) Hunter. At- 
tended Rockingham and Laurinburg City Schools; Univer- 
sity of North Carolina. Insurance business. Mayor of Rock- 
ingham, May, 1957 to 1963. Shrine, Oasis Temple. Captain 
U. S. Army, 1942-1946. Representative in the General As- 
sembly of 1963, 1967, 1971, and 1973. Methodist. Married 
Florence Ledbetter September 18, 1947. Children: Thomas 
B., Jr. Henry L. and John W. Address: P. O. Box 475, Rock- 
ingham 28379. 




WILDA HANCOCK HURST 
(Mrs. Basil B. Hurst) 

(Democrat — Onslow County) 

(Fourth House District — Counties: Carteret and Onslow. Three Representa- 
tives.) 




404 North Carolina Manual 



Wilda Hancock Hurst was born in Morehead City, N. C, 
October 20, 1920. Daughter of Nathaniel Lane Hancock, and 
Lora Ward (Taylor) Hancock. Attended Swansboro High 
School, 1938. Also attended Strayers-Bryant-Straton of 
Maryland. School of Insurance, 1962. General Insurance 
& Real Estate Agency (owner and manager of same). Inde- 
pendent Insurance Association; Travel Council of N. C; 
Business Women's Association; Democratic Women's Or- 
ganization. Eastern Star, Women of the Moose, Investors 
Club of Onslow, Jacksonville Country Club, Daughters of the American Revolution. 
Credited with being instrumental in bringing the Uniflite Boat Co. to Onslow and 
obtaining the Governor's Award to the town of Swansboro. Toured Europe with the 
Southern Travel Council in 1972, promoting tourism in North Carolina and the 
eleven Southern States. Travel Council (now serving). Member, Oak Grove Meth- 
odist Church. Married Basil B. Hurst October 27, 1940. Children: Basil Jackson, 
Barbara Dameron, William Lane. Address: Rt. 1, Box 390, Willis Landing, Hubert 
28539. 

JOSEPH PATTERSON HUSKINS 

(Democrat — Iredell County) 

(Thirty-fifth House District — Counties: Alexander and Iredell. Two Repre- 
sentatives.) 

Joseph Patterson Huskins was born in Burnsville, June 
23, 1908. Son of Joseph Erwin and Mary Etta (Peterson) 
Huskins. Attended Yancey Collegiate. Institute, 1921-1923; 
Mars Hill Junior College, 1924-1926; University of North 
Carolina, 1928-1930, A.B. degree in Journalism. Newspaper 
Publisher. Member North Carolina Press Assn.; Associa- 
^/gt^ fe tion of Afternoon Dailies; International Platform Assn.; 

Statesville Chamber of Commerce, past President. Received 
Outstanding Citizenship Award, Statesville Chamber of Com- 
merce, 1960; NCPA Editorial Award, 1966. Honorary life member, Red Cross Board 
of Directors, Statesville chapter. Member, Statesville Lodge No. 27, A.F. & A.M.; 
Statesville Lodge 1823, B.P.O.E.; Post Exalted Ruler, Statesville Elke Lodge. 
Member, Area Rent Control Board, 1947-1951; Statesville Zoning Board, 1961-1962; 
State Board of Higher Education since 1965-72; University of N. C. Board of Gov- 
ernors, 1972-73. Mitchell College Board of Trustees, third term, former chairman; 
past President, two terms, Associated Dailies of North Carolina. Member, State Vet- 
erinary School Feasibility Study Commission. Served in U. S. Navy, 1943-1946, 
Lt. (s.g.). Member, United Methodist Church. Married Mildred Amburn September 
29, 1934. One daughter, Amburn. Address: Our Dell, Statesville 28677. 



GEORGE AUSTIN HUX 

(Democrat — Halifax County) 
(Sixth House District — Counties: Halifax and Martin. Two Representatives.) 




Legislative Branch 



405 




George Austin Hux was born in Halifax, May 11, 1915. 
Son of George Alpheus Hux and Ethel Bertha Smith. At- 
tended Public Schools of Halifax County. Graduated Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, 1936, B.A.; University of N. C. Law 
School, 1938, J.D. Attorney. Mayor of Town of Halifax, 1942- 
43; Clerk of Superior Court of Halifax County, 1943-57. Mem- 
ber of Masons; Royal White Hart Lodge No. 2 AF & AM. 
Member, United Methodist Church. Married Jeanette Harris 
Hux January 11, 1953. Address: P. 0. Box 415, Halifax 27839. 




VERNON GRANT JAMES 

(Democrat — Pasquotank County) 

(First House District — Counties: Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Dare, Pas- 
quotank, Perquimans, Tyrrell and Washington. Two Representatives.) 

Vernon Grant James was born in Pasquotank County, 
July 11, 1910. Son of John Calvin James and Fannie Copper- 
smith James. Graduated Weeksville High School, 1930; at- 
tended North Carolina State University, 1930-31. Farmer and 
farm produce supply business. President and Manager of 
James Brothers, Inc.; member North Carolina and National 
Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Growers Associations. Secre- 
tary and Treasurer of State 4-H Club Council, 1930; dele- 
gate to International 4-H Club Camp in Springfield, Mass., 
1930; charter member of State 4-H Honor Club, 1931; recipient of 4-H Alumni 
Recognition Award, 1954. Member, Board of Education for Weeksville High School 
1943-44; member, Board of Trustees of College of the Albemarle since 1960; member, 
Board of Trustees for the Greater University of North Carolina, 1947-1955; member, 
Board of Directors of Elizabeth City Chamber of Commerce, 1964; member of 
Pasquotank County-Elizabeth City Airport Commission, 1963. Appointed by U. S. 
Secretary of Agriculture Orville Freeman to the Potato Advisory Committee, 1961- 
68; President of National Potato Council, 1965-66; member National Potato Steer- 
ing Committee since 1966; recipient of the Commissioner of Agriculture's Award 
for the Promotion of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables, 1971. Appointed by Governor 
Terry Sanford to the North Carolina Turnpike Authority, 1963; "Tarheel of the 
Week" in December, 1965. Member of the House of Representatives in the General 
Assembly of 1945, 1947 and 1973-74. Member, Salem Baptist Church. Married Selma 
Willard Harris May 14, 1933. Two children: John Thomas and Vernon Grant, Jr. 
Address: Route 1, Box 170, Elizabeth City 27909. 



ROBERTS HARRELL JERNIGAN, JR. 

(Democrat — Hertford County) 

(Fifth House District — Counties: Bertie, Gates, Hertford and Northampton. 
Two Representatives.) 



406 



North Carolina Manual 




Roberts Harrell Jernigan, Jr. was born in Ahoskie, No- 
vember 24, 1915. Son of Roberts Harrell and Jessie (Garrett) 
Jernigan. Attended Naval Academy Preparatory School, 
1932-1933; Wake Forest College, 1933-1936; University of 
North Carolina, 1936-1937, A.B.; University of North Carolina 
Law School, 1937-1939. Farmer and President and Treasurer 
Ahoskie Meat and Provision Co., Inc., of Ahoskie. Member, 
Sigma Nu Fraternity; President Ahoskie Rotary Club, 1955; 
President, Hertford County Y. D. C, 1954; Chairman Hert- 
ford County Democratic Executive Committee, 1958. Representative in the General 
Assembly of 1963, 1965, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973 and 1975. President of Hertford 
County Savings & Loan Association; member of Advisory Board of the Salvation 
Army; member of Aeronautics Council and Chairman of the Board of Trustees of 
the Roanoke-Chowan Technical Institute. Member of the Coastal Resources Com- 
mission. Also a director of Wachovia Bank and Ti-ust Company, Ahoskie Branch. 
Went to China in 1940 as an employee of Standard Vacuum Oil Company and was 
manager of Peking office at start of World War II ; prisoner of Japansese for twenty- 
three months and returned to United States on the exchange ship "MS Gripsholm." 
Served as Ensign in United States Navy, 1943-1946; participated in invasion of 
Southern France. Episcopalian. Married Linda Williams of Sanford May 14, 1949. 
Children: Roberts III, Elizabeth and Clawson. Address: 401 North Curtis Street, 
Ahoskie 27910. 



JOSEPH EDWARD JOHNSON 



(Democrat — Wake County) 

(Fifteenth House District. Counties: Wake. Six Representatives.) 

Joseph Edward Johnson was born in Raleigh, N. C, 
October 17, 1941. Son of Ira Edward Johnson and Grace Ivey 
Johnson. Attended Raleigh Public Schools 1946-1959. N. C. 
State University 1959-1961. Wake Forest University 1961- 
1963, B.B.A. Degree, 1964. School of Law— Wake * Forest 
University, 1963-1966, J.D. Degree. Vice President & As- 
sistant Counsel for Cameron-Brown Company. Wake County, 
North Carolina, & American Bar Association. Alpha Kappa 
Psi (Business) Fraternity. Phi Delta Phi (Legal) Fraternity. 
U. S. Army (Military Police Corps) 1st Lt. 1967-1969. Member, Edenton Street 
United Methodist Church, Administrative Board, Assistant Superintendent, Sunday 
School, Sunday School Teacher. Married Jane Francum Johnson, January 31, 1964. 
Children: Jane Elizabeth Johnson, Kathryn Ivey Johnson, Susan Briles Johnson. 
Address: 4405 Pamlico Dr., Raleigh 27609. 




JOY JOSEPH JOHNSON 

(Democrat — Robeson County) 

(Twenty-first House District — Counties: Hoke, Robeson and Scotland. Three 
Representatives.) 



Legislative Branch 



407 




Joy Joseph Johnson was born in Laurel Hill, November 
2, 1922. Son of William Joseph and Edith (Buchanan) John- 
son. Attended Scotland Public Schools; graduated Laurin- 
burg Institute, Laurinburg, 1941; Shaw University, Raleigh, 
A.B. degree, 1945. Minister. Pastor, First Baptist Church, 
Fairmont. Member, Shaw University Theological Alumni 
Assn.; Lumber River Baptist Assn.; General Baptist Con- 
vention of N. C; National Progressive Convention of U.S.A. 
Awarded Doctor of Divinity degree, Friendship College, Rock 
Hill, S. C, 1965. Grand Chaplain of United Order of Salem, 1966-1970. Town Com- 
missioner, City of Fairmont, 1966-1970; Vice Chairman, Robeson County Democratic 
Executive Committee and Vice Chairman 7th Congressional District, 1968. Presi- 
dent Lumber River Housing Development, Inc., Lumberton. Organized People's 
Investment Company, Fairmont; Chairman, Fairmont Good Neighbor Council. 
Mason; member Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, United Order of Salem; Independent 
Order of St. Luke. Member, Missionary Baptist Church; Chairman, Executive Com- 
mittee, General Baptist State Convention, 1966-1968; President Southern Region of 
National Progressive Convention of U.S.A., 1968; President, General Baptist State 
convention of N. C, 1974-. Received Honorary LL.D. degree from Shaw University, 
1972. Married Omega Foster December 22, 1945. One daughter, Deborah Charita. 
Address: 121 N. Main Street, (P. O. Box 455), Fairmont 28340. 



ROBERT ALDEN JONES 




(Democrat — Rutherford County) 

(Fortieth House District — Counties: Cleveland, Polk and Rutherford. Three 
Representatives.) 

Robert Alden Jones was born in Forest City, June 8, 1931. 
Son of Basil Thomas Jones, Jr. and Rosagray (Chesson) 
Jones. Attended Forest City Elementary and High School, 
1937-1948; Brevard Junior College, summer of 1948 where 
received high school diploma, August 1948; Wake Forest 
College, B.A. degree, 1959; Wake Forest Law School, 1958- 
1960, Cum Laude Graduate with LL.B. degree. Lawyer with 
firm of Jones and Jones, Forest City. P.A.D. Law Fraternity; 
member, Rutherford County Bar, President, 1967-1969; 
29th Judicial District Bar, President, 1967; member N. C. State Bar and N. C. Bar 
Assn. Research Assistant for Justice Carlisle Higgins, N. C. Supreme Court, 1960- 
1961. President, Forest City PTA, 1965-1967; President, Forest City Jaycees, 
1964-1965; District Vice President, N. C. Jaycees, 1966-1967; received Distinguished 
Service Award from Forest City Jaycees (and a lifetime membership) in 1966; 
served as District Commissioner and Advancement Chairman for Boy Scouts, 1962- 
1965, County Chairman for Gardner-Webb College Fund Drive; Member, Gardner- 
Webb Board of Advisors; Director, Rutherford County Mental Health Advisory 
Board, President 1967-1968; Parliamentarian and Legal Counsel for N. C. Congress 
of Parents and Teachers, 1968-1970; Director, Rutherford County Civil Defense 
since 1968; County Attorney for County of Rutherford since 1972; Chairman of 
House Rules Committee, 1973-74 Legislative Ethics Committee, 1976 Member North 
Carolina Land Policy Council, 1973-76 former Director and Vice President of Forest 



408 



North Carolina Manual 



City Chamber of Commerce; Director and former Vice President of Rutherford 
County Vocational Rehabilitation and Gudance Board; member, Rutherford County 
Planning Board; charter director of Performing Arts Guild. Representative in the 
General Assembly of 1969, 1971, and 1973-74. Member, Board of Directors, Biblical 
Recorder, 1969-73; Board of Trustees, Florence Crittenton Services, 1968-72. 
Enlisted USAF, 1950-1953, Staff Sgt.; O.C.S. 1953, First Lt., 1956; presently Lt. 
Col. USAFR. Baptist. Sunday School Teacher 1961-1971; Junior Deacon and 
Usher, 1961 to 1971. Married Nancy Hardwick April 3, 1954. Children: Pamela, 
Robert A., Jr. John Hardwick. Address: 122 Woodland Avenue, Forest City 28043. 

IAN THEODORE KAPLAN 

(Democrat — Forsyth County) 
(Twenty-Ninth House District — County: Forsyth. Five Representatives.) 




Ian Theodore Kaplan (Ted) was born in Greensboro, 
December 26, 1946. Son of Leon Kaplan and Renee Myers. 
Graduated R. J. Reynolds High School 1965. Attended 
Guilford College. Vice-President Kaplan School Supply 
Corporation. U. S. Navy Seaman 1967-1973. Member Temple 
Emanuel. Address: 702 Summit St., Winston-Salem 27101. 



WILLIS HENRY LACHOT, JR. 

(Democrat — Burke County) 

(Thirty-ninth House District — Counties: Avery, Burke, and Mitchell. Two 
Representatives.) 

Willis Henry Lachot, Jr. was born in Hickory, January 
14, 1933. Son of Willis Henry Lachot, Sr. and Lula (Chap- 
man) Lachot. Attended Rutherford College Elementary 1939- 
1947; Valdese High School 1947-1951. Graduated University 
of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, B.S. Degree. June 1, 1955. 
Insurance Agent. Independent Insurance Agents of North 
Carolina. Member, First Baptist Church, Morganton, N. C. 
19, 1954. Children: Wesley Dean, Don, Lynn, Perry and Ann. 
Address: 9 Woodside Place, Morganton 28655. 




JAMES ERWIN LAMBETH 

(Democrat — Davidson County) 

(Thirtieth House District — Counties: Davidson and Davie. Three Representa- 
tives.) 




Legislative Branch 409 



James Erwin Lambeth was born February 2, 1916, in 
Thomasville. Son of James Erwin Lambeth and Helen Mc- 
Aulay. Graduated Thomasville High School, 1933; Duke 
University, 1937, A.B.; and Harvard Business, 1938. Furni- 
ture Executive. Mayor Pro-tem of Thomasville, 1963-67. 
President Thomasville Rotary Club, 1960-61; President 
Thomasville Chamber of Commerce, 1961-63; President High 
Point Executives Club, 1962-63; Board of Trustees Thomas- 
ville Community Foundation, 1963-64; Member of Thomas- 
ville City Council, 1963-67; President Piedmont Associated Ind., 1963-64; Member 
Governor's Commission on Status of Women, 1964; Director High Point Executives 
Club, 1964-74; Governor District 769 Rotary International, 1966-67; Member, Na- 
tional Citizens' Advisory Council to Status of Women, 1967; President Uwharrie 
Council Boy Scouts of America, 1967-68; Member, Rotary International Vocational 
Consultation Group, 1967-68; President Thomasville Historical Society, 1969-71; 
Chairman of Board Davidson County Historical Society, 1971-72; College Founda- 
tion, Inc. Board of Trustees, 1971-76; Director Rotary International, 1972-74; Mem- 
ber Newcomen Society of North America; Thomasville Chapter Masonic Lodge; 
Phi Delta Theta; N. C. Industrial Council; Furniture Library Association; Inter- 
national Platform Asso.; Recipient of "The Rotary Foundation Citation for Meri- 
torious Service", 1974; Member, International Photographic Fellowship of Rotary; 
Chairman of Board and Treasurer-Lambeth, Inc.; Director Home Building and 
Loan Association; Director North Carolina National Bank; Director Piedmont 
Associated Industries. Member, Memorial United Methodist Church; Former Mem- 
ber Board of Stewards, President R. L. Pope Bible Class, 1963-64, Chairman 
Stewardship and Finance Committee, 1964-65. Married Katharine Covington 
Lambeth, August 27, 1938. Children: James Erwin Lambeth, III; Richard Coving- 
ton Lambeth; Maiy Katharine Lambeth Cullens; and William Rodei-ick Lambeth. 
Address: 201 E. Holly Hill Rd. Thomasville 27360. 



DANIEL T.LILLEY 

(Democrat — Lenoir County) 

(Third House District — Counties: Craven, Jones, Lenoir and Pamlico. Three 
Representatives.) 

^^^^ Daniel T. Lilley was born in Martin County, August 15, 

0. |k 1920. Son of Alfred Tom Lilley (deceased) and Ethel Grace 

f \ (Gurkin) Liley (deceased). Attended Farm Life High School; 

^ f_ Spartan School of Aeronautics, Tulsa, Oklahoma; Airline 

Maintenance Course and School of Flight-Diplomas; Self 
Study— Chartered Life Underwriting Course (C.L.U.) 1967; 
American College of Life Underwriters, Bryn Mawr, Pennsyl- 
vania. Salesman with The Penn Mutual Life Insurance Com- 
pany. Member Lenoir County Life Underwriters Association; 
The American Society of Chartered Life Underwriters; Kinston Junior Chamber of 
Commerce, past President, received D.S.A. Award; Kinston Chamber of Commerce, 
received the First Citizen of The Year Award, 1963; Kinston Rotary Club; 1974 
National Sales Achievement Award from National Association of Life Underwriters; 




410 



North Carolina Manual 



1975 National Quality Award — National Association of Life Underwriters. Member, 
Lenoir County Board of Commissioners, 1964-1968. Representative in the General 
Assembly of 1969. Lt. Col. in N. C. Wing, Civil Air Patrol; U. S. Air Force Reserve, 
Colonel, 6 years active duty World War II. Member, Northwest Christian Church, 
Kinston; Elder; serving as Minister, Silver Hill Christian Church, Grantsboro and 
Cove City Christian Church, Cove City since 1964. Received the Governor's Award 
as Conservation Legislation of the year 1975 from the N. C. Wildlife Federation. 
Married Jean Hites of McPherson, Kansas, July 7, 1944. Children: Eileen, and Dan, 
Jr. Address: 1805 Sedgefield Drive, Kinston. Mailing Address: P. 0. Box 824, 
Kinston 28501. 



HORACE LOCKLEAR 



(Democrat — Robeson County) 

(Twenty-first House District — Counties: Hoke, Robeson, and Scotland. Three 
Representatives.) 

