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AROLINA MANUAL 




THE LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 

AT CHAPEL HILL 




NORTH : 



THE COLLECTION OF 
NORTH CAROLINIANA 




ROLINA 



UNIVERSITY OF NC AT CHAPEL HILL 



00017482877 




This book is due on the last date stamped 
below unless recalled sooner. It may be 
renewed only once and must be brought to 
the North Carolina Collection for renewal. 

MAR 1 6 ^ 






NORTH CAROLINA 
MANUAL 



1981-1982 




Issued by 

THAD EURE 

Secretary of State 



Edited by 

John L. Cheney, Jr. 

Director, Publications Division 
Raleigh 



TO THE 

1981 MEMBERS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY 
OF NORTH CAROLINA 



TO THE 
STATE, COUNTY, CITY AND TOWN OFFICIALS 



AND TO THE 

PEOPLE OF THE OLD NORTH STATE 

AT HOME AND ABROAD 



THIS MANUAL IS RESPECTFULLY 
DEDICATED 




Secretary of State 



I 1 



in 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Dedication by Thad Eure, Secretary of State iii 

PART I 
HISTORICAL MISCELLANEA 

A Brief History of the State 3 

The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina 9 

The North Carolina State Capitol 17 

Description of the Capitol, by Architect David Patton 20 

"The Capitol," by Edwin Gill 21 

The Legislative Building 23 

The Executive Residences of North Carolina 27 

The State Flag 35 

The Mecklenbury Declaration of 20th May, 1775 38 

The Halifax Resolution 39 

The Declaration of Independence 40 

The American Flag, Its Origin 43 

The Proper Display 45 

The Pledge of Allegiance 49 

The State Bird, Flower, and Insect 51 

The State Tree and Mammal 53 

Name and Nicknames of the State 53 

The State Shell and Salt Water Fish 55 

The State Motto 55 

The State Colors 55 

The State Precious Stone 56 

The State Reptile 57 

The State Rock 58 

The State Song 59 

The State Toast 60 

Public Holidays 61 

PART II 
CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF NORTH CAROLINA 

Chapter One, A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina 

Narrative, by John L. Sanders 65 

North Carolina Constitutional Propositions Voted on by the People, 1 868- 1 980 78 

Chapter Two, The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

Preamble 79 

Article I, Declaration of Rights 79 

Article II, Legislature 82 

Article III, Executive 85 

Article IV, Judicial 89 



Article V, Finance 94 

Article VI, Suffrage and Eligibility to Office 98 

Article VII, Local Government 100 

Article VIII, Corporations 100 

Article IX, Education 101 

Article X, Homesteads and Exemptions 103 

Article XI, Punishments, Corrections, and Charities 104 

Article XII, Military Forces 104 

Article XIII, Conventions, Constitutional Amendments and Revision 104 

Article XIV, Miscellaneous 105 

Chapter Three, The Constitution of the United States 

Preamble 107 

Article I (Legislative) 107 

Article II (Executive) Ill 

Article III (Judicial) 113 

Article IV (Rights of Citizens and States) 1 14 

Article V (Amending the Constitution) 115 

Article VI (Miscellaneous) 115 

Article VII (Ratification of the Constitution) 115 

Amendments to the Constitution 117 

The Ten Original Amendments (The Bill of Rights) 117 

Subsequent Amendments 118 

PART III 
CENSUS 

Population of the State of North Carolina, 20th Census 1980 127 

State Population Statistics — Census Statistics and Projections 128 

County Population Statistics 1 29 

Population of Incorporated Places of 10,000 or More 131 

Population of Incorporated Places of 2,500-9,999 132 

Population of Incorporated Places of 1 ,000-2,499 1 34 

Population of Incorporated Places of Less than 1 ,000 137 

PART IV 
THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES 

Chapter One, The Executive Branch 

President of the United States 145 

Presidents of the United States 147 

Presidental Cabinet & Major Appointments 149 

Chapter Two, The United State Congress 

The Capitol at Washington 151 

The Senate: 

Senate Officers & Standing Committees 153 

Senators from North Carolina 155 

The House of Representatives: 

House of Representatives Officers & Standing Committees 159 



VI 



Representatives from North Carolina 161 

Chapter Three, The United States Judiciary 

The United States Supreme Court 183 

The United States Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals 183 

The United States District Courts — North Carolina 

Judges 183 

United State Attorneys 183 

Clerks 183 

Biographical Sketches: 

United States Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals (North Carolinians) 185 

United States District Court (North Carolina Judges) 187 

PART V 
NORTH CAROLINA STATE GOVERNMENT 

Chapter One, The Legislative Branch 

Historical Introduction 195 

North Carolina Senate: 

Seating Digrams 198 

Officers 199 

Senators 199 

Speakers of the Senate (Historical List) 201 

Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate (Historical Lfe) 202 

President, Pro-Tern 205 

Senate Majority Leader 207 

Senate Minority Leader 209 

Biographical Sketches of Senators 210 

Principal Clerk 243 

Committee Assignments 244 

Occupations 25 1 

Rules of the Senate 253 

How An Idea Becomes A Law 27 1 

North Carolina House Of Representatives: 

Seating Diagram 272 

Officers 273 

Representatives 273 

Speakers of the House of Representatives (Historical List) 276 

Speaker 28 1 

Speaker Pro-Tern 283 

Minority Leader 285 

Biographical Sketches of Representatives 286 

Principal Clerk 366 

Committee Assignments 368 

Occupations 382 

Rules of the House of Representatives 385 

Legislative Services Officer 367 

Chapter Two, The Executive Branch 

Introduction 403 



Vll 



Office of the Governor: 

Governor 407 

Governors of North Carolina (Historical List) 408 

The Office of the Governor 413 

Organizational Chart 414 

Boards and Commissions within the Office of the Governor 418 

Office of the Lieutenant Governor: 

Lieutenant Governor 421 

Lieutenant Governors of North Carolina (Historical List) 422 

The Office of the Lieutenant Governor 423 

Organizational Chart 424 

Department of the Secretary of State 

Secretary of State 427 

Secretaries of North Carolina (Historical List) 428 

The Department of the Secretary of State 430 

Organizational Chart 432 

Department of the State Auditor: 

State Auditor 435 

Auditors of Public Accounts & State Auditors (Historical List) 436 

The Department of the State Auditor 437 

Organizational Chart 438 

Boards within the Department of the State Auditor 440 

Department of the State Treasurer: 

State Treasurer 433 

Treasurers of North Carolina (Historical List) 444 

Organizational Chart 446 

The Department of the State Treasurer 447 

Boards within the Department of the State Treasurer 453 

Department of Public Education 

Superintendent of Public Instruction 457 

Superintendents of Common Schools and Public Instruction (Historical Lists) 458 

Organizational Chart 459 

The Department of Public Education 461 

Boards within the Department of Public Education 464 

Department of Justice: 

Attorney General 469 

Attorney General of North Carolina (Historical List) 470 

Organizational Chart 472 

The Department of Justice 473 

Boards within the Department of Justice 482 

Department of Agriculture: 

Commissioner of Agriculture 485 

Commissioners of Agriculture (Historical List) 486 

The Department of Agriculture 487 

Organizational Chart 488 

Boards within the Department of Agriculture 499 

Department of Labor: 

Commissioner of Labor 505 

Commissioners of Labor (Historical List) 506 

The Department of Labor 507 

Organizational Chart 508 



Vlll 



Boards within the Department of Labor 513 

Department of Insurance: 

Commissioner of Insurance 515 

Commissioners of Insurance (Historical List) 516 

The Department of Insurance 517 

Organizational Chart 518 

Boards within the Department of Insurance 521 

Department of Administration: 

Secretary of Administration 525 

Secretaries, Department of Administration (Historical List) 526 

The Department of Administration 527 

Organizational Chart 528 

Boards within the Department of Administration 532 

Department of Commerce: 

Secretary of Commerce 549 

Secretaries, Department of Commerce (Historical List) 550 

The Department of Commerce 551 

Organizational Chart 552 

Boards within the Department of Commerce 556 

Department of Community Colleges: 

President, Department of Community Colleges 569 

Presidents, Department of Community Colleges (Historical List) 570 

The Community College System 571 

Organizational Chart 572 

State Board of Community Colleges 575 

Department of Corrections: 

Secretary of Corrections 577 

Secretaries, Department of Correction (Historical List) 578 

The Department of Corrections 579 

Organizational Chart 580 

Boards within the Department of Corrections 586 

Department of Crime Control and Public Safety: 

Secretary of Crime Control and Public Safety 589 

Secretaries, Department of Crime Control and Public Safety (Historical List) 590 

The Department of Crime Control and Public Safety 59 1 

Organizational Chart 592 

Adjutant General (Historical List) 595 

Board within the Department of Crime Control and Public Safety 596 

Department of Cultural Resources: 

Secretary of Cultural Resources 601 

Secretaries, Department of Cultural Resources (Historical List) 602 

The Department of Cultural Resources 603 

Organizational Chart 604 

Boards within the Department of Cultural Resources 609 

Department of Human Resources: 

Secretary of Human Resources 621 

Secretaries of Human Resources (Historical List) 622 

The Department of Human Resources 623 

Organizational Chart 624 

Boards within the Department of Human Resources 63 1 



IX 



Department of Natural Resources and Community Development: 

Secretary of Natural Resources and Community Development 647 

Secretaries, Department of NRCD (Historical List) 65 ° 

The Department of Natural Resources and Community Development 65 1 

Organizational Chart 

Boards within the Department of Natural Resources and Community Development ... 664 

Department of Revenue: 

Secretary of Revenue 

Secretaries, Department of Revenue (Historical List) 678 

The Department of Revenue 

Organizational Chart 68 ° 

Property Tax Commission 

Department of Transportation: 

Secretary of Transportation 

Secretaries, Department of Transportation (Historical List) 692 

The Department of Transportation 

Organizational Chart 

Boards within the Department of Transportation 702 

State Board of Elections: 

707 
Executive Secretary — Director 

The State Board of Elections 708 

Chapter Three, The Judicial Branch 

Introduction 

Chief Justices of the Supreme Court of North Carolina (Historical List) 717 

The North Carolina Supreme Court 719 

The North Carolina Court of Appeals 727 

Director, Administrative Office of the Courts 741 

Judges of the Superior Court 

District Court Judges 744 

District Attorneys of North Carolina 

Public Defenders 747 

Chapter Four, Higher Education in North Carolina 

The University of North Carolina System 749 

750 
Organizational Chart 

President, University of North Carolina System 757 

Chancellors of the Constituent Institutions ,JJ 

The North Carolina Community College System 774 

Department of Community Colleges 

Presidents of the Community Colleges and Technical Institutes 774 

Private Higher Education in North Carolina 776 

Presidents of Private Colleges and Universities 778 

Chapter Five, Miscellaneous Boards and Commissions 

781 
Independent Boards 

Licensing Boards 



PART VI 
POLITICAL PARTIES 

Chapter One, The Democratic Party 

North Carolina Democratic Party Platform 807 

Plan of Organization 827 

Democratic Party Executive Council 852 

Democratic Party County Chairmen 852 

Chapter Two, The Republican Party 

North Carolina Republican Party Platform 857 

Plan of Organization 862 

State Executive Committee 88 1 

Republican Party County Chairmen 882 



PART VII 
ELECTION RETURNS AND VOTER REGISTRATION STATISTICS 

Chapter One, Voter Registration Statistics 

Introduction 887 

Voter Registration Statistics for the Primary Elections, May 6, 198 1 888 

Voter Registration Statistics for the Primary Elections, August 17, 1976 890 

Voter Registration Statistics for the General Elections, November 4, 1980 892 

Voter Registration Statistics for the General Elections, November 2, 1976 894 

Chapter Two, North Carolina Election District 

Congressional District 897 

Apportionment of Senators by Districts 898 

Apportionment of Members of the House of Representatives by Districts 899 

Judicial and Prosecutorial Districts 90 1 

Chapter Three, President of the United States 

Introduction 905 

The Democratic Presidential Preference Primary, May 6, 1980 906 

The Republican Presidential Preference Primary, May 6, 1980 908 

The North Carolina Presidential Preference Primary, March 23, 1976 910 

Votes Cast for President, General Election, November 4, 1980 912 

Votes Cast for President, General Election, November 2, 1976 914 

Popular and Electoral Votes for President, 1976 916 

Popular Votes for President, 1960-1972 (County) 917 

Popular Votes for President, 1960-1968 (States) 919 

Popular Votes for President, 1972 & 1976 (States) 920 

Chapter Four, The United States Congress 

Introduction 923 

Votes Cast for United States Senator, General Election, November 4, 1980 924 

Votes Cast for United States Senator, General Election, November 7, 1978 926 

Votes Cast for Members of Congress, First Primary, May 6, 1980 927 



XI 



Votes Cast for Members of Congress, 1978-1980 929 

Votes Cast for Members of Congress, 1972-1976 933 

Tabulation of Votes for United States Senator, 1960-1978 937 

Chapter Five, State Officers 

Introduction 94 1 

Votes Cast for Governor, Primary Election, May 6, 1980 942 

Votes Cast for Governor, Primary Election, August 17, 1976 944 

Votes Cast for Governor, General Elections, 1976 & 1980 946 

Votes Cast for Governor, 1960-1972 948 

Votes Cast for Lieutenant Governor, Primary Election, May 6, 1980 950 

Votes Cast for Lieutenant Governor, General Elections, 1976 & 1980 952 

Votes Cast for State Officers, Primary Elections, May 6, 1980 954 

Votes Cast for State Auditor, Second Primary, June 3, 1980 958 

Votes Cast for State Officers, General Elections, November 4, 1980 960 

Tabulation of Votes for State Officers, Primary Elections, 1960-1980 964 

Tabulation of Votes for State Officers, General Elections, 1964-1976 972 



PART VIII 
NORTH CAROLINA COUNTY GOVERNMENT 

Chapter One, A Brief History of County Government In North Carolina 98 1 

Chapter Two, County Officials 

Alamance 993 

Alexander 993 

Alleghany 994 

Anson 995 

Ashe 995 

Avery 996 

Beaufort 997 

Bertie 997 

Bladen 998 

Brunswick 998 

Buncombe 999 

Burke 1000 

Cabarrus 1001 

Caldwell 1001 

Camden 1002 

Carteret 1003 

Caswell 1003 

Catawba 1004 

Chatham 1005 

Cherokee 1005 

Chowan 1006 

Clay 1007 

Cleveland 1007 

Columbus 1008 

Craven 1008 



Xll 



Cumberland 1009 

Currituck 1010 

Dare 1010 

Davidson 1011 

Davie 1012 

Duplin 1012 

Durham 1013 

Edgecombe 1014 

Forsyth 1014 

Franklin 1015 

Gaston 1016 

Gates 1016 

Graham 1017 

Granville 1017 

Greene 1018 

Guilford 1019 

Halifax 1020 

Harnet 1020 

Haywood 1021 

Henderson 1022 

Hertford 1023 

Hoke 1023 

Hyde 1024 

Iredell , 1025 

Jackson 1025 

Johnston 1026 

Jones 1027 

Lee 1027 

Lenoir 1028 

Lincoln 1029 

Macon 1029 

Madison 1030 

Martin 1030 

McDowell 1031 

Mecklenburg 1032 

Mitchell 1032 

Montgomery 1038 

Moore 1034 

Nash 1035 

New Hanover 1036 

Northampton 1037 

Onslow 1037 

Orange 1038 

Pamlico 1039 

Pasquotank 1039 

Pender 1040 

Penquimans 1041 

Person 1041 

Pitt 1042 

Polk 1043 



Xlll 



Randolph 1044 

Richmond 1044 

Robeson 1045 

Rockingham 1046 

Rowan 1047 

Rutherford 1047 

Sampson 1048 

Scotland 1049 

Stanly 1049 

Stokes 1050 

Surry 105 1 

Swain 1052 

Transylvania 1053 

Tyrrell 1053 

Union 1054 

Vance 1055 

Wake 1055 

Warren 1056 

Washington 1056 

Watauga 1057 

Wayne 1058 

Wilkes 1059 

Wilson 1060 

Yadkin 1060 

Yancey 1061 



TABLE OF DIAGRAMS AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTS 

North Carolina State Government, Organizational Chart 402 

The Legislative Branch, Organizational Chart 194 

North Carolina State Senate, Seating Diagram 198 

How An Idea Becomes A Law 27 1 

North Carolina State House of Representatives, Seating Diagram 272 

Office of the Governor, Organizational Chart 414 

Office of the Lieutenant Governor, Organizational Chart 424 

Department of the Secretary of State, Organizational Chart 432 

Department of the State Auditor, Organizational Chart 438 

Department of the State Treasurer, Organizational Chart 446 

Department of Public Education, Organizational Chart 459 

Department of Public Instruction, Organizational Chart 460 

Controller's Officer, Organizational Chart 462 

Department of Justice, Organizational Chart 472 

Department of Argiculture, Organizational Chart 488 

Department of Labor, Organizational Chart 508 

Department of Insurance, Organizational Chart 518 

Department of Administration, Organizational Chart 528 

Department of Commerce, Organizational Chart 552 

Department of Community Colleges, Organizational Chart 572 

Department of Correction, Organizational Chart 580 



XIV 



Department of Crime Control and Public Safety, Organizational Chart 592 

Department of Cultural Resources, Organizational Chart 603 

Department of Human Resources, Organizational Chart 624 

Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, Organizational Chart . . . 652 

Department of Revenue, Organizational Chart 680 

Department of Transportation, Organizational Chart 694 

The Judicial Branch, Organizational Chart 710 

The University of North Carolina System, Organizational Chart 750 



TABLE OF MAPS 

White Map, 1585 2 

Ogliby Map, 1672 4 

Mouzon Map, 1775 6 

North Carolina Highway Districts 700 

North Carolina Congressional Districts, 197 1 - 896 

North Carolina State Senate Districts, 1971- 898 

North Carolina State House of Representatives, 1971- 900 

North Carolina Counties 980 



TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND PHOTOGRAPHS 

Seal of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina 9 

Seal of the Government of Albemarle, 1665-1730 10 

Seal of the Province of North Carolina, 1730-1767 10 

Seal of the Province of North Carolina, 1 767-1 776 11 

Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1779-1794 12 

Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1 794- 1 836 13 

Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1836-1893 14 

Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1893-1971 15 

Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1971- 15 

The Capitol Building 16 

The Legislative Building 24 

Tryon Palace 26 

The Governor's Executive Mansion 28 

The State Flag 34 

The American Flag 44 

The State Bird, Flower and Insect 50 

The State Tree and Mammal 52 

The State Shell and Salt Water Fish 56 

The State Reptile 57 

The State Rock 58 

The White House 146 

The United States Capitol Building 150 

The United States Supreme Court Building 182 

Symbol of the Democratic Party 806 

Symbol of the Republican Party 856 



XV 



PARTI 
HISTORICAL MISCELLANEA 



North Carolina Manual 







Historical Miscellanea 



A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE STATE 

The first known European exploration of North Carolina occurred during the sum- 
mer of 1524. A Florentine navigator named Giovanni da Verrazzano, in the service of 
France, explored the coastal area of North Carolina between the Cape Fear and Kitty 
Hawk. A report of his findings was sent to Francis I, and published in Richard Hak- 
luyt's Divers Voyages touching the Diseoverie of America; however, no attempt was made 
to colonize the area. 

Between 1540 and 1570 several Spanish explorers from the Florida Gulf region ex- 
plored portions of North Carolina, but no permanent settlements were established. 

Coastal North Carolina was the scene of the first attempt to colonize America by 
English-speaking people. Under a charter granted by Queen Elizabeth to Sir Walter 
Raleigh, two colonies were begun in the 1580's. The first, in 1585 under the leadership 
of Ralph Lane, ended in failure. 

A second expedition under the leadership of John White began in the spring of 1587 
when 110 settlers including seventeen women and nine children set sail for the new 
world. The White colony arrived off Hatteras in June, 1587 and went on to Roanoke 
Island, where they found the houses built by the previous expedition still standing. 
Shortly after the arrival of the colony two significant events occurred — the baptism of 
two "friendly" Indians and the birth of Virginia Dare, the first child of English- 
speaking parents born in the new colony. As supplies ran short problems beset the colo- 
nists and White, under pressure from the colonists was forced to return to England for 
provisions. Once in England White was unable to immediately return to Roanoke due 
to an impending attack by the Spanish Armada. When he was able to return in 1590 he 
found only the remnants of what was once a settlement. There were no signs of life. 
Carved on a nearby tree he found the word "CROATOAN". Many have speculated as 
to the fate of the "Lost Colony" but none have ever explained it. 

The first permanent English settlers to North Carolina came from the tidewater area 
of Virginia around 1650. These overflow immigrants moved into the Albemarle area of 
northeast North Carolina. 

