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Full text of "North Carolina manual [serial]"

THE LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 

AT CHAPEL HILL 




NORTH CF 



THE COLLECTION OF 
NORTH CAROLINIANA 




UNIVERSITY OF NC AT CHAPEL HILL 



000 



7482813 



OLINA 




Form No. A-369 



NORTH CAROLINA 
MANUAL 



1979-1980 




Issued by 

THAD EURE 

Secretary of State 



Edited by 

John L. Cheney, Jr. 

Director, Publications Division 
Raleigh 



TO THE 

1979 MEMBERS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY 
OF NORTH CAROLINA 



TO THE 
STATE, COUNTY, CITY AND TOWN OFFICIALS 

AND TO THE 

PEOPLE OF THE OLD NORTH STATE 
AT HOME AND ABROAD 



THIS MANUAL IS RESPECTFULLY 
DEDICATED 




Secretary of State 



111 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Introduction, Thad Eure, Secretary of State jjj 



PARTI 
HISTORICAL MISCELLANEA 

Chapter One, The State of North Carolina 

A Brief History of tlie State 3 

Chief Executives 9 

Lieutenant Governors 14 

The North Carolina State Capitol 15 

Description of the Capitol, by Architect David Patton 19 

"The Capitol." by Edwin Gill 20 

The Legislative Building 23 

The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina 25 

The State Flag :v.i 

Name and Nicknames of the State 37 

The State Motto 37 

The State Colors 37 

The State Bird, Flower, and Insect 39 

The State Tree and Mammal 41 

The State Shell and Salt Water Fish 43 

The State Reptile 44 

The State Rock 44 

The State Precious Stone 45 

The State Song 46 

The State Toast 47 

The Halifax Resolution 48 

The Mecklenburg Declaration of 20th May, 1775 49 

Public Holidays -''O 

Chapter Two, The United States of America 

Presidents of the United States •"> 1 

The Declaration of Independence ji3 

The Constitution of the United States •'>'i' 

Amendments to the Constitution of the United States 67 

The American Flag, Its Origin "•'> 

The Proper Display of the Flag "" 

The Pledge to the Flag ^O 

The American's Creed ^1 

The Capitol at Washington, D.C ^'^ 

Governors of the States and Territories ^^'^ 

Chapter Three, The Constitutional Development of North Carolina 

A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina, 

by John L. Sanders ^ ' 

North Carolina Constitutional Propositions Voted on by the People, 1868-1977 . . . lon 
The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 1"! 



PART II 
CENSUS 

I'opulalioti of llu' Slalt' of North Carolina. l!»lli Ci'iisus: ll»7(l \'','-\ 

State Population Statislit-s I-!;") 

County I'opulation Statistics !•>♦> 

Population of Incorporated Places of 10. 00(1 or More 1-"!S 

Population of Incorporated Places of 2.r)00-9,*t}n) IM!) 

Population of Incorporated Places of 1.000-2. 1!>9 1 11 

Population of lncor|)orate(i Places of Less than 1,000 144 

Resident Population of the United States as of April 1. 11*70 IT)!) 



PART III 
POLITIC AL PARTIES 

("haptei- One, The Deinoei'atie I'aity 

North Carolina Democratic Party Platform 155 

Plan of Or.tranization 17(i 

Democratic Party Executive ( 'ouncil 'Zin) 

County Chairmeti L!()l 

Chapter Two, The Republican Party 

Plan of Organization (State Repul)lican Constitution) 205 

State Executive Committee, 1977 2'J.'A 

Countv Chairmen. 1977 224 



PART IV 
THE (;OVERNMENT OE THE UNITED STATES 

Chapter One, The F^xecutive Branch 

President of the United States 229 

Presidental Cabinet 2)11 

Secretary, United States Department of Commerce 'ZXi 

Chaptei- Two, The United States Congress 



Senate Officers and Standing Committees 2.S5 

North Carolina Members of the Senate 2.'!7 

House of Representatives Officers and Standing Committees 211 

North Carolina Members of the IIou.se of Representatives 24M 

Chapter Thi-ee, The United States Judicial System 

The United States Suiireme ( 'ourt 2(55 

The United States P'ourth Circuit Court of Appeals 265 

The United States District Courts in North Carolina 2*)5 



Bioprraphical Sketches of Judjres 



2(i7 



VI 



PART V 
NORTH CAROLINA STATE GOVERNMENT 

Introduction 279 

C hapter One, The Legislative Branch 

Introduction 288 

North Carolina Senate; 

Officers 287 

Senators 287 

President, Pro-Tern., Senate 289 

Biographical Sketches 291 

In Memoriam 319 

Occupations 320 

Committee Assignments 322 

Rules of the Senate 329 

North Carolina House of Representatives: 

Officers 347 

Representatives 347 

Speaker House of Representatives 351 

Speaker, Pro-Tern., House of Representatives 353 

Biographical Sketches 354 

Occupations -11- 

Committee Assignments -115 

Rules of the House of Representatives 428 

Legislative Services Officer 445 

Chapter Two, The Executive Branch 

Office of the Governor: 

Governor '^"^ ' 

The Office of the Governor •^•^^* 

Office of the Lieutenant Governor: 

Lieutenant Governor •*'J'j 

The Office of the Lieutenant (lovernor 4;).-) 

Department of the Secretary of State: 

Secretary of State _ ' 

The Department of the Secretary of State 4;>9 

Department of the State Auditor: 

State Auditor "''.^ 

The Department of the State Auditor l''-' 

Department of the State Treasurer: 

State Treasurer ' '" 

The Department of the State Treasurer ' ' ' 

Department of Public Education: 

Superintendent of Public Instruction *''^^ 

The Department of Public Education ' ' • 

Department of Justice: ^_ 

Attorney General ' 

The Department of Justice 

Department of Agriculture: 
Commissioner of Agriculture 



vu 



The Di'piiflinent of Ajri'iculturo 497 

Di'parlnu'tit of Labor: 

ConimissioiuT of Labor oOl 

Tlu' I)L'j)arlnu'nt of Labor 50;^ 

Di'partnionl of IiisuraiU'e: 

C'omniissioru'r of Insurance 509 

The Department of Insurance oil 

Depart tnent of Administration: 

Secretary ;"> 1 "> 

The Department of Administration 517 

Department of Commerce: 

Secretary 521 

The I )e[)artment of Commerce b'Z'S 

Department of Correction: 

Secretary 527 

The Department of Correction 529 

Department of Crime Control and Public Safety: 

Secretary 588 

The Department of Crime Control and Public Safety 585 

Department of Cultural Resources: 

Secretary 589 

The Department of Cultural Resources 541 

Department of Human Resources: 

Secretary 547 

The Department of Human Resources 549 

Department of Natural Resources and Community Development: 

Secretar\- 555 

The Department of Natural Resources and Community Development 557 

Department of Revenue: 

Secretary 561 

The Department of Revenue 5B8 

Department of Transportation: 

Secretary 569 

The Department of Transportation 571 

State Board of Elections: 

Director 574 

The State Board of Elections 575 

C hapter Three, The Judicial Branch 

Introduction 577 

The North Carolina Supreme Court (Biographical Sketches) 588 

The North Carolina Court of Appeals (Biographical Sketches) 591 

The North Carolina Superior Court 604 

The North Carolina District Courts 605 

District Attorneys 609 

Public Defenders (iOf) 

Administrative Office of the Courts: 

Director 610 

The Administrative Office of the Courts 611 



vni 



Chapter Four, Higher Education in North Carolina 

The University of North Carolina System 

Higher Education in North CaroHna (jj;^ 

General Administration ^^]^~ 

Chancellors of the Constituent Institutions (J17 

Biographical Material (;i9 

Department of Community Colleges: 

President (j;^5 

The Community College Systems (i;^7 

Presidents, Community Colleges & Technical Institutes «J44 

Chapter Five, North Carolina Agencies, Boards, Commissions, and Councils 

Office of the Governor H47 

Department of the State Auditor 648 

Department of the State Treasurer 649 

Department of Public Education 6.")1 

Department of Justice 654 

Department of Agriculture 65.5 

Department of Labor 657 

Department of Insurance 658 

Department of Administration 660 

Department of Commerce 667 

Department of Correction 67 1 

Department of Crime Control and Public Safety 67)^ 

Department of Cultural Resources 675 

Department of Human Resources 68(J 

Department of Natural Resources and Community Development 686 

Department of Revenue 69:^ 

Department of Transportation 694 

Miscellaneous 697 

Licensing Boards 70.3 



PART VI 
ELECTION RETURNS AND VOTER REGISTRATION 

STATISTICS 

Chapter One, Voter Registration Statistics 

Introduction " 1 •' 

Presidential Preference Primary, 1976 "16 

Primary Elections, 1976 "1'^ 

General Elections, 1976 '-" 

Primary Elections, 1978 ^^'^ 

General Elections, 1978 "i'^-^ 



IX 



ChapttM' 1 uo. North ( aiolina KIcctioii Districts 

Coiitrrossioiial I )islricts 727 

Appoiiioniiu'iit of Senators by Districts 72!) 

Apporlionmcnt of Mrmlx'rs of the House of Representatives 

by District 7:n 

Judicial and Sobcitorial Districts I'-V^ 

( haptei- lliroo, President of tlu' Inilcd States 

North t'arolina Presidential Primary, i;»7() I'M 

Popular and Electoral Vote. P»72 7:^9 

Popular and Klectoral Vote, 197H 740 

Poi)ular Vote, 1!)6()-19(;<S (National) 741 

County 'Pal)ulation, P)7t) 742 

Popular Vote, 19(;()-P»72 (County) 744 

Cliaptei' Foui', United States ( '<)nj>:ress 

First Primary for I'tiited States Senator, 197S 747 

Second Primary for United States Senator, 1978 749 

(Jeneral Election for United States Senator, 1978 751 

First Primary for House of Representatives. 1978 75:^ 

( leneral Elections for House of Representatives, 1978 75() 

( ieneral P^lections for House of Representatives, 1972-197(i 7H() 

Chapter F'ive, Primary Elections for State Officers 

(Governor, P'irst Primary, 1976 765 

Lieutenant Covernor, P'irst Democratic Primary, l!)7ti 768 

Lieutenant Governor. First Republican Primary, 197(i 770 

Secretary of State and State Treasurer F'irst Primary, 1976 772 

State Auditor and Commissioner of Insurance, 

P'irst Democratic Party, 1976 774 

Commissioner of Labor and Superintendent of Pul)lic 

Instruction. First Democratic Primary. 1976 77t) 

(lovernor and Lieutenant (Governor, Second Primary, 197(> 778 

State Auditor and Commissioner of Labor, Second Primary, 197t> 780 

Cliapter Six, (ienerai Elections for State Officers 

(lovernor, 1976 788 

Lieutenant ( lovernor, 1976 785 

Secretary of State and State Treasurer, 1976 786 

State Auditor and Attorney Ceneral, 1976 788 

Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1976 790 

Commissioner of Agriculture and Commissioner of Insurance, 1976 791 

Commissioner of Labor, 1976 79."^ 

(Governor, 19(;0-1972 794 

Chapter Seven, Tabulations of Total Votes 

United States Senator. Primaries 797 

Governor, Primaries 799 

State Officers, Primaries 801 

General Elections 809 



PART VII 
NORTH CAROLINA COUNTY GOVERNMENT 

Chapter One, A Brief History of County Government in 
North Carolina gl7 

Chapter Two, County Officials 

Alamance ^27 

Alexander j^27 

Alleghany S2H 

Anson j<29 

Ashe 829 

Avery H.SO 

Beaufort n'.U) 

Bertie 881 

Bladen 8:^2 

Brunswick 8:^2 

Buncombe 8.'iS 

Burke 884 

Cabarrus 834 

Caldwell 8:-!5 

Camden 88(5 

Carteret 88H 

Caswell 887 

Catawba 887 

Chatham 888 

Cherokee 889 

Chowan 889 

Clay 840 

Cleveland 841 

Columbus 84 1 

Craven 842 

Cumberland 842 

Currituck 848 

Dare 844 

Davidson 844 

Davie 845 

Duplin 846 

Durham 8415 

Edgecombe ^47 

Forsyth S48 

Franklin '^48 

Gaston ^49 

Gates H5() 

Graham ^•''* 

Granville '^•' 1 

Greene '^•^■^ 

Guilford ^•■>'^ 

Halifax ^^"^ 

Harnett ''^•''■' 

Haywood ^^-^ 

Henderson ^''"^ 



XI 



Hertford 856 

I loko 857 

I ly.lo 857 

Iredoll 858 

Jackson 859 

Johnston 859 

Jones 8H0 

I^e 8(51 

Lenoir 8B1 

Lincoln 8B2 

Macon 8»i2 

Madison 863 

Martin 864 

McDowell 864 

Mecklenburg 865 

Mitchell 866 

Montjromery 866 

Moore 867 

Nash 868 

New Hanover 869 

Northampton 869 

Onslow 87U 

Oranjre 871 

Pamlico 872 

Pas()uotank 872 

Pender 878 

Perquimans 874 

Person 874 

Pitt 875 

Polk 876 

Randolph 876 

Richmond 877 

Robeson 878 

Rockingham 878 

Rowan 879 

Rutherford 880 

Sampson 880 

Scotland 881 

Stanly 882 

Stokes 882 

Surry 883 

Swain 884 

Transylvania 885 

Tyrrell 885 

Union SS6 

Vance 886 

Wake 887 

Warren 888 

Washington 888 

Watauga 889 



Xll 



Wayne ^^^ 

Wilkes ggj 

Wilson ^y2 

Yadkin Hd2 

Yancey y93 



TABLE OF DIAGRAMS AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTS 

North Carolina State Government, Organizational Chart 278 

The Legislative Branch, Organizational Chart 282 

North Carolina State Senate, Seating Diagram 286 

North Carolina State House of Representatives, Seating Diagram 346 

Office of the Governor, Organizational Chart 448 

Office of the Lieutenant Governor, Organizational Chart 454 

Department of the Secretary of State, Organizational Chart 458 

Department of the State Auditor. Organizational Chart 464 

Department of the State Treasurer, Organizational Chart 472 

Department of Public Education, Organizational Chart 478 

Department of Justice, Organizational Chart 486 

Department of Agriculture, Organizational Chart 498 

Department of Labor, Organizational Chart 504 

Department of Insurance, Organizational Chart 510 

Department of Administration, Organizational Chart 516 

Department of Commerce, Organizational Chart 522 

Department of Correction, Organizational Chart 580 

Department of Crime Control and Public Safety, Organizational Chart 536 

Department of Cultural Resources, Organizational Chart 542 

Department of Human Resources, Organizational Chart 548 

Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, 

Organizational Chart 558 

Department of Revenue, Organizational Chart 564 

Department of Transportation. Organizational Chart 570 

The Judicial Branch, Organizational Chart 576 

The University of North Carolina System, Organizational Chart 612 

Department of Community Colleges 636 



TABLE OF MAPS 

White Map. 1585 2 

Ogliby Map, 1672 J 

Mouzon Map. 1775 <i 

North Carolina Highway Districts 



.uz. 



'} 



North Carolina Congressional Districts. 1971- "-•' 

North Carolina State Senate Districts, 1971- 728 

North Carolina State House of Representatives, 1971- 730 

North Carolina State Judicial Districts "-i'' 

North Carolina Counties ^l'» 



XIll 



1 ABLK OF ILLISTRATIONS AND IMIOTOCJRAIMIS* 

Tlu' ("apitol Huildinjr 16 

The Ix'.Lrishitive HuildiiiK ^^ 

St'iil of tlu' liords rroprictors. \iMV.\ 25 

Seal of the (iovcrmiu'iit of Alhcniarlc, Kiti^-IT.SO 2() 

Seal of the I'roviiu-e of North Carolina. 17.'i()-17t)7 26 

Seal of the Province of North Carolina. 1767-1776 27 

Seal of the State of North Carolina. 177i)-1794 28 

(;real Seal of the State of North Carolina. 171tl-18;!(; 2!» 

(Jreat Seal of the State of North Carolina. ISIUi-lH!*:! IM) 

Creat Seal of the State of North Carolina. LS!);M!)71 :U 

Creat Seal of the State of North Carolina. U»71- H2 

The State Flatr 34 

The State Bird. Flower and Insect 88 

The State Tree and Mammal 40 

The State Shell and Salt Water Fish 42 

The State I'recious Stone 45 

The American Fla,u: 76 

The United States Caiiitol I^uildinK 82 

Symbol of the Democratic Party 154 

Symbol of the Republican Party 204 

The White House 2;-!0 

The United States Supreme Court Buikling 264 



XIV 



PART I 
HISTORICAL MISCELLANEA 



North Carolina Manual 




CO 



CO 

in 



o u 



State of North Carolina 3 

Chapter One 
THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 



A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE STATE 

The first known European exploration of North Carolina occurred during the 
summer of 1524. A Florentine navigator — Giovanni da Verrazzano, in the service 
of France, explored the coastal area of North Carolina between the Cape Fear and 
Kitty Hawk. A report of his findings was sent to Francis I, and published in Richard 
Hakluyt's Divers Voyages touching the LHscovene of America; however, no attempt 
was made to colonize the area. 

Between 1540 and 1570 several Spanish explorers from the Florida Gulf region 
explored portions of North Carolina, but no pei-manent settlements were estab- 
lished. 

Coastal North Carolina was the scene of the first attempt to colonize America 
by English-speaking people. Under a charter granted by Queen Elizabeth to Sir 
Walter Raleigh, two colonies were begun in the 1580's. The first, in 1585 under the 
leadership of Ralph Lane, ended in failure. 

A second expedition under the leadership of John White began in the spring 
of 1587 with 110 settlers including seventeen women and nine children set sail for 
the new world. The White colony arrived off Hatteras in June, 1587 and went on to 
Roanoke Island, where they found the houses built by the previous expedition still 
standing. Shortly after the arrival of the colony two significant events occurred — 
the baptism of two "friendly" Indians and the birth of Virginia Dare, the first 
child of English-speaking parents bom in the new colony. As supplies ran short 
problems beset the colonists and White, under pressure from the colonists was 
forced to return to England for provisions. Once in England White was unable to 
immediately return to Roanoke due to an impending attack by the Spanish 
Axmada. When he was able to return in 1590 he found only the remnants of what 
was once the settlement. There were no signs of life. Carved on a nearby tree he 
found the word "CROAT.QAN". Many have speculated as to the fate of the "Lost 
Colony" but none have ever explained it. 

The first permanent English settlers to North Carolina came from the tide- 
water area of Virginia around 1650. These overflow immigrants moveii into the 
Albemarle area of northeast North Carolina. 

In 1663 Charles II granted to eight Lords Proprietors a charter for the territory 
lying "within six and thirty degrees of the northem latitude, and to the west as far 
as the south seas, and so southerly as far as the River St. Mattias. which bordereth 
upon the coast of Florida, and within one and thirty degrees of northern latitude. 
and so west in a direct line as far as the south seas aforesaid: . . ." and the colony 
was called Carolina. In 1665 another charter was granted in order to clarify 



North Carolina Manual 




State of North Carolina 



territorial questions not answered in the first charter. This charter extended the 
limits of Carolina so that the northern line was 36 degrees and 30 minutes north 
latitude, and the southern line was 29 degrees north latitude, and both of these lines 
extended westward to the South Seas. 

Between 1663 and 1729 North Carolina was under the control of the Lords 
Proprietors and their decendents who commissioned colonial officials and autho- 
rized the governor and his council to grant lands in the name of the Lords Proprie- 
tors. In 1669 John Locke wrote the Fundamental Constitutions as a model for the 
government of Carolina. Albemarle County was divided into local governmental 
units called precincts. Initially there were three precincts — Berkeley, Carteret 
and Shaftesbury — but as the colony expanded to the south and west new precincts 
were created. By 1729, there were a total of eleven precincts — six in Albemarle 
County and five in Bath County which had been created in 1696. Although the 
Albemarle Region was the first permanent settlement in the Carolina Area, 
another region was developed around present-day Charleston, South Carolina. 
Because of the natural harbor and easier access to trade with the West Indies, 
more attention was given to developing the Charleston area than her northern 
counterparts. For a twentj'-year period, 1692-1712, the two colonies of North and 
South Carolina existed as one unit of government. Although North Carolina still 
had her own assembly and council, the governor of Carolina resided in Charleston 
and, a deputy governor was appointed by him for the northern colony. On December 
7, 1710 Carolina was divided into two distinct colonies; however, it was not until 
May, 1712 that a governor was appointed for North Carolina. 

In 1729 seven of the Lords Proprietors sold their interest in North Carolina to 
the Crown and North Carolina became a royal colony. The eighth proprietor Lord 
Granville, retained economic interest and continued granting land in the northern 
half of North Carolina. All political functions were under the supervision of the 
crown until 1775. 

Colonial government in North Carolina was essentially the same during both 
the proprietary and royal periods. The major difference being who appointed 
colonial officials. Government was conducted by two distinct groups — the governor 
and his council, on the one hand, and the popularly elected colonial general assem- 
bly on the other. There were colonial courts, but unlike today, they were rarely 
involved in the formulation of government policy. All colonial officials were 
appointed by either the Lords Proprietors prior to 1729, or the crown aftei-wards. 
Members of the colonial assembly were elected from the various precincts and from 
certain towns which had been granted representation. The term "precinct" as a 
geological unit ceased to exist after 1735 and these areas became known by the 
term "county" as they are today. About this same time "Albemarle County" and 
' 3ath County" also ceased to exist as governmental units. 

The governor was an appointed official — as were the colonial secretary, 
attorney general, surveyor general, and receiver general. All served at the pleasure 
of either the Lords Proprietors or the crown. The council during the proprietary 
period was comprised of persons appointed as agents by the proprietors to look after 
their interest in the new world. Many council members were also colonial officials. 
The council during both the proprietary and royal periods served as an advisory 
group to the governor, and one of its members was chosen president. The council 



North Carolina Manual 




State of North Carolina 



also served as the upper house of the legislature when the assembly was in session. 
The Governor was authorized to carry out all mandates of the proprietors, or crown, 
and could, when vacancies occurred in colonial offices or on the council, make a 
temporary appointment until the vacancy was filled by proprietai-y or royal com- 
mission. When a governor, or deputy governor, was unable to carry on as chief 
executive either by illness, death, resignation or absence from the colony, the 
president of the council became the chief executive and exercised all the powers of 
a governor until such time the governor returned or a new governor commissioned. 

The colonial assembly was made up of men elected from each precinct (county 
after 1735), or town where representation had been granted. Not all counties were 
entitled to the same number of representatives. Many of the older counties had five 
representatives each while the new ones — those formed after 1696 — were allowed 
only two each. Each town granted representation was allowed one representative. 
The presiding officer of the colonial assembly was called the speaker and was 
elected from the entire membership of the house. When a vacancy occurred a new 
election was ordered by the speaker to fill it. At the end of each session the bills 
passed by the legislature were signed by both the speaker and the president of the 
council. 

The colonial assembly could not meet arbitrarily, but rather convened only 
when called into session by the governor. Since the legislature was the only body 
authorized to grant a salaiy to the governor and was also responsible for spending 
tax monies, they met on a regular basis until just before the Revolutionary War. 
However, there was a constant battle for authority between the governor and his 
council on the one hand and the general assembly on the other, and two of the most 
explosive issues were the power of the purse and the electing of the treasurer, both 
privileges of the assembly. Another issue which raised itself was who had the 
authority to create new counties. On more than one occasion elected representatives 
from counties created by the governor and council, without consultation and proper 
legislative action by the lower house, were refused seats until the matter was 
resolved. These conflicts between the executive and legislative bodies were to have 
a profound effect on the organization of state government after Independence. 

North Carolina, on April 12, 1776, authorized her delegates in the Continental 
Congress to vote for independence, and on December 18, 1776, adopted a constitu- 
tion. Richard Caswell became the first governor under this constitution. On 
November 21, 1789, the state adopted the United States Constitution, being the 
twelfth state to enter the Federal Union. North Carolina, in 1788, had rejected the 
Constitution on the grounds that certain amendments were vital and necessaiy 
to a free people. 

A Constitutional convention was held in 1835 and among several changes made 
i 1 the Constitution was the method of electing the governor. After this change the 
governor was elected by the people for a term of two years instead of being elected 
by the Legislature for a term of one year. Edward Bishop Duiiley was the first 
governor elected by the people. 

In 1868 a second constitution was adopted which drastically altrred govornnu-nl in 
North Carolina. For the first time all major state officers were elected by the people. 
The governor and other executive officers were elected to four-year terms: while the 
justices of the supremo court and judges of the superior court were elected to eight-year 



8 North Carolina Manual 



terms. The iTH>ml)ers of the jrenoral assembly continued to he elected for two year terms. 
Hetween 18()8 and l!t7ll numerous amendments were incorporated into the IXdS 
constitution, so that in i;)70. the people voted to adopt a completely new constitution. 
Since then sevt'ral amendments have been ratified, but one in i)articular is a break from 
the past. In 1977 the people voted to allow the governor and lieutenant .trovernor to run 
for reelection successively for one additional term. 

North Carolina has had two permanent capitals — New Bern and Raleigh — and 
there have been three capitol buildings. Tryon's Palace in New Bern was con- 
structed in the period, 1767-1770, and the main building was destroyed by fire 
February 27, 1798. The first capitol in Raleigh was completed in 1794 and was 
destroyed by fire on June 21, 1831. The present capitol was completed in 1840. 

In 1790 North Carolina ceded her western lands, which was composed of 
Washintgon, Davidson, Hawkins, Greene, Sullivan, Sumner, and Tennessee coun- 
ties, to the Federal government. Between 1790 and 1796 the territory was known 
as Tennessee Territory, but in 1796 it became the fifteenth state in the Union. 

^\^^en North Carolina adopted the Federal Constitution on November 21, 1789, 
she was authorized to send two senators and five representatives to the Congress 
of the United States according to the constitutional apportionment. In 1792, when 
the first federal census had been completed and tabulated, it was found that North 
Carolina was entitled to ten representatives. It was then that the General Assembly 
divided the state into ten congressional districts. In 1812, the state had grown and 
increased in population until it was entitled to thirteen representatives in Congress. 
Between 1812 and 1865, however, the population decreased so much in proportion 
to the population of other states of the Union that North Carolina was by that time 
entitled only to seven representatives. After 1865 the population of the state showed 
a steady increase so that beginning in 1943 North Carolina was entitled to twelve 
representatives in Congress. The 1970 census showed that the state had more than 
a half million more people than in 1960, but this increase was not nearly as much 
in proportion to that of some of the other states. North Carolina is now entitled 
to only eleven representatives in Congress. 



State of North Carolina 



CHIEF EXECUTIVES* 
GOVERNORS OF "VIRGINIA" 

Name Qualifitd Ttrm 

Ralph Lane [April 9], 1585 1585-1586 

John White [April 26], 1587 1587 



PROPRIETARY GOVERNORS 

Name Qualified Term 

(Samuel Stephens) • [1622-1664] 

William Drummond February 23, 1665 1665-[1667] 

Samuel Stephens , 1667 [1667-1670] 

Peter Carteret March 10, 1670 1670-1671 

Peter Carteret , 1671 1671-1672 

John Jenkins [May — ], 1672 1672-1675 

Thomas Eastchurch October — , 1675 1675-1676 

[Speaker-Assembly] [Spring, 1676] 1676 

John Jenkins March — , 1676 1676-1677 

Thomas Eastchurch 

Thomas Miller July — , 1677 1677 

[Rebel Council] December—, 1677 1677-1679 

Seth Sothel 

John Harvey July — , 1679 1679 

John Jenkins December—, 1679 1679-1681 

Henry Wilkinson 

Seth Sothel , [1682] [1682]-1689 

John Archdale December—, 1683 1683-1686 

John Gibbs November — , 1689 1689-1690 

Phillip Ludwell May—, 1690 1690-1691 

Thomas Jarvis July—, 1690 1690-1694 

Phillip Ludwell November—, 1693 1693-1695 

Thomas Harvey July — , 1694 1694-1699 

John Archdale June — , 1695 1695 

John Archdale January — . 1697 1697 

Henderson Walker July — 1699 1699-1703 

Robert Daniel July — , 1703 1703-1705 

Thomas Cary March 21, 1705 1705-1706 

William Glover July 13, 1706 1706-1707 

Thomas Cary AuRust — , 1707 1707 

William Glover October 28, 1707 1707-1708 

Thomas Cary July 24, 1708 1708-1711 

[William Glover] — [1709-1710] 



* The names which are indented first are those who served as chief executive, but were nppointcH 
either deputy or lieutenant governor. Those indented second served while president of the council. 



10 North Carolina Manual 

Edward Hyde January 22, 1711 1711-1712 

Edward Hydi' May 9, 1712 1712 

Thomas Pollock September 12, 1712 1712-1714 

Charles Eden May 28, 1714 1714-1722 

Thomas Pollock March 30, 1722 1722 

William Reed September 7, 1722 1722-1724 

George Burrin^^on January 15, 1724 1724-1725 

Edward Moseley October 31, 1724 1724 

Sir Richard Everard July 17, 1725 1725-1731 



ROYAL GOVERNORS 

iVumc Qualified Term 

Georfje Burrington February 25, 1731 1731-1734 

Nathaniel Rice April 17, 1734 1734 

Gabriel Johnston November 2, 1734 1734-1752 

Nathaniel Rice July 17, 1752 1752-1753 

Matthew Rowan February 1, 1753 1753-1754 

Arthur Dobbs November 1, 1754 1754-1765 

James Hasell October 15, 1763 1763 

William Tryon April 3, 1765 1765 

William Tryon December 20, 1765 1765-1771 

James Hasell July 1, 1771 1771 

Josiah Martin Au^st 12, 1771 1771-1775 

James Hasell October 8, 1774 1774 



ELECTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY 

XaTTxe Residence Qualified Term 

Richard Caswell Dobbs December 21, 1776 1776-1777 

Richard Caswell Dobbs April 18, 1777 1777-1778 

Richard Caswell Dobbs April 20, 1778 1778-1779 

Richard Caswell Dobbs May 4, 1779 1779-1780 

Abner Nash Craven April 21, 1780 1780-1781 

Thomas Burke Orange June 26, 1781 1781-1782 

Alexander Martin Guilford October 5, 1781 1781-1782 

Alexander Martin Guilford April 22, 1782 1782-1783 

Alexander Martin Guilford April 30, 1783 1783-1784 

Alexander Martin Guilford May 3, 1784 1784-1785 

Richard Caswell Dobbs May 13, 1785 1785 

Richard Caswell Dobbs December 12, 1785 .. 1785-1786 

Richard Caswell Dobbs December 23, 1786 1786-1787 

Samuel Johnston Chowan December 20, 1787 1787-1788 

Samuel Johnston Chowan November 18, 1788 1788-1789 

Samuel Johnston Chowan November 18, 1789 1789 



State of North Carolina 11 

^'ami' K<'M(f< lire (Jiinlified Trrm 

Alexander Martin Guilford December 17, 1789 1789-1790 

Alexander Martin Guilford December 9, 1790 . 1790-1792 

Alexander Martin Guilford January 2, 1792 1792 

Richard Dobbs Spaigrht Craven December 14, 1792 1792-1793 

Richard Dobbs Spaight Craven December 26, 1793 1793-1795 

Richard Dobbs Spaig-ht ..Craven January 6, 1795 1795 

Samuel Ashe Nev^- Hanover November 19, 1795 1795-1796 

Samuel Ashe New Hanover December 19, 1796 1796-1797 

Samuel Ashe New Hanover December 5, 1797 1797-1798 

William R. Davie Halifax December 7, 1798 1798-1799 

Benjamin Williams Moore November 23, 1799 1799-1800 

Benjamin Williams Moore November 29, 1800 . 1800-1801 

Benjamin Williams Moore November 28, 1801 1801-1802 

John Baptiste Ashe' Halifax 

James Turner Warren December 6. 1802 1802-1803 

James Turner Warren December 6, 1803 1803-1804 

James Turner Warren November 29, 1804 1804-1805 

Nathaniel Alexander Mecklenburg December 10, 1805 1805-1806 

Nathaniel Alexander Mecklenburg December 1, 1806 1806-1807 

Benjamin Williams Moore December 1, 1807 1807-1808 

David Stone Bertie December 12, 1808 1808-1809 

David Stone Bertie December 13, 1809 1809-1810 

Benjamin Smith Brunswick December 5, 1810 .. 1810-1811 

William Hawkins Warren December 9, 1811 1811-1812 

William Hawkins Warren December 8, 1812 1812-1813 

William Hawkins Warren December 7, 1813 1813-1814 

William Miller Warren December 7, 1814 1814-1815 

William Miller Warren December 7, 1815 1815-1816 

William Miller Warren December 7, 1816 1816-1817 

John Branch Halifax December 6, 1817 1817-1818 

John Branch Halifax December 5, 1818 1818-1819 

John Branch Halifax December 7, 1819 1819-1820 

Jesse Franklin Surry December 7, 1820 1820-1821 

Gabriel Holmes Sampson December 7, 1821 1821-1822 

Gabriel Holmes Sampson December 7, 1822 1822-1823 

Gabriel Holmes Sampson December 6, 1823 1823-1824 

Hutchings G. Burton Halifax December 7, 1824 1824-1825 

Hutchings G. Burton Halifax December 6, 1825 1825-1826 

Hutchings G. Burton Halifax December 29, 1826 1826-1827 

James Iredell, Jr Chowan December 8, 1827 1827-1828 

John Owen Bladen December 12, 1828 1828-1829 

John Owen Bladen December 10, 1829 .. 1829-1830 

Montford Stokes Wilkes December 18, 1830 1830-1831 

Montford Stokes Wilkes December 13, 1831 1831-1832 

David L. Swain Buncombe December 6, 1832 1832-1833 

David L. Swain Buncombe December 9, 1833 1833-1834 

David L. Swain Buncombe December 10, 1834 1834-1835 

Richard Dobbs Spaight, Jr Craven December 10, 1835 1835-1836 



12 North Carolina Manual 



ELECTED BY THE PEOPLE 

S'amf Rfsideiicr Qualified Term 

Edward B. Dudley New Hanover December 31, 1836 1836-1838 

Edward B. Dudley New Hanover December 29, 1838 1838-1841 

John M. Morehead Guilford January 1, 1841 1841-1842 

John M. Morehead Guilford December 31, 1842 1842-1845 

William A. Graham Orange January 1, 1845 1845-1847 

William A. Graham Orange January 1. 1847 1847-1849 

Charles Manly Wake January 1, 1849 1849-1851 

David S. Reid Rockingham January 1, 1851 1851-1852 

David S. Reid Rockingham December 22, 1852 1852-1854 

Warren Winslow Cumberland December 6, 1854 1854-1855 

Thomas Bragg Northampton January 1, 1855 1855-1857 

Thomas Bragg Northampton January 1, 1857 1857-1859 

John W. Ellis Rowan January 1, 1859 1859-1861 

John W. Ellis2 Rowan January 1, 1861 1861 

Henry T. Clark Edgecombe July 7, 1861 1861-1862 

Zebulon B. Vance Buncombe September 8, 1862 1862-1864 

Zebulon B. Vance Buncombe December 22, 1864 1864-1865 

William W. HoldenS Wake May 29, 1865 1865 

Jonathan Worth Randolph December 15, 1865 1865-1866 

Jonathan Worth Randolph December 22, 1866 1866-1868 

William W. Holden"' Wake July 1, 1868 1868-1870 

Tod R. Caldwell Burke December 15, 1870 1870-1873 

Tod R. Caldwell' Burke January 1, 1873 1873-1874 

Curtis H. Brogden Wayne July 14, 1874 1874-1877 

Zebulon B. Vance Buncombe January 1, 1877 1877-1879 

Thomas J. Jarvis Pitt February 5, 1879 1879-1881 

Thomas J. Jarvis Pitt January 18, 1881 1881-1885 

James L. Robinson Macon September 1, 1883 1883 

Alfred M. Scales Rockingham January 21, 1885 1885-1889 

Daniel G. FowleS Wake January 17, 1889 1889-1891 

Thomas M. Holt Alamance April 8, 1891 1891-1893 

Elias Carr Edgecombe January 18, 1893 1893-1897 

Daniel L. Russell Brunswick January 12, 1897 1897-1901 

Charles B. Aycock Wayne January 15, 1901 1901-1905 

Robert B. Glenn Forsyth January 11, 1905 1905-1909 

William W. Kitchin Person January 12, 1909 1909-1913 

Locke Craig Buncombe January 15, 1913 1913-1917 

Thomas W. Bickett Franklin January 11, 1917 1917-1921 

Cameron Morrison Mecklenburg January 12, 1921 1921-1925 

Angus W. McLean Robeson January 14, 1925 1925-1929 

Oliver Max Gardner Cleveland January 11, 1929 1929-1933 

John C. B. Ehringhaus Pasquotank January 5, 1933 1933-1937 

Clyde R. Hoey Cleveland January 7, 1937 1937-1941 



State of North Carolina 13 



John Melville Broughton Wake January 9, 1941 1941-1945 

Robert Gregg Cherry Gaston January 4, 1945 1945-1949 

William Kerr Scott Alamance January 6, 1949 1949-1953 

William B. Umstead^ Durham January 8, 1953 1953-1954 

Luther H. Hodges Rockingham November 7, 1954 1954-1957 

Luther H. Hodges Rockingham February 7, 1957 1957-1961 

Terry Sanford Cumberland January 5, 1961 1961-1965 

Daniel K. Moore Jackson January 8, 1965 1965-1969 

Robert W. Scott Alamance January 3, 1969 1969-1973 

James E. Holshouser, Jr. . . .Watauga January 5, 1973 1973-1977 

James B. Hunt, Jr Wilson January 8, 1977 1977- 



1 Ashe died before he could take office. 

2 Ellis died July 7, 1861. 

3 Holden, a republican, was appointed provisional governor by the occupation commander. 

•< Holden was removed from office. Following his convictions on six of eight impeachment charges. 

5 Caldwell died July 11. 1874. 

8 Fowle died April 7, 1891. 

7 Umstead died November 7, 1954. 



14 



North Carolina Manual 



lip:ijtenant governor 



Xa> 



RfHiflfncc 



Qualified 



Term 



Tod R. Caldweir^ Burke July 1, 1868 

Curtis H. Brog'den' Wayne January 1, 

Thomas J. Jarvis' Pitt Januaiy 1, 

James L. Robinson'' Macon Januaiy 18, 

Charles M. Stedman New Hanover . . Januaiy 21, 

Thomas M. Holt** Alamance Januaiy 

Rufus A. Doughton Alleghany Januaiy 

Charles A. Reynolds Forsyth Januaiy 

Wilfred D. Turner Iredell Januaiy 

Francis D. Winston Bertie Januaiy 

William C. Newland Caldwell January 

Elijah L. Daughtridge Edgecombe Januaiy 

Oliver Max Gardner Cleveland Januaiy 

William B. Cooper New Hanover . . January 

Jacob E. Long Durham Januaiy 

Richard T. Fountain Edgecombe Januaiy 

Alexander H. Graham Orange Januaiy 

Wilkins P. Horton Chatham Januaiy 

Reginald L. Harris Person Januaiy 

Lynton Y. Ballentine Wake Januaiy 4, 

Ho>i: Patrick Taylor Anson Januaiy 6, 

Luther H. Hodges" Rockingham . . . Januaiy 8, 

Luther E. Barnhardt CabaiTus February 7, 

Harvey Cloyd Philpott'^ Davidson Januaiy 5, 

Robert W. Scott Alamance Januaiy 8, 

Hoyt Patrick Taylor, Jr Anson Januaiy 3, 

James B. Hunt, Jr Pitt Januaiy 5, 

James C. Green Bladen Januaiy 8, 



1868-1870 

1873 1873-1874 

1877 1877-1879 

1881 1881-1885 

1885 1885-1889 

1889 1889-1891 

1893 1893-1897 

1897 1897-1901 

1901 1901-1905 

1905 1905-1909 

1909 1909-1913 

1913 1913-1917 

1917 1917-1921 

1921 1921-1925 

1925 1925-1929 

1929 1929-1933 

1933 1933,1937 

1937 1937-1941 

1941 1941-1945 

1945 1945-1949 

1949 1949-1953 

1953 1953-1954 

1957 1957-1961 

1961 1961 

1965 1965-1969 

1969 1969-1973 

1973 1973-1977 

1977 1977- 



' The office of Lieuten.mt Governor was created by the North Carolina Constitution of 1868. 

2 Caldwell became governor following the removal of Holden from office in 1870. 

3 Brogden became governor following the death of Caldwell. 

^ Jarvis became governor following the resignation of Vance. 

5 Robinson resigned from office on Oct<iber l.'i, 1884. 

8 Holt became governor following the death of Fowle. 

" Hodges became governor following the death of Umsteaii. 

s Philpott died on August 18, 1961. 



State OF North Carolina 15 



THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE CAPITOL 

The North Carolina State Cai)itol is one of the finest and best preserved ex- 
amples of a major civic building- in the Greek Revival Style of architecture. 

Prior to 1792, North Carolina legislators met in various towns throughout 
the state — Halifax, Hillsboro, and New Bern were the most frequent locations. 

Meetings were held in local plantation houses, court houses, and even churches 

whatever was available; however, when the City of Raleigh was established as 
the permanent seat of the Government of North Carolina in 1792, a simple, two- 
story brick State House was built on Union Scjuare. The State House was com- 
pleted in 1796. 

The State House was enlarged in 1820-24 by the architect William Nichols. 
A third floor and eastern and western wings were added to the building, and a 
domed rotunda was constructed at its center to house .-Vntonio Canova's statue of 
President George Washington, acquired by the State in 1821. When the State 
House burned on June 21, 1831, the statue of Washington was damaged beyond 
repair. 

The General Assembly of 1832-33 ordered that a new Capitol (as the present 
building has always been called) be built as an enlarged version of the old State 
House- — that is, a cross-shaped building with a central, domed rotunda. The sum 
of $50,000 was appropriated, and a commission appointed to initiate the plan. The 
Commissioners for Rebuilding the Capitol first employed William Nichols, Jr., to 
help them prepare plans for the building. In August of 1833, Nichols was re- 
placed by the distinguished New York architectural firm of Ithiel Town and Alex- 
ander Jackson Davis. They modified and greatly improved the earlier design, 
giving the Capitol essentially its present appearance and plan. David Paton 
(1802-82), an Edinburgh-born architect who had worked for John Seoane, the 
noted English arhitect, was hired in September, 1834, to superintend the construc- 
tion of the Capitol. Paton replaced Town and Davis as the Commissioners' ar- 
chitect early in 1835. The Capitol was built under Paton's supervision except for 
the exterior stone walls, which were largely in place when he got to Raleigh. 
Paton made several modifications in the Town and Davis plans for tlie interior. 
He is responsible for the cantilevered or overhanging gallery at the second floor 
level of the rotunda, the groined masonry vaulting of the first floor office and 
corridor ceilings, and the interior arrangement of the east and west wings. After 
clearing away the rubbish of the old State House, excavations were made and a 
new foundation laid. On July 4, 1833, the corner stone was set in place. Following 
this, work progressed more slowly, and the original appropriation soon exhausted. 
At the next session of the Legislature, an additional appropriation of $7."i,()()0 was 
necessary so that work could begin on the stone and finer work. Many skilled 
artisans were brought over from Scotland and other countries to carry out this 
phase of construction. 

Most of the architectural details— columns, mouldings, ornamental plaster- 
work, and the honeysuckle crown atop the dome, for example— were carefully 



State of North Carolina 17 

patterned after features of particular ancient Greek temples: The exterior 
columns are Doric in style and modeled after those of the Parthenon, the House 
of Representatives Chamber follows the semicircular plan of a Greek theater and 
its architectural ornament is in the Corinthian style of the Tower of the Winds 
and the Senate Chamber is decorated in the Ionic style of the Erechtheum. The 
only non-classical parts of the building are two large rooms on the third floor 
which were finished in the Gothic Style, then just beginning its rise to popularity 
in America. 

The ornamental ironwork, chandeliers, hardware, and marble mantels of the 
Capitol came from Philadelphia, as did the man who executed all of the orna- 
mental plasterwork. The desks and chairs in the House and Senate Chambers 
were made by a Raleigh Cabinetmaker, William Thompson. 

The Capitol was completed in 1840 at a total cost (including furnishings) of 
$532,682.34, or more than three times the yearly general income of the State at 
that time. 

In plan, the Capitol is a cross-shaped building, centering on a domed rotunda 
where the wings join. It is 160 feet from north to south, 140 feet from east to west 
(including the porticoes), and stands 97 V2 feet from the base of the rotunda to 
the crown atop the dome. The exterior walls are built of gneiss (a form of 
granite). This stone was quarried in southeastern Raleigh and hauled to the site 
on the horse-drawn Experimental Rail Road, the first railway in North Carolina. 
The interior walls are of stone and brick. The massive, original wooden truss sys- 
tem still carries the roof. 

The first floor contains eight offices in the north and south wings and smaller 
rooms in the east and west wings. (These offices originally housed all of the 
executive branch of state government — a total of six full-time officials in 1840.) 
The rotunda contains a duplicate original of Canova's statue of Washington, 
acquired in 1970. In inches around the rotunda are busts of three Governors and 
a United States Senator. Stairways in the east and west wings give access to the 
second floor, where the Senate and House Chambers and related ofl[ices are located. 
Rooms in the east and west wings, built as legislative committee rooms, have been 
converted to other uses. On the third floor are the galleries of the Senate and 
House Chambers, and in the east and west wings are the original State Supreme 
Court Chamber and State Library Room, both decorated in the Gothic Style. The 
domed, top-lit vestibules of those two rooms are especially note-worthy. 

The Capitol housed all of the state government until the 1880's. The Supreme 
Court moved to its own building in 1888. The General Assembly moved to the 
State Legislative Building (the State's first building erected exclusively for 
legislative use) in 1963. Today the only official occupants of the Capitol are 
some of the personnel of the Governor and the Secretary of State. 

The Capitol probably has been less changed in appearance, inside and out, 
than any major American civic building of its era. The stonework, the ornamental 
plaster and ironwork, the furniture of the legislative chambers, and all but one 
of the marble mantels that the visitor sees today are original, not restorations or 



18 North Carolina Manual 



repi-oduotions. Yet continuous and heavy use since 1840 has left its marks on the 
building, and to cope with them the Capitol currently is undergoing a careful re- 
habilitation. This work was begun in 1971 and is intended to preserve and enhance 
the architectural splendor and decorative beauty of the Capitol for future genera- 
tions. Work done to date includes replacing the leaky copper roof, cleaning and 
sealing the exterior stone, and repainting the rotunda in colors similar to those 
originally used. More recently completed phases include repairing plaster-work 
tiamaged by roof leaks, replacing obsolete wiring and plumbing, reworking the 
heating and cooling systems in the upper floors to make them less conspicuous, 
replacing worn carpets and draperies, and repainting the rest of the interior 
according to the original color scheme. 

1976 was an eventful year not only for our nation, but for our State Capitol 
building as well. After several years of work, the old senate and house chambers 
and the executive offices on the first floor were completed. Shortly after his elec- 
tion, Grovemor James B. Hunt, Jr. announced his intention of moving the Office of 
the Governor back into the Capitol. This move is now complete and Governor Hunt 
joins Secretary of State Thad Eure as a working resident in this s^Tnbol of 
government in North Carolina. 

In an effort to make the newly renovated Capitol more accessable to the people 
of North Carolina, the building has been opened to the public on weekends with- 
guided tours available for all visitors. 



State of North Carolina 19 

DESCRIPTION OF THE CAPITOL 
By Architect David Paton 

The State Capitol is 160 feet in len^h from north to south by 140 feet from 
east to west. The whole height is 97V2 feet in the center. The apex of pediment is 
64 feet in height. The stylobate is 18 feet in height. The columns of the east and 
west porticoes are 5 feet 21/2 inches in diameter. An entablature, including blocking 
course, is continued around the building 12 feet high. 

The columns and entablature are Grecian Doric, and copied from the Temple of 
Minei-va, commonly called the Parthenon, which was erected in Athens about nOO 
years before Christ. An octagon tower surrounds the rotunda, which is ornamented 
with Grecian cornices, etc., and its dome is decorated at top with a similar ornament 
to that of the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, commonly called the Lanthorn of 
Demosthenes. 

The interior of the Capitol is divided into three stories: First, the lower story, 
consisting often rooms, eight of which are appropriated as offices to the Governor, 
Secretary, Treasurer, and Comptroller, each having two rooms of the same size — 
the one containing an area of 649 square feet, the other 528 square feet — the two 
committee rooms, each containing 200 square feet and four closets: also the rotunda, 
corridors, vestibules, and piazzas, contain an area of 4,370 square feet. The vesti- 
bules are decorated with columns and antae, similar to those of the Ionic Temple 
on the Ilissus, near the Acropolis of Athens. The remainder is groined with stone 
and brick, springing from columns and pilasters of the Roman Doric. 

The second story consists of Senatorial and Representatives' chambers, the 
former containing an area of 2,545 and the latter 2,849 square feet. Four apartments 
enter from Senate Chamber, two of which contain each an area of 169 square feet, 
and the other two contain each an area of 154 square feet; also, two rooms enter 
from Representatives' chamber, each containing an area of 170 square feet; of two 
committee rooms, each containing an area of 231 square feet; of four presses and the 
passages, stairs, lobbies, and colonnades, containing an area of 3,204 square feet. 

The lobbies and Hall of Representatives have their columns and antae of the 
Octagon Tower of Andronicus Cyrrhestes and the plan of the hall is of the formation 
of the Greek theatre and the columns and antae in the Senatorial chamber and 
rotunda are of the Temple of Erectheus, Minei-va, Polias, and Pandrosus, in the 
Acorpolis of Athens, near the above named Parthenon. 

Third, or attic stoi-y, consists of rooms appropriated to the Supreme Court 
and Library, each containing an area of 693 square feet. Galleries of both houses 
have an area of 1,300 square feet; also two apartments entering from Senate gallei-y. 
each 169 square feet, of four presses and the lobbies' stairs, 988 square feet. The.se 
lobbies as well as rotunda, are lit with cupolas, and it is proposed to finish th«' 
court and library in the florid Gothic style. 



20 North Carolina Manual 



THE CAPITOL 

by 

Edwin Gill* 

I am thi' Capittil; upon my copper dome, I wear a crown. If it were gilded, it 
would flash a sifrnal to the sun. This crown is more than decoration. It is a symbol 
of sovereignty. 

• When the sun is bright and the arch of heaven is clear, the greenish-blue of 
my dome is bold against the sky. But sometimes, when the sun is veiled, the grey 
of my dome appears to blend with infinity. 

Between 1833 and 1840, I was constructed of stone quarried nearby, which 
time has mellowed. These stones were precision cut and, nicely balanced. The 
traffic of human feet has worn some stones, and, occasionally, I have been roughly 
used. The edges of steps have been broken. But I am hale and hearty and will, of 
course, endure. 

The Court, the Legislature and the Auditor have left me for more modern 
homes. It is rumored that others may go. However, I am assured I shall become 
a shrine. Now what is a shrine? No one seems to know, except they say it has 
something to do with memory and Glory. 

I am complimented that many people are concerned about my condition. 
Questions have been raised. Let me assure one and all that I am solid and sound 
of body. My problems are mostly superficial. 

My roof has leaked a bit, and inquiries should be made into the soundness of 
the timbers that undergird it. Also, at appropriate intervals, my electrical wiring 
should be carefully examined. 

In fairness to the past, a sprinkler system was installed beneath my roof in 
1939, and my exterior was cleaned effectively in 1952. 

But it is well to have the Governor, the Council of State and others concerned 
about my future. It is good to know there are those who care — to have a flutter of 
interest in my behalf. Even the pigeons and squirrels are concerned! 

Some time before the year is out, I am informed, we will dedicate, in an ap- 
propriate ceremony, the receipt from Italy of the figure of Washington carved in 
marble. It is meet and proper in anticipation of this event that I be cleaned, re- 
furnished and made in every way presentable. Incidentally, my architect told me 
that in the original plans I was to have this statue. So, in a sense, I am unfiinished 
until it is in place. 



 Mr. Gill was State Treasurer of North Carolina from 1953-1977. The above was ordered spread 
upon the minutes of the Council of State on June 17. 1970. 



State of North Carolina 21 



There are those who think I should be restored to my former splendor. Th« 
doctors of history suggest I should be arrayed in the mode of 1840. This, I suppose 
has something to do with my ultimate status as a shrine. 

I favor this restoration. But I doubt that such a project can be completely 
achieved. After all, in recent times, I have become a creature of modern con- 
veniences, such as central heating, inside plumbing and electricity — all unavailable 
in 1840. Whatever is done, my comfort should be considered. Especially, I would 
like to have hot, as well as cold, running water! 

In my bosom laws were made. Through the decades, I have heard the thunders 
of eloquence. I have been amused at the wit and tall tales of statesmen. 

Today my halls are silent. People come and go and look at me, and marvel 
at the stories of the past. They say I am a symbol of all that has been achieved 
within the borders of our State. So be it. I am a symbol. 




'Wk 






m. 










\ 




/ 





State of North Carolina 23 



THE LEGISLATIVE BUILDING 

The need for larger quarters for legislators and their respective staffs, and 
the growth of services provided by the legislative branch of government led the 
General Assembly of 1959 to appropriate funds for the formation of a Building 
Commission for the construction of a new building for the Legislature. A statute 
creating such a commission was ratified on June 12, 1959. It was to "consist of 
two persons who have served in the State Senate, appointed by the President of 
the Senate; two persons who have served in the House of Representatives, appoint- 
ed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives; and three persons appointed 
by the Governor." 

Lieutenant Governor Luther E. Earnhardt, President of the Senate, appointed 
Archie K. Davis and Robert F. Morgan, who was elected Vice-chairman of the 
Commission; Speaker of the House Addison Hewlett appointed B. I. Satterfield 
and Thomas J. White, who was elected Chairman of the Commission; and Governor 
Hodges appointed A. E. Finley, Edwin Gill, and Oliver R. Rowe. In addition to 
these members, Paul A. Johnston, Director of the Department of Administration, 
was elected Executive Secretary. The Commission elected Frank B. Turner, State 
Property Officer as Executive Secretary upon the resignation of Mr. Johnson. 

The Commission selected Edward Durell Stone of New York with John S. 
Holloway and Ralph B. Reeves, Jr., Associated as the architectural consultants. 

After a thorough study by the Commission, a site for construction was select- 
ed — a 5y2 acre area one block North of the Capitol. This site, encompassing two 
blocks, is bounded by Jones, Salisbury, Lane and Wilmington Streets. A section 
of Halifax Street between Jones and Lane was closed and made a part of the new 
site. 

Bids on the new building were received in December, 1960 and construction 
began early the following year. The 1961 General Assembly appropriated an ad- 
ditional $1 million for furnishings and equipment. This brought the total ap- 
propriation to $5y2 million or $1.24 for each citizen of North Carolina. (This 
figure based on the 1960 census.) 

One of the consulting architects wrote the following description of the new 
building: 

The State Legislative Building, though not an imitation of historic 
classical styles, is classical in character. Rising from a 340 foot wide podi- 
um of North Carolina granite, the building proper is 242 feet square. The 
walls and the columns are of Vermont marble, the latter forming a 
colonnade encompassing the building and reaching 24 feet from the podi- 
um to the roof of the second floor. 

Inset in the south podium floor, at the main entrance, is a 28 foot 
diameter terrazzo mosaic of the Great Seal of the State. From the first 
floor main entrance (at Jones Street) the carpeted 22 foot wide main 
stair extends directly to the tnird floor and the public galleries of the 
Senate and House, the auditorium, the display area, and the roof gardens. 



1^4 North Carolina Manual 



The four garden courts are located at the corners of the buildinj^:. 
These courts contain tropical plants, and three have pools, fountains, and 
hanjiinjr planters. The main floor areas of tl e courts are located in the 
first floor, and niessanines overlook the courts from the second floor. The 
skylights which provide natural lighting are located within the roof gar- 
dens overhead. The courts provide access to committee rooms in the first 
floor, the legislative chambers in the second floor, and Lo members' ofliices 
in both floors. 

The Senate and House chambers, each 5,180 square feet in area, 
occupy the east and west wings of the second floor. Following the tradi- 
tional relationship of the two chambers in the Capitol, the two spaces 
are divided by the rotunda; and when the main brass doors are open, 
the two presiding officers face one another. Each pair of brass doors 
weigh 1,500 pounds. 

The five pyramidal roofs covering the Senate and House chambers, 
the auditorium, the main stair, and the rotunda are sheathed with copper, 
as is the Capitol. The pyramidal shape of the roofs is visible in t!ie point- 
ed ceilings inside. The structural ribs form a coff"ered ceiling; and inside 
the coffered patterns, concentric patterns are outlined in gold. In each 
chamber, the distance from the floor to the peak of the ceiling is 45 feet. 

Chandeliers in the chambers and main stair are 8 feet in diameter and 
weigh 625 pounds each. The 12 foot diameter chandelier of the rotunda, 
like the others, is of brass, but its weight is 750 pounds. 

Because of the interior environment, the garden courts and rotunda 
have tropical plants and trees. Outside, however, the shrubs and trees 
are of an indigenous type. Among the trees in the grounds, on the roof 
areas are sugar maples, dogwoods, crabapples, magnolias, crepe myrtles, 
and pines. 

Throughout the building, the same color scheme is maintained: Wal- 
nut, white, gold and red, with green foliage. In general, all wood is 
American walnut, metal is brass or other gold colored material, carpets 
are red, and upholstery is gold or black. 

The enclosed area consists of 206,000 square feet of floor area with a 
volume of 3,210,000 cubic feet. Heating equipment pro /ides over 7,000,000 
B.T.U. per hour; and the cooling equipment has a capacity of 620 tons. 
For lighting, motors, and other electrical etiuipment, the building has a 
connected service load of over 2,000,000 watts. 



State of North Carolina 



25 



THE GREAT SEAL OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

The use of a seal for attesting to important documents began before the imple- 
mentation of government in North Carolina. In the colonial period North Carolina 
used successively four different seals. Since the colony became a state, five distinct 
seals have been used. 

Shortly after they were issued their charter in 1663, the Lords Proprietors 
thought it proper to adopt for their newly acquired domains in America, a seal of 
which no official description has been found, but which is to be seen in the British 
Public Record Office in London. The Seal — pictured below — had two sides. The size 
of this seal was three and three-eighths inches in diameter, and it was made by 
placing together two wax cakes with tape between before being impressed. The 
impression after being made was about one-fourth inch thick. This seal was used on 
all official papers of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina, embracing both North 
Carolina and South Carolina. 





Seal of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina 

About 1665 the Government of Albemarle was organized and it adopted for a 
seal the reverse side of the seal of the Lords Proprietors. Between the coats-of-arms 
the word A-L-BE-M-A-R-L-E was fixed in capitals, beginning with the letter "A" 
between the arms of Clarendon and Albemarle, "L" between Albemarle and Craven, 
"BE" between the Craven arms and those of Lord John Berekeley, et cetera. 

This was a small seal — one and seven-sixteenths inches in diameter, with one 
face only — and is now frequently to be found attached to colonial papers. It is 
generally impressed on red wax, but is occasionally seen impressed on a wafer 
which is stuck to the instiument with soft wax. It was first used for the govern- 
ment of the county of Albemarle, and then became the seal of the Province of North 
Carolina, being used until just after the purchase by the crown. During the 
troublous times of the Cary Rebellion the Albemarle seal was not used. In 1708 
Cary used his family arms on a large seal to his official papers. A fine specimen of 
this seal showing the Cary arms is preserved in the papers of the secretary of state 
located in the North Carolina Archives. During William Glover's presidency (1710) 
he used his private seal. 



26 



North Carolina Manual 




Seal of the Government of Albemarle and Province of North Carolina, 1665-1730 



WTien North Carolina was purchased by the Crown in 1729, the old "Albemarle" 
seal was no longer applicable. On February 3, 1729/30, the Board of Trade recom- 
mended to the king that he order a public seal for the Province of North Carolina. 

On February 21, 1729/30, his Majesty in council was pleased to approve the 
recommendations and ordered ". . . that a Publick Seal be prepared and given to the 
Governor of the said Province of North Carolina, And that the said Lords Com- 
missioners for Trade and Plantations do cause a Draft of such Seal, to be prepared 
and laid before His Majesty at the Board, for his Royall Approbation." 

On March 25, 1730, The Board of Trade laid before his Majesty for his royal 
approbation a draft of a proposed seal for the Province of North Carolina. On the 
lOth day of April, 1730, the king approved the recommendations, except that it 
appears "Georgius Secundus" was to be substituted for the original "Geo. IL," and 
his chief engraver of seals was ordered to "engrave a silver Seal according to said 
draught. ..." A certain Rollos. his Majesty's engraver was ordered to prepare a 
draft of the seal. 





Obverse Reverse 

Seal of the Province of North Carolina, 1730-1767 



State of North Carolina 



27 



There was some delay in receiving the new seal, for at a council held at Eden- 
ton, March 30, 1731, it was "Ordered that the old seal of the Colony be used till the 
new seal arrives." The latter part of April the seal came, and "The Messenger that 
went to Cape Fear to fetch the Publick Seal of this Province" was paid the sum often 
pounds for his journey. This seal was made by placing two cakes or layers of wax 
together, between which was the ribbon or tape with which the instrument was 
interlaced and by which the seal was appended. It was customary' to put a piece of 
paper on the outside of three cakes before they were impressed. The complete seal 
was four and three-eighths inches in diameter and from one-half to five-eighths 
inches thick and weighed about five and one-half ounces. 

At a council held at New Bern, December 14, 1767, Governor Tryon produced to 
the Board a new Great Seal for the province with his Majesty's Royal Warrant 
bearing date at the Court of St. James the 9th day of July, 1767. The old seal was 
sent to New York by Captain [John Abraham] Collet, commander of Fort John- 
ston, to be returned to his Majesty's Council office at Whitehall. Accompanying 
his Majesty's warrant was a description of the new seal. This seal was to be used in 
sealing all patents and grants of lands and all public instmments passed in the 
king's name for service vdthin the province. It was four inches in diameter, one- 
half to five-eighths inches thick, and weighed four and one- half ounces. 





Observe Reverse 

Seal of the Province of North Carolina, 1767-1776 



It appears that sometimes a smaller seal than the Great Seal was used, as 
commissions and grants with a small heart-shaped seal about one inch wide and a 
quarter of an inch thick which was impressed with a crown have been used. Also 
a seal was occasionally used about three inches long and two inches wide and half 
an inch thick, in the shape of an ellipse. These impressions were evidently made 
by putting the wax far enough under the edge of the Great Seal to take the impres- 
sion of the crown. The royal governors also sometimes used their private seals — 
commissions and grants. 



on 



28 



North Carolina Manual 



Lord Grativil!t>, on the grrants issued by him, used his private seal. The last 
reference found to the colonial seal is in a letter from Govemor Martin to the Earl 
of Hillsboroug'h in November, 177L in which he said "that the Province Seal was 
broke." but that he had had it repaired and that it had been "awkwardly mended 
but in such manner as to answer all puiposes." 

When the government of the State of North Carolina was organized, the con- 
stitution adopted at Halifax, December 18, 1776, provided in Section XVII, "That 
there shall be a Seal of this State, which shall be kept by the Governor, and used 
by him as occasion may require; and shall be called the Great Seal of the State of 
North Carolina, and be affixed to all grants and commissions." The Constitutional 
Convention of 1835 l)rought this section foinvard unchanged. 

The convention of 1868 adopted a new constitution, and the convention of 1875 
brought the section referring to the seal forward as adopted in 1868. Article III, 
Section 16 of the constitution reads: "There shall be a seal of the State, which shall 
be kept by the Govemor, and used by him, as occasion may require, and shall be 
called "The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina' All grants and commissions 
shall be issued in the name and by the authority of the State of North Carolina, 
sealed with 'The Great Seal of the State,' signed by the Governor and counter- 
signed by the Secretaiy of State." 

On December 22, 1776, an ordinance was passed by the Provincial Congress at 
Halifax appointing William Hooper, Joseph Hewes and Thomas Burke commis- 
sioners to procure a Gi-eat Seal for the State of North Carolina, but no record of a 
report being made by this commission could be found. The ordinance provided that 
the govemor should use his "private seal at arms" until the Great Seal for the state 
was procured. On April 29, 1778, a bill which directed the procurement of a Great 
Seal for the state and which became law on Mav 2, was introduced in the lower 





Obverse 



Reverse 



Seal of the State of North Carolina. 1779-1794 



State of North Carolina 



29 



house of the general assembly held in New Bern. It provided that "William Tisdale, 
Esq., be and he is hereby appointed to cut and engrave a Seal, under the Direction 
of his Excellency the Governor, for the use of the State; . . . ." On Sunday, Novem- 
ber 7, 1779 the senate concurred in the resolution passed by the house of commons 
allowing William Tisdale, Esq., the sum of one hundred and fifty pounds for making 
the Great Seal of the State. Under this act a seal was procured which was used until 
1794. The actual size of the seal was three inches in diameter and one-fourth inch 
thick. It was made by putting two cakes of wax together with paper wafers on the 
outside and pressing them between the dies, thus forming the obverse and reverse 
sides of this seal. The seal press must have been very large and unwieldy, for 
Governor Richard Dobbs Spaight in writing to Colonel Abisha Thomas in Febru- 
ary, 1793 said: "Let the screws by which the impression is to be made be as 
portable as possible so as it may be adapted to our present itinerant government. 
The one now in use by which the Great Seal is a present made is so large and 
unwieldy as to be carried only in a cart or wagon and of course has become 
stationart at the Secretary's office which makes it very convenient." Governor 
Spaight in January, 1793 in writing of the Tisdale Seal then in use says: "This old 
seal is not only nearly worn out but in my opinion has always been a reproach to 
the genius of the State." An official description of this seal cannot be found, but 
many of the seals are still in existence in an almost perfect state of preservation. 

In January, 1792 the general assembly in session at New Bern passed an act 
authorizing and requiring the governor to procure for the state a seal, and provided 
that it should "be prepared with only one side, and calculated to make the impres- 
sion on the face of such grant, commission, record or other public acts, . . . ." 
Govemor Alexander Martin commissioned Colonel Abisha Thomas, the agent of 
North Carolina in Philadelphia for the settlement of the State's Revolutionary 




The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1791-18.36 



30 



North Carolina Manual 



claims against the Federal Government, to have one made and, at the same time 
sent him a design therefor. After correspondence between Governor Martin and 
Colonel Thomas concerning the seal, in which suggestions were made by Dr. Hugh 
Williamson and Senator Samuel Johnston, they concluded that the sketch sub- 
mitted by Governor Martin would not do and Colonel Thomas submitted a sketch 
by an artist. This sketch, with some modification, was finally accepted by Governor 
Spaight, and Colonel Thomas had the seal made accordingly. The seal was cut 
some time during the summer of 1793, and Colonel Thomas brought it home with 
him in time for the meeting of the legislature in November, 1793, at which session 
it was "approbated." The screw to the seal would not work, so in 1795 the general 
assembly passed an act authorizing the use of the old seal of 1778 until the new 
one could be put in order. The new seal was two and one half inches in diameter 
and was used until around 1835. 

In the winter of 1834-35 the legislature passed an act authorizing the governor 
to procure a new seal. The preamble to the act states that the old seal had been in 
use since the first day of March, 1793. The seal adopted in 1835, which was not 
changed until 1839, was veiy similar to its predecessor. It was two and one-fourth 
inches in diameter. In 1868 the legislature authorized the governor to procure a 
Great Seal and required him to provide a new seal whenever the old one was lost 
or so worn or defaced as to render it unfit for use. 

In 1883 Colonel S. McD. Tate introduced a bill in the legislature which became 
law. This act did not provide that a new seal be procured but it described in more 
detail what the seal should be like. In 1893 Jacob Battle introduced a bill which 
became law. This made no change in the seal except to add at the foot of the coat- 
of-arms of the state as part thereof the motto Esse Quam Videri and to provide 
the words "May 20, 1775," be inscribed at the top of the coat -of- amis. 




The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina. 1836-1893 



State of North Carolina 



31 



At this time the ship that appeared in the offing in the seals of George II and 
George III and in our seal from 1835-1893 seems to have disappeared, and the 
designer of the seal shows mountains in the background instead of both moun- 
tains and the sea as formerly. 




The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina. 1893-1971 



The preceding history illustrates the great variety in seals and the liberty that 
was taken in the design in the official State seal from time to time. The 1971 
General Assembly, in an effort to "provide a standard for the Great Seal of the 
State of North Carolina," passed the following Act amending the General Statutes 
provision relative to the State Seal : 

The Governor shall procure for the State a Seal, which shall be called 
the great seal of the State of North Carolina, and shall be two and one- 
quarter inches in diameter, and its design shall be a representation of the 
figures of Liberty and Plenty, looking toward each other, hut not more 
than half-fronting each other and otherwise disposed as follows: Liberty, 
the first figure, standing, her pole with cap on it in her left hand and a 
scroll with the word "Constitution" inscribed thereon in her right hand. 
Plenty, the second figure, sitting down, her right ami half extended toward 
Liberty, three heads of grain in her right hand, and in her left, the small 
end of her horn, the mouth of which is resting at her feet, and the contents 
of the horn rolling out. 

The background on the seal shall contain a depiction of mountains i-un- 
ning from left to right to the middle of the seal. A side view of a three- 
masted ship shall be located on the ocean and to the right of Plenty. The 
date "May 20, 1775" shall appear within the seal and across the top of the 
seal and the words "esse quam videri" shall appear at the bottom around 
the perimeter. No other words, figures or other embellishments shall 
appear on the seal. 



32 



North Carolina Manual 



It shall be the duty of the Governor to file in the office of the Secre- 
taiy of State an impression of the g-reat seal, certified to under his hand 
and" attested to by the Secretaiy of State, which impression so certified 
the Secretary of State shall carefully presei-ve among the records of this 
Office. 




The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1971 — 



State of North Carolina 33 



THE STATE FLAG 

The flag is an emblem of antiquity and has commanded respect and reverence 
from practically all nations from the earliest times. History- traces it to divine 
origin, the early peoples of the earth attributing to it strange, mysterious, and 
supernatural powers. Indeed, our first recorded references to the standard and the 
banner, of which our present flag is but a modified form, are from sacred rather 
than from secular sources. We are told that it was around the banner that the 
prophets of old rallied their armies and under which the hosts of Israel were led to 
war, believing, as they did, that it carried with it divine favor and protection. 

Since that time all nations and all peoples have had their flags and emblems, 
though the ancient superstition regarding their divine merits and supernatural 
powers has disappeared from among civilized peoples. The flag now, the world over, 
possesses the same meaning and has a uniform significance to all nations wherever 
found. It stands as the symbol of strength and unity, representing the national 
spirit and patriotism of the people over whom it floats. In both lord and subject, 
the i-uler and the ruled, it commands respect, inspires patriotism, and instills loyalty 
both in peace and war. 

In this country we have a national flag which stands as the emblem of our 
strength and unity as a nation, a living representation of our national spirit and 
honor. In addition to our national flag, each of the states in the Union has a "state 
flag" symbolic of its own individuality and domestic ideals, which is expressive of 
some particular trait, or commemorative of some historical event, of the people 
over whom it floats. The flags of most of the states, however, consist of the coat of 
arms of that state upon a suitably colored field. It is said that the first state flag of 
North Carolina was built on this model, but so far as we can learn from the records 
the first legislation on this subject of establishing and recognizing a "state flag" 
was in year 1861. 

The constitutional convention of 1861, which passed the ordinance of secession, 
adopted what is termed a state flag. On May 20, 1861, the day the secession resolu- 
tion was adopted. Col. John D. Whitford, a member of the convention from Craven 
County, introduced the following ordinance, which was referred to a select com- 
mittee of seven. « 

Be it ordained. That the flag of this State shall be a blue field with a white V thereon, 
and a star, incircling which shall be the words "Surgit aatrum. May 20th, 1775." 

Colonel Whitford was made chainnan of the committee to which this ordinance 
was referred. The committee secured the aid and advice of William Jarl Browne, 
an artist of Raleigh. Browne prepared and submitted a model to this committee. 
And this model was adopted by the convention of June 22, 1861. It will he observed 
that the Browne model, to be hereafter explained, was vastly different from the one 
originally proposed by Colonel Whitford. Here is the ordinance as it appears in 
the ordinance and resolutions passed by the convention: 

AN ORDINANCE IN RELATION TO A STATE FL.AG 

Be it ordained by this Convention, and it is hereby ordained by the authority oj Ihr .inmi. 
That the Flag of North Carolina shall consist of a red field with a white star in the centre, 
and with the inscription, above the star, in a semi-circular form, of "May 20th. 1775," 



State of North Carolina 35 

and below the star, in a semicircular form, of "May 20th. 1861. " That there shall be two 
bars of equal width, and the len^h of the Held shall be equal to the bar the width of the 
field being equal to both bars: the first bar shall be blue, and the second shall be white- 
and the length of the nag shall be one-third more than its width. [Ratified the ttnd 
day of June, 1861 .] 

This state flag, adopted in 1861, is said to have been issued to North Carolina 
regiments of state troops during the summer of that year and was borne by them 
throughout the war, being the only flag, except the national and Confederate colors, 
used by the North Carolina troops during the Civil War. This flag existed until' 
1885, when the Legislature adopted a new model. 

As stated above the Legislature of 1885 adopted a new state flag. The bill, 
which was introduced by General Johnstone Jones on February 5, 1885, passed its 
final reading one month later after little or no debate. This act reads as follows; 

AN ACT TO ESTABLISH A STATE FLAG 

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

SECTION 1. That the flag of North Carolina shall consist of a blue union, containing 
in the centre thereof a white star with the letter N. in gilt on the left and the letter C. in 
gilt on the right of said star, the circle containing the same to be one-third the width of 
the union. 

SEC. 2. That the fly of the flag shall consist of two equally proportioned bars; the upper 
bar to be red. the lower bar to be white; that the length of the bars horizontally shall be 
equal to the perpendicular length of the union, and the total length of the flag shall be one- 
third more than its width. 

SEC. 3. That above the star in the centre of the union there shall be a gilt scroll in 
semi-circular form, containing in black letters this inscription "May 20th. 1775," and 
that below the star there shall be a similar scroll containing in black letters the inscrip- 
tion: "April 12th. 1776." 

SEC. 4. That this act shall take effect from and after its ratification. 

In the General Assembly read three times and ratified this 9th day of March. A.D. 1885. 

Perhaps, it may be of interest to make a passing reference to the siginficance of 
the dates found on each flag. The first date, "May 20th, 1775," refers to the Meck- 
lenburg Declaration of Independence, the authenticity of which we shall not here 
stop either to doubt or to defend. The second date appearing on the state flag of 
1861 is that of "May 20th, 1861." This date commemorated the secession of the 
State from the Union; but as the cause of secession was defeated this date no 
longer represented anything after the Civil War. So when a new flag was adopted 
in 1885, this date was removed, and another, "April 12th, 1776," took its place. 
This date commemorates the adoption of the Halifax Resolves — a document that 
places the Old North State in the very front rank, both in point of time and in 
spirit, among those that demanded unconditional freedom and absolute independence 
from any foreign power. This document stands out as one of the great landmarks 
in the annals of North Carolina history. 

Since 1885 there has been no change in our state flag. For the most part, it has 
remained unknown and a stranger to the good people of our Stale. However, as 
we became more intelligent, and therefore, more patriotic and public spirit tii, tin- 
emblem of the Old North State will assume a station of greater prominence ainonjr 



36 North Carolina Manual 



our people. One hopeful sign of this increased interest was the act passed by the 
Legislature of 1907, requiring the state flag to be floated from all state institutions, 
public buildings, and courthouses. In addition to this, many public and private 
schools, fratemal orders, and other organizations now float the state flag. This is 
right. The people of the State should become acquainted with the emblem of that 
government to which they owe allegiance and from which they secure protection. 

AN ACT TO PROMOTE LOYALTY AND GREATER RESPECT 
FOR THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE STATE 

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

SECTION 1. That for the purpose of promoting greater loyalty and respect to the state 
and inasmuch as a special act of the Legislature has adopted an emblem of our government 
known as the North Carolina State flag, that it is meet and proper that it shall be given 
greater prominence. 

SEC. 2. That the board of trustees or managers of the several state institutions and 
public buildings shall provide a North Carolina flag, of such dimensions and material as 
they may deem best, and the same shall be displayed from a staff upon the top of each and 
every such building at all times except during inclement weather, and upon the death of 
any state officer or any prominent citizen the flag shall be put at half-mast until the burial 
of such person shall have taken place. 

SEC. 3. That the Board of County Commissioners of the several counties in this state 
shall likewise authorize the procuring of a North Carolina flag, to be displayed either on a 
staff upon the top, or draped behind the judge's stand, in each and every courthouse in the 
state, and that the state flag shall be displayed at each and every term of court held, and on 
such other public occasions as the Commissioners may deem proper. 

SEC. 4. That no state flag shall be allowed in or over any building here mentioned that 
does not conform to section five thousand three hundred and twenty-one of the Revisal of 
one thousand nine hundred and five. 

SEC. 5. That this act shall be in force from and after its ratification. 

In the Genera! Assembly read three times, and ratified this the 9th day of March, A.D. 
1907. 

The "first flag of 1861 had the date "May 20, 1861" as well as that of May 20, 
1775. The date of May 20, 1861 represented the date North Carolina seceded from 
the union; however, since the secession cause no longer existed after 1865, the date 
"April 12, 1776" was substituted in 1885. This date is known to most North Caro- 
linians as the date of the Halifax Resolves, a document which was one of the first 
calls by the colonies for unconditional independence from Great Britain. The latter 
date. May 20, 1775, is the date of the alledged signing of the Mecklenburg Declara- 
tion of Independence. Historians have for many years debated the authenticity of 
the document since no original document exists. The only documentation is a 
reproduction from memory many years later by one of the delegates attending the 
convention. The main argument of historians against the authenticity of the 
document — other than its non-existence in original documentation — is that the 
Mecklenburg Resolves adopted just eleven days after the alledged adoption of the 
Declaration are comparatively weak in tone, almost to the point of complete oppo- 
sites. It is difficult for historians to believe that the irreconcilable tone of the 
Declaration could have been the work of the same people who produced the 
resolves. Efforts have been made to have the date taken off both the flag and the 
seal, but as yet, these have proved fruitless. Removal from the seal would be simple 
enough, for the date of the Halifax Resolves could be substituted easily without 
changing the basic intention of the date. The flag is another matter, for there is 
no other date of significance which could be easily substituted. 



State of North Carolina 37 



NAME OF STATE AND NICKNAMES 

In 1629 King Charles the First of England "erected into a province," all the 
land from Albemarle Sound on the north to the St. John's River on the south, 
which he directed should be called Carolina. The word Carolina is from the word 
Carolus, the Latin form of Charles. 

When Carolina was divided in 1710, the southern part was called South Caro- 
lina and the northern or older settlement was called North Carolina, or the "Old 
North State." Historians had recorded the fact that the principal products of 
this State were "tar, pitch and turpentine." It was during one of the fiercest 
battles of the War Between the States, so the story goes, that the column support- 
ing the North Carolina troops was driven from the field. After the battle the 
North Carolinians, who had successfully fought it out alone, were greeted from 
the passing derelict regiment with the question: "Any more tar down in the Old 
North State, boys?" Quick as a flash came the answer: "No; not a bit; old Jeff's 
bought it all up." "Is that so; what is he going to do with it?" was asked. "He 
is going to put it on you-uns heels to make you stick better in the next fight." 
Creecy relates that General Lee, hearing of the incident, said: "God bless the 
Tar Heel boys," and from that they took the name.- — Adapted from Gra)idfather 
Tales of North Carolina by R. B. Creecy and Histories of North Carolina Regi- 
ments, Vol. Ill, by Walter Clark. 

THE STATE MOTTO 

The General Assembly of 1893 (chapter 145) adopted the words "Esse Quam 
Videri" as the State's motto and directed that these words with the date "20 May, 
1775," should be placed with our Coat of Arms upon the Great Seal of the State. 

The words "Esse Quam Videri" mean "to be rather than to seem." Nearly 
every State has adopted a motto, generally in Latin. The reason for their mottoes 
being in Latin is that the Latin tongue is far more condensed and terse than the 
English. The three words, "Esse Quam Videri," require at least six English 
words to express the same idea. 

Curiosity has been aroused to learn the origin of our State motto. It is found 
in Cicero in his essay on Friendship (Cicero de Amicitia, Chap. 26) 

It is a little singular that until the act of 1893 the sovereign State of North 
Carolina had no motto since its declaration of independence. It was one of the 
very few states which did not have a motto and the only one of the original 
thirteen without one. (Rev., s 5320; 1893, c. 145; G. S. 144-2.) 

THE STATE COLORS 

The General Assembly of 1945 declared Red and Blue of shades appearing in 
the North Carolina State Flag and the American Flag as the official SUte Colors. 
{Session Laws, 1945, c. 878.) 



State of North Carolina 39 



THE STATE BIRD 

By popular choice the Cardinal was selected for adoption as our State Bird 
as of March 4, 1943. {Session Laws, 1943 c. 595; G. S. 145-2.) 

This bird is sometimes called the Winter Redbird because it is most con- 
spicuous in winter and is the only "redbird" present at that season. It is an all 
year round resident and one of the commonest birds in our p:ardens and thickets. 
It is about the size of a Catbird with a longer tail, red all over, except that the 
throat and region around the bill is black; the head is conspicuously crested and 
the large stout bill is red; the female is much duller — ^the red being mostly con- 
fined to the crest, wings and tail. There are no seasonal changes in the plumage. 

The Cardinal is a fine singer, and what is unusual among birds the female 
is said to sing as well as the male, which latter sex usually has a monopoly of 
that art in the feathered throngs. 

The nest is rather an untidy affair built of weed stems, grass and similar 
materials in a low shrub, small tree or bunch of briars, usually not over four feet 
above the ground. The usual number of eggs to a set is three in this State, usually 
four further North. Possibly the Cardinal raises an extra brood down here to 
make up the difference, or possibly he can keep up his normal population more 
easily here through not having to face inclement winters of the colder North. A 
conspicuous bird faces more hazards. 

The Cardinal is by nature a seed eater, but he does not dislike small fruits 
and insects. 

THE STATE FLOWER 

The General Assembly of 1941 designated the dogwood as the State flower. 
{Public Laws, 1941, c. 289; G. S. 145-1.) 

The Dogwood is one of the most prevalent trees in our State and can be 
found in all parts of the State from the mountains to the coast. Its blossoms 
which appear in early spring and continue on into summer, are most often found 
in white, although shades of pink are not uncommon. 

THE STATE INSECT 

The General Assembly of 1973 designated the Honey Bee as the official SUte 
Insect. {Sessio7i Laws, 1973, c. 55) 

This industrious creature is responsible for the production of more than $2 
million worth of honey in the state each year. However, its greatest value results 
from the pollination of North Carolina crops which is estimated to be worth nearly 
$50 million annually. 



State of North Carolina 41 



THE STATE TREE 

The pine was officially designated as the State tree by the General Assembly 
of 1963. (Session Laws, 1963, c. 41). 

This choice was not unexpected as the pine is the most common of the trees 
found in North Carolina, as well as the most important one in the history of our 
State. During the Colonial and early Statehood periods, the pine was a vital part 
of the economy of North Carolina. From it came many of the "naval stores" — 
resin, turpentine, and timber — which was needed by merchants and the navy for 
their ships. It has continued to provide North Carolina with a supply of pro- 
ducts. 



THE STATE MAMMAL 

The General Assembly of 1969 designated the Gray Squirrel as the official 
State Mammal. {Session Laws, 1969 c. 1207; G. S. 145-5.) 

The gray squirrel is a common inhabitant of most areas of North Carolina 
from "the swamps of eastern North Carolina to the upland hardwood forests of 
the piedmont and western counties." He feels more at home in an "untouched 
wilderness" environment, although a large portion of their population inhabit 
our city parks and suburbs. During the fall and winter months the gray squirrel 
survives on a diet of hardwoods, with acorns providing carbohydrates and other 
nuts protein. In the spring and summer their diet consists of "new growth and 
fruits" supplemented by early corn, peanuts and insects. 




-=.:?fe' 






V^ 




State of North Carolina 43 



THE STATE SHELL 

The General Assembly of 1965 designated the Scotch Bonnet (pronounced 
bonay) as the State Shell. {Session Laws, 1965, c. 681.) 

A colorful and beautifully shaped shell, the Scotch Bonnet is abundant in 
North Carolina coastal waters between 500 and 200 feet deep. The best source of 
live specimens is from offshore commercial fishermen. 



THE STATE SALT WATER FISH 

The General Assembly of 1971 designated the Channel Bass (Red Drum) as 
the official State Salt Water Fish. (Session Lan-s, 1971, c. 274: (;.S. 145-6) 

Channel Bass usually occur in great supply along the Tar Heel coastal waters 
and have been found to weight up to 75 pounds although most large ones average 
between 30 and 40 pounds. 



44 North Carolina Manual 

TUK STATE REPTILE 



The (u'ticral Ass('ni!)l\- of 15*7i) dcsi.trnated the turtle— specifically the P^astern 
Turtle— as the official State Reptile for the State of North Carolina. {Session Ijn 



:iox 



1M7M. c. l.")l) 



I ics. 



The turtle is one of nature's most useful creatures. Through its dietary habits it 
serves to assist in the control of harmful and pestiferous insects and as a clean-up crew. 
helpin.tr to prest'rve the purity and beauty of our waters. At a superficial jjlance, the 
turtle appears to be a nuiiidane and uninteresting creature: however, closer examina- 
tion re\'eals that it to be a most fascinating creature, ranjrm^- from species well adapted 
to modern conditions to species which have existed virtually unchanged since pre- 
historic times. Derided by many, the turtle is really a cullinary delight, providing the 
gourmet food enthusiast with numerous tasty dishes from soups to entries. 

The turtle watches undisturbed as countless generations of faster "hares" run by to 
(luick obli\ion. and is thus a model of patience for mankind, and a .symbol of our State's 
utu-elenting pursuit of great and lofty goals. 



THE STATE ROCK 

The ( ieneral Assembly of 1979 designated ( Iranite as the official Rock for the State of 
North Carolina. (.sV.s.s-/o// Ijnrs. 1979, C. 906) 

The State of North Carolina has been blessed with an abundant source of "the noble 
rock" granite. Just outside Mount Airy in Surry County is the largest open face granite 
quarry in the world measuring one mile long and 1,800 feet in width. The granite from 
this quarry is unblemished, gleaming and without interfering seams to mar its splendor 
and the high quality of this granite allows its widespread use as a building material, in 
both industrial' applications and in laboratory applications where super smooth sur- 
faces are a prerequisite. 

North Carolina granite has been used for many magnificent edifices of government 
throughout the United States such as the Wright Brothers Memorial at Kitty Hawk, 
the gold depository at ?^)rt Knox, the Arlington Memorial Bridge and numerous court- 
houses throughout the land, (iranite is a symbol of strength and steadfastness, qualities 
characteristic of North Carolinians. It is fitting and just that the State of North Carolina 
recognize the contribution of granite in providing employment to its citizens and en- 
hancing the beauty of its public buildings. 



State of North Carolina 



45 



THE STATE PRECIOUS STONE 

The General Assembly of 1973 designated the emerald as the official State 
precious stone. {Session Laws, 1973, c. 136.) 

A greater variety of minerals, more than 300, have been found in North Caro- 
lina than any other state. 

These include some of the most valuable and unique gems in the world. The 
largest Emerald in North Carolina (pictured on the opposite page) is a 1,438- 
carat specimen found at Hiddenite, near Statesville. Also, the "Carolina Em- 
erald," now owned by Tiffany & Company of New York was found at Hiddenite in 
1970. When cut to 13.14 carats, the stone was valued at $100,000 and became the 
largest and finest cut emerald on this continent. 




46 



North Tarolina Manual 



THE STATE SONG 

The sonfj known as "The Old North State" was adopted as the official song of 
the State of North Carolina by the General Assembly of 1927. (Public Laws, 1927, 
c. 26; G.S. 149-1). 



THE OLD NORTH STATE 



(Traditional air as Bung in 1928) 



WajJAU G4ST0H 

Wilk spirit 



Collected ahd /ibbinqk) 
BT Mas. E. E. Randolpb 




^ 



:fc=^^ 



I I 



4= 



i 



1. Car-o - 

2. Tho' she 

3. Then let 



:s=a= 



:iJ3=S: 



li - nal Car 

en - vies not 
all those who 



li - nal heav-en's bless-ings at - tend her, 
oth - ers, their mer - it - ed glo - ry, 
love us, love the land that we hve tn. 



a3:~*: 



r:t 



m 



-»^—m- 



■xr. 



i^'-i^ T r ' 



\ 







ifc:^^ 



r 



:S==a: 



!-j \i J i^ 



While we live we will cher - ish, pro 

Say whose name stands the fore - most, in 

As hao  py a re - gion as 



tect and 

lib - er 

on this side 



de -fend her, Tho' the 
ty's sto • ry, Tho' too 
of heav-en. Where 








scorn - er -nay sneer at and wit - lings de - fame her. Still our hearts swell with 
true to her - self e er to crouch to op - pres-sion, Who can yield to just 
plen - ty and peace, love and joy smile be - fore us, Raise a.loud, rais: to- 




CeoRos 



I 



S: 



*=^ 



:^=hf 



E#g^ffe5^ 



'^m. 



■^z 



glad - ness when ev • er we name her. 

rule • more loy  at sub - mis -sion. Hur 

geth - er the heart thrill - ing chorus. 



rah! 



Hur - rah! 



the 




State of North Carolina 47 



THE STATE TOAST* 

Officially adopted as the toast of North Carolina by the General Assembly of 
1957. (Session Laws, 1957, c. 777.) 

Here's to the land of the long leaf pine, 

The summer land where the sun doth shine, 

Where the weak grow strong and the strong grow great, 

Here's to "Down Home," the Old North State! 

Here's to the land of the cotton bloom white, 
Where the scuppernong perfumes the breeze at night, 
Where the soft southern moss and jessamine mate, 
'Neath the murmuring pines of the Old North State! 

Here's to the land where the galax grows. 
Where the rhodoendron's rosette glows, 
Where soars Mount Mitchell's summit great, 
In the "Land of the Sky," in the Old North State! 

Here's to the land where maidens are fair. 
Where friends are true and cold hearts rare. 
The near land, the dear land whatever fate, 
The blest land, the best land, the Old North State ! 



•Composed in 1904 by Leonora Martin and Mary Burke Kerr. 



48 North Carolina Manual 



THE HALIFAX RESOLUTION 

"The Select Coniniittee taking; into Consideration the usurpations and violences 
attempted and eoniniitted by the Kin^ and I'arliament of Britain against 
America, and the further Measures to be taken for frustrating the same, and for 
the better defence of this province reported as follows, to wit, 

"It appears to your Committee that pursuant to the Plan concerted by the 
British Ministry for subju{?ating' America, the Kinj; and Parliament of Great 
Britain have usurped a Power over the Persons and Properties of the People un- 
limited and uncontrouled ; and disregarding their humble Petitions for Peace, 
Liberty and safety, have made divers Legislative Acts, denouncing War Famine 
and every Species of Calamity against the Continent in General. That British 
Fleets and Armies have been and still are daily employed in destroying the People 
and commiting the most horrid devastations on the Country. That Governors in 
different Colonics have declared Protection to Slaves who should imbrue their 
Hands in the Blood of their Masters. That the Ships belonging to America are 
declared prizes of War and many of them have been violently seized and confiscated 
in consequence of which multitudes of the people have been destroyed or from 
easy Circumstances reduced to the most Lamentable distress. 

"And whereas the moderation hitherto manifested by the United Colonies and 
their sincere desire to be reconciled to the mother Country on Constitutional Prin- 
ciples, have procured no mitigation of the aforesaid Wrongs and usurpations and 
no hopes remain of obtaining redress by those Means alone which have been 
hitherto tried, Your Con'mittee are of Opinion that the house should enter into 
the following Resolve, to wit 

"Resolved that the delegates for this Colony in the Continental Congress be 
impowered to concur with the delegates of the other Colonies in declaring Inde- 
pendency, and forming foreign Alliances, resolving to this Colony the Sole, and 
Exclusive right of forming a Constitution and Laws for this Colony, and of ap- 
pointing delegates from time to time (under the direction of a general Representa- 
tion thereof) to meet the delegates of the other Colonies for such purposes as 
shall be hereafter pointed out." 



State of North Carolina 



49 



THE MECKLENBURG DECLARATION OF 20TH MAY, 1775* 
NAMES OF THE DELEGATES PRESENT 



Col. Thomas Polk 
Ephriam Brevard 
Hezekiah J. Balch 
John Phifer 
James Harris 
William Kennon 
John Ford 
Richard Barry 
Henry Downs 



Ezra Alexander 
William Graham 
John Quary 
Abraham Alexander 
John McKnitt Alexander 
Hezekiah Alexander 
Adam Alexander 
Charles Alexander 
Zacheus Wilson, Sen. 



Waightstill Avery 
Benjamin Patton 
Mathew McClure 
Neil Morrison 
Robert Irwin 
John Flenniken 
David Reese 
Richard Harris. Sen. 



OFFICERS 

Abraham Alexander, Chairman 
John McKnitt Alexander, Clerk 

The following resolutions were presented: 

1. Resolved. That whosoever directly or indirectly abetted or in any 
way form or manner contenanced the unchartered and dangerous in- 
vasion of our rights as claimed by Great Britain is an enemy to this coun- 
tory, to America, and to the inherent and inalienable rights of man. 

2. Resolved. That we the citizens of Mecklenburg County, do hereby 
dissolve the political bonds which have connected us to the mother coun- 
try and hereby absolve ourselves from all allegiance to the British 
Crown and abjure all political connection contract or association with that 
nation who have wantonly trampled on our rights and liberties and in- 
humanly shed the blood of American patriots at Lexington. 

3. Resolved. That we do hereby declare ourselves a free and independent 
people, are, and of right ought to be a sovereign and self-governing as- 
sociation under the control of no power other than that of our God and the 
General Government of the Congress to the maintenance of which inde- 
pendence we solemnly pledge to each other our mutual cooperation, our 
lives, our fortunes, and our most sacred honor. 

4. Resolved, That as we now acknowledge the existence and control of 
no law or legal officer, civil or military within this County, we do hereby 
ordain and adopt as a rule of life all, each and every of our former laws — 
wherein nevertheless the Crown of Great Britain never can be considered 
as holding rights, privileges, immunities, or authority therein. 

5. Resolved, That it is further decreed that all, each and every Military 
Officer in this County is hereby reinstated in his former command and 
authority, he acting conformably to these regulations. And that every 
member present of this delegation shall henceforth be a civil officer, viz., 
a justice of the peace, in the character of a "committee man" to issue 
process, hear and determine all matters of controversy according to said 
adopted laws and to preserve peace, union and harmony in said county, 
and to use every exertion to spread the love of Country and fire of free- 
dom throughout America, until a more general and organized government 
be established in this Province. 



•This document is found in Vol. IX, pages, 1263-65 of the Colonial Records of North Caroliiia. 
however, the authenticity of the declaration has become a source of controversy among historians. 



;■)() North Carolina Manual 



PUBLIC HOLIDAYS 

I 

January 1 — New Year's Day. 

January 19— Birthday of General Robert E. Lee. 

February, third Monday-Birthday of George Washington. 

Easter Monday, (applies to State and National Banks only). 

April 12 — Anniversary of the Resolution adopted by the Provincial Congress 
of North Carolina at Halifax, April 12, 1776, authorizing the delegates 
from North Carolina to the Continental Congress to vote for a Declara- 
tion of Independence. 

May 10 — Confederate Memorial Day. 

May 20 — Anniversary of the "Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence". 

May, last Monday — Memorial Day (Applies to State and National Banks 
only). 

July 4 — Independence Day. 

September, first Monday — Labor Day. 

October, second Monday — Columbus Day. 

October, fourth Monday — Veterans Day. 

November, Tuesday after first Monday — General Election Day. 

November, fourth Thursday — Thanksgiving Day. 

December 25 — Christmas Day. 

(G.S. 103-4) 



United States of America 51 

Chapter Two 
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES 

No. Name Native State Born Inau. 

1. George Washington (F) Va 1732 1789 

2. John Adams (F) Mass 1735 1797 

3. Thomas JeflFerson (D-R) Va 1743 1801 

4. James Madison (D-R) Va 1751 1809 

5. James Monroe (D-R) Va 1758 1817 

6. John Quincy Adams (D-R) Mass 1767 1825 

7. Andrew Jackson (D) S. S 1767 1829 

8. Martin Van Buren (D) N. Y 1782 1837 

9. William H. Harrison' (A) Va 1773 1841 

10. John Tyler (W) Va 1790 1841 

11. James Knox Polk (D) N. C 1795 1845 

12. Zachary TaylorMA) Va 1784 1849 

13. Millard Fillmore (A) N. Y 1800 1850 

14. Franklin Pierce (D) N. H 1804 1853 

15. James Buchanan (D) Pa 1791 1857 

16. Abraham Lincoln' (R) Ky 1809 1861 

17. Andrew Johnson^ (-) N. C 1808 1865 

18. Ulysses S. Grant (R) Ohio 1822 1869 

19. Rutherford B. Hayes (R) Ohio 1822 1877 

20. James A. Garfield' (R) Ohio 1831 1881 

21. Chester A. Arthur (R) Vt 1830 1881 

22. Grover Cleveland" (D) N. J 1837 1885 

23. Benjamin Harrison (R) Ohio 1833 1889 

24. Grover Cleveland" (D) N. J 1837 1893 

25. William McKinley* (R) Ohio 1843 1897 

26. Theodore Roosevelt (R) N. Y 1858 1901 

27. William H. Taft (R) . Ohio 1857 1909 

28. Woodrow Wilson (D) Va 1856 1913 

29. Warren G. Harding^' (R) Ohio 1865 1921 

30. Calvin Coolidge (R) Vt 1872 1923 

31. Herb-rt C. Hoover (R) Iowa 1874 1929 

32. Franklin D. Roosevelt'" (D) N. Y 1882 1933 



^Harrison died on April 4. 1841. 

^Taylor died on July 9, 1850. 

■'Lincoln was shot April 14, 18fi5 and died the foliowinR day. 

'Andrew Johnson — a Democrat, nominated vice president by liepiitilicans uiul elected svilh Lincoln 
on National Union ticket. 

''Garfield was shot July 2, 1881 and died September 19. 

BAccording to a ruling of the State Dept., Grover Cleveland is counted twice, as the 22nd and the 
24th President, because his two terms were not consecutive. Only .37 individuals have been Picaidcnl. 

"See footnote 6. 

^McKinley was shot September 6, 1901 and died September 14. 

"Harding died on August 2, 1923. 

lORoosevelt died on April 12, 1945. 



32 North Carolina Manual 



AV). \ami- Native Stale Born Inau. 

VA. Harry S. Truman (D) Missouri 1884 1945 

3 1. n-.vi-ht n. Kiscnhowt'r ( R) Texas 1890 1953 

.sr.. John F. Kennedy" (D) Massachusetts .1917 1961 

:U\. Lvndi.n H. Johnson (D) Texas 1908 1963 

.ST. Richard M. Nixon' (R) Califoimia 1913 1969 

ns. (ieiald. R. Ford (R) Michigan .1913 1974 

39. James Earl Carter (D) Georgia 1924 1977 

"Kennedy \va.s a.ssaasinated on November 22, 1963. 

^Nixon r<>siKned AuKU.st 9, 1974 following several months of pressure over the "WaterRate" cover- 
up and related issues. 



United States of America 53 

THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 

(Unanimously Adopted in Congress, July 4, 1776, at Philadelphia) 

When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to 
dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to as- 
sume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the 
Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitles them, a decent respect to the opinions 
of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the 
separation. 

We hold these truths to be self-evident: That all men are created equal; 
that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable Rights; that 
among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That, to secure 
these rights. Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers 
from the consent of the governed; That, whenever any Form of Government bo- 
comes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish 
it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundations on such principles, and 
organizing its powers in such forms, as to them shall seem most likely to effect 
their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments 
long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and, ac- 
cordingly, all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, 
while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to 
which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, 
pursuing invariably the same Object, evinces a design to reduce them under abso- 
lute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, 
and to provide new Guards for their future security. Such has been the patient 
sufferance of these Colonies, and such is now the necessity which constrains them 
to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of 
Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in 
direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove 
this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world. 

He has refused his assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the 
public good. 

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing im- 
portance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; 
and, when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them. 

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts 
of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the 
Legislature— a right inestimable to them, and formidable to tyrants only. 

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable 
and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of 
fatiguing them into compliance with his measures. 

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly 
firmness his invasions on the rights of the people. 

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be 



54 North Carolina Manual 



elected; whereby the Le^rislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned 
to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining, in the meantime, 
exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within. 

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States for that purpose 
obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to 
encourage their migration hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropria- 
tions of Lands. 

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his assent to 
laws for establishing Judiciary Powers. 

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their 
offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries. 

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers 
to harass our people, and eat out their substance. 

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Con- 
sent of Our Legislature. 

He has affected to render the Military independent of, and superior to, the 
Civil power. 

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our 
constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of 
pretended Legislation. For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: 

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders j 
which they should commit on the inhabitants of these States : 

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world : 

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: 

For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by jury: 

For transporting us beyond Seas, to be tried for pretended offenses; 



For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighboring Province, 
establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries, so 
as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same 
absolute rule into these Colonies: 

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and alter- 
ing fundamentally, the Forms of our Governments: 

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with 
power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. 

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and 
waging War against us. 

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed 
the lives of our people. 



United States of America 55 



He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign mercenaries to com- 
plete the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances 
of Cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally 
unworthy the Head of a civilized nation. 

He has constrained our fellow-Citizens, taken captive on the high Seas, to 
bear Arms against their County, to become the executioners of their friends and 
Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands. 

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to 
bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose 
known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and 
conditions. 

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the 
most humble terms; Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated 
injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define 
a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people. 

Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have 
warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an un- 
warrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances 
of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice 
and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred 
to disavow these usurpation, which inevitably interrupt our connections with cor- 
respondence. They, too, have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. 
We must ,therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, 
and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind — Enemies in War, in Peace Friends. 

We, Therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in 
General Congress Assembled; appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the 
rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name and by authority of the good People 
of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, 
and of Right ought to be free and independent States; that they are Absolved 
from All Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connections between 
them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved; and that 
as Free and Independent States, they have full power to levy War, conclude Peace, 
contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which 
Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with 
a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each 
other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor. 

John Hancock 

Button Gwinnett Edward Rutledge 

Lyman Hall Thomas Heyward, Junr. 

Geo[rge] Walton Thomas Lynch, Junr. 

W[illia]m Hooper Arthur Middleton 

Joseph Hewes Samuel Chase 



56 



North Carolina Manual 



John Penn 

Thorma]s Stone 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton 

James Wilson 

Geofrg-e] Ross 

Caesar Rodney 

Geo[rge] Reed 

The. M. Kean 

W[illia]m Floyd 

Phil[lip] Livingston 

Fran[ci]s Lewis 

Lewis Morris 

Rich[ar]d Stockton 

J[onatha]n Witherspoon 

Eras. Hopkinson 

John Hart 

Abra Clark 

George Wythe 

Richard Henry Lee 

Th [omas] Jefferson 

Benja[min] Harrison 

Tho[ma]s Nelson, Jr. 

Francis Lightfoot L«ee 



W[illia] Paca 
Carter Braxton 
Rob[er]t Morris 
Benjamin Rush 
Benja[min] Franklin 
John Morton 
Geo[rge] Clymer 
Ja[me]s Smith 
GeoTrge] Taylor 
Josiah Bartlett 
W[illia]m Hippie 
Sam[ue]l Adams 
John Adams 
Rob[er]t Treat Payne 
Eldridge Gerry 
Step [hen] Hopkins 
William Ellery 
Roger Sherman 
Samuel Huntington 
W[illia]m Williams 
Oliver Woolcott 
Matthew Thornton 



United States of America 57 

THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES 

Preamble 

We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, 
establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense! 
promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and 
our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of 
America. 

Article I 

Section 1— All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Con- 
gress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Repre- 
sentatives. • 

Sec. 2 — 1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members 
chosen every second year by the people of the several States, and the electors in 
each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous 
branch of the State Legislature. 

2. No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the 
age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and 
who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of the State in which he shall be 
chosen. 

3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several 
States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective 
numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free per- 
sons, including those bound to service for a term of years and excluding Indians 
not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made 
within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, 
and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by 
law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty 
thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative; and until such 
enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to 
choose 3; Massachusetts, 8; Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, 1; Con- 
necticut, 5; New York, 6; New Jersey, 4; Pennsylvania, 8; Delaware, 1; Mary- 
land, 6; Virginia, 10; North Carolina, 5; South Carolina, 5; and Georgia, 3.* 

4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State the Execu- 
tive Authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies. 

5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers, 
and shall have the sole power of impeachment. 

Sec. 3—1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Sen- 
ators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof for six years; and each 
Senator shall have one vote.f 



•See Article XIV, Amendments. 
tSee Article XVII, Amendmenta. 



58 North Carolina Manual 



2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first elec- 
tion, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of 
the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second 
year; of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year; and of the third 
class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen every 
second year, and if vacancies happen by resijjnation, or otherwise, during: the 
recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary 
appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such 
vacancies.! 

3. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of 
thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, 
when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen. 

4. The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, 
but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided. 

5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tem- 
pore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of 
President of the United States. 

6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting 
for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the 
United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside; and no person shall be con- 
victed without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present. 

7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to re- 
moval from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, 
or profit under the United States; but the party convicted shall nevertheless be 
liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law. 

Sec. 4 — 1. The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators 
and Representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof, 
but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except 
as to the places of choosing Senators. 

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting 
shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a 
different day. 

Sec. 5 — 1. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and quali- 
fications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to 
do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be 
authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under 
such penalties as each House may provide. 

2. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its mem- 
bers for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a 
member. 

3. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time 



United States of America 



59 



publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy 
and the yeas and nays of the members of either House on any question shall at 
the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal. 

4. Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent 
of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that 
in which the two Houses shall be sitting. 

Sec. 6 — 1. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation 
for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the 
United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the 
peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their 
respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any 
speech or debate in either House they shall not be questioned in any other place. 

2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was 
elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States 
which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased 
during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States shall 
be a member of either House during his continuance in office. 

Sec. 7 — 1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Rep- 
resentatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other 
bills. 

2. Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the 
Senate shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President of the United 
States; if he approves, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it, with his ob- 
jections, to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the ob- 
jections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such 
reconsideration two-thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be 
sent together with the objectives, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be 
reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that House, it shall become a law 
But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, 
and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the 
journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the Presi- 
dent within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to 
him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the 
Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a 
law. 

3. Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and 

House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) 

shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the same shall 

take effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him. shall be repassed 

by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules 

and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill. 

Sec. 8. The Congress shall have power: 

1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and 
provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; but all 
duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States; 



GO North Carolina Manual 

2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States; 

3. To re^rulate coninierce with foreigrn nations, and among: the several States, 
and with the Indian tribes; 

4. To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the 
subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States; 

5. To coin money, refjulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the 
standards of weights and measures; 

6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current 
coin of the United States; 

7. To establish postoffices and postroads; 

8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for limited 
times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings 
and discoveries; 

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court; 

10. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and 
offenses against the law of nations; 

11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules con- 
cerning captures on land and water; 

12. To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use 
shall be for a longer term than two years ; 

13. To provide and maintain a navy; 

14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval 
forces ; 

15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, 
suppress insurrections, and repel invasions; 

16. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for 
governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United 
States, reserving to the State respectively the appointment of the officers and the 
authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress; 

17. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever over such district 
(not exceeding ten miles square) as may by cession of particular States and the 
acceptance of Congress, become the seat of Government of the United States, and 
to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the Legisla- 
ture of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, 
arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings; — and 

18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into 
execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution 
in the Government of the United States, or any department or officer thereof. 

Sec. 9 — 1. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States 
now existing shall think proper to admi*;, shall not be prohibited by the Congress 
prior to the year one thousand eight hi.adred and eight, but a tax or duty may be 
imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person. 

2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless 
when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it. 

3. No bill of attainer or ex post facto law shall be passed. 



United States of America 61 



4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the 
census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken.* 

5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State. 

6. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to 
the ports of one State over those of another; nor shall vessels bound to. or from, 
one State be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another. 

7. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in consequence of ap- 
propriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and 
expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time. 

8. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; and no person 
holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the 
Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, 
from any king, prince, or foreign state. 

Sec. 10 — 1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; 
grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make any- 
thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of at- 
tainer; ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant 
any title of nobility. 

2. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or 
duties on imports or exports except what may be absolutely necessary for executing 
its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and imports, laid by any 
State on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United 
States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Con- 
gress. 

3. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, 
keep troops, or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact 
with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually 
invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit delay. 

Article II 

Section 1 — 1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the 
United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, 
and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected as fol- 
lows : 

2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof may 
direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Repre- 
sentatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress; but no Senator or 
Representative or person holding an office of trust or profit under the I nited 
States shall be appointed an elector. 

3. The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for tuo 
persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with 
themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for. and ot tlic 
number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit, seal- 
ed, to the seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of 

•See Article XVI, Amendments. 



62 North Carolina Manual 

the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and 
House of Representatives open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be 
counted. The person havintr the fi-reatest number of votes shall be the President, 
if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if 
there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of 
votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of 
them for President; and if no person have a majority, then from the five hijrhest 
on the list the said House shall in like manner choose the President. But in choos- 
mg the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each 
State having: one vote; a quorum, for this purpose, shall consist of a member or 
members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be 
necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person 
having the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be the Vice President. 
But if there shall remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall 
choose from them by ballot the Vice President.* 

4. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors and the day 
on which they shall give their votes, which day shall be the same throughout the 
United States. 

5. No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States, 
at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of 
President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have 
attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within 
the United States. 

6. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resigna- 
tion or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same 
shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by law provide for the 
case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the President and Vice 
President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall 
act accordingly until the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected. 

7. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensa- 
tion which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which 
he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other 
emolument from the United States, or any of them. 

8. Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall take the following 
oath or affirmation: 

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of 
President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, pro- 
tect, and defend the Constitution of the United States." 

Sec. 2—1. The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Army and 
Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several States, when called 
into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, 
of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject re- 
lating to the duties of their respective offices; and he shall have power to grant 
reprieves, and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of 
impeachment. 



•This clause is superseded by Article XII, Amendments. 



United States of America 63 

2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to 
make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall 
nominate and, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint 
ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, 
and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein 
otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law; but the Congress 
may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers as they think proper in 
the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments. 

3. The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen 
during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at 
the end of their next session. 

Sec. 3 — He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the 
State of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he 
shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene 
both Houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them with 
respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall 
think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall 
take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers 
of the United States. 

Sec. 4^The President, Vice President, and all civil officers of the United 
States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, trea- 
son, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. 

Article III 

Section 1 — The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one 
Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to 
time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the Supreine and inferior courts, 
shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, at stated times, receive 
for their services a compensation which shall not be diminished during their con- 
tinuance in office. 

Sec. 2 — 1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, 
arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, 
or which shall be made, under their authority; — to all cases affecting ambassadors, 
other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime juris- 
diction;- — to controversies to which the United States shall be a party; — to con- 
troversies between two or more States; — between a State and citizens of another 
State; — between citizens of different States; — between citizens of the same State, 
claiming lands under grants of different States, and between a State, or the citi- 
zens thereof, and foreign States, citizens, or subjects. 

2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and 
those in which a State shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have original 
jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned the Supreme Court shall 
have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and under 
such regulations as the Congress shall make. 

3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury, 



64 North Carolina Manual 



and such trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes shall have been 
committed; but when not committed within any State the trial shall be at such 
place or places as the Congress may by law have directed. 

Sec. 3 — 1. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying 
war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. 
No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses 
to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. 

2. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason; but 
no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture except dur- 
ing the life of the person attainted. 

Article IV 

Section 1 — Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public 
acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other State. And the Congress 
may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and pro- 
ceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof. 

Sec. 2 — 1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and im- 
munities of citizens in the several States. 

2. A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime, who 
shall flee from justice and be found in another State, shall, on demand of the 
Executive authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed 
to the State having jurisdiction of the crime. 

3. No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof, 
escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be 
discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered upon claim of the 
party to whom such service or labor may be due. 

Sec. 3 — 1. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; 
but no new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other 
State; nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more States, on parts 
of States, without the consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned, as well 
as of the Congress. 

2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules 
and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United 
States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any 
claims of the United States or of any particular State. 

Sec. 4 — The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a 
republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion, 
and, on application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature 
cannot be convened), against domestic violence. 

Article V 

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, 
shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the Legis- 
latures of two-thirds of the several States, shall call a convention for proposing 



United States of America 65 



amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as 
part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three-fourths of 
the several States, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the 
other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided that no 
amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and 
eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the Ninth Section 
of the First Article; and that no State, without its consent, shall be deprived of 
its equal suffrage in the Senate. 



Article VI 

1. All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adoption of 
this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitu- 
tion, as under the Confederation. 

2. This Constitution and the laws of the United States which shall be made 
in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the 
authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the 
judges in every State shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws 
of any State to the contrary notwithstanding. 

3. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of 
the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the 
United States and of the several States, shall be bound by oath or affirmation to 
support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualifi- 
cation to any office or public trust under the United States. 

Article VII 

The ratification of the Convention of nine States shall be sufficient for the 
establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the same. 

Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the 
Seventeenth Day of September, in the Year of Our Lord one thousand seven hun- 
dred and eighty-seven, and of the Independence of the United States of America 
the Twelfth. In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names. 

GEO[RGE] WASHINGTON, NEW YORK 

President and deputy from Virginia Alexander Hamilton 

NEW HAMPSHIRE NEW JERSEY 

John Lan^^don Wil[liam] Livingston 

Nicholas Gilman David Brearlcy 

W[illia]m Patterson 

MASSACHUSETTS Jona[than] Dayton 

Nathaniel Gorham »,»x^,rT -.r a xn a 

Rufus King, PENNSYLVANIA 

B[enjamin] Franklin 
CONNECTICUT Rob[er]t Morris 

W[illiai]m Sam[ue]l Johnson Tho[ma]s Fitzsimmons 

Roger Snerman James Wilson 

Thomas Mifflin 



66 North Carolina Manual 



Geo[rge] Clymer Ja[me]s Madison, Jr. 

i^' 'Z"r" NORTH CAROLINA 

DELAWARE W[illia]m Blount 

Geo[rRe] Read ?''[? ^^ n^tr"? • v.. 

John D.ckinson Rich[ar]d Dobbs Spa.ght 

Jaco[b] Broom SOUTH CAROLINA 

Gunning Bedford, Jr. . t^ ., . 

Richard Bassett J[ames] Rutledge 

Charles Pinckney 

MARYLAND Charles Cotesworth Pinckney 

James McHenry Pierce Butler 

Dan[ie]l Carroll rvnnr^A 

Dan[iel] of St. Thos. Jenifer ut^uKuiA 

William Few 

VIRGINIA Abr[aham] Baldwin 



John Blair 



ATTEST: 
William Jackson, Secretary 



Tho Constitution was declared in eiTect on the first Wednesday in March, 1789. 



United States of America 67 

AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION 
OF THE UNITED STATES 

THE TEN ORIGINAL AMENDMENTS* 

The following amendments to the Constitution, Article I to X, inclusive, were 
proposed at the First Session of the First Congress, begun and held at the City 
of New York, on Wednesday, March 4, 1789, and were adopted by the necessary 
number of States. The original proposal of the ten amendments was preceded by 
this preamble and resolution: 

"The conventions of a number of the States having, at the time of 
their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent 
misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and re- 
strictive clauses should be added, and as extending the ground of public 
confidence in the Government will best insure the benefiicent ends of its in- 
stitution : 

"RESOLVED, By the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America, in Congress assembled, two-thirds of both 
Houses concurring that the following articles be proposed to the Legisla- 
tures of the several States, as amendments to the Constitution of the 
United States; all or any of which articles, when ratified by three- 
fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes, 
as part of the said Constitution, namely": 



Article I 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or pro- 
hibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech or of the 
press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Gov- 
ernment for a redress of grievances. 

Article II 

A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the 
right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. 

Article III 

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the con- 
sent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner to be prescribed by law. 

Article IV 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects 
against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants 
shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or atTirmation. and par- 
ticularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. 
•Sometimes caUed our BUi of Rights, were declpred in force December 16. 1791. 



68 North Carolina Manual 



Article V 

No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, 
unless on a presentment or indictment of a jjrand jury, except in cases arising in 
the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war 
or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice 
put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be 
a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without 
due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without 
just compensation. 

Article VI 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy, and 
public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall 
have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, 
and be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation ; to be confronted with 
the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in 
his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense. 

Article VII 

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty 
dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved and no fact tried by a jury 
shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States than according 
to the rules of the common law. 

Article VIII 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and 
unusual punishments inflicted. 

Article IX 

The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed 
to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 

Article X 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor pro- 
hibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. 

SUBSEQUENT AMENDMENTS 

Article XI 

The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to 
any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United 
States, by citizens of another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign State. 

(Proposed to the Legislatures of the se\e.al Stales by the Thud Congress on the 5th of March, 
1794, and declared to have been ratilieu by Executive Proclamation, Januai-y 8, 1.98.) 