Horce Locklear was born in Lumberton, November 27. 
1942. Son of Rilev Locklear and Margaret Locklear. Gradu- 
ated Magnolia High School; Pembroke State University, 
1964, B.S.; North Carolina Central University, 1972, J.D. 
Attorney. Member North Carolina Bar Association; Robeson 
County Bar Association; and American Indian Lawyers 
Association. First American Indian to be admitted to the 
North Carolina Bar. Member of the Saddletree Jaycees. 
Member, Mount Olive Baptist Church. Married Barbara B. 

Locklear May 11, 1963. Children: Millicent; Horace Bryan; and Jasper Edwin. 

Address: P. 0. Box 877, Lumberton 28358. 




EDITH LEDFORD LUTZ 

(Democrat — Cleveland County) 

(Fortieth House District — Counties: Cleveland, Polk and Rutherford. Three 
Representatives.) 

Edith Ledford Lutz was born in Lawndale, October 20, 
1914. Daughter of Thomas Curtis Ledford and Annie Hoyle. 
Attended Belwood High School. Farmer — Fruit Grower. 
Member Cleveland County Farm Bureau and N. C. Apple 
Growers Auxiliary. Filled an appointed term in House of 
Representatives, 1976. Member, Kadish Methodist Church; 
Sunday School Teacher, Treasurer Woman's Organization, 
Counselor for youth fellowship. Married M. Eubert Lutz 
October 25, 1933. One children: E. Jacob Lutz. Address: Rt. 
3; Box 197, Lawndale 28090. 




Legislative Branch 



411 



WILLIAM HANNON McMILLAN 



(Democrat — Iredell County) 

(Thirty-fifth House District — Counties: Alexander and Iredell. Two Repre- 
sentatives.) 

William Hannon McMillan was born in Gaffney, S. C, 
November 12, 1928. Son of William Hazel McMillan and Ethel 
Jane Stacy McMillan. Attended Harding High School, 1952- 
1956, Charlotte, N. C; Charlotte College, 1956-1957. UNC- 
Chapel Hill, 1957-1960, B.S. Degree. University of North 
Carolina Law School, Chapel Hill, J.D. Degree, 1968. At- 
torney. American, N. C. and Iredell County Bar Association. 
Home Builders Association of Statesville-Morrisville. Phi 
^ \ Delta Phi Fraternity, and Delta Sigma Pi Fraternity. U. S. 

Air Force, 1st Lieutenant, 1961-1965. Member, First Baptist Church, Statesville, 
N. C. Sunday School Teacher, 1970-present. Married Martha Eleanor Bynum April 
17, 1965. One Child : Stacy Eleanor. Address : P. O. Box 1776, Statesville 28677. 




ALBERT JENNINGS MARTIN 



(Democrat — Yadkin County) 

(Thirty-fourth House District — Counties: Caldwell, Wilkes and Yadkin. Three 
Representatives.) 

Albert Jennings Martin was born in Hamptonville, 

March 20, 1907. Son of Asbury J. Martin and Victoria Brown. 

Attended Hamptonville High School, 1921-24; Mountain 

View High School, 1924-1925; Campbell College, 1926-1928; 

Wake Forest University, 1928-1930, A.B. degree; Graduate 

gwl Work, University of North Carolina, 1948; Catawba College, 

^^l%; s 1948. Insurance Adjuster. Retired School Principal. Member, 

™ jjL Masonic Order. Charter member and past President Boon- 

' ^* ville Lions Club, Life member NC PTA. Member, Boonville 

Baptist Church, Sunday School Teacher, 1940-1976; Deacon, 1966-1976; Choir 

Member, 1935-1976. Married Jessie Dickson Martin Apirl 14, 1935. One child: 

Albert Jay Martin. Address: Box 117; Boonville 27011. 




RONALD EARL MASON 

(Democrat — Carteret County) 

(Fourth House District — Counties: Carteret and Onslow. Three Representa- 
tives.) 



412 



North Carolina Manual 




Ronald Earl Mason was horn in Atlantic, August 3, 
192H. Son of Earl and Geraldine (Robinson) Mason. Attended 
Atlantic Elementary School, Beaufort High School, Sullivan's 
Prep School, Washington, D. C, Oak Ridge Military Insti- 
tute, North Carolina State University. Real Estate Broker, 
Mason Realty Company. Shriner and 32nd Mason, member of 
Franklin Lodge No. 109 AF and AM. Eastern Star No. 128, 
a Past Patron, Past President of the Beaufort Jaycees, and 
winner of their Distinguished Service Award, Young Man of 
the Year, Past President of the Beaufort Chamber of Commerce, Charter President 
of the Carteret Toastmasters Club, and Charter President of the Carteret Young 
Democrats Club. Served as Town Clerk, Treasurer, and Tax Collector, Town of 
Beaufort, 1959-1962, served as Auditor, Tax Supervisor, and Treasurer of Carteret 
County, 1962-1966, and served in 1971 and 1973 North Carolina House of Repre- 
sentatives. Served in the U. S. Air Force, 1949-1951, Sgt.; member, First Baptist 
Church, Beaufort, former Sunday School Teacher. Married Joyce Lewis of Davis 
June 2, 1949. One son, Ronald Earl, Jr. (deceased); three daughters, Olivia, Cynthia, 
and Angelia. Address: Home, 315 Ann Street, Beaufort and Business, Mason Realty, 
P. 0. Box 296, Beaufort 28516. 



ERNEST BRYAN MESSER 




(Democrat — Haywood County) 

(Forty-fourth House District — Counties: Haywood, Jackson, Madison and 
Swain. Two Representatives.) 

Ernest Bryan Messer was born in Waynesville, December 
21, 1913. Son of Forest W. and Effie (Furr) Messer. Attended 
James Chapel, 1920-1927; Lee Edwards High School, 1927- 
1931; Carson Newman College, B.A. degree, 1935. Supervisor, 
Wood Procurement Department, Champion International, 
Inc., Canton. Teacher and basketball coach, Haywood County 
County Schools, 1935-1939. Member, Canton Lions Club; 
Canton Toastmasters Club; American Legion; Veterans of 
.mb. m Foreign Wars; Board of Directors and President Haywood 

County Mental Health Association; Board of Directors of Champion Y.M.C.A. 
and Champion Credit Union. Chairman Haywood County Democratic Executive 
Committee, 1958-1962; Haywood County Planning Board; Haywood County His- 
torical Association; Chairman Canton Chapter Red Cross Bloodmobile; Chairman 
Inplant United Fund Drive; Trustee Haywood Technical Institute; Conservation 
and Development Study Commission; Water and Air Resources Study Commission; 
Governor's Advisory Council Comprehensive Health Planning; Member, State 
Mental Health Services; Member, Legislative Research Commission; Board of 
Directors State of Franklin Health Council; 1974 Layman's Award for Distin- 
guished Service to Education given by Phi Delta Kappa of Western Carolina Uni- 
versity. Served in U. S. Navy as Lieutenant, World War II, 1942-1945. Represen- 
tative in General Assembly of 1963, 1965, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973, and 1975. Baptist. 
Former Teacher Adult Sunday School Class, former Training Union Director. 
Married Jincy Owen January 11, 1936. One daughter, Mi's. Clyde Poovey, Jr., 
Atlanta, Ga. Address: 15 Forest View Circle, Canton, 28716. 



Legislative Branch 



413 



HENRY M. MICHAUX, JR.* 

(Democrat — Durham County) 

(Sixteenth House District — County: Durham. Three Representatives.) 

Henry M. Michaux, Jr. was born in Durham, September 
4, 1930. Son of Henry M. Michaux and Isadore M. Coates 
Michaux. Graduated Palmer Memorial Institute, 1948; North 
Carolina Central University, 1952, B.S.; North Carolina 
Central University Law School, 1964, J.D. Attorney; Real 
Estate Broker; Property Insurance Agent; Appraiser. Mem- 
ber National Association of Real Estate Brokers, North 
Carolina Bar Association, North Carolina State Bar, George 
H. White Bar Asso., National Bar Association and the 
American Judicature Society; Recipient of the Service and Political Award from 
the National Association of Real Estate Brokers for 1972. Member Omega Psi Phi 
Fraternity. Chief Assistant Solicitor for the 14th Solicitorial District; Prosecutor 
for the District Court of Durham. Served as chairman of the Turnkey III Committee 
of the Durham Housing Authority. Sergeant, United States Army Medical Corps, 
1952-54. Member St. Joseph's AME Church, Durham; member of Steward Board. 
Member, Steering Committee for National Caucus of Black Democrats; Member 
of Board of Directors for 14th Judicial Bar. Married Joyce M. Winston July 2, 
1966. One daughter: Jocelyn M. Winston. Residence: 1722 Alfred Street, Durham. 
Mailing Address: P. O. Box 2152, Durham, 27707. 

(* Resigned July 18, 1977 following his confirmation as United States Attorney for the Middle Dis- 
trict in North Carolina.) 




GEORGE W. MILLER, JR. 



(Democrat — Durham County) 

(Sixteenth House District — County: Durham.) 

George W. Miller, Jr., was born in Spencer, N. C. May 
14, 1930. Son of George W. and Blanche M. (Iddings) Miller. 
Attended Spencer Elementary and High School, 1936-1948; 
University of North Carolina, Bachelor of Science and Busi- 
ness Administration; University of North Carolina Law 
School, 1954-1957, LL.B. degree. Lawyer, firm of Haywood, 
Denny & Miller. Member, North Carolina Bar Assn.; Ameri- 
can Bar Assn.; Durham County Bar Assn.; International 
Association of Insurance Counsel. Member Phi Alpha Delta 
Law Fraternity; Member Sertoma Club; Member of the House of Representatives, 
1971-1973. President, North Carolina Young Democratic Clubs, 1964-1965. Served 
in U. S. Marine Corps, Sergeant, 1951-1953. Member, Duke Memorial Methodist 
Church, Durham; Chairman, Duke Memorial Week Day School Committee, 1968; 
Member, Official Board. Member of the North Carolina Symphony Board of Trustees; 
Vice-President of Citizens Advisory Council for Center for Alcohol Studies, Divi- 
sion of Health Sciences. Married Eula Hux June 21, 1958. Children: Elizabeth 
Ann, Blanche Rose and George, III. Address: 3862 Somerset Drive, Durham, 27707. 




Ill 



North Carolina Manual 



JAMES FRANKLIN MORGAN 




(Democrat — Guilford County) 

(Twenty-third House District — County: Guilford. Seven Representatives.) 

James Franklin Morgan was born in High Point, June 21 
1943. Son of James Virgil Morgan and Dorothy B. Morgan. 
Graduated High Point Central. B.A. Degree — Guilford Col- 
lege. Doctor of Jurisprudence — Cumberland School of Law — 
Sanford University. Attorney. Member High Point Bar Asso- 
ciation; 18th Judicial Bar Association; North Carolina Bat- 
American Bar Association; N. C. and American Trial Law- 
yers Association. Sigma Chi Fraternity. One of the Five 
Outstanding Young Men in N. C, 1973-1974. Distinguished 
Service Award, 1973 and 1974. High Point Jaycees; Chamber of Commerce; Chair- 
man Steering Committee; High Point Volunteers to the Court; Board North State 
Caucus; United Appeal; Heart Association; Legal Aid; Urban Ministry of High 
Point, Inc.; Nat Greene Youth Development, Inc.; Criminal Justice Training and 
Standards Council; Who's Who— N. C. 1973 Edition; N. C. Outward Bound School; 
Good-Will Industries; Youth Unlimited; N. C. Society for the Prevention of Blind- 
ness; Salvation Army Boys Club; and President of the N. C. Jaycees. Member, 
Christ United Methodist Church — member Administrative Board, 1970-73; Metho- 
dist Men's Club; Sunday School Teacher, 1970, 1972, 1973, Sunday School Superin- 
tendent^June 1970-June, 1972; Pastor Parish Committee — 1970, 1973, 1974; 
Nominating Committee — 1970-1973, 1974; Choir; Chairman of Area for Building 
Fund Drive. Married Ann Tinsley Morgan June 29, 1963. Children: Lea Evans 
Morgan and James Franklin Morgan, II. Address: 1024 Cantering Road, High Point 
27260. 



GLENN ALEXANDER MORRIS 



(Democrat — McDowell County) 

(Forty-first House District — Counties: McDowell and Yancey. One Represen- 
tative.) 

Glenn Alexander Morris was born in Marion, November 
9, 1908. Son of Thomas Morris and Mary Neal Morris. At- 
tended Riverside Military Academy, Gainesville, Georgia, 
1928-1929. Attended Wake Forest College 1929-1931. Served 
in United States Army 1944. Member, Kappa Alpha Order 
and President of Tau Chapter Keppa Alpha Order at Wake 
Forest 1930-1931. Retired General Manager, Clinchfield 
Manufacturing Company, Plants of Burlington Industries, 
Inc., Marion. Vice-Chairman, McDowell County Board of 
Commissioners 1953-1959. Board of Governors, Marion General Hospital 1951-1968, 
Chairman of the Board 1954-1964; Marion's "Man of the Year" award for 1952; 
Director, McDowell County Dread Disease Society, 1955 to present; member, Board 
of Directors First Union National Bank of Marion, 1952 to present; Member, Board 
of Directors Wachovia Bank & Trust Company, Asheville, N. C. 1956 to 1962; Mem- 
ber, Board of Directors University of North Carolina-Asheville Foundation, elected 




Legislative Branch 



415 



1972. Member, First Presbyterian Church and Deacon, 1955 to present. Married 
Mary Augusta McGregor October 5, 1939. Two children: Glenn Alexander, Jr. and 
James McGregor. Address: 808 Fleming Avenue, Marion, 28752. 



ROBIE LEE NASH 

(Democrat — Rowan County) 

(Thirty-first House District — County: Rowan. Two Representatives.) 

Robie Lee Nash was born in E. Spencer, N. C, October 5, 
1910. Son of Archie Lee Nash, and Mary Kenerly Nash. At- 
tended East Spencer School, 1916-1924, and Salisbury High 
School, 1924-1927. Also, night classes for two semesters in 
Catawba College. Manager Real Estate Investments. North 
Carolina Foestry Association; Salisbury- Row an County 
Chamber of Commerce; Salisbury Lions Club, President 
1945-1946. North Carolina House of Representatives — 1971- 
1973, 1975-1977. Salisbury City Council, 1951-1953 and 1953- 
1955. Andrew Jackson Masonic Lodge No. 576. Member, First United Methodist 
Church, Salisbury, N. C. Co-Chairman Building Program, 1951-1954; Chairman, 
Official Board, 1953-1954; Chairman, Trustees, 1969-1974; District Trustee, 1964- 
1974. Married Ethel (Arey) Nash August 24, 1936. Children: John Lee Nash, 
Samuel Arey Nash, Lona Marie Nash Duggins. Address: No. 232 Richmond Road, 
Salisbury, 28144. 




MARY CORDELL NESBITT 
(MRS. MARTIN L. NESBITT) 

(Democrat — Buncombe County) 

(Forty-third House District — Counties: Buncombe and Transylvania. Four 
Representatives .) 

Mary Cordell Nesbitt was born in Asheville, N. C, 
December 18, 1911. Daughter of Joseph Clemans Cordell and 
Martha T. Jones Cordell. Attended Buncombe County Junior 
College 1928-30; Western Carolina College, 1934-35, B.S. 
Degree; Western Carolina College, 1958, Masters Degree. 
Retired Educational Consultant. Life Member North Caro- 
lina Education Association and National Education Associa- 
tion. Western Carolina University Alumni Award for Dis- 
tinguished Service to Education. Asheville Business and Pro- 
fessional Women's Club; Kappa Kappa Iota National Teachers Sorority. Member, 
Oakley United Methodist Church. Married Martin L. Nesbitt (deceased) July 27, 
1935. Children: Mary Ann Dotson, Martin L. Nesbitt, Jr. Address: 471 Fairview 
Road, Asheville, 28803. 




in; 



North Carolina Manual 



EDI) NYE 

(Democi-at — Bladen County) 



(Nineteenth Representative District- 
One Senator.) 



-Counties: Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus. 



Edd Nye was born in Gulf, North Carolina, September 
12, 1932. Son of Joseph Burke and Vera R. (Johnson) Nye. 
Graduated Clarkton High School 1951; S.E. Community 
College, A. A., 1969; North Carolina State University, Fort 
Bragg Extension, 1972. Insurance Agency. Member, Bladen 
Masonic Lodge 646; V.F.W. Served as Bladen County Com- 
missioner, June 1966 to December 1972. Served, U. S. Air 
Force, 1952-1956. Member, Elizabethtown Baptist Church; 
Deacon; Sunday School Teacher; Moderator, Bladen Baptist 
Association, 1966-1968. Married Peggy McKee, January 9, 1955. Three Children: 
Shannoin Sue Nye, Edward McKee Nye, and Allison Hope Nye. Address: P. 0. 
Box 8, Elizabethtown, 28337. 




DAVID RUSSELL PARNELL 



(Democrat — Robeson County) 

(Twenty-first House District — Counties: Hoke, Robeson and Scotland. Three 
Representatives.) 

David Russell Parnell was born in Parkton, N. C, 
November 16, 1925. Son of John Quincy Parnell and Clelia 
(Britt) Parnell. Attended Parkton Public Schools, 1931-1941; 
Oak Ridge Military Institute, 1941-1944. Wake Forest Uni- 
versity, B.S. Degree, 1949. Merchant and Farmer. N. C. 
Merchants Association, N. C. Oil Jobbers Association; N. C. 
State Highway Commissioner, 1969-1972. Member, Robeson 
County Industrial Development Commission, 1963-1974; 
Mayor— Town of Parkton, 1964-1969. U. S. Army Corporal, 
1945-1946. Member, Parkton Baptist Church; Chairman — Board of Deacons — 1974- 
1975; 1972-1973; 1968-1969; Church Treasurer, 1950-1972; Sunday School Teacher, 
1950-present. Married Barbara Johnson Parnell, June 11, 1948. Children: David 
R., Jr., Anne J. Parnell, and Timothy Scott Parnell. Address: P. 0. Box 190, 
Parkton, 28371. 




JANET WIRTH PICKLER 

(Democrat — Stanly County) 
(Thirty-Second House District — County: Stanly. One Representative.) 




Legislative Branch 417 



Janet Wirth Pickler was born July 31, 1934, in Penn Yan, 
N. Y. Daughter of John G. Wirth and Ruth K. Mead. Attended 
Alexander Central School, Alexander, N. Y. 1943-1952; East- 
man School of Music Preparatory Dept., 1948-1952; State 
University of N. Y. at Geneseo, B.S. 1956; Michigan State 
University, M.A., 1960; Eastern Michigan University — addi- 
At* 1 *^ lp tional courses in teaching the deaf. Assistant Professor of 

Speech — Pfeiffer College. Member N. C. Speech, Hearing, 
& Language Association; Speech Communication Associa- 
ation; N. C. Mental Health Association; Stanly County Mental Health Associa- 
tion; Mid-Crescent Subarea Advisory Council; Stanly County Association for Re- 
tarded Citizens. Received Volunteer of the Year Award — Stanly County M.H.A., 
1971-72; Distinguished Service Award, N. C. M.H.A., 1974 & 1975; Named in Out- 
standing Educators of America, 1966. Member, League of Women Voters; Stanly 
County Democratic Women's Club; Stanly County-Albemarle Historical Museum 
Association, Inc. Literary Productions: "A Study of the Relationship of Scores 
Obtained on the Seashore Measures of Musical Talents, the Personality Scale of 
Manifest Anxiety, and Selected Intelligence Tests, To Phonetic Transcription 
Ability". Speech Monographs, 1960. Appointed to fill unexpired term in the House, 
March, 1976. 1st Vice-Chairman, Stanly County, 1974-76. Member, Kendalls Baptist 
Church, Teacher — 15 years, Past Circle Chairman. Married Eugene Pickler August 
2, 1958. Children: Audrey Renee Pickler; Sara Kathleen Pickler; and Eva Carol 
Pickler. Address: Rt. 1, Box 470, New London, 28127. 