In 1663 Charles II granted to eight Lords Proprietors a charter for the territory lying 
"within six and thirty degrees of the northern latitude, and to the west as far as the 
south seas, and so southerly as far as the River St. Mattias, which bordereth upon the 
coast of Florida, and within one and thirty degrees of northern latitude, and so west in a 
direct line as far as the south seas aforesaid; . . ." and the colony was called Carolina. In 
1665 another charter was granted in order to clarify territorial questions not answered 
in the first charter. This charter extended the limits of Carolina so that the northern line 
was 36 degrees and 30 minutes north latitude, and the southern line was 29 degrees 
north latitude, and both of these lines extended westward to the South Seas. 

Between 1663 and 1729 North Carolina was under the control of the Lords Proprie- 
tors and their decendents who commissioned colonial officials and authorized the gov- 
ernor and his council to grant lands in the name of the Lords Proprietors. In 1669 John 
Locke wrote the Fundamental Constitutions as a model for the government of Caro- 
lina. Albemarle County was divided into local governmental units called precincts. Ini- 
tially there were three precincts — Berkeley, Carteret and Shaftesbury — but as the col- 
ony expanded to the south and west new precincts were created. By 1729, there were a 



North Carolina Manual 




Historical Miscellanea 



total of eleven precincts — six in Albemarle County and five in Bath County which had 
been created in 1696. Although the Albemarle Region was the first permanent settle- 
ment in the Carolina Area, another region was developed around present-day Charles- 
ton, South Carolina. Because of the natural harbor and easier access to trade with the 
West Indies, more attention was given to developing the Charleston area than her 
northern counterparts. For a twenty-year period, 1692-1712, the two colonies of North 
and South Carolina existed as one unit of government. Although North Carolina still 
had her own assembly and council, the governor of Carolina resided in Charleston and, 
a deputy governor was appointed by him for the northern colony. On December 7, 1710 
Carolina was divided into two distinct colonies; however, it was not until May, 1712 
that a governor was appointed for North Carolina. 

In 1729 seven of the Lords Proprietors sold their interest in North Carolina to the 
Crown and North Carolina became a royal colony. The eighth proprietor Lord Gran- 
ville, retained economic interest and continued granting land in the northern half of 
North Carolina. All political functions were under the supervision of the crown until 
1775. 

Colonial government in North Carolina was essentially the same during both the pro- 
prietary and royal periods. The major difference being who appointed colonial officials. 
Government was conducted by two distinct groups — the governor and his council, on 
the one hand, and the popularly-elected colonial general assembly on the other. There 
were colonial courts, but unlike today, they were rarely involved in the formulation of 
governmental policy. All colonial officials were appointed by either the Lords Proprie- 
tors prior to 1729, or the crown afterwards. Members of the colonial assembly were 
elected from the various precincts and from certain towns which had been granted rep- 
resentation. The term "precinct" as a geological unit ceased to exist after 1735 and these 
areas became known by the term "county" as they are today. About this same time 
"Albemarle County" and "Bath County" ceased to exist as governmental units. 

The governor was an appointed official — as were the colonial secretary, attorney gen- 
eral, surveyor general, and receiver general. All served at the pleasure of either the 
Lords Proprietors or the crown. The council during the proprietary period was com- 
prised of persons appointed as agents by the proprietors to look after their interest in 
the new world. Many council members were also colonial officials. The council during 
both the proprietary and royal periods served as an advisory group to the governor, and 
one of its members was chosen president. The council also served as the upper house of 
the legislature when the assembly was in session. The governor was authorized to carry 
out all mandates of the proprietors, or crown, and could, when vacancies occurred in 
colonial offices or on the council, make a temporary appointment until the vacancy was 
filled by proprietary or royal commission. When a governor, or deputy governor, was 
unable to carry on as chief executive either by illness, death, resignation or absence from 
the colony, the president of the council became the chief executive and exercised all the 
powers of the governor until such time as the governor returned, or a new governor 
commissioned. 

The colonial assembly was made up of men elected from each precinct and town 
where representation had been granted. Not all counties were entitled to the same num- 
ber of representatives. Many of the older counties had five representatives each while 



North Carolina Manual 



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Historical Miscellanea 



the new ones — those formed after 1696 — were allowed only two each. Each town grant- 
ed representation was allowed one representative. The presiding officer of the colonial 
assembly was called the speaker and was elected from the entire membership of the 
house. When a vacancy occurred a new election was ordered by the speaker to fill it. On 
the final day of each session the bills passed by the legislature were signed by both the 
speaker and the president of the council. 

The colonial assembly could not meet arbitrarily, but rather convened only when 
called into session by the governor. Since the legislature was the only body authorized 
to grant a salary to the governor and was also responsible for spending tax monies, they 
met on a regular basis until just before the Revolutionary War. However, there was a 
constant battle for authority between the governor and his council on the one hand and 
the general assembly on the other. Two of the most explosive issues were the power of 
the purse and the electing of the treasurer, both privileges of the assembly. Another is- 
sue which raised itself was who had the authority to create new counties. On more than 
one occasion elected representatives from counties created by the governor and council, 
without consultation and proper legislative action by the lower house, were refused 
seats until the matter was resolved. These conflicts between the executive and legislative 
bodies were to have a profound effect on the organization of state government after 
Independence. 

North Carolina, on April 12, 1776, authorized her delegates in the Continental Con- 
gress to vote for independence, and on December 18, 1776, adopted a constitution. 
Richard Caswell became the first governor under this constitution. On November 21, 
1789, the state adopted the United States Constitution, being the twelfth state to enter 
the Federal Union. North Carolina, in 1788, had rejected the Consitution on the 
grounds that certain amendments were vital and necessary to a free people. 

A Constitutional convention was held in 1835 and among several changes made in the 
Constitution was the method of electing the governor. After this change the governor 
was elected by the people for a term of two years instead of being elected by the Legisla- 
ture for a term of one year. Edward Bishop Dudley was the first governor elected by the 
people. 

In 1868 a second constitution was adopted which drastically altered government in 
North Carolina. For the first time all major state officers were elected by the people. 
The governor and other executive officers were elected to four-year terms; while the jus- 
tices of the supreme court and judges of the superior court were elected to eight-year 
terms. The members of the general assembly continued to be elected for two year terms. 
Between 1868 and 1970 numerous amendments were incorporated into the 1868 consti- 
tution, so that in 1970, the people voted to adopt a completely new constitution. Since 
then several amendments have been ratified, but one in particular is a break from the 
past. In 1977 the people voted to allow the governor and lieutenant governor to run for 
reelection successively for one additional term. 

North Carolina has had two permanent capitals — New Bern and Raleigh — and there 
have been three capitol buildings. Tryon's Palace in New Bern was constructed in the 
period, 1767-1770, and the main building was destroyed by fire February 27, 1798. The 
first capitol in Raleigh was completed in 1794 and was destroyed by fire on June 21, 
1831. The present capitol was completed in 1840. 

In 1790 North Carolina ceded her western lands, which was composed of Washing- 



8 North Carolina Manual 



ton, Davidson, Hawkins, Greene, Sullivan, Sumner, and Tennessee counties, to the 
Federal government. Between 1790 and 1796 the territory was known as Tennessee Ter- 
ritory, but in 1796 it became the fifteenth state in the Union. 

When North Carolina adopted the Federal Constitution on November 21, 1789, she 
was authorized to send two senators and five representatives to the Congress of the 
United States according to the constitutional apportionment. In 1792, when the first 
federal census had been completed and tabulated, it was found that North Carolina was 
entitled to ten representatives. It was then that the General Assembly divided the state 
into ten congressional districts. In 1812, the state had grown and increased in popula- 
tion until it was entitled to thirteen representatives in Congress. Between 1812 and 1865, 
however, the population decreased so much in proportion to the population of other 
states of the Union that North Carolina was entitled to only seven representatives. After 
1865 the population of the state showed a steady increase so that beginning in 1943 
North Carolina was entitled to twelve representatives in Congress. The 1970 census 
showed that the state had more than a half million more people than in 1960, but this in- 
crease was not nearly as much in proportion to that of other states. North Carolina is 
now entitled to only eleven representatives in Congress. 



Historical Miscellanea 



THE GREAT SEAL OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

The use of a seal for attesting to important documents began before the implementa- 
tion of government in North Carolina. In the colonial period North Carolina used suc- 
cessively four different seals. Since the colony became a state, five distinct seals have 
been used. 

Shortly after they were issued their charter in 1663, the Lords Proprietors thought it 
proper to adopt for their newly acquired domains in America, a seal of which no official 
description has been found, but which is to be seen in the British Public Record Office 
in London. The Seal — pictured below — had two sides. The size of this seal was three 
and three-eights inches in diameter, and it was made by placing together two wax cakes 
with tape between before being impressed. The impression after being made was about 
one-fourth inch thick. This seal was used on all official papers of the Lords Proprietors 
of Carolina, embracing both North Carolina and South Carolina. 





Seal of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina 

About 1665 the Government of Albemarle was organized and it adopted for a seal the 
reverse side of the seal of the Lords Proprietors. Between the coats-of-arms the word 
A-L-BE-M-A-R-L-E was fixed in capitals, beginning with the letter "A" between the 
arms of Clarendon and Albemarle, "L" 1 between Albemarle and Craven, "BE" between 
the Craven arms and those of Lord John Berekeley, et cetera.. 

This was a small seal — one and seven-sixteenths inches in diameter, with one face 
only — and is now frequently to be found attached to colonial papers. It is generally im- 
pressed on red wax, but is occasionally seen impressed on a wafer which is stuck to the 
instrument with soft wax. It was first used for the government of the county of Albe- 
marle, and then became the seal of the Province of North Carolina, being used until just 
after the purchase by the crown. During the troublous times of the Cary Rebellion the 
Albemarle seal was not used. In 1708 Cary used his family arms on a large seal to his of- 
ficial papers. A fine specimen of this seal showing the Cary arms is preserved in the pa- 
pers of the secretary of state located in the North Carolina Archives. During William 
Glover's presidency (1710) he used his private seal. 



10 



North Carolina Manual 




Seal of Government of Albemarle and Province of North Carolina, 1665-1730 

When North Carolina was purchased by the Crown in 1729, the old "Albemarle" seal 
was no longer applicable. On February 3, 1729/30, the Board of Trade recommended to 
the king that he order a public seal for the Province of North Carolina. 

On February 21, 1729/30, his Majesty in council was pleased to approve the recom- 
mendations and ordered ". . .that a Publick Seal be prepared and given to the Governor 
of the said Province of North Carolina, And that the said Lords Commissioners for 
Trade and Plantations do cause a Draft of such Seal, to be prepared and laid before His 
Majesty at the Board, for his Royall Approbation." 

On March 25, 1730, The Board of Trade laid before his Majesty for his royal appro- 
bation a draft of a proposed seal for the Province of North Carolina. On the 10th day of 
April, 1730, the king approved the recommendations, except that it appears "Georgius 
Secundus" was to be substituted for the original "Geo. II.," and his chief engraver of 
seals was ordered to "engrave a silver Seal according to said draught. ..." A certain 
Rollos, his Majesty's engraver was ordered to prepare a draft of the seal. 





Obverse Reverse 

Seal of the Province of North Carolina, 1730-1767 



Historical Miscellanea 



11 



There was some delay in receiving the new seal, for at a council held at Edenton, 
March 30, 1 73 1 , it was "Ordered that the old seal of the Colony be used till the new seal 
arrives." The latter part of April the seal came, and "The Messenger that went to Cape 
Fear to fetch the Publick Seal of this Province" was paid the sum of ten pounds for his 
journey. This seal was made by placing two cakes or layers of wax together, between 
which was the ribbon or tape with which the instrument was interlaced and by which the 
seal was appended. It was customary to put a piece of paper on the outside of three 
cakes before they were impressed. The complete seal was four and three-eighths inches 
in diameter and from one-half to five-eighths inches thick and weighed about five and 
one-half ounces. 

At a council held at New Bern, December 14, 1767, Governor Tryon produced to the 
Board a new Great Seal for the province with his Majesty's Royal Warrant bearing date 
at the Court of St. James the 9th day of July, 1767. The old seal was sent to New York 
by Captain [John Abraham] Collet, commander of Fort Johnston, to be returned to his 
Majesty's Council office at Whitehall. Accompanying his Majesty's warrant was a de- 
scription of the new seal. This seal was to be used in sealing all patents and grants of 
lands and all public instruments passed in the king's name for service within the prov- 
ince. It was four inches in diameter, one-half to five-eighths inches thick, and weighed 
four and one-half ounces. 





Obverse 



Reverse 



Seal of the Province of North Carolina, 1767-1776 



It appears that sometimes a smaller seal than the Great Seal was used, as commis- 
sions and grants with a small heart-shaped seal about one inch wide and a quarter of an 
inch thick which was impressed with a crown have been used. Also a seal was occasion- 
ally used about three inches long and two inches wide and half an inch thick, in the 
shape of an ellipse. These impressions were evidently made by putting the wax far 
enough under the edge of the Great Seal to take the impression of the crown. The royal 
governors also sometimes used their private seals on commissions and grants. 



12 



North Carolina Manual 



Lord Granville, on the grants issued by him, used his private seal. The last reference 
found to the colonial seal is in a letter from Governor Martin to the Earl of Hills- 
borough in November, 1771, in which he said "that the Province Seal was broke," but 
that he had had it repaired and that it had been "awkwardly mended but in such man- 
ner as to answer all purposes." 

When the government of the State of North Carolina was organized, the constitution 
adopted at Halifax, December 18, 1776, provided in Section XVII, "That there shall be 
a Seal of this State, which shall be kept by the Governor, and used by him as occasion 
may require; and shall be called the Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, and be 
affixed to all grants and commissions." The Constitutional Convention of 1835 brought 
this section forward unchanged. 

The convention of 1868 adopted a new constitution, and the convention of 1875 
brought the section referring to the seal forward as adopted in 1868. Article III, Section 
16 of the constitution reads: "There shall be a seal of the State, which shall be kept by 
the Governor, and used by him, as occasion may require, and shall be called 'The Great 
Seal of the State of North Carolina' All grants and commissions shall be issued in the 
name and by the authority of the State of North Carolina, sealed with 'The Great Seal 
of the State,' signed by the Governor and countersigned by the Secretary of State." 

On December 22, 1776, an ordinance was passed by the Provincial Congress at Hali- 
fax appointing William Hooper, Joseph Hewes and Thomas Burke commissioners to 
procure a Great Seal for the State of North Carolina, but no record of a report being 
made by this commission could be found. The ordinance provided that the governor 
should use his "private seal at arms" until the Great Seal for the state was procured. On 
April 29, 1778, a bill which directed the procurement of a Great Seal for the state and 
which became law on May 2, was introduced in the lower house of the general assembly 





Obverse 



Reverse 



Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1779-1794 



Historical Miscellanea 



13 



held in New Bern. It provided that "William Tisdale, Esq., be and he is hereby appoint- 
ed to cut and engrave a Seal, under the Direction of his Excellency the Governor, for the 
use of the State; " On Sunday, November 7, 1 779 the senate concurred in the resolu- 
tion passed by the house of commons allowing William Tisdale, Esq., the sum of one 
hundred and fifty pounds for making the Great Seal of the State. Under this act a seal 
was procured which was used until 1794. The actual size of the seal was three inches in 
diameter and one-fourth inch thick. It was made by putting two cakes of wax together 
with paper wafers on the outside and pressing them between the dies, thus forming the 
obverse and reverse sides of the seal. The seal press must have been very large and un- 
wieldy, for Governor Richard Dobbs Spaight in writing to Colonel Abisha Thomas in 
February, 1793 said: "Let the screws by which the impression is to be made be as port- 
able as possible so as it may be adapted to our present itinerant government. The one 
now in use by which the Great Seal is a present made is so large and unwieldy as to be 
carried only in a cart or wagon and of course has become stationary at the Secretary's 
office which makes it very convenient." Governor Spaight in January, 1793 in writing of 
the Tisdale Seal then in use says, "This old seal is not only nearly worn out but in my 
opinion has always been a reproach to the genius of the State." An official description 
of this seal cannot be found, but many of the seals are still in existence in an almost per- 
fect state of preservation. 

In January, 1792 the general assembly in session at New Bern passed an act author- 
izing and requiring the governor to procure for the state a seal, and provided that it 
should "be prepared with only one side, and calculated to make the impression on the 
face of such grant, commission, record or other public acts, . . . ." Governor Alexander 
Martin commissioned Colonel Abisha Thomas, the agent of North Carolina in Phila- 




The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1794-1836 



14 



North Carolina Manual 



delphia for the settlement of the State's Revolutionary claims against the Federal Gov- 
ernment, to have one made and, at the same time sent him a design therefor. After cor- 
respondence between Governor Martin and Colonel Thomas concerning the seal, in 
which suggestions were made by Dr. Hugh Williamson and Senator Samuel Johnston, 
they concluded that the sketch submitted by Governor Martin would not do and Colo- 
nel Thomas submitted a sketch by an artist. This sketch, with some modification, was fi- 
nally accepted by Governor Spaight, and Colonel Thomas had the seal made accord- 
ingly. The seal was cut some time during the summer of 1793, and Colonel Thomas 
brought it home with him in time for the meeting of the legislature in November, 1793, 
at which session it was "approbated." The screw to the seal would not work, so in 1795 
the general assembly passed an act authorizing the use of the old seal of 1778 until the 
new one could be put in order. The new seal was two and one half inches in diameter 
and was used until around 1835. 

In the winter of 1834-35 the legislature passed an act authorizing the governor to pro- 
cure a new seal. The preamble to the act states that the old seal had been in use since the 
first day of March, 1793. The seal adopted in 1835, which was not changed until 1839, 
was very similar to its predecessor. It was two and one-fourth inches in diameter. In 
1868 the legislature authorized the governor to procure a Great Seal and required him 
to provide a new seal whenever the old one was lost or so worn or defaced as to render it 
unfit for use. 

In 1883 Colonel S. MCD. Tate introduced a bill in the legislature which became law. 
This act did not provide that a new seal be procured but it described in more detail what 
the seal should be like. In 1893 Jacob Battle introduced a bill which became law. This 
made no change in the seal except to add at the foot of the coat-of-arms of the state as 
part thereof the motto Esse Quam Videri and to provide the words "May 20, 1775," be 
incribed at the top of the coat-of-arms. 




The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1836-1893 



Historical Miscellanea 



15 



At this time the ship that appeared in the offing in the seals of George II and George 
III and in our seal from 1835-1893 seems to have disappeared, and the designer of the 
seal shows mountains in the background instead of both mountains and the sea as for- 
merly. 

The preceding history illustrates the great variety in seals and the liberty that was 
taken in the design in the official State seal from time to time. The 1971 General As- 
sembly, in an effort to "provide a standard for the Great Seal of the State of North 
Carolina," passed the following Act amending the General Statutes provision relative 
to the State Seal: 

The Governor shall procure for the State a Seal, which shall be called the 
great seal of the State of North Carolina, and shall be two and one-quarter 
inches in diameter, and its design shall be a representation of the figures of 
Liberty and Plenty, looking toward each other, but not more than half- 
fronting each other and otherwise disposed as follows: Liberty, the first figure, 
standing, her pole with cap on it in her left hand and a scroll with the word 
"Constitution" inscribed thereon in her right hand. Plenty, the second figure, 
sitting down, her right arm half extended toward Liberty, three heads of grain 
in her right hand, and in her left, the small end of her horn, the mouth of 
which is resting at her feet, and the contents of the horn rolling out. 

The background on the seal shall contain a depiction of mountains running 
from left to right to the middle of the seal. A side view of a three-masted ship 
shall be located on the ocean and to the right of Plenty. The date "May 20, 
1775" shall appear within the seal and across the top of the seal and the words 
"esse quam videri" shall appear at the bottom around the perimeter. No other 
words, figures or other embellishments shall appear on the seal. 

It shall be the duty of the Governor to file in the office of the Secretary of 
State an impression of the great seal, certified to under his hand and attested 
to by the Secretary of State, which impression so certified the Secretary of 
State shall carefully preserve among the records of this Office. 




The Great Seal of the State of 
North Carolina, 1893-1971 



The Great Seal of the State of 
North Carolina, 1971— 



Historical Miscellanea 17 



THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE CAPITOL 

The North Carolina State Capitol is one of the finest and best preserved examples of 
a major civic building in the Greek Revival Style of architecture. 

Prior to 1792, North Carolina legislators met in various towns throughout the 
state — Halifax, Hillsboro, and New Bern were the most frequent locations. Meetings 
were held in local plantation houses, court houses, and even churches — whatever was 
available; however, when the City of Raleigh was established as the permanent seat of 
the Government of North Carolina in 1792, a simple, two-story brick State House was 
built on Union Square. The State House was completed in 1796. 

The State House was enlarged in 1820-24 by the architect William Nichols. A third 
floor and eastern and western wings were added to the building, and a domed rotunda 
was constructed at its center to house Antonio Canova's statue of President George 
Washington, acquired by the State in 1821. When the State House burned down on 
June 21, 1831, the statue of Washington was damaged beyond repair. 