United States of America 



Article XII 



69 



The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote bv ballot for Pres- 
ident and Vice President, one of whom at least shall not be an inhabitant of the 
same State with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for 
as President, and in distinct ballots the persons voted for as Vice President; and 
they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all 
persons voted for as Vice President, and of the number of votes for 'each, which 
lists they shall sig-n and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; the Presi- 
dent of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted; the 
person having the greatest number of votes for President shall be the Presi- 
dent, if such number he a majoritv of the whole number of electors appointed; 
and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest 
numbers, not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the 
House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But 
in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation 
from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a 
member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States 
shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose 
a President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth 
day of March next following, then the Vice President shall act as President, as in 
the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The per- 
son having the greatest number of votes as Vice President shall be the Vice Presi- 
dent, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and 
if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the 
Senate shall choose the Vice President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of 
two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number 
shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the 
office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice President of the United States. 

(Proposed by the Eighth CoriKiess on the 12th of December. 1803, declared ratified by the Secretary 
of State. September 25, 1804. It was ratified by all the States except Connecticut. Delaware. Mu;>sa- 
chusetts, and New Hampshire.) 

Article XIII 

1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for 
crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the 
United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. 

2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legisla- 
tion. 

(Proposed by the Thirty-eighth fongress on the l<t of Kebruiiiy. lS6,i, declared rnliti.-.! by the St-c- 
retary of State, December 18, ISO"). It was rejected by Delaware and Kentucky: was ••ndilu'n;il|\ rati- 
fied by Alabama and Mississippi; and Texas took no action. 1 

Article XIV 

1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the 
jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the Stale wherein 



70 North Carolina Manual 



they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the 
privileges of immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State de- 
prive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny 
to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. 

2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according 
to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, 
excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the 
choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Repre- 
sentatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a State, or the mem- 
bers of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such 
State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any 
way abridged, except for participation in rebellion or other crime, the basis of 
representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such 
male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of 
age in such State. 

3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of 
President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United 
States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member 
of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State 
Legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Con- 
stitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion 
against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress 
may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. 

4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, 
including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in 
suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the 
United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred 
in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the 
loss of emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations, and claims shall 
be held illegal and void. 

5. The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate legislation the 
provisions of this article. 

(The Reconstruction Amendment, by the 'rhirly-niiith Congi^s^ "^n the 16th day of June, 1S66, was 
declared ratified by the Secretary of State, July 28, 1868. The amtndment got the support of 23 Nor- 
thern States: it was rejected by Delaware, Kentucky, Marylaiul, and 10 Southern States. California 
took no action. Later it was ratified by the 10 Southern States. I 

Article XV 

1. The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied 
or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or 
previous condition of servitude. 

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legis- 
lation. 

(J*ropo8ed by the Fortieth Confess the 27th of February, 1869, and was declared ratified by the 
Secretary of State. March 30, 1870. It was not acted on by Tennessee; it was rejected by California, 
Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland and Oregon; ratified by the remaining 30 States. New York rescinded 
its ratification January 5. 1870. New Jersey rejected it in 1870, but ratified it in 1871.) 



United States of America 71 



Article XVI 

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from 
whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and 
without regard to any census or enumeration. 

(Proposed by the Sixty-first Congress. July 12, 1909, and declared latified Februa-y 25. 1913. The 
income tax amendment was ratified by all the States except Connecticut. Florida, Pennsylvania. Khode 
Island, Utah, and Virginia.) 

Article XVII 

1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from 
each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall 
have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for 
electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislatures. 

2. When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, 
the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such 
vacancies; Provided, That the Legislature of any State may empower the Execu- 
tive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by 
elections as the Legislature may direct. 

3. This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term 
of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution. 

(Proposed by the Sixty-second Congress on the 16th day ci May, 1912. and declared latified May 31, 
1913. Adopted by all the States except Alabama, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, 
Maryland, Mississippi. Rhode Island, South Carolina, Utah and Virginia.) 

Article XVIII 

1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, 
or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or 
the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the 
jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. 

2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce 
this article by appropriate legislation. 

3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an 
amendent to the Constitution by the Legislatures of the several States as provided 
in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to 
the States by the Congress. 

(Proposed by the Sixty-fifth Congress, December 18, 1917. and ratified by 36 States; was dt-clared in 
effect on January 16, 1920.) 

Article XIX 

1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or 
abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. 

2. Congress shall have power, by appropriate legislation, to enforce tlif pro- 
visions of this article. 

(Proposed by the Sixty-fifth Congress. On August 26. 1920. it vsas p.oclaimed in effect, hav..^ 
been ratified (June 19, 1919— August 18, 1920) by three-quarters of the States. The Tonncsi.eo Houm-. 
August 31st, rescinded its ratification, 4i to 24.) 



72 North Carolina Manual 



Article XX 

1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th 
day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the Hrd 
day of January of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article 
had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then bet^-in. 

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meetinfj 
shall begin at noon on the 3rd day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a 
different day. 

3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the 
President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. 
If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of 
his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice Presi- 
dent elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the 
Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a Presitlent elect nor a 
Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, 
or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act 
accordingly, until a President or Vice President shall have qualified. 

4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the 
persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President when- 
ever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the 
death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President 
when the right of choice shall have devolved upon them. 

5. Section 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the 
ratification of this article. 

6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an 
amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several 
States within seven years from the date of its submission. 

(Proposed by the 72nd Congress. I irst Session. On February <i. IVi'.iS, it was proclaimed in effect. 
havinjr been ratified by thrity-nine states. ) 

Article XXI 

1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United 
States is hereby repealed. 

2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession 
of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating licjuors, in viola- 
tion of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited. 

3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an 
amendment to the Constitution by convention in the several States, as provided 
in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to 
the States by the Congress. 

(Proposed l>y the 7'2nd ConKress. Second Session. Proclaimed in etTect on December 5, 19113, having 
been ratified by thrity-six States. By proclamation of the -;-ime date, the President p.oclaimed that the 
eighteenth amendment to the Constitution was repealed on Deceinber 5, 1933.) 



e 



United States of America 73 



Article XXII 

1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, 
and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more 
than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall 
be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this article shall not 
apply to any person holding the office of President when this article was proposed 
by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office 
of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this article 
becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President 
during the remainder of such term. 

2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an 
amendment to the constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several 
States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the 
congress. 

(Proposed by the 80th Congress in 1947 and became effective on Feb. 26, 19.il. having been ratifietl 
by thirty-six States.) 

Article XXIII 

1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States 
shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: 

A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole 
number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would 
be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; 
they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be con- 
sidered, for the purpose of the election of President and Vice President, to be 
electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform 
such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment. 

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legis- 
lation. 

(Proposed by the 8(ith Congress in June of I'.nKJ and ratified by the 38th Stale. March 29. 1961 and 
proclaimed a part of the Constitution, April '.i, 19(il.) 

Article XXIV 

1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other 
election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice Presi- 
dent, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged 
by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other 
tax. 

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legis- 
lation. 

(Proposed by the 87th Cong. ess, August 27, 1 9(i2 and ratified by the 38th Stnle, January -S, 1964. » 

Article XXV 

1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resif 
nation, the Vice President shall become President. 



74 North Carolina Manual 



2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the Presi- 
dent shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office ui)on confirmation by a 
majority vote of both Houses of CongTess. 

3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the 
Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration 
that he is unable to discharj^e the powers and duties of his office, and until he 
transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such jjowers and duties 
shall be discharged by the Vice President as Actinjr President. 

4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers 
of the executive departments or of such other body as Contrress may by law pro- 
vide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the 
House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable 
to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immedi- 
ately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President. 

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of 
the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declara- 
tion that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office 
unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the 
executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, 
transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the 
Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the Presi- 
dent is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Con- 
gress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose 
if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the 
laVter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days 
after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both 
Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his 
office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; 
otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office. 

(Submitted tii the Li'^islatures uf the titty States July ti. ly6."). Katilied by the :5Sth Stale (Nevada) 
Kebruary 10, lytJT. ) 

Article XXVI 

1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age 
or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State 
on account of age. 

2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate 
legislation. 

Pio;josed lu the States by Congress on March '^3, 1971 and ratification completed June 3U, 1971.) 



United States of America 75 



THE AMERICAN FLAG, IT'S ORIGIN 

In 1775, the Philadelphia Troop of Ligrht Horse carried a standard with thir- 
teen alternate blue and silver stripes in the upper left-hand corner. At Cambridge 
on January 2, 1776, Washington without authorization of the Continental Con- 
gress raised a flag consisting of thirteen alternate white and red stripes with the 
crosses of St. George and St. Andrew in the blue field in the upper left-hand 
corner. It was called the "Union Flag," "Grand Union Flag," and the "Continen- 
tal Flag," and was employed until displaced by the Stars and Stripes adopted by 
the Continental Congress. 

The beautiful tradition that Betsy Ross, as early as June 1776, made a Stars 
and Stripes flag from a pencil sketch supplied by Washington but changed the 
points of the stars from six to five, has become a classic. Historians doubt its 
accuracy. Half a dozen localities claim to have been the place where the Stars 
and Stripes was first used. Within New York State such contention has been for 
Fort Ann on July 8, Fort Stanwix on August 3, Bennington on August 13, and 
Saratoga on September 19, 1777. The flag with thirteen stripes and thirteen stars, 
authorized on June 14, 1777, continued to be used as the national emblem until 
Congress passed the following act, which President Washington signed: 

"That from and after May 1, 1795, the flag of the United States be 
fifteen stripes, alternate red and white; and that the union be fifteen 
stars, white in a blue field." 

This action was necessitated by the admission of the States of Vermont and 
Kentucky to the Union. 

The flag of 1795 had the stars arranged in three rows of five each instead of 
in a circle, and served for 23 years. 

With the admission of more new states, however, it became apparent that the 
1795 flag would have to be further modified; hence in 1818 a law was passed by 
Congress providing: 

"That from and after the fourth day of July next, the flag of the 
United States be thirteen horizontal stripes, alternate red and white; 
that the union have twenty stars, white in a blue field. 

"That on the admission of every new state into the Union, one star 
be added to the union of the flag; and that such addition shall take efi'ect 
on the Fourth of July next succeeding such admission." 

Since 1818 additional stars have been added until today they are 50 on tho 
flag. No law has been passed to designate how the stars shall be arranged. At one 
time they formed a design of a larger star. Now they form five rows of six stars 
each and four rows of five stars each. 

Betsy Ross, it is now said, lived at 233 Arch Street, Philadelphia, and 
not at 239. She made flags, but says Theodore D. Gottlieb, .she never made 
the first Stars and Stripes. He adds: 

The Department of State, the War and Navy department.s, tlu- His- 
torical Sites Commission of Philadelphia and other ofiicial bodies repu- 
diate the legend. The book and pamphlet material available is over- 
whelmingly against the legend. 



76 



North Carolina Manual 




United States of America 77 



The story arose for the first time on March 14, 1870, when William 
J. Canby read a paper before the Pennsylvania Historical Society in 
which he states that in 1836, when his grandmother, Betsy Ross, was 84 
years old and he was 11, she told him the story. He apparently thought 
little of it because nothing was done until 1857, when at the suggestion 
of his Aunt Clarissa, oldest daughter of Betsy, he wrote out the notes as 
he remembered the conversation. 

Nothing further was done until 1870 when he wrote his paper. The 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania thought so little of the paper it 
neither catalogued nor kept a copy of it. Even George Canby, younger 
brother of William, disputed several points in the paper. 

The legend grew to strength from 1888 to 1893 when promotors se- 
cured an option on the so-called Flag House. 

Modern historical researchers are giving much thought to Francis 
Hopkinson of New Jersey as the possible designer and the Fillmore or 
Bennington flag as the first flag. . 

THE PROPER DISPLAY OF THE AMERICAN FLAG* 

SEC. 1. That the following codification of existing rules and customs pertaining to 
the display and use of the flag of the United States of America be. and is hereby, 
established for the use of such civilians or civilian groups or organizations as may not 
be required to conform with regulations promulgated by one or more executive de- 
partments of the Government of the United States. The flag of the United States for 
the purpose of this chapter shall be defined according to title 4. United States Code, 
Chapter 1, section 1 and section 2 and Executive Order 10834 issued pursuant thereto. 

SEC. 2 (a) It is the universal custom to display the flag only from sunrise to sunset 
on buildings and on stationary flagstaffs in the open. However, when a patriotic effect 
is desired, the flag may be displayed twenty-four hours a day if properly illuminated 
during the hours of darkness. 

(b) The flag should be hoisted briskly and lowered ceremoniously. 

(c) The flag should not be displayed on days when the weather is inclement, 
except when an all weather flag is displayed. 

(d) The flag should be displayed on all days, especially on New Year's Day, 
January 1; Inauguration Day, January 20; Lincoln's Birthday, February 12: Wash- 
ington's Birthday, third Monday in February; Easter Sunday (variable); Mother's 
Day, .second Sunday in May; Armed Forces Day, third Saturday in May; Memorial 
Day (half-staff until noon), the last Monday in May; Flag Day, June 14; Independence 
Day, July 4; Labor Day, first Monday in September; Constitution Day, September 
17; Columbus Day, second Monday in October; Navy Day, October 27; Veterans Day. 
November 11; Thanksgiving Day, fourth Thursday in November; Christmas Day. 
December 25; and such other days as may be proclaimed by the President of the ITniled 
States: The birthdays of States (date of admission); and on State holidays. 

(e) The fl^g should be displayed daily on or near the main administration 
building of every public institution. 



*Public Law 94-344 (94lh Congress. S.J. Resolution 49. July 7, 1976.) 



78 North Carolina Manual 



(lavs. 



House. 



(f) The fla.iT should Ix' (lis|)I:iy('(i in or ticur every polling place on election 
(tr) The flair should he displayed dui'inir school days in or near every school- 



SEC. ;5 That the fla^. when carried in a procession with another flag' or flag's, 
should he either on the marching right: that is, the flag's own right, or, if there is a line 
of other flags, in front of the center of that line. 

(a) The flag should not be displayed on a float in a parade except from a 
stiiff. or as provided in subsection (i). 

(b) The flag should not be draped over the hood, top, sides, or back of a 
vehicle or of a railroad train or a boat. When the flag is displayed on a motor car, the 
staff should be fixed firmly to the chassis or clamped to the right fender. 

(c) No other flag or pennant should be placed above or, if on the same level, 
to the right of the flag of the United States of America, except during church services 
conducted by naval chaplains at sea, when the church pennant may be flown above the 
flag during church services for the personnel of the Navy. 

(d) The flag of the United States of America, when it is displayed with 
another flag against a wall from crossed staffs, should be on the right, and its staff 
should be in front of the staff of the other flag. 

(c) The flag of the United States of America should be at the center and 
at the highest point of the group when a number of flags of States or localities or pen- 
nants of societies are grouped and displayed from staffs. 

(f) When flags of states, cities, or localities, or pennants of societies are 
flown on the same halyard with the flag of the United States, the latter should always 
be at the peak. When the flags are flown from adjacent staffs, the flag of the United 
States should be hoisted first and lowered last. No such flag or pennant may be placed 
above the flag of the Unites States or to the United States Flag's right. 

(g) When flags of two or more nations are displayed, they are to be flown 
from separate staffs of the same height. The flags should be of approximately equal 
size. International usage forbids the display of the flag of one nation above that of 
another nation in time of peace. 

(h) When the flag of the United States is displayed from a staff projecting 
horizontally or at an ang'le from the window sill, balcony, or front of a building, the 
union of the flag should be placed at the peak of the staff unless the flag is at half staff. 
When the flag is suspended over a sidewalk from a rope extending from a house to a 
pole at the edge of the sidewalk, the flag should be hoisted out. union first, from the 
building. 

(i) When displayed either horizontally or vertically against a wall, the union 
should be uppermost and to the flag's own right, that is, to the observer's left. When 
displayed in a window, the flag should be displayed in the same way, with the union 
or blue field to the left of the observer in the street. 

(j) When the flag is displayed over the middle of the street, it should be 
suspended vertically with the union to the north in an east and west street or to the east in 
a north and south street. 



United States of America 79 



(k) When used on a speaker's platform, the flag, if displayed flat should be 
displayed above and behind the speaker. When displayed from a staff in a church or 
public auditorium, the flag of the United States of America should hold the position of 
superior prominence, in advance of the audience, and in the position of honor at the 
clergyman's or speaker's right as he faces the audience. Any other flag so displayed 
should be placed on the left of the clergyman or speaker or to the right of the audience. 

(1) The flag should form a distinctive feature of the ceremony of unveiling a 
statue or monument, but it should never be used as the covering for the statue or 

monument. 

(m) The flag, when flown at half-staff, should be first hoisted to the peak for 
an instant and then lowered to the half-staff position. The flag should be again raised 
to the peak before it is lowered for the day. On Memorial Day the flag should be dis- 
played at half-staff until noon only, then raised to the top of the staff. By order of the 
President, the flag shall be flown at half-staff upon the death of principal figures of the 
United States Government and the Governor of a State, territory, or possession, as a 
mark of respect to their memory. In the event of the death of other officials or foreign 
dignitaries, the flag is to be displayed at half-staff according to Presidential instruc- 
tions or orders, or in accordance with recognized customs or practices not inconsistent 
with law. In the event of the death of a present or former official of the government of 
any State, territory, or possession of the United States, the Governor of that State, 
territory, or possession may proclaim that the National flag shall be flown at half-staff. 
The flag shall be flown at half-staff thirty days from the death of the President or a 
former President; ten days from the day of death of the Vice president, the Chief Justice 
or a retired Chief Justice of the United States, or the Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives; from the day of death until interment of an Associate Justice of the Superme 
Court, a Secretary of an e.xecutive or military department, a former Vice President, or 
the Governor of a State, territory, or possession: and on the day of death and the follow- 
ing day for a Member of Congress. As used in this subsection — 

(1) the term 'half-staff means the position of the flag when it is 
one-half the distance between the top and bottom of the staff; 

(2) the term 'executive or military department' means any 
agency listed under sections 101 and 102 of title 5, United 
States Code; and 

(3) the term 'Member of Congress' means a Senator, a Repre- 
sentative, a Delegate, or the Resident Commi.ssioner from 
Puerto Rico. 

(n) When the flag is used to cover a casket, it should be so placed that the 
union is at the head and over the left shoulder. The flag should not be lowered into the 
grave or allowed to touch the ground. 

(o) When the flag is suspended across a corridor or lobby in a building with 
only one main entance, it should be suspended vertically with the union of the flag to 
the observer's left upon entering. If the building has more than one main entrance, 
the flag should be suspended vertically near the center of the corridor or lobby with 
the union to the north, when entrances are to the east and west or to the east when 
entrances are to the north and south. If there are entrances in more than two direc- 
tions, the union should be to the east. 

SEC. 4 That no disrespect should be shown to the flag of the United States of 
America; the flag should not be dipped to any person or thing. Regimental colors. State 
flags, and organization or institutional flags are to be dipped as a mark of honor. 



80 North Carolina Manual 



(;il Thi' fhi^ should never l)e displayed with the union down, except as a 
si.irnal of dire distress in instances of extreme danjrer to life or profH'rty. 

(1)) The flajr should never touch anything beneath it. such as the ground, the 
floor, water, or nierchandise. 

(c) The fla.u: should never be carried flat or hori/.ontall.w but always aloft and 
free. 

(d) The flaj; should never be used as wearinjr apparel, beddinjj. or drapery. 
It should never be festooned, drawn back, nor up. in folds, but always allowed to fall 
free. Buntin.tr of blue, white, and red, always arranjjed with the blue above, the white 
in the middle, and the red below, should be used for covering- a speaker's desk, draping 
the front of the platform, and for decoration in general. 

(e) The flag should never be fastened, displayed, used, or stored in such a 
manner as to permit it to be easily torn, soiled, or damaged in any way. 

(f) The flag should never be used as a covering for a ceiling. 

(.g) The flag should never have placed upon it, nor on any part of it, nor 
attached to it any mark, insignia, letter, word, figure, design, picture, or drawing of any 
nature. 

(h) The flag should never be used as a receptacle for receiving, holding, 
carrying or deliverin,g anything. 

(i) The flag should never be used for advertising purposes in any manner 
whats()e\er. It should not be embroidered on such articles as cushions or handkerchiefs 
and the like, printetl or otherwise impressed on paper napkins or boxes or anything that 
is designed for temporary use and discard. Advertising signs should not be fastened 
to a staff or halyard from which the flag- is flown. 

(j) No part of the flag should ever be used as a costume or athletic uniform. 
However, a flag patch may be affixed to the uniform of military personnel, firemen, 
policemen, and members of patriotic organizations. The flag represents a living country 
and is itself considered a living thing. Therefore, the lapel flag pin being a replica, 
should be worn on the left lapel near the heart. 

(k) The flag, when it is in such condition that it is no longer a fitting emblem 
for display, should l)e destroyed in a dignified way, preferably by burning. 

SKC. 5 During the ceremony of hoisting or lowering the fla.g or when the flag is 
passin.g in a parade or in review, all persons present except those in uniform should 
face the flag and stand at attention with the right hand over the heart. Those present 
in uniform should render the military salute. When not in uniform, men should remove 
their headdress with their right hand and hold it at the left shoulder, the hand being 
over the heart. Aliens should stand at attention. The salute to the flag in a moving 
column should be rendered at the moment the flag passes. 

SKC. t) During rendition of the national anthem when the flag is displayed, all 
present except those in uniform should stand at attention facing the flag with the right 
hand over the heart. Men not in uniform should remove their headdress with their 
right hand and hold it at the left shoulder, the hand being over the heart. Persons in 
uniform shoidd render the military salute at the first note of the anthem and retain this 
position until the last note. When the flag is not displayed, those present should face 
toward the music and act in the .same manner they would if the flag were displayed there. 



United States of America 81 

SEC. 7. The Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag, 'I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the 
United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands, one Nation under 
(iod, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all', should be rendered by standing at 
attention facing the flag with the right hand over the heart. When not in uniform men 
should remove their headdress with their right hand and hold it at the left shoulder, the 
hand being over the heart. Persons in uniform should remain silent, face the flag and 
render the military salute. 

SEC. 8 Any rule or custom pertaining to the display of the flag of the United States 
of America, set forth herein, may be altered, modified, or repealed, or additional rules 
with respect thereto may be prescribed, by the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed 
Forces of the United States, whenever he deems it to be appropriate or desirable; and any 
such alteration or additional rule shall be set forth in a proclamation. 

THE PLEDGE TO THE FLAG* 

"I pledge allegiance to the flag 

of the United States of America, 

And to the Republic for which it stands. 
One Nation under God, indivisible. 
With liberty and justice for all." 

The Pledge to the Flag, according to a report of the Historical Committee of 
the United States Flag Association (May 18, 1939), was written by Francis 
Bellamy (August 1892), a member of the editorial staff of The Youth's Com- 
panion, in Boston, Massachusetts. . It was first repeated at the exercises in con- 
nection with the celebration of Columbus Day (October 12, 1892, Old Style). The 
idea of this national celebration on Columbus Day was largely that of James B. 
Upham, one of the junior proprietors of The Youth's Companion. 

Francis Hopkinson, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, was the 
designer of the Stars and Stripes— not Betsy Ross of Philadelphia, who made 
flags. He also designed the first Great Seal of the United States, a number of 
coins and several items of paper currency in the early days of the Republic. 

Hopkinson, born in Philadelphia (September 21, 1737), and a graduate of the 
University of Pennsylvania, was the first native American composer of a secular 
song, "My Days Have Been So Wondrous Free." He was a lawyer and later a 
judge in New Jersey and then in Pennsylvania. He died in Philadelphia (May 9, 
1791). His portrait, painted by himself, hangs in the rooms of the Pennsylvania 
Historical Society, Philadelphia. He played the organ and harpischord. 

THE AMERICAN'S CREED 

I believe in the United States of America, as a government of the people, by 
the people, for the people; whose just powers are derived from the consent of the 
governed; a democracy in a republic; a sovereign nation of many sovereign 
states; a perfect union, one and inseparable; established upon those principles of 
freedom, equality, justice and humanity for which American patriots sacrificed 
their lives and fortunes. I therefore believe it is my duty to my country to love it, 
to support its constitution, to obey its laws, to respect its flag, and to defend it 
against all enemies. 



•(The pledge is taught in many of the schools and repeated by pupils daily.) 



r 




United States of America 83 



THE CAPITOL AT WASHINGTON 

The Capitol building: in Washing'ton, D. C, is situated on a plateau 88 feet 
above the level of the Potomac River and covers an area of 153,112 square feet, or 
approximately three and one-half acres. Its length, from north to south, is 751 
feet, four inches; its width, including approaches, is 350 feet; and its location is 
described as being in latitude 38°53'20.4" N. and longitude 70°00'35.7" W. from 
Greenwich. Its height above the base line on the east front to the top of the 
Statue of Freedom is 287 feet, five and one-half inches. The dome is built of iron, 
and the aggregate weight of material used in its construction is 8,909,200 pounds. 

The Statue of Freedom surmounting the dome is of bronze and weighs 14,985 
pounds. It was modeled by Thomas Crawford, father of Francis Marion Craw- 
ford, the novelist, in Rome, and the plaster model shipped to this country. It was 
cast in bronze at the shops of Clark Mills, on the Bladensburg Road, near Wash- 
ington. The cost of the casting and the expenses in connection were $20,796.82, 
and the sculptor was paid $3,000 for the plaster model. It was erected and placed 
in its present position December 2, 1863. 

The grounds have had an area of 58.8 acres, at one time a part of Cern Abby 
Manor, and at an early date was occupied by a subtribe of the Algonquin Indians 
known as the Powhatans, whose council house was then located at the foot of the 
hill. By subsequent purchase of ground at the North of the Capitol and at the 
west of the new House Office building the area of the grounds has been increased 
to 139 V2 acres. 

The Rotunda is 97 feet 6 inches in diameter, and its height from the floor to 
the top of the canopy is 180 feet, 3 inches. 

The Senate Chamber is 113 feet, 3 inches, in length by 80 feet, 3 inches, m 
width and 36 feet in height. The galleries will accommodate 682 persons. 

The Representatives' Hall is 139 feet in length by 93 feet in width and 36 feet 
in height. 

The room, until 1935 the meeting place of the Supreme Court, was, until 
1859, occupied as the Senate Chamber. Previous to that time the court occupied 
the room immediately beneath, now used as a law library. 

The Capitol has a floor area of 14 acres, and 430 rooms are devoted to office, 
committee, and storage purposes. There are 14,518 square feet of skylights, 679 
windows, and 550 doorways. 

The dome receives light through 108 windows, and from the architect's office 
to the dome there are 365 steps, one for each day of the year. 

The southeast cornerstone of the original building was laid September 18, 
1793, by President Washington, with Masonic ceremonies. It is constructed of 
sandstone from quarries on Aquia Creek, Va. The original designs were prepared 
by Dr. William Thornton, and the work was done under the direction of Stephen 
H. Hallet, James Hoban, George Hadfield, and B. H. Latrobe, architects. 



84 North Carolina Manual 



The north wiii^r was finished in 1800 and the south winf; in 1811. A wooden 
passa^fway connected them. On Aujrust 24, 1814, the interior of both wings was 
destroyed by fire, set by the British. The damag'e to the buiUling was immediately 
repaired. 

In 1818 the central portion of the buiUiintr was commenced under the archi- 
tectural superintendence of Charles Bullfinch. The original building was finally 
completed in 1827. Its cost, including the grading of the grounds, alterations, and 
repairs, up to 1827, was $2,433,844.13. 

The cornerstone of the extensions was laid on the Fourth of July, 1851, by 
President Fillmore, Daniel Webster officiating as orator. The work was prosecuted 
under the architectual direction of Thomas U. Walter until 1865, when he resign- 
ed, and it was completed under the supervision of Edward Clark. The material 
used in the walls is white marble from the quarries of Lee, Massachusetts, and 
that in the columns from the quarries from Cockeysville, Maryland. The House 
extension was first occupied for legislative purposes December 16, 1857, and the 
Senate January 4, 1859. 

The House office building was begun in 1905 and occupied on January 10, 
1908; later a story on top was added. The Senate office building was started in 
1906 and occupied on March 5, 1909. The House building cost, with site, $4,860,155; 
the Senate structure, $5,019,251. 

Among the paintings in the Capitol are: 

In Rotunda: Signing of the Declaration of Independence, Surrender of Gen- 
eral Burgoyne, Surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown, Va., George Washing- 
ton Resigning His Commission as Commander in Chief of the Army, all by John 
Trumbull. 

Baptism of Pocahontas, by John G. Chapman; Landing of Columbus, by John 
Vanderlyn; Discovery of the Mississippi River by DeSoto, by William H. Powell; 
Embarkation of the Pilgrims, by Robert W. Weir. 

In House Wing: Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way, by Emanuel 
Leutze; First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation, by Francis Bicknell 
Carpenter. 

In Senate Wing: Battle of Lake Erie, by William H. Powell; Battle of 
Chapultepec, by James Walker. 



United States of America 85 



GOVERNORS OF THE STATES AND TERRITORIES 

Forrest H. James, Jr Alabama State Capitol, Montgomery 

Jay S. Hammond Alaska State Capitol, Juneau 

Frank E. Barnett American Samoa Government House, Pago Pago 

Bruce E. Babbitt Arizona State House, Phoenix 

Bill Clinton Arkansas State Capitol, Little Rock 

Edmund G. Brown. Jr California State Capitol, Sacramento 

Richard D. Lamm Colorado State Capitol, Denver 

Ella T. Grasso Connecticut State Capitol, Hartford 

Pierre S. duPont, IV Delaware Legislative Hall, Dover 

Robert D. Graham Florida State Capitol, Tallahassee 

George Busbee Georgia State Capitol, Atlanta 

Paul M. Calvo Guam Executive Chambers, Agana 

George R. Ariyoshi Hawaii lolani Palace, Honolulu 

John V. Evans Idaho State Capitol, Boisj 

James R. Thompson Illinois State Capitol, Springfield 

Otis R. Bowen Indiana State Capitol, Indianapolis 

Rovert D. Ray Iowa State Capitol, Des Moines 

John W. Carlin Kansas State House, Topeka 

Julian M. Carroll Kentucky State Capitol, Frankfort 

Edwin Edwards Louisiana State Capitol, Baton Rouge 

Joseph Brennan Maine State House, Augusta 

Harry R. Hughes Maryland State House, Annapolis 

Edward J. King Massachusetts State House, Boston 

William G. Miliken Michigan State Capitol, Lansing 

Albert Quie Minnesota State Capitol, St. Paul 

Cliff Finch Mississippi State Capitol, Jackson 

Joseph P. Teasdaie Missouri State Capitol, Jefferson City 

Thomas L. Judge Montana State Capitol, Helena 

Charles Thone >Iebraska State Capitol, Lincoln 

Robert List Nevada State Capitol, Carson City 

Hugh Gallen New Hampshire State House, Concord 

Brendan T. Byrne New Jersey State House, Trenton 

Jerry Apodaca New Mexico State Capitol, Santa Fe 

Hugh L. Carey New York State Capitol, Albany 

James B. Hunt. Jr North Carolina State Capitol, Raleigh 

Arthur A. Link North Dakota State Capitol, Bismarck 

James A. Rhodes Ohio State House, Columbus 

George Nigh Oklahoma State Capitol, Oklahoma City 

Victor Atiyeh Oregon State Capitol, Salem 

Richard Thornburgh Pennsylvania State Capitol, Harrisbur^' 

Carlos Romero Barcalo Puerto Rico La Fortaleza, San Juan 

Joseph J. Garrahy Rhode Island State House, Providence 

Richard W. Riley South Carolina State House, Columbia 

William J. Janklow South Dakota State Capitol, Pierre 

Lamar Alexander Tennessee State Capitol, Nashville 

William P. Clement. Jr Texas State Capitol. Austin 

Scott M. Matheson Utah State Capitol. Salt Lake City 

Richard A. Snelling Vermont State House. Montpelier 

John N. Dalton Virginia State Capitol, Richmond 

Cyril E. King Virgin Islands Government House, Charlotte 

Amalie, St. Thomas 

Dixy Lee Ray Washington State Capitol. Olympia 

John D. Rockefeller. IV West Virginia State Capitol, Charleston 

Lee S. Dreyfus Wisconsin State Capitol, Madison 

Ed Herschler Wyoming State Capitol, Cheyenne 



The Constitution of North Carolina 87 

Chapter Three 

THE CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT 
OF NORTH CAROLINA 



A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE 
CONSTITUTIONS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

North Carolina has had three Constitutions in her history as a State: the Consti- 
tution of 1776, the Constitution of 1868, and the Constitution of 1971. 

Constitution of 1776 

Drafted and promulgated by the Fifth Provincial Congress in December, 1776, 
without submission to the people, the Constitution of 1776 and its separate but ac- 
companying Declaration of Rights sketched the main outlines of the new state 
government and secured the rights of the citizen from governmental interference.* 
While the principle of separation of powers was explicitly affirmed and the familiar 
three branches of government were provided for, the true center of power lay in the 
General Assembly. That body not only exercised full legislative power; it also chose 
all the state executive and judicial officers, the former for short terms and the 
judges for life. 

Profound distrust of the executive power is evident throughout the document. 
The Governor was chosen by the legislature for a one-year term and was eligible 
for only three terms in six years. The little power granted him was hedged about in 
many instances by requiring for its exercise the concurrence of a seven-member 
Council of State chosen by the legislature. 

Judicial offices were established, but the court system itself was left to legislative 
design. No system of local government was prescribed by the Constitution, although 
the offices of justice of the peace, sheriff, coroner, and constable were created. 

The system of legislative representation was based on units of local government. 
The voters of each county elected one Senator and two members of the House of 
Commons, while six (later seven) towns each elected one member of the House. 
It was distinctly a property owner's government, for only landowners could vote for 
Senators until 1857, and progressive property qualifications were required of mem- 
bers of the House, Senators, and the Grovemor until 1868. Legislators were the only 
state officers who were elected by the people until 1836. 

Dissatisfaction with the legislative representation system, which gave no direct 
recognition to population, resulted in the Convention of 1835. Extensive consti- 
tutional amendments adopted by that Convention were ratified by vote of the people, 
26,771 to 21,606, on November 9, 1835. The Amendments of 1835 fixed the member- 
ship of the Senate and House at their present levels, 50 and 120. The House ap- 
portionment formula then devised gave one seat to each county and distributed the 
remainder of the seats — nearly half of them at that time — according to a mathe- 
matical formula favoring the more populous counties. From 1836 until 1868, 
Senators were elected from districts laid out according to the amount of taxes paid 

*This article was written by John L. Sanders. DirecUir of the Institute of ("lovernmenl in t'hapel Hill. North 
Carolina. The editor has made some changes to brinK portions of the te.xt up to date. 



88 North Carolina Manual 



to the State from the i^spective counties, thus effecting? senatorial representation 
in proportion to property values. 

The Amendments of 1835 also made the Governor popularly elective for a two- 
year term, greatly strengthening that office; relaxed the religious qualifications for 
office holding; abolished free Negro suffrage; equalized the capitiition tax on slaves 
and free white males; prohibited the General Assembly from granting divorces, 
legitimating persons, or changing personal names by private act; specified proce- 
dures for the impeachment of state officers and the removal of judges for disability; 
made legislative sessions biennial instead of annual; and provided methods of 
amending the Constitution. Following the precedent established in amending the 
United States Constitution, the 1835 amendments were appended to the Constitution 
of 1776, not incorporated in it as is the modern practice. 

The Convention of 1861-62, called by act of the General Assembly, took the State 
out of the Union and into the Confederacy and adopted a dozen constitutional 
amendments. These were promulgated by the Convention without the necessity of 
voter approval, a procedure that was permitted by the Constitution until 1971. 

The Convention of 1865-66, called by the Provisional Governor on orders of the 
President, nullified secession and abolished slavery, with voter approval, in 1865. 
It also drafted a revised Constitution in 1866. That document was largely a restate- 
ment of the Constitution of 1776 and the 1835 amendments, plus several new 
features. It was rejected by a vote of 21,770 to 19,880 on August 2, 1866. 

Constitution of 1868 

The Convention of 1868, called upon the initiative of Congress but with a popular 
vote of approval, wrote a new Constitution which the people ratified in April of 
1868 by a vote of 93,086 to 74,016. Drafted and put through the Convention by a 
combination of native Republicans and a few Carpetbaggers, the Constitution was 
highly unpopular with the more conservative elements of the State. For its time it 
was a progressive and democratic instrument of government. In this respect it 
differed markedly from the proposed Constitution of 1866. The Constitution of 1868 
was an amalgam of provisions copied or adapted from the Declaration of Rights of 
1776, the Constitution of 1776 and its amendments, the proposed Constitution of 
1866, and the constitutions of other states, together with some new and original 
provisions. Although often amended, a majority of the provisions of that document 
remained intact until 1971, and the Constitution of 1971 brought forward much of 
the 1868 language with little or no change. 

The Constitution of 1868 incorporated the 1776 Declaration of Rights into the 
Constitution as Article I and added several important guarantees. To the people was 
given the power to elect all significant state executive officers, all judges, and all 
county officials, as well as legislators. All property qualifications for voting and 
office holding were abolished. The plan of representation in the Senate was changed 
from a property to a popular basis, and the 1835 House apportionment plan was 
retained. Annual legislative sessions were restored. 

The executive branch of government was strengthened by popular election for 
four-year terms of office and the Govemnor's powers were increased significantly. 

A simple and uniform court system was established with the jurisdiction of each 
court fixed in the Constitution. The distinctions between actions at law and suits 
in equity were abolished. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 89 



For the first time, detailed constitutional provision was made for a system of 
taxation, and the powers of the General Assembly to levy taxes and to borrow 
money were limited. Homestead and personal property exemptions were granted. 
Free public schools were called for and the maintenance of penal and charitable 
institutions by the State was commanded. A uniform scheme of county and township 
government was prescribed. 

The declared objective of the Conservative Party (under whose banner the older 
native political leaders grouped themselves) was to repeal the Constitution of 1868 
at the earliest opportunity. When the Conservative Party gained control of the 
General Assembly in 1870, a proposal to call a convention of the people to revise the 
constitution was submitted by the General Assembly to the voters and rejected in 
1871 by a vote of 95,252 to 86,007. 

The General Assembly thereupon resorted to the legislative initiative for amend- 
ing the Constitution. That procedure then called for legislative approval of each 
proposed amendment at two successive sessions, followed by a vote of the people on 
the amendment. The 1871-72 legislative session adopted an act calling for about 
three dozen amendments to the Constitution which had the general purpose of 
restoring to the General Assembly the bulk of the power over local government, the 
courts, and the public schools and the University that had been taken from it by 
the Constitution of 1868. The 1872-73 session of the General Assembly approved for 
the second time and submitted to the people only eight of those amendments, all of 
which were approved by the voters in 1873 by wide margins. These amendments 
restored biennial sessions of the General Assembly, transferred control of the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina from the State Board of Education to the General 
Assembly, abolished various new state offices, altered the double office-holding 
prohibition, and repealed the prohibition against repudiation of the state debt. 

In 1875, the General Assembly called a convention of the people to consider con- 
stitutional revision. No confirmation of that action by popular referendum was had, 
and none was then constitutionally required. The Convention of 1875 (the most 
recent in the State's history) sat for five weeks in the fall of that year. It was a 
limited convention, certain actions — for example, the reinstatement of property 
qualifications for office-holding or voting — being forbidden to it. 

The Convention of 1875 adopted and the voters on November 7, 1876, approved 
by a vote of 120,159 to 106,554 a set of 30 amendments affecting 36 sections of the 
Constitution. These amendments (which took effect on January 1, 1877) prohibited 
secret political societies, moved the legislative convening date from November of 
even-numbered years to January of odd-numbered years, fixed in the Constitution 
for the first time the rate of legislative compensation, called for legislation estab- 
lishing a State Department of Agriculture, abandoned the simplicity and uniformity 
of the 1868 court system by giving the General Assembly power to determine the 
jurisdiction of all courts below the Supreme Court and to establish such courts 
inferior to the Supreme Court as it might see fit, reduced the Supreme Court from 
five to three members, required Superior Court judges to rotate among all judicial 
districts of the State, disqualified for voting persons guilty of certain crimes, estab- 
lished a one-year residency requirement for voting, required non-discriminatory 
racial segregation in the public schools, gave the General Assembly full power to 
revise or abolish the form and powers of county and township governments, and 
simplified the procedure for constitutional amendment by providing that the General 
Assembly might by act adopted by three-fifths of each house at one legislative 



90 North Carolina Manual 



session submit an amendment to the voters of the State (thus eliminating the 
former i-equirement of enactment by two successive sessions of the General 
Assembly). The principal effect of the amendments of 1873 and 1875 v^^as to restore 
in considerable measure the former power of the General Assembly, particularly as 
to the courts and local government. 

The amendments framed by the Convention of 1875 seem to have satisfied most 
of the need for constitutional change for a generation, for only four amendments 
were submitted by the General Assembly to the voters throughout the remainder 
of the nineteenth centur>'. Three of them were ratified; one failed. 

In 1900 the suffrage article was revised to add the literacy test and poll tax 
requirement for voting (the latter provision was repealed in 1920). A slate of ten 
amendments prepared by a constitutional commission and proposed by the General 
Assembly in 1913 was rejected by the voters in 1914. With the passage of time and 
amendments, the attitude towards the Constitution of 1868 had changed from re- 
sentment to a reverence so great that until the second third of the twentieth century, 
amendments were very difficult to obtain. Between 1900 and 1933, the voters rati- 
fied 15 and rejected 20 amendments. During the first third of this century, never- 
theless, amendments were adopted lengthening the school term from four to six 
months, prohibiting legislative charters to private corporations, authorizing special 
Superior Court judges, further limiting the General Assembly's powers to levy 
taxes and incur debt, and abolishing the poll tax requirement for voting and reduc- 
ing the residence qualification for voters. Amendments designed to restrict the 
legislature's power to enact local, private, and special legislation were made partly 
ineffective by judicial interpretation. 

A significant effort at general revision of the Constitution was made in 1931-33. 
A Constitutional Commission created by the General Assembly of 1931 drafted and 
the General Assembly of 1933 approved a revised Constitution. Blocked by a 
technicality raised in an advisory- opinion of the State Supreme Court, the proposed 
Constitution of 1933 never reached the voters for approval. It would have granted 
the Governor the veto power; given to a Judical Council composed of all the judges 
of the Supreme and Superior Courts power to make all rules of practice and 
procedure in the courts inferior to the Supreme Court; required the creation of 
inferior courts by general laws only; removed most of the limitations on the taxing 
powers of the General Assembly; required the General Assembly to provide for the 
organization and powers of local governments by general law only; established an 
appointive State Board of Education with general supervision over the public school 
system; and set forth an enlightened policy of state responsibility for the mainte- 
nance of educational, charitable, and reformatory' institutions and programs. 

Several provisions of the proposed Constitution of 1933 were later incorporated 
into the Constitution by individual amendments, and to a limited extent it sei-ved as 
a model for the work of the 1957-59 Constitutional Commission. 

Between the mid-1930's and the late 1950's, greater receptiveness to consti- 
tutional change resulted in amendments authorizing the classification of property 
for taxation; strengthening the limitations upon public debt; authorizing the 
General Assembly to enlarge the Supreme Court, divide the State into judicial 
divisions, increase the number of Superior Court judges, and create a Department 
of Justice under the Attorney General; enlarging the Council of State by three 
members; creating a new, appointive State Board of Education with general super- 
vision of the schools; permitting women to serve as jurors; transferring the 



The Constitution of North Carolina 91 



Governor's power to assi^ judges to the Chief Justice and his parole power to a 
Board of Paroles; permitting the waiver of indictment in non-capital cases; raising 
the compensation of the General Assembly and authorizing legislative expense 
allowances; increasing the general purpose property tax levy limitation and the 
maximum income tax rate, and authorizing the closing of public schools on a local 
option basis and the payment of educational expense grants in certain cases. 

The increased legislative and public willingness to accept constitutional change 
between 1934 and 1960 resulted in 32 constitutional amendments being ratified by 
the voters while only six were rejected. 

At the request of Governor Luther H. Hodges, the General Assembly of 1957 
authorized the Governor to appoint a fifteen-member Constitutional Commission 
to study the need for changes in the Constitution and to make recommendations 
to the Governor and the 1959 General Assembly. 

That Commission recommended rewriting the whole Constitution and submitting 
it to the voters for approval or disapproval as a unit, the changes suggested being 
too numerous to be effected by individual amendments. The proposed Constitution 
drafted by the Commission represented in large part a careful job of editorial 
pruning, rearrangement, clarification, and modernization, but it also included 
several significant substantive changes. The Senate would have been increased 
from 50 to 60 members and the initiative (but not the sole authority) for decennial 
redistricting of the Senate would have been shifted from the General Assembly to 
an ex-officio committee of three legislative officers. Decennial reapportionment of 
the House of Representatives would have been made a duty of the Speaker of the 
House, rather than of the General Assembly as a whole. Problems of succession 
to constitutional State executive offices and of determination of issues of officers' 
disability would have been either resolved in the Constitution or their resolution 
assigned to the General Assembly. The authority to classify property for taxation 
and to exempt property from taxation would have been required to be exercised 
only by the General Assembly and only on a uniform, statewide basis. The require- 
ment that the public schools constitute a "general and uniform system" would have 
been eliminated, and the constitutional authority of the State Board of Exiucation 
reduced. Fairly extensive changes were recommended in the judicial article of the 
Constitution, including the establishment of a General Court of Justice with an 
Appellate Division, a Superior Court Division, and a Local Trial Court Division. 
A uniform system of District Courts and Trial Commissioners would have replaced 
the existing multitude of inferior courts and justices of the peace, the creation of 
an intermediate Court of Appeals would have been provided for, and uniformity 
of jurisdiction of the courts within each division would have been required. Other- 
wise, the General Assembly would have retained essentially its then-existing power 
over the courts, their jurisdiction, and their procedures. 

The General Assembly of 1959 also had before it a recommendation for a consti- 
tutional amendment with respect to the court system that had originated with a 
Court Study Committee of the North Carolina Bar Association. In general, the 
recommendations of that Committee called for more fundamental changes in the 
courts than those of the Constitutional Commission. The principal difference be- 
tween the two sets of recommendations lay in the extent of the proposed authority 
of the General Assembly over the courts. The Constitutional Commission generally 
favored legislative authority over the courts and proposed only moderate curtail- 
ment of it; the Court Study Committee accepted more literally the concept of an 



92 North Carolina Manual 



independent judiciar>' and its proposals would have minimized the authority of the 
General Assembly over the courts of the State, though structurally, its system 
would have been much like that of the Constitutional Commission. 

The proposed Constitution received extended attention from the General Assembly 
of 1959. The Senate modified and passed the bill to submit the proposed Consti- 
tution to the voters, but it failed to pass the House, due chiefly to the inability of 
the supporters of the two divergent approaches to court revision to reach agreement. 

As had been true of the proposed Constitution of 1933, the proposed Constitution 
of 1959, though not adopted as a whole, subsequently provided the material for 
several amendment proposals that were submitted individually to the voters and 
approved by them during the next decade. 

In the General Assembly of 1961, the proponents of court reform were successful 
in obtaining enactment of a constitutional amendment, approved by the voters in 
1962, creating a unified and uniform General Court of Justice for the State. Other 
amendments submitted by the same session and approved by the voters provided 
for the automatic decennial reapportionment of the State House of Representatives, 
clarified the provisions for succession to elective State executive offices and dis- 
ability determination, authorized a reduction in the residence period for voters for 
President, allowed increases in the compensation of elected state executive officers 
during their terms, and required that the power of the General Assembly to classify 
and exempt property for taxation be exercised by it alone and only on a uniform, 
statewide basis. 

The session of 1963 submitted two amendments: One to enlarge the rights of 
married women to deal with their own property was approved by the voters; one to 
enlarge the Senate from fifty to seventy members and allocate one Representative 
to each county was rejected by the voters. The General Assembly of 1965 submitted 
and the voters approved an amendment authorizing the legislative creation of a 
Court of Appeals. 

The 1967 General Assembly proposed and the voters approved amendments 
authorizing the General Assembly to fix its own compensation and revising the 
legislative apportionment scheme to conform to the judicially-established require- 
ment of representation in proportion to population in both Houses. 

Constitution of 1971 

From 1869 through 1968, there were submitted to the voters of North Carolina a 
total of 97 propositions for amending the Constitution of the State. All but one of 
these proposals originated in the General Assembly. Of those 97 amendment pro- 
posals, 69 were ratified by the voters and 28 were rejected by them. The changing 
attitude of the voters toward constitutional amendments is well illustrated by the 
fact that from 1869 to 1933, 21 of the 48 amendment propositions were rejected by 
the voters, a failure rate of three out of seven. Between 1933 and 1968, only seven 
of 49 proposed amendments were rejected by the voters, a failure rate of one out of 
seven. 

After the amendments of the early 1960's, the pressure for constitutional change 
seemed at the time to have abated. Yet while an increasingly frequently used amend- 
ment process had relieved many of the pressures that otherwise would have 
strengthened the case for constitutional reform, it had not kept the Constitution 
current in all respects. Constitutional amendments usually were drafted in response 
to particular problems experienced or anticipated and generally they were limited 



The Constitution of North Carolina 93 



in scope so as to achieve the essential goal, while arousing minimum unnecessary 
opposition. Thus amendments sometimes were not as comprehensive as they should 
have been to avoid inconsistency in result. Obsolete and invalid provisions had been 
allowed to remain in the Constitution to mislead the unwary reader. Moreover, in 
the absence of a comprehensive reappraisal, there had been no recent occasion to 
reconsider constitutional provisions that might be obsolescent but might not have 
proved so frustrating or unpopular in their effect as to provoke curative amend- 
ments. 

It was perhaps for these reasons that when Governor Dan K. Moore recommended 
to the North Carolina State Bar in the fall of 1967 that it take the lead in making a 
study of the need for revision of the State Constitution, the response was prompt 
and affirmative. The North Carolina State Bar and the North Carolina Bar Associa- 
tion joined to create the North Carolina State Constitution Study Commission as a 
joint agency of the two organizations. The 25 members of that commission (fifteen 
attorneys and ten laymen) were chosen by a steering committee representative of 
the sponsoring organizations. The Chairman of the Commission was former state 
Chief Justice Emery B. Denny. 

The State Constitution Study Commission worked throughout most of 1968. It 
became clear early in the course of its proceedings that the amendments the Com- 
mission wished to propose were too numerous to be submitted to the voters as 
independent propositions. On the other hand, the Commission did not wish to 
embody all of its proposed changes in a single document, to be approved or dis- 
approved by the voters on a single vote. The compromise procedure developed by 
the Commission and approved by the General Assembly was a blend of the two 
approaches. The Commission combined in a revised text of the Constitution all of 
the extensive editorial changes that it thought should be made in the Constitution, 
together with such substantive changes as the Commission deemed not to be con- 
troversial or fundamental in nature. These were embodied in the document that 
came to be known as the Constitution of 1971. Those proposals for change that were 
deemed to be sufficiently fundamental or potentially controversial in character as 
to justify it, the Commission set out as independent amendment propositions, to be 
considered by the General Assembly and by the voters of the State on their in- 
dependent merits. Thus the opposition to the latter proposals would not be cumu- 
lated. The separate proposals framed by the Commission were ten in number, 
including one extensive revision of the finance article of the Constitution which was 
largely the work of the Local Government Study Commission, a legislatively- 
established group then at work on the revision of constitutional and statutory 
provisions with respect to local government. The amendments were so drafted that 
any number or combination of them might be ratified by the voters and yet produce 
a consistent result. 

The General Assembly of 1969, to which the recommendations of the State Consti- 
tution Study Commission were submitted, received a total of 28 proposals for consti- 
tutional amendments. Constitutional revision was an active subject of interest 
throughout the session. The proposed Constitution of 1971, in the course of seven 
roll-call votes (four in the House and three in the Senate), received only one negative 
vote. The independent amendments fared variously; ultimately six were approved 
by the General Assembly and submitted to the voters. These were the executive 
reorganization amendment, the finance amendment, an amendment to the income 
tax provision of the Constitution, a reassignment of the benefits of the escheats, 



94 North Carolina Manual 



authorization for calling: extra lepfislative sessions on the petition of members of the 
General Assembly, and abolition of the literacy test for voting. All but the last two 
of these amendments had been recommended by the State Consititution Study Com- 
mission. At the election held on November 3, 1970, the proposed Constitution of 
1971 was approved by a vote of 393,759 to 251,132. Five of the six separate amend- 
ments were approved by the voters; the literaracy test repeal was rejected. 

The Constitution of 1971 took effect under its own terms on July 1, 1971 (hence 
its designation as the "Constitution of 1971"). So did the executive reorganization 
amendment, the income tax amendment, the escheats amendment, and the amend- 
ment with respect to extra legislative sessions, all of which amended the Consti- 
tution of 1971 at the instant it took effect. The finance amendment, which made 
extensive revisions in the Constitution of 1971 with respect to debt and local 
taxation, took effect on July 1, 1973. The two-year delay in its effective date was 
occasioned by the necessity to conform state statutes with respect to local govern- 
ment finance to the terms of the amendment. 

The Constitution of 1971, the State Constitution Study Commission stated in its 
report recommending its adoption, 

effects a general editorial revision of the constitution. . . . The deletions, reorganizations, and 
improvements in the clarity and consistency of language will be found in the propH)sed consti- 
tution. Some of the changes are substantive, but none is calculated to impair any present right 
of the individual citizen or to bring about any fundamental change in the power of state and 
local government or the distritution of that power. 

In the new Constitution, the old fourteen-article organization of the Consti- 
tution was retained, but the contents of several articles — notably Articles I, II, III, 
V, IX, and X — were rearranged in more logical sequence. Sections were shifted 
from one article to another to make a more logical subject-matter arrangement. 
Clearly obsolete and constitutionally invalid matter was omitted, as were provisions 
essentially legislative in character. Uniformity of expression was sought where 
uniformity of meaning was important. Directness and currency of language were 
also sought, together with standardization in spelling, punctuation, capitalization, 
and other essentially editorial matters. Greater brevity of the Constitution as a 
whole was a by-product of the revision, though not itself a primaiy objective. 

The Declaration of Rights (Article I), which dates from 1776 with some 1868 
additions, was retained with a few additions. The organization of the article was 
improved and the frequently used subjunctive mood was replaced by the imperative 
in order to make clear that the provisions of that article are commands and not 
mere admonitions. (For example, "All elections ought to be free" became "All 
elections shall be free.") To the article were added a guarantee of freedom of speech, 
a guarantee of equal protection of the laws, and a prohibition against exclusion from 
jury service or other discrimination by the State on the basis of race or religion. 
Since all of the rights newly expressed in the Constitution of 1971 were already 
guaranteed by the United States Constitution, their inclusion simply constituted 
an explicit recognition by the State of their importance. 

In the course of reorganizing and abbreviating Article III (the Executive), 
the Governor's role as chief executive was brought into clear focus. The scattered 
statements of the Governor's duties were collected in one section, to which was 
added a brief statement of his budget powers, foiTnerly merely statutory in origin. 
No change was made in the Governor's eligibility or term, or in the list of state 
executives previously elected by the people. To the Council of State (formerly seven 



The Constitution of North Carolina 95 



elected executives with the Governor as presiding officer) were added the Governor, 
Lieutenant Governor, and Attorney General as ex-officio members. 

Having been entirely rewritten in 1962, the judicial article (Article IV) was 
the subject of little editorial alteration and of no substantive change. 

The editorial amendments to Article V, dealing with finance and taxation, were 
extensive. Provisions concerning finance were transferred to it from four other 
articles. The former finance provisions were expanded in some instances to make 
clearer the meaning of excessively condensed provisions. The only substantive 
change of note gave a wife who is the primary wage-earner in her family the same 
constitutionally guaranteed income tax exemption now granted a husband who is 
the chief wage-earner; she already had that benefit under statute. 

The revision of Article VI (voting and elections) added out-of-state and federal 
felonies to felonies committed against the State of North Carolina as grounds for 
denial of voting and office-holding rights in this State. The General Assembly was 
directed to enact general laws governing voter registration. 

The provision that has been interpreted to mean that only voters can hold office 
was modified to limit its application to popularly elective offices only; thus it is left 
to the legislature to determine whether one must be a voter in order to hold an 
appointive office. 

The Constitution of 1971 prohibits the concurrent holding of two or more 
elective state offices or of a federal office and an elective state office. It expressly 
prohibits the concurrent holding of any two or more appointive offices or places of 
trust or profit, or of any combination of elective and appointive offices or places of 
trust or profit, except as the General Assembly may allow by general law. 

The power to provide for local government remains in the legislature, confining 
the constitutional provisions on the suject to a general description of the General 
Assembly's plenary authority over local government, a declaration that any unit 
formed by the merger of a city and a county should be deemed both a city and a 
county for constitutional purposes, and a section retaining the sheriff as an elective 
county officer. 

The education article (Article IX) was rearranged to improve upon the former 
hodgepodge treatment of public schools and higher education, obsolete provisions 
(esecially those pertaining to racial matters) were eliminated, and other changes 
were made to reflect current practice in the administration and financing of schools. 

The constitutionally-mandated school term was extended from six months (set 
in 1918) to a minimum of nine months (where it was fixed by statute many years 
earlier). The possibly restrictive age limits on tuition-free public schooling were 
removed. Units of local government to which the General Assembly assigns a share 
of the responsibility for financing public education were authorized to finance from 
local revenues education programs, including both public schools and technical 
institutes and community colleges, without a popular vote of approval. It was made 
mandatory (it was formerly permissive) that the General Assembly require school 
attendance. 

The Superintendent of Public Instruction was eliminated as a voting member 
of the State Board of Education but retained as the Board's secretary. He was 
replaced with an additional at-large appointee. A potential conflict of authority 
between the Superintendent and the Board (both of which previously had consti- 
tutional authority to administer the public schools) was eliminated by making the 
Superintendent the chief administrative officer of the Board, which is to supervise 
and administer the schools. 



96 North Carolina Manual 



The provisions with respect to the state and county school funds were retained 
with only minor editorial modifications. Fines, penalties, and forfeitures continue 
to be earmarked for the county school fund. 

The former provisions dealing with The University of North Carolina were 
broadened into a statement of the General Assembly's duty to maintain a system of 
higher education. 

The General Assembly was authorized by the changes made in Article X 
(Homesteads and Exemptions) to set the amounts of the personal property exemption 
and the homestead exemption (constitutionally fixed at $500 and $1,000 respectively 
since 1868) at what it considers to be reasonable levels, with the constitutional 
figures being treated as minimums. The provision protecting the rights of married 
women to deal with their own property was left untouched. The protection given 
life insurance taken out for the benefit of the wife and children of the insured was 
broadened. 

The provisions prescribing the permissible punishments for crime and limiting 
the crimes punishable by death (Article XI) were left essentially intact. 

The procedures for constitutional revision (Article XIII) were made more 
explicit. 

The five constitutional amendments ratified at the same time as the Consti- 
tution of 1971 deserve particular mention. 

By the end of the 1960's, North Carolina state government consisted of over 
200 state administrative agencies. The State Constitution Study Commission 
concluded on the advice of witnesses who had tried it that no governor could 
effectively oversee an administrative apparatus of such disjointed complexity. The 
Commission's solution was an amendment, patterned after the Model State Consti- 
tution and the constitutions of a few other states, requiring the General Assembly 
to reduce the number of administrative departments to not more than 25 by 1975, 
and to give the Governor authority to effect agency reorganizations and consolida- 
tions, subject to disapproval by action of either house of the legislature if the 
changes affected existing statutes. 

The second separate constitutional amendment ratified in 1970 supplemented 
the existing authority of the Governor to call extra sessions of the General 
Assembly with the advice of the Council of State. The amendment provides that on 
written request of three-fifths of all the members of each house, the President of 
the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall convene an 
extra session of the General Assembly. Thus the legislative branch is now able to 
convene itself, notwithstanding the contrary wishes of the Governor. 

The most significant of the separate amendments and in some ways the most 
important of the constitutional changes ratified in 1970 was the finance amendment. 
The changes it effected are especially important in the financing of local govern- 
ment. The amendment became effective on July 1, 1973. Its principal provisions 
are as follows: 

(1) All forms of capitation or poll tax are now prohibited. 

(2) The General Assembly is authorized to enact laws empowering counties, 
cities, and towns to establish special taxing districts less extensive in 
area than the entire county or city in order to finance the provision within 
those special districts of a higher level of governmental service than is 
available in the unit at large, either by supplementing existing services or 
providing services not otherwise available. That provision eliminates the 



The Constitution of North Carolina 97 



previous necessity of creating a new, independent governmental unit to 
accomplish the same result. 

(3) For a century, the Constitution required that the levying of taxes and the 
borrowing of money by local governments be approved by a vote of the 
people of the unit, unless the money were to be used for a "necessary 
expense." The court, not the General Assembly, was the final arbiter of 
what was a "necessary expense," and the State Supreme Court took a 
rather restrictive view of the embrace of that concept. The determination 
of what types of public expenditures should require voter approval and 
what types should be made by a governing board on its own authority 
was found by the General Assembly to be a legislative and not a judicial 
matter. In that conviction, the finance amendment provided that the 
General Assembly, acting on a uniform, statewide basis, should make the 
final determination of whether voter approval must be had for the levy of 
property taxes or the borrowing of money to finance particular activities 
of local government. 

(4) To facilitate governmental and private cooperative endeavors, the state 
and local governmental units were authorized by the amendment to enter 
into contracts with an appropriate money to private entities "for the ac- 
complishment of public purposes only." 

(5) The various forms of public financial obligations were more precisely 
defined than in the previous constitution, with the general effect of requir- 
ing voter approval only for the issuance of general obligation bonds and 
notes or for governmental guarantees of the debts of private persons or 
organizations. The General Assembly was directed to regulate by general 
law (permitting classified but not local acts) the contracting of debt by 
local governments. 

(6) The amendment retained the existing limitation that the state and local 
governments may not, without voter approval, borrow more than the 
equivalent of two-thirds of the amount by which the unit's indebtedness 
was reduced during the last fiscal period, except for purposes listed in the 
Constitution. This list was lengthened to include "emergencies im- 
mediately threatening public health or safety." 

(7) No change was made in the provisions with respect to the classification 
and exemption of property for purposes of property taxation. The limitation 
of 20e on the $100 valuation previously imposed on the general county 
property tax was omitted. 

The fourth independent amendment also dealt with taxation. It struck out a 
schedule of specified minimum exemptions from the constutional provision on the 
state income tax, leaving those exemptions to be fixed by the General Assembly. 
This change enabled the legislature to provide for the filing of joint tax returns by 
husbands and wives and to adopt a "piggy-back" state income tax to be computed 
as a percentage of the federal income tax, thus relieving the taxpayer of two sets 
of computations. The amendment retains the maximum tax rate at ten per cent. 

The final amendment ratified in 1970 assigns the benefits of property escheat- 
ing to the State for want of an heir or other lawful claimant to a special fund, to be 
available to help needy North Carolina students attending public institutions of 
higher education in the State. Property escheating prior to July 1, 1971, continues 
to be held by The University of North Carolina. 



98 North Carolina Manual 



The one amendment defeated by the voters in 1970 tould have repealed the 
state constitutional requirement that in order to register as a voter, one must be 
able to read and write the English language. That requirement was already in- 
effective by virtue of federal legislation and therefore the failure of repeal had no 
practical effect. 

The General Assembly of 1971 submitted to the voters five state constitutional 
amendments, all of which were ratified by the voters on November 7, 1972. Those 
amendments set the constitutionally-specified voting age at 18 years, required the 
General Assembly to set maximum age limits for service as justices and judges of 
the state courts, authorized the General Assembly to prescribe procedures for the 
censure and removal of state judges and justices, added to the Constitution a state- 
ment of policy with regard to the conservation and the protection of natural re- 
sources, and limited the authority of the General Assembly to incorporate cities and 
towns within close proximity to existing municipalities. 

The General Assembly at its 197.'^ session submitted to the voters for action in 
November 1974 an amendment changing the title of the solicitor to that of district 
attorney. The 1974 session submitted an additional amendment authorizing the use 
of revenue bonds for constiiacting industrial facilities. The voters ratified the amend- 
ment changing the title of solicitor, but rejected the one on revenue bonds for 
industrial facilities. 

Two amendments were submitted to the people by the 1975 Legislature. Both 
of these dealt with the using of revenue bonds to finance constnjction. The first for 
health care facilities and the second for industrial facilities — a modification of the 
amendment rejected in 1974. Both amendments were ratified by the voters on 
March 23, 1976. 

The year 1977 was of profound importance in the constitutional development of 
North Carolina. A district departure from the traditions of the past took place with 
the ratification of Senate Bill 292. S.B. 292 entitled "An act to amend the constitution of 
North Carolina to empower the voters to elect the governor and lieutenant jjovernor for 
two con.secutive terms" marked the first time since 1835 that the governor could run for 
consecutive terms. The constitutional convention in 1835 amended our first constitution 
permitting popular election of the governor for a two-year term and one additional 
consecutive term. The 1971 constitution and its predecessor, the constitution of 18H8 
limited the governor and lieutenant governor to one four-year term. The gubenatorial 
succession amendment was submitted to the people along with four other amendments 
in November, 1977. All five were ratified by the people. 

Conclusion 

The people of North Carolina have treated their constitution with conservatism 
and respect. The fact that we have adopted only three constitutions in two centuries 
of existence as a state is the chief evidence of that attitude. (Some states have 
adopted as many as five or ten constitutions in a like period.) The relative fewness 
of amendments, even in recent years, is another point of contrast to many states. 
It reflects the fact that North Carolina has been less disposed than have many 
states to write into its state constitution detrailed provisions with respect to transi- 
tory matters better left to legislation. The Constitution has allowed the General 
Assembly wide latitude for decision on public affairs, and legislators have been 
willing to accept responsibility for and act on matters within their authority instead 
of passing the responsibility for difficult decisions on to the voters in the form of 
constitutional amendments. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 99 



Constitution draftsmen have not been so convinced of their own exclusive hold 
on wisdom or so doubtfiil of the reliability of later generations of legislators that 
they found it necessary to write into the Constitution the large amount of regulatory 
detail often found in state constitutions. Delegates to constitutional conventions 
and members of the General Assembly have acted consistently with the advice of 
the late John J. Parker, Chief Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the 
Fourth Circuit (1925-58), who observed: 

The purpose of a state constitution is two-fold: (1) to protect the rights 
of the individual from encroachment by the State; and (2) to provide a 
framework of government for the State and its subdivisions. It is not the 
function of a constitution to deal with temporary conditions, but to lay 
down general principles of government which must be observed amid 
changing conditions. It follows, then, that a constitution should not 
contain elaborate legislative provisions, but should lay down briefly and 
clearly fundamental principles upon which the government shall proceed, 
leaving it to the people's representatives to apply these principles through 
legislation to conditions as they arise. 



100 North Carolina Manual 

Appendix 1 

NORTH CAROLINA 

CONSTITUTIONAL PROPOSITIONS 

VOTED ON BY THE PEOPLE, 1868-1972 



Year 






Year 






of Vote 


Ratified 


Rejected 


of Vote 


Ratified 


Reje ct ed 


1868 


1 





1944 


5 





1873 


8 





1946 


1 


1 


1876 


1 





1948 


1 


3 


1880 


2 





1950 


5 





1888 


1 





1952 


3 





1892 





1 


1954 


4 


1 


1900 


1 





1956 


4 





1914 





10 


1958 





1 


1916 


4 





1962 


6 





1918 


2 





1964 


1 


1 


1920 


2 





1966 


1 





1922 





1 


1968 


2 





1924 


3 


1 


1970 


6 


1 


1926 


1 





1972 


5 





1928 


1 


2 


1974 


1 


1 


1930 





3 


1976 


2 





1932 


1 


3 


1977 


5 





1936 


5 





Totals 


89 


30 


1938 


2 











1942 


2 












In the above table, each issue on which the people have voted is counted as 
one, whether it involved only a single section (as was often the case), a whole article 
(as in the case of the 1900 suffrage amendment and the 1962 court amendment, or 
a revision of the entire Constitution (as in 1868 and 1970). 



The Constitution of North Carolina loi 

CONSTITUTION 

of the 

STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 



PREAMBLE 

We, the people of the State of North Carolina, grateful to Almighty God, the 
Sovereign Ruler of Nations, for the preservation of the American Union and the 
existence of our civil, political and religious liberties, and acknowledging our 
dependence upon Him for the continuance of those blessings to us and our pos- 
terity, do for the more certain security thereof and for the better government of 
this State, ordain and establish this Constitution. 

ARTICLE I 

Declaration of Rights 

That the great, general and essential principles of liberty and free govern- 
ment may be recognized and established, and that the relations of this State to the 
Union and government of the United States and those of the people of this State 
to the rest of the American people may be defined and affirmed, we do declare that: 

Section 1. The equality and rights of persons. We hold it to be self-evident 
that all persons are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with 
certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, the enjoyment of the 
fruits of their own labor, and the pursuit of happiness. 

Sec. 2. Sovereignty of the -people. All political power is vested in and derived 
from the people; all government of right originates from the people, is founded 
upon their will only, and is instituted solely for the good of the whole. 

Sec. 3. Internal government of the State. The people of this State have the 
inherent, sole, and exclusive right of regulating the internal government and 
police thereof, and of altering or abolishing their Constitution and form of govern- 
ment whenever it may be necessary to their safety and happiness; but every such 
right shall be exercised in pursuance of law and consistently with the Constitution 
of the United States. 

Sec. 4. Secessio7i prohibited. This State shall ever remain a member of the 
American Union; the people thereof are part of the American nation; there is no 
right on the part of this State to secede; and all attempts, from whatever source 
or upon whatever pretext, to dissolve this Union or to sever this Nation, shall be 
resisted with the whole power of the State. 

Sec. 5. Allegiance to the United States. Every citizen of this State owes 
paramount allegiance to the Constitution and government of the United States, 



102 North Carolina Manual 



and no law or ordinanco of tho State in contravention or subversion thereof can 
have any hiiuiin^^ force. 

Sec. C<. St'iKintt i(>)i of poico-s. The le^ishitive, executive, and supreme judicial 
powers of the State ji'overnnient shall be forever separate and distinct from each 
other. 

Sec. 7. Si<s})fii(liii(/ hues. All [)i)wer of siispendinK' la\s's or the execution of 
laws by any authoritN', without the consent of the rein-esentatives of the ])eople, is 
injurious to their rij^hts and shall not bi' exercised. 

Sec. 8. R('iiri's<'iit(itioii iind taxation. The people of this State shall not be 
taxed or made subjt'ct to the payment of any impost or duty without the consent of 
themselves or thi'ir representatives in the (ieneral Assembly, freely given. 

Sec. 9. Frequent elections. For redress of grievances and for amending and 
strengthening the laws, elections shall be often held. 

Sec. 10. Free election.^. All elections shall be free. 

Sec. 11. I'rojiertu qualitieations. As p(.)litical rights and privileges are not 
dependent upon or iiUKlifie<i by propert.w no [iropt'rty qualification shall affect the 
right to vote or hold office. 

Sec. 12. Right of a.-^setnhln and petition. The people have a right to assemble 
together to consult for their common gootl, to instruct their representatives, and to 
apply to the Cleneral Assembly for retlress of grievances; but secret political socie- 
ties are dangerous to the liberties of a free people and shall not be tolerated. 

Sec. 13. Reli(jioi(s liberty. All persons have a natural and inalienable right to 
worship Almighty God acconling to the desires of their own consciences, and no 
human authority shall, in any case whatever control or interfere with the rights 
of conscience. 

Sec. 14. Freedom of speeeli and press. Freedom of speech anil of the press 
are two of the great bulwarks of liberty ami therefore shall never be restrained, 
but every person shall be held responsible for their abuse. 

Sec. 15. Education. The people have a right to the privilege of education, and 
it is the duty of the State to guard and maintain that right. 

Sec. 16. Ej: post facto laws. Retrospective laws, punishing acts committed 
before the existence of such laws and by them onl.\' declared criminal, are oppres- 
sive, unjust, and incompatible with liberty, and therefore no ex post facto law 
shall be enacted. No law taxing retrospectively sales, purchases, or other acts 
previously done shall be enacted. 

Sec. 17. Slaver If and in eoliinturii servitude. Slavery is forever prohibited. 
Involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the parties have 
been adjudged guilty, is forever jirohibited. 

Sec. 18. Courts shall be ojien. All courts shall be open; every person for an 
injury done him in his lands, goods, person, or reputation shall have remedy by 



The Constitution of North Carolina 103 



due course of law; and rig-ht and justice shall be administered without favor, 
denial, or delay. 

Sec. 19. Laiv of the land; equal protection uf the laics. No person shall be 
taken, imprisoned, or disseized of his freehold, liberties, or privileges, or outlawed, 
or exiled, or in any manner deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by the law 
of the land. No person shall be denied the equal protection of the laws; nor shall 
any person be subjected to discrimination by the State because of race, color, re- 
ligion, or national origin. 

Sec. 20. General ivarra)its. General warrants, whereby any officer or other 
person may be commanded to search suspected places without evidence of the act 
committed, or to seize any person or persons not named, whose offense is not par- 
ticularly described and supported by evidence, are dangerous to liberty and shall 
not be granted. 

Sec. 21. Inquiry into restrai)its on liberty. Every person restrained of his 
liberty is entitled to a remedy to inquire into the lawfulness thereof, and to remove 
the restraint if unlawful, and that remedy shall not be denied or delayed. The 
privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended. 

Sec. 22. Modes of prosecution. Except in misdemeanor cases initiated in the 
District Court Division, no person shall be put to answer any criminal charge but 
by indictment, presentment, or impeachment. But any person, when represented 
by counsel, may, under such regulations as the General Assembly shall prescribe, 
waive indictment in noncapital cases. 

Sec. 23. Rights of accused. In all criminal prosecutions, every person charged 
with crime has the right to be informed of the accusation and to confront the ac- 
cusers and witnesses with other testimony, and to have counsel for defense, and 
not be compelled to give self-incriminating evidence, or to pay costs, jail fees, or 
necessary witness fees of the defense, unless found guilty. 

Sec. 24. Right of jury trial in criminal cases. No person shall be convicted 
of any crime but by the unanimous verdict of a jury in open court. The General 
Assembly may, however, provide for other means of trial for misdemeanors, with 
the right of appeal for trial de novo. 

Sec. 25. Right of jury trial in civil cases. In all controversies at law respect- 
ing property, the ancient mode of trial by jury is one of the best securities of the 
rights of the people, and shall remain sacred and inviolable. 

Sec. 26. Jury service. No person shall be excluded from jury service on ac- 
count of sex, race, color, religion, or national origin. 

Sec. 27. Bail, fines, and punishments. Excessive bail shall not be required, 
nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishments inflicted. 

Sec. 28. Imprisonment for debt. There shall be no imprisonment tor debt in 
this State, except in cases of fraud. 

Sec. 29. Treason against the State. Treason against the State shall consist 
only of levying war against it or adhering to its enemies by giving them aid and 



104 North Carolina Manual 



comfort. No ptTSon shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two 
witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. No conviction of 
treason or attainder shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture. 

Sec. 30. Militia and the right to bear artns. A well regulated militia being 
necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear 
arms shall not be infringed; and, as standing armies in time of peace are dan- 
gerous to liberty, they shall not be maintained, and the military shall be kept 
under strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power. Nothing herein 
shall justify the practice of carrying concealed weapons, or prevent the General 
Assembly from enacting statutes against that practice. 

Sec. 31. Quarteri)ig of soldiers. No soldier shall in time of peace be quartered 
in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner 
prescribed by law. 

Sec. 32. Exclusive eniolutnevts. No person qr set of persons is entitled to ex- 
clusive or separate emoluments or privileges from the community but in considera- 
tion of public services. 

Sec. 33. Hereditary eynoluments and honors. No hereditary emoluments, priv- 
ileges, or honors shall be granted or conferred in this State. 

Sec. 34. Perpetuities and monopolies. Perpetuities and monopolies are con- 
trary to the genius of a free state and shall not be allowed. 

Sec. 35. Recurretice to fundamental principals. A frequent recurrence to 
fundamental principles is absolutely necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty. 

Sec. 36. Other rights of the people. The enumeration of rights in this Article 
shall not be construed to impair or deny others retained by the people. 



ARTICLE II 

Legislative 

Section 1. Legislative po%ver. The legislative power of the State shall be vested 
in the General Assembly, which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Repre- 
sentatives. 

Sec. 2. Number of Senators. The Senate shall be composed of 50 Senators, 
biennially chosen by ballot. 

Sec. 3. Senate districts; apportionment of Senators. The Senators shall be 
elected from districts. The General Assembly, at the first regular session conven- 
ing after the return of every decennial census of population taken by order of 
Congress, shall revise the senate districts and the apportionment of Senators 
among those districts, subject to the following requirements: 

(1) Each Senator shall represent, as nearly as may be, an equal number of 
inhabitants, the number of inhabitants that each Senator represents being de- 



The Constitution of North Carolina 105 

termined for this purpose by dividing the population of the district that he repre- 
sents by the number of Senators apportioned to that district; 

(2) Each senate district shall at all times consist of contiguous territory; 

(3) No county shall be divided in the formation of a senate district; 

(4) When established, the senate districts and the apportionment of Senators 
shall remain unaltered until the return of another decennial census of population 
taken by order of Congress. 

Sec. 4. Number of Representatives. The House of Representatives shall be 
composed of 120 Representatives, biennially chosen by ballot. 

Sec. 5. Representative districts; apportionment of Representatives. The Rep- 
resentatives shall be elected from districts. The General Assembly, at the first 
regular session convening after the return of every decennial census of population 
taken by order of Congress, shall revise the representative districts and the ap- 
portionment of Representatives among those districts, subj.ect to the following re- 
quirements: 

(1) Each Representative shall represent, as nearly as may be, an equal num- 
ber of inhabitants, the number of inhabitants that each Representative represents 
being determined for this purpose by dividing the population of the district he 
represents by the number of Representatives apportioned to that district; 

(2) Each representative district shall at all times consist of contiguous terri- 
tory; 

(3) No country shall be divided in the formation of a representative district; 

(4) When established, the representative districts and the apportionment of 
Representatives shall remain unaltered until the return of another decennial cen- 
sus of population taken by order of Congress. 

Sec. 6. Qualifications for Seitator. Each Senator, at the time of his election, 
shall be not less than 25 years of age, shall be a qualified voter of the State, and 
shall have resided in the State as a citizen for two years and in the district for 
which he is chosen for one year immediately preceding his election. 

Sec. 7. Qualificatio)is for Representative. Each Representative, at the time 
of his election, shall be a qualified voter of the State and shall have resided in the 
district for which he is chosen for one year immediately preceding his election. 

Sec. 8. Elections. The election for members of the General Assembly shall 
be held for the respective districts in 1972 and every two years thereafter, at the 
places and on the day prescribed by law. 

Sec. 9. Term of office. The term of office of Senators and Representatives 
shall commence at the time of their election. 

Sec. 10. Vacancies. Every vacancy occurring in the membership of the Gen- 
eral Assembly by reason of death, resignation, or other cause shall be filled in the 
manner prescribed by law. 



106 North Carolina Manual 



Sec. 11. Sessions. 

(1) Regular Sessions. The General Assembly shall meet in regular session in 
1973 and every two years thereafter on the day prescribed by law. Neither house 
shall f)roceed upon public business unless a majority of all of its members are 
actually present. 

(2) Extra sessions on legislative call. The President of the Senate and the 
Speaker of the House of Representatives shall convene the General Assembly in 
extra session by their joint proclamation upon receipt by the President of the 
Senate of written requests therefor siprned by three-fifths of all the members of 
the Senate and upon receipt by the Speaker of the House of Representatives of 
written requests therefor signed by three-fifths of all the members of the House 
of Representatives. 

Sec. 12. Oath of members. Each member of the General Assembly, before 
taking his seat, shall take an oath or affirmation that he will support the Con- 
stitution and laws of the United States and the Constitution of the State of North 
Carolina, and will faithfully discharge his duty as a member of the Senate or 
House of Representatives. 

Sec. 13. President of the Senate. The Lieutenant Governor shall be Presi- 
dent of the Senate and shall preside over the Senate, but shall have no vote unless 
the Senate is equally divided. 

Sec. 14. Other officers of the Senate. 

(1) President Pro Tempore - succession to presidency. The Senate shall elect 
from its membership a President Pro Tempore, who shall become President of the 
Senate upon the failure of the Lieutenant Governor-elect to qualify, or upon suc- 
cession by the Lieutenant Governor to the office of Governor, or upon the death, 
resignation, or removal from office of the President of the Senate, and who shall 
serve until the expiration of his term of office as Senator. 

(2) President Pro Tempore - temporary succession. During the physical or 
mental incapacity of the President of the Senate to perform the duties of his office, 
or during the absence of the President of the Senate, the President Pro Tempore 
shall preside over the Senate. 

(3) Other officers. The Senate shall elect its other officers. 

Sec. 15. Officers of the House of Representatives. The House of Representa- 
tives shall elect its Speaker and other officers. 

Sec. 16. Compensation and allowances. The members and officers of the Gen- 
eral Assembly shall receive for their services the compensation and allowances 
prescribed by law. An increase in the compensation or allowances of members 
shall become effective at the beginning of the next regular session of the General 
Assembly following the session at which it was enacted. 

Sec. 17. Journals. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, which 
shall be printed and made public immediately after the adjournment of the General 
Assembly. 



The Constitution of North Carolina io7 



Sec. 18. Protests. Any member of either house may dissent from and protest 
against any act or resolve which he may think injurious to the public or to any 
individual, and have the reasons of his dissent entered on the journal. 

Sec. 19. Record votes. Upon motion made in either house and seconded by one 
fifth of the members present, the yeas and nays upon any question shall be taken 
and entered upon the journal. 

Sec. 20. Potvers of the General Assembly. Each house shall be judge of the 
qualifications and elections of its own members, shall sit upon its own adjournment 
from day to day, and shall prepare bills to be enacted into laws. The two houses 
may jointly adjourn to any future day or other place. Either house may, of its 
own motion, adjourn for a period not in excess of three days. 

Sec. 21. Style of the acts. The style of the acts shall be: "The General As- 
sembly of North Carolina enacts:". 

Sec. 22. Action on bills. All bills and resolutions of a legislative nature shall 
be read three times in each house before they become laws, and shall be signed by 
the presiding officers of both houses. 

Sec. 23. Revemie bills. No law shall be enacted to raise money on the credit 
of the State, or to pledge the faith of the State directly or indirectly for the pay- 
ment of any debt, or to impose any tax upon the people of the State, or to allow 
the counties, cities, or towns to do so, unless the bill for the purpose shall have 
been read three several times in each house of the General Assembly and passed 
three several readings, which readings shall have been on three different days, and 
shall have been agreed to by each house respectively, and unless the yeas and nays 
on the second and third readings of the bill shall have been entered on the journal. 

Sec. 24. Limitations on local, private, and special legislation. 

(1) Prohibited subjects. The General Assembly shall not enact any local, 
private, or special act or resolution: 

(a) Relating to health, sanitation, and the abatement of nuisances; 

(b) Changing the names of cities, towns, and townships; 

(c) Authorizing the laying out, opening, altering, maintaining, or discon- 
tinuing of highways, streets, or alleys; 

(d) Relating to ferries or bridges; 

(e) Relating to non-navigable streams; 

(f) Relating to cemeteries; 

(g) Relating to the pay of jurors; 

(h) Erecting new townships, or changing township lines, or establishing or 

changing the lines of school districts; 
(i) Remitting fines, penalties, and forfeitures, or refunding moneys legally 

paid into the public treasury; 
(j) Regulating labor, trade, mining, or manufacturing; 
(k) Extending the time for the levy or collection of taxes or otherwise re- 



108 North (\\roi.ina Manual 



licviii^r any (MiUt'ctor of taxes from the due performance of his official 
duties or his sureties from liability; 

(1) CiiviuK effect to informal wills and deeds; 

(m) (irantinjr a divorce or securinK alimony in any individual case; 

(n) Altering' the name of any person, or ley-itimating: any person not born in 
lawful wedlock, or restoring to the rights of citizenship any person con- 
victed of a felony. 

(2) Ri})eals. Nor shall the General Assembly enact any such local, private, 
or special act by the partial repeal of a fjeneral law; hut the (leneral Assembly 
may at any time repeal local, private, or special laws enacted by it. 

(3) Prohibited arts void. Any local, private, or special act or resolution en- 
acted in violation of the provisions of this Section shall be void. 

(4) General lau-s. The General Assembly may enact general laws regulating 
the matters set out in this Section. 



ARTICLE III 

Executive 

Section 1. Executive power. The executive power of the State shall be vested 
in the Governor. 

Sec. 2. Governor and Lieutenant Governor: election, term, and qualifications. 

(1) Election and term. The Governor and Lieutenant Governor shall be 
elected by the qualified voters of the State in 1972 and every four years thereafter, 
at the same time and places as members of the General Assembly are elected. 
Their term of office shall be four years and shall commence on the first day of 
January next after their election and continue until their successors are elected 
and qualified. 

(2) Qualifications. No person shall be eligible for election to the office of 
Governor or Lieutenant Governor unless, at the time of his election, he shall have 
attained the age of 30 years and shall have been a citizen of the United States for 
five years and a resident of this State for two years immediately preceding his 
election. No person elected to either of these two offices shall be eligible for elec- 
tion to more than two consecutive terms of the same office. 

Sec. 3. Succession to office of Governor. 

(1) Succession as Governor. The Lieutenant Governor-elect shall become 
Governor upon the failure of the Governor-elect to qualify. The Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor shall become Governor upon the death, resignation, or removal from office 
of the Governor. The further order of succession to the office of Governor shall be 
prescribed by law. A successor shall serve for the remainder of the term of the 
Governor whom he succeeds and until a new Governor is elected and qualified. 

(2) Succession as Acting Governor. During the absence of the Governor from 



The Constitution of North Carolina 109 



the State, or during the physical or mental incapacity of the Governor to perform 
the duties of his office, the Lieutenant Governor shall be Acting Governor. The 
further order of succession as Acting Governor shall be prescribed by law. 

(3) Physical incapacity. The Governor may, by a written statement filed 
with the Attorney General, declare that he is physically incapable of performing 
the duties of his office, and may thereafter in the same manner declare that he is 
physically capable of performing the duties of his office. 

(4) Mental incapacity. The mental incapacity of the Governor to perform the 
duties of his office shall be determined only by joint resolution adopted by a vote 
of two-thirds of all the members of each house of the General Assembly. 
Thereafter, the mental capacity of the Governor to perform the duties of his 
office shall be determined only by joint resolution adopted by a vote of a majority 
of all the members of each house of the General Assembly. In all cases, the General 
Assembly shall give the Governor such notice as it may deem proper and shall 
allow him an opportunity to be heard before a joint session of the General Assem- 
bly before it takes final action. When the General Assembly is not in session, the 
Council of State, a majority of its members concurring, may convene it in extra 
session for the purpose of proceeding under this paragraph. 

(5) Impeachment. Removal of the Governor from office for any other cause 
shall be by impeachment. 

Sec. 4. Oath of office for Governor. The Governor, before entering upon the 
duties of his office, shall, before any Justice of the Supreme Court, take an oath 
or affirmation that he will support the Constitution and laws of the United States 
and of the State of North Carolina, and that he will faithfully perform the duties 
pertaining to the office of Governor. 

Sec. 5. Duties of Governor. 

(1) Residence. The Governor shall reside at the seat of government of this 
State. 

(2) InfoTTnation to General Assembly. The Governor shall from time to time 
give the General Assembly information of the affairs of the State and recommend 
to their consideration such measures as he shall deem expedient. 

(3) Budget. The Governor shall prepare and recommend to the General As- 
sembly a comprehensive budget of the anticipated revenue and proposed expendi- 
tures of the State for the ensuing fiscal period. The budget as enacted by the 
General Assembly shall be administered by the Governor. 

The total expenditures of the State for the fiscal period covered by the budget shall not 
exceed the total of receipts during that fiscal period and the surplus remaining in the Stale 
Treasury at the beginning of the period. To insure that the State does not incur a deficit for 
any fiscal period, the Governor shall continually survey the collection of the revenue and 
shall effect the necessary economies in State expenditures, after first making adecjuate 
provision for the prompt payment of the principal of and interest on bonds and notes of the 
State according to their terms, whenever he determines that receipts during the fiscal period, 
when added to any surplus remaining in the State Treasury at the beginning of the period. 



110 North Carolina Manual 



will iKit he sufficit'iit to inct't huductcd cxpciKiiliircs. This section shall not he construed to 
impair the power of the State to issue its bonds and notes within the limitations inii)osed in 
Article \' of this Constitution, nor to impair the ohliKation of bonds and notes of the Stale 
now outstanding or issued hereafter. 

(4) Execution of laws. The Governor shall take care that the laws be faith- 
fully executed. 

(5) Commavder in Chief. The Governor shall be Commander in Chief of the 
military forces of the State except when they shall be called into the service of the 
United States. 

(6) Clemency. The Governor may grant reprieves, commutations, and par- 
dons, after conviction, for all offenses (except in cases of impeachment), upon 
such conditions as he may think proper, subject to regulations prescribed by law- 
relative to the manner of applying for pardons. The terms reprieves, commuta- 
tions, and pardons shall not include paroles. 

(7) E.rfrn .s'c,s.si'«».s. The Governor may, on extraordinary occasions, by and 
with the advice of the Council of State, convene the General Assembly in extra 
session by his proclamation, stating therein the purpose or purposes for which 
they are thus convened. 

(8) Appoint tneiitH. The Governor shall nominate and by and with the advice 
and consent of a majority of the Senators appoint all officers whose appointments 
are not otherwise provided for. 

(9) 1 n formation. The Governor may at any time require information in 
writing from the head of any administrative department or agency upon any sub- 
ject relating to the duties of his office. 

(10) Administrative reorganization. The General Assembly shall prescribe 
the functions, powers, and duties of the administrative departments and agencies 
of the State and may alter them from time to time, but the Governor may make 
such changes in the allocation of offices and agencies and in the allocation of those 
functions, powers, and duties as he considers necessary for efficient administra- 
tion. If those changes affect existing law, they shall be set forth in executive 
orders, which shall be submitted to the General Assembly not later than the six- 
tieth calendar day of its session, and shall become effective and shall have the 
force of law upon adjournment sine die of the session, unless specifically disap- 
proved by resolution of either house of the General Assembly or specifically modi- 
fied by joint resolution of both houses of the General Assembly. 

Sec. 6. Duties of the Lieutenant Governor. The Lieutenant Governor shall be 
President of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless the Senate is equally divided. 
He shall perform such additional duties as the General Assembly or the Governor 
may assign to him. He shall receive the compensation and allowances prescribed 
by law. 

Sec. 7. Other elective officers. 

(1) Officers. A Secretary of State, an Auditor, a Treasurer, a Superintendent 



The Constitution of North Carolina 1 1 1 



of Public Instruction, an Attorney General, a Commissioner of Agriculture, a 
Commissioner of Labor, and a Commissioner of Insurance shall be elected by the 
qualified voters of the State in 1972 and every four years thereafter, at the same 
time and places as members of the General Assembly are elected. Their term of 
office shall be four years and shall commence on the first day of January next 
after their election and continue until their successors are elected and qualified. 

(2) Duties. Their respective duties shall be prescribed by law. 

(3) Vacancies. If the office of any of these officers is vacated by death, resig- 
nation, or otherwise, it shall be the duty of the Governor to appoint another to 
serve until his successor is elected and qualified. Every such vacancy shall be 
filled by election at the first election for members of the General Assembly that 
occurs more than 30 days after the vacancy has taken place, and the person 
chosen shall hold the office for the remainder of the unexpired term fixed in this 
Section. When a vacancy occurs in the office of any of the officers named in this 
Section and the term expires on the first day of January succeeding the next 
election for members of the General Assembly, the Governor shall appoint to fill 
the vacancy for the unexpired term of the office. 

(4) Interivi officers. Upon the occurrence of a vacancy in the office of any one 
of these officers for any of the causes stated in the preceding paragraph, the Gov- 
ernor may appoint an interim officer to perform the duties of that office until a 
person is appointed or elected pursuant to this Section to fill the vacancy and is 
qualified. 

(5) Acting officers. During the physical or mental incapacity of any one of 
these officers to perform the duties of his office, as determined pursuant to this 
Section, the duties of his office shall be performed by an acting officer who shall be 
appointed by the Governor. 

(6) Determination of incapacity. The General Assembly shall by law pre- 
scribe with respect to those officers, other than the Governor, whose officers are 
created by this Article, procedures for determining the physical or mental in- 
capacity of any officer to perform the duties of his office, and for determining 
whether an officer who has been temporarily incapacitated has sufficiently recover- 
ed his physical or mental capacity to perform the duties of his office. Removal of 
those officers from office for any other cause shall be by impeachment. 

Sec. 8. Council of State. The Council of State shall consist of the officers 
whose offices are established by this Article. 

Sec. 9. Compensation and allowances. The officers whose offices are establish- 
ed by this Article shall at stated periods receive the compensation and allowances 
prescribed by law, which shall not be diminished during the time for which they 
have been chosen. 

Sec. 10. Seal of State. There shall be a seal of the State, which shall be kept 
by the Governor and used by him as occasion may require, and shall be called "The 
Great Seal of the State of North Carolina". All grants arc commissions shall be 
issued in the name and by the authority of the State of North Carolina, sealed 
with "The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina", and signed by the Governor. 



112 North Carolina Manual 



Sec. 11. Adniinifitrative departments. Not later than July 1, IDTT), all ad- 
ministrative departments, agencies, and offices of the State and their respective 
functions, powers, and duties shall be allocated by law amonf=r and within not more 
than 2r) princiinil administrative departments so as to proup them as far as prac- 
ticable according; to major purposes. Rejrulatory, quasi-judicial, and temporary 
agencies may, but need not, be allocated within a principal department. 



ARTICLE IV 

Judicial 

Section. 1. Judicial power. The judicial power of the State shall, except as 
provided in Section 3 of this Article, be vested in a Court for the Trial of Impeach- 
ments and a General Court of Justice. The General Assembly shall have no power 
to deprive the judicial department of any power or jurisdiction that rightfully per- 
tains to it as a co-ordinate department of the government, nor shall it establish 
or authorize any courts other than as permitted by this Article. 

Sec. 2. General Coiirt of Justice. The General Court of Justice shall con- 
stitute a unified judicial system for purposes of jurisdiction, operation, and admini- 
stration, and shall consist of an Appellate Division, a Superior Court Division, 
and a District Court Division. 

Sec. 3. Judicial powers of administrative agencies. The General Assembly 
may vest in administrative agencies established pursuant to law such judicial 
powers as may be reasonably necessary as an incident to the accomplishment of 
the purposes for which the agencies were created. Appeals from administrative 
agencies shall be to the General Court of Justice. 

Sec. 4. Court for the Trial of hupeaclunents. The House of Representatives 
solely shall have the power of impeaching. The Court for the Trial of Impeach- 
ments shall be the Senate. When the Governor or Lieutenant Governor is im- 
peached, the Chief Justice shall preside over the Court. A majority of the mem- 
bers shall be necessary to a quorum, and no person shall be convicted without the 
concurrence of two-thirds of the Senators present. Judgment upon conviction 
shall not extend beyond removal from and disqualification to hold office in this 
State, but the party shall be liable to indictment and punishment according to law. 

Sec. 5. Appellate division. The Appellate Division of the General Court of 
Justice shall consist of the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals. 

Sec. 6. Stiprenie Court. 

(1) Membership. The Supreme Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and six 
Associate Justices, but the General Assembly may increase the number of As- 
sociate Justices, but the General Assembly may increase the number of Associate 
Justices to not more than eight. In the event the Chief Justice is unable, on ac- 
count of absence or temporary incapacity, to perform any of the duties placed upon 
him, the senior Associate Justice available may discharge those duties. 

(2) Sessions of the Supreme Court. The sessions of the Supreme Court shall 



The Constitution of North Carolina 113 



be held in the City of Raleigh unless otherwise provided by the General Assembly. 

Sec. 7. Court of Appeals. The structure, organization, and composition of 
the Court of Appeals shall be determined by the General Assembly. The Court 
shall have not less than five members, and may be authorized to sit in divisions, 
or other than en batic. Sessions of the Court shall be held at such times and 
places as the General Assembly may prescribe. 

Sec. 8. Retirement of Justices and Judges. The General Assembly shall pro- 
vide by general law for the retirement of Justices and Judges of the General Court 
of Justice, and may provide for the temporary recall of any retired Justice or 
Judge to serve on the court from which he was retired. The General Assembly 
shall also prescribe maximum age limits for service as a Justice or Judge. 

Sec. 9. Superior Courts. 

(1) Superior Court districts. The General Assembly shall, from time to time, 
divide the State into a convenient number of Superior Court judicial districts and 
shall provide for the election of one or more Superior Court Judges for each dis- 
trict. Each regular Superior Court Judge shall reside in the district for which 
he is elected. The General Assembly may provide by general law for the selection 
or appointment of special or emergency Superior Court Judges not selected for a 
particular judicial district. 

(2) Open at all times; sessions for trial of cases. The Superior Courts shall 
be open at all times for the transaction of all business except for trial of issues of 
fact requiring a jury. Regular trial sessions of the Superior Court shall be held 
at times fixed pursuant to a calendar of courts promulgated by the Supreme 
Court. At least two sessions for the trial of jury cases shall be held annually in 
each county. 

(3) Clerks. A Clerk of the Superior Court for each county shall be elected 
for a term of four years by the qualified voters thereof, at the same time and 
places as members of the General Assembly are elected. If the office of Clerk of 
the Superior Court becomes vacant otherwise than by the expiration of the term, 
or if the people fail to elect, the senior regular resident Judge of the Superior 
Court serving the county shall appoint to fill the vacancy until an election can be 
regularly held. 

Sec. 10. District Courts. The General Assembly shall, from time to time, 
divide the State into a convenient number of local court districts and shall pre- 
scribe where the District Courts shall sit, but a District Court must sit in at least 
one place in each county. District Judges shall be elected for each district for a 
term of four years, in a manner prescribed by law. When more than one District 
Judge is authorized and elected for a district, the Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court shall designate one of the judges as Chief District Judge. Every District 
Judge shall reside in the district for which he is elected. For each county, the 
senior regular resident Judge of the Superior Court serving the county shall ap- 
point for a term of two years, for nominations submitted by the Clerk of the 
Superior Court of the county, one or more Magistrates who shall be officers of the 
District Court. The number of District Judges and Magistrates shall, from time 
to time, be determined by the General Assembly. Vacancies in the office of District 



114 North Carolina Manual 



Judge shall be filled for the unexpired term in a manner prescribed by law. Vacan- 
cies in the office of Majjistrate shall be filled for the unexpired term in the manner 
provided for original appointment to the office. 

Sec. 11. Assigynnevt of Judges. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, 
acting in accordance with rules of the Supreme Court, shall make assignments of 
Judges of the Superior Court and may transfer District Judges from one district 
to another for temporary or specialized duty. The principle of rotating Superior 
Court Judges among the various districts of a division is a salutary one and shall 
be observed. For this purpose the General Assembly may divide the State into a 
number of judicial divisions. Subject to the general supervision of the Chief 
Justice of the Supreme Court, assignment of District Judges within each local 
court district shall be made by the Chief District Judge. 

Sec. 12. Jurisdiction of the General Court of Justice. 

(1) Supreme Court. The Supreme Court shall have jurisdiction to review 
upon appeal any decision of the courts below, upon any matter of law or legal in- 
ference. The jurisdiction of the Supreme Court over "issues of fact" and "ques- 
tions of fact" shall be the same exercised by it prior to the adoption of this Article, 
and the Court may issue any remedial writs necessary to give it general super- 
vision and control over the proceedings of the other courts. 

(2) Court of Appeals. The Court of Appeals shall have such appellate juris- 
diction as the General Assembly may prescribe. 

(3) Superior Court. Except as otherwise provided by the General Assembly, 
the Superior Court shall have original general jurisdiction throughout the State. 
The Clerks of the Superior Court shall have such jurisdiction and powers as the 
General Assembly shall prescribe by general law uniformly applicable in every 
county of the State. 

(4) District Courts; Magistrates. The General Assembly shall, by general law 
uniformly applicable in every local court district of the State, prescribe the juris- 
diction and powers of the District Courts and Magistrates. 

(5) Waiver. The General Assembly may by general law provide that the 
jurisdictional limits may be waived in civil cases. 

(6) Appeals. The General Assembly shall by general law provide a proper 
system of appeals. Appeals from Magistrates shall be heard de novo, with the 
right of trial by jury as defined in this Constitution and the laws of this State. 

Sec. 13. Forms of action; rules of procedure. 

(1) Forms of Action. There shall be in this State but one form of action for 
the enforce or protection of private rights or the redress of private wrongs, which 
shall be denominated a civil action, and in which there shall be a right to have 
issues of fact tried before a jury. Every action prosecuted by the people of the 
State as a party against a person charged with a public offense, for the punish- 
ment thereof, shall be termed a criminal action. 

(2) Rules of procedure. The Supreme Court shall have exclusive authority 



The Constitution of North Carolina 115 



to make rules of procedure and practice for the Appellate Division. The General 
Assembly may make rules of procedure and practice for the Superior Court and 
District Court Divisions, and the General Assembly may delegate this authority to 
the Supreme Court. No rule of procedure or practice shall abridge substantive 
rights or abrogate or limit the right of trial by jury. If the General Assembly 
should delegate to the Supreme Court the rule-making power, the General Assembly 
may, nevertheless, alter, amend, or repeal any rule of procedure or practice adopt- 
ed by the Supreme Court for the Superior Court or District Court Divisions. 

Sec. 14. Waiver of jury trial. In all issues of fact joined in any court, the 
parties in any civil case may waive the right to have the issues determined by a 
jury, in which case the finding of the judge upon the facts shall have the force 
and effect of a verdict by a jury. 

Sec. 15. Administration. The General Assembly shall provide for an ad- 
ministrative office of the courts to carry out the provisions of this Article. 

Sec. 16. Terms of office and election of Jitstices of the Supreme Court, Judges 
of the Court of Appeals, and Judges of the Superior Cou/rt. Justices of the Su- 
preme Court, Judges of the Court of Appeals, and regular Judges of the Superior 
Court shall be elected by the qualified voters and shall hold office for terms of 
eight years and until theirsuccessors are elected and qualified. Justices of the 
Supreme Court and Judges of the Court of Appeals shall be elected by the qualified 
voters of the State. Regular Judges of the Superior Cour may be elected by the 
qualified voters of the State or by th voters of their respective districts, as the 
General Assembly may prescribe. 

Sec. 17. Rem.oval of Judges, Magistrates and Clerks. 

(1) Retnoval of Judges by the General Assembly. Any Justice or Judge of 
the General Court of Justice may be removed from office for mental or physical 
incapacity by joint resolution of two-thirds of all the members of each house of 
the General Assembly. Any Justice or Judge against whom the General Assembly 
may be about to proceed shall receive notice thereof, accompanied by a copy of the 
causes alleged for his removal, at least 20 days before the day on which either 
house of the General Assembly shall act thereon. Removal from office by the 
General Assembly for any other cause shall be by impeachment. 

(2) Additional method of removal of Judges. The General Assembly shall 
prescribe a procedure, in addition to impeachment and address set forth in this 
Section, for the removal of a Justice or Judge of the General Court of Justice for 
mental or physical incapacity interfering with the performance of his duties 
which is, or is likely to become, permanent, and for the censure and removal of a 
Justice or Judge ofthe General Court of Justice for wilful misconduct in office, 
wilful and persistent failure to perform his duties, habitual intemperance, convic- 
tion of a crime involving moral turpitude, or conduct prejudicial to the administra- 
tion of justice that brings the judical office into disrepute. 

(3) Removal of Magistrates. The General Assembly shall provide by general 
law for the removal of Magistrates for misconduct or mental or physical incapacity. 



116 North Carolina Manual 



(4) Removal of Clerki^. Any Clerk of the Superior Court may be removed 
from office for misconduct or mental or physical incapacity by the senior regular 
resident Superior Court Judp:e serving: the county. Any Clerk against whom pro- 
ceedings are instituted shall receive written notice of the charges against him at 
least ten days before the hearing upon the charges. Any Clerk so removed from 
ofTice shall be entitled to an appeal as provided by law. 

Sec. 18. District Attorney and Prosecutorial Districts. 

(1) District Attorneys. The General Assembly shall, from time to time, divide 
the State into a convenient number of solicitorial districts, for each of which a 
District Attorney shall be chosen for a term of four years by the qualified voters 
thereof, at the same time and places as members of the General Assembly are 
elected. The District Attorney shall advise the officers of justice in his district, be 
responsible for the prosecution on behalf of the State of all criminal actions in the 
Superior Courts of his district, perform such duties related to appeals therefrom 
as the Attorney General may require, and perform such other duties as the 
General Assembly may prescribe. 

(2) Prosecution in District Court Division. Criminal actions in the District 
Court Division shall be prosecuted in such manner as the General Assembly may 
prescribe by general law uniformly applicable in every local court district of the 
SUte. 

Sec. 19. Vacancies. Unless otherwise provided in this Article, all vacancies 
occurring in the offices provided for by this Article shall be filled by appointment 
of the Governor, and the appointees shall hold their places until the next election 
for members of the General Assembly that is held more than 30 days after the 
vancancy occurs, when elections shall be held to fill the offices. When the unexpired 
term of any of the offices named in this Article of the Constitution in which a 
vacancy has occurred, and in which it is herein provided that the Governor shall 
fill the vacancy, expires on the first day of January succeeding the next election 
for members of the General Assembly, the Governor shall appoint to fill that 
vacancy for the unexpired term of the office. If any person elected or appointed 
to any of these offices shall fail to qualify, the office shall be appointed to, held, and 
filled as provided in case of vacancies occurring therein. All incumbents of these 
offices shall hold until their successors are qualified. 

Sec. 20. Revenues and expenses of the judicial department. The General 
Assembly shall provide for the establishment of a schedule of court fees and costs 
which shall be uniform throughout the State within each division of the General 
Court of Justice. The operating expenses of the judicial department, other than 
compensation to process servers and other locally paid non-judicial officers, shall 
be paid from State funds. 

Sec. 21. Fees, salaries, and emoluments. The General Assembly shall pre- 
scribe and regulate the fees, salaries, and emoluments of all officers provided for 
in this Article, but the salaries of Judges shall not be diminished during their 
continuance in office. In no case shall the compensation of any Judge or Magistrate 
be dependent upon his decision or upon the collection of costs. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 117 

ARTICLE V 

Finance 

Section 1. No capitation tax to be levied. No poll or capitation tax shall be 
levied by the General Assembly or by any county, city or town, or other taxing 
unit. 

Sec. 2. State and local taxation. 

(1) Power of taxation. The power of taxation shall be exercised in a just and 
equitable manner, for public purposes only, and shall never be surrendered, sus- 
pended, or contracted away. 

(2) Classification. Only the General Assembly shall have the power to classify 
property for taxation, which power shall be exercised only on a State-wide basis and 
shall not be delegated. No class of property shall be taxed except by uniform rule, 
and every classification shall be made by general law uniformly. applicable in every 
county, city and town, and other unit of local government. 

(3) Exemptions. Property belonging to the State, counties, and municipal 
corporations shall be exempt from taxation. The General Assembly may exempt 
cemeteries and property held for educational, scientific, literary, cultural, charitable, 
or religious purposes, and, to a value not exceeding $300, any personal property. 
The General Assembly may exempt from taxation not exceeding $1,000 in value of 
property held and used as the place of residence of the owner. Every exemption shall 
be on a State-wide basis and shall be made by general law uniformly applicable 
in every county, city and town, and other unit of local government. No taxing 
authority other than the General Assembly may grant exemptions, and the General 
Assembly shall not delegate the powers accorded to it by this subsection. 

(4) Special tax areas. Subject to the limitations imposed by Section 4, the 
General Assembly may enact general laws authorizing the governing body of any 
county, city, or town to define territorial areas and to levy taxes within those areas, 
in addition to those levied throughout the county, city, or town, in order to finance, 
provide, or maintain services, facilities, and functions in addition to or to a greater 
extent than those financed, provided, or maintained for the entire county, city, or 
town. 

(5) Purposes of propeHy tax. The General Assembly shall not authorize any 
county, city or town, special district, or other unit of local government to levy taxes 
on property, except for purposes authorized by general law uniformly applicable 
throughout the State, unless the tax is approved by a majority of the qualified voters 
of the unit who vote thereon. 

(6) Income tax. The rate of tax on incomes shall not in any case exceed ten 
per cent and there shall be allowed the following minimum exemptions, to be 
deducted from the amount of annual incomes: to the income-producing spouse of 
a married couple living together, or to a widow or widower having minor child or 
children, natural or adopted, not less than $2,000; to all other persons not less than 
$1,000; and there may be allowed other deductions, not including living expenses, 
so that only net incomes are taxed. 

(7) Contracts. The General Assembly may enact laws whereby the State, any 



118 North Carolina Manual 



county, city or town and any other public corporation may contract with and appi-o- 
priate money to any person, association, or corporation for the accomplishment of 
public puiTX)ses only. 

Sec. 3. Limitatio)iti xpoti the increase of State debt. 

(1) Authorized purposes; tu'o-thirds liniitatioti. The General Assembly shall 
have no power to contract debts secured by a pledge of the faith and credit of the 
State, unless approved by a majority of the qualified voters of the State who vote 
thereon, except for the following pui^poses: 

(a) to fund or refund a valid existing debt; 

(b) to supply an unforeseen deficiency in the revenue; 

(c) to borrow in anticipation of the collection of taxes due and payable within 

the current fiscal year to an amount not exceeding 50 per cent of such 
taxes; 

(d) to suppress riots or insurrections, or to repel invasions; 

(e) to meet emergencies immediately threatening the public health or safety, 

as conclusively determined in writing by the Governor; 

(f) for any other lawful purpose, to the extent of two-thirds of the amount by 
which the State's outstanding indebtedness shall have been reduced during 
the next preceding biennium. 

(2) Gift or loan of credit regulated. The General Assembly shall have no power 
to give or lend the credit of the State in aid of any person, association, or corpora- 
tion, except a corporation in which the State has a controlling interest, unless the 
subject is submitted to a direct vote of the people of the State, and is approved by 
a majority of the qualified voters who vote thereon. 

(3) Definitions. A debt is incurred within the meaning of this Section when 
the State borrows money. A pledge of the faith and credit within the meaning of 
this Section is a pledge of the taxing power. A loan of credit within the meaning of 
this Section occurs when the State exchanges its obligations with or in any way 
guarantees the debts of an individual, association, or private corporation. 

(4) Certain debts barred. The General Assembly shall never assume or pay 
any debt or obligation, express or implied, incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion 
against the United States. Neither shall the General Assembly assume or pay any 
debt or bond incurred or issued by authority of the Convention of 1868, the special 
session of the General Assembly of 1868, or the General Assemblies of 1868-69 and 
1869-70, unless the subject is submitted to the people of the State and is approved 
by a majority of all the qualified voters at a referendum held for that sole purpose. 

(5) Chitstanding debt. Except as provided in subsection (4), nothing in this 
Section shall be construed to invalidate or impair the obligation of any bond, note, 
or other evidence of indebtedness outstanding or authorized for issue as of July 1, 
1973. 

Sec. 4. Liynitations upon the increase of local government debt. 

(1) Regulation of borrowing and debt. The General Assembly shall enact general laws 
relating to the borrowing of money secured by a pledge of the faith and credit and the con- 
tracting of other debts by counties, cities and towns, special districts, and other units, 
authorities, and agencies of local government. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 119 



(2) Authorized purposes; two-thirds limitation. The General Assembly shall have no 
power to authorize any county, city or town, special district, or other unit of local govern- 
ment to contract debts secured by a pledge of its faith and credit unless approved by a ma- 
jority of the qualified voters of the unit who vote thereon, except for the following purposes: 

(a) to fund or refund a valid existing debt; 

(b) to supply an unforeseen deficiency in the revenue; 

(c) to borrow in anticipation of the collection of taxes due and payable within the 
current fiscal year to an amount not exceeding 50 per cent of such taxes; 

(d) to suppress riots or insurrections; 

(e) to meet emergencies immediately threatening the public health or safety, as con- 
clusively determined in writing by the Governor; 

(f ) for purposes authorized by general laws uniformly applicable throughout the State, 
to the extent of two-thirds of the amount by which the unit's outstanding in- 
debtedness shall have been reduced during the next preceding fiscal year. 

(3) Gift or loan of credit regulated. No county, city or town, special district, or other 
unit of local government shall give or lend its credit in aid of any person, association, or cor- 
poration, except for public purposes as authorized by general law, and unless approved by a 
majority of the qualified voters of the unit who vote thereon. 

(4) Certain debts barred. No county, city or town, or other unit of local government 
shall assume or pay any debt or the interest thereon contracted directly or indirectly in aid or 
support of rebellion or insurrection against the United States. 

(5) Definitions. A debt is incurred within the meaning of this Section when a county, 
city or town, special district, or other unit, authority, or agency of local government borrows 
money. A pledge of faith and credit within the meaning of this Section is a pledge of the tax- 
ing power. A loan of credit within the meaning of this Section occurs when a county, city or 
town, special district, or other unit, authority, or agency of local government exchanges its 
obligations with or in any way guarantees the debts of an individual, association, or private 
corporation. 

(6) Outstanding debt. Except as provided in subsection (4), nothing in this Section shall 
be construed to invalidate or impair the obligation of any bond, note, or other evidence of in- 
debtedness outstanding or authorized for issue as of July 1, 1973. 

Sec. 5. Acts levying taxes to state objects. Every act of the General Assembly levying 
a tax shall state the special object to which it is to be applied, and it shall be applied to no 
other purpose. 

Sec. 6. hniiolability of sinking funds and retirement funds. 

(1) Sinking funds. The General Assembly shall not use or authorize to be used any part 
of the amount of any sinking fund for any purpose other than the retirement of the bonds for 
which the sinking fund has been created, except that these funds may be invested as 
authorized by law. 

(2) Retirement funds. Neither the General Assembly nor any public officer, employee, 
or agency shall use or authorized to be used any part of the funds of the Teachers' and State 
Employees' Retirement System or the Local Governmental Employees' Retirement System 
for any purpose other than retirement system benefits and purposes, administrative ex- 
penses, and refunds; except that retirement system funds may be invested as authorized by 



1-^' North Carolina Manual 



law, suhji'ct to the investment limitation that the funds of the Teachers' and State Em- 
ployees' Retirement System and the Local Governmental Employees' Retirement System 
shall not be applied, diverted, loaned to, or used by the State, any State agency, State officer, 
public officer, or public employee. 

Sec. 7. Dmivinii public money. 

(1) State tre(i,'<unj. No money shall be drawn from the State Treasury but in conse- 
(juence of appropriations made by law, and an accurate account of the receipts and e.xpen- 
ditures of State funds shall be published annually. 

(2) Local tn iisin-f/. No money shall be drawn from the treasury of any county, city or 
town, or other unit of local government except by authority of law. 

Sec. S. llriilfh care t'a<-llifles. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this Constitu- 
tion, the (leiieral .\ssembly may enact general laws to authorize the State, counties, cities or 
towns, and other State and local governmental entities to issue revenue bonds to finance or 
refinance for any such governmental entity or any nonprofit [private corporation, regardless 
of any church or religious relationship, the cost of acijuiring, constructing, and financing 
health care facility projects to be operated to serve and benefit the public; provided, no cost 
incurred earlier than two years prior to the effective date of this section shall be refinanced. 
Such bonds shall be payable from the revenues, gross or net, of any such projects and any 
other health care facilities of any such governmental entity or ncmf^rofit private corporation 
pledged therefor; shall not be secured by a pledge of the full faith and credit, or deemed to 
create an indebtedness reijuiring voter approval of any governmental entity; and may be 
secured by an agreement which may provide for the conveyance of title of, with or without 
consideration, any such project or facilities to the governmental entity or nonprofit private 
corporation. The power of eminent domain shall not be used pursuant hereto for nonprofit 
private corporations." 

Sec. ;>. CiipitdJ projects for inditxtry. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Con- 
stitution, the (leneral Assembly may enact general laws to authorize counties to create 
authorities to issue revenue bonds to finance, but not to refinance, the cost of capital projects 
consisting of industrial, manufacturing and pollution control facilities for industry and 
pollution control facilities for public utilities, and to refund such bonds. 

In no event shall such revenue bonds be secured by or payable from any public moneys 
whatsoever, but such revenue bonds shall be secured by any payable only from revenues or 
l)r()perty derived from private parties. All such capital projects and all transactions therefor 
shall be subject to ta.xation to the extent such projects and transactions would be subject to 
taxation if no public body were involved therewith; [jrovided, however, that the General 
Assembly may jtrovide that the interest on such revenue bonds shall be exempt from income 
taxes within the State. 

The [lower of eminent domain shall not be exercised to provide any property for any such 
cajiital project." 

Sec. 10. Joint oicuersfiip of (jehenitioii (itnl trtnisniission fttcilities. In addition toother 
powers conferred upon them by law, municipalities owning or operating facilities for the 
generation, transmission or distribution of electric power and energv' and joint agencies form- 
ed by such municipalities for the purpose of owning or operating facilities for the genera- 
tion and transmission of electric power and energy (each, respectively, "a unit of municipal 
government") may jointly or severally own, operate and maintain works, plants and 
facilities, within or without the State, for the generation and transmission of electric power 



The Constitution of North Carolina 121 



and energy, or both, with any person, firm, association or corporation, public or private, 
engaged in the generation, transmission or distribution of electric power and energj' 
forresale (each, respectively, "a co-owner") within this State or any state contiguous to this 
State, and may enter into and carry out agreements with respect to such jointly owned 
facilities. For the purpose of financing its share of the cost of any such jointly owned electric 
generation or transmission facilities, a unit of municipal government may issue its revenue 
bonds in the manner prescribed by the General Assembly, payable as to both principal and 
interest solely from and secured by a lien and charge on all or any part of the revenue 
derived, or to be derived, by such unit of municipal government from the ownership and 
operation of its electric facilities; provided, however, that no unit of municipal government 
shall be liable, either jointly or severally, for any acts, omissions or obligations of any 
co-owner, nor shall any money or property of any unit of muynicipal government be credit or 
otherwise applied to the account of any co-owner or be charged with any debt, lien or 
mortgage as a result of any debt or obligation of any co-owner. 