AARON W. PLYLER 

(Democrat — Union County) 

(Thirty- third House District — Counties: Cabarrus and Union. Three Repre- 
sentatives.) 

Aaron Wesley Plyler was born in Monroe, North Caro- 
lina, October 1, 1926. Son of Isom F. Plyler, Sr. and Ida 
Foard Plyler. Attended Benton Heights School and Florida 
Military Academy. President of Plyler Grading and Paving, 
Inc.; President of Hilltop Enterprises; Vice President of 
Sturdibuilt, Inc.; Vice President/Secretary/Treasurer White 
Point, Inc., N. Myrtle Beach, S. C. Board of Directors Ameri- 
can Bank & Trust Company, Monroe; H. R. Johnson Con- 
struction Company, Monroe; N. C. Restaurant Association. 
Member of Associated General Contractors of America, N. C. Restaurant Associa- 
tion, N. C. Motel Association, National Restaurant Association. Member of Ad- 
visory Board of Carolina Division JARRS-Wycliffe, served on Advisory Board of 
Vocational and Technical Education in North Carolina. Member and Past President 
Wingate College Patron Club, member and Past President Monroe-Union County 
Chamber of Commerce, Past Chairman Union County Democratic Party. Union 
Union County Leadership Award. Member, Monroe Rotaiy Club, Rolling Hills 
County "Man of the Year," 1971. 1971 Wingate College Patron's Club Award; 1973 
Union County Leadership Award. Member, Monroe Rotary Club, Rolling Hills 
Countiy Club, Monroe Moose Lodge. Member, Benton Heights Presbyterian Church, 
Past Chairman Board of Deacons. Married Dorothy Moser Plyler, May 22, 1948. 
Children: Barbara Plyler Faulk, Diane, Aaron W., Jr., Alan, Alton. Address: Route 
7, Box 62, Monroe, 28110. 




418 



North Carolina Manual 




JULIUS REII) POOVEY 

( Republican — Catawba County) 
(Thirty-seventh House District — County: Catawba. Two Representatives.) 

Julius Reid Poovey was born in Hickory, September 24, 
1902. Son of Lloyd Willard Poovey and Nancy Thomas Reid 
Poovey. Attended Hickory City Schools; Weaver College; 
Lenoir-Rhyne College, commercial graduate, 1922. Retired 
Accountant. Served as Judge, pro-tem, Hickory Municipal 
Court. Member, Catawba County Board of Elections; member, 
Board of Advisors of N. C. Federation of College Republicans, 
member of State, County and Precinct Republican Executive 
Committees. Representative in the General Assembly of 
1967 and Senator in the General Assembly of 1969 and 1973-74. Served in U. S. 
C. G. R. (T) Sic, 1944-45. Episcopalian. Married Kathryn Violet Icard, April 7, 
1928. Four Children: Mrs. Walter N. Yount, Jr., J. Reid Poovey, Jr., Major William 
B. Poovey, USAF (ret.), and Dr. James N. Poovey. Address: 61 Twentieth Avenue, 
N. W., Hickory, 28601. 

JESSE THOMAS PUGH, JR. 

(Democrat — Randolph County) 

(Twenty-fourth House District — County: Randolph. Two Representatives.) 

Jesse Thomas Pugh, Jr., was born in Asheboro, Decem- 
ber 16, 1921. Son of Jesse Thomas Pugh, and Mary (Fox) 
Pugh. Navy — Chief Pharmacist Mate, September 28, 1942- 
December 5, 1945. Chairman, Redevelopment Commission, 
City of Asheboro. Member, Central United Methodist. Mem- 
ber Administrative Board; Sunday School Teacher; Chair- 
man Commission on Education (1955). Married Sarah (Tyson) 
Pugh May 8, 1942. Children: Elizabeth (Mrs. Fred I. Jones), 
Jesse Thomas Pugh, III, Glenn McLaurin Pugh, James 
Edgar Pugh. Address: P. O. Box 846, Asheboro, 27203. 

DWIGHT WILSON QUINN 

(Democrat — Cabarrus County) 




(Thirty-third House District — Counties- 

sentatives.) 



Cabarrus and Union. Three Repre- 




Dwight Wilson Quinn was born in York, South Carolina, 
September 12, 1917. Son of Lucy (Wilson) Quinn and the late 
William Lytle Quinn. Served as a member of the Governor's 
Commission on Reorganization of State Government, 1961- 
1962; member, Executive Committee Governor's Committee 
on Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Crime; member of the 
committee appointed by the Attorney General on Criminal 
Code Revision; member of the Governor's Study Committee 
on Architectural Barriers for the Benefit of the Handi- 



Legislative Branch 419 



capped; member of the Board of Directors of the Southern Region Education Board. 
Voted Kannapolis Man of the Year, 1948, by the Jaycees. Received Amvets Na- 
tional Distinguished Service Award for outstanding community Service, 1953. 
Member, Board of Directors Cannon Memorial Y.M.C.A., member of the Board of 
Directors of the Cabarrus County Boys Club; Board of National Cerebral Palsy 
Association; Board of Directors and past President Carbarrus County Chapter, 
North Carolina Heart Association. Served in United States Army, 1944-1945. 
Member American Legion, Post 115, served as Vice Commander of the American 
Legion; 40 and 8; Rotarian; member Cannon Memorial Lodge, No. 626, A.F. & 
A.M.; Scottish Rite Bodies; Shriner, Oasis Temple. Representative in the General 
Assembly regular sessions of 1951, 1953, 1955, 1957, 1959, 1961, 1963, 1965, 1967, 
1969, 1971, 1973, 1974 and 1975 and special sessions, 1956, 1963, 1965, 1966 and 
1971. Lutheran. Member, Kimball Memorial Lutheran Church; has served as a 
member of Church Council. Delegate to the National Democratic Convention 1960 
in Los Angeles, California and Chicago, Illinois, 1968; former Chairman of the 
Board of Trustees and the Executive Committee of Appalachian State University. 
Married Marian Elizabeth Isenhour February 23, 1936. One daughter: Mrs. Lester 
U. Dodge. Address: 213 South Main Street, Kannapolis, 28081. 



LISTON BRYAN RAMSEY 

(Democi'at — Madison County) 

(Forty-fourth House District — Counties: Haywood, Jackson, Madison and 
Swain. Two Representatives.) 

Liston Bryan Ramsey was born at Marshall, N. C, on 
February 26, 1919. Son of John Morgan and Delia Lee 
(Bryan) Ramsey. Attended Mars Hill College, 1938. Mer- 
chant. Elk, Mason, American Legion, former Commander; 
Veterans of Foreign Wars. County Chairman Democratic 
Executive Committee, 1958-1960, 1962; served as a delegate 
to the 1968 National Convention. Board of Aldermen, Town 
of Marshall, 1949-1961. Served in Army Air Corps as Ser- 
geant, 1944-1946. Representative in the General Assembly 
1961, 1963, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973-74 and 1975-76; Chairman, House Finance Com- 
mittee 1973-74 and 1975-76; Member, Advisory Budget Commission 1973-74 and 
1975-76; Member Legislative Services Commission 1971, 1973-74 and 1975-76; 
Member Legislative Research Commission 1975-76. Chairman, Eleventh Congres- 
sional District Democratic Executive Committee, 1972, 1974 and 1976. Baptist. 
Married Florence McDevitt. One daughter, Martha Louise Ramsey Geouge of 
Gulfport, Miss. Address: Marshall, 28753. 



HECTOR E. RAY 

(Democrat— Cumberland County) 
(Twentieth House District — County: Cumberland. Five Representatives.) 





420 North Carolina Manual 



Hector E. Ray was born in Fayetteville, N. C, October 
20, 1919. Son of Bond Sedberry Ray, and Ester Hazel Brad- 
ford Ray. Attended Massey Hill High School, Fayetteville, 
N. C, 1939. Government Electrical Trade School— Ft. Bragg, 
N. C, 1942-43. Owner — Electrical Contracting Firm. Cum- 
berland County Board of County Commissioners, 1964-1972; 
Chairman — 3 years, 1969-1972. Fayetteville Optimist Club — 
1972, for outstanding contributions in civic and govern- 
mental affairs; Fayetteville Jaycees — December 22, 1972, in 
grateful appreciation of his splendid contributions while serving as chairman of the 
Cumberland County Board of Commissioners; Honorary member — Fayetteville- 
Cumberland County Youth Council; Certificate of Appreciation — May 19, 1971, 
Fayetteville-Cumberland County Youth Council in recognition of outstanding ser- 
vice to the youth of Fayetteville and Cumberland County; Certificate of Applica- 
tion — 1972-73, for outstanding and dedicated service to Cumberland County Asso- 
ciation — Classroom Learning Disability; Cumberland County Distinguished Service 
Award — 1973. for outstanding service to the citizens of Cumberland County as a 
member and chairman of the Board of County Commissioners; North Carolina 
Rehabilitation Association, citation of Merit Award for exceptional contributions on 
behalf of handicapped citizens of North Carolina; City of Fayetteville — December 
1972, Resolution of Appreciation; United States Department of Agriculture — 
November, 1968, Certificate of Appreciation — for outstanding sei - vice in assisting 
agricultural agencies in Cumberland County. Member — The Masons, The Shriners, 
The Knights of Pythias. Member — Agricultui'al Extension Service Advisory Board; 
Member — Cumberland County Auditorium Executive Committee; Past member — 
Board of Directors, N. C. Electrical Contractors Association. Appointed by Governor 
Terry Sanford to N. C. Board of Electrical Examiners, February 6, 1961 — 1 year; 
April 15, 1962 — 4 years. Member, First Baptist Church. President — Sunday School 
Class 1964; Deacon, 1968 to present; Vice President — Brotherhood, 1972; Adminis- 
trative Committee, 1971-74 Chairman, 1974. Married Dorothy (Dot) Ray March 7, 
1941. Children: Louise Bond, Brenda Joyce, and Mary Elizabeth (Beth). Address: 
306 Dunbar Drive, Fayetteville, 28303. 



JAMES GUY REVELLE, SR. 

(Democrat — Northampton County) 

(Fifth House District — Counties: Bertie, Gates, Hertford and Northampton. 
Two Representatives.) 

James Guy Revelle, Sr. was born in Conway, July 14, 
1908. Son of James Kelly Revelle and Annie Elizabeth Watson 
Revelle. Graduated Woodland-Olney High School; attended 
Wake Forest University. Retired businessman and fanner. 
Member Grand Lodge of A.F. and A.M. of North Carolina 
and Potecasi Lodge No. 418. Recipient of Twenty-five year 
Membership Pin, Masonic Lodge. Northampton County Com- 
missioner 1953-72, Chairman, 1963-72. Member, Local School 
Board, 1944-53. Member, State Democratic Executive Com- 
mittee, 1953-55. Representative in the General Assembly of 1973-74. Trustee of 




Legislative Branch 421 



Roanoke -Chow an Hospital. Member, Ashley's Grove Baptist Church; Sunday School 
Superintendent ten years; deacon thirty-four years, Chairman of Board of Deacons 
four years. Married Pearla Futrell December 20, 1931. Two children: James Guy, 
Jr. and Pearla Revelle Lowe. Address: RFD, Conway 27820. 




SAMUEL THOMAS RHODES 

(Republican — New Hanover County) 

(Twelfth House District — County: New Hanover. Two Representatives.) 

Samuel Thomas Rhodes was born in Wilmington, October 
12, 1944. Son of Samuel Thomas Rhodes and Dorothy William- 
son Rhodes. Graduated New Hanover High School, 1962; 
University of North Carolina, 1966, B.A.; Auburn Univer- 
sity, 1969, M.S. Work toward Ph.D. done at North Carolina 
% .. .1. , State University. Instructor of Marine Science, Cape Fear 

A Technical Institute. Member, Biological Society of America, 

»7^W American Institute of Biological Sciences, International 

^^•■- ^^^ Oceanographic Foundation, National Historical Society. Has 

had two scientific papers published. Member, Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons of 
North Carolina (St. John's Lodge No. 1); Scottish Rite of Free Masonry Southern 
Jurisdiction of the United States; Ancient Arabic Order of Nobles of the Mystic 
Shrine (Sudan Temple); Arab Shrine Club, member Board of Directors, 1970-72; 
Order of Demolay, advisor and member of Board of Directors and Founding Father, 
1972. Member of Wilmington Jaycees; Chairman of North Carolina Marine Science 
Council; Member, Board of Directors, New Hanover County Marine Science Con- 
sortium; Member, Board of Directors, North Carolina Ocean Sciences Institute; 
North Carolina Board of Transportation; Board of Directors of The New Hanover 
Friends of The Public Library; Cape Fear Sportsman Club; and North Carolina 
Marine Resources. Center Administrative Board. First Vice President of Lower 
Cape Fear Council for the Arts, Presented Jaycees Distinguished Service Award for 
1973; Nominee North Carolina State Jaycee Man of the Year Award, 1973; Repre- 
sentative in the General Assembly of 1973-1974 and 1975-1976. Member of Greater 
Wilmington Chamber of Commerce; Member, Historic Wilmington Foundation. 
Member, Board of Deacons St. Andrews Covenant Presbyterian Church, Wilmington. 
Address: P. 0. Box 3251, Wilmington 28401. 



THOMAS B. SAWYER 

(Democrat — Guilford County) 

(Twenty-third House District — County: Guilford County. Seven Represen- 
tatives.) 





422 North Carolina Manual 



Thomas B. Sawyer was born in Tapoco, April 9, 1918. 
Son of Pleas M. Sawyer (member 1917 General Assembly as 
Representative) and Edna O'Neal Garland Sawyer. Grad- 
uated Duke University, A.B. Degree, 1938; Emory Univer- 
sity, Doctor of Law, 1947. Attended Duke University Di- 
vinity School 1948. Served in United States Army as Second 
Lieutenant, First Lieutenant and Captain August 1941 to 
January 1946; Captain, November 1950 to August 1951; at 
present, Lt. Col. United States Army Reserves, retired. 
Attorney at Law. Honorary Life member of Greensboro Chamber of Commerce, 
June 5, 1963. Life member of Greensboro Moose Lodge No. 685. North Carolina 
State Senate, 14th Senatorial District, 1951. State Commander, American Veterans 
of World War II, 1949; State Commander, Disabled American Veterans, 1959. 
Member of Our Lady of Grace Catholic Church. Married Dorothy Marie Siler 
August 25, 1939. Seven children: Pleas M. Sawyer, Joseph B. Sawyer, Thomas B. 
Sawyer, Jr., Floy Sawyer Blanton, Wendell H. Sawyer, Sharon Marie Sawyer and 
Gregory W. Sawyer. Address: 411 S. Elam Avenue, Greensboro 27405. 

BENJAMIN DAVID SCHWARTZ 

(Democrat — New Hanover County) 

(Twelfth House District — County: New Hanover. Two Representatives.) 

Benjamin David Schwartz was born in Wilmington, 
January 17, 1909. Son of Louis Schwartz and Anne Rulhick 
Schwartz. Attended New Hanover High School 1921-1925. 
Graduated University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, B.S. 
Degree, 1929. Investments. Member, Chamber of Commerce, 
Wilmington Merchants Association; President, Wilmington 
Merchants Association, 1961-1963; Received trophy for out- 
standing service Wilmington Merchants Association, 1963; 
President-Elect Chamber of Commerce, 1971; Tau Epsilon 
Phi; Elks; B'nai Brith; elected Wilmington City Council 1969; served as Mayor - 
Protem and Mayor of City of Wilmington. Member original Board of Trustees of 
Wilmington College and served eleven years. Charter member University of North 
Carolina at Wilmington Foundation. Received award for outstanding Community 
Service from North Carolina Human Relations Commission, 1972. Member North 
Carolina Citizens Committee on the Schools, 1971. Member B'nai Israel Synagogue, 
member Board of Directors and Vice President. Married Sylvia Wolk June 3, 1931. 
Two children: one son, Dr. M. J. Schwartz of Newton, Massachusetts and one 
daughter, Dr. Maxine Seller of Buffalo, N. Y. Address: 205 Forest Hills Drive, 
Wilmington 28401. 

FRANCES ELLEN SETZER 

(Democrat — Catawba County) 
(Thirty-seventh House District — County: Catawba. Two Representatives.) 




Legislative Branch 



423 




Frances Ellen Setzer was born in Catawba County, N. C, 
November 27, 1922. Daughter of Macon L. Setzer, and Maude 
(Boggs) Setzer. Attended Bowling Green College of Com- 
merce, Bowling Green, Ky., A.B. Degree, May 1942; Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, M.A. Degree — Public 
Health, 1957. Former Work Experience: Textiles, Banking, 
Public Health, N. C. PTA Field Secretary. Member, First 
United Methodist Church. Address: P. 0. Box 265, 806 South 
Main Avenue, Newton 28658. 



*• 



^ff^s- i/MiK 




MARY POWELL SEYMOUR 
(Mrs. Hurbert E. Seymour, Jr.) 

(Democrat — Guilford County) 

(Twenty- Third House District — County: Guilford. Seven Representatives.) 

Mary Powell Seymour was born April 12, 1922, in Ra- 
leigh. Daughter of Anna Rebecca Seymour and Robert C. 
Powell (Deceased). Graduated Needham B. Broughton High 
School, 1939. Peace College, B.A. Degree, 1941; Course Study, 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1946-47; Pilot 
\ T " 7 f Nursery School Study Program, University of Michigan, Ann 

Arbor, Michigan, 1949-50. Legal Secretary and Law Office 
Administrator; Licensed Real Estate Broker. Member 0. 
Henry Woman's Club; Greensboro Council of Garden Clubs, 
Inc. Greensboro Legal Auxiliary; Chamber of Commerce; Community Development 
Council; Government Task Force, Gateways; Triad Sickle Cell Anemia Advisory 
Council; Honorary member Business & Professional Women; Board of Directors, 
Tarheel Triad Girl Scout Council, Inc.; YDC; Democratic Women. Received Eleanor 
Roosevelt Award; Woman of Year, City Beautification; 1971 Bryan Citizenship 
Award, Dist. 7, NCFWC; Chamber of Commerce Dolly Madison Award; 1972 Quota 
Club Woman of Year; Distinguished Alumna, Peace College; 1974 Distinguished 
Service Award, YWCA; 1975 Who's Who in Government; 1976 Bowker, Women in 
Public Office. Member, College Park Baptist Church, Sunday School Teacher, 10 
years. Married Hubert E. Seymour, Jr. February 3, 1945. Children: Hubert E. 
Seymour and Robert J. Seymour. Two Granddaughters. Address: 1105 Pender Lane, 
Greensboro 27408. 






WILLIAM MARCUS SHORT 

(Democrat — Guilford County) 
(Twenty-third House District — County: Guilford. Seven Representatives.) 




424 North Carolina Manual 



William Marcus Short was horn in Pleasant Garden, 
N. C, August 4, 1930. Son of George Asa Short, Sr., and 
Blanche Futrell Short. Attended Summer School (1936-1948). 
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (1948-1950, 1954- 
1955) B.S. Degree, Business Administration. University of 
North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Law School, J.D. Degree 

^A\^^M (1955-1958). Lawyer. All local, State Bar Associations and 

^ ^^^^h t ' u " American Bar Association. House of Representatives 

^^ ~ ^^ (1964-1972). 1974— Elks, Moose. Oddfellows, and YMCA. 

U. S. Air Force, Staff Sergeant (1950-1953). Member, Rehobeth Methodist Church. 

Board of Stewards (1960-1962). Divorced. One Child: Nancy Elizabeth Short. 

Address: 426 W. Friendly Ave., Greensboro, N. C. 27401. 