The General Assembly of 1832-33 ordered that a new Capitol (as the present building 
has always been called) be built as an enlarged version of the old State House — that is, a 
cross-shaped building with a central, domed rotunda. The sum of $50,000 was appropri- 
ated, and a commission appointed to initiate the plan. The Commissioners for Rebuild- 
ing the Capitol first employed William Nichols, Jr., to help them prepare plans for the 
building. In August of 1833, Nichols was replaced by the distinguished New York archi- 
tectural firm of Ithiel Town and Alexander Jackson Davis. They modified and greatly 
improved the earlier design, giving the Capitol essentially its present appearance and 
plan. David Paton (1802-82), and Edinburgh-born architect who had worked for John 
Seoane, the noted English architect, was hired in September, 1834, to superintend the 
construction of the Capitol. Paton replaced Town and Davis as the Commissioners' ar- 
chitect early in 1835. The Capitol was built under Paton's supervision except for the ex- 
terior stone walls, which were largely in place when he got to Raleigh. Paton made sev- 
eral modifications in the Town and Davis plans for the interior. He is responsible for 
the cantilevered or overhanging gallery at the second floor level of the rotunda, the 
groined masonry vaulting of the first floor office and corridor ceilings, and the interior 
arrangement of the east and west wings. After clearing away the rubbish of the old State 
House, excavations were made and a new foundation laid. On July 4, 1833, the corner 
stone was set in place. Following this, work progressed more slowly, and the orignal ap- 
propriation soon exhausted. At the next session of the Legislature, an additional appro- 
priation of $75,000 was necessary so that work could begin on the stone and finer work. 
Many skilled artisans were brought over from Scotland and other countries to carry out 
this phase of construction. 

Most of the architectural details — columns, mouldings, ornamental plasterwork, and 
the honeysuckle crown atop the dome, for example — were carefully patterned after fea- 
tures of particular ancient Greek temples: The exterior columns are Doric in style and 
modeled after those of the Parthenon, the House of Representatives Chamber follows 
the semicircular plan of a Greek theater and its architectural ornament is in the Corin- 
thian style of the Tower of the Winds, and the Senate Chamber is decorated in the Ionic 
style of the Erechtheum. The only non-classical parts of the building are two large 
rooms on the third floor which were finished in the Gothic Style, then just beginning to 
rise to popularity in America. 



18 North Carolina Manual 



The ornamental ironwork, chandeliers, hardware, and marble mantels of the Capitol 
came from Philadelphia, as did the man who executed all of the ornamental plaster- 
work. The desks and chairs in the House and Senate Chambers were made by a Raleigh 
Cabinetmaker, William Thompson. 

The Capitol was completed in 1840 at a total cost (including furnishings) of 
$532,682.34, or more than three times the yearly general income of the State at that 
time. 

In plan, the Capitol is a cross-shaped building, centering on a domed rotunda where 
the wings join. It is 160 feet from north to south, 140 feet from east to west (including 
the porticoes), and stands 97 Vi feet from the base of the rotunda to the crown atop the 
dome. The exterior walls are built of gneiss (a form of granite). This stone was quarried 
in southeastern Raleigh and hauled to the site on the horse-drawn Experimental Rail 
Road, the first railway in North Carolina. The interior walls are of stone and brick. The 
massive, original wooden truss system still carries the roof. 

The first floor contains eight offices in the north and south wings and smaller rooms 
in the east and west wings. (These offices originally housed all of the executive branch of 
state government — a total of six full-time officials in 1840.) The rotunda contains a 
duplicate original of Canova's statue of Washington, acquired in 1970. In niches around 
the rotunda are busts of three Governors and a United States Senator. Stairways in the 
east and west wings give access to the second floor, where the Senate and House 
Chambers and related offices are located. Rooms in the east and west wings, built as 
legislative committee rooms, have been converted to other uses. On the third floor are 
the galleries of the Senate and House Chambers, and in the east and west wings are the 
original State Supreme Court Chamber and State Library Room, both decorated in the 
Gothic Style. The domed, top-lit vestibules of those two rooms are especially note- 
worthy. 

The Capitol housed all of the state government until the 1880's. The Supreme Court 
moved to its own building in 1888. The General Assembly moved to the State Legisla- 
tive Building (the State's first building erected exclusively for legislative use) in 1963. 
Today the only official occupants of the Capitol are some of the personnel of the Gover- 
nor and the Secretary of State. 

The Capitol probably has been less changed in appearance, inside and out, than any 
major American civic building of its era. The stonework, the ornamental plaster and 
ironwork, the furniture of the legislative chambers, and all but one of the marble man- 
tels that the visitor sees today are original, not restorations or reproductions. Yet con- 
tinuous and heavy use since 1840 has left its marks on the building, and to cope with 
them the Capitol currently is undergoing a careful rehabilitation. This work was begun 
in 1971 and is intended to preserve and enhance the architectural splendor and decora- 
tive beauty of the Capitol for future generations. Work done to date includes replacing 
the leaky copper roof, cleaning and sealing the exterior stone, and repainting the ro- 
tunda in colors similar to those originally used. More recently completed phases include 
repairing plaster-work damaged by roof leaks, replacing obsolete wiring and plumbing, 
reworking the heating and cooling systems in the upper floors to make them less con- 
spicuous, replacing worn carpets and draperies, and repainting the rest of the interior 
according to the original color scheme. 



Historical Miscellanea 19 



1976 was an eventful year not only for our nation, but for our State Capitol building 
as well. After several years of work, the old senate and house chambers and the execu- 
tive offices on the first floor were completed. Shortly after being elected to his first term, 
Governor James B. Hunt, Jr. announced his intention of moving some of the Office of 
the Governor back into the Capitol. Governor Hunt and Secretary of State Thad Eure 
are working residents in this symbol of government in North Carolina. 

In an effort to make the newly renovated Capitol more accessible to the people of 
North Carolina, the building has been opened to the public on weekends with guided 
tours available for all visitors. 



20 North Carolina Manual 



Description of the Capitol 

by 
Architect David Paton 

The State Capitol is 160 feet in length from north to south by 140 feet from east to 
west. The whole height is 97 Vi feet in the center. The apex of pediment is 64 feet in 
height. The stylobate is 18 feet in height. The columns of the east and west porticoes are 
5 feet 2 Vi inches in diameter. An entablature, including blocking course, is continued 
around the building 12 feet high. 

The columns and entablature are Grecian Doric, and copied from the Temple of 
Minerva, commonly called the Parthenon, which was erected in Athens about 500 years 
before Christ. An octagon tower surrounds the rotunda, which is ornamented with Gre- 
cian cornices, etc., and its dome is decorated at top with a similar ornament to that of 
the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, commonly called the Lanthorn of Demosthenes. 

The interior of the Capitol is divided into three stories: First, the lower story, consist- 
ing often rooms, eight of which are appropriated as offices to the Governor, Secretary, 
Treasurer, and Comptroller, each having two rooms of the same size — the one contain- 
ing an area of 649 square feet, the other 528 square feet — the two committee rooms, 
each containing 200 square feet and four closets: also the rotunda, corridors, vestibules, 
and piazzas, contain an area of 4,370 square feet. The vestibules are decorated with 
columns and antae, similar to those of the Ionic Temple on the Ilissus, near the Acrop- 
olis of Athens. The remainder is groined with stone and brick, springing from columns 
and pilasters of the Roman Doric. 

The second story consists of Senatorial and Representatives' chambers, the former 
containing an area of 2,545 and the latter 2,849 square feet. Four apartments enter from 
Senate Chamber, two of which contain each an area of 169 square feet, and the other 
two contain each an area of 154 square feet; also, two rooms enter from Representa- 
tives' chamber, each containing an area of 170 square feet; of two committee rooms, 
each containing an area of 23 1 square feet; of four presses and the passages, stairs, lob- 
bies, and colonnades, containing an area of 3,204 square feet. 

The lobbies and Hall of Representatives have their columns and antae of the Octagon 
Tower of Andronicus Cyrrhestes and the plan of the hall is of the formation of the 
Greek theatre and the columns and antae in the Senatorial chamber and rotunda are of 
the Temple of Erectheus, Minerva, Polias, and Pandrosus, in the Acropolis of Athens, 
near the above named Parthenon. 

Third, or attic story, consists of rooms appropriated to the Supreme Court and Li- 
brary, each containing an area of 693 square feet. Galleries of both houses have an area 
of 1,300 square feet; also two apartments entering from Senate gallery, each 169 square 
feet; of four presses and the lobbies' stairs, 988 square feet. These lobbies as well as ro- 
tunda, are lit with cupolas, and it is proposed to finish the court and library in the florid 
Gothic style. 



Historical Miscellanea 21 



THE CAPITOL 

by 
Edwin Gill* 

I am the Capitol; upon my copper dome, I wear a crown. If it were gilded, it would 
flash a signal to the sun. This crown is more than decoration. It is a symbol of sover- 
eignty. 

When the sun is bright and the arch of heaven is clear, the greenish-blue of my dome 
is bold against the sky. But sometimes, when the sun is veiled, the grey of my dome ap- 
pears to blend with infinity. 

Between 1933 and 1840, I was constructed of stone quarried nearby, which time has 
mellowed. These stones were precision cut and, nicely balanced. The traffic of human 
feet has worn some stones, and, occasionally, I have been roughly used. The edges of 
steps have been broken. But I am hale and hearty and will, of course, endure. 

The Court, the Legislature and the Auditor have left me for more modern homes. It is 
rumored that others may go. However, I am assured I shall become a shrine. Now what 
is a shrine? No one seems to know, except they say it has something to do with memory 
and Glory. 

I am complimented that many people are concerned about my condition. Questions 
have been raised. Let me assure one and all that I am solid and sound of body. My 
problems are mostly superficial. 

My roof has leaked a bit, and inquiries should be made into the soundness of the tim- 
bers that undergird it. Also, at appropriate intervals, my electrical wiring should be 
carefully examined. 

In fairness to the past, a sprinkler system was installed beneath my roof in 1939, and 
my exterior was cleaned effectively in 1952. 

But it is well to have the Governor, the Council of State and others concerned about 
my future. It is good to know there are those who care — to have a flutter of interest in 
my behalf. Even the pigeons and squirrels are concerned! 

Some time before the year is out, I am informed, we will dedicate, in an appropriate 
ceremony, the receipt from Italy of the figure of Washington carved in marble. It is meet 
and proper in anticipation of this event that I be cleaned, refurnished and made in every 
way presentable. Incidentally, my architect told me that in the original plans I was to 
have this statue. So, in a sense, I am unfinished until it is in place. 

There are those who think I should be restored to my former splendor. The doctors of 
history suggest I should be arrayed in the mode of 1840. This, I suppose has something 
to do with my ultimate status as a shrine. 

I favor this restoration. But I doubt that such a project can be completely achieved. 
After all, in recent times, I have become a creature of modern conveniences, such as cen- 
tral heating, inside plumbing and electricity — all unavailable in 1840. Whatever is done, 
my comfort should be considered. Especially, I would like to have hot, as well as cold, 
running water! 



*Mr. Gill was State Treasurer of North Carolina from 1953-1977. The above was ordered spread upon the 
minutes of the Council of State on June 17, 1970. 



22 North Carolina Manual 



In my bosom laws were made. Through the decades, I have heard the thunders of elo- 
quence. I have been amused at the wit and tall tales of statesmen. 

Today my halls are silent. People come and go and look at me, and marvel at the 
stories of the past. They say I am a symbol of all that has been achieved within the borders 
of our State. So be it. I am a symbol. 



i 



Historical Miscellanea 23 



THE LEGISLATIVE BUILDING 

The need for larger quarters for legislators and their respective staffs, and the growth 
of services provided by the legislative branch of government led the General Assembly 
of 1959 to appropriate funds for the formation of a Building Commission for the con- 
struction of a new building for the Legislature. A statute creating such a commission 
was ratified on June 12, 1959. It was to "consist of two persons who have served in the 
State Senate, appointed by the President of the Senate; two persons who have served in 
the House of Representatives, appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives; and three persons appointed by the Governor." 

Lieutenant Governor Luther E. Barnhardt, President of the Senate, appointed Archie 
K. Davis and Robert F. Morgan, who was elected Vice-chairman of the Commission; 
Speaker of the House Addison Hewlett appointed B. I. Satterfield and Thomas J. 
White, who was elected Chairman of the Commission; and Governor Hodges appoint- 
ed A. E. Finley, Edwin Gill, and Oliver R. Rowe. In addition to these members, Paul A. 
Johnston, Director of the Department of Administration, was elected Executive Secre- 
tary. The Commission elected Frank B.Turner, State Property Officer as Executive 
Secretary upon the resignation of Mr. Johnson. 

The Commission selected Edward Durell Stone of New York with John S. Holloway 
and Ralph B. Reeves, Jr., Associated as the architectural consultants. 

After a thorough study by the Commission, a site for construction was selected — a 
5 x h acre area one block North of the Capitol. This site, encompassing two blocks, is 
bounded by Jones, Salisbury, Lane and Wilmington Streets. A section of Halifax Street 
between Jones and Lane was closed and made a part of the new site. 

Bids on the new building were received in December, 1960 and constrution began 
early the following year. The 1961 General Assembly appropriated an additional $1 mil- 
lion for furnishings and equipment. This brought the total appropriation to $5 V6 mil- 
lion or $1.24 for each citizen of North Carolina. (This figure based on the 1960 census.) 

One of the consulting architects wrote the following description of the new building: 

The State Legislative Building, though not an imitation of historic classical 
styles, is classical in character. Rising from a 340 foot wide podium of North 
Carolina granite, the building proper is 242 feet square. The walls and the 
columns are of Vermont marble, the latter forming a colonnade encompassing 
the building and reaching 24 feet from the podium to the roof of the second 
floor. 

Inset in the south podium floor, at the main entrance, is a 28 foot diameter 
terrazzo mosaid of the Great Seal of the State. From the first floor main en- 
trance (at Jones Street) the carpeted 22 foot wide main stair extends directly to 
the third floor and the public galleries of the Senate and House, the audi- 
torium, the display area, and the roof gardens. 

The four garden courts are located at the corners of the building. These 
courts contain tropical plants, and three have pools, fountains, and hanging 
planters. The main floor areas of the courts are located in the first floor, and 
messanines overlook the courts from the second floor. The skylights which 
provide natural lighting are located within the roof gardens overhead. The 
courts provide access to committee rooms in the first floor, the legislative 
chambers in the second floor, and to members' offices in both floors. 



Historical Miscellanea 25 



The Senate and House chambers, each 5,180 square feet in area, occupy the 
east and west wings of the second floor. Following the traditional relationship 
of the two chambers in the Capitol, the two spaces are divided by the rotunda; 
and when the main brass doors are open, the two presiding officers face one 
another. Each pair of brass doors weigh 1,500 pounds. 

The five pyramidal roofs covering the Senate and House chambers, the au- 
ditorium, the main stair, and the rotunda are sheathed with copper, as is the 
Capitol. The pyramidal shape of the roofs is visible in the pointed ceilings in- 
side. The structural ribs form a coffered ceiling; and inside the coffered pat- 
terns, concentric patterns are outlined in gold. In each chamber, the distance 
from the floor to the peak of the ceiling is 45 feet. 

Chandeliers in the chambers and main stair are 8 feet in diameter and weigh 
625 pounds each. The 12 foot diameter chandelier of the rotunda, like the 
others, is of brass, but its weight is 750 pounds. 

Because of the interior environment, the garden courts and rotunda have 
tropical plants and trees. Outside, however, the shrubs and trees are of an in- 
digenous type. Among the trees in the gounds, on the roof areas are sugar 
maples, dogwoods, crabapples, magnolias, crepe myrtles, and pines. 

Throughout the building, the same color scheme is maintained: Walnut, 
white, gold and red, with green foliage. In general, all wood is American wal- 
nut, metal is brass or other gold colored material, carpets are red, and uphol- 
stery is gold or black. 

The enclosed area consists of 206,000 square feet of floor area with a volume 
of 3,210,000 cubic feet. Heating equipment provides over 7,000,000 B.T.U. per 
hour; and the cooling equipment has a capaciy of 620 tones. For lighting, 
motors, and other electircal equipment, the building has a connected service 
load of over 2,000,000 watts. 



Historical Miscellanea 27 



THE EXECUTIVE RESIDENCES OF NORTH CAROLINA 

North Carolina has not always provided an official home for its governors and their 
families. Prior to 1770, the chief executive lived wherever he chose at his own expense. It 
was not until 1776 that the general assembly authorized the construction of the first 
such residence; in 1770 the magnificent Governor's Palace in New Bern was occupied by 
Royal Governor William Tryon. "Tryon's Palace," as the building came to be known, 
was destined to serve as the formal residence of governors for only a short time. It was 
exposed to the threats of enemy forces during the American Revolution, and the palace 
was virtually abandoned. In 1798 a fire destroyed all but the west wing. 

North Carolina's first legislators were traveling men. With no "fixed seat of govern- 
ment," early members of the general assembly traveled from plantation to plantation, 
town to town, until 1792, when a capital "city" was planned and laid out in the "hills of 
Wake" on Joel Lane's plantation. It was named in honor of the Elizabethan patron of 
early colonization, Sir Walter Raleigh. Shortly thereafter an act was passed by the legis- 
lature requiring the governor to reside at the permanent seat of government. Samuel 
Ashe of New Hanover was the first governor to come under this edict. He expressed his 
reaction emphatically: ". . . it was never supposed that a Man annually elected to the 
Chief Magistracy would commit such folly as to attempt the building of a House at the 
seat of Government in which he might for a time reside. 

The committee of the general assembly to whom Ashe's letter was referred hastened 
to inform him that the law was enacted before he was elected governor and could be 
considered "as a condition under the incumbrance of which he accepted the appoint- 
ment." 

Despite the remonstrance to Ashe, the general assembly took steps to provide a 
dwelling for the chief executive. The State Treasurer was instructed to purchase or lease 
a suitable house and, in 1797, a plain, two-story frame building, painted white, and an 
office for the governor were provided on lot 131, the southwest corner of Fayetteville 
and Hargett streets. 

This house proved helplessly inadequate. To remedy this situation, the general assem- 
bly, in 1813, appointed a committee to provide better facilities, and plans were made for 
the erection of a more suitable dwelling. A site was selected at the foot of Fayetteville 
Street facing the capitol. In 1816 the elaborate brick structure with white columned 
porticoes was completed and Governor William Miller became the first occupant of the 
"Governor's Palace." 

In traditional ante-bellum fashion, the twenty succeeding governors resided in the 
Palace, as it was officially termed, and much of the history of the state centered there. 
General Lafayette was a visitor in 1825. Some sessions of the general assembly were 
held in the Palace following the burning of the Capitol in 1831. The last governor to oc- 
cupy the Palace was Zebulon Baird Vance. Sherman and later federal occupants of the 
governor's palace, while they may have injured the pride of local citizens, did no serious 
damage to the building. But years of neglect and the structural inadequacy of the house 
from the very beginning made it unattractive to those governors coming into office in 
the years following the war. During the Reconstruction days, and until the present man- 
sion was built, the chief executives resided in Raleigh living in rented houses, hotels 
or — during two administrations — in their own homes. From 1871 to 1891 the 
Yarborough House, a noted Raleigh hotel, served as the unofficial residence for several 
North Carolina governors. 



Historical Miscellanea 29 



Governor Vance, the last occupant of the Palace, was again in office in 1879. In that 
year he presented the report of a commission appointed two years previously by the 
legislature to investigate the possibiliites of providing a suitable residence for the gover- 
nor. The commission was also charged with the task of selling unused State land in and 
adjacent to the city of Raleigh. Proceeds from these sales were earmarked for the con- 
struction of a house and outbuildings suitable for the governor. 

Meanwhile the matter of hiring an architect was investigated and David Paton natur- 
ally came to mind. Paton had established his reputation in North Carolina as the archi- 
tect of the State Capitol. He was an associate of Ithiel Town of New York, the architect 
originally consulted in rebuilding the Capitol. By the 1880's, however, Paton was in his 
middle seventies and age and poor health made it necessary for him to decline the invi- 
tation to visit Raleigh to help select a location and plan a house for the governor. 

The decision to build the present governor's mansion was made by the general assem- 
bly at the perseverance of Governor Thomas Jarvis. Under the governor's prompting 
the legislature approached the problem of providing adequate housing for the chief 
executive. A bill ratified in February, 1883, authorized construction of a house on 
Burke Square, provided for major furnishings, and required (upon its completion) the 
governor to occupy it. The governor and Council of State were directed to use convict 
labor and such materials as were "manufactured or prepared, either in whole or in 
part," at the penitentiary, when such a procedure seemed feasible. To finance the proj- 
ect, the governor was authorized to use money realized from the sale of State lands 
(1877) and was instructed to sell the old Palace and grounds. Expenditures were not to 
exceed the sum realized and an accurate accounting was demanded; a record of the 
money spent by the governor and council was to be entered on a journal and the auditor 
was instructed to check and file itemized accounts before issuing warrants for payment. 