ARTICLE VI 

Suffrage and Eligibility to Office 

Sec. 1. Who may vote. Every person born in the United States and every 
person who has been naturalized, 18 years of age, and possessing the qualifications 
set out in this Article, shall be entitled to vote at any election by the people of the 
State, except as herein otherwise provided. 

Sec. 2. Qitalifications of voter. 

(1) Residence period for State elections. Any person who has resided in the 
State of North Carolina for one year and in the precinct, ward, or other election 
district for 30 days next preceding an election, and possesses the other qualifica- 
tions set out in this Article, shall be entitled to vote at any election held in this 
State. Removal from one precinct, ward, or other election district to another in 
this State shall not operate to deprive any person of the right to vote in the pre- 
cinct, ward, or other election district from which that person has removed until 30 
days after the removal. 

(2) Residence period for presidential elections. The General Assembly may 
reduce the time of residence for persons voting in presidential elections. A person 
made eligible by reason of a reduction in time of residence shall possess the other 
qualifications set out in this Article, shall only be entitled to vote for President 
and Vice President of the United States or for electors for President and Vice 
President, and shall not thereby become eligible to hold office in this State. 

(3) Disqualification of felon. No person adjudged guilty of a felony against 
this State or the United States, or adjudged guilty of a felony in another state 
that also would be a felony if it had been committed in this State, shall be per- 
mitted to vote unless that person shall be first restored to the rights of citizenship 
in the manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 3. Registration. Every person offering to vote shall be at the time legally 
registered as a voter as herein prescribed and in the manner provided by law. The 
General Assembly shall enact general laws governing the registration of voters. 



1^^ North Carolina Manual 



Sec. 4. Qnalificdtio)! fur reyistrdtioii. Every person presenting; himself for 
refjistration shall be able to read and write any section of the Constitution in che 
Enji:lish lan^uapre. 

Sec. 5. Elections bi/ people and General Assenibh/. All elections by the people 
shall be by ballot, and all elections by the General Assembly shall be viva voce. A 
contested election for any office established by Article III of this constitution shall 
be determined by joint ballot of both houses of the General Assembly in the man- 
ner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 6. Eligibility to elective office. Every qualified voter in North Carolina 
who is 21 years of ape, except as in this Constitution disqualified, shall be eligible 
for election by the people to office. 

Sec. 7. Oath. Before entering upon the duties of an officer, a person elected 
or appointed to the office shall take and subscribe the following oath : 

"I, , do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and 

maintain the Constitution and laws of the United States, and the Constitution and 
laws of North Carolina not inconsistent therewith, and that I will faithfully dis- 
charge the duties of my office as , so help me God." 

Sec. 8. Disqualifications tor office. The following persons shall be disqualified 
for office: 

First, any person who shall deny the being of Almighty God. 

Second, with respect to any office that is filled by election by the people, any 
person who is not qualified to vote in an election for that office. 

Third, any person who has been adjudged guilty of treason or any other felony 
against this State or the United States, or any person who has been adjudged 
guilty of a felony in another state that also would be a felony if it had been com- 
mitted in this State, or any person who has been adjudged guilty of corruption 
or malpractice in any office, or any person who has been removed by impeachment 
from any office, and who has not been restored to the rights of citizenship in the 
manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 9. Dual office holding. 

(1) Prohibitions. It is salutary that the responsibilities of self-government 
be widely shared among the citizens of the State and that the potential abuse of 
authority inherent in the holding of multiple offices by an individual be avoided. 
Therefore, no person who holds any office or place of trust or profit under the 
United States or any department thereof, or under any other state or government, 
shall be eligible to hold any office in this State that is filled by election by the 
people. No person shall hold concurrently any two offices in this State that are 
filled by election of the people. No person shall hold concurrently any two or more 
appointive offices or places of trust or profit, or any combination of elective and 
appointive offices or places of trust or profit, except as the General Assembly 
shs.ll provide by general law. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 123 



(2) Exceptions. The provisions of this Section shall not prohibit any officer 
of che military forces of the State or of the United States not on active duty for an 
extensive period of time, any notary public, or any delegate to a Convention of the 
People from holding concurrently another office or place of trust or profit under 
this State or the United States or any department thereof. 

Sec. 10. Continuation in office. In the absence of any contrary provision, all 
officers in this State, whether appointed or elected, shall hold their positions until 
other appointments are made or, if the offices are elective, until their successors 
are chosen and qualified. 



ARTICLE VII 

. Local Government 

Section 1. General Assembly to provide for local government. The General 
Assembly shall provide for the organization and government and the fixing of 
boundaries of counties, cities and towns, and other governmental subdivisions, 
and, except as otherwise prohibited by this Constitution, may give such powers 
and duties to counties, cities and towns, and other governmental subdivisions as 
it may deem advisable. 

The General Assembly shall not incorporate as a city or town, nor shall it 
authorize to be incorporated as a city or town, any territory lying within one mile 
of the corporate limits of any other city or town having a population of 5,000 or 
more according to the most recent decennial census of population taken by order 
of Congress, or lying within three miles of the corporate limits of any other city 
or town having a population of 10,000 or more according to the most recent decen- 
nial census of population taken by order of Congress, or lying within four miles 
of the corporate limits of any other city or town having a population of 25,000 or 
more according to the most recent decennial census of population taken by order of 
Congress, or lying within five miles of the corporate limits of any other city or 
town having a population of 50,000 or more according to the most recent decennial 
census of population taken by order of Congress. Notwithstanding the foregoing 
limitations, the General Assembly may incorporate a city or town by an act adopt- 
ed by vote of three-fifths of all the members of each house. 

Sec. 2. Sheriffs. In each county a Sheriff shall be elected by the qualified 
voters thereof at the same time and places as members of the General Assembly 
are electejl and shall hold his office for a period of four years, subject to removal 
for cause as provided by law. 

Sec. 3. Merged or consolidated counties. Any unit of local government form- 
ed by the merger or consolidation of a county or counties and the cities and towns 
therein shall be deemed both a county and a city for the purposes of this Con- 
stitution, and may exercise any authority conferred by law on counties, or on cities 
and towns, or both, as the General Assembly may provide. 



124 North Carolina Manual 

ARTICLE VIII 

Corporations 

Section 1. Corporate charters. No corporation shall be created, nor shall its 
charter be extended, altered, or amended by special act, except corj)orations for 
charitable, educational, penal, or reformatory purposes that are to be and remain 
under the patronajre and control of the State; but the General Assembly shall pro- 
vide by }i:eneral laws for the chartering, organization, and powers of all corpora- 
tions, and for the amending, extending, and forfeiture of all charters, except those 
above permitted by special act. All such general acts may be altered from time 
to time or repealed. The (Seneral Assembly nuiy at any time by special act repeal 
the charter of any corporation. 

Sec. 2. Corporations defined. The term "corporation" as used in this Section 
shall be construed to include all associations and joint-stock companies having: 
any of the powers and privileges of corporations not possessed by individuals or 
partnerships. All corporations shall have the right to sue anil shall be subject to 
be sued in all courts, in like cases as natural persons. 

ARTICLE IX 

Education 

Section 1. Education encouraged. Religion, morality, and knowledge being 
necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools, libraries, and 
the means of education shall forever be encouraged. 

Sec. 2. Uniform syateni of schools. 

(1) General and uniform system; term. The General Assembly shall provide 
by taxation and otherwise for a general and uniform system of free public schools, 
which shall be maintained at least nine months in every year, and wherein equal 
opportunities shall be provided for all students. 

(2) Local respoHsibiliti/. The General Assembly may assign to units of local 
government such responsibility for the financial supjjort of the free public schools 
as it may deem appropriate. The governing boards of units of local government 
with financial responsibility for public education may use local revenues to add to 
or supplement any public school or post-secondary school program. 

Sec. 3. School attendance. The General Assembly shall provide that every 
child of appropriate age and of sufficient mental and pliysical ability shall attend 
the public schools, unless educated by other means. 

Sec. 4. State Board of Education. 

(1) Board. The State Board of Education shall consist of the Lieutenant 
Governor, the Treasurer, and eleven members appointeij by the Governor, subject 
to confirmation by the (Jeneral Assembly in joint session. The General Assembly 
shall divide the State into eight educational districts. Of the appointive members 



The Constitution of North Carolina 125 



of the Board, one shall be appointed from each of the eight educational districts 
and three shall be appointed from the State at large. Appointments shall be for 
overlapping terms of eight years. Appointments to fill vacancies shall be made by 
the Governor for the unexpired terms and shall not be subject to confirmation. 

(2) Siiperi)tte)ident of Public hisiractioti. The Superintendent of Public In- 
struction shall be the secretary and chief administrative officer of the State Board 
of Education. 

Sec. 5. Poxvers and duties of Board. The State Board of Education shall 
supervise and administer the free public school system and the educational funds 
provided for its support, except the funds mentioned in Section 7 of this Article, 
and shall make all needed rules and regulations in relation thereto, subject to laws 
enacted by the General Assembly. 

Sec. 6. State school fund. The proceeds of all lands that have been or here- 
after may be granted by the United States to this State, and not otherwise ap- 
propriated by this State or the United States; all moneys, stocks, bonds, and other 
property belonging to the State for purposes of public education; the net proceeds 
of all sales of the swamp lands belonging to the State; and all other grants, gifts, 
and devises that have been or hereafter may be made to the State, and not other- 
wise appropriated by the State or by the terms of the grant, gift, or devise, shall 
be paid into the State Treasury and, together with so much of the revenue of the 
State as may be set apart for that purpose, shall be faithfully appropriated and 
used exclusively for establishing and maintaining a uniform system of free public 
schools. 

Sec. 7. County school fund. All moneys, stocks, bonds, and other property be- 
longing to a county school fund, and the clear proceeds of all penalties and for- 
feitures and of all fines collected in the several counties for any breach of the 
penal laws of the State, shall belong to and remain in the several counties, and 
shall be faithfully appropriated and used exclusively for maintaining free public 
schools.  

Sec. 8. Higher education. The General Assembly shall maintain a public 
system of higher education, comprising The University of North Carolina and 
such other institutions of higher education as the General Assembly may deem 
wise. The General Assembly shall provide for the selection of trustees of The 
University of North Carolina and of the other institutions of higher education, in 
whom shall be vested all the privileges, rights, franchises, and endowments here- 
tofore granted to or conferred upon the trustees of these institutions. The General 
Assembly may enact laws necessary and expedient for the maintenance and man- 
agement of The University of North Carolina and the other public instructions of 
higher education. 

Sec. 9. Benefits of public instructions of higher education. The General As- 
sembly shall provide that the benefits of The University of North Carolina and 
other public institutions of higher education, as far as practicable, be extended to 
the people of the State free of expense. 



126 North Carolina Manual 



Sec. 10. Escheats. 

(1) Escheats prior to July 1, 1971. All property that prior to July 1, 1971, 
aecrued to the State from escheats, unclaimed (iividends, or distributive shares of 
the estate.s of deceased persons shall be appropriated to the use of The University 
of North Carolina. 

(2) Escheats after June 30, 1971. All property that, after June 30, 1971, 
shall accrue to the State from escheats, unclaimed dividends, or distributive shares 
of the estates of deceased persons shall be used to aid worthy and needy students 
who are residents of this State and are enrolled in public institutions of higher 
education in this State. The method, amount, and type of distribution shall be 
prescribed by law. 



ARTICLE X 

Homesteads and Exemptions 

Section 1. Personal property exemptions. The personal property of any resi- 
dent of this State, to a value fixed by the General Assembly but not less than $500, 
to be selected by the resident, is exempt from sale under execution or other final 
process of any court, issued for the collection of any debt. 

Sec. 2. Hmnestead exemptions. 

(1) Exemption from sale; exceptions. Every homestead and the dwellings 
and buildings used therewith, to a value fixed by the General Assembly but not 
less than $1,000, to be selected by the owner thereof, or in lieu thereof, at the option 
of the owner, any lot in a city or town with the dwellmgs and buildings used there- 
on, and to the same value, owned and occupied by a resident of the State, shall be 
exempt from sale under execution or other final process obtained on any debt. But 
no property shall be exempt from sale for taxes, or for payment of obligations 
contracted for its purchase. 

(2) Exemption for benefit of children. The homestead, after the death of the 
owner thereof, shall be exempt from the payment of any debt during the minority 
of the owner's children, or any of them. 

(3) E.r('nij)f!())i for benefit (f iridoir. If the owner of a homestead dies, leaving a surviv- 
ing spouse but no minor children, the homestead shall be exempt from the debts of 
the owner, and the rents and profits thereof shall inure to the benefit of the surviving spouse 
until he or she remarries, unless the surviving spouse is the owner of a separate homestead. 

(4) Conreyance of homestead. Nothing contained in this Article shall operate to prevent 
the owner of a homestead from disposing of it by deed, but no deed made by a married own- 
er of a homestead shall be valid without the signature and acknowledgement of his or her 
spouse. 

Sec. 3. Mechanics' (uid laborers' liens. The General Assembly shall provide by proper 
legislation for giving to mechanics and laborers an adequate lien on che subject-matter of 
their labor. The provisions of Sections 1 and 2 of this Article shall not be so construed as to 
prevent a laborer's lien for work done and performed for the person claiming the e.xemption 
or a mechanic's lien for work done on the premises. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 127 



Sec. 4. Property of married women secured to them. The real and personal 
property of any female in this State acquired before marriage, and all property, 
real and personal, to which she may, after marriage, become in any manner en- 
titled, shall be and remain the sole and separate estate and property of such fe- 
male, and shall not be liable for any debts, obligations, or engagements of her 
husband, and may be devised and bequeathed and conveyed by her, subject to such 
regulations and limitations as the General Assembly may prescribe. Every married 
woman may exercise powers of attorney conferred upon her by her husband, in- 
cluding the power to execute and acknowledge deeds to property owned by herself 
and her husband or by her husband. 

Sec. 5. Insurance. A person may insure his or her own life for the sole use and benefit of 
his or her spouse or children or both, and upon his or her death the proceeds from the in- 
surance shall be paid to or for the benefit of the spouse or children or both, or to a guardian, 
free from all claims of the representatives or creditors of the insured or his or her estate. Any 
insurance policy which insures the life of a person for the sole use and benefit of that person's 
spouse or children or both shall not be subject to the claims of creditors of the insured during 
his or her lifetime, whether or not the policy reserves to the insured during his or her lifetime 
any or all rights provided for by the policy and whether or not the policy proceeds are 
payable to the estate of the insured in the event the beneficiary or beneficiaries predecease 
the insured. 

ARTICLE XI 

Punishments, Corrections, and Charities 

Section 1. Punishm.ents. The following punishments only shall be known to 
the laws of this State: death, imprisonment, fines, removal from office, and disquali- 
fication to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under this State. 

Sec. 2. Death punishment. The object of punishments being not only to 
satisfy justice, but also to reform the offender and thus prevent crime, murder, 
arson, buglary, and rape, and these only, may be punishable with death, if the 
General Assembly shall so enact. 

Sec. 3. Charitable and correctional institutions and agencies. Such charitable, 
benevolent, penal, and correctional institutions and agencies as the needs of human- 
ity and the public good may require shall be established and operated by the State 
under such organization and in such manner as the General Assembly may pre- 
scribe. 

Sec. 4. Welfare policy; board of public ivelfare. Beneficent provision for the 
poor, the unfortunate, and the orphan is one of the first duties of a civilized and 
a Christian state. Therefore the General Assembly shall provide for and define the 
duties of a board of public welfare. 

ARTICLE XII 

Military Forces 

Section 1. Governor is Commander in Chief. The Governor shall be Com- 
mander in Chief of the military forces of the State and may call out those forces 



128 North C'akolina Manual 

to execute the law, suppress riots and insurrections, and repeal invasion. 

ARTICLE XIII 

Conventions; Constitutional Amendment and Revision 

Section 1. Convention of the People. No Convention of the People of this 
State shall ever be called unless by the concurrence of two-thirds of all the mem- 
bers of each house of the General Assembly, and unless the proposition "Conven- 
tion or No Convention" is first submitted to the qualified voters of the State at the 
time and in the manner prescribed by the General Assembly. 11 a majority of the 
votes cast upon the proposition are in favor of a Convention, it shall assemble on 
the day prescribed by the General Assembly. The General Assembly shall, in the 
act submitting the convention proposition, propose limitations upon the authority 
of the convention; and if a majority of the votes cast upon the proposition are in 
favor of a Convention, those limitations shall become bindiiiK upon the Conven- 
tion. Delegates to the Convention shall be elected by the qualified voters at the 
time and in the manner prescribed in the act of submission. The Convention 
shall consist of a number of delegates equal to the membership of the House of 
Representatives of the General Assembly that submits the convention proposition 
and the delegates shall be apportioned as is the House of Representatives. A Con- 
vention shall adopt no ordinance not necessary to the purpose for which the Con- 
vention has been called. 

Sec. 2. Power to revise or amend Cottstitutwn reserved to people. The people 
of this State reserve the power to amend this Constitution and to adopt a new or 
revised Constitution. This power may be exercised by either of the methods set 
out hereinafter in this Article, but in no other way. 

Sec. 3. Revisio)i or anionhnetit by Conve))tio)t of the People. A Convention 
of the People of this State may be called pursuant to Section 1 of this Article to 
propose a new or revised Constitution or to propose amendments to this Constitu- 
tion. Every new or revised Constitution and every constitutional amendment 
adopted by a Convention shall be submitted tj the qualified voters of the State at 
the time and in the manner prescribed by the Convention. If a majority of the 
votes cast thereon are in favor of ratification of the new or revised Constitution 
or the constitutional amendment or amendments, it or they shall become effective 
January first next after ratification by the qualified voters unless a different ef- 
fective date is prescribed by the Convention. 

Sec. 4. Revision or amendtnoit by legislative initiatio)i. A proposal of a new 
or revised Constitution or an amendment or amendments to this Constitution may 
be initiated by the General Assembly, but only if three-fifths of all the members of 
each house shall adopt an act submitting the proposal to the qualified voters of the 
State for their ratification or rejection. The proposal shall be submitted at the 
time and in the manner prescribed by the General Assembly. If a majority of the 
votes cast thereon are in favor of the proposed new or revised Constitution or 
constitutional amendment or amendments, it or they shall become effective January 
first next after ratification by the voters unless a different effective date is pre- 
scribed in the act submitting the proposal or proposals to the qualified voters. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 129 

ARTICLE XIV 

Miscellaneous 

Section 1. Seat of government. The permanent seat of government of this 
State shall be at the City of Raleigh. 

Sec. 2. State boundaries. The limits and boundaries of the State shall be and 
remain as they now are. 

Sec. 3. General laws defined. Whenever the General Assembly is directed or 
authorized by this Constitution to enact general laws, or general laws uniformly 
applicable throughout the State, or general laws uniformly applicable in every 
county, city and town, and other unit of local government, or in every local court 
district, no special or local act shall be enacted concerning the subject matter 
directed or authorized to be accomplished by general or uniformly applicable laws, 
and every amendment or repeal of any law relating to such subject matter shall 
also be general and uniform in its effect throughout the State. General laws may 
be enacted for classes defined by population or other criteria. General laws uni- 
formly applicable throughout the State shall be made applicable without classifica- 
tion or exception in every unit of local government of like kind, such as every 
county, or every city and town, but need not be made applicable in every unit of 
local government in the State. General laws uniformly applicable in every county, 
city and town, and other unit of local government, or in every local court district, 
shall be made applicaole without classification or exception in every unit of local 
government, or in every local court district, as the case may be. The General As- 
sembly may at any time repeal any special, local or private act. 

Sec. 4. Cojitinuity of laws; protection of office holders. The laws of North 
Carolina not in conflict with this Constitution shall continue in force until law- 
fully altered. Except as otherwise specifically provided, the adoption of this Con- 
stitution shall not have the effect of vacating any office or term of office now filled 
or held by virtue of any election or appointment made under the prior Constitution 
of North Carolina and the laws of the State enacted pursuant thereto." 

Sec. 5. Conservation of natural resources. It shall be the policy of this State 
to conserve and protect its lands and waters for the benefit of all its citizenry, and 
to this end it shall be a proper function of the State of North Carolina and its 
political subdivisions to acquire and preserve park, recreational, and scenic areas, 
to control and limit the pollution of our air and water, to control excessive nois^, 
and in every other appropriate way to preserve as a part of the common heritage of 
this State its forests, wetlands, estuaries, beaches, historical sites, openlands. and 
places of beauty. 

To accomplish the aforementioned public purposes, the State and its counties, 
cities and towns, and other units of local goverHment may acquire by purchase or 
gift properties or interests in properties which shall, upon their special dedication 
to and acceptance by resolution adopted by a vote of three-fifths of the members 
of each house of the General Assembly for those public purposes, constitute part 
of the 'State Nature and Historic Preserve", and which shall not be used for other 
purposes except as authorized by law enacted by a vote of three-fifths of the 



i;^0 North Carolina Manual 



members of each house of the General Assmbly. The General Assembly shall pre- 
scribe by general law the conditions and procedures under which such properties 
or interests therein shall be dedicated for the aforementioned public purposes. 



PART II 

CENSUS 



Census 133 

POPULATION OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

Nineteenth Census of the United States: 1970 

The population of North Carolina's urban places continued to grow faster 
than of the rural areas between 1960 and 1970, according: to the nineteenth decen- 
nial census, issued by Georpre H. Brown, Director of the Bureau of the Census, 
Department of Commerce. 

Final figures show that the urban population increased from 1,801,921 in 1960 
to 2,285,168 in 1970, or 26.8 per cent, while the rural population increased from 
2,754,234 in 1960 to 2,796,891 in 1970 or an increase of only 1.5 percent. The final 
count of the Nineteenth Census for the State on April 1, 1970, was 5,082,059 com- 
pared to 4,556,155 in 1960, or an increase of 11.5 per cent. Urban residents ac- 
counted for 45 per cent of the State's population in 1970 as compared with 39.5 
per cent in 1960. Rural areas in 1970 accounted for 55 per cent of the total popu- 
lation. The Census Bureau considers as urban areas the incorporated places of 
2,500 or more, or unincorporated places of 2,500 or more located outside urbanized 
areas. The remaining territory is classified as rural. 

There were 38 incorporated places of 10,000 or more in 1970. Three of these 
(Asheboro, Eden and Morganton) reached that size since 1960. Charlotte remains 
the State's largest city with a population of 241,178 followed in order by Greens- 
boro with 144,076 and Winston-Salem with 132,913. 

According to final figures of the 1970 census, 62, of the counties gained in 
population. Cumberland County showed the greatest gain with an increase of 42.9 
per cent. Wake County placed second with an increase of 35.1 per cent while 
Orange was third with a 34.3 per cent gain. 

The first census of North Carolina was taken in 1790, returning a population 
of 393,751. The population has shown an increase at every census since that time. 
The population passed 1,000,000 between 1860 and 1870. 2,000,000 between 1900 
and 1910, 3,000,000 between 1920 and 1930, 4,000,000 between 1940 and 1950, 
4,500,000 between 1950 and 1960, and 5,000,000 between 1960 and 1970. The present 
population (1970) represents a density of 96.4 inhabitants per square mile. North 
Carolina's total area in square miles is 52,712. Land area is 48,798 square miles; 
water area is 3,914 square miles. 

The tables that follow give various population figures based on tabulations 
made during the 1970 census and corrections of initial errors and subsequent 
changes that have occured since April 1, 1970. 



Census 135 



T VBLE 1. STATE POPULATION STATISTICS- 
CENSUS AND PROJECTIONS 

l-A. Metropolitan Areas 

Percent Change from 

Date of Ccmii.s gf Total Preceding Census 

Projection Data Population Population IXiiinhcr) (Pcrrenl) 

April 1. 1950 1.368.101 33.7 

April 1. 1960 1.801.921 39.5 433,820 31.7 

April 1. 1970 2.285.168 45.0 483.247 26.8 

April 1, 1980* 2.676.500 46.0 391,534 17.2 

1-B. Nonmetropolitan Areas 

April 1, 1950 2.693.828 66.3 

April 1. 1960 2.754,234 60.5 60,406 2.2 

April 1. 1970 2.796.891 55.0 42,657 1.5 

April 1. 1980* 3.137.200 54.0 340.309 12.2 

1-C. Statewide 

April 1. 1950 4.061.929 490.306 13.7 

April 1. 1960 4.556.155 494.226 12.2 

April 1. 1970 5,084.411 528,256 11.6 

July 1, 1973* 5,302,000 

July 1, 1975* 5.441,000 

July 1. 1977* 5.600,332 

July 1, 1979* 5,756,128 

April 1. 1980* 5,813,773 729,363 11.3 

July 1, 1985* 6.241,000 

April 1, 1990* 6.601.000 787.227 13.5 



"Denotes a projected figure 



i:^(; 



North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 2. COUNTY POPULATION STATISTICS, 1970 



1970 I'opuUition 



Land 
area in 
«(;»(! re 

I'JTO 

Alamancf 428 

Alexander 259 

AlU'Khany 225 

Anson 533 

Ashe 426 

Avciy 245 

Beaufort 826 

Hertie 698 

Hladon 883 

lirunswiok 856 

buncombe 657 

burke 511 

Cabarrus 363 

Caldwell 469 

Camden 239 

Carteret 536 

Caswell 428 

Catawba 394 

Chatham 709 

Cherokee 452 

Chowan 173 

Clay 209 

Cleveland 468 

Columbus 945 

Craven 699 

Cumberland 654 

Currituck 246 

Dare 391 

Davidson 549 

Davie 265 

Duplin 815 

Durham 295 

Edgecombe 510 

Forsyth 419 

Franklin 491 

Gaston 356 

Gates 337 

Graham 292 

Granville 537 

Greene 267 

Guilford 655 

Halifax 734 

Harnett 603 

Haywood 551 

Henderson 378 

Hertford 353 

Hoke 389 

Hyde 613 

Ired.-ll 572 

Jackson 491 

Johnston 797 

Jone3 467 



To. 


tal 


Vrh„„ 


Ultra I 


I'opul 


ation 


I'opui 


\al\on 


fupulc 


I (ion 




I'.r 




l'<rri lit 




/'< rr, lit 




iKjuarv 




of 




of 


XuTnhrr 


mile 


Total 


Total 


Total 


Total 


96,362 


225.1 


50.497 


52.4 


45..S65 


47.6 


19,466 


75.2 


- 




19.466 


100.0 


8,134 


36.2 






8.134 


100.0 


23,488 


44.1 


3,977 


16.9 


19,511 


X3.1 


19,571 


45.9 


'- 


— 


19,571 


100.0 


12,655 


51.7 


-~ 




12,655 


100.0 


35,980 


43.6 


8,961 


24.9 


27,019 


75.1 


20,528 


29.4 


— 


— 


20,528 


100.0 


26,477 


30.0 


— 


— 


26,477 


100.0 


24,223 


28.3 


— 


— 


24,223 


100.0 


145,056 


220.8 


75.655 


52.2 


69 401 


47.8 


60,364 


118.1 


17.186 


28.5 


43,178 


71.5 


74,629 


205.6 


47,763 


64.0 


26,866 


36.0 


56,699 


120.9 


17,525 


30.9 


39,174 


69.1 


5.453 


22.8 


— 


— 


5,453 


100.0 


31,603 


59.0 


8.601 


27.2 


23,002 


72.8 


19,055 


44.5 


— 




19.055 


100.0 


90,873 


230.6 


38.943 


42.9 


51.930 


57.1 


29,554 


41.7 


4,689 


15.9 


24,865 


84.1 


16,330 


36.1 


- 


— 


16,330 


100.0 


10,764 


62.2 


4,766 


44.3 


5 998 


55.7 


5.180 


24.8 


— 




5,180 


100.0 


72.556 


155.0 


24,651 


34.0 


47,905 


66.0 


46,937 


49.7 


4,195 


8.9 


42,742 


91.1 


62,554 


89.5 


34,549 


55.2 


28.005 


54.8 


212.042 


324.2 


161,370 


76.1 


50.672 


23.9 


6,976 


28.4 


_.. 


— 


6.976 


100.0 


6 995 


17.9 


— 


— 


6,995 


100.0 


95,627 


174.2 


35,450 


37.1 


60,177 


62.9 


18,855 


71.2 


2.529 


13.4 


16,326 


86.6 


38.015 


46.6 


5.648 


14.9 


32 367 


85.1 


132.681 


449.8 


100,768 


75.9 


31.913 


74.1 


52.341 


102.6 


24,677 


47.1 


27,664 


52.9 


215,118 


513.4 


147,399 


68.8 


66,949 


31.2 


26.820 


54.6 


2,941 


11.0 


23,879 


89.0 


148,415 


416.9 


89,523 


60.3 


58,892 


39.7 


8,524 


25.3 


— 


— 


8,524 


100.0 


6,562 


22.5 






6,562 


100.0 


32,762 


61.0 


10,716 


32.7 


22.046 


67.3 


14,967 


56.1 


— 




14.967 


100.0 


288,590 


440.6 


220.127 


76.3 


68 463 


23.7 


53.884 


73.4 


19.649 


36.5 


34.235 


63.5 


49.667 


82.4 


11.154 


22.5 


38.r)13 


77.5 


41,710 


76.7 


11.646 


27.9 


30.064 


72.1 


42.804 


113.2 


12,003 


28.0 


30.801 


72.0 


23 529 


66.7 


8,613 


36.6 


14,916 


63.4 


16,436 


42.3 


3,180 


19.3 


13.256 


80.7 


5,571 


9.1 






5,571 


100.0 


72,197 


126.2 


31,883 


44.2 


40,314 


55.8 


21,593 


44.0 


— 


— 


21,593 


100.0 


61,737 


77.5 


14,136 


22.9 


47,601 


77.1 


9,779 


20.9 


— 


— 


9,779 


100.0 



Census 



187 



TABLE 2. (Continued) 



Land 

area in 

square 

miles, 

1970 

Lee 256 

Lenoir 400 

Lincoln 297 

McDowell 436 

Macon 513 

Madison 450 

Martin 455 

Mecklenburg 530 

Mitchell 215 

Montgomery 488 

Moore 704 

Nash 544 

New Hanover 185 

Northampton 536 

Onslow 765 

Orange 400 

Pamlico 338 

Pasquotank 228 

Pender 871 

Perquimans 246 

Person 401 

Pitt 655 

Polk 239 

Randolph 798 

Richmond 475 

Robeson 949 

Rockingham 569 

Rowan 523 

Rutherford 563 

Sampson 945 

Scotland 319 

Stanly 398 

Stokes 457 

Surry 536 

Swain 524 

Transylvania 382 

Tyrrell 390 

Union 639 

Vance 249 

Wake 858 

Warren 424 

Washington 343 

Watauga 317 

Wayne 557 

Wilkes 757 

Wilson 375 

Yadkin 336 

Yancey 312 



1970 Population 



Total 




Urban 


Rural 


Popidat 


ion 


Population 


Population 




Per 




Percent 




Percent 




square 




of 




of 


Number 


mile 


Total 


Total 


Total 


Total 


30,467 


119.0 


11,716 


38.5 


18,751 


61.6 


55,204 


138.0 


24,867 


45.0 


30,337 


56.0 


32.682 


110.0 


5,293 


16.2 


27,389 


83.8 


30.648 


70.3 


9,384 


30.6 


21,264 


69.4 


15,788 


30.8 


— 


— 


15,788 


100.0 


16,003 


35.6 


— 


. — 


16,003 


100.0 


24,730 


54.4 


6.570 


26.6 


18,160 


73.4 


354.656 


669.2 


282,461 


79.6 


72,195 


20.7 


13,447 


62.5 


— 





13 447 


100.0 


19.267 


39.5 


— 


— 


19,267 


100.0 


39,048 


55.5 


5,937 


15.2 


33.111 


84.8 


59 122 


108.7 


19.032 


32.2 


40,090 


67.8 


82.996 


448.6 


57,645 


69.5 


25,351 


30.5 


24,009 


44.8 • 


— 


— 


24,009 


100.0 


103.126 


134.8 


59,269 


57.5 


43,857 


42.5 


57.707 


144.3 


29,005 


50.3 


28,702 


49.7 


9.467 


28.0 


— 


— 


9.467 


100.0 


26,824 


117.6 


14.069 


52.4 


12.755 


47.6 


18,149 


20.8 


— 





18,149 


100.0 


8,351 


33.9 


— 


— 


8,351 


100.0 


25.914 


64.6 


5 370 


20.7 


20,544 


79.3 


73,900 


112.8 


36,937 


50.0 


36,963 


50.0 


11.735 


49.1 


— 


— 


11,735 


100.0 


76,358 


95.7 


23,060 


30.2 


53.298 


69.8 


39,889 


84.0 


13,337 


33.4 


26.552 


66.6 


84.842 


89.4 


23,171 


27.3 


61.671 


72.7 


72,402 


127.2 


32,382 


44.7 


40.020 


55.3 


90,035 


172.2 


37.931 


42.1 


52.104 


57.9 


47,337 


84.1 


14.272 


30.1 


33.065 


69.9 


44 954 


47.6 


7.157 


15.9 


37.797 


84.1 


26.929 


84.4 


8 859 


32.9 


18.070 


67.1 


42,822 


107.6 


11.126 


26.0 


31,696 


74.0 


23.782 


52.0 


— 


— 


23.782 


100.0 


51.415 


95.9 


12,859 


25.0 


38.556 


75.0 


8.835 


16.9 


— 


-- 


7,861 


100.0 


19.713 


51.6 


5,243 


26.6 


14,470 


73.4 


3.806 


9.8 


— 


— 


3,806 


100.0 


54.714 


85.6 


13,851 


25.3 


40.863 


74.7 


32,691 


131.3 


13.896 


42.5 


18,795 


57.5 


229.006 


267.7 


159,013 


69.6 


69,440 


30.4 


15,810 


37.3 


— 


- 


15,810 


100. 


14,038 


40.9 


4,774 


34.0 


9 264 


66.0 


23,404 


73.8 


8.754 


37.4 


14.650 


62.6 


85,408 


153.3 


39.854 


46.7 


45.554 


53.3 


49.524 


65.4 


3.357 


6.8 


46.167 


93.2 


57,486 


153.3 


29,347 


51.1 


28.139 


48.9 


24,599 


73.2 


— 


— 


24,599 


100.0 


12.629 


40.5 


— 


— 


12.629 


100.0 



188 North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 3. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
10,000 OR MORE 

1970 1960 Percent 

City or Toun County Population Population Change 

Albemarle Stanly 11,126 12,261 -9.3 

Asheboro Randolph 15,241 9,449 66.3 

Asheville Buncombe 57,929 60,192 —4.1 

Burlinj-ton Alamance 35,930 33,199 8.2 

Gary Wake 14,677 3,356 337.3 

Chapel Hill Durham, Orange 25,537 12,573 103.1 

Charlotte Mecklenburg 241,178 201,178 19.9 

Concord Cabarrus 18,299 17,799 3.7 

Durham Durham 95,438 78,302 21.9 

Eden Rockingham 15,871 — 

Elizabeth City Pasquotank 14,381 14,062 2.3 

Fayetteville Cumberland 53,504 47,106 13.3 

Gastonia Gaston 47,322 37,276 26.6 

Goldsboro Wayne 26,960 28,873 -7.0 

Greensboro Guilford 144,076 119,574 20.7 

Greenville Pitt 29,063 22,860 27.1 

Henderson Vance 13,896 12,740 9.1 

Hickory Burke, Catawba 20,569 19,328 6.4 

Davidson, Guilford, 

High Point Randolph 63,259 62,063 1.8 

Jacksonville Onslow 16,289 13,491 21.8 

Kinston Lenoir 23,020 24,819 -5.0 

Lenoir Caldwell 14,705 10,257 43.4 

Lexington Davidson 17,205 16,093 6.9 

Lumberton Robeson 16,961 15,305 66.6 

Monroe Union 11,282 10,882 7.3 

Morganton Burke 13,625 9,188 48.3 

New Bern Craven 14,660 15,717 -6.7 

Raleigh Wake 122,830 93,931 30.8 

Reidsville Rockingham 13,636 14,267 -4.4 

Roanoke Rapids Halifax 13,999 13,320 1.4 

Rocky Mount Edgecombe, Nash 34,284 32,147 6.6 

Salisbury Rowan 22,515 21,297 5.7 

Sanford Lee 11,716 12,253 -4.4 

Shelby Cleveland 16,328 17,698 -7.7 

Statesville Iredell 20,007 19,844 1.0 

Thomasville Davidson 15,230 15,190 0.3 

Wilmington New Hanover 46,169 44,013 4.9 

Wilson Wilson 29,347 28,753 2.1 

Winston-Salem Forsyth 133,683 111,135 20.1 



Census 139 



TABLE 4. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
2,500-9,999 INHABITANTS 

1970 
City or Town County Population 

Ahoskie Hertford 5,105 

Archdale Randolph 4,874 

Ayden Pitt 3,450 

Beaufort Carteret 3,368 

Belmont Gaston 5,054 

Bessemer City Gaston 4,991 

Black Mountain Buncombe 3,204 

Boone Watauga 8,754 

Brevard Transylvania 5,412 

Canton Haywood 5,158 

Carrboro Orange 7,686 

Cherry ville Gaston 5,258 

Clayton Johnston 3,103 

Clinton Sampson 7,893 

Conover Catawba 3,355 

Dallas Gaston 4,059 

Davidson Mecklenburg 2,931 

Dunn Harnett 8,302 

Edenton Chowan 4,956 

Elkin Surry, Wilkes 2,899 

Enfield Halifax 3,272 

Erwin Harnett 2,852 

Fairmont Robeson 2,827 

Farmville Pitt 4,424 

Forest City Rutherford 7..S48 

Fuquay-Varina Wake 3,576 

Garner Wake 4,923 

Graham Alamance 8,172 

Hamlet Richmond 4,627 

Havelock Craven 3,012 

Hendersonville Henderson 6,443 

Hudson Caldwell 2,820 

Kernersville Forsyth 4,992 

Kings Mountain , Cleveland, Gaston 8,465 

La Grange Lenoir 2,679 

Laurinburg Scotland 8,859 

Lincolnton Lincoln 5,293 

Longview Burke, Catawba 3,360 

Louisburg Franklin 2,941 

Lowell Gaston 3,307 

Madison Rockingham 2,598 

Marion McDowell 3,335 

Mayodan Rockingham 2,875 

Mocksville Davie 2,529 

Mooresville Iredell 8.808 



140 North Carolina Manual 

TABLE 4. (Continued) 

197<J 

City or Town County Population 

Morehead City Carteret 5,233 

Mount Airy Surry 7,325 

Mount Holly Gaston 5,107 

Mount Olive Duplin, Wayne 4,914 

Murfreesboro Hertford 3,508 

Newton Catawba 7,857 

North Wilkesboro Wilkes 3,357 

Oxford Granville 7,178 

Plymouth Washington 4,774 

Raeford Hoke 3,180 

Red Sprinp:s Robeson 3,383 

Rockingham Richmond 6,255 

Roxboro - Person 5,370 

Rutherfordton Rutherford 3,245 

Scotland Neck Halifax 2,869 

Selma Johnston 4,356 

Siler City Chatham 4,689 

Smithfield Johnston 6,677 

Southern Pines Moore 5,937 

Spencer Rowan 3,075 

Spindale Rutherford 3,848 

Spring Lake Cumberland 1,790 

Tarboro Edgecombe 9,425 

Valdese Burke 3,182 

Wadesboro Anson 3,977 

Wake Forest Wake 3,148 

Wallace Duplin 2,905 

Warsaw Duplin 2,701 

Washington Beaufort 8,961 

Waynesville Haywood 6.488 

Whiteville Columbus 5,292 

Williamston Martin 6,570 

Wingate Union 2,569 

Woodfin Buncombe 2,831 

Wrightsville Beach New Hanover 2,525 



Census 141 



TABLE 5. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
1,000 TO 2,499 

7970 
City or Town County Population 

Aberdeen Moox-e 1,592 

Andrews Cherokee 1,384 

Angier Harnett 1,431 

Apex Wake 2,234 

Belhaven Beaufort 2,259 

Benson Johnston 2,267 

Bethel Pitt 1,514 

Beaulaville Duplin 1,156 

Biltmore Forest Buncombe 1,298 

Biscoe Montgomery 1,244 

Bladenboro Bladen 2,027 

Boiling Springs Cleveland 2,284 

Bryson City Swain 1,290 

Burgaw Pender 1,744 

Burnsville Yancey 1,348 

Carolina Beach New Hanover 1,663 

Carthage Moore 1,034 

Chadbourn Columbus 2,213 

China Grove Rowan 1,788 

Coats Harnett 1,051 

Cornelius Mecklenburg 1,296 

Cramerton Gaston 2,142 

Creedmore Granville 1,405 

Denton Davidson 1,017 

Drexel Burke 1,431 

East Spencer Rowan 2,217 

Elizabethtown Bladen 1,418 

Elm City Wilson 1,201 

Elon College Alamance 2,150 

Fair Bluff Columbus 1,039 

Fletcher Henderson 1,164 

Four Oaks Johnston 1,057 

Franklin Macon 2,336 

Franklinton Franklin 1,459 

Fremont Wayne 1,596 

Gaston Northampton 1,105 

Gibsonville Alamance, Guilford 2,019 

Granite Falls Caldwell 2,388 

Granite Quarry Rowan 1,344 

Grifton Lenoir, Pitt 1,860 

Haw River Alamance 1,944 

Hazel wood Haywood 2,057 

Hertford Perquimans 2,023 

Hillsboro Orange 1.444 

Hope Mills Cumberland 1,866 



142 North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 5. (Continued) 

1970 
City or Town County Population 

Huntersville Mecklenburg 1,538 

Jamestown Guilford 1,297 

Jonesville Yadkin 1,659 

Kenly Johnston 1,370 

Landis Rowan 2,297 

Liberty Randolph 2,167 

Lillington Harnett 1,155 

Locust Stanly 1,484 

Long Beach Brunswick 1,656 

Maiden Catawba 2,416 

Mars Hill Madison 1,623 

Marshville Union 1,405 

Maxton Robeson 1,885 

Mebane Alamance, Orange 2,433 

Mount Gilead Montgomery 1,286 

Mount Pleasant Cabarrus 1,174 

Murphy Cherokee 2,082 

Nashville Nash 1,670 

Newport Carteret 1,735 

Norwood Stanly 1,896 

Pembroke Robeson 1,982 

Pilot Mountain Surry 1,309 

Pinetops Edgecombe 1,379 

PinevilJe Mecklenburg 1,948 

Pittsboro Chatham 1,447 

Princeton Johnston 1,044 

Princeville Edgecombe 1,511 

Ramseur Randolph 1,328 

Randleman Randolph 2,312 

Ranlo Gaston 2,092 

Rich Square Northampton 1,254 

Robbins Moore 1,059 

Robersonville Martin 1,910 

Roseboro Sampson 1,235 

Rose Hill Duplin 1,448 

Rowland Robeson 1,358 

St. Pauls Robeson 2,011 

Snow Hill Greene 1,359 

Southport _ Brunswick 2,220 

Sparta Alleghany 1,304 

Spring Hope Nash 1,334 

Spruce Pine Mitchell 2,333 

Stanley Gaston 2,336 

Stoneville Rockingham 1,030 

Swansboro Onslow 1,207 



Census 143 

TABLES. (Continued) 

2970 
City or Town County Population 

Sylva Jackson 1,561 

Tabor City Columbus 2,400 

Taylorsville Alexander 1,231 

Ti-cnt woods Cfavfn 1.110 

Troy Montgomery 2,429 

Tryon Polk 1,951 

Walnut Cove Stokes 1.213 

Warrenton Warren 1,035 

Waxhaw Union 1,248 

Weaverville Buncombe 1,280 

Weldon Halifax 2,304 

Wendell Wake 1,929 

Wilkesboro Wilkes 2,038 

Windsor Bertie 2,199 

Winterville Pitt 1,437 

Yadkinville Yadkin 2,232 

Zebulon Wake 1,914 



144 North Carolina Manual 



TAHLE (i. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
LESS THAN LOGO 

I'.no 

Citil iir Tmfii Coinitii I'lipuhiliini 

Alexander Mills Rutherford 988 

Alliance Pamlico 577 

Ansonville Anson 694 

Arapahoe Pamlico 474 

Arlin,trlon Yadkin 711 

Askewville Bertie 247 

Atkinson Pender 825 

Atlantic Beach Carteret 800 

Aulander Bertie 947 

Aurora Beaufort 620 

Autryville Sampson 218 

Bailey Nash 724 

Bakersville Mitchell 409 

Banner Elk Averv 754 

Bath Baufort 281 

Battleboro Edg'ecombe. Nash 562 

Bayboro Pamlico 821 

Bearjjrass Martin 99 

Belville Brunswick 59 

Black Creek Wilson 449 

Blowinjr Rock Caldwell. Wataujja 801 

Boiling Spring: Lakes Brunswick 245 

Bolivia Brunswick 185 

Bolton Columbus 584 

Boonville Yadkin 687 

Bostic Rutherford 289 

Bridg:eton Craven 520 

Broadway Lee 694 

Brookford Catawba 590 

Brunswick Columbus 206 

Bunn Franklin 284 

Calypso Duplin 462 

Cameron Moore 204 

Candor Montgomery 561 

Cape Carteret Carteret 616 

Cashiers Jackson 230 

Castalia Nash 265 

Catawba Catawba 565 

Centerville FVanklin 123 

Cerro (iordo Columbus 322 

Chadwick Acres Onslow 12 

Chocowinity Beaufort 566 

Claremont Catawba 788 

Clarkton Bladen 662 

Cleveland Rowan 614 



Census I45 

TABLE 6. (Continued) 

1970 
City or Town County Population 

Clyde Haywood 814 

Cofield Hertford 318 

Colerain Bertie 373 

Columbia Tyrrell 902 

Columbus Polk 731 

Como Hertford 211 

Conetoe Edgecombe 160 

Conway Northampton 694 

Cove City Craven 485 

Creswell Washing-ton 633 

Crossnore Avery 264 

Culberson Cherokee 83 

Danbury Stokes 152 

Dellview Gaston 11 

Dillsboro Jackson 196 

Dobson Surry 933 

Dover Craven 585 

Dublin Bladen 283 

Dudley Wayne 199 

Dundarrach Hoke 53 

East Bend Yadkin 485 

East Laurinburg Scotland 487 

Elk Park Avery 503 

EUenboro Rutherford 465 

EUerbe Richmond 913 

Emerald Isle Carteret 122 

Eureka Wayne 263 

Everetts Martin 198 

Faison Duplin 598 

Faith Rowan 506 

Falcon Cumberland 357 

Falkland Pitt 130 

Fountain Pitt 434 

Franklinville Randolph 794 

Garland Sampson 656 

Garysburg Northampton 231 

Gatesville Gates 338 

Gibson Scotland 502 

Glen Alpine Burke 797 

Godwin Cumberland 129 

Gold Point Martin 108 

Goldston Chatham 3(54 

Grimesland Pitt 394 

Grover Cleveland 555 

Guilford College Guilford 'il 



146 North Carolina Manual 

TABLE 6. (Continued) 

1970 
City or Town County Population 

Halifax Halifax :«5 

Hamilton Martin 579 

Harmony Iredell .'577 

Harrells Duplin, Sampson 249 

Harrellsville Hertford 165 

Hassell Martin KJO 

Hayesville Clay 428 

Hijrli Shoals Gaston 56.S 

Hitrhlands Maeon 588 

Hiidehran Burke 521 

HobRood Halifax 580 

Hoffman Richmond 484 

Holden Beach Brunswick 186 

Hoilv RidRe Onslow 415 

Holly Springs Wake 697 

Hookerton Greene 44 1 

Hot Springs Madison 658 

Indian Beach Carteret 245 

Indian Trial Union 405 

Jackson Northampton 762 

Jamesville Martin 588 

Jefferson Ashe 948 

Jujjiter Buncombe 208 

Kelford Bertie 295 

Kcnansville Duj^lin 762 

Kill Devil Hills Dare 857 

Kittrell Vance 427 

Knightdale Wake 815 

Kure Beach New Hanover 894 

Lake Lure Rutherford 456 

Lake Waccamaw Columbus 924 

Lansing- Ashe 288 

Lasker Northampton 114 

Lattimore Cleveland 257 

Laurel Park Henderson 581 

Lawndale Cleveland 544 

Lewiston Bertie 827 

Liles\ille Anson 641 

Linden Cumberland 205 

Littleton Halifax, Warren 903 

Love Valley Iredell 40 

Lucama Wilson 610 

Lumber Bridge Robeson 117 

McAdenville Gaston 950 

McDonald Robeson 80 

McP'arlan Anson 140 

Macclesfield Edgecombe 586 



Census 147 



TABLE 6. (Continued) 

1970 
City or Town County Population 

Macon Warren 1 79 

Ma^g-ie Valley Haywood 159 

Mag-nolia Duplin 614 

Manteo Dare 547 

Marietta Robeson 70 

Marshall Madison 982 

Matthews Mecklenburg 783 

Maury Greene 421 

Maysville Jones 912 

Micro ^ Johnston 300 

Middleburg Vance 149 

Middlesex Nash 729 

Milton Caswell 235 

Minnesott Beach Pamlico 41 

Montreat Buncombe 581 

Morrisville Wake 209 

Morven Anson 562 

Nags Head Dare 414 

Nauassa Brunswick 487 

Newland Avery 524 

New London Stanly 285 

Newton Grove Sampson 546 

Norlina Warren 969 

Oakboro Stanly 568 

Oak City Martin 559 

Ocean Isle Beach Brunswick 78 

Old P^ort McDowell 676 

Oriental Pamlico 445 

Orrum Robeson 162 

Palmyra Halifax 27 

Pantego Beaufort 218 

Parkton Robeson 550 

Parmele Martin 373 

Peachland Anson 556 

Pikeville Wayne 580 

Pinebluff Moore 570 

Pine Level Johnston 983 

Pink Hill Lenoir 522 

Polkton Anson 845 

Polkville Cleveland 494 

Pollocksville Jones 456 

Powellsville Bertie ^47 

Proctorville Robeson 157 

Red Oak Nash 359 

Rhodhiss Burke, Caldwell 784 

Richfield Stanly 306 

Richlands Onslow 935 



148 North Carolina Manual 

TABLE 6. (Continued) 

1970 
Citu <"■ Toutt County Population 

Robbinsvillc Graham 777 

RockwoU Rowan 999 

Rolesvillo Wake fV.VA 

Roiula Wilkes 465 

Roper Washinpfton 649 

Rosiiian Transylvania 407 

Ro.xohel Bertie 347 

Ruth Rutherford 3(50 

SalemburK Sampson 669 

Sahuhi Polk 546 

Saratoga Wilson 391 

Seaboard Northampton 611 

Seag'rox'e Randolph 354 

Seven Sprinjrs Wayne 188 

Severn Northampton 356 

Shallotte Brunswick 597 

Sharpsburg' Edgecombe, Nash, Wilson 789 

Simpson Pitt 383 

Sims Wilson 205 

South Wadesboro Anson 109 

Speed Edgecombe 142 

Spencer Mountain Gaston 300 

Staley Randolph 239 

Stanfield Stanly 458 

Stantonsburg Wilson 869 

Star Montgomery 892 

Stall ings Union 726 

Stedman Cumberland 505 

Stem Granville 242 

Stonewall Pamlico 335 

Stovall Granville 405 

Sunset Beach Brunswick 108 

Surf ( 'itv Pender 166 

Tarheel Bladen 87 

Teacheys Duplin 219 

Topsail Beach Pender 108 

Trenton Jones 539 

Trent Woods Craven 719 

Troutman Iredell 797 

Turkey Sampson 329 

\'ancebi)ro Craven 758 

X'andemere Pamlico 379 

\'ass Moore 885 

Waco Cleveland 245 

Wade Cumberland 315 

Wagram Scotland 718 



Census 149 
TABLE 6. (Continued) 

1970 
City or Town County Population 

Walstonburg Greene 176 

Washington Park Beaufort 517 

Watha Pender 181 

Webster Jackson 189 

West Jefferson Ashe 889 

Whispering Pines Edgecombe, Nash 926 

Whitakers Moore 362 

White Lake Bladen 232 

Winfall Perquimans 581 

Winton Hertford 917 

Woodland Northampton 744 

Woodville Bertie 253 

Yaupon Beach Brunswick 334 

Youngsville Franklin 555 



PART III 
POLITICAL PARTIES 



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Democratic Party 155 

Chapter One 
THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY 



NORTH CAROLINA DEMOCRATIC PARTY PLATFORM 

A INTRODUCTION 

"Party platforms," Harry Truman once said, "are contracts with the people." We, 
the Democratic Party of North Carolina, assembled in convention on June 24, 1978, adopt 
this platform as a renewal of the pledge we made to govern honestly, responsively, and 
competently as we were entrusted with state and national leadership eighteen months 
ago. 

We believe that the business of government is people. Our efforts are to be judged by 
their impact on the quality of life enjoyed by the people of our state and nation. We 
further believe that in a democratic system the people have a right and a duty to hold 
government accountable. Therefore, one purpose of this platform is to give an account- 
ing of the Democratic Party's stewardship in office. 

We give this accounting with a sense of pride and accomplishment, for the promises 
the Democratic Party made to the people in 1976 have been kept. Through the strong 
leadership of our Democratic Governor, Council of State, and General Assembly, we 
have put our state back on the road to progress— progress that can be measured in the 
daily lives of North Carolinians, and progress that has been achieved without an increase in 
taxation. 

Promises Kept 

The Democratic Party has kept its promise to give education the priority it deserves. 
We have launched a reading program that will mean better instruction for pupils in the 
first three grades; begun a testing program that will help us measure how well our 
students and our schools are doing; strengthened the role of parents and other citizens in 
our school systems. 

The Democratic Party has kept its promises by equipping state government to take the 
lead in fighting crime. New Democratic legislation provides for speedier trials, requires 
mandatory sentences for repeat offenders, and begins the process of prison reform. 

We have kept our promises to establish a system of regulation that will guarantee 
consumers a strong and aggressive voice in preceedings before the State Utilities Com- 
mission. 

We have kept our promise to the people by establishing, in one department of state 
government, the responsibility for North Carolina's Economic Development, and we have 
given it the tools it needs to coordinate that effort. To help get our economy moving 
again, we initiated and successfully campaigned for much needed highway and clean 
water bond issues. 

We have kept our promise by giving the people the right to make a decision that could 
be crucial to the strength of our leadership in state government— to decide for themselves 
whether to re-elect or reject an incumbent Governor seeking a second term. 



156 North Carolina Manual 



The Challenfro Ahead 

In all these areas, and more thai will l)e reviewed in the body of the platform, the 
Democratie Party has kept faith with the people of North Carolina. But our work is not 
finished. We have laid a solid foundation, butgoodjrovernment requires constant vigilance 
and renewed effort. Our platform therefore looks forward as well as backward, setting 
further directions for our Party and our government. 

In this platform, then, we make a new "contract with the people." We do this at a time 
when it is vitally important to return a healthy Democratic majority to the General 
Assembly to continue the work begun in the 1977-78 sessions. We do this with an urgent 
awareness of the need to send a U.S. Senator and House members to Washington who will 
work for rather than against responsive government and the kind of federal-state part- 
nership we need. 

This platform has been written after much deliberation and in consultation with 
democratic officeholders, from county and district Party conventions, and from a variety of 
organizations and individuals testifying in public hearings. It is a document we take very 
seriously and which all Democratic candidates are properly expected to support. Thus will 
the Democratic party continue to keep its promises and to earn the trust of those it seeks 
to serve. 

B. THE CITIZEN AND GOVERNMENT 
1. Democratic Party Affairs 

Our political parties are a vital link between the people and their government. It is 
Parties that organize citizens for political effectiveness at the grass roots. It is Parties that 
bring diverse groups into the political process and enable them to express their views. It is 
the Party tie that binds governmental officials together in a common effort and holds them 
accountable to the electorate. 

A Strong Party 

North Carolina Democrats believe in their Party as a means to citizen involvement and 
responsible government. We are pledged to keep our Party strong and responsive. To this 
end. we have in the past two years increased our staff capacity at state headquarters, with 
only a modest increase in expenditures and an extensive use of volunteer labor. We have 
installed an information retrieval system that increases our ability to communicate with 
Democrats across the state and to offer support services to county organizations. We have 
revised our rules of organization in ways that open up Party operations and make Party 
officials more accountable to those who elect them. 

Unified Democratic Campaign 

North Carolina Democrats take pride in the fact that the 1976 campaign was the most 
unified Party effort this state has seen in many years. We regard this as a model for 
1978 and the future. 

Party loyalty 

North Carolina Democrats regard hard-fought primaries as a sign of our party's 
vitality and wealth of talent. But we place a high valueon Party loyalty and on work for the 
entire Democratic ticket in the general election, for we know that the principles and goals 
that we share are more important than the matters that might divide us. We naturally 



Democratic Party 157 



expect those who hold public or Party office under the Democratic banner to set examples 
for all of us in fidelity to the Party and work for all of its candidates. 

An Open Party 

We promise that the Democratic Party of North Carolina will always stand open to all 
people; that it will respond with sensitivity to the needs of every part of our society; and will 
continue to work actively for an honest and open government that is responsive to the 
will of the people and the demand for the just society. 

2. Campaigns and Elections 

The Right to Vote 

The Democratic Party of North Carolina vigorously affirms its longstanding support 
of efforts to ensure the right to vote to all our citizens without regard to race, sex, creed, or 
economic circumstance. 

Voter Registration 

We urge a greater use of measures which will make voter registration more accessible 
and easier, particularly for the elderly and infirm citizens and those who are unable to 
register at the Board of Elections during regular business hours. In addition, we encourage 
the initiation of voter registration programs at all public libraries during their hours of 
operation. 

We urge continued and concerted efforts by the Party organization at all levels to 
encourage maximum voter registration and turnout in all elections, so that the results will 
truly represent the "will of the people." We support reasonable measures to insure the 
integrity of the voter rolls, but we deplore any irresponsible challenging or harassment of 
voters. We urge the General Assembly and State Board of Elections to consider what new 
laws or regulations might be necessary to prevent indiscriminate challenges. 

Accessible Voter Lists 

The Democratic party urges the state and local Boards of Elections to take action to 
make more easily available, at minimal cost, current lists of registered voters, by precinct. 

Campaign Financing 

The Democratic Party has led the national fight to clean up the electoral process and to 
remove public office from the auction block, by strengtheningdisclosure requirements and 
providing for public financing of presidential elections. We urge the extension of public 
financing to Congressional elections. 

The people of North Carolina have responded enthusiastically to the dollar income tax 
check-off as a means of state level campaign financing. We urge the (ienoral Assembly 
to renew the North Carolina Election Campaign P^und Act at its next expiration date. 

Political Broadcasting 

The Democratic Party recognizes the problems candidates have, in an era of mass 
communications, in getting their names known and their messages understood. We urge 
the broadcasters of our state to consider making available additional public service time 
for issue statements and debates among candidates. We also urge a review of the laws and 
regulations covering political broadcasting aimed at the broader, yet equitable, utilization 
of such public service time. 



158 North Carolina Manual 

'l. Human Rij»hts 

(Oiistitutional Hijihts 

The ikMiioci'atic I'arty of North Carolina remains pledjU'd to the full and equal pro- 
tection of the rijrhts. lives, liberties, and property of all our citizens. We contiemn the- 
ahuse of position or power by any officer or ajrency of jrovernment which has the effect of 
harassing' or illejrall.x' invadin.u' tlie privacy of our people. We suppoi't all responsible- 
measures to ensure that our citizens are protected from indiscriminate forms of informa- 
tion gathering]: by both .trovern mental and private aj?encies, and from improper dissemina- 
tion or use of information from the records of such agencies. 

Equal Rijrhts Amendment 

We call for the ratification of the Kcjual Rights Amentlment \)\ the N.(". (leneral 
Assemblw Without a specific constitutional provision, our piecemeal, patchwork maze of 
statutory restrictions and court decisions will be unlikely — to deal adeijuately with legal in- 
.justice toward men and women in our society. F'urther, we urge support of current legisla- 
tion to extend the KRA ratification deadline. 

Council on the Status of Women 

The North Carolina Democratic Party enthusiastically endorses the work of the 
Council on the Status of Women. We sui^ijort the battered women, rape crisis, and other 
programs of the Council which deal with the unicjue problems of women in our society. 

Job Opportunity 

We recognize {)ast and present job discrimination as a key element in the injustice 
blacks, women, and others have suffered. Other state Democratic administration has made 
a good faith effort to lower discriminatory barriers and aggressively to seek out qualified 
personnel and thereby substantially increasing the numbers of women and blacks hired 
and promoted at every level. We urge the extension of these efforts and underscore our 
belief that in both the i)ublic and [)rivate sectors there should be equal pay for eciual work: 
we call for promotion on the basis of performance without re.gard to race, creed, age or sex: 
and we urge employer sponsorship of training and managerial development programs 
which will help brid.ge the .gaji created by past exclusions. 

Job Flexibility 

We call upon state government, public service institutions, and private industry to 
take the lead in providing alternative work patterns, such as part-time, shared-time, and 
flexible scheduling, so that more people, especially women, can participate in the labor 
force. 

Affirmative Action 

The North Carolina Democratic Party has carrietl out an affirmative action plan to 
ensure the full inclusion of women and minorities in the delegate selection process and 
other party affairs. We pledge to remain sensitive to the needs and wishesof all our people, 
and urge a similar commitment upon every sector of our society. 

4. Governmental Affairs 

Strong: Executive Leadership 

The North Carolina Democratic Party believes that strong executive leadership is the 
key to progressive and meaningful change for our state and opposes any move to diminish 



Democratic Party 159 



the authority of our chief executive. Our nation and state were founded on the principle of 
separation of powers among each of the three branches of government, a principle that 
must continually be protected if it is to remain alive. 

The North Carolina Democrative Party endorses a constitutional amendment grant- 
ing the state's chief executive the veto power as a tool for sound and strong decision making. 

State Employees 

The North Carolina Democratic Party has a strong commitment to the honest and hard 
working state employees who serve the people of our state. Because we believe that the vast 
majority of them are true professionals who deserve wages comparable to those in the 
private sector, we support a cost of living pay increase for them each year if justified 
economically. We also support the efforts of our state personnel office to maintain a system 
that is adaptive to changing needs, yet protective of the employee. 

The citizens of our state have a right to know that state employees are giving a day's 
work for a dayls pay. We therefore support the productivity improvement measures cur- 
rently being implemented and incentive pay for productivity. We salute the present State 
Personnel Commission for its efforts both to protect our state employees and to make sure 
that the citizens of North Carolina are getting an efficient return on their tax dollar. 

Personnel Act and Civil Service Reform 

The Democratic Party urges the review and reform of the State Personnel Act to the 
end that employees who are unproductive and unresponsive to the will of the public and are 
incompetent to perform their work may be separated from the state payroll in an expediti- 
ous manner. Such reform legislation should readily assure due process for both the state 
and the employee without utilizing cumbersome procedures which consume an excessive 
amount of time and money by both the employee and the state. 

We further urge the passage of Federal Civil Service Reform legislation in the nature 
of that proposed by president Carter. We believe that Civil Service Reform has been long 
overdue to the point that the federal bureacracy is unmanageable and often unresponsive. 
Such legislation should also guarantee administrative due process yet readily permit the 
dismissal of an employee who does not perform his or her work in a satisfactory manner. 

Legislative Reform 

We applaud and urge the extension of efforts to provide the General Assembly and its 
committees with professional year-round staffing; to scrutinize more closely the activities 
and expenditures of lobbyists; and to develop a clear and fair code of ethics for legislators 
and all employees of state government. 

The Democratic Party also supports a four-year term for state legislators. We advocate 
a constitutional amendment to achieve this purpose, coupled with a provision for recall 
elections. 

Recognizing that the 1980 census is approaching, with the reapportionment of the 
state and national legislatures to follow, the Democratic Party pledges to carry out re- 
districting in a fair and reasonable manner. 

Fair Representation in Local Government 

If the Democratic Party is to live up to its reputation as the parly of the people, .serious 
consideration must be given to changes in local governments that will allow all persons to 
be represented, regardless of their race, creed, color, sex, national origin, or financial 
status. 



160 North Carolina Manual 



Election ;uul representaLion by district is one form ofg'overnment that allows all areas 
of cities and other political subdivisions, and all classes of people, regardless of their status, 
to be represented in tlicir KoverninK bodies. It is probably the fairest of all systems of 
representation. We therefore urge the implementation of district representation sys- 
tems throughout North Carolina, that we might achieve the true ideal of government, "full 
political participation of all of our citizens". 

Citizen Involvement 

The Democratic Party recognizes the value and importance of the involvement of the 
citizens of North Carolina in determining the success of local government. We urge all 
citizens to exercise their rights fully to participate in those decisions that affect them where 
they live and work. We urge local government officials to encourage and recognize the in- 
volvement of North Carolina citizens in the local decision making process. 

5. Tax Fairness 

The Democratic Party of North Carolina urges a continuation of efforts to promote 
fairness and equity in our system of taxation. 

Tax Structure 

We commend measures adopted in 1976-77 to make our tax structure more equitable, 
including an additional tax exemption for the deaf, a homestead tax exemption increase for 
older adults, and a provision allowing either spouse to claim the $2,000 state income tax 
exemption. 

We endorse further modifications designed to grant inheritance, property, and income 
tax relief for low-income and older citizens; to give inventory tax relief to inventory-inten- 
sive enterprises: and to allow a state income tax exemption of profit from sale of a home for 
taxpayers over 65. 

We advocate altering the tax structure to eliminate the income tax on unemployment 
benefits. North Carolina is the only state that imposes a tax on such benefits, and the tax 
could be more readily borne by non-essential items. 

Tax Burden 

We are convinced that the primary solution to the increasing cost of government 
services is the careful allocation and efficient use of tax dollars already flowing. We urge a 
continual effort to identify and reduce regressive taxes which unfairly burden those 
citizens least able to pay. We advocate efforts to close unwarranted "loopholes" and other- 
wise to equalize the tax burden of North Carolinians in accordance with the principles of 
progressive tax reform. 

6. Consumer Protection 

Progress for the Consumer 

We hail the efforts of the North Carolina Department of Justice to protect the con- 
sumer and promote cofidence in a free marketplace. The Consumer Protection Division's 
program of education and protection of the consumer against deceptive or fraudulent ad- 
vertising and business practices has saved millions of dollars for North Carolina con- 
sumers. 

We commend the media, especially UNC television, for airing consumer protection 
public service announcements and alerts which inform the consuming public of detected 



Democratic Party jgj 



fraud and deception. We applaud the efforts of North CaroHna businesses Uj protect con- 
sumers throujrh such private sector agencies as the Better Business Bureaus and 
Chambers of Commerce throughout the state. 

We commend the Anti-Trust Section of the Attorney General's Office for its role in 
ensuring freedom in the market place, and urge continued efforts toeliminate price-fi.\ing. 
price-gouging, restraint of trade and other anti-competitive practices. 

We point with pride to the achievements of the Democratic General Assembly for the 
consumer: the Consumer Protection Act of 1977, the Business Opportunities Act, and new 
legislation clarifying the rights and responsibilities of landlords and tenants. 

Next Steps in Consumer Protection 

We urge the passage of legislation: 

—to register all auto mechanics, to require a written estimate in advance of all automotive 
repair, and to require authorization from the consumer to perform work in excess of that 
estimate. 
— to authorize generic drug substitution by pharmacies in filling prescriptions 
— to provide for the payment of interest on a tenant's security deposit 

—to protect the buyers of real property and ensure they get all they were promised at the 
time of sale. 

Insurance 

The North Carolina Democratic Party opposes any unfair discrimination in either 
rates or access for all forms of insurance and urges the passage of legislation to provide 
more reasonable rates and better protection for North Carolina citizens. 

Utilities and Regulatory Boards 

We note with alarm the utility rate increases to which North Carolinians have been 
subject, and believe that a substantial burden of proof should be placed on those requesting 
increases. We point with pride to the increased consumer representation on the North 
Carolina Utilities Commission, and advocate the inclusion of truly public members on all 
regulatory boards. 

7. Law Enforcement 

Law Enforcement Officers 

The increasing demands made upon law enforcement officers at every level, and tin' 
threat posed to them in the daily execution of their duties, dictate better pay and improved 
benefits if we are to attract and retain personnel of the caliber recjuired. We commend 
positive action in this area to all levels of government employing police officers, and wel- 
come the Minimum Salary Act of the General Assembly and regular increa.ses in the 
State Salary Supplement as means of achieving this goal. 

We applaud the increased emphasis on professional training for our police officers, the 
professional certificate program of the Criminal Justice Training and Standards Council, 
and the new training and standards requirements passed by the Democratic 
General Assembly. We commend the contribution being made in support of local law 
enforcement by the Attorney General's Criminal Justice Academy at Salem burg and 
recommended increased fundingto improve theirCriminal Justice Lil)rary. Media Center 
and curriculum. 



162 North Carolina Manual 



We ciulorse legislative action which would re(iuireevery candidate foremploymentas 
a sworn police officer exercising power of arrest to demonstrate emotional stability and 
aptitude for police work throujrli psychological screening of the type already required of 
State Highway Patrolman. 

We recommend the provision of adequate civil liability insurance for all law enforce- 
ment officers. We supjwrt measures at all levels of government to provide sound pension 
programs for police officers and major improvements in the death benefits and survivor 
benefits paid to the families of law enforcement personnel killed or disabled in the line of 
duty. 

We reject all forms of discrimination in the recruitment, assignment, or promotion of 
law enforcement personnel. 

Support Services 

We support increased emphasis on community watch programs, crime prevention and 
control, stronger police community relations programs, and the increased funding nec- 
essary to provide greater support to local authorities from the State Bureau of Investiga- 
tion and its "Crime Laboratory". Every practical tool modern technolog>' can provide 
should be utilized for the support of our police agencies, especially improved communica- 
tions networks and Police Information Network terminals for every police authority. 

Drug Abuse 

Recognizing the growing problem posed by drug abuse in North Carolina, and the 
spread of this problem into communities heretofore little affected, we call for strong and co- 
ordinated efforts to combat this threat to our society, including: intensive educational 
programs: programs aimed at early detection and intervention: consistent, strong enforce- 
ment of drug laws, and imposition of stiffer mandatory minimum sentences for "pushers" 
and distributors of addictive narcotic drugs; more SBI drug enforcement agents, as re- 
quested by the Attorney General: legislative review of all laws related to drug abuse, in- 
cluding those dealing with marijuana, to make certain that the penalty is commensurate 
with the gravity of the offense. 

White Collar Crime 

We recognize that more money can be stolen with a pen than with a gun, and therefore 
urge the development within the Department of Justice of a special unit to aid in the in- 
vestigation and prosecution of white collar crime. We also recommend that the North Caro- 
lina Criminal Justice Academy offer courses on the prevention and detection of white 
collar crimes. 

8. Judicial and Penal Reform 

Speedy Trial 

North Carolina Democrats agree with Justice Holmes that "justice dchiyed is justice 
(hniiciV. "We applaud the passage by the General Assembly of the Speedy Trials Act, which 
requires that a trial commence within 120 days of arrest or indictment, and urge strong 
efforts to maintain current both criminal and civil dockets throughout our court system. 

The Democratic Party hails the success of the State's Small Claims Courts in handling 
civil litigation involving less than $500.00. We urge the legislature to recognize this posi- 
tive performance, and theeffectsof inflation, by substantially increasing the jurisdiction of 
our Small Claims Courts in an effort to bring civil dockets down to a manageable level. 



Democratic Party 163 



Public Safety 

The Democratic Party supports the mandatory imposition of stiffer penalties on 
criminals convicted for offenses involving the use of deadly weapons on the threat of death 
or injury. 

Merit Selection of Judges 

The Democratic Party affirms that our judges should be selected solely on the basis 
of their qualifications for office and that they should perform their duties free from poli- 
tical bias and pressures. We urge the General Assembly to consider the advisability of 
giving the Gk)vernor the power to appoint justices and judges to the General Court of 
Justice, subject to recommendation by a nominating commission, while providing that 
judges so appointed would continue to hold office only upon periodic approval by vote of the 
people. 

Criminal Sentencing 

The Democratic Party notes that a series of reports, most recently a study of the Legis- 
lative Commission on Correctional Programs, have identified widespread disparities in the 
length of sentences given for like offenses in North Carolina, and sanctions that rank high 
severity in comparison to other states. "The certainty and swiftness of criminal punish- 
ment," the Commission concluded, "is of more importance in achieving the purposes of pun- 
ishment than in severity of sentence." Therefore, we urge legislative action to make sen- 
tencing more nearly uniform, and to bring sanctions into line with the seriousness of the 
crime and the need for deterrence. 

Juvenile Justice 

We agree with the General Assembly's determination that juvenile status offenders 
should not be placed in statetrainingschools, and support the transfer of Youth Services to 
the Department of Human Resources as an appropriate change of emphasis. We urge the 
expansion of community-based alternatives for youthful offenders, with a stress on family 
counseling, vocational training, and other rehabilitative measures. 

Prison Reform 

We note with encouragement the first steps our Democratic administration has taken 
toward humanizing our prisons: beginning building and planning programs to relieve 
over-crowding and to anticipate mandatory sentencing; separating "hard-core" from other 
inmates; expanding education and work release programs. 

The Democratic Party pledges to continue to give these difficult problems high priority. 
Specifically, we advocate: 

—further efforts to relieve overcrowding and to provide physical facilities which give in- 
mates more safety and privacy; 

—the increased confinement of short-term inmates in local facilities: 

—a strengthened link between vocational training in prison and placement after release; 

—improved prison industry, work-release, study-release, counseling, recreation, and 
training programs; and 

—a more adequate religious ministry for the prisons. 

C. HUMAN RESOURCES 

The North Carolina Democratic Party strongly supports access to human services 
which will enable each individual to realize his fullest potential as a productive member of 



164 North Carolina Manual 



socifty. This includes the opportunity for bettor jobs as well as services such as education, 
health, welfare and social services, and access to artistic expression and our cultural and 
historical heritage. We must encourajje state and local ^-overnnients to seize leadership in 
these areas of urgent human needs. 

1. Health and Welfare 
National Health Insurance 

We consider access to high quality health care to be a fundamental right of all North 
Carolinians. Inflation has eroded the effectiveness of the Medicare and Medicaid programs 
and an increasingly high proportion of health costs have been put upon the poor and older 
adults. To meet the rising costs of health care for these citizens, we support the concept of a 
comprehensive national health insurance program coupled with effective cost controls. 

Prevention 

The Democratic Party commends efforts at prevention of physical and emotional ill- 
ness through improved nutrition, pre-natal and post-natal care, immunization, and early 
diagnosis and intervention through such devices as multi-phasic screening on a periodic 
basis. Health education courses in the schools and in the community make a positive 
contribution in this area, and should be strengthened and expanded. Rather than just 
treating health and social problems after they occur, the problems should be prevented. We 
urge continued support for Senate Bill 903, passed by the 1977 Legislature which 
established a policy of addressing problems through prevention. 

Health Care 

Many rural areas of our state still lack adequate medical and health care resources. 
Rural areas should have available and accessible high quality health care. The Area Health 
Education Centers (AHECs) are making a positive contribution to the quality of health 
care in North Carolina. They should be encouraged to continue high quality medical educa- 
tion to give better health care to our citizens. 

The Democratic Party commends to the medical community further consideration of 
such programs as physicians' assistants, nur.se practitioners, paramedics, home health 
specialists, community clinics and other innovative means having potential for helping to 
meet the health needs of our people. 

Geriatric Medical Education 

North Carolina's population is rapidly growing older. Older adults account for a 
significant proportion of health care costs. To keep older citizens healthier and to hold 
down health care costs the Democratic Party supports geriatric medical education and 
research in the process of aging and the problems related to it. 

In — Home Services 

The entire health delivery system should be coordinated with an adequate program 
of in-home and support services aimed at keeping older adults and the disabled out of in- 
stitutions and in their own homes as long as possible. This less expensive, yet effective, form 
of care should work to contain health care costs. 

Family Planning' 

North Carolinians should have access to family planning services and genetic coun- 
seling in order to assure that optimum opportunities for health, social and economic adjust- 
ments are available to our infants. 



Democratic Party j^5 

In instances where family planning- is inadequate, the Democratic Party, which has a 
strong history of social concern, recommends continuation of the State Abortion Fund for 
individuals who meet the Title XX Family Planning Service eligibility requirements. 

Mental Health 

We advocate continued expansion of alcohol and drug detoxification programs, drug 
abuse programs, alcoholic rehabilitation programs, and mental retardation programs. We 
support a continued expansion of community-based mental health and mental retarda- 
tion programs and increased staffing for our mental hospitals and mental retardation 
centers as well as stronger staffing and funding for programs designed to aid retarded per- 
sons and former mental patients as they prepare to re-enter society. We urge the goal of 
reducing the need for treatment services through support for a prevention program within 
the Division of Mental Health/Mental Retardation Services in cooperation with other 
human service agencies. 

Nutrition 

The Democratic Party supports good nutrition for children, expectant mothers, and 
the disabled. In the interest of expanding nutrition services to the elderly, support should 
be given to enactment of National Meals on Wheels legislation. 

Cost Containment 

In order to contain costs and to assure the highest possible quality of life for the patient, 
the North Carolina Democratic Party urges the Legislature to study alternative methods of 
health delivery which will provide the least expensive health care. We commend the na- 
tional Democratic Administration's support of Health Maintenance Organizations as a 
promising initiative in this regard. 

People With Special Needs 

We urge support for programs for people with special needs. The totally disabled who 
are drawing Social Security should be allowed benefits equal to those of other groups of 
people receiving Social Security. We support the elimination of architectural barriers to 
the handicapped. 

Welfare Reform 

The North Carolina Democratic Party supports the goals and objectives of the 
President's Welfare Reform Legislation. The goals of the President's program are to en- 
courage private sector work for those able to work, upgrade job skills of the poor, provide 
fairer and more uniform benefits; promote family stability: promote self respect of transfer 
payment recipients and simplify the system. 

In addition, the Democratic Party urges state assumption of costs for North Carolina's 
Work Incentive Program, which has gained national recognition for its success in provid- 
ing work opportunities for welfare recipients. We urge efforts to increase participation in 
the Food Stamp Program, which provides important nutritional food supplements to the 
poor and targets the elderly, children and mothers for outreach. 

2. Older Adults 

Adequate Income 

The Democratic Party urges the steps necessary to bring the incomes of all older adults 
up to at least the established poverty level, as well as the provision of services and resources 



166 North Carolina Manual 



that will allow them to maintain an adequate level of existence, targeting rural and low 
income elderly. 

Housinfr and Transportation 

We urjre North Carolina to provide quality institutional care for those elderly who 
require it, to assure theavailabilityof a variety of livinj? arrangements for older people and 
to increase support for and coordination of transportation services for older adults. 

Protection 

The elderly should he protected from abuse and neglect and all older people should be 
insured protection of their legal rights. 

Education and Research 

The Democratic Party pledges to continue to strengthen training programs for those 
working in the field of aging. We further promise support for expanded educational and 
leisure opportunities for older adults. 

Advocacy 

We recognize that older adults possess a tremendous store of expertise, wisdom, skills 
and knowledge, which if positively directed and imaginatively developed, will be one of 
this State's greatest resources. 

We urge the state to take leadership in informing older adults about existing programs 
and services available to them and in increasing awareness in society of the needs of older 
adults. The Democratic Party supports legislation which will offset inflationary prices of 
necessities for older adults such as drugs, utilities, eyeglasses, and urges strengthening the 
Division of Aging to assure development of programs and delivery of services to older 
adults. 

3. Children and Youth 

Family Policy 

We feel a commitment to provide resources so that our youngest citizens may develop 
to their fullest potential. We recognize the family as the most important resource that our 
children have and call on government to design programs for children with the family as 
the primary agent for bringing services to them. We call on government to minimize 
regulations and maximize responsiveness to the needs of all North Carolina families. 

Health Needs 

We commit ourselves to improving the health of North Carolina's children. Although 
this state has made great strides in reducing infant mortality and morbidity, we must 
make even greater efforts. We call for better and earlier screening, diagnosis and treat- 
ment services, recognizing that early comprehensive care can prevent physical, develop- 
mental and social difficulties in later life. We recognize the rights of children with special 
needs to receive education and related services. 

Elarly P'.ducation 

We take pride in the Democratic Administration for serving as a strong advocate for 
the children of this state and for recognizing the importance that good kindergarten — and 
primary reading programs have in promoting school achievement. We strongly endorse 



Democratic Party 167 



the need for child development services and call on this state to help to provide child care 
for families who want and need this service. 

Nutrition 

No one should be hung-ry because of circumstances beyond his control, including school 
children who are presently ill-served by the federal school lunch programs. It is the posi- 
tion of the Democratic Party that the school lunch program should be reformed to meet 
the legitimate nutritional needs of school children in the most cost-effective manner. 

Placement for Foster Children 

We urge the legislature to consider aid to families, capable of providing the nurturing 
atmosphere necessary for human growth, for permanent placement of handicapped or 
hard-to-place children. 

4, Heritage and Culture 

National Leadership " 

In recent years. North Carolina has been a national leader in the arts and humanities 
and remains the only state with a cabinet-level Department of Cultural Resources. The 
Democratic Party strongly supports those programs and institutions that have established 
the state's stature in the areas of arts, theatre, music, and folklife. 

Historical Preservation 

We commend the work of those who discover, preserve, and maintain the legacies from 
North Carolina's rich past. We support the work of such groups as the National Register 
of Historic Places to identify and preserve our historic landmarks and endorse all respon- 
sible efforts from both the public and private sectors to further the preservation and 
restoration of our historic sites and structures. 

Libraries 

The library system in North Carolina provides a necessary and ever-growing service to 
those in the state with both traditional and innovative programs contributing to all 
citizens. Our public libraries are becoming community resources and information centers 
and we believe that they should be given the support necessary to continue this growth. 

E]ducation 

We further urge that one of the highest priorities in public education be given to 
programs in the arts and humanities. 

Economic Development 

We recognize the importance of our cultural resources in aiding the economic 
development of our state. 

5. Education 

Public Schools 

The Democratic party recognizes that our young people are our greatest resource. No 
activity of government is more important than their education, and no investment of our 
dollars yields better return than those spent in this area. 



1(;8 North Carolina Manual 



The Democratic Party calls for a re-commitmont by our state, county, and federal g-ov- 
ernnients to the public schools of our state. Specifically, the Democratic Party urg:es the 
members of the ( General Assembly to reverse the downward trend in the percentage of the 
(leneral Fund ai)i)r<)priated to support our public school s\stem. 

We also call upon Hoards of County Commissioners as local funding authorities to 
evaluate the effort they are making to improve school facilities and educational programs 
in their respective counties in order to insure the highest quality educational program in 
every county of our state. 

The Democratic Party supports ('ongressional efforts to improve the quality and 
quantity of federal support for state and county governments in financing our schools. 

We support the study of North Carolina public school financing to determine alterna- 
tive methods of adequate financing to meet the needs of public schools now and in the 
future. 

We are alarmed at the possible financial erosion of our public school systems if Con- 
gress authorizes tuition ta.x credits for parentis who send their children to private elemen- 
tary and secondary schools. The Democratic Party urges the North Carolina Congressional 
delegation to oppose tuition tax credits for private elementary and secondary education. 

The Democratic Party recognizes the professional status of teachers and other school 
officials and continues to support their right to receive improved pay and fringe benefits 
and better working conditions arrived at through open and equal discussions. There should 
be an annual cost of living pay increase for teachers if justified economically. 

We urge support for adequate staffing in all areas, reduction in class size and protec- 
tion of the teacher allocation system for classroom use. 

We support adequate resources and new approaches to remedial education for those 
children who score low on the state testing programs, and urge the legislature to fund 
adequately such programs. 

We support the legislation passed which calls for provisions throughout the public 
school system of programs for exceptional children, including the gifted and talented. 

We urge the expansion of the community schools program to all 145 school systems in 
the state with its dual emphasis on making school facilities available to the public and pro- 
viding for increased involvement of citizens in their community. 

The Democratic Party supports full implementation of the primary reading program 
so that every child in Crades 1-3 receives benefits. 

The Democratic Party urges strengthening of library facilities and personnel assign- 
ments in every school i n the state, and coordinating, where possible, the programs of public 
libraries and school libraries to enhance the teaching of reading as well as other subjects to 
children and adults. 

We support expansion of vocational education programs at the high school level 
designed to equip students who elect not to go to college with a marketable skill or trade 
that will support them after graduation. 

The Democratic F*arty encourages and supports the involvement of volunteers in 
public school classrooms across the state. 

Higher Education 

The Democratic Party strongly endorses the commitment of the (Greater University 



Democratic Party 169 



system of North Carolina to the improvement of educational quality and the broaden inj? of 
educational opportunity, as vvell as to the maintenance of academic excellence and national 
prominence. While we recog'nize the new challenges that come with the prospect of declin- 
ing enrollments, reduced job opj:)ortunities for graduates, and less research funding, we 
encourage the university system to use whatever imagination and foresight is necessary to 
keep our system among the nation's best. 

We acknowledge the outstanding contributions of our state-supported university sys- 
tem in all areas and especially in graduate training, research, and giving students the 
educational foundation to make them better citizens. We support our system in its pursuit 
of academic excellence, the attainment of which can only enhance the quality of life in 
North Carolina. We encourage the continued strengthening of historically-black insti- 
tutions. 

We affirm the commitment of the state of North Carolina to assist all its citizens in 
obtaining the training they need to pursue their life's calling, regardless of their economic 
circumstances. We urge that present federal and state student assistance plans be 
evaluated and, where necessary, redesigned for improved efficiency and maximum 
effectiveness in meeting student needs. 

We are encouraged at the increase in opportunities for continuing adult education 
and extension services being offered by our colleges and universities, and urge the further 
development of such programs. 

North Carolina Democrats recognize the role our independent colleges and univer- 
sities play in increasing the diversity of our educational programs, increasing educational 
opportunities and alternatives for thousands of our young people, and saving the taxpayer 
money. As a crucial means of maintaining the health of our dual system of higher education 
and the accessibility of private colleges to families of modest means, we support continued 
assistance in the form of tuition grants to North Carolina students attending the state's 
independent colleges and universities. 

Community Colleges and Technical Institutes 

The Democratic Party of North Carolina reaffirms its traditional strong support 
of our Community Colleges and Technical Institutes as a fundamental and vital part of our 
educational system. 

The availability of educated and technically-trained men and women is a strong 
determinant of industrial development and economic growth. To accelerate North Caro- 
lina's economic growth and development, we urge the community colleges and technical 
institutes to continue to provide and to expand a dynamic and comprehensive manpower 
training program. 

We urge the continuingaccessibility of education to all North Carolina adults regard- 
less of age, sex, socio-economic status or ethnic background. 

Illiteracy among our state's adult population is still too high. About one out of every 
three adults has less than eight years of formal schooling. We commend the Community 
College System for its efforts to provide adults with crucially needed skills and we urge 
the System to continue its efforts to eliminate illiteracy among the adult populaticMi in 
North Carolina. 

The Democratic Party urges close coordination of programs among the public schools, 
the community colleges, and the universities to make optimal use of the benefits to all sys- 
tems to produce educational programs for our citizens. 



170 North Carolina Manual 



(>. Labor 

W'l' restate our furuiamentiil belief in the ri^ht of all North Carolina citizens to pro- 
ductive eniployineiit without discrimination in a safe environment at reasonable wajres 
and with adequate "frinjre" protections. 

To that end. we support the following principles: 

Improved I*ay and benefits 

North Carolina Democrats are deeply concerned about our state's low average hourly 
industrial wages, despite a work force whose stability and productivity have placed it 
among the top ten in the nation. 

We urge concerted action from every sector of government, supported by cooperative 
efforts of management and labor, to address this imbalance. 

We support North Carolina's minimum wage and we believe that it should increase 
in proportion to the federal minimum wage, so that workers who bear the brunt of inflation 
will be better able to provide for the security, health, and well-being of their families. 

We urge legislative action providing more adequate protections under the law, in- 
cluding improved Workmen's Compensation and Unemployment Insurance, and exten- 
sion of these protections to both domestic and migratory workers. 

Collective Bargaining 

We rea.ssert our fundamental belief in the collective bargaining process as the best 
means of promoting industrial harmony in our state and supporting the legitimate in- 
terests of both the employer and the workers. 

Collective bargaining establishes a base for cooperative effort through better com- 
munications and understanding of the employer and the worker. 

The courts have vindicated prior stands of the North Carolina Democratic Party by 
ruling that government employees at all levels have a constitutional right to organize for 

their mutual protection. 

Training 

We endorse strengthened apprenticeship and on-the-job training programs designed 
to develop marketable skills and create job opportunities for our young people, particularly 
minority youth whose unemployment rate remains extremely high. We believe that Com- 
prehensive Elmployment and Training Act (CETA) programs should be more closely tied 
to skills training for private sector jobs and support the continued use of CETA funds to 
train the underemployed women, youth and other minorities in their efforts to achieve a 
self-sustaining position in our society. 

Equal Opportunity 

We support the concept of "equal pay for equal work," and strongly oppose any form of 
discrimination whether based on race, age, sex, religion, national origin, or handicap in 
the hiring, promotion or retention of workers. 

Occupational Safety and Health 

We endorse state administration of the Occupational Safety and Health Administra- 
tion (OSHA) program. Rigorous enforcement of safety and health standards offers North 
Carolina workers protection from unneces.sary safety and health hazards. 



Democratic Party 171 



Migrant Labor  ..■■<. 

The Democratic Party supports more sanitary living- conditions which give more pri- 
vacy to migrant workers and their families. Responsibility for regulating the camps and 
strict enforcement of those regulations should be placed in the hands of one agency with 
one set of standards and with adequate staff to do the job. All migrants, not just those who 
work in crews of ten or more, should be guaranteed adequate housing. 

To fight the critical problem of ill health among migrants, we support the provision 
of better health care and mental health care through rural health clinics as well as migrant 
health centers. The health of migrant families should be improved by improving sanitation 
in the camps and by alleviating the incidence of parasitic and infectious diseases, target- 
ing children. 

7. Veterans Affairs 

North Carolina's commitment to its veterans must be as strong as our veterans' past 
and present commitment to our state and country. The Democratic Party supports strong 
government and private sector employment programs for veterans. We support a 
continuation of the Veteran's Dependents scholarship fund and of veterans services offices 
throughout our state. 

D. ECONOMIC AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT 

1. Economic Development 
Balanced Growth 

The Democratic Party supports balanced growth for North Carolina; ( 1) to bring more 
and better jobs to where people live, (2) to provide adequate public services equitably and at 
the least possible cost, and (3) to maintain our natural environmental heritage while 
accommodating urban growth. 

Controlling: Inflation 

While we recognize the need for continued balanced economic growth in North Carolina, 
the Democratic Party urges all local and state government officials, members of the legis- 
lature, and elements of the private sector, both labor and management, to take whatever 
steps are necessary to bring the rate of inflation under control in order for the elderly and 
the poor to survive and for the small and minority businessmen to remain solvent. 

Industrial Development 

The Democratic Party is pledged to an economic development policy that will attract 
business and industry that show strong promise of being good corporate citizens. Such 
business and industry provide good jobs at good pay, while benefiting and reaping a 
legitimate profit from the stability and productivity of our North Carolina workers. This 
produces a wholesome business climate in which labor and management can work 
cooperatively for the benefit of all concerned. 

We support efforts to establish and maintain an even distribution of employment op- 
portunities and public services throughout the state in order to reach a higher standard of 
living for all people of the state. 

We support efforts in both the public and the private sectors to combat unemployment 
by creating new jobs through the expansion of existing industry and the attraction ofg(X)d 
new industry. Our goal is to improve the economic well-being of the citizens of the state 



172 North Carolina Manual 



throuirh raising \)vr capitu inconu- and divrrsifyinK the industrial mix (jf our economy. 

The (lunlity of new jobs attracted through efforts at economic development is as im- 
portant as their (luuntily. North Carolina needs more jobs but they should be g-ood jobs! 

We recommend that those involved in industrial development efforts concentrate on 
industry which relates directly to North Carolina resources, particularly those which help 
process, packajje, distribute, or create new markets for our ajjricultural prod acts and such 
natural resources as our timber, minerals, or marine life. 

We pledge continued support from our educational system and state aj?encies in 
helpinjr to ecjuip workers with the job skills needed by existing and new industry. 

Tourism 

We encourage cooperative efforts by the public and the private sectors to support and 
promote tourism as a key element in North Carolina's economic .system. 

Small and Minority Business 

North Carolina Democrats strongly support small business as the bulwark of our 
economy. Recognizing that in periods of recession and inflation, small business usually 
suffers first, longest, and most severly, we encourage measures which would ease their 
plight, help assure their survival, and enable them to compete more equally with their 
larger counterparts. Particular attention should be paid to small minority businesses, as 
they are usually the first and most severely affected. 

Ports 

North Carolina's increasing penetration of the international markets with both agri- 
cultural and manufactured goods lends urgency to further development of our state port 
facilities to help hold down transportation costs and keep North Carolina competitive. The 
crucial role of our ports in the overall strength of our economy should be recognized by all 
North (.'arolinians. 

2. ENERGY 

North Carolina Democrats feel that the uncertainties of our energy future, and our 
dependence on potentially insecure imports of petroleum, demand the attention and 
concern of state government and all energy consumers. As energy prices rise and new 
sources become available we have to make substantial changes in the way we use energy. 



Conservation 

Since North Carolina is almost totally a non-energy producing state we must embark 
on a vigorous con.se rvation program to buy precious time in which we can develop alternate 
forms of energ\'. Elach sector must become more energy efficient by husbanding our 
diminishing fossil reserves. 

Under legislation passed by the 1977 General Assembly and through the operation of 
its conservation programs North Carolina is a leader in building codes and tax incentives 
for solar energ>' and conservation. State government should continue to explore and imple- 
ment methods of promoting conservation and the efficient use of all resources. 

The state should continue its efforts to implement pricing strategies for electricity, 
such as peak-load pricing, that can lead to more efficient use of our energy resources. 



Democratic Party 173 



Research and Development 

The state should build on its scientific and technological resources by promoting 
energy research that can have benefits for North Carolina and the nation. 

We are committed to the development of alternative energy resources within the state 
that are compatible with the maintenance of environmental quality. While these resources 
will certainly grow in importance in the future, our current efforts should include policies 
designed to increase availability of our traditional energy resources, including coal, oil, 
natural gas, and nuclear, to sustain our expanding state economy. 

Recognizing the concerns of many of our citizens, we urge an extra measure of vigil- 
ance to ensure the safety of nuclear power facilities, particularly as it pertains to the dis- 
posal of nuclear wastes. 

3. Environmental Protection 

The Democratic Party of North Carolina recognizes the unique natural heritage of our 
state and is committed to protecting this heritage in a planned and coordinated manner. 
We affirm our Democratic administration's state objective "to achieve and maintain for the 
citizens of the State a total environment of superior quality and to secure for the people the 
beneficial uses of water, air, and integrally-related natural resources." 

Land Use 

We remain committed to application of a comprehensive land use policy which will 
emphasize that local governments bear primary responsibility for developing and 
administering plans for the regulation and orderly development of our land and water 
resources. 

We affirm our support for measures which will manage our resources so as to retain 
prime agricultural land for farming purposes, protect our watersheds, preserve open 
spaces for parks and recreational use, and promote expansion and improvements of our 
State Park system. 

4. Agriculture 

The Democratic Party of North Carolina is the Party of the people and as such it 
recognizes the very basic role agriculture plays in the economy of our state and the life of 
our people. 

Economic Position of the Farmer 

We believe that the economic plight of the farmer is a vital concern of every North 
Carolinian. All his problems, including inflation, credit, energy, labor, markets and re- 
search must be addressed. Much of the high cost of farm production can be traced to these 
interrelated problems. Inflation must be checked, credit must be available at reasonable 
interest rates, new sources of energy must be found and we must address problems of labor, 
marketing and research. 

As a basic principle, we believe that the farmer should receive his total cost of produc- 
tion, including taxes, and receive a reasonable profit on his capital and labor investment, 
just as other segments of our economy do. 

Exports 

We must continue the efforts already started by the North Carolina Department of 
Agriculture to expand agricultural exports. These products are our salvation in balance 
of payments as our need for foreign oil continues to rise. 



174 North Carolina Manual 



Tobacco 

Tlie lobacc'o allotment proKi'Hni, approved by almost 99 percent of all tobacco farm- 
ers, must l)e maintained. This program is the backbone of the family farm concept which 
has served oi"' state so well. We are committed tothemaintenanceof this sector of our farm 
economy. This can be preserved only when the producer receives a fair return for his labor 
and investment in ajjricultural production. We recoprnize that the use of tobacco products 
is a source of enjoyment to millions of Americans and that the export of tobacco products 
has significant effect on our nation's balance of payments. 

Animal Health 

We call on the (General Assembly to continue to increase its financial support of the 
proposed school of veterinary medicine. Animal health is an important element in the 
increasing: livestock industry in the state. A vetschool will serve the needs of students seek- 
ing careers as veterinarians contribute to the animal health programs in the state, and at- 
tract high-technology- industry. 

5. Transportation 

North Carolina, with a widely dispersed population, requires a system of transporta- 
tion services and facilities which can serve a variety of needs. An efficient, reliable 
transportation system is essential to commerce, industry, employment, recreation, tour- 
ism, education, and personal travel. Nearly every human activity requires the movement 
of people and goods at some stage. We enjoy the good life in North Carolina thanks to our 
transportation system. 

R<;ads 

In recognition of the fact that road improvement is crucial to an adequate program 
of economic development, we advocate: 

—Extending interstate-type facilities to connect with our North Carolina ports 
—Special emphasis on the improvement and paving of all North Carolina primary 
highways and secondary roads. This should be done in order to stimulate economic 
development in rural North Carolina and to repair the roads damaged by severe 
winter weather and floods 

—Improved procedures and standards for maintaining the highway system 

— The development of methods and materials in highway design and construction 

that will reduce soaring cost 
—Stricter enforcement of the anti-litter law in order to protect and beautify the 

appearance of our roads and roadsides 

Balanced Transportation 

Our state and local governments must work to develop a balance among all modes of 
transportation— highways, air, public transportation, rail, water, bicycles— so as to 
guarantee access for all residents, provide maximum flexibility for users, and eliminate 
waste and inefficiency. 

We support the development of a state rail plan aimed at making our rail network a 
strong partner in North Carolina's transport system. 

We advocate the provision of funds and technical assistance to local communities for 
the development of bicycle trails. 



Democratic Party 175 



Safety ~ ! 

We advocate a central place for safety in our state's transportation policy, including: 
— Improved highway design and maintenance 

— The encouragement of voluntary participation by North Carolina motorists in safety 
observances (for example, the 55 mph speed limit) and in the use of safety devices to 
protect vehicle occupants. 

Rural Transportation 

We support improved coordination and, where needed, consolidation of transportation 
services in rural areas. We urge the preparation of a state plan to make maximum, cost 
effective use of expected federal funding of rural and small urban transportation systems. 

6. Housing 

The North Carolina Democratic Party acknowledges the right of every North Carolina 
citizen to have a healthy and decent place in which to live. 

Community Housing Program 

We support the goal of the Community Housing Program of the North Carolina 
Department of Natural Resources and Community Development to "provide for a variety 
of choices of decent, safe, and sanitary housing at affordable costs to the low and moderate 
income citizens of the state." 

We pledge energetic efforts toward the following objectives in 1978, as outlined by the 
Community Housing Program: 

— To stimulate the construction of low-cost, owner occupied and low-rental housing units. 

—To provide for the energy-efficient structural rehabilitation of public and occupant- 
owned housing units for lower income families, and to facilitate the weatherization of 
homes occupied by low-income families. 

—To develop financial assistance programs which aid in the development of adequate low- 
income housing. 

—To coordinate federal, state and local housing programs. 

—To encourage the maintenance, rehabilitation and upgrading of the state's existing hous- 
ing stock. 

—To assist local units of government to develop and implement housing strategies. 



1 7() North Carolina Manual 



PLAN OF ORCiANIZATION 

PREAMBLE 

We. the members of the Democratic Party of North Carolina, in order to make more 
effective the principles of our F'arty, to embrace and serve all peoples of our Party without 
rejrard to race, aj?c or sex, to insure the blessinjfs of liberty and equal opportunity, and to 
work together for the welfare and happiness of all citizens, do hereby adopt and establish 
this Plan of ()rg:anization. 

STATEMENT OF PRINCIPLES OF THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY 

(a) All public meetings at all levels of the Democratic Party of North Carolina shall be 
open to all members of the Democratic Party regardless of race, sex, age, color, 
creed, national origin, religion, ethnic identity, economic status or philosophical 
persuasion. 

(b) Special efforts shall be made to encourage traditionally under-represented groups 
to participate in delegate selection processes and in Party organizations at all levels 
to the end that all elected or appointed Democrats to any positions reasonably reflect 
the Democratic electorate of the unit with regard to age. race, sex and ethnic origin. 

(c) No test for membership in, or any oath of loyalty to, the Democratic Party of North 
Carolina shall be required or used which has the effect of requiring prospective or 
current members of the Democratic Party to acquiesce in, condone or support dis- 
crimination on the grounds of race, sex, age, color, creed, national origin, religion, 
ethnic identity or economic status. 

(d) The time and place for all public meetings of the Democratic Party on all levels shall 
be publicized fully and in such a manner as to assure timely notice to all interested 
persons. Such meetings must be held in places accessible to all Party members and 
large enough to accommodate all interested persons. 

(e) The Democratic Party, on all levels, shall actively support the broadest possible 
registration without discrimination on grounds of race, sex, age, color, creed, na- 
tional origin, religion, ethnic identity or economic status. 

(f) The Democratic Party of North Carolina shall publicize fully and in such a manner 
as to assure notice to all interested parties a full description of the legal and prac- 
tical procedures for selection of Democratic Party officers and representatives on all 
levels. Publication of these procedures should be done in such fashion that all pros- 
pective and current members of the Democratic Party will be fully and adequately 
informed of the pertinent procedures in time to participate in each selection pro- 
cedure at all levels of the Democratic Party organization. 

(g) The Democratic Party of North Carolina shall publicize fully and in such a manner 
as to assure notice to all interested parties a complete description of the legal and 
practical qualifications of all officers and representatives of the Democratic Party. 
Such publication should be done in timely fashion so that all prospective candidates 
or applicants for any elected or appointed position within the Democratic Party will 
have full and adequate opportunity to compete for office. 



1.00. PRECINCT ORGANIZATION 

LOT PRECINCT COMMITTEE 

The unit of the Democratic Party organization in the state of North Carolina shall be 
the voting precinct. 



Democratic Party 177 



Composition. In each precinct, there shall be a Precinct Committee consisting of ten 
active Democrats, who reside in the precinct, and who should, but need not necessarily, be 
present when elected by the active Democrats of said precinct present at the precinct 
meeting held in odd-numbered years. The composition of the Precinct Committee should 
bear a reasonable relationship to the make-up of the active Democrats of said precinct as 
to sex, age, ethnic background and, where practical, geography. No two officers of the 
Precinct Committee shall be from the same immediate family. 

Terms of Office. The terms of office of the members and officers of the Precinct Committee 
shall expire on the date set for the next succeeding precinct meeting held in an odd num- 
bered year or when their successors shall be elected or appointed, whichever shall occur 
first. 

1.02 PRECINCT MEETINGS 

WJ^en and Wlwre Held. Precinct meetings shall be held prior to June 1st each year at the 
polling place of each precinct on the date and at the time announced by the State Chairman 
pursuant to Section 4.11. In the event a quorum is not present, there shall be a second 
meeting of the precinct one week following the date set by the State Chairman for the first 
meeting. 

Order of Business: Odd-Numbered Years. The first order of business at the precinct meet- 
ings held in odd-numbered years shall be the election of five officers of the Precinct Com- 
mittee, followed by the election of five other active Democrats to the Precinct Committee 
and the election of delegates to County Conventions. The officers of the Precinct Committee 
shall be a Chairman, three Vice-Chairmen and a Secretary-Treasurer. 

Order of Business: Even-Numbered Yea rs. The first order of business at the precinct meet- 
ings held in even-numbered years shall be the election of delegates to County Conventions. 
Active Democrats in attendance may nominate delegates to represent the county in the 
District and State Conventions. The second order of business shall be the filling of 
vacancies that exist among the officers and other positions on the Precinct Committee. See 
Section 10.04. 

Presiding Officers. The precinct meetings shall be presided over by the Chairman of the 
Precinct Committee; but, in his or her absence, the Vice-Chairman of the Committee in 
order of succession shall preside, and in the absence of both the Chairman and the several 
Vice-Chairmen, any member of the Committee may preside. In the event that none of the 
above named are present, any active Democrat residing in the precinct may preside. 

1.03 QUORUM 

A quorum for any precinct meeting shall consist of not less than ten active Democrats 
in such precinct. In the event a quorum is not present at the first date set for the annual 
precinct meeting, a second meeting shall be held as provided in Section 1.02. In precincts 
having fewer than twenty registered and active Democrats, one-half of such registered 
active Democrats shall be sufficient to comprise the Precinct Committee and to constitute a 
quorum at the annual precinct meeting. 

1.04 VOTING AT PRECINCT MEETINGS 

Each active Democrat, residing in the precinct and present at any precinct meeting, 
shall be entitled to cast one vote at said meeting. 



178 North Carolina Manual 



LOf) lU SINESS PKliMITTKI) 

At every precincltiu'etin^. if reciiH'sled.u vok'shall be taken on the different (}uestions, 
nominations and elections anticipated to come before the County (,'onvention. and in that 
event, the Chairman or presidinjr officer and the Secretary of the precinct meeting shall 
certify to the County Convention the vote so cast, and the relative vote as cast in the precinct 
meeting shall be reflected in the vote of the precinct delegates at the County Convention 
on said matters. 

1.06 RKIMiESENTATION AT COUNTY CONVENTION AND ON 
COUNTY EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

No precinct shall be entitled to send delegates to any County Convention unless those 
delegates were elected at an annual precinct meeting at which a quorum was present. No 
precinct shall be entitled to representation on the County Executive Committee unless a 
Precinct Committee and Precinct Committee officers were elected at an annual precinct 
meeting at which a quorum was present. 

1.07 VOTES AT COUNTY CONVENTION 

Each precinct shall be entitled to cast at any County Convention one vote for every 
fifty Democratic votes, or major fraction thereof, cast by the precinct for Governor at the 
last gubernatorial election; provided that every precinct shall be entitled to cast at least one 
vote in the County Convention. 

l.OS DELEGATES TO THE COUNTY CONVENTION 

Each precinct may elect as many delegates to the annual County Convention as it 
may see fit, not exceeding six delegates for each vote to which said precinct is entitled at the 
annual County Convention: provided that each precinct shall elect at least one delegate for 
each vote it is entitled to cast at the County Convention. 

The Chairman, or presiding officer, and the Secretary-Treasurer of the Precinct Com- 
mittee shall certify to the County Chairman the names, addresses, and telephone numbers 
of the delegates elected at the annual precinct meeting. 

1.09 REMOVAL OE OFFICERS AND COMMITTEE MEMBERS 

Any Precinct Chairman, Vice-Chairman or Precinct Committee member who gives 
support to, aids or helps any opposing political party or candidate or any other political 
party, or who refuses or fails to perform hisor her duties in organizing the precinct, or who 
is convicted of a crime involving moral turpitude, shall be removed from office in the 
following manner: 

(1) A complaint setting forth full details and duly verified shall be filed with the 
County Chairman by three active Democrats registered in the county of the said officer or 
committee member. The County Chairman shall upon the approval of a majority of the 
other committee officers and after giving five days notice thereof, call a meeting of the 
County Executive Committee to hear the com{)lainant, the alleged offender and any other 
interested parties or witnesses. A two-thirds vote of those members present and voting, as 
provided in Section 2.02, shall be necessary to remove a precinct officer or committee mem- 
ber. The decision of the County Executive Committee shall be final. 

(2) If the complainant so desires, rather than the approach listed above, a complaint 
setting forth full details and duly verified shall be filed by the County Chairman or three 



Democratic Party 179 



active Democrats with the State Chairman, who shall, upon the approval of a majority of 
the other State Executive Committee elected officers, and after giving five days notice 
thereof, call a meeting of the Council of Review to hear the complainant, the alleged 
offender and any other interested parties or witnesses. A majority vote of those members of 
the Council of Review present and voting shall be necessary to remove an officer or com- 
mittee member. The decision of the Council of review shall be final. 

(3) When a vacancy exists because of removal for cause, the vacancy shall be filled by 
the remaining members of the Precinct Committee at a meeting called by the County 
Chairman within thirty days after such removal for cause. Notice of the filling of such 
vacancy shall be given to the County Chairman. The County Chairman shall cause a de- 
tailed account of any removal and replacement to be filed with the State Chairman. 

2.00 COUNTY ORGANIZATIONS 

2.01 COMPOSITION OF COUNTY EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

The officers of the County Executive Committee; the Chairman and First Vice-Chair- 
man of the several Precinct Committees; the Presidents of the duly organized Democratic 
Men's Clubs within the county; the Presidents of the duly organized Democratic Women's 
Clubs within the county; the Presidents of the duly organized Young Democrats Clubs 
within the county; the Presidents of the duly organized College Federation Clubs within 
the county; and the Presidents of the duly organized Teen Dem Clubs within the county 
shall compose the County Executive Committee. 

The County Chairman shall determine what shall constitute a duly organized Demo- 
cratic Men's Club within a county and certify the name of the member who is to represent 
such club on the County Executive Committee. 

The President of the Democratic Women of North Carolina shall determine what shall 
constitute a duly organized Democratic Women's Club within a county and shall certify the 
name of the member who is to represent such club on the County Executive Committee to 
the County Chairman. 

The President of the Young Democrats of North Carolina shall determine what shall 
constitute a duly organized Young Democrats Club and shall certify the name of the mem- 
ber who is to represent such club on the County Executive Committee to the County Chair- 
man. 

The State Teen Dem Advisor shall determine what shall constitute a duly organized 
Teen Dem Club within a county and shall certify the name of the member who is to repre- 
sent such club on the County Executive Committee to the County Chairman. 

2.02 VOTING ON THE COUNTY EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Committee Officers. Each officer of the County Executive Committee shall be entitled to 
one vote. 

Precinct Officers. The several precinct Chairmen and First Vice-Chairmen shall be en- 
titled as members of the County Executive Committee to cast for their precinct one vote for 
each fifty Democratic votes, or major fraction thereof, cast by their precinct for Governor 
at the last preceding gubernatorial election, provided that each Precinct Chairman and 
First Vice-Chairman together shall be entitled to cast for their precinct a minimum of one 
vote. In the event that the two members should disagree on how their precinct's vote shall 
be cast, then each member shall cast exactly one-half of the votes which their precinct is en- 



180 North Carolina Manual 



tilled to cast. In tho event Ihat only one precinct officer, who is a member of the ('ounty 
Kxecutive Conimittee. is presentatameetingofsaidcommitteeand the other precinct offi- 
cer who is a member of the County p]xecutive(V)mmitteehasnotdesi{?nateda Democrat as 
his or her alternate, in accordance with Section 10.0.'?, who is present, then the precinct 
officer who is present shall be entitled to cast only one-half of the votes to which said pre- 
cinct is entitled. 

Ai(xili<irii droHji Officers. A properly certified member of a Democratic Men's Club, 
Democratic Women's Club, Younj? Democrats Club, Collejje P^'ederation Club, and Teen 
Dem ('lub respectively shall be entitled to one vote subject to the provisions that where 
there are two or more duly org:anized and certified Democratic Men's Clubs within a 
county, the County Executive Committee may provide an additional vote for each new club 
that applies, subject to annual approval of the County Executive Committee. This same 
provision shall apply where there are two or more Democratic Women's Clubs, two or more 
Young Democrats Clubs, two or more College Federation Clubs, or two or more Teen Dem 
(Mubs. 

2.0;} OFFICERS OF THE COUNTY EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Conntij Officers. The County Executive Committee shall have as officers a Chairman, three 
Vice-Chairmen, a Secretary and a Treasurer. The P^'irst Vice-Chairman must be of oppo- 
site sex to the Chairman. If the Chairman and F'irst Vice-Chairman are of the same race, 
the Second Vice-Chairman must be of that race other than that of the Chairman and First 
Vice-Chairman, which constitutes at least twenty percent of the registered Democratic 
voters in the county. The Third Vice-Chairman shall bethirtyyearsof age or under, if none 
of the other officers of the County Executive Committee are thirty years of age or under. 
Officers of a County Executive Committee shall be active Democrats residing within the 
county. 

Mioiicifxil Vic('-('h(tir)ii(ni. Each county that contains two or more municipalities of a 
population of more than sixty thousand persons each shall have, in addition to the officers 
specified above, one Vice-Chairman so elected shall be a resident of such municipality and 
shall be elected by the Precinct Chairman and Vice-Chairmen for the precincts constitut- 
ing such municipality. 

Election to Count ij or AH.rHiary Group Office. Should any precinct official be elected as an 
officer of the County Executive Committee, he or she automatically vacates the precinct 
office. Should a Precinct Chairman or First Vice-Chairman be elected as President of a 
Democratic Men's Club, Democratic Women's Club, Young Democrats Club, College 
Federation Club, Teen Dem Club, some other member of said organization shall be certi- 
fied as the representative of that organization on the County Executive Committee. 

Limitdtiott o)i (in Officer's Length of Serrice. A person who has served as an officer of a 
County Executive Committee for two full consecutive terms shall not be eligible for re- 
election to that particular office, provided that after such office has been held by another 
individual(s) for one full term such person shall be eligible for election to that office again. 

Vacancij in Count ij ( 'ho irrno nsh ip. If for any reason there should occur any vacancy in the 
Chairmanship of the County Executive Committee, by death, resignation, or removal, the 
Vice-Chairman in their order of succession, and thereafter the Secretary, shall in such 
order of succession, be vested with full authority and power of the Chairman until such 
time as the County Executive Committee has met and elected a successor to such Chair- 
man. If a County Chairman should be incapacitated, then upon written notice to such 
Chairman signed by the remaining officers of the County Executive Committee, the Vice- 



Democratic Party 181 



Chairmen in their order of succession, and thereafter the Secretary and theTreasurer, shall 
in such order of succession, be vested with the full authority and power of the Chairman 
until such time as the County Executive Committee has met and duly elected a successor 
to such Chairman. See Section 10.04. 

\V)ien County Committee Not in Session. When the County Executive Committee is not 
in session, the officers of the County Executive Committee shall act in the place of the 
County Executive Committee on all matters; unless this Plan of Organization states that 
action is to be by the entire Executive Committee. 

2.04 COUNTY EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEETINGS 

The County Chairman shall issue a call for a meeting of the County Executive Com- 
mittee periodically, but not less than once annually. 

Meetings for New Precincts. In addition to the other business specified in the call, the said 
committee may adopt resolutions fixing a day, time, and place for the holding of additional 
Precinct Committee meetings; and, may provide for precinct meetings for the election of a 
Precinct Committee and precinct officers in any precinct created by the Board of Elections 
since the immediate preceding general election or in any precinct in said county which is 
not properly organized. Such committee and officers shall serve until the subsequent pre- 
cinct meeting held in odd-numbered years. The call and resolutions herein above referred 
to shall be posted at the courthouse door of the county and copies thereof shall be sent as a 
news item to each news media in the county. Any precinct meeting provided for in this 
section shall be held more than two weeks before the date set by the State Chairman for the 
precinct meetings held in odd-numbered years. 

Called Meetings. Upon written receipt of petition from forty percent of the County Execu- 
tive Committee, the County Chairman shall call a meeting of the full County Executive 
Committee within thirty days and shall specify in the call of such meeting those items of 
business set out in the petition as well as any other items of business specified by the County 
Chairman. 

2.05 DUTIES OF COUNTY OFFICERS 

The duties of the County Executive Committee officers shall be: 

Chaiman: The Chairman shall be responsible for the organization in thecounty of political 
instruction classes for Precinct Committees, obtaining all materials necessary for the 
proper performance of his or her duties and doing all other things necessary for the proper 
carrying-out of the best interests of the Party. The Chairman shall appoint a Publicity 
Chairman who shall have the duties and responsibilities of disseminating information to 
registered Democrats of the county describing the qualifications and the procedures for 
selection of delegates and officers at all levels of the Democratic Party. Thirty days prior to 
the annual County Convention, the County Chairman shall designate the exact place at 
which such convention is to be held. In addition, the County Chairman shall perform 
such duties as are set forth in Section 4.12. 

Vice-Chairynen. The three Vice-Chairmen of the County Executive Committee shall have 
such duties and responsibilities as may be assigned by the Chairman. 

Secretary. The Secretary shall have the duty and responsibility of keeping all rocordsof the 
County Executive Committee, including attendance at all meetings, of issuing all notices, 
of preparing all correspondence, and of performing any other duties that may be assigned 
by the Chairman. 



182 North Carolina Manual 



Tnasinrr. The Treasurer shall have the duty of raisinj^ all money required for the opera- 
tion and activities of the Democratic Party, of keeping records of all money received and 
expended in behalf of the Party and of maintaining a list of the names, addresses and 
occupations of all donors. The Treasurer shall also prepare and file such reports of the 
finances of the County Executive Committee as are required by law. 