ADDISON NEAL SMITH 

(Democrat — Rowan County) 

(Thirty-first House District — County: Rowan. Two Representatives.) 

Addison Neal Smith was born in Bailey, N. C, December 
20, 1934. Son of Robert Lee Smith and Grace Goodnight 
Smith. Attended Woodleaf High School, Woodleaf, N. C, 
June 1953; Pfeiffer College, June 1961; University of Mis- 
sissippi, 1961-1963. Graduate Study; University of North 
Carolina at Greensboro, Masters Degree — in education with 
major in Speech Pathology and Audiology, June 1965. Edu- 
cator. Recognized as Outstanding Alumnus (Speech and 
Audiology) UNC-G. Drafted bill for N. C. Legislature 1969 
that enabled the first services for hearing impaired children in the public schools 
in the preschool years. (Employed by The State Department of Public Instruction 
1965-1972). Formerly the Acting Director, Alexander Graham Bell Association for 
the Deaf, Washington, D. C. Literary Productions — "Speech Therapy for the 
Mentally Retarded", N. C. Education, February 1968, "Guide for Speech and Hear- 
ing", N. C. Dept. of Public Instruction, 1967, "Programs for Hearing Impaired", 
Volta Bureau, Alexander Graham Bell Association, Washington, D. C, 1973. U. S. 
Army (Engineers), Specialist 4, 1958-1960. Member, United Methodist Church. 
Director of Music, 1963-65, Church Lay Leader, 1975; Member of Administrative 
Board, 1975. Married Elizabeth Withers Smith August 29, 1965. Children: Mary 
Beth Smith, Addison Neal Smith, Todd Robert Smith, and Anna Elizabeth Smith. 
Address: Route 1, Hart Road, Woodleaf 27054. 



NED RAEFORD SMITH 

(Democrat — Forsyth County) 
(Twenty-ninth House District — County: Forsyth. Five Representatives.) 




Legislative Branch 



425 



Ned Raeford Smith was born in Granite Falls, N. C., 
January 16, 1911. Son of Lloyd Poole Smith, and Dora 
(Bradley) Smith. Attended R. J. Reynolds High School, 
Winston-Salem, N. C., 1929; Duke University, 1929-1931; 
Salem College, 1932-1933; Duke University, A.B. Degree, 
1935. University of North Carolina, M.A. Degree, Educa- 
tional Administration, 1942-1943. Retired (1973) Associate 
Superintendent of Winston-Salem Forsyth County School 
System. Phi Delta Theta Fraternity. Member, Ardmore United 
Methodist Church. Member of Administrative Board. Chairman of Council of 
Ministry on Education. Married Marguerite Britt Smith June 5, 1936. Children: 
Ned Britt Smith and Edith Carol Smith Strittmatter. Grandchildren: Barbara Lynn 
Smith, Suzanne Britt Smith, Margaret Jeanne Strittmatter, Eric and Mark. 
Address: 773 N. Stratford Rd., Winston-Salem 27104. 





LEROY PAGE SPOON, JR. 

(Republican — Mecklenburg County) 
(Thirty- sixth House District — County: Mecklenburg. Eight Representatives.) 

LeRoy Page Spoon Jr. (Roy) was born in Athens, 
Georgia, October 19, 1924. Son of LeRoy Page Spoon, Sr. and 
Kathryn Warren Spoon. Attended Central High School in 
Charlotte, N. C. Attended Clemson College, Boston Univer- 
sity and the University of Georgia. Served in the United 
^A. '^J States Army 1942-1946 as a Combat Infantryman in the 

K*^v£ European Theatre and as an Engineer in the Korean Theatre 

B^^k from 1950 " 1952 - Served as a member of the North Carolina 

■^^■,,'iM National Guard 1953-1963 as a member of the 105th Combat 

Engineer Battalion, 30th Infantry Division (Highest Rank, Captain CE). President 
of L. P. Spoon Inc., an Electrical Manufacturer's Agent and Switching Equipment 
Manufacturing Company, an Electrical Manufacturer and Engraver. Member, Sardis 
Presbyterian Church in Charlotte; Elder, Chairman Christian Education Com- 
mittee. Member, Masons; Lions Club; Toastmasters Club; Coast Guard Auxiliary; 
North Carolina Crime Study Commission; Presbyterian Family Life Center Board 
of Directors; Barium Springs Home for Children; Board of Regents; Board of Di- 
rectors Mecklenburg Mental Health Association; Chairman of Lansdowne School 
Committee; Chairman North Carolina Drug Abuse Advisory Council. Member, North 
Carolina Youth Services Commission; Former Member of Erskine College Board 
of Trustees. Married Ruth Elizabeth Atwell, September 11, 1948. Three Children: 
Carolyn Christina, LeRoy P. Spoon III, and Wilfred. Address: 7028 Folger Drive, 
Charlotte 28211. 



426 



North Carolina Manual 



MRS. LURA SELF TALLY 




(Democrat — Cumberland County) 

(Twentieth House District— County: Cumberland. Five Representatives.) 

Mrs. Lura Self Tally was born in Statesville, December 
-""iM'i I 9, 1921. Daughter of R. 0. Self and Sara Sherrill Cowles 

Self. Attended Raleigh Public Schools and graduated Need- 
ham-Broughton High School, 1938. Attended Peace Col- 
lege. Graduated Duke University, A.B. Degree, 1942; North 
Carolina State University Graduate School of Education, 
M.A. Degree, 1970. Teacher and Guidance Counselor, Fay- 
etteville City Schools. Member, Kappa Delta Sorority; NEA; 
North Carolina Association of Educators; North Carolina 
Personnel and Guidance Association; American Association of University Women; 
Business and Professional Woman's Club; North Carolina Federation of Women's 
Clubs and Fayetteville Woman's Club. Past President, North Carolina Society for 
Preservation of Antiquities; former President, Fayetteville Woman's Club; Presi- 
dent, Cumberland County Historical Society; President, Cumberland County Mental 
Health Association; Coordinator of Volunteers, Cumberland County Mental Health 
Center; member Fayetteville Recreation Commission; Teacher, Adult Education, 
Fayetteville Technical Institute; member, North Carolina Art Society, Board of 
Fayetteville Art Museum and Board of Fayetteville Little Theatre. Governor's 
Advocary Council on Children and Youth. Member, Hay Street Methodist Church. 
Divorced. Two sons: Robert Taylor and John Cowles. Address: 3100 Tallywood 
Drive, Fayetteville 28303. 



GEORGE RONALD TAYLOR 



(Democrat — Bladen County) 

(Nineteenth House District — Counties: Bladen, Columbus, and Sampson. Three 
Representatives.) 

George Ronald Taylor was born August 28, 1952, in 
Elizabethtown. Son of Miller Taylor and Lucille Carroll. 
Graduated East Carolina University, B.S., 1974. Secretary 
and Sales Manager of Taylor Tobacco Enterprises, Inc. 
Member, Jr. Chamber of Commerce. Member, Dublin First 
Baptist Church, Teacher, 1974-76; Associational Director of 
Brotherhood. Address: Rt. 1, Box 118, Elizabethtown 28337. 




Legislative Branch 



427 



MARGARET ROSE TENNILLE 
(Mrs. Norton F. Tennille) 

(Democrat — Forsyth County) 

(Twenty-ninth House District — County: Forsyth. Five Representatives.) 

Margaret Rose Tennille was born in Hopewell, Virginia, 
March 25, 1917. Daughter of Robert Wilson Rose, and Byrd 
McClure Rose. Attended R. J. Reynolds High School, Wins- 
ton-Salem, N. C. (1929-1933). Salem College, Winston-Salem, 
N. C. 2 years, 1934, 1935. Retired. Member, Commission of 
Youth Services, 1975. Member, Board of Directors, Forsyth 
Bank & Trust Co. Administrative Assistant to Mayor of 
Winston-Salem, 1961-1971. Member, Centenary United 
Methodist Church. Board of Trustees, Centenary United 
Church. Two terms on Board of Stewards, 1961-64, 1971-74. Married 
Tennille April 22, 1939. (deceased) Children: Norton F. Tennille, Jr., 
Tennille, Ben F. Tennille. Address: Greenwich Road, S.W. Winston- 




Methodist 
Norton F. 
Wilson R, 



Salem 27103. 



BETTY MARIE (DORTON) THOMAS 

(Democrat — Cabarrus County) 

(Thirty-third House District — Counties: Cabarrus and Union. Three Repre- 
sentatives.) 

Betty Marie (Dorton) Thomas was born September 10, 
1923, in Shelby. Daughter of Dr. J. S. Dorton (Deceased) and 
Marie Biggerstaff (Deceased). Attended Shelby High School, 
1936-1939; UNC— Greensboro, 1940-1944, B.S. in Secretarial 
Administration. House of Representatives, 1975-76. President 
of Art Thomas Chevrolet, Inc.; A. W. Thomas & Son; Thomas 
Development, Inc. Member, Business & Professional Women. 
Received Concord Woman of the Year, 1976; Member, Ameri- 
can Legion Auxialliary. Member, Central United Methodist 
Church. 1948-1960 — All offices in Sunday School Class; Secretary of Women of the 
Church, 1969; Trustee, 1975-76; Council on Ministries, 1974-76; Administrative 
Board, 1975. Married A. W. (Art) Thomas, Jr. (Deceased) April 3, 1948. Children: 
Bettina Marie (Tina) Thomas; Terresa Anne (Terre) Thomas; and Arthur Webster 
(Tom) Thomas, III. Address: 160 Glendale Ave. SE, Concord 28025. 




BENJAMIN THOMPSON TISON, III 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 
(Thirty-sixth House District — County: Mecklenburg. Eight Representatives.) 



428 



North Carolina Manual 



Benjamin Thompson Tison, III was born in Charlotte 
November 4, 1930. Son of Benjamin Thompson Tison, Jr. 
(deceased) and Bryte Washam Tison. Attended Charlotte 
Public Schools and graduated from Central High School, 1949. 
Graduated U.N.C. School of Business, B.S. Degree, 1953 
and U.N.C. School of Law, J.D., 1958. Member of North 
Carolina State Bar and North Carolina Industrial Develop- 
ment Association. Served as Lieutenant in USNR, 1953- 
1963. Attended Graduate School of Credit and Financial 
Management, Harvard University, 1971. Present profession, North Carolina Na- 
tional Bank. Presbyterian. Married Roma Womall December 12, 1971. Two chil- 
dren: son, William Woodbridge Tison and daughter, Clay Wornall Tison. Address: 
2119 Hopedale Avenue, Charlotte 28207. 




henry McMillan tyson 

(Democrat — Cumberland County) 

(Twentieth House District — County: Cumberland. Five Representatives.) 

Henry McMillan Tyson was born in Cumberland County, 
October 31, 1914. Son of Hemy Grady and Tommie Marsh 
Tyson. Graduated Gray's Creek High School, 1934. Inter- 
national Accountant's Society, Inc. Farmer and Farm Supply 
Dealer. Member, Cape Fear Engineers Club; North Carolina 
Farm Bureau; N.F.O.; Cumberland County Livestock Asso- 
ciation. Gray's Creek Ruritan Club, past President. Member, 
John Huske Anderson Lodge No. 731 (Masonic). Past Presi- 
dent, Parent-Teacher Association. Cumberland County Com- 
missioner, chairman seven years. Charter member Cumberland County Soil Con- 
servation Commission 1946-52. Sales Supervisor of Fayetteville Tobacco Market 
nine years. Member, First Presbyterian Church, Fayetteville; twelve years. Married 
Adeline Amelia Williams June 16, 1940. Three children: Carrie Eula Tyson, Henry 
McMillan Tyson, II and John Marsh Tyson. Address: Route 7, Box 284, Fayette- 
ville 28306. 




DR. JOHN WESLEY VARNER 

(Democrat — Davidson County) 
(Thirtieth House District — Counties: Davidson and Davie. Three Representa- 



tives. 



Legislative Branch 



429 



John Wesley Varner was born in Randolph County, Sep- 
tember 30, 1906. Son of Rev. James Milton Varner and Dora 
Plummer Varner. Attended Rutherford College (High School 
and Junior College), 1922-1926; Duke University, A.B. De- 
gree, 1928. University of Tennessee Medical School, M.D. 
Degree, 1932. Psychiatrist (Retired). Davidson County Medi- 
cal Society; American Psychiatric Association; N. C. Medical 
Society; American Medical Association; N. C. Neuro- 
psychiatry Association. Mason Phi Rho Sigma (Medical 
Fraternity). N. C. National Guard, Lieutenant-Colonel, 1954-1966. Member United 
Methodist Church. Administrative Board, 1969-1971. Married Billie Jordan Varner, 
December 18, 1934. Children: Dr. Roy Van Varner, John Wesley Varner, Jr., 
and Virginia Jordan Varner Clifford. Address: 116 Ridgewood Drive, Lexington. 




ALLEN COLON WARD 




(Democrat — Brunswick County) 

(Eleventh House District — Counties: Brunswick and Pender. One Repre- 
sentative.) 

Allen Colon Ward was born in Chadboum, N. C, July 19, 
1922. Son of Allen Ward, and Chellie Byrd Ward. Navy, 
Seaman 1st Class, 1941-1942. Married Freida Ward March 
24, 1956. Children: Robert Alan Ward, and Chellie Jacqualine 
Ward. Address: Star Route 1, Box 27, Shallotte 28459. 



WILLIAM THOMAS WATKINS 

(Democrat — Granville County) 

(Thirteenth House District — Counties: Caswell, Granville, Person, Vance and 
Warren. Three Repi'esentatives.) 

^&//UP»fo William Thomas Watkins was l>orn in Granville County, 

«^^** July 1, 1921. Son of John Stradley and Belle (Norwood) Wat- 

kins. Attended Oak Hill High School, 1927-1939; Mars Hill 
Junior College, 1942; Wake Forest College, 1939-1941 and 
1946-1948; Wake Forest College, B.S., 1949; Wake Forest 
Law School, 1949-1952, LL.B. Lawyer. Member N. C. State 
Bar Association, Ninth District Bar and Granville County 
Bar. City Attorney for City of Creedmoor, 1955-1968. At- 
torney for Granville County. Member Pi Kappa Alpha; Phi 

Delta Phi, Magister, 1952. U. S. Army Staff Sergeant, 1942-1946. Representative in 

the General Assembly of 1969, 1971, 1973. Member, Oxford Baptist Church, Oxford; 

Sunday School Teacher, 1956-1960. Married Louise Marie Best, November 18, 1944. 

Children: Mrs. Martin L. (Alma Marie) Nesbitt, Jr. and Mrs. Jerry (Annabell) 

Barker. Address: 213 W. Thorndale Drive, Oxford 27565. 






A^l 



4:«) 



North Carolina Manual 



CHARLES EDWARD WEBB 




(Democrat — Guilford County) 

(Twenty-third House District — County: Guilford. Seven Representatives.) 

Charles Edward Webb was born in Charlotte, December 
29, 1936. Son of Sherrid Elliott Webb and Belle Powers 
Webb. Attended Charlotte Central High School, 1952-1955. 
Attended Mars Hill Junior College, 1955-1957 and graduated 
from Appalachian State University, B.S. degree 1960. Gradu- 
ated from Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary, B.D. 
degree 1964, and post-graduate work towards a Masters 
degree in 1965-66. Owner of Charlestowne Pipe & Tobacco 
Shoppe and part-owner of Hickory Farms, Greensboro. Mem- 
ber of the Board of Directors of the Greater Greensboro Merchants Association 
1976-77. Member, Greensboro Chamber of Commerce. National award for Mer- 
chandizing for Hickory Farms Franchises, 1971. President, Friendly Shopping 
Center Merchants Association, 1972. Former President Guilford County Young 
Democratic Club, 1969. Member of Governor's Follow-Up Committee on Environ- 
mental Health, 1971. Former public school teacher in North Carolina 1959-'61 and 
1964-'65. Member, Guilford County Humane Society Board of Directors, 1971 to 
Present and Vice-President 1977. Charter member of the Conservation Council of 
North Carolina. Past member, Breakfast Optimist Club. Member, YMCA Men's 
Club. Member, United Community Services Planning Committee 1971 to present. 
Member, General Assembly, House of Representatives 1973, 1975, 1977 sessions. 
Baptist. Address: 409 Woodlawn Ave., Greensboro 27401. 



EUGENE MORRISON WHITE 



(Democrat — Caldwell County) 

(Thirty-Fourth District — Counties: Caldwell, Wilkes and Yadkin. Three 
Representatives.) 

Eugene Morrison White was born December 25, 1912, in 
Stony Point. Son of Arthur Wellington White and Julia Deal. 
Graduated Claremont Central High School, Hickory, 1932. 
Lenoir Rhyne College, 1936, Bachelor's Degree in Math and 
Science; Appalachian State University, 1965, Masters Degree, 
School Administration; Additional Studies UNC — Chapel 
Hill. Supt., Emeritus Caldwell County Schools. Retired 
Superintendent Caldwell County Schools. Member, NCAE. 
Past President Rotary Club; Charter Member Board of 
Trustees, Western Piedmont Community College; Director Catawba Valley Execu- 
tives Club; Governor's Study Com. NC Public Schools. Army— September 1942- 
1943. Member, Lutheran Church, Church Council. Married Helen Price June 30, 
1945. Address: Box 603, Hudson 28638. 




Legislative Branch 



431 



W. STANFORD WHITE 



(Democrat — Dare County) 

(First Representative District — Counties: Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Dare, 
Pasquotank, Perquimans, Tyrrell and Washington. Two Representatives.) 

W. Stanford White was born in Windsor, August 10, 1911. 
Son of William Meady White and Alice Elizabeth Snell White. 
Graduated Columbia High School, 1929. Owner White's 
Shopping Center and Motel. Given Governor's Award on 
Total Development by Governor Dan K. Moore. Member, 
Masonic Lodge No. 521. Chairman, Dare County Board of 
Commissioners 1962-72. Member, North Carolina Marine 
Council 1970-. Member, Mt. Carmel Methodist Church; Lay 
Speaker and Sunday School teacher. Married Grace Willard 
Mann May 31, 1936. Three sons: William Ray, Stanford Meady and Wade Erwin. 
Address: P. O. Box 7, Manns Harbor. 




MYRTLE ELEANOR WISEMAN 

(Mrs. Scott Wiseman) 

(Democrat — Avery County) 

(Thirty-ninth House District — Counties: Avery, Burke and Mitchell. Two 
Representatives .) 

Myrtle Eleanor Wiseman was born in Boone, N. C, 
December 24, 1913. Daughter of John Reed Cooper, and 
Sydney (Knupp) Cooper. Retired Entertainer. Member of the 
Country Music Association, Nashville, Tenn. Elected most 
popular female entertainer (Radio) in the United States in 
1936 and 1937. Radio Queen was the title. Co-writer of 
the following songs that have become standards in the coun- 
try field: "Have I Told You Lately That I Love You." and 
,l! "Mountain Dew". Member of Order of the Eastern Star. 
Senior Women's Club. Active in Volunteer work for the American Red Cross, 14 
years. Taught Home Nursing classes two years, also knitting classes for three 
years. Member of Who's Who in America. Member, Pine Grove Methodist Church. 
Married Scott Wiseman, December 13, 1934. Children: Linda Lou Wiseman Johns- 
ton, and Steven Scott Wiseman. Address: Route 2, Mullein Hill Road, Spruce Pine 
28777. 




432 



North Carolina Manual 



BARNEY PAUL WOODARD 



(Democrat — Johnston County) 

(Fourteenth House District — Counties: Franklin and Johnston. Two Repre- 
sentatives.) 