Two months after passage of the bill, the Council of State met with the governor. 
Jarvis was then instructed to advertise the Palace and grounds for immediate sale and to 
employ an architect to make sketches and specifications for the Council's consideration. 
Governor Jarvis accordingly wrote W. J. Hicks, architect and warden of the prison, sug- 
gesting a plan which called for construction of the house under exclusive direction of the 
penitentiary authorities and payment of a definite sum to that institution. The law pro- 
vided that the council and the governor might call on the penitentiary for all the labor 
and material it could furnish "in whole or in part." Jarvis felt there might be some dif- 
ferences of opinion as to the meaning of the statement. He reasoned that with construc- 
tion work then being done at the penitentiary, by using the same material and labor in 
building the mansion, a saving could be realized in buying in larger quantities. From a 
practical standpoint Jarvis thought the State would profit by having both projects under 
the same management, and experienced businessmen advised such a plan might save the 
State as much as twenty thousand dollars. 

Samuel Sloan of Philadelphia and his assistant, Gustavus Adolphus Bauer, were 
chosen as architects. Sloan arrived in Raleigh on April 28, 1883, with his designs for the 
residence. These were declared "very artistic, representing an ornate bulding, in modern 
style, three stories in height, with the ample porches, hallways, and windows which 
every house built in this climate should have." On May 7 came the news that the designs 
submitted by Sloan had been accepted, with some modifications suggested by "able 
builders" of the city. 



30 North Carolina Manual 



Officers at the penitentiary board making a report (1882-1884) declared the building 
handsome in design, constructed of the best material by the best workers, using pressed 
brick made at the prison and trimmed with North Carolina sandstone which, they felt, 
gave "a very happy relief to the external appearance." They also expressed satisfaction 
with the artistry and convenience of the house's interior and wished to enhance it 
further by using an "elaborate North Carolina hard-wood finish." 

In another progress report, a year later, Jarvis gave the additional information that 
the stone was quarried in Anson County and most of the work in finishing it had been 
done by the convicts. He also favored an interior of North Carolina hardwood, includ- 
ing the ceiling, wainscotting, and woodwork of the halls and rooms of the first floor. 

Dreams of a beautiful mansion for the governor were in danger of being lost as 1889 
dawned. Money for its construction had run out. A meeting of the Council of State and 
the governor was called to discuss the question of beginning work on the house again 
and pushing it to completion. As a result of their discussion, the governor was given au- 
thority "to cause the sale of the property in Raleigh belonging to the fund, the sale of 
which was provided for by the recent legislature, and to appropriate the proceeds to the 
work of completing the mansion." 

By the end of December, 1890, the house was nearly finished but Governor Daniel 
Fowle did not move in until after the new year. He was particularly anxious to occupy 
the house in view of the earlier attempts to abandon it as a residence for the governor. 

As soon as the mansion was reported "erected," the Council of State announced the 
Board of Public Buildings and Grounds would have charge of its supervision. The 
board was to take over in December. But in November, before it was occupied, repair 
and preservation work had already begun with "certain exterior and interior painting" 
of the woodwork. Most of the accounts emphasize the deplorable condition of the 
"completed house. The plumbing was cheap and dirt was laid between the floor to 
deaden sound. 

The third floor and basement were left unfinished. On the lot were stables for "horses 
driven to the governor's carriage" and other outhouses. A pump provided drinking 
water for the mansion and a little gas engine pumped water from the two cisterns in the 
basement to a tank on the top floor. 

The earliest laws providing for the construction of a governor's residence, as well as 
most of the later planning, called for the purchase of furnishings. As the cost of con- 
struction mounted, only a small portion of money remained for furniture. Some pur- 
chases were made, however, before the house was furnished and an appropriation of 
$1500 in 1891 made further purchases possible. Other furnishings were bought by the 
individual occupants during their stay in the mansion. 

On moving in, Governor Fowle brought his own furniture to make up the deficit in 
the mansion, setting a precedent followed for many years before the house was ade- 
quately furnished. He filed a list of furnishings in the treasurer's office to avoid any con- 
fusion in the future as to who owned what. 

Elias Carr was the first governor to live at the mansion for a full term (1893-1897) of 
four years. Like his predecessors he soon found the house in need of furnishings and re- 
pairs. Funds were allocated by the legislature in February for necessary furniture and 
for "completion and repairing the mansion." Two years later another appropriation 
was made for work on the grounds. Some time previously the attorney general had 



Historical Miscellanea 31 



ruled that the mansion and grounds, as public property, were under the care of the 
Board of Public Buildings and Grounds and directly under the supervision of the keeper 
of the capitol. 

As frequently seemed the case with new governors, Governor Bickett's residency be- 
gan with an inspection of the mansion and recommendations in keeping with the needs 
found there. The superintendent of buildings and grounds made a detailed report in ad- 
dition to the recommendations for improving the interior made by Architect James A. 
Salter and Mrs. Bickett. The repairs and improvements recommended for the exterior 
and surrounding grounds were extensive, amounting to nearly ten thousand dollars. 

Shortly after Governor Daniel Russell came into office in 1897, the legislature ap- 
pointed a committee to examine the mansion and see whether it needed any alterations. 
The committee reported that repairs were needed and a resolution was promptly intro- 
duced to provide the necessary money. 

Mrs. Bickett wrote a letter to the joint committee on public buildings and grounds of 
the legislature and attached estimates given by Salter. Her plea received sufficient atten- 
tion to merit the introduction of a bill for the requested repairs and renovations with the 
provision that these be made up to an expenditure of $65,000 out of any funds in the 
hands of the State Treasurer not otherwise appropriated." This optimistic bill, however, 
failed to pass and a substitute law was enacted in March, 1917, allowing $4,000 "to ren- 
ovate, equip, and properly furnish the Governor's Mansion and improve the surround- 
ing grounds." The succeeding legislature passed another act, allowing an expenditure of 
$2,000 annually for the years 1919 and 1920. 

As preparations were made for Governor Angus W. McLean's residence in the man- 
sion, previous renovations were considered inadequate by the incoming governor and 
citizens alike. Sentiment for abandoning the house was aroused once more; it was so ob- 
solete and so uncomfortable, public opinion in Raleigh favored scrapping the building 
and providing the governor with a new house in one of the city's residential sections. 
Burke Square could then be used as a public partk. 

Secretary of State W. N. Everett halted the movement. Rather than do away with the 
mansion, he thought it should be repaired and furnished in such a way as to provide a 
comfortable dwelling. Thus, he and Governor McLean must be credited not only with 
saving the mansion but also making it, for the first time, a house in keeping with the dig- 
nity of the governor and his office. 

McLean's plans for renovating and refurnishing were based on information beyond 
that gained through casual observation and the complaints of his predecessors. Some- 
time earlier the legislature had passed a law requiring the State Board of Health to in- 
spect all state institutions for sanitation, and the mansion, coming under this category, 
was inspected in February, 1925, shortly after McLean's inauguration. 

The report from the Board of Health was startling. Inspection was made and ratings 
given on the basis used in inspecting hotels: the mansion received "the very low rating of 
71." The report added that the management of a hotel receiving such a rating would be 
subject to indictment. A further charge was made that the principal deductions in scor- 
ing were for uncleanliness. 

Dr. W. S. Rankin, State Health Officer, after accompanying the sanitary engineer on 
his tour of inspection of the mansion, was so impressed with the necessity of making 
these improvements, he felt it his duty to bring the matter before the general assembly. 



32 North Carolina Manual 



Secretary of State Everett had made his own examination and reported major repairs 
were needed for the sake of preservation. He suggested a sum not exceeding $50,000 for 
these repairs and new furnishings. Although this action was taken without McLean's 
knowledge, upon learning of it, he soon became active in seeking authority to begin the 
much-needed repairs. 

When money became available a firm of architects, Atwood and Nash, were em- 
ployed to carry out the renovations. H. Pier-Giavina, a "decorative artist" of Wilming- 
ton helped in the interior decorating. Renovation included painting throughout and 
modernizing of plumbing and electrical facilities. 

In working out a scheme of decoration and deciding on furniture purchases, the serv- 
ices of Elizabeth Thompson, local interior decorator, and the experience of Mrs. 
McLean were employed. The first lady, whose efforts were bent toward the simple and 
substantial, was eminently fitted for the task by her own "excellent taste and wide ob- 
servation." Cloak rooms and servants quarters were added to the basement and the pre- 
viously unfinished third floor. 

It was not until McLean's administration, in 1925, that the legislature made a specific 
appropriation for maintaining the governor's mansion. Previously, expenditures were 
made, as needed, out of the general fund. 

The renovation undertaken by Governor McLean was not actually completed while 
he was in residence. This was particularly true of the furnishings. Governor-elect Gard- 
ner felt the home of the governor should preserve a uniform appearance regardless of 
the temporary occupant. He asked the Board of Public Buildings and Grounds to 
confer with the McLeans to determine what was needed and to make provisions for 
these needs before he came into office. McLean brought the matter to the attention of 
the board and a "Special Furniture and Equipment Account Available for Incoming 
Governor" was set up for this purpose. 

The Gardners had not been in the mansion long before the legislature passed an act 
authorizing the State Highway Commission to build and maintain walkways and drives 
"within the Mansion Square. . .". Included in this project was a plan for a general 
landscaping of the mansion grounds. 

For advice in landscaping, Thomas W. Sears, landscape architect of Philadelphia, 
was contacted. Blueprints were drawn and plans submitted. Mrs. Gardner's concern for 
landscaping the gounds led to further interest in the exterior appearance of the house 
and at their suggestion the outside woodwork was painted brown to blend with the 
sandstone and brick. 

The master plan drawn by Elizabeth Thompson in 1925, at Governor McLean's re- 
quest, provided a guide for succeeding residents and allowed some consistency in fur- 
nishings and decoration. Governors of the past few decades — Ehringhaus, Hoey, 
Broughton, Cherry, Scott, Umstead, Hodges, Sanford, Moore, and Scott — have wit- 
nessed further changes and improvements. 

The feasibility of continuing to use the Mansion as both an official residence and as 
the domicile of the governor and his family during his term of office has come to the 
forefront in recent years. The massive structure for all its beauty and heritage has been 
questioned from a practical aspect. The 1971 General Assembly created "The Executive 
Residence Building Commission" to study the current needs of the Executive family 
and to make recommendations regarding the future use of the Mansion. The commis- 



Historical Miscellanea 33 



sion was composed of seven members, two appointed by Lieutenant Governor Pat 
Taylor — Mr. John Church and Mr. J. J. Harrington — from the membership of the Sen- 
ate, two appointed by Speaker of the House Phil Godwin — Mr. Kenneth Royall and 
Mr. Dwight Quinn — from the membership of the House, and three appointed by Gov- 
ernor Bob Scott — Mr. Wayne Corpening, Mrs. Gladys Bullard, and Mr. Charles Brad- 
shaw. An advisory committee was also authorized to aid the Residence Commission on 
technical aspects. 

The work of the Commission covered nearly two years of study, including periodic 
meetings as well as visits to other states to view Mansions and residences "which they 
deemed most appropriate in design and suited to the needs of the Governor of North 
Carolina.'" Following these visits, and after hearing presentations from six architectural 
firms, recommendations were made to the Capital Building Authority, and the firm of 
Dodge and Beckwith was commissioned to draw up the plans and to make cost esti- 
mates for a new Executive Residence. The plans were accepted on October 5, 1972 and 
the cost estimate given to the governor and Advisory Budget Commission on October 
30, for inclusion in the 1973-1975 budget proposals to the general assembly. 

Included in the report made to the 1973 General Assembly was an Addendum con- 
taining suggestions, made at the request of the commission, from Mr. Carroll Mann, 
then State Property Officer, regarding the renovation of the Mansion and the cost of 
such an undertaking. Also included in the Addendum were suggestions by the commis- 
sion members for "modernizing and restoring the Executive Mansion," if it was kept as 
the Executive Residence. As a result of the Study Commission's report, the 1973 Gener- 
al Assembly appropriated $575,000 for renovation and alterations of the Executive 
Mansion. Work began during the summer, 1973, and was completed in late 1974. The 
plans for the constructing of a new executive mansion have been dropped. 

Since these initial renovations in 1973 and 1974, additional renovation and moderni- 
zation work has been done to the Mansion to improve its energy efficiency and live- 
ability. 



34 



North Carolina Manual 




Historical Miscellanea 35 



THE STATE FLAG 

The flag is an emblem of antiquity and has commanded respect and reverence from 
practically all nations from the earliest times. History traces it to divine origin, the early 
peoples of the earth attributing to it strange, mysterious, and supernatural powers. In- 
deed, our first recorded references to the standard and the banner, of which our present 
flag is but a modified form, are from sacred rather than from secular sources. We are 
told that it was around the banner that the prophets of old rallied their armies and 
under which the hosts of Israel were led to war, believing, as they did, that it carried 
with it divine favor and protection. 

Since that time all nations and all peoples have had their flags and emblems, though 
the ancient superstition regarding their divine merits and supernatural powers has dis- 
appeared from among civilized peoples. The flag now, the world over, posseses the same 
meaning and has a uniform significance to all nations wherever found. It stands as the 
symbol of strength and unity, representing the national spirit and patriotism of the peo- 
ple over whom it floats. In both lord and subject, the ruler and the ruled, it commands 
respect, inspires patriotism, and instills loyalty both in peace and war. 

In this country we have a national flag which stands as the emblem of our strength 
and unity as a nation, a living representation of our national spirit and honor. In addi- 
tion to our national flag, each of the states in the Union has a "state flag" symbolic of 
its own individuality and domestic ideals, which is expressive of some particular trait, or 
commemorative of some historical event, of the people over whom it floats. The flags of 
most of the states, however, consist of the coat of arms of that state upon a suitably 
colored field. It is said that the first state flag of North Carolina was built on this model, 
but so far as we can learn from the records the first legislation on this subject of estab- 
lishing and recognizing a "state flag" was in the year 1861. 

The constitutional convention of 1861, which passed the ordinance of secession, 
adopted what is termed a state flag. On May 20, 1861, the day the secession resolution 
was adopted, Col. John D. Whitford, a member of the convention from Craven County, 
introduced the following ordinance, which was referred to a select committee of seven. 

Be it ordained, That the flag of this State shall be blue field with a white V thereon, 
and a star, incircling which shall be the words "Surgit astrum, May 20th, 1775." 

Colonel Whitford was made chairman of the committee to which this ordinance was 
referred. The committee secured the aid and advice of William Jarl Browne, an artist of 
Raleigh. Browne prepared and submitted a model to this committee. And this model 
was adopted by the convention of June 22, 1861. It will be observed that the Browne 
model, to be hereafter explained, was vastly different from the one originally proposed 
by Colonel Whitford. Here is the ordinance as it appears in the ordinance and resolu- 
tions passed by the convention: 



AN ORDINANCE IN RELATION TO A STATE FLAG 

Be it ordained by this Convention, and it is hereby ordained by the authority oj the same. 
That the Flag of North Carolina shall consist of a red field with a white star in the cen- 
tre, and with the inscription, above the star, in a semi-circular form, of "May 20th, 
1775," and below the star, in a semicircular form, of "May 20th, 1861." That there shall 
be two bars of equal width, and the length of the field shall be equal to the bar, the width 



36 North Carolina Manual 



of the field being equal to both bars: the first bar shall be blue, and second shall be 
white; and the length of the flag shall be one-third more than its width. [Ratijied the 22nd 
day of June, 1861.] 

This state flag, adopted in 1861, is said to have been issued to North Carolina regi- 
ments of state troops during the summer of that year and was borne by them through- 
out the war, being the only flag, except the national and Confederate colors, used by the 
North Carolina troops during the Civil War. This flag existed until 1885, when the Leg- 
islature adopted a new model. 

As stated above the Legislature of 1885 adopted a new state flag. The bill, which was 
introduced by General Johnstone Jones on February 5, 1885, passed its final reading 
one month later after little or no debate. This act reads as follows: 

AN ACT TO ESTABLISH A STATE FLAG 

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

SECTION 1. That the flag of North Carolina shall consist of a blue union, contain- 
ing in the centre thereof a white star with the letter N. in gilt on the left and the letter C. 
in gilt on the right of said star, the circle containing the same to be one-third the width of 
the union. 

SEC. 2. That the fly of the flag shall consist of two equally proportioned bars; the up- 
per bar to be red, the lower bar to be white; that the length of the bars horizontally shall 
be equal to the perpendicular length of the union, and the total length of the flag shall be 
one-third more than its width. 

SEC. 3. That above the star in the centre of the union there shall be a gilt scroll in 
semi-circular form, containing in black letters this inscription "May 20th, 1775," and 
that below the star there shall be a similar scroll containing in black letters the inscrip- 
tion: "April 12th, 1776." 

SEC. 4. That this act shall take effect from and after its ratification. 
In the General Asembly read three times and ratified this 9th day of March, A.D. 1885. 

Perhaps, it may be of interest to make a passing reference to the significance of the 
dates found on each flag. The first date, "May 20th, 1775," refers to the Mecklenburg 
Declaration of Independence, the authenticity of which we shall not here stop either to 
doubt or to defend. The second date appearing on the state flag of 1861 is that of "May 
20th, 1861." This date commemorated the secession of the State from the Union; but as 
the cause of secession was defeated this date no longer represented anything after the 
Civil War. So when a new flag was adopted in 1885, this date was removed, and an- 
other, "April 12th, 1776," took its place. This date commemorates the Halifax 
Resolves— a document that places the Old North State in the very front rank, both in 
point of time and in spirit, among those that demanded unconditional freedom and ab- 
solute independence from any foreign poer. This document stands out as one of the 
great landmarks in the annals of North Carolina history. 

Since 1885 there has been no change in our state flag. For the most part, it has re- 
mained unknown and a stranger to the good people of our State. However, as we be- 
came more intelligent, and therefore, more patriotic and public spirited, the emblem of 
the Old North State assumed a station of greater prominence among our people. One 
hopeful sign of this increased interest was the act passed by the Legislature of 1907, re- 
quiring the state flag to be floated from all state institutions, public buildings, and 
courthouses. In addition to this, many public and private schools, fraternal orders, and 



Historical Miscellanea 37 



other organizations now float the state flag. The people of the State should become 
acquainted with the emblem of that government to which they owe allegiance and from 
which they secure protection. 

AN ACT TO PROMOTE LOYALTY AND GREATER RESPECT 
FOR THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE STATE 

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

SECTION 1. That for the purpose of promoting greater loyalty and respect to the 
state and inasmuch as a special act of the Legislature has adopted an emblem of our gov- 
ernment known as the North Carolina State flag, that it is meet and proper that it shall 
be given greater prominence. 

SEC. 2. That the board of trustees or managers of the several state insitutions and 
public buildings shall provide a North Carolina flag, of such dimensions and materials 
as they may deem best, and the same shall be displayed from a staff upon the top of each 
and every such building at all times except during inclement weather, and upon the 
death of any state officer or any prominent citizen the flag shall be put at half-mast until 
the burial of such person shall have taken place. 

SEC. 3. That the Board of County Commissioners of the several counties in this state 
shall likewise authorize the procuring of a North Carolina flag, to be displayed either on 
a staff upon the top, or draped behind the judge's stand, in each and every courthouse in 
the state, and that the state flag shall be displayed at each and every term of court held, 
and on such other public occasions as the Commissioners may deem proper. 

SEC. 4. That no state flag shall be allowed in or over any building here mentioned 
that does not conform to section five thousand three hundred and twenty-one of the 
Revisal of one thousand nine hundred and five. 

SEC. 5. That this act shall be in force from and after its ratification. 

In the General Assembly read three times, and ratified this the 9th day of March, 
A.D. 1907. 

The "first flag of 1861 had the date "May 20, 1861" as well as that of May 20, 1775. 
The date of May 20, 1861 represented the date North Carolina seceded from the union; 
however, since the secession cause no longer existed after 1865, the date "April 12, 
1776" was substituted in 1885. This date is known to most North Carolinians as the 
date of the Halifax Resolves, a document which was one of the first calls by the colonies 
for unconditional independence from Great Britain. The latter date, May 20, 1775, is 
the date of the alledged signing of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence. His- 
torians have for many years debated the authenticity of the document since no original 
document exists. The only documentation is a reproduction from memory many years 
later by one of the delegates attending the convention. The main argument of historians 
against the authenticity of the document — other than its non-existence in original docu- 
mentation — is that the Mecklenburg Resolves adopted just eleven days after the al- 
ledged adoption of the Declaration are comparatively weak in tone, almost to the point 
of complete opposites. It is difficult for historians to believe that the irreconcilable tone 
of the Declaration could have been the work of the same people who produced the re- 
solves. Efforts have been made to have the date taken off both the flag and the seal, but 
as yet, these have proved fruitless. Removal from the seal would be simple enough, for 
the date of the Halifax Resolves could be substituted easily without changing the basic 
intention of the date. The flag is another matter, for there is no other date of signifi- 
cance which could be easily substituted. 