2.(Mi COUNTY HOARDS OP^ ELPXTIONS 

Mi'thdd of Selection. The County Chairman shall, before submitting to the State Chairman 
recommendations for the Democratic members of the County Board of Elections in such 
county, call a meeting of the County Executive Committee and submit such recom- 
mendations for the approval of the County Executive Committee. Only when such recom- 
mendations are approved by a majority of the committee members present and voting as 
provided in Section 2.02 shall the same be submitted to the State Chairman by the County 
C hai rman. The time of such meeting of the respective County Executive Committees for the 
purpose of passing on such recommendations shall be fixed by the State Chairman. 

Qi(alifieatlou.^ofMe>tihers. Nomemberorofficerof a County Executive Committee shall be 
eligible to serve as a member of a County Board of Elections, or as a Precinct Registrar or 
Judge of Elections. No person, while acting as a member of a County Board of Elections 
shall serve as a state, district or county campaign manager or treasurer of any candidate in 
a primary or election or as a chair of any state, district or county political organization. 

2.07 RULES 

For Preeuu't Meeti)!gs. The County Executive Committee shall have power to make any 
rules with regard to the holdingof precinct meetings which it may deem proper, not incon- 
sistent with this Plan of Organization. 

It shall be the duty of the County Executive Committee to notify the Precinct Chair- 
man or person who is to preside at the annual precinct meeting of the date, time and place of 
the annual County Convention and the votes that each precinct is entitled to cast at the 
County Convention; to prepare and furnish all forms and blanks needed in making the 
returns from the precinct meetings and any reported challenges and appeals therefrom; 
and it shall have the power to raise the funds necessary to pay for the expense thereof. 

Araildhilit!) ofLit^ts ofOfficert^, etc. The County Secretary shall maintain listsof the names 
and addresses of all precinct officers and committee members and of elected delegates 
to any convention. The list shall be made available for inspection and copying, in the 
presence of the Secretary and at the expense of the individuals requesting the copies, to any 
active Democrat residing in the county. The information for each precinct in the county 
shall be available for inspection and copying within three days after it is received from the 
precinct chairman. 

Copn to State CluiiniiaH. The County Secretary shall forward a copy of each precinct or- 
ganization and the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of the officers of the county 
organization to the State Chairman. 

2.08 REMOVAL OF COUNTY OP FICERS 

Any officer of the County Executive Committee who gives support to, aids, or helps any 
opposing political party, or who refuses or fails to perform his, or her, duties in organizing 
the county, or who is convicted of a crime involving moral turpitude, shall be removed from 
office in the following manner: 



Democratic Party 133 



( 1) A complaint, setting forth full details and duly verified, shall be filed with the State 
Chairman by three active Democrats in the county. The State Chairman shall, upon the ap- 
proval of a majority of the other State Executive Committee elected officers, after giving 
five days notice thereof, call a meeting of the Council of Review to hear the complainant, the 
alleged offender and any other interested parties or witnesses. A majority vote of those 
members of the Council of Review present and voting shall be necessary to remove a county 
officer. The decision of the Council of Review shall be final. 

(2) If, in the opinion of the State Chairman, a County Chairman or other officer is 
disloyal or refuses to perform his or her duty, the State Chairman shall, after the approval 
of a majority of the other State Executive Committee elected officers, file a complaint 
with the Chairman of the Council of Review outlining his or her charges and after giving 
five days notice thereof, call a meeting of the Council of Review to sit in executive session, 
unless otherwise requested by the accused, and determine whether the county officer 
named in the complaint should be removed from office. The officer can be represented by 
counsel if he or she so desires. A majority vote of these members of the Council of Review 
present and voting shall be necesary to remove a county officer. The decision of the Council 
of Review shall be final. 

3.00 SECTIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 

3.01 CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

There shall be a Congressional District Executive Committee for each congressional 
district in the state. It shall be composed of two members from each county in the district. 
These members shall be elected at their respective County Conventions held in even-num- 
bered years. These two members shall be entitled to cast, for their county, one vote for each 
300 persons, or major fraction thereof, residing within the county based upon the last 
decennial census, or as otherwise provided for by North Carolina General Statute 163-13, 
as amended. In the event that the two members should disagree on how their county's votes 
will be cast, then each member shall cast exactly one-half of the votes which their county 
is entitled to cast. If only one representative of a county is present at a meeting of this com- 
mittee and the other member from that county on the committee has not designated a 
Democrat as his or her alternate, in accord with Section 10.03, who is present, then such 
representative shall be entitled to cast all of the votes which the county is entitled to 
cast. In addition to such duties as may be delegated to it by the State Chairman, the Con- 
gressional District Executive Committee shall perform the duties required by North 
Carolina General Statute 163-13. 

3.02 JUDICIAL DISTRICT EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

There shall be a Judicial District Executive Committee for each Judicial District in 
the state. It shall be composed of two members from each county in the district. These 
members shall be elected at their respective County (conventions held in even-numbered 
years. These two members shall be entitled to cast, for their county, one vote for each 300 
persons, or major fraction thereof, residing within the county based upon the last decennial 
census, or as otherwise provided by North Carolina General Statute 163-9, as amended. In 
the event that the two members should disagree on how their county's votes shall be cast, 
then each member shall cast exactly one-half of the votes which their county is entitled to 
cast. If only one representative of a county ispresentatameetingof thiscommitteeand the 
other member from that county has not designated a Democrat as his or her alternate, in 
accord with Section 10.03, who is present, then such representative shall be entitled to cast 



184 North Carolina Manual 



all of tlu' votes which the county is entitled to east. 'I'his committee shall perform those 
duties imposed and specified by North Carolina (leneral Statute 168-114, as amended. 

;5.0:{ STATE SKNATOIUAL DISTRICT EXECHTIVP] COMMITTEE 

There shall be a SUite Senatorial District Executive Committee for each State Sena- 
torial District in the state. It shall be composed of two members from each county in that 
district. These members shall be elected at their respective County Conventions held in 
even-numl)ered years. These two members shall be entitled to cast, for their county, one 
vote for each 800 persons, or major fraction thereof, residing in the county based upon the 
last decennial census, or as otherwise provided by North Carolina General Statute 163-11, 
as amended. In the event that the two members should di-sagreeon how their county's votes 
will be cast, then each member shall cast exactly one-half of the votes which their county is 
entitled to cast. If only one representative of a county is present at a meeting- of this com- 
mittee and the other member has not designated a Democrat as his or her alternate, in 
accord with Section 10.08, who is present, then such representative shall be entitled to 
cast all of the votes which the county is entitled to cast. 

3.04 STATE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 
DISTRICT EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

There shall be a State House of Representatives District Executive Committee for each 
State House of Representatives District in the state. It shall be composed of two members 
from each county in that district. These members shall be elected at their respective 
County Conventions held in even-numbered years. These two members shall be entitled to 
cast, for their county, one vote for each 800 persons, or major fraction thereof, residing 
within the county, based upon the last decennial census, or as otherwise provided by North 
Carolina General Statute 163-11, as amended. In the event that the two members should 
disagree on how their county's votes will be cast, then each member shall cast exactly 
one-half of the votes which their county is entitled to cast. If only one representative of a 
county is present at a meeting of this committee and the other member from the county on 
this committee has not designated a Democrat as his or her alternative, in accord with Sec- 
tion 10.03, who is present, then such representative shall be entitled to cast all of the 
votes which the county is entitled to cast. 

3.05 OFFICERS OF DISTRICT EXECUTIVE COMMITTEES 

After the county conventions held in even-numbered years, the State Chairman shall 
appoint one member as Chairman and one member as Secretary of each of the District 
Executive Committees provided for in Sections 8.02, 8.03 and 8.04. The Congressional 
District Chairman elected at each Congressional District Convention shall serve as Chair- 
man of the Congressional District Executive Committee until his or her successor is 
elected or appointed. The Congressional District Secretary elected at each Congressional 
District Convention shall serve as the Secretary of the Congressional District Executive 
Committee until his or her successor is elected or appointed. The State Chairman shall fill 
by appointment from the membership of a particular District Executive Committee any 
vacancies in the chairmanship or secretaryship of that particular District Executive Com- 
mittee. A person appointed as chairman or secretary of a District Executive Committee 
shall not, by virtue of such appointment, lose any voting rights otherwise possessed as a 
member of a particular District Elxecutive Committee to which he or she was elected. 



Democratic Party 185 



3.06 ONE COUNTY DISTRICTS 

Should any Congressional, Judicial, Solicitorial. State Senatorial, or State House of 
Representatives District be composed of only one county, then the County Executive 
Committee of said county shall be the Congressional, Judicial, State Senatorial or State 
House of Representatives District Executive Committee for the respective district. 

3.07 REMOVAL OF DISTRICT COMMITTEE OFFICERS AND MEMBERS 

Any officer or member of a District Executive Committee who gives support to, aids 
or helps any opposing political party or candidate of any other political party, or who 
refuses or fails to perform his or her duties, or who is convicted of a crime involving moral 
turpitude, shall be removed from office in the following manner: 

( 1) A complaint, setting forth full details and duly verified, shall be filed with the State 
Chairman by three active Democrats in the district. The State Chairman shall, upon the 
approval of the other State Executive Committee elected officers, after giving five days 
notice, call a meeting of the Council of Review to hear the complainant, the alleged offender 
and any other interested parties or witnesses. A majority vote of those members of the 
Council or Review present and voting shall be deemed necessary to remove an officer or 
member of a District Executive officer or member of a District Executive Committee. The 
decision of the Council of Review shall be final. 

(2) If, in the opinion of the State Chairman, an officer or member of a District Execu- 
tive Committee is disloyal or refuses to perform his or her duties, he or she shall, after the 
approval of a majority of the other officers of the State Executive Committee, file a com- 
plaint with the Chairman of the Council of Review outlining his or her charges, after giving 
five days notice thereof, shall call a meeting of the Council of Review to sit in executive 
session, unless otherwise requested by the accused, and determine whether the District 
Executive Committee officer named in his or her complaint should be removed from office. 
The officer can be represented by council if he or she desires. A majority vote of those mem- 
bers of the Council of Review present and voting shall be necessary to remove a county 
officer. The decision of the Council of Review shall be final. 

4.00 STATE ORGANIZATIONS 

4.01 STATE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Composition. The State Executive Committee shall consist of its elected officers, ap- 
pointed officers, ex-officio officers, ex-officio members, the district chairs, and a person or 
persons from each county in the state who shall be elected at the County Conventions held in 
odd-numbered years. Each county is entitled to one member of the State Executive 
Committee for each three thousand Democratic votes, or major fraction thereof, cast by 
that county for Governor at the last preceding gubernatorial election, provided, however, 
that each county shall have at least one member. The County Chairman shall be the member 
or one of the members elected from the county; provided that in counties which are entitled 
to only one member of the State Executive Committee, the County Chairman may be the 
member elected from that county. 

Le7igth of Terms. The term of office of the members of the State Executive Committee shall 
be for two years and shall expire on the date set for the County Convention two years fol- 
lowing their election, or when their successors shall be elected, whichever shall occur first. 

Vacancies. Vacancies occurring among the officers and members of the State Executive 
Committee shall be filled in accord with Section 10.04. 



18() North Carolina Manual 



\.{yi i-;ij-:rn:i) OFFICERS 

Ihitc of h'Icftioii. In each odd-numbered year, the Slate Chairman shall convene the State 
Executive Committee prior to March 1 for the purpose of electinjj: its officers. 

FJcctni Officers. The State Executive Conmiittee shall have as its elected officers a Chair- 
man, three Vice-Chairmen and a Secretary. The First Vice-Chairman must be of opposite 
sex to the Chairman. If the Chairman and F^irst Vice-Chairman are of the same race, the 
Second Vice-Chairman must be of that race, other than the race of the Chairman and P^irst 
\'ice-Chairman, which constitutes at least twenty percent of the registered Democratic 
voters in the state. 

SKcccs.^io)!. If for any reason there should occur a vacancy in the Chairmanship of the State 
Executive Committee, the Vice-Chairmen in the order of succession shall be vested with 
full authority and power of the Chairman until such time as the State Executive Committee 
has met and duly elected a successor to such Chairman. 

4.03 APPOINTED OFFICERS 

The State Chairman shall appoint a State Treasurer, a State Chairman for Minority 
Affairs and a State Advisor for the Teen Dems, all of whom shall serve at the pleasure of the 
State Chairman as appointed officers and all of whom shall be voting members of the State 
Democratic Executive Committee. 

4.04 EX-OFFICIO OFFICERS 

The President of the Democratic Women of North Carolina and the President of the 
Young- Democrats of North Carolina shall serve as ex-officio officers and as voting mem- 
bers of the State Democratic Executive Committee. 

4.05 EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS 

The members of the Democratic National Committee from North Carolina elected by 
the State Executive Committee, the National Committeeman and National Committee- 
woman of the Young Democrats of North Carolina, the President of the North Carolina 
Federation of College Democrats and the President of the North Carolina Teen Dems shall 
be ex-officio voting members of the State Executive Committee. 

4.06 VOTING ON THE STATE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

All members and officers of the State Executive Committee whether elected, 
appointed or ex-officio shall be entitled to one vote. 

4.07 DUTIES OF THE STATE CHAIRMAN AND CERTAIN OFFICERS 

Chalntnui. The Chairman shall be responsible for State Party organization and for doing 
all things necessary in carrying out the best interests of the Party. He or she shall convene 
the State p]xecutive Committee at leastonceayear, set dates of statewide annual meetings, 
conventions, and precinct meetings, appoint appropriate committees for carrying out 
necessary activities of the Party, and obtain all materials necessary for the proper perform- 
ance of his duties. 

Vlce-Chdirmoi. The three Vice-Chairmen shall have such duties and responsibilities as 
may be assigned by the Chairman. 

Secnidry. The Secretary shall have the duty and responsibility of keeping all recordsof the 
State Executive Committee including attendance at all meetings, of issuing all notices, of 



Democratic Party 187 



preparing correspondence and of carrying out any other duties that may be assigned by the 
State Chairman. 

Treasurer. The Treasurer shall have the duty of directing the raising and disbursing of 
funds for the operation and activities of the State Party, of keeping records of all money 
received and expended in behalf of the Party, of preparing lists of all donors and of pre- 
paring and filing such reports of the finances of the State Executive Committee as are re- 
quired by law. 

Teen Dem Advisor. The State Advisor of the Teen Dems shall have the duty of propagating 
Teen Dem Clubs throughout North Carolina and of providing guidance and coordination 
for Teen Dem operations and activities. 

4.08 STATE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL 

Powers. When the State Executive Committee is not in session, the State Executive Council 
shall act in its place in all matters, except those requiring action by the State Executive 
Committee. 

Meetings. The State Executive Council shall meet at least once very three months upon call 
of the State Chairman or upon request of a majority of its members. 

Composition and Voting. The membersof the State Executive Council are: the State Chair- 
man, each of the three State Vice Chairmen, the State Secretary, the State Treasurer, the 
Chairman of Minority Affairs, the State Advisor of the Teen Dems, the President of the 
Democratic Women of North Carolina, the President of the Young Democrats of North 
Carolina, the President of the North Carolina Federation of College Democrats, the mem- 
bers of the Democratic National Committee elected by the State Executive Committee, 
the National Committeeman and the National Committeewoman of the Young Democrats 
of North Carolina, and three members of the State Executive Committee, nominated by the 
State Chairman and elected by the State Executive Committee. These three nominees shall 
reasonably reflect the geographic, racial and sexual makeup of the Democratic Party in 
North Carolina. The State Chairman shall serve as chairman of the Executive Council. 
Each member of the Executive Council shall be entitled to cast one vote. 

4.09 STATE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR 

A full-time Executive Director shall be selected by the State Party Chairman with 
the approval of the State Executive Council to serve at the pleasure of the State Chairman. 
The performance of the Executive Director shall be subject to annual review by the State 
Chairman and the Executive Council. The administrative staff of the State Democratic 
Headquarters shall be employed by and under the supervision of the Executive Director. 

4.10 STATE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEETINGS 

Notice of All Meetings. At least ten days prior to any meeting of the State Executive Com- 
mittee, notices shall be mailed stating the date, time, place and proposed agenda of such 
meeting. 

Called Meetings. Upon written receipt of petition from forty percent of the State Executive 
Committee, the State Chairman shall call a meeting of the full State Executive Committee 
within thirty days. 

4.11 ORDER OF BUSINESS OF THE STATE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AT 
REGULAR ANNUAL MEETING 



188 North Carolina Manual 



Kach year, the Slate Chairman shall convene the State Kxeeutive Coniniittee prior to 
Mai-ch 1. At such nieetinjr, it shall he the duty of the State ("hair man to jjubliely announce 
and enter into the proceeding's of that meeting the following' as the first order of business: 

(1) The exact day and time at which annual Precinct Meetings are to be held in 
accordance with Section L()2. 

(2) The exact date and time at which annual County Conventions are to be held in 
accordance with Section 5.01. 

(.'?) The exact date and time at which congressional District Conventions are to be held 
each even-numbered year in accordance with Section 6. OL In addition, the State Chairman 
shall designate the city in which such Conventions shall be held. 

(4) The exact date, time and place at which the State Convention is to be held each 
even-numbered year in accord with Section 6.02. 

(5) In promulgating the dates for County, District, and State Conventions, the State 
Chairman shall set the dates for such conventions so as to provide a reasonable time 
between all such meetings for the resolutions adopted by the various conventions to be 
presented to and considered by to the Resolutions and Platform Committee of the State Con- 
vention. 

(6) In each even-numbered year, the State Chairman shall announce the number 
of votes to which each county is entitled at the biennial Congressional District Conventions 
and at the biennial State Convention: the number of persons which each county shall elect 
as memliers of the State Democratic Executive Committee: and the total number of votes 
which the representatives of a county are entitled to cast as members of the several District 
Executive Committees. 

Section III chapter one— jp 

(7) The State Party Chairman shall designate a temporary chairman to preside at the 
Congressional District Convention until such time as a Congressional District Chairman is 
elected. It shall be the duty of said temporary Chairman to make arrangements for the 
holding of said District Convention. 

(8) In each even-numbered year, the financial statement and the proposed budget 
shall be presented for approval. 

4.12 NOTK E OF PARTY MEETINGS 

To Cninitij ClidifDifn. Each year immediately after the adjournment of the above-men- 
tioned meeting of the state Executive Committee, it shall be the iluty of the State Chair- 
man to publish the proceedings of the same and it shall be the duty of the State Secretary to 
notify, in writing, the several County Chairmen of the date and places so fixed for the 
holding of precinct meetings and the date, time and places for holding of conventions: the 
number of votes each county is entitled to cast at the Congressional District Convention and 
at the State Convention, the number of delegates to which each county is entitled on the 
State Executive Committee: and the total number of votes to which each county is entitled 
on the several District Executive Committees. 

Tu Xeivs Mcdid. Two weeks prior to the date set for the Precinct Meetings, the County 
Conventions, the Congressional District Conventions and the State Convention, the State 
Chairman shall disseminate by means of press release to all news media in the state, the 
time, location (except for county conventions) and function of each meeting or convention 



Democratic Party 189 



and urge all active Democrats to participate. The County Chairmen shall disseminate 
similar information (including the location for County Conventions) to the news media 
within his or her county and shall post a copy of the call forwarded to him by the State 
Secretary at the courthouse door of this county. Four weeks prior to the date set for the 
Congressional District Conventions, the State Chairman shall disseminate by means of all 
news media in the state the exact location (within the town or city previously designated) at 
which such convention shall be held. Inaddition to the procedures outlined above, the State 
Chairman and the County Chairman shall use such other means and methods as will insure 
full and timely knowledge of the functions and times of all Party meetings. 

4.13 AUDIT COMMITTEE 

The State Executive Council shall appoint a committee of three persons whose duty it 
shall be to audit annually the financial accounts and balances of the State Executive Com- 
mittee. 

4.14 REMOVAL OF ELECTED OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF THE 
STATE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Any elected officer or member of the State Executive Committee who gives support to, 
aids, or helps any opposing political party or candidate of any other political party, or who 
refuses or fails to perform his or her duties, or who is convicted of a crime involving moral 
turpitude, shall be removed from office in the following manner: 

State Cha irman. Upon receipt of a petition of complaint setting forth full details and duly 
verified from a majority of the State Executive Committee, the First Vice-Chairman of 
the State Executive Committee shall, after giving five days notice thereof, call a meeting of 
the Council of Review to hear the complainant, the alleged offender and any other in- 
terested parties or witnesses. A majority vote of those members of the council of Review 
present and voting shall be necessary to remove the State Chairman. The State Chairman 
can be represented by counsel if he or she so desires. The decision of the Council of Review 
may be appealed to the State Convention. 

Other Elected Officers and Monhers. If, in the opinion of the State Chairman, a State Vice- 
Chairman, Secretary or member of the State Executive Committee is disloyal or 
refuses to perform his or her duty, the State Chairman shall, after the approval of a 
majority of the other State Executive Committee elected officers, file a complaint with the 
Chairman of the Council of Review outlining his or her charges, and after giving five days 
notice thereof, call a meeting of the Council of Review to sit in executive session, unless 
otherwise requested by the accused, and determine whether the elected officer or member 
of the State Executive Committee named in the complaint should be removed from office. 
The officer can be represented by counsel if he or she so desires. A majority vote of those 
members of the Council of Review present and voting shall be necessary to remove a county 
officer. The decision of the Council of Review shall be final. 

If three active Democrats in the county submit a written complaint concerning a 
member of the State Executive Committee from their county, setting forth full details and 
duly verified, the State Chairman shall, upon the approval of a majority of the other State 
Executive Committee elected officers, after giving five days notice thereof, call a meeting 
of the Council of Review to hear the complainant, the alleged offender and any other in- 
terested parties or witnesses. A majority vote of those members present and voting shall 
be necessary to remove a member of the State Executive Committee. The decision of the 
Council of Review shall be final. 



190 North Carolina Manual 



5.()() COUNTY CONVENTIONS 

5.01 MKETIN(i AND FUNCTION 

A/nnuil Mi'iiimj. Kach county shall hold a County Convention annually in accordance with 
the date and the time designated by the State Chairman inirsuant to Section 4.1L 

Phi ■(■ ofConroitioii. The County Chairman shall, thirty days prior to thedatesuch conven- 
tion is to be held, designate the exact place where such convention is to be held and the 
same shall be announced prior to the adjournment of the precinct meetings. 

All County Conventions shall be called to order by the Chairman, and in his or her ob- 
sence by the Vice-Chairmen in order of succession and in their absence by any member of 
the County p]xecutive Committee who may be present at the Convention, and in case none 
of the foregoing persons shall be present, then by any delegate to the Convention who shall 
preside until a permanent Chairman is elected by the Convention. 

Order of Bus in ess: Ocld-Nioiihcrcd Years. The County Convention, held in odd-numbered 
years shall, from among the active Democrats of the county, elect: 

L The officers of the County Executive Committee. 

2. The members of the State Executive Committee to which the county is entitled. 

Order of Bu>;i)i<ss: Ereii-Numhered Yearft. The County Convention, held in even-numbered 
years, shall, from among the active Democrats of the county, elect: 

1. Delegates to the biennial Congressional District Convention and to the biennial 
State Convention in accord with Sections 6.01 and 6.02. The County Chairman shall notify 
in writing within five days all persons elected as delegates. 

2. Two members to each of the following: the Congressional District Executive Com- 
mittee, the Judicial District Executive Committee, the State Senatorial District Execu- 
tive Committee and the State House of Representatives District Executive Committee; 
provided that a county shall not elect members to that particular District Executive Com- 
mittee, if it is not a partof a multi-county Congressional, Judicial, State Senatorial or State 
House of Representatives District. 

Report to State ( 'l/oinnoN. Within ten days following the County Convention, the County 
Chairman shall certify to the State Chairman the names, address and telephone numbers 
of all persons elected as officers, delegates or members of any Executive Committee. 

5.02 VOTING 

Alloeatioii if Votes. Each precinct shall be entitled to cast in the County Convention one 
vote for every fifty Democratic votes, or major fraction thereof, cast by the precinct for 
Governor in the last preceding gubernatorial election; provided thateach precinct shall be 
entitled to cast at least one vote at the County Convention. 

Kleetion of Delegates. Delegates to the County Convention shall be elected as provided in 
Sections LOT and L08. 

Votes Divided AtiioHg Delegates Preseid. The precinct delegates who attend the County 
Convention shall be entitled to vote the full strength of their precinct upon all matters of 
business which come before the convention and each such delegate present from a par- 
ticular precinct shall cast an equal number of the votes which the precinct is entitled to 
cast. All votes which the precinct is entitled to cast shall be divided equally among all the 
delegates representing that precinct who are in attendance. 



Democratic Party 191 



Tabulation of Votes. The County Chairman shall provide the Convention with a sufficient 
number of secretaries or accountants, who shall reduce the votes to decimals and tabulate 
the same, disregarding- all fractions after seconds or hundredths column. 

Voice Votes. Nothing herein contained shall prevent the Convention from making nomina- 
tions, holding elections and conducting business viva voce or by acclamation where a vote 
by precincts is not demanded by twenty-five percent of the certified voters present. 

Vote May Not Be Changed. After a vote is cast, there shall be no change in such vote until 
after the roll call is completed and before the final result of the ballot shall be announced by 
the Chairman of the Convention. 

Reporting and Challenging the Vote. It shall be the duty of the delegates from the several 
precincts to choose one of their number as chairman, whose name shall be reported to the 
Chairman of the Convention; and whose duty it shall be to cast the vote of the precinct as 
directed, and the vote as announced by such person shall be recorded unless some delegate 
from that precinct shall challenge its accuracy, in which case it shall be the duty of the 
Chairman of the Convention to cause the roll of delegates from that precinct to be called 
upon which the vote of such precinct shall be tabulated and recorded according to the 
response of the delegates; but in no event shall the vote of one precinct be challenged by a 
delegate from another precinct. 

5.03 RULES 

The County Executive Committee shall have the power to make such other rules and 
regulations for the holding of County Conventions not inconsistent with this Plan of Organi- 
zation, as may be deemed necessary or expedient. 

5.04 NOMINATION CONVENTION WHERE COUNTY NOT 
UNDER PRIMARY LAW 

In all counties in which the selection of candidates for members of the General Assem- 
bly and county and township officers is not provided for by the primary law, nominations 
shall be made in the following manner: 

(1) The County Executive Committee shall meet and set a time and place for holding a 
County Convention for the nomination of candidates for the aforesaid offices, and shall also 
set the time and places for holding the necessary preliminary precinct meetings and there- 
upon the County Chairman shall issue a call for the Precinct Meetings and the County 
Convention, which call shall be sent to the precinct officials and published in such manner 
and form as directed by Section 4.12. 

(2) At the meeting held in each precinct pursuant to said call, delegates to represent 
the precinct at the County Convention shall be elected from the active Democrats of the 
precinct; and said delegates or such of them as shall attend the County Convention, shall be 
entitled to vote the full strength of their precinct in the nomination of candidates and upon 
all questions which may come before the County Convention. 

(3) Each precinct shall be entitled to cast at the County Convention one vote for every 
fifty Democratic votes, or major fraction thereof, cast by the precinct for Covernor at the 
last preceding gubernatorial election; provided that every precinct shall be entitled to 
cast at least one vote in the County Convention, and each precinct may appoint as many 
delegates to said Convention as it may see fit, not exceeding six delegates for each vote to 
which said precinct may be entitled to the County Convention; provided that each precinct 
shall elect at least one delegate for each vote which it is entitled to cast at the County Con- 
vention. 



192 North Carolina Manual 



( 1 1 'I'lu' pr(H-iiicl mec'liiiK^ shall be presided over l)y the Precinct Cliainiiaii. but in his 
or her absence, the Precinct Vice-('hairmen in order of succession, and in the ai)sence of 
both the Chairnian and \'ice-Chairiiian, any meml)er may preside. In theabsenceof any of 
the al)ove, any active Deinocrate may preside. 

(')) The County K.xecutive Committee shall have power to make any rules with rejjard 
to holdinjr precinct meetintrs which it may deem proper, not inconsistent with this Plan or 
orjfanization: it shall be the duty of said committee to prepare and furnish all forms and 
blanks needed in makinjj the returns from said precinct meetings, and any reported 
challenjres and appeals therefrom. 

(()) In the event a uniform [jrimary law is passed by the North Carolina General 
Assembly, this Section 5.04 shall l)e removed in its entirety from the Plan of Organization. 

6.00 DISTRICT AND STATE CONVENTIONS 

6.01 CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT CONVENTIONS 

Wlnii <ni(l Whrrc Hrld. A biennial Congressional District Convention shall be held within 
the geographical boundaries of each Congressional District each even-numbered year. The 
State Chairman shall designate the day, the time and the city in which such Convention 
shall be held. The exact location of the Convention in such city shall be determined by the 
temporary District Chairman designated by the State Chairman pursuant to Section 4.1 1 
(7). 

Allocdtion of ]'<)f(s. Each county in a Congressional District shall be entitled to cast at a 
Congressional District Convention one vote for every one hundred and fifty votes, or major 
fraction thereof, cast in that county for the Democratic candidate for (lovernor at the last 
preceding gubernatorial election; provided, that each county shall be entitled to cast at 
least one vote. 

Election of Ddegatei^. The Congressional District Convention shall be composed of dele- 
gates elected by the several County Conventions held in ev-en-numbered years. Each county 
shall elect one delegate for each vote it is entitletl to cast at the Congressional District Con- 
vention. 

Ordcrof Biisiiit'ss. This convention shall, from among the active Democrats, of the district: 

(1) As the first order of business, elect a Congressional District Chairman, who shall 
thereafter preside. 

(2) Elect a Congressional District Secretary. 

(3) Elect one member of the biennial State Convention's Committee on Permanent 
Organization, Rules and Order of Business. 

(4) Elect one member of the biennial State Convention's Committee on Credentials 
and Appeals. 

(5) Elect one member of the Council of Review. 

(6) In each presidential election year, elect, from among the active Democrats in the 
district, the number of delegates first and then alternates to the National Convention 
allotted to each Congressional District. 

(7) In each presidential election year, nominate one Presidential elector from that 
Congressional District. 



Democratic Party 193 



(8) Elect one member of the State Lejjislative Policy Committee. 

(9) In each presidential election year, elect one member of the Delegate Nominating- 
Committee. 

(i.()2 STATE CONVENTIONS 

When (iiid Wlicrc Hdd. A biennial State t'onvention shall be held each even-numbered 
year. The State Chairman shall desig-nate the day. the time and the location of such conven- 
tion. 

Allocation of \ 'otcs. Each county in the state shall be entitled to cast at a State Convention 
one vote for every one hundred and fifty Democratic votes, or major fraction thereof, cast 
in that county for the Democratic candidate for Governor in the last preceding guber- 
natorial election, provided that each county shall have at least one vote. 

Election of Delegates. The State Convention shall be composed of delegates elected by the 
several County Conventions held in even-numbered years. Each county shall elect one 
delegate for each vote it is entitled to cast at the State Convention. 

6.03 VOTING 

DIrlsion of Wites Among Delegates Present. The delegates who attend a District or State 
Convention shall be entitled to vote the full strength of their county upon all matters of 
business which come before the respective District or State Convention, and each such dele- 
gate present from a particular county shall cast an equal number of the votes which the 
county is entitled to cast. All votes which the county is entitled to cast shall be divided 
equally among all the delegates representing that county who are in attendance. 

Vote Man Not Be Changed. In both District and State Conventions, after a vote is cast, 
there shall be no change in such vote until after the roll call is completed and before the 
final result of the ballot shall be announced by the Chairman of said Convention. 

Roll of Delegates. The State Secretary shall make up a roll of all delegates from the several 
counties to the District and State Conventions and transmit the same to the Chairman of 
the District and State Conventions. 

Major it g Vote. In District and State Conventions, an election or nomination may be made 
by any majority, even though it be a fraction of a vote. 

Reporting and Challenging a Vote. In all District and State Conventions, it shall be the 
duty of the delegates from the several counties to choose one of their number as chairman. 
whose name shall be reported to the Chairman of such convention, and whose duty it shall 
be to cast the vote of his or her county as directed, and the vote as announced by that person 
shall be recorded unless some delegate from that county shall challenge its accuracy, in 
which event it shall be the duty of the Chairman of the Convention to cause the roll of 
delegates from that county to be called, upon which the vote of such county shall be tabu- 
lated and recorded according to the response of its delegates: but in no event shall the vote 
of one county be challenged by a delegate from another county. 

\'oiee I'otes. Nothing herein shall prevent the District and State Conventions from adopt- 
ing temporary rules, making nominations, holding elections and conducting business 
viva voce or by acclamation where a vote of counties is not demanded by any delegate 
present. 



1 !» 1 North Carolina Manual 



7:00 NATIONAL (()NVP:N TION AND 
DKMOC RA TIC NATIONAL COMiMITTEE 

7.01 rROCEDrRES 

In accordance with the mandate and call for each national convention or meetingof the 
National Democratic Party, the State Kxecutive Committee shall adopt a plan for the 
.^election of delegates and alternates thereto and shall as a part of said plan provide for the 
election of members of the Democratic National Committee allotted to North Carolina; 
[)rovided that such members of the Democratic National Committee shall be elected dur- 
intr each presidential election year by the State Executive Committee to serve four-year 
terms. 

8.00 POLICY COMMITTEES 

K.Ol RESOLUTIONS AND PIJVTEORM COMMITTEE 

At the reg'ular annual meeting of the State Executive Committee referred to in 
Section 4.11, the committee shall elect one person from each Congressional District to the 
Resolutions and Platform Committee of the biennial State Convention. In addition, the 
State Chairman shall appoint four members to said committee and shall designate from 
among the elected members of the committee a Chairman, Vice-Chairman and Secretary. 

The committee shall meet at the call of its Chairman. It shall prepare the proposed 
platform of the party for submission to the State Convention and shall consider all 
resolutions addressed to the biennial State Convention. The committee is encouraged to 
hold one or more public hearings and to invite testimony from all citizens. 

8.02 STATE LEGISLATIVE POLICY COMMITTEE 

( '(inipositidii. The State Legislative Policy Committee shall be composed of the following 
persons or dully appointed representative of each of them: the Democratic Governor or the 
nominee, the Democratic Lieutenant Governor or the nominee, the Democratic Speaker of 
the State House of Representatives and the State Chairman. The following persons shall 
also be members of this committee: the three state Vice-Chairmen, the members of the 
democratic National Committee electetl by the State Executive Committee, the Chairman 
of the Democratic Caucus of the State Senate, the Chairman of the Democratic Caucus of 
the State House of Representatives, a member from each Congressional District elected at 
the biennial Congressional District Convention and five persons appointed by the State 
Chairman, with the approval of the Executive Council. The State Chairman or his or her 
designee shall serve as Chairman. 

Mccti)i(;s. This committee shall meet at leastonce monthly while the General Assembly is in 
session and at other times upon the call of the Chairman. 

Duties. This Committee shall formulate recommendations for state and national Demo- 
cratic legislative policy. It shall communicate to state and national legislators grassroots 
sentiment on legislative issues. It shall assist in sponsoring public forums throughout 
the state on state and national issues. 

8.0:{ COUNTY ISSUES COMMITTEES 

('(nuposition. Each County Chairman may appoint Issue Committees of between five and 
fifteen members and a Chairman of each to serve until the succeeding County Convention. 



Democratic Party 195 



Duties. The substantive concerns of these committees shall be determined and announced 
by the County Chairman who shall endeavor to make such committees relevant to the con- 
cerns of citizens of his or her county. Such committees shall solicit the views of citizens of 
the county and shall formulate and adopt, by simple majority vote, resolutions and/or 
proposed legislation for submission to the County Executive Committee. 

Reports. The County Executive Committee shall meet at the call of its Chairman to vote to 
endorse or not endorse such resolutions or proposals, but shall in any event pass a record of 
such proposals and their action to the State Democratic Headquarters for submission to 
the appropriate State Party Committees and to the appropriate local elected officials. 



9.00 COUNCIL OF REVIEW 



9.01 PURPOSE 



There is hereby established a Council of Review for the purpose of hearing and render- 
ing fair and impartial decisions on such disputes and controversies which have arisen or 
which may hereafter arise within the Party when the same are filed with said Council by 
the State Chairman, or by the State Executive Committee, or when they are brought to the 
attention of the Chairman of the Council of Review by an aggrieved Democrat. 

9.02 COMPOSITION 

The Council of Review shall consist of one member from each Congressional District 
who shall be elected at the biennial Congressional District Conventions, and two members 
at-large to be appointed by the elected officers of the State Executive Committee. 

Members of the Council of Review shall serve for a term of two years beginning 
January 1st following their election. The Council of Review shall elect from among its 
membership a Chairman. The Chairman of the Council of Review shall always be entitled 
to a veto. 

9.03 RULES AND DECISIONS 

A majority of the entire membership of the Council of Review shall constitute a 
quorum. All decisions concurred in by a majority of the Council of Review present and 
voting shall be final and binding upon all North Carolina Democratic Party meetings and 
officials, except that any decision of the Council of Review may be appealed to the State 
Convention. The State Chairman is hereby directed to issue such further and supple- 
mentary directives as may be necessary and proper to implement the decisions of this 
Council. The Council of Review is further empowered and directed to adopt necessary and 
appropriate rules to assure that each dispute and grievance is settled impartially, equit- 
ably and according to the rules of justice and fairness. 

9.04 RIGHTS RESERVED 

The State Executive Committee shall have the right to remove from office any member 
of the Council of Review upon two-thirds of said Committee present and voting being 
satisfied that the Council member has been disloyal to the Party or guilty of any miscon- 
duct which is not in keeping with his or her highpositionof honor in the Democratic Party. 



19(> North Carolina Manual 



}>.().-) VA( ANCIKS 

A vacancy in the rnrnibership of the Council of Ivcview shall he filled by the Conj^res- 
-^ional Distfict Kxcculivc Coiiiniilli'c of the Congressional Dislrict in which such vacancy 
exists, provided that vacancies in tnenibers at-lacKe shall be filled by the State Executive 
Council. 

9.(m NOTIFICATION 

The Council of Review shall assume jurisdiction of all matters and disputes arising 
from any Party meetings or convention i)rovided for in this Plan of Orjranization; provided 
sucli dispute or jrrievance is brouKht to the attention of the Chairman of the Council of Re- 
view within seventy-two hours after such meeting <>r convention was convened or was to 
have been convened. Any grievances arising from such Party meeting or convention not 
brought to the attention of the Chairman of the Council of Review within the seventy-two 
hour period shall be deemed to have been waived. An aggrieved Democrat shall bedeemed 
to have brought such to the attention of the Chairman of the Council of Review if written 
notice was filed with, or deposited in the mail to. the Chairman of the Council of Review, the 
State Chairman or State Democratic headquarters within the seventy-two hour period. 
The Council of Review shall assume juristiction of all matters and disputes referred 
to it by the SUite Chairman. 

*>.()7 (ALLS 

Upon receipt of the grievance by the Council of Review it shall immediately notify the 
County Chairman of the county in which the aggrieved party resides of the nature of the 
grievance filed and the time and the place that the Council of Review will hear the matter. 

9.08 EXCEPTIONS 

Nothing herein shall prevent preliminary adjudication of grievances by appropriate 
Credentials of (Grievance Committee at the county or district level; provided that the 
seventy-two hour notice period shall begin at the time of the decision by the said county or 
district Credentials or (Irievance Committee. 

10.00 MISCELLANEOUS 

10.01 COMMITTEE MEETINGS 

All committees shall meet at such times and places as the chairman of the respective 
committee may from time to time appoint and designate in the call. 

10.02 QUORUM 

Unless otherwise specifically provided for in this Plan of Organization, forty percent 
of the persons constituting the entire membership of any committee shall constitute a 
quorum: providing such persons are entitled to cast at least forty percent of the votes. 

10.03 PROXY VOTIN(; 

.S7(//(' Kxi'vKtifc ( 'oiii III 'litre. A member of the State Executive Committee may designate an 
active Democrat, who is a member of the County Executive Committee from his or her 
county, to serve as his or her alternate for a particular State Executive Committee meet- 
ing by notifying the State Chairman, State Secretary, or Executive Director of such 
designation in writing, prior to the call to order of such meeting; provided, however, that no 



Democratic Party 197 



one person may serve as an alternate for more than one member at any meetinj? and no 
member or alternate may be entitled to more than one vote. 

District Exi-cntiir CoDiniittce. A member of a District Executive Committee may designate 
an active Democrat, who is a member of the County Executive Committee or Precinct Com- 
mittee from his or her county, to serve as his alternate for a particular District Executive 
Committee meeting by notifying the District Chairman or District Secretary of such 
designation in writing, prior to the call to order of such meeting; provided, however, that no 
person may serve as an alternate for more than one member at any meeting and no mem- 
ber can also serve at the same meeting as an alternate. 

Counti) E.rccHtiir Connnittcc. A member of the County Executive Committee may 
designate an active Democrat who is a member of his or her precinct committee to serve as 
his or her alternate for a particular County Executive Committee meeting by notifying the 
County Chairman or County Secretary of such designation in writing, prior to the call to 
order of such meeting; provided, however, that no one person may serve as an alternate for 
more than one member at any meeting and no member can also serve at the same meeting 
as an alternate. 

10.04 VACANCIES 

Ani(ni(j District (itid Stcitc Exccutirc Coinniittccs Members. Vacancies among members of 
District or State Executive Committees who represent their County on such an Executive 
Committee shall be filled by the County Executive Committee of the county in which such 
vacancies occur at a meeting of the County Executive Committee held within thirty days 
following the creation of the vacancy. This meeting shall be held not less than ten days 
following normal notice of such meeting. 

Among Count II (I ltd Stcdc Executive Committee Officers. Vacancies occurring in the elected 
officers positions of County and State Executive Committees shall be filled by the Execu- 
tive Committee in which such vacancies occur. Within sixty days following notice of the 
creation of a vacancy in the office of Chairman of the State Executive Committee, the 
person serving as State Chairman shall call a meeting of the State Executive Committee 
to fill the vacancy and any other vacancies which might be caused by the action of such com- 
mittee in filling that vacancy. 

Among District Excctitirc Comm ittec Officer:^. Vacancies occurring in officer positions of a 
District Executive Committee shall be filled as provided in Section 3.05. 

Among Precinct OJficers and Committee Members. Vacancies occurring among the mem- 
bership or in any officer positions of any Precinct Committee shall be filled by the remain- 
ing members of the Precinct Committee. 

\'(ic(nicics Eiltcd bji (\)initii Exccutirc Committee. Within thirty days following notice of 
the creation of a vacancy which is to be filled by a County Executive Committee, the 
County Chairman shall call a meeting of such committee to fill that vacancy and any other 
vacancies which might be caused by the action of such committee in filling that vacancy. 

10.05 CANDIDATES AND CAMFAKiN MANAGERS IN PRIMARIES 

Any officer of any county, district or state executive committee, ( 1 ) who announces his 
or her candidacy for an elective office and who is opposed in the Democratic Primary, or (2) 
who manages a campaign for a candidate who is opposed in the Democratic Primary, shall 
be deemed to have vacated that office as of the date of the filing deadline for such elective 
office of either his or her own candidacy or the candidate whose campaign he or she is man- 



U)cS North Carolina Manual 



airiii,u: is opposed in the Deniorrutic I'riiuary. Such vacancy shall he filled as provided in 
this I'lan of Orjranization. 

1()(m; sriuoMMirrKKS 

All Kxecutive Coiunullees shall have the power to appoint subcommittees or special 
committers for such purjiosesand with such powersin their res pective jurisdictions as may 
l)e deemed necessary or desirable. 

l(t.(»7 FII.L1N(; VACANCIES AM()N(; CANDIDATES 

X'acancies shall be filled amon.tr candidates, and the selection of candidates shall he, as 
prescril)ed by law. 

lO.OS municipal exec ITIVE ( OMMITTEE 

hi the nomination of candidates for municipal offices to be voted for inany town or city 
election. wln're the same is not controlled by charter or legislative enactment, a Municipal 
K.xecutive Committee may be created for the purpose of facilitating' the orderly selection 
of such candidates. The committee shall be composed of five active Democrats residing in 
the municipality. It shall be elected biennially at a meeting of all members of the County 
K.xecutive Committee who reside in the municipality, the meeting to be called and presided 
over by the County Chairman. It shall be the sole function of any Municipal p].\ecutive 
Committee created under the provisions of this section to supervise and direct the selec- 
tion of candidates for municipal offices, and to that end, the committee may formulate such 
rules and regulations as may be deemed necessary or practical. Those persons present at 
the meeting called by the County Chairman shall elect from the membership of the Muni- 
cii)al P'.xecutive Committee, a Chairman, three Vice-Chairmen and a Secretary-Treasurer. 
All vacancies in membership shall be filled by the Municipal Executive Committee. 



10.09 APPEALS 

Unless a grievance has been filed with the Council of Review, the right of appeal shall 
lie from any subordinate committee or convention to the committee or convention next 
superior thereto, and in all county, district, or state conventions, appeals shall first be 
referred to the Committee on Credentials and Appeals, or a special committee provided by 
feri'ed to the Committee on Credentials and Appeals, or a special committee provided by 
the convention, and the findings and reports of such committee had before action thereon 
by the convention. 

10.10 REPORTS 

It shall be the duty of the County Executive Committee and their Chairmen to make 
such reports and furnish such information to the State Chairman and Chairman of the 
several District Committees as the said State and District Chairmen may ilesire. 

10.11 ACTIVE DEMOCRAT DEFINED 

An active Democrat is defined to mean a person who has been registered to vote as 
a Democrat for at least ninety days, except in the case of an initial registrant, and who gives 
of his or her time and/or means to further the interests of the Democratic Partv. 



Democratic Party 199 



10.12 PLAN vs. LAW 

In the several counties of the state where primaries are provided for by law, whether 
optional or mandatory, the Plan of Organization shall nevertheless be followed in all 
matters not inconsistent with such laws. 

10.13 GENERAL RULES 

Procedural or parliamentary questions not specifically covered by this Plan of Or- 
ganization or rules adopted pursuant to authority granted herein shall be governed by the 
provisions of Robert's Rules of Order. 

10.14 UNIT RULE ABOLISHED 

The use of the unit rule is prohibited in all activities and at all levels of the Democratic 
Party of North Carolina. 

10.15 ELECTION OF ALTERNATE DELEGATES PROHIBITED 

No alternate delegates or replacement delegates shall be elected to County, District or 
State Conventions. 

11.00 AMENDMENTS 

11.01 POWER TO AMEND 

The State Executive Committee shall at any regularly called meeting duly held, have 
power to amend this Plan of Organization. Any amendment adopted by the State 
Executive Committee including those herein contained shall be effective immediately and 
remain in effect until and unless the same is repealed or amended by action of the next 
State Convention. All amendments to this Plan of organization must be approved by a 
two-thirds vote of the members or delegates present and voting at the State Executive 
Committee meeting or State Convention considering same. 

1 1.02 DATES OF AMENDMENTS 

The foregoing is the Plan of Organization of the Democratic Party of North Carolina as 
adopted by the State Democratic Executive Committee at a meeting held in the City of 
Raleigh on January 10, 1970; and as amended on April 3, 1970; January 11, 1972; May 11. 
1974; October 25, 1975; and February 10, 1979. 

Russell Walker 
State Chairman 

February 10, 1979 



200 North Carolina Manual 



DKMOCRATIC PARI Y EXECUTIVE COUNCIL 

(Hfin Off in r Adilnss 

Chairman Russell Walker Asheboro 

P^irst \'i('('-('hairniari Betty Speir Bethel 

Second \'ic'e-('hairnian F]. V. Wilkins Roper 

Third V'ice-Chairnian (Jary Bartlett Goldsboro 

Secretary Sally Howard Concord 

Treasurer Frank (Jriffin Monroe 

At-LarKe Member Martha Speed Ix)uisburg 

At-Lar^e Member Jeannetta Council Fayetteville 

At-Larg:e Member Tommy Hedrick Southmont 

National Committeewoman, 

Director of Minority Affairs Dr. Alfreda Webb Greensboro 

National Committeewomen Johnsie Setzer Claremont 

Jane Patterson Raleigh 

National Committeemen Rowe Motley Charlotte 

Charlie Winberry Rocky Mount 

State Advisor of Teen Dems Charlie Mercer Raleigh 

President of Democratic Women .... Ruth Starnes Monroe 

President of Young Democrats Wayne Harder Raleigh 

YDC National Committeeman Bill Williams Charlotte 

YDC National Committeewoman LeAnn Nease Carrboro 

President of College Democrats Scott Brewer Chapel Hill 

President of Teen Dems Perry Morrison Wilson 

Executive Director David Price Chapel Hill 



Democratic Party 20 1 



DEMOCRATIC PARTY COUNTY CHAIRMEN 

CiHftitif ( liin nun ti Aitifrcss 

Alamance F^red Bowman Burlinjrton 

Alexander Dr. Glenn Deal Taylorsville 

Alleghany George R. Grouse Sparta 

Anson Bill Gapel Wadeshoro 

Ashe Russ Roten h^fferson 

Avery Joe Perry Banner Klk 

Beaufort Delma Keech Washington 

Bertie Bill Pritchett. Jr Windsor 

Bladen Wanda Gampbell P^lizahethtown 

Brunswick David (Butch) Redwine Shallotte 

Buncombe Talmage Penland Asheville 

Burke p]lean()r Butler Morganton 

Gabarrus Jim Ramseur Goncord 

Galdwell Hazel Palmer Hudson 

Gamden p]lwyn P. Leary Camden 

Garteret Jerry Gaskill Cedar Island 

Caswell I^. Bee Farmer Yanceyville 

Catawba Mary Frances Busbee Claremont 

Chatham I^ob (Junn I*ittsboro 

Cherokee Milton Mashburn Andrews 

Chowan Nick ( Jeorge Kdenton 

Clay (^uentin Moore Hayesville 

Cleveland Joyce Gashion Kings Mountain 

Columbus Jim Hill Whiteville 

Craven Janice I^ee Havelock 

Cumberland Tony Rand F^ayetteville 

Currituck Jerry Wright Jarvisburg 

Dare Louise Dollard Kitty Hawk 

Davidson Rod Penry Lexington 

David Dot B. Shoaf Gooleemee 

Duplin Melvin Williams Pink Hill 

Durham I^arbara V. Smith Durham 

Edgecombe Alice Wilson Tarboro 

Forsyth Norman Nifong Winston-Salem 

Franklin Shirley Winstead Franklinton 

Gaston Joe Roberts Gastonia 

Gates I'hil Godwin Gatesville 

Graham Gary Davis Robbiiisville 

Granville A. B. Swindell, I\' Oxford 

Greene Melvin Oliver Snow Hill 

Guilford Robin Britt Greensboro 

Halifax L Milton liead Halifax 

Harnett p]d McCormick Lillington 

Haywood Charles M. Beall Canton 

Henderson Sam Neill Hendersonville 

Hertford Joe I'arker Ahoskie 

Hoke Kenneth W. McNeill Raefoni 



202 North Carolina Manual 



II\(ir Ivoss Smith I']n,m-'lh;ini 

Ii'cdfll RolxM-t Randall Mdorrsvillc 

.Jacksoti R. \'. (\'iiiiiie) -leiikins Sylva 

.lohnstoii Cct-il M;isseiiKill Four Oaks 

Joiu's ('.('. (Chris) P' ranks ['oUocksville 

Lee ( icortre -lackson Saiiford 

Lenoir Melvin Whitfield Kinston 

Lincoln Mercer W. Simmons. . .• Lincolnton 

Macon lames P. Cunningham Franklin 

Madison W. T. (liill) Moore Hot Springs 

Martin Wanda Caldwell Williamston 

McDowell Carroll Ilemi)hill Marion 

Mecklenliur.u' Sydnor Thompson Charlotte 

Mitc-hell I')ol) (Irindstaff Spruce Pine 

Monttroiiiery Cl\'de Norris Troy 

Moore Phillip Jackson Southern Pines 

Nash Cus H. Tulloss Rocky Mount 

New Hanover L. Cleason Allen WilminKton 

Northampton lane ( i. Wells Woodland 

Onslow Pill Wilson ' Jacksonville 

Oran.ui' And\- Little Chapel Hill 

Pamlico ALss Louise Muse Oriental 

Pasciuotank Betty Mcrks Flizal)eth City 

Pender Reece M. Lefler Willard 

Per(iuimans Archie T. Lane. Sr Hertford 

Person Herman (ientr.w .Ir Ro.xboro 

Pitt ( ieoru'e Saleel)\' (irifton 

Polk ( )liver .] . ( Ireene Tr\on 

Randolph, Lloxd Hamlet Asheboro 

Richmond Woodrow ( iunler Hamlet 

Robeson Mark P>i-ooks I*eml)roke 

Rockin.u'ham Libby Maddrey Fden 

Ivowan Jamima iJeNhu'cus China (irove 

Ivutherfoi-d loe Randall Forest City 

Samp.son Murray Pool Clinton 

Scotland lim Oilis Laui'inbui'.ir 

Stard\- Robert Lee Albemai'le 

Stokes Simpson ( iarnei" Kinu' 

Sui-r\' lune Snow Mt. Airy 

Swain T. \. Sandlin Biwson City 

'rran.syUania .linniiy (iaither Hre\ai-d 

'i'yrrell W. Braxton X'oiiva Columbia 

I 'nioii I\uth Helms Monroe 

\'ance Nancy Wilson Henderson 

Wake Boi) Spearman lialeigh 

Warren Floxd B. AU'Kissick. .Ii' Manson 

Washintitiin Mel\ in Cordon PI \- mouth 

Watau.ua David I )ou.uhert\' lioone 

Wa\ne lioi'den Parker (ioldsboro 



Democratic Party 203 



Wilkes Bob Elledge North Wilkesboro 

Wilson Doug Whitley Wilson 

Yadkin Herbert Cameron Yadkinville 

Yancev Mack B. Ray 



Republican Party 205 

Chapter Two 
THE REPUBLICAN PARTY* 



NORTH CAROLINA REPUBLICAN PARTY 
STATE PLAN OF ORGANIZATION 

(Revised and Adopted May 19, 1979) 

PREAMBLE 

We, the members of the Republican Party of North Carolina, dedicated to the sound 
principles fostered by that Party, conscious of our civic responsibilities and rights, firm in 
our determination to give our strength to preserving the American principle that govern- 
ment ought and must be of all the people, by all the people, and for all the people do, for the 
purpose of uniting and coordinating our efforts for maximum power and efficiency, here- 
with establish this instrument, The Plan of Organization of the Republican Party of North 
Carolina. 

ARTICLE I 
MEMBERSHIP 

Memhei's 

All citizens of North Carolina who are registered Republicans are members of the 
Republican Party of North Carolina and shall have the right to participate in the official 
affairs of the Republican Party in accordance with these rules. All reference herein to dele- 
gates, alternates, officers, and members shall, in all cases, mean persons identified and 
registered with the Republican Party in the precinct of their residence. 

ARTICLE II 
PRECINCT MEETINGS 

I. Biennial Precinct Meetings 

A. In every odd-numbered year, the County Chairman shall call precinct meetings 
during the month of February or the first ten days of March, after giving ten ( 10) 
days Written notice of the time and place of holding same to each Precinct Chair- 
man, and after giving one week's notice of such meeting in a newspaper of general 
circulation within the County. Failure of the County Chairman to act in compli- 
ance with the provision above shall be cause for any registered Republican within 
precinct to call said precinct meeting by notice in a newspaper of general circula- 
tion within the County. Every Republican registered within the precinct, in 
attendance, shall be entitled to cast one vote. 

B. Biennial precinct meetings shall elect a Precinct Committee consisting of a Chair- 
man, Vice Chairman (of the opposite sex). Secretary and as many members-at 
large as deemed necessary to conduct the business of the precinct. Members of the 

*The Republican Party adopts its platform every four years— during the year presidential elections arc held. At 
the re(juest of party leaders, no platform is included as the 197t) was out-of-date. 



2()() North Carolina Manual 



pret-iiK'l CominiUee shall hold lh(.'ir places for two years or utilil their successors 
are chosen. Precinct meetings shall elect one delegate and one alternate to the 
county convention. They shall also elect one additional delegate and alternate for 
every fifty (50) votes, or major fraction thereof, cast for the Republican candidate 
for (lovernor in the last general election, or, in conformity with their county Plan of 
Organization, choose to elect one additional delegate and alternate for every one 
hunih-ed (100) votes, or major fraction thereof, cast for the Republican candidate 
for (iovernor in the last general election. 

C. The Chairman and Secretary of each Precinct shall certify election of officers, 
committee members, and delegates and alternates to the County Convention, on 
forms stipulated by the State Central Committee and furnished by the County 
Chairman. Complete credentials shall be in the hands of the County Secretary by 
the deadline set by the County Chairman. 



II. Presidential Election year Precinct Meetings 

A. In each precinct in every Presidential Election year, the County Chairman shall 
call precinct meetings within the dates designed by the State Central Committee 
after giving ten (10) days written notice of the time and place of holding same to 
each Precinct Chairman, and after giving one week's notice of such meeting in a 
newspaper of general circulation within the County. Failure of the County Chair- 
man to act in compliance with this provision shall be cause for any registered 
Republican within the precinct to call said precinct meeting by notice in a news- 
paper of general circulation within the County. Every Republican registered 
within the precinct, in attendance, shall be entitled to cast one vote. 

B. Presidential Election Year Precinct Meetings shall elect one delegate and one 
alternate to the Presidential Election Year County Convention. They shall also 
elect one additional delegate and alternate for every fifty (50) votes, or major 
fraction thereof, cast for the Republican candidate for Governor in the last general 
election, or, in conformity with their county Plan of Organization, choose to elect 
one additional delegate and alternate for every one hundred (100) votes, or major 
fraction thereof, cast for the Republican candidate for Governor in the last general 
election. No organizational changes shall take place except as provided in this 
section. 

C. The Chairman and Secretary of each precinctshallcertify election of delegates and 
alternates to the Presidential Election Year County Convention on forms stipu- 
lated by the State Central Committee and furnished by the County Chairman. 
Complete credentials shall be in the hands of the County Secretary by the deadline 
set by the County Chairman. 

III. Other Precinct Meetings 

A. Other meetings of the Precinct general membership may be held at such time as 
shall be designated by the Chairman of the Precinct Committee after giving five 
(5) days notice of such meeting: or upon similar call of one-third of the members of 
the Precinct Committee, or ten (10) members of the general precinct membership. 
There shall be no proxy voting. 



Republican Party 207 



B. In the event a Precinct fails to properly organize or the Precinct Chairman fails to 
act, the County Chairman shall appoint a Temporary precinct Chairman to serve 
until a general membership meeting can be called and a new Chairman elected. 

ARTICLE III 
PRECINCT COMMITTEE 

I. Duties of Committee 

The Precinct Committee shall cooperate with the County Executive Committee in all 
elections and Party Activities; provide the County Chairman with a list of Party mem- 
bers within the Precinct suitable for appointment as registrar, election judge, 
markers, counters, and watchers at the polls; and promote the objectives of the Party 
within the Precinct. 

II. Duties of Officers 

The Chairman of the Precinct Committee, with the advice and consent of the Precinct 
Committee, shall have general supervision of the affairs of the Party within his pre- 
cinct, shall preside at all meetings of the Precinct, and shall perform such other duties 
as may be prescribed by the Precinct Committee or the County Executive Committee. 
The Vice Chairman shall function as Chairman in the absence of the Chairman. The 
Secretary shall keep all minutes and records, and shall maintain a list of registered 
Republican voters and workers within the Precinct. 

III. Meetings 

Meetings of the Precinct Committee may be held at such times as shall be designated 
by the Chairman of the Precinct Committee or County Chairman after giving five (5) 
days notice of such meetings; or upon similar call of one-third of the members of the 
Precinct Committee. There shall be no proxy voting. 

IV. Vacancies and Removals 

A. In case of death, resignation, discontinuance of residency with the Precinct, 
removal of any officers or members of the Precinct Committee, or other vacancy, 
the resulting vacancy shall be filled by the remaining members of the Precinct 
Committee. 

B. Any member of the Precinct Committee may be removed by a two-thirds vote of the 
Precinct Committee after being furnished with notice of the charges against him. 
signed by not less than one-third of the members of the Precinct Committee and 
allowing him twenty (20) days to appear and defend himself; provided further that 
said cause for removal shall be confined to gross inefficiency. Party disloyalty or 
failure to comply with the County or State Party Plans of Organization. Such 
removal may be appealed to the County Executive Committee within twenty (20) 
days, and their decision shall be final. 

For the purposes of this Plan of Organization, "Party disloyalty" shall be defined as 
actively supporting a candidate of another Party or independent candidate 
running in opposition to a nominee of the Republican Party. 



208 North Carolina Manual 



ARi I( LE IV 
COUNTY CONVENTION 

i^it'imial ('<»nvi'iiti(nis 

A. A ("ounly Convent ion shall l)e called in every odd-numbered year, by the Chairman 
of the County py.xeeutive Committee, at the County seat, within the month of March, 
afl.'r j;i\in)j: fifteen ( 15) days notice of such Convention in a newspaper of general 
circulation within the County. The delegates and alternates elected at the biennial 
precinct meetings, unless successfully challenged, shall sit as delegates and 
alternates at the County ('onvention. If the County Chairman fails, refuses, or 
neglects to call a County Convention as required by this article, it shall become the 
duty of the Vice Chairman to act in this capacity. The Vice Chairman shall give 
(5) days notice thereof to all Precinct Chairmen and County Executive Committee 
members and shall give five (5) days notice of such Convention in a newspaper of 
general circulation within the County. If the County Chairman or Vice Chairman 
does not call such a meeting, the State Chairman shall call the said precinct meet- 
ings and county conventions. The State Chairman may delegate this responsibility 
to the District Chairman or a Republican in the County. 

B. Convention Action 

L Plan of Organization 

The County Convention shall adopt a County Plan of Organization not incon- 
sistent with this State Plan of Organization, a current copy of which shall be on 
file at County Headquarters and at State Headquarters. 
2. Elections 

a. The County Convention shall elect a Chairman and Vice Chairman (of the 
opposite sex), a Secretary, a Treasurer, and such other officers as may be 
deemed necessary, who shall serve for a term of two years or until their suc- 
cessors are elected. 

b. Elect a County Executive Committee of five (5) or more voters, in addition to 
the County officers, who shall hold their places for a term of two years or until 
their successors are elected. The County Plan of Organization may provide 
for the County Executive Committee to elect additional members of the 
County Executive Committee in addition to those members of the County 
Executive Committee elected by the County convention. 

c. In accordance with the County Plan of Organization, elect one delegate and 
one alternate to the Congressional District and State Conventions, plus one 
additional delegate and alternate for every 200 votes, or major fraction there- 
of, cast for the Republican candidate for (rovernor in the last General Elec- 
tion in said County. Each County shall further elect one delegate and alter- 
nate for each Republican elected to the State Legislature and to public office 
on the state or national level from said Count in the preceding election. 

C. Credentials 

The Chairman and Secretary of the County Executive Committee shall certify the 
election of officers, committee members, delegates and alternates to the District 
and State Conventions, on forms furnished by the State Central Committee. 
Completed credentials shall be in the hands of the Congressional District Secretary 
and the State Heachjuarters by the deadline set by the State Chairman. 



Republican Party 209 



II. Presidential Election Year County Convention 

A. A County Convention shall be called in every Presidential Election year by the 
Chairman of the County Executive Committee, within the dates designated by the 
State Central Committee, after giving fifteen (15) days notice thereof to all chair- 
men and County Executive Committee members, and after giving fifteen ( 15) days 
notice of such Convention in a newspaper of general circulation within the County. 
The delegates and alternates elected at the Presidential Election Year Precinct 
Meetings, unless successfully challenged, shall sit as delegates and alternates in 
the County Convention. If the County Chairman fails, refuses, or neglects to call a 
county convention as required by this article, it shall become the duty of the Vice 
Chairman to act in this capacity. The Vice Chairman shall give five (5) days notice 
thereof to all Precinct Chairman and County Executive Committee members and 
shall give five (5) days notice of such convention in a newspaper of general circula- 
tion within the county. 

B. The Presidential Election Year County Convention shall elect one delegate and one 
alternate to the Congressional District and State Conventions, plus one additional 
delegate and alternate for every 200 votes, or major fraction thereof, cast for 
Republican candidate for Governor in the last General Election in said County. 
Each County shall further elect one delegate and one alternate for each Republican 
elected to the State Legislature and to public office in the state or national level 
from said County in the preceding election. No organizational changes shall take 
place except as provided in this section. 

C. The Chairman and Secretary of the County Executive Committee shall certify 
election of delegates and alternates to the Presidential Election Year District and 
State Conventions on forms furnished by the State Central Committee. Completed 
credentials shall be in the hands of the Congressional District Secretary and the 
State Headquarters by the deadline set by the State Chairman. 



ARTICLE V 
COUNTY EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

I. Membership 

The County Executive Committee shall consist of the County Officers and other per- 
sons elected by the County Convention (in accordance with Article IV, and the County 
Finance Chairman). 

II. Powers and Duties 

The County Executive Committee shall cooperate with the District and State Com- 
mittees in all elections and Party activities; shall encourage qualified candidates for 
office within the County; adopt a budget; and shall have active management of Party 
affairs within the County. It shall approve a Finance Committee and an Auditing 
Committee of not less than three members each and may approve such other Com- 
mittees as may be deemed necessary. The County Chairman and Vice Chairman shall 
be an Ex Officio member of all committees indicated in this paragraph. 

Within 90 days after the State Convention, the County Executive Committee shall 
amend the County Plan of Organization so as to bring it into compliance with the State 
Plan of Organization. 



2 1 North Carolina Manual 



III. Meetinp^s 

The County Executive Committee shall meet at least twice a year upon call of the 
County Chairman after Rivinp: ten (10) days notice to all members; or upon similar call 
of one-third of the members of the Committee. One-third of the members shall con- 
stitute a quorum for the transaction of business. There shall be no proxy voting. 

IV. Duties of Officers 

A. The Chairman of the County Executive Committee, with the advice and consentof 
the County Executive Committee, shall have general supervision of the affairs of 
the Party within the County. He shall issue the call for Biennial Precinct Meetings 
and Presidential Election Year Precinct Meetings, the County Convention, the 
Presidential B]lection Year County Convention, and Executive Committee meet- 
ings, and shall preside at all the meetings of the County Executive Committee. He 
shall appoint a Finance Chairman, an Audit Chairman and any other chairmen 
deemed necessary to conduct the business of the County Executive Committee. He 
shall make quarterly reports on the status of the Party within his County to the Dis- 
trict Chairman on forms furnished by the State Central Committee. He shall be 
responsible for the creation and maintenance of a Republican organization 
in every precinct within his County. He shall obtain and preserve a listof all regis- 
tered Republicans within the County and shall perform such other duties as may be 
prescribed by the County, District, or State Committees; the County Chairman 
shall be an "Ex Officio" member of all committees unless otherwise designated. 

B. The Vice Chairman shall function as Chairman in the absence of the Chairman and 
shall have such other duties as may be prescribed by the County Executive Com- 
mittee. The Vice Chairman shall be an "Ex Officio" member of all committees un- 
less otherwise designated. 

C. The Secretary shall keep all minutes and records and shall maintain a roster of all 
precinct officers and Executive Committee members. Such records shall be avail- 
able, upon request, to any registered Republican within the County. The Secretary 
shall furnish to the Congressional District Chairman and to State Headquarters 
up-to-date lists of all Precinct Chairmen. 

D. The Treasurer shall receive and disburse all funds for Party expenditures pur- 
suant to authority duly given by the County Executive Committee, shall make a fi- 
nancial report at all County Executive Committee meetings and shall fulfull all 
financial reports and obligations required under State and Federal election laws. 

V. Vacancies and Removals 

A. In case of death, resignation, discontinuance of residency within the County, re- 
moval of any officer or member of the County Executive Committee, or other 
vacancy, the resulting vacancy shall be filled by the County Executive Committee. 

B. Any officer or member of the County Executive Committee may be removed by a 
two-thirds vote of the Committee after being furnished with notice of the charges 
against him, signed by not less than one-third of the members of the Committee 
and allowing him thirty (30) days to appear and defend himself; provided further 
that said cause for removal shall be confined to gross inefficiency. Party Disloyalty, 
or failure to act in compliance with the County or State Plans of Organization. Such 
removal may be appealed, within twenty (20) days to the Congressional District 
Chairman and members of the State Executive Committee within the District, 
and their decision shall be final. 



Republican Party 211 

ARTICLE VI 
COUNTY FINANCE AND AUDITING COMMITTEES 

I. Finance Committee 

The County Finance Committee shall be composed of the County Finance Chairman, 
the County Chairman, County Vice Chairman, the County Treasurer, and not less than 
three persons approved by the County Executive Committee. They shall cooperate 
with the Congressional District and State Finance Committees and shall have active 
management of fund-raising efforts within the County. 

II. Auditing Committee 

The Auditing Committee shall conduct a yearly audit of the financial records of the 
County and report such audit to the County Executive Committee for approval. 

ARTICLE VII 

JUDICIAL, SENATORIAL LEGISLATIVE 

DISTRICT EXECUTIVE COMMITTEES 

I. Membership 

A. In One-County District, the County Executive Committee shall serve as the Dis- 
trict Committee. 

B. In those Districts encompassing more than one county, membership shall consist of 
the County Chairman and Vice Chairman of each County within the District. 

II. Election of Officers 

At some time preceding the State Convention, the District Committees shall meet at a 
time and place designated by a member of the Committee stipulated by the County 
Chairman from that County within the District having the largest population and 
shall elect, from among their membership, a Chairman and such other officers as may 
be deemed necessary. The officers shall have such duties as may be prescribed by the 
State Executive Committee. The Chairman shall report to the State Chairman names 
of elected officers. 

III. Powers and Duties of Committees 

A. The Judicial District Committee shall encourage qualified candidates for District 
Attorney, District Judge and Superior Court Judge and shall assist and cooperate 
with the County and State Executive Committees in all campaigns. 

B. The Senatorial District Committee shall encourage qualified candidates for State 
Senator and shall assist and cooperate with the County and State Executive Com- 
mittees in all campaigns. 

C. The Legislative District Committee shall encourage qualified candidates for the 
State House of Representatives and shall assist and cooperate with the County and 
State Executive Committee in all Campaigns. 

D. Committees herein elected shall serve as the appropriate District Executive 
Committee as they are referred to in North Carolina G.S. 163-114. 



2 1 2 North Carolina Manual 



ARTICLE VIII 
CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT CONVENTIONS 

I. Biennial Convention 

A. (ail of Convention 

A ("onjjressional District Convention shall be called in every odd-numbered year 
by the Chairman of the Congressional District Committee, within the month of 
April, upon twenty (20) days written notice of the time and place for holding same 
to all members of the District Committee and to the County Chairman within said 
District. The delegates and alternates elected in the County Conventions, unless 
successfully challenged, shall sit as delegates and alternates in the Congressional 
District Convention. For 1981 ONLY, the District Convention shall be called 
within dates designated by the Chairman of the State Republican E.xecutive 
Committee. These Conventions are to be held after the General Assembly has com- 
pleted Congressional resistricting. The State Chairman, with the approval of the 
Central Committee, shall appoint temporary District Chairmen to call the 1981 
Conventions upon twenty (20) days written notice to all County Chairmen and 
members of the Executive Committee within the District. 

B. Convention Action 

1. The Congressional District Convention shall adopt a District Plan of Organiza- 
tion, a current copy of which shall be on file at State Headquarters. 

2. The Congressional District Convention shall elect a Chairman and a Vice Chair- 
man (of the opposite sex), a Secretary, a Treasurer, and such other officers as 
may be deemed necessary who shall serve for a term of two years or until their 
successors are elected. 

3. The Congressional District Convention shall further elect one member of the 
State Executive Committee, plus one additional member for every 6,000 votes, 
or major fraction thereof, cast within the District for the Republican candidate 
for (iovernor in the preceding general election. 

C. Credentials 

The Chairman and Secretary of the Congressional District shall certify election of 
officers, and at large members of the State Executive Committee, elected accord- 
ing to the provisions of Article VIII, Section B3. Completed District Credentials, 
plus completed Credentials for the Counties within the District, shall be in the 
hands of the State Chairman at a deadline set by the State Chairman. 

II. Presidential Election Year Congressional District Convention 

A. Call of Convention 

A Presidential Election Year Congressional District Convention shall be called in 
every Presidential Election Year by the Chairman of the Congressional District 
Committee, within the dates designated by the State Central Committee, upon 
twenty (20) days written notice of the time and place for holding same to all mem- 
bers of the District Committee and to the County Chairmen within said District. 
The delegates and alternates elected in the Presidential Election Year County 
Conventions, unless successfully challenged, shall sit as delegates and alternates 
in the Presidential Election Year Congressional District Convention. 



Republican Party 213 



B. Convention Action 

The Presidential Election Year Congressional District Convention shall elect 
three delegates and three alternates to the Republican National Convention, and 
shall nominate one Presidential Elector. No organizational changes shall take 
place except as provided in this section. 

C. Credentials 

The Chairman and Secretary of the Congressional District shall certify election 
of delegates and alternates, and nominee for Presidential Elector on forms fur- 
nished by the State Central Committee. Completed District Credentials, plus com- 
pleted Credentials for the Counties within the District, shall be in the hands of the 
State Credentials Committee Chairman by the deadline set by the State Chairman. 

ARTICLE IX 
CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

I. Membership 

Membership of the Congressional District Executive Committee shall be composed of: 

A. The officers elected at the District Convention. 

B. All duly elected County Chairmen and Vice Chairmen within the District. 

C. All members of the State Executive Committee who are elected by the District 
Convention under the provisions in ARTICLE VIII, Section B3. 

D. Such others as the District Plan of Organization may provide. 

II. Powers and Duties 

The Congressional District Executive Committee shall encourage qualified candi- 
dates for Congress: cooperate with the Judicial, Senatorial, and Legislative Executive 
Committees in encouraging qualified candidates for those offices, especially in multi- 
county districts: approve a finance chairman; and cooperate with the County and State 
Executive Committees in all campaigns. 

III. Meetings 

The Congressional District Executive Committee shall meet at least each calendar 
quarter of the year, upon call of the Congressional District Chairman. One-quarter 
of the members of the Committee shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of 
business. There shall be no proxy voting. 

IV. Duties of Officers 

A. The Congressional District Chairman, with the advice and consent of the District 
Executive Committee, shall have general supervision of the affairs of the Party 
within its District. He shall assist the State Chairman in carrying out State Pro- 
grams, supervise the Congressional campaigns until such time as a Campaign 
Manager shall have been appointed, maintain contact with all Counties within his 
District, and shall be responsible for the proper organization and functioning of 
those Counties. He shall maintain constant liaison with all County Chairmen with 
regard to a Republican organization in every precinct within his District. In addi- 
tion, he shall furnish, upon request, each County Chairman and each County 
Executive Committee officer an accurate and up-to-date list of all County Execu- 
tive Committee officers within his District to include title, name, address, and zip 
code. These lists shall be updated periodically to insure that the latest information 



214 North Carolina Manual 



is provided to those to wlioin it is required to be provided. He shall appoint 
a Finance Chairman and Audit Chairman. He shall be an "Ex Officio" member of 
all District Commitees. He shall havesuchotherdutiesasmay be prescribed by the 
State p]xecutive Committee. 

B. The Vice Chairman shall be Chief Assistant to the District Chairman and shall act 
as Chairman in the Absence of the Chairman; shall maintain liaison with the 
County Vice Chairman throughout the District (where applicable) and shall have 
such other duties as may be prescribed by the District Committee. The Vice 
Chairman will be an "Ex Officio" member of all District Committees unless other- 
wise designated. 

C. The Secretary shall keep all minutes and records and shall maintain a roster of all 
officers of the counties within the District. 

D. The Treasurer shall receive and disburse all funds for Party expenditures pur- 
suant to authority duly given by the District Committee and will make a financial 
report to all District Executive Committee meetings. The Treasurer shall fulfill all 
financial reports and obligations required under the state and federal election 
laws. 

V. Vacancies and Removals 

A. In case of death, resignation, discontinuance of residency within the District, re- 
moval of any officer of the Congressional District Executive Committee, or other 
vacancy, the resulting vacancy shall be filled by the remaining members of the 
Committee at the next officially called District meeting. 

B. Any officer of the Congressional District Executive Committee may be removed by 
a two-thirds vote of the Congressional District Executive Committee after being 
notified of the charges against him signed by not less than one-third of the 
members of the Committee, and allowing him thirty (30) days to appear and defend 
himself; provided further that said cause for removal shall be confined to gross 
inefficiency. Party Disloyalty, or failure to act in compliance with the District or 
State Plans of Organization. Such removal may be appealed, within twenty (20) 
days, to the State Central Committee, and their decision shall be final. 



ARTICLE X 
DISTRICT FINANCE COMMITTEE 

The District Finance Chairman shall serve as Chairman of the Congressional District 
Finance Committee, which shall be composed of the Finance Chairmen of all the Counties 
within the District, the Congressional District Chairman, and the Congressional District 
Treasurer, plus three additional members to be elected by the members of the Finance 
Committee. Other officers as may be deemed necessary may be elected by and from the 
members of the Committee. This Committee shall cooperate with the State Finance 
Committee and with County F'inance Committees in all fund-raising efforts. 



Republican Party 215 



ARTICLE XI 
STATE CONVENTIONS 

I. Biennial State Convention 

A. A Biennial State Convention shall be called in every odd-numbered year to be held 
in the month of May of said odd-numbered year, by the Chairman of the Republican 
State Executive Committee after giving sixty (60) days written notice of the time 
and place for holding same to all members of the State Executive Committee and 
to all County Chairmen. Delegates and alternates elected at the County Conven- 
tions, unless successfully challenged, shall sit as delegates and alternates at the 
Biennial State Convention. FOR 1981 ONLY, the Biennial State Convention shall 
be called on a date set by the Chairman of the State Republican Executive Com- 
mittee upon sixty (60) days written notice of the time and place to all members of 
the State Executive Committee. This convention shall be held after the General 
Assembly has completed Congressional redistricting. 

B. In every odd-numbered year, the Biennial State Convention shall elect a State 
Chairman and a Vice Chairman (of the opposite sex) who shall serve for a term of 
two years or until their successors are elected. 

II. Presidential Election Year State Convention 

A. A Presidential Election Year State Convention shall be called in every Presidential 
Election Year between the date of the Presidential Preferential Primary Election 
and 35 days prior to the Republican National Convention of said Presidential Elec- 
tion year, by the Chairman of the Republican State Executive Committee after 
giving sixty (60) days written notice of the time and place for holding same to al! 
members of the State Executive Committee and to all County Chairmen. Delegates 
and Alternates elected at the Presidential Election year County Conventions, un- 
less successfully challenged, shall sit as delegates and alternates at the Presiden- 
tial Election Year State Convention. 

B. In every Presidential Election Year the Presidential Election Year Convention 
shall elect delegates and alternates to the National Convention, in addition to those 
specified under Article VIII, in the number stipulated by the State Chairman as 
determined by the National Rules. Unless in conflict with rules of the National 
Republican Party, the bonus delegates seats awarded by the Republican National 
Convention for Gk)vernor or United States Senator shall be assigned to those 
individuals if they so desire. They shall further nominate a National Committee- 
man and National Committeewoman who shall serve for a term of four years or 
until their successors are elected; and nominate two Presidential Electors at large. 



ARTICLE XII 
STATE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

I. Membership 

A. The State Executive Committee shall be composed of the following: The Congres- 
sional District Chairmen, the Congressional District Vice Chairmen, the Congres- 
sional District Finance Chairmen, and those persons elected by the District Con- 
ventions under ARTICLE VIII, Section I, Sub-Section B3. of this Plan. 



; 1 (■) North Carolina Manual 



U. 'I"lu' Stall' Chainnan. imnicdiati' pasl Slalc Chairman, \'ice Chairniaii. National 
C'otnniittrenian. National Committeewoman. Secretary, Assistant Secretary, 
Treasurer, AssisUint Treasurer. Finance ChairtTian. (Jeneral Counsel, Director of 
Minority Affairs and Assistant Director of Minority Affairs. 

C. The Chaii"man. National Coniniitteeman and National Coniniitteewoman of the 
^'oun.tr I\epul)lican Federation. The President. President-Fleet, and Past Presi- 
dent of the Ivepul)lican Women's P'ederation. The Chairman of the North Carolina 
CoUe^^e Republicans and the Chairman of the North Carolina Teenage Republi- 
cans. 

I). All current Republican members of the United States Cong-ress. Ciovernor, Mem- 
bers of the Council of State, the State Ijegislature, and the State Board of Flections. 

F. All past Republican membersof the United States Congress, Governors, and mem- 
bers of the Council of State. 

F. All County Chairmen and Vice Chairmen. 

IL Powers and Duties of Committee 

The State Fxecutive Committee shall elect a Secretary and an Assistant Secretary, 
a Treasurer, Assistant Treasurer, a Director of Minority Affairs, Assistant Director of 
Minority Affairs, and a (leneral Counsel, who shall serve for a term of two years or 
until their successors are elected. The Committee shall formulate and provide for the 
execution of such plans and measures as it may deem contiuctive to the best interests 
of the Republican Party. It shall approve an Auditing Committee of at least three 
members to conduct a yearly audit: approve such audit: adopt a budget: and shall have 
active management of all affairs of the Party within the State. It may delegate such 
duties as it deems proper to the State C'entral Committee. 

When monies are raised and expenditures authorized by other than the State Central 
Committee or the State Executive Committee on behalf of any candidate for state or 
National office, the Party shall not be held liable: except, however, that the State 
Executive Committee, by a two thirds vote of a quorum present, may assume any por- 
tion of such debts it deems advisable. 

III. Committee Meeting's 

The State Executive Committee shall meet at least twice per calendar year, upon call 
of the Chairman at such times as the State Chairman shall determine after giving 
fifteen (15) days written notice to all Committee members: or upon petition of one- 
third of the members of the Committee. Twenty-five percent (25",,) of the members 
shall constitute a (juorum for the transaction of business. There shall be no proxy 
voting. 

IV. Duties of Officers 

A. The State Chairman, with the advice and consent of the Central Committee, shall 
have general supervision of the affairs of the Party within the State. He shall pre- 
side at all meetings of the State Executive Committee and shall perform such 
duties as may be prescribed by the State Flxecutive Committee. He shall appoint 
with the approval of the State Central Committee a Finance Chairman who shall 
serve at the pleasure of the State Chairman. The State Chairman shall appoint 
convention committees and temporary officers. He shall be responsible for the 
campaigns of the Governor and Lieutenant Governor until such time as a per- 
manent campaign manager may be appointed. The State Chairman may delegate 
authority to the L)istrict Chairmen to act in his behalf on any matter. 



Republican Party 217 



B. The Vice Chairman shall be Chief Assistant to the Chairman and shall act as 
Chairman in the absence of the Chairman. The Vice Chairman shall maintain close 
liaison with the District and County Vice Chairman, encourage and direct 
activities in the Party structure. The Vice Chairman shall work with the National 
Committeewoman and Committeeman and provide them with information and 
assistance on state matters. The Vice Chairman shall have such other duties as may 
be prescribed by the State Executive and Central Committees. 

C. The National Committman and National Committeewoman shall maintain liaison 
with the National Republican Party, the State Executive and Central Committees. 

D. The Secretary shall keep minutes of all meetings. The Assistant Secretary shall 
assist the Secretary in the above duties and shall act as Secretary in the absence of 
Secretary. The Secretary will distribute to all Executive Committee members 
minutes of the past Central and Executive Committee meetings. 

E. The State Treasurer shall receive and disburse all funds collected or earned by the 
State Party and all disbursements shall be made by him. All funds shall be 
deposited in a central location at the Treasurer's direction. The Treasurer shall be 
bonded in an amount fixed by the State Central Committee— the premium to be 
paid from Party funds. The Treasurer shall submit such financial reports as are 
required by the state and federal campaign election laws. The Assistant Treasurer 
shall assist the Treasurer and have the power to make disbursements in the 
absence of the Treasurer. 

F. The General Counsel shall advise the Executive Committee on all legal matters and 
shall act as Parliamentarian at all meetings of the Committee. 

G. The Director of Minority Affairs shall develop the means to attain support for the 
State Executive Committee from minority groups as those groups are predeter- 
mined by age, sex, creed or color within the State. 

V. Vacancies and Removals 

A. In case of death, resignation, discontinuance of residency within the State, or 
removal of any officer of the State Executive Committee, the resulting vacancy 
shall be filled by the State Executive Committee. In caseof death, resignation, dis- 
continuance of residency within the District, or removal of any member repre- 
senting a Congressional District, the vacancy shall be filled by the remaining mem- 
bers of the Congressional District in which such vacancy occurs. 

B. Each officer and each member of the State Executive Committee shall refrain 
utilizing the powers and dignity of his or her office or position in any Republican 
primary for any level of office. 

C. Any officer or member may be removed by a two-thirds vote of the Committee after 
being furnished with notice of the charges against him. signed by not less than 
one-third of the members of the Committee and allowing him thirty (W) days to 
appear and defend himself; provide further that said cause for removal shall be 
confined to gross inefficiency. Party disloyalty, or failure to act in compliance with 
this Plan of Organization. The decision of the State Executive Committee shall be 
final. 



218 North Carolina Manual 



ARTICLE XIII 
STATE CENTRAL COMMITTEE 

L Membership 

The State Central Committee shall be composed of the following: 

A. The Congressional District Chairmen; the Congressional District Vice Chairman 
shall act in the absence of the Chairman. 

B. The Chairman. Vice Chairman, National Committeeman, National Committee- 
woman, Secretary, Treasurer, General Counsel, Director of Minority Affairs, 
and State F^inance Chairman. 

C. The Chairman of the Young Republican Federation and the President of the 
Republican Women's Federation. The Chairman of the North Carolina College 
Republicans and the Chairman of the North Carolina Teenage Republicans shall 
be voting members. 

D. The immediate past State Chairman and the Republican Joint Caucus Leader of 
General Assembly. 

IL Powers and Duties 

The State Central Committee shall have the power tx) appoint a Campaign Committee, 
a Publicity Committee, a Committee on Senior Citizens Affairs, a Budget Committee, 
and such other committees as it may deem necessary for the proper conduct of the 
State Executive Committee; to formulate fiscal policy, establish quotas, prepare a 
budget, to set the date for the Biennial State Convention as provided for in Article 
VIII, Section lA and Article XI, Section lA above and the Presidential Election Year 
Precinct Meetings, County, Congressional District and State Conventions between 
February 1 and thirty-five (35) days prior to the Republican National Convention in 
Presidential Election years, in accordance with National Rules; and to do all things 
pertaining to Party affairs which it may be authorized to do by the State Executive 
Committee. It shall be responsible for initiating all campaigns for the United States 
Senate and Council of State and coordinating them as determined feasible. The State 
Central Committee shall keep accurate accounts of its proceedings and shall make 
annual reports to the State Executive Committee. 

The Committee shall contract with, as a full-time Executive Director, a person of 
highest character and professional political competence to execute on a day-by-day 
basis the mission of the committee. The Committee shall provide on a full-time basis in 
the vicinity of the Capital City of North Carolina adequate offices for the Executive 
Director and such staff as the Committee shall provide for him, which offices shall be 
known as Headquarters, North Carolina Republican Party. The Central Committee 
is charged with, in addition to all other duties, the mission of creating an effective 
Republican organization in every political precinct in North Carolina. 

III. Meetings 

The State Central Committee shall meet at least every other month upon call of the 
Chairman upon ten ( 10) days notice to all members or upon petition of one-third of the 
members of the Committee. One-third of the members listed in Article XIII, Sections 
lA through ID shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. There shall be 
no proxy voting. 



Republican Party 219 



IV. Duties of Officers 

The Officers of the State Executive Committee shall act as Officers of the State 
Central Committee, with corresponding duties. 

ARTICLE XIV 
STATE FINANCE COMMITTEE 

I. Membership 

The Finance Committee shall consist of the State Finance Chairman, the Congres- 
sional Finance Chairman, and the State Chairman, plus ten additional members to be 
elected by the members of the Finance Committee. The State Finance Chairman shall 
serve as Chairman of the State Finance Committee. Other officers as may be deemed 
necessary may be elected by and from the members of the Committee. 

II. Powers and Duties 

It shall be the duty of the State Finance Committee to develop ways and means to prop- 
erly finance the General Election Campaigns and other business and affairs of the 
Republican Party. The Committee shall manage a united fund-raising effort in 
cooperation with the State Central Committee only in those counties with the approval 
of the County Executive Committee; and cooperate with District and County organi- 
zations for effective fund-raising campaigns. Said Committee shall not, directly or 
indirectly, raise or collect funds for the benefit of any candidates for Primary Elec- 
tions. All persons making contributions to the State Finance Committee of $10.00 or 
more shall be furnished with a receipt thereof. Contributions going directly to the 
National Committee or to any candidate shall not be acknowledged by the State 
Treasurer or recorded as a regular contribution to the Republican Party of North 
Carolina. Permanent record of all contributions shall be maintained by the State 
Chairman and State Treasurer, and such records shall be available, upon request, to 
the appropriate County and District Chairmen. 

III. Duties of Officers 

The Finance Chairman shall preside at all meetings of the Committee and shall be the 
chief liaison between the Finance Committee and the State Central Committee. Others 
officers shall have such duties as may be prescribed by the Committee. 

ARTICLE XV 
GENERAL CONVENTION PROCEDURE 

I. Biennial Conventions and Presidential Election Year Conventions 

The County, Congressional District, and State Conventions shall be called to order 
by their respective Chairman, or, in the absence of the Chairman, by the Vice Chair- 
man or Secretary, in order stated, who shall have the power to appoint the necessary 
Convention Committees and temporary officers at, or before, the convening of the 
Convention. 

II. Voting Procedure 

No delegate, alternate, or other member of a Convention shall cast any vote by proxy; 
provided, however, that any delegate or delegates present shall have the right to cast 
the entire vote of the County in District and State Conventions. No precinct shall cast 



220 North Carolina Manual 



uwvv votes than it has duly elected deleKales on the floor at the County Convention. No 
person shall be seated as a delejjate or alternate in any County, District, or State Con- 
vention unless such person shall have been duly elected a deleg'ate or alternate by the 
approjiriate precinct meeting or County ('onvention: EXCP]PT, the rejjistered 
Rei)ul)lican or Republicans, present at a County Convention from an unorjyanized 
precinct, which has not had its credentials accepted, shall have the right to vote one 
vote per precinct, pro-rated among- those present from that precinct. 

111. Special Conventions 

The State Central Committee, at any time, in the interests of the Republican Party, 
may direct the State Chairman or the Congressional District Chairmen, to issue call 
for special Senatorial, Judicial, or Legislative organizational meetings, and special 
County and Congressional District Conventions, in any or all of the Counties and Dis- 
tricts of the State. The procedure for calling regular biennial meetings and conven- 
tions shall apply to the calling of special meetings and conventions so far as applicable 
and not inconsistent with this Plan of Organization. 

ARTICLE XVI 
OFFICIAL RECORDS 

I. Minutes of Official Actions 

Minutes shall be kept by all Committees and Conventions of official actions taken and 
a copy shall be filed with the Chairman of the appropriate Committee or Convention 
and with Republican State Headquarters. 

II. F'inancial Accounts 

The Chairman, Treasurer, and Finance Chairman of the County, District, and State 
Committees shall keep faithful and accurate records of any and all monies received by 
them for the use of said Committees and shall make faithful and accurate reports 
thereof when so requested. 



ARTICLE XVII 
APPOINTMENTS 

I. Notification 

It shall be the duty of the State Chairman to transmit notice of all known vacancies on a 
District or State level to those persons having jurisdiction in such appointments. 

11. County appointments 

When a vacancy occurs in a governmental office in any properly organized County, 
such vacancy shall be filled by recommendation of the State Chairman and County 
Chairman. 

III. District appointments 

When a vacancy occurs in a governmental office on a District level, such vacancy shall 
be filled by recommendation of the State Chairman, only upon majority vote of the 
National Committeeman and National Committeewoman and members of the State 
Executive Committee from the counties embraced in the territory served by the 
office in question, at a meeting called for that purpose. 



Republican Party 221 



IV. State appointments 

When a vacancy occurs in a governmental office on the state level, such vacancy shall 
be filled by recommendation of the State Chairman, only upon majority vote of the 
State Executive Committee at a meeting called for that purpose. 



ARTICLE XVIII 
FORFEITURE OF OFFICIAL PRIVILEGES 

Any officer or member of a Precinct Committee, County Executive Committee, District 
Committee, State Executive Committee, or State Central Committee who, for any reason is 
removed or resigns from said position shall forfeit all rights and privileges in any way con- 
nected with that position. 



ARTICLE XIX 
NATIONAL CONVENTION RULES 

The first ballot vote of the North Carolina delegates to the Republican National Presiden- 
tial Convention shall equal, rounded off to the nearest delegate, the percentage vote re- 
ceived in the North Carolina Presidential Preference Primary by each candidate, subject 
to limitation that no candidate who received less than 10% (ten percent) of the total vote in 
said primary shall be entitled to receive votes cast by the North Carolina delegation. The 
Delegate vote on the first ( 1st) ballot attributable to those candidates who received less than 
ten (10%) percent of the Primary vote shall be allocated among those candidates who re- 
ceived at least ten ( 10%) percent of the Primary vote on a pro rata basis. Any votes cast as 
"uncommitted" or "no preference" in the Presidential Election Primary will be con- 
sidered as a candidate category when determining the number of delegates apportioned. 
The ten ( 10%) percent rule applies also to this category. "After the vote on the first ballot by 
a political party at its National Convention, as required by this Article, all responsibility 
under this Article shall terminate and further ballotting shall be the prerogative of the 
political parties as might be prescribed by the rules of such political parties." (G.S. 163- 
213.8) In the event of the death or withdrawal of a candidate prior to the first ballot, any 
delegate votes which would otherwise be allocated to him, shall be considered uncom- 
mitted. 

ARTICLE XX 
APPLICABILITY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF THIS PLAN 

I. Rules as to Towns and Cities 

This Plan of Organization is not intended to extend to, or establish organizations for 
the Republican Party of the various towns and cities of the State of North Carolina 
as separate units from the precinct and county organization. Qualified and registered 
Republican voters of the towns and cities of the state may organize and promulgate 
their own rules not inconsistent with these rules and the organizations heroin 
established. 



222 North Carolina Manual 



U. liuU's as to Counties and Districts 

The Precinct and County Committees and County Conventions, and the district 
Committees and Conventions are authorized to promulgate such additional rules and 
establish such additional Party officers or committees for their respective organiza- 
tions, not inconsistent with these rules, as shall be deemed necessary. Counties may 
establish Executive Boards to transact the business of the Party between County 
Executive Committee meetings. 

III. Controversies 

Controversies in any County or District with respect to the organizations set up therein 
under this Plan, shall be referred to the State Chairman, National Committeeman, 
National Committeewoman, and CJeneral Counsel for arbitration. Ruling shall be 
made within sixty (60) days and their decision shall be final. 

IV. Parliamentary Authority 

Roberts Rules of Order Newly Revised shall govern all proceedings, except when 
inconsistent with this State Plan of Organization or Convention Rules properly 
adopted. 

V. Effective Date of this Plan 

This Plan of Organization shall become effective and repeal and supercede all other 
rules, except as specifically noted, immediately following adjournment of the State 
Convention in Raleigh, North Carolina, on May 19, 1979. This, however, shall not 
invalidate any action taken under the previous rules prior to the date above. 

Mr. Harry Bagnal, Chairman 
Plan of Organization Committee 



Republican Party 223 

STATE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 
NORTH CAROLINA REPUBLICAN PARTY 

STATE ORGANIZATION 

Office Officer Aridreas 

Chairman Jackson F. Lee Fayetteville 

Vice Chairman Mrs. Mary Jane Hollyday Asheville 

Secretary Mrs. Karol Goebel Charlotte 

Assistant Secretary Mrs. Grace Haig Chapel Hill 

Treasurer Thomas L. Lucas, Jr Raleigh 

Assistant Treasurer James D. Moyer Wilson 

Legal Counsel Charles B. Neely, Jr Raleigh 

State Finance Chairman James A. Moore Jacksonville 

National Committeeman Dr. John East Greenville 

National Committee woman Mrs. Betty Lou Johnson Raleigh 

Joint Caucus Leader Rep. Harold Brubaker Asheboro 

Past State Chairman Robert G. Shaw Greensboro 

Director of Minority Affairs William Fisher Greensboro 

Assistant Director of 
Minority Affairs John J. Hawkins Warrenton 

Member of State Board of Elections .John J. Stickley Charlotte 

Mrs. Shirley Herring Kinston 

YOUNG REPUBLICAN FEDERATION 

Chairman Mrs. Linda Anderson Statesville 

National Committeeman Joe Beard Charlotte 

National Committeewoman Ms. Betsy Hamilton Pinehurst 

WOMEN'S FEDERATION 

President Mrs. Vivian Harris Badin 

Past President Mrs. Barbara Boyce Charlotte 

COLLEGE REPUBLICANS 

Chairman Barry Upchurch Tucson, Arizona 

TEEN-AGE REPUBLICANS 

Chairman Robert Leath Fayetteville 



224 North Carolina Manual 



NORTH CAROLINA REPUHLICAN COUNTY CHAIRMEN 

1979 

Ciiiiiitii Cliiiiniiitii Addrisn 

Alamance Cary Allred Burlington 

Alexander (ieorg-e Rader Taylorsville 

Alleg-hany Arnold L. Younj? Sparta 

Anson John B. Christie Wadesboro 

Ashe James 0. Hartmann Jefferson 

Avery Jack Hujjhes Newland 

Beau'"ort R. p]uRene Perrey Washinprton 

Bertie (Hen Lancaster Windsor 

Brunswick Mrs. Mavis M. Freeman Shallotte 

Bladen Mrs. Jewel Thomas Elizabethtown 

Buncombe William T. Biggers Asheville 

Burke Ms. Betty Hooks Jonas Ridge 

Cabarrus Edwin Tomlin Concord 

Caldwell David T. Flaherty Lenoir 

Camden Warren E. Riggs Shiloh 

Carteret Jerry Hardesty Beaufort 

Caswell Lloyd M. Gentry Yanceyville 

Catawba Tom Dlugos Hickory 

Chatham Wayne Thomas Siler City 

Cherokee Joe Clayton Murphy 

Chowan Terrence W. Boyle Edenton 

Clay Narvel Garrett Hayesville 

Cleveland Charles E. McCartney Shelby 

Columbus J. Frank Merritt Hamstead 

Craven I^u Colombo New Bern 

Cumberland Helen Moress Fayetteville 

Currituck Porcius F. Crank, Jr Harbinger 

Dare Robert C. Kenan Kitty Hawk 

Davidson D. Leon Rickard Thomasville 

Davie E. Edward Vogler, Jr Mocksville 

Duplin Dr. Corbett L. Quinn Magnolia 

Durham Ms. Julie Simons Durham 

Edgecombe ( ieorge Alton Grayiel Tarboro 

Forsyth Edward Powell Winston-Salem 

Franklin Donald F. Ayscue Henderson 

Gaston R. I^. Voorhees Gastonia 

Gates E. M. Rountree Corapeake 

Graham Delmas Shuler Robbinsville 

Granville J. P. Johnson, Jr Oxford 

Greene Gary W. Tingen Snow Hill 

Guilford William T. Evans Summerfield 

Halifax T. A. Merritt. Jr Roanoke Rapids 

Harnett J. Michael McLeod Dunn 

Haywood (NONE) 

Henderson J. Harold Hill East Flat Iteck 

Hertford John R. Moore, Jr Ahoskie 

Hoke (NONE) 

Hyde Ralph Harvis Swan Quarter 

Iredell Ed Canupp Statesville 



Republican Party 225 



Jackson Orville Coward, Jr Sylva 

Johnston E. Joan Jones Smithfield 

Jones Wallace W. Wicks Maysville 

Lee Walter Bridges, Jr Sanford 

Lenoir P. C. Barwick, Jr Kinston 

Lincoln Joe L. Kiser Vale 

Macon Harold Corbin Franklin 

Madison Dr. Larry N. Stern Mars Hill 

Martin Kenneth H. Roberson Robersonville 

McDowell John Freshour Old Fort 

Mecklenburg David Sentelle Charlotte 

Mitchell Hal G. Harrison Spruce Pines 

Montgomery T. Rick Smith Troy 

Moore George W. Little Southern Pines 

Nash Dennis A. Frazier Nashville 

New Hanover Fries Shaffner, Jr Wrightsville Beach 

Northampton W. T. Outland Woodland 

Onslow Lee Lynch Jacksonville 

Orange Richard Smyth Chapel Hill 

Pamlico C. Ralph Forrest Bayboro 

Pasquotank Leo J. Sheetz Elizabeth City 

Pender Helen W. Merritt Hampstead 

Perquimans (NONE) 

Person Donald Waldo Roxboro 

Pitt Jim Mclntyre Greenville 

Polk A. Paul Butler Tryon 

Randolph Alan V. Pugh Asheboro 

Richmond Robert Weatherly Hamlet 

Robeson John R. Jones Pembroke 

Rockingham James J. Eanes Eden 

Rowan Robert L. Saunders Salisbury 

Rutherford Judson Caldwell Forest City 

Sampson Robert L. Williams Autryville 

Scotland Joyce Hamby Laurinburg 

Stanly Betty Lambert Albemarle 

Stokes Marshall Hall King 

Surry William F. Huckaby Pilot Mountain 

Swain Bob Grindle Bryson City 

Transylvania William M. Ives Brevard 

Tyrrell John Kirkland Columbia 

Union Oscar Y. Harward Monroe 

Vance Mrs. Ruby Lassiter Henderson 

Wake William J. Stuckey Raleigh 

Warren John J. Hawkins Warrenton 

Washington (NONE) 

Watauga Ralph L. Hayes Triplette 

Wayne Frank Foster ( ioldshoro 

Wilkes John (Garwood North Wilkesboro 

Wilson Philip R. Taylor Wilson 

Yadkin James L. Graham Yadkinvillo 

Yancey Dean Chrisawn Burnsville 



PART IV 

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE 

UNITED STATES 



United States Government 229 

Chapter One 
THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH 



JIMMY CARTER 
(JAMES EARL CARTER, JR.) 

PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES 

Jimmy Carter was born in Plains, Georgia October 1, 1924, the son of James 
Earl (deceased) and Lillian (Gordy) Carter. He was named James Earl Carter, Jr. 
but prefers "Jimmy". His Father owned a large warehouse, cotton gin and a large 
peanut farm, and his mother was a registered nurse. Attended the public schools 
around Plains. Student at Georgia Southwestern University, 1941-42; Georgia 
Institute of Technology, 1942-43; and graduated U.S. Naval Academy, (BS), 1946. 
Served in U.S. Navy, 1946-1954 working with Admiral Hyman Rickover in develop- 
ing the world's first atomic submarines. Resigned his Commission in 1954 following 
death of his Father. Returned to Plains to take over family business. Sei-ved on local 
Board of Education. Former Deacon and Sunday School Teacher at First Baptist 
Church. Member of Rotary and Lions Clubs. Elected to Georgia Senate, 1962; served 
1962-1966; Defeated for Governor, 1966; elected in 1970. His pattern for reorganizing 
state government in Georgia (reducing some 300 agencies into 22) has sei-ved as a 
plan for other state governments who were planning similar reorganizations. He 
also initiated the Zero-base budgeting concept for government financing. Chainnan, 
National Democratic Campaign Committee, 1974. Announced his desire to run for 
President of the United States in 1974. During the 1976 Primary Campaign he won 
in 19 of 31 primaries establishing himself as the clear-cut Democratic candidate for 
President. Defeated Gerald R. Ford in November, 1976 for the Presidency. Married 
Rosalyn Smith, July 7, 1946. Four children: John William (Jack), 1947; James Earl, 
III (Chip), 1950; Donnel Jeffrey (Jeff), 1952 and Amy, 1968. 



United States Government 231 



PRESIDENTIAL CABINET 

Vice President Walter E. Mondale Minnesota 

Secretary of State Cyrus R. Vance New York 

Secretary of Agriculture Robert S. Bergman Minnesota 

Secretary of Commerce Dr. Juanita M. Kreps North Carolina 

Secretary of Defense Dr. Harold Brown California 

Secretary of Energy Charles W. Duncan, Jr New York 

Secretary of Health, Education, 

and Welfare Patricia R. Harris Washington, D.C. 

Secretary of Housing and 

Urban Development Moon Landrieu Louisiana 

Secretary of the Interior Cecil D. Andrus Idaho 

Secretary of Labor F. Ray Marshall Texas 

Secretary of Transportation Neil Goldschmidt Oregon 

Secretary of the Treasury G. William Miller Michigan 

Ambassador to the United Nations . . . David McHenry Missouri 

Attorney General Banjamin Civiletti New York 

OTHER MAJOR APPOINTMENTS 

Press Secretary Jody Powell Georgia 

White House Chief of Staff Hamilton Jordan Georgia 

Director of Management and 

the Budget John T. Mclntyre 

Assistant, National Security Affairs .... Dr. Zbigniew Brzezinski New York 

Chairman, Federal Reserve Board Paul A. Volcker New York 

Chairman, Council on 

Wage and Price Stability Alfred E. Kahn New York 

Chairman, Council of 

Economic Advisors Charles L. Schultz 

Director, CIA Admiral Stansfield Turner 

Director, FBI Clarence Kelly 

Chief Arms Negotiator Paul C. Wamke 



United States Government 233 

JUANITA MORRIS KREPS 

(Mrs. Qifton H. Kreps, Jr.) 

SECRETARY, UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

Juanita Morris Kreps, Democrat was boiTi in Kentucky on January 11, 1921. 
Daughter of Mr. and Mrs. E. M. Morris. Graduated Berea College, 1942 A.B., Duke 
University, 1944 M.A., Duke University, 1948 Ph.D. Member Council on the Aging; 
Vice-chaimian, North Carolina Manpower Council; Committee on Research, Na- 
tional Manpower Advisory Committee (U.S. Department of Labor). Author of Sex 
in the Marketplace: American Women at Work, 1971. Lifetime Allocation of Work 
and Income, 1971. Co-author, Principles of Economics (1962 and 1964). Editor, 
Employment, Income and Retirement Problems of the Aged (1963). 50 Articles. 
Married Clifton H. Kreps, Jr. August 11, 1944. Address: 1407 West Pettigrew Street, 
Durham, 27705. 



United States Government 



235 



Chapter Two 
THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS 



SENATE 

OFFICERS 

Walter F. Mondale, President — Minnesota 
James 0. Eastland, President Pro tempore — Mississippi 



STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE SENATE 



Aeronautical and Space Sciences 

Agriculture and Forestry 

Appropriations 

Armed Services 

Banking, Housing and Urban 

Affairs 
Commers 

District of Columbia 
Finance 



Foreign Relations 

Government Operations 

Interior and Insular Affairs 

Judiciary 

Labor and Public Welfare 

Post Office and Civil Service 

Public Works 

Rules and Administration 

Veterans' Affairs 



United States Government 237 



NORTH CAROLINA MEMBERS 

JESSE HELMS 

Jesse Helms, Republican, was bom in Monroe October 18, 1921. Son of Jesse A. 
Helms and Ethel Mae (Helms) Helms. Graduated Monroe High School; Wingate 
College; Wake Forest University. Executive Vice-president, vice-chairman of the 
board and assistant chief executive officer of Capitol Broadcasting Company. For 
twelve years was editorialist for WRAL Television Station, eighty radio stations in 
North Carolina and two hundred newspapers across the country; was City Editor 
for the Raleigh Times. At age twenty became the youngest reporter to win the 
annual N. C. Press Association Award for enterprising reporting. In 1952, directed 
the radio-television of the Presidential campaign of Democratic Senator Richard B. 

Russell of Georgia. Executive Director of the N. C. Bankers Association 1953-60; 
during that time served as editor of The Tarheel Banker. Administrative assistant 
to United States Senator Willis Smith; following Senator Smith's death, served in 
same position to U. S. Senator Alton Lennon. Member Raleigh City Council 1957-61; 
served as chairman of the Council's Law and Finance Committee. Has served as 
President and Vice-president of the Raleigh Rotary Club and President of the 
Raleigh Exchange Club. Former trustee of Campbell College, Wingate College, 
Meredith College. Now a trustee of John F. Kennedy College, Douglas MacArthur 
Freedom Academy, Delaware Law School and Camp Willow Run (a Youth Camp for 
Christ). Recipient of Southern Baptist National Award for Service to Mankind and 
Especially on Behalf of Crippled children. Honorary director of the N. C. Cerebral 
Palsy Hospital at Durham. Member of the North Carolina Tobacco Council; a 
director of the United Fund of Raleigh; state advisor to the "Young Americans 
for Freedom"; a director of the Raleigh Chamber of Commerce. Holds the annual 
Freedoms Foundation Award for the television editorial judged to be the best in 
America. Mason, member Raleigh Lodge No. 500; Grand Orator, Grand Lodge 
of North Carolina, 1966. Members Hayes Barton Baptist Church of Raleigh; dea- 
con and Sunday school teacher. Married Dorothy Jane Coble October 31, 1942. 
Three children: Jane (Mrs. Charles R. Knox), Nancy (Mrs. John C. Stuart), and 
Charles. Address: 151.3 Caswell Street. Raleigh; Room 4213, Dirksen (New Senate 
Office) Building, Washington, D. C. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS: 
Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry 
Foreign Relations 



United States Government 239 



ROBERT B. MORGAN 

Robert B. Morgan, Democrat, a native of Lillington, North Carolina, was bom 
October 5, 1925. Son of James Harvey and Alice (Butts) Morgan. Attended public 
schools, graduating from Lillington High School in 1942; East Carolina College 
(now East Carolina University), B.S. degree, 1947; Wake Forest College Law 
School, LL.B., 1959; J.D., 1972. While a student at Wake Forest Law School he 
filed for the office of Clerk of Superior Court of Harnett County and was elected. 
Served in this position for four years and then resigned to enter the private prac- 
tice of law. Member of the local, State and American Bar Associations. Mason and 
Rotarian. State Senator in the General Assembly of 1955, 1959, 1963, 1965 and 
1967; President Pro Tem of Senate in 1965. While a member of the Senate he was 
recognized as a forceful and effective advocate of jail reform, mental health pro- 
grams, better facilities for higher education, and numerous other programs. Won 
the Democratic nomination for the office of Attorney General in May of 1968 and 
elected to this office in the General Election of November 5, 1968. Was re-elected 
for a four-year term in November, 1972. Won Democratic nomination for office 
of United States Senator in May of 1974 and was elected to this office in the 
General Election of November 5, 1974. Served nine terms as Chairman of the East 
Carolina Board of Trustees. Member of Board of Trustees of Lees McRae College. 
Lt. Col. Ret. in the U. S. Air Force Reserve. Baptist. Married Katie Earle Owen 
of Roseboro, N. C. Two daughters, Mary and Margaret, and a foster son, Rupert 
Morgan Tart. Home address: Lillington, N. C. Official address: P. 0. Drawer 2712, 
Raleigh, N. C. 27602. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS: 

Armed Services 

Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs 

Select Committee on Small Business 

Select Committee on Ethics 



Jnited States Government 241 

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

OFFICERS 

Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr., Speaker — Massachusetts 
W. Pat Jennings, Clerk — Virginia 

STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE HOUSE 

Agriculture Interstate and Foreign Commerce 

Appropriations Judiciary 

Armed Services Merchant Marine and 
Banking and Currency Fisheries 

District of Columbia Post Office and Civil Service 

Education and Labor Public Works 

Foreign Affairs Rules 

Government Operations Science and Astronautics 

House Administration Standards of Official Conduct 

Interior and Insular Veterans' Affairs 

Affairs Ways and Means 



United States Government 243 

NORTH CAROLINA MEMBERS 

WALTER BEAMAN JONES 



(First District — Counties: Beaufort, Bertie, Camden, Carteret, Chowan, Cra- 
ven, Currituck, Dare, Gates, Greene, Hertford, Hyde, Jones, Lenoir, Martin, Pam- 
lico, Pasquotank, Perquimans, Pitt, Tyrrell and Washington. Population 459,543.) 

Walter Beaman Jones, Democrat, was born in Fayetteville, N. C, Aup:ust 19, 
1913. Son of Walter G. and Fannie M. (Anderson) Jones. Attended Elise Academy, 
1926-1930; North Carolina State College, B.S. in Education, 1934. Office equipment 
dealer. Director Farmville Savings & Loan Association; member Board of Com- 
missioners, Town of Farmville, 1947-1949; Mayor pro tern, 1947-1949; Mayor 
Town of Farmville and Judge Farmville Recorder's Court, 1949-1953. Member 
Masonic Lodge; Scottish Rite; Rotary Club, President, 1949; Loyal Order of 
Moose; Junior Order; Elks Lodge. Representative in the General Assembly in 
1955, 1957 and 1959; State Senator, 1965. Elected to Eighty-ninth Congress in 
Special Election of February 5, 1966 to fill unexpired term of the late Herbert C. 
Bonner. Re-elected to Ninetieth Congress, 1966; to Ninety-first Congress, 1968; to 
Ninety-second Congress, 1970, to the Ninety-third Congress, 1972, Ninety-fourth 
Congress, 1974, Ninety-fifth Congress, 1976 and Ninety-sixth Congress, 1978. Baptist; 
Deacon since 1945. Married Doris Long, April 26, 1934. Children: Mrs. Robert Moye 
and Walter B. Jones, II. Address: Farmville. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS: 

Agriculture 
Merchant Marine and Fisheries 




y 




United States Government 245 



L. H. FOUNTAIN 

(Second District — Counties: Caswell, Edgecombe, Franklin, Granville, Hali- 
fax, Nash, Northampton, Orange, Person, Vance, Warren and Wilson. Population 
457,601.) 

L. H. Fountain, Democrat, was born in the village of Leggett, Edgecombe 
County, North Carolina, April 23, 1913. Son of the late Sallie (Barnes) and the 
late Lawrence H. Fountain. Educated in the public schools of Edgecombe County 
and at the University of North Carolina, A.B. and J.D. degrees. Active attomey- 
at-law from 1936 until elected to Congress. Member, local, and state Bar Associa- 
tions; Kiwanis, Farm Bureau, American Legion, Grange and Elks Clubs; Execu- 
tive Committee East Carolina Council Boy Scouts of America; retired Jaycee; 
Recipient, Distinguished Service Award, North Carolina Citizens Association, 
1971; Recipient, Distinguished Service Award, University of North Carolina 
School of Medicine, 1973; Recipient, Distinguished Service Award, North Carolina 
League of Municipalities, 1976; Reading Clerk North Carolina State Senate, 1936- 
1941; North Carolina State Senator, 1947-1952. World War II veteran of four years 
service. Elected to 83rd Congress; re-elected to 84th, 85th, 86th, 87th, 88th, 89th, 
90th, 91st, 92nd, 94th, 95th and 96th Congresses. Presbyterian. Elder. Married Christine 
Dail of Mount Olive, N.C. One daughter, Nancy Dail Fountain. Address: Tarboro, N.C. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS: 

Foreign Relations 

Government Relation 



United States Government 247 



CHARLES ORVILLE WHITLEY 

(Third District — Counties: Bladen, Duplin, Harnett, Johnston, Lee, Onslow, Pender, 
Sampson and Wayne. Population 458,000.) 

Charles Orville Whitley (Charlie) was bom in Siler City January 3, 1927. Son 
of John Whitley and Mamie Goodwin. Attended Siler City Public Schools; Wake 
Forest University, BA, 1948 and LLB, 1950; George Washington University, MA 
(Legislative Affairs), 1974. Attorney. Town Attorney of Mount Olive, 1952-1958. 
Administrative Assistant to Congressman David Henderson, 1961-1976. Member 
North Carolina and Wayne County Bar. Member Masonic Order, WOW, American 
Legion, former Jaycee, Rotary Club. Army-Lieutenant, Active, 1944-46; Reserve, 
1946-50. Baptist. Deacon, Sunday School Teacher since 1952. Married Audrey 
Kornegay Whitley June 11, 1949. Children: Charles, Jr., Martha, and Sara. Address: 
PO Box 64, Mount Olive 28365. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENT: 

Agriculture 



United States Government 249 

IKE FRANKLIN ANDREWS 

UNITED STATES REPRESENTATIVE 

(Fourth District — Counties: Chatham, Durham, Randolph and Wake. Pop- 
ulation 467,046.) 

Ike Franklin Andrews, Democrat ,of Chatham County, was born in Bonlee, 
Chatham County, N. C, September 2, 192.5. Son of Archie Franklin and Ina (Dun- 
lap) Andrews. Attended Bonlee High Scliool, 1931-1941; Fork Union Military 
Academy, Fork Union, Va., 1941-1942; Mars Hill College, 1942-1943; University 
of North Carolina, 1946-1952, B.S. and LL.B. degrees. Lawyer. Member North 
Carolina State Bar; North Carolina Bar Association; American Bar Association; 
District Bar Association Executive Committee, 1958-1959; N. C. Bar Association 
Standing Committee on Legislation and Law Reform; N. C. Judicial Council, 1959- 
1961. President Junior Chamber of Commerce, member Board of Trustees, Uni- 
versity of North Carolina since 1959 and member of the Executive Committee 
since 1969; served as Chairman of the Chancellor Selection Committee of the 
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Board of Directors, Siler City 
Chamber of Commerce; Board of Trustees and Executive Committee, Chatham 
Hospital; Executive Committee Occoneechee Council, Boy Scouts of America; 
Chairman Chatham District, Boy Scouts of America; Chatham County Civil 
Defense; American Legion Oratorical Contest. Young Man of the Year, Siler 
City, 1958. Solicitor, Tenth-A District, July 1961-December, 1962. Elected Poet 
Laureate of the Senate, 1959. Field Artillery Forward Observer, United States 
Army, 1943-1945, Master Sergeant; awarded Bronze Star and Purple Heart, 
European Theatre, World War II. State Senator in the General Assembly of 1959; 
Representative in the General Assembly of 1961, 1967, 1969 and 1971. He served 
as Democratic Majority Leader, Chairman of the Rules Committee and as Speaker 
pro tempore during the latter session. Chairman, Board of Deacons, First Baptist 
Church of Siler City. Two daughters: Alice Cecelia and Nina Patricia. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS: 

Education and Labor 

Select Committee on Aging 



United States Government 251 



STEPHEN LYBROOK NEAL 

Fifth District — Counties: Alleghany, Ashe, Davidson, Forsyth, Stokes, Surry, 
and Wilkes. Population, 462,401.) 