Barney Paul Woodard was born in Princeton, November 
23, 1914. Son of John Richard Woodard and Elizabeth Wall 
Woodard. Graduated University of North Carolina at Chapel 
Hill, B.S. Degree in Pharmacy, 1938. Owner Woodard Phar- 
macy and Pharmacist. Member North Carolina Pharmaceu- 
tical Association and Natural Association of Retail Phar- 
macy. Mason and Shriner. Past Master, St. Patrick Lodge 
No. 617, 1952. Town Councilman, 1948. North Carolina House 
of Representatives, 1967. Past President Lions Club, 20 years 
of Princeton Advisory School Committee and past chairman. Served 2 years as 
Fund Chairman, Johnston County Mental Health Association and on Executive 
Board. Past Fund Chairman, TB Association. Served on Tuscorora Boy Scout 
Council. Member, Methodist Church and Chairman Board of Trustees, 1970-1974. 
Married Annie Louise Sugg September 6, 1941. Four children: Barney Paul, Jr., 
Dianne, Michael, and Joy. Address: Box 5, Princeton 27569. 




OTTIS RICHARD WRIGHT, JR. 



(Democrat — Columbus County) 

(Nineteenth House District — Counties: Bladen Columbus and Sampson. Three 
Representatives.) 

Ottis Richard Wright, Jr. was born in Loris, South Caro- 
lina, October 8, 1944. Son of Ottis R. Wright, and Olive Battle 
Wright. Attended Tabor City High School, September, 1959- 
June, 1963. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 
A.B. Degree in Political Science, 1967. University of North 
Carolina at Chapel Hill Law School, J. D. Degree, 1971. At- 
torney and Farmer. North Carolina Bar Association, Director 
13th Judicial District Bar Association, Columbus County 
Bar Association and Columbus County Farm Bureau. Di- 
rector Columbus County Fine Arts Council; Director Southeastern Mental Health 
Association; Director North Carolina Tobacco Producers Association; Columbus 
County Cattleman's Association; Town Attorney for Tabor City and Fair Bluff; 
Chairman County Morehead Scholarship Committee; Member Firm of McGougan 
and Wright. Civitan Club. Phi Beta Kappa. Member, Methodist Church. Council on 
Ministeries and Administrative Board; Youth Co-Ordinator, U.M.Y.F. Counselor. 
Address: Vinegar Hill, Route 1, Box 72, Tabor City 28463. 





Legislative Branch 433 



GRACE AVERETTE COLLINS 

PRINCIPAL CLERK— HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Grace Averette Collins was born in Fuquay-Varina. 
Daughter of Alozona Deems Averette, and Minnie Lee 
(Helms) Averette. Graduated Fuquay-Varina High School, 
1949. Kings Business College, 1951; Attended Raleigh School 
of Commerce and Hardbarger Business College. Refresher 
Courses — 1954-1973. Home Maker. National Society of 
Legislative Clerks and Secretaries. General Assembly Ex- 
perience: Assistant Calendar Clerk 1969; Journal Clerk 
1971-1973; and Principal Clerk, 1974. Served as First Vice- 
chairman of Middle Creek Fuquay precinct, 1969-1971. Served as Chairman for 
precinct 1971-1973. Presently serving as second Vice-Chairman. Served as Cub 
Scout Den Mother, active in community affairs — fund raising, etc., served on Wake 
County Bicenntennial Committee, 1972. Town Board Recreation Committee. Mem- 
ber, Fuquay Methodist. Board of Mission, Sunday School Teacher, Member of 
Chancel Choir. Director of Youth Choir. Married John Nolan Collins October 4, 
1952. Children: John N. Jr., Joseph A., James D. and Laurie E. Address: 518 East 
Academy Street, Raleigh. 



ARTHUR JOHN HOWARD CLEMENT, III 

(Democrat — Durham County) 

(Sixteenth House District — County: Durham. Three Representatives.) 

Clement was appointed August 3, 1977 to replace Michaux; however, no picture 
or biographical sketch could be obtained in time for publication.) 

TIMOTHY HILL McDOWELL 

(Democrat — Alamance County) 

(Twenty- Second House District — Counties: Alamance and Rockingham. Four 
Representatives.) 

McDowell was appointed September 19, 1977 to replace W. S. Harris, Jr.; 
however no picture or biographical sketch could be obtained in time for publica- 
tion.) 

ROBERT McALISTER 

(Democrat — Rockingham County) 

(Twenty- Second House District — Counties, Alamance and Rockingham. Four 
Representatives.) 

(McAlister was appointed October 13, 1977 to replace Duncan; however, no 
photography or biographical sketch could be obtained in time for publication.) 



434 



North Carolina Manual 



OCCUPATIONS OF HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES MEMBERS 



Accountant, Payroll 

Bissell, Marilyn R. 

Poovey, Julius Reid (retired) 

Assistant to College President 

Greenwood, Gordon Hicks 

Attorney 

Adams, Allen 
Creech, William A. 
Davenport, John Edwin 
DeRamus, Judson D., Jr. 
Erwin, Richard C. 
Ezzell, James Earl, Jr. 
Farmer, Robert L. 
Frye, Henry E. 
Hairston, Peter W. 
Harris, W. S., Jr. 
Helms, H. Parks 
Holmes, Edward S. 
Holt, Bertha M. 
Hux, George Austin 
Jones, Robert A. 
Locklear, Horace 
McMillan, William H. 
Michaux, Henry M., Jr. 
Miller, George W., Jr. 
Morgan, James Franklin 
Rountree, H. Horton 
Sawyer, Thomas B. 
Short, W. M. 
Stewart, Carl J., Jr. 
Watkins, William T. 
Wright, Ottis Richard 

Auto Dealer 

Bright, Joe L. 
Ellis, T.W., Jr. 
Thomas, Betty Dorton 

Banker 

Tison, Ben 

Broker-Developer 

Barbee, Allen C. 



Builder 

DeBruhl, Claude 

Cattle 

Gently, J. Worth 

Coach 

Diamont, David H. 

College Professor 

Brennan, Louise Smith 
Pickler, Janet W. 
Rhodes, S. Thomas 

Corporation — Management 

Easterling, Ruth Moss 
Messer, Ernest 
Morris, Glenn A. (retired) 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Quinn, Dwight W. 

Customer Service Specialist 

Dorsey, Fred R. 

Dairy Farm 

Clarke, James McClure 

Educational Consultant 

Nesbitt, Mary C. 

Educator 

Smith, A. Neal 

Electrical Manufacturer s Agent 

Spoon, Roy 

Entertainer 

Wiseman, Myrtle E. (retired) 

Farm Supply Dealer 

Tyson, Henry M. 



Legislative Branch 



435 



Farmer 

Auman, T. Clyde 
Barbee, Allen C. 
Bright, Joe L. 
Bundy, Sam D. 
Collins, P. C, Jr. 
DeBruhl, Claude 
Ellis, T. W., Jr. 
Falls, Robert Z. 
Gentry, J. Worth 
Grady, Richard R. 
Gregory, Carson 
James, Vernon G. 
Jernigan, Roberts H. 
Lutz, Edith Ledford 
Parnell, David R. 
Revelle, J. Guy, Sr. 
Tyson, Henry M. 
Ward, Allen C. 
Wright, Ottis Richard 

Fertilizer Dealer 

Gentry, J. Worth 

Funeral Home Business 

Bumgardner, David W., Jr. 
Pugh, J. T. 

Furniture Business 

Lambeth, James Erwin 

General Contractor 

Duncan, Conrad R. 

Guidance Counselor 

Fulcher, Gerald Malcolm, Jr. 
Hunt, Patricia Stanford 
Tally, Mrs. Lura S. 

Housewife 

Chase, Mrs. John B. 
Griffin, Pat O. 
Holt, Bertha Merrill 

Ice and Fuel Business 

Hightower, Foyle, Jr. 



Insurance 

Beard, R. D. 
Bell, E. Graham 
Campbell, A. Hartwell 
Collins, P. C, Jr. 
Edwards, James H. 
Hunter, Thomas B. 
Hurst, Mrs. Wilda 
Lachot, W. H., Jr. 
Lilley, Daniel 
Martin, Albert Jennings 
Nye, Edd 

Investments 

Schwartz, Benjamin D. 

Jobber 

Holt, Charles 

Landscape Contractor 

Gilmore, Thomas O. 

Law Office Administrator 

Seymour, Mary Powell 

Legal Secretary 

Seymour, Mary Powell 

Marketing Enterprises 

Brubaker, Harold James 

Meat Packing Business 

Jernigan, Roberts H., Jr. 

Merchant 

Parnell, David R. 
Ramsey, Liston B. 

Minister 

Johnson, Joy J. 

Motel and Shopping Center Owner 

White, W. Stanford 



436 



North Carolina Manual 



Oil Business 

Baker, T. J. 
Gardner, J. M. 
Ward, Allen C. 

Orchard Operator 

Clarke, James McClure 

Owner — Electrical Contractor 
Firm 

Ray, Hector 

Owner — Charlestowne Pipe & 
Tobacco Shoppe 

Webb, C. E. 
Pharmacist 

Woodard, Barney Paul 

Physician, Surgeon 

Gamble, John R., Jr. 

President — D. F. Harris & Son, 
Inc. 

Harris, Fletcher 

Private Detective 

Edwards, James H. 

Psychiatrist 

Varner, Dr. John (retired) 

Public Schools 

Cullipher, George P. 

Publisher 

DeBruhl, Claude 
Huskins, J. P. 

Real Estate 

Bell, E. Graham 
Gregory, Carson 
Hall, Daniel A. C, Jr. 
Hurst, Mrs. Wilda 
Mason, Ronald Earl 



Michaux, Henry M., Jr. 
Nash, Robie L. 
Seymour, Mary Powell 

Restaurateur 

Economos, Gus Nickolas 

Retired 

Setzer, Frances E. 
Tennille, Margaret 

Roses Stores — Chairman of the 
Board 

Church, John T. 

Salesman 

Holroyd, William Casper, Jr. 

School Principal 

Foster, Jo Graham 

Martin, Albert Jennings (retired) 

School Teacher 

Bundy, Sam D. (retired) 
Chapin, Howard B. 
Diamont, David H. 
Tally, Lura 

Securities Representative 

Barker, Chris S., Jr. 

Social Legislation 

Cook, Ruth E. 

Superintendent of School System 

Smith, Ned R. 

White, Eugene Morrison (retired) 

Tobacco 

Taylor, George Ronald 

T.V. — Radio Station Business 

Campbell, A. Hartwell 



Legislative Branch 



437 



U.S.D.A. 

Enloe, Jeff H., Jr. (retired) 

Vice President — Cameron 
Brown Co. 

Johnson, Joseph 



Vice President — Kaplan School 
Supply Corp. 

Kaplan, Ian Theodore 



438 



North Carolina Manual 



1977 HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 
COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

AGING 



Messer, Ernest B. — Chairman 
Bell, E. Graham — Vice Chairman 
Gregory, Carson — Vice Chairman 



Chase, Mrs. John B. 
Clarke, James McClure 
Davenport, John Ed. 
Eeonomos, Gus 
Ellis, T.W., Jr. 
Ezzell, James E., Jr. 
Farmer, Robert L. 



Greenwood, Gordon H. 
Hux, George A. 
Nye, Edd 
Pickler, Janet W. 
Ramsey, Liston B. 
Rhodes, S. Thomas 
Short, W.M. 



Auman, T. Clyde 
Barbee, Allen C. 
Barker, Chris S., Jr. 
Bright, Joe L. 
Brubaker, Harold J. 
Dorsey, Fred 
Ellis, T.W., Jr. 
Falls, Robert Z. 
Gently, J. Worth 
Grady, Richard R. 
Gregory, Carson 



AGRICULTURE 

James, Vernon G. — Chairman 

Enloe, Jeff H., Jr. — Vice Chairman 

Gardner, J.M. — Vice Chairman 

Lutz, Edith L. — Vice Chairman 

Parnell, David R. — Vice Chairman 

Tyson, Henry M. — Vice Chairman 



Hightower, Foyle, Jr. 
Hux, George A. 
Locklear, Horace 
Nye, Edd 
Pickler, Janet W. 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Taylor, Ron 
Ward, Allen C. 
White, Eugene M. 
Woodard, Barney Paul 



ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE CONTROL 

Schwartz, B.D. — Chairman 

Tyson, Henry M. — Vice Chairman 

Duncan, Conrad R. — Vice Chairman 



Baker, T.J. 
Barbee, Allen C. 
Barker, Chris S., Jr. 
DeBruhl, Claude 
Edwards, James H. 



Hurst, Mrs. Wilda 
Johnson, Joy J. 
Lilley, Daniel T. 
McMillan, William H. 
Morgan, James F. 



Legislative Branch 



439 



Ezzell, James E., Jr. 
Holroyd, W. Casper, Jr. 
Holt, Bertha M. 



Smith, Ned R. 
Spoon, Roy 
Tison, Ben 



APPROPRIATIONS COMMITTEE 

Holmes, Edward S. — Chairman 



APPROPRIATIONS COMMITTEE ON THE BASE BUDGET 

Tison, Ben — Chairman 
Enloe, Jeff H., Jr. — Vice Chairman 
Parnell, David R. — Vice Chairman 
Watkins, William T. — Vice Chairman 
Harris, W.S., Jr. — Vice Chairman 
Webb, Charles E. — Vice Chairman 



Easterling, Ruth M. 
Grady, Richard R. 
Hall, Daniel A.C., Jr. 
Hunter, Thomas B. 
Kaplan, Ted 
Pickler, Janet W. 



Rountree, H. Horton 
Setzer, Frances E. 
Smith, A. Neal 
Taylor, Ron 
Wiseman, Myrtle E. 



APPROPRIATIONS COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION 

Huskins, J. P. — Chairman 

Chapin, Howard B. — Vice Chairman 

Erwin, Richard C. — Vice Chairman 

Greenwood, Gordon H. — Vice Chairman 

Tally, Lura — Vice Chairman 



Clarke, James McClure 
Foster, Jo Graham 
Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. 
Holroyd, W. Casper, Jr. 
Holt, Charles 



Hunt, Patricia Stanford 
Michaux, H.M., Jr. 
Wright, Richard 
Creech, William A. 



APPROPRIATIONS COMMITTEE ON GENERAL GOVERNMENT 

& TRANSPORTATION 

Mason, Ronald E. — Chairman 

Cook, Ruth E. — Vice Chairman 

Nye, Edd — Vice Chairman 

Ray, Hector — Vice Chairman 



Brennan, Louise S. 
Bumgardner, David W., Jr. 
Campbell, A. Hartwell 



Harris, Fletcher 

Holt, Bertha 

Jernigan, Roberts H., Jr. 



440 



North Carolina Manual 



DeBruhl, Claude 
Diamont, David H. 
Edwards, James H. 
Gilmore, Thomas O. 



Seymour, Mary P. 
Spoon, Roy 
White, W. Stanford 



APPROPRIATIONS COMMITTEE ON HUMAN RESOURCES 

AND CORRECTIONS 

Auman, T. Clyde — Chairman 

Chase, Mrs. John B. — Vice Chairman 

Lachot, W.H., Jr. — Vice Chairman 

Lutz, Edith L. — Vice Chairman 



Adams, Allen 
Cullipher, George P. 
Gamble, John R., Jr. 
James, Vernon G. 
Johnson, Joy J. 
Messer, Ernest B. 



Nash, Robie L. 
Schwartz, B.D. 
Smith, Ned R. 
Vainer, Dr. John 
Woodard, Barney Paul 



BANKS AND BANKING 

Bell, E. Graham — Chairman 

Baker, T J. — Vice Chairman 

Cook, Ruth E. — Vice Chairman 

Schwartz, B.D. — Vice Chairman 

Tennile, Margaret — Vice Chairman 



Bright, Joe L. 
Brubaker, Harold J. 
Campbell, A. Hartwell 
Collins, P.C., Jr. 
Easterling, Ruth M. 
Edwards, James H. 
Falls, Robert Z. 
Foster, Jo Graham 



Gardner, J.M. 
Helms, H. Parks 
Hunt, Patricia Stanford 
Johnson, Joseph E. 
Lachot, W.H., Jr. 
Morris, Glenn A. 
Setzer, Frances E. 
Short, W.M. 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES AND OYSTER INDUSTRY 



Bright, Joe L.- 
Mason, Ronald E.- 
White, W. Stanford- 



Chapin, Howard B. 
Cullipher, George P. 
Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. 
Hall, Daniel A.C., Jr. 



— Chairman 
-Vice Chairman 
—Vice Chairman 

James, Vernon G. 
Rhodes, S. Thomas 
Schwartz, B.D. 
Ward, Allen C. 



Legislative Branch 



441 



COMMISSIONS AND INSTITUTIONS FOR BLIND AND DEAF 

Nash, Robie L. — Chairman 

Collins, P.C., Jr. — Vice Chairman 

Miller, George W., Jr. — Vice Chairman 

Pugh, J.T. — Vice Chairman 



Auman, T. Clyde 
Brennan, Louise S. 
Cook, Ruth E. 
Griffin, Pat O. 
Hall, Daniel A.C., Jr. 
Lachot, W.H., Jr. 



Lambeth, Jim 
Martin, Albert 
Quinn, Dwight W. 
Seymour, Mary P. 
Thomas, Betty Dorton 
Varner, Dr. John 



CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS 

Gamble, John R., Jr. — Chairman 

Davenport, John Ed. — Vice Chairman 

DeRamus, Judson D., Jr. — Vice Chairman 

Frye, Henry E. — Vice Chairman 

Jones, Robert A. — Vice Chairman 



Brennan, Louise S. 
Chapin, Howard B. 
Cook, Ruth E. 
Gilmore, Thomas 0. 
Hairston, Peter W. 
Hall, Daniel A.C., Jr. 
Harris, W.S., Jr. 
Holroyd, W. Casper, Jr. 
Holt, Bertha 



Huskins, J. P. 
Michaux, H.M., Jr. 
Nesbitt, Mary C. 
Ray, Hector 
Tally, Lura 
Thomas, Betty Dorton 
Watkins, William T. 
Webb, Charles E. 



Ellis, T.W., Jr. 
Holmes, Edwards S. 
Locklear, Horace 
Lutz, Edith L. 



CORPORATIONS 

Holt, Charles — Chairman 

Gardner, J.M. — Vice Chairman 

Lachot, W.H., Jr. — Vice Chairman 

Setzer, Frances E. — Vice Chairman 



Morris, Glenn A. 
Parnell, David R. 
Webb, Charles E. 



CORRECTIONS 

Plyler, Aaron W. — Chairman 

Creech, William A. — Vice Chairman 

Gilmore, Thomas O. — Vice Chairman 

Hightower, Foyle, Jr. — Vice Chairman 

Johnson, Joy J. — Vice Chairman 



442 



North Carolina Manual 



Auman, T. Clyde 
Bissell, Marilyn R. 
Ervvin, Richard C. 
Ezzell, James E., Jr. 
Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. 
Hall, Daniel A.C., Jr. 
Holmes, Edward S. 



Lutz, Edith L. 
Pugh, J.T. 
Smith, A. Neal 
Spoon, Roy 
Taylor, Ron 
Varner, Dr. John 
Webb, Allen C. 



COURTS AND JUDICIAL DISTRICTS 

Hairston, Peter W. — Chairman 

Erwin, Richard C. — Vice Chairman 

Helms, H. Parks — Vice Chairman 

Wright, Richard — Vice Chairman 



Adams, Allen 
Chapin, Howard B. 
Creech, William A. 
Frye, Hemy E. 
Gilmore, Thomas O. 
Hunter, Thomas B. 
Hux, George A. 
Johnson, Joseph E. 