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North Carolina Manual 



THE MECKLENBURG DECLARATION OF 20TH MAY, 1775* 

OFFICERS 

Abraham Alexander, Chairman 
John McKnitt Alexander, Clerk 



Col. Thomas Polk 
Ephriam Brevard 
Hezekiah J. Balch 
John Phifer 
James Harris 
William Kennon 
John Ford 
Richard Barry 
Henry Downs 



DELEGATES 

Ezra Alexander 
William Graham 
John Quary 
Abraham Alexander 
John McKnitt Alexander 
Hezekiah Alexander 
Adam Alexander 
Charles Alexander 
Zacheus Wilson, Sen. 



Waightsill Avery 
Benjamin Patton 
Mathew McClure 
Neil Morrison 
Robert Irwin 
John Flenniken 
David Reese 
Richard Harris, Sen. 



The following resolutions were presented: 

1. Resolved. That whosoever directly or indirectly abetted or in any way form or 
manner contenanced the unchartered and dangerous invasion of our rights as claimed 
by Great Britain is an enemy to this country, to America, and to the inherent and in- 
alienable rights of man. 

2. Resolved. That we the citizens of Mecklenburg County, do hereby dissolve the 
political bonds which have connected us to the mother country and hereby absolve our- 
selves from all allegiance to the British Crown and abjure all political connections con- 
tract or association with that nation who have wantonly trampled on our rights and lib- 
erties and inhumanly shed the blood of American patriots at Lexington. 

3. Resolved. That we do hereby declare ourselves a free and independent people, are, 
and of right ought to be a sovereign and self-governing association under the control of 
no power other than that of our God and the General Government of the Congress to 
the maintenance of which independence we solemnly pledge to each other our mutual 
cooperation, our lives, our fortunes, and our most sacred honor. 

4. Resolved, That as we now acknowledge the existence and control of no law or legal 
officer, civil or military within this County, we do hereby ordain and adopt as a rule of 
life all, each and every of our former laws — wherein nevertheless the Crown of Great 
Britain never can be considered as holding rights, privileges, immunities, or authority 
therein. 

5. Resolved, That it is further decreed that all, each and every Military Officer in this 
County is hereby reinstated in his former command and authority, he acting conform- 
ably to these regulations. And that every member present of this delegation shall hence- 
forth be a civil officer, viz., a justice of the peace, in the character of a "committee man" 
to issue process, hear and determine all matters of controversy according to said adopt- 
ed laws and to preserve peace, union and harmony in said county, and to use every exer- 
tion to spread the love of Country and fire of freedom throughout America, until a 
more general and organized government be established in this Province. 

*This document is found in Vol. IX, pages 1263-65 of the Colonial Records oj North Carolina; however, the 
authenticity of the declaration has become a source of controversy among historians. The controversy arises be- 
cause the text of the Resolves was recalled from memory by the clerk some twenty years after the Mecklenburg 
meeting. The original notes had been lost in a fire. 



Historical Miscellanea 39 



THE HALIFAX RESOLUTION* 

"The Select Committee taking into Consideration the usurpations and violences at- 
tempted and committed by the King and Parliament of Britain against America, and the 
further Measures to be taken for frustrating the same, and for the better defence of this 
province reported as follows, to wit, 

"It appears to your Committee that pursuant to the Plan concerted by the British 
Ministry for subjugating America, the King and Parliament of Great Britain have 
usurped a Power over the Persons and Properties of the People unlimited and uncon- 
trouled; and disregarding their humble Petitions for Peace, Liberty and safety, have 
made divers Legislative Acts, denouncing War Famine and every Species of Calamity 
against the Continent in General. That British Fleets and Armies have been and still are 
daily employed in destroying the People and committing the most horrid devastations 
on the Country. That Governors in different Colonies have declared Protection to 
Slaves who should imbrue their Hands in the Blood of their Masters. That the Ships be- 
longing to America are declared prizes of War and many of them have been violently 
seized and confiscated in consequence of which multitudes of the people have been de- 
stroyed or from easy Circumstances reduced to the most Lamentable distress. 

"And whereas the moderation hitherto manifested by the United Colonies and their 
sincere desire to be reconciled to the mother Country on Constitutional Principles, have 
procured no mitigation of the aforesaid Wrongs and usurpations and no hopes remain 
of obtaining redress by those Means alone which have been hitherto tried, Your Com- 
mittee are of Opinion that the house should enter into the following Resolve, to wit 

"Resolved that the delegates for this Colony in the Continental Congress be im- 
powered to concur with the delegates of the other Colonies in declaring Independency, 
and forming foreign Alliances, resolving to this Colony the Sole, and Exclusive right of 
forming a Constitution and Laws for this Colony, and of appointing delegates from 
time to time (under the direction of a general Representation thereof) to meet the dele- 
gates of the other Colonies for such purposes as shall be hereafter pointed out." 



*The Halifax Resolves were unanimously adopted on April 12, 1776 by the 83 delegates present at the Fourth 
Provincial Congress assembled in Halifax. This was the first official action calling for independence taken by a 
state. It is important not only for this reason, but also because it was not a unilateral recommendation, but rather 
one directed to all the colonies and their delegates assembled at the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. Vir- 
ginia followed soon after and on July 4 the final draft of the Declaration of Independence was signed. 



40 North Carolina Manual 

THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 

(Unanimously Adopted in Congress, July 4, 1776, at Philadelphia) 

When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve 
the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the 
powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of 
Nature's God entitles them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that 
they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. 

We hold these truths to be self-evident: That all men are created equal; that they are 
endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable Rights; that among these are Life, 
Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That, to secure these rights, Governments are in- 
stituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; That, 
whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of 
the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its founda- 
tions on such principles, and organizing its powers in such forms, as to them shall seem 
most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that 
Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; 
and, accordingly, all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, 
while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they 
are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably 
the same Object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their 
right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for 
their future security. Such has been the patient sufference of these Colonies, and such is 
now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. 
The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and 
usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over 
these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world. 

He has refused his assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public 
good. 

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, 
unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and, when so sus- 
pended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them. 

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, 
unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature — a 
right inestimable to them, and formidable to tyrants only. 

He has called together legislative bodies at placed unusual, uncomfortable and dis- 
tant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them 
into compliance with his measures. 

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firm- 
ness his invasions on the rights of the people. 

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; 
whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People 
at large for their exercise; the State remaining, in the meantime, exposed to all the dan- 
gers of invasion from without, and convulsions within. 

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States for that purpose ob- 
structing the Laws of Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage 



Historical Miscellanea 41 



their migration hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands. 

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his assent to laws for es- 
tablishing Judiciary Powers. 

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and 
the amount and payment of their salaries. 

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to har- 
ass our people, and eat out their substance. 

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of 
Our Legislature. 

He has affected to render the Military independent of, and superior to, the Civil 
power. 

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitu- 
tion, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Leg- 
islation. For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: 

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they 
should commit on the inhabitants of these States: 

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world: 

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: 

For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by jury: 

For transporting us beyond Seas, to be tried for pretended offenses; 

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighboring Province, estab- 
lishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries, so as to render it 
at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these 
Colonies: 

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fun- 
damentally, the Forms of our Governments: 

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power 
to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. 

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging 
War against us. 

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the 
lives of our people. 

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign mercenaries to complete the 
works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty 
and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the 
Head of a civilized nation. 

He has constrained our fellow-Citizens, taken captive on the high Seas, to bear Arms 
against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to 
fall themselves by their Hands. 

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on 
the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of war- 
fare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions. 

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most hum- 
ble terms; Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, 
whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be 
the ruler of a free people. 



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North Carolina Manual 



Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have warned them 
from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdic- 
tion over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settle- 
ment here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have con- 
jured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpation, which in- 
evitably interrupt our connections with correspondence. They, too, have been deaf to 
the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, 
which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind — 
Enemies in War, in Peace Friends. 

We, Therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in General 
Congress Assembled; appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of 
our intentions, do, in the Name and by authority of the good People of these Colonies, 
solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be 
free and independent States; that they are Absolved from All Allegiance to the British 
Crown, and that all political connections between them and the State of Great Britain 
is, and ought to be, totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they 
have full power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, 
and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for 
the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Provi- 
dence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred 
Honor. 



Button Gwinnett 

Lyman Hall 

Geofrge] Walton 

Wfilliajm Hooper 

Joseph Hewes 

John Penn 

Tho[ma]s Stone 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton 

James Wilson 

Geofrge] Ross 

Caesar Rodney 

Geofrge] Reed 

Tho. M. Kean 

W[illia]m Floyd 

Phil [lip] Livingston 

Franfcijs Lewis 

Lewis Morris 

Rich[ar]d Stockton 

J[onatha]n Witherspoon 

Fras. Hopkinson 

John Hart 

Abra Clark 

George Wythe 

Richard Henry Lee 

Thfomas] Jefferson 

Benja[min] Harrison 

Tho[ma]s Nelson, Jr. 

Francis Lightfoot Lee 



John Hancock 

Edward Rutledge 
Thomas Heyward, Junr. 
Thomas Lynch, Junr. 
Arthur Middleton 
Samuel Chase 
W[illia] Paca 
Carter Braxton 
Rob[er]t Morris 
Benjamin Rush 
Benja[min] Franklin 
John Morton 
Geofrge] Clymer 
Ja[me]s Smith 
Geofrge] Taylor 
Josiah Bartlett 
Wfilliajm Hippie 
Sam[ue]l Adams 
John Adams 
Rob[er]t Treat Payne 
Eldridge Gerry 
Stepfhen] Hopkins 
William Ellery 
Roger Sherman 
Samuel Huntington 
Wfilliajm Williams 
Oliver Woolcott 
Matthew Thornton 



Historical Miscellanea 43 

THE AMERICAN FLAG 
Its Origin 

In 1775, the Philadelphia Troop of Light Horse carried a standard with thirteen alter- 
nate blue and silver stripes in the upper left-hand corner. At Cambridge on January 2, 
1776, Washington without authorization of the Continental Congress raised a flag con- 
sisting of thirteen alternate white and red stripes with the crosses of St. George and St. 
Andrew in the blue field on the upper left-hand corner. It was called the "Union Flag," 
"Grand Union Flag," and the "Continental Flag," and was employed until displaced 
by the Stars and Stripes adopted by the Continental Congress. 

The beautiful tradition that Betsy Ross, as early as June 1776, made a Stars and 
Stripes flag from a pencil sketch supplied by Washington but changed the points of the 
stars from six to five, has become a classic. Historians doubt its accuracy. Haifa dozen 
localities claim to have been the place where the Stars and Stripes was first used. Within 
New York State such contention has been for Fort Ann on July 8, Fort Stanwix on 
August 3, Bennington on August 13, and Saratoga on September 19, 1777. The flag with 
thirteen stripes and thirteen stars, authorized on June 14, 1777, continued to be used as 
the national emblem until Congress passed the following act, which President Washing- 
ton signed: 

"That from and after May 1, 1795, the flag of the United States be fifteen stripes, al- 
ternate red and white; and that the union be fifteen stars, white in a blue field." 

This action was necessitated by the admission of the States of Vermont and Kentucky 
to the Union. 

The flag of 1795 had the stars arranged in three rows of five each instead of in a circle, 
and served for 23 years. 

With the admission of more new states, however, it became apparent that the 1795 
would have to be further modified; hence in 1818a law was passed by Congress pro- 
viding: 

"That from and after the fourth day of July next, the flag of the United States be thir- 
teen horizontal stripes, alternate red and white; that the union have twenty stars, white 
in a blue field. 

"That on the admission of every new state into the Union, one star be added to the 
union of the flag; and that such addition shall take effect on the Fourth of July next suc- 
ceeding such admission." 

Since 1818 additional stars have been added until today they are 50 on the flag. No 
law has been passed to designate how the stars shall be arranged. At one time they 
formed a design of a larger star. Now they form five rows of six stars each and four rows 
of five stars each. 

Betsy Ross, it is now said, lived at 233 Arch Street, Philadelphia, and not at 239. She 
made flags, but says Theodore D. Gottlieb, she never made the first Stars and Stripes. 
He adds: 

The Department of State, the War and Navy departments, the Historical Sites Com- 
mission of Philadelphia and other official bodies repudiate the legend. The book and 
pamphlet material available is overwhelmingly against the legend. 

The story arose for the first time on March 14, 1870, when William J. Canby read a 
paper before the Pennsylvania Historical Society in which he states that in 1836, when 
his grandmother, Betsy Ross, was 84 years old and he was 1 1, she told him the story. He 
apparently thought little of it because nothing was done until 1857, when at the sugges- 



44 



North Carolina Manual 










Historical Miscellanea 45 



tion of his Aunt Clarissa, oldest daughter of Betsy, he wrote out the notes as he remem- 
bered the conversation. 

Nothing further was done until 1870 when he wrote his paper. The Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania thought so little of the paper it neither catalogued nor kept a copy of it. 
Even George Canby, younger brother of William, disputed several points in the paper. 

The legend grew to strength from 1888 to 1893 when promotors secured an option on 
the so-called Flag House. 

Modern historical researchers are giving much thought to Francis Hopkinson of New 
Jersey as the possible designer and the Fillmore or Bennington flag as the first flag. 



The Proper Display 

SEC. 1. That the following codification of existing rules and customs pertaining to 
the display and use of the flag of the United States of America be, and is hereby, estab- 
lished for the use of such civilians or civilian groups or organizations as may not be re- 
quired to conform with regulations promulgated by one or more executive departments 
of the Government of the United States. The flag of the United States for the purpose of 
this chapter shall be defined according to title 4, United States Code, Chapter 1, section 
1 and section 2 and Executive Order 10834 issued pursuant thereto. 

SEC. 2(a) It is the universal custom to display the flag only from sunrise to sunset on 
buildings and on stationary flagstaffs in the open. However, when a patriotic effect is 
desired, the flag may be displayed twenty-four hours a day if properly illuminated dur- 
ing the hours of darkness. 

(b) The flag should be hoisted briskly and lowered ceremoniously. 

(c) The flag should not be displayed on days when the weather is inclement, 
except when an all weather flag is displayed. 

(d) The flag should be displayed on all days, especially on New Year's Day, 
January 1; Inauguration Day, January 20; Lincoln's Birthday, February 12; Washing- 
ton's Birthday, third Monday in February; Easter Sunday (variable); Mother's Day, 
second Sunday in May; Armed Forces Day, third Saturday in May; Memorial Day 
(half-staff until noon), the last Monday in May; Flag Day, June 14; Independence Day, 
July 4; Labor Day, first Monday in September; Constitution Day, September 17; Col- 
umbus Day, second Monday in October; Navy Day, October 27; Veterans Day, No- 
vember 11; Thanksgiving Day, fourth Thursday in November; Christmas Day, Decem- 
ber 25; and such other days as may be proclaimed by the President of the United States: 
The birthdays of States (date of admission); and on State holidays. 

(e) The flag should be displayed daily on or near the main administration 
building of every public institution. 

(0 The flag should be displayed in or near every polling place on election 
days. 

(g) The flag should be displayed during school days in or near every school- 
house. 



* Public Law 94-344 (94th Congress, S.J. Resolution 49, July 7, 1976.) 



46 North Carolina Manual 



SEC. 3 That the flag, when carried in a procession with another flag or flags, should 
be either on the marching right; that is, the flag's own right, or, if there is a line of other 
flags, in front of the center of that line. 

(a) The flag should not be displayed on a float in a parade except from a staff, 
or as provided in subsection (i). 

(b) The flag should not be draped over the hood, top, sides, or back of a vehi- 
cle or of a railroad train or a boat. When the flag is displayed on a motor car, the staff 
should be fixed firmly to the chassis or clamped to the right fender. 

(c) No other flag or pennant should be placed above or, if on the same level, 
to the right of the flag of the United States of America, except during church services 
conducted by naval chaplains at sea, when the church pennant may be flown above the 
flag during church services for the personnel of the Navy. 

(d) The flag of the United States of America, when it is displayed with an- 
other flag against a wall from crossed staffs, should be on the right, and its staff should 
be in front of the staff of the other flag. 

(e) The flag of the United States of America should be at the center and at the 
highest point of the group when a number of flags of States or localities or pennants of 
societies are grouped and displayed from staffs. 

(f) When flags of states, cities, or localities, or pennants of societies are flown 
on the same halyard with the flag of the United States, the latter should always be at the 
peak. When the flags are flown from adjacent staffs, the flag of the United States should 
be hoisted first and lowered last. No such flag or pennant may be placed above the flag 
of the United States or to the United States Flag's right. 

(g) When flags of two or more nations are displayed, they are to be flown 
from separate staffs of the same height. The flags should be of approximately equal size. 
International usage forbids the display of the flag of one nation above that of another 
nation in time of peace. 

(h) When the flag of the United States is displayed from a staff projecting 
horizontally or at an angle from the window sill, balcony, or front of a building, the 
union of the flag should be placed at the peak of the staff unless the flag is at half staff. 
When the flag is suspended over a sidewalk from a rope extending from a house to a 
pole at the edge of the sidewalk, the flag should be hoisted out, union first, from the 
building. 

(i) When displayed either horizontally or vertically against a wall, the union 
should be uppermost and to the flag's own right, that is, to the observer's left. When dis- 
played in a window, the flag should be displayed in the same way, with the union or blue 
field to the left of the observer in the street. 

(j) When the flag is displayed over the middle of the street, it should be sus- 
pended vertically with the union to the north in an east and west street or to the east in a 
north and south street. 

(k) When used on a speaker's platform, the flag, if displayed flat should be 
displayed above and behind the speaker. When displayed from a staff in a church or 
public auditorium, the flag of the United States of America should hold the position of 
superior prominence, in advance of the audience, and in the position of honor at the 
clergyman's or speaker's right as he faces the audience. Any other flag so displayed 
should be placed on the left of the clergyman or speaker or to the right of the audience. 






Historical Miscellanea 47 



(1) The flag should form a distinctive feature of the ceremony of unveiling a 
statue or monument, but it should never be used as the covering for the statue or monu- 
ment. 

(m) The flag, when flown at half-staff, should be first hoisted to the peak for 
an instant and then lowered to the half-staff position. The flag should be again raised to 
the peak before it is lowered for the day. On Memorial Day the flag should be displayed 
at half-staff until noon only, then raised to the top of the staff. By order of the Presi- 
dent, the flag shall be flown at half-staff upon the death of principal figures of the 
United States Government and the Governor of a State, territory, or possession, as a 
mark of respect to their memory. In the event of the death of other officials or foreign 
dignitaries, the flag is to be displayed at half-staff according to Presidential instructions 
or orders, or in accordance with recognized customs or practices not inconsistent with 
law. In the event of the death of a present or former official of the government of any 
State, territory, or possession of the United States, the Governor of that State, territory, 
or possession may proclaim that the National flag shall be flown at half-staff. The flag 
shall be flown at half-staff thirty days from the death of the President or a former Presi- 
dent; ten days from the day of death of the Vice president, the Chief Justice or a retired 
Chief Justice of the United States, or the Speaker of the House of Representatives; from 
the day of death until interment of an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, a Secre- 
tary of an executive or military department, a former Vice President, or the Governor of 
a State, territory, or possession; and on the day of death and the following day for a 
Member of Congress. As used in this subsection — 

( 1 ) the term 'half-staff means the position of the flag when it is one-half 
the distance between the top and bottom of the staff; 

(2) the term 'executive or military department' means any agency listed 
under sections 101 and 102 of title 5, United States Code; and 

(3) the term 'Member of Congress' means a Senator, a Representative, a 
Delegate, or the Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico. 

(n) When the flag is used to cover a casket, it should be so placed that the 
union is at the head and over the left shoulder. The flag should not be lowered into the 
grave or allowed to touch the ground. 

(o) When the flag is suspended across a corridor or lobby in a building with 
only one main entrance, it should be suspended vertically with the union of the flag to 
the observer's left upon entering. If the building has more than one main entrance, the 
flag should be suspended vertically near the center of the corridor or lobby with the 
union to the north, when entrances are to the east and west or to the east when en- 
trances are to the north and south. If there are entrances in more than two directions, 
the union should be to the east. 

SEC. 4 That no disrespect should be shown to the flag of the United States of Ameri- 
ca; the flag should not be dipped to any person or thing. Regimental colors, State flags, 
and organization or institutional flags are to be dipped as a mark of honor. 

(a) The flag should never be displayed with the union down, except as a signal 
of dire distress in instances of extreme danger to life or property. 

(b) The flag should never touch anything beneath it, such as the ground, the 
floor, water, or merchandise. 



48 North Carolina Manual 



(c) The flag should never be carried flat or horizontally, but always aloft and 
free. 

(d) The flag should never be used as wearing apparel, bedding, or drapery. It 
should never be festooned, drawn back, nor up, in folds, but always allowed to fall free. 
Bunting of blue, white, and red, always arranged with the blue above, the white in the 
middle, and red below, should be used for covering a speaker's desk, draping the front 
of the platform, and for decoration in general. 

(e) The flag should never be fastened, displayed, used, or stored in such a 
manner as to permit it to be easily torn, soiled, or damaged in any way. 

(f) The flag should never be used as a covering for a ceiling. 

(g) The flag should never have placed upon it, nor on any part of it, nor at- 
tached to it any mark, insignia, letter, word, figure, design, picture, or drawing of any 
nature. 