Stephen Lybrook Neal, Democrat, was born in Winston-Salem, N.C., November 
7, 1934. Son of Charles Herbert and Mary Martha (Lybrook) Neal. Attended Uni- 
versity of California at Santa Barbara and University of Hawaii, A,B. (Psychology), 
1959. Former mortgage banker and small newspaper publisher. Member Sigma 
Delta Chi. Elected to U.S. House of Representatives, 1974. Reelected, 1976, and 1978. 
Banking, Currency and Housing; Post Office and Civil Service. Chairman, Domestic 
Monetary Policy Subcommittee (Banking). Member of Episcopal Church. Married 
Rachel Landis Miller Neal, June 6, 1963. Two children: Mary Piper Neal, 11, and Stephen 
L. Neal Jr., 9. Address: 1001 Wellington Rd., Winston-Salem, 27106. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS: 
Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs 



i^xv 



f 




I 




'*»<t, 1% 




United States Government 253 



LUNSFORD RICHARDSON PREYER 

(Sixth District — Counties: Alamance, Guilford and Rockingham. Population 

457,354.) 

Lunsford Richardson Preyer, Democrat, was born in Greensboro, N. C, Jan- 
uary 11, 1919. Son of W. Y., Sr., and Mary Norris (Richardson) Preyer. Attended 
Greensboro Schools, Woodberry Forest School, 1934-1937; Princeton University, 
A.B., 1941; Harvard Law School, LL.B., 1949. Lawyer in Greensboro from 1950 
until July, 1956 when appointed to N. C. Superior Court. City Judge, 1953-54; 
appointed Federal Judge of the Middle District Court in October, 1961; September, 
1963, resigned Judgeship to become candidate for Governor of N. C; November, 
1964 became Senior Vice President and Trust Officer of N. C. National Bank, 
Greensboro, N. C; May, 1966 became City Executive for Greensboro of N. C. 
National Bank. 91st Congress, 1968; to 92nd Congress, 1970; to 93rd Congress, 
1972; to the 95th Congress, 1974, to the 95th Congress, 1976, and to the 96th Congress, 
1978. Served in U.S. Navy (Lt. USNR). Four years on destroyer duty in Atlantic and 
South Pacific as Torpedo Officer, Gunnery Officer and Executive Officer, World War 
II; awarded Bronze Star for action in Okinawa. Member First Presbyterian Church of 
Greensboro, Elder and former Clerk of Session for the Church and a teacher of the Men's 
Bible Class. Married Emily Irving Harris of Greensboro. Five children: L. Richard- 
son Preyer, Jr., Mary Norris Preyer, Britt Armfield Preyer, Jane Bethell Preyer, 
Emily Harris Preyer. Address: 603 Sunset Drive, Greensboro, N. C. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS: 

Government Operations 

Interstate and Foreign Commerce 

Standards of Official Conduct 



United States Government 255 



CHARLES GRANDISON ROSE, III 

(Seventh District — Counties: Brunswick, Columbus, Cumberland, Hoke, New 
Hanover and Robeson. Population, 467,476.) 

Charles Grandison Rose, III, Democrat, was born in Fayetteville August 10, 
1939. Son of Charles G. Rose and Frances Duckworth Rose. Graduated Fayette- 
ville High School, 1957; Davidson College, 1969, B.A.; University of North Caro- 
lina Law School, 1964, LL.B. Attorney. Member Cumberland County Bar Associa- 
tion and North Carolina State Bar. Editor, Davidson College yearbook. Chief 
District Court Prosecutor, 12th Judicial District, 1967-70. Member First Presby- 
terian Church, Fayetteville; Sunday school teacher. Married Sara Richardson 
June 30, 1962. One son- Charles G. Rose, IV, a daughter, Sara Louise. Address: 
9500 Spinet Court, Vienna, Virginia. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS: 

Democratic Steering & Policy 

Democratic Steering & Policy Committee 
District of Columbia 

House Administration 




•.'■•".d « 



United States Government 257 



W. G. (BILL) HEFNER 

(Eighth District — Counties: Anson, Caban-us, Davie, Montgomery, Moore, 
Richmond, Rowan, Scotland, Stanly, Union and Yadkin. Population, 

W. G. (Bill) Hefner, Democrat, was born in Elora, Tennessee, April 11, 1930. 
President of WRKB Radio Station, Kannapolis, N. C. Entertainer- Harvesters 
Quartet; Television performer. Member Board of Directors, Cabarrus County 
Chapter of American Cancer Society; member Board of Directors of Cabarnis 
County Boys Club; member Board of Directors of Cabarrus County Humane Society; 
President of Odell School PTA; Publicity Committee for Cabarrus County United 
Appeal; member of Concord Noon Optimist Club. Elected to U. S. House of Repre- 
sentatives, 1974. Member North Kannapolis Baptist Church. Married Nancy Hefner 
of Gadsden, Alabama. Two children: Stacye Hefner, and Shelly Hefner. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS: 

Democratic Steering and Policy Committee 
Public Works & Transportation 
Veterans Affairs Committee 



u 




United States Government 259 



JAMES GRUBBS MARTIN 

(Ninth District — Counties: Iredell, Lincoln and Mecklenburpr. Population, 
459,535.) 

James Grubbs Martin, Republican, was born in Savannah, Georjria December 
11, 1935. Son of Reverend Arthur M. Martin an<l Mary Julia Grubbs Martin. 
Graduated Mt. Zion Institute, Winnsboro, S. C., 1953; Davidson Collefre, 1957, 
B.S.; Princeton University, 19(50, Ph.D. in Chemistry. Associate Professor of 
Chemistry, Davidson College. Member Beta Theta Pi (social) Fraternity; Na- 
tional Vice President, 1966-69. Former member of Charlotte Symphony, 1962-66. 
Mecklenburg County Commissioner, 1966-72, Chairman, 1967-68 and 1970-71. 
President of N. C. Association of County Commissioners, 1970-71. Founder and 
first chairman of Centralina Council of Governments, 1968-70; vice-president of 
National Association of Regional Councils, 1969-71. Elected to 93rd, 94th and 95th 
Congresses, Presbyterian; deacon, 1969-71. Mason. Shriner. Married Dorothy Ann 
McAulay June 1, 1957. Three children: Jimmy, age 16, Emily, age 14, and Benson, 
age 5. Address: Box 697, Davidson. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS: 
Ways and Means 



United States Government 261 



JAMES THOMAS BROYHILL 

(Tenth District — Counties: Alexander, Burke, Caldwell, Catawba, Cleveland, 
Gaston and Watauga. Population, 471,777.) 

James Thomas Broyhill, Republican, was bom in Lenoir, August 19, 1927. 
Son of James Edgar and Satie Leona (Hunt) Broyhill. Attended Lenoir Public 
Schools 1933-1946; graduated Lenoir High School, 1946; University of North Caro- 
lina, 1950, B.S. degree in Commerce. Before election to Congress was a furniture 
manufacturer; member Southern Furniture Manufacturers Association; North 
Carolina Forestry Association; Industrial Planning Committee of the North West 
North Carolina Development Association; past President and member of the Board 
of the Lenoir Chamber of Commerce; past member of: City of Lenoir Recreation 
Commission; City of Lenoir Planning and Zoning Commission; Treasurer Caldwell 
County Republican Executive Committee. Young Man of the Year Award, Lenoir 
and Caldwell County, 1957. Honoraiy Doctor of Laws degree from Catawba College, 
Salisbuiy, North Carolina, 1966. Formerly served on Board of Advisors, Lees- 
McRae College, Banner Elk, Board of Visitors. Lenoir-Rhyne College and Board of 
Trustees, Wake Forest University. Member Hibriten Lodge No. 262, A.F. & A.M.; 
Oasis Temple of the Shrine. Elected to 88th Congress, 1962; and succeeding 
Congresses. Now sei-ving 8th term. Member First Baptist Church of Lenoir, N. C. 
Married Louise Horton Robbins, Durham, June 2, 1951. Children: Marilyn Louise, 
(Mrs. Robert Beach); James Edgar, II, (Married to Melanie Pennell) and Philip 
Robbins. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS: 

Budget 
Interstate and Foreign Commerce 



United States Government 263 



LAMAR GUDGER 

(Eleventh District — Counties: Avery, Buncombe, Cherokee, Clay, Graham, 
Haywood, Henderson, Jackson, McDowell, Macon, Madison, Mitchell, Polk, Ruther- 
ford, Swain, Transylvania, and Yancey. Population, 467,051.) 

Lamar Gudger, Asheville, North Carolina, (Democrat) was bom in Asheville, 
April 30, 1919. Son of Vonno Lamar and Elizabeth (Wilson) Gudger. Attended Lee 
H. Edwards High School, Asheville, graduated 1936, University' of North Carolina, 
Chapel Hill, A.B. Degree 1940, LL.B. Degree 1942. Captain USAF, 305th Bomb 
Group, 8th Air Force, 1942-45, awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross, the Air 
Medal with Five Oak Leaf Clusters and other decorations. Senior Member of Law 
Firm, Gudger, McLean and Parker, Asheville. Member N.C. State Bar and former 
President and continuing Member of the Buncombe County Bar Association. 
Permanent Member Judicial Conference for the Fourth Circuit, and Member of the 
North Carolina Judical Council 1973-76. Representative in North Carolina General 
Assembly, 1951. Solicitor 19th Solicitorial District, 1951-54. State Senate 1971-76. 
Served in Legislative Research Commission 1971-72; Chairman, Legislative Com- 
mission on Children with Special Needs, 1974-76, And Chairman, Legislative Com- 
mission on Correctional Programs and Speedy Trials, 1975-76. Served as Secretary, 
State Democratic Party 1962-63, and Member, State Party Council, 1965-66. Active 
member, Member Board of Stewards and Sunday School Teacher, Central United 
Methodist Church, Asheville. Married to former Eugenia Reid of Surry County, 
October 24, 1947. Children: Carol Eugenia Gudger (Perkins), Martha Elizabeth, 
Lamar, Jr., and Eugene Reid Gudger. Address: 189 Kimberly Avenue, Asheville. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Select Committee on Aging 

Interior and Insular Affairs 

Judiciary 



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United States Government 265 

Chapter Three 

THE UNITED STATES 
JUDICIAL SYSTEM 



The United States Supreme Court 

Warren E. Burger Chief Justice Minnesota 

Potter Stewart Associate Justice Ohio 

William H. Rehnquist Associate Justice Arizona 

Byron R. White Associate Justice Colorado 

Thurgood Marshall Associate Justice New York 

William J. Brennan, Jr Associate Justice New Jersey 

Lewis F. Powell, Jr Associate Justice Virginia 

Harry A. Blackmun Associate Justice Minnesota 



United States Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals 

James Dickson Phillips, Jr Judge Chapel Hill 

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT— NORTH CAROLINA 

JUDGES 

Eastern District Algernon L. Butler, Chief Judge Clinton 

John D. Larkins, Jr., Judge Trenton 

Franklin T. Dupree, Jr., Judge Raleigh 

Middle District Eugene A. Gordon, Chief Judge Burlington 

Hiram H. Ward Denton 

Western District Woodrow W. Jones, Chief Judge Asheville 

James B. McMillan, Judge Charlotte 

CLERKS 

Eastern District Samuel A. Howard Raleigh 

Middle District Carmon J. Stuart Greensboro 

Western District J. Toliver Davis Asheville 

UNITED states ATTORNEYS 

Eastern District George M. Anderson Raleigh 

Middle District Henry M. Michaux Durhpm 

Western District Harold M. Edwards Asheville 



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United States Government 267 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



JAMES DICKSON PHILLIPS, JR. 

JUDGE. 4th CIRCUIT COURT OF APPEALS 

James Dickson Phillips, Jr., Democrat was horn in Scotland County, N.C., Septem- 
ber 21-5. 1922. Son of James Dickson Phillips (deceased) and Helen Shepherd. Graduated 
Davidson College 1943, B.S. cum laude: University of North Carolina School of Law. 
1945-48— J. D. with honors. Circuit Judge, United States Court of Appeals for the P'ourth 
Circuit. Member Democratic Party; Kappa Sigma Social Fraternity: Board of Directors 
of NC Nature Conservancy: and NC Bar Association. Received John J. Parker Memorial 
Award: Thomas Jefferson Award and Distinguished Alumni Professor. Served U.S. 
Army (Parachute Infantry) — First Lieutenant. May 1944 — January 1946. Member 
Presbyterian Church, Elder (1967-1977): Deacon (1964-19(36); University Presbyterian 
Church, Chapel Hill— Member (1970-76): Chairman (1971-1974); Permanent Judicial 
Commission, Presbyterian Church in the U.S. Married Jean Duff Nanalee, July 16, 1960. 
Children: Evelyn P. Perry; James Dickson, III: Elizabeth Duff; and Ida Wills. Address; 
529 Caswell Rd., Chapel Hill 27514. 



United States Government 269 

ALGERNON LEE BUTLER 

CHIEF JUDGE, UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 
EASTERN DISTRICT— NORTH CAROLINA 

Algernon Lee Butler, Republican, was born in Clinton, N. C, August 2, 1905. 
Son of George Edwin Butler and Eva Boykin Lee Butler. Attended Duke Univer- 
sity and University of North Carolina. (Law School UNC) Member of Sampson 
County Bar Association, President in 1958; member Sixth District Bar Associa- 
tion, President in 1953; Member N. C. Bar Association; member American Bar 
Association; and member of Sigma Nu. Member of N. C. General Assembly, 
Sampson County, 1931. Elected Eastern District Court Judge. Member St. Pauls 
Episcopal Church; former Senior Warden of Vestry. Married Josepliine Lydia 
Broadwell, June 5, 1935. Three Children: Eva Josephine Daniel (Mrs. Louis B. 
Daniel, Jr.), Algeron L. Butler, Jr. and George Edwin Butler 11. Address: 403 
Butler Drive, Clinton, N. C. 28328. 



JOHN DAVIS LARKINS, JR. 

JUDGE, UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 
EASTERN DISTRICT— NORTH CAROLINA 

John Davis Larkins, Jr., Democrat, was born in Morristown, Tennessee, June 
8, 1909. Son of Charles H. Larkins and Mamie Dorsett Larkins. Foster son of 
John Davis Larkins and Emma Cooper Larkins. Attended schools in Cedartown, 
Georgia, 1914-1920; Fayetteville, N. C, 1920-1922; Hazelhurst, Georgia, 1922- 
1924; Greensboro, N. C. 1924-25. Wake Forest (College) University, B.A. 1929. 
Attended Wake Forest University Law School, 1929-30. Member North Carolina 
State Bar; Member American Bar, Member Federal Bar. Received Distinguished 
Service Award, American Cancer Society; Received Distinguishd Alumni Award, 
Wake Forest University. Private, US Army, 1945. Served as State Senator, 1936, 
1937, 1938, 1939, 1941; President Pro Tern, 1943, 1949, 1951, 1953; State Chair- 
man-Secretary of Democratic Executive Committee 1952, 1954, 195(;, 1958; Na- 
tional Committeeman, 1958, 1960. Elected US District Judge. Baptist. Chairman 
of Board of Deacons, 1930, 1960. Married Pauline A. Murrell Larkins, March 13, 
1930. Two children^ Emma Sue (Mrs. D. H. Loften) and Paulene (Mrs. J. H. 
Bearden). Address: Federal Building, Trenton, N. C. 28583. 



United States Government 271 

FRANKLIN TAYLOR DUPREE, JR. 

JUDGE, UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 
EASTERN DISTRICT— NORTH CAROLINA 

Franklin Taylor Dupree, Jr., Republican, was born in Anpier, N. C, October 
18, 1913. Son of Franklin T. Dupree, Sr. and Elizabeth Mason (Wells) Dupree. 
Attended Angier High School 1925-28; Campbell College Hifrh School 1928-29. 
Graduated University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1933, A.B.; University of 
North Carolina Law School, 1936, LL.B. Member Wake County Bar Association; 
North Carolina Bar Asssociation; American Bar Association; American Judicature 
Society; Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. US District Judpce 1970. Served 
US Navy, Lieutenant, 1943-4G. Member Hayes Barton Baptist Church. Married 
Rosalyn Dupree, December 30, 1939. Two Daughters: Elizabeth D. DeMent, born 
October 17, 1940; Nancy D. Miller, Born Aug:ust 10, 1942. Address: P. O. Box 
27585, Raleigh, N. C. 27611; 713 Westwood Dr., Raleigh, N. C. 27607. 



EUGENE ANDREW GORDON 

CHIEF JUDGE, UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 
MIDDLE DISTRICT— NORTH CAROLINA 

Eugene Andrew Gordon, Democrat, was born in Brown Summit, N. C, July 
10, 1917. Son of Charles Robert Gordon and Carrie Scott Gordon. Graduated Elon 
College, 1939, A.B.; Duke University Law School, 1941, L.L.B. Member of Ameri- 
can Judicature Society. Member Federal Bar Association; Member American Bar 
Association; Member N. C. Bar Association. Member Phi Delta Phi International 
Legal Fraternity. Captain, Field Artillery January 4, 1942-May 1, 1946. Elected 
Chief Judge U. S. District Court — Middle, N. C. Member Starmount Presbyterian 
Church. Married Virginia Stoner Gordon, January 1, 1943. Two children: Eugene 
Andrew Gordon, May 1, 1948; Rosemary Ann Gordon, born July 2, 1953. Address: 
P. 0. Box 3283, Greensboro, N. C. 27410. 



United States Government 273 



HIRAM HAMILTON WARD 

JUDGE, UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 
MIDDLE DISTRICT— NORTH CAROLINA 

Hiram Hamilton Ward was born in Thomasville, N. C, April 29, 1923. Son of 
0. L. Ward and Margaret A. (Lowdermilk) Ward. Attended Denton High School; 
Wake Forest University. Graduated Wake Forest University School of Law, 1950, 
J.D. Member American Judicature Society; American Bar Association; North 
Carolina Bar Association. Member Mason; Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity. 
Served U. S. Air Force, October 4, 1940-May 20, 1945; Pilot and Lt. Col., Civil 
Air Patrol. Served 3 terms N. C. State Board of Elections 1964-1972; Chairman 
Federal Land Condemnation Commission 1964-65. U. S. District Judge July 12, 
1972. Member Baptist Church; Deacon; Sunday School Teacher; Trustee Liberty 
Baptist Association; Trustee Wingate College. Married Evelyn McDaniel Ward, 
June 1, 1947. Two sons: William M. Ward, born March 17, 1951; James Randolph 
Ward, April 8, 1953. Address: P. 0. Box 325, Denton, N. C. 27239. 



WOODROW WILSON JONES 

CHIEF JUDGE, UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 
WESTERN DISTRICT— NORTH CAROLINA 

Woodrow Wilson Jones, Democrat, was born near Rutherfordton, N. C, Jan- 
uary 26, 1914. Son of Bernard B. Jones and Karl Jane Nanney Jones. Attended 
Public Schools of Rutherford County from 1920-1932. Graduated Mars Hill Col- 
lege, May 1934, A.S.; Wake Forest University Law School, June, 1937, LL.B. 
Member North Carolina Bar Association; Member American Beer Association; 
Member Rutherford County Bar Assosciation. President Rutherford County Bar 
Association 1946. Presented Outstanding Service Award by Rutherfordton Lions 
Club, October 23, 1950. Director Citizens Federal Savings & Loan Association of 
Rutherfordton 1957-1967; Director Union Trust Company of Shelby 1960-19G7. 
Awarded Special Citation for outstanding service by Gardner-Webb College, May 
12, 1965; Member Board of Trustees for Gardner-Webb College. Former member 
and president, Rutherfordton Kiwanis Club; former director and member, Ruther- 
fordton Chamber of Commerce. Engaged in private practice Law in Rutherford- 
ton, August 1937-August 1967; Served 2 years United States Naval Reserves; 6 
years as member of Congress. Served as Solicitor of Recorder's Court of Ruther- 
ford County, January 1, 1941-December 6, 1943; member House of Representatives 
of N. C. General Assembly 1947-1949 sessions; member 81st, 82nd, 83rd, 84th Con- 
gressses of U. S. from 11th Congressional District; November 7, 1950-January 3, 
1957; Chairman North Carolina Democratic Executive Committee, 1938-19(30. 
Elected as Chief Judge U. S. District Court. Member First Baptist Church, 
Rutherfordton, N. C. ; teacher and deacon. Married Rachel Phelps, November 22, 
1936. Two children: W. Wilson Jones, Jr., born March 7, 1940; Michael A. Jones, 
Born March 12, 1942. Address^ 1018 North Main Street, Rutherfordton, N. C. 
28139. 



United States Government 275 



JAMES BRYAN McMILLAN 

JUDGE, UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 
MIDDLE DISTRICT— NORTH CAROLINA 

James Bryan McMillan, Democrat, was born in Goldsboro, N. C, December 
19, 1916. Son of Robert Hunter McMillan and Sarah Outlaw McMillan. Attended 
Public Schools of Lumberton, N. C. Attended Presbyterian Junior College (now 
St. Andrews), 1932-34, Associate of Arts De}i:ree. Graduated University of North 
Carolina, 1935-37, A.M.; Harvard Law School, J.D., 1940. Member Mecklenburg 
County Bar Association; North Carolina Bar Association; American Bar As- 
sociation; North Carolina State Bar, Inc.; American Judicature Society. Fellow, 
International Academy of Trial Lawyers, President North Carolina Bar Associa- 
tion 1960-61; President Mecklenburg Bar Association 1957-58; President St. An- 
drews Alumni Association 1965-66; Member Board of Visitors Davidson College. 
Member Omicron Delta Kappa; Davidson; Order of The Golden Fleece, University 
of N. C. at Chapel Hill. Served U. S. Navy February 19, 1942-January, 1946. 
Author of opinions and orders in numerous district court and a few Circuit Court 
of Appeals Cases. Served as Chairman for Precinct 15 from about 1948 to about 
1964. Elected to U. S. District Court. Member First Presbyterian Church; Deacon 
1957-63; Treasurer 1962-63; Ruling Elder 1963-71, 1975-83. Married Margaret 
Blair Miles, February 27, 1944. Tv/o children: James Bryan McMillan, Jr., born 
June 19, 1946; Marjorie Miles McMillan Rodell, born August 26, 1950. Address: 
1930 Mecklenburg Avenue, Charlotte, N. C. 28205. 



PART V 

NORTH CAROLINA STATE 

GOVERNMENT 



278 



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North Carolina Government 279 

INTRODUCTION 



Under provisions in the Constitution of North Carolina, the three major 
branches of state government — legislative, executive and judicial — are "distinct 
and separate from each other" (Article I, Section 6). This separation of powers 
has been a primary principal of government since our independence. In the nearly 
two hundred years since the forming of the State of North Carolina, many 
changes have occurred in her governmental organization. North Carolina state 
and local government has grown from a small, ill-funded endeavor of a few hundred 
"employees" in 1776, to a multi-billion dollar enterprise of nearly three hundred 
thousand employees in 1977. Along with this growth came many problems, most 
important of which was the existence of over 200 independent state agencies. As a 
result steps toward reorganizing state government, particularly the executive 
branch began to be formulated. 



STATE GOVERNMENT REORGANIZATION 

In a speech on October 27, 1967, Governor Dan K. Moore urged the North 
Carolina State Bar to take the lead in sponsoring a study to determine the need 
for revising or rewriting the Constitution of North Carolina. The Council of the 
North Carolina State Bar and the North Carolina Bar Association joined in ap- 
pointing a steering committee which selected twenty-five persons to constitute the 
North Carolina State Constitution Study Commission. The report of the commis- 
sion, submitted on December 16, 1968, contained a proposed amendment which 
would require the General Assembly to reduce the administrative departments of 
state government to 25 and authorize the governor to reorganize the administrative 
departments subject to legislative approval. 

The 1969 General Assembly submitted the proposed constitutional amend- 
ment to a vote of the people and also authorized the governor to begin a study of 
consolidation of state agencies and to prepare recommendations for the General 
Assembly. Governor Robert W. Scott established the State Government Reorgani- 
zation Study in October of 1969. Later, in May 1970, a fifty member citizens Com- 
mittee on State Government Reorganization was appointed by the governor to 
review the study and make specific recommendations. 

The constitutional amendment requiring the reduction of the number of state 
administrative departments to not more than 25 by 1975 was adopted in the Gen- 
eral Election on November 3, 1970, and the Committee on State Government Re- 
organization submitted its recommendations to the governor on February 4, 
1971. 

The committee recommended implementation of the amendment in two phases: 
Phase I would begin with general legislation in 1971 grouping agencies together in 
a limited number of functional departments; Phase II would consist of the period 
between 1971 and 1973 when the agencies would work together. Bills to revise the 
existing statutes would be drafted on the basis of the agencies' experience and 
presented to the 1973 General Assembly. 



280 North Carolina Manual 



With stroiipT support from Governor Scott, the Executive (Jryanization Act of 
1971 was ratified July 14, 1971. It created 19 principal offices and departments 
consistinjr of ten otlices and departments headed by elected officials and nine other 
departments formed by the tjroupinji' of agencies alont^: functional lines. The Act 
provided for two types of transfers to accomplish the first phase of reorKanization. 
Under the Act a Type I transfer meant the transferrinji' of all or part of an 
agency, including its statutory authority, powers and duties, to a principal depart- 
ment. A Type II transfer meant the transferring intact of an existing agency to a 
principal department with the transferring agency retaining its statutory author- 
ity and functions, except for management functions, which would be performed 
under the direction and supervision of the head of the principal department. 

All offices and departments called for by the Executive Organization Act of 
1971 were created by executive order of Governor Scott prior to the July 1, 1972, 
deadline set by the Act. The principal offices and departments created were: 
Office of the Governor, Office of the Lieutenant Governor, Department of the Sec- 
retary of State, Department of the State Auditor, Department of State Treasurer, 
Department of Public Education, Department of Justice, Department of Agri- 
culture, Department of Labor, Department of Insurance, Department of Admini- 
stration, Department of Transportation and Highway Safety, Department of 
Natural and Economic Resources, Department of Human Resources, Department 
of Social Rehabilitation and Control (now Department of Correction), Depart- 
ment of Commerce, Department of Revenue, Department of Art, Culture and 
History (now Department of Cultural Resources), and Department of Military 
and Veterans' Affairs. By executive order issued June 26, 1972, an Executive 
Cabinet was formed consisting of the heads of these offices and departments. 
Meetings of the Cabinet have been a major tool in solving the problems of Phase 
II of reorganization. 

Between 1972 and 1977 some additional alterations wei^ made which further 
implemented reorganization of state government in North Carolina. In 1973, the 
Legislature passed the Executive Organizations Act of 1973 which affected four of 
the newly created departments — Cultural Resources, Human Resources, Militai-y 
and Veterans Affairs and Revenue. Broadly speaking, the 1973 law vested final 
administrative and managerial powers for the Executive Branch in the hands of the 
governor and gave him powers to appoint a secretary for each of the departments 
named. The law also set forth the powers of the secretaries, but left intact specifi- 
cally designed areas and decisions already vested in various commissions — these 
cannot be countermanded by either the governor or departmental secretary. 

Specifically, the 1973 act changed the name of the Department of Art, Culture 
and History to the Department of Cultural Resources. Various Boards, Commissions, 
Councils, and Societies which relate to a cultural orientation were brought under 
the umbrella of the Department of Cultural Resources. 

Two previously created Departments, Human Resources and Revenue, were 
recreated making some technical changes not found in the original law. Specifically, 
in the Department of Human Resources, a Board of Human Resources was created 
to serve as an Advisory Board to the Secretary on any matter which might be 
referred to it by the Secretary. 



North Carolina Government 281 



In the 1973 Act, the Department of Military and Veterans Affairs was specifi- 
cally charged with providing National Guard troops trained to Federal Standards; 
being responsible for military and civil preparedness; and assisting veterans and 
their families and dependents. A new Veterans' Affairs Commission was created to 
assist the Secretary with veterans services programs. 

Reorganization was to have been completed by the end of 1975, and, as provided 
for in the 1971 and 1973 Laws, it was. However, the present administration spon- 
sored several legislative proposals aimed at further reorganizational changes — 
most of which affect four state departments — Commerce, Military and Veterans 
Affairs, Natural and Economic Resources, and Transportation. 

The 1977 General Assembly enacted several laws implementing the new pro- 
posals. The old Department of Military and Veteran's Affairs has been replaced 
by a new Department of Crime Control and Public Safety. The Veterans Affairs 
Commission formerly in MVA is now under the Department of Administration. All 
of the other divisions — except the Energy Division formerly in MVA have been 
transferred by a Type I Transfer to the Department of Crime Control and Public 
Safety. Also the State Highway Patrol, formerly in the Division of Motor Vehicles, 
Department of Transportation, has been transferred by a Type I Transfer to the 
new department. A newly created Governor's Crime Commission is also part of the 
new department. 

In reorganizing the old Department of Military and Veterans Affairs, the 
Energy Division and the Energy Policy Council were transferred to the Department 
of Commerce. Also transferred to the Department of Commerce are three agencies 
previously under the Department of Transportation — ^the State Ports Authority, 
and two commissions on Navigation and Pilotage. Other legrislative changes were 
enacted to further reorganize the Department of Commerce by transferring to it 
the Economic Development Division of the Department of Natural and Economic 
Development and to create a new council — the Labor Force Development Council — 
to coordinate the needs of Industry with the programs offered in our educational 
institutions. There was some opposition to moving Economic Development from 
NER because the current setup allows new prospective industry to deal with only 
one department in finding out economic opportunities within the State and what 
environmental requirement and restrictions there might be. 



282 



North Carolina Manual 



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Legislative Branch 283 

Chapter One 
THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH 



INTRODUCTION 

The general assembly is the oldest governmental body in North Carolina. 
According to tradition a "legislative assembly of free holders" met sometime 
in 1666; however, there is no extant proof that such a meeting took place. Actual 
provisions for a representative assembly did not exist prior to the adoption of 
the Concessions and Agreements of 1665. Then an unicameral body composed 
of the governor, his council, and "twelve men . . . chosen annually" sat as a lej^is- 
lature. This system of representation prevailed until 1G70 when Albemarle County 
was divided in three "precincts" — Berkely, Carteret and Shaftsbury. At that time 
each precinct was apparently allowed five representatives. Around 1682, four new 
precincts were created from the original three as population and western expan- 
sion increased. The number of representatives allowed new precincts was usually 
two, although some had more. Beginning with the Assembly of 1723, some of the 
larger, more important towns were allowed representatives. Edenton was the first, 
followed by Bath, New Bern, Wilmington, Brunswick, Halifax, Cambellton (now 
Fayetteville), Salisbury, Hillsborough and Tarborouech (now Tarboro). By the 
middle of the eighteenth century, the term "precinct" had been replaced by 
"county" in reference to the geographical subdivisions. 

The unicameral form of the legislature continued until around 1697 when a 
bicameral form was adopted. The "upper house" was composed of the governor, or 
chief executive at the time, and his council; the elected "precinct" representative 
sat as the "lower house" or "House of Burgesses." The lower house could adopt 
its own rules of procedure and elect its own speaker and other officers; however, 
it could only meet when the governor called it into session and only at a location 
designated by him. This did not prove a disadvantage since the lower house had 
"the power of the purse. As a result, the governor usually called them into session 
at least once during a biennium, and usually more often, in order that he might be 
paid his salary. Throughout the colonial period, this "power of the purse" was a 
source of constant controversy between the governor and tiie lower house, and the 
house used it effectively to increase its influence and prestige. 

In 1776, when our first State Constitution was adopted, the effects of the ex- 
ecutive-legislative conflicts of the colonial period were reflected in its provisions. 
The legislature was the primary organ of state government with control over all 
phases of government. Its most important power was its elective power which 
provided that all officials in the executive and judicial btatiches would be elected 
by joint ballot of the two houses. This continued until 1835 when the governor be- 
came a popularly elected official; however, it was not until 1868, that the remam- 
ing executive officials and the judiciary were popularly elected. 



28 1 North Carolina Manual 



The Constitution of 1776 provided for a bicameral legislature, both elected by 
the people. The senate was composed of one representative from each county, and 
the house of commons was composed of two representatives from each county and 
one from each town listed in the Constitution. This arrang:ement continued until 
1835 when several amendments were adopted affecting the gceneral assembly. The 
membership of the senate was set at fifty and the state was divided into districts 
with representation based on the population of the district. The membership of 
the house of commons was set at 120 with representation based on the population 
of the county in accordance with provisions set forth in the amendment; however, 
each county was entitled to at least one representative. Provisions were made so 
that future representation would be based on the federal census taken every ten 
years. 

In 18G8, a new constitution was adopted which chanp:ed the name of the 
"house of commons" to the "house of representatives" and eliminated the pre- 
viously unfair "property qualifications" for holding office. Also the current or- 
sranizational structure with the lieutenant governor as president of the senate 
and provisions for the election of a president pro tempore came into existance. 

In 1966, the house of representatives adopted a district setup similar to that 
used by the senate. Today, the general assembly is the legislative branch of state 
government. It is equal with, but independent of, the executive and judicial 
branches. The legislative body is composed of two chambers, the senate and the 
house of representatives, which convene in odd -year biennial sessions on the first 
Wednesday after the second Monday in January. (By parliamentary means, the 
general assembly may divide the biennial session into annual segments.) (The 
senate has fifty members and the house has 120 members, all of whom are elected 
biennially from districts containing approximately equal populations.) However, 
one of the distinct disadvantages of the district system, particularly as it relates 
to the house of representatives, is that an increasingly large number of counties 
are without a "resident" legislator. 

As the legislative branch of government, the general assembly has three ma- 
jor functions: to enact general and local laws governing the affairs of the state, 
to provide and allocate funds for operating the government by enacting tax and 
appropriation laws, and to conduct investigations into such operations of the state 
as it deems necessary for regulation and funding. The main work of the general 
assembly is the enactment of substantive legislation. 

Much of the legislative work of the general assembly is done in committees 
composed of members of the respective houses. Senate Committees are appointed 
by the lieutenant governor, who serves as presiding officer of the senate (President 
of the Senate) ; House Committees are appointed by the Speaker of the House, 
who is elected from among the membership of the house of representatives. 

Administrative authority for the general assembly is vesteii in the Legislative 
Services Commission. The president pro tempore of the senate and the speaker 
of the house are ex officio chairmen of the Services Commission; each appoints 
six members from his respective house to serve on the commission. The Services 
Conmiission employs a legislative services officer as chief staff officer, a director of 
fiscal research to deal with money matters, and a director of research to handle all 



Legislative Branch 285 



other informational needs. The Legislative Research Commission is separated 
from the Legislative Services Commission, and its authority is limited to research 
projects. Again, the president pro tempore and the Speaker are ex officio chair- 
men of the Research Commission; each appoints five members to sit on this com- 
mission. 

The staff and elective officers of the general assembly assist the membership 
in accomplishing legislative tasks. The Legislative Services Commission is re- 
sponsible for general and fiscal research, disbursing supplies and materials, pro- 
duction and storage of legislative documents, personnel management, supervision 
and maintenance of the legislative building, contracting for services, and pay- 
ment of accounts. The commission employs a staff, directed by the legislative ser- 
vices officer, to carry out these functions. The Legislative Research Commission 
produces extensive study documents and drafts legislation for consideration by 
the general assembly. Special study commissions are set up to investigate difficult 
or technical subjects for later reports to the legislature. In addition, standing 
committees of the general assembly have been authorized to meet during interim 
periods to carry on committee business and to conduct related studies. The Ser- 
vices Commission provides, or arranges, for staff assistance to the Research Com- 
mission and standing committees and coordinates staff work with the special com- 
missions. 



286 



North Carolina Manual 







preside:^ 




Legislative Branch 287 

NORTH CAROLINA SENATE 

(Democratic Unless Indicated Otherwise) 

Officers 

President James C. Green Clarkton 

President Pro Tern W. Craig Lawing Charlotte 

Principal Clerk Sylvia M. Fink Raleigh 

Reading Clerk LeRoy Clark, Jr Raleigh 

Sergeant-at-Arms Vinson Bridges, Jr Raleigh 

Senators 

Name County Dh<trirt Addreux Smt 

Alexander. Fred D Mecklenburg 22nd Charlotte 11 

Alford, Dallas L., Jr Nash 7th Rocky Mount 9 

Allsbrook, Julian R Halifax 6th Roanoke Rapids 1 

Bagnal, Anne (R) Forsyth 20th Winston-Salem 40 

Ballenger, T. Cass (R) Catawba 23rd Hickory 37 

Barnes, Henson P Wayne 8th Goldsboro 38 

Childers, Jack Davidson 21st Lexington 14 

Cockerham, Walter C. (R) . . . .Guilford 19th Greensboro 41 

Crawford, I. C Buncombe 26th Asheville 13 

Creech. William A Wake 14th Raleigh 19 

Daniels. Melvin R., Jr Pasquotank 1st Elizabeth City 26 

Davis, Robert M.. Jr Rowan 21st Salisbury 35 

Duncan. Conrad R Rockingham 15th Stoneville 5 

Edwards. James H Caldwell 24th Granite Falls 16 

Garrison. James B Stanlv 17th Albemarle 21 

Gray, Rachel G Guilford 19th High Point 22 

Hardison, Harold W Lenoir 5th Deep Run 8 

Harrington, J. J Bertie 1st Lewiston 25 

Harris, Ollie Cleveland 25th Kings Mountain 3 

Henley, John T Cumberland 10th Hope Mills 7 

Hill, Cecil J.- Transylvania 27th Brevard 32 

Jenkins, Cecil R., Jr Cabarrus 22nd Kannapolis 43 

Jordan, R. B., HI Montgomery 17th Mount Gilead 48 

Kincaid, Donald R. (R) Caldwell 24th Lenoir 39 

Lake. I. Beverly Jr Wake 14th Raleigh 18 

Lawing. Craig Mecklenburg 22nd Charlotte 12 

Leake. Larry B.* Buncombe 26th Asheville 13 

Marion, George W., Jr Surry 15th Dobson 15 

Marvin, Helen Rhyne Gaston 25th Gastonia 23 

Mathis, Carolvn Mecklenburg 22nd Charlotte 31 

Mills, W. D Onslow 3rd Maysville 50 

Noble, Sam R Robeson 12th Lumberton 36 

Palmer, Joe H. Haywood 27th Clyde 33 

Rauch, Marshall A Gaston 25th Gastonia 4 

Ravnor, Joe Cumberland 10th P'ayetteville 27 

Redman, Wm. W., Jr. (R) . . . .Iredell 23rd Statesville 42 

Renfrew. Edward Johnston 9th Sniithfield 6 

Royall, Kenneth C. Jr. Durham 13,th Durham 4() 

Schwartz, B.D New Hanover 4th Wilmington 49 

Scott, Ralph H Alamance 18th Haw River 24 



288 North Carolina Manual 



Sebo, Kathcrine Ha^en' Cuilfoni liUh (Irt'ctishoro 45 

Speed, -lames D Franklin 7lh l/juishurjr 10 

Soles. R.("., .If Columbus 11th Tabor City 28 

Stallin^s. D. Livingstone' Craven 2n(i New Bern 17 

Swain. Robert S Ituncombe 2(ith Asheville .■')4 

Thomas, Jcj.seph K.'' Craven ^nd Vanceboro 17 

Turner, James R." (Juilford 19th (ireensboro 45 

X'ifkery. Charles K Oran^^e Kith Chapel Hill :^0 

Walker. Rus.sell Randolph Kith Asheburo 29 

Ward. Marvin Forsyth 2()th Win.ston-Salem 44 

Whichard, Willis V Durham i;;th Durham 47 

While. X'ernon K I'itt (itli Winterville 2 

Wynne. IJobert W Wake 1 Ith RaleiRh 20 

1. t^rawford died .January 21lh, l!t79 and Larry B. Lifake was appointed .January 29th to complete his term. 

2. Hill resigned effective Septenil)er l.'ith. 1979 followuijj his appointment to the Court of A[)peals. (At time of printing 
no replacement had been apponited.) 

'■i. See fiKitnote 1. 

4. Sebo resijfned effective Septemljer 4th. 1979 followmg her acceptance of a White House P'ellowship. James Turner 
was ap[x)inted to complete her term. 

5. Stallings died Pecember 2t)th. 197S and .Joseph E. Thomas was appointed .January .5th 1979 to complete his term. 

6. See footnote .">. 

7. See f(x)tnote 4. 



Legislative Branch 



289 




WILLIAM CRAIG LAWING 

PRESIDENT, PRO TEMPORE 
(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 

(Twenty-second Senatorial District— Counties: Cabarrus and Mecklenburg. 
Four Senators.) 



William Craig Lawing was born in Mecklenburg County, July 6, 1925. Son of Samuel 
Oliver and Essie 0. (Dunn) Lawing. Attended Mecklenburg County Public Schools, 
1931-1942. University of Chattanooga as Aviation Cadet, United States Army Air Force, 
1943-1944; Repperts School of Auctioneering, 1958. President of Lawing, Inc.. dealing 
in real estate, insurance and auction business. Member Charlotte Board of Realtors; 
North Carolina Association of Realtors; National Association of Real Estate Boards; 
Auctioneers Association of North Carolina, President, 1962-1965; National Auctioneers 
Association, on Board of Directors, three-year term, 1969-1972. Member Paw Creek 
American Legion Post No. 353, Commander, 1948-1951; Voiture 1400 Forty and Eight, 
Voiture Correspondent, 1952-1953; Grand Chiminot P'orty and Eight, 1954-1955. Mem- 



290 North (Carolina Manual 



her Elxcelsior Lod^jo No. 2(51, A. F. & A.M.; CarolinaConsistory Scottish Rite; Oasis Temi)le 
of the Shrine. Chairman. I^ejirislative Committee of Paw Creek American l^eg-ion Post, 
1961-1971 Commantler, Mecklenburg: County Council of American Legion Post, 19()8- 
1969. Member of North Carolina House of Representatives. 1971, 1973-1974, 1975-1976, 
Chairman I>)cal (lovernment Committee, 1978 Session; Chairman of p]conomy Com- 
mittee. 1975 Session; and Chairman of the Mecklenburg Legislative Delegation, 1975- 
1976 Session. Served NC Senate 1977-1978 Session. Received "Go-Getter" designation 
and star for past 28 years in Ameican I^egion. Member Board of Mecklenburg County 
Commissioners. 1952-1956. 1958-1964, Vice Chairman. 1954-1956. 1962-1964. Chosen 
one of 10 Outstanding Men of the Year by Charlotte Jaycees, 1959. 196(J. Awarded City 
of Charlotte Citizenship Award, 1964, and Certificate of Appreciation by Charlotte- 
Mecklenburg Hoard of Education, 1964. Served on Mecklenburg County Welfare Board, 
1961-1964. Served in United States Army Air P^orce as Aviation Cadet and Gunnery In- 
structor. 1948-1946. Member United Methodist Church; Official Board. 1960-1968. 
Chairman. 1966-1968; Chairman, Membership and Evangelism Committee. 1968-1970; 
Teacher Glenn Lackey Adult Sunday School Class since 1958; taught Men's Bible Class. 
Pleasant Grove United Methodist Church. 1956-1958. Married Jane Gaffney December 
31, 1943. Two daughters, Diane Lawing Hagler and Sally Ann Lawing. Address: RED 
No. 9, Box 195-G, Charlotte 28208. 



Legislative Branch 



291 



FREDERICK DOUGLAS ALEXANDER 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 

(Twenty-second Senatorial District — Counties: Cabarrus and Mecklenburg. 
Four Senators.) 

Frederick Douglas Alexander was bom in Charlotte, 
N. C, Febi-uary 21, 1910. Son of Zechariah Alexander, Sr., 
and Louise B. McCullough. Attended Myers Street Elemen- 
tary School, Charlotte, 1916-1923; Second Ward High School, 
Charlotte, 1923-1927. Graduated Lincoln University, Pen- 
nsylvania, A.B.. 1931. Housing Management. Elected to N.C. 
Senate, 1976: reelected, 1978. Member Rotary Club; Chamber 
of Commerce; Mason; Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of 
Free Masonry; Shriner's Club; Royal Arch Mason; Knight 
Templar; J.B. P.O. Elks of W.; Omega Psi Phi Fraternity. Served City Councilman May 
1965-November 1974; Mayor Pro Tem 1971-73. Member University Park Baptist 
Church: Chairman Board of Trustees: Chairman Finance Committee: Sunday School 
Teacher. Married Frances Mauvene Dugas Alexander, September 18, 1935. One 
daughter: Theodora Eugenia Alexander Witherspoon. Address: 2140 Senior Drive, 
Charlotte. 




DALLAS L. ALFORD, JR. 

(Democrat — Nash County) 

(Seventh Senatorial District — Counties: Franklin, Nash, Warren, and Wilson. 
Two Senators.) 

Dallas L. Alford, Jr. was born in Durham. Son of Dallas 
L. Alford, Sr. and Sally Catherine Pope Alford. Attended 
public schools of Durham; Duke University. Real Estate and 
Insurance Business, Alford-Tanner Realty Company. Past 
President Rocky Mount Realtors Association and Rocky 
Mount Mutual Insurance Agents Association. Director of 
Carbisco Flour and Feed Mills. Member Board of Aldermen, 
city of Rocky Mount, 1939-42; Nash County Board of Com- 
missioners, 1948-.58, Chairman 1952-58. N. C. Traffic Safety 
Authority, 1966; ChaiiTnan Nash County Board of Health 1952-58; ChaiiTnan of 
Commission to study Welfare Problems for State of North Carolina, 1962. Mutual 
Insurance Agent for the Year for North Carolina and South Carolina 1966-67-68. 
Member, Lodge 1038, B.P.O.E.: 40 and 8; Kiwanis Club; Benevenue Country Club, 
Rocky Mount; Delta Sigma Phi (social Fraternity). Lieutenant Commander, U. S. 
Navy 1942-46. Past N. C. Junior Chamber of Commerce and N. C. County Commis- 
sioners Association; Director Peoples Bank and Trust Company, and Citizens Sav- 
ings and Loan Assoc, Rocky Mount; Rocky Mount Chamber of Commerce. Com- 
mander American Legion, 1948. State Senator in the General Assembly of 1959, 
1961, 1965, 1967, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, and 1979. Methodist; member of Official 
Board of P'irst Methodist Church of Rocky Mount. 1938-65. Married Margarette Glenn 
Griffin, November 17, 1945. Four children. Address: 100 Wildwood Avenue, Rocky 
Mount. 





^•^^ North Carolina Manual 

JULIAN RUSSELL ALLSBROOK 

(Democrat — Halifax County) 

(Sixth Senatorial District — Counties: Edgecombe, Halifax, Pitt and Martin.) 

Julian Russell AUsbrook was bom in Roanoke Rapids, 

North Carolina, February 17, 1903. Son of William Clemmons 
and Bennie Alice (Waller) AUsbrook. Graduated from Roa- 
noke Rapids Public Schools in 1920; University of North 
-^ fl^^V Carolina, 1920-1924; University of North Carolina Law 

> jj^^^^^ School, 1922-1924; President, student body, 1923-1924; 

permanent Vice President, class of 1924. Lawyer. Member 
Halifax County Bar Assn.; North Carolina Bar Assn.; North 
Carolina and United States Supreme Court Bars. United 
States Court of Appeals. Member of the American Judicature Society; Registered 
in Who's Who in the South and The National Register of Prominent Americans; 
Presidential Elector from Second Congressional District, 1936; former member 
Board of Trustees, Roanoke Rapids School District; Board of City Commissioner 
of Roanoke Rapids for one term. State Senator in the General Assembly of 1935, 
1947. 1949, 1951, 1965, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76; 1977-78, and 1979; Representa- 
tive from Halifax County in the (reneral Assembly of 1941; Democratic nominee to State 
Senate, 1942, resigned to enter U. S. Naval Resei-ve as Lieutenant, 1942, and served 
until placed on inactive duty, 1945; Now Lieutenant Commander, U. S. Naval 
Reserve, Chairman, Committee on Platform and Resolutions, State Democratic 
Convention, 1956-1958; received the 1965 North Carolina Public Health Association 
Award for Distinguished Service Citation for Genuine Interest in Public Health 
Needs of Our Citizens in All Walks of Life Throughout North Carolina and for Un- 
selfish and Untiring Efforts in Promoting the Programs in Public Health that 
Would Meet These Needs. Appointed as delegate to Southern Regional Educational 
Board, Legislative Work Conference by Governor Moore, held in Asheville, North 
Carolina, July, 1966. Member Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity; Golden Fleece; 
Order of the Grail; Tau Kappa Alpha Debating Fraternity; American Legion, 
AMVETS; Woodmen of the World; Roanoke Rapids Kiwanis Club; Mason, Widow's 
Lodge No. 519. Past Director, Medical Foundation of North Carolina, Inc. Past 
Member North Carolina Committee on Nursing and Patient Care; Trustee North 
Carolina Symphony, Inc.; Secretary, State Municipal Road Commission: Trustee, 
Chowan College, Murfreesboro, North Carolina, 1950-1954. Baptist. Member of The 
Governor's Study Commission on the Public School System of North Carolina, 
1967 — . Chairman, Commission for the Study of the Rules of Civil Procedure, 1967 — . 
Presented Distinguished Service Award by Roanoke Rapids Lions Club, Roanoke 
Rapids, May 14, 1974, "In Sincere Appreciation and Recognition of a Lifetime of 
Loyal and Distinguished Service to the Civic and Political Life of Roanoke Rapids 
and the Area"; Presented the Special Honor Award for Service by the North Caro- 
lina Association of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, officially presented 
at its 27th Annual Convention in Charlotte, November, 1974. Married Frances 
Virginia Brown (now deceased) of Garysburg June 24, 1926. Children: Richard 
Brown, Mary Frances and Alice Harris. Address: 423 Washington St., Roanoke 
Rapids, 27870. 



Legislative Branch 



293 



ANNE ELIZABETH BAGNAL 

(Republican — Forsyth County) 

(Twentieth Senatorial District — County: Forsyth. Two Senators.) 

Anne Elizabeth Bagnal was born in Nashville, Tennessee. 
January 10, 1935. Daughter of Horace Clinton Broyles and 
Mabel Grubbs. Graduated Winthrop College, B.S., 1956. 
Elected to NC Senate, 1978. Member of First Baptist Church. 
Married Harry Stroman Bagnal April 4, 1959. Children: 
Harry, Jr.; David Clinton; Alice Anne; Mary Lofton; and 
Samuel Joseph. Address: 2861 Wesleyan Lane, Winston-Salem, 
27106. 




THOMAS CASS BALLENGER 

(Republican — Catawba County) 

(Twenty-third Senatorial District — Counties: Alexander, Catawba, Iredell, and 
Yadkin. Two Senators.) 

Thomas Cass Ballenger was born in Hickory, N. C, 
December 6, 1926. Son of Richard E. and Dorothy (Collins) 
Ballenger. Graduated Episcopal High School, 1944; UNC- 
Chapel Hill 1944-45; Amherst, 1945-48, B.A. President 
Hickory Paper Box Co.; President, Plastic Packaging. Served 
Catawba County Commissioner 1966-1974; Chairman 1970- 
j -y 1974. Served in N.C. Senate, 1977-78 and 1979. Served U.S.N. 

^gk *<!|Vi||[^^ ^''" Corps, 1944-45. Member Episcopal Church; Senior: Junior 
■Hmi ^ ^^Hl Warden; Lay Reader. Married Donna Davis Ballenger, June 
14, 1952. Three Daughters: Lucinda Garrison, Mellissa Jane, Dorothy Davis. Address: 
867 20th Ave. Dr., N.W., Hickory 28601. 




HENSON PERRYMOORE BARNES 

(Democrat — Wayne County) 

(Eighth Senatorial District — Counties: Greene and Wayne. One Senator.) 

Henson Perrymoore Barnes was bom in Bladen, Novem- 
ber 18, 1934. Son of Rev. Lalon L. and Mable Cumbee Barnes. 
Graduated Garland High School, Sampson County, 1953. 
Graduated Wilmington College, 1958, A.A.; University of 
North Carolina, 1959, A.B.; University of North Carolina 
Law School, 1961, J.D. Attorney. Member Wayne County Bar 
Association; North Carolina Bar Association; American Bar 
Association; American Trial Lawyers Association. Member 
Masons; Shriners; Elks Lodge; American Legion; Moose 
Lodge. Outstanding Young Man Award, Goldsboro, 1963. Served U. S. Army Para- 
I troop, 1953-1956. Served in the House of Representatives representing the 9th 




294 



North Carolina Manual 



Hmise District (iurinK the 1975-1976 Session; Served in Senate 1977-78 and 1979 Sessions; 
A\\ai-(li"(l the Robert H. P'utrelle (lood Government Award for 1975. Member P'irst 
Baptist Church, (loldslioro: Deacon: Sunday School Teacher; Chairman of Budget, 
Finance Board. Married Kitty Allen Barnes, August 27, 1961. Two Daughters: Rebecca 
and Amy. Address; 707 Park Avenue, Goldsboro 27530. 



(Twenty-First 
Two Senators.) 



JACK CELY CHILDERS 

(Democrat — Davidson County) 
Senatorial District — Counties: Davidson, Davie and Rowan. 



Jack Cely Childers was born in Anderson, S.C., Decem- 
ber 30, 1909. Son of James W. and Delia Cely Childers. At- 
tended public schools of Greenville, S.C. Graduated Clemson 
University, B.S. Textile Eng., 1931; Harvard Business School 
1946. Retired Textile Manufacturer; JFormer President of 
Enlarger Mills, Inc., Lexington, N.C. Former president North 
Carolina Textile Manufacturers Association. Served Army as 
Tank Battalion Commander: Active 1941-46; Reserves, 
1931-32. Member Presbyterian Church; Superintendent 
Sunday School; Deacon; Ruling Elder. Married Edith Anderson. Children: Dr. Jack C, 
Jr. and James A. Five Grandchildren. Address: One Childers Court, Lexington 27292. 




WALTER CARL COCKERHAM 

(Republican— Guilford County) 

(Nineteenth Senatorial District— County: Guilford. Three Senators.) 

Walter Carl Cockerham was born in Jonesville, NC, June 
15, 1929. Son of Walter Carl Cockerham and Eva Atta Lerois. 
Graduated Mountain Park High School, 1945; USCCt Training 
Center— (iroton. Conn., 1946. Attended Technical Institutes. 
President— Cockerham Construction Co., Inc., General Con- 
tractor. Owner — Cockerham Realty Company. Member, Asso- 
ciated General Contractors of America: Greensboro F^ngineers 
Club: Central Piedmont Contractors Association; Aircraft 
Owners & Pilots Association. Received 16 years Safety Award 
—State of North Carolina & 16 year Safety Award— Associated General Contractors of 
America. Member Independent Order of the Oddfellows (Past C-lrand). Served US Coast 
Guard — Petty Officer, January 1946— February 1948. Non-Demoninational-Protestant. 
Married, Jeanne Castle, October 20, 1959. Children: John Carl: Joan Carol Hill; Debra 
Jean Ladd; Caron Marie McKee; and Gregory Eugene. Address: l'M)() Benjamin Park- 
wav, Greensboro 27408. 





Legislative Branch 295 

WILLIAM AYDEN CREECH 

(Democrat — -Wake County) 

(Fourteenth Senatorial District — County: Watce. Three Senators.) 

William Ayden Creech, was bom in Smithfield, N. C. 
August 5, 1925. Attended Public Schools of North Carolina; 
University of North Carolina, A.B., 1948; University of Oslo, 
Blindern, Norway, 1947; George Washington University, 
1949, 1952, 1953; Inter- Agency Foreign Trade Course, De- 
partment of State, Agriculture, Commerce and Labor, 1952; 
Near East Area Specialization Course, Foreign Service In- 
stitute, Department of State, 1952-1953; Certificate in Eng- 
lish and Comparative Law, City of London School, 1954; 
Georgetown University Law School, J.D., 1958. Economic Assistant, American 
Embassy, Baghdad, Iraq, 1949-1951; International Economist, Near East and 
African Division, Bureau of Foreign Commerce. Department of Commerce, 1952- 
1954; Economic Officer, American Embassy, London, England, 1954-55; Profes- 
sional Staff Member, U. S. Senate Committee on Small Business, Washington, D. C, 
1955-58; Counsel, U. S. Senate Committee on Small Business, Washington, D. C, 
1958-59; Attorney At Law, Smithfield, N. C, 1959-1961; Chief Counsel and Staff 
Director, Sub-Committee on Constitutional Rights of the U. S. Senate Judiciary 
Committee, Washington, D. C, 1961-1966; Attorney at Law, Raleigh, N. C, 1965. 
Chairman of Board, Edenton Street United Methodist Child Development Center, 
1973; Member, Advisory Committee North Carolina Business and Economic Im- 
provement Corporation, 1973; Member, North Carolina Advisory Council on Small 
Business, 1968; Chairman, N. C. Advisory Council on Small Business, 1969; Vice- 
President Wake County Mental Health Association 1968-1969; President Cameron 
Park Association, 1973; President^Elect, Raleigh Little Theatre, 1973; Member, 
Board of Directors and Executive Committee North Carolina Mental Health Associ- 
ation, 1971; Member and Vice Chairman, North Carolina American Revolution 
Bicentennial Commission; 1967- ; Member, Board of Associates Meredith Col- 
lege, Raleigh, N. C, 1966; Member. Law Committee North Carolina Council on 
Mental Retardation; Member, Task Force on Social Services and Child Mental 
Health State Study Commission on Emotionally Disturbed Children, 1970; Chair- 
man North Carolina Bar Association Committee on Mental Health, 1971; President 
Wake County Historical Society, Inc., 1971-1972; Member, Board of Trustees North 
Carolina Symphony Society, Inc., 1967; Member, Advisory Committee North Caro- 
lina Symphony Society, Inc., 1964-1967, 1973, 1974; President Raleigh-Wake County 
Chapter North Carolina Symphony Society, Inc., 1967, 1968; Member of Campbell 
College Million Dollar Cabinet (Sixteen Member Fund-Raising Committee for 
Baptist Church related College at Buies Creek, N. C, 1965-1966); Member of 
Bennett Place Centennial Committee, 1965; Member, Board of Directors of National 
Capital Area Chapter of the National Foundation, 1962-1964; Member, Tuscarora 
Council Boy Scouts of America, 1961; North Carolina State Chairman March of 
Dimes, 1960, 1961; Member, Johnston County (N. C.) Board of Public Welfare, 
1960-61. Recipient of Junior Chamber of Commerce Distingiiished Service Award, 
1961; Certificate of Appreciation, The National Foundation, 1961; Award for Out- 
standing Service Johnston (N. C.) County Historical Society, 1965; Award for out- 
standing effort for achievement in accreditation Campbell College, 1966. Member, 
American Legion; Mason. Author "Congress Looks to the Serviceman's Rights"; 
American Bar Association Journal, Vol. 49, Number 11, November, 1963; "Psy- 



296 North Carolina Manual 



cholopical Testing and Constitutional Rights", 1966 Duke Law Journal, p. 332; 
"The Privacy of Government Employees", 1966 Law and Contemporary Problems, 
p. 413; Numerous articles Foreign Commerce Weekly and Publications of Bureau 
of Foreign Commerce, U. S. Dept. of Commerce, 1952-1953; Newspaper articles, 
1947. Attended 1964 National Democratic Convention, aide to Senator Sam J. 
Ervin, Sr. ; 1968 National Convention as alternate delegate; Chairman of Committee 
on Permanent Organization, N. C. Democratic State Convention, 1960. Veteran 
WWII. Member, United Methodist Church; Chairman of Ministry of Social Con- 
cerns; Sunday School Teacher; MaiTied Sally (Wood) Creech. Three Sons: 
Lawrence, Ezekiel, Charles. Address: 1208 College Place, Raleigh; 1208 Branch 
Bank Building, Raleigh 27605. 



MELVIN ROY DANIELS, JR. 

(Democrat — Pasquotank County) 

(First Senatorial District — Counties: Beaufort, Bertie, Camden, Chowan, Cur- 
rituck, Dare, Gates, Hertford, Hyde, Northampton, Pasquotank, Perquimans, Tyrrell, 
Washington. Two Senators.) 

Melvin Roy Daniels, Jr. was born in Wanchese, October 
7, 1925. Son of Melvin Roy Daniels and Carrie Daniels. Grad- 
uated Manteo High School. Attended Campbell College; 
North Carolina State College; Virginia Polytechnical Insti- 
tute. Served in Senate. 1977-78 and 1979 Sessions. Banker; 
Senior Vice-President People's Bank and Trust. Elizabeth City. 
Member N. C. Marine Science Council; Vice Chairman Eliza- 
beth City Airport Commission. Member Lions; Elks: Masonic 
Order, Scottish Rite. Served U. S. Army Air P'orce 4943-1944. 
Member, Methodist Church. Married Gladys To.xey Daniels, August 18. 1950. Three 
children: Melvin Roy Daniels. III. Linda Diane Daniels and Donna Delane Daniels. 
Address. I(;i8 Rochelle Drive, Elizabeth Citv 27909. 



ROBERT MONROE DAVIS, JR. 

(Democrat— Rowan County) 

(Twenty-first Senatorial District — Counties: Davidson, Davie and Rowan. Two 
Senators.) 

Robert Monroe Davis, Jr. was born in Salisbury, NC, 
October 21. 1953. Son of Robert Monroe Davis and Mary Anne 
Austin. Attended Overton Carroll Elementary, Kno.x Junior 
High and Salisbury High School. Attended NCSU, 1972-76. 
Paralegal — Robert M. Davis Law Firm. Member, P^irst Baptist 
Church— Salisbury. Married. Claire Elmore, August 6, 1977. 
Address: 428 West Henderson St., Salisburv 28144. 





Legislative Branch 



297 



CONRAD R. DUNCAN 



(Democrat — Rockingham County) 

(Fifteen Senatorial District— Counties: Alleghany, Ashe, Caswell, Rockingham, 
Stokes and Surry. Two Senators.) 

Conrad R. Duncan was born October 9, 1928, in Cairoll 
County, Virginia. Son of Conrad R. Duncan, Sr. and Beitha 
Birchfield. High School Education. General Contractor. Mem- 
ber AGC of America. Member Mason and Shrine. Air Force — 
Corporal, 1948-194 9. Member Centenaiy United Methodist, 
^'^N I Official Board — Finance & Misc. offices. Married Becky Tuttle 

Duncan June 9, 1951. Children: Patty Duncan Clark, Kathy 
Sue Duncan, Howard Keith Duncan, and Amy Christen 
Duncan. Address: Route 1, Box 282, Stoneville 27048. 




JAMES HARRELL EDWARDS 



I 



<%ii 



(Democrat — Caldwell County) 

(Twenty-fourth Senatorial District — Counties: Avery, Burke, Caldwell, Mitchell, 
Watauga and Wilkes. Two Senators.) 

James Harrell Edwards was bom in Ayden, N. C, No- 
vember 25, 1926. Son of James J. and Ella Stokes Exiwards. 
Attended Atlantic Christian College; East Carolina Univer- 
sity; University of Miami. Insurance Adjuster; Private 
Detective. Owner and manager of Southeastern Adjustment 
Company, Hickory and President of Southeastern Adjustment 
Company, Inc. Member N. C. Association of Licensed Detec- 
tives; National Association of Independent Insurance Ad- 
justers; N. C. Adjusters Association; Loyal Order of Blue 
Goose International; National Association of Fire Investigators; NWNC Claims 
Association. Member, Shriner; White Shrine of Jerusalem; Veterans of Foreign 
Wars; American Legion, Loyal Order of Moose; Order of Elks; Hickory Lodge No. 
343 AF and AM; Hickory Commandry; Hickory Council; Catawba Chapter; Scottish 
Rite of Free Masonry. Adjuster of the Year, 1970. Member, Governor Scott's Insur- 
ance Study Commission. Served U. S. Naval Reserve, Ensign, November 1944- 
December 1947. Member, Bethlehem Lutheran Church; Deacon (1948-1949). Chicod 
Presbyterian Church, Greenville, N. C. Four children: James Loren; Charles Thomas; 
Ella Ann Edwards Comptio: and Johnny Harrell. Address: Route No. 8, Box 118, Granite 
Falls 28680. 



^^lb 



298 



North Carolina Manual 



JAMES HANKS (iARRISON 




(Democrat — Stanly County) 

(Seventeenth Senatorial District — Counties: Anson, Montgomery, Richmond, 
Scotland and Union. Two Senators.) 

James Banks Garrison, representing the Seventeenth 
Senatorial District, was bom in Badin May 25, 1925. Son of 
B. T. Garrison and Myrtle Kirk Garrison. Graduated Badin 
High School, Stanton Military Academy, and the University 
of North Carolina, 1950, H. A. in F]con()mics. (iasoline Dis- 
*[|l^v Iributor, President of South Central Oil Company, Inc. Shop- 

^^■^^Mfr l|[^^ ping Center Developer, President of J. B. (iarrison. Inc. Past 

^^^ /*.^ ^^B| President, N. C. Oil Jobbers Association. Served four-year 

term as Albemarle City Councilman and four years as Mayor 
of Albemarle. Past President. Albemarle-Stanly County Chamber of Commerce. Past 
president, Stanly County Welfare Board: past President, Albemarle Junior Chamber of 
Commerce. Vice-Chairman, Stanly County Industrial Commission. Young Man of the 
Year. 1956; Community Service Award, 1971, Senior Man of the year, 1975. Felix S. 
Barker Award, 1977. United States marine Corps, Corporal, 1943-46. Member First 
Presbyterian Church, Albemarle; Married Betty Jane Hearne, 1948. Two children: 
James Banks (Iarrison, Jr. and Jane Garrison Lisk. Address: 819 North Si.xth Street, 
Albemarle. 



RACHEL GILLEAN GRAY 
(Mrs. William Bruce Gray) 

(Democrat — Guilford County) 

(Nineteenth Senatorial District — County: Guilford. Three Senators.) 

Rachel Gillean Gray was born in Rowan County, Sep- 
tember 26, 1930. Daughter of Jesse Frank Gillean and Janet 
(Miller) Gillean. Attended Frank B. John Elementaiy School; 
High Point Jr. and Sr. High Schools; Graduated from Boyden 
High School, 1948 and was Valedictorian of her Class. At- 
tended Catawba College 1948-1950: High Point College 
Evening School in the early 1960s. Served in NC Senate 
1977-78 Session. Co-managers "Pymwymi Gift Shop." Member 
of the Junior League, Past President of the High Point Garden 
Council and Past president of the Mental health Association. Member — P'irst 
United Methodist Church. Vice-President of Women's Society of Christian service in 
the early 60's. Serving on the P^inance Committee. Served two terms as Mayor F'rotem of 
the City of High Point, 1978 and 1975. Married William Bruce (Jray, June 26, 1950. 
Three children: William Bruce, Jr.. James F'rank, and Thomas Edward. Address: 612 
Gatewood Ave., High Point 27260. 




Legislative Branch 



299 



HAROLD WOODROW HARDISON 



(Democrat — Lenoir County) 

(Fifth Senatorial District — Counties: Duplin, Jones and Lenoir. One Sena- 
tor.) 

Harold Woodrow Hardison was born in Deep Run, 
Lenoir County, September 8, 1923. Son of Rutha and Annie 
(Stroud) Hardison. Attended Deep Run High School; Atlantic 
Christian College. Member, House of Representatives, 1971; 
President, Humphrey-Hardison Oil Company of Deep Run 
and Mount Olive. President Eastern United Tires, Inc. of Kin- 
ston. N.C. Charter member. Deep Run Ruritan Club: board 
member. Selective Service Board No. 5.3, Lenoir County; 
Chairman, Deep Run School Board and South Lenoir School 
Board; member Neuse River Economic Development Commission; Kinston Lenoir County 
Industrial and .Xirricultural Development (Commission. Helped organize Deep Run 
Water Corp., first president, now member. Board of Directors; Board of Directors of 
Parrott Memorial Hospital, Kinston; Past Master. Pleasant Hill Masonic Lodge No. 
.■i()4; Shriner. member Sudan Temple, former Lt. Commander of the Legion of Honor. 
U.S. Air Force, 1942-1947. Past Chairman, Lenoir County United Fund. Member, Board 
of Directors .Mount Olive College, and E.xecutive Board; Board of Directors of NCNB, 
Kinston. Board of Directors of P'irst P'inancial Savings & lx)an. Inc. Kinston. N.C'. 
Paptist. member. Deep Run P>ee Will Baptist Church; Sunday School Teacher; Chair- 
man. Finance Committee. 196.'^ — . Married Arlene Humphrey, -lune 14, 1944. One 
(laughter. Pamela .lane. Address: Bo.\ 128, Deep Run 28.32.3. 




JOSEPH JULIAN HARRINGTON 




(Democrat — Bertie County) 

(First Senatorial District — Counties: Beaufort, Bertie, Camden, Chowan, 
Currituck, Dare, Gates, Hertford, Hyde, Northampton, Pasquotank, Perquimans, 
Tyrrell and Washington. Two Senators.) 

Joseph Julian Harrington was born in Lewiston, Febru- 
ary 18, 1919. Son of Julian Picott and Ethel Mae (Barnes) 
HaiTington. President, Harrington Mfg. Co., Lewiston. Mem- 
ber, Farm Bureau Federation; Southern Farm Equipment 
^^ Association; Davie Lodge No. 39, Lewiston; 32nd Degree 
^A '^^J^M Scottish Rite; Shriner, Sudan Temple, New Bern; Trastee of 

I^^^IL ^ JW Chowan College, Murft-eesboro. Member, Lewiston-Woodville 
l^^^l^flHH Local School Board, 1955-1959; Town Commissioner, Lewis- 
ton, 1948. Trustee, Chowan College, Murfreesboro and 
Roanoke-Chowan Technical Institute, Ahoskie. State Senator in the General As- 
semblies of 1963, 1965, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76 and 1977. Technical 
Sergeant, World War II, 1942-1945. Baptist; Sunday School Superintendent and 
Deacon, Lewiston Baptist Church. Married Lettie Leigh Early, August 7, 1947. 
Children: Robert E. H. Harrington, Julian Picott Harrington, II, Victoria Leigh 
Harrington. Address: Lewiston 27849. 



300 North Carolina Manual 

JOHN OLLIE HARRIS 

(Democrat. — Cleveland County) 

(Twenty-fifth Senatorial District — Counties: Cleveland, Gaston, Lincoln, 
Rutherford. Three Senators.) 

John Ollie Harris was born in Anderson, S. C, Septem- 
ber 2, 19L3. Son of J. Frank and Jessie Hambright Harris. 
Graduatet] Shelby High School 1931; Gupton-Jones College of 
Embalming, 1935. Funeral Director and Embalmer. Presi- 
dent and Treasurer, Harris Funeral Home, Inc. Member, 
N. C. Funeral Directors Association; National Funeral 
Director Association; National Selected Morticians. Past 
President, N. C. Corner's Association; N. C. Funeral Direct- 
ing and Embalming Board. Mason; Shriner. Served Army, 
85th Field Hospital, European Theatre 1943-1946; Holder, Bronze Star. Served in 
N. C. Senate, 1971, 1975 and 1977. Cleveland County Comer 1946-1970. Baptist 
Church. Married Abbie Jane Wall, May 4, 1934. Two children: Ollie Harris, Jr., 
Mrs. Becky Harris Hambright. Four Grandchildren. Address: Box 627, 921 Sharon 
Dr., Kings Mountain 28086. 



JOHN TANNERY HENLEY 

(Democrat— Cumberland County) 
(Tenth Senatorial District— County: Cumberland. Two Senators.) 







J 



John Tannery Henley was born in Wadesboro, August 

10, 1921. Son of Frank D. and Melissa (Hamilton) Henley. 

Attended Gary High School, 1935-19.39: University of North 
"f'^^.-j*^^ Jl Carolina, B.S. in Pharmacy. 1943. Pharmacist, owner of 

Clinic Pharmacy in Hope Mills and Professional Drug in 
,.--.-, ., Fayetteville. Member of North Carolina Pharmaceutical 

1^^ ^ ^ Association: National As.sociation of Retail Drugists: Named 

^^ ^f*^^. N. C. Pharmacist of the Year in 1972: Mayor, Town of Hope 

Mills, 1946-1952: member of Town Commissioners, 1952-1956. 
Memlier of Fayetteville Industrial Development Corp.; Member of Fayetteville 
Chamber of Commerce: Developer — Hope Mills Shopping Plaza: Member Kappa Psi 
Pharmacy Fraternity and Masonic Order. Staff Sergeant in U. S. Army from November, 
1943 to December. 1945; served in Europe with Ninth Division. Served as State Pur- 
chasing Officer, 1963-1965: Representative in the (jeneral Assembly of 1957, 1959, 1961, 
1963: and Senator, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973-74. 197.5-76 and 1977-78. First Senator to 
serve two terms as President Pro Ternpore of the N. C. Senate (1975-79). Member of the 
.'Xdvisory Budget Commission 1971-73. Served as Chairman of the Governor's Com- 
mittee on State Government Reorganization. Served as Chairman of the 1976-77 
Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies. Served on the N. C. Drug Commission: the 
N. C. Housing Finance Agency, Commission on Governmental Operations and the 
Medical Cost Containment Commission. Methodist: Steward for fifteen years and 
Su{)erintendent of Sunday School for six years. Married Rebecca Ann Bedding- 
field, July 28, 194.3. Children: Three sons. Dr. John T. Henley, Jr.: Mr. Robert R. Henley. 
Pharmacist; and Dr. Douglas E. Henley. Address: 216 Lakeshore Drive, 
Hope Mills, 28348. 



Legislative Branch 



301 



CECIL JAMES HILL 



(Democrat — Transylvania County) 

(Twenty-seventh Senatorial District — Counties: Cherokee, Clay, Graham, 
Haywood, Henderson, Jackson, Macon, Polk, Swain, Transylvania. Two Senators.) 

Cecil James Hill was born in Asheville, November 20, 
1919. Son of Burton Harrison and Vallie Staton Hill. Grad- 
uated Valley Springs High School, 1939; Mars Hill College, 
1941, Associate in Arts; University of North Carolina, 1943, 
B.S.; University of North Carolina, 1945, Doctor of Laws. 
Lawyer. Member, Transylvania County Bar Association; 
North Carolina Bar Association; North Carolina State Bar. 
Director, First Union National Bank; Past President, 1956, 
Transylvania County Bar Association. Member Order of the 
Coif; Scottish Rite Mason, Delta Sigma Pi. Former Elk. 
Member, Brevard Lions Club, 1945 — . Editor in Chief, North Carolina Law Review, 
1944-45. Contributor, Union of South Africa Law Review; The Progressive Farmer. 
Precinct Chairman, Member of Executive Committee, Secretary of Executive Com- 
mittee—Transylvania County Democrat Party. N. C. State Senate, 1975-76, 1977-78 
and 1979. Town Attorney, Brevard, 1959-1965 and Rosman, 1965—. Married Eliza- 
beth T. Richardson of Raleigh. Children: Elizabeth and James. Address: P. 0. Box 
242, Woodside Drive, Brevard 28712. 




CECIL ROSS JENKINS, JR. 

(Democrat— Cabarrus County.) 

(Twenty-second Senatorial District — Counties: Cabarrus and Mecklenburg. Four 
Senators). 

Cecil Ross Jenkins, Jr. was born in Lincolnton, NC, July 
22, 1941. Son of Cecil R. Jenkins. Sr. and Martha Mae 
McGinnis. Graduated Cherryviile High School, 1959; 
East Tennessee State University, 1965, B.S.; University 
of Tennessee Law School, 1970— J. D. Lawyer. Member NC 
Academy of Trial Lawyers; NC Bar Association: Cabarrus 
Bar Association; American Bar Asociation. Member 
Sigma Alpha Epsilon & Phi Alpha Delta. Member All 
Saints Episcopal Church— Board of Trustees, Married 
Phyllis S., April 20, 1963. Children: Melissa Rhyne; Phillip 
Ross; and Celeste Wood. Address: 670 Knollcrust Dr., Concord, NC 28025. 




802 



North Carolina Manual 



ROBERT BYRI) JORDAN III 



(DeHiOcrat — Montjjomeiy County) 

(Seventeenth Senatorial Distinct — Counties: Anson, Montgomery, Richmond, 
Scotland, Stanly and Union. Two Senators.) 

Robert Byrd Jordan, III was born in Mt. Gilead October 
11. 1932. Son of the late Robert B. Jordan Jr., and Irene 
(Pritchett) Jordan. Attended Mt. (Jilead Elementary.  Grad- 
uated Mt. Gilead High School, 1950; N. C. State , University, 
1954, B.S., F^orestry. Lumber E.xecutive. -Director — National 
Association Independent Lumbermen, Washington, D.C. Past 
President of Southeastern Lumber Manufacturers Associa- 
tion, Atlanta Georgia. Director, N. C. Forestry Foundation. 
Outstanding Young Alumnus, N. C. State University, 1966. 
Jaycees Distinguished Sei-vice Award, 1967. Member of 
U.S. Army, 1st Lieutenant January 1955-December, 1956. 
Member United Methodist Church. Chair-man Stewardship Committee, Chairman 
Administrative Board, 1970-72; Bishop's Committee on higher education, 1974. 
Married Sarah Cole June 21, 1958. Children: Betsy Lynn; Robert B>Td, IV; Janie 
Cole. Address: P.O. Box 98, East AUenton St., Mt. Gilead 27.306. 




Montgomei-y 
Masons and 



County 
Lions. 



DONALD RAYVAUGHN KINCAID 



(Republican — Caldwell County) 

(Twenty-fourth Senatorial District — Counties: Aveiy, Burke, Caldwell, 
Mitchell, Watauga and Wilkes. Two Senators.) 

Donald Rayvaughn Kincaid was bom in Caldwell 
County, June 2, 1936. Son of Hugh T. and Myrtle (McCall) 
Kincaid. Attended Gamewell Elementai-y School. Graduated 
Gamewell High School, 1954; Appalachian State Teachers 
College, 1955-1959, B.S.; Clevenger's Business College, 1955. 
School Teacher and owner of Kincaid Insurance Agency, 
Lenoir. Member, Lenior Lions Club, Lion Tamer, immediate 
past Secretary; past member, N.C.A.E.; Gamewell Ruritan 
Club. Served in North Carolina National Guard for nine 
year, 5-E; N. C. Cattlemen's Association; Representative in the General Assembly 
of 1967. 1969 and 1971. Served in the N. C. Senate 1973, 1975 and 1977-78; Senate 
Minority Leader for three terms; member, Caldwell County Chamber of Commerce: 
Car-olina A.s.sociation of Professional Ins. Agents; member, N. C. Board of Agricul- 
ture; Advisory Committee, Southeastern Parks, LI. S. Department of Interior. Mem- 
ber Carolina Association of Mutual Insurance Agents. Member (ir-andview Park Baptist 
Church: Married Syr-etha Weatherford, June 30, 1956. F^our childr-en. Addr-ess: 113 
Spencer Heights, I^noir 28645. 




Legislative Branch 



303 



(Fourteenth 
Senators.) 



I. BEVERLY LAKE, JR. 

(Democrat — Wake County) 
Senatorial District — Counties: Harnett, Lee and Wake. Three 



I. 



Beverly Lake, Jr. was born in Raleigh January 30, 
1934. Son of I. Beverly Lake and Geitmde Bell. Attended 
Wake Forest Grammar and High School, 1940-1951. Attended 
Mars Hi!I College, 1950. Graduated Wake Forest University, 
1955 B.S. Degree. Graduated Wake Forest University Law 
School. 1960. J.D. Degree. Seated N.C. Senate 1977-78 
Session. Attorney At Law. Assistant Attorney General. 
1969-1974; Deputy Attorney General, 1974-1976. Member 
North Carolina State Bar: NC Bar Association: Wake County 
Bar Association. Received NC Consumers Council Commendation, 1976. Vice-chair- 
man, E.xecutive Committee, Wake County Bar. 1967. Member Lambda Chi Alpha 
and Phi Alpha Delta. Military Intelligence, Captain, 1955-1968. Member Ridge 
Road Baptist Church: Finance and Budget Committee, 1972: Board of Trustees, 1970- 
73: Chairman. Board of Trustees, 1973. Married Susan Joanne Deichmann Lake, 
February 2, 1975. Children: Lynn Elizabeth: Guy Vernon; Laura Ann; I. Beverly, IV 
(Lee). Address: 3703 Shadybrook Dr., Raleigh 27609. 




WILLIAM CRAIG LAWING 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 

(Twenty-second Senatorial District — Counties: CabariTis and Mecklenburg. 
Four Senators.) 

William Craig Lawing was born in Mecklenburg County, 
July 6, 1925. Son of Samuel Oliver and Essie 0. (Dunn) 
Lawing. Attended Mecklenburg County Public Schools, 1931- 
1942. University of Chattanooga as Aviation Cadet, United 
States Ai-my Air Force, 1943-1944; Repperts School of 
Auctioneering, 1958. President of Lawing, Inc., dealing in 
real estate, insurance and auction business. Member Charlotte 
Board of Realtors; North Cai-olina Association of Realtors; 
National Association of Real Estate Boards; Auctioneei-s 
Association of North Carolina, President, 1962-1965; National Auctioneers Associa- 
tion, on Board of Directors, three-year teiTn, 1969-1972. Member Paw Creek 
American Legion Post No. 353, Commander, 1948-1951; Voiture 1400 Forty and 
Eight, Voiture Correspondent, 1952-1953; Grand Chiminot Forty and Eight, 1954- 
1955. Member Excelsior Lodge No. 261, A.F. & A.M.; Carolina Consistory Scottish 
Rite; Oasis Temple of the Shrine. Chairman, Legislative Committee of Paw Creek 
American Legion Post, 1961-1971 Commander, Mecklenburg County Council of 
American Legion Post, 1968-1969. Member of North Carolina House of Repre- 
sentatives, 1971. 1973-74, 1975-1976, Chairman Local (Government Committee, 1973 
Session: Chairman of Economy Committee, 1975 Session; and Chairman of the 
Mecklenburg Legislative Delegation, 1975-76 Session. Served NC Senate 1977-78 




804 North Carolina Manual 



Session. Received "Go-Getter" desij^nation and star for past 28 years in American 
lA'jrion. Member Board of MecklenhurK County (\)mmissioners, 1952-195(5, 1958-19G4, 
\'ice Chairman. 1951- 195(;. 1!H;2-I!m4. Chosen one of 10 Outstanding Men of the Year 
h\ Charlolte Jaycees, 1959, 19ti(). Awarded City of Charlotte Citizenship Award, 1964, 
and Certificate of Appreciation by Charlotte-MeckienburR Board of Education, 1964. 
Served on Mecklenburj? County Welfare Board, 19()1-1964. Served in United States 
Army Air Force as Aviation ('adet and Gunnery Instructor, 1943-1946. Member United 
Methodist Church: Official Board. 1960-1968. Chairman, 1966-1968; Chairman, Mem- 
bership and Evanjjelism Committee, 1968-1970; Teacher Glenn Lackey Adult Sunday 
School Class since 1958; taught Men's Bible Class, Pleasant Grove United Methodist 
Church, 1956-1958. Married Jane (iaffney December 31, 1943. Two daughters, Diane 
Lawing Hagler and Sally Ann lowing. Address: RFD No. 9, Box 195-G, Charlotte 
28208. 



LARRY BRUCE LEAKE 

(Democrat — Buncombe County) 

(Twenty-sixth Senatorial District— Counties: Buncombe, Madison, McDowell, and 
Yancey. Two Senators.) 

Larry Bruce Leake was born in Asheville, NC, May 19, 
1950. Son of Arthur p]ldridge and Ann McDevitt Leake. Grad- 
uated Marshall High School, 1968: UNC-CH, 1972, B.A.; UNC 
School of Law, 1974, J. D. Attorney. County Attorney, Madison 
County, 1976 — . Appointed January 29, 1979 to complete term 
of L C. Crawford in N. C. Senate. Chairman, YDC-llth Con- 
gressional District, 1973-76; 

gressional District, 1973-76; National Committeeman, YDNC, 
1976-78; President, 1978-79. Member, Buncombe County Bar; secretary, 1975-76; NC 
Bar Association; NC State Bar Inc; American Bar. Member Phi Beta Kappa. Presby- 
terian. Address: 55 Westall Ave., Asheville 28804. 

GEORGE W . MARION, JR. 

(Democrat — Surry County) 

(Fifteenth Senatorial District — Counties: Alleghany, Ashe, Caswell, Rocking- 
ham, Stokes, and Surry.) 

George W. Marion, Jr. was born in SuiTy County, April 

14, 1935. Son of George W., Sr. and Stanley Marion. Attended 

Dobson High School, graduated, 1953; Appalachian Univer- 

'a *^ ^1^ sity, four years. Housewares distributors and real estate. 

'* / Member Lions Club, President Dobson Lions Club, 1969; 

A -— , P.T.A., Northwest Dev. Assoc. Director; President, Dobson 

^A '" -vH^^fc P.T.A., 1966-1967, 1968-1969. President, Suny County Y.D.C., 

^^^ ^ ^|k ^'^^^■' Pi'esident, 5th District, Y.D.C., 1969. U. S. Army. 

1954-1956, Spec. 3. Representative in N. C. General Assembly, 
1971; Senator, 1975-76 and 1977-78. Member, Dobson Baptist Church. Married Patty 
Hodges, 1959. Three daughters. Address: Poorest Oaks Drive, Dobson. 





Legislative Branch 305 

HELEN RHYNE MARVIN 
(Mrs. Ned L Marvin) 

(Democrat — Gaston County) 

(Twenty-fifth Senatorial District — Counties: Cleveland, Gaston, Lincoln, and 
Rutherford. Three Senators.) 

Helen Rhyne Marvin was born in Gastonia November 30, 
1917 to Dane S. Rhyne and Tessie (Hastings) Rhyne. Gradu- 
ated Gastonia High School, 1934. Graduated Furman Uni- 
versity, 1938, B.A. in History and Political Science; Louisi- 
ana State Univei-sity, 1939, M.A. in Goverament; Winthrop 
College, 1954, graduate work in education; UNC-Chapel Hill, 
1963 and 1968; Univesity of Colorado 1968, graduate > work in 
Political Science and Economics; UNC-Charlotte, 1971. Uni- 
versity of Vermont, 1971; University of Oslo (Norway), 1974 
—graduate work in political science and history. Community College Teacher. Cur- 
rently head, Department of Social Sciences, Gaston College. Member, American, 
Southern and North Carolina Political Science Associations; Eastern Community Col- 
lege Social Science Association: NC Community College Social Science Association; 
Rho Chapter of Delta Kappa Gamma (Association of Women Educators). Past President, 
N.C.P.S.A. Past Chairman, Advisory Committee, NCCCSSA; Past President, Gaston 
College Unit, NCAE; Past President, Community College Division, NC Association of 
Educators; Past President, Gaston College Faculty Senate. Member Altrusa Club of 
Gastonia; Gaston County Democratic Women, Co-Chairman, Gaston County United Way 
Campaign, 1976; Member of Board, Gaston County United Way: Member of Board, 
Gaston County Mental Health Association. Past Secretary, Southern Piedmont 
Health Services Agency: Member, Project Review Committee, SPHSA; Member. 
Gaston County Bicentennial Committee. Appointed by Governor Terry Sanford: NC 
State Textbook Commission, 1961-65. Appointed by Governor Bob Scott: Governor's 
Council on Comprehensive Health Planning, 1969-72. Has served as member of County 
and State Democratic Executive Committees. Chairwomen, N. C. Council on Status 
of Women: Member: (^lovernor's Advocacy Council on Children and Youth: N.C. 
Apprenticeship Council; and N.C. State Health Coordinating Council and Chair of 
SHCC's Plan Implementation Committee. Served two terms as President, (jaston 
County Democratic Women. 10th District Delegate to National Presidential Nominat- 
ing Convention. 1972. Selected by (jastonia Civitan Club for "Woman of the Year" 
Award 1978. Member (laston County Democrat Century Club. Member— First Pres- 
byterian, Gastonia. Has held, Sunday School teacher, chairman of primary department. 
Circle Bible Moderator. Currently serving as Deacon. Married Ned I. Marvin. Novem- 
ber 21, 1941. Children: Kathryn Andrea (Marvin) Nisbet; Richard Morris Marvin: David 
Rhyne Marvin. (Grandchildren: Alicia Nisbet and Amy Nisbet. Address: 119 Ridge 
Lane, (Jastonia, N. C. 28052. 



CAROLYN MATHIS 
(Mrs. Ray Mathis) 

(Democrat— Mecklenburg County) 

(Twenty- second Senatorial District — Counties: Cabarnis and Mecklenburg. 
Four Senators. 



306 



North Carolina Manual 



Carolyn Mathis was born in Sampson County in 1942 
to Mr. and Mrs. Horace Williamson. Graduated Clinton High 
School, 1959; UNC-G, 1963, B.S. in Home Economics; UNC- 
CH, 1970, M.Ed, in Special Education. Educational Dis- 
abilities teacher in the Charlotte- Mecklenburg School System. 
Appointed by Governor to Council on Educational Services 
for Exceptional Children, 1974. Appointed by Governor to 
the Juvenile Code Commission, 1976. Member Children 100, 
Council for Exceptional Children, Mecklenburg Association 
for Retarded Citizens, Charlotte Classroom Teachers Association. Member of Sexual 
Assault Study Committee of Legislative Research Commission. Former National Com- 
mitteewoman for NC Federation of Young Republicans. Married to Ray Mathis. One 
daughter: Bentley. Member Myers Park United Methodist Church. Address: 5714 
Rimerton Dr. Charlotte 28211. 




WILLIAM DONALD MILLS 

(Democrat— Onslow County) 

(Third Senatorial District — (.'ounty: Onslow. One Senator.) 

William Donald Mills was liorn in Maysville, NC, October 
H. UV.VZ. Son of I.eo Bell Mills and Mildred -Jones. Served House 
of Re[)resentatives, 19H,5-(i8. Graduated White Oak High 
School, 1950: E.C.U.. 1953. Real-Estate— (General Insurance 
Agency. Member Carolina Association of Professional Insurance 
Agents. Member— Ix)cal Order of Moose No. 1425— Swans- 
boro, NC: Seaside Ixxlge No. 429. Mason: New Bern Scottish 
Rite Bodies: Sudan Temple. U.S. Army — Cpl.. December, 1950 
— December, 1953. Member Belgrade United Methodist 
Superintendent, 1954-58. Married Donniere, January 25. 1952. Children: 
Donald, .Jr.: Robert Duane: and Kathv Darlene, .-Xddri'ss: Rt. 1: Mavsville 




m. 




i 'hurch- 

William 

28555. 



SAMUEL RUDOLPH NOBLE 

(Democrat — Robeson County) 
(Twelfth Senatorial District— Counties: Hoke and Robeson. One Senator.) 



Samuel Rudolph Noble was born in Butters, NC, May 5, 
1928. Son of John Clayton Noble and Grace Martin. Robeson 
County Commissioner— 1968-78. Graduated Lumberton High 
School, 1945— Attended University of South Carolina 1945-46 
—Catawba College 1947-49. Insurance and Realty. Member 
National Association of Life Underwriters; National Asso- 
citation of Real Estate Brokers: National Association of Auc- 
tioneers. Member Loyal Order of Moose & Benevolent Protec- 
tive Order of Elks. Served U.S. Navy SeaBee's — 2nd Class 




V 



i*H^ it 




Legislative Branch 307 



Petty Officer 1950-52. Member First Baptist Church. Married Jean B. Noble. Children: 
Lyda Susan; Sam R., Jr.; and Leslie Martin. Address: 2406 Roberts Avenue, 
Lumberton 28358. 



JOE H. PALMER 

(Democrat — Haywood County) 

(Twenty-seventh Senatorial District — Counties: Cherokee, Clay, Graham, 
Haywood, Henderson, Jackson, Macon, Polk, Swain, and Transylvania. Two Sen- 
ators.) 

Joe H. Palmer was born in Haywood, N. C, September 
17, 1919. Son of Glenn C. Palmer and Fannie (Ferguson) Pal- 
mer. Attended Clyde High School 1933-37; N. C. State Uni- 
versity, B.S., 1942. Farmer. Member Fann Bureau; Ameri- 
can Foresti-y Association; American Legion; Cattleman's 
Association. Former President, Haywood Fruit and Vege- 
table Association; Former President, N. C. Tomato Associa- 
tion. Served Sgt., Marine Corps, 1942-1945. Representative 
in NC General Assembly, 1953; Senator, 1975-76, and 1977-78. 

Member, Crabtree Methodist Church: Lay Leader. Married Elise Palmer, 1949. Four 

Children: John, Amy, Kim, Chris. Address: Route 3, Clyde. 



MARSHALL ARTHUR RAUCH 

(Democrat — Gaston County) 

(Twenty-fifth Senatorial District — Counties: Cleveland, Gaston, Lincoln, and 
Rutherford. Three Senators.) 

Marshall Arthur Rauch, representing the Twenty-fifth 
Senatorial District, was born in New York City February 2, 
1923. Son of Nathan A. and Tillie (Wohl) Rauch. Attended 
Woodmere High School, Class of 1940; Duke University, 
varsity basketball and Fraternity President; Chaiiman of 
the Board, Director and Treasurer of Rauch Industries, Inc., 
Director and Treasurer of E. P. Press, Inc., Gastonia and 
The Rauch Foundation, Inc., Gastonia. Director, Plastivac 
Corporation, Charlotte; Director, Mid-South Life Insurance 
Company, Fayetteville; Majestic Insurance Financing Corporation, Gastonia. 
Mayor Pro Tem, City of Gastonia, 1952-1954, 1961-1963; City Councilman, City of 
Gastonia, 1952-1954, 1961-1965; Governor's Good Neighbor Council, 1963-1970; 
North Carolina Jail Study Commission, 1968; Advisory Council, North Carolina 
Committee for Children and Youth, 1968-1969; Legislative Research Committee on 
Interest Rates, 1968-1969; Chaii-man Gastonia Human Relations Committee, 1964- 
1967; Chairman North Carolina Committee on Population and P'amily, 1968-1969; 
Employ the Handicapped Committee, 1964-1965. Senior Advisor, Gastonia Boys 
Club, 1947-1963; Big Brother, 1951-1960; member North Carolina Citizens Com- 
mittee for Dental Health, 1968-1969; Vice President and Director, Community 




.S()8 



North Carolina Manual 



Conceil Association, 1!)(50- IHGI ; Top Manag-ement Advisoiy Committee, Gaston 
County Industrial Mana^^ement Club, li>G.'5- litGn; Consulting- Commission, Pioneer 
Girl Scout Council, i;t68-liK);t; President, Duke University Gaston Alumni Associa- 
tion, i;)61-li)62; President, Associated Industries. i;)64-1965. Director: Gastonia 
Chamber of Commerce, 1965-Ii)66; Gaston Skills, 1964-1966; Salvation Army Boys 
Club since 196:5; United Fund, 196:5-1967; Gaston Boys Club since 1964; Carolinas 
A.A.U., 19ril-195:5; Gaston Museum of Natural History, 196:5-1964; Holy Ang-els 
Nurseiy, Belmont, 1960-1970; Planned Parenthood and World Population, New 
York, N. Y., 1968-1969; Gaston Community Action, Inc., 1966; Gaston-Cleveland 
Tuberculosis Association for 1968; Gastonia YMCA, 1959-196:2, 1967-1969, also 
since 1971. Member Board of Tiiistees of U.N.C. since 1969; First Vice President 
Gaston County Y.M.C.A., 1970, President Gaston County Y.M.C.A., 1971; Board 
of Advisors, Gardner Webb Collejje; awarded Man & Boy Award, Salvation Army 
Red Shield Boys Club, 1970. Tixistee, University of North Carolina at Greens- 
boro. Man of the Year, Gastonia Junior Chamber of Commerce, 1957; Man of the 
Year, Gastonia Junior Woman's Club, 1964; Man of the Year, Gaston County 
Omejja Psi Phi, 1966; Man of the Year, North Carolina Health Department, 1968; 
National Recreation Citation, National Recreation Association, 1965; State Senator 
in the General Assembly of 1967; also Advisory Budget Commission, 1974 and 1977; 
Trustee U.N.C. 1971-1973; Chairman Joint Advisory Committee on Dental Educa- 
tion, 1969-1971. Biography listed in "Who's Who in World Jeweiy", "Who's Who in 
the South and Southwest" and "Leading Men in the Unitetl States." President, Tem- 
ple Emanuel, Gastonia, 1962-1964; President, Frank Goldberg Lodge, Bnai Brith, 
1951-1952; Chairman, Gaston Jewish Welfare Fund, 1958-1962, 1968-1969: NC Senate 
Finance Chairman. 1977-78; NC Senate Vice-Chairman, Manufacturing, Labor & 
Commerce, 1977-78.Vice-Chairman Governmental Evaluation Commission 1977-78; 
Legislative Services Commission, 1977-78, NC Land Conservance Board of Trustees, 
1978: Intangibles Tax Study Commission, 1978. Director, North Carolina United Jewish 
Appeal Cabinet, 1968-69: First Vice President, North C'arolina Association of Jewish 
Men, 1966; National Council American Jewish Joint Distributions Committee, 1968-1971; 
Sunday School Teacher, 1951-1956: Board of Governors. North Carolina Jewish Home 
for the Aged, Inc.. since 1968. Married Jeanne Girard, May 18, 1946. Children: John, 
Ingrid, Marc, Pete and Stephanie. Address: 1121 Scotch Drive, Gastonia. 



JOSEPH BRYANT RAYNOR, JR. 



(Tenth Senatorial 




(Democrat^ — Cumberland County) 

District — Cumberland. Two Senators.) 

Joseph Biyant Raynor, Jr. was born in Cumberland 
County, N. C, January 26, 192:?. Son of Joseph Biyant, Sr. 
and Beatrice (Owen) Raynor. Attended Haymount Grade 
School, 1929-1932; Seventy-first Elementaiy School, 1933- 
1936, graduated Seventy-first High School, 1940; Electronic 
and Engineering School, 1944. Owner of Raynor Supply 
Company, dealer of automotive wholesale supplies. Member 
of Camp Ground Methodist Church, Fayetteville Exchange 
Club; Seventy-first Ruritan Club; Cumberland County Young 



Legislative Branch 309 



Democratic Club; Cumberland County mental Health Association; Past President 
of the Cumberland County Chapter N. C. Society for Crippled Children and Adults; 
Past President of the Carousel Club; member of the Cumberland County Wildlife 
Association; Exchangite of the year, 1959; Member of Knights of Pjlhias; Loyal 
Order of Moose; United Commercial Travelers of America; The Ancient Mystic 
Order of Bagmen of Bagdad. Appointed by the late John F. Kennedy, April 2, 1963, 
as a member of the Board of Selective Sei-vice; resigned from this office after 
making decision to loin for N. C. House of Representatives. Was given a certificate 
of recognition for sei-vice to the Nation and Selective Service System in the Ad- 
ministration of the Universal Military Training and Sei-vice Act by President 
Lydon B. Johnson on June 30, 1964. He is listed in Who's Who in American Politics; 
listed in the National Register of Prominent Americans. Served in the General 
Assembly for 8 terms. Has been a member of every major committee in the General 
Assembly; chairman of the Committee on Mental Health in the Senate and House. 
Chaired Senate Committee on Law Enforcement and Crime Control; Member of the 
Senate Finance Committee. Serving on the Mental Retardation Study Commission; The 
Mental Health Study Commission: chairman of the Senate Study Committee on Aging; 
Selected by this colleagues as Chairman of the Democratic 7th Congressional 
District for the 1971 session. He has served on the Governor's Study Commission on 
Emotionally Disturbed Children, which recently created the State Child Advocacy 
Office. Has been a member of the Study Commission on Alcoholism, Vice President 
of TIHE (The study of Human Ecology). Appointed by the Legislative Research Com- 
mission to study the State Mental Health facilities. Board of Directors for the Cumber- 
land County Cancer Society; Board of Directors for Miss United Teenager, served as 
Judge; in two National Contests; United Brotherhood of Magicians; Certified 
Hypnoinvestigator; Law Enforcement Institute of Hypnosis, Los Angeles, Cal.; Society 
Investigative and Forensic Hypnosis; Selected to serve on the Commission enacted by 
legislation to study the problems of Exceptional Children, 1975. Chosen in 1975 to serve 
as a Consultant to the Department of Public Instruction. Married Mildred Home, 
January 15, 1944. Address: 5234 Raeford Road, Fayetteville. 



WILLIAM WALTER REDMAN, JR. 

(Republican — Iredell County) 

(Twenty-third Senatorial District. Counties: Alexander, Catawba, Iredell and 
Yadkin. Two Senators.) 

William Walter Redman, Jr., was born in Statesville. NC, 
October 15, 1933. Son of William Walter Redman and Mildred 
Huie. Graduated Statesville Senior High, 1952. Attended Uni- 
versity of Southern California. 1966; Embry-Ridde Aeronau- 
tical University, 1972., B.S.; Command & General Staff Col- 
lege (PH II), 1974; Realtors Institute. UNC 1978, GRI; Bank 
Marketing Institute, University of Maryland, 1975. Served US 
Army— Lt. Colonel, 1954-1974. (Retired): Awarded 2 distin- 
guished Flying Crosses: 3 Bronze Stars: 16 Air Medals: The 
Meritorious Service Medal & 2 Commendation Medals. Master Aviator & Commercial 
Pilot in Helicopters & Fixed Wing Aircraft. Member First Baptist Church— Sunday 




:no 



North Carolina Manual 



School Teacher, 1974-78— Deacon, 1976-. Married Elizabeth Wilhclm, I)L"ceml)er 28. 
1956. Children: Lisa Dawn; Kathryn Marlene; and Adreinne Ann. Address: Rt. 2. Box 
AX Statesville 28677. 



EDWARD RENFROW 



( Democ rat. — J oh n st on Count y ) 

(Ninth Senatorial District C'ounties: Johnston and Sampson. One Senator.) 

Edwaixi Renfrew was horn in Kenly, September 17, 1940. 
Son of Donnie T. Renfrow and Ilamae Lewis Renfrow. Grad- 
uated Clajlon High School May, 19.t8; Hardbargers Busi- 
ness College. Attended Atlantic Christian College. Account- 
ant. Member North Carolina Society of Accountants; Na- 
tional Society of Public Accountants; Phi Theta Fi Fra- 
ternity. President North Carolina Society of Accountants 
1972-73; Seminar Speaker. National Society of Public Ac- 
countants; First Vice-President, Smithfield-Selma Chamber 
of Commerce 1974; Treasurer, N. C. Democratic Executive Committee 197.3-March 
1974, Chairman, Governor's Commission on Public School Finance; Received Dis- 
tinguished Service Award Smithfield Jaycees, 1974: Boss of The Year Award. 1975, 
Governor's Award for Legislator of the Year— 1977. Chairman, Commission on Public 
School Laws, P"'irst President, North Carolina Society of Accountants Scholarship 
Foundation, 1973-74. N. C. National (iuard. Specialist 4th Class, 1962-1966. Member, 
Sharon Baptist Church: Chairman of Deacon Board, two terms; Sunday School Teacher; 
Member of General Board of Baptist State Convention 1970-1974; Past Treasurer, 
Johnston Baptist Association. Married Rebecca Stephenson Renfrow, December 4, 1960. 
Two Children; Candy and Paige. Address: P.O. Box 731, Smithfield 27577. 




BENJAMIN DAVID SCHWARTZ 

(Democrat — New Hanover County) 

(Fourth Senatorial District— Counties: New Hanover and Pender. One Senator.) 

Benjamin David Schwartz was bom in Wilmington, 
Januai-y 17, 1909. Son of Louis Schwartz and Anne Rulhick 
Schwartz. Attended New Hanover High School 1921-1925. 
Graduated University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, B.S. 
Degree, 1929. Investments. Member, Chamber of Commerce, 
Wilmington Merchants Association; President, Wilmington 
Merchants Association, 1961-1963; Received trophy for out- 
standing sei-vice Wilmington Merchants Association, 1963; 
President-Elect Chamber of Commerce, 1971; Tau Epsilon 
Phi; Elks; B'nai Brith; elected Wilmington City Council 1969; served as Mayor- 
Protem and Mayor of City of Wilmington. Member original Board of Tnastees of 
Wilmington College and sei-ved eleven years. Charter member University of North 
Carolina at Wilmington Foundation. Received award for outstanding Community 
Service from North Carolina Human Relations Commission, 1972. Member North 





KENNETH CLAIBORNE ROYALL, JR. 

(Democrat— Durham County) 

(Thirteenth Senatorial District— Counties: Durham, Person and Granville. Two 
Senators.) 

Kenneth Claiborne Royall, Jr. was born in Warsaw, NC, 
September 2, 1918. Son of Kenneth Claiborne and Margaret 
Pierce (Best) Royall. Attended Goldsboro High School. Goldsboro, 
1932-34, Episcopal High School, Alexandria, Virginia 1934-36, 
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 1939- 
40., A.B. Degree; University of Virginia Law School, 1940-41; 
Wake Forest Law School, 1941-42. U.S. Marine Corps, 1942-45. 
Major; received the Bronze Star with Combat V while serving as 
a platoon leader in South Pacific area during World War H. House 
of Representatives, 1967, 1969, 1971; Legislative Research Commission — Chairman, Sub- 
committee on Health, 1969; Chairman, Appropriations Committee, 1971-72; Advisory 
Budget Commission, 1971-72; Legislative Building Commission, 1971-72; Board of Higher 
Education, 1971-72; Standardization Committee, Office of Purchase and Contract. 1971- 
72; E.xecutive Residence Building Commission, 1972. Senate, 1973-74, 1975-76, and 
1977-78; Chairman. Public Health Committee, 1973-74; Chairman, Mental Health Study 
Commission, 1973-78; Legislative Services Commission, Chairman, Personnel Committee. 
1973-78; Senate Majority Leader, 1973-74, 1977-78; Governmental Expenditures Study 
Commission, 1974-78; Chairman, Human Resources Committee, 1975-76; Vice Chairman, 
Advisory Budget Commission, 1977-78; Chairman, Senate Ways and Means Committee, 
1977-78. Council on Interstate Cooperation, 1977-78; Mental Health Council, 1977-78; 
Board of Directors, Eckerd Wilderness Educational System of North Carolina, 1978, 
Advisory Council of National Conference of Legislative Leaders, 1972; Vice Chairman, 
Fiscal Affairs and (iovernment Operations Committee Southern Legislative Conference, 
1975-76; Chairman, Fiscal Affairs and Government Operations Committee Southern 
Legislative Conference, 1976-77; Executive Committee— National Conference State 
Legislatures, 1976-78; Executive Committee— Southern Legislative Conference, 1977-78; 
Vice-Chairman— Southern Legislative Conference 1978—. Member Durham County 
Board of Education, 1957-66; Chairman, Durham County Board of Education, 1959-66 
President, Durham Merchants Association, 1959; Durham Chamber of Commerce, 1962- 
72, Board of Directors & Vice President, 1972; Director, North Carolina Merchant's 
Association, 1965-76; Director, Training for Hearing Impaired Children, 1971-76, 2nd 
Vice President, North Carolina Committee for the Prevention of Blindness, 1973-76; Board 
of Directors, Triangle Service Center, Inc., 1974-78; Durham Advisory Board to Duke 
Hospital, 1975-78; Board of Directors, Red Cross; Board of Directors, YMCA; Member 
Rotary Club; Elks Club; and Delta Kappa Epsilon Fraternity. Member St. Phillips 
Episcopal Church, Durham; Junior Warden, 1959; Senior Warden, 1964; Member of 
Vestry, 3 terms. Married Julia Bryan Zollicoffer, February 10, 1945. Children: Kenneth 
Claiborne, III, Jere Zollicoffer and Julia Bryan. Address: 64 Beverly Dr., Durham 27707. 




Legislative Branch 311 



Carolina Citizens Committee on the Schools, 1971. Member B'nai Israel S>Tiago^e, 
member Board of Directors and Vice President. Man-ied Sylvia Wolk June 3, 1931. 
Two children: one son, Dr. M. J. Schwartz of Newton, Massachusetts and one 
daughter, Dr. Maxine Seller of Buffalo, N. Y. Address: 205 Forest Hills Drive, 
Wilmington 28401. 



RALPH HENDERSON SCOTT 

(Democrat — Alamance County) 

(Eighteenth Senatorial District — County: Alamance. One Senator.) 

Ralph Hendei-son Scott was born near Haw River De- 
cember 12, 1903. Son of Robert Walter and Elizabeth 
(Hughes) Scott. Graduated Hawfields High School, 1920; 
North Carolina State College, B.S., 1924. President of 
Melville Dairy, Inc. Member, Kiwanis Club, President 1942; 

t^ - Chamber of Commerce, President, 1944-1945; Merchants 

Wj k ^^ Association; North Carolina Dairy Products Association, 

^^jHHk President, 1947; North Carolina Jersey Breeders Association, 

President, 1939; Chairman of Board, Alamance Daily Foods; 
Chairman of Board, Carolina Casualty Company, Jacksonville, Florida; Raleigh, 
Durham, Burlington Dairy Council, President, 1945-1946; Alamance County 
Tuberculosis Association, President, 1942, 1953 and 1954; North Carolina State 
Grange; North Carolina Farni Bureau; member. Advisory Budget Commission, 
1961-1964, 1967-1968, 1969-1971, 1973-1974, 1975-76, and 1977-78; Chairman. 1973-74. 
1975-76; and 1977-78; Chairman, N. C. Department of Human Resources' Council on 
Developmental Disabilities. County Commissioner, 1944-1950. Mason; member Bur- 
lington Moose Lodge; Bula Lodge No. 409, A.F. & A.M.; Burlington BPO Elks No. 1633; 
Knights Templar; Royal Arch Masons; Amran Temple. State Senator in the General As- 
sembly of 1951, 1953, 1955. 1961. 1963, 1965, 1967. 1969, 1971. 1973-74, 1975-76 and 
1977-78. Trustee, Elon College, Trustee, Memorial Hospital of Alamance, Burlington; 
Member of Board of First Federal Savings & Loan, Burlington. Received the 
National Education Association's Dept. of Rural Education, 1966; National Distin- 
guished Legislative Sei-vice Award; North Carolina Dairy Products Association's 
Distinguished Service Award, Jan., 1971. Honorary member of Order of Golden 
Fleece at UNC-CH and Gamma Sigma Delta at N. C. State University. 1975 
received First Annual Ralph H. Scott Award for Exemplary Concern for N. C. 
Children. 1976 received Better Life Award for the North Carolina Health Care 
Facilities Association for leadership and service to N. C.'s senior citizens. 1976 
received citation for Humanitarian Service and Outstanding Cooperation from 
United Cerebral Palsy on N. C, In 1976 received an honorai-y doctorate of laws 
degree from Elon College. Presbyterian; Elder since 1950; Chairman Board of 
Deacons, 1938-1950; Moderator of Orange Presbytery, 1970. Mairied Hazeleene 
Tate, November 11, 1925. Children: Miriam Scott Mayo, Tarboro; Ralph Henderson 
Scott, Jr. and William Clevenger Scott. Address: Rt. 1, Box 400, Haw River 27258. 



312 



North ('arolina Manual 



KATHERINE ANN HAGEN SEBO 

( I ) em oci-a t — G ui 1 ford ("ou n t y ) 

(Nineteenth Senatorial District — County: Guilford. Three Senators.) 

Kat lierine Ann Ha^en Seho was i)orn in Minneapolis, 

- _^, Minnesota, July !), 1944. Daughter of Kristofer Hag-en and 

*- *♦ Bertha EKnra Johanson Hagen. Attended Edina Jr. and Sr. 

I A.A h ^a'^ ^'^^ School, Edina, Minn., I!»r)6-l!t5!l; Kodaikanal High 

I ■*^F:^- ' School, Kodaikanal, South India, i;»60-61; University of 

I . Minnesota l!»61-(52; Oberlin College, lt>62-6r), B.A.; The 

^L '^p .American University School of International Service, M.A., 

\Jk^^ ^'**'^" ^^^■^■' ^^^'^'' ^^^^^ University School of Law, 1978—. 

College Professor. Member Governor's Advocacy Council on 
Cliildren and ^'outh: Legislative Advisory Council. Southern Regional p]ducation Board: 
N.C. Advisory Council for Non-Public p]ducation; Chairman, (iuilford County 
Ijegislative Delegation: Nominating Panel for F'ourth Circuit Court of Appeals: 
American Association of University Professors: American Civil Liberties Union; A&T 
State University F^oundation Board: YWCA: League of Women Voters; Advisory 
Panel for Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation: Centenary llnited Methodist Church. Address: 
907 W. Mc(k'e Street, Greensboro. 



ROBERT CHARLES SOLES, JR. 

(Democrat — Columbus County) 

(Eleventh Senatorial District — Counties: Bladen, Bioinswick and Columbus. 

Robert Charles Soles, Jr. was born in Tal)or City Decem- 
ber 17, 1934. Son of Robert C. and Myrtle (Noiris) Soles. At- 
tended Tabor City High School; Wake Forest University, 
B.S., 1956 and University ofN. C. School of Law, J.D.. 1959. 
Lawyer. Member American Bar Association; N. C. Bar As- 
sociation; American Trial Lawyers Association and N. C. 
Association of County Attorneys. Article concerning Do- 
mestic Relations published in N. C. Law Review. FoiTner 
Member University of North Carolina Board of Tiustees, 
and Board of Trustees University of N. C. at Wilmington; President of Southeastern 
Community College Foundation. Member of Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity; 
Rotary Club, past President. Representative in the (^neral Assembly of 1969, 1971, 
1973 and 1975; Senate 1977-78 and 1979. Served in U. S. Army, 1957-67, (Reserve), 
Captain. Member Tabor City Baptist Church. Address: Box 275, Tabor City 28463. 




JAMES DAVIS SPEED 



(Democrat— F^rankl in County) 

(Seventh Senatorial District— Counties: Franklin, Nash, Vance, Warren and Wilson. 
Two Senators) 



Legislative Branch 



313 




James Davis Speed was born in I^uisburg, January 80, 1915. 
Son of Henry P. Speed and Addie J. Speed. Farmer— Busi- 
nessman. Member of Farm Bureau and NC Agri-business Coun- 
cil. Mason and Shriner. Member of House of Representatives. 
1961. 1963. 1965. 1967, 1969 and 1971. Member of N.C. Senate 
1977-78 and 1979. Member of Baptist Church. Married to Martha 
Matthews on November 29, 1947. Children: Claudia; Tommy; 
and James M. Address: Rt. 6, Box 474. Louisburg 27549. 

ROBERT STRINGFIELD SWAIN 



(Democrat — Buncombe County) 

(Twenty-Sixth Senatorial District — Counties: Buncombe, Madison, McDowell 
and Yancey. Two Senators.) 

T'f? 1U£' f ^P Robert Stringfield Swain was born in Asheville July 25, 

1921. Son of John Edward Swain and Mozelle Brewster 
Stringfield. Graduated Lee H. Edwards High School, 1939. 
Attended Mars Hill (Wake Forest — Meredith Summer School) 
1939; UNC 1939-1940, Biltmore College 1940, University of 
New Mexico, 1941-1942. UNC Law School 1946-1949, LLB. 
Lawyer. Member Buncombe County Bar Association; NC 
Bar Association; NC Trial Lawyer's Association. Member 
Moose International, Phi Alpha Delta Law Fi-atemity. US 
Commissioner, 1951 to 1954; Solicitor 19th District, Buncombe and Madison Coun- 
ties, 1955 to 1967. US Ai-my Air Corps. First Lieutenant — Januaiy of 1943 to Janu- 
ary of 1946. Methodist. Member of Board of Stewards and Sunday School Teacher. 
Divorced. Children: Jennifer Ellen; Barbara Giffen; Patricia Ann; Robert Edward; 
and Katherine Anne. Address: Rt. 5, Box 1112, Asheville 28803. 




JOSEPH EUGENE THOMAS 

(Democrat — Craven County) 

(Second Senatorial District — Counties: Carteret, Craven, and Pamlico. One Senator.) 

Joseph Eugene Thomas was born July 18, 1941 in Askin, 
N.C. Sone of Edison E. Thomas. Attended Ernul Elemen- 
tary School, 1947-54; Farm Life School, 1955-59. Graduated 
NCSU, May 1963, B.S., Fore.stry. Vice-President & General 
Manager— Westminster Company, Eastern Region. Appointed 
January 5, 1979 to fill the seat vacated by the death of Senator 
D. Livingstone Stallings. Member Legislative Committee of 
the New Bern — Craven County Chamber of Commerce, 1973-78; 
Member Advisory Board of Bank of NC, N.A., 1972-76; Licensed 
1970-79; Vanceboro Rotary Club, Past President; East Carolina 
Society of Engineers; Society of American Foresters; National 
Association of Home Builders; Congressional Committee; NCSU Alumni Club; Sponsor 
Ducks Unlimited; Vanceboro Fire Department; NC Registered Forester: BPOE, 
New Bern; Chairman, Vanceboro Medical Center, Inc.; Chairman, Vanceboro Planning 




Real Estate Broker, 
Engineers Club; NC 



:ui 



North ('arolina Manual 



I'xianl: NC Stale I )('iii(HTatic Ivxci'iitivc Coinmittet', l!t72-77; Director, N(" AKfieultural 
I'"()un(latiiiii, Inc. Mcmlicr Craven Couiity Advisory Council for X'ocational Kducation. 
litTiS— : KC Hoard of 'I'ransportation, l!»77-7!t (Highway Commissioner, 2nd Division). 
NC Hoard of Water and Air Resources, H)<)9-7r); Cliairman of Water Resources Man- 
agement \- Develoi)ment Committee of the Knvironmental Mana.yfement Commission, 
11)72-7"). Meml)er Kitt Swamp Christian Church — Deacon, nx;;!— has lii'ld all offices. 
.Married Linda Morris. October 5. Dti.'i Children: Scott Ku.irene; Allen Morris: Joel Hrynn 
and Km ma Jo- Lin. Address: HO Box 337. \'ancel)oro 2858(5. 