Jones, Robert A. 
McMillan, William H. 
Michaux, H.M., Jr. 
Morgan, James F. 
Nesbitt, Mary C. 
Ramsey, Liston B. 
Tally, Lura 



ECONOMY 

Lilley, Daniel T. — Chairman 

Frye, Henry E. — Vice Chairman 

Gentry, J. Worth — Vice Chairman 

Tison, Ben — Vice Chairman 



Baker, T.J. 
Brubaker, Harold J. 
Creech, William A. 
DeRamus, Judson D., Jr. 
Easterling, Ruth M. 
Hairston, Peter W. 
Hunter, Thomas B. 



Hurst, Mrs. Wilda 
McMillan, William H. 
Schwartz, B.D. 
Setzer, Frances E. 
Tyson, Henry M. 
Watkins, William T. 



EDUCATION 

Quinn, Dwight W. — Chairman 

Campbell, A. Hartwell — Vice Chairman 

Foster, Jo Graham — Vice Chairman 

Smith, Ned R. — Vice Chairman 

Ward, Allen C. — Vice Chairman 

Wright, Richard — Vice Chairman 



Auman, T. Clyde 
Barker, Chris S., Jr. 
Bell, E. Graham 



Hunt, Patricia Stanford 
Hunter, Thomas B. 
Lambeth, Jim 



Legislative Branch 443 



Bundy, Sam D. Locklear, Horace 

Creech, William A. Martin, Albert 

Cullipher, George P. Nesbitt, Mary C. 

Diamont, David H. Ray, Hector 

Economos, Gus Rhodes, S. Thomas 

Enloe, Jeff H., Jr. Taylor, Ron 

Farmer, Robert L. Varner, Dr. John 

Gilmore, Thomas O. White, Eugene M. 
Holroyd, W. Casper, Jr. 

ELECTION LAWS 

Gilmore, Thomas O. — Chairman 

Adams, Allen — Vice Chairman 

Gentry, J. Worth — Vice Chairman 

Watkins, William T. — Vice Chairman 

Jones, Robert A. — Vice Chairman 

Beard, R.D. Gamble, John R., Jr. 

Bell, E. Graham Morris, Glenn A. 

Brubaker, Harold J. Parnell, David R. 

Bundy, Sam D. Poovey, J. Reid 

Chapin, Howard B. Ramsey, Liston B. 

Davenport, John Ed. Wiseman, Myrtle E. 

DeRamus, Judson D., Jr. Martin, Albert 
Enloe, Jeff H., Jr. 

EMPLOYMENT SECURITY 

Wright, Richard — Chairman 

Greenwood, Gordon H. — Vice Chairman 

Morris, Glenn A. — Vice Chairman 

Quinn, Dwight W. — Vice Chairman 

Barbee, Allen C. Gentry, J. Worth 

Campbell, A. Hartwell Griffin, Pat O. 

Church, John T. Han-is, Fletcher 

Diamont, David H. Short, W.M. 

Duncan, Conrad R. Smith, Ned R. 
Ellis, T.W., Jr. 

FINANCE 

Farmer, Robert L. — Chairman 

Baker, T.J. — Vice Chairman 

Bell, E. Graham — Vice Chairman 

Lilley, Daniel T. — Vice Chairman 

Quinn, Dwight W. — Vice Chairman 

Ramsey, Liston B. — Vice Chairman 



444 



North Carolina Manual 



Barbee, Allen C. 
Barker, Chris S., Jr. 
Beard, R.D. 
Bissell, Marilyn R. 
Bright, Joe L. 
Brubaker, Harold J. 
Bundy, Sam D. 
Church, John T. 
Collins, P.C., Jr. 
Gardner, J.M. 
Gentry, J. Worth 
Gregory, Carson 
Griffin, Pat O. 
Hairston, Peter W. 
Helms, H. Parks 
Hightower, Foyle, Jr. 
Hurst, Mrs. Wilda 
Hux, George A. 
Johnson, Joseph 
Jones, Robert A. 
Lambeth, Jim 
Locklear, Horace 
McMillan, William H. 
Martin, Albert 
Miller, George W., Jr. 



Davenport, John Ed. 
DeRamus, Judson D., Jr. 
Dorsey, Fred R. 
Duncan, Conrad R. 
Economos, Gus 
Ellis, T.W., Jr. 
Ezzell, James E., Jr. 
Falls, Robert Z. 
Frye, Henry E. 
Morgan, James F. 
Morris, Glenn A. 
Nesbitt, Mary C. 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Poovey, J. Reid 
Pugh, J. T. 
Revelle, J. Guy, Sr. 
Rhodes, S. Thomas 
Rountree, H. Horton 
Sawyer, Thomas B. 
Short, W. M. 
Tennille, Margaret 
Thomas, Betty Dorton 
Tyson, Henry M. 
Ward, Allen C. 
White, Eugene M. 



HEALTH 

Woodard, Barney Paul — Chairman 

Auman, T. Clyde — Vice Chairman 

Chase, Mrs. John B. — Vice Chairman 

Gamble, John R., Jr. — Vice Chairman 



Beard, R.D. 
Brubaker, Harold J. 
Grady, Richard R. 
Hightower, Foyle, Jr. 
Hurst, Mrs. Wilda 
Lutz, Edith L. 



Plyler, Aaron W. 
Setzer, Frances E. 
Seymour, Mary P. 
Tennille, Margaret 
Tyson, Henry M. 



HIGHER EDUCATION 

Tally, Lura — Chairman 

Church, John T. — Vice Chairman 

Diamont, David H. — Vice Chairman 

Huskins, J. P. — Vice Chairman 

Jernigan, Roberts H., Jr. — Vice Chairman 

Michaux, H.M., Jr. — Vice Chairman 



Bissell, Marilyn R. 
Brennan, Louise S. 



Hunt, Patricia Stanford 
Hunter, Thomas B. 



Legislative Branch 



445 



Chase, Mrs. John B. 
Clarke, James McClure 
Erwin, Richard C. 
Frye, Henry E. 
Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. 
Harris, Fletcher 
Harris, W.S., Jr. 
Helms, H. Parks 



Lachot, W.H., Jr. 
Messer, Ernest B. 
Nesbitt, Mary C. 
Pught, J.T. 
Rountree, H. Horton 
Schwartz, B.D. 
Thomas, Betty Dorton 
Webb, Charles E. 



HIGHWAY SAFETY 

Michaux, H.M., Jr. — Chairman 

Miller, George W., Jr. — Vice Chairman 

Revelle, J. Guy, Sr. — Vice Chairman 

Smith, A. Neal — Vice Chairman 



Auman, T. Clyde 
Beard, R.D. 
Bissell, Marilyn R. 
Bumgardner, David W., Jr. 
Bundy, Sam D. 
Economos, Gus 
Erwin, Richard C. 
Grady, Richard R. 



Gregory, Carson 
Lambeth, Jim 
Lutz, Edith L. 
Morgan, James F. 
Poovey, J. Reid 
Spoon, Roy 
White, Eugene M. 



HUMAN RESOURCES 

Johnson, Joy J. — Chairman 
Nesbitt, Mary C. — Vice Chairman 

Pugh, J.T. — Vice Chairman 

Tally, Lura — Vice Chairman 

Varner, Dr. John — Vice Chairman 



Creech, William A. 
Diamont, David H. 
Economos, Gus 
Ezzell, James E., Jr. 
Foster, Jo Graham 
Greenwood, Gordon H. 
Holroyd, W. Casper, Jr. 



Holt, Bertha 
James, Vernon G. 
Michaux, H.M., Jr. 
Pickler, Janet W. 
Tennille, Margaret 
Thomas, Betty Dorton 
Ward, Allen C. 



Baker, T.J. 
Bell, E. Graham 



INSURANCE 

Short, W.M. — Chairman 

Beard, R.D. — Vice Chairman 

Davenport, John Ed. — Vice Chairman 

DeRamus, Judson D., Jr. — Vice Chairman 

Sawyer, Thomas B. — Vice Chairman 

Lachot, W.H., Jr. 
Lilley, Daniel T. 



446 



North Carolina Manual 



Bissell, Marilyn R. 
Campbell, A. Hartwell 
Ellis, T.W., Jr. 
Falls, Robert Z. 
Foster, Jo Graham 
Gamble, John R., Jr. 
Harris, W.S., Jr. 
Holroyd, W. Casper, Jr. 



Martin, Albert 
Messer, Ernest B. 
Miller, George W., Jr. 
Nye, Edd 

Rhodes, S. Thomas 
Seymour, Mary P. 
Webb, Charles E. 



Erwin, Richard C. 
Harris, W.S., Jr. 
Helms, H. Parks 
Hux, George A. 



JUDICIARY I 

Frye, Henry E. — Chairman 
Hairston, Peter W. — Vice Chairman 
Michaux, H.M., Jr. — Vice Chairman 
Sawyer, Thomas B. — Vice Chairman 



Johnson, Joseph E. 
Pickler, Janet W. 
Short, W.M. 
Tally, Lura 



JUDICIARY II 

Davenport, John Ed. — Chairman 

Creech, William A. — Vice Chairman 

Jones, Robert A. — Vice Chairman 

McMillan, William H. — Vice Chairman 



Adams, Allen 
DeRamus, Judson D., Jr. 
Ezzell, James E., Jr. 
Holt, Bertha M. 



Miller, George W., Jr. 
Morgan, James F. 
Wright, Richard 



Brennan, Louise S. 
Church, John T. 
Cook, Ruth E. 
Locklear, Horace 
Mason, Ronald E. 



JUDICIARY III 

Hunt, Patricia Stanford — Chairman 
Farmer, Robert L. — Vice Chairman 
Holmes, Edward S. — Vice Chairman 



Ray, Hector 
Rountree, H. Horton 
Tison, Ben 
Watkins, William T. 



LOCAL GOVERNMENT I 

Baker, T.J. — Chairman 

Cullipher, George P. — Vice Chairman 

Nye, Edd — Vice Chairman 

Plyler, Aaron W. — Vice Chairman 



Legislative Branch 



447 



Chase, Mrs. John B. 
Clarke, James McClure 
Collins, P.C., Jr. 
Dorsey, Fred R. 
Edwards, James H. 
Gardner, J.M. 
Holt, Charles 
Hurst, Mrs. Wilda 



Kaplan, Ted 
Martin, Albert 
Nash, Robie L. 
Seymour, Mary P. 
Ward, Allen C. 
White, W. Stanford 
Wiseman, Myrtle E. 



Brennan, Louise S. 
Bundy, Sam D. 
Diamont, David H. 
Duncan, Conrad R. 
Easterling, Ruth M. 
Economos, Gus 
Farmer, Robert L. 



LOCAL GOVERNMENT II 

Greenwood, Gordon H. — Chairman 

Griffin, Pat 0. — Vice Chairman 

Ray, Hector — Vice Chairman 



Grady, Richard R. 
Jernigan, Robert H., Jr. 
Nesbitt, Mary C. 
Tennille, Margaret 
Tyson, Henry M. 
White, Eugene M. 



MANUFACTURERS & LABOR 

Johnson, Joseph E. — Chairman 

Messer, Ernest B. — Vice Chairman 

Morris, Glenn A. — Vice Chairman 

Short, W.M. — Vice Chairman 



Adams, Allen 
Bissell, Marilyn R. 
Collins, P.C., Jr. 
Dorsey, Fred R. 
Duncan, Conrad R. 
Easterling, Ruth M. 



Lambeth, Jim 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Quinn, Dwight W. 
Sawyer, Thomas B. 
Taylor, Ron 



MENTAL HEALTH 

Barker, Chris S., Jr. — Chairman 

Beard, R.D. — Vice Chairman 

Chase, Mrs. John B. — Vice Chairman 

Pickler, Janet W. — Vice Chairman 

Varner, Dr. John — Vice Chairman 



Auman, T. Clyde 
Cullipher, George P. 
Economos, Gus 
Enloe, Jeff H., Jr. 
Ezzell, James E., Jr. 
Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. 
Greenwood, Gordon H. 



Holt, Charles 
Kaplan, Ted 
Lutz, Edith L. 
Pugh, J.T. 
Taylor, Ron 
White, Eugene 



M. 



448 North Carolina Manual 



MILITARY AND VETERANS AFFAIRS 

Gregory, Carson — Chairman 

Barker, Chris S., Jr. — Vice Chairman 

Bumgardner, David W., Jr. — Vice Chairman 

DeBruhl, Claude — Vice Chairman 

Dorsey, Fred R. Sawyer, Thomas B. 

Foster, Jo Graham Spoon, Roy 

Harris, Fletcher Varner, Dr. John 

Johnson, Joy J. Woodard, Barney Paul 

Kaplan, Ted Wright, Richard 
Poovey, J. Reid 

NATURAL AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES 

Webb, Charles E. — Chairman 
Chapin, Howard B. — Vice Chairman 

Holt, Charles — Vice Chairman 

Hurst, Mrs. Wilda — Vice Chairman 

White, W. Stanford — Vice Chairman 

Clarke, James McClure Hairston, Peter W. 

Cullipher, George P. Harris, W.S., Jr. 

Diamont, David H. Kaplan, Ted 

Ellis, T.W., Jr. Lambeth, Jim 

Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. Mason, Ronald E. 

Gilmore, Thomas 0. Pugh, J.T. 

Griffin, Pat 0. Seymour, Mary P. 

Hall, Daniel A.C., Jr. Ward, Allen C. 

PROFESSIONAL LAW ENFORCEMENT PERSONNEL 

AND PRACTICE 

McMillan, William H. — Chairman 

Holmes, Edward S. — Vice Chairman 

Hunter, Thomas B. — Vice Chairman 

Nash, Robie L. — Vice Chairman 

Bissell, Marilyn R. Holroyd, W. Casper, Jr. 

Bumgardner, David W., Jr. Morgan, James F. 

Cullipher, George P. Revelle, J. Guy, Sr. 

Duncan, Conrad R. Spoon, Roy 

Erwin, Richard C. Watkins, William T. 

Hightower, Foyle, Jr. 

PUBLIC LIBRARIES 

Smith, A. Neal — Chairman 

Bright, Joe L. — Vice Chairman 

Holt, Bertha — Vice Chairman 



Legislative Branch 



449 



Adams, Allen 
Bundy, Sam D. 
Clarke, James McClure 
DeBruhl, Claude 
Dorsey, Fred R. 
Gentry, J. Worth 
Gregory, Carson 



Griffin, Pat O. 
Jernigan, Roberts H., Jr. 
Johnson, Joy J. 
Lambeth, Jim 
Smith, Ned R. 
Thomas, Betty Dorton 



PUBLIC UTILITIES 

Campbell, A. Hartwell — Chairman 

Baker, T.J. — Vice Chairman 

Falls, Robert Z. — Vice Chairman 

Huskins, J. P. — Vice Chairman 

Jernigan, Roberts H., Jr. — Vice Chairman 



Barker, Chris S., Jr. 
Bumgardner, David W., Jr. 
Chapin, Howard B. 
Clarke, James McClure 
Collins, P.C., Jr. 
Grady, Richard R. 
Kaplan, Ted 
Miller, George W., Jr. 



Morris, Glenn A. 
Parnell, David R. 
Quinn, Dwight W. 
Rountree, H. Horton 
Seymour, Mary P. 
Tally, Lura 
Tison, Ben 
White, Eugene M. 



RULES 

Harris, W.S., Jr. — Chairman 

Adams, Allen — Vice Chairman 

Mason, Ronald E. — Vice Chairman 

Ramsey, Listen B. — Vice Chairman 

Tennille, Margaret — Vice Chairman 



Barbee, Allen C. 
Barker, Chris S., Jr. 
Beard, R.D. 
Frye, Henry E. 
Gardner, J.M. 
Grady, Richard R. 
Harris, Fletcher 
Hunt, Patricia Stanford 
Huskins, J. P. 
James, Vernon G. 
Jones, Robert A. 
Lachot, W.H., Jr. 



Michaux, H.M., Jr. 
Morgan, James F. 
Pickler, Janet W. 
Quinn, Dwight W. 
Ray, Hector 
Rountree, H. Horton 
Spoon, Roy 
Tison, Ben 
Webb, Charles E. 
White, W. Stanford 
Wright, Richard 



STATE GOVERNMENT 

Jernigan, Roberts H., Jr. — Chairman 
Barbee, Allen C. — Vice Chairman 
Church, John T. — Vice Chairman 



450 



North Carolina Manual 



Adams, Allen 

Bumgardner, David W., Jr 
Collins, P.C., Jr. 
Davenport, John Ed. 
DeRamus, Judson D., Jr. 
Easterling, Ruth M. 
Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. 
Harris, Fletcher 



James, Vernon G. 
Mason, Ronald E. 
Nye, Edd 
Parnell, David R. 
Ramsey, Liston B. 
Revelle, J. Guy, Sr 
Schwartz, B. D. 



Edwards, James H. 
Enloe, Jeff H., Jr. 
Farmer, Robert L. 
Greenwood, Gordon H 
Hux, George A. 



STATE PERSONNEL 

Foster, Jo Graham — Chairman 

Bundy, Sam D. — Vice Chairman 

Johnson, Joseph E. — Vice Chairman 

Revelle, J. Guy, Sr. — Vice Chairman 

Martin, Albert 
Ray, Hector 
Setzer, Frances E. 
Tennille, Margaret 
Woodard, Barney Paul 



STATE PROPERTIES 

Gardner, J.M. — Chairman 

Edwards, James H. — Vice Chairman 

Hurst, Mrs. Wilda — Vice Chairman 



DeBruhl, Claude 
Hall, Daniel A.C., Jr. 
Holroyd, W. Casper, Jr. 
Johnson, Joseph E. 
Kaplan, Ted 



Nash, Robie L. 
Sawyer, Thomas B. 
Setzer, Frances E. 
Smith, A. Neal 



TRANSPORTATION 

Bumgardner, David W., Jr. — Chairman 

Barbee, Allen C. — Vice Chairman 

Hunter, Thomas B. — Vice Chairman 

James, Vernon G. — Vice Chairman 

Lilley, Daniel T. — Vice Chairman 



Auman, T. Clyde 
Church, John T. 
Duncan, Conrad R. 
Enloe, Jeff H., Jr. 
Gregoiy, Carson 
Harris, Fletcher 
Hightower, Foyle, Jr. 
Holmes, Edward S. 
Huskins, J. P. 
Hux, George A. 



Parnell, David R. 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Poovey, J. Reid 
Ramsey, Liston B. 
Revelle, J. Guy, Sr. 
Rhodes, S. Thomas 
Smith, A. Neal 
Smith, Ned R. 
Taylor, Ron 
Wiseman, Myrtle E. 



Legislative Branch 



451 



UNIVERSITY BOARD OF GOVERNORS NOMINATING 

COMMITTEE 

Chase, Mrs. John B. — Chairman 

Hunt, Patricia Stanford — Vice Chairman 

Thomas, Betty Dorton — Vice Chairman 

Woodard, Barney Paul — Vice Chairman 



Brennan, Louise S. 
Bright, Joe L. 
Campbell, A. Hartwell 
Falls, Robert Z. 
Gamble, John R., Jr. 



Jernigan, Robert H., Jr. 
Johnson, Joy J. 
Locklear, Horace 
Rountree, H. Horton 
Taylor, Ron 



Bright, Joe L. 
Cook, Ruth E. 
Dorsey, Fred R. 
Gentry, J. Worth 
Griffin, Pat 0. 
Hairston, Peter W. 
Holt, Charles 



WATER AND AIR RESOURCES 

Helms, H. Parks — Chairman 
Diamont, David H. — Vice Chairman 

Smith, Ned R. — Vice Chairman 
Wiseman, Myrtle E. — Vice Chairman 



Lilley, Daniel T. 
Mason, Ronald E. 
Messer, Ernest B. 
Nash, Robie L. 
Rhodes, S. Thomas 
Tyson, Henry M. 
Woodard, Barney Paul 



Barbee, Allen C. 
Bell, E. Graham 
BeBruhl, Claude 
Edwards, James H. 
Helms, H. Parks 
Holmes, Edward S. 