(h) The flag should never be used as a receptacle for receiving, holding, carry- 
ing or delivering anything. 

(i) The flag should never be used for advertising purposes in any manner 
whatsoever. It should not be embroidered on such articles as cushions or handkerchiefs 
and the like, printed or otherwise impressed on paper napkins or boxes or anything that 
is designed for temporary use and discard. Advertising signs should not be fastened to a 
staff or halyard from which the flag is flown. 

(j) No part of the flag should ever be used as a costume or athletic uniform. 
However, a flag patch may be affixed to the uniform of military personnel, firemen, 
policemen, and members of patriotic organizations. The flag represents a living country 
and is itself considered a living thing. Therefore, the lapel flag pin being a replica, 
should be worn on the left lapel near the heart. 

(k) The flag, when it is in such condition that it is no longer a fitting emblem 
for display, should be destroyed in a dignified way, preferably by burning. 

SEC. 5 During the ceremony of hoisting or lowering the flag or when the flag is pass- 
ing in a parade or in review, all persons present except those in uniform should face the 
flag and stand at attention with the right hand over the heart. Those present in uniform 
should render the military salute. When not in uniform, men should remove their head- 
dress with their right hand and hold it at the left shoulder, the hand being over the heart. 
Aliens should stand at attention. The salute to the flag in a moving column should be 
rendered at the moment the flag passes. 

SEC. 6 During rendition of the national anthem when the flag is displayed, all pres- 
ent except those in uniform should stand at attention facing the flag with the right hand 
over the heart. Men not in uniform should remove their headdress with their right hand 
and hold it at the left shoulder, the hand being over the heart. Persons in uniform 
should render the military salute at the first note of the anthem and retain this position 
until the last note. When the flag is not displayed, those present should face toward the 
music and act in the same manner they would if the flag were displayed there. 

SEC. 7 The Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag, 'I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the 
United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands, one Nation under 
God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all', should be rendered by standing at at- 
tention facing the flag with the right hand over the heart. When not in uniform men 
should remove their headdress with their right hand and hold it at the left shoulder, the 



Historical Miscellanea 49 



hand being over the heart. Persons in uniform should remain silent, face the flag and 
render the military salute. 

SEC. 8 Any rule or custom pertaining to the display of the flag of the United States 
of America, set forth herein, may be altered, modified, or repealed, or additional rules 
with respect thereto may be prescribed, by the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed 
Forces of the United States, whenever he deems it to be appropriate or desirable; and 
any such alteration or additional rule shall be set forth in a proclamation. 

The Pledge 

"I pledge allegiance to the flag 

of the United States of America, 

And to the Republic for which it stands. 

One Nation under God, indivisible, 

With liberty and justice for all." 

The Pledge to the Flag, according to a report of the Historical Committee of the 
United States Flag Association (May 18, 1939), was written by Francis Bellamy (August 
1892), a member of the editorial staff of The Youth's Companion, in Boston, Massachu- 
setts. It was first repeated at the exercises in connection with the celebration of Colum- 
bus Day (October 12, 1892, Old Style). The idea of this national celebration on Colum- 
bus Day was largely that of James B. Upham, one of the junior proprietors of The 
Youth's Companion. 

Francis Hopkinson, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, was the designer of 
the Stars and Stripes — not Betsy Ross of Philadelphia, who made flags. He also de- 
signed the first Great Seal of the United States, a number of coins and several items of 
paper currency in the early days of the Republic. 

Hopkinson, born in Philadelphia (September 21, 1737), and a graduate of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, was the first native American composer of a secular song, "My 
Days Have Been So Wondrous Free." He was a lawyer and later a judge in New Jersey 
and then in Pennsylvania. He died in Philadelphia (May 9, 1791). His portrait, painted 
by himself, hangs in the rooms of the Pennsylvania Historical Society, Philadelphia. He 
played the organ and harpsichord. 



Historical Miscellanea 51 



THE STATE BIRD 

By popular choice the Cardinal was selected for adoption as our State Bird as of 
March 4, 1943. (Session Laws, 1943 c. 595; G. S. 145-2.) 

This bird is sometimes called the Winter Redbird because it is most conspicuous in 
winter and is the only "redbird" present at that season. It is an all year round resident 
and one of the commonest birds in our gardens and thickets. It is about the size of a 
Catbird with a longer tail, red all over, except that the throat and region around the bill 
is black; the head is conspicuously crested and the large stout bill is red; the female is 
much duller — the red being mostly confined to the crest, wings and tail. There are no 
seasonal changes in the plumage. 

The Cardinal is a fine singer, and what is unusual among birds the female is said to 
sing as well as the male, which latter sex usually has a monopoly of that art in the 
feathered throngs. 

The nest is rather an untidy affiar built of weed stems, grass and similar materials in a 
low shrub, small tree or bunch of briars, usually not over four feet above the ground. 
The usual number of eggs to a set is three in this State, usually four further North. Pos- 
sibly the Cardinal raises an extra brood down here to make up the difference, or pos- 
sibly he can keep up his normal population more easily here through not having to face 
inclement winters of the colder North. A conspicuous bird faces more hazards. 

The Cardinal is by nature a seed eater, but he does not dislike small fruits and insects. 

THE STATE FLOWER 

The General Assembly of 1941 designated the dogwood as the State flower. (Public 
Laws, 1941, c. 289; G.S. 145-1.) 

The Dogwood is one of the most prevalent trees in our State and can be found in all 
parts of the State from the mountains to the coast. Its blossoms which appear in early 
spring and continue on into summer, are most often found in white, although shades of 
pink are not uncommon. 

THE STATE INSECT 

The General Assembly of 1973 designated the Honey Bee as the official State Insect. 
(Session Laws, 1973, c. 55) 

This industrious creature is responsible for the production of more than $2 million 
worth of honey in the state each year. However, its greatest value results from the pol- 
lination of North Carolina crops which is estimated to be worth nearly $50 million an- 
nually. 



Historical Miscellanea 53 



THE STATE TREE 

The pine was officially designated as the State tree by the General Assembly of 1963. 
(Session Laws, 1963, c. 41). 

This choice was not unexpected as the pine is the most common of the trees found in 
North Carolina, as well as the most important one in the history of our State. During 
the Colonial and early Statehood periods, the pine was a vital part of the economy of 
North Carolina. From it came many of the "naval stores" — resin, turpentine, and tim- 
ber — which was needed by merchants and the navy for their ships. It has continued to 
provide North Carolina with a supply of products. 



THE STATE MAMMAL 

The General Assembly of 1969 designated the Gray Squirrel as the official State 
Mammal. (Session Laws, 1969 c. 1207; G. S. 145-5.) 

The gray squirrel is a common inhabitant of most areas of North Carolina from "the 
swamps of eastern North Carolina to the upland hardwood forests of the piedmont and 
western counties." He feels more at home in an "untouched wilderness" environment, 
although a large portion of their population inhabit our city parks and suburbs. During 
the fall and winter months the gray squirrel survives on a diet of hardwoods, with 
acorns providing carbohydrates and other nuts protein. In the spring and summer their 
diet consists of "new growth and fruits" supplemented by early corn, peanuts and in- 
sects. 

NAME OF STATE AND NICKNAMES 

In 1629 King Charles the First of England "erected into a province," all the land 
from Albemarle Sound on the north to the St. John's River on the south, which he di- 
rected should be called Carolina. The word Carolina is from the word Carolus, the 
Latin form of Charles. 

When Carolina was divided in 1710, the southern part was called South Carolina and 
the northern or older settlement was called North Carolina, or the "Old North State." 
Historians had recorded the fact that the principal products of this State were "tar, 
pitch and turpentine." It was during one of the fiercest battles of the War Between the 
States, so the story goes, that the column supporting the North Carolina troops was 
driven from the field. After the battle the North Carolinians, who had successfully 
fought it out alone, were greeted from the passing derelict regiment with the question: 
"Any more tar down in the Old North State, boys?" Quick as a flash came the answer: 
"No; not a bit; old Jeffs bought it all up." "Is that so; what is he going to do with it?" 
was asked. "He is going to put it on you-uns heels to make you stick better in the next 
fight." Creecy relates that General Lee, hearing of the incident, said: "God bless the Tar 
Heel boys," and from that they took the name.( — Adapted from Grandfather Tales oj 
North Carolina by R. B. Creecy and Histories of North Carolina Regiments, Vol. Ill, by 
Walter Clark). 



Historical Miscellanea 55 



THE STATE SHELL 

The General Assembly of 1965 designated the Scotch Bonnet (pronounced bonay) as 
the State Shell. (Session Laws, 1965, c. 681.) 

A colorful and beautifully shaped shell, the Scotch Bonnet is abundant in North 
Carolina coastal waters between 500 and 200 feet deep. The best source of live speci- 
mens is from offshore commercial fisherman. 



THE STATE SALT WATER FISH 

The General Assembly of 1971 designated the Channel Bass (Red Drum) as the offi- 
cial State Salt Water Fish. (Session Laws, 1971, c. 274; G. S. 145-6) 

Channel Bass usually occur in great supply along the Tar Heel coastal waters and 
have been found to weigh up to 75 pounds although most large ones average between 30 
and 40 pounds. 



THE STATE MOTTO 

The General Assembly of 1893 (chapter 145) adopted the words "Esse Quam Videri" 
as the State's motto and directed that these words with the date "20 May, 1775," should 
be placed with our Coat of Arms upon the Great Seal of the State. 

The words "Esse Quam Videri" mean "to be rather than to seem." Nearly every State 
has adopted a motto, generally in Latin. The reason for their mottoes being in Latin is 
that the Latin tongue is far more condensed and terse than the English. The three 
words, "Esse Quam Videri," require at least six English words to express the same idea. 

Curiosity has been aroused to learn the origin of our State motto. It is found in 
Cicero in his essay on Friendship (Cicero de Amnicitia, Chap. 26) 

It is a little singular that until the act of 1893 the soverign State of North Carolina had 
no motto since its declaration of independence. It was one of the very few states which 
did not have a motto and the only one of the original thirteen without one. (Rev., s 
5320; 1893, c. 145; G. S. 144-2.) 

THE STATE COLORS 

The General Assembly of 1945 declared Red and Blue of shades appearing in the 
North Carolina State Flag and the American Flag as the official State Colors. (Session 
Laws, 1945, c. 878.) 



56 



North Carolina Manual 




THE STATE PRECIOUS STONE 

The General Assembly of 1973 designated the emerald as the official State precious 
stone. (Session Laws, 1973, c. 136.) 

A greater variety of minerals, more than 300, have been found in North Carolina 
than any other state. 

These include some of the most valuable and unique gems in the world. The largest 
Emerald in North Carolina is a 1,438-carat specimen found at Hiddenite, near States- 
ville. Also, the "Carolina Emerald," now owned by Tiffany & Company of New York 
was found at Hiddenite in 1970. When cut to 13.14 carats, the stone was valued at 
$100,000 and became the largest and finest cut emerald on this continent. 



Historical Miscellanea 



57 




THE STATE REPTILE 

The General Assembly of 1979 designated the turtle— specifically the Eastern Box 
Turtle — as the official State Reptile for the State of North Carolina. (Session Laws, 
1979, c. 154) 

The turtle is one of nature's most useful creatures. Through its dietary habits it serves 
to assist in the control of harmful and pestiferous insects and as a clean-up crew, helping 
to preserve the purity and beauty of our waters. At a superficial glance, the turtle ap- 
pears to be a mundane and uninteresting creature; however, closer examination reveals 
that it to be a most fascinating creature, ranging from species well adapted to modern 
conditions to species which have existed virtually unchanged since prehistoric times. 
Derided by many, the turtle is really a cullinary delight, providing the gourmet food 
enthusiast with numerous tasty dishes from soups to entries. 

The turtle watches undisturbed as countless generations of faster "hares" run by to 
quick oblivion, and is thus a model of patience for mankind, and a symbol of our State's 
unrelenting pursuit of great and lofty goals. 



58 



North Carolina Manual 







THE STATE ROCK 

The General Assembly of 1979 designated Granite as the official Rock for the State 
of North Carolina. (Session Laws, 1979, C. 906) 

The State of North Carolina has been blessed with an abundant source of "the noble 
rock" granite. Just outside Mount Airy in Surry County is the largest open face granite 
quarry in the world measuring one mile long and 1,800 feet in width. The granite from 
this quarry is unblemished, gleaming and without interfering seams to mar its splendor 
and the high quality of this granite allows its widespread use as a building material, in 
both industrial applications and in laboratory applications where super smooth surfaces 
are a prerequisite. 

North Carolina granite has been used for many magnificent edifices of government 
throughout the United States such as the Wright Brothers Memorial at Kitty Hawk, the 
gold depository at Fort Knox, the Arlington Memorial Bridge and numerous court- 
houses throughout the land. Granite is a symbol of strength and steadfastness, qualities 
characteristic of North Carolinians. It is fitting and just that the State of North Caro- 
lina recognize the contribution of granite in providing employment to its citizens and 
enhancing the beauty of its public buildings. 






Historical Miscellanea 



59 



THE STATE SONG 

The song known as "The Old North State" was adopted as the official song of the 
State of North Carolina by the General Assembly of 1927. (Public Laws, 1927, c. 26; G. 
S. 149-1). 



THE OLD NORTH STATE 



(Traditional air as sung in 1926) 



William Gastob 
Wilh spirit 



Collected and abbahqk 
by Mu. E. E. Bamdolte 




3EEEi 



fefc 



:t 



rf— 



1 



i=3S 



l.Car-o - li • na! Car - o - li - nal heav-en's bless-ingi at - tend her, 

2. Tho' she en - vies not oth - ers, their mer - it - ed glo - ry, 

3. Then let a!! those who love us, love the land that we live hi, 



IOi 



iifcter: 



-. r*- 






v~v T- 



i — r^- 



=fcrt 



r 



:S==»: 



^ — r 1 ? 



mm 



While we live we will cher • ish, pro 

Say whose name stands the fore - most, in 

As hao • py a re • gion as 



tect and 

lib • er 

on this side 



de-fend her, Tho' the 
ty'ssto • ry, Tho' too 
of heav-en, Where 




?m 



^ 3 ^-§ ^^^f=^±~^=g=±S=. 



SS3 



scorn - er -nay sneer at and wit - lings de - fame her, Still our hearts swell with 
true to her - self e'er to crouch to op -pres-sion, Who can yield to just 
plen - ty and peace, love and joy smile be - fore us, Raise a.loud, raiss to- 




glad - ness when ev • er we name her. 
rule a more loy • al sub-mis-sion. Hur 
geth - er the heart thrill - ing chorus. 



rah! 



Hur - rah! 



the 




< ^ ^T— ■ r ^ ■ ^ — - — & j ^ ~ & 



na: 



Hur - rah I the good Old North Stat; 

m 



-&~- 



60 North Carolina Manual 



THE STATE TOAST* 

Officially adopted as the toast of North Carolina by the General Assembly of 1957. 
(Session Laws, 1957, c. 777.) 

Here's to the land of the long leaf pine, 

The summer land where the sun doth shine, 

Where the weak grow strong and the strong grow great, 

Here's to "Down Home," the Old North State! 

Here's to the land of the cotton bloom white, 
Where the scuppernong perfumes the breeze at night, 
Where the soft southern moss and jessamine mate, 
'Neath the murmuring pines of the Old North State! 

Here's to the land where the galax grows, 
Where the rhododendron's rosette glows, 
Where soars Mount Mitchell's summit great, 
In the "Land of the Sky," in the Old North State! 

Here's to the land where maidens are fair, 
Where friends are true and cold hearts rare, 
The near land, the dear land whatever fate, 
The blest land, the best land, the Old North State! 



* Composed in 1904 by Leonora Martin and Mary Burke Kerr. 






Historical Miscellanea 61 



§ 103-4. Dates of public holidays. — (a) The following are declared to be legal public 
holidays: 

(1) New Year's Day, January 1. 

(2) Robert E. Lee's Birthday, January 19. 

(3) Washington's Birthday, the third Monday in February. 

(4) Anniversary of signing of Halifax Resolves, April 12. 

(5) Confederate Memorial Day, May 10. 

(6) Anniversary of Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, May 20. 

(7) Memorial Day, the last Monday in May. 

(8) Easter Monday. 

(9) Independence Day, July 4. 

(10) Labor Day, the first Monday in September. 

(11) Columbus Day, the second Monday in October. 
(11a) Yom Kippur. 

(12) Veterans Day, November 11. 

(13) Tuesday after the first Monday in November in years in which a general elec- 
tion is to be held. 

(14) Thanksgiving Day, the fourth Thursday in November. 

(15) Christmas Day, December 25. 

Provided that Easter Monday and Memorial Day, the last Monday in May, shall be a 
holiday for all State and national lbanks only. 

(b) Whenever any public holiday shall fall upon Sunday, the Monday following shall 
be a public holiday. (1881, c. 294; Code, s. 3784; 1891, c. 58; 1899, c. 410; 1901, c. 25; 
Rev., s. 2838; 1907, c. 996; 1909, c. 888; 1919, c. 287; C. S., s. 2959; 1935, c. 212; 1959, c. 
1011; 1969, c. 521; 1973, c. 53; 1979, c. 84.) 



PART II 

CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT 

OF NORTH CAROLINA 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina 65 

Chapter One 

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE 
CONSTITUTIONS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



by 
John L. Sanders* 

North Carolina has had three Constitutions in her history as a State: the Constitution 
of 1776, the Constitution of 1868, and the Constitution of 1971. 

Constitution of 1776 

Drafted and promulgated by the Fifth Provincial Congress in December, 1776, with- 
out submission to the people, the Constitution of 1776 and its separate but accompany- 
ing Declaration of Rights sketched the main outlines of the new state government and 
secured the rights of the citizen from governmental interference. While the principle of 
separation of powers was explicitly affirmed and the familiar three branches of govern- 
ment were provided for, the true center of power lay in the General Assembly. That 
body not only exercised full legislative power; it also chose all the state executive and ju- 
dicial officers, the former for short terms and the judges for life. 

Profound distrust of the executive power is evident throughout the document. The 
Governor was chosen by the legislature for a one-year term and was eligible for only 
three terms in six years. The little power granted him was hedged about in many in- 
stances by requiring for its exercise the concurrence of a seven-member Council of State 
chosen by the legislature. 

Judicial offices were established, but the court system itself was left to legislative de- 
sign. No system of local government was prescribed by the Constitution, although the 
offices of justice of the peace, sheriff, coroner, and constable were created. 

The system of legislative representation was based on units of local government. The 
voters of each county elected one Senator and two members of the House of Commons, 
while six (later seven) towns each elected one member of the House. It was distinctly a 
property owner's government, for only landowners could vote for Senators until 1857, 
and progressive property qualifications were required of members of the House, Sena- 
tors, and the Governor until 1868. Legislators were the only state officers who were 
elected by the people until 1836. 

Dissatisfaction with the legislative representation system, which gave no direct recog- 
nition to population, resulted in the Convention of 1835. Extensive constitutional 
amendments adopted by that Convention were ratified by vote of the people, 26,771 to 
21,606, on November 9, 1835. The Amendments of 1835 fixed the membership of the 
Senate and House at their present levels, 50 and 120. The House apportionment formu- 

*John L. Sanders is Director of the Institute of Government at The University of North Carolina at Chapel 
Hill. (The editor has made some changes to bring portions of the text up to date.) 



66 North Carolina Manual 



la then devised gave one seat to each county and distributed the remainder of the 
seats — nearly half of them at that time — according to a mathematical formula favoring 
the more populous counties. From 1836 until 1868, Senators were elected from districts 
laid out according to the amount of taxes paid to the State from the respective counties, 
thus effecting senatorial representation in proportion to property values. 

The Amendments of 1835 also made the Governor popularly elective for a two-year 
term, greatly strengthening that office; relaxed the religious qualifications for office 
holding; abolished free Negro suffrage; equalized the capitation tax on slaves and free 
white males; prohibited the General Assembly from granting divorces, legitimating per- 
sons, or changing personal names by private act; specified procedures for the impeach- 
ment of state officers and the removalal of judges for disability; made legislative ses- 
sions biennial instead of annual; and provided methods of amending the Constitution. 
Following the precedent established in amending the United States Constitution, the 
1835 amendments were appended to the Constitution of 1776, not incorporated in it as 
is the modern practice. 

The Convention of 1861-62, called by act of the General Assembly, took the State out 
of the Union and into the Confederacy and adopted a dozen constitutional amend- 
ments. These were promulgated by the Convention without the necessity of voter ap- 
proval, a procedure that was permitted by the Constitution until 1971. 

The Convention of 1 865-66, called by the Provisional Governor on orders of the Pres- 
ident, nullified secession and abolished slavery, with voter approval, in 1865. It also 
drafted a revised Consitution in 1866. That document was largely a restatement of the 
Constitution of 1776 and the 1835 amendments, plus several new features. It was reject- 
ed by a vote of 21,770 to 19,880 on August 2, 1866. 