CHARLES EUGENE VICKERY 

(Democrat— Oranjrt' County) 

(Sixteenth Senatorial District— Counties: Chatham, Moore, Oranjre. and R;indolph. 
Two Senators.) 

Charles Eugene Vickery was born in Oreenville. SC. 
September 22, li)4o. Son of Victor Van Vickery and Edna B. 
Freeman Vickery. Attended Cool Spring's High School, Poorest 
City: The Citadel, 19(i5, H.S.: University of North (,'arolina 
School of Law, 1968. Attorney, Senior Hartner, Law Firm of 
X'ickery, Culpepper, and Wolfington, L39 East Rosemary Street. 
Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Member, Orange County Bar 
Association: Fifteenth Judicial District Bar Association; North 
Carolina Bar Association, Committee on Legislation and Law 
Reform: American Bar Association: North Carolina Academy of Trial Lawyers: Hhi L^elta 
Theta Legal PVaternity: North Carolina Symphony Society Council: St. Andrews's Societ.\- 
of North Carolina. Assistant District Attorney, 29th Judicial District, 1970: Assistant 
District Attorney, 15th Judicial District, 1970-1971. Active in Orange County Democratic 
Harty and State Democratic Harty Affairs. Served U.S. Army Reserves, 19(i8-1974. 
Member F^aptist Church. Married: Jean Marshall Vickery, June 4, 1970. Children: 
Andrew Marshall and Mary Claire. Address: 124 WV)lfs Trail, Chapel Hill. North Caro- 
lina 27514. 

RUSSELL GRADY WALKER 

(Democrat— Rantiolph County) 

(Sixteenth Senatorial District— Counties: Chatham, Moore, Orange, and Randolph. 
Two Senators. 

Russell Grady Walker was born in Conetoe, North Caro- 
lina, August 2t>, 1918. Son of Ashley Walker and Alleen Bryant 
Walker. (Iraduated, High Hoint High School: (Jraduate LInited 
States Army Air (.'orp Hilot Training School. Retired Chain 
Super Market Operator: P'ormer Hresident Food Line Super 
Markets, Inc. Has served two terms North Carolina Senate— 
1975-7(i and 1977-78. Appointed North Carolina Energ-y Holicy 
Council 1975 by Lt. Governor Hunt and in 1977 by Lt. (Governor 
Green. Member of Commission on ChiUlren with Special Needs: 
North Carolina Legislative Research Commission: North Carolina Intangible Tax Study 
Commission: Legislative Research Commission Committee on Health Education. Ex 




Legislative Branch 



315 



officio member of Mental Health Study Commission. Chairman, Asheboro Airport 
Authority. Member Masonic Order, Balfour Lodp:e. Asheboro, North Carolina. Served 
Army Air Corps, 1941-1946; Captain United States Air Force Reserve 1947-1955. Served 
Asheboro City Council (2 terms) 1961-1965. Member First Baptist Church, Asheboro, 
North Carolina: Deacon 1968-1971. Married Ruth Brunt Walker, July 13, 1941. Three 
Children: Russell C. Walker, Jr., Mrs. Susan Walker Smith. Stephen Allen Walker; five 
grandchildren. Address: 1004 Westmont Drive, Asheboro, North Carolina 27203. 



MARVIN MARTIN WARD 

(Democrat— Forsyth County) 

(Twentieth Senatorial District — County: Forsyth. Two Senators.) 

Marvin Martin Ward was born in Morrison, Virginia 
February 10, 1914. Son of Charles Tilden Ward and Nora Belle 
Martin. Graduated East Bend High School, 1930; Appalachian 
University, 1934, B.S.; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1940, M.A. 
Retired — Former Superintendent of Winston-Salem/Forsyth 
County Schools. Member American Association of School Ad- 
ministrators. NC Division of Superintendents; and Superin- 
tendent of Schools. 100 to 300.000. Member Methodist 
Cetenary Church, Sunday School Superintendent, 1958-61; 
Chairman Staff Parish Committee, 1974-77; Currently— Administrative Board & Sunday 
School Teacher. Married Mary June Darden August 23, 1941. Children: Elizabeth Dar- 
den; and Marvin Thomas. Address: 641 Yorkshire Rd., Winston-Salem 27106. 




WILLIS PADGETT WHICHARD 



(Democrat — Durham County) 

(Thirteenth Senatorial District^ — Counties: Durham, Granville and Person. 
Two Senators.) 

Willis Padgett Whichard was bom in Durham, May 24, 
1940. Son of the late Willis Guilford Whichard and Beulah 
Padgett WTiichard. Attended Durham City Schools, 1946- 
1958; University of North Carolina, A.B., 1962; University of 
North Carolina School of Law, J.D., 1965. Practicing attorney 
with law film of Powe, Portei", Alphin and Whichard, P.A., 
Durham. Member, American Bar Assn.; North Camlina Bar 
Assn.; Durham County Bar Assn.; North Carolina State 
Bar; Phi Beta Kappa; Phi Alpha Delta; Phi Delta Phi; Order 
of the Coif. Co-author, article entitled "Limiting Confidential Communications in 
Counseling" published in September, 1970 issue of the Personnel and Guidance 
Journal. Author, article entitled "The Legislature and the Legislator in North Caro- 
lina," Spring 1975 issue of Popular Government. Law Clerk tcj Justice (later Chief 
Justice) William H. Bobbitt, North Carolina Supreme Court, 1965-1966; member, 
North Carolina General Statutes Commission, 1969-1973; Summer Intern in State 
Government, 1962. Enlisted man, Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment, 




;31() North Carolina Manual 



North Carolina Army National Guard, 1966-1972. Life membei-, North Carolina 
National Guard Association, (Judjfe Advocate, 1972-73). Baptist. Member, Durham 
Jaycees, 1966-, (Program Chairman, 1967-1968; Secretary 1968-1970; Legal Counsel, 
1970-1971); Durham County Campaign Director for March of Dimes, 1968 and 1969; 
Chapter Chaiiman, Durham County Chapter, National Foundation, March of Dimes, 
1969-1974; Board Member, Durham County Chapter, American Red Cross, 1971-; 
Board Member, Transition of Youth, Inc., 1971- ; Board Member, Senior Citizens 
Coordinating Council, 1972-75; Board Member, U.N.C. Law Alumni Assn., 1971- 
1974; Board Member, Southern Growth Policies Board, 1971- ; (Vice-Chairman 
1975-). Board Member, Durham Y.M.C.A., 1973-; Representative, N. C. General 
Assembly. 1970-74: Senator, 1975-76 and 1977-78: Member, N. C. legislative Research 
("onimission. 1971-73, (Chairnian of Subconimitteeon Motor Vehicle Laws) 1975: Member, 
Governor's Advisoiy Committee on Youth Development, 1972-73. Member, Kiwanis 
Club of Tobaccoland, 1974-. Recipient of Distinguished Service Award as "Young 
Man of Year" in Durham, 1971; Outstanding Legislator Award, N. C. Academy of 
Trial Lawyers, 1975; Outstanding Youth Service Award, N. C. Juvenile Correctional 
Society, 1975. Man-ied Leona Irene Paschal, June 4, 1961. Two children, Jennifer 
Diane Whichard, and Ida Gilbert Whichard. Address: 5608 Woodberr-y Rd., Durham 
27707. 



VERNON E. WHITE 

(Democrat — Pitt County) 

(Sixth Senatorial District— Counties: Edgecombe, Halifax, Martin and Pitt. Two 
Senators.) 

Vernon E. White, representing the Sixth Senatorial Dis- 
trict was born in Hertford County, April 27. 1906. son of Charles 
Thomas and Emma Dale (Livernian) White. Attended Aulan- 
der High School, class of 1925: Wake Forest University, B.S. 
degree 1929 and B.A. degree, 1931. F'armer, Principal and 
teacher, 1929-1940: County Supervisor, P'armer's Home Ad- 
ministration 1941-1943: Member Board of Trustees of Pitt Tech- 
nical Institute: Member. Board of Trustees of Chowan College, 
Member, North Carolina Veterinary Medical Foundation, Inc., 
Member. North Carolina Tobacco Foundation, Inc.. Member of The Carolina Charter 
Corporation, P^ormer member of the Board of Advisors to Chowan College: Former 
Chairman. Pitt County Planning Board: P^ormer meml)er and Treasurer of Pitt County 
Development Commission: P'ormer member Pitt County Draft Board and Chairman for 
three years. P^ormer member Pitt County Board of Health, Chairnian 196(>: P'ormer mem- 
ber of Board of Trustees Shepherd Memorial Library, (ireenville. Member. Pitt County 
Board of Commissioners, 1963-19()6, Chairman, 1966. Member, Ruritan Club: Kiwanis 
International: Loyal Order of Moose: President of Winterville Kiwanis Club in 1963. 
Veteran of World War II, State Senator in the General A.ssemblyof 1969, 1971, 1973, 1975, 
and 1977. Member, Winterville Missionary Baptist Church Board of Deacons for eighteen 
years and four times chairman: Director, Sunday School for twenty -one years. Married 
Ijouise Ange of Winterville, 1931. One son, Charles Vernon White. Address: P. 0. Box 41. 
Winterville. 





Legislative Branch 317 

ROBERT WEBB WYNNE 

(Democrat — Wake County) 

(Fourteenth Senatorial District — Counties: Harnett, Lee and Wake. Three 
Senators.) 

Robert Webb Wynne (Bob) was born September 24, 1937 
^m. >1^| i" Raleigh. Son of Robert W. Wynne, Jr. and Marian Womble. 

m ^1 ^^ ^"^^^ °^ Representatives. 1971-1974: NC Senate 1977—. 

 „^ Mt LM Delegate to Town Council, Arlington, Mass. 1960. Attended 

V ' "hAJ^ Needham B. Broughton High School, 1950-1955. Graduated 

-JZ»# Davidson College, 1959, A.D. Degree. Cincinnati College of 

Mortuary Science, 1963-64. President. Brown-Wynne Funeral 
Homes, Inc. President — Raleigh Jaycees, 1968-69; Vice-presi- 
dent—Raleigh Lions Club, 1975-76; Chairman Board of Visitors 
—Peace College, 1978-79; Member— NC Tax Study Commission, 1969-73: Member— 
NC Citizens Task Force on Public Education, 1972; NC Democratic E.xecutive Com- 
mittee, 1974-76; Chairman — Wake County Chapter of American Red Cross, 1978-79; Vice 
Chairman — Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice Committee of the National 
Legislative Conference, 1973-74; Member— Inter-governmental relations Committee (the 
Planning Board) of the National Legislative Conference, 1973-74; Representa- 
tive from NC House of Representatives to Interstate Cooperation Commission and Council 
of State Governments. 1971-74; Represented NC on Atlantic States Marine 
Fisheries Commission, 1973-74; President — Wake County Chapter. NC Symphony 
Society, 1969-70; President — Pine Valley Easter Seal Society, 1970-71. Served as member 
of Board of Directors on following: Raleigh Lions Clinic for the Blind, 1973-76; Sal- 
vation Army, 1968-74; Raleigh Jaycee Zoological Foundation, 19(36-68; Raleigh Cham- 
ber of Commerce, 1968-70; 1972-73; United Fund of Raleigh Trustee, 1969-71, 197(3-78; 
Rex Hospital Foundation, 1969-73; Hilltop Home for Retarded Children, 1968-73; 
Raleigh Boys Club, 1972-74; Community Ambassador, 1969-71; NC Easter Seal Society, 
1972-73: Youth Development Advisory Board, 1973. Raleigh's "Layman of the Year", 
1967; Raleigh's "Young Man of the Year", 1969; "(Jne of the Five Outstanding Young Men 
in NC", 1969; Named "The Outstanding Local Jaycee President in NC", 1968-69; 
Named "One of the Outstanding Local Presidents in United States, 1968-69. Army 
Counter Intellegence Corps. F'irst Lieutenant, 1959-1961. Member Edenton Street United 
Methodist Church. Superintendent of the Church School, 1971-73: Budget Chair- 
man, 1968; Chairman of the Commission on Finance; 1969; Youth Coordinator, 1970- 
71; Delegate to Annual Conference, 1968-69: Sunday School Teacher, 1961-68: Adminis- 
trative Board; NC Conference Long-Range Planning Committee, 1968-72. Married 
Margaret (Maggie) H. Wynne, 1959. Children: Elizabeth Brookshire Wynne: Dana 
Woodson Wynne: Rebecca Morton Wynne: Address; 412 Hillandale Drive, Rjileigh 
27609. 



818 



North Carolina Manual 



SYLVIA MORRIS PINK 



PRINCIPAL CLERK OF THE SENATE 

Sylvia Morris Fink was horn in Charlotte, North Caro- 
lina on August 8, 1936. Daughter of Warren Reid (deceased) 
and Effie Howaix! Morris. Graduated (lionor student) from 
Mount Holly High School, Mount Holly, North Carolina, 
1954; attended Pfeiffer College, Misenheimer, North Carolina 
1955-1956. A registered Democrat, active in Wake Democratic 
Women and the Amei'ican Society of Legislative Clerks and 
Secretaries. She has served on the staff of the General As- 
sembly in the following positions: Senate Committee Clerk — 
1967; Assistant Senate Journal Clerk — 1973, 1974; Senate Journal Clerk — 1975, 
1976; elected Principal Clerk — July 1, 1976, being the first female to sei-ve in this 
capacity; re-elected January, 1977. Affiliated with the United Methodist Church, she has 
served as organist, chancel choir member, vice president and president of the Women's 
Society of Christian Service (holding two life memberships in this organization presented 
by separate churches), MYP" counsellor and Sunday School teacher: currently a mem- 
ber of Benson Memorial United Methodist Church. Daughter: Paige Elizabeth F^ink, 
Address: 1108 Whippoorwill Lane, Raleigh. 




Legislative Branch 



319 



* 

f IN MEMORIAM 



IRVIN COOPER CRAWFORD 

(Democrat — Buncombe County) 

Buncombe, Madison, McDowell 



(Twenty- sixth Senatorial District — Counties 
and Yancey. Two Senators) 

Irvin Cooper Crawford, representing the Twenty-sixth * 
Senatorial District, was bom in Bryson City. Son of (Jordon 
Lee and Mary Jane (Cooper) Crawford. Attended Cullowhee * 
High School, 1919-1922; Duke University; Wake Forest 
College. Lawyer. Member, Swain County Board of Educa- 
tion, 1933-1934; Mayor, Bryson City, 1935-1936; Chairman, 
Swain County Democratic Executive Committee, 1932-1940. 
University Board of Trustees, Advisory Budget Commission. 
Representative in the General Assembly of 1957, 1959, 1961, 
1963 and 1965. Senator in the General Assembly of 1971. 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78 and 
1979. Trustee of U. N. C, Asheville. Member of the Judicial Council. Member of Ashe- 
ville Country Club. Methodist. Married Evelyn Gregory, August 20, 1935. One son, 
* Stephen G. Crawford. Address: 10 Hampshire Circle, Asheville. 

D. LIVINGSTONE ST ALLINGS 

(Democrat — Craven County) 

Senatorial District — Counties: Carteret, Craven and Pamlico. One 




(Second 
Senator.) 




D. Livingstone Stallings was bom in Bridgeton, July 19, * 
1917. Graduated New Bern High School, 1934; Mars Hill 
College, 1936; University of North Carolina, 1938, B.S. 
degree in Business Administration. Insurance business, gen- 
eral insurance agency; Member, N. C. Independent Insur- 
ance Agents Association and Carolina Association of Mutual 
Insurance Agents. Member, Craven County Board of Com- 
missioners, 1962-72. Chairman, 1962-70. President of N. C. 
Association of County Commissioners, 1970. Member N. C. 
Senate, 1973, 1975. Chairman Senate Local Government Subcommittee 1973-74. 
Chairman Appropriations Committee on Education, 1975-76. Past president, Neuse 
River Regional Planning and Development Council; President Atlantic and North* 
Carolina Railroad. Member Masonic Order, 32nd degree; Sudan Temple; New Bern* 
Scottish Rite Bodies; New Bern York Rite Bodies; B.P.O.E., Lodge 764, Loyal* 
Order of the Moose; Woodmen of the World; Civitan, Recipient of "Civitan of the* 
Year" award, 1960; "Citizen of the Year" award, 1962; "Distinguished Citizen of 5 
I the Year" award, N. C. District East, Civitan International, 1971. Phi Beta Kappa,* 
t University of North Carolina, 1938. Member, West New Bern Presbyterian Church, 5 
* member of Session 1966-72; Moderator, Albemarle Presbyteiy, 1970. Married * 
I Evelyn Ricks, April 7, 1948. Children: Daniel L. Jr.; Mrs Hugh B. Mills. Jr.: Mrs. Hal F.| 
f Humphrey, Jr. and Joseph H. Address: P. 0. Bo.x 1733, New Bern 28560. * 

I New Bern 28560. * 



Senators I. C. Crawford and D. LiviriKstone Stallirijrsdied whilcservinKlheir state as members of the 1979 (leneral 
Assembly. Both men had distinguished themselves in legislative circles for their dedicated service to their constituents 
and to the people of North Carolina. The void created by their departure will long be felt. 



820 



North Carolina Manual 



OCCUPATIONS OF SKNA IE MEMBERS 



Accountant 

Rrnfrow, Kdwanl 

Attoiney 

AUsbrodk. JuUiaii R. 
Barnes. Hensoii rcrr.Miiorr 
Creoch. William A. 
Hill, ("ivil .1. 
Jenkins. Ceeil R. .Ir. 
Lake. L I'.everly. -Ir. 
Leake. Larr\- H. 
Soles. Rober-t Charles. Jr. 
Swain. Robert StrinKfield 
\'iekery. Charles K. 
Whiehard. Willis V. 

Auctioneering? 

Lawintr. William Crai^ 

Automotive Supplies 

Raynor. Joseph Bryant. Jr. 

Banking 

Daniels. Melvin R.. Jr. 

Civil Leader 

dray. Raehel (i. 
College Professor 

Nhirvm. Helen Ivhxiie 
Sebo. Katherine H. 

Contractor (Cieneral) 

C'oekerham. Walter ('. 
Duncan. Conrad R. 

Dairy Business 

Scoii, Ralpii H. 

Farm in jj: 

Palmer. Joe H. 
Speed. James I )avis 
White. X'ernon K. 

Funeral Director 

Hams. Ollie 
Wvnne. Robert Webb 



Fu»-niture-Retail Sales 

Royall. Kenneth ('.. Jr. 

Homemaker 

P.aKnal. .An tie K. 
( ira\ , Rachel < '<. 

Housinji Manajiement 

Alexander, Frefi D. 

Insurance Adjuster 

Ki hoards, .lames H. 

Insurance Business 

Alford. Dallas L.. Jr. 
Kincaid. Donald R. 
LawiiiK. William Crai^ 
Mills, William D. 
Noble, Samuel R. 

Investments 

Schwartz, IL D. 

Lumber Business 

Jordan, Robert I'.yrd, HI 

Manufacturing— Farm Eciuipment 

Harnn,u't<in, J. J. 

Manufacturing— Textiles 

Childers. Jack (Retired) 
Ranch. Marshall A. 

Oil Business 

(iarrison. James IL 
Hardison. Harold W. 

Pai-alegal 

Da\ i>. Rnbert M.. Jr. 

Pharmacist 

Hcnk'\', Joliii T. 

Plastic Packaging 

Ballenuer, '1'. Cass 



Legislative Branch 



321 



Private Detective 

Edwards, James H. 

Real Estate 

Alford, Dallas L.. Jr. 
Lawing, William Craig 
Marion, George W., Jr. 
Mills. William D. 
Redman, William W.. Jr. 
Thomas, Joseph E. 



Super Market Executive 

Walker, Russell G. (Retired) 

Teacher 

Kincaid, Donald R. 

Mathis, Carolyn 

Ward, Marvin M. (Retired) 



822 



North Carolina Manual 



1979 SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

ACiRKULTURE 

Chairman— White, Vernon E. 

Vice-Chairman— Palmer, Joe H. 

Vice-Chairman— Speed, James D. 



Barnes, Henson P. 
Cray, Rachel C. 
Hardison. Harold W. 



Harrington, J. J. 
Redman, William W. 
Renfrew, Edward 



Scott, Ralph H. 
Jr. Soles, R. C, Jr. 

Whichard, Willis P. 



ALCOHOLIC BEVERA(iE CONTROL 

Chairman— Wynne, Robert W. 

Vice-Chairman— Davis, Robert M., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman — Mathis. Carolyn 



Gray, Rachel G. 
Leake, Larry B. 



Alford, Dallas L., Jr. 
AUsbrook, Julian R. 
Ballenger, T. Cass 
Barnes, Henson P. 
Childers, Jack 
Cockerham. Walter C. 
Davis, Robert M., Jr. 
Edwards, James H. 
Harris, Ollie 
Henlev, John T. 



Raynor, Joe B. 
Redman, William W., Jr. 

APPROPRIATIONS 



Schwartz, B. D. 
Vickery, Charles E. 



Chairman— Hardison, Harold W. 

Vice-Chairman — Daniels, Melvin R. 

Vice-Chairman — (Jarrison, James B. 

Vice-Chairman — White, Vernon E. 



Jordan, R. B., HI 
Kincaid, Donald R. 
Lake, I. Beverly, Jr, 
Lawing, W. Craig 
Marion. George W., 
Mathis, Carolyn 
Mills. William D. 
Noble, Sam R. 
Palmer, Joe H. 
Rauch, Marshall A. 



Renfrow, Edward 
Royall, Kenneth C. 
Schwartz, B. D. 
Scott, Ralph H. 
Jr. Sebo, Katherine H. 

Swain, Robert S. 
Walker, Russell G. 
Ward, Marvin 
Whichard, Willis P. 



APPROPRIATIONS ON HUMAN RESOURCES AND CORRECTIONS 



Ballenger, T. Cass 
Harris, Ollie 
Henlev. John T. 



Chairman — Schwartz, B. D. 
Chairman, Base Budget— Walker, Russell 



Lawing, W. Craig 
Sebo, Katherine H. 
Scott, Ralph H. 



Ward, Marvin 
Whichard, Willis P. 



APPROPRIATIONS ON EDUCATION 

Chairman— p]dwards, James H. 
Chairman, Base Budget— Swain, Robert S. 



Barnes. Henson P. 
Childers, Jack 
Cockerham, Walter C. 



Davis, Robert M., Jr. 
Marion, George W., Jr. 
Mathis, Carolyn 



Noble, Sam R. 
White, Vernon E. 



Legislative Branch 



323 



APPROPRIATIONS ON GENERAL GOVERNMENT AND TRANSPORTATION 



Chairman — Alford, Dallas L., Jr. 
Chairman, Base Budget— Renfrew, Edward 



Allsbrook, Jullian R. 
Daniels, Melvin R., Jr. 
Garrison, James B. 



Kincaid, Donald R. 
Lake, I. Beverly, Jr. 
Mills, William D. 

BASE BUDGET 



Palmer, Joe H. 
Rauch, Marshall A. 



Chairman— Jordan, R. B., Ill 
Vice-Chairman — Whichard, Willis P. 

Vice-Chairman— Mathis, Carolyn 
Vice-Chairman — Kincaid, Donald R. 

(ALL MEMBERS OF THE APPROPRIATIONS COMMITTEE ARE ALSO 

MEMBERS OF BASE BUDGET) 

BANKING 

Chairman — Henley, John T. 

Vice-Chairman — Garrison, James B. 

Vice-Chairman— Lawing, W. Craig 



Alexander, Fred D. 
Alford, Dallas L., Jr. 
Ballenger, T. Cass 
Daniels, Melvin R., Jr. 



Duncan, Conrad R. 
Edwards, James H. 
Gray, Rachel G. 
Hardison, Harold W. 



Harris, Ollie 
Schwartz, B. D. 
Vickery, Charles E. 



Alexander, Fred D. 
Bagnal, Anne 
Garrison, James B. 



CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS 

Chairman— Hill, Cecil J. 

Vice-Chairman — Allsbrook, Julian R. 

Vice-Chairman — Gray, Rachel G. 



Mills, William D. 
Scott, Ralph H. 
Swain, Robert S. 



Whichard, Willis P. 
White, Vernon E. 



COURTS AND JUDICIAL DISTRICTS 



Bagnal, Anne 
Barnes, Henson P. 
Davis, Robert M., Jr. 



Chairman — Marion, George W., Jr. 
Vice-Chairman — Jenkins, Cecil R., Jr. 



Hill, Cecil J. 
Noble, Sam R. 
Sebo, Katherine H. 



Swain, Robert S. 
Vickery, Charles E. 



Allsbrook, Julian R. 
Ballenger, T. Cass 
Barnes, Henson P. 
Creech, William A. 



CRIMINAL JUSTICE 

Chairman — Alexander, F'red D. 
Vice-Chairman — Kincaid, Donald R. 
Vice-Chairman— Sebo, Katherine H. 



Lake, I. Beverly, Jr. 
Leake, Larry B. 
Raynor, Joe B. 
Soles, R. C, Jr. 



Swain, Robert S. 
Wynne, Robert W. 



;^24 



North Carolina Manual 



Bal lender. T. Cass 
Duncan, Conrad R. 
Carrison. James B. 
Hill. Cecil J. 



ECONOMY 

Chairman — Daniels. Melvin 

\' ice-Chairman — Creech. Wil 

Vice-Chairman— Schwartz, 

Jenkins, Cecil R.. Jr. 
Noble. Sam R. 
Renfrovv. Edward 
Speed. James D. 



R.. Jr. 
iam A. 
H. D. 



Thomas, Joseph E. 
Walker. Russell (;. 
Ward, Marvin 



Alford, Dallas L., Jr. 
Bapnal. Anne 
Childers. Jack 
Creech, William A. 
Marvin. Helen Rhyne 



Creech. William A. 
Carrison. James B. 
Kincaid, Donald R. 



EDUCATION 

Chairman— Speed. James D. 

Vice-Chairman— Mills, William D. 

Vice-Chairman— Ward. Marvin 



Mathis. Carolyn 
Noble, Sam R. 
Raynor. Joe B. 
Renfrow, Edward 
Schwartz. B. D. 

ELECTION LAWS 



Walker. Russell (]. 
Whichard. Willis P. 
White. Vernon E. 
Wynne, Robert W. 



Chairman — Sebo, Katherin H. 
Vice-Chairman— Harrington. J. J. 

Marvin, Helen Rhvne 
Noble, Sam R. 
Redman, William W., Jr. 



Renfrow, Edward 
Walker, Russell G. 



Alexander, Fred D. 
Bagnal, Anne 
Creech. William A. 
Cray. Rachel G. 
Hardison, Harold W. 
Harrington, J. J. 
Harris, Ollie 



FINANCE 

Chairman— Rauch. Marshall A. 

Vice-Chairman — Alford. Dallas L.. Jr. 

Vice-Chairman— Duncan, Conrad R. 

Vice-Chairman— Vickerv. Charles E. 



Cockerham, Walter C. 
Daniels. Melvin R., Jr. 
Jordan. R. B., HI 



Jenkins. Cecil R., Jr. 
Jordan, R. B.. HI 
Lawing. W. Craig 
Leake. Larry P. 
Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
Raynor, Joe B. 

HIGHER EDUCATION 



Redman. William W., Jr. 
Royall. Kenneth C. 
Soles. R. C, Jr. 
Speed. James D. 
Thomas, Joseph E. 
White, Vernon E. 
Wynne, Robert W. 



Chairman— Scott, Ralph H. 

Vice-Chairman — Alexander. Fred D. 

Vice-Chairman — Wynne. Robert W. 



Rauch. Marshall A. 
Schwartz, B. D. 
Swain. Robert S. 



Thomas, Joseph E. 
\'ickery, Charles E. 
Ward, Marvin 



Legislative Branch 



325 



Allsbrook, Julian R. 
Daniels, Marvin R., Jr. 
Edwards, James H. 
Hardison, Harold W. 
Henlev, John T. 



Bagnal, Anne 
Ballenger, T. Cass 
Davis, Robert M., Jr. 
Duncan, Conrad R. 



HUMAN RESOURCES 

Chairman — Harris, OIlie 
Vice-Chairman— dray, Rachel 
Vice-Chairman — Raynor, Joe 

Leake, Larry B. 
Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
Redman, William W., Jr. 
Royall Kenneth C. 
Scott, Ralph H. 

INSURANCE 



G. 
B. 



Walker, Russell G. 
Ward, Marvin 
Whichard, Willis P. 
Wynne, Robert W. 



Chairman — Mathis, Carolyn 

Vice-Chairman — Jordan, R. B., HI 

Vice-Chairman— Soles, R. C, Jr. 



Kincaid, Donald R. 
Lawing, W. Craig 
Marion, George W., Jr. 
Noble, Sam R. 



Thomas, Joseph E. 
Wynne, Robert W. 



Daniels, Melvin R. 
Davis, Robert M., Jr. 



JUDICIARY I 

Chairman — Allsbrook, Julian R. 

Vice-Chairman — Swain, Robert S. 

Vice-Chairman — Harris, Ollie 

Jenkins, Cecil R., Jr. 
Kincaid, Donald R. 



Mathis, Carolyn 



Alford, Dallas L., Jr. 
Cockerham, Walter C. 



JUDICIARY II 

Chairman — Lake, I. Beverly, Jr. 

Vice-Chairman— Soles, R. C., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman — Vickerv, Charles E. 



Creech, William A. 
Marvin, Helen Rhyne 



Raynor, Joe B. 



Ballenger, T. Cass 
Edwards, James H. 



JUDICIARY III 

Chairman — Barnes, Henson P. 

Vice-Chairman — Hill, Cecil J. 

Vice-Chairman — Whichard, Willis P. 



Leake, Larry B. 
Marion, George W., Jr. 



Sebo, Katherine H. 



LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIME CONTROL 

Chairman — Raynor, Joe B. 
Vice-Chairman — Creech, William A. 
Vice-Chairman — Edwards, James H. 



Cockerham, William W., 
Jenkins, Cecil R., Jr. 



Jr. Lake, I. Beverly, 
Mathis, Carolyn 



Jr. 



Scott, Ralph II. 
Sebo, Katherine 



.S2() North Carolina Manual 



L()( AI. (;()\ KKNMENT AM) RK(;i()NAL AFFAIRS 

Chairman— VVhichanl, Willis 1*. 
Vico-C"hairinan— Marvin, Helen Rhyne 

V'ife-Chairman— Noble, Sam R. 
\'ici'-('hairman— Marion, (leorjre \V.. Jr. 

Alexander, Fred IX l)unean. Conrad R. Hill, Cecil J. 

I^ajrnal, Anne Fdwards. James H. Swain, Robert S. 

Balienjrer, T. Cass Cray, Rachel (J. Thomas. Joseph E. 

MANUFACTIKLNC;, LABOR AND COMMERCE 

Chairman — Childers, Jack 

Vice-Chairman — Cockerham. Walter C. 

Vice-Chairman— Ranch, Marshall A. 

Ballen.trer, T. Cass Jenkins, Cecil R., Jr. Kincaid, Donald R. 

Duncan, Conrad R. Jordan, R. B., Jr. Ward, Marvin 

NATURAL AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES 

Chairman— Mills, William D. 

Vice-Chairman — Daniels, Melvin R. 

Vice-Chairman— Marvin, Helen Rhyne 

Barnes, Henson P. Jenkins, Cecil R., Jr. Ward, Marvin M. 

(Iray, Rachel C. Sebo. Katherine H. Wynne, Robert W. 

Hardison, Harold W^ Speed, James D. 

Hill, Cecil J. Thomas, Joseph E. 

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND ENERCiY 

Chairman — Carrison, James B. 

Vice-Chairman — Childers, Jack 

Vice-Chairman — Lake, I. Beverly, Jr. 

Allsbrook, Julian R. Lawing, W. Craig Royall, Kenneth C. 

Hardison, Harold W. Palmer, Joe H. Walker. Russell (]. 

Harrington, J. J. Rauch. Marshall A. 

RULES AND OPERATIONS OF THE SENATE 

Chairman— Lawing, W. Craig 
Vice-Chairman — Barnes, Henson P. 
Vice-Chairman — Royall, Kenneth C. 

Alford, Dallas L., Jr. Harris. Ollie Mathis, Carolvn 

Allsbrook, Julian R. Henlev, John T. Mills, William D. 

Hardison, Harold W. Jordan, R. B., HI Rauch, Marshall A. 

Harrington, J. J. Kincaid. Donald R. 

STATE (GOVERNMENT 

Chairman— Soles, R. C., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman— Bagnal, Anne 

Vice-Chairman— Hardison, Harold W. 



Legislative Branch 



327 



Edwards, James H. 
Garrison, James B. 
Lake, L Beverly, Jr. 



Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
Raucli, Marshall A. 
Royall, Kenneth C. 



Whichard, Willis P. 



TRANSPORTATION 

Chairman— Harring-ton, J. J. 
Vice-Chairman— Redman, William W., Jr. 



Alford, Dallas L., Jr. 
Duncan, Conrad R. 
Garrison, James B. 
Gray, Rachel G. 



Henley, John T. 
Lawing. W. Craig- 
Palmer, Joe H. 



Schwartz, B. D. 
Soles, R. C, Jr. 
Speed, James D. 



UNIVERSITY BOARD OF GOVERNORS 



Chairman— Vickery, Charles E. 
Vice-Chairman— Royall, Kenneth C. 



Alexander, Fred D. 
Harrington, J. J. 
Harris, QUie 



Henley, John T. 
Hill, Cecil J. 
Jordan, R. B., HI 



Marion, George W., Jr. 
Mills, William D. 
Scott, Ralph H. 



VETERANS AND MILITARY AFFAIRS 



Childers, Jack 
Jenkins, Cecil R., Jr. 



Alford. Dallas L. Jr. 
Allsbrook, Julian R. 
Barnes, Henson P. 
Childers, Jack 
Cockerham, Walter C. 
Daniels, Melvin R. 
Davis, Robert M., Jr. 
Edwards. James H. 



Chairman — Palmer, Joe H. 
Vice-Chairman— Thomas, Joseph E. 



Marion, George W., Jr. 
Mills, William D. 

WAYS AND MEANS 



Raynor, Joe B. 
Redman, William W., Jr. 



Chairman— Royall, Kenneth C. 
Vice-Chairman— Ballenger, T. Cass 

Vice-Chairman — Henley, John T. 
Vice-Chairman— Lawing, W. Craig 



Garrison, James B. 
Hardison, Harold W. 
Harris, Ollie 
Jordan, R. B., HI 
Lake, L Beverly, Jr. 
Mathis, Carolyn 
Palmer, Joe H. 
Rauch. Marshall A. 



Schwartz, B. D. 
Scott, Ralph H. 
Swain, Robert S. 
Walker, Russell G. 
Wichard, Willis P. 
White, Vernon E. 



Ballenger, T. Cass 
Barnes, Henson P. 
Edwards, James H. 



SPECIAL WAYS AND MEANS 

Chairman— Royall, Kenneth C. 

Vice-Chairmen— Harris, Ollie 

Lawing, W. Craig 



Hardison, Harold W. 
Jordan, R. B.. HI 
Lake, I. Beverly, Jr. 



Rauch, Marshall A. 
Schwartz, B. D. 
Swain, Robert S. 



328 North Carolina Manual 



WILDLIFE 

C'hairiiiuii — Duncan, Conrad K. 
Vice-Chairman— Renfrovv, p](l\var(l 
Vicc-Chairman— Walker, Russell (i. 

Cockerham, Waller C. Mills, William D. Speed, James D. 

Edwards. James H. Noble, Sam R. 

Leake, Larrv H. Palmer, Joe H. 



Legislative Branch 329 

RULES OF THE 1979 SENATE 
I. ORDER OF BUSINESS 

RULE 1. Rules controlling the Senate of North Carolina (uid its co)nniittees. — The 
following rules shall govern and control all actions and procedures of the senate and its 
committees. 

RULE 2. Convening hour. — The President shall take the chair at the hour fixed by 
the Senate upon adjournment on the preceding legislative day, and shall call the mem- 
bers to order. In case the Senate adjourned on the preceding legislative day without 
having fixed the hour of reconvening, the Senate shall reconvene on the next legislative 
day at 1:00 p.m. 

RULE 3. Opening the session. — The President shall, upon order being obtained, have 
the sessions of the Senate opened with prayer. 

RL^LE 4. Convening in absence of President. — In the absence of the President, the 
President Pro Tempore shall reconvene the Senate and preside, and during such time 
shall be vested with all powers of the President except that of casting a vote in case of 
tie when he has already voted on the question as a Senator. In the event of the absence of 
the President and President Pro Tempore at any time fixed for the reconvening of the 
Senate, the Principal clerk of the Senate, or in his absence also, some member of the 
Senate to order and designate some member to act as President. 

RULE 5. Quonnn. — (a) A quorum consistsof a majority of all the qualified members 
of the Senate. 

(b) When a lesser number than a quorum convene, the Senators present may send 
the doorkeeper or any person, for any or all absent Senators, as a majority of the Senators 
present determine. 

RULE 6. Approval of Journal. — After the prayer, and upon appearance of a 
quorum, the President shall cause the Journal of the preceding day to be read and 
approved, unless the Chairman of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate 
or some member of the Senate by motion sustained by a majority of the members pre- 
sent, has the reading thereof dispensed with and the same approved as written. 

RULE 7. Order of business. — After approval of the Journal, the order of business 
shall be as follows: 

(1) Reports of standing committees. 

(2) Reports of select committees. 

(3) Introduction of bills, petitions, and resolutions. 

(4) Messages from the House of Representatives. 

(5) Unfinished business of preceding day. 

(6) Special orders. 

(7) General Orders: 

(a) Local bills in numerical order. Senate bills first 



) Third reading roll call and electronic voting system votes 
i) Second reading roll call and electronic voting system votes 
ii) Second reading viva voce 
v) Third reading vica voce 



880 North Carolina Manual 



(h) I'ui)lic hills in numerical ordor, Sonate bills firsl 

(i) Third readinjr roll call and electronic votinj? system votes 
(ii) Second i-eadin^ roll call and electronic voting system votes 
(iii) Second reading; rira rocc 
(iv) Third reading ri/-<t rocc. 

H. CONDUCT OF DKBATE 

Rl'LK H. rrcsidcut Id tudititdiii anlcr. — The President shall have general direction 
of the Hall of the Senate and shall be authorized to take such action as is necessary to 
maintain order, and in case of any disturbance or disorderly conduct in the jjalleries or 
lobbies, he shall have the power to order those areas cleared. 

RULE 9. Siihsfitnti(in for I'rci^iiioit. — The President shall have the right to call on 
any member to perform the duties of the Chair, but substitution shall not extend beyond 
one day. 

RULE 10. Points of order. — (a) The President shall preserve order and decorum 
and proceeii with the business of the Senate according to the rules adopted. He shall 
decide all (juestions of order, subject to an appeal to the Senate by any member, on which 
appeal no member shall sf^eak more than once unless by leave of the Senate. A two-thirds 
vote of the members present is necessary to sustain any appeal from the ruling of the 
Chair. 

(1)) In the event the Senate Rules do not provide for, or cover any point of order raised 
by any Senator, the rules of the United States House of Representatives shall govern. 

(c) When a Senator is called to order he shall take his seat until the President deter- 
mines whether he was in order or not; if decided to be out of order, he shall not proceed 
without the permission of the Senate: and every ciuestion of order shall be decided by the 
Presitient. subject to an appeal to the Senate by any Senator: and if a Senator is called to 
order for words spoken, the words excepted to shall be immediately taken down in 
writing, that the President or Senate may be better able to judge the matter. 

RUI^E n. Debating mid roting by Lieutenant Governor.— The Lieutenant Governor, 
as President of the Senate, being a Constitutional Officer shall not have the right to debate 
any question or to address the Senate upon any proposition unless by permission of the 
majority of members present, and shall have the right to vote only when there is a tie vote 
upon any question or election. 

RULP] 12. Obtaining recognition. — (a) When any Senator is about to speak in debate 
or deliver any matter to the Senate, he shall rise from his seat and respectfully address the 
President. No member shall speak further until recognized by the President, and when 
two or more members rise at the same time, the President shall name the member to speak. 

(b) A Senator who has the floor may yield the floor to another Senator only for the pur- 
pose of allowing another Senator to state a question. Only the Chair may award the floor to 
any Senator for the purposes of allowing that Senator to engage in general debate. 



Legislative Branch 331 



(c) A senator who has obtained the floor may be interrupted only for the following 
reasons: 

1. a request that the member speaking yield for a question, 

2. a point of order, or 

3. a parliamentary inquiry. 

RULE 13. Recognition for extending coioiesies. — (a) Courtesies of the floor and gal- 
leries shall be extended only by the President on his own motion or upon the written 
request of a member of the Senate to former members of the General Assembly or to 
distinguish visitors. 

(b) Members may designate Honorary Pages by a statement delivered to the Principal 
Clerk who will have a certificate issued therefor. 

(c) The President may upon written request at intervals between various orders of 
business extend courtesies to schools or other special large groups visiting in the galleries 
while they are present, and the President shall, at such times as he deems appropriate, 
express to those visitors in the galleries the pleasure of the Senate for their presence. 

RULE 14. Liniitntio)is on indiridital debate.— (a.) No senator shall speak on the same 
day more than twice on the main question, nor longer than thirty minutes for the first 
speech and fifteen minutes for the second speech. No senator shall speak on the same day 
more than once on an amendment or a motion to reconsider, commit, appeal or postpone, 
and then no longer than ten minutes. The Senate may. by consent of a majority of the 
senators present, suspend the operation of this subsection of this rule during any debate 
on any particular question. , ,:, 

(b) By permission of the President any member of the Senate may address the Senate 
from the lectern located on the floor before the dais for the purpose of explaining a bill 
or resolution, stating a point of personal privilege or for the purpose of debate. 

RULE 15. Priority of f)i(sine^!s. — All questions relating to priority of business shall 
be decided without debate. 

RULE 16. Reading of papers.— When the reading of a paper, other than a petition, is 
called for, and any Senator objects to the reading, the question shall be determined by the 
Senate without debate. 

RULE 17. General (leeorurn.—{a.) Senators and visitors shall uncover their heads 
upon entering the Senate Chamber while the Senate is in session and shall continue un- 
covered during their continuance in the Chamber, unless one's religion requires his head 
1 to be covered. 

(b) No remark reflecting personally upon the action of any Senator shall be in order 
upon the floor of the Senate unless preceded by a motion or resolution of censure. 

(c) When the President is putting a question, or a division by counting is in progress, 
no Senator shall walk out of or across the Chamber, nor when a Senator is speaking, pass 
between him and the President. 



832 North Carolina Manual 



(dl W'lu'n a motioti to adjoufn oi' (of recess is afl'iriiialivrly (Ictertniiicd. no rrn'mlici- oi- 
offiiHM' shall l('a\(' his phu'(> iiiilil adjoiiniincnl or rcct'ss is di'chircd li\' the I'residciii. 

(t'l Sniokiii.u' shall not he allowed in the tralleries of the Senate (iurinjr sessions. 

(f) No rt'mark solieitin.ir tlie donat ion of funds for tlie support of an\' person or or.uaniza- 
tion shall he in order upon the floor of the Senate, unless the remark has some relevance to 
a hill or resolution hefore the body. 

II L MOTIONS 

lUT.l"; IM. Miitiiiiis iji mrdlh/. — All motions shall he reduced to writing, if desired by 
the President or a Senator, delivered at the tal)le, and read l)y the President or Reading 
Clerk before the same are debated: but any motion may be withdrawn by the introducer 
at any time before decision or amendment. PLxcept as otherwise specifically provided in 
these rules, no second is required. 

Rl^LE 19. MdtiiiHs: unlcr <if pncfdcHcc— When a question is before the Senate no 
motion shall be received e.xcept those herein specified, which motions shall have preced- 
ence as follows: 

1 1 1 To adjourn. 

(L!) To lay on the table. 

(Ml For the previous (question. 

(4) To postpone indefinitely. 

(")) To postpone to a certain day. 

(<)) To commit to a standinj? committee. 

(7) To comiiut to a select committee. 

(8) To amend. 

(9) To substitute. 

Rl'LE 20. Miitions to 11(1 jniirn mid to Imj on th( tulilc. — The motions to adjourn and to 
lay on the table shall be seconded and decided without debate, and the motion to adjourn 
sliall always be in order when made by a Senator entitled to the floor. 

Rl'LK '1\. Motions to fiosfjioHi' to ccrtiiiii dini and to coiinnit. — The respective 
motions to postpose to a certain day, or to commit to a standing or select committee, shall 
preclude debate on the main question. 

Rl'LK 22. Action ir/ini fin nous iim stioii piiidiiKj. — When a motion for the previous 
question is made and is pending, debate shall cease. After a motion for the previous ques- 
tion is made, pending a second thereto, any member may give notice that the desires to 
offer an amendment to the bill or other matter under consideration: and after the pre- 
vious question is seconded such member shall be entitled to offer his amendment in 
pursuance of such notice, 

f 

Rl Lh 2.'}, Motion for jifi nous ijin stion. — The previous question shall be as follows: j 
"Shall the main question be now put?" and until it is decided shall preclude ail amend- 
ments and debate. If this question is decided in the affirmative, the "main question" shall , 
be on the passage of the bill, resolution, or other matter under consideration: but when I 



Legislative Branch 333 



anu'iKlmenls are pcndinjr, the question shall be taken upon such amendments in their 
inverse order, without further debate or amendment: Provided, that no one shall move the 
previous question except the chairman of the committee submitting: the report on the bill 
or t)lher matter under consideration, or the member introducinpr the bill or other matter 
under consideration, or the member in charjje of the measure, who shall be designated 
by the chairman of the committee reporting- the same to the Senate at the time the bill or 
other matter under consideration is reported to the Senate or taken up for consideration. 

RL'LE 24. Motion to nvoiisitler. — When a question has been once put and decided, 
any Senator who voted in the majority may move to reconsideration thereof; but no 
motion for the reconsideration of any vote shall be in order after the bill, resolution, 
message, report, amendment, or motion upon which the vote was taken has gone out of the 
possession of the Senate: nor shall any motion for reconsideration be in order unless made 
on the same day or in the next following legislative day on which the vote proposed to be 
reconsidered took place, unless the motion is made by the Committee on Rules and Opera- 
tion of the Senate for verbal or grammatical errors in the bills, when the motion may be 
made at any time: Provided, that when the ne.xt legislative day has by motion of the 
Senate, been restricted as to matters which may be considered, a motion to reconsider 
shall be in order on the next succeeding day upon which regular business is conducted. No 
question shall be reconsidered more than once. 

IV. VOTING 

RULE 25. Ihe of electronic rotiiig .s-y/.s/c^/.— (a) Votes on the following questions 
shall be taken on the electronic voting system, and the ayes and noes shall be recorded 
on the Journal: 

(1) All questions on which the Constitution of North Carolina requires that the ayes 
and noes be taken and recorded on the Journal. 

(2) All questions on which a call for the ayes and noes under Rule 26(b) has been 
sustained. 

{'A) Both second and third readings of bills proposing amendment of the Constitution 
of North Carolina. 

(b) Votes on the following questions shall be taken on the electronic voting system, and 
a copy of the machine print-out of the votes shall be filed in the Legislative Library where 
it shall be open to public inspection: 

(1) Second reading of all public bills, all amendments to public bills offered after 
second reading, third reading if a public bill was amended after second reading, 
and all conference reports on public bills. 

(2) Any other question upon direction of the Chair or upon motion of any Senator 
supported by one-fifth of the Senators present. 

(c) When the electronic voting system is used, the Chair shall fix and announce the 
time, not to exceed one minute, which shall be allowed for voting on the question before 
the Senate. The system shall be set to lock automatically and to record the vote when that 
time has expired. Once the system has locked and recoriled a vote, the vote shall be 
printed by the system. 



334 North Carolina Manual 



(d) The votinp: station at each Senator's desk in the Chamber shall be used only by the 
Senator to which the station is assijrned. Under no circumstances shall any other person 
vote at a Senator's station. It is a breach of the ethical obligation of a Senator either to 
rf(]ui'st tliat another vote at the recjuesting Senator's station, or to vote at another 
Senator's station. The Chair shall enforce this rule without exception. 

(e) Wlien tlie electronic voting system is used, the Chair shall state the (jui'stion and 
shall theti state substantially the following: "All in favor vote 'aye'; all opposed vote 'no'; 

seconds will be allowed for voting on this (juestion; the Clerk will unlock the 

machine." After the machine locks and records the vote, the Chair shall announce the vote 
and declai'e the result. 

(f) One copy of the machine print-out of the vote record shall be filed in the office of 
the Principal Clerk, and one copy shall be filed in the Legislative Library where it shall 
be open to public inspection. 

(g) When the Chair ascertains that the electronic voting system is inoperative before a 
vote is taken or while a vote is being taken on the electronic system, he shall announce 
that fact to the Senate and any partial electronic system voting record shall be voided. In 
such a case, if the Constitution of North Carolina or the Rules of the senate require a call 
of the ayes and noes, the Clerk shall call the roll of the Senate, and the ayes and 'no'; 
shall be taken manually and shall be recorded on the Journal. All other votes shall be 
taken by voice vote as prescried in Senate Rule 26(a). If. after a vote is taken on the elec- 
tronic system, it is discovered that a malfunction caused an error in the electronic system 
print-out. the Chair shall tiirect the Reading Clerk and the Principal Clerk to verify and 
correct the print-out record and so advise the senate. 

(h) For the purpose of identifying motions on which the vote is taken on the electronic 
system (the identification codes having no relation to the order of precedence of motions), 
the motions are coded as follows: 

L To lay on the table. 

2. P^or the previous question. 

3. To postpone indefinitely. 

4. To postpone to a day certain. 

5. To refer to a committee. 

6. To reconsider. 

7. To adopt. 

8. To concur. 

9. To take from the table. 
10. Miscellaneous 

Rl'LE 26. I'dlcr rotes: cdll fnr a//c.s (tud noes. — (a) When the electronic voting system 
is not used, all votes on which a call of the roll of the Senate is not required shall be 
taken by voice vote. The question shall be put as follows; "Those in favor say 'aye'." and, 
after the affirmative vote is expressed, "Opposed 'no' "; after which the Chair shall an- 
nounce the result. If a division on any vote is desired, it must be called for immetliately 
before the result of the voting is announced on any question, and upon such call, the Chair 
shall require the members to stand and be counted for and against the proposition under 
consideration. 



Legislative Branch " 335 



(b) The ayes and the noes may be called for on any question before the vote is taken. If 
a Senator desires the ayes and noes recorded on the Journal on a question, he shall 
address the Chair and obtain recog'nition and say "Upon that quest I call for the ayes 
and noes." Whereupon the Chair shall say, "Is the call sustained?" If one-fifth of the 
Senators present then stand, the vote shall be taken on the electronic voting system if it is 
operative, and the ayes and noes shall be recorded on the Journal. If the electronic voting 
system is inoperative, the roll of the Senate shall be called and the ayes and noes taken 
manually and recorded on the Journal. If fewer than one-fifth of the Senators present 
stand to sustain the call, the Chair shall announce "An insufficient number up" and a 
vote by electronic voting or by voice, whichever is appropriate under the Rules of the 
Senate, shall be taken. 

RULE 27. Pairs. — If a Senator is paired with another Senator on a cjuestion, the 
Senator shall announce the pair as follows: "Mr. President, I desire to announce the pair 

If Senator were present, he would vote : I would vote (the 

opposite)." The Senator shall send forward at that time a written statement of the pair 
on a form provided by the Principal t'ierk and neither member of the pair shall vote on 
the question. A pair shall be announced before the vote is taken I'ira rocc, or if the 
electronic voting system is used, before the machine is unlocked. The Clerk shall 
record the pair on the Journal when the Constitution or Rules of the Senate require a 
call of the roll and shall record on the electronic system printout all pairs announced. 

RULE 28. Diridiiiij (iiH'stio)i.—U any question contains several distinct propositions, 
it shall be divided by the President, at the request of any Senator, provided each sub- 
division, if left to itself, forms a substantive proposition. 

RULE 29. />////y ta rote: cxckscs. — (a) Every Senator who is within the bar of the 
Senate when the question is stated by the Chair shall vote thereon unless he is excused by 
the Senate. The bar of the Senate shall include the entire Senate Chamber. 

(b) Any Senator may request to be excused from voting, either immediately l)efore or 
after the vote has been called for and before a viva voce vote result has been announced or 
before the electronic voting system has been unlocked. The Senator may make a brief 
statement of the reasons for making such request, and shall send forward to the Principal 
Clerk, on a form provided by the Clerk, a concise statement of the reason for the request, 
and the Clerk shall include this statement in the journal. The question on granting of the 
request shall be taken without debate. 

RULE 30. Exphuiatiait of rote. — Any Senator may explain his vote on any bill 
pending by obtaining permission of the President after the vote is taken: Provided, that 
not more than three minutes shall he consumed in such explanation. 

RLILE 30.1. Qiirsfiafis of pcrsoiicl pririlvijc. — Upon recognition by the President for 
that purpose, any Senator may speak to a question of personal privilege for a time not 
exceeding three minutes. Personal privilege may not be used to explain a vote or debate 
a bill. The President shall determine if the question raised is one of privilege and shall, 
without the point of order being rai.sed, enforce this rule. 



3;^B North Carolina Manual 



V. COMMrnKES 

Rl'LK M. Appointment of coinniiffccs. — (a) The President of the Senate, unless he 
has l)y hiw (lisijualified himself from that office, shall have the exclusive rip:ht and 
authority to appoint all committees, regxilar or select, and to appoint committee chair- 
men and vice-chairmen, but he may delegate said authority in any instance, as he may 
choose. Upon the recommendation of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the 
Senate, the Senate may authorize, by majority vote of the Senators present and voting, 
a change in the number of standing committees. 

(I)) The President of the Senate shall appoint all standing committees at the beginning 
of the session. 

RULE ;J2. List of st<iii<li)i(i conntiittrcs. — (a) The standing committees shall be: 

Agriculture 

Alcoholic Beverage Control 

Appropriations 

Appropriations Committee on Human Resources and Corrections 

Appropriations Committee on Education 

Appropriations Committee on General Covernment and Transportation 

Base Budget 

Banking 

Constitutional Amendments 

Courts and Judicial Districts 

Criminal Justice 

Economy 

Education 

Election Laws 

Finance 

Higher fc]ducation 

Human Resources 

Insurance 

Judiciary I 

Judiciary H 

Judiciary HI 

Law Enforcement and Crime Control 

liOcal (Government and Regional Affairs 

Manufacturing, Labor and Commerce 

Natural and Economic Resources 

Public Utilities and Energy 

Rules and Operation of the Senate 

State Government 

Transportation 

University Board of Governors 

Veterans and Military Affairs 

Ways and Means 

Wildlife 

(b) In the session next after the federal decennial census, the President of the Senate 
shall appoint a standing committee or committees on redistricting. 



I 



Legislative Branch 337 



RULE 33. Notice of connnittee m('eti)U)s. — (a) Public notice of all committee meeting's 
shall be given in the Senate. The required notice may be waived as to any meeting by the 
attendance at that meeting of all of the members of the committee, or by personal waiver. 

(b) The chairman of the committee shall notify or cau.se to be notified the sponsor of 
each bill which is set for hearing or consideration before the committee as to the date, 
time and place of that meeting. 

RULE 34. Metiihcrs/iii) of cotHniittves: (luoniin. — Membership on standing commit- 
tees shall consist of not more than 22 or less than 8 Senators, including the chairman and 
vice-chairman who shall be designated by the President; provided, the committee 
membership on the Appropriations Committee, Finance Committee, and Ways and 
Means Committee shall not be limited as to membership but shall be left to the discretion 
of the President. No Senator shall hold membership on more than 12 standing committees 
unless the Rules and Operation of the Senate Committee provides otherwise. A quorum of 
the Appropriations, Finance, or Ways and Means Committee shall consist of a majority of 
the committee. A quorum of any other committee shall consist of either the chairman and 
five members or a majority of the committee, whichever is fewer. 

RULE 35. (Reserved for future use.) 

RULE 36. Cammittee yneetings. — No committee or subcommittee shall hold a secret 
meeting, and all meetings of committees and subcommittees shall be open to the public; 

Provided, that any committee or subcommittee has the inherent right to hold an executive 
session when it determines that it is absolutely necessary to have such a session in order 
to prevent personal embarrassment, or when it is in the best interest of the State: and in 
no event shall final action be taken by any committee or subcommittee except in open 
session. 

RULE 36.1. Coinniittec miuutc^i to Lrgislotire L/6/Y;r//.— The chairman of a com- 
mittee shall insure that written minutes are compiled for each of the committee's meet- 
ings. The minutes shall indicate the number of members present and the actions taken 
by the committee at the meeting. Not later than 20 days after the adjournment of each 
session of the General Assembly, the chairman, except the chairman of the Appropria- 
tions, F^inance, or Ways and Means Committee, shall deliver the minutes to the Legisla- 
tive Library. The President Pro Tempore of the Senate may grant a reasonable exten- 
sion of time for filing said minutes upon application of the committee chairman. 

RULE 37. (Reserved for interim operations rule). 

VL HANDLING BILLS 

RULE 38. CoHstntctioti of rules.— AW provisions of these rules applying to bills 
shall apply also to resolutions, memorials and petitions. 

RULE 39. Font! and copies of hills.— (a) Unless variation is authorized by the Com- 
mittee on Rules and Operation of the Senate, bills submitted for introduction shall be in 
a computer-typed form prepared by the I^egislative Services Office. When a bill which is 
introduced is not in the prescribed form, the Principal Clerk shall cause the bill to be 
retyped in the prescribed form, and the retyped copy shall become the official copy of the 
bill for all purposes. The original bill shall then be returned to the introducer of the bill 
and shall not become a part of the records or documents of the Senate. 



338 North Carolina Manual 



(1)1 Whenever u l)ill is introduced. 20 copies shall be sul)milte(i to tlie I'nncipal Clerk. 
An\' hill submitted without the reciuired number of copies shall be immediately returned 
to the introducer. 

lU'LK ;{9. L I'ldilic (1)1(1 local hills; (ica ildhll itii of cdpics of hills. — A public bill is a 
bill affecting- IT) or more counties. A local bill is one affecting fewer than 15 counties. No 
public bill anti, u{)on objection by a meml)er, no local bill may be considered unless 
copies of the bill have been made available to the entire membership of the Senate. 

Rl'LE 40. ItifrodiKiioH of hills. — (a) Every bill filed for introduction shall contain 
on the outside cover the title of the document and the name of the Senator or Senators 
presenting: it. Bills shall be delivered by the primary sponsor of the document or with 
the prescribed authorization form signed by the primary sponsor to the office of the | 
Senate Principal Clerk who shall receive them during regular session according to the 
following schedule: j 

Monday until 8:30 o'clock P.M.: i 

Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday until j 

4:00 o'clock P.M.: j 

Friday until 8:00 o'clock P.M. { 

All bills shall be numbered by the Office of the Principal Clerk when filed and shall be |' 
considered introduced when presented to the Senate on the ne.xt following legislative day j 
for the first reading and reference to committee. 

i 

(b) Filing of bills during the interim shall be under the direction of the Rules and ' 

Operation of the Senate Committee as approved by the Senate. 

(c) All celebration, commendation, and commemoration resolutions, except those 
honoring the memory of deceased persons, shall be excluded from introduction in the 
Senate if the House has a substantially similar rule on these resolutions. 

RULE 4L Deadline on intr(Hluetio)> (jf cctioin hills.— AW bills prepared to be intro- 
duced by deiiartments, agencies or institutions of the state must be introtluced in the 
Senate not later than April 1 of the session. All local bills must be introduced not later 
than March 9 of the session. All resolutions, except those honoring the memory of i 
deceased persons, must be introduced not later than April 1 of the session. f 

RULE 4L1 Rcldtioiisiti ji hctici'CH Wrijis (111(1 Mcdiis ( 'oinni ittcc (iiid other coniniittei's 

(Icdlnuj icitli tnoticji ludticrs; rcldtioiishi p hcticccii these other eoiiirHittees dealiiKj icdh '■ 

itioiicji tiddlers. — The Committee on Ways and Means shall have responsibility for final I 

consideration of bills dealing with money matters before the bills are considered on i 

the floor of the Senate. All bills referred by the President to the Committee on , 

Appropriations, the Committee on P^inance, and the Committee on Economy shall be \ 

referred by the chairman of the respective committee to the Committee on Ways and j 

Means for consideration before the bills go to the floor of the Senate, except that bills ; 

referred to the Appropriations or Finance Committees may be rei)orted directly back to [ 

the floor with the agreement of the Chairmen of the Ways and Means, Apt)ropriations, | 

and Finance Committees. Bills referred to the Committee on Appropriations by the i 

President may be referred by the Chairman of the Committee on Appropriations to the ' 

Appropriations Committee on Human Resources and Corrections, the Appropriations j 

Committee on Education, the Appropriations Committee on General Government and i 

Transportation, or the Committee on Base Budget for a report back to the Committee on i 

Appropriations. j 



Legislative Branch 339 



RULE 42. Rcferf))ccs of approprintiou^i <ni<l fi)iauce hills. — All bills introduced in 
the Senate providing for appropriations from the State, or any subdivision thereof, 
shall, before being considered by the Senate, be referred to the Committee on Appropria- 
tions, and bills referred to other committeei^ carrying any such provisions shall be 
reported to the Senate as being bills to be referred to the Appropriations Committee 
before proper action may be taken by the Senate. All bills introduced in the Senate 
providing for bond issues, levying taxes, or in any manner affecting the taxing power of 
the State or any subdivision thereof, shall, before being considered by the Senate, 
be referred to the Committee on Finance, and bills referred to other committees carry- 
ing any such provisions shall be reported to the Senate as being bills to be referred to the 
Finance Committee before proper action may be taken by the Senate. 

RULE 42.1. Fiscdl /(ofr.s. — (a) The chairman or vice-chairman of the Appropriations 
Committee, of the Finance Committee or of the Rules Committee, or of the Ways and 
Means Committee, upon the floor of the Senate, may request that a fiscal analysis be 
made of a bill, resolution or an amendment to a bill or resolution which is in the pos- 
session of the Senate and that a fiscal note be attached to the measure, when in the 
opinion of that chairman or vice-chairman the fiscal effects of that measure are not 
apparent from the language of the measure. 

(b) The fiscal note shall be filed and attached to the bill or amendment within two 
legislative days of the request. If it is impossible to prepare a fiscal note within two 
legislative days, the Director of Fiscal Research shall, in writing, so advise the presiding 
officer, the principal clerk, and the member introducing or proposing the measure and 
shall indicate the time when the fiscal note will be ready. 

(c) The fiscal note shall be prepared by the F^iscal Research Division on a form ap- 
proved by the Rules Committee as to content and form and signed by the staff member or 
members preparing it. If no estimate in dollars is possible, the fiscal note shall indicate 
the reasons that no estimate is provided. The fiscal note shall not comment on the merit 
but may identify technical problems. The P^iscal Research Division shall make the fiscal 
note available to the membership of the Senate. 

(d) A sponsor of a bill or amendment may deliver a copy of this bill or amendment 
to the Fiscal Research Division for the preparation of a fiscal note. Prior to the filing of 
the bill or proposing of the amendment, the Fiscal Research Division, except to the 
sponsor, shall keep in confidence the identity of the sponsor. The sponsor shall attach 
the fiscal note to the bill when he files the bill or to the amendment when he moves its 
adoption. 

(e) The sponsor of a bill or amendment to which a fiscal note is attached who objects 
to the estimates and information provided may reduce to writing his objections. These 
objections shall be appended to the fiscal note attached to the bill or amendment and 
to the copies of the fiscal note available to the membership. 

(f) Subsection (a) of this rule shall not apply to the current operations appropriations 
bill or the capital improvements appropriations bill. This rule shall not apply to a bill or 
amendment requiring an actuarial note under these rules. 

RULE 42.2. Actuarial wo^.s.— (a) p]very bill or resolution proposing any change in 
the law relative to any State-administered retirement or pension system shall have 



340 North Carolina Manual 



attucht'd to it at the time of its eonsideration by any committee a l)rief explanatory 
statement oi- note which shall include a reliable estimate of the financial and actuarial 
effect of the proposed chanjfe to that retirement or pension system. The actuarial note 
shall he attached to the jacket of each proposed bill or resolution which is reported 
favorably by any committee, shall be separate therefrom, and shall be clearly designated 
as an actuarial note. 

(b) Tile sponsor of the bill or resolution shall present a copy of the measure, with his 
reijuesl for an actuarial note, to the Fiscal Research Division which shall prepare the 
actuarial note as promptly as possible but not later than two weeks after the request is 
made. Actuarial notes shall be prepared in the order of receipt of request and shall be 
transmitted to the sponsor of the measure. The actuarial note of the Fiscal Research 
Division shall be prepared and signed by an actuary. 

(c) The sponsor of the bill or resolution shall also present a copy of the measure to the 
chief administrative officer of the retirment or pension system affected by the measure. 
The chief administrative officer shall have an actuarial note prepared by the system's 
actuary on the measure and shall transmit the note to the si)onsor of the measure not later 
than two weeks after the re(iuest is received. The actuarial note shall be attached to the 
jacket of the measure. 

(d) The note shall be factual and shall, if possible, provide a reliable estimate of both 
the immediate effect and, if determinable, the long range fiscal and actuarial effect of the 
measure. If, after careful investigation, it is determined that no dollar estimate is pos- 
sible, the note shall contain a statement to that effect, setting forth the reasons why no 
dollar estimate can be given. No comment or opinion shall be included in the actuarial 
note with regard to the merits of the measure for which the note is prepared. Technical 
and mechanical defects in the measure may be noted. 

(e) When any committee reports a measure to which an actuarial note is attached at the 
time of committee consideration, with any amendment of such nature as would sub- 
stantially affect the cost to or the revenues of any retirement or pension system, the 
chairman of the committee reporting the measure shall obtain from the Fiscal Research 
Division an actuarial note of the fiscal and actuarial effect of the proposed amendment. 
The actuarial note shall be attached to the jacket of the measure. An amendment to any 
bill or resolution shall not be in order if the amendment affects the costs to or the revenues 
of a State-administered retirement or pension system, unless the amendment is ac- 
companied by an actuarial note, prepared by the Fiscal Research Division, as to the 
actuarial affect of the amendment. 

(f) The Fiscal Research Division shall make all relevant actuarial notes available to the 
membership of the Senate. 

RULE 43. First rouiiiKj: refcrcua' tocointiiittee. — All bills filed, upon presentation to 
the Senate, shall be read in regular order of business by their number and title which 
shall constitute the first reading of the bill and unless otherwise disposed of, the President 
or presiding officer shall announce the referral of the document. The title and referral 
shall be entered on the Journal. 

RIILP] 44. Bills to ri'cfirc three rea<liii(is.— Every bill shall receive three readings 
previous to being passed, and the President shall give notice at each whether it be the 



I 



Legislative Branch 341 



first, second, or third. After the first reading, unless a motion is made by some Senator, 
the President shall refer the bill to an appropriate committee. No bill shall be amended 
upon the floor of the Senate until it has been twice read. Senate simple resolutions shall 
not require three readings. 

RULE 45. Reports of coninuttees. — Every Senator presenting a report of a 
committee shall endorse the report with the name of the committee and, in case of a 
minority report, with the names of the members making the report. The report of the 
committee shall show that a majority of the committee were present and voted. Every 
report of the committee upon a bill or resolution shall stand upon the general orders with 
the bill or resolution. No committee shall report a bill or resolution without prejudice. 

RULE 45.1. Action on amendment before re-referral. — li any committee 
recommends adoption of an amendment or committee substitute of a bill which, under 
the rules of the senate must be referred to the Committee on appropriations or Committee 
on Finance, the amendment or committee substitute shall be considered and, if adopted, 
the amendment or substitute engrossed before the bill is re-referred. 

RULE 46. Unfavorable repoii by committee.— (a) All bills reported unfavorably by 
the committee to which they were referred, and having no minority report, shall lie upon 
the table, but may be taken from the table, and placed upon the calendar by a two-thirds 
vote of those present and voting. 

(b) When a bill is reported by a committee with an unfavorable report, but accom- 
panied by a minority report, signed by at least three members of the committee who were 
present and who voted on the bill when the bill was considered in committee, then the 
minority report shall be placed on the calendar and considered the following day, and 
the question before the Senate shall be "The adoption of the Minority Report". If the 
minority report is adopted by a majority vote, the bill shall be placed upon the calendar; 
if the minority report is not adopted, the bill shall lie upon the table. 

RULE 47. Recall of bill from c(mimittee.— Whan a bill has been introduced and 
referred to a committee, if after 10 days the committee has failed to report thereon, then 
the author of the bill may, after three days' public notice given in the Senate and 
delivered in writing to the chairman of the committee, on motion supported by a vote of 
two-thirds of the Senators present and voting, recall the bill from the committee to the 
floor of the Senate for consideration and such action thereon as a majority of the 
Senators present may direct. This rule shall not be temporarily suspended without one 
day's notice on the motion given in the Senate and delivered in writing to the chairman of 
the committee and to sustain that motion two-thirds of the Senators present and voting 
shall be required. 

RULE 48. Calendar: order to be follon-ed.—The President and the Principal Clerk of 
the Senate shall see that all bills are acted upon by the Senate in the order in which they 
stand upon the calendar, unless otherwise ordered as hereinafter provided. The pub- 
lished calendar shall include all bills reported favorably from committees, or reported 
with a minority report attached, or placed on the calendar on motion: Provided, that the 
published local calendar may carry the number of each bill, the county or counties re- 
ferred to, and an abbreviated statement of the title of the bill. 

RULE 49. Con.'^idering billsout of regular orf/^^r.— Except as provided in rule 50, any 
bill or other matter may be taken up out of order upon order of the President or upon 



.S42 North Carolina Manual 



niotioii sustained by a majority of the membership present and voting. 

RULE 50. Tlilnl rending requirenicttts. — No bill on its third reading shall be acted 
upon out of the rejrular order in which it stands on the calendar, and no bill shall be 
acted upon on its third reading? the same day on which it passed its second reading, 
unless so ordered by two-thirds of the Senators present. 

Rl'LE 5L Special orders. — Any bill or other matter may be made a special order for 
a particular day or hour by a vote of the majority of the Senators voting, and if action on 
the bill is not completed on that day, it shall be returned to its place on the calendar, 
unless it is made a special order for another day; and when a special order is under 
consideration it shall take precedence over any special order or subsequent order for the 
day, but such subsequent order may be taken up immediately after the previous special 
order has been disposed of. 

RULE 52. Procedure irlieit necessarii nnnd>er of Setuttors not prexeid. — If, on taking 
the question on a bill, it appears that a constitutional quorum is not present, or if the bill 
requires a vote of a certain proportion of all the Senators to pass it, and it appears that 
such number is not present, the bill shall be again read and the question taken thereon: if 
the bill fails a second time for the want of the necessary number being present and voting, 
the bill shall not be finally lost, but shall be returned to the calendar in its proper order. 

RULE 53. Effect of defeated hill.— (a.) After a bill has been tabled, has failed to pass 
on any of its readings, or has been placed on the unfavorable calendar, the contents of 
such bill or the principal provisions of its subject matter shall not be embodied in any 
other measure. Upon the point of order being raised and sustained by the Chair, such 
measure shall be laid upon the table, and shall not be taken therefrom except by a vote 
of two-thirds of the qualified membership of the Senate: Provided, no local bill shall be 
held by the Chair as embodying the provisions, or being identical with any statewide 
measure which has been laid upon the table or failed to pass any of its readings. 

(b) When a bill has been postponed indefinitely by the Senate, the bill shall lie upon 
the table, and shall not be taken therefrom except by a vote of two-thirds of the Senators 
present. 

RLILE 54. T(dxin(i hill from f(d>le.—No bill which has been laid upon the table shall 
be taken therefrom except by a vote of two-thirds of the Senators present. 

RULE 55. Aniendin(j //7/r.s (>/7)///.s-.— When a bill is materially modified or the scope 
of its application extended or decreased, or if the county, or counties, to which it applies 
is changed, the title of the bill shall be changed by the Senator introducing the bill or by 
the committee having it in charge, or by the Principal Clerk, so as to indicate the full 
purport of the bill as amended and the county or counties to which it applies. 

RULE 56. Correct io}i.'< of ti/}>ographical error.s in hill.^. — The Enrolling Clerk is 
authorized to make corrections of typographical errors in the text of bills at any time 
prior to ratification. Before the correction is made, the Enrolling Clerk shall have the 
approval of the Chairman of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate. 

RLILE 57. Conference committee.^. — Whenever the Senate declines or refuses to 
concur in amendments put by the House to a bill originating in the senate, or refuses to 



f 



I 



. Legislative Branch 343 



adopt a substitute adopted by the House for a bill originating in the Senate, a conference 
committee shall be appointed upon motion and the bill under consideration shall there- 
upon go to and be considered by the joint conferees on the part of the Senate and House. In 
considering matters in difference between the Senate and House committed to the con 
ferees, only such matters as are in difference between the two houses shall be considered 
by the conferees, and the conference report shall deal only with such matters. The con- 
ference report shall not be amended. Except as herein set out, the rules of the United 
States House of Representatives shall govern the appointment, conduct, and reports of the 
conferees. 

RULE 57.1. Amendments (ind committee snhstitutes adopted by the House to bills 
originating in the Senate. — (a) Whenever the House has adopted an amendment or a 
committee substitute for a bill originating in the Senate, and has returned the bill to the 
Senate for concurrence in that amendment or committee substitute, the Senate may not 
concur in that amendment or committee substitute until the next legislative day fol- 
lowing the day on which the Senate receives that measure. 

(b) The presiding officer may, and upon motion supported by a majority of the Senate 
present and voting shall, refer the bill to an appropriate committee for consideration of 
the amendment or committee substitute. 

(c) The presiding officer shall, in placing the bill on the calendar, rule whether the 
amendment or committee substitute is a material amendment under Article II, Section 
23, of the State's Constitution. If the measure was referred to committee, the committee 
shall: 

i. report the bill with the recommendation either that the Senate concur or that the 
Senate do not concur: and 

ii. advise the presiding officer as to whether or not the amendment or committee sub- 
stitute is a material amendment under Article II, Section 23, of the State's Constitu- 
tion. 

(d) If the amendment or committee substitute for a bill is not a material amendment, 
the question before the Senate shall be concurrence. , , . 

(e) If the amendment or committee substitute for a bill is a material amendment, the 
receiving of that bill on messages shall constitute first reading and the question before 
the house shall be concurrence on second reading. If the motion is passed, the question 
then shall be concurrence on third reading on the next legislative day. 

(f) No committee substitute adopted by the House to a bill originating in the Senate 
may be amended by the Senate. 

RULE 58. Certification of passage of hills.— The Principal Clerk shall certify the 
passage of bills by the Senate, with the date thereof, together with the face whether 
passed by vote of three-fifths or two-thirds of the Senate, whenever such vote may be 
required by the Constitution or laws of the State. 

RULE 59. Transmittal of bills to House.— No bill shall be sent from the Senate on 
the day of its passage except on the last day of the session, unless otherwise ordered by 
a vote of two-thirds of the Senators present. 

RULE 59.1 Kngrossment.—BiUs and resolutions, except those making appropria- 
tions, which originate in the Senate and which are amended shall be engrossed before 
being sent to the House. 



344 North Carolina Manual 



Vn. LK(;iSLATIVK OFFK ERS AND EMPLOYEES 

Kl'I-E (>(). I'dni s.^'Vhe I*resi(it'nl of the Senate shall ai^point pajres. The President, 
or such person as he may designate, shall supervise the paj>:es and assign to them their 
duties. P^aeh pajre shall be at least 11 years of ajre. 

Rl'LE (iP Sfni('(ints-af-Ar»is. — (a) There shall be 14 positions of Assistant Serfreants- 
al-Arnis to be appointed by the Ser}j:eant-at-Arnis who are to work under his supervision 
and to be assigned such duties and powers as he shall direct. 

(b) The Serjeant-at-Arms shall be responsible for the safety of the members and 
employees of the Senate while in the Senate Chamber, or any place in which the Senate or 
its committees are in session. 

(c) The Ser^wint-at-Arms shall serve all warrants and subpoenas issued by orders of 
the Senate and sig'ned by the President of the Senate, and said warrants and subpoenas 
shall be returnable to the Principal Clerk of the Senate. 

RULE 62. I'ruicifMil (lirk's stuff.— The Principal Clerk of the Senate shall employ 
all necessary employees and clerks recjuired to carry out the duties of his office. The 
Principal Clerk shall have supervision and control, and shall assign such duties and 
powers as he shall direct to his employees and clerks. 

RLILE 6;J. CoiiDnittrc clerks. —ia.) The President of the Senate shall appoint clerks to 
such committees as he may deem necessary and appropriate. 

(b) All committee clerks, when not in attentlance upon the tlirect duties connected 
with their committee shall re])ort to the Supervisor of Committee Clerks for such duties 
as may be assigned to them upon approval by committee chairmen. 

RULE 64. SciKifi .Joiinidl.— The Principal Clerk shall prepare and be responsible 
for the Journal. The Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate shall examine the 
Journal to determine if the proceedings of the previous day have l)een correctly recorded. 

RULE 65. (Reserved for future addition to rules). 

VI I L (GENERAL RULES 

Rl^LF^S 66. Prvsidi lit to si<iii pnjH rs. — All acts, addresses and resolutions, and all 
warrants and subpoenas issued by ortler of the Senate shall be signed by the President. 

RULE 67. A(hiiissi(tii to tin flinn- uj tin' Snmtc. — No person e.xcept members of the 
Senate, members of the House of Representatives, staff of the (ieneral Assembly: Judges 
of the Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, and Superior Courts: the (iovernor and members 
of the Council of State; former members of the (ieneral Assembly; and persons par- 
ticularly invited and extended the privileges of the floor by the President shall be 
admitted to the floor of the Senate during its session. No registered lobbyist shall be 
admitted to the floor of the Senate or Senate Chamber while the Senate is in session. 

Rl'LE 68. rrli-iliycs of the floor. —Any group or individual other than meml>ers of 
the Senate who desires to make remarks upon the floor of the Senate will first obtain ap- 
proval of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate. 



Legislative Branch 345 



RL'LE 69. .\( irs medio. — The President is authorized to assij?n area and equipment 
on the floor of the Senate for the use of the representatives of news media: and the Presi- 
dent shall provide regulations for the operation of the representatives of the news media 
on the floor of the Senate. 

RULE 70. .4 /«(■//(•(' ivitfioiif /cr/ /•{'.— No Senator or officer of the Senate shall depart 
the service of the Senate without leave, or receive pay as a Senator or officer for the time 
he is absent without leave. 

RULE 71. Pldclufi nidferldl on Sotafois' desks. — Any person other than a member of 
the Senate desiring to place articles of any kind on or about desks in the Senate Chamber 
or in the offices of the members of the Senate shall make written application to, and 
obtain written approval from the Principal Clerk. 

RULE 72. Assiynmetit of ojjiees. ^The Chairman of the Committee on Rules and 
Operation of the Senate, subject to the approval of the Committee, is authorized to make 
assignments of committee rooms and offices to designated committees, chairmen, and 
members of the Senate. The office adjacent to any committee room assigned to a principal 
committee by the Chairman of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate, 
subject to the approval of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate, shall be 
automatically assigned to the chairman of the principal committee. In making such 
assignments of individual offices, the said Rules Committee Chairman shall give 
preferential consideration to the respective members according to the length of service 
which each member has rendered in the General Assembly. 

RLILE 73. Adniinistrotire rules and regnlations inrolruig Senate employees. — All 
administrative rules, regulations and orders involving all individuals employed to perform 
duties for the Senate, other than those appointed by the Principal Clerk and the Sergeant- 
at-Arms, shall be first approved by the Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate. 

RULE 74. Xotiee of piiblie hearings. — Notice shall be given not less than five 
calendar days prior to public hearings. Such notices shall be issued as information for the 
press and the information shall be posted in the places designated by the Principal 
Clerk. 

RULE 75. Public hearings, filing of irritten statements. — Persons desiring to appear 
and be heard at a public hearing are encouraged to file with the chairman of the com- 
mittee a brief or a written statement of the remarks to be made at least 24 hours before 
the time of the hearing'. 

RULE 76. \'oting in joint .-sessions. — When any Senate Committee sits jointly with 
the House Committee, the Senate Committee reserves the right to vote separatel\- from 
the House Committee. 

RULE 77. Alterations, suspension or resei.-<sion of rules. — (a) These rules may not be 
permanently rescinded or altered except by Senate simple resolution pa.ssed by a two- 
thirds vote of the Senators present and voting. The introducer of the resolution must, 
on the floor of the Senate, give notice of his intent to introduce the resolution on the 
legislative day preceding its introduction. 

(b) Except as otherwise provided herein, the Senate, upon two-thirds vote of the 
Senators present and voting, may temporarily suspend any of these rules. 

Sec 2. This resolution is effective upon its adoption. 



346 



North Carolina Manual 





119 




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CLERKS 



SPEAKER 



CLERKS 



Legislative Branch 347 

NORTH CAROLINA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

(Democrat Unless Indicated Otherwise) 
Officers 

Speaker Carl J. Stewart, Jr Gastonia 

Speaker Pro Tern H. Horlon Rountree Greenville 

Principal Clerk Grace A. Collins F^uquay-Varina 

Reading Clerk Sam J. Burrows, Jr Asheboro 

Sergeant-at-Arms Larry P. Eagles Tarboro 



Representatives 



Name Coiintti District Address Seat 

Adams, Allen Wake 15th Raleigh 81 

Auman, T. Clyde Moore 25th West End 78 

Barbee, Allen C Nash 7th Spring Hope 20 

Baker, Chris S., Jr Craven 3rd New Bern 1 

Barnes, Richard Forsyth 29th Winston-Salem 90 

Beard, R.D Cumberland 20th Fayetteville 29 

Bell, E. Graham Gaston 38th Gastonia 59 

Bissell, Marilyn r. (R) Mecklenburg 36th Charlotte 104 

Bone, Roger W Nash 7th Rocky Mount 102 

Brennan, Louise S Mecklenburg 36th Charlotte 106 

Bright, Joe L Craven 3rd Vanceboro 57 

Brown, John Walter (R) Wilkes 34th Elkin Ill 

Brubaker, Harold J. (R) Randolph 24th Asheboro 117 

Bumgardner, David W Gaston 38th Belmont 58 

Bundy, Sam D Pitt 8th Farmville 3 

Campbell. A. HartwelP Wilson 7th Wilson 21 

Carter, H. Otha (R) Stanly 32nd New London 110 

Chapin, Howard B Beaufort 2nd Washington 50 

Church, John T Vance 13th Henderson 22 

Clark, Douglas A Duplin 10th Kenansville 99 

Clark, William E Cumberland 20th Fayetteville 41 

Clarke, James McClure Buncombe 43rd Fairview 63 

Coble, J. Howard (R) Guilford 23rd (ireensboro 97 

Collins, P.C., Jr Alleghany 28th Laurel Springs 91 

Colton, Marie W Buncombe 43rd Asheville 51 

Cook. Ruth E Wake 15th Raleigh 82 

Convington, John W Richmond 27th Rockingham 88 

CuUipher, George P Martin 6th Williamston 35 

Davis, Robert E Robeson 21st Maxton 33 

DeRamus, Judson D., Jr P'orsyth 29th Winston-Salem 76 

Diamont, David Hunter Surry 28th Pilot Mountain 93 

Easterling, Ruth M Mecklenburg 36th Charlotte 105 

Economos, Gus Mecklenburg 36th C'harlotte 94 



348 North Carolina Manual 



K(l wards. Ivalph I' (luilt'ord 'Z'.Wd ( ireenshoro 74 

Kills, T.W.. -If Varu-e l.'Uh Henderson 108 

Knioe. -IctT 11 Macon -loth Franklin 87 

Kllu-ndjre. I'.ohhy R Harnett 18th LillinKton 100 

Kthridjre, liruci' Onslow 1th Swansboro 34 

Kvans, Charles I) Dare 1st Na^s Head 84 

Ezzell. James E.. -Ir Nash 7th Rockv Mount 49 

Falls, Robert / Cleveland 40th Shelby 11 

Foster, Jo (irahani Mecklenburp: .'{0th Charlotte 4 

Frye. Henry e (iuilford 'Z'Ard (ireensboro 73 

Fulcher, (',. Malcolm, Jr Carteret 4th Atlantic Beach 55 

Fussell, Aaron K Wake 15th Raleigh 79 

(Jamble, John R., Jr Lincoln 38th Lincolnton 60 

(ientry, J. Worth Stokes 28th King 92 

( Irady, Richard R Wayne 9th Seven Spring 96 

(ireenwood. (lordon H Buncombe 43rd Black Mountain 64 

Cuy. A. I) Onslow 4th Jacksonville 75 

Harris, fletcher Lee 18th Sanford 107 

Haworth, Byron (juilford 23rd High Point 62 

Helms, Parks Mecklenburg 36th Charlotte 6 

Hightovver, Foyle, Jr Anson 26th Wadesboro 46 

Hobgood, Robert H Franklin 14th Ix)uisburg 86 

Holmes. Edward S Chatham 17th Pittsboro 69 

Holmes, George M. (R) Yadkin 34th Ham})tonville 119 

Holroyd, W. Casper, Jr Wake 15th Raleigh 80 

Holt, Bertha Alamance 22nd Burlington 66 

Holt. Charles Cumberland 20th Fayetteville 27 

Hunt. John J Cleveland 40th Lattimore 23 

Hunt, Patricia Stanford Orange 17th Chapel Hill 70 

Huskins, J. P Iredell 35th Statesville 14 

Hux. Ceorge A Halifax 6th Halifax 36 

James. Vernon Pasquotank 1st Elizabeth City 24 

Jernigan, Roberts H., Jr Hertford 5th Ahoskie 16 

Johnson, Joseph E Wake 15th Raleigh 10 

Jordan, John M Alamance 22nd Saxapahaw 53 

Kaplan, Ted P'orsyth 29th Winston-Salem 89 

Keesee, Margaret P. (R) (iuilford 23rd Oreensboro 109 

Kemp, Ramey F., Sr David 30th Mocksville 67 

Lacey, S. I'... Jr. ( R) Avery 39th Newland 112 

Lamberth, Jim Davidson 30th Thomasville 68 

Lancaster, Martin Wayne 9th (ioldsboro 95 

Ledford, Ralph (R) Henderson 42nd Hender.sonville 113 

Lilley, Daniel T Lenoir 3rd Kinston 2 

Locklear, Horace Robeson 21st Lumberton 39 

Lutz, Edith L Cleveland 40th Lawndale 12 

Merritt, p]ugene New Hanover 12th Wilmington 71 

Messer. Ernest B Haywood 44th Canton 18 

Miller, Ceorge W., Jr Durham 16th Durham 44 

Morgan, James F Guilford 23rd High Point 85 

Morris, Glenn A McDowell 41st Marion 42 

McAlister, Robert L Rockingham 22nd Ruffin 65 

McDowell, Timothv H Alamance 22nd Mebane 54 

McMillan, William H Iredell 35th Statesville 28 

Nash, Robie L Rowan 31st Salisbury 31 

Nesbitt, Mary C- Buncome 43rd Asheville 52 



Legislative Branch 349 



Nesbitt, Martin L., Jr.' Buncombe 4.3rd Asheville 52 

Nye. Edd Bladen 19th Elizabethtown 37 

Parnell, David R Robeson 21st Parkton 40 

Pegg, Mary N. (R) Forsytii 29th Winston-Salem 118 

Phillips, Van F Mitchell 39th Spruce Pine 101 

Plyler, Aaron W Union 33rd Monroe 19 

Poovey, J. Reid (R) Catawba 37th Hickory 115 

Pulley, Paul Durham IBth Durham 83 

Quinn, Dwight W Cabarrus 33rd Kannapolis 7 

Rabon, Tom B.. Jr Brunswick 1 1th Winnabow 98 

Ramsey, Liston B Madison 44th Marshall 47 

Redding, Frank (R) Randolph 24th Asheboro 114 

Revelle, J. Guy, Sr Northampton 5th Conway 15 

Rhodes, S. Thomas (R) New Hanover 12th Wilmington 72 

Rountree, H. Horton Pitt 8th Greenville 13 

Pullman, Carl W. (R) Catawba 37th Hickory 116 

Seymour, Mary P Guilford 23rd Greensboro 61 

Smith, A. Neai Rowan 31st Woodleaf 25 

Spaulding, Kenneth B Durham 16th Durham 45 

Spoon, Roy (R) Mecklenburg 36th Charlotte 103 

Stewart, Carl J Gaston 38th Gastonia 120 

Tally, Lura S Cumberland 20th Fayetteville 30 

Taylor, Ron Bladen 19th Elizabethtown 38 

Tennille, Margaret Forsyth 29th Winston-Salem 77 

Thomas, Betty Dorton Cabarrus 33rd Concord 8 

Tison, Ben Mecklenburg 36th Charlotte 5 

Tyson, Henry M Cumberland 20th Fayetteville 17 

Varner, John W Davidson 30th Lexington 56 

Watkins, William T Granville 13th Oxford 48 

White, Eugene M Caldwell 34th Hudson 32 

Woodard, Barney Paul Johnston 14th Princeton 43 

Woodard, Wilma Wake 15th Garner 9 

Wright, Richard Columbus 19th Tabor City 26 

1. Campbell resigned June 30th, 1979, following his appointment to the North Carolina Utilities Commission. 
(At time of printing no replacement had been appointed.) 

2. Nesbitt died August 1st. 1979 and her son Martin L. Nesbitt. Jr. was appointed September 13th. to complete her 
term. 

3. See footnote 2. 







1 




Legislative Branch 351 



CARL JEROME STEWART, JR. 

SPEAKER, HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 
(Democrat — Gaston County) 

(Thirty-eighth Representative District— Counties: Gaston and Lincoln. P'our 
Representatives.) 

Carl Jerome Stewart, Jr. was born in Gastonia, October 2, 1936. Son of Carl Jerome 
and Hazel (Holland) Stewart. Attended Ashely High School, Gastonia, 1950-54; Duke 
University, A.B. degree, 1958; elected to Phi Beta Kappa: Duke University Law School, 
J.D. degree, 1958-1961; awarded Honorary Doctor of Laws degree, Belmont Abbey 
College, 1978. Lawyer, teaching Business Law. Member — American Bar Association; 
American Trial Lawyers Association; North Carolina Bar Association; North Carolina 
State Bar. At Ashley High School, was selected President Sophomore, Junior and Senior 
classes, also Firestone Scholar. At Duke University, was Regional Scholar: President, 
Student Body; and Assistant to the Dean; won Southern Regional National Moot Court 
Competition and was national finalist in New York; was also Atlantic Coast Conference 
Debating Champion; President, Duke Alumni Association; Board of Advisors, Gardner- 
Webb College; Chairman, Duke University Alumni Admissions Committee for Gaston 
County. Member, Newcomen Society; Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks; Gaston 
Country Club. Director and first President, Gaston Skills, Incorporated, an organization 
to aid in rehabilitation of physically and mentally handicapped adults. Board of 
Directors, Gaston Children's Center; Board of Directors, Gaston County Chapter for 
American Cancer Society; past Director, Gastonia Junior Chamber of Commerce; 1965 
winner. Distinguished Service Award as Gastonia's Outstanding Young Man of the 
Year: Omega Psi Phi Citizen of the Year for 1974; Community Service Chairman, North 
Carolina District, Optimist International. Past Boys Work Chairman: past President, 
Gastonia Optimist Club; Past Chairman, 1966 Greater Gastonia United Fund: President, 

United Appeal. Winner, DeMolay Legion of Honor (1968). Scottish Rite Mason, Shriner; 
Board of Controls and Chairman, Legislative Council of the Southern Region Education 
Board; Board of Trustees, Southern Center for International Studies: Member — Southern 
Growth Policies Board and North Carolina Economic Development Board. Board of 
Advisors, Belmont Abbey College; Board of Directors, Roanoke Island Historical Asso- 
ciation; Board of Trustees, North Carolina Nature Conservancy. Representative in the 
General Assembly of 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973, 1975, Speaker of the House 1977-1978 and 
1979-1980. Member of official church board, Bradley Memorial Methodist Church, 
Gastonia; Trustee, Greensboro College, Greensboro, North Carolina. Married to the 
former Donna Lynn Womble of White Lake, North Carolina. Children: Kathryne Eliza- 
beth, Julie Anne, Carl J. Stewart, III and Robert Jerome Stewart. Address: 116 Wynn- 
chester Drive, Gastonia 28052. 




_,.,^<))y^'%ei^ 




Legislative Branch 353 

HERBERT HORTON ROUNTREE 

SPEAKER PRO TEM 

(Democrat — Pitt County) 

(Eighth Representative District— Counties: (Jreene and Pitt. Two Representatives.) 

Herbert Horton Rountree was born in Fai-mville, May 5, 1921. Son of Charles 
Stanley and Madeline V. (Horton) Rountree. Attended Fai-mville High School, 
1934-1938; Darlington Prep School, 1938-1939; University of North Carolina, A.B. 
degree, 1943; University of North Carolina Law School, LL.B. degree, 1950. Lawyer. 
Member North Carolina State Bar; Pitt County Bar Assn.; Fifth Judicial Bar Assn.; 
Delta Theta Phi Legal Fraternity; N. C. Academy of Trial Lawyers. Member 
Governor's Industrial Financing Study Group, 1961-1962; North Carolina Judicial 
Council, 1961-1962; Loan Committee, State Employees' Credit Union, 1958-1962. 
Master Fannville Masonic Lodge No. 517, 1955. Member New Bern Consistory 
No. 3, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Free-masonry; Sudan Temple 
A.A.O.N.M.S. of New Bern, N. C; Pitt County Scottish Rite and Shrine Clubs; 
Burnette-Rouse Post No. 9081, Veterans of Foreign Wars Commander, Fannville 
American Legion Post No. 151, 1954; Governor, Greenville Lodge No. 885, Loyal 
Order of Moose, 1965; Exalted Ruler, Greenville Lodge No. 1645, Benevolent and 
Protective Order of Elks, 1966; President, Fannville Junior Chamber of Commerce, 
1952; Jaycee, Distinguished Sei-vice Award, 1953. Commissioner, Town of Fannville, 
1955-1957; Solicitor Pitt County Recorder's Court, 1951-1953; Assistant Attorney 
General of North Carolina, 1959-1962. Served in U. S. Naval Reserve, Lt. (J.G.), 
1943-1946, Pacific Theatre. Representative in the General Assembly of 1967, 1969, 
1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78 and 1979-80. Speaker Pro Tem, N. C. House, 1977-79. 
Member of Advisory Budget Commission, 1977-79. Member of Joint Commission on 
Government Operations, 1977-79. Legislative Committee on Energy Crisis Management, 
1977-79. Member State Courts Commission: Governor's Advisory Committee on Law and 
Order: Legislative Research Commission Subcommittee to study Shortage of Rural 
Doctors and General Health Affairs: Governor's Task Force Committee on Apprehension 
and Suppression. Member, Legislative Services Commission, 1971-1972, 1978-1974-1975, 
and 1977-79 Chairman, House Committee on Congressional Redistricting, 1971: Chair- 
man, House Committee on Appropriations, Base Budget, 1973: Member, Commission on 
Sentencing, Criminal Punishment and Rehabilitation, 1974: Member. Health Manpower 
Study Commission. 1978; Trustee, East Carolina LIniversity: Kiwanian; and Recipient of 
the Greenville Outstanding Citizen Award, 1972. Salvation Army Advisory Board: 
Executive Committee on Coastal Plains Mental Health Association. Episcopalian. Mem- 
ber of Vestry, Farmville Emmanuel Church, 1952-1956; St. Christopher's (^hurch, Gar- 
ner, 1960-1962: St. Paul's (Ireenville. 1968-1965: Sunday School Teacher and Lay Reader. 
Married Helen Elizabeth Ix)tz, 1946. Three daughters: Kathryn Rountree Cameron: 
Mary Helen Rountree; Dorene Horton Rountree: one .son, Charles S. Rountree. III. 
Address: 1209 Drexel Lane, Greenville 27884. 



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North Carolina Manual 



A.S.^ 



JOSEPH ALLEN ADAMS 

(Democrat— Wake County) 
(Fifteenth Representative District — County: Wake, Six Representatives) 

Joseph Allen Adams was born in Greensboro, North Caro- 
lina, January 15, 1932, the son of Allen and Marion L. (Craw- 
ford) Adams. He attended Phillips p]xeter Academy 1945-48: 
Cambridge High anil Latin, Massachusetts, 1948; Boston Uni- 
versity, 1948-49. Attended University of North Carolina, 
1949-52, A.B.: 1952-54, J.D. Attorney. Member Wake County 
Bar Association: North Carolina Bar Association: American 
Bar Association: North Carolina State Bar; North Carolina 
Academy of Trial Lawyers: Naval Reserve Lawyers Associa- 
tion: Secretary, Wake County Bar 1961. Member Phi Delta Phi. CDR. U.S. Navy— JAG 
Corps. Member Naval Reserve Law Company, Raleigh. Author .V. C. Lan- Rerieir, 
1953-54. Served as Chairman Wake County Public Library Board 1970-74; Chairman 
Wake County Democratic Party 1968-72; President Wake YDC, 1964. Member United 
Church of Christ; Chairman Finance Committee 1965-66; Chairman Institute of 
Religion 1963. Served in 1975 and 1977 Sessions, North Carolina House of Representa- 
tives. Married, Betty Blomgren Eichenberger, June 10, 1977. Three Children; Ann 
Caroline Adams, Jefferson Hodges Adams, Spencer Alle^^ Adams. Address: P.O. Box 389, 
Raleigh 27602; 224 Woodburn Road, Raleigh 27605. 

TOFFIE CLYDE AUMAN 





(Democrat^ — Moore County) 

(Twenty-fifth Representative District— County; Moore. One Representative.) 

Toffie Clyde Auman was born in Jackson Springs, March 
11, 1909. Son of Claude and Lillie Catherine (Graham) 
Auman. Attended Jackson Springs High School; North Caro- 
lina State University. Farmer. Member N. C. Farm Bureau, 
State University. Farmer. Member N. C. Farm Bureau, 
former Director; President National Peach Council, 1965- 
1966; member Horticulture Committee, American Fai-m 
Bureau, 1956-1962; President. Sandhill Production Credit 
Assn., 1967-1969; Chaii-man, Board of Directors, Sandhill 
Production Credit Association; President North Carolina Peach Grower's Society, 
1960-1963; past Director, N. C. Farm Bureau Insurance Company; past Director, 
and President, N. C, State University Agricultural Foundation. Advisor to Dean 
of Agriculture, N. C. State University; past Director N. C. State University 
Alumni Assn.; West End School Committee, 1948-1964. Received Gamma Sigma 
Delta Award from N. C. State University for contributions to agriculture. Mem- 
ber, N. C. Board of Juvenile Correction, 1950-1966. Director, Sandhills Mental 
Health Association. N. C. Committee for Better Schools, 1958; Director, N. C. 
Mental Health Association, 1970; Director, N. C. Railroad, 1949-1950. Represen- 
tative in the General Assembly of 1965, 1967, 1969, 1971, and 1973. Presbyterian; 
Elder; Commissioner to General Assembly, 1955; Vice President, Synod's Men's 
Council, 1959; President, Men of the Church, Fayetteville Presbytery. President, 
Moore Friends of the Library, 1969. Chairman, North Carolina Board of Youth 
Development, 1971-1973. Recipient of the Ralph H. Scott Award. An award for a 



Legislative Branch 



355 



North Carolina citizen who has made significant contributions to the field of services 
for children. Married Sally Watts. August 7, 1936. Children: Clyde Watts, Robert M., 
Nancy (Mrs. Charles Cunningham), and Laura Graham (Mrs. Robert M. Pitts). Three 
grand-daughters. Address: Route I, West End. 

ALLEN CROMWELL BARB EE 



(Seventh Representative District — Counties: Edgecombe, Nash and Wilson. Four 
Representatives.) 

Allen Cromwell Barbee was born in Spring Hope, N. C, 
December 18, 1912. Son of John Lucian and Deborah Lena 
(Vester) Barbee. Attended Spring Hope High School; Uni- 
versity of North Carolina. Farmer; Broker; Developer. 
_, ^^ Member Elk; Mason; Shriner. Served as Captain, Air Force, 
WKL "■ ' - J June 18, 1942-June 18, 1946. Served Town Commissioner 
^^ *Z1-^M Spring Hope, 1951-52; Mayor Spring Hope, 1952-1960; 
^^^\^Wmm Served House of Representatives, 1961, 1963, 1965, 1967, 
WKmy^ BKM 1969, 1971, 1975. Member, Methodist Church; Official Board, 
1946-1976; Chairman, 1947-1957. Married Mabel McClellan Dixon Barbee, March 7, 
1942. Two Children: Mrs. Robert Earl Crumpton, II, Allen Cromwell Barbee II. 
Address: Barbee Building, Spring Hope 27882. 




CHRISTOPHER SYLVANUS BARKER, JR. 

(Democrat — Craven County) 

(Third Representative District— Counties: Craven, Jones, Pamlico and Lenoir. Three 
Representatives.) 

Christopher Sylvanus Barker, Jr. was born in Trenton, 
September 7, 1911. Son of the late Dr. Christopher Sylvanus 
Barker and Ruth Jane (Henderson) Barker. Attended New 
Bern High School. Class of 1928; United States Naval Acad- 
emy, 1933. Bachelor of Science; Northwestern University, 
summer, 1946. Associate Professor of Naval Science, Princeton 
University, 1945-1948; Professor of Naval Science, University 
of South Carolina. 1954-1957. Vice Chairman of New Bern USO 
1971-1973: member and past President (1964-1965) of New 
1 Bern Civitan Club: member and past President (1965-1966) of the Craven County Chapter 
I for Retarded Citizens; member and Director, (1962-1964, 1970-1972) New Bern Craven 
j County Chamber of Commerce; Chairman of the Board of Directors. Craven Unit of the 
\ Neuse Development Association. 1964-1966; Treasurer of the Coastal Carolina Council, 
\ Navy League of the United States. 1966-1973; 32nd Mason, Shriner, Sojourner: Elk: 
\ Moose; American Legion; Veterans of Foreign Wars. New York Yacht Club; East Caro- 
lina Yacht Club. Selected as New Bern's "Citizen of the Year" by the Civitan Club in 
1975. Representative in the General Assembly of 1969, 1971, 1973-74. 1975-76 and 
1977-78; Chairman House Mental Health Committee 1975 and 1977 sessions. Member 
Mental Health Study Commission 1973—. Member of Commission on Mental Health and 




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North Carolina Manual 



Mt'tital lictuniation 1977—. MenihtT of lA>jrisiative Research Commission 1977-1978. 
X'ifc Chairman of the Commercial and Sports Fisheries Advisory Board (1969-1974); 
Chairman of the Study Commission on the use of Illeg-al and Harmful Drugs in the 
State of Nortli Carolina in accordance with Resolution 74, 1969 Session Laws; Chairman 
of the North Carolina Drug Authority (1971-1975); Rear Admiral. U. S. Navy, 1928-19r)9; 
awarded "Legion of Merit" and "Bronze Star" during World War II. Registered 
Securities Representative 1965-1975. Methodist member of Official Board, 1963-1966 
and Administrative Board, 1972-1975, 1978—. Married Jean Kouwenhoven, December 
80, 1949. Children; Christopher Sylvanus III (married Janet Westover, 1976), Marie- 
Anne and Cary Cornelius (married Elizabeth Madden 1977). Address; 3911 Trent Pines 
Drive, New Bern 285(i(). 



RICHARD WALTER BARNES 

(Democrat— P'orsyth County) 
(Twenty-ninth Representative District— County; P^jrsyth. Five Representatives.) 

Richard Walter Barnes was born in Newton, N. C, June 6, 
1943. Son of William Miles Barnes and Elsie Irene (jalloway. 
Attended U. S. Air Force Institute 1960-64. President and 
Owner of four companies — Creditors Consumer Control, Inc.— 
Winston-Salem, Boone and Southern Pines; Credit Bureau of 
Boone. Member Kiwanis — Associates Credit Business Ameri- 
can Collectors Association. Member 32 Mason — Shriner— East- 
ern Star. Served USAF-E-4, 1960-64. Member Lutheran 
Church. Married Carol Kowalko Barnes. May 24, 1970. One 
Child; Kimberlv Dawn. Address; 3810 Coral Lane. Winston-Salem, N. C. 




RAYFORD DONALD BEARD 

(Democrat — Cumberland County) 

(Twentieth Representative District— County; Cumberland. Five Representatives.) 

Rayford Donald Beard was born in Beard, N. C, March 
24, 1923. Son of William A. and Lola (Maxwell) Beard. Grad- 
uated Central High School, 1942; Various Insurance Courses. 
Insurance. Member Carolinas' Association of Mutual Insur- 
ance Agents; N. C. Independent Agents Association; N. C. 
Association of Premium Sei-vice Companies. Member, Lions 
Club; Masonic Order; Shriner; Scottish Rite. Member, Snyder 
L ^^^^ ^i^^^l Memorial Baptist Church; Sunday School Teacher; Deacon 
■^^^™ ^ ^MB since 1950; Chainnan of Board of Deacons and Church 
Moderation 1960. Married Katherine Beard, July 30, 1944; Three Children: Linda 
B. Kay, Kathy B. Allen, Don Beard, Jr. Address: 2918 Skye Drive, Fayetteville 
28303. 




Legislative Branch 



357 



E. GRAHAM BELL 



(Democrat — Gaston County) 

(Thirty-Eighth Representative District — Counties: Gaston and Lincoln. Four 
Representatives.) 

E. Graham Bell was born in Gaston County, April 16. 
1939. Son of J. Clyde Bell and Thelma Henley Bell. Attended 
Gaston County Schools, Business Schools in Atlanta and New 
York. Chairman of the Board First Stock Saving and Loan 
Corp., Majestic Finance Corp., Bell's Gen. Stores, Inc., Bell 
Property Inc., Bell Real Estate, Bell Ins. Agency. Chairman of 
the Board, Dyslexia School of N. C, Director, Pyramid Mills 
Inc. NCYDC National Committee Member 1966-68, Tenth Dis- 
trict President 1965: President Gaston YDC 1966: One of the 

top Ten Young Democrats in North Carolina 1965: Member N. C. House 1973-78. 

Member Holy Trinity Lutheran Church Gastonia. Married Gayle Walker Feb. 7, 1957 

Children: E. Graham Bell Jr., (Chuck) Chris, Craig, Ann Margaret, and Patrick, Address: 

1812 Kendick Rd. Gastonia 28052. 




MARILYN R. BISSELL 
(Mrs. H. A. Bissell) 

(Republican — Mecklenburg County) 

(Thirty-sixth Representative District— County: Mecklenburg. Eight Repre- 
sentatives.) 

Mrs. Marilyn R. Bissell was bom in Jamestown, New 

York, September 29, 1927. Daughter of John E. Weaver and 
Romaine CheiTy Weaver. Attended Jamestown High School, 
1941-1945. Graduated Grove City College, Grove City, Penn- 
sylvania, B,S. degree, June 1949. Payroll Accountant. Vice- 
Chairman, Mecklenburg County Republican Party, 1970- 
r« ^^ 1972; Precinct Vice-Chairman, 1968-1970; former school 
^K^gii^^^H teacher. Board member, Charlotte Women's Political Caucus 
(1970-72). Board member (1968-70). Charity League of Char- 
lotte; Member 1972-73, 1974-75, and 1976-77 Session: Appears in: Who's Who in Politics 
(1974, 1975, 1976 editions). Personalities of the South (1974, 1975, 1976 editions): 
Criminal Justice and Training Standards Council (1974, 1975, 1976): Legislative Com- 
mission on Governmental Expenditures (1974, 1975, 1976). Policy Council— N. C. 
Womens Political Caucus. Law-Focused Advisory Committee 1975, 1976). Mecklenburg 
Task Force on Reading (1975). Board of Directors — Epilepsy Association of N. C. 
Convenor — Women's Forum of N. C. Member — Coordinating Committee (N. C.) — 
IWY (International Women's Year). Board Member — N. C. Federation of Republican 
Women Member, Trinity Presbyterian Church, C'ircle Leader and Choir Member. 
Married H. A. Bissell, May 12, 1951. Three children: Karen Romaine, Kathleen 
Martha, and Leslie Kay Marilvn. Address: 2216 Providence Road, Charlotte 28211. 




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North Carolina Manual 



R()(iKR WAYNE HONE 

(Democrat— Nash County) 

(Seventh Representative District — Counties: Kdj):ecoml)e, Nash and Wilson. Four 
Representatives.) 



Roj?er Wayne Bone was born in Nash County, N. C. 1989. 
Son of R. Winslow Bone. ( Graduated Coopers High School; 
NCSU, B.S., Agricultural Business. Attended numerous In- 
ternational harvester Management Schools. President, Gen- 
eral Manager, Bone International, Inc., and Bone Rental & Leas- 
ing. Member Rocky Mount Chamber of Commerce; Rocky Mount 
Board of Adjustment, Rotary Club; Rocky Mount Dealers Associ- 
tion. Received D.S.A. Jaycee's, American Truck Dealers Associa- 
tion; Outstanding Young Men of America-1974; Personalities of 
the South, Past President, Rocky Mount Auto Dealers Association, International 
Harvester National Dealer Conference Chairman. Member Elks Club, Benvenue 
Country Club. Member Englewood Methodist Church— Past Member, Board of Trustees, 
Finance Committee. Married Reba Batten December 20. 1964. One Child; Frederick 
Lloyd. Address; .%20 Mansfield Drive, Rocky Mount, North Carolina 27801. 




(Thirty-Si.xth 
sentatives.) 



LOUISE SMITH BRENNAN 
(Mrs. Stanley L. Brennan) 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 
Representative District— Country: Mecklenburg. 



Eight Repre- 




Louise Smith Brennan was born in Chester, S. C, No- 
vember 11, 1922. Daughter of Tom Smith and Kate Varna- 
dore. Graduated Hartsell High School, 1939; University of 
North Carolina at Charlotte, 1963-1970 B.A.— Political Sci- 
ence and English. University of North Carolina at Chapel 
Hill, 1974-date: Working toward doctorate in Political Sci- 
ence. College Instructor. Member, House of Representatives, 
1977-78. Chairman, 9th Congressional District Democratic 
Convention, 1975-76; Mecklenburg County Democratic 
Women's Club, 1975-76; Charlotte Women's Political Caucus, 1973-74: Chairman, 9th 
Congressional District Convention, 1973-74; Chairman, Mecklenburg County Democratic 
Party. 1970-72; ('o-chairman with Governors Scott and Hodges— Citizens for Muskie, 
1971-72; Delegate, Democratic National Convention, 1972; Consultant, Mecklenburg 
Democratic Party Campaign Committee, 1963, 65. 66, 68, 70, and 72. Member, 
(Governor's Commission on Party Reform, 1968-70; Charlotte-Mecklenburg Charter Com- 
mission, 19(i9-71; President, Democratic Women's t!lub of Mecklenburg County. 1967; 
Chairman, 9th District N. C. Women of North Carolina, 1968-71: Chairman, Precinct No. 
10, 1972-75. Member, Board of Directors— Heart Association of Mecklenburg County, 
1970-71; Unit Chairman, United Appeal, 1971; President, Dilworth PTA, 1960-61. 
Member, Caldwell Memorial Presbyterian Church; Elder, Class of 197(i-78; Sunday 
School Teacher— Young Adults. Married Robert Thomas Sutton, 1949 (deceased). 
Stanley L. Brennan September 25, 1965. Children: Susan Louise Sutton; Jane Sutton 
Coleman, Robert T. Sutton. Jr. Address: 2101 Dilworth Road East, Charlotte 28203. 



Legislative Branch 359 

JOSEPH LEONARD BRIGHT 

(Democrat — Craven County) 

(Third Representative District — Counties: Craven, Jones, Lenoir and Pamlico. 
Three Representatives.) 

a Joseph Leonard Bright was born in Vanceboro, January 

6, 1925. Son of (ieorge Clifton and Pauline (Hill) Bright. 
Attended P'arm Life School, 1931-1942; Merchant Marine 
Academy, California: Kings Business College, 1949. Auto- 
Ma At \ mobile dealer and farmer. Member. Masonic Order and Sudan 

^^W|L ->— Shrine. Member, Pamlico County Chamber of Commerce; 

^^■Phmj^^ Member of North Carolina Auto Dealers Association and 

■^^^ 1^ ^^^ National Dealers Association; Area Chairman of Automobile 

Dealers Association for Pamlico County; Member Scottish Rite; Pamlico County Shrine 
Club, Loyal Order of Moose, Order of Elks of New Bern; Representative in General 
Assembly 1971, 1973, 1975 and 1977; Chairman Commercial P^isheries 1975 and 
1977. Served in Merchant Marines. 1943-1946. Member, Vanceboro Methodist Church. 
Married Rachel C. AUcox, May 17, 1947. Children: Joe, Jr. (killed in automobile accident, 
Nov. 29, 1969.), George Clifton and Barbara Bright Smith. Address: Rt. 2, Vanceboro 
28586. 

JOHN WALTER BROWN 

(Republican— Wilkes County) 

Thirty-fourth Representative District— Counties: Caldwell, Wilkes and Yadkin. 
Three Representatives.) 

John Walter Brown was born in Traphill Township, Wilkes 
County, N. C. September 12, 1918. Son of John Walter and Nora 
Blackburn Brown. House of Representatives— 1971 and 1973-74. 
Attended Virginia Trade School, 1940: Appalachian State 
University, 1937. F'armer— Beef cattle, poultry & tobacco. Mem- 
ber NC Cattlemens Association; Woodmen of the World. Served 
Army Engineer Corps— World War H— Private, 1944-46. Mem- 
ber Charity United Methodist Church— Official Board Member, 
''■^ ^ Church Trustee, Church School Superintendent, Teacher Young 

Adult Class, Church Lay Speaker & Chairman of the Official Board. Married Ruth Hanks, 
September 14, 1941. Children; Betty Ruth (Mrs. Michael 1. Morenskin) and Johnsie 
Charles (Mrs. Joseph T. Brown, Jr.). Address: Route 2, Box 84-A, Elkin. 




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North Carolina Manual 



HAROLD JAMES BRUBAKER 



(Republican — Randolph County) 

(Tut'nty-fourth Representative District— County: Randolph. Two Representatives.) 

Harold James Binibaker was bom in Mount Joy, Pen- 
nsylvania, November 11, 1946. Son of Paul N. Brubaker and 
Verna Mae Miller. Graduated Pennsylvania State University, 
1969 — B.S. Agricultural Economics; North Carolina State 
University, 1971 — Masters of Economics. Marketing Enter- 
prises—President. Member House of Representatives, 1977-78. 
~\^/B'^^ Non-elected chairman— Randolph County Board of Elections. 
"'if/W P'ormer National FFA Vice President. Member St. Johns 

Lutheran Church. Chairman— Congregation and Vice-Chairman Board of Deacons. 
Married Geraldine (Baldwin) Brubaker November, 1972. Address: Rt. 8, Box 200, 
Asheboro 27208. 





DAVID WEBSTER BUMGARDNER, JR. 

(Democrat— Gaston County) 

(Twenty-eight Representative District— Counties: (iaston and Lincoln. Four Repre- 
sentatives.) 




David Webster Bumgardner, Jr. was born in Belmont, 
November 2, 1921. Son of David Webster and Winnifred 
(Ballard) Bumgardner. Attended Belmont P'ublic Schools, 
1927-1988; Belmont Abbey College, 1989-1940; Gupton-Jones 
College of Mortuary Science. Nashville, Tenn., graduated, 
1942. Mortician. President & Treasurer, Bumgardner, Inc.; 
Vice-president McLean-Bumgardner, Inc.; Director, Belmont 
Savings and Loan. Member N. C. P^uneral Director Assn.; Na- 
tional Funeral Directors Assn.; Board of Directors, Conference of 
Funeral Service Examining Boards of the United States, 1952-1956, served as President, 
1955-1956; N. C. State Board of Embalmers and Funeral Directors, 1950-1955, served as 
President, 1954-55. Received Distinguished Service Award from Dallas Institute— Gup- 
ton-Jones College of Mortuary Science, 1954. Member, Masons, Belmont Ix)dge No. 627; 
(lastonia York Rite Masonic Orders; Shrine, Oasis Temple, Past President of Belmont 
Kiwanis Club, Past Lieutenant governor of Division Two, Carolinas Kiwanis District 
(1966). Appointed to original Planning and Zoning Board of Belmont; past President, 
Belmont Chamber of Commerce; Past President, Belmont United Funds, Inc. Named 1967 
"Man of the year," by Belmont Chamber of Commerce. Chairman of Commission for the 
Study of the l^cal and Ad Valoreum Tax Structure of N. C, 1970. Served in U.S. Army. 
1942-1945; European-African Theatre, 1948-1945; U, S. Army Reserve, 1949-1955; N. C. 
National tiuard since 1955; It. Colonel (Retired 1974). Representative in the (General As- 
sembly of 1967, 1969. 1971, 1978, 1975 & 1977. Member, First Baptist Church, Belmont; 
Former Deacon & Church Parliamentarian; formerly served as Chairman Finance Com- 
mittee; as Department Superintendent in Sunday School and on Building Committee. 
Married Sara Margaret Jones, August 14. 1948. Children: Mrs. Sharon B. Hill, and Sandra 
Jo. Addre.ss: 209 Peachtree Street, Belmont 28012. 