WILDLIFE 

White, W. Stanford — Chairman 

Ellis, T.W., Jr. — Vice Chairman 

Holt, Charles — Vice Chairman 

Lilley, Daniel T. — Vice Chairman 



Jones, Robert A. 
Locklear, Horace 
Poovey, J. Reid 
Revelle, J. Guy, Sr. 
Wiseman, Myrtle E. 



452 North Carolina Manual 

RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

1977 SESSION 

I. Order of Business, 1-5 

II. Conduct of Debate, 6-12 

III. Motions, 13-19 

IV. Voting, 20-25 

V. Committees, 26-30 

VI. Handling of Bills, 31-44 

VII. Legislative Officers and Employees, 45-49 

VIII. Privileges of the Hall, 50-53 

IX. General Rules, 54-61 

I. Order of Business 

RULE 1. Convening Hour. — The House shall convene each legislative day 
at the hour fixed by the House. In the event the House adjourns on the preceding 
legislative day without having fixed an hour for reconvening, the House shall 
convene on the next legislative day at 1:00 P.M. 

RULE 2. Opening the Session. — At the convening hour on each legislative 
day, the Speaker shall call the members to order and shall have the session opened 
with prayer. 

RULE 3. Quorum. — (a) A quorum consists of a majority of the qualified 
members of the House. 

(b) Should the point of a quorum be raised, the doors shall be closed and the 
Clerk shall call the roll of the House, after which the names of those not respond- 
ing shall again be called. In the absence of a quorum, fifteen members are author- 
ized to compel the attendance of absent members and may order that absentees 
for whom no sufficient excuses are made be taken into custody wherever they may 
be found by special messenger appointed for that purpose. 

RULE 4. Approval of Journal. — (a) The Committee on Rules and Opera- 
tion of the House shall cause the Journal of the House to be examined daily be- 
fore the hour of convening to determine if the proceedings of the previous day 
have been correctly recorded. 

(b) Immediately following the opening prayer and upon appearance of a 
quorum, the Speaker shall call ior the Journal report by the Chairman of the 
Committee on Rules and Operation of the House or by a Representative designated 



Legislative Branch 453 



by the Chairman as to whether the proceedings oi the previous day have been 
correctly recorded. Without objection, the Speaker snail cause the Journal to 
stand approved. 

RULE 5. Order of Business of the Day. — After the approval of the Journal 
of the preceding day, the House shall proceed to business in the following order: 

(1) The receiving of petitions, memorials, and papers addressed to the Gen- 
eral Assembly or to the House; 

(2) Reports of standing committees; 

(3) Reports of select committees; 

(4) First reading and reference to committee of bills and resolutions; 

(5) Messages from the Senate; 

(6) The unfinished business of the preceding day; 

(7) Calendar (each category in numerical order) : 

(a) Local bills (roll call) third reading 

(b) Local bills (roll call) second reading 

(c) Local bills third reading 

(d) Local bills second reading 

(e) Public bills (roll call) third reading 

(f ) Public bills (roll call) second reading 

(g) Public bills and resolutions, third reading 
(h) Public bills and resolutions, second reading; 

(8) Reading of Notices and Announcements; but messages and motions to 
elect officers shall always be in order. 

II. Conduct of Debate 

RULE 6. Duties and Powers of the Speaker. — The Speaker shall have gen- 
eral direction of the Hall. He may name any member to perform the duties of 
the Chair, but substitution shall not extend beyond one day, except in the case of 
sickness or by leave of the House. 

RULE 7. Obtaining Floor. — (a) When any member desires recognition for 
any purpose, he shall rise from his seat and respectfully address the Speaker. No 
member shall proceed until recognized by the Speaker. 

(b) When a member desires to interrupt a member having the floor, he shall 
first obtain recognition by the Speaker and permission of the member occupying 
the floor, and when such recognition and permission have been obtained, he may 
propound a question to the member occupying the floor; but he s: all not otherwise 
interrupt the member having the floor; and the Speaker shall, without the point 
of order being raised, enforce this rule. 



454 North Carolina Manual 



RULE 8. Questions of Personal Privilege. — At any time, upon recognition 
by the Speaker, any member may speak to a question of personal privilege. The 
Speaker shall determine if the question is one of privilege. 

RULE 9. Points of Order. — (a) The Speaker shall decide questions of order 
and may speak to points of order in preference to other members arising from 
their seats for that purpose. Any member may appeal from the ruling of the 
Chair on questions of order; on such appeal no member may speak more than 
once, unless by leave of the House. A two-thirds ( % ) vote of the members present 
shall be necessary to sustain any appeal from the ruling of the Chair. 

(b) When the Speaker calls a member to order, the member shall take his 
seat except that a member called to order may clear a matter of fact, or explain, 
but shall not proceed in debate so long as the decision stands. If the member ap- 
peals from the ruling of the Chair and the decision by a two-thirds ( % ) vote of 
the members present be in favor of the member called to order, he may proceed; 
if otherwise, he shall not; and if the case, in the judgment of the House, requires 
it, he shall be liable to censure by the House. 

RULE 10. Limitations on Debate. — No member shall speak more than twice 
on the main question, nor longer than thirty minutes for the first speech and fif- 
teen minutes for the second speech, unless allowed to do so by the affirmative vote 
of a majority of the members present; nor shall he speak more than once upon 
an amendment or motion to reconsider, commit, appeal or postpone, and then not 
longer than ten minutes. The House may, however, by consent of a majority of 
the members present, suspend the operation of this rule during any debate on 
any particular question before the House, or the Rules Committee may bring in 
a special rule that shall be applicable to the debate on any bill. 

RULE 11. Reading of Papers. — When there is a call for the reading of a 
paper which has been read in the House, and there is objection to such reading, 
the question shall be determined by a majority vote of the members of the House 
present. Except for protests permitted by the Constitution, no member may have 
material printed in the Journal until said material has been presented to the 
House and the printing approved by the House, and said material shall not ex- 
ceed 1,000 words. 

RULE 12. General Decorum. — (a) The Speaker shall preserve order and 
decorum. 

(b) Decency of speech shall be observed and disrespect to personalities 
carefully avoided. 

(c) When the Speaker is putting any question, or addressing the House, no 
person shall speak, stand up, walk out of or cross the House, nor when a member 
is speaking, engage in disruptive discourse or pass between the member and the 
Chair. 

(d) Smoking shall not be permitted on the floor of the House during the first 
hour the House is in session. 

(e) Food or beverages shall not be permitted on the floor of the House. 



Legislative Branch 455 



(f) The reading of newspapers shall not be permitted on the floor of the 
House while the House is in session. 

(g) Smoking or the consumption of food or beverages shall not be permitted 
in the galleries at any time. 

(h) Special recitals, performances by musicians or other groups shall not 
be permitted on the floor of the House and special guests of members of the 
House shall not be permitted on the floor of the House. 



III. Motions 

RULE 13. Motions Generally. — (a) Every motion shall be reduced to writ- 
ing, if the Speaker or any two members request it. 

(b) When a motion is made, it shall be stated by the Speaker, or, if written, 
it shall be handed to the Chair and read aloud by the Speaker or Clerk before de- 
bate. 

(c) After a motion has been stated by the Speaker or read by the Speaker 
or Clerk, it shall be in the possession of the House; but it may be withdrawn 
before a decision or amendment, except in case of a motion to reconsider, which 
motion, when made by a member, shall be in possession of the House and shall not 
be withdrawn without leave of the House. 

RULE 14. Motions, Order of Precedence. — When there are motions before 
the House, the order of precedence is as follows: 

To adjourn 

To lay on the table 

To postpone indefinitely 

Previous question 

To postpone to a day certain 

To commit 

To amend an amendment 

To amend 

To substitute 

To pass the bill 

No motion to lay on the table, to postpone indefinitely, to postpone to a day 
certain, to commit or to make a particular amendment, being decided, shall be 
again allowed at the same stage of the bill or proposition. 

RULE 15. Motion to adjourn. — (a) A motion to adjourn shall be seconded 
before the motion is put to the vote of the House. 

(b) A motion to adjourn shall be decided without debate, and shall always 
be in order, except when the House is voting or some member is speaking; but a 
motion to adjourn shall not follow a motion to adjourn until debate or some 
other business of the House has intervened. 



456 North Carolina Manual 



RULE 16. Motion to Table. — (a) A motion to table shall be seconded be- 
fore the motion is put to the vote of the House and is in order except when a 
motion to adjourn is before the House. 

(b) A motion to table shall be decided without debate. 

(c) A motion to table a bill shall constitute a motion to table the bill and all 
amendments thereto. 

(d) A motion to table an amendment shall not be construed as a motion to 
table the principal bill or any other amendment which has been offered thereto, 
and if such motion is carried, only the amendment shall lie upon the table. 

(e) When a question has been tabled, it shall not thereafter be considered 
except on motion to remove from the table, approved by a two-thirds ( % ) vote. 

RULE 17. Motion to Postpone Indefinitely. — A motion to postpone in- 
definitely is in order except when a motion to adjourn or to lay on the table is 
before the House. However, after one motion to postpone indefinitely has been 
decided, another motion to postpone indefinitely shall not be allowed at the same 
stage of the bill or proposition. When a question has been postponed indefinitely, 
it shall not thereafter be considered except on motion to place on the favorable 
calendar approved by a two-thirds ( % ) vote. 

RULE 18. Motion to Reconsider.- — (a) When a question has been decided, 
it is in order for any member of the majority to move for the reconsideration 
thereof, on the same or the succeeding legislative day; provided that unless the 
vote by which the motion was originally decided was taken by a call of the ayes 
and noes, any member may move to reconsider. 

(b) A motion to reconsider shall be determined by a majority vote, except a 
motion to reconsider a motion tabling a motion to reconsider, which shall require 
a two-thirds (%) vote. 

(c) A motion to reconsider a motion made under Rules 16, 17, 37, 41, and 42 
shall require a two-thirds (%) vote. 

RULE 19. Previous Question. — (a) The previous question may be called 
only by the member submitting the report on the bill or other matter under con- 
sideration, by the member (s) introducing the bill or other matter under con- 
sideration, or by the member in charge of the measure, who shall be designated 
by the chairman of the committee reporting the same to the House at the time 
the bill or other matter under consideration is reported to the House or taken up 
for consideration. 

(b) The previous question shall be as follows: "Shall the main question now 
be put?" When the call for the previous question has been decided in the affirma- 
tive by a majority vote of the House, the "main question" is on the passage of 
the bill, resolution or other matter under consideration. 

(c) The call for the previous question shall preclude all motions, amend- 
ments and debate, except the motion to adjourn or motion to table or motion to 
postpone indefinitely made prior to the determination of the previous question. 



Legislative Branch 457 



(d) If the previous question is decided in the negative, the main question 
remains under debate. 



IV. Voting 

RULE 20. Use of Electronic Voting System. — (a) Votes on the following 
questions shall be taken on the electronic voting system, and the ayes and noes shall 
be recorded on the Journal : 

(1) All questions on which the Constitution of North Carolina requires 
that the ayes and noes be taken and recorded on the Journal. 

(2) All questions on which a call for the ayes and noes under Rule 24(a) 

has been sustained. 

(3) Both second and third readings of bills proposing amendment of the 
Constitution of North Carolina or ratifying resolutions amending the 
Constitution of the United States. 

(b) Votes on the following questions shall be taken on the electronic voting 
system, and a copy of the machine print-out of the votes shall be filed in the Princi- 
pal Clerk's office. A copy of the machine print-out shall also be filed in the Legisla- 
tive Library where it shall be open to public inspection: 

(1) Second reading of all public bills, all amendments to public bills 
offered after second reading, third reading if a public bill was amend- 
ed after second reading or if the reading occurs on a day or days 
following the second reading, all conference reports on public bills, 
all motions to lay public bills on the table, and all motions to post- 
pone public bills indefinitely. 

(2) Upon a call for division. 

(3) Any other question upon direction of the Speaker or upon motion of 

any member supported by one-fifth (1/5) of the members present. 

(c) When the electronic voting system is used, one minute shall be allowed for 
voting on the question before the House, unless the chair shall fix and announce a 
shorter time. The system shall be set to close automatically when that time has 
expired. After the system is closed, the Speaker may allow any member to vote 
until he orders the system lock. Once the system is locked, the vote shall be recorded 
and printed. 

(d) The voting station at each member's desk in the Chamber shall be used 
only by the member to which the station is assigned. Under no circumstances shall 
any other person vote at a member's station. It is a breach of the ethical obligation 
of a member either to request that another person vote at the requesting member's 
station, or to vote at another member's station. The Speaker shall enforce this rule 
without exception. 

(e) When the electronic voting system is used, the Speaker shall state the 
question and shall then state substantially the following: "All in favor vote 'aye'; 
all opposed vote 'no'; the Clerk will open the vote." After the allotted time for voting 
has elapsed, the Speaker shall say: "The Clerk will now lock the machine and 
record the vote." After the machine is locked and the vote recorded, the Speaker 
shall announce the vote and declare the result. 



458 North Carolina Manual 



(f) One copy of the machine print-out of the vote record of all votes taken on 
the elect ionic system shall be filed in the office of the Principal Clerk, and one copy 
shall be filed in the Legislative Library where it shall be open to public inspection. 

(g) When the Speaker ascertains that the electronic voting system is in- 
operative before a vote is taken or while a vote is being taken on the electronic 
system, he shall announce that fact to the House and any partial electronic system 
voting record shall be voided. In such a case, if the Constitution of North Carolina 
or the Rules of the House require a call of the ayes and noes, the Clerk shall call the 
roll of the House, and the ayes and noes shall be taken manually and shall be 
recorded on the Journal. All roll call votes shall be taken alphabetically. All other 
votes shall be taken by voice vote. If, after a vote is taken on the electronic system, 
it is discovered that a malfunction caused an error in the electronic system print- 
out, the Speaker shall direct the Reading Clerk and the Principal Clerk to verify and 
correct the print-out record and so advise the House. 

(h) For the purpose of identifying motions on which the vote is taken on the 
electronic system, the motions are coded as follows: 

1. To adjourn. 

2. To lay on the table. 

3. To postpone indefinitely. 

4. Previous question. 

5. To postpone to a day certain. 

6. To commit. 

7. To amend an amendment. 

8. To amend. 

9. To substitute. 

10. To reconsider. 

11. Miscellaneous. 

RULE 21. Voice Votes; Stating Questions. — When the electronic voting 
system is not used, the Speaker shall rise and put a question. 

(b) The question shall be put in this form, namely, "Those in favor (as the 
question may be) will say 'Aye'," and after the affirmation voice has been expressed, 
"Those opposed will say 'No'." 

RULE 22. Determining Questions. — Unless otherwise provided by the Consti- 
tution of North Carolina or by these rules, all questions shall be determined by a 
simple majority of the member present and voting. 

RULE 23. Voting by Division. — Any member may call for a division of the 
members upon the question before the result of the vote has been announced. Upon 
a call for a division, the Speaker shall cause the number voting in the affirmative 
and in the negative to be determined. Upon a division and count of the House on any 
question, no member away from his seat shall be counted. 

RULE 24. Roll Call Vote. — (a) Before a question is put, any member may 
call for the ayes and noes. If the call is sustained by one-fifth (1/5) of the members 
present, the question shall be decided by the ayes and noes upon a roll call vote. 

(b) Every member who is in the Hall of the House when the question is put 
shall give his vote upon a call of the ayes and noes, unless the House for special 



Legislative Branch 459 



reasons shall excuse him and no application to be excused from voting shall be 
entertained unless made before the call of the roll. 

RULE 24.1. Separation of Proposition. — Any member may call for a question 
to be divided into two or more propositions to be voted on separately, and the 
Speaker shall determine whether the question admits of such a division. 

RULE 25. Voting by Speaker. — In all elections the Speaker may vote. In all 
other instances he may exercise his right to vote, or he may reserve this right until 
there is a tie, but in no instance may he vote twice on the same question. 



V. Committees 

RULE 26. Committees Generally.- — (a) All standing and select committees 
shall be appointed by the Speaker, unless otherwise specially ordered by the 
House. 

(b) Any member may excuse himself from serving on any committee if he 
is a member of two other standing committees. 

(c) The Chairman and five other members of any committee shall constitute 
a quorum of that committee for the transaction of business. 

(d) In any joint meeting of the Senate and House Committees, the House 
Committee may in its discretion reserve the right to vote separately. 

RULE 27. Appointment of Standing Committees. — (a) At the commence- 
ment of the session the Speaker shall appoint a standing committee on each of 
the following subjects, namely; 

Aging. 

Agriculture. 

Alcoholic Beverage Control. 

Appropriations. 

Appropriations Committee on the Base Budget. 

Appropriations Committee of Education. 

Appropriations Committee on General Government and Transportation 

Appropriations Committee on Human Resources and Corrections. 

Banks and Banking. 

Commercial Fisheries and Oyster Industry. 

Commissions and Institutions for the Blind and Deaf. 

Constitutional Amendments. 

Corporations. 

Corrections. 

Courts and Judicial Districts. 

Economy. 

Education. 

Election Laws. 

Employment Security. 

Finance. 

Health. 



460 North Carolina Manual 



Higher Education. 

Highway Safety. 

Human Resources. 

Insurance. 

Judiciary No. I. 

Judiciary No. II. 

Judiciary No. III. 

Local Government No. I. 

Local Government No. II. 

Manufacturers and Labor. 

Mental Health. 

Military and Veteran's Affairs. 

Natural & Economic Resources. 

Professional Law Enforcement Personnel and Practice. 

Public Libraries. 

Public Utilities. 

Rules and Operation of the House. 

State Government. 

State Personnel. 

State Properties. 

Transportation. 

University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 

Water and Air Resources. 

Wildlife Resources. 

(b) The first member announced on each committee shall be chairman, and 
where the Speaker so desires he may designate a co-chairman and one or more 
vice-chairmen. 

RULE 28. Committee Meetings. — (a) Standing committees and subcommit- 
tees of standing committees shall be furnished with suitable meeting places pur- 
suant to a schedule adopted by the Committee on Rules and Operation of the 
House. Select committees shall be furnished with suitable meeting places as their 
needs require by the Chairman of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the 
House. 

(b) Subject to the provisions of the subsection (c) of this Rule, committees 
and subcommittees thereof shall permit other members of the General Assembly, 
the press, and the general public to attend all sessions of said committees or sub- 
committees. 

(c) The chairman or other presiding officer shall have general direction of 
the meeting place of the committee or subcommittee and, in case of any disturb- 
ance or disorderly conduct therein, or if the peace, good order, and proper conduct 
of the legislative business is hindered by any person or persons, the chairman or 
presiding officer shall have power to exclude from the session any individual or 
individuals so hindering the legislative business or, if necessary, to order the 
meeting place cleared of all persons not members of the committee or subcommit- 
tee. 



Legislative Branch 461 



(d) Procedure in the committees shall be governed by the rules of the House, 
so far as the same may be applicable to such procedure. Before a question is put, 
any member may call for the ayes and noes. If the call is sustained by one-fifth 
(1/5) of the members present, the question shall be decided by the ayes and noes 
upon a roll call vote. All roll call votes shall be taken alphabetically. 

(e) No committee or subcommittee shall meet on any day when the House 
shall not convene except by permission of the Speaker or by approval of the 
House by resolution adopted by a majority vote of the House. 

(f) No committee or subcommittee shall meet during any session of the 
House and all committee and subcommittee meetings shall adjourn no later than 
15 minutes preceding a regular session of the House. 

(g) Any call or notice of a standing committee meeting between legislative 
sessions shall be mailed to each member of the committee by certified mail at least 
five days prior to such meeting. 