Constitution of 1868 

The Convention of 1868, called upon the initiative of Congress but with a popular 
vote of approval, wrote a new Constitution which the people ratified in April of 1 868 by 
a vote of 93,086 to 74,016. Drafted and put through the Convention by a combination 
of native Republicans and a few Carpetbaggers, the Constitution was highly unpopular 
with the more conservative elements of the State. For its time it was a progressive and 
democratic instrument of government. In this respect it differed markedly from the pro- 
posed Constitution of 1866. The Constitution of 1868 was an amalgam of provisions 
copied or adapted from the Declaration of Rights of 1 776, the Constitution of 1 776 and 
its amendments, the proposed Constitution of 1866, and the constitutions of other 
states, together with some new and original provisions. Although often amended, a ma- 
jority of the provisions of that document remained intact until 1971, and the Constitu- 
tion of 1971 brought forward much of the 1868 language with little or no change. 

The Constitution of 1868 incorporated the 1776 Declaration of Rights into the Con- 
stitution as Article I and added several important guarantees. To the people was given 
the power to elect all significant state executive officers, all judges, and all county offi- 
cials, as well as legislators. All property qualifications for voting and office holding were 
abolished. The plan of representation in the Senate was changed from a property to a 
popular basis, and the 1835 House apportionment plan was retained. Annual legislative 
sessions were restored. 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina 67 



The executive branch of government was strengthened by popular election for four- 
year terms of office and the Governor's powers were increased significantly. 

A simple and uniform court system was established with the jurisdiction of each court 
fixed in the Constitution. The distinctions between actions at law and suits in equity 
were abolished. 

For the first time, detailed constitutional provision was made for a system of taxa- 
tion, and the powers of the General Assembly to levy taxes and to borrow money were 
limited. Homestead and personal property exemptions were granted. Free public 
schools were called for and the maintenance of penal and charitable institutions by the 
State was commanded. A uniform scheme of county and township government was pre- 
scribed. 

The declared objective of the Conservative Party (under whose banner the older na- 
tive political leaders grouped themselves) was to repeal the Constitution of 1868 at the 
earliest opportunity. When the Conservative Party gained control of the General As- 
sembly in 1870, a proposal to call a convention of the people to revise the constitution 
was submitted by the General Assembly to the voters and rejected in 1871 by a vote of 
95,252 to 86,007. 

The General Assembly thereupon resorted to the legislative initiative for amending 
the Constitution. That procedure then called for legislative approval of each proposed 
amendment at two successive sessions, followed by a vote of the people on the amend- 
ment. The 1871-72 legislative session adopted an act calling for about three dozen 
amendments to the Constitution which had the general purpose of restoring to the Gen- 
eral Assembly the bulk of the power over local government, the courts, and the public 
schools and the University that had been taken from it by the Constitution of 1868. The 
1872-73 session of the General Assembly approved for the second time and submitted to 
the people only eight of those amendments, all of which were approved by the voters in 
1873 by wide margins. These amendments restored biennial sessions of the General As- 
sembly, transferred control of the University of North Carolina from the State Board of 
Education to the General Assembly, abolished various new state offices, altered the 
double office-holding prohibition, and repealed the prohibition against repudiation of 
the state debt. 

In 1875, the General Assembly called a convention of the people to consider constitu- 
tional revision. No confirmation of that action by popular referendum was had, and 
none was then constitutionally required. The Convention of 1875 (the most recent in the 
State's history) sat for five weeks in the fall of that year. It was a limited convention, cer- 
tain actions — for example, the reinstatement of property qualifications for office- 
holding or voting — being forbidden to it. 

The Convention of 1 875 adopted and the voters on November 7, 1 876, approved by a 
vote of 120,159 to 106,554 a set of 30 amendments affecting 36 sections of the Constitu- 
tion. These amendments (which took effect on January 1, 1877) prohibited secret politi- 
cal societies, moved the legislative convening date from November of even numbered 
years to January of odd-numbered years, fixed in the Constitution for the first time the 
rate of legislative compensation, called for legislation establishing a State Department 
of Agriculture, abandoned the simplicity and uniformity of the 1868 court system by 
giving the General Assembly power to determine the jurisdiction of all courts below the 
Supreme Court and to establish such courts inferior to the Supreme Court as it might 



68 North Carolina Manual 



see fit, reduced the Supreme Court from five to three members, required Superior Court 
judges to rotate among all judicial districts of the State, disqualified for voting persons 
guilty of certain crimes, established a one-year residency requirement for voting, re- 
quired non-discriminatory racial segregation in the public schools, gave the General As- 
sembly full power to revise or abolish the form and powers of county and township gov- 
ernments, and simplified the procedure for constitutional amendment by providing that 
the General Assembly might by act adopted by three-fifths of each house at one legisla- 
tive session submit an amendment to the voters of the State (thus eliminating the former 
requirement of enactment by two successive sessions of the General Assembly). The 
principle effect of the amendments of 1873 and 1875 was to restore in considerable 
measure the former power of the General Assembly, particularly as to the courts and lo- 
cal government. 

The amendments framed by the Convention of 1875 seem to have satisfied most of 
the need for constitutional change for a generation, for only four amendments were sub- 
mitted by the General Assembly to the voters throughout the remainder of the nine- 
teenth century. Three of them were ratified; one failed. 

In 1900 the suffrage article was revised to add the literacy test and poll tax require- 
ment for voting (the latter provision was repealed in 1920). A slate often amendments 
prepared by a constitutional commission and proposed by the General Assembly in 
1913 was rejected by the voters in 1914. With the passage of time and amendments, the 
attitude towards the Constitution of 1868 had changed from resentment to a reverence 
so great that until the second third of the twentieth century, amendments were very dif- 
ficult to obtain. Between 1900 and 1933, the voters ratified 15 and rejected 20 amend- 
ments. During the first third of this century, nevertheless, amendments were adopted 
lengthening the school term from four to six months, prohibiting legislative charters to 
private corporations, authorizing special Superior Court judges, further limiting the 
General Assembly's powers to levy taxes and incur debt, and abolishing the poll tax re- 
quirement for voting and reducing the residence qualification for voters. Amendments 
designed to restrict the legislature's power to enact local, private, and special legislation 
were made partly ineffective by judicial interpretation. 

A significant effort at general revision of the Constitution was made in 1931-33. A 
Constitutional Commission created by the General Assembly of 1931 drafted and the 
General Assembly of 1933 approved a revised Constitution. Blocked by a technicality 
raised in an advisory opinion of the State Supreme Court, the proposed Constitution of 
1933 never reached the voters for approval. It would have granted the Governor the 
veto power; given to a Judicial Council composed of all the judges of the Supreme and 
Superior Courts power to make all rules of practice and procedure in the courts inferior 
to the Supreme Court; required the creation of inferior courts by general laws only; re- 
moved most of the limitations on the taxing powers of the General Assembly; required 
the General Assembly to provide for the organization and powers of local governments 
by general law only; established an appointive State Board of Education with general 
supervision over the public school system; and set forth an enlightened policy of state 
responsibility for the maintenance of educational, charitable, and reformatory institu- 
tions and programs. 

Several provisions of the proposed Constitution of 1933 were later incorporated into 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina 69 



the Constitution by individual amendments, and to a limited extent it served as a model 
for the work of the 1957-59 Constitutional Commission. 

Between the mid-1930's and the late 1950's, greater receptiveness to constitutional 
change resulted in amendments authorizing the classification of property for taxation; 
strengthening the limitations upon public debt; authorizing the General Assembly to 
enlarge the Supreme Court, divide the State into judicial divisions, increase the number 
of Superior Court judges, and create a Department of Justice under the Attorney Gen- 
eral; enlarging the Council of State by three members; creating a new, appointive State 
Board of Education with general supervision of the schools; permitting women to serve 
as jurors; transferring the Governor's power to assign judges to the Chief Justice and his 
parole power to a Board of Paroles; permitting the waiver of indictment in non-capital 
cases; raising the compensation of the General Assembly and authorizing legislative ex- 
pense allowances; increasing the general purpose property tax levy limitation and the 
maximum income tax rate, and authorizing the closing of public schools on a local op- 
tion basis and the payment of educational expense grants in certain cases. 

The increased legislative and public willingness to accept constitutional change be- 
tween 1934 and 1960 resulted in 32 constitutional amendments being ratified by the 
voters while only six were rejected. 

At the request of Governor Luther H. Hodges, the General Assembly of 1957 author- 
ized the Governor to appoint a fifteen-member Constitutional Commission to study the 
need for changes in the Constitution and to make recommendations to the Governor 
and the 1959 General Assembly. 

That Commission recommended rewriting the whole Constitution and submitting it 
to the voters for approval or disapproval as a unit, the changes suggested being too nu- 
merous to be effected by individual amendments. The proposed Constitution drafted by 
the Commission represented in large part a careful job of editorial pruning, rearrange- 
ment, clarification, and modernization, but it also included several significant substan- 
tive changes. The Senate would have been increased from 50 to 60 members and the ini- 
tiative (but not the sole authority) for decennial redistricting of the Senate would have 
been shifted from the General Assembly to an ex-officio committee of three legislative 
officers. Decennial reapportionment of the House of Representatives would have been 
made a duty of the Speaker of the House, rather than of the General Assembly as a 
whole. Problems of succession to constitutional State executive offices and of determi- 
nation of issues of officers' disability would have been either resolved in the Constitu- 
tion or their resolution assigned to the General Assembly. The authority to classify 
property for taxation and to exempt property from taxation would have been required 
to be exercised only by the General Assembly and only on a uniform, statewide basis. 
The requirement that the public schools constitute a "general and uniform system" 
would have been eliminated, and the constitutional authority of the State Board of Edu- 
cation reduced. Fairly extensive changes were recommended in thejudicial article of the 
Constitution, including the establishment of a General Court of Justice with an Appel- 
late Division, a Superior Court Division, and a Local Trial Court Divsion. A uniform 
system of District Courts and Trial Commissioners would have replaced the existing 
multitude of inferior courts and justices of the peace, the creation of an intermediate 
Court of Appeals would have been provided for, and uniformity of jurisdiction of the 



70 North Carolina Manual 



courts within each division would have been required. Otherwise, the General Assembly 
would have retained essentially its then-existing power over the courts, their jurisdic- 
tion, and their procedures. 

The General Assembly of 1959 also had before it a recommendation for a constitu- 
tional amendment with respect to the court system that had originated with a Court 
Study Committee of the North Carolina Bar Association. In general, the recommenda- 
tions of that Committee called for more fundamental changes in the courts than those 
of the Constitutional Commission. The principal difference between the two sets of rec- 
ommendations lay in the extent of the proposed authority of the General Assembly over 
the courts. The Constitutional Commission generally favored legislative authority over 
the courts and proposed only moderate curtailment of it; the Court Study Committee 
accepted more literally the concept of an independent judiciary and its proposals would 
have minimized the authority of the General Assembly over the courts of the State, 
though structurally, its system would have been much like that of the Constitutional 
Commission. 

The proposed Constitution received extended attention from the General Assembly 
of 1959. The Senate modified and passed the bill to submit the proposed Constitution to 
the voters, but it failed to pass the House, due chiefly to the inability of the supporters 
of the two divergent approaches to court revision to reach agreement. 

As had been true of the proposed Constitution of 1 933, the proposed Constitution of 
1959, though not adopted as a whole, subsequently provided the material for several 
amendment proposals that were submitted individually to the voters and approved by 
them during the next decade. 

In the General Assembly of 1961, the proponents of court reform were successful in 
obtaining enactment of a constitutional amendment, approved by the voters in 1962, 
creating a unified and uniform General Court of Justice for the State. Other amend- 
ments submitted by the same session and approved by the voters provided for the auto- 
matic decennial reapportionament of the State House of Representatives, clarified the 
provisions for succession to elective State executive offices and disability determination, 
authorized a reduction in the residence period for voters for President, allowed in- 
creases in the compensation of elected state executive officers during their terms, and re- 
quired that the power of the General Assembly to classify and exempt property for taxa- 
tion be exercised by it alone and only on a uniform, statewide basis. 

The session of 1963 submitted two amendments: One to enlarge the rights of married 
women to deal with their own property was approved by the voters; one to enlarge the 
Senate from fifty to seventy members and allocate one Representative to each county 
was rejected by the voters. The General Assembly of 1965 submitted and the voters ap- 
proved an amendment authorizing the legislative creation of a Court of Appeals. 

The 1967 General Assembly proposed and the voters approved amendments author- 
izing the General Assembly to fix its own compensation and revising the legislative ap- 
portionment scheme to conform to the judicially-established requirement of representa- 
tion in proportion to population in both houses. 

Constitution of 1971 

From 1869 through 1968, there were submitted to the voters of North Carolina a to- 
tal of 97 propositions for amending the Constitution of the State. All but one of these 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina 71 



proposals originated in the General Assembly. Of those 97 amendment proposals, 69 
were ratified by the voters and 28 were rejected by them. The changing attitude of the 
voters toward constitutional amendments is well illustrated by the fact that from 1869 
to 1933, 21 of the 48 amendment propositions were rejected by the voters, a failure rate 
of three out of seven. Between 1933 and 1968, only seven of 49 proposed amendments 
were rejected by the voters, a failure rate of one out of seven. 

After the amendments of the early 1960's, the pressure for constitutional change 
seemed at the time to have abated. Yet while an increasingly frequently used amend- 
ment process had relieved many of the pressures that otherwise would have strength- 
ened the case for constitutional reform, it had not kept the Constitution current in all 
respects. Constitutional amendments usually were drafted in response to particular 
problems experienced or anticipated and generally they were limited in scope so as to 
achieve the essential goal, while arousing minimum unnecessary opposition. Thus 
amendments sometimes were not as comprehensive as they should have been to avoid 
inconsistency in result. Obsolete and invalid provisions had been allowed to remain in 
the Constitution to mislead the unwary reader. Moreover, in the absence of a compre- 
hensive reappraisal, there had been no recent occasion to reconsider constitutional pro- 
visions that might be obsolescent but might not have proved so frustrating or unpopular 
in their effect as to provoke curative amendments. 

It was perhaps for these reasons that when Governor Dan K. Moore recommended 
to the North Carolina State Bar in the fall of 1 967 that it take the lead in making a study 
of the need for revision of the State Constitution, the response was prompt and affirm- 
ative. The North Carolina State Bar and the North Carolina Bar Association joined to 
create the North Carolina State Constitution Study Commission as a joint agency of the 
two organizations. The 25 members of that commission (fifteen attorneys and ten lay- 
men) were chosen by a steering committee representative of the sponsoring organiza- 
tions. The Chairman of the Commission was former state Chief Justice Emery B. 
Denny. 

The State Constitution Study Commission worked throughout most of 1968. It be- 
came clear early in the course of its proceedings that the amendments the Commission 
wished to propose were too numerous to be submitted to the voters as independent 
propositions. On the other hand, the Commission did not wish to embody all of its pro- 
posed changes in a single document, to be approved or disapproved by the voters on a 
single vote. The compromise procedure developed by the Commission and approved by 
the General Assembly was a blend of the two approaches. The Commission combined 
in a revised text of the Constitution all of the extensive editorial changes that it thought 
should be made in the Constitution, together with such substantive changes as the Com- 
mission deemed not to be controversial or fundamental in nature. These were embodied 
in the document that came to be known as the Constitution of 1971. Those proposals 
for change that were deemed to be sufficiently fundamental or potentially controversial 
in character as to justify it, the Commission set out as independent amendment proposi- 
tions, to be considered by the General Assembly and by the voters of the State on their 
independent merits. Thus the opposition to the latter proposals would not be cumu- 
lated. The separate proposals framed by the Commission were ten in number, including 
one extensive revision of the finance article of the Constitution which was largely the 
work of the Local Government Study Commission, a legislatively-established group 



72 North Carolina Manual 



then at work on the revision of constitutional and statutory provisions with respect to 
local government. The amendments were so drafted that any number or combination of 
them might be ratified by the voters and yet produce a consistent result. 

The General Assembly of 1 969, to which the recommendations of the State Constitu- 
tion Study Commission were submitted, received a total of 28 proposals for constitu- 
tional amendments. Constitutional revision was an active subject of interest throughout 
the session. The proposed Constitution of 1971, in the course of seven roll-call votes 
(four in the House and three in the Senate), received only one negative vote. The inde- 
pendent amendments fared variously; ultimately six were approved by the General As- 
sembly and submitted to the voters. These were the executive reorganization amend- 
ment, the finance amendment, an amendment to the income tax provision of the Consti- 
tution, a reassignment of the benefits of the escheats, authorization for calling extra leg- 
islative sessions on the petition of members of the General Assembly, and abolition of 
the literacy test for voting. All but the last two of these amendments had been recom- 
mended by the State Constitution Study Commission. At the election held on Novem- 
ber 3, 1970, the proposed Constitution of 1971 was approved by a vote of 393,759 to 
251,132. Five of the six separate amendments were approved by the voters; the literacy 
test repeal was rejected. 

The Constitution of 1971 took effect under its own terms on July 1, 1971 (hence its 
designation as the "Constitution of 1971"). So did the executive reorganization amend- 
ment, the income tax amendment, the escheats amendment, and the amendment with 
respect to extra legislative sessions, all of which amended the Constitution of 1971 at the 
instant it took effect. The finance amendment, which made extensive revisions in the 
Constitution of 1971 with respect to debt and local taxation, took effect on July 1, 1973. 
The two-year delay in its effective date was occasioned by the necessity to conform state 
statutes with respect to local government finance to the terms of the agreement. 

The Constitution of 1971, the State Constitution Study Commission stated in its re- 
port recommending its adoption, 

effects a general editorial revision of the constitution .... The deletions, reorganizations, and im- 
provements in the clarity and consistency of language will be found in the proposed constitution. Some 
of the changes are substantive, but none is calculated to impair any present right of the individual citi- 
zen or to bring about any fundamental change in the power of state and local government or the dis- 
tribution of that power. 

In the new Constitution, the old fourteen-article organization of the Constitution was 
retained, but the contents of several articles — notably Articles I, II, III, V, IX, and X — 
were rearranged in more logical sequence. Sections were shifted from one article to an- 
other to make a more logical subject-matter arrangement. Clearly obsolete and consti- 
tutionally invalid matter was omitted, as were provisions essentially legislative in char- 
acter. Uniformity of expression was sought where uniformity of meaning was impor- 
tant. Directness and currency of language were also sought, together with standardiza- 
tion in spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and other essentially editorial matters. 
Greater brevity of the Constitution as a whole was a by-product of the revision, though 
not itself a primary objective. 

The Declaration of Rights (Article I), which dates from 1776 with some 1868 addi- 
tions, was retained with a few additions. The organization of the article was improved 
and the frequently used subjunctive mood was replaced by the imperative in order to 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina 73 



make clear that the provisions of that article are commands and not mere admonitions. 
(For example, "All elections ought to be free" became "All elections shall be free.") To 
the article were added a guarantee of freedom of speech, a guarantee of equal protection 
of the laws, and a prohibition against exclusion from jury service or other discrimina- 
tion by the State on the basis of race or religion. Since all of the rights newly expressed 
in the Constitution of 1971 were already guaranteed by the United States Constitution, 
their inclusion simply constituted an explicit recognition by the State of their impor- 
tance. 

In the course of reorganizing and abbreviating Article III (the Executive), the Gover- 
nor's role as chief executive was brought into clear focus. The scattered statements of 
the Governor's duties were collected in one section, to which was added a brief state- 
ment of his budget powers, formerly merely statutory in origin. No change was made in 
the Governor's eligibility or term, or in the list of state executives previously elected by 
the people. To the Council of State (formerly seven elected executives with the Gover- 
nor as presiding officer) were added the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, and Attorney 
General as ex-officio members. 

Having been entirely rewritten in 1962, the judicial article (Article IV) was the subject 
of little editorial alteration and of no substantive change. 

The editorial amendments to Article V, dealing with finance and taxation, were ex- 
tensive. Provisions concerning finance were transferred to it from four other articles. 
The former finance provisions were expanded in some instances to make clearer the 
meaning of excessively condensed provisions. The only substantive change of note gave 
a wife who is the primary wage-earner in her family the same constitutionally guaran- 
teed income tax exemption now granted a husband who is the chief wage-earner; she al- 
ready had that benefit under statute. 

The revision of Article VI (voting and elections) added out-of-state and federal fel- 
onies to felonies committed against the State of North Carolina as grounds for denial of 
voting and office-holding rights in this State. The General Assembly was directed to en- 
act general laws governing voter registration. 

The provision that has been interpreted to mean that only voters can hold office was 
modified to limit its application to popularly elective offices only; thus it is left to the 
legislature to determine whether one must be a voter in order to hold an appointive of- 
fice. 

The Constitution of 1971 prohibits the concurrent holding of two or more elective 
state offices or of a federal office and an elective state office. It expressly prohibits the 
concurrent holding of any two or more appointive offices or places of trust or profit, or 
of any combination of elective and appointive offices or places of trust or profit, except 
as the General Assembly may allow by general law. 