Legislative Branch 361 



SAM D. BUNDY 

(Democrat — Pitt County) 

(Eighth Representative District— t'ounties: Greene and Pitt. Two Representatives.) 

^^^^-•^^ Sam D. Bundy represents the Eighth Representative 

^^ ^\ District. Graduated FaiTnville High School, 1923; Duke 

■f University, A.B., 1927; East Carolina University, M.A., 

^«,,5j~^.,gj^ 1948. Retired. Former Principal of Schools in Duplin, 

Edgecombe, and Martin Counties; Federal Government 1943- 
1944; Secretary of Farmville Chamber of Commerce and 
Tobacco Board of Trade, 1946-47; Principal of Fannville 
Public Schools, 1947-1965; Principal of Sam D. Bundy 
,^ ^^^H School, 1965-1970; Member Mount Olive College Board of 
Trustees, President of Pitt County Unit N. C. AE, 1951-52; President North- 
eastern District NCAE, 1952-53. Past Master Tarboro Masonic Lodge 1942; 
Past Master Farmville Masonic Lodge 1950; 32nd Degree Scottish Rite Mason and 
Member of Sudan Temple of the Shrine; District Deputy Grand Master Fifth 
Masonic District N. C. 1951-54; Grand Orator of Grand Lodge of Masons in North 
Carolina 1961-62; Knight Commander of Court of Honor. Past President Tar- 
boro Kiwanis Club 1941; Past District Governor of Carolina Kiwanis District 
1945; Farmville Man of Year 1974. Rotating Panel Member of Carolina Today 
Morning Show, WCNT-TV, Greenville, N. C. Member, North Carolina General 
Assembly, 1971, 1973-74. 1975-76, 1977-78 and 1979; Vice-Chairman Constitutional 
Amendments Committee, 1973, 1975; Vice-Chairman Education Committee, 1973, 1975. 
Vice Chairman State Personnel Committee, 1979. Member, Diciples of Christ Church; 
Teacher Men's Class Farmville Christian Church Sunday School 1954. Superintendent 
P^armville Christian Church Sunday School, 1946-1953; President North Carolina 
Christian Men's Fellowship, 1950-51, 1955-56; President State Convention Disciples 
of C^hrist, 1954. Member. Advisory Budget Commission. 1975-77. Member, Phi Delta 
Kappa, Pi Kappa Phi. Omicron Delta Kappa. Married Bettie Spencer Bundy. Two sons: 
Sam D. Bundy, Jr. and James Henry Bundy. Three grandchildren. Address: Box 30, 
Farmville 27828. 

ARTHUR HARTWELL CAMPBELL 

(Democrat — Wilson County) 

(Seventh Representative District— Counties: Edgecombe, Nash and Wilson. P'our 
Representatives.) 

Arthur Hartwell Campbell was born in Buie's Creek, 
October 8, 1916. Son of Dr. Leslie H. Campbell and Viola 
Haire Campbell. Graduated Campbell High School 1932; 
Campbell College, A.A., 1934; Wake Forest College, B.S., 
1936; graduate student, U.N.C., 1937; Yale University, B.D., 
1938-41. Owner and Editor of Radio Station WGTM in 
^m^ Wilson. Past President Wilson-Rocky Mount Sales, Market- 

^^L^^Srij^^ ing and Executive Club. Organized, built and managed 

HHl S HHIk Eastern Carolina's first television station 1955-1963 in 

Greenville. An organizer and first President of Sentinel Life Insurance Company, 
Greenville. Member, Wilson Rotary Club. Past Director of Rotary Club, Wilson 
Chamber of Commerce. Eastern Carolina Council of Boy Scouts, Carolinas United 




362 



North Carolina Manual 



Fund and Wilson County United Fund. Member, Greenville City School Board 1958- 
63; Greenville City Council 1963-64; Chairman Wilson County Economic Develop- 
ment Commission 1965-; trustee of Campbell College. Member N. C. House of Repre- 

seiilatives. 1969. 1973-71. 1975-76. and 1977-7S. Member, First liaptist Church, Wilson; 
Sunday School Teacher 1965-70 and Deacon 1967-70. Married Vcrda Harr-is October l^O, 
19lli. Three sons; Thomas IlarUvell, Leslie Vann and Neal I'eai-.son. Address: 1709 Wil- 
shire Boulevard, Wilson 'J7S9.3. 



HERBERT OTHA CARTER 



(Republican— Stanly County) 

(Thirty-second Representative District — County: Stanly. One Representative.) 

Herbert Otha Carter was born in New I^ndon, NC, 
February 13, 1927. Son of Herbert Ozias Carter and Ada 
Russell. Attended New Ijondon Hig'h School: State College E.x- 
tension Work, 1959-60; USDA Management School; "Series 
10"— USAR. Auctioneer — Real Estate Broker. Member National 
Auctioneers Association. Received Senior Republican of the year, 
V 1976; District Director (outstanding. 1962.) Member Lions 

^^tf^Bfe"""'"^ Club; Disabled Veterans: and Wolfpack Club. Served as Dis- 

^Hl^'^^'I '^^^ trict Director — State Director and Regional Director with LIS 

Dept. of Agriculture — ASCS P>om 1956-1969. Served as State Purchasing Officer. 
1970-72. Served in Navy— SS2. 1945-46. Member Mt. Creek Primitive Baptist Church 
— Deacon, 1976-. Married Claudine Chandler, .June 20, 1947. Children: Ronald Lee and 
Michael Allen. Address: Rt. 3, New London 28127. 




HOWARD B. CHAPIN 



(Democrat — Beaufort County) 

(Second Representative District— Counties: Beaufort and Hyde. One Representative.) 

Howard B. Chapin was born in Ahoskie, N. C, December 
9, 1921. Son of Henry B. Chapin (Deceased) and Lavenia 
(Howard) Chapin. Attendeii Puldic Schools of .Weldon 
Aurora; Graduated Kinston High School. Graduated At- 
lantic Christian College, 1947, A.B.; Attended Civic In- 
stitute of Government, Chapel Hill; Political Science Courses, 
East Carolina University. Teacher, Belhaven and Washington 
City Schools. Member NEA; NCAE; ACT. Former Coach 
High School Football, Basketball, Baseball; Division Man- 
ager F. E. Compton Company; Past President Belhaven Lions Club; Past President 
Washington Kiwanis Club; Charter Member Tri-Community Ruritan Club. Board 
of Directors of Tri-County Health Services; Pei-sonnel Director National Spinning 
Co., Washington, N. C; Past Member Washington Planning Board. Sei-ved Sgt. 
8th Air Force, October 1943-November 1945. Member, Christian Church. Married 
Mary Alice (Beasley) Chapin, January 29, 1948. Two Sons: J. Michael Chapin, 
Kenneth E. Chapin. Address: Rt. 5, Box 419, Runyon Hills, Washington 27889. 




Legislative Branch 



363 



JOHN TRAMMEL CHURCH 




(Democrat — Vance County) 

(Thirteen Representative District— Counties: Caswell, Granville, Person, Vance and 
Warren. Three Representatives.) 

John Trammel Church was born in Raleigh, N. C, Sep- 
tember 22, 1917. Son of Charles Randolph and Lela (Johnson) 
Church. Attended Boyden High School, Salisbury, graduated 
1935; Catawba College, 1936-1938; University of North Caro- 
lina, 1938-1942, B.S. in Pharmacy. Chainnan of the Board, 
Rose's Stores, Inc., Member N. C. Merchants Assn., past 
President; Vice Chairman of American Retail Federation. 
Member Kappa Alpha Order, University of North Carolina; 
Elks; Mason, Shrine; Rotaiy, past President; Jr. Chamber 
of Commerce, Henderson, past President; member City Council, Henderson, 1965- 
1966; Chairman Democratic Executive Committee of Vance County, 1965-1966. 
Vice Chaimian of Board of Tinjstees of Louisburg College, Louisburg; member 
of the Morehead Scholarship Selection Committee (District); past Chairman 
of Alumni Giving Program of the U.N.C.; Ti-ustee of Louisburg College; past 
Chairman of Board of Visitors of Peace College, Raleigh; past News and Observer 
"Tar Heel of the Week"; member of the State Art Museum Building Commission; 
Director, Peoples Bank & Trust Co.; Past Chairman of Kerr Lake Commission; 
Past Trustee of University of N. C; Ti-ustee of Vance-Granville Community College; 
Director, UNC Alumni Association, Chapel Hill; President and member of the 
Executive Board of the Occoneechee Council, Boy Scouts of America; former 
Trustee and member of the Executive Committee of Boys Home, Lake Waccamaw; 
past President of United Fund and past trustee and member of Executive Com- 
mittee of Carolinas United; fonner member Board of Directors of Henderson 
Chamber of Commerce; past President of Henderson Country Club; former member 
of Advisoiy Board of Salvation AiTny. Representative in the General Assembly of 
1967 and 1969. Served in the U.S. Marine Corps Resei-ve (Naval Aviation), Captain, 
1942-1945. Member, First Methodist Church, Henderson. Chairman of Board; past 
Chairman of Finance Committee; past President Men's Bible Class. Married Emma 
Thomas Rose, December 31, 1943. Children: John Trammel, Jr. and Elizabeth 
Howard. Address: 420 Woodland Road, Henderson 27536. 



DOUGLAS ADRON CLARK 



(Democrat — Duplin County) 

(Tenth Representative District— County: Duplin. One Representative.) 

Douglas Adron Clark was horn in Wallace, NC, June 27, 
1944. Son of Adron Emmett and Evelyn Grace Sandlin Clark. 
Duplin County Chairman of the Democratic Party, 1976-78. 
Attended Beulaville School, 1950-61: Oak Ridge Military In- 
stitute. 1961-62; UNC-Wilmington. 1969. B.A. in Business. 
Certified Public Accountant. Member American Institute of 
C.P.A.'s; NC Association of (LP.A.'s. Member York and Scottish 
Rite Mason Shriner. Served Army-Military Police Corp. — Cor- 
poral. 1966-68. Presbyterian. Married Sue Darlene Hanshaw, 
Melanie Lee; Thomas Otis; and Andrea Hanshaw. Address: Box 
Kenansville 28349. 




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North Carolina Manual 



WILLIAM EDWIN CLARK 



(Dcmocrat^Cumherland ("ounlv 



Twi'iilit'th Rcpi'cscntalive District— County: Cumberland, Five Representatives.) 

William Kdwin Clark was born in Fayetteville, NC, January 
VZ. 194.'^. Son of Franklin S and Mary Pride Cruikshank Clark. 
City Attorney— City of Fayetteville, 1974-76. (iraduated Davidson 
College. 1965, B.A.: UNC-School of Law, 1965-68, J.D. Attorney/ 
Land Developer. Member C'umberland County Bar and NC 
Bar. Kiwanis Club Member, Served Army-Captain, 1970. 
Addre.ss: VO Bo.x 42, Fayetteville 28802. 




JAMES McCLURE CLARKE 

(Democrat — Buncombe County) 

(Forty-Third Representative District — Counties: Buncombe and Transylvania. | 
P'our Representatives.) I 




James McClure Clarke, born Manchester, Vermont, June 
12, 1917. Son of Dumont Clarke and Annie McClure Clarke. 
Attended public schools and g'raduated from Asheville School, 
1935. Princeton University, A.B. Decree 1989. Served in U.S. 
Naval Reserve, Pacific Theatre, 1942-45. Lieutenant, Senior 
(Jrade. Assistant to the President, Warren Wilson College: 
Secretary and Trustee, James G. K. McClure Educational and 
Development P\ind; Dairy F'arm and Orchard Operator. Trustee, 
Southeastern Council of P^oundations; Trustee, Semans P\md, 
at the N. C'. School of the Arts. Chairman, Buncombe County Board of Education. 1969- 
1976. Secretary and President, F^armers Federation Cooperative, 1946-1959: Associate 
Editor, Asheville Citizen-Times, 1960-68. Member and P^'ormer President, Asheville 
Civitan Club: Former Trustee and Vice Chairman, N.C. School of the Arts: Former 
Trustee, Memorial Mission Hospital: Farmer Director, Fairview Volunteer P'ire 
Department. Member, Warren Wilson Presbyterian Church. Married to Elspeth 
McClure, February 17, 1945. Children: Susie Clarke Hamilton, James Gore King 
McClure Clarke, Annie Clarke Ager, Dumont Clarke IV, Mark Skinner Clarke, William 
Clarke, and Douglas Di.xon Clarke. Home address: Hickory Nut Gap Farm, F'airview 
28780. 



Legislative Branch 



365 



JOHN HOWARD COBLE 



(Republican — Guilford County) 

(Twenty-third Representative District— County: (luilford. Seven Representatives.) 

John Howard Coble was born in Greensboro, NC, March 
18. 1931. Son of Joe Howard Coble and Johnnie E. Holt. 1969 
Session General Assembly. Secretary, NC Department of 
Revenue, 1973-76. Graduated Alamance High School, 1949; 
Appalachian State University, 1949-50; Guilford College, 1950- 
i^ 4-^'^ ^'^- 1957-58, B.A; UNC School of Law, 1959-62. Lawyer. Greens- 

^^**^ * * ' boro and NC Bar Associations; NC State Bar; American Judica- 

ture Society. Member American Legion; Lions Club. Served US 
Coast Guard & Coast (Juard Reserve — Commander, 1952 — 
present. Member Alamance Presbyterian Church. Address: 1615 Alamance Church Rd., 
Greensboro 27406. 




■r^^i^^ 




PORTER CLAUDE COLLINS, JR. 




(Democrat — Alleghany County) 

(Twenty-eight Representative District — Counties: Alleghany, Ashe, Stokes, 
Surry and Watauga. Three Representatives.) 

Porter Claude Collins, Jr., was bom in Alleghany County, 
N. C, July 1, 1928. Son of Porter Claude and Nannie (Billings) 
Collins. Attended Glade Valley High School and has attended 
two insurance courses conducted at the University of N. C. 
at Chapel Hill, N. C. Owner of general insurance agency, 
and livestock farmer. Member of Independent Insurance 
Agents of North Carolina. Director of Blue Ridge Electric 
Membership Corporation; member of the New River Develop- 
ment Corp.; former Trustee of the Northwestern Regional 
Library; past Chairman Laurel Springs School Committee, 1958-1963; past Chair- 
man Laurel Springs Community Club, 1956-1962. Served as Member of Executive 
Committee of New River Mental Health Association for Alleghany, Ashe and 
Watauga Counties; Alleghany County Board of County Commissioners. Alleghany 
County Tax Supervisor. Representative in the General Assemblies of 1967 and 
1969. Member, Sparta Masonic Lodge No. 423, past Master; York Rite Masons; 
Oasis Shrine, Grange, "Grange Deputy of the Year" for 1962; past Deputy North 
Carolina State Grange, 1956-1965; past Master Alleghany Pomona Grange, 1957- 
1963. Member, Sparta Methodist Church; Steward; Treasurer of Building Fund; 
member of Official Board. Served as member of the N. C. State Parks and Forests 
Study Commission, which was created by the 1967 General Assembly. Appointed 
member of Governor Scott's Advisory Committee Studying the feasibility of estab- 
lishing a Veterinary School of Medicine in N. C. Member House of Representatives, 
1977-78. Married Annie Blanche Pugh, June 10, 1947. Two daughters: Linda and 
Susan. Address: Route 1, Box 96. Laurel Springs 28644. 



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North Carolina Manual 



MARIE WAITERS COLTON 



(DcniocrHt— Hunc'onihe County) 

( F'ofly-lhii'd Ivepri'st'iitative Dislricl— t'ounties: Buncombe und Transylvania. 
Fnuf lu'prcscntatives.) 

Marir Walters ("olton was horn October 20, 11)2:^ in Char- 
lotte, NC, Daughter of John Piper Walters and Sarah Thomas. 
First Vice-President Democratic Women of NC, 1976, 1977. 
District Director, lllh Congressional Dislricl for Democratic 
Women, 1974-7(;. (Graduated Chapel Hill High School, 19:^9: 
SI. Marys Junior College; UNC-Chapel Hill. 194.'-!-B.A.-Spanish. 
Member Business and Professional Women; AAUW. Member 
Trinity Episcopal Church — Veslry, 197.'i-76 — Chairman of 
Kvery-Member Canva.ss (1977). Married Henry Ellioll Colton 
September 4, 194;^. Children: Marie Jaquelin Pelzer; Sarah Prince Villeminot; Walter 
Stokes; and Elizabeth Overton. Address; 392 Charlotte Street, Asheville 28801. 





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RUTH E. COOK 
(Mrs. John O. Cook) 

(Democrat^ — Wake County) 

(Fifteenth House District — County: Wake. Six Representatives.) 

Ruth E. Cook was born in Berlin, Germany, November 
11, 1929. Daughter of Samuel and Use (Meyer) Mohr. At- 
tended George Washington High School, 1944-1947; New 
York University. Former Executive Director of The State 
Council For Social Legislation. 1st Vice President N. C. 
Consumers Council; Past President Raleigh-Wake League 
of Women Voters; State Board member. N. C. Civil Liberties 
Union. Tar Heel of The Week, News and Observor. 1969. 
Member House of Representatives, 1977-78. Member Unitarian 

— Universalist Fellowship. Married John Oliver Cook (deceased), October 81. 1954. 

Two Children: Roger Mohr Cook, Judith Ellen Cook. Address; 841.S Churchill Road, 

Raleigh 27607. 




Legislative Branch 



367 



JOHN WALTER COVINGTON 



(Democrat — Richmond County) 
(Twenty-seventh Representative District— County: Richmond. One Representative.) 

John Walter Covington was born October 22, 1917 in Rich- 
mond, NC. Son of John Walter Covington and Emma Bryan 
McCullen. Served House of Representatives, 1969; Twice as 
Mayor of Rockingham; elected to Rockingham City Council. 
Attended Rockingham High School, 1930-34; Duke University, 
1938, B.A. Degree. Banker. Member American Legion, V.F.W., 
DAV, Mason & Shriner. Served U.S. Naval Reserve — Lieutenant, 
1942-46. Member Methodist Church — held most offices; 
church choir for 10 years. Married Alise Avera June 17, 1950. 
Children; John W., IH; and Thomas Avera. Address; 515 Fayetteville Rd., Rockingham 
28379. 




GEORGE PRESTON CULLIPHER 



(Democrat — Martin County) 

(Sixth Representative District — Counties; Halifax, Martin. Two Representatives.) 

George Preston Cullipher was born in Merry Hill, I^.C. 
September 23, 1908. Son of Thomas and Sophia J. (Mizzelle) 
Cullipher. Colerain High School, 1923-1927; Campbell Col- 
lege, 1927-1929 A.A. Degree, Wake Forest College 1929-1931 
B.S. Degree. Member; Kappa Phi Kappa; Pi Kappa Mu; Edu- 
cation PVaternities. Served 42 years Public Schools (Retired). 
Member, Mason; Lions Club; Southern Albemarle Association; 
First Flight Association. Served as District Governor. Two 
terms 1958-1968 Roanoke District of North Carolina. Na- 
tional Ruritan L'lubs. Member, Methodist Church; Sunday School Teacher; Lay Speaker; 
Chairman of F'inance Committee; Member, Pastoral-Parish Relationship Committee; 
Program Chairman Methodist Men's Club. Married Mary Adams of Wake County. 
Two Sons; Bill Cullipher, Joe Cullipher, Address: 102 Christina Ave., Williamston 
27892. 




ROBERT E. DAVIS 



(Democrat— Robeson County) 
(Twenty-first Representative District— Counties; Hoke, Robeson and Scotland. 
Three Representatives.) 

Robert E. Davis was born November 24, 1946 in Kenansville, 
N.C. Son of Freeman G. Davis and Katie Monk. Appointed for 
eleven months in the House; Maxton Town Commissioner, 
1971-77. Member St. (jeorge, M.E. Church— Chairman Ad- 
ministrative Board. Author of "America's Negro Dilemma." 
Married Bernice Shaw, June 10, 1943. One Child; Sondra 
Roberta. Address: 134 3rd St., Maxton 28364. 




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North Carolina Manual 



JUDSON DAVIE DeRAMUS, JR. 



( Democrat— Forsyth County ) 

(Twenty-Ninth Representative District— C'ounty: Forsyth. Five Representatives.) 

Ju<ison Davie DeRamus. Jr., was horn in Charlotte, N. C, 
January 6, 1945. Son of Judson Davie DeRamus, Sr., and 
Nina Dixon (Jerome) DeRamus. Attended Reynolds High 
School, Winston-Salem, 1957-1959; The McCallie School, 
Chattanooga, Tennessee, 1959-1962. (iraduated Duke Uni- 
versity, B.A., 1965; University of North Carolina Law School, 
J.D., 1968. Attorney, Winston-Salem. Member, N. C. House of 
Representatives, 1974-present. Chairman, Forsyth County Dele- 
gation to 1979 General Assembly. Member American Bar Asso- 
ciation; North Carolina Bar; North Carolina Bar Association; Forsyth County Bar Associa- 
tion; F'orsyth C'ounty Junior Bar Association; American Judicature Society, Member, 
Rotary: Exchange; Elks; Odd Fellows. Served U.S. Army Reserve, 1968-1969. Member, 
Winston-Salem Recreation and Parks Commission. 1974-1977. Member, Administrative 
Board, Centenary United Methodist Church. Married Sarah Lane (Ivey) DeRamus, June 
28, 1969. Two children; Sarah Ivey and Margaret Lane. Address; 792 Arbor Road, 
Winston-Salem 27104. 




DAVID HUNTER DIAMONT 

(Democrat — Surry County) 
(Twenty-eighth Representative District — Counties; Alleghany, Ashe, Stokes, Surry. 



David Hunter Diamont was born in Greensboro, N. C, 
February 9, 1946. Son of Hyacinth Cleo (Hunter) Diamont and 
the late David Elijah Diamont (1912-1977). Attended East Surry 
High School, Pilot Mountain, N. C, 1961-19(>3; Frank L. Ashley 
High School, Gastonia, N. C, 1963-64. Graduated Wake Forest 
University, B.A., 19(i8; Appalachian State LIniversity, M.A., 
1972. High School History Teacher and Assistant Football Coach ' 
at Mount Airy Senior High School, Mt. Airy, 1968-1977. Pres- 
ently serving as Head Varsity Football Coach and History 
Teacher at East Surry High School, Pilot Mountain, N. C. (1977-). Member NEA; NCAE; j 
North Carolina Coaches' Association; Lambda Chi Alpha. Member, Pilot Mountain : 
Jaycees; Surry County Young Democrats Club, President 1973-74. Member of the ' 
North Carolina House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78 and 1979. Member. First' 
United Methodist Church of Pilot Mountain; President of MYF, 1962. Address; P.O. Box j 
784, Pilot Mountain 27141. i 





Legislative Branch 369 



RUTH MOSS EASTERLING 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 

(Thirty-sixth Representative District— County: Mecklenburg. Eight Repre- 
sentatives.) 

Ruth Moss Easterling was born in Gaffney, S. C. Decem- 
ber 26. Daughter of Benjamin Harrison Moss and Lillie Mae 
Crawley. Appointed to Charlotte City Council in March 
1972, served 20 months to December 1973. Graduated Cen- 
tralized High School, Blacksburg, S. C, 1929. Graduated 
Limestone College, Gaffney, S. C, 1932, with major in 
English, minors in Math and History. Post graduate studies 
at Queens College, Charlotte, in Business Law, Personnel 
Administration, Business Administration. Executive Assis- 
tant to I. D. Blumenthal, President of Radiator Specialty Co. of Charlotte, N. C. 
and Toronto, Canada. Trustee, Wildacres Retreat, dedicated to the betterment of 
human relations. Member American Association of University Women, League of 
Women Voters, Business and Professional Women's Club (National President, 1970- 
71), National Secretaries Association (International Chairman of Public and World 
Affairs, 1975-76), N. C. Women's Political Caucus (State President in 1974), 
Women's Equity Action League. Received WBT Radio Woman of the Year, 1964 — 
Charlotte's Outstanding Career Woman, 1971. Member House of Representatives, 1977- 
78. Appointed by Governor Terry Sanford to the original Governor's Commission on 
the Status of Women in 1964. Member, F^irst Baptist Church, Charlotte. Associate 
Superintendent of Training for the Church, Associate Superintendent of the Inter- 
mediate Department of the Sunday School. Member of the Library. Financial Planning, 
and Personnel Committees, President of Baptist Business Women in Mecklenburg 
Baptist Assn., also President of Baptist Business Women in the Church, at various 
times since joining the First Baptist Church in 1947. Address: 811 Bromley Road, Apt. 1, 
Charlotte 28207. 

GUS NICHOLAS ECONOMOS 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 

(Thirty-sixth Representative District— County: Mecklenburg. Eight Representatives.) 

Gus Nickolas Economos was born in Charlotte, April 22, 
1930. Son of Nickolas Economos and Christine Trohillis. 
Graduated Charlotte Tech. High 1949; Charlotte College — 
UNCC 2 1/2 years. Restaurateur. Co-owner of the Gondola 
Restaurants, Inc. Member, N. C. Restaurant Association; 
US Chamber of Commerce; Active member of the Charlotte 
Chamber of Commerce; member of the Commerce's State 
Legislation Committee for the past several years; active 
member of the Congressional Action Committee of the Cham- 
ber of Commerce for the past ten years. Member, Charlotte Civitan Club, Ahepa 
Marathon Chapter No. 2. US Army, Corporal 1951-53. Member Greek Orthodox 
Holy Trinity Cathederal — Charlotte. Married Patricia (Swaffer) Economos June 4, 
1952. Children: Nickolas Economos; Robert Economos; Larry Economos; and 
Nancy Economos. Address: 2400 Dalesford Dr., Charlotte 28205. 




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North Carolina Manual 



RALPH PEARSON EDWARDS 



(Democrat — Guilford County) 
(Twenty-Third House District— County: Guilford. Seven Representatives.) 

Ralph Pearson Edwards was born F'ebruary 20, 1925 in 
Charlotte, NC. Son of William James Edwards and Amy Shields. 
Attended Central High School, 1940-48; Duke University, 
1948, A.B. Degree. Life Insurance Agent with Massachusetts 
Mutual Life Insurance Company. Past President & Past Fund 
Chairman United Way of (ireensboro; Past President, Greens- 
boro Kiwanis Club; Past Chairman and President of United Arts 
Council. Past President and Chairman of Junior Achievement; 
Board Member and Past Chairman of Greensboro YMCA; Past 
Board Member Greensboro Merchants Association; Past Chairman, March of Dimes; Past 
Board Member — Piedmont Sales Executives; Past Board Member Salvation Army: 
Board Member Redevelopment Commission; Board Member Chamber of Commerce and 
8 o'clock Club: Honorary Chairman — GGO Golf Tournament; Board Member Greens- 
boro Housing P\)undation: Wachovia Bank; Governors Conference on Aging. Served 
Navy — Seaman, June '43 — April '46. Member Methodist Church — Administrative 
Board— President Sunday School Class, Choir Member. Married Bennie Harris. 
Children: Ralph P., Jr.; Jennie G.; Robert W.; and Nancy C. Address: 204 Fisherpark 
Circle, Greensboro 27401. 




THOMAS WILLIAM ELLIS, JR. 



(Democrat — Vance County) 

(Thirteenth Representative District — Counties: Caswell, Granville, Person, Vance 
and Warren. Three Representatives.) 

Thomas William Ellis, Jr. was bom in Henderson, Janu- 
ary 9, 1919. Son of Thomas William Ellis, Sr. and Verlie 
(Weldon) Ellis. Attended Public Schools of Henderson: Grad- 
uated Henderson High School 1936. Attended Mars Hill Col- 
lege; UNC-Chapel Hill, B.A., 1940; N. C. State College, 1941. 
Veteran World War II — served European Theater — Infanti-y 
Ordnance 29th Division, Rank First Sergeant. Automobile 
Executive; Farmer. Member, N. C. Auto Dealers and Na- 
tional Auto Dealers Association; Served 14 years as area 
chairman, both groups. President Henderson- Vance County Chamber of Commerce, 
1964. Member, Lions Club; President 1955-56; Zone Chairman 1962-63; Deputy 
District Governor 1963-64; Director 1972-74. Appointed Trustee N. C. College by 
Governor Umstead, 1954; Member, Henderson City School Board, Chaimian two 
years, 1958-66; Member, N. C. Seashore Commission 1961-65; Served Vance County 
Board of Health; ChaiiTnan Vance County Board of Commissioners, 1967-68-69; 
Served on National Committee-Taxation and Finance-National Association of 
County Officials 1968-69; Board of Trustees of Maria Parham Hospital; Chairman 
Area Mental Health Board 1971-72; Vice Chairman Cherokee District Boy Scouts, 
1966-1971; 1st Man of the Year Award by Henderson-Vance Chamber of Commerce 





Legislative Branch 371 



1970. Served 1969-1973 Member. N. C. Highway Commission, Trustee of N. C. Retire- 
ment System. Member of Vance County Planning Board. Member. First United Methodist 
Church, Henderson, N. C, Chairman of the Board of Trustees. Member of Administrative 
Board. Former Lay Leader. Married Dorothy Wiggins Ellis, July 24, 1942. Three 
children: Dorothy Mae Ellis, Dianne Marie Ellis and Thomas William Ellis, 111. Address: 
370 Forrest Road, Henderson 27536. 

JEFF HAILEN ENLOE, JR. 

(Democrat — Macon County) 
(Forty-fifth Representative District — Counties: Cherokee, Clay, Graham and 
Macon. One Representative.) 

JefF Hailen Enloe, Jr., was born in Franklin, North 
Carolina, on September 2, 1914, the son of Jeff H. and Jessie 
Hester Enloe, Sr. Attended Franklin public schools, grad- 
uated Franklin High School, 1932; North Carolina State 
College, B.S., 1938, in Agriculture Education. Retired after 
34 years of service with the United States Department of 
Agriculture. Served in the United States Navy, 1943-1946, 
Petty Officer 2nd Class. Methodist. Married Ruth Drum- 
mond July 20, 1946. Children: William A., Jeff H., IH. James 
R. and Gregory M. Address: RED 1, Box 38, Franklin 28734. 

BOBBY R. ETHERIDGE 

(Democrat — Harnett County) 

(Eighteenth Representative District— Counties: Harnett and Lee. Two Representa- 
tives.) 

^^^ Bobby R. Etheridge was born August 7, 1941 in Sampson 

^l^fiajA County, NC. Son of John P. Etheridge and Beatrice Coats. 

I A Harnett County Commissioner, 1973-76, chairman, 1974-76; 

I ^ 'i. f Harnett Mental Health Board, 1975-76; NC Law & Order Com- 

\ ' mission, 1975-76; NC Land Use Advisory Council, 1976; Past 

Chairman Harnett Youth Advisory Council, Chairman Harnett 
Sheltered Work Shop. 1978. Attended Cleveland High School. 
August, 1947-June 1959; Campbell College, 1965, B.S. Busi- 
ness Administration; NCSU, 1967 — Additional work in 
Economics. Vice-President Sales, Sorensen — Christian Industrial Building Supply Co., 
President WLLN Radio Station (organized & built). Member Industrial Management 
Club (Past President); Board of Directors. Harnett County Farm Bureau. Member Lil- 
lington Lions Club; Masonic Lodge; American Legion. Received Lillington Jaycees Dis- 
tinguished Service Award, 1975; Lillington Community Service Award, 1976; Listed in 
Outstanding Man in America; Honored Distinguished Alumnus Campbell College, 1976; 
Past Chairman Harnett Cystic F'ibrosis Campaign, President C. V. Campaign; Member 
Campbell College Alumni Board of Directors; President Lillington Chamber of Com- 
merce. 1977: Director Bank of North Carolina: F\md Raiser Boy Scouts of America: Lil- 
lington Chamber of Commerce Board of Directors. Served US Army— E-4. December 
1965-December 1967. Member Leaflet Presbyterian Church— Sunday School Teacher, 



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,S72 North Carolina Manual 



Sunday School SuiKTiiilendoiil 19()7-7(i, President Fayetteville Presbytery Men, 1975-7(i, 
President Presbyterian Synod Men of NC, 1977-78, Deacon— Leaflet Church, 1978. 
Married Faye Cameron November 25, 19(55. Chihh'en: Brian Cameron and Catherine 
.'Xnne. Address: PO Bo.x 295, Lillin^rton 2754G. 



WILBUR BRUCE ETHRIDGE 

(Democrat— Onslow ('ounty) 

(P\)urth Representative District— Counties: Carteret and Onslow. Three Represen- 
tatives.) 

Wilbur Bruce Elthrid^o was born April 17, 1988 in Rocky 
Mount, NC. Son of Wilbur Henry Ethridge and Virg:inia 
Sellers. Appointed part of term— House of Representatives. 
Graduated Rocky Mount Hi^h School, 195(5: NCSU: Fayetteville 
Technical Institute in electronics, 19(il-(5;i Engineer, Carolina 
Telephone and Telegraph Company. Member East Carolina 
Engineer's Club. Member F^irst Baptist Church — serving as 
Deacon, Sunday School Teacher, Church Staff Committee. 
Married Katie Tyner August 9, 1958. Children: Kitty Dare and 
Mark Burce. Address: Rt. 2, Box 27, Swansboro 28584. 



CHARLES DOUGLAS EVANS 

(Democrat— Dare County) 

(First Representative District — Counties: Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Dare, Pas- 
quotank, Perquimans, Tyrrell and Washington. Two Representatives.) 

^ - Charles Douglas Evans was born October 8, 1944 in Manteo, 

joHfe'^ NC. Son of Charles R. Evans and Evelyn Mann. Mayor, Town of 

^^^^ \  Nags Head, 1975-78: Member, Board of Commissioner, 1973- 

W "^ «t.x\ 78. (Graduated Manteo High School, 1963: University of North 

" /-»-\ Carolina, B.A. in Economics, 1967; University of North Caro- 

V»' ^ ' '^"^ L,aw School, J.D. Degree, 1972. Attorney. Member, Dare 

\,^^ County Bar Association; NC Bar Association; American Bar 
Association; Manteo Rotary Club. Officer and member of 




d. 



Albemarle Law & Order Association for the Albemarle Area 
Development Association; Member of the NC Coastal Resources Commission from ap- 
pointment by Governor Hunt; Member & Chairman of the Board of Directors of First 
Union National Bank, Kill Devil Hills. Received Outstanding Young Men of America, 
1976; Distinguished Service Award by Dare County Jaycees, 1978. Served US Army 
Reserve, 1969-75— SGT E-5. Member Mount Olive United Methodist Church— Commit- 
tee Work — fund drives— President of MYF during High School. Author of "Workman's 
Compensation at Sea." Married Rebecca Aydlett June 27, 1976. One child: Charles 
Cramer. Address: Danube Street, Box 909, Nags Head 27959. 




Legislative Branch 373 

JAMES EARL EZZELL, JR. 

(Democrat — Nash County) 

(Seventh Representative District— Counties: Edgecombe, Nash, and Wilson. Four 
Representatives.) 

James Earl Ezzell, Jr. was bom September 6, 1936, in 
Rocky Mount. Son of James Earl Ezzell, Sr., and Edith 
Batchelor. Attended Rocky Mount Senior High School, 1953- 
1956; Wake Forest University, June 1960, B.A. History; 
Wake Forest University Law School, June 1963, LLB. At- 
torney at Law. Rocky Mount Recorder's Court — Solicitor, 
1964-1968. Member, Nash-Edgecombe, 7th Judicial District, 
North Carolina State and American Bar Associations, North 
Carolina Trial Lawyers Association. Member, N. C. House. 
1977-79. Member Scottish Rite Mason. Sudan Temple of the Shrine. Phi Alpha Delta Law 
Fraternity, Delta Sigma Phi Fraternity. Member, Englewood Baptist Church, Build- 
ing Committee, Constitution Committee, and Substitute Sunday School Teacher. 
Married Patsy W. Ezzell February 5, 1966. Children: Mark M. Ezzell; James E. Ezzell, 
III; Stanton W. Ezzell. Address: 3405 Winstead Road, Rocky Mount 27801. 

ROBERT ZEMRI FALLS 

(Democrat — Cleveland County) 

(Fortieth Representative District— Counties: Cleveland, Polk and Rutherford. Three 
Representatives.) 

Robert Zemri Falls was born in Cleveland County, April 
15, 1912. Son of Alfred and Lula (Crowder) Falls. Attended 
Lattimore High School, 1929; The Citadel, (Military), 
R.O.T.C. training, 1929-1930; Gardner-Webb Junior Col- 
lege. Farmer. Member, Shelby Rotary Club; Shelby Cham- 
ber of Commerce; Cleveland County Agricultural Commit- 
tee. Representative in the General Assembly of 1965, 1967, 
1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76. 1977-78 and 1979. Member. West- 
view Baptist Church. Shelby; Deacon, 1953. Married Jennie 
Blanton November 20, 1935. Address: 1308 Wesson Road, Shelby 28150. 




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North Carolina Manual 



JO GRAHAM FOSTER 

(Mrs. James B. Foster) 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 



(Thirty-sixth Representative District- 
sentatives.) 



-County: Mecklenburg. Eight Repre- 




Jo Graham Foster was bom May 22, 1915. Daughter of 
Rev. Joseph Alexander Graham and Queen McDonald Gra- 
ham. Attended McBee S. C. High School, 1927-1928, and 
Spring Hill Central High School, 1928-1931. Graduated 
Columbia College May 26, 1935. Member Delta Kappa Gam- 
ma, National Education Association, North Carolina Asso- 
ciation of Educators, P.A.C.E., local unit of Charlotte- 
Mecklenburg Educators, National Association of Secondary 
School Principals, Gamma Sigma Sorority, Sigma Tau Delta 
Honorary Sorority, International Platform Association, and precinct committee 
Vice Chairman. A nominee in the field of education as a Salute to Working Women, 
1968, and past president of N.C.A.E. Listed in Who's Who of American Platform. 
President profession. Member, Interin Management Team — Charlotte Mecklen- 
burg Schools. Member, Education Commission of the States (ECS) Commissioner 
serving on their Steering Committee, Resolutions Committee and Policy Committee. 
Member, House of Representative, 1977-78. Member, Dilworth Methodist Church, Char- 
lotte. Board of Stewards, adult Sunday School teacher, lay speaker and serves on several 
committees including Committee on Education. Married James Benjamin. June 4, 
1937. One daughter, Mary Jo Foster McClure (Mrs. Thomas A. McClure). Address: 
1520 Maryland Avenue, Charlotte, N. C. 28209. 



HENRY E. FRYE 

(Democrat — Guilford County) 

(Twenty-third Representative District— County: (luilford. Seven Representatives.) 

Henry E. Frye was born in Ellerbe, August 1, 1932. Son 
of Walter A. (deceased) and Pearl Alma (Motley) Frye. At- 
tended Mineral Springs School, Ellerbe; A & T State Uni- 
versity, B.S. (Biological Sciences), 1953; University of North 
Carolina, Chapel Hill, J. D. with Honors, June, 1959. Lawyer. 
/& *" r*^ Member, Greensboro Bar Association; North Carolina, Ameri- 

^jjft^^k^j^ can and National Bar Associations; Assistant U. S. Attorney, 

^^^^^^^ ; Middle District, 1963-1965; Professor of Law, N. C. Central 

■^IBk.4nHB^ University at Durham, 1965-1967; practicing attorney 1967- ; 
organizer and president of Greensboro National Bank 1971- ; Board of Directors, 
North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company. Member, Kappa Alpha Psi Fra- 
ternity. Representative in the General Assembly of 19H9, 1971, 1978-74. 1975-7(), 1977-78 
and 1979. Captain in U. S. Air Force, 1958-1955. Member, Providence Baptist Church; 
Deacon, Youth Sunday School Teacher. Married. Edith Shirley Taylor August 25. 1956. 
Children: Henry F]ric and Harlan p]lbert. Address: 1401 S. Benbow Road. Greensboro 
27406. 




Legislative Branch 



375 



GERALD MALCOLM FULCHER, JR. 

(Democrat — Carteret County) 

(Fourth Representative District— Counties: Carteret, and Onslow. Three Representa- 
tives.) 

Gerald Malcolm Fulcher, Jr. was born in Morehead City, 
September 23, 1940. Son of Gerald M. Fulcher, Sr. and Nellie 
Hill. Graduated University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 
1968 B.A. Duke Graduate School— Summer of 1975. N. C. 
State Graduate School, Summer of 1976. Guidance Counselor, 
^^^ f« — «H West Carteret High School. Member North Carolina Associa- 
■Bl MH tion of Education, National Education Association, North 

^■^1^^^^ Carolina Personnel and Guidance Association, Classroom 

^^m ^K. ■■tail Teachers Association. Member House of Representatives 1977- 
78. Member. Atlantic United Methodist Church. Address: P. 0. Box 538. Atlantic Beach 
28512. 




AARON ELEAZAR FUSSELL 

(Democrat— Wake County) 
(Fifteenth Representative District — County: Wake, Six Representatives. 






Aaron Eleazar Fussell was born July 5, 1923 in Rose Hill, NC 
Son of C.T. Fussell, Sr. and Myra Blake Cavenaugh. Graduated 
Rose Hill High School 1940; Atlantic Christian, 1946, A.B.: UNC, 
Chapel Hill, 1952, M.Ed.; Duke University— Post Graduate; 
NCSU. Retired. 1977—34 years, 9 months Public Schools and 
Military. Member Educational Chamber; Educational Frater- 
nity; Mason and Scottish Rites. F'ormer President — North Raleigh 
Lions Club— 25 years. Served US Army— Corporal, 1943-45. 
Author of "Teacher Evaluation Legal Residence". Member 

Millbrook United Methodist Church— Chairman of the Board, President of Men's Club. 

Lay Leader, Teacher and Trustee. Married Polly, August 14, 1949. Children: Aaron, 

Jr.; Charles Thomas; Polly Blake, and Bonnie Lorette. Address: 120 Briarpatch Lane, 

Raleigh 27609. 

JOHN REEVES GAMBLE, JR. 

(Democrat — Lincoln County) 
(Thirty-eighth House District — Counties: Gaston and Lincoln. F"'our Representatives.) 




John Reeves Gamble, Jr. was born March 26. 1922 in Lin- 
colnton, NC. Son of John Reeves Gamble, M.I)., and Hope Lucile 
Seibert. Served in House of Representatives. 1973-74; 1975-76; 
1977-78. Graduated Lincolnton High School. 1939; Emory Uni- 
versity, A.B., 1943; University of Maryland School of Medicine, 
M.D., 1946. Physician/Surgeon. Past President Lincoln County 
Medical Society; President and Administrator Reeves Gamble 
Hospital, Inc., 1946-1970; Commanding Officer and Chief 
Surgeon of 48th (Mobile) Army Surgical Hospital, 1954-56; 



:WH 



North Carolina Manual 



Member \'FVV: Eagle Scout; Cleveland. Gaston and Lincoln Health Planning' Council 
P"'ounders (Jroup: Past Director, NC Hereford Association; Member Catavvba-Lincoln- 
Alexander Health Hoard, 19()(>-7(); ('entral Piedmont Council of (Jovernments P\)unders 
(Jroup; Chairman of Constitution and By-Laws, Ijegislative and Nominating Committees 
of CPCOC: NC Medical Society, Ix'gislative Committee, 1971-73; Lincoln County Board of 
Commissioners, Chairman, 19()()-7(); Member Southern Medical Association; Chief of Staff 
Lincoln County Hospital; NC I^ocal Government Commission, 1968-78; LincolnCounty 1978 
"Man of Year"; Lincoln County Democratic Party Outstanding Democrat, 1977; Board of 
Trustees NC Hospital Association; NC Medical Society; Kappa Alpha Order; Phi Chi 
Medical P^'raternity. Served US Army— Commanding Officer and Chief Surgeon of 48th 
Army Surgical Hospital, 1954-56. Member. NC House 1977-78 and 1979. Member Em- 
manuel Lutheran Church (LCA). Council member two terms. Married Mary Elizabeth 
Rhodes March 81, 1945. Children; John Reeves Gamble, IH; Ellizabeth Rhodes (Lichstein), 
M.D.; Mary Caroline Gamble, J.D. (C.P.A.). Address; PO Bo.x 250, Lincolnton 28092. 



JAMES WORTH GENTRY 



(Twenty-eight Representative District— Counties; Alleghany, Ashe, Stokes. Surry 
and Watauga. Three Representatives.) 

James Worth Gentry was born in King, August 4, 1908. 
Son of I. Gaston and Mary Kreeger Genti-y; Attended King 
High School and Draughons Business College; (Semi-retired) 
Grading Contractor and Farming; Chainnan of local school 
board 1950 to 1957; County Commissioner 1957-1958; Mem- 
ber of the Board of Trustees Stokes-Reynolds Memorial Hos- 
pital 1952-1977; (Chairman of the Board 1966-1976); Mason; 
Charter member King Lions Club 1948-1977; President of 
Kings Lions Club 1957 and citizen of the year 1958; President 
Stokes County United Fund, 1959; President, North Carolina Agricultural Founda- 
tion 1972-197.3; member, Stokes County Industrial Committee, Northwest Develop- 
ment Assn.; Member, Chestnut Grove Methodist Church; State Senator in the (gen- 
eral Assembly in 1961, 1965 and 1967; North Carolina House of Representatives 
1969. 1971. 1975-76, 1977-78 and 1979. Married Marguerite Priscilla Slate, June 16, 
19.84. Children; Marvin D. (ientry and (ilenn W. Gentry. Address; Rt. 1, King 27021. 




RICHARD RALPH GRADY 



(Ni 



(Democrat — Wayne County) 

nth Representative District — County: Wayne. Two Representatives.) 

I Richaixi Ralph Grady was born in Seven Springs, May 

I 12, 1927. Son of Zilphia Ann Smith and Ralph Grady. At- 
tended North Carolina State University, 1946-48. Fanner. 
Received Farm Family of the Year, 1968, Wayne County 
ASCS Committee, 1955-56; Wayne County Board of Com- 
missioners, 1960-70. U. S. Navy, Seaman First Class, March 
1945-May, 1946. Member Seven Springs United Methodist 
Church; Chainnan of Finance Committee, 1960-76. Married 
Alma Lee Jones Grady November 1, 1947. Children: Richard 
Dwight Grady and Mack Grady. Address: Route 2; Box 597, Seven Springs 28578. 




y 



Legislative Branch 



377 



GORDON HICKS GREENWOOD 

(Democrat — Buncombe County) 

(Forty-Third Representative District— Counties: Buncombe and Transylvania. Four 
Representatives.) 

Gordon Hicks Greenwood was born in Black Mountain, July 
3, 1909. Son of James Hicks Greenwood and Louella Ray. Uni- 
versity of Illinois, 1941, B.S. in Journalism; University of 
London. Eng:land. 1945. Assistant to President of Montreat- 
Anderson College. House of Representatives, 1959, 1961, 1963, 
1965, 1967, 1977-78, and 1979. Member, Black Mountain Lodge 
No. 663 A.F. & A.M. Asheville Chapter No. 25; Black Mountain 
Lions Club. Army, Psychologist, May 1943-December, 1945. 
Member of State Board of Higher Education, 1963-68. Chairman 
Buncombe County Board of Commissioners, 1968-72, North Carolina Commissioner of the 
year, 1971. Manager New England Press Assoc, Asst. Prof, of Journalism— Boston 
University, Boston, Mass. 1951-52. Dir. of Adm. Montreat-Anderson, 1973-76. Member 
Black Mountain United Methodist Church; Member official board several years. Married 
Garnet Elizabeth Carder March 9, 1941. Children: G. Gordon and Ricky Eugene. Address: 
P. 0. Box 487, Black Mountain 28711. 




ALEXANDER DUKE GUY 

(Democrat— Onslow County) 

(Fourth Representative District — Counties: Carteret and Onslow. Three Represen- 
tatives.) 




Alexander Duke Guy was born on November 20, 1918 in 
Calypso, NC. Son of Alexander Buck and Elizabeth Faust Guy. 
Mayor— City of Jacksonville ( 19(i2-65); Councilman, City of Jack- 
sonville (1957-62), Onslow County Commissioner (1967-69). Grad- 
uated Calypso High School (1935); NC State College, NYA 
Program (1936-37); Institute of Government, UNC Chapel Hill 
(1958 & 1959) Insurance and Real Estate. Member NC Associa- 
■^ ^^ / tion of Realtors; National Association of Real Estate Boards; 

Jacksonville Board of Realtors; Independent Insurance Agents of 
NC, Inc.; Member — Professional Producers Council; Continental National American In- 
surance Companies (1975-77). Past President— Jacksonville Rotary Club (1962-63); 
Charter President— Onslow County Chapter American Cancer Society (1958); Past 
Campaign Chairman— American Red Cross Society (1956); Director— Home Federal Sav- 
ings & Loan Association (1965). Member— Loyal Order of the Moose; Charter Member- 
Jacksonville Toast Masters (1955). Director NC League of Municipalities (1962-65); 
Onslow Memorial Hospital Authority (1977-78); Founder Jacksonville Municipal Court 
(1958); Founder of First Biracial Committee, City of Jacksonville ( 1963); Member of NC 
Mayor's Co-Operating Committee (1964). Member Trinity United Methodist Church- 
Board of Trustees— currently (1976-78); Administrative Board-concurrently (1968-78); 
Chairman. Fund Raising Campaign Christian Higher Education (1959). Married 
Margaret Holmes, January 31, 1975. Children: Alexander Duke II: Bundage Humphrey; 
Douglas Bryan. Address: 306 Woodland Drive, Jacksonville 28540. 



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North Carolina Manual 



DELA FLETC HER HARRIS. HI 

(Peniocrat — I^ee County) 

(F^ig'hteenth Representative District— Counties: Harnett and Lee. Two Represen- 
tatives.) 



Dela P'letcher Harris was born September 24, 1926 in Madi- 
son County, Florida. Son of Dela Fletcher Harris, Jr. and 
Ruby (libles. House of Representatives 1977-78. Attended San- 
ford Public Schools, 1984-1944; Duke University. 1944; UNC 
Chapel Hill, 1950 B.S. in Commerce. Insurance and Real Estate, 
Lee County Democratic Chairman, 1970-74; State Democratic 
Elxecutive Committee, 1974-76; Past President Sanford Jaycees, 
Past State Vice President NC Jaycees; Past District Commis- 
sioner Lee District Boy Scouts of America; Sanford ABC Board; 
Lee County Wildlife Club: American Lejfion; Elks; Moose; V.F.W.; Sigma Chi Fraternity. 
Served U.S. Army— Sergeant, 1945-46— Served in the Pacific Theater of Operations. 
Member — Saint Luke United Methodist — former Chairman Stewardship and Finance, 
Administrative Board, Nominating Committee, Pastor— Parish Relations Committee. 
Married Florence Buckner March 26, 1955. Children: Holly I^ee: Gibbs Buckner; Bonny 
IjOu; and Dela Fletcher, IV. Address; 1314 Hermitage Rd., Sanford 27330. 




BRYON ALLEN HAWORTH 



(Democrat— (luilford County) 

(Twenty-third Representative District— County: Ckiilford. Seven Representatives.) 

Bryon Allen Haworth was born June 27, 1907 in Danville, 
/ "^^m Indiana. Son of Herman Lindsay Haworth and Smythie Hadley. 

.» 1^^^ House of Representatives, 1955-57. Attended Burlington High 

School, 1924; Guilford College, 1928, A.B. Degree: Duke Uni- 
versity Law School, 1934, A.B. Degree. Lawyer. (Formerly 
Municipal Court and District Court Judge 1956-1977). Member— 
j\^ . NC Bar; High Point Bar; Rotary Club; and Masons. Member— 

^^ ^Sis^ Bj^^ Religious Society of Friends; Clerk, Springfield Monthly 

Meeting, 1956-62: NC Yearly Meeting of Friends, 1962-67; 
Friends United Meeting, 1967-70. Married Sarah Clapp April 1, 1950. Children: Ann 
Haworth; Bryon Allen. Jr. and David Lindsay. Address: 902 Fairway Drive, High Point 
27262. 




Legislative Branch 



379 



HAROLD PARKS HELMS 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 

(Thirty-sixth Representative District— County: Mecklenburg:. Eight Repre- 
sentatives.) 

Harold Parks Helms was born in Charlotte, November 5, 
1935. Son of Wade H. Helms and Ida Parks Helms. Attended 
Charlotte Technical High School, graduated 1954. University 
of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, graduated 1959, A.B. Degree. 
University of North Carolina Law^ School, Chapel Hill, L.L.B. 
Degree, 1961. Attorney. 26th Judical District Bar Associa- 
tion; N. C. State Bar; N. C. Bar Association; American Bar 
Association; American Judicature Society; Phi Delta Theta 
Legal Fraternity; N. C. Academy of Trial Lawyers. Chi Phi 
Social Fraternity. Elected Charlotte's Outstanding Young Man of the Year in 1970. 
Member, Park Road Baptist Church, Charlotte. Deacon, 1969-1971, 1973 to present. 
Married Eleanor Jean Allen March 26, 1959. Children: Deborah Parks Helms, 
Allen Grant Helms, and William Gray Helms. Address: 4901 Hadrian Way, Char- 
lotte 28211. 




FOYLE ROBERT HIGHTOWER, JR. 

(Democrat-Anson County) 

(Twenty-Sixth Representative District— Counties: Anson and Montg-omery. One 
Representative.) 




Foyle Robert Hightower, Jr. was born in Wadesboro, 
January 21, 1941. Son of Foyle Robert, Sr. and Mildred 
(Brigman) Hightower. Attended Wadesboro Public Schools: 
graduated Wadesboro High School, 1959; Elon College; Uni- 
versity of North Carolina. Chapel Hill. Vice President, High- 
tower Ice & Fuel Co., Inc. Member, Kilwinning Lodge No. 64, 
Wadesboro, Ancient. Free and Accepted Masons: 32nd Degree 
Mason, Shriner; Woodman of the World: Jaycees: Civitan, Past 
Director Wadesboro Club, Past Chairman Anson Blood Program: 
American Red Cross: member, Merit Badge Committee, Boy Scouts of America and mem- 
ber Board of Review; past Area Chairman Cancer Drive, Master Counsellor Order of 
DeMolay, Wadesboro Chapter, 1959; Member, North Carolina House of Representatives, 
1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78 and 1979. Served in United States Army Reserve, 1963- 
1969; Corporal. Member, First Presbyterian Church, Wadesboro; Sunday School Teacher: 
Secretary-Treasurer, Men of the Church, 1971; President, Men of the Church, 1973, 1977 
and 1978; Deacon. Anson County— Man of the Year 1975. Married to former Pauline 
McElveen of Lake City, S.C. Address: 715 E. Wade Street, Wadesboro, N.C. 28170. 



380 



North Carolina Manual 



ROBERT HAYWOOD HOB(iOOD 

(Democrat — Franklin County) 

(Foiirteonth Represontativt' District — Counties: Franklin and Johnston.) 

Ivol)ert Haywood Hob^ood was born April 2(i. 194(i in Ijouis- 
l)urK, NC. Son of Hamilton Harris Hob^ood and Marj?aret 
Stallinjrs. (iraduated Ijouisburjf High School, 19fi4; UNC- 
Chapel Hill, 1968, A.B.: UNC-Chapel Hill Law School, 1974, 
J.D. Attorney at Law. Member NC Bar Association: American 
Bar Association: NC Association of Trial Lawyers, elected to 
Board of Governors of NC Bar Association for term 1978-1981. 
Served U.S. Army and NC National Guard— Captain, U.S. 
Army, 1968-70: NC National Guard, 1974-present. Member— 

—Administrative Board. Married Martha Chadwick October 28. 

acy Chadwick. Address: P.O. Bo.x 104, 807 Edward Lane, Louisburg 




Methodist 
1967. One 
27549. 



Church 
Child 



EDWARD SHELTON HOLMES 

(Democrat — Chatham County) 

(Seventeenth Representative District— Counties: Chatham and Orange. Two Repre- 
sentatives.) 




Edward Shelton Holmes was l)orn in Leaksville, Novem- 
ber 20, 1929. Son of James Eugene Holmes and Bessie Estelle 
Shelton Holmes. Graduated Leaksville High School, 1947 
and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, A.B. 
degree, 1951. Graduated University of North Carolina Law 
School, Bachelor of Laws, 1958. Served in United States 
^A-^ ^^^ Army 1953-1955. Lawyer in firm of Barber, Holmes and Mc- 

^^^>-— Hjli Laurin. President, Chatham W. Bar 1968-1970; President. 
Hi^^ i^lHI 15th Judicial District Bar 1972-1973: Pittsboro Lions Club; 
Chairman Governor's Committee on Low Income Housing 1965-1968: President of 
North Carolina Legal Aid Association, 1971; Member Advisory Budget Commission: 
Chatham County Library Board, 1963-1967; North Carolina Regional Library Board, 
1965-1967. Member, Pittsboro Presbyterian Church: P^ormer Member of the General 
Statutes Commission. Married Mary Hayes Barber June 7, 1958. Three children; Edward 
Shelton, Jr., Hayes Barber, and Agnes Ferebee. Address: Box 126, Pittsboro 27312. 




I 




Legislative Branch 381 



GEORGE MILTON HOLMES 

(Republican— Yadkin County) 

(Thirty-fourth Representative District— Counties: Caldwell, Wilkes and Yadkin. 
Three Representatives.) 

George Milton Holmes was born June 20, 1929 in Mount 
Airy, NC. Son of John William Holmes and Thelma Elizabeth 
Dobie. House of Representatives 1975-76. Yadkin County 
Republican Executive Committee; Eighth District Republican 
Executive Committee; State Republican Executive Committee, 
1975 & 1976. Attended Mount Airy High School. 1944; Western 
High School, Washington, D.C., 1945-48; Appalachian State 
University, 1954; Travelers Multiple Line Insurance School, 
1959. President, W. N. Ireland Insurance Agency, Inc. Mem- 
ber— NC Association of Independent Insurance Agents; National Association of Life 
Underwriters. Member— Yadkin Lodge 162A.F. & A.M.; Winston-Salem Consistory, 
Scottish Rite of Freemasonry; Shriner, Oasis Temple. Member Flat Rock Baptist 
Church— Deacon, 1956-70— Secretary, 1956-60— Trustee 1970-present, Sunday School 
Teacher, 1955-68, Superintendent, 1968-72. Member— Governor's Crime Study Com- 
mission, 1976; Fire and Casualty Rate Study Commission, 1976; Board of Directors of 
Carolina Epilepsy Research Foundation; Board of Directors of Northwestern Bank, 
Yadkinville. Married Barbara Ann Ireland June 30, 1956. One Child; Jennifer Leigh. 
Address: Route 1, Box 14, Hamptonville, NC 27020. 



WILLIAM CASPER HOLROYD, JR. 

(Democrat — Wake County) 

(Fifteenth Representative District— County: Wake, Six Representatives.) 

William Casper Holroyd, Jr. was born in Rock Hill, S. C, 
September 16, 1927. Son of William Casper Holroyd and 
Lucille Dacus. Graduated from a public school in Green- 
wood, S. C. Graduated Duke University, 1948, A.B. in Eco- 
nomics. Salesman — Penn Mutual Life Insurance Company. 
Member of Raleigh Board of Education, elected July 1, 1965 
and re-elected 1971. Chairman — December, 1969 to July 1, 
1976 — Served on Wake County Board of Education, July 1, 
1976 to November 3, 1976. Member Chartered Life Under- 
writers, Life and Qualifying Member of Million Dollar Roundtable, Consistent Mem- 
ber of Penn Mutual Top Sales Club — Royal Blue, Raleigh Association of Life Under- 
writers, and N.C. C.L.U. Society. Received Man of the Year — Raleigh Association 
of Life Underwriters; Outstanding Service Award — Raleigh Board of Realtors. 
Member, Raleigh Lions Club. Member, Hayes Barton United Methodist Church; 
Lead teacher in Junior High Department — 1951 — present. Married Betty Ann 
Williams Holroyd, February 13, 1948 — Deceased. Children: Ann Holroyd Young- 
blood; Jane Holroyd Holding and Kaye Holroyd. Address: 1401 Granada Drive, Raleigh 
27612. 




k 



;^82 North Carolina Manual 

BERTHA MERRILL HOLT 

(Democrat^ — Alamance County) 

(Twenty-Second Representative District— Counties: Alamance, and Rockingham. 
Four Representatives.) 

Bertha MeiTill Holt was born August 16, 1916, in Eufaula, 
AJabama. Daughter of William H. Merrill and Bertha H. 
Moore. Attended Eufaula High School; Agnes Scott College, 
IL-^ Decatur, Ga., A.B. Degree, 1938; UNC Law School, 1939- 

^^i 1940; University of Alabama Law School, 1941 — LL.B. 

'"^ Degree; George Washington University, Washington, D.C., 

' 1942 (worked toward Masters). Housewife — Non-practicing 

Lawyer. Worked as an Attorney with Dept. of Interior and 
US Treasury. Pi Beta Phi Sorority. Past President Alamance 
County Democratic Women; Chairman Headquarters Committee, 1962-64; Member 
Democratic Executive Committee, 1964-1975; Vice Chairman Alamance County 
Democratic Executive Committee, 1964-66. Member, English Speaking Union; Les 
Amis du Vin, Historical Society and Travel Organizations. Member, Social Sei-vices 
Board. Member, Episcopal Church of Holy Comforter, Burlington. President 
Episcopal Church Women, 1968; Member of Vestry — Senior Warden, 1974; Chair- 
man Finance Committee of Diocese of NC 1973-74; Diocesan Council, 1972-74; 
Standing Committee of Diocese, 1975-77. April 1978 — Agnes Scott College, Atlanta, 
Ga Named "()i<tst(ni(lin(i Aliinuid" and awarded the Coiintnon'ti/ Scrrlrc Atrtird by her 
Alma Mater. Board of Directors, UNC-Chapel Hill Law Alumna Association-1978. 
Teacher — High School Sunday School Class. Married Winfield Clary Holt, March 14, 
1942. Children: Harriet Holt Whitley; William Merrill Holt; Winfield Jefferson Holt: Two 
Grandchildren: Allyson and Anna Whitley. Address: 509 Country Club Drive, Burling- 
ton 27215. 



CHARLES B. C. HOLT 

(Democrat — Cumberland County) 

(Twentieth Representative District— County: Cumberland. Five Representatives.) 

Charles B. C. Holt was born in Fayetteville, N. C, Febru- 
ary 16, 1933. Son of William DeRossett Holt and Hannah 
^^ Pickett (Lilly) Holt. Attended Fayetteville High School, 

\ »^-»*^H 19'*6- Fishbume Military School, 1947-50. University of North 

Carolina, 1957, B.A. History. Army Security Agency School, 
1953. Jobber, Amoco Oil Co.; Chamber of Commerce; Fay- 
etteville Area Industrial Development Committee; First 
Vice President Chamber of Commerce, 1972-73. Delta Kappa 
Epsilion. Member, Sierra Clui>; Consei-vation Council of N. C; 
State Wildlife; National Wildlife; Corporal, U. S. Army, 1952-55. Fayetteville City 
Council, 1963-69; Mayor of Fayetteville, 1969-71. Member, Episcopal Church. Vestry 
Member, 1968. N. C. House of Representative, 1975-77. Married Sarah (Edgerton) 
Holt, September 8, 1956. Children: Sarah E. Holt, Hannah L. Holt. Address: Box 
53157, Fayetteville 28305. 





Legislative Branch 383 



JOHN JACKSON HUNT 

(Democrat — Cleveland County) 

(Fortieth Representative District — Counties: Cleveland, Polk and Rutherford. 
Three Representatives.) 

John Jackson Hunt was born November 27, 1922 in Latti- 
more, NC. Son of Robert Lee Hunt and Alma Harrill. House of 
Representatives 1973-74, 1975-76 and 1979. Alderman-Latti- 
more, 1958-64; Graduated Wake Forest University, 1943, B.S.; 
Emory University, 1946 D.D.S. Dentist, Merchant Farmer. 
Member— ADA; NCDS; Isothermal Dental Society. Member- 
Mason's; Shriner. Served Army— Major, 1943-48 and 1950-52. 
Member — First Baptist Church. Married Ruby Cowder June 
22, 1946. Children: Judy Kohler; Penny Corn; Libby Sarazen; 
Cindy; and Sally. Address: Box 277. Lattimore. 

PATRICIA STANFORD HUNT 

(Mrs. Thomas M. Hunt, Sr.) 

(Democrat — Orange County) 
teenth Representative District— Counties: Orange and Chatham. Two Repre- 



Patricia Stanford Hunt was born in Dunn, June 9, 1928. 
Daughter of Lewis Knox Denning (deceased) and Florence 
Hibbette Cooper Denning. Attended Coral Gables Senior 
High School in Florida 1942-1946. Attended Sweet Briar 
College 1946-1948. Graduated University of North Carolina 
at Chapel Hill, A.B. degree, 1948-1950, University of North 
Carolina at Chapel Hill, M.A. degree, 1961-1963 and Post- 
graduate work 1963-1970; Received J.D. m 1978. Attorney. 
Member Phi Beta Kappa, Alpha Delta Pi, Valkyries, American 
Historical As ciation. North Carolina Personnel and Guidance Association, American 
Personnel anc Guidance Association, North Carolina Association of Educators, Nation- 
al Assopi"*- if Educators, North Carolina Association Classroom Teachers, and 
--..■ junior Service League. Women's Forum. Woman of the Year, Chapel Hill- 
Carrboro, 1977. President, Chapel Hill Association of Educators, 1971; President, Chapel 
Hill Classroom Teachers Association, 1969; President, Chapel Hill Junior Service League, 
1961. Co-author A^oA-f/? Carolina History, Geography, and Government. Received Irene Lee 
Cup for Outstanding Woman Graduate of the University of North Carolina, 1950. 
Board of Trustees, Governor's School, 1975-1979; Board of Visitors, Peace College, 
1972-1976; Governor's Council on Advocacy of Youth and Children, 1973-1977. Board 
of Trustees Learning Institute of N.C. 1977-81. Appointed to the North Carolina 
General Assembly to fill first husband's term, 1969 (Donald Mclver Stanford). Recrea- 
tion Commission, Town of Chapel Hill, 1971. Member University Presbyterian Church, 
Chapel Hill. Married Donald Mclver Stanford June 30, 1947 (died May 1970). Married 
Thomas Montague Hunt, Sr. June 17, 1972. Four children: Donald Mclver, Jr., Randolph 
Lewis, Charles Ashley and James Cooper Stanford. Address: 1079 Burning Tree Drive, 
Chapel Hill 27514. 




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North Carolina Manual 



JOSEPH PATTERSON HUSKINS 



(Democrat— Iredell County) 

(Thirty-fifth Representative District— ("ounties: Alexander and Iredell. Two 
Iveitresentatives.) 

Joseph Patterson Huskins was born in Burnsville, June 28, 
li»()S. Son of Joseph Erwin and Mary Etta (Peterson) Huskins. 
Attended Yancey Collegiate Institute, 1921-1928; Mars Hill 
Junior College, 1924-1926; University of North Carolina, 1928- 
1980, A.B. degree in Journalism. Newspaper Publisher. Member, 
North (.'arolina House 1971, 1978-74, 1976-7(^, 1977-78 and 1979. 
Member North Carolina Press Assn.; Association of Afternoon 
Dailies; International Platform Assn.; Statesville Chamber of 
Commerce, past President. Received Outstanding Citizenship Award, Statesville 
Chamber of Commerce, 1960; NCPA Editorial Award, 1966. Honorary life member, Red 
Cross Board of Directors, Statesville chapter. Member, Statesville Lodge No. 27, 
A.F. & A.M.; Statesville Lodge 1828. B.P.O.E.; Past Exalted Ruler, Statesville Elke 
Lodge. Member. Area Rent Control Board, 1947-1951; Statesville Zoning Board, 1961- 
1962; State Board of Higher Education since 1965-72; University of N. C. Board of 
Governors, 1972-73. Mitchell College Board of Trustees, fourth term, former chairman; 
past President, two terms, Associated Dailies of North Carolina. Member, State Vet- 
erinary School Feasibility Study Commission. Served in U.S. Navy, 1948-1946, Lt. 
(s.g.). Member, United Methodist Church. Married Mildred Amburn September 29, 
1984. One daughter, Amburn. Address: Our Dell, Statesville 28677. 




GEORGE AUSTIN HUX 

(Democrat — Halifax County) 

(Sixth Representative District— Counties; Halifax and Martin. Two Representa- 
tives.) 

George Austin Hux was born in Halifax, May 11, 1915. 
Son of George Alpheus Hux and Ethel Bertha Smith. At- 
tended Public Schools of Halifax County. Graduated Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, 1936, B.A.; University of N. C. Law 
School. 1938, J.D. Attorney. Mayor of Town of Halifax, 1942- 
48; Clerk of Superior Court of Halifax County, 1943-57. Member 
House of Representatives 1977-78 and 1979. Member of Masons; 
Royal White Hart Lodge No. 2 AP" & AM. Member, United 
Methodist Church. Married Jeanette Harris Hux January 11, 
1953. Address; P. 0. Box 415, Halifax 27839. 





Legislative Branch 385 



VERNON GRANT JAMES 

(Democrat — Pasquotank County) 

(First Representative District— Counties: Camden, Chowan. Currituck, Dare, Pas- 
quotank, Perquimans, Tyrrell and Washington. Two Representatives.) 

Vernon Grant James was born in Pasquotank County, 
July 11, 1910. Son of John Calvin James and Fannie Copper- 
smith James. Graduated Weeksville High School, 1930; at- 
tended North Carolina State University, 1930-31. Fanner and 
faiTn produce supply business. President and Manager of 
•^ J[|[ James Brothers, Inc.; member North Carolina and National 

Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Growers Associations. Secre- 
tary and Treasurer of State 4-H Club Council, 1930; dele- 
gate to International 4-H Club Camp in Springfield, Mass., 
1930; charter member of State 4-H Honor Club, 1931; recipient of 4-H Alumni 
Recognition Award, 1954. Member, Board of Education for Weeksville High School 
1943-44; member, Board of Trustees of College of the Albemarle since 1960; member. 
Board of Trustees for the Greater University of North Carolina, 1947-1955; member. 
Board of Directors of Elizabeth City Chamber of Commerce, 1964; member of 
Pasquotank County-Elizabeth City Aii"port Commission, 1963. Appointed by U. S. 
Secretaiy of Agriculture Oi-ville Freeman to the Potato Advisoiy Committee, 1961- 
68; President of National Potato Council, 1965-66; member National Potato Steer- 
ing Committee since 1966; recipient of the Commissioner of Agriculture's Award 
for the Promotion of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables, 1971. Appointed by Governor 
Terry Sanford to the North Carolina Turnpike Authority, 1963; "Tarheel of the 
Week" in December, 1965. Member N.C. House of Representatives 1945, 1947, 1973-74. 
1977-78 and 1979. Member, Salem Baptist Church. Married Selma Willard Harris May 
14, 1933. Two children: John Thomas and Vernon Grant, Jr. Address: Route 1, Box 
170, Elizabeth City 27909. 



ROBERTS HARRELL JERNIGAN, JR. 

(Democrat — Hertford County) 

(Fifth Representative District — Counties: Bertie, Gates, Hertford and Northamp- 
ton. Two Representatives.) 

Roberts Harrell Jernigan, Jr. was born in Ahoskie No- 
vember 24th, 1915. Son of Roberts Harrell and Jessie (Garrett) 
Jernigan. Attended Naval Academy Preparatory School. 
1932-1933; Wake Forest College. 1933-1936: University of 
North Carolina, 1936-1937, A.B.; University of North Caro- 
lina Law School, 1937-1939. Farmer and President and 
Treasurer Ahoskie Meat & Provision Co., Inc., of Ahoskie. 
Member, Sigma Nu Fraternity. Chairman Board of Trustees 
Roanoke-Chowan Technical Institute, Director of Wachovia 
Bank & Trust Company, Ahoskie Branch. Representative in the General Assembly 1963. 
1965, 1967. 1969, 1971, 1973, 1975 and 1977. President Ahoskie Rotary Club 1955: 
President of the Hertford County Y.D.C. 1954; Chairman Hertford County Democratic 




386 North Carolina Manual 



Executive Committee 195S; Member of the Aeronautic Commission 19()7-1975; Member 
of Coastal Resources Commission 1974-1977; President Hertford County Savings & 
Loan Association 1!>72-1978. Went to China in 1940 as an employee of Standard Vacuum 
Oil Company and was manager of Peking office at start of World War II: prisoner of 
Japansese for twenty-three months and returned to United States on the exchange 
ship "MS (iripsholm." Served as Ensign in United States Navy, 1943-1946; partici- 
pated in invasion of Southern P>ance. F^piscopalian. Married Linda Williams of Sanford 
May 14th. 1949. Children: Rolierts III. Elizabeth, and Clawson. Address 401 North Curtis 
Street. Ahoskie 27910. 



JOSEPH EDWARD JOHNSON 

(Democrat — Wake County) 

(Fifteenth Representative District— Counties: Wake. Six Representatives.) 

Joseph Edward Johnson was born in Raleigh, N. C, 
October 17, 1941. Son of Ira Edward Johnson and Grace Ivey 
Johnson. Attended Raleigh Public Schools 1946-1959. N. C. 
State Univei-sity 1959-1961. Wake Forest University 1961- 
1963, B.B.A. Degree, 1964. School of Law— Wake Foresi 
University, 1963-1966, J.D. Degree. Vice President & As- 
sistant Counsel for Cameron-Brown Company. Wake County, 
North Carolina, & American Bar Association. Alpha Kappa 
Psi (Business) Fraternity. Phi Delta Phi (Legal) Fraternity. 
U. S. Ai-my (Military Police Corps) 1st Lt. 1967-1969. Member, Edenton Street 
United Methodist Church, Administrative Board, Assistant Superintendent, Sunday 
School, Sunday School Teacher. Married Jane Francum Johnson, January 31, 1964. 
Children: Jane Elizabeth Johnson, Kathryn Ivey Johnson, Susan Briles Johnson. 
Address: 1011 Harvey St., Raleigh 27608. 



JOHN M. JORDAN 

(Democrat — Alamance County) 

(Twenty-second Representative District — Counties: Alamance and Rockingham. 
Four Representatives.) 

'*^'™'^*^»l^^' John M. Jordan was born February 16. 1936 in Durham, 

^ ■' NC, Son of B. Everett Jordan and Katherine McLean. House of 

I; '• Representatives 1975-76 and 1979. President & Treasurer of 

» '  Alamance YDC. Attended Saxaphaw Elementary School; 

-._ ^^^ Woodberry Forest; Walter Williams High School: Duke Uni- 

^^^ ^^^^ versity, 1958, B.S. Additional courses at Technical Institute of 
^^H^ ^^^^B Alamance. NCSU and Clemson. Textiles and Agriculture. 
^^^B^^I^^^H Member — Alamance Chamber of Commerce; NC Farm Bureau; 
^^^^^^^^^^ Founder & President of NC Chianina & Charolais Associa- 
tions; NC Cattlemen's Association. Member— Mason; Shrine; Moose: and F]xchange. 
Member — Boy Scouts of America— Eagle with 3 palms. Silver Beaver. Founder & 
Explorer Advisor Post 65. and p]xecutive Board Member. Member— Saxapahaw 




Legislative Branch 



387 



Methodist Church— Sr. High Sunday School Teacher, 10 years— Church School Super- 
intendent, 3 years. Lay Speaker, 6 years. Official Board, 15 years, Chairman of Trustees. 
Married Margaret Carter November 25, 1960. Children: John M. Jr.: Margaret 
Louise; Thomas Carter: and Dorothy May. Address: Saxapahaw, NC 27340. 

IAN THEODORE KAPLAN 

(Democrat — Forsyth County) 
(Twenty-Ninth Representative District— County: Forsyth. Five Representatives.) 




Ian Theodore Kaplan (Ted) was born in Greensboro, 
December 26, 1946. Son of Leon Kaplan and Renee Myers. 
Graduated R. J. Reynolds High School 1965. Attended 
Guilford College. Member House of Representatives 1977-78 and 
1979. Vice-President Kaplan School Supply Corporation. 
U.S. Navy Seaman 1967-1973. Member Temple Emanuel. 
Address: 702 Summit St., Winston-Salem 27101. 



MARGARET POLLARD KEESEE 

(Republican — Guilford County) 

(Twenty-third Representative District— Counties: Guilford. Seven Representatives.) 

Margaret Pollard Keesee was born January 6, 1945 in 
Greensboro, NC. Daughter of Charles Rogers Keesee and 
Margaret Lena Kersey. House of Representatives 1973-74. 
and 1979. Attended Greensboro Public Schools, Grimsley High 
School, 1963; Guilford College, 1967— B.A.; Radford, 1967— 
Graduate Work in Early Childhood Education. Classroom 
Teacher, Greensboro Public Schools, David Jones School. 
Member— NC Association of Educators; Association of Class- 
room Teachers; National Education Association. Nominated 
for Greensboro's "Teacher of the Year." Award by the Staff at David Jones School — 1976 
& 1977. NC State Advisory Committee to US Commission on Civil Rights, 1974 — present. 
Member — Greensboro Branch of American Association of University Women, 1973- 
78; Served as State Secretary of NC Women's Political Caucus— 1975-76. Member 
Christ United Methodist Church. Address: 511 North Mendenhall St., Greensboro 27401. 




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North Carolina Manual 



DR. RAMEY FLOYD KEMP 

(Uemocrat— Davie County) 

(Thirtieth Representative District— Counties: Davidson and Davie. Three Repre- 
sentatives.) 

Dr. Ramey Floyd Kemp was born September 29, 1919 in 
Hi^h Point, NC. Son of William Thomas Kemp and Otta Geneva 
Dailey. House of Representatives 1978. Chairman, Davie 
County Board of Elections 16 years; Chairman Davie County 
Democratic Party, 5 years: NC Democrat E.xecutive Commit- 
tee, 5 years. Graduated High Point High School, 1935; Logan 
College of Chiropractic (St. Louis), 1950, Doctor of Chiro- 
practic. Doctor of Chiropractic. Member — NC Chiropractic 
Association; American Chiropractice Association; Parker 
Chiropractic Research Foundation. Received Mocksville Jaycees Distinguished Service 
Award 1954; NC Chiropractic Association Distinguished Service Award (3 times); 
Chiropractic Doctor of the Year in NC, 1961; Fellow International College of Chiro- 
practic. Member — Mocksville Masonic Lodge: Loyal Order of Moose. Past President, 
NC Chiropractic Association; NC Moose Association; NC Delegate to American Chiro- 
practic Association; Now serving fifth term NC Board of Chiropractic Examiners. 
Served Infantry and Calvary. T-5-Post Exchange Manager, 1943-46. Member LTnited 
Methodist Church— Past President, Sunday School Class, Past President, Methodist 
Men's Club: Member— Board of Stewards. Married Emily Betts August 4, 1939. 
Children: Ramey F., Jr.; and Gregg Dailey. Address: P. 0. Box 361, Mocksville 27028. 




SB. LACEY, JR. 

(Republican — Avery County) 

(Thirty-ninth Representative District— Counties: Avery, Burke, and Mitchell. Two 
Representatives.) 




S. B. Lacey. Jr. was born August 10, 1918 in Newland, 
NC, Son of Swan Burnett Lacey and Norma Daniels. Attended 
Newland High School, 1983-37; Lees McRae College, 1937-39; 
NCSU. 1939-41, B.S. Real Estate Broker, Lacey Realty Co. 
Past President, NC Agriculture Teachers Association. Served 
US Army Air Corp— Aviation Cadet. 1942-46. Member Baptist 
Church — Superintendent and Trustee, Teacher of Adult Men's 
Class. Married Pansy Erwin December 14, 1944. Children: 
Michael M. and R. Bruce. Address: PO Box 67, Newland 28657. 




Legislative Branch 389 

JAMES ERWIN LAMBETH 

(Democrat — Davidson County) 

(Thirtieth Representative District— Counties: Davidson and Davie. Three Repre- 
sentatives.) 

James Erwin Lambeth was horn February 2, 1916, in 
Thomasville. Son of James Erwin Lambeth and Helen Mc- 
Aulay. Graduated Thomasville High School, 1933; Duke 
University, 1937, A.B.; and Harvard Business, 1938. Furni- 
ture Executive. Mayor Pro-tem of Thomasville, 1963-67. 
President Thomasville Rotary Club, 1960-61; President 
Thomasville Chamber of Commerce, 1961-63; President High 
Point Executives Club, 1962-63; Board of Tinistees Thomas- 
ville Community Foundation, 1963-64; Member of Thomas- 
ville City Council, 1963-67; President Piedmont Associated Ind., 1963-64; Member 
Governor's Commission on Status of Women, 1964; Director High Point Executives 
Club, 1964-74; Governor District 769 Rotary International, 1966-67; Member, Na- 
tional Citizens' Advisory Council to Status of Women, 1967; President Uwharrie 
Council Boy Scouts of America, 1967-68; Member, Rotary International Vocational 
Consultation Group, 1967-68; President Thomasville Historical Society, 1969-71; 
Chairman of Board Davidson County Historical Society, 1971-72; College Founda- 
tion, Inc. Board of Trustees, 1971-76; Director Rotary International, 1972-74; Mem- 
ber Newcomen Society of North America; Thomasville Chapter Masonic Lodge; 
Phi Delta Theta; N. C. Industrial Council; Furniture Library Association; Inter- 
national Platform Asso.; Recipient of "The Rotai-y Foundation Citation for Meri- 
torious Service", 1974; Member, International Photographic Fellowship of Rotary; 
Chairman of Board and Treasurer- Lambeth, Inc.; Director Home Building and 
Loan Association; Director North Carolina National Bank; Director Piedmont 
Associated Industries. Member House of Representatives 1977-78 and 1979. Member, 
Memorial United Methodist Church; Former Member Board of Stewards, President, 
R. L. Pope Bible Class, 1963-64, Chairman Stewardship and Finance Committee, 
1964-65. Married Katharine Covington Lambeth, August 27, 1938. Children: James 
Erwin Lambeth, III; Richard Covington Lambeth: Mary Katharine Lambeth Cullens; 
and William Roderick Lambeth. Address: 201 E. Holly Hill Rd. Thomasville 27360. 



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North Carolina Manual 



H. MARTIN LANCASTER 

(Democrat— Wayne t'ounty) 
(Ninth Representative District— County: Wayne. Two Representatives.) 

H. Martin Lancaster was born March 24. 194:^ in Wayne 
County, NC. Son of Harold W. Lancaster and Eva Madena Pate. 
Attended Pikeville High School. 1948-1961; UNC-Chapel 
Hill. 19»i5 A.B.: UNC Law School. 1967. J.D. Attorney. Mem- 
ber American Bar Association: NC Bar Association; 8th Judi- 
cial District Bar Association: Wayne County Bar Association. 
Listed in "Who's Who in American Law". Member Mason. 
Shriner; Elk. Served active duty; Navy: Reserves; Air Force- 
Lieutenant (Naw); Major (Air P'orce): Navy: 1967-1970; Air 
Force: 1971-present. Member First Presbyterian Church — Deacon — 1972-75. Married 
Alice Matheny May ;^1. 1975. Children: Ashley Elizabeth; and Mary Martin. Address: PO 
Drawer 916. Goldsboro 27530. 





If 






^ 



RALPH WILLIAM LEDFORD 

(Republican— Henderson County) 

(P"'orty-second Representative District— County: Henderson. One. Representative.) 

Ralph William Ledford was born September 18. 1946 in 
Murphy. NC. Son of Garland Ledford and Lucille Moore. At- 
tended Hayesville High 1960-64; Appalachian State University, 
1971, B.A.; George Washington University, 1972, M.A.; NC 
Scottish Rite Fellowship, 1971. Real Estate and Insurance. 
Member VFW; Lions Club; and Jaycees. Served United States 
Air F'orce — 1st Lieutenant, 1964-68— Presently member of 
USAF Reserves. Member Baptist Church. Married Catherine 
Demet July 5, 1968. Address: PO Box 3005, Hendersonville 
28739. 

DANIEL T.LILLEY 

(Democrat — Lenoir County) 

(Third Representative District— Counties: Craven, Jones, Lenoir and Pamlico. Three 

Representatives.) 

Daniel T. Lilley was bom in Martin County, Augtist 15, 
1920. Son of Alfred Tom Lilley (deceased) and Ethel Grace 
(Gurkin) Liley (deceased). Attended Fairn Life High School; 
Spartan School of Aeronautics, Tulsa, Oklahoma; Airline 
Maintenance Course and School of Flight-Diplomas; Self 
Study— Chartered Life Underwriting Course (C.L.U,) 1967; 
American College of Life Undei-writers, Biyn Mawr, Pennsyl- 
vania. Salesman with The Penn Mutual Life Insurance Com- 
pany. Member Lenoir County- Life Underwriters Association; 

The American Society of Chartered Life Underwriters; Kinston Junior Chamber of 




Legislative Branch 



391 



Commerce, past President, received D.S.A. Award; Kinston Chamber of Commerce, 
received the First Citizen of The Year Award, 1963; Kinston Rotary Club; 1974 
National Sales Achievement Award from National Association of Life Underwriters; 
Chairman, State Aeronautics Council; 1978 National Quality Award— National Asso- 
ciation of Life Underwriters. Member, Lenoir County Board of Commissioners, 
1964-1968. Representative in the General Assembly of 1969. Lt. Col. in N.C. Wing, Civil 
Air Patrol; U.S. Air Force Reserve, Colonel, 6 years active duty World War IL Member, 
Northwest Christian Church, Kinston; Elder; serving: as Minister, Silver Hill Christian 
Church, Grantsboro and Cove City Christian Church, C'ove City since 1964. Received the 
Governor's Award as Conservation Legislator of the Year 1975 from the N. C. Wild- 
life Federation. Married Jean Hites of McPherson, Kansas, July 7, 1944. Children: 
Eileen, and Dan, Jr. Address: 1805 Sedgefield Drive, Kinston, Mailing Address: P. 0. 
Bo.x 824, Kinston 28501. 



HORACE LOCKLEAR 

(Democrat — Robeson County) 

(Twenty-first Representative District — Counties: Hoke, Robeson, and Scotland. 
Three Representatives.) 

Horace Locklear was born in Lumberton, November 27, 
1942. Son of Riley Locklear and Margaret Locklear. Gradu- 
ated Magnolia High School; Pembroke State University, 
1964, B.S.; North Carolina Central University, 1972, J.D. 
Attorney. Member North Carolina Bar Association; Robeson 
County Bar Association; and American Indian Lawyers 
Association. First American Indian to be admitted to the 
North Carolina Bar. Member House of Representatives 1977-78 
and 1979. Member of the Saddletree Jaycees. Member, Mount 
Olive Baptist Church. Married Barbara B. Locklear May 11, 1963. Children: Millicent: 
Horace Bryan; and Jasper Edwin. Address: P. 0. Box 877, Lumberton 28358. 




EDITH LEDFORD LUTZ 

(Democrat — Cleveland County) 

(Fortieth Representative District— Counties: Cleveland, Polk and Rutherford. Three 
Representatives.) 

Edith Ledford Lutz was born in Lawndale, October 20, 
1914. Daughter of Thomas Curtis Ledford and Annie Hoyle. 
Attended Belwood High School. Fanner — Fruit Grower. 
Member. Kadish Methodist Church: Sunday School Teacher, 
Growers Auxiliary. Member NC House, 1976, 1977-78 and 1979. 
member, Kadish Methodist Church; Sunday School Teacher, 
Treasurer Woman's Organization, Counselor for youth fellow- 
ship. Married M. Everett Lutz October 25, 1933. One child: E. 
Jacob Lutz. Address: Rt. 3, Box 197, Lawndale 28090. 




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North Carolina Manual 



WILLIAM HANNON McMILLAN 



(1 )eni()cr;it— Irt'dt'll C'ounlv) 



(Thirty-fifth Rri)resont:itive District— Counties: Alexamier and Iredell. Two 
Representatives.) 



William Hannon McMillan was horn in (Jaffney. S. ('., 
November 12, liCW. Son of William Hazel McMillan and Ethel 
Jane Stacy McMillan. Attended Harding HiRh School, 1952- 
1 !).')(;, Charlotte, N. C; Charlotte College, 1956-1957. UNC- 
Chapel Hill, 1957-19(;0, B.S. DeKree. University of North 
Carolina Law School, Chapel Hill, J.l). De.trree. 19(58. Attorney. 
American, N. C. and Iredell County Bar As.sociation. Home 
Builders Association of Statesville-Mooresville. Phi Delta 
Phi P'raternity, and Delta Sigma }*i Fraternity. U. S. Air 
F^orce, 1st Lieutenant. 19()1-19()5. Member Criminal Code Commission, Task Force on 
Telecommunications, President, Kiwanis Club of City of Prog'ress, President, Carolina 
Dojfwood Festival, Inc., Chairman, Statesville Board of Elections, U.S. Magistrate 1970- 
1971, and Director, Statesville Jaycees. Member, P^irst Baptist Church, Statesville, 
Deacon. X. C. Sunday School Teacher. 197()-present. Married Martha P^leanor Bynum 
.April 17, 19()5. Two Children: Stacy P^leanor and Mary Hannon. Address: P. 0. Box 
177(i. Statesville 28(i77. 







ROBERT LEE McALISTER 

(Democrat— Rockingham County) 

(Twenty-second Representative District — Counties: Alamance and Rockingham. 
P'our Representatives.) 




(.'hurch — V 

i9»;7-i97(;, 

Lee and Sid 



inancial 
Trustee 
Inev Rol 



Robert Lee McAlister was born February 6, 1928 in Reids- 
ville, NC. Son of James Denny McAlister and Maggie p]liza- 
beth Meador. House of Representatives— appointed to fill 
vacancy Octol)er Ki, 1977. Craduated Ruffin High School, 
1942. Tobacco and grain farming. Member NC P'arm Bureau: 
NC Agri-Business Council: Rockingham County Develop- 
ment Association — Served Army Anti-Aircraft Artillary— 
Sergeant P'irst Class— January 194;-)— May 1947 & November 
1950 to November 1951. Meml)er Mt. Carmel United Methodist 
Secretary, March 1969— January 1975, Administrative Board— 

— 1970-1974. Married Doris, February 1, 1944. Children Dennis 

)ert. Address: Rt. 1 Box ;«(;. Ruffin 27;!2(;. 




Legislative Branch 393 

TIMOTHY HILL McDOWELL 

(Democrat — Alamance County) 

(Twenty-second Representative District — Counties: Alamance and Rockinpfham. 
Four Representatives.) 

Timothy Hill McDowell was born January 16, 1946 in Bur- 
lington, NC. Son of Charles Lamar McDowell (deceased) and 
(iolda Marjorie Perry (deceased). House of Representatives, 
appointed September 19, 1977. Member of Mebane Board of 
Adjustments, 1973-74. Attended Technical Institute of Ala- 
mance. 1970, AAS: Elon College. 1976, BAS. Director of Public 
Information, Elon College. Member Burlington Rotary Club; 
College News Association of the Carolinas; Council for Advance- 
A Mimt ment and Support of Education— Received 2nd Place, Best 
Editorial, NC Press Association, 1973; Outstanding Contribution to Conservation 
Award. Orange County Soil and Water Conservation District, 1972. Served US Navy 
Reserves— Third Class Petty Officer, 1966-71. Editor, Mebane Enterprise Journal, 
1970-74. Member Hawfields Presbyterian Church. Married Zorado Kernodle February 
25, 1967. Children; Chris Michelle and Joshua Truth. Address: Rt. 6, Bo.x 96, Mebane 
27302. 



EUGENE WORTH MERRITT 

(Democrat — New Hanover County) 
(Twelfth Representative District — County: New Hanover. Two Representatives.) 

Eugene Worth Merritt was born February 6, 1919 in Rose 
Hill, NC. Son of Wellington Holmes Merritt and Viola Merritt. 
Attended Warsaw High School. 1933-39; NCSU, 1939-40; 
E.xecutive Program, UNC-Chapel Hill, 1966-67; NC Realtors 
Institute, 1974-75. Real Estate Investments. Member NC Board 
of Realtors; Wilmington Board of Realtors; National Welders 
Supply Association; American Welding Society; Refrigera- 
tion Service Engineers Society. Compressed Gas Dealer of 
the Year in S.E.U.S., 1951; Vice-President NC L.P.G. Associa- 
tion, 1961; S.E.N.C. Salesman of the year; President. American Welding Society. 
Member St. Johns Masonic Lodge; Scottish Rite Body; North American Shrine; 
Woodmen of the World. Active in Rotary International Work— director & president of 
local Rotary Club— served as district governor, 1976-77. Management Instructor 
Management Development Institute, Chapel Hill. Chamber of Commerce; Merchants 
Association. Active in Scouting— Scoutmaster for 5 years. Served U.S. Coast Guard — 
temp, duty, bosun's mate, 1944-45. Member St. Andrews Covenant Presbyterian Church, 
Deacon, three four-year terms between 1956 and 1968, elder, six-year term 1972-1977, 
teacher 1955-1978. Married Rosa Farrior November 30, 1941. Children; Sandra 
Merritt Brown; Eugene W., Jr.; Stephen Ward; and John Douglas. Address: 1209 
Essex Drive., Wilmington 28403. 




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North Carolina Manual 




^■L.41^ H 



ERNEST BRYAN MESSER 

(Democrat — Haywood County) 

(Forty-fourth Ixcpresontative District — Counties: Haywood, Jackson, Madison and 
Swain. Two Representatives.) 

Ernest Bryan Messer was Ixjrn in Waynesville, December 
121, 191:5. Son of Forest W. and Effie (Furr) Messer. Attended 
James Chapel, 1920-1927; Lee Edwards High School, 1927- 
1931; Carson Newman College, B.A. degree, 1935. Supei-visor, 
Wood Procurement Department, Champion International, 
Inc., Canton. Teacher and basketball coach, Haywood County 
County Scht)ols, 1935-1939. Member, Canton Lions Clul>; 
Canton Toastmasters Club; American Legion; Veterans of 
Foreign Wars; Board of Directors and President Haywood 
County Mental Health Association; Board of Directors of Champion Y.M.C.A. 
and Champion Credit Union. Chainnan Haj'wood County Democratic Executive 
Committee. 1958-1962; Haywood County Planning Board; Haywood County His- 
torical Association; ChaiiTnan Canton Chapter Red Cross Bloodmobile; Chairman 
Inplant United Fund Drive; Ti-ustee Haywood Technical Institute; Consei-vation 
and Development Study Commission; Water and Air Resources Study Commission; 
(governor's Advisory Council Comprehensive Health Planning; Member, State 
Mentiil Health Services: Member, Legislative Research Commission: Member: Com- 
munity College Advisory Council; Legislative Study Commission on Aging: National 
Council State Legislatures Sub-Committee on Aging. Board of Directors State of 
F^ranklin Health Council: 1974 Layman's Award for Distinguished Service to Educa- 
tion given by Phi Delta Kappa of Western Carolina University. Served in U.S. Navy as 
Lieutenant, World War IL 1942-1945. Representative in (General Assembly of 1963, 1965, 
1967, 19(>9. 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, and 1979. Baptist. Former Teacher Adult 
Sunday School Class, former Training Union Director. Married Jincy Owen January 
11, 1936. One daughter, Mrs. Clyde Poovey, Jr., Atlanta, Ga. Address: 15 Forest View 
Circle, Canton. 28716. 



GEORGE W. MILLER, JR. 

(Democrat — Durham County) 

(Sixteenth Representative District— County: Durham.) 

George W. Miller, Jr., was born in Spencer, N. C. May 
14, 1930. Son of George W. and Blanche M. (Iddings) Miller. 
Attended Spencer Elementary and High School, 1936-1948; 
University of North Carolina, Bachelor of Science and Busi- 
ness Administration; University of North Carolina Law 
School, 1954-1957, LL.B. degree. Lawyer, fiiTn of Haywood, 
Denny & Miller. Membei', North Carolina Bar Assn.; Ameri- 
can Bar Assn.; Durham County Bar Assn.; International 
Association of Insurance Counsel. Member Phi Alpha Delta 
Law Fraternity; Member Sertoma Club; Member of the House of Representatives, 
1971-1973-74 and 1977-78. President, North Carolina Young Democratic Clubs, 1964- 
1965. Served in U.S. Marine Corps, Sergeant, 1951-1953. Member, Duke Memorial | 
Methodist Church, Durham: Chairman, Duke Memorial Week Day School Committee,] 




Legislative Branch 



395 



1968; Member, Official Board. Member of tlie North Carolina Symphony Board of 
Trustees; Vice-President of Citizens Advisory Council for Center for Alcohol Studies, 
Division of Health Sciences. Married Eula Hux June 21. 1958. Children: Elizabeth 
Ann. Blanche Rose and George, III. Address: 3862 Somerset Drive, Durham, 27707. 




JAMES FRANKLIN MORGAN 

(Democrat — Guilford County) 

(Twenty-third Representative District— County: Guilford. Seven Representatives.) 

James FVanklin Morgan was born in High Point, June 21. 
1943. Son of James Virgil Morgan and Dorothy B. Morgan. 
Graduated High Point Central. B.A. Degree — Guilford Col- 
lege. Doctor of Jurisprudence — Cumberland School of Law — 
Sanford University. Attorney. Member High Point Bar Asso- 
ciation; 18th Judicial Bar Association; North Carolina Bar; 
American Bar Association; N. C. and American Trial Law- 
yers Association. Sigma Chi Fraternity. One of the Five 
Outstanding Young Men in N. C, 1973 and 1974. Distinguished 
Service Award, 1973 and 1974. High Point Jaycees; Chamber of Commerce; Chair- 
man Steering Committee; High Point Volunteers to the Court; Board North State 
Caucus; United Appeal; Heart Association; Legal Aid; Urban Ministry of High 
Point, Inc.; Nat Greene Youth Development, Inc.; Criminal Justice Training and 
Standards Council; Who's Who— N. C. 1973 Edition; N. C. Outward Bound School; 
Good-Will Industries; Youth Unlimited; N. C. Society for the Prevention of Blind- 
ness; Salvation Army Boys Club; and President of the N. C. Jaycees. Member, 
Christ United Methodist Church — member Administrative Board, 1970-73; Metho- 
dist Men's Club; Sunday School Teacher, 1970, 1972, 1973, Sunday School Superin- 
tendents-June 1970-June, 1972; Pastor Parish Committee — 1970, 1973, 1974; 
Nominating Committee — 1970-1973, 1974; Choir; Chairman of Area for Building 
Fund Drive. Married Ann Tinsley Morgan June 29, 1963. Children: Lea Evans 
Morgan and James PVanklin Morgan, II. Address: 416 Hillcrest Road, High Point 
27260. 



GLENN ALEXANDER MORRIS 

(Democrat — McDowell County) 

(Forty-first Representative District— Counties: McDowell and Yancey. One Repre- 
sentative.) 

Glenn Alexander Morris was bom in Marion, November 
9, 1908. Son of Thomas Morris and Mai-y Neal Morris. At- 
tended Riverside Military Academy, Gainesville, Georgia, 
1928-1929. Attended Wake Forest College 1929-1931. Served 
in United States Army 1944. Member, Kappa Alpha Order 
and President of Tau Chapter Keppa Alpha Order at Wake 
Forest 1930-1931. Retired General Manager, Clinchfield 
Manufacturing Company, Plants of Burlington Industries, 
Inc., Marion. Vice-Chainnan, McDowell County Board of 
Commissioners 1953-1959. Board of Governors, Marion General Hospital 1951-1968, 
Chairman of the Board 1954-1964; Marion's "Man of the Year" award for 1952; 




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North Carolina Manual 



Di lector, McDowell County Dread Disease Society, 1955 to present; member, Board 
of Directors First Union National Bank of Marion, 1952 to present; Member, Board 
of Directors Wachovia Bank & Tmst Company, Asheville, N. C. 1956 to 1962; Mem- 
bei-, Boanl of Directors University of North Carolina- Asheville Foundation, elected 



ROBIE LEE NASH 



(Democrat — Rowan County) 

(Thirty-first Representative District — County: Rowan. Two Representatives.) 

Robie Lee Nash was bom in E. Spencer, N. C, October 5, 
1910. Son of Archie Lee Nash, and Mary Kenerly Nash. At- 
tended East Spencer School, 1916-1924, and Salisbury High 
School, 1924-1927. Also, night classes for two semesters in 
Catawba College. Manager Real Estate Investments. North 
Carolina Foesti-y Association; Salisbury-Rowan County 
Chamber of Commerce; Salisbury Lions Club, President 
1945-1946. Representative in General Assemblies of 1971, 1973- 
74. 1975-76. 1977-78 and 1979. Salisbury City Council, 1951-1958 
and 1953-1955. Andres Jackson Masonic Lodge No. 576. Member, First United Metho- 
dist Church, Salisbury, N. C. Co-Chairman Building Program, 1951-1954; Chairman, 
Official Board, 1953-1954; ChainVian, Trastees, 1969-1974; District Trustee, 1964- 
1974. Married Ethel (Arey) Nash August 24, 1936. Children: John Lee Nash, 
Samuel Arey Nash, Lona Marie Nash Duggins. Address: No. 232 Richmond Road, 
Salisbury, 28144. 




MARY CORDELL NESBITT* 
(MRS. MARTIN L. NESBITT) 

(Democrat — Buncombe County) 



(Forty-third Representative District- 
Representatives.) 



-Counties: Buncombe and Transylvania. Four! 



Mary Cordell Nesbitt was born in Asheville, N. C, 
December 18, 1911. Daughter of Joseph Clemans Cordell and 
Martha T. Jones Cordell. Attended Buncombe County Junior: 
College 1928-30; Western Carolina College, 1934-35, B.S. 
Degree; Western Carolina College, 1958, Masters Degree.i 
Retired Educational Consultant. Life Member North Caro- 
lina Education Association and National Education Associa-; 
tion. Member, NC House, 1977-78 and 1979. Western Carolin;' 
University Alumni Award for Distinguished Service to Educa 

tion. Asheville Business and Professional Women's Club: Kappa Kappa Iota Nationa 

Teachers Sorority. Member, Oakley United Methodist Church. Married Martin L; 

Nesbitt (deceased) July 27, 1935. Children: Mary Ann Dotson, Martin L. Nesbitt, Jr 

Address: 12 Rollingwood Road, Asheville, 28805. 




*Ke|)ivsfntanvf Nesbitt died AuRUSt 1st. l;i79. Her death is a Kreat loss to the people of Buncombe County and| 
North Carolina. I 



Legislative Branch 



397 



EDDNYE 

(Democrat — Bladen County) 

(Nineteenth Representative District — Counties: Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus. 
One Senator.) 

Edd Nye was born in Gulf, North Carolina, September 
12, 1932. Son of Joseph Burke and Vera R. (Johnson) Nye. 
Graduated Clarkton High School 1951; S.E. Community 
College, A.A., 1969; North Carolina State University, Fort 
Bragg Extension, 1972. Insurance Agency. Member, Bladen 
Masonic Lodge 646; V.F.W. Served as Bladen County Com- 
missioner, June 1966 to December 1972. Served, U. S. Air 
P'orce, 1952-1956. Member N. C. State Senate. 1975-76; N. C. 
State House 1977-78 and 1979. Member, Elizabethtown Baptist 
Church; Deacon; Sunday School Teacher; Moderator, Bladen Baptist Association, 1966- 
1968. Married Peggy McKee, January 9, 1955. Three Children: Shannon Sue Nye, 
Edward McKee Nye, and Allison Hope Nye. Address: P. 0. Box 8, Elizabethtown, 
28337. 




DAVID RUSSELL PARNELL 

(Democrat — Robeson County) 

(Twenty-first Representative District— Counties: Hoke, Robeson and Scotland. Three 
Representatives.) 

David Russell Parnell was born in Parkton, N. C, 
November 16, 1925. Son of John Quincy Parnell and Clelia 
(Britt) Parnell. Attended Parkton Public Schools, 1931-1941; 
Oak Ridge Militai-y Institute, 1941-1944. Wake Forest Uni- 
versity, B.S. Degree, 1949. Merchant and Farmer. N. C. 
Merchants Association, N. C. Oil Jobbers Association; N. C. 
State Highway Commissioner, 1969-1972. Member Board of 
Trustees, Meredith College— 1977— Member, N. C. State 
Humanities Foundation— 1975. Member, Robeson County In- 
dustrial Development Commission, 1963-present; Mayor— Town of Parkton, 1964-1969. 
U. S. Army Corporal, 1945-1946. Member, Parkton Baptist Church; Chairman— Board of 
Deacons— 1974-1975; 1972-1973; 1968-1969; Church Treasurer, 1950-1972; Sunday 
School Teacher, 1950-present. Married Barbara Johnson Parnell, June 11, 1948. 
Children: David R. Jr., Anne J. Parnell, and Timothy Scott Parnell. Address: P. 0. Box 
190, Parkton, 28371. 




MARY NORWOOD PEGG 

(Republican— F'orsyth County) 
(Twenty-ninth Representative District— County: Forsyth. Five Representatives.) 



398 



North Carolina Manual 




Mary Norwood IVrr whs l)orn June 21. liK'W in Rockinj;- 
haiii. XC. DauKhler of Stt'i)lu'n (iarland and Katherine Louise 
Patrick. Attended Rockinjrham Schools, U)44-19r)(;: Win^ate Col- 
lege: UNC-dreensljoro; La Salle. 1971— Decree in Interior 
Desijifn. Honiemaker. Volunteer in various civic and cultural 
organizations. Member Methodist Church. Married .Ial)ez (lil- 
hert l'e,u-,ir -lune 'ZS. 1958. Children: Katherine Elizabeth: Stephen 
Jabez; and Jennifer Gail. Adtiress: 8561 Buena \'ista Rd., Win- 
ston-Salem 27106. 



VAN P^LYNT PHILLIPS 



(Democrat— Mitchell County 



(Thirty-ninth Representative District. Counties: Avery, Burke, and Mitchell. 
Two Representatives.) 




Van Flynt Phillips was born February 22, 1952 in Washing- 
ton, D.C. Son of Samuel L. Phillips and Jewel McKinney. At- 
tended Harris High School: UNC-Charlotte: and Real Estate 
School. Real Estate Broker — Vice President, (Ireat Meadows, 
Inc. Member Moose Lodge. Member First Baptist Church. 
Address: PO Box 400, Spruce Pine 28777. 



AARON W. PLYLER 



(Democrat — L^nion County) 

(Thirty-third Representative District— Counties: Cabarrus andJ_Tnion. Three Repre- 
sentatives.) 




Aaron Wesley Plyler was born in Monroe, North Carolina, 
October 1, 1926. Son of Isom F. Plyler, Sr., and Ida Foard 
Plyler. Attended Benton Heights School and Florida Military 
Academy. President of IMyler Grading and Paving, Inc.: Presi- 
dent of Hill Top Enterprises; Board of Directors American 
Bank & Trust Company, Monroe: H. R. Johnson Construction 
Company, Monroe: N. C. Restaurant Association. Member of 
Associated General Contractors of America, N. C. Motel Asso- 
ciation, National Restaurant Association. Member of Advisory 
P)oard of Carolina Division JAARS-Wycliffe, served on Advisory Board of Vocational 
and Technical Education in North Carolina. Member and Past President Wingate 
College Patron Club, member and Past President Monroe-Union County Chamber of 
Commerce, Past Chairman Union (,'ounty Democratic Party. 1971 L^nion County Man of 
the Year Award, li)71 Wingate College Patron's Club Award, 1978 Union County 
Leadership Award. Member, Monroe Rotary Club, Rolling Hills Country Club, Mon- 
roe Moose Lodge. Member of Benton Heights Presbyterian Church, past Chairman 
Board of Deacons. Married Dorothy Moser Plyler, May 22, 1948. Children: Barbara 
Plyler Faulk, Diane Plyler Hough, Aaron W., Jr.. Alan, Alton. Address: Route No. 7, Box 
62, Monroe, 28110. 



Legislative Branch 



399 



JULIUS REID POOVEY 

(Republican — Catawba County) 
(Thirty-seventh Representative District — County: Catawba. Two Representatives.) 



Julius Reid Poovey was born in Hickory, September 24, 
1902. Son of Lloyd Willard Poovey and Nancy Thomas Reid 
Poovey. Attended Hickory City Schools; Weaver College; 
Lenoir-Rhyne College, commercial graduate, 1922. Retired 
Accountant. Served as Judge, pro-tem. Hickory Municipal 
Couil. Member, Catawba County Board of Elections; member, 
Board of Advisors of N. C. Federation of College Republicans, 
member of State, County and Precinct Republican Executive 
Committees. Representative in the General Assembly of 

1967. 1977-78, and 1979; Senator in (];eneral Assembly of 1969 and 1973-74. 

Served in U.S.C.G.R. (T) Sic, 1944-45. Episcopalian. Married Kathryn Violet Icard. 

April 7, 1928. Four Children: Mrs. Walter N. Yount, Jr. J. Reid Poovey, Jr., Major 

William B. Poovey, USAF (ret.), and Dr. James N. Poovey. Address: 61 Twentieth 

Avenue, N.W., Hickory, 28601. 




WILLIAM PAUL PULLEY, JR. 

(Democrat — Durham County) 

(Sixteenth Representative District— County: Durham. Three Representatives.) 

William Paul Pulley, Jr. was born August 30, 1936 in Dur- 
ham, NC. Son of William Paul Pulley and Josie Bullard. At- 
tended UNC-Chapel Hill. 1958. A.B.;" UNC-Chapel Hill, 1961. 
LL.B. Attorney. Member NC Academy of Trial Lawyers: 14th 
Judicial Bar; American Trial Lawyers Association; NC Bar 

r\ '^~-- Association; UNC Law Alumni Foundation. Member Braggtown 

■^^^^^^ Baptist Church. Married Elizabeth Dees Nelson, February 10, 

]^ ^^^^ 1968. Children: William Paul. HI; Bradley Larkin; Debra Ann 

•^^^^ Nelson; Margaret Dees Nelson; Hugh Reavis Nelson, IIL 

Address: PO Box 1167, Durham 27702. 



DWIGHT WILSON QUINN 

(Democrat — Cabarrus County) 

'I (Thirty-third Representative District— Counties— Cabarrus and Union. Throe 
Representatives.) 




400 North Carolina Manual 



> 



Dwifjht Wilson Quinn was Ijorn in York, South Carolina, 
Sopti'ml)i'r 11^, 1917. Son of Lucy (Wilson) (Juinn and the late 
Williani IaIIc (Juinn. Served as a member of the (lovernor's 
^5^ "^ . " Commission on Reorjjanization of State Government, 1961-62; 

\g ' , member. Executive Committee Governor's Committee on 

«-J ^_— :.' Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Crime; member of the com- 

\^^^'^k mittee appointed by the Attorney General on Criminal Code 

Jif^ ^H Revision; member of the Governor's Study Committee on Archi- 

'^™ ^ ^^* tectural I>arriers for the Benefit of the Hanflicapped; member 

of the Itoard of Directors of the Southern Region Education Board. Voted Kannapolis 
Man of the Year, 1948, by the Jaycees. Received Amvets National Distinguished Service 
Award for outstanding community Service, 1953. Member, Board of Directors Cannon 
Memorial Y.M.C.A., member of the Board of Directors of the Cabarrus County Boys 
Club; Board of National Cerebral Palsy Association; Board of Directors and past 
President Cabarrus County Chapter, North Carolina Heart Association. Served in 
I'nited States Arm\', 1944-45. Member American Legion, Post 115, served as Vice 
Commander of the American Legion; 40 and 8; Rotarian; member Cannon Memorial 
Lodge. No. 626, A.F. & A.M.; Scottish Rite Bodies; Shriner, Oasis Temple. Representa- 
tive in the (k-neral Assembly regular sessions of 1951, 1958, 1955-56, 1957, 1959, 1961, 
1968, 1965-66, 1967, 1969, 1971. 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78 and 1979 and special ses- 
sions 1956, 1963, 19()5, 1966 and 1971. Lutheran. Member, Kimball Memorial Lutheran 
Church; has served as a member of the Church Council. Delegate to the National Demo- 
cratic Convention 1960 in Ix>s Angeles, California and Chicago, Illinois, 1968; former 
Chairman of the Board of Trustees and the Executive Committee of Appalachian 
State University. Received Honorary Doctor of Laws from Appalachian State Uni- 
versity, 1978 and presently a member of the Board of Visitors there. Married Marian 
p]lizabeth Isenhour February 23, 1936. One daughter: Mrs. Lester LI. Dodge. Address: 
213 South Main Street, Kannapolis, 28081. 

TOM BRAGG RABON, JR. , 

(Democrat — Brunswick County) 

(Eleventh Representative District — Counties: Brunswick and Pender. One Repre-. 

sentative.) | 

! 

Tom Bragg Rabon, Jr. was born June 6, 1954 in Wilming-i 
ton, NC. Son of Tom B. Rabon, Sr., and Lois King. Attended; 
Bolivia High School. August 1960— May 1972; UNC-Wilming- 
ton, August 1972— May 1974; UNC-Chapel Hill, May 1974— May 
1976, B.A. Director of Planning for Brunswick County. F'ormer 
Chairman— Legislative Liaison Committee for NC Student' 
Legislature; Past President Brunswick County Young Demo-I 
crats Club; Member NC Young Democrats; P'ormer Lyndonj 
■^ Baines Johnson Intern in House of Representatives in office olj 
I'ongressman Charlie Rose; P^ormer Community Development Consultant for Llnitedj 
Telecommunications. Inc., Kansas City, Missouri; P^ormer School Teacher at South 
Brunswick High School; Farmer; Member; Member of Morehead Scholarship SeleCji 
lion Committee for Brunswick County; Former member of Democratic State Executive!; 
Committee. Co-Author of The Cmtittinniiij IhrclDpttiini Hdtidhook. Member New Hopti 
Presbyterian Church. Address: PO Box 1, Winnabow 28479. ! 




Legislative Branch 



401 



LISTON BRYAN RAMSEY 



(Democrat — Madison County) 

(Forty-fourth Representative District— Counties: Haywood, Jackson, Madison and 
Swain. Two Representatives.) 

Liston Bryan Ramsey was born at Mai-shall, N. C, on 
Febi-uary 26, 1919. Son of John Morgan and Delia Lee 
(Bryan) Ramsey. Attended Mars Hill College, 1938. Mer- 
chant. Elk, Mason, American Legion, former Commander; 
Veterans of Foreign Wars. County Chairman Democratic 
Executive Committee, 1958-1960, 1962; served as a delegate 
to the 1968 National Convention. Board of Aldermen, Town 
of Marshall, 1949-1961. Served in Ai-my Air Corps as Ser- 
geant, 1944-1946. Representative in the General Assemblv 
1961, 1963, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78 and 1979 Chairman, House 
Finance Committee 1973-74 and 1975-76; Member, Advisory Budget Commission 
1973-74, 1975-76; and 1977-78; Member Legislative Services commission 1971, 1973-74 
and 1975-76; Member Legislative Research Commission 1975-76. Chairman, House Rules 
Committee 1978; Chairman— House Redistricting Committee 1971; and Chairman- 
Local Government Committee 1969. Chairman, Eleventh Congressional District 
Democratic Executive Committee, 1972, 1974, 1976 and 1978. Baptist. Married 
Florence McDevitt. One daughter, Martha Louise Ramsey Geouge of Gulfport, 
Miss. Address: Marshall, 28753. 




WILLIAM FRANK REDDING, III 

(Republican — Randolph County) 
(Twenty-fourth Representative District — County: Randolph. Two Representatives.) 



William Frank Redding, HI was born March 11, 1930 in 
Asheboro, NC. Son of Viola Sanborn Redding and Joan Sistrunk. 
House of Representatives, 1973-74; Asheboro City Board of 
Education— 1965-1972, Vice-Chairman 1969-72. Attended Ashe- 
boro High School. 1943-1948; University of North Carolina- 
Chapel Hill. 1952, B.S. Insurance Agent. Member, The In- 
dependent Insurance Agents of NC, Inc.; The National Asso- 
ciation of Life Underwriters. Received 1978 Boss of the Year 
by Randolph County Association of Insurance women. Mem- 
ber Rotary International; Pi Kappa Alpha; Phi Beta Kappa; Beta Gamma Sigma, Honor- 
ary Business Scholastic Fraternity. Served US Air Force— First Lieutenant, September, 
1952— August, 1954. Member Central United Methodist Church, Church School Teacher, 
member Administrative Board. Married Joan Sistrunk, November 28, 1953. Children: 
Rebecca; Marianne; and Nancy. Address: PO Box 338, Asheboro 27203. 




402 



North Carolina Manual 



JAMES GUY REVELLE, SR. 



(Democrat — Northampton County) 

(P'ifth Represontiitive District — Counties: Bertie. Gates, Hertford and Northamp- 
ton. Two Kopresontatives.) 

James Guy Revelle, Sr. was born in Conway, July 14, 
1908. Son of James Kelly Revelle and Annie Elizabeth Watson 
Revelle. Graduated Woodland-Olney High School; attended 
Wake Forest University. Retired businessman and fanner. 
Member Grand Lodge of A.F. and A.M. of North Carolina 
and Potecasi Lodge No. 418. Recipient of Twenty-five year 
Membership Pin, Masonic Lodge. Northampton County Com- 
missioner 1953-72, Chairman, 1963-72. Member, Local School 
Board, 1944-53. Member, State Democratic Executive Com- 
mittee, 1958-55. Representative in the General Assembly of 1978-74 and 1977-78. 
Trustee of Roanoke-Chowan Hospital. Member, Ashley's Grove Baptist Church: Sunday 
School Superintendent ten years: deacon thirty-four years. Chairman of Board of 
Deacons four years. Married Pearla P^utrell December 20, 1981. Two children: James 
Guy, Jr. and Pearla Revelle Lowe. Address: RFD, Conwav 27820. 