RULE 29. Committee Hearings. — The chairmen of all committees shall 
notify, or cause to be notified, the first named introducer on such bills as are set 
for hearing before their respective committees as to the date, time, and place of 
such hearing. 

RULE 30. Committee of the Whole House. — (a) A Committee of the Whole 
House shall not be formed, except by suspension of the rules, if there be objection 
by any member. 

(b) After passage of a motion to form a Committee of the Whole House, 
the Speaker shall appoint a chairman to preside in committee, and the Speaker 
shall leave the Chair. 

(c) The rules of procedure in the House shall be observed in the Committee 
of the Whole House, so far as they may be applicable, except the rule limiting the 
time of speaking and the previous question. 

(d) In the Committee of the Whole House a motion that the committee rise 
shall always be in order, except when a member is speaking, and shall be decided 
without debate. 

(e) When a bill is submitted to the Committee of the Whole House, it shall 
be read and debated by sections, leaving the preamble to be last considered. The 
body of the bill shall not be defaced or interlined, but all amendments, noting the 
page and line, shall be duly entered by the Clerk on a separate paper as the same 
shall be agreed to by the committee, and be so reported to the House. After report, 
the bill shall again be subject to be debated and amended by sections before a 
question on its passage be taken. 

VI. Handling of Bills 

RULE 31. Reference to Committee. — Each bill, joint resolution, or House 
resolution not introduced on the report of a committee shall immediately upon its 



462 North Carolina Manual 



first reading be referred by the Speaker to such committee as he deems appropri- 
ate. 

RULE 32. Introduction of Bills and Resolutions. — (a) All bills and resolu- 
tions shall be introduced by submitting same to the Principal Clerk's office on the 
legislative day prior to the first reading and reference thereof according to the 
following schedule: by 8:30 o'clock p.m. each Monday, by 4:30 o'clock p.m. each 
Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday and by 3:00 o'clock p.m. each each Friday. 

(b) Every bill or resolution shall be read in regular order of business, ex- 
cept upon permission of the Speaker or on the report of a committee. 

(c) All bills and resolutions shall show in their caption a brief descriptive 
statement of the true substance of same, which captions may thereafter be amend- 
ed; provided that third reading shall not be had on any bill or resolution on the 
same day that such caption is amended. 

(d) A Substitute Bill shall be covered with the same color jacket as the 
original bill and shall be prefaced as follows: 

"House Substitute for" or "House Committee Substitute for ." 

(e) House Resolutions need not be read more than twice. 

RULE 32.1 Deadline on Introduction of Certain Bills. — All local bills, resolu- 
tions or bills prepared to be introduced for departments, agencies, or institutions of 
the State must be introduced not later than April 1 of the session year. All celebra- 
tion, commendation, and commemoration resolutions, except those honoring the 
memory of deceased persons, must be introduced not later than April 1 of the 
session year. 

RULE 33. Papers Addressed to the House. — Petitions, memorials, and other 
papers addressed to the House shall be presented by the Speaker. A brief state- 
ment of the contents thereof may be orally made by the introducer before reference 
to a committee, but such papers shall not be debated or decided on the day of 
their first being read unless the House shall direct otherwise. 

RULE 24. Introduction of Resolutions and Bills, Copies Required. — (a) 
Whenever any resolution or bill is introduced, a duplicate copy thereof shall be 
attached thereto, and the Principal Clerk shall cause said duplicate copy to be 
numbered as the original resolution or bill is numbered, and shall cause the same 
to be available at all times to the member introducing the same. 

(b) Numbering of House Hills shall be designated as "H.B " (No fol- 
lowing). A Joint Resolution shall be designed as "H.J.R. " (No following). 

A House Resolution shall be designated as "H.R " (No. following). 

(c) Whenever any resolution or bill is filed for introduction, it shall be in 
such form and have such copies accompanying same as designated by the Speaker, 
and any resolution or bill introduced without the required number of copies shall 
be immediately returned to the introducer. The Clerk shall stamp the copies with 
the number stamped upon the original bill. 



Legislative Branch 463 



RULE 35. Duplicating of Bills. — The Legislative Services Officer shall cause 
such bills as are introduced to be duplicated in such numbers as may be specified 
by the Speaker. The Legislative Services Officer shall cause one copy of each 
resolution and public bill for each legislator to be delivered to his clerk or secre- 
tary who shall place it in the appropriate notebook on the legislator's desk. If a 
legislator so requests, a second copy shall be delivered to his clerk or secretary 
who shall place it in the legislator's office. The remaining copies shall be placed 
in the Printed Bills Room and made available to the committees to which the bill 
is referred, to individual legislators on request, and to the general public. 

RULE 36. Report by Committee. — All bills and resolutions shall be report- 
ed from the committee to which referred, with such recommendations as the com- 
mittee may desire to make except in the case where the principal introducer re- 
quests in writing to the chairman of the committee that the bill not be considered. 
The chairman of the full Appropriations Committee may refer a bill or resolution to 
another appropriations committee specifically charged with the subject matter of 
the bill or resolution; the committee to which the bill or resolution is referred shall 
report the bill or resolution back to the full Appropriations Committee. 

(a) Favorable Report. When a committee reports a bill with the recommen- 
dation that it be passed, the bill shall be placed on the favorable calendar for the 
next succeeding legislative day; except that Committee Substitutes for bills shall 
be placed on the favorable calendar for the second next succeeding legislative day 
after adoption. 

(b) Report Without Prejudice. When a committee reports a bill without 
prejudice, the bill shall be placed on the favorable calendar. 

(c) Postponed Indefinitely. When a committee reports a bill with the recom- 
mendation that it be postponed indefinitely, and no minority report accompanies 
it, the bill shall be placed on the unfavorable calendar. 

(d) Unfavorable Report. When a committee reports a bill with the recom- 
mendation that it be not passed, and no minority report accompanies it, the bill 
shall be placed on the unfavorable calendar. 

(e) Minority Report. When a bill is reported by a committee with a recom- 
mendation that it be not passed or that it be postponed indefinitely, but it is ac- 
companied by a minority report signed by at least one-fourth (V4) of the mem- 
bers of the committee who were present and voting when the bill was considered 
in committee, the question before the House shall be: "The adoption of the minority 
report." If the minority report is adopted by majority vote, the bill shall be 
placed on the favorable calendar for consideration. If the minority report fails 
of adoption by a majority vote, the bill shall be placed on the unfavorable calendar. 

RULE 37. Removing Bill from Unfavorable Calendar. — A bill may be re- 
moved from the unfavorable calendar upon motion carried by a two-thirds (%) 
vote. A motion to remove a bill from the unfavorable calendar is not debatable; 
but the movant may, before making the motion, make a brief and concise state- 
ment, not more than five minutes in length, of the reasons for the motion. 



464 North Carolina Manual 



RULE 38. Reports on Appropriation ayid Revenue Bills. — All committees, 
other than the Committee on Appropriations, when favorably reporting any bill 
which carries an appropriation from the State, shall indicate same in the report, 
and said bill shall be referred to the Committee on Appropriations for a further 
report before being acted upon by the House. All committees, other than the 
Committee on Finance, when favorably reporting any bill which in any way or 
manner raises revenue or levies a tax or authorizes the issue of bonds or notes, 
whether public, public-local, or private, shall indicate same in the report, and 
said bill shall be referred to the Committee on Finance for a further report before 
being acted upon by the House. 

RULE 39. Recall of Bill from Committee. — When a bill has been introduced 
and referred to a committee, if after 10 legislative days the committee has failed 
to report thereon, then the introducer of the bill or some member designated by 
him may, after three legislative days' public notice given in the House, on motion 
supported by a vote of two-thirds ( % ) of the members present and voting, recall 
the same from the committee to the floor of the House lor consideration and such 
action thereon as a majority of the members present may direct. 

RULE 40. Calendars and Schedules of Business. — The Clerk of the House 
shall prepare a daily schedule of business, including the Calendar of Bills and 
Resolutions for consideration and debate that day, in accordance with the Order 
of Business of the Day (Rule 5). The Clerk shall number all bills and resolutions 
in the order in which they are introduced, and all bills and resolutions shall be 
taken up as they appear in each category [Rule 5 (7)] in order they were 
reported by committee; but the Committee on Rules and Operations of the House 
may at any time arrange the order of precedence in which bills may be considered. 

RULE 41. Readings of Bills. — (a) Every bill shall receive three readings 
in the House prior to its passage. The first reading and reference of the bill to 
committee shall occur on the next legislative day following its introduction, and 
the Speaker shall give notice at each subsequent reading whether it be the second 
or third reading. 

(b) No bill shall be read more than once on the same day without the con- 
currence of two-thirds (%) of the members present and voting. 

RULE 42. Effect of Defeated Bill.— (a) Subject to the provisions of sub- 
section (b) of this Rule, after a bill has been tabled or has failed to pass on any 
of its readings, the contents of such bill or the principal provisions of its subject 
matter shall not be embodied in any other measure. Upon the point of order 
being raised and sustained by the Chair, such measure shall be laid upon the 
table, and shall not be taken therefrom except by a two-thirds (%) vote. 

(b) No local bill shall be held by the Chair to embody the provisions of or 
to be identical with any statewide measure which has been laid upon the table, 
or failed to pass any of its readings. 

RULE 43. Amendments and Riders. — No amendment or rider to a bill be- 
fore the House shall be in order unless such rider or amendment is germane to 
the bill under consideration. 



Legislative Branch 465 



Only one principal (first degree) amendment shall be pending at any one 
time. If a subsequent or substitute principal amendment shall be offered, the 
Speaker shall rule it out ot order. However, any member desiring to offer a sub- 
sequent or substitute principal amendment in opposition to the pending amend- 
ment may inform the House by way of argument against the pending amendment 
that if it is defeated he proposes to offer another principal amendment, and he 
may then read and explain such proposed amendment. 

Perfecting (or second degree) amendments may be offered and considered 
without limitation as to number, and in the event of multiple perfecting amend- 
ments, they shall be voted upon in inverse order. 

RULE 44. Conference Committees. — (a) Whenever the House shall decline 
or refuse to concur in amendments put by the Senate to a bill originating in the 
House, or shall refuse to adopt a substitute adopted by the Senate for a bill 
originating in the House or whenever the Senate shall decline or refuse to con- 
cur in amendments put by the House to a bill originating in the Senate or shall 
refuse to adopt a substitute adopted by the House for a bill originating in the 
Senate, a conference committee chairman and committee shall be appointed upon 
motion made, consisting of the number named in the motion ; and the bill under 
consideration shall thereupon go to and be considered by the joint conferees on 
the part of the House and Senate. 

(b) Only such matters as are in difference between the two houses shall be 
considered by the conferees, and the conference report shall not be amended and 
may be made by a majority of the House members ox such conference committee. 

VII. Legislative Officers and Employees 

RULE 45. Elected Officers. — (a) The House shall elect one of its members 
Speaker. 

(b) The House shall elect one of its members Speaker pro tempore who 
shall perform such duties as the Speaker may assign and shall preside over the 
House in the absence or incapacity of the Speaker and shall perform all of the 
duties of the Speaker until such time the Speaker may assume the Chair. 

(c) The House shall elect a Principal Clerk, a Reading Clerk and a Ser- 
geant-at-Arms, each of whom shall have and perform such duties and responsi- 
bilities not inconsistent with these Rules as the Speaker may assign. The Principal 
Clerk shall continue in office until another is elected. 

RULE 46. Assistants to Principal Clerk and Sergeant-at-Arms. — The 
Principal Clerk and the Sergeant-at-Arms may appoint, with the approval of the 
Speaker, such assistants as may be necessary to the efficient discharge of the 
duties of their respective offices. 

RULE 47. Speaker's Clerk, Chaplain, and Pages. — (a) The Speaker may 
appoint one or more clerks to the Speaker, a Chaplain of the House, and pages 
to wait upon the sessions of the House. 

(b) When the House is not in session, the pages shall be under the super- 
vision of the Supervisor of Pages. 



466 North Carolina Manual 



(c) No member may have more than 10 persons designated as honorary pages. 

RULE 48. Committee Clerks and Secretaries. — -(a) Each committee shall 
have a clerk. The clerk to a committee shall serve as secretary to the chairman 
of that committee. 

(b) Each member shall be assigned a secretary, unless he has a committee 
clerk to serve as his secretary. 

(c) The selection and retention of clerks and secretaries shall be the sole 
prerogative of the individual member or members. Such clerks and secretaries 
shall file initial applications for employment with the Legislative Services Office 
and shall receive compensation as prescribed by the Legislative Services Com- 
mission. The employment period of clerks and secretaries shall commence not 
earlier than the convening date of the General Assembly and shall terminate not 
later than final adjournment or recess of the General Assembly unless employ- 
ment for an extended period is approved by the Speaker. The clerks and secre- 
taries shall adhere to such uniform rules and regulations not inconsistent with 
these Rules regarding hours and other conditions of employment as the Legislative 
Services Commission shall fix by appropriate regulations. 

RULE 49. Compensation of Clerks and Secretaries. — No clerk, laborer, or 
other person employed or appointed under Rules 47, 48, and 49 hereof shall re- 
ceive during such employment, appointment, or service, any compensation from 
any department of the State government, and there shall not be voted, paid or 
awarded any additional pay, bonus or gratuity to any of them, but they shall re- 
ceive only the pay now provided by law for such duties and services. 

VIII. Privileges of the Hall 

RULE 50. Admittance to Floor. — No pei-son except members, officers, and 
employees of the General Assembly and former members of the General Assem- 
bly who are not registered under the provisions of Article 9 of Chapter 120 of 
the General Statutes of North Carolina shall be allowed on the floor of the House 
during its session, unless permitted by the Speaker or otherwise provided by law. 

RULE 51. Admittance of Press. — Reporters wishing to take down debates 
may be admitted by the Speaker, who shall assign such places to them on the 
floor or elsewhere, to effect this object, as shall not interfere with the convenience 
of the House. 

RULE 52. Extending Courtesies. — Courtesies of the floor, galleries, or lobby 
shall only be extended at the discretion of the Speaker. 

RULE 53. Order in Galleries and Lobby. — In case of any disturbance or 
disorderly conduct in the galleries or lobby, the Speaker or other presiding officer 
is empowered to order the same to be cleared. 

IX. General Rules 

RULE 54. Attendance of Members. — No member or officer of the House 
shall absent himself from the service of the House without leave, unless from 
sickness or disability. 



Legislative Branch 467 



RULE 55. Documents to be Signed by the Speaker. — All acts, addresses, 
and resolutions and all warrants and subpoenas issued by order of the House 
shall be signed by the Speaker or other presiding officer. 

RULE 56. Printing or Reproducing Materials. There shall be no printing or 
reproducing of paper(s) that are not legislative in essence except upon approval of 
the Speaker. 

RULE 57. Placement of Material on Members' Desks. — Persons other than 
members of the General Assembly, officers, or staff thereof shall not place or cause 
to be placed any materials on members' desks without obtaining approval of the 
Speaker. Any printed material so placed shall bear the name of the originator. 

RULE 58. Rules, Rescission, and Alternation. — (a) No standing rule or order 
shall be rescinded or altered without one day's notice given on the motion thereof, 
and to sustain such motion two-thirds ( % ) of the members present and voting 
shall be required. 

(b) Except as otherwise provided herein, the House upon two-thirds (%) 
vote of the members present and voting may temporarily suspend any rule. 

RULE 59. Limitation on Co-sponsorship of Bills and Resolutions. — Any 
member wishing to co-sponsor a bill or resolution which has been introduced may 
do so by appearing in the office of the Principal Clerk for such purpose within 
one-half hour following the adjournment of the session during which such bill or 
resolution was first read and referred. 

RULE 60. Correcting of Typographical Errors. — The Legislative Services 
Officer may correct typographical errors appearing in House bills or resolutions 
povided that such corrections are made before ratification and do not conflict with 
any actions or rules of the Senate and provided further that such correction be ap- 
proved by the Chairman of the Rules Committee, the Speaker or other presiding 
officer. 

RULE 61. Except as herein set out the rules of the House of Representatives 
of Congress shall govern the operation of the House. 



468 



North Carolina Manual 




Legislative Branch 469 

CLYDE LOWELL BALL 

LEGISLATIVE SERVICES OFFICER 

Clyde Lowell Ball was born in Rutherford, Tennessee, October 12, 1916. Son 
of Clyde L. Ball and Zula Norvell Ball. Attended Mason Hall High School, Kenton, 
Tennessee, 1928-32. Memphis State University, 1932-36, B.S. Degree; Vanderbilt 
University, 1936-37, M.A. Degree; Vanderbilt University, 1946-49, J.D. Degree. 
Full-time State Official. Tennessee Bar Association. Literary Productions: The 
General Assembly of North Carolina; Articles in Vanderbilt Law Review, Best's 
Insurance Reports, Tennessee Historical Society Magazine. Assistant Professor of 
Law, Vanderbilt University, 1953-55; Visiting Assistant Professor of Law and 
Assistant Director, Legislative Drafting Research Fund, Columbia University, 
1955-56; Professor of Public Law and Government and Assistant Director, Institute 
of Government, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1956-64; Professor of 
Law, Memphis State University, 1964-70; Editor-in-Chief, Vanderbilt Law Review, 
1948-49, Faculty editor 1953-55; Order of the Coif, 1949, Founders' Medalist, 
Vanderbilt University School of Law. Captain — Field Artillery, September 1942- 
September 1946. Member, Episcopal Church. Married Lyda (White) Ball May 31, 
1952. Children: Michael Lee Ball, Edward Lewis Ball, Clyde Lowell Ball, Jr. and 
Celeste White Ball. Address: 2245 North Hills Drive, Raleigh. 



Executive Branch 471 

Chapter Two 
THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH 



OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR 

JAMES B. HUNT, JR. 

GOVERNOR 

James B. Hunt, Jr., Democrat, of Wilson County, was born May 16, 1937 in Greensboro. 
Son of James B. Hunt and Elsie (Brame) Hunt. Graduated Rock Ridge High School, Wilson 
County; North Carolina State University, B.S. in Agricultural Education and M.S. in 
Agricultural Economics; University of North Carolina Law School, J.D. While at NCSU ser- 
ved two terms as Student Government President, was chosen "Outstanding Senior" in 1959, 
and edited the Agriculturalist, the student publication of the School of Agriculture and Life 
Sciences. Thesis for M.S., "Acreage Controls and Poundage Controls: Their Effects on Most 
Profitable Production Practices for Flue Cured Tobacco," was chosen as one of three best in 
the U.S. and Canada in 1963 by the American Farm Economic Association. National college 
director for the Democratic National Committee, 1962-63. In 1964 went to Nepal to serve two 
years as Economic Advisor to His Majesty's Government. Elected President of Wilson Young 
Democratic Club in 1967; President of North Carolina YDC in 1968. Delegate to the 1968 
National Democratic Convention. Author of N. C. Democratic precinct manual "Rally 
Around the Precinct." Appointed Assistant State Party Chairman in 1969. Lieutenant 
Governor, 1973-1977. Elected Governor November 2, 1976. Vice-Chairman of the Council on 
State Goals and Policy; Member of the Land Policy Council and the State Youth Advisory 
Council. Past President of the Coastal Plains Development Association, a director of the 
NCSU Foundation, Inc., director of the NCSU Alumni Association, member NCSU Public 
Relations Committee. Former member Wilson Sertoma Club, Jaycees, Wilson Good 
Neighbor Council. Received Wilson Jaycees' Distinguished Service Award for 1969. Member 
and elder, First Presbyterian Church of Wilson; former deacon, chairman of Youth Division 
of the Education Commission, and assistant Sunday School teacher. Married Carolyn 
Leonard of Mingo, Iowa. Four children: Rebecca, Baxter, Rachel and Elizabeth. Home ad- 
dress, Lucama. 





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