SAMUEL THOMAS RHODES 

(Republican— New Hanover County) 
(Twelfth Representative District— County: New Hanover. Two Representatives.) 




Samuel Thomas Rhodes was born in Wilmington, October 
12, 1944. Son of Samuel Thomas Rhodes and Dorothy William- 
son Rhodes. Graduated New Hanover High School, 1962: 
University of North Carolina, 19ti(i, B.A.: Auburn University, 
19H9, M.S. Work toward Ph.D. done at North Carolina State 
University. Instructor of Marine Science, Cape Fear Technical 
Institute. Member. American Institute of Biological Sciences, 
International Oceanographic Foundation, National Historical 
Society. Has had two scientific papers published. Member, 
Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons of North Carolina (St. John's Lodge No. 1): Scottish 
Rite of Free Masonry Southern Jurisdiction of the United States: Ancient Arabic 
Order of Nobles of the Mystic Shrine (Sudan Temiile): Arab Shrine Club, member 
Board of Directors. 1970-72: Order of Demolay, advisor and member of Board of 
Directors and Founding Father, 1972. Member of Wilmington Jaycees: Member & 
P^ormer Chairman of North Carolina Marine Science Council: Member, Board of 
Directors, New Hanover County Marine Science Consortium; Member, Board of 
Directors, North Carolina Ocean Sciences Institute. Former Member North Carolina 
Board of Transportation: Member Board of Directors of The New Hanover Friends of 
The Public Library: Cape Fear Sportsman Club; and North Carolina Marine Resources 
Center Administrative Board. Member Board of Directors of Lower Cape Fear Council 
for the Arts. Presented Jaycees Distinguished Service Award for 1973: Nominee North 
Cai-olina State Jaycee Man of the Year Award, 1978; Representative in the General 
A.ssembly of 1973-1974, 1975-197(5, 1977-78, and 1979-80. Member of Greater Wilming- 



Legislative Branch 403 



ton Chamber of Commerce; Member, Historic Wilmington P\)undation. Member, 
Board of Deacons St. Andrews Covenant Presbyterian Church, Wilmington. Married: 
Kleist W. Rhodes. Children: Ashely and Brandon. Address: P. 0. Box 3251, Wilmington 
28406. 



CARL WILLIAM RULLMAN 

(Republican— Catawba County) 
(Thirty-seventh Representative District — C'ounty: Catawba. Two Representatives.) 



..iC^H^ 




Carl William Rullman was born July 11, 1907 in Aurora, 
Indiana. Son of John Herman Rullman and Anna Katherine 
Riese. Attended Concordia College, 1923-1931; Lenoir Rhyne, 
1935, B.A. Retired. Member Lutheran Church— President. 
Married Elizabeth Carpenter January 29, 1932. Children: 
Jettie; Carl, Jr.; Carolyn: Henry; Casper; Glenn; Denetia; 
Amy; and Andrew. Address: 2333 Springs Rd., Hickory 28601. 



s./'SSr' 



W-^ > 



MARY POWELL SEYMOUR 

(Mrs. Hubert E. Seymour, Jr.) 
(Democrat— Guilford County) 
(Twenty-Third Representative District— County: Guilford. Seven Representatives). 

Mary Powell Seymour was born April 12, 1922, in Raleigh. 
;, Daughter of Annie Rebecca Seymour and Robert C. Powell 

(Deceased). Graduated Needham B. Broughton High School, 
1939. Peace College, 1941; Course Study Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass., 1946-1947; Pilot Nursery School Study Pro- 
gram, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1949-1950; 
i.;.-, , Leadership Development Training, Center of Creative Leader- 
.'.'.V: ' ^••.'•*.*%* ship, 1978. Legal Assistant. Licensed Real Estate Broker. 

"'""' *-'*** Four-term elected member Greensboro City Council, 1967-1975, 

Mayor Pro Tempore, 1973-1975. Member Womens Professional F'orum; 0. Henry 
Woman's Club; Greensboro Council of Garden Clubs, Inc; Greensboro Legal Auxiliary; 
Chamber of Commerce Community Development Council; Honorary member Business 
& Professional Women; Board of Directors, Tarheel Triad Girl Scout Council, Inc.; Hayes 
Taylor YMCA; Board of Visitors, Peace College; YDC; Democratic Women. Received 
1970 Eleanor Roosevelt Award; Woman of Year, City Beautification; 1971 Bryant 
Citizenship Award, Dist. 7, NCFWC; Chamber of Commerce DoUey Madison Award; 
1972 Quota Club Woman of Year; Distinguished Alumna, Peace College; 1974 Dis- 
tinguished Service Award, YWCA; 1975 Who's Who in Government; 1976-1977 Bowker. 
Women in Public Office. Member, College Park Baptist Church. Sunday School Teacher, 
10 years. Married Hubert E. Seymour, Jr. P'ebruary 3, 1945. Children: Hubert E. 
Seymour, HI and Robert J. Seymour. Two Granddaughters. Address: 1105 Pender Lane, 
Greensboro, NC 27408. 




404 North Carolina Manual 

ADDISON NEAL SMITH 

(Democrat — Rowan County) 

(Thirty-first liepresentative District— County: Ilowan. Two Representatives.) 

Addison Neal Smith was horn in Bailey, N. C, December 
120, 1934. Son of Robert Lee Smith and Grace Goodnig:ht 
Smith. Attended Woodleaf High School, Woodleaf, N. C, 
June 1953; Pfeiffer College, June 1961; University of Mis- 
sissippi, 1961-1963, Graduate Study; University of North 
Carolina at Greensboro, Masters Degree — in education with 
major in Speech Pathology and Audiology, June 1965. Edu- 
cator. Recognized as Outstanding Alumnus (Speech and 
Audiology) UNC-G. Drafted bill for N. C. Legislature 1969 
that enabled the first services for hearing impaired children in the public schools 
in the preschool years. (Employed by The State Department of Public Instiuction 
1965-1972). Member House of Representatives 1977-78. P'ormerly the Acting Director, 
Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Washington, D. C. Literary Produc- 
tions— "Speech Therapy for the Mentally Retarded", .V. (_'. Edncdfiou, February 1968, 
"Guide for Speech and hearing", N.C. Dept. of Public IriMruction, 1967, "Programs for 
Ilearing Impaired", Volta Bureau, Alextuiclcr Grnliant Bell Assocldtion. Washington, 
D.C.. 1978. U. S. Army (Engineers), Specialist 4, 1958-19(i(). Member. United Methodist 
Church. Director of Music, 1968-65, Church Lay I^eader, 1975: Member of Adminis- 
trative Board, 1975. Married Elizabeth Withers Smith August 29, 1965. Children: 
Mary Beth Smith. Addison Neal Smith, Todd Robert Smith, and Anna Elizabeth Smith. 
Address: Route 1, Hart Road, Woodleaf 27054. 



KENNETH BRIDGEFORTH SPAULDING 

(Democrat— Durham County) 
(Sixteenth Representative District— County: Durham. Three Representatives.) 

Kenneth Bridgeforth Spaulding was born November 29, 
1944 in Durham, NC. Son of Asa T. Spaulding, Sr. and Eleanor 
Bridgeforth. Attended Oakwood School, 1959-1968: Howard Uni- 
versity, 19(37, B.A.; UNC School of Law, 1967-1970 J. D. Attorney 
at Law. Member NC State Bar: 14th Judicial District Bar; 
George H. White Bar Association; NC Academy of Trial Lawyers. 
Received Darrow Society's Award. Member White Rock 
Baptist Church. Married Jean Ellen Gaillord July 6, 1968. 
Children: Chandler Gaillord and Courtney (iaillord. Address: 
No. 2 Shelly Place, Durham 27707. 




Legislative Branch 



405 



LEROY PAGE SPOON, JR. 




(Republican — Mecklenburg County) 

(Thirty-sixth Representative District — County: Mecklenburg. Eight Representa- 
tives.) 

LeRoy Page Spoon Jr. (Roy) was born in Athens, 
Georgia, October 19, 1924. Son of LeRoy Page Spoon, Sr. and 
Kathryn Wan-en Spoon. Attended Central High School in 
Charlotte, N. C. Attended Clemson College, Boston Univer- 
, .^ —: sit... and the University of Georgia. Member House of Represen- 

^^^., " -^J tatives, 1977-78. Served in the United States Army 1942-1946 as 

^^Bn/ il fC ^ Combat Infantryman in the European Theatre and as an Engi- 

^I^A^^^ neer in the Korean Theatre from 1950-1952. Served as a member 

^^^^ili^H of the North Carolina National Guard 1953-196;^ as a member 

of the 105th Combat Engineer Battalion, 30th Infantry Division (Highest Rank, Captain 
CE). President of L. P. Spoon, Inc.. an Electrical Manufacturer's Agent and Switching 
Equipment Manufacturing Company, an Kllectrical Manufacturer and Engraver. 
Member. Sardis Presbyterian Church in Charlotte; Elder, Chairman Christian p]duca- 
tion Committee. Member, Masons; Lions Club; Toastmaster Club; Coast Guard Auxili- 
ary; North Carolina Crime Study Commission; Presbyterian Eamily Life Center Board of 
Directors; Barium Springs Home for Children; Board of Regents; Board of Directors 
Mecklenburg Mental Health Association; Chairman of Lansdowne School Committee; 
Chairman North Carolina Drug Abuse Advisory Council. Member. North Carolina 
Youth Services Commission; Former Member of Erskine College Board of Trustees. 
Married Ruth Elizabeth Atwell, September 11, 1948. Three Children; Carolyn Christina. 
LeRoy P. Spoon III, and Wilfred. Address; 7028 Folger Drive, Charlotte 28211. 



MRS. LURA SELF TALLY 



(Democrat — Cumberland County) 

(Twentieth Representative District — County; Cumberland. Five Representatives.) 

;^ Mrs. Lura Self Tally was born in Statesville, December 

9, 1921. Daughter of R. O. Self and Sara Sherrill Cowles 

Self. Attended Raleigh Public Schools and graduated Need- 

1^^^ ham-Broughton High School, 1938. Attended Peace Col- 

^ 1^ f^^^^^m \^%^- Graduated Duke University, A.B. Degree, 1942; North 

Carolina State University Graduate School of Education, 
M.A. Degree, 1970. Teacher and Guidance Counselor, Fay- 
etteville City Schools. Member, Kappa Delta Sorority; NEA; 
North Carolina Association of Educators; North Carolina 
Personnel and Guidance Association; American Association of University Women; 
Business and Professional Woman's Club; North Carolina Federation of Women's 
Clubs and Fayetteville Woman's Club. Past President, North Carolina Society for 
Preservation of Antiquities; former President, Fayetteville Woman's Club; Presi- 
dent, Cumberland County Historical Society; President, Cumberland County Mental 
Health Association; Coordinator of Volunteers, Cumberland County Mental Health 
Center; member Fayetteville Recreation Commission; Juvenile Code Revision Commis- 
sion 1977-79. Teacher, Adult Education, Fayetteville Technical Institute; member. North 





406 North Carolina Manual 



Carolina Art Society, Board of P'ayetteville Art Museum and Board of Fayetteville Little 
Theatre. Covernor's Advocary Council on Children and Youth. Member, Hay Street 
Methodist Church. Divorced. Two sons; Robert Taylor and John t'owles. Address: 31()() 
Tallywood Drive, Fayetteville 2830;i 

GEORGE RONALD TAYLOR 

(Democrat — Bladen County) 

(Nineteenth Representative District— Counties: Bladen, Columbus, and Sampson. 
Three Representatives.) 

George Ronald Taylor was born August 28, 1952, in Eliza- 
bethtown. Son of Miller Taylor and Lucille Carroll. Graduated 
East Carolina University. B.S., 1974. Served as intern NC 
Dept. of Corrections. Secretary and Sales Manager of Taylor 
Tobacco t]nterprises. Inc. Member, Jr. Chamber of Commerce; 
Area Chairman East Carolina University Stadium Fund Drive; 
Bladen Technical Institute Foundation; NC Cotton Technical 
Advisory Committee: President, NC Tobacco Producers Associa- 
tion; Bladen Co. Campaign Committee Chairman for United 
Cerebral Palsy of NC; Dublin Area Jaycees; Bladen County Wildlife and Conservation 
C^lub. Past 8rd Vice-Chairman Bladen Co. Dem. E.xecutive Committee; Past Secretary 
Bladen Co. Dem. Executive Committee; Past President Bladen Co. Young Democrats; 
Past District Organizer, 3rd Congressional District Young Democrats. Member, Dublin 
F'irst Baptist Church, Teacher, 1974-76; Associational Director of Brotherhood. Address: 
Rt. 1. Box 518, Elizabethtown 28337. 



MARGARET ROSE TENNILLE 
(Mrs. Norton F. Tennille) 

(Democrat — Forsyth County) 

(Twenty-ninth Representative District— County: P^orsyth. Five Representatives.) - 

Margaret Rose Tennille was lx)rn in Hopewell, Virginia, ' 

March 25, 1917. Daughter of Robert Wilson Rose, and Byrd i 

McClure Rose. Attended R. J. Reynolds High School, Wins- ! 

ton-Salem, N. C. (1929-1933). Salem College, Winston-Salem, ■' 

N. C. 2 years, 1934, 1935. Retired. Member, Commission of ! 

Youth Services, 1975. Appointed by Governor Hunt to: Juvenile ' 

'^ ' Code Revision, Planning Comm. for Math-Science High School, j 

'\ d'..-hi Member, Board of Directors, P'orsyth Bank & Trust Co. Admin- j 

istrative Assistant to Mayor of Winston-Salem, 1961-1971. Mem- ; 

ber Womens Forum, National Order of Women Legislators. Meinber, Centenary United ' 

Methodist Church. Board of Trustees, Centenary United Methodist Church. Two terms j 

on Board of Stewards. 1961-64, 1971-74. Married Norton F. Tennille April 22. 1939.  

(deceased) Children: Norton F. Tennille, Jr., Wilson R. Tennille. Ben F. Tennille. ; 

Address: Greenwich Road. S. W. Winston-Salem 27103. i 




Legislative Branch 



407 



BETTY MARIE (DORTON) THOMAS 

(Democrat — Cabarrus County) 

(Thirty-third Representative District— Counties: Cabarrus and Union. Three 
Representativi"=. > 

Betty Marie (Dorton) Thomas was born September 10, 
1923, in Shelby. Daughter of Dr. J. S. Dorton (Deceased) and 
Marie Biggerstaff (Deceased). Attended Shelby High School, 
1936-1939; UNC— Greensboro, 1940-1944, B.S. in Secretarial 
Administration. House of Representatives, 1975-76. President 
of Ai't Thomas Chevrolet, Inc.; A. W. Thomas & Son; Thomas 
Development, Inc. Member, Business & Professional Women. 
Received Concord Woman of the Year, 1976; Member, Ameri- 
can Legion Auxialliary. Member, Central United Methodist 
Church. 1948-1960 — All offices in Sunday School Class; Secretaiy of Women of the 
Church, 1969; Trustee, 1975-76; Council on Ministries, 1974-76; Administrative 
Board, 1975. Married A. W. (Art) Thomas, Jr. (Deceased) April 3, 1948. Children: 
Bettina Marie (Tina) Thomas; TeiTesa Anne (Terre) Thomas; and Arthur Webster 
(Tom) Thomas, III. Address: 160 Glendale Ave. SE, Concord 28025. 




BENJAMIN THOMPSON TISON, III 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 

(Thirty-sixih Representative District— County: Mecklenburg. Eight Repre- 
sentatives.) 



Benjamin Thompson Tison, III was born in Charlotte 
November 4, 1930. Son of Benjamin Thompson Tison, Jr. 
(deceased) and Bryte Washam Tison. Attended Charlotte 
Public Schools and graduated from Central High School, 1949. 
Graduated U.N.C. School of Business, B.S. Degree, 1953 
and U.N.C. School of Law, J.D., 1958. Member of North 
Carolina State Bar and North Carolina Industrial Develop- 
ment Association. Served as Lieutenant in USNR, 1953- 
1963. Attended Graduate School of Credit and Financial 
Management, Harvard University, 1971. Present profession. North Carolina Na- 
tional Bank. Member House of Representatives, 1977-78. Presbyterian. Married Roma 
Wornall December 12, 1971. Two children: son, William Woodbridge Tison and daughter. 
Clay Wornall Tison. Address: 2119 Hopedale Avenue, Charlotte 28207. 




HENRY McMillan tyson 

(Democrat — Cumberland County) 

(Twentieth Representative District— County: Cumberland. Five Representa- 
tives.) 



408 



North Carolina Manual 



Henry McMillan Tyson was horn in Cumberland County, 
October 31, 1914. Son of Heni-y Grady and Tommie Marsh 
Tyson. Graduated Gray's Creek High School, 1934. Inter- 
national Accountant's Society, Inc. Farmer and Faim Supply 
Dealer. Member, North Carolina P^arm Bureau; Cumberland 
County Livestock Association. Cray's (ireek Ruritan Club, Past 
Presitient. Member, John Huske Anderson Lod^e No. 781 
(Masonic). Past President, Parent-Teacher Association. Cum- 
berland County Commissioner, chairman seven years. Charter 
member Cumberland County Soil Conservation Commission 1946-52. Sales Supervisor of 
Fayetteville Tobacco Market nine years. Member, P'irst Presbyterian Church, F'ayette- 
ville; Married Adeline Amelia Williams June 16, 1940. Three children: Carrie Eula 
Tyson, Henry McMillan Tyson, II and John Marsh Tyson. Address: Route 7, Box 284, 
Favetteville 28306. 




DR. JOHN WESLEY VARNER 

(Democrat — Davidson County) 

(Thirtieth Representative District — Counties: Davidson and Davie. Three Represen- 
tatives.) 



John Wesley Varner was born in Randolph County, Sep- 
tember 30, 1906. Son of Rev. James Milton Varner and Dora 
Plummer Varner. Attended Rutherford College (High School 
'^J^'^^f&i ^"d Junior College), 1922-1926; Duke University, A.B. De- 

W . wD/ gree, 1928. University of Tennessee Medical School, M.D. 

Degree, 1932. Psychiatrist (Retired). Davidson County Medi- 
cal Society; American Psychiatric Association; N. C. Medical 
Society; American Medical Association; N. C. Neuro- 
psychiatric Association. Mason Phi Rho Sigma (Medical 
Fraternity). N. C. National Guard, Lieutenant-Colonel, 1954-1966. Member United 
Methodist Church. Administrative Board, 1969-1971. Mai-ried Billie Jordan Varner, 
December 18, 1934. Children: Dr. Roy Van Varner, John Wesley Varner, Jr., 
and Virginia Jordan Vanier Clifford. Address: 116 Ridgewood Drive, Lexington. 




WILLIAM THOMAS WATKINS 

(Democrat — Granville County) 

(Thirteenth Representative District— Counties: Caswell, (jranville. Person, Vance and 
Warren. Three Representatives.) 



Legislative Branch 



409 




William Thomas Watkins was born in Granville County, 
July 1, 1921. Son of John Stradley and Belle (Norwood) Wat- 
kins. Attended Oak Hill High School, 1927-1939; Mars Hill 
Junior College, 1942; Wake Forest College, 1939-1941 and 
1946-1948; Wake Forest College, B.S., 1949; Wake Forest 
j^ --- Law School, 1949-1952, LL.B. Lawyer. Member N. C. State 

^^^gtek^ ^^1 Bar Association, Ninth District Bar and Granville County 
^^^^'^ mM Bar. City Attorney for City of Creedmoor, 1955-1968. At- 
^^^^^ ^ ^^™ torney for Granville County. Member Pi Kappa Alpha; Phi 
Delta Phi, Magister, 1952. U. S. Army Staff Sergeant, 1942-1946. Representative in 
the General Assembly of 1969. 1971, 1973, and 1977-78. Member, Oxford Baptist Church, 
Oxford; Sunday School Teacher, 1956-1960. Married Louise Marie Best, November 18, 
1944. Children: Mrs. Martin L. (Alma Marie) Nesbitt. Jr. and Mrs. Jerry (Annabell) 
Barker. Address: 213 W. Thorndale Drive, Oxford 27565. 



EUGENE MORRISON WHITE 



(Democrat — Caldwell County) 

(Thirty-Fourth Representative District— Counties: Caldwell, Wilkes and Yadkin. 
Three Representatives.) 

Eugene Morrison White was bom December 25, 1912, in 
Stony Point. Son of Arthur Wellington White and Julia Deal. 
Graduated Claremont Central High School, Hickory, 1932. 
Lenoir Rhyne College, 1936, Bachelor's Degree in Math and 
Science; Appalachian State University, 1965, Masters Degree, 
School Administration; Additional Studies UNC — Chapel 
Hill. Supt., Emeritus Caldwell County Schools. Retired 
Superintendent Caldwell County Schools. Member, NCAE. 
Past President Rotai-y Club; Charter Member Board of 
Trustees, Western Piedmont Community College; Director Catawba Valley Execu- 
tives Club; Governor's Study Com. NC Public Schools. Member House of Representatives, 
1977-78. and 1979. Army— September 1942-1943. Member, Lutheran Church, Church 
Council. Married Helen Price June 30, 1945. Address: Box 603, Hudson 28638. 




BARNEY PAUL WOODARD 



(Democrat — Johnston County) 

(Fourteenth Representative District— Counties: Franklin and Johnston. Two Repre- 
sentatives.) 

Barney Paul Woodard was born in Princeton, November 
23, 1914. Son of John Richard Woodard and Elizabeth Wall 
Woodard. Graduated University of North Carolina at Chapel 
Hill, B.S. Degree in Phannacy, 1938. Owner Woodard Phar- 
macy and Pharmacist. Member North Carolina Phannaceu- 
tical Association and National Association of Retail Phar- 
macy. Mason and Shriner. Past Master, St. Patrick Lodge 
No. 617, 1952. Town Councilman, 1948. North Carolina House 
of Representatives, 1967. Past President Lions Club, 20 years 




41U North Carolina Manual 



of Princeton Advisoi-y School Committee and past chainnan. Served 2 years as 
Fund Chainnan, Johnston County Mental Health Association and on Executive 
Board. Past Fund Chairman, TB Association. Served on Tuscorora Boy Scout 
Council. Member, Methodist Church and Chainnan Board of Tmstees, 1970-1974. 
Married Annie Louise Suj^g September 6, 1941. Four children: Barney Paul, Jr., 
Dianne, Michael, and Joy. Address: Box 5, Princeton 27569. 

VVILMA CUMMINGS WOODARD 

(Democrat— Wake County) 
(P'iftrenth Representative District — County: Wake. Six Representatives.) 

Wilma Cummings Woodard was born November 18, 1934 in 
Angier, NC. Daughter of C. Claud Cummings and Lutheria 
Searcy. House of Representatives, appointed January, 1978 to 
serve vacancy. Treasurer — Wake County Democratic Party, 1977. 
Garner Planning and Zoning Board— Vice Chairman NCSU 
Alumni Association. Board of Directors, 1974-78, 1978-81. At- 
tended Beaufort High School: UNC-Chapel Hill: NCSU- 
Degree in History, 1969; NCSU— Public Affairs, Department 
of Politics. Housewife. Member Phi Kappa Phi. Received Re- 
cipient of B.F. Brown Award for Outstanding Liberal Arts Student, 1969. Member 
Democratic Women of Wake County: Wake Women's Political Caucus — Charter member 
Raleigh— Wake Urban League, Board of Directors. Wake County P.T.A. Council, Vice- 
President, 1977; Wake County CETA Advisory Baord. 1977: Raleigh Wake Land- 
Use Code Committee. 1977. Member United Methodist Church. Married Dr. Warden 
Lewis Woodard, Jr., March 17, 1952. Children: Mary Ellen Nixon; Warden Lewis, HI; 
Albert Searcy; and Richard Allen. Address: PO Box 188, Garner 27529. 

RICHARD WRIGHT 

(Democrat — Columbus County) 

(Nineteenth Representative District — Counties: Bladen (Columbus and Sampson. 
Three Representatives.) 




Richard Wright was born in Loris, South Carolina, October 

.^ li. 8, 1944. Son of Ottis R. Wright and Olive Battle Wright. Attended 

, _ % Tabor City High School, September, 1959— June. 1963. Llniver- 

JUlf ^ ^f s'^y o^ North Carolina at Chapel Hill, A.B. Degree in Political 

■P Science. 1967. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Law 

^^ School, J. D. Degree, 1971. Attorney and Farmer. North Carolina 

Bar Association, Director 13th Judicial District Bar Association, 
Columbus County Bar Association and Columbus County Farm 
Bureau. Director Columbus County Arts Council; Director 
Columbus County Mental Health Association; Director South- 
Eastern Oratorio Society; Director North Carolina Tobacco Producers Association; 
Columbus County Mental Health Association; Director South-Eastern Oratorio Society; 
Director North Carolina Tobacco Producers Association; Columbus County Cattleman's 




Legislative Branch 



411 



Association: President Columbus County UNC-Alumni Association: Town Attorney for 
Tabor City and Fair Bluff: Chairman Columbus County Morehead Scholarship Com- 
mittee: Member Firm of McGougan and Wright. Civitan Club. Phi Beta Kappa. Mem- 
ber of North Carolina House since 1974. Member, Methodist Church. Council on 
Ministeries and Administrative Board: Youth Co-ordinator, U.M.Y.F. Counselor. 
Married to Jenny McKinnon. One daughter, Elizabeth Armstrong Wright. Address: Box 
457, Tabor City, North Carolina 28463. 



GRACE AVERETTE COLLINS 



Principal Clerk— House of Representatives 




Grace Averette Collins was born in P^uquay-Varina. Daughter 
of Alozona Deems Averette and Minnie Lee (Helms) Averette. 
Graduated Fuquay-Varina High School, 1949: Kings Business 
College, 1951. Attended Raleigh School of Commerce and Hard- 
barger Business College, refresher courses. Homemaker. Na- 
tional Society of Legislative Clerks and Secretaries, receiving 
Outstanding Achievement Award in 1975 and Leadership Award, 
1976. Served on committee on Comparative Development Center, 
1974-75: Agenda Committee 1975-76, 1977-78: Executive 
Nominating Committee for National Conference of State Legislatures, 1978. Is presently 
serving as Secretary of National Society of Legislative Clerks and Secretaries. General 
Assembly Experience: Assistant Calendar Clerk 1969: Journal Clerk 1971-1973: and 
Principal Clerk. 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979. Served as First Vice-chairman 
of Middle Creek Fuquay precinct, 1969-1971. Served as Chairman for precinct 1971-1973. 
Presently serving as Second Vice-chairman. Served as Cub Scout Den Mother, active in 
community affairs— fund raising, etc., served on Wake County Bicentennial Committee. 
1972: Town Board Recreation Committee. Who's Who in State Government. 1976. Mem- 
ber Fuquay Methodist Church, Board of Mission, Sunday school teacher. Member of 
Chancel Choir, Director of Youth Choir. Married John Nolan Collins October 4, 1952. 
Children: John N., Jr., Joseph A., James D.,and LaurieE. Address: 518 East Academy St.. 
Fuquay-Varina, N. C. 27526. 



412 



North Carolina Manual 



(KCUPATIONS OF MEMBERS OF THE 1979 
NORTH C AROLINA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



Accountant 

Bissell, Marilyn R. 
Poovry. Julius R. ( ilftircd) 

Agri-Business 

Bone, Iv<))?er W. 
Jordan. ,Iohn M. 
Taylor, (leor^e Ronald 

Assistant to College President 

Clarke, James McClure 
(Ireenwood, Gordon H. 

Attorney 

Adams, Allen 
Clark. William E. 
Coble, John H. 
DeRamus, Judson, D., Jr. 
Evans, Charles D. 
Ezzell, James Earl, Jr. 
Frye, Henry E. 
Haworth, Bryon A. 
Helms. H. Parks 
Hobgood, Robert H. 
Holmes. Edward S. 
Holt, Bertha M. 
Hunt, Patricia S. 
Hux, (leorge A. 
Lancaster, H. Martin 
Ix>cklear. Horace 
McMillan. William H. 
Miller, George W., Jr. 
Morgan. James F. 
Pulley, William P. 
Rountree. H. Horton 
Spaulding, Kenneth B. 
Stewart. Carl J. Jr. 
Watkins. William T. 
Wright, Ottis Richard 

Auctioneering 

Carter, Herbert Otha 



Automobile Dealership 

Bone, Roger W. 
Bright. Joe L. 
Ellis. T. W., Jr. 

Banker 

Covington, John W. 
Tison, Ben 

Broker-Developer 

Barbae. Allen C. 

Building Supply Company 

Etheridge, Bobby R. 

Certified Public Accountant 

Clark, Douglas A. 

Chiropractor 

Kemp, Ramey F. 

College Professor 

Brennan. Louise S. 
Rhodes. S. Thomas 

Corporate Executive 

Church. John T. 
Eastern ng. Ruth M. 
Harris, Fletcher 
Johnson, Joseph 
Kaplan, Ian Theodore 
Messer, Ernest 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Quinn, Dwight W. 
Spoon. LeRoy P.. Jr. 

Credit Bureau Executive 

Barnes, Richard W. 



Legislative Branch 



413 



County Government 

Rabon, Tom B., Jr. 

Dairy Farm 

Clarke, James McClure 

Dentist 

Hunt. John J. 

Education Consultant 

Nesbitt, Mary C. (deceased) 

Educator 

Bundy, Sam D. (Retired) 
Chapin, Howard B. 
Cullipher, Georg-e P. (Retired) 
Diamont, David H. 
Fussell, Aaron E. (Retired) 
Foster, Jo Graham 
Smith, Additson Neal 
White, Euf^ene M. (Retired) 

Engineer 

Ethridge, Wilbur Bruce 

Farm Supplies . 

Gentry, J. Worth 
Tyson. Henry M. • 

Farming 

Auman, T. Clyde 
Barbee, Allen C. 
Bright, Joe L. 
Brown, John W. 
Bundy, Sam D. 
Collins, Porter C, Jr. 
Ellis, Thomas W., Jr. 
Falls, Robert Z. 
Gentry, J. Worth 
Grady, Richard R. 
Hunt, John J. 
James, Vernon G. 
Jernigan, Roberts H. 



Lutz, Edith L. 
McAllister, Robert L. 
Parnell, David R. 
Revelle. J. Guy. Sr. 
Taylor, George Ronald 
Tyson, Henry M. 
Wright, Ottis Richard 

Funeral Director 

Bumgardner, David W., Jr. 

Guidance Counselor 

Fulcher, Gerald M., Jr. 
Tally, Lura S. 

Homemaker 

Colton, Marie W. 
Pegg, Mary N. 
Woodard. Wilma C. 

Ice-Fuel Business 

McDowell, Timothy H. 

Insurance 

Beard, Rayford D. 
Bell, E. Graham 
Campbell, A. Hartwell 
Edwards, James H. 
Edwards, Ralph P. 
Guy, Alexander D. 
Harris, D. Fletcher, HI 
Holmes, George M. 
Holroyd, William C, Jr. 
Ledford, Ralph W. 
Lilley, Daniel T. 
Nye, Edd 
Redding, William F.. HI 

Jobber 

Holt, Charles 

Land Developer 

Clark, William E. 

Legal Assistant 

Seymour. Mary P. 



414 



North Carolina Manual 



ManufiU'turing- — Farm luiuipment 

TaNior, ( lt'<)i-^''t' Rotiald 
M()i-|-is. (iltMiii A. (Ri'lifcd) 

Manul'a('tuiinji,-Furniture 

Lanilicth. -Jatnes Krwin 

Manufacturing-Textiles 

Joi'daii. Joliii M. 

Marketing Enterprises 

Hruhaker. Harold J. 

Meat-Packing Business 

.Jernigan, Roberts H., Jr. 

Merchant 

Hunt, John J. 
Parnell, David R. 
Ramsey, Listen B. 

Navel Officer 

Barker, Christopher S., Jr. (Retired) 

Orchard Owner 

Clarke. James McClure 

Pharmacist 

Woodard, Barney Paul 

Physician-Psychiatrist 

Varner, John W. 

Physician — Surgeon 

Gamble, John R., Jr. 



Publisher 

Huskins. Joseph 1*. 

Radio-Television Station Ownei 

Campbell, A. Hartwell 
KtlicridKe, Bobby R. 

Real p]state 

Bell, E. Craham 
Carter, Herbert Otha 
Guy, Alexander I). 
Harris, I). Fletcher, HI 
Lacey, S. B., Jr. 
Ledford, Ralph W. 
Merritt, Eluigrene W. 
Phillips, Van F. 
Seymour, Mary P. 

Real Estate Management 

Nash, Robie L. 

Restauranteur 

Economos, Gus 

Tobacco Warehouse 

Taylor, George Ronald 

U.S. Government-Agriculture 

Enloe, Jeff H.. Jr. (Retired) 

No Occupation Given 

Cook, Ruth E. 



, Legislative Branch 



415 



1979 HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVE 
COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

AGING 



Barnes, Richard 
Bundy, Sam D. 
Foster, Jo Graham 



Chairman— Messer, Ernest B. 

Vice Chairman— Economos, Gus 

Vice Chairman — Miller, George W., Jr. 

Vice Chairman— Thomas, Betty Dorton 

Fussell, Aaron E. 
Greenwood, Gordon H. 
Hux, George A. 



Jordan, John M. 
Nye, Edd 



Auman, T. Clyde 
Brown, John Walter 
Chapin, Howard B. 
Clark, Douglas A. 
Collins, P. C, Jr. 
Ellis, T. W., Jr. 
Enloe, Jeff H. 



AGRICULTURE 

Chairman — James, Vernon G. 
Vice Chairman — Gentry, J. Worth 

Vice Chairman — Lutz, Edith L. 
Vice Chairman — Parnell. David R. 

Vice Chairman— Taylor, Ron 
Vice Chairman— Tyson, Henry M. 

Falls, Robert Z. 
Grady, Richard R. 
High tower. Foyle, Jr. 
Hunt. John J. 
Hux, George A. 
Lacey, S. B., Jr. 
Locklear, Horace 



McAlister, Robert L. 
Nye. Edd 
Plyler. Aaron W. 
Revelle, J. Guy, Sr. 
Woodard, Barney Paul 



ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE CONTROL 



Barnes. Richard 
Beard, R. D. 
Bone, Roger W. 



Chairman — Morgan, James F. 
Vice Chairman — Barbee. Allen C. 

Vice Chairman — Holt, Bertha 
Vice Chairman — Tyson, Henry M. 

Holroyd, W. Casper, Jr. 
Kaplan, Ted 
Lilley, Daniel T. 



Spoon. Roy 
Tison, Ben 



41(5 



North Carolina Manual 



APPROrRIATIONS 

("h;urtii;ui- lldlmes. Kdward S. 

\'ic(' Chairman— Aumun, T. Clyde 

Vice Chairman— Hell, E. Craham 

Vice Chairman— Campbell, A. Harlwel 

Vice Chairman— Tison, Ben 



Adams, Allen 
Beard, R. I). 
Brennan, Louise S. 
Brubaker. Harold J. 
Bum^ardner, David W. 
Chapin, Howard B. 
Church, John T. 
Clarke, James McClure 
Cook. Ruth E. 
Cullipher, George P. 
Diamont, David Hunter 
Easterling, Ruth M. 
Enloe, Jeff H. 
Evans, Charles D. 
Ezzell, James E.. Jr. 
Foster, Jo Graham 
P>ye, Henry E. 
Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. 
Gradv, Richard R. 



Greenwood, Gordon H. 
Haworth, Byron 
Holroyd, W. Casper, Jr. 
Holt, Bertha 
Hunt. Patricia Stanford 
Huskins, J. P. 
James, Vernon G. 
Jernigan, Roberts H., Jr. 
Johnson, Joseph E. 
Kaplan, Ted 
Keesee, Margaret P. 
Kemp, Ramey F., Sr. 
Lacey, S. B., Jr. 
Lambeth, Jim 
Lancaster Martin 
Ledford, Ralph 
Lutz, p]dith L. 
McDowell, Timothy H. 
Messer, Ernest B. 



Nash, Robie L. 
Nye, Edd 
Parnell, David R. 
Pegg, Mary N. 
Plyler. Aaron W. 
Pulley, Paul 
Quinn, Dwight W. 
Rabon, Tom B., Jr. 
Rountree. H. Horton 
Seymour, Mary P. 
Smith, A. Neal 
Spoon, Roy 
Tally. Lura S. 
Taylor, Ron 
Thomas, Betty Dorton 
Varner. John W. 
Woodard, Barney Paul 
Wright, Richard 



APPROPRIATIONS ON EDUCATION 

Chairman — Campbell, A. Hartwell 

Vice Chairman— Chapin, Howard B. 

Vice Chairman — Foster, Jo Graham 

Vice Chairman — Greenwood, (Gordon H. 



Evans, Charles D. 
Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. 
Holroyd, W. Casper, Jr. 
Hunt, Patricia Stanford 



Huskins, J. P. 
Keesee, Margaret P. 
Quinn, Dwight W. 
Rabon, Tom B., Jr. 



Tally, Lura S. 
Wright, Richard 



APPROPRIATIONS ON GENERAL GOVERNMENT AND 

TRANSPORTATION 



Chairman — Bell, E. Graham 

Vice Chairman — Jernigan, Roberts H., Jr. 

Vice Chairman— Nye, Edd 

Vice Chairman— Plvler, Aaron W. 



Legislative Branch 



417 



Brennan, Louise S. 
BumKardner. David W. 
Cool<. Ruth E. 
Haworth, Brvon 



Holt, Bertha 
Lambeth, Jim 
Lancaster, Martin 
Pulley. Paul 



Seymour, Mary P. 
Spoon, Roy 



APPROPRIATIONS ON HUMAN RESOURCES AND 

CORRECTIONS 

Chairman— Auman, T. Clyde 

Vice Chairman— James, Vernon G. 

Vice Chairman — Johnson, Joseph E. 

Vice Chairman— Lutz, Edith L. 



Adams, Allen 
Cullipher, George P. 
Ezzell, James E., Jr. 



Kemp, Ramey F.. 
Ledford, Ralph 
Messer, Ernest B. 



Sr. Nash, Robie L. 

Varner, John W. 
Woodard, Barney Paul 



BASE BUDGET 

Chairman — Tison, Ben 

Vice Chairman— Church, John T. 

Vice Chairman— Diamont, David Hunter 

Vice Chairman— Smith, A. Neal 



Beard. R. D. 
Brubaker. Harold J. 
Clarke, James McClure 
Eastern ng, Ruth M. 
Enloe. Jeff H. 



Frye, Henry E. 
Grady, Richard R. 
Kaplan, Ted 
Lacey. S. B., Jr. 
McDow^ell, Timothy H. 



Parnell. David R. 
Pegg. Mary N. 
Roundtree. H. Horton 
Taylor. Ron 
Thomas, Betty Dorton 



BASE BUDGET COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION 

Chairman — Church, John T. 

Taylor, Ron 



Kaplan, Ted 
McDowell, Timothy H. 



Pegg, Mary N. 
Roundtree H. Horton 



BASE BUDGET COMMITTEE ON GENERAL GOVERNMENT 

AND TRANSPORTATION 



Eastern ng, Ruth M. 
Enloe. Jeff H. 



Chairman — Smith, A. Neal 

Grady, Richard R. 
Lacey, S. B.. Jr. 



Parnell, David R. 



418 North Carolina Manual 



BASK Bl DCiET COMMITTEE ON HUMAN RESOURCES AND 

CORRECTIONS 

Chairnian — Dianionl, David Hunter 

Beanl. R. D. Clarke, James McClure Thomas, Betty Dorton 

Bruhaker, Harold J. Frye, Henry 

BANKS AND THRIFT INSTITUTIONS 

Chairman — Holt. Charles 

\'ice Chairman — Ezzell, James E.. Jr. 

Vice Chairman — Cook, Ruth E. 

Adams, Allen Covinjjton, John W. Morris, Clenn A. 

Barnes, Richard Edward, Ralph P. Phillips, Van F. 

Bell. E. Craham Helms, Parks Pulley, Paul 

Bright, Joe L. Hob^ood, Robert H. Rountree, H. Horton 

Brubaker, Harold J. Hunt, Patricia Stanford Redding, PVank 

Clark, William E. Johnson, Joseph E. Tennille, Margaret 

Coble, J. Howard McMillan, William H. 

Collins. P. C. Jr. Morgan, James F. 

COMMERCIAL FISHING 

Chairman^Bright. Joe L. 
Vice Chairman— Chapin, Howard B. 
Vice Chairman—Culiipher. Ccorge P. 

p]thridge. Bruce (kiy. A. I). Rabon, Tom B., Jr. 

Evans. Charles D. James, Vernon C. Rhodes, S. Thomas 

Fulcher. (J. Malcolm, Jr. Merritt. Eugene Rountree, H. Horton 



COMMISSIONS AND INSTITUTIONS FOR BLIND AND DEAF 

Chairman — Cook. Ruth E. 

Vice Chairman—Auman, T. Clyde 

Vice Chairman — Hunt, John J. 

Vice Chairman— Nash. Robie L. 

Carter. H. Otha P'ussell, Aaron E. Rullman, Carl W. 

p]dwards, Ralph P. Lambeth, Jim 

P'oster, Jo Craham Nesbitt, Mary C. 



Legislative Branch 



419 



CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS 



Campbell, A. Hartwell 
Gamble, John R., Jr. 
Haworlh. Byron 
Helms, Parks 
Holmes, George M. 
Holroyd, W. Casper, Jr. 



Chairman— DeRamus, Judson D., Jr. 

Vice Chairman — Brennan, Louise S. 

Vice Chairman— Frye, Henry E. 



Holt. Bertha 
Hunt, Patricia Stanford 
Jordan, John M. 
Kaplan, Ted 
Lancaster, Martin 
McDowell, Timothy H. 



Redding, Frank 
Spaulding, Kenneth B. 
Tally. Lura S. 
Watkins, William T. 



CORPORATIONS 

Chairman— Harris, Fletcher 

Vice Chairman — Covington, John W. 

Vice Chairman— Jordan, John M. 

Vice Chairman— Morris, Glenn A. 



Auman, T. Clyde 
Carter, H. Otha 
Ellis, T. W., Jr. 



Hobgood, Robert H. 
Holmes, Edward S. 
Lambeth, Jim 



Locklear, Horace 
Lutz. Edith L. 
Watkins, William T. 



CORRECTIONS 

Chairman— Plyler, Aaron W. 

Vice Chairman — Haworth, Byron 

Vice Chairman — Hightower, Foyle, Jr. 

Vice Chairm.an — Woodard, Wilma 



Auman, T. ("lyde 
Beard, R. D. 
Bissell, Marilyn R. 
Brennan, Louise S. 
Clark, William E. 



Cook, Ruth E. 
Davis, Robert E. 
Diamont, David Hunter 
Ezzell. James E., Jr. 
Holmes, Edward S. 



Keesee, Margaret P. 
Lutz, Edith L. 
Spoon, Roy 
Varner, John W. 



COURTS AND JUDICIAL DISTRICTS 



Chairman — McMillan, William H. 

Vice Chairman — Hux, George A. 

Vice Chairman— Helms, Parks 

Vice Chairman— Watkins, William T. 



Clark, William E. 
DeRamus, Judson D., Jr. 
Evans, Charles D. 
Ezzell, James E., Jr. 



Frye, Henry E. 
Haworth, Byron 
Johnson, Joseph E. 
Ramsey, Listen B. 



Rountree, H. Horton 
Spaulding, Kenneth B. 
Tally, Lura S. 
Wright, Richard 



420 



North Carolina Manual 



PXONOMY 

Chairman — Nye, Kdd 
Vice Chairman — Hohiies, Kdvvard S. 



I*.arl)ee, Allen C. 
Church. John T. 
Coble, J. Howarti 
Colton, Marie W. 
Kasterlin^^ Ruth M. 



Ellis, T. W., Jr. 
Frye, Henry E. 
Fussell, Aaron E. 
Greenwood, (Gordon H. 
Hig'htxnver, Foyle, Jr. 



Jernijjan, Roberts H., Jr. 
Messer, Ernest B. 
Redding, Frank 



EDUCATION 

Chairman— Tennille, Marg-aret 

Vice Chairman— Bundy, Sam D. 

Vice Chairman— Beard, R. D. 

Vice Chairman— F'ulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. 

Vice Chairman— White, Eugene M. 



Barker, Chris S., Jr. 
Bell, E. Graham 
Campbell, A. Hartwell 
Chapin, Howard B. 
Clark, Douglas A. 
Cullipher, George P. 
Economos, Gus 



Enloe, Jeff H. 
Foster, Jo Graham 
F^ussell, Aaron E. 
Haworth, Byron 
Holroyd, W. Casper, Jr. 
Keesee, Margaret P. 
Lancaster, Martin 



Ledford, Ralph 
Merritt, Elugene 
Nesbitt, Mary C. 
Pegg, Mary N. 
Quinn. Dwight W. 



ELECTION LAWS 

Chairman— Ezzell, James E., Jr. 

Vice Chairman— Bell, E. Graham 

Vice Chairman— Chapin, Howard B. 

Vice Chairman— Diamont, David Hunter 



Brubaker, Harold J. 
Bundy, Sam D. 
Clark, Douglas A. 
Covingrton, John W. 
Davis, Robert E. 



(ientry, J. Worth 
Holmes, George M. 
Jordan, John M. 
McAlister, Robert L. 
Ramsey, Liston B. 



Redding, Frank 
Spaulding, Kenneth B. 
Watkins, William T. 



EMPLOYMENT SECURITY 

Chairman— Enloe, Jeff H. 
Vice Chairman— Church. John T. 
Vice Chairman— Morris. Glenn A. 
Vice Chairman — Varner. John W. 



Barnes, R. D. 
Coble, J. Howard 
Ellis. T. W., Jr. 



Gentry, J. Worth 
Nash, Robie L. 
Quinn. Dwight W. 



Rhodes, S. Thomas 



Legislative Branch 



421 



FINANCE 



Chairman — Gamble. John R., Jr. 

Vice Chairman— Barbee. Allen C. 

Vice Chairman— Ellis, T. W., Jr. 
Vice Chairman— Revelle, J. Guy, Sr. 
Vice Chairman — Tennille, Margaret 



Barker, Chris S., Jr. 
Barnes, Richard 
Bissell, Marilyn R. 
Bone. Roger W. 
Bright, Joe L. 
Brown, John Walter 
Bundy, Sam D. 
Carter, H. Otha 
Clark, Douglas A. 
Clark, William E. 
Coble, J. Howard 
Collins. P. C, Jr. 
Colton, Marie W. 
Covington, John W. 
Davis, Robert E. 
DeRamus. Judson D., Jr 
Economos, Gus 
Edwards, Ralph P. 



Etheridge, Bobby R. 
Ethridge, Bruce 
Falls, Robert Z. 
Fussell, Aaron E. 
Gentry, J. Worth 
Guy, A. D. 
Harris, Fletcher 
Helms, Parks 
Hightower. Foyle. Jr. 
Hobgood, Robert H. 
Holmes, George M. 
Holt, Charles 
Hunt, John J. 
Hux, George A. 
Jordan, John M. 
Lilley, Daniel T. 
Locklear, Horace 
McAlister, Robert L. 



McMillan, William H. 
Merritt, Eugene 
Miller, George W., Jr. 
Morgan, James F. 
Morris, Glenn A. 
Nesbitt, Mary 
Phillips, Van F. 
Poovey, J. Reid 
Ramsey. Liston B. 
Redding, Frank 
Rhodes, S. Thomas 
Rountree, H. Horton 
Rullman, Carl W. 
Spaulding, Kenneth B. 
Tyson, Henry M. 
Watkins. William 
White, Eugene M. 
Woodard, Wilma 



HEALTH 



Bone, Roger W. 
Brown, John Walter 
Brubaker, Harold J. 



Chairman — Woodard, Barney Paul 
Vice Chairman — Davis, Robert E. 

Vice Chairman — Gamble, John R., Jr. 

Vice Chairman — Hightower, Foyle, Jr. 



Carter, H. Otha 
Colton, Marie W. 
Grady. Richard R. 



Hunt, Patricia Stanford 
Kemp, Ramey F., Sr. 
Plyler, Aaron W. 



HIGHER EDUCATION 



Chairman— Tally, Lura S. 

Vice Chairman— Brennan. Louise S. 

Vice Chairman— Harris. Fletcher 



Church. John T. 
Clark, William E. 
Coble, J. Howard 
Frye, Henry E. 
Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. 



Huskins, J. P. 
Hernigan. Roberts H., Jr. 
McDowell, Timothy H. 
Messer, p]rnest B. 
Pegg, Mary N. 



Pulley, Paul 
Rhodes, S. Thomas 
Rountree. H. Horton 
Smith, A. Neal 
Thomas. Bettv Dorton 



422 



North Carolina Manual 



ni(;nwAY safety 

Chairman— Wright, Kit-liard 

X'icc Chairman —Lanil)t'th. -lim 

Vict' Chairman — Miller, (u'orKc W.. Jr. 

X'icc Chairman — Woodard, Ilarncv Paul 



IIoiu'. IJo^cr W. 
I!um,u"ar(inrr, I)a\iil 
Clark. Doutrla.-^ A. 
Economos. Cus 



( ireenwood, ( Jordon 
W. Lulz. Kdith L. 

Morgan. James F. 
Smith. A. Neal 



Spoon. Roy 
White, Ku^ene M. 



HUMAN RESOURCES 

Chairman— Varner. John W. 

Vice Chairman— Nesbitt, Mary C. 

Vice Chairman — Tally, Lura S. 



Bell. p]. Craham 
Colton, Marie W. 
Economos, Gus 
Eltherid^f, Bobby R. 
Ethridjfe, Bruce 



Greenwood, Gordon II. 
Holt, Bertha 
Keesee, Marjjaret P. 
Lutz, Edith L. 
Nash, Robie L. 



Phillit)s. Van F. 
Rullman, Carl W. 
Tennille, Margaret 
Thomas, liettv Dorton 



INSURANCE 

Chairman — Iluskins, J. P. 

Vice Chairman— Holroyd. W. Casper. Jr, 

Vice Chairman— Messer, Ernest B. 



Barnes, Richard 
Bissell, Marilyn R. 
Campbell, A. Hartwell 
Clarke, James McClure 
Fales, Robert Z. 
Gamble. John R., Jr. 



HiKhtower, F^oyle, Jr. 
McDowell, Timothy H. 
Merritt, p]ug'ene 
Miller, (Jeorge W., Jr. 
Nesbitt. Mary C. 
Pullev, Paul 



Revelle, J. Guy, Sr. 
Rhodes, S. Thomas 
Seymour, Mary P. 
Thomas, Bett.\' Dorton 



JUDICIARY I 

Chairman — Frye, Henry E. 
Vice Chairman— Hux. George A. 



Bissell, Marilyn R. 
Clark, William E. 
Ctx)k, Ruth E. 
p]th ridge, Bruce 



Flvans, Charles D. 
Holmes, p'.dward S. 
Holt, Charles 
Johnson, Joseph E. 



McMillan, William II. 
Pulley, Paul 
Sevmour. Marv P. 



Legislative Branch 



423 



JUDICIARY II 



Easterling, Ruth M. 
Haworth, Byron 
Lancaster, Martin 



Chairman— Helms, Parks 

Vice Chairman — DeRamus, Judson I)., Jr. 

Vice Chairman— Holt. Bertha 

Vice Chairman— Wrig-ht, Richard 



Miller, George W., Jr. 
Rountree, H. Horton 
Spaulding, Kenneth B. 



Tison, Ben 
Watkins. William T. 



JUDICIARY III 



Adams, Allen 
Breenan, Louise S. 
Coble, J. Howard 



Chairman — Hunt, Patricia Stanford 
Vice Chairman— Locklear, Horace 
Vice Chairman — Morgan, James F. 



Davis, Robert E. 
Ezzell, James E., Jr. 
Hobgood, Robert H. 



Tyson, Henry M. 
Woodard, Wilma 



LAW ENFORCEMENT 



Bissell, Marilyn R. 
Carter, H. Otha 
Cullipher, George P. 
Holmes, George M. 



Chairman— Clarke, James McClure 

Vice Chairman — Holmes, Edward S. 

Vice Chairman— McMillan, William H. 



Holroyd, W. Casper, Jr. 
Morgan, James F. 
Nash, Robie L. 
Plyler, Aaron W. 



Redding, Frank 
Spoon, Roy 



LOCAL GOVERNMENT I 



Chairman — Lilley, Daniel T. 

Vice Chairman— Cullipher, George P. 

Vice Chairman — Seymour, Mary P. 



Clarke, James McClure 
Davis, Robert E. 
Etheridge, Bobby R. 
Evans, Charles D. 
Falls, Robert Z. 



Kemp, Ramey F., Sr. 
Lacey, S. B., Jr. 
Ledford, Ralph 
McAlister, Robert L. 
Nye, Edd 



Phillips, Van F. 
Plyler, Aaron 
Rullman, Carl W. 



124 North Carolina Manual 



LOCAL (iOVERNMENT II 

Chairman — (Ireenwood, (iordon II. 

Vice ("hairnian — Collins, 1'. ('.. Jr. 

Vice Chuirnian — KasterlinK. Ruth M. 

\'ice Chairtnan — ( Irady, Richard R. 

I'.arlu'e. Allen C. rariiell. David R. White. P:uKene M. 

Church. John T. I'e.trR. Mary N. Woodard, Wilma 

Colton. Marie W. Si)auldinjr, Kenneth R. WriRht. Richard 

Keesee. Mar.traret I'. Tennille. Margaret 

MANUFACTURERS AND LABOR 

Chairman — Johnson, Joseph E. 

Vice Chairman— Easterlinj?. Ruth M. 

Vice Chairman— Taylor, Ron 

Bone, Rogfer W. Jordan, John M. Plyler, Aaron W. 

Brubaker, Harold J. Lacey, S. B.. Jr. Quinn, Dwijjht W. 

Collins, P. C, Jr. Ledford, Ralph White, Eugene M. 

Diainont, David Hunter Morris, Clenn A. 

<luy, A. D. PeRg, Mary N. 

MENTAL HEALTH 

Chairman— Barker, Chris S., Jr. 

Vice Chairman— Beard, R. D. 

Vice Chairman — Economos, Cus 

Vice Chairman— Grady, Richard R. 

Auman, T. Clyde Greenwood, (iordon H. Lutz. p]dith L. 

Cook. Ruth E. Kaplan, Ted Phillips, Van V. 

Edwards. Ralph P. Keesee, Margaret P. Taylor, Ron 

Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. Lancaster, Martin Varner, John W. 



MILITARY AND VETERANS AFFAIRS 

Chairman — Hunt. John J. 
Vice Chairman — IJarker, Chris S.. Jr. 
Vice Chairman — McAlister, Robert L. 

Ileard. R. D. (kiy, A. D. Poovey, J. Reid 

lirowii. John Walter Kemp, Ramey E., Sr. Smith, A. Neal 

Bumgardner, David W. Lacey, S.B.. Jr. Woodard, Barney Paul 

P>theridge, Bobby R. Lancaster, Martin 

Foster, Jo (iraham Phillips, Van F. 



Legislative Branch 



425 



NATURAL AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES 



Chairman — Adams Allen 

Vice Chairman— Fulcher. G. Malcolm, Jr. 

Vice Chairman — Kaplan. Ted 



Barbee, Allen C. 
Chapin, Howard B. 
Colton. Marie W. 
Cullipher, George P. 
Diamont, David Hunter 



Ellis, T.W., Jr. 
Ethridge, Bruce 
Evans, Charles D. 
Guy. A.D. 
Kemp, Ramey P., Sr. 



Lacey, S.B., Jr. 
Phillips. Van F. 
Rabon, Tom B., Jr. 
Seymour, mary P. 
Seymour, Mary P. 
Woodard, Wilma 



Adams, Allen 
Bundy, Sam D. 
Ellis. T. W.. Jr. 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES 

Chairman — Seymour, Mary P. 

Vice Chairman-Bright, Joe L. 

Vice Chairman — Gentry, J. Worth 

Vice Chairman— Smith, A. Neal 



Enloe, Jeff H. 
Holt. Bertha 
Jordan. John M. 



Lambeth, Jim 



PUBLIC UTILITIES 

Chairman— Quinn, Dwight W. 

Vice Chairman— Campbell, A. Hartwell 

Vice Chairman — Collins, P. C, Jr. 

Vice Chairman — Flails, Robert Z. 



Barker, Chris S., Jr. Grady, Richard R. 



Bumgardner, David W. 
Chapin, Howard B. 
Clarke, James McC'lure 
Etheridge. Bobby R. 
Gentry, J. Worth 



Hobgood, Robert H. 
Husk ins, J. P. 
Miller, (Jeorge W., Jr. 
Morris, Glenn A. 
Rabon. Tom B., Jr. 



Revelle, J. Guy. Sr. 
Rountree, H. Horton 
Tennille. Margaret 
Tison. Ben 



RULES AND OPERATION OF THE HOUSE 



Barker. Chris S.. Jr. 
Bell, E. Graham 
Bissell, Marilyn R. 
Campbell, A. Hartwel 
DeRanius, Jud.son 1)., 
Edwards, Ralph P. 
Etheridge. Bobbv R. 



Chairman — Ramsey, Liston B. 

Vice Chairman — Adams, Allen 
Vice Chairman— Parnell, David R. 
Vice Chairman — (^uinn, Dwight W. 



p]z7A'll, James K., Jr. 


McDowell, Timothy H 


Gamble, John R., Jr. 


McMillan, William H. 


Harris, Fletcher 


Rountree, H. Horton 


Helms, Parks 


Smith. A. Neal 


Holt, Charles 


Spoon. Roy 


James, Vernon G. 


Tison. Ben 


Jernigan, Roberts H., -Ir. 


Wright, Richard 



VZVy 



North Carolina Manual 



STATE (GOVERNMENT 



Chuirmati— .lernig'an, Roberts H.. Jr. 

X'ice Chairman— Barbee, Allen C. 

Vice ("hairman— Bumjrardner. David W. 

Vice Chairman— Ramsey, Lislon B. 



Churc'h. -lohn T. 
KasterlinK^ Ruth M. 
Guv, A. 1). 



Harris, Fletcher 
Holmes, (ieorjje M. 
N\e, Edd 



Parnell, David R. 
Poovey, J. Re id 
Tally, Lura S. 



Adams, Allen 

Bru baker, Harold J. 

P'ussell. Aaron E. 



STATE PERSONNEL 

Chairman — P'oster, Jo Craham 

Vice Chairman— Bundy, Sam D. 

Vice Chairman — Enloe, Jeff H. 

Vice Chairman — White, Eug'ene M. 



Hux, (ieorg'e A. 
Johnson, Joseph E. 
Merritt, p]ujrene 



Nesbitt, Mary C. 
Poovey, J. Reid 
Woodard, Barnev Paul 



STATE PROPERTIES 

Chairman — Kaplan, Ted 
Vice Chairman — Clarke, James McClure 



Bum^ardner, David W. 
Carter, H. Otha 
Covin^on, John W. 
Diamont, David Hunter 



Edwards, Ralph P. 
Hobg-ood, Robert H. 
Holroyd, W. Casper, Jr, 
Ledford, Ralph 



Morris, Glenn A. 
Rullman, Carl W. 
Seymour, Mary P. 
X'arner, John W. 



TRANSPORTATION 

Chairman— Bumgardner, David W. 

Vice Chairman — Huskins, J. P. 

Vice Chairman — Tison Ben 



James, \'ernon (i. 
Jernigan, Roberts H.. Jr, 
Ledford, Ralph 
Liliey, Daniel T. 
McAlister, Robert L. 



Merritt, Eugene 
Parnell, David R. 
Pegg, Mary N. 
Poovey, J. Reid 
Ramsev, Liston B. 



Revelle, J. (iuy, Sr. 
Rhodes, S. Thomas 
Taylor, Ron 
Tyson. Henrv M. 



Legislative Branch 



427 



UNIVERSITY BOARD OF GOVERNORS 
NOMINATING COMMITTEE 



Chairman— Thomas, Betty Dorton 
Vice Chairman— Hunt, Patricia Stanford 

Vice Chairman— Locklear, Horace 
Vice Chairman— McDowell, Timothy H. 



Brennan, Louise S. Falls, Robert Z. 

Bright, Joe L. Harris. Fletcher 

Brown. John Walter Hunt, John J. 

DeRamus. Judson D., Jr. Huskins, J. P. 



Rabon, Tom B.. Jr. 
Taylor, Ron 
Woodard, Wilma 



WATER AND AIR RESOURCES 

Chairman— Nash, Robie L. 

Vice Chairman— Holt, Charles 

Vice Chairman — Lilley, Daniel T. 



Bone, Roger W. 
Bright. Joe L. 
Ethridge. Bruce 
James. Vernon G. 



Kemp. Ramey F.. Sr. 
McAlister. Robert L. 
Messer. Ernest B. 
Pulley. Paul 



Rullman. Carl W. 
Tyson, Henrv M. 



Brown. John Walter 
Clark, Douglas A. 
Covington, John W. 
Evans, Charles D. 



WILDLIFE 

Chairman— Lambeth. Jim 

Vice Chairman— Holt. Charles 

Vice Chairman — Watkins, William T. 



Hightower, P"'oyle, Jr. 
Holmes, (reorge M. 
Hunt. John J. 
Lillev. Daniel T. 



Locklear. Horace 
Poovey. J. Re id 
Rabon, Tom B., Jr. 
Revelle, J. (Juv, Sr. 



128 North Carolina Manual 

RULES OF THE 1979 HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES* 

I. OKDKROF Hl'SINKSS 

Rl'LK 1. ('<ii/r( t/iti(i Hoio-.—Tht.' House shall convene each legislative day at the hour 
fixed h\' the House. In the event the House adjourns on the [jrecedinj? legislative day 
without havinir fixed an hour for reconvening, the House shall convene on the next le>ris- 
lative day at 1:UI) P.M. 

Rl'LK 2. Opt niiiij thr ScssidH. — At the convening hour on each lej^islative day the 
Speaker shall call the members to order and shall have the session opened with prayer. 

Rl'LK .{. Qminint. — (a) A ciuorum ct)nsists of a majorit\' of the qualified members 
of the House. 

(bl Sliould the point of a quorum be raised, the doors shall be closed and the t'lerk 
shall call the roll of the House, after which the names oi those not respondintr shall ap:ain 
be called. In the absence of a quorum, fifteen members are authorized to compel the at- 
tendance of absent members and may order that absentees for whom no sufficient 
excuses are made be taken into custody wherever they may lie found by special messenger 
appointed for that pur[)ose. *H()iisc Rcsolutio)! 15. adopted Mnrrh Hi. 1U7'.>. 

Rl'LK 4. Apjiroriil nf Jonnnil.^ici) The Committee on Rules and Operation of the 
House shall cause the Journal of the House to be examined daily before the hour of con- 
vening to determine if the proceedings of the previous da\' have been correctly recorded. 

(1)) Immediately following the opening prayer and upon appearance of a quorum, the 
Speaker shall call for the Journal report by the Chairman of the Committee on Rules and 
Operation of the House or by a Representative designated by the Chairman as to whether 
the proceedings of the previous day have been correctly recorded. Without objection, the 
Speaker shall cause the Journal to stand approved. 

RULE 5. Order of /y//.s-/'//c.s.s of the Lhiii. — After the approval of the Journal of the 
preceding day, the House shall proceed to business in the following order: 

(1) The receiving of petitions, memorials and papers addressed to the (reneral | 
Assembly or to the House; ' 

(2) Reports of standing committees; 

(.S) Reports of select committees; ^ | 

(4) First reading and reference to committee of bills and resolutions: 

(5) Messages from the Senate: 

(6) Concurrence with Senate amendments or Senate committee substitutes; j 

(7) The unfinished business of the preceding day; 

(8) Calendar (each category in accordance with Rule 40): , 

(a) Local bills (roll call) third reading I 

(b) Local bills (roll call) second reading 

(c) Ivocal bills third reading 

(d) Local bills second reading j 

(e) Public bills (roll call) third reading 

(f) Public bills (roll call) second reading 

(g) Public bills and resolutions, third reading 
(h) Public bills and resolutions, second reading; 



Legislative Branch 429 



<9) Reading- of Notices and Announcements: but messages and motions to elect 
officers shall always be in order. 

II. CONDUCT OF DEBATE 

RULE 6. Duties (1)1(1 Pod'crs of the Speaker. — The Speaker shall have general di- 
rection of the Hall. He may name any member to perform the duties of the Chair, hut 
substitution shall not extend beyond one day, except in case of sickness or by leave of 
the House. 

RULE 7. OI)t(iiui)i(j Floor. — (a) When any member desires recognition for any pur- 
pose, he shall rise from his seat and respectfully address the Speaker. No member shall 
proceed until recognized by the Speaker. 

(b) When a member desires to interrupt a member having the floor, he shall first 
obtain recognition by the Speaker and permission of the member occupying the floor, 
and when such recognition and permission have been obtained, he may propound a 
question to the member occupying the floor; but he shall not otherwise interrupt the 
member having the floor, except as provided in subsection (c) of this rule; and the 
Speaker shall, without the point of order being raised, enforce this rule. 

(c) A member who has obtained the floor may be interrupted only for the following 
reasons: 

1. a request that member speaking yield for a question, 

2. a point of order, or 

3. a parliamentary inquiry. 

RULE 8. Qi(estio)i of Perxomil Fririlege.— Upon recognition by the Speaker for that 
purpose, any member may speak to a question of personal privilege for a time not to 
exceed three (3) minutes. Personal privilege may not be used to explain a vote or debate a 
bill. The Speaker shall determine if the question is one of privilege and shall, without the 
point of order being raised, enforce this rule. 

RULE 9. Point of Order.— (a) The Speaker shall decide questions of order and may 
speak to points of order in preference to other members arising from their seats for that 
purpose. Any member may appeal from the ruling of the Chair on questions of order; on 
such appeal no member may speak more than once, unless by leave of the House. A two- 
thirds (2/3) vote of the members present shall be necessary to sustain any appeal from the 
ruling of the Chair. 

(b) When the Speaker calls a member io order, the member shall take his seat except 
that a member called to order may clear a n.atter of fact, or explain, but shall not proceed 
in debate so long as the decision stands. If the member appeals from the ruling of the 
Chair and the decision by a two-thirds (2/3) vote of the members present be in favor of 
the member called to order, he may proceed; if otherwise, he shall not; and if the case, 
in the judgment of the House, requires it, he shall be liable to censure by the House. 

RULP] 10. Liinitofions on Delxite. — No member shall speak more than twice on the 
main question, nor longer than thirty minutes for the first speech and fifteen minutes 
for the second speech, unless allowed to do so by the affirmative vote of a majority of the 
members present; nor shall he speak more than once upon an amendment or motion to re- 
consider, commit, appeal or postpone, and then not longer than ten minutes. The House 
may, however, by consent of a majority of the members present, suspend the operation of 
this rule during any debate on any particular question before the House. 



4,S0 North Carolina Manual 



lil'LK 1 1. Ii((i(lin(i of I'd I HIS.— When lh('r(> is a call for the rcadinji; of the text of a 
paper which has been jtrest'tUcd to the House, and there is ohjectioii to such reading, the 
question shall he determined in- a niajorit\' vole of the niemhei's of the House present. 
Kxcept for protests pernntted by the Constitution, no nn'inber nia\' have material printed 
in theJournal until said material has l)een presented to the House and the prinlin.u' ap- 
proved In- the House, and said material shall not exceed 1, ()()() words. 

Rl LK 12. (i( iiifdl IhciiriiDi. — (a) The Speaker' shall preserve order and decorum. 

(b) I)ect'nc\- of speech shall l)e obst'rved and disrespect to personalities carefully 
avoided. 

(c) Whi'n the Speaker is puttin.u' any (luestion, or addressing the House, no jjerson 
shall speak, stand up, walk out of or cross the House, nor w-hen a member is speakinjr, 
en^ajre in disruptive discourse or pass between the member and the Chair. 

(d) P\)0(1 or beverajj-es shall not be permitted on the floor of the Hou.se. 

(e) The readinu: of newspapers shall not be permitted on the floor of the House while 
the House is in session. 

(f) Smoking or the consumption of food or beverages shall not be permitted in the 
galeries at any time. 

(g) Special recitals, performances by musicians or other groups shall not be per- 
mitted on the floor of the House and special guests of members of the House shall not be 
permitted on the floor of the House, 

(h) Members shall observe appropriate attire, coat and tie for male members and 
dignified dress for female members, 

III. MOTIONS 

RULE 13. Motions (rCHcrdlh/.—dx) Every motion shall be reduced to writing, if the 
Speaker or any two members request it. 

(b) When a motion is made, it shall be statetl by the Speaker, or, if written, it shall be 
handed to the Chair and read aloud by the Speaker or Clerk before debate, 

(c) After a motion has been stated by the Speaker oi- read by the Speaker or Clerk, it 
shall be in the possession of the House: but it may be withdrawn before a decision or 
amendment, except in case of a motion to reconsider, which motion, when made by a 
member, shall be in possession of the House and shall not be withdrawn without leave of 
the House. 

RULE 14. Motions. Order of I'rrccdr nee. —When there are motions before the House, 
the order of i)recedence is as follows: 

To adjourn 

To lay on the table 

To postpone indefinitely 

I'revious (juestion 

To postpone to a day certain 

To commit 

To amend an amendment 

To amend 

To substitute 

To pass the bill 



Legislative Branch 431 



No motion to lay on the table, to postpone indefinitely, to postpone to a day certain, to 
commit or to make a particular amendment, being decided, shall be again allowed at the 
same stage of the bill or proposition. 

RULE 15. Motion to Adjourn.— (».) A motion to adjourn shall be seconded before 
the motion is put to the vote of the House. 

(b) A motion to adjourn shall be decided without debate, and shall always be in order, 
e.xcept when the House is voting or some member is speaking; but a motion to adjourn 
shall not follow a motion to adjourn until debate or some other business of the House has 
intervened. 

RULE 16. Motion to Table. — (a) A motion to table shall be seconded before the 
motion is put to the vote of the House and is in order except when a motion to adjourn is 
before the House. 

(b) A motion to table shall be decided without debate. 

(c) A motion to table a bill shall constitute a motion to table the bill and all amend- 
ments thereto. 

(d) When the question before the House is the adoption of an amendment to a bill or 
resolution, a motion to table the bill is not in order, and a motion to table an amendment 
applies to the amendment only, and the motion may not expressly or by implication or 
construction be expanded to include a motion to table the bill also. 

(e) When a question has been tabled, it shall not thereafter be considered except on 
motion to reconsider under Rule 18, or to remove from the table approved by a two-thirds 
(2/3) vote. 

RULE 17. Motion to Po.^tponc Indefi)iitt'lif. — A motion to postpone indefinitely is in 
order except when a motion to adjourn or to lay on the table is before the House. However, 
after one motion to postpone indefinitely has been decided, another motion to postpone 
indefinitely shall not be allowed at the same stage of the bill or proposition. When a ques- 
tion has been postponed indefinitely, it shall not thereafter be considered except on 
motion to reconsider under Rule 18, or to place on the favorable calendar approved by a 
two-thirds (2/3) vote. 

RULE 18. Motion to Reconsider. — (a) When a question has been decided, it is in 
order for any member to move for the reconsideration thereof, on the same or the suc- 
ceeding legislative day; provided that if the vote by which the motion was originally 
decided was taken by a recorded vote, only a member of the majority may move for re- 
consideration. 

(b) A motion to reconsider shall be determined by a majority vote, except a motion to 
reconsider a vote upon a motion to table, a motion to postpone indefinitely, a motion to 
remove a bill from the unfavorable calendar, a motion that a bill be read twice on the 
same day, or a motion to remove from the table, which shall require a two-thirds (2/3) 
vote. 

RULE 19. PrcrioHs QncHtion.—(-d) The previous question may be called only l)y the 
member submitting the report on the bill or other matter under consideration, by the 
member introducing the bill or other matter under consideration, or by the member in 
charge of the measure, who shall be designated by the Chairman of the committee report- 
ing the same to the House at the time the bill or other matter under consideration is re- 
ported to the House or taken up for consideration. 



482 North Carolina Manual 



(1)) The previous (incstion shall l)e as follows: "Shall the main (luestion now he put?" 
When the call for the previous iiuestion has been deeidt'd in the affirmative by a majority 
\()te of the House, the "main (luestion" is on the passage of the bill, resolution or other 
matter under consideration. 

(c) The call for the previous (luestion shall pn-clude all motions, amendments and 
debate, except the motion to adjourn or motion to table or motion to postpone indefinitely 
made prior to the determination of the previous (juestion. 

(d) If the previous (juestion is decided in the negative, the main cjuestion remains 
under debate. 

IV. VOTING 

RULE 20. I'sc (if El(ctr(in/c I'otiiifi Siistcm. — (a) Votes on the following question 
shall be taken on the electronic voting system, and the ayes and noes shall be recorded 
on the Journal: 

(1) All questions on which the Constitution of North Carolina requires that the ayes 
and noes be taken and recorded on the Journal. 

(2) All questions on which a call for the ayes and noes under Rule 24(a) has been 
sustained. 

(3) Both second and third readings of bills proposing amendment of the Constitution 
of North Carolina or ratifying resolutions amending the Constitution of the 
United States. 

(b) Votes on the following questions shall be taken on the electronic voting system, 
and a copy of the machine printout of the votes shall be filed in the Principal Clerk's 
office. A copy of the machine printout shall also be filed in the Legislative Library where 
it shall be open to public inspection: 

(1) Second reading of all public bills, all amendments to public bills offered after 
secon>.: reading, third reading if a public bill was amended after second reading 
or if the reading occurs on a day or days following the second reading, all con- 
ference reports on public bills, all motions to lay public bills on the table, and all 
motions to postpone public bills indefinitely. 

(2) Upon a call for division. 

(8) Any other question upon tlirection of the Speaker or upon motion of any member 
supported by one-fifth ( 1/5) of the members present. 

(c) When the electronic voting system is used, twenty seconds shall be allowed for 
voting on the question before the House, unless the Chair shall direct otherwise. The sys- 
tem shall be set to close automatically when that time has expired. After the system is 
closed, the Speaker may allow any member to vote until he orders the system locked. Once 
the system is locked, the vote shall be recorded and printed. 

(d) The voting station at each member's desk in the Chamber shall be used only by 
the member to which the station is assigned. Under no circumstances shall any other 
person vote at a member's station. It is a breach of the ethical obligation of a member 
either to recjuest that another person vote at the reciuesting member's station, or to vote 
at another meml)er's station. The Speaker shall enforce this rule without exception, i 



'! 



Legislative Branch 433 



(e) When the electronic voting system is used, the Speaker shall state the question 
and shall then state substantially the following: "All in favor vote 'aye'; all opposed 
vote 'no'; the Clerk will open the vote." After the allotted time for voting has elapsed, the 
Speaker shall say; "The Clerk will now lock the machine and record the vote." After the 
machine is locked and the vote recorded, the Speaker shall announce the vote and declare 
the result. 

(f) One copy of the machine printout of the vote record of all votes taken on the elec- 
tronic system shall be filed in the office of the Principal Clerk, and one copy shall be 
filed in the Legislative Library where it shall be open to public inspection. 

(g) When the Speaker ascertains that the electronic voting system is inoperative 
before a vote is taken or while a vote is being taken on the electronic system, he shall 
announce that fact to the House and any partial electronic system voting record shall be 
voided. In such a case, if the Constitution of North Carolina or the Rules of the House 
requires a call of the ayes and noes, the Clerk shall call the roll of the House, and the ayes 
and noes shall be taken manually and shall be recorded on the Journal. All roll call votes 
shall be taken alphabetically. All other votes shall be taken by voice vote. If, after a vote is 
taken on the electronic system, it is discovered that a malfunction caused an error in 
the electronic system printout, the Speaker shall direct the Reading Clerk and the 
Principal Clerk to verify and correct the printout record and so advise the House. 

(h) For the purpose of identifying motions on which the vote is taken on the elec- 
tronic system, the motions are coded as follows: 

1. To adjourn • •. : ; 

2. To lay on the table , , 

3. To postpone indefinitely 

4. Previous question 

5. To postpone to a day certain 

6. To commit ' ' ' .   

7. To amend an amendment 

8. To amend 

9. To substitute 

10. To reconsider 

11. To concur or not concur 

12. Miscellaneous 

RULE 21. Voice Votes; Stating Qiiestions. — (a) When the electronic voting system is 
not used, the Speaker shall rise and put a question. 

(b) The question shall be put in this form, namely. "Those in favor (as the question 
may be) will say 'Aye'," and after the affirmation voice has been expressed, "Those 
opposed will say 'No' ". 

RULE 22. DeterniiiuNfi Que.^tiou.s. — Unless otherwise provided by the Constitution 
I of North Carolina or by these rules, all questions shall be determined by a simple majority 
jof the members present and voting. 

RULE 23. VotiiKj hif Dirision.— Any member may call for a division of the members 
upon the question before the result of the vote has been announced. LIpon a call for a 
division, the Speaker shall cause the number voting in the affirmative and in the negative 
to be determined. Upon a division and count of the House on any question, no member 
away from his seat shall be counted. 



484 North Carolina Manual 



Rri>E 24. lioll ( 'nil \ 'oh'.— in) I-iefore a (lueslion is i)ut, any inemher may call for the 
ayes and iiot's. If the call is sustained l)y one-fifth ( 1, 5) of the members present, the (lues- 
tion shall he decided by the ayes and noes upon a roll call vote. 

(1)) Kvery member who is in the Hall of the House when the (juestion is put shall vote 
upon a call of the ayes and noes, unless excused pursuant to Rule 24. lA. 

Rl'LK 24.L-\. Kxciixc From Dcllhcnilions <ni(l I'otiiifi mi a Hill. — (a) Any member 
shall upon request be excused from the deliberations and voting on a particular bill, but to 
do so must make that recjuest after the second reading of the bill and before any motion or 
vote on the bill or any amendment thereto. If the reason for the request arises at some 
point later in the proceedinjjs, the request may be made at that time. 

(b) The member may make a brief statement of the reasons for making that request. 
The member may send forward to the Principal Clerk, on a form provided by the Clerk, a 
concise statement of the reason for the request, and the Clerk shall include this statement 
in the Journal. 

(c) The member so excused shall not debate the bill or any amendment to the bill, vote 
on the bill, offer or vote on any amendment to the bill, or offer or vote on any motion con- 
cerning the bill at that reading, any subsequent reading, or any subsequent consideration 
of the bill. 

(d) A member may request that his excuse from deliberations on a particular bill be 
withdrawn. 

RULP] 24. IB. Scpdrdtion of Propositions. — Any member may call for a question to 
be divided into two or more propositions to be voted on separately, and the Speaker 
shall determine whether the question admits of such a division. 

RULE 25. \'otin(i hii Speaker. — In all elections the Speaker may vote. In all other 
instances he may exercise his right to vote, or he may reserve this right until there is a 
tie in which event he may vote, but in no instance may he vote twice on the same question. 

V. COMMITTEES 

RULP] 2(i. Connnittees (ieiieroll ij. — (a) All standing and select committees shall be 
ointed by the Sp- 
ning of the session. 



appointed by the Speaker. The Speaker shall appointall standing committees at the begin- , 



(b) Ten legislative days after the Speaker makes his initial appointments to a standing; 
or select committee, he shall not increase the membership of that committee, but may fill '• 
anv vacancies which occur on that committee. j 



(c) The first member announced on each committee shall be Chairman, and where the 
Speaker so desires he may designate a cochairman and one or more vice-chairmen. \ 

(d) Elither the Chairman or the Acting Chairman, designated by the Chairman or by' 
the Speaker, and five other members of the committee, or a majority of the committee,: 
whichever is fewer, shall constitute a quorum of that committee. j 

(e) In any .joint meeting of the Senate and House Committees, the House committee, 
reserves the right to vote separately. 



Legislative Branch 435 



RULE 27. List of Standing Ccnnmittees.— The standing committees are: 

Aging. 

Agriculture. 

Alcoliolic Beverage Control. 

Appropriations. 

Appropriations Committee on the Base Budget. 

Appropriations Committee on Education. 

Appropriations Committee on General Government and Transportation. 

Appropriations Committee on Human Resources and Corrections. 

Base Budget. 

Base Budget Committee on Education. 

Base Budget Committee on General Government and Transportation. 

Base Budget Committee on Human Resources and Corrections. 

Banks and Thrift Institutions. 

Commercial Fishing. 

Commissions and Institutions for the Blind and Deaf. 

Constitutional Amendments.  ' 

Corporations. 

Corrections. 

Courts and Judicial Districts. 

Economy. , . 

Education. 

Election Laws. 

Employment Security. 

Finance. 

Health. 

Higher Education. .; 

Highway Safety. 

Human Resources. ' 'i ' . i .,^ 

Insurance. ' ' ' 

Judiciary No. I. '  

Judiciary No. II. . , , , 

Judiciary No. HI. ,,, 

Law Enforcement. 

Local Government No. I. 

LocalGovernmentNo.il. 

Manufacturers and Labor. 

Mental Health. 

Military and Veterans' Affairs. 

Natural & Economic Resources. 

Public Libraries. 

Public Utilities. " 

Rules and Operation of the House. ' 

State Government. 

State Personnel. 

State Properties. 

Transportation. 

University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 

Water and Air Resources. 

Wildlife Resources. 



i;^(; North Carolina Manual 



Rodistrictin)^'- ConittiitU'e.— In the session next afU'r the tVdfral (Icri'iinial census, the 
Spcakcf shall a|)|)()iiil a slandin.tr conunitU'e or conimitlees on redislrictin^. 

Rl'I.K 2H. ('(ii)nnitt('( ,l/r(7///(/.s-. — (a) Standing committees and subcommittees of 
standing committees shall l)e furnished with suitable mi-etin^ places i)ursuant to a 
sche<lule adopted by the Committee on Rules and Operation of the House. Select com- 
mittees shall be furnished with suitable meeting places as their needs require by the 
Chairman of the Comnuttee on Rules and Operation of the House. 

(b) Subject lo the provisions of the subsection (c) of this Rule, committees and sub- 
committees thereof shall permit other members of the (Jeneral Assembly, the press, and 
the jreneral public to attend all sessions of said committees or subcommittees. 

(c) The Chairman or other presiding officer shall have jfeneral direction of the meet- 
ing place of the committee or subcommittee and, in case of any disturbance or disorderly 
conduct therein, or if the peace, g'ood order, and proper conduct of the legislative business 
is hindered by any person or persons, the Chairman or presiding officer shall have power to 
exclude from the session any individual or individuals so hindering the legislative business 
or, if necessary, to ortler the meeting place cleared of all persons not members of the com- 
mittee or subcommittee. 

(d) Procedure in the committees shall be governed by the rules of the House, so far as 
the same may be applicable to such procedure. Before a question is i)ut, any member may 
call for the ayes and noes. If the call is sustained by one-fifth ( 1/5) of the members present, 
the (juestion shall be decided by the ayes and noes upon a roll call vote. All roll call votes 
shall be taken alphabetically. 

(e) No committee or subcommittee shall meet on any flay when the House shall not 
convene except by permission of the Speaker or by approval of the House by resolution 
adopted by a majority vote of the House. 

(f) No committee or subcommittee shall meet during any session of the House and all 
committee and subcommittee meetings shall adjourn no later than In minutes preceding a 
regular session of the House. 

(g) Any call or notice of a standing committee meeting between legislative sessions 
shall be mailed to each member of the committee by certified mail at least five days prior 
to such meeting. 

(h) During committee meetings the Chairman may exercise his right to vote, or he 
may reserve this right until there is a tie, in which event he may vote, but in no instance 
may the Chairman vote twice on the same (question. I 

RULPv 29. Xoficc (if ( '(iiiniiitlcv Mictniijs dtiil ( 'oiiuh iftrc Henri Hfis: M unites. — Public 
notice of all standing committee meetings shall be given in the House. The Chairman of the 
ccmimittee shall notify or cause to be tu)tified the sponsor of each bill which is set for hear- i 
ing or consideration before the committee as to the date, time and place of that meeting. | 

RULK 29. L I'ldilie //(((/-///f/.s.— (a) Any member may re(iuest in writing a public 
hearing on a public bill. Refusal to grant a member's recjuest may be appealed to the. 
Speaker. Requests by other than members may be granted in the discretion of the Chair- ; 
man. Notice shall be given not less than five calendar days prior to public hearings. These 
notices shall be issued as information for the press and information shall be posted in the 

places designated by the Principal Clerk. j 

i 



Legislative Branch 437 



(b) Persons desiring- to appear and be heard at a public hearing shall submit their 
request to the Chairman of the committee. The committee Chairman may designate one or 
more members to arrange the order of appearance of interested parties. A brief, written 
statement of testimony may be submitted to the committee without oral presentation and 
shall be incorporated in the minutes of the public hearing. 

(c) (\ittunitt('c Miiiittcs to Lcfiisliiflrc Lihrdrij. The Chairman of a committee shall 
insure that written minutes are compiled for each of the committee's meetings. The 
minutes shall indicate the members present and the actions taken by the committee at the 
meeting. Not later than 20 days after the adjournment of each session of the General 
Assembly, the Chairman shall deliver the minutes tothe Legislative Library. The Speaker 
of the House may grant a reasonable extension of time for filing said minutes upon appli- 
cation of the committee Chairman. 

RULE 30. ( 'oniniiUci nftlic Wliolc H(iiis('.—(-d) A Committee of the Whole House shall 
not be formed, except by suspension of the rules,- if there be objection by any member. 

(b) After passage of a motion to form a Committee of the Whole House, the Speaker 
shall appoint a Chairman to preside in committee, and the Speaker shall leave the Chair. 

(c) The rules of procedure in the House shall beobserved in thecommitteeof the Whole 
House, so far as they may be applicable, except the rule limiting the time of speaking and 
the previous question. 

(d) In the Committeeof the Whole House a motion that the committee rise shall always 
be in order, except when a member is speaking, and shall be decided without debate. 

(e) When a bill is submitted to the Committee of the Whole House, it shall be read and 
debated by sections, leaving the preamble to be last considered. The body of the bill shall 
not be defaced or interlined, but all amendments, noting the page and line, shall be duly 
entered by the Clerk on a separate paper as the same shall be agreed to by the committee, 
and be so reported to the House. After report, the bill shall again be subject to be debated 
and amended by sections before a question on its passage be taken. 

VI. HANDLING OF BILLS 

RULE ;}1. Rvfcfc-iici' to ( 'iDHiiilttcc. — Each bill, joint resolution, or House resolution 
not introduced on the report of a committee shall immediately upon its first reading be 
referred by the Speaker to such committee as he deems appropriate. 

RULE 32. Introduction of Bills and Resoli(tio)is. — (a) All bills and resolutions shall be 
introduced by submitting same to the Principal Clerk's office on the legislative day prior 
to the first reading and reference thereof according to the following schedule: by 8:30 
o'clock p.m. each Monday, by 4:30 o'clock p.m. each Tuesday. Wednesday and Thursday 
and by 3:00 o'clock p.m. each PViday. 

(b) Every bill or resolution shall be read in regular order of business, except upon 
permission of the Speaker or on the report of a committee. 

(c) All bills and resolutions shall show in thei r capt ions a briefdescriptive statement of 
the true substance of same, which captions may thereafter l)e amended; provided that third 
reading shall not be had on any bill or resolution on the same day that such caption is 
amended. 



4.S8 North Carolina Manual 



((!) A Substitute Bill shall he covered with the same color jacket as t lie original hill and 
shall he prefaced as follows: 

"House Suhstitute for" or "House Committee Substitute for ." 

(e) House Resolutions need not he read more than twice. 

(f) ('('l('hniti(i)i. (\>))niicii<l(iti())i (tn(l ('(>»inictn(>nifi(>n. Ixrsol Ntions. All celebration, 
commendation, and commemoration resolutions, except those honoring the memory of 
deceased j^ersons. shall be excluded from introduction in the House if the Senate has a 
substantially similar rule on these resolutions. 

RULE 32. L Drddl/Hc OH Intrndiiction of Citid ni Bills.— AW local bills or bills 
prepared to be introduced for departments, agencies, or institutions of the State must 
be introduced not later than April 1 of the session year. 

RULE 33. Pdpvrs Addressed to the House. — Petitions, memorials and other papers 
addressed to the House shall be presented by the Speaker. A brief statement of the con- 
tents thereof may be orally made by the introducer before reference to a committee, but 
such papers shall not be debated or decided on the day of their first being read unless the 
House shall direct otherwise. 

RULE 34. Iidrodiuiioii of Resohdions and Bills, Copies Required. — (a) Whenever 
any resolution or bill is introduced, a duplicate copy thereof shall be attached thereto, 
and the Principal Clerk shall cause said duplicate copy to be numbered as the original 
resolution or bill is numbered, and shall cause the same to be available at all times to 
the member introducing the same. 

(b) Numbering of House Bills shall be designated as H.B. ." (No. fol- 
lowing). A Joint Resolution shall be designated as "H.J.R " (No. following). A House 

Resolution shall be designated as "H.R. ." (No. following). 

(c) Whenever any resolution or bill is filed for introduction, it shall be in such form 
and have such copies accompanying same as designated by the Speaker, and any resolu- 
tion or bill introduced without the required number of copies shall be immediately re- 
turned to the introducer. The Clerk shall stamp the copies with the number stamped upon 
the original bill. 

RULE 35. Diijil ieotiii!) of Bills.— (a) The Legislative Services Officer shall cause 
such bills as are introduced to be duplicated in such numbers as may be specified by the 
Speaker. The Legislative Services Officer shall cause one copy of each resolution and 
public bill for each legislator to be delivered to his clerk or secretary who shall place it in 
the appropriate notebook on the legislator's desk. If a legislator so requests, a second copy 
shall be delivered to his clerk or secretary who shall place it in the legislator's office. 
The remaining copies shall be placed in the Printed Bills Room and made available to 
the committees to which the bill is referred, to individual legislators on request, and to the 
general public. 

(b) Ardildbilitij of Copies of Bills. A public bill is a bill affecting 15 or more counties. 
A local bill is one affecting fewer than 15 counties. No public bill and, upon objection by a 
member, no local bill may be considered unless copies of the bill have been made avail- 
able to the entire membership of the House. 



Legislative Branch , 439 



RULE 36. Rcpnii bij Committee. — All House bills and resolutions shall be reported 
from the committee to which referred, with such recommendations as the committee may 
desire to make except in the case where the principal introducer requests in writing to 
the Chairman of the committee that the bill not be considered. The Chairman of the full 
Appropriations Committee may refer a bill or resolution to another appropriations com- 
mittee specifically charged with the subject matter of the bill or resolution; the committee 
to which the bill or resolution is referred shall report the bill or resolution back to the 
full Appropriations Committee. .   

(a) FavQVdble Report. When a committee reports a bill with the recommendation 
that it be passed, the bill shall be placed on the favorable calendar for the next succeeding 
legislative day; except that Committee Substitutes for bills shall be placed on the 
favorable calendar for the second next succeeding legislative day after being reported. 

(b) Repori Without Prejudiee. When a committee reports a bill without prejudice, 
the bill shall be placed on the favorable calendar. 

(c) Postponed Indefinitely. When a committee reports a bill with the recommendation 
that it be postponed indefinitely, and no minority report accompanies it, the bill shall be 
placed on the unfavorable calendar. 

(d) Uitfavornble Report. When a committee reports a bill with the recommendation 
that it be not passed, and no minority report accompanies it, the bill shall be placed on the 
unfavorable calendar. 

(e) Minority Repo)i. When a bill is reported by a committee with a recommendation 
that it be not passed or that it be postponed indefinitely, but it is accompanied by a 
minority report signed by at least one-fourth (1/4) of the members of the committee who 
were present and voting when the bill was considered in committee, the question before 
the House shall be: "The adoption of the minority report." If the minority report is 
adopted by majority vote, the bill shall be placed on the favorable calendar for considera- 
tion. If the minority report fails of adoption by a majority vote, the bill shall be placed on 
the unfavorable calendar. 

RULE 37. Remoring Bill from I'nfororohle Calendar.— A bill may be removed from 
the unfavorable calendar upon motion carried by a two-thirds (2/3) vote. A motion to 
remove a bill from the unfavorable calendar is debatable. 

RULE 38. Reports on Appropriation and Revenue Bills.— (a) All committees, other 
than the Committee on Appropriations, when favorably reporting any bill which carries 
an appropriation from the State, shall indicate same in the report, and said bill shall be 
referred to the Committee on Appropriations for a further report before being acted upon 
by the House. All committees, other than the Committee on Finance, when favorably 
reporting any bill which in any way or manner raises revenue, reduces revenue, levies a 
tax, or authorizes the issue of bonds or notes, whether public, public-local 
or private, shall indicate same in the report, and said bill shall be referred to the Com- 
mittee on Finance for a further report before being acted upon by the House. 

(b) Action on Amendment Before Re-Referral. If any committee recommends adop- 
tion of an amendment or committee substitute of a bill which, under the rules of the 
House must be referred to the Committee on Appropriations or Committee on Finance, 
the amendment or committee substitute shall be considered and, if adopted, the amend- 
ment or substitute engrossed before the bill is re-referred. 



440 North Carolina Manual 



lU'LI'] ."{J). luciill of I-lill fnnn ('oniniittcc.—'Whvn a House bill hius been introduced 
and referi-ed to a committee, if after 10 legislative days the committee has failed 
to report thereon, then the introducer of the bill or some member designated by him may, 
after three legislative days' public notice given in the House and delivered in writing to 
the Chairman of the committee, on motion supported by a majority vote of the members 
present and voting, recall the same from the committee to the floor of the House for con- 
sideration and such action thereon as a majority of the members present may direct. This 
rule shall not be temporarily suspended without one day's notice on the motion given in 
the House and delivered in writing to the Chairman of the committee, and to sustain that 
motion two-thirds (2/8) of the members present and voting shall be required. 

RULE 40. Caloidars and Schedules of Biu'^lness. — The Clerk of the House shall 
prepare a daily schedule of business, including the Calendar of Bills and Resolutions 
for consideration and debate that day, in accordance with the Order of Business of the day 
(Rule 5). The Clerk shall number all bills and resolutions in the order in which they are 
introduced. All bills and resolutions shall be taken up as they appear in each category 
(rule 5(8) ) in the order they were reported by committee; but the Committee on Rules and 
Operation of the Hou.se may at any time arrange the order of precedence in which bills 
may be considered. 

RULE 4L Readings of Bills.— (a.) Every bill shall receive three readings in the 
House prior to its passage. The first reading and reference of the bill to committee shall 
occur on the next legislative day following its introduction, and the Speaker shall give 
notice at each subsequent reading whether it be the second or third reading. 

(b) No bill shall be read more than once on the same day without the concurrence of 
two-thirds (2/3) of the members present and voting. 

RULE 42. Effect of a Defeated Bill.— (a.) Subject to the provisions of subsection (b)of 
this rule, after a bill has 

L been tabled, 

2. been postponed indefinitely, 

3. failed to pass on any of its readings, or 

4. been placed on the unfavorable calendar, 

the contents of that bill or the principal provisions of its subject matter shall not be con- 
sidered in any other measure originating in the Senate or originating thereafter in the 
House. Upon the point of order being raised and sustained by the Chair, that measure shall 
be laid upon the table, and shall not be taken therefrom except by a two-thirds (2/3) vote 
of the members present and voting. 

(b) No local bill shall be held by the Chair to embody the contents of or the principal 
provisions of the subject matter of any statewide measure which has been laid on the table, 
has failed to pass on any of its readings, or has been placed on the unfavorable calendar. 

RULE 43. A)nend))ients and Riders.— No amendment or rider to a bill before the 
House shall be in order unless such rider or amendment is germane to the bill under con- 
sideration. 

Only one principal (first degree) amendment shall be pending at any one time. If a 
subsequent or substitute principal amendment shall be offered, the Speaker shall rule it 
out of order. However, any member desiring to offer a subsequent or substitute principal 
amendment in opposition to the pending amendment may inform the House by way of 



Legislative Branch 441 



argnment against the pending amendment that if it is defeated he proposes to offer 
another principal amendment, and he may then read and explain such proposed amend- 
ment. 

Perfecting (or second degree) amendments may be offered and considered with- 
out limitation as to number, and in the event of multiple perfecting amendments, they 
shall be voted upon in inverse order. 

RULE 43.1. Engrossment— B\\\s and resolutions, except those making appropria- 
tions, which originate in the House and which are amended, shall be engrossed before 
being sent to the Senate. 

RULE 43.2. HoHf^e Concurn-ncc in Senate AmendnieiitM to //o;/.st Bills.— The House 
shall not concur in a Senate amendment to a bill originating in the House until the next 
legislative day after the day on which the House receives the senate amendment. 

RULE 43.3 Committee Substitutes Adopted by the Senate to Bills Originating in the 
House.— (a) Whenever the Senate has adopted a committee substitute for a bill originat- 
ing in the House, and has returned the bill to the House for concurrence in that committee 
substitute, the House may not concur in that committee substitute until the next legisla- 
tive day following the day on which the House receives that committee substitute. 

(b) The Speaker may, and upon motion supported by a majority of the House present 
and voting shall, refer the bill to an appropriate committee for consideration of the com- 
mittee substitute. 

(c) The Speaker shall, in placing the bill on the calendar, rule whether the committee 
substitute is a material amendment under Article H, Section 23, of the State's Constitu- 
tion. If the committee substitute was referred to committee, the committee shall: 

i. report the bill with the recommendation either that the House concur or that the 

House do not concur: and 
ii. advise the Speaker as to whether or not that committee substitute is a material 
amendment under Article H, Section 23. of the State's Constitution. 

(d) If the committee substitute for a bill is not a material amendment, the question 
before the House shall be concurrence. 

(e) If the committee substitute for a bill is a material amendment, the receiving of 
that bill on messages shall constitute first reading and the question before the House shall 
be concurrence on second reading. If the notion is passed, the question then shall be 
concurrence on third reading on the next legislative day. 

(f) No committee substitute adopted by the Senate to a bill originating in the House 
may be amended by the House. 

RULE 44. Conference Committees. — (a) Whenever the House shall decline or refuse 
to concur in amendments put by the Senate to a bill originating in the House, or shall 
refuse to concur in a substitute adopted by the Senate for a bill originating in the House 
or whenever the Senate shall decline or refuse to concur in amendments put by the House 
to a bill originating in the Senate, or shall refuse to concur in a substitute adopted by the 
House for a bill originating in the Senate, a conference committee Chairman and commit- 
tee shall be appointed upon motion made, consisting of the number named in the motion; 
and the bill under consideration shall thereupon go to and be considered by the joint 
conferees on the part of the House and Senate. 



442 North Carolina Manual 



(b) Only such matters as are in difference Ix'tween the two houses shall be consideretl 
by the conferees, and the conference report shall deal only with such matters. The con- 
ference report may be made by a majority of the House members of such conference com- 
mittee and shall not be amended. 

(c) If the conferees fail to agree, new conferees may be appointed. However, if either 
house refuses to adopt the report of its conferees, no new conferees may be appointed. 

VII. LECilSLATIVE OFFICERS AND EMPLOYEES 

RULE 45. Khrtvtl Officers. — (a) The House shall elect one of its members Speaker. 

(b) The House shall elect one of its members Speaker pro tempore who shall perform 
such duties as the Speaker may assign and shall preside over the House in the absence or 
incapacity of the Speaker and shall perform all of the duties or the Speaker until such 
time the Speaker may assume the Chair. 

(c) The House shall elect a Principal Clerk, a Reading Clerk and a Sergeant-at- 
Arms, each of whom shall have and perform such duties and responsibilities not incon- 
sistent with these Rules as the Speaker may assign. The Principal Clerk shall continue in 
office until another is elected. 

RULE 46. Assist(i)its to Principal Clerk inid Scrgca)it-at-Arm.s.— The Principal 
Clerk and the Sergeant-at-Arms may appoint, with the approval of the Speaker, such 
assistants as may be necessary to the efficient discharge of the duties of their respective 
offices. 

RULE 47. Speaker's Clerk. Chaplain, and Pa(ies.—{a.) The Speaker may appoint one 
or more clerks to the Speaker, a Chaplain of the House, and pages to wait upon the ses- 
sions of the House. 

(b) When the House is not in session, the pages shall be under the supervision of the 
Supervisor of Pages. 

(c) No member may have more than 10 persons designated as honorary pages. 

RULE 48. Committee Clerks and Secretaries. — (a) Each committee shall have a 
clerk. The clerk to a committee shall serve as secretary to the  hairman of that com- 
mittee. 

(b) Each member shall be assigned a secretary, unless he has a committee clerk to 
serve as his secretary. 

(c) The selection and retention of clerks and secretaries shall be the sole prerogative 
of the individual member or members. Such clerks and secretaries shall file initial 
applications for employment with the Legislative Services Office and shall receive com- 
pensation as prescribed by the Legislative Services Commission. The employment period 
of clerks and secretaries shall commence not earlier than the convening date of the Gen- 
eral Assembly and shall terminate not later than the final adjournment or recess of the 
General Assembly unless employment for an extended period is approved by the Speaker. 
The clerks and secretaries shall adhere to such uniform rules and regulations not incon- 
sistent with these Rules regarding hours and other conditions of employment as the 
Legislative Services Commission shall fix by appropriate regulations. 



Legislative Branch 443 



RULE 49. Compensation of Clerks and Secretaries. — No clerk, laborer, or other 
person employed or appointed under Rules 47, 48, and 49 hereof shall receive during such 
employment, appointment, or service, any compensation from any department of the 
State government, and there shall not be voted, paid or awarded any additional pay, 
bonus or gratuity to any of them, but they shall receive only the pay now provided by law 
for such duties and services. 

VIII. PRIVILEGES OF THE HALL 

RULE 50. Admittance to Floor. — No person except members, officers and em- 
ployees of the General Assembly and former members of the General Assembly who are 
not registered under the provisions of Article 9 of Chapter 120 of the General Statutes of 
North Carolina shall be allowed on the floor of the House during its session, unless per- 
mitted by the Speaker or otherwise provided by law. 

RULE 51. Admittance of Press. — Reporters wishing to take down debates may be 
admitted by the Speaker, who shall assign such places to them on the floor or elsewhere, 
to effect this object, as shall not interfere with the convenience of the House. 

RULE 52. Extending Couriesies. — Courtesies of the floor, galleries or lobby shall 
only be extended at the discretion of the Speaker. 

RULE 53. Order in Gcdleries and Lobbij. — In case of any disturbance or disorderly 
conduct in the galleries or lobby, the Speaker or other presiding officer is empowered to 
order the same to be cleared. 

IX. GENERAL RULES 

RULE 54. Attendance of Members. — No member or officer of the House shall absent 
himself from the service of the House without leave, unless from sickness or disability. 

RULE 55. Documents to be Signed by the Speaker. — All acts, addresses, and resolu- 
tions and all warrants and subpoenas issued by order of the House shall be signed by the 
Speaker or other presiding officer. 

RULEl 56. Printing or Reproducitig Materials. — There shall be no printing or 
reproducing of paper(s) that are not legislative in essence except upon approval of the 
Speaker. 

RULE 57. Placement of Material on Metnbers' Desks.— Persons other than members 
of the General Assembly, officers or staff thereof shall not place or cause to be placed any 
materials on members' desks without obtaining approval of the Speaker. Any material 
so placed shall bear the name of the originator. 

RULE 58. Rides. Rescission and Alteration — (a) These rules shall not be per- 
manently rescinded or altered except by House simple resolution passed by a two-thirds 
(2/3) vote of the members present and voting. The introducer of the resolution must on the 
floor of the House give notice of his intent to introduce the resolution on the legislative day 
preceding its introduction. 

(b) Except as otherwise provided herein, the House upon two-thirds (2/3) vote of the 
members present and voting may temporarily suspend any rule. 



444 North Carolina Manual 



Rl'LK 59. LiDiitdtioH (>// CospoHsorshi !> of Hills <ni(l IicsohitioHs. — Any member 
wishin.tr to cosponsor m hill or resolution which has been introduced may do so by ap- 
peariitr in the office of the Principal Clerk for such purpose within one-half hour follow- 
injr the adjouriunent of the session during' which such l)ill or resolution was first read and 
referred. 

Rl'LK (iO. ('(irrcctioH of I'n/xxjrapliicdl Errors. — The Legislative Services Officer 
may coi'rect typographical errors appearing in Hou.se bills or resolutions provided that 
such corrections are made before ratification and do not conflict with any action or rules 
of the Senate and provided further that such correction be approved by the Chairman 
of the Rules Committee, the Speaker or other presiding officer. 

Rl'LE til. M(}tt(rs nut ('orcri'd In Thvxi' Rules. — Except as herein set out the rules of 
the House of Representatives of Congress shall govern the operation of the House. 

Sec. 2. This resolution shall become effective upon adoption. 



Legislative Branch 445 




JOHN LAWRENCE ALLEN, JR. 

LEGISLATIVE SERVICES OFFICER 

John Lawrence Allen, Jr.. was born in Greensboro, N.C., January 7, 1923. Son of John 
L. and Swannie (Putnam) Allen. Graudate Greensboro High School and Fork Union 
Military, Fork Union, Virginia. Entered State Government as an Interviewer with the 
Employment Security Commission in 1946; served on Employment Security Commission 
Training Staff, 1947-1949; Administrative Assistant, 1949-1952; Business Manager, 
1952-1961; Assistant Director of the Department of Conservation and Development, 
1961-1963; Assistant and State Budget Officer, 1963-1964; State Personnel Director, 
1964-1965; Controller State Highway Commission, 1965-1968. Director of Operations, 
North Carolina Manpower Development Corporation, 1968-1969. Executive Vice Presi- 
dent and Secretary-Treasurer of Andy Griffith Company; President, Treasurer, and 
Board Director of Coastal Plains Enterprises, Inc.; and President, Treasurer, and Board 
Director of Barbecue Barn, Inc., 1969-1972. Director Employment Security Commission, 
1972-1976; Administrative Officer, North Carolina General Assembly, 1976; Director, 
Fiscal Research Division, North Carolina General Assembly, 1977-1978. Appointed 
Legislative Services Officer, July, 1978. Served with Army Air Force in the Pacific 
(1942-1945) and participated in the invasion of New Guinea and the liberation of the 
Phillippines. Past Chairman Supervisory Committee of State Employees' Credit Union. 
P'ormer member Committee on Policies and Practices in Public Employment of the 
Governor's Commission on Status of Women; Raleigh Community Relations Committee 
representing State Government. Methodist; Past Steward and member of Official Board 
of Wynnewood Park Methodist Church; formerly served as Chairman of Official Board, 
Treasurer, and Secretary of Wesley Memorial Methodist Church; past member of 
Raleigh Methodist Board of Missions and Church Extension. Married Frances Lee Gor- 
don. Three daughters: Sandra (Mrs. Paul Rogers), Jacqueline (Mrs. Bruce Davis), and 
Jane Gordon. Address 916 Merwin Road, Raleigh, N.C. 



Legislative Branch 447 

Chapter Two 

THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH 



OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR 

JAMES B. HUNT, JR. 

GOVERNOR 

James B. Hunt. Jr.. Democrat, of Wilson County, was born May 16, 1937 in Greens- 
boro. Son of James B. Hunt and Elsie (Brame) Hunt. Graduated Rock Ridge High School, 
Wilson County; North Carolina State University. B.S. in Agricultural Education and 
M.S. in Agricultural Economics: University of North Carolina Law School. J.D. While at 
NCSU served two terms as Student Government President, was chosen "Outstanding 
Senior" in 1959, and edited the Agriculturalist, the student publication of the School of 
Agriculture and Life Sciences. Thesis for M.S., "Acreage Controls and Poundage Con- 
trols: Their Effects on Most Profitable Production Practices for Flue Cured Tobacco," 
was chosen as one of three best in the U.S. and Canada in 1963 by the American Farm 
Economic Association. National college director for the Democratic National Committee, 
1962-63. In 1964 went to Nepal to serve two years as Economic Advisor to His Majesty's 
Government. Elected President of Wilson Young Democratic Club in 1967; President of 
North Carolina YDC in 1968. Delegate to the 1968 National Democratic Convention. 
Author of N. C. Democratic precinct manual "Rally Around the Precinct." Appointed 
Assistant State Party Chairman in 1969. Lieutenant Governor, 1973-1977. Elected 
Governor November 2. 1976. Chairman of the Southern Growth Policies Board: Chair- 
man of the National Democratic Governors Conference: Chairman of the National 
Governors Association Subcommittee on Small Cities and Rural Development; Chair- 
man of the National Governors Association Committee on Criminal Justice and Public 
Protection. Past Chairman of the Southern Regional Education Board; past state co- 
chairman of the Appalachian Regional Commission; past state co-chairman of the Coastal 
Plains Regional Commission. Member and elder. First Presbyterian Church of Wilson; 
former deacon, chairman of Youth Division of the Education Commission, and assistant 
Sunday School teacher. Married Carolyn Leonard of Mingo. Iowa. Four children: 
Rebecca, Baxter, Rachel and Elizabeth. Home address, Lucama. 



North Carolina Manual 



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Executive Branch 449 



THE OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR 

The office of the governor is the oldest governmental office in North Carolina. The first 
governor was Ralph Lane, who served as governor of Sir Walter Raleigh's first colony on 
Roanoke Island (1585). The first permanent governor was William Drummond, appointed by 
William Berkely, Governor of Virginia and one of the Lords Proprietors, at the request of his 
colleagues. During the colonial period governors were appointed by either the Lords 
Proprietors— prior to 1729 — or the Crown. These people served at the pleasure of their ap- 
pointers, usually until a governor died or resigned, although there were several instances 
where other factors were involved. When a regularly appointed governor, for whatever 
reason, could no longer perform his functions as chief executive, either the president of the 
council, or the deputy, or lieutenant governor, took over until a new governor was appointed 
and qualified. Following our independence in 1776, and the adoption of our first State Con- 
stitution, the governor was elected by the two houses of the general assembly. He was 
elected to serve a one-year term and could serve no more than three years in any six. 

In 1835 with the clamors for a more democratic form of government being felt in 
Raleigh, a constitutional convention was called to amend certain sections of the constitution. 
One of the amendments provided for the popular election of the governor every two years; 
however, little was done to increase his authority in any area other than that of appoint- 
ments. In 1868 a second constitution was adopted by the State of North Carolina which 
reflected the principals resulting from the Civil War. Under provisions in this new constitu- 
tion, the governor's term of office was expanded from two to four years, and his duties and 
powers were greatly increased. 

Today North Carolina is governed by her third constitution and while several changes 
were made in its content, the Article dealing with the executive branch, and the governor in 
particular, remains basically in tact. In recent years there has been a growing concern over 
two basic omissions in the powers of the governor as found in our Constitution. The primary 
of these is the veto power over legislation passed by the general assembly— North Carolina is 
the only state which does not allow its governor any veto power. The second is the right of a 
governor to secede himself. 

In 1972, the Office of the Governor was created as one of the 19 major departments in 
the Executive Branch of state government. Under his immediate jurisdiction are such assis- 
tants and personnel as he may need to carry out the functions as chief executive of the State. 
In North Carolina, the governor is not only the state's chief executive, but he is also the direc- 
tor of the budget, with responsibilities for all phases of budgeting from the initial prepara- 
tion to final execution; he is commander-in-chief of the state military; and he is chairman of 
the Council of State, which he may convene at any time for advice on allotments from the 
Contingency and Emergency Fund and for the disposition of state property. He also has the 
authority to convene the general assembly into extra session should affairs of the State dic- 
tate such a move. The governor is directed by the North Carolina Constitution to "take care" 
that all state laws are faithfully executed. He has the power to grant pardons and com- 
munications; issue extradition warrants and requests; join interstate compacts; and 
reorganize and consolidate state agencies. The governor has final authority over all expen- 
ditures of the state, and he is also responsible for the administration of all funds and loans 
from the federal government. At the start of each regular session of the general assembly, 
the governor delivers legislative and budgetary messages to the legislators. To help him 
carry out his administrative duties and run his office the governor has several assistants. 



450 North Carolina Manual 



Executive Assistant 

The Kxccutive Assistant to the (lovrrnor serves as the (lovernor's primary link to 
the Cabinet. He serves as a liaison between the Council of State and Cabinet and the 
Covernor. He is also responsible for advising- the (Governor on various matters of state, 
and sometimes serves as the (lovernor's representative at special events which the 
(Governor himself cannot attend. 

Since January 1978, the Executive Assistant has been the State Budget Officer, pro- 
vidinjr a close link between the (lovernor, as Director of the Budget, and the Budget 
Office. 



Senior Assistant 

The Senior Assistant .serves as the chief of staff for all personnel in the (Governor's 
Office. It is his responsibility to see that the office functions smoothly and that the right 
decisions are made to maintain its smooth operation. In addition, the Senior Assistant 
meets with people that the (Governor is unable to see himself. 



Appointments Office 

As North Carolina's chief executive, the (Governor has the responsibility for making 
appointments to more than 300 statutory bodies and to approximately 45 non-statutory 
advisory groups created or required by federal legislation, executive orders, or the by- 
laws of private organizations. He is likewise responsible for filling vacancies in some 
elective offices. To assist him in performing these duties, the Governor's special assistant 
for appointments to boards and commissions receives recommendations, researches 
qualifications and requirements, maintains records, and provides liaison with associa- 
tions, agencies, and interested individuals and groups. Through these functions, the 
appointments office provides information and advice to the Governor on matters relating 
to his powers of appointment. 



Special Assistant for Minority Affairs 

The Special Assistant for Minority Affairs serves as a liaison between the Governor's 
Office and the statewide minority population. He keeps the Governor informed about 
important issues of minority interest, concerns and problems. He also is responsible for 
studying and making recommendations concerning current policies relating to minority 
affairs. The Special Assistant maintains constant contact with minority citizens and 
serves as the Governor's representative at meetings of local minority organizations and 
community action groups. He also assists in carrying out the state's Affirmative Action 
Program. 



Legal Counsel to the Governor 

The Legal Counsel to the Governor is appointed by the Governor to assist and advise 
him on legal matters and obligations relating to the Office of the Governor. Specifically, 
he is delegated the responsibility of investigating the merits of requests for pardons, 
commutations, reprieves, extradition, rewards, and payment of legal fees charged the 



Executive Branch 451 



state, and reporting to the Governor those findings for his consideration. He is available to 
the public to assist them with problems relating to state government in areas where the 
Governor has jurisdiction. The Legal Counsel researches the legality and contents of 
executive orders, participates in structuring the Governor's legislative program and 
budget, is involved with inter-departmental program coordination, and advises the 
Governor on general policy issues. 

Press Office 

The News Secretary serves as the head of the Governor's information center— the 
press office — as well as his designated spokesman on matters when the Governor cannot 
be reached personally. He serves as a liaison between the Governor and the working 
press — keeping them informed on matters of interest and importance which affect the 
state. 

Office of Citizen Affairs 

Governor Jim Hunt created the Office of Citizen Affairs in 1977 to promote greater 
citizen awareness of and personal involvement in state and local government programs, 
services and activities. The office also serves to facilitate citizen communication with 
the Governor and state government and to promote and encourage the growth of volun- 
tarism across North Carolina. 

The Governor's Office of Citizen Affairs receives and responds to thousands of re- 
quests for assistance from citizens each month. The office cuts through red tape, gets 
answers to complicated questions, acts as a go-between for citizens and government 
agencies when the need arises. The office is the people's advocate in Raleigh. In addition, 
the office maintains WASTELINE (toll-free, 800-662-7952), designed to receive ideas 
from the public on ways to increase productivity in state government and reduce waste. 

Special Assistant for Federal-State Relations 

The Special Assistant for Federal-State Relations is the Governor's liaison on matters 
involving other states, key federal officials and various national and regional associa- 
tions of states. He is responsible for obtaining a timely state response to congressional 
legislation, federal agency program directives and national policy positions. He coordi- 
nates the working relationship between the Governor's Office, the Division of Policy 
Development and the North Carolina Washington Office on state-federal matters and for 
structuring the state's impact in this area. He advises the Governor on state-federal and 
multi-state policy issues. 



Executive Branch 453 



OFFICE OF THE LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR 

JAMES COLLINS GREEN 

LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR 

James Collins Green was born in Halifax County, Virginia, February 24, 1921. Son of 
John Collins and Frances Sue (Oliver) Green. Graduated Volens High School, Nathalie, 
Virginia; attended Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Virginia. Farmer and 
businessman. Owner and operator of tobacco warehouses in Chadbourn and Clarkton, North 
Carolina; Brookneal, Virginia; and Greenville and Newport, Tennessee. Member Bright Belt 
Warehouse Association Board of Governors; Bladen County Board of Education, 1955-1961; 
Bladen County Democratic Executive Committee; Precinct Chairman or Vice-Chairman for 
ten years; former Trustee of Southeastern Community College in Columbus County and 
Chairman of Building Committee; former member of the Board of Trustees of the Con- 
solidated University of North Carolina; former member of the Board of Trustees of the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina at Greensboro; Member of the North Carolina State Board of 
Transportation; past President Clarkton Rotary Club; Director Clarkton Community 
Development Corp. and Clarkton Merchants Association; President Brown Marsh Develop- 
ment Corporation of Clarkton. Representative in the General Assembly of 1961, 1963, 1965, 
1969, 1971, 1973-74 and 1975-76; Speaker, 1975-76. State Senator in the General Assembly of 
1967. Member, French Lodge No. 270 A.F. and A.M.; Thirty-second Degree Scottish Rite 
Mason, Shriner, Clarkton Woodmen of the World Camp. Served as a Corporal in the U. S. 
Marine Corps, 1944-1946; participated in invasion of Iwo Jima as a machine gunner with 
Third Marine Division. Presbyterian; Deacon Clarkton Presbyterian Church; past 
superintendent Sunday School. Married Alice McAulay Clark, October 7, 1943. Children: 
Sarah Frances; Susan Clark;