The power to provide for local government remains in the legislature, confining the 
constitutional provisions on the subject to a general description of the General Assem- 
bly's plenary authority over local government, a declaration that any unit formed by the 
merger of a city and a county should be deemed both a city and a county for constitu- 
tional purposes, and a section retaining the sheriff as an elective county officer. 

The education article (Article IX) was rearranged to improve upon the former hodge- 
podge treatment of public schools and higher education, obsolete provisions (especially 



74 North Carolina Manual 



those pertaining to racial matters) were eliminated, and other changes were made to re- 
flect current practice in the administration and financing of schools. 

The constitutionally-mandated school term was extended from six months (set in 
1918) to a minimum of nine months (where it was fixed by statute many years earlier). 
The possibly restrictive age limits on tuition-free public schooling were removed. Units 
of local government to which the General Assembly assigns a share of responsibility for 
financing public education were authorized to finance from local revenues education 
programs, including both public schools and technical institutes and community col- 
leges, without a popular vote of approval. It was made mandatory (it was formerly per- 
missive) that the General Assembly required school attendance. 

The Superintendent of Public Instruction was eliminated as a voting member of the 
State Board of Education but retained as the Board's secretary. He was replaced with an 
additional at-large appointee. A potential conflict of authority between the Superin- 
tendent and the Board (both of which previously had constitutional authority to admin- 
ister the public schools) was eliminated by making the Superintendent the chief admin- 
istrative officer of the Board, which is to supervise and administer the schools. 

The provisions with respect to the state and county school funds were retained with 
only minor editorial modifications. Fines, penalties, and forfeitures continue to be ear- 
marked for the county school fund. 

The former provisions dealing with The University of North Carolina were broad- 
ened into a statement of the General Assembly's duty to maintain a system of higher 
education. 

The General Assembly was authorized by the changes made in Article X (Home- 
steads and Exemptions) to set the amounts of the personal property exemption and the 
homestead exemption (constitutionally fixed at $500 and $1,000 respectively since 1868) 
at what it considers to be reasonable levels, with the constitutional figures being treated 
as minimums. The provision protecting the rights of married women to deal with their 
own property was left untouched. The protection given life insurance taken out for the 
benefit of the wife and children of the insured was broadened. 

The provisions prescribing the permissible punishments for crime and limiting the 
crimes punishable by death (Article XI) were left essentially intact. 

The procedures for constitutional revision (Article XIII) were made more explicit. 

The five constitutional amendments ratified at the same time as the Constitution of 
1971 deserve particular mention. 

By the end of the 1960's, North Carolina state government consisted of over 200 state 
administrative agencies. The State Constitution Study Commission concluded on the 
advice of witnesses who had tried it that no governor could effectively oversee an ad- 
ministrative apparatus of such disjointed complexity. The Commission's solution was 
an amendment, patterned after the Model State Constitution and the constitutions of a 
few other states, requiring the General Assembly to reduce the number of administra- 
tive departments to not more than 25 by 1975, and to give the Governor authority to ef- 
fect agency reorganizations and consolidations, subject to disapproval by action of 
either house of the legislature if the changes affected existing statutes. 

The second separate constitutional amendment ratified in 1970 supplemented the ex- 
isting authority of the Governor to call extra sessions of the General Assembly with the 
advice of the Council of State. The amendment provides that on written request of 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina 75 



three-fifths of all the members of each house, the President of the Senate and the 
Speaker of the House of Representatives shall convene an extra session of the General 
Assembly. Thus the legislative branch is now able to convene itself, notwithstanding the 
contrary wishes of the Governor. 

The most significant of the separate amendments and in some ways the most impor- 
tant of the constitutional changes ratified in 1970 was the finance amendment. The 
changes it effected are especially important in the financing of local government. The 
amendment became effective on July 1, 1973. Its principal provisions are as follows: 

(1) All forms of capitation or poll tax are now prohibited. 

(2) The General Assembly is authorized to enact laws empowering counties, cities, 
and towns to establish special taxing districts less extensive in area than the entire 
county or city in order to finance the provision within those special districts of a 
higher level of governmental service than is available in the unit at large, either by 
supplementing existing services or providing services not otherwise available. 
That provision eliminates the previous necessity of creating a new, independent 
governmental unit to accomplish the same result. 

(3) For a century, the Constitution required that the levying of taxes and the borrow- 
ing of money by local government be approved by a vote of the people of the unit, 
unless the money were to be used for a "necessary expense." The court, not the 
General Assembly, was the final arbiter of what was a "necessary expense," and 
the State Supreme Court took a rather restrictive view of the embrace of that con- 
cept. The determination of what types of public expenditures should require voter 
approval and what types should be made by a governing board on its own author- 
ity was found by the General Assembly to be a legislative and not a judicial mat- 
ter. In that conviction, the finance amendment provided that the General Assem- 
bly, acting on a uniform, statewide basis, should make the final determination of 
whether voter approval must be had for the levy of property taxes or the borrow- 
ing of money to finance particular activities of local government. 

(4) To facilitate governmental and private cooperative endeavors, the state and local 
governmental units were authorized by the amendment to enter into contracts 
with an appropriate money to private entitites "for the accomplishment of public 
purposes only." 

(5) The various forms of public financial obligations were more precisely defined 
than in the previous constitution, with the general effect of requiring voter ap- 
proval only for the issuance of general obligation bonds and notes or for govern- 
mental guarantees of the debts of private persons or organizations. The General 
Assembly was directed to regulate by general law (permitting classified but not lo- 
cal acts) the contracting of debt by local governments. 

(6) The amendments retained the existing limitation that the state and local govern- 
ments may not, without voter approval, borrow more than the equivalent of two- 
thirds of the amount by which the unit's indebtedness was reduced during the last 
fiscal period, except for purposes listed in the Constitution. This list was length- 
ened to include "emergencies immediately threatening public health or safety." 

(7) No change was made in the provisions with respect to the classification and ex- 
emption of property for purposes of property taxation. The limitation of 20<£ on 



76 North Carolina Manual 



the $100 valuation previously imposed on the general county property tax was 
omitted. 

The fourth independent amendment also dealt with taxation. It struck out a schedule 
of specified minimum exemptions from the constitutional provision on the state income 
tax, leaving those exemptions to be fixed by the General Assembly. This change enabled 
the legislature to provide for the filing of joint tax returns by husbands and wives and to 
adopt a "piggy-back"' state income tax to be computed as a percentage of the federal in- 
come tax, thus relieving the taxpayer of two sets of computations. The amendment re- 
tains the maximum tax rate at ten per cent. 

The final amendment ratified in 1970 assigns the benefits of property escheating to 
the State for want of an heir or other lawful claimant to a special fund, to be available to 
help needy North Carolina students attending public institutions of higher education in 
the State. Property escheating prior to July 1, 1971, continues to be held by The Univer- 
sity of North Carolina. 

The one amendment defeated by the voters in 1970 could have repealed the state con- 
stitutional requirement that in order to register as a voter, one must be able to read and 
write the English language. That requirement was already ineffective by virtue of federal 
legislation and therefore the failure of repeal had no practical effect. 

The General Assembly of 1971 submitted to the voters five state constitutional 
amendments, all of which were ratified by the voters on November 7, 1972. Those 
amendments set the constitutionally-specified voting age at 18 years, required the Gen- 
eral Assembly to set maximum age limits for service as justices and judges of the state 
courts, authorized the General Assembly to prescribe procedures for the censure and re- 
moval of state judges and justices, added to the Constitution a statement of policy with 
regard to the conservation and the protection of natural resources, and limited the au- 
thority of the General Assembly to incorporate cities and towns within close proximity 
to existing municipalities. 

The General Assembly at its 1973 session submitted to the voters for action in No- 
vember 1974 an amendment changing the title of the solicitor to that of district attor- 
ney. The 1974 session submitted an additional amendment authorizing the use of reve- 
nue bonds for constructing industrial facilities. The voters ratified the amendment 
changing the title of solicitor, but rejected the one on revenue bonds for industrial facili- 
ties. 

Two amendments were submitted to the people by the 1975 Legislature. Both of these 
dealt with the using of revenue bonds to finance construction. The first for health care 
facilities and the second for industrial facilities — a modification of the amendment re- 
jected in 1974. Both amendments were ratified by the voters on March 23, 1976. 

The year 1977 was of profound importance in the constitutional development of 
North Carolina. A distinct departure from the traditions of the past took place with the 
ratification of Senate Bill 292. Entitled "An act to amend the constitution of North 
Carolina to empower the voters to elect the governor and lieutenant governor for two 
consecutive terms," this bill provided for the first time since 1835 that the governor 
could run for consecutive terms. The constitutional convention in 1835 amended our 
first constitution permitting popular election of the governor for a two-year term and 
one additional consecutive term. The 1971 constitution and its predecessor, the consti- 
tution of 1868, limited the governor and lieutenant governor to one four-year term. The 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina 77 



gubernatorial succession amendment was submitted to the people along with four other 
amendments in November, 1977. All five were ratified by the people. 

Conclusion 

The people of North Carolina have treated their constitution with conservatism and 
respect. The fact that we have adopted only three constitutions in two centuries of exist- 
ence as a state is the chief evidence of that attitude. (Some states have adopted as many 
as five or ten constitutions in a like period.) The relative fewness of amendments, even 
in recent years, is another point of contrast to many states. It reflects the fact that North 
Carolina has been less disposed than have many states to write into its state constitution 
detailed provisions with respect to transitory matters better left to legislation. The Con- 
stitution has allowed the General Assembly wide latitude for decision on public affairs, 
and legislators have been willing to accept responsibility for and act on matters within 
their authority instead of passing the responsibility for difficult decisions on to the 
voters in the form of constitutional amendments. 

Constitutional draftsmen have not been so convinced of their own exclusive hold on 
wisdom or so doubtful of the reliability of later generations of legislators that they 
found it necessary to write into the Constitution the large amount of regulatory detail 
often found in state constitutions. Delegates to constitutional conventions and members 
of the General Assembly have acted consistently with the advice of the late John J. 
Parker, Chief Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit 
(1925-58), who observed: 

The purpose of a state constitution is two-fold: ( 1 ) to protect the rights of the individual from en- 
croachment by the State: and (2) to provide a framework of government for the State and its sub- 
divisions. It is not the function of a constitution to deal with temporary conditions, but to lay down 
general principles of government which must be observed amid changing conditions. It follows, then, 
that a constitution should not contain elaborate legislative provisions, but should lay down briefly and 
clearly fundamental principles upon which the government shall proceed, leaving it to the people's rep- 
resentatives to apply these principles through legislation to conditions as they arise. 



78 North Carolina Manual 



NORTH CAROLINA 

CONSTITUTIONAL PROPOSITIONS 

VOTED ON BY THE PEOPLE, 1868-1980 



Year 






of Vote 


Ratified 


Rejected 


1868 


1 





1873 


8 





1876 


1 





1880 


2 





1888 


1 





1892 





1 


1900 


1 





1914 





10 


1916 


4 





1918 


2 





1920 


2 





1922 





1 


1924 


3 


1 


1926 


1 





1928 


1 


2 


1930 





3 


1932 


1 


3 


1936 


5 





1938 


2 





1942 


2 





1944 


5 





1946 


1 


1 


1948 


1 


3 


1950 


5 





1952 


3 





1954 


4 


1 


1956 


4 





1958 





1 


1962 


6 





1964 


1 


1 


1966 


1 





1968 


2 





1970 


6 


1 


1972 


5 





1974 


1 


I 


1976 


2 





1977 


5 





1980 


1 





Totals 


90 


30 



In the above table, each issue on which the people have voted is counted as one, whether it involved only a 
single section (as was often the case), a whole article (as in the case of the 1900 suffrage amendment and the 
1962 court amendment, or a revision of the entire Constitution (as in 1868 and 1970). 



The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 79 

Chapter Two 

CONSTITUTION 

of the 

STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 



PREAMBLE 

We, the people of the State of North Carolina, grateful to Almighty God, the Sover- 
eign Ruler of Nations, for the preservation of the American Union and the existence of 
our civil, political and religious liberties, and acknowledging our dependence upon Him 
for the continuance of those blessings to us and our posterity, do for the more certain 
security thereof and for the better government of this State, ordain and establish this 
Constitution. 

ARTICLE I 

Declaration of Rights 

That the great, general and essential principles of liberty and free government may be 
recognized and established and that the relations of this State to the Union and govern- 
ment of the United States and those of the people of this State to the rest of the Ameri- 
can people may be defined and affirmed, we do declare that: 

Section 1 . The equality and rights of persons. We hold it to be self-evident that all per- 
sons are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable 
rights; that among these are life, liberty, the enjoyment of the fruits of their own labor, 
and the pursuit of happiness. 

Sec. 2. Severeignty of the people. All political power is vested in and derived from the 
people; all government of right originates from the people, is founded upon their will 
only, and is instituted solely for the good of the whole. 

Sec. 3. Internal government of the State. The people of this State have the inherent, 
sole, and exclusive right of regulating the internal government and police thereof, and of 
altering or abolishing their Constitution and form of government whenever it may be 
necessary to their safety and happiness; but every such right shall be exercised in pur- 
suance of law and consistently with the Constitution of the United States. 

Sec. 4. Secession prohibited. This State shall ever remain a member of the American 
Union; the people thereof are part of the American nation; there is no right on the part 
of this State to secede; and all attempts, from whatever source or upon whatever pre- 
text, to dissolve this Union or to sever this Nation, shall be resisted with the whole 
power of the State. 



80 North Carolina Manual 



Sec. 5. Allegiance to the United States. Every citizen of this State owes paramount 
allegiance to the Constitution and government of the United States, and no law or ordi- 
nance of the State in contravention or subversion thereof can have any binding force. 

Sec. 6. Separation of powers. The legislative, executive, and supreme judicial powers 
of the State government shall be forever separate and distinct from each other. 

Sec. 7. Suspending laws. All power of suspending laws or the execution of laws by any 
authority, without the consent of the representatives of the people, is injurious to their 
rights and shall not be exercised. 

Sec. 8. Representation and taxation. The people of this State shall not be taxed or 
made subject to the payment of any impost or duty without the consent of themselves or 
their representatives in the General Assembly, freely given. 

Sec. 9. Frequent elections. For redress of grievances and for amending and strengthen- 
ing the laws, elections shall be often held. 

Sec. 10. Free elections. All elections shall be free. 

Sec. 11. Property qualifications. As political rights and privileges are not dependent 
upon or modified by property, no property qualification shall affect the right to vote or 
hold office. 

Sec. 12. Rights of assembly and petition. The people have a right to assemble together 
to consult for their common good, to instruct their representatives, and to apply to the 
General Assembly for redress of grievances; but secret political societies are dangerous 
to the liberties of a free people and shall not be tolerated. 

Sec. 13. Religious liberty. All persons have a natural and inalienable right to worship 
Almighty God according to the desires of their own consciences, and no human author- 
ity shall, in any case whatever control or interfere with the rights of conscience. 

Sec. 14. Freedom of speech and press. Freedom of speech and of the press are two of 
the great bulwarks of liberty and therefore shall never be restrained, but every person 
shall be held responsible for their abuse. 

Sec. 15. Education. The people have a right to the privilege of education, and it is the 
duty of the State to guard and maintain that right. 

Sec. 16. Ex post facto laws. Retrospective laws, punishing acts committed before the 
existence of such laws and by them only declared criminal, are oppressive, unjust, and 
incompatible with liberty, and therefore no ex post facto law shall be enacted. No law 
taxing retrospectively sales, purchases, or other acts previously done shall be enacted. 

Sec. 17. Slavery and involuntary servitude. Slavery is forever prohibited. Involuntary 
servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the parties have been adjudged 
guilty, is forever prohibited. 

Sec. 18. Courts shall be open. All courts shall be open; every person for an injury done 
him in his lands, goods, or reputation shall have remedy by due course of law; and right 
and justice shall be administered without favor, denial, or delay. 

Sec. 19. Law of the land; equal protection of the laws. No person shall be taken, impris- 
oned, or disseized of his freehold, liberties, or privileges, or outlawed, or exiled, or in 



The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 81 



any manner deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by the law of the land. No per- 
son shall be denied the equal protection of the laws; nor shall any person be subjected to 
discrimination by the State because of race, color, religion, or national origin. 

Sec. 20. General warrants. General warrants, whereby any officer or other person may 
be commanded to search suspected places without evidence of the act committed, or to 
seize any person or persons not named, whose offense is not particularly described and 
supported by evidence, are dangerous to liberty and shall not be granted. 

Sec. 21. Inquiry into restraints on liberty. Every person restrained of his liberty is en- 
titled to a remedy to inquire into the lawfulness thereof, and to remove the restraint if 
unlawful, and that remedy shall not be denied or delayed. The privilege of the writ of 
habeas corpus shall not be suspended. 

Sec. 22. Modes of prosecution. Except in misdemeanor cases initiated in the District 
Court Division, no person shall be put to answer any criminal charge but by indictment, 
presentment, or impeachment. But any person, when represented by counsel, may, un- 
der such regulations as the General Assembly shall prescribe, waive indictment in non- 
capital cases. 

Sec. 23. Rights of accused. In all criminal prosecutions, every person charged with 
crime has the right to be informed of the accusation and to confront the accusers and 
witness with other testimony, and to have counsel for defense, and not be compelled to 
give self-incriminating evidence, or to pay costs, jail fees, or necessary witness fees of the 
defense, unless found guilty. 

Sec. 24. Right of jury trial in criminal cases. No person shall be convicted of any crime 
but by the unanimous verdict of a jury in open court. The General Assembly may, how- 
ever, provide for other means of trial for misdemeanors, with the right of appeal for 
trial de novo. 

Sec. 25. Right of jury trial in civil cases. In all controversies at law respecting property, 
the ancient mode of trial by jury is one of the best securities of the rights of the people, 
and shall remain sacred and inviolable. 

Sec. 26. Jury service. No person shall be excluded from jury service on account of sex, 
race, color, religion, or national origin. 

Sec. 27. Bail, fines, and punishments. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive 
fines imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishments inflicted. 

Sec. 28. Imprisonment for debt. There shall be no imprisonment for debt in this State, 
except in cases of fraud. 

Sec. 29. Treason against the State. Treason against the State shall consist only of levy- 
ing war against it or adhering to its enemies by giving them aid and comfort. No person 
shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt 
act, or on confession in open court. No conviction of treason or attainder shall work 
corruption of blood or forfeiture. 

Sec. 30. Militia and the right to bear arms. A well regulated militia being necessary to 
the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be in- 
fringed; and, as standing armies in time of peace are dangerous to liberty, they shall not 



82 North Carolina Manual 



be maintained, and the military shall be kept under strict subordination to, and gov- 
erned by, the civil power. Nothing herein shall justify the practice of carrying concealed 
weapons, or prevent the General Assembly from enacting statutes against that practice. 

Sec. 31. Quartering of soldiers. No soldier shall in time of peace be quartered in any 
house without the consent of the owner, not in time of war but in a manner prescribed 
by law. 

Sec. 32. Exclusive emoluments. No person or set of persons is entitled to exclusive or 
separate emoluments or privileges from the community but in consideration of public 
services. 

Sec. 33. Hereditary emoluments and honors. No hereditary emoluments, privileges, or 
honors shall be granted or conferred in this State. 

Sec. 34. Perpetuities and monopolies. Perpetuities and monopolies are contrary to the 
genius of a free state and shall not be allowed. 

Sec. 35. Recurrence to fundamental principals. A frequent recurrence to fundamental 
principles is absolutely necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty. 

Sec. 36. Other rights of the people. The enumeration of rights in this Article shall not 
be construed to impair or deny others retained by the people 

ARTICLE II 

Legislative 

Section 1. Legislative power. The legislative power of the State shall be vested in the 
General Assembly, which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives. 

Sec. 2. Number of Senators. The Senate shall be composed of 50 Senators, biennially 
chosen by ballot. 

Sec. 3. Senate districts; apportionment of Senators. The Senators shall be elected from 
districts. The General Assembly, at the first regular session convening after the return of 
every decennial census of population taken by order of Congress, shall revise the senate 
districts and the apportionment of Senators among those districts, subject to the follow- 
ing requirements: 

(1) Each Senator shall represent, as nearly as may be, an equal number of inhabitants, 
the number of inhabitants that each Senator represents being determined for this pur- 
pose by dividing the population of the district that he represents by the number of Sena- 
tors apportioned to that district; 

(2) Each senate district shall at all times consist of contiguous territory; 

(3) No county shall be divided in the formation of a senate district; 

(4) When established, the senate districts and the apportionment of Senators shall re- 
main unaltered until the return of another decennial census of population taken by or- 
der of Congress. 

Sec. 4. Number of Representatives. The House of Representatives shall be composed 
of 120 Representatives, biennially chosen by ballot. 



The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 83 



Sec. 5. Representative district; apportionment of Representatives. The Representatives 
shall be elected from districts. The General Assembly, at the first regular session con- 
vening after the return of every decennial census of population taken by order of Con- 
gress, shall revise the representative districts and the apportionment of Representatives 
among those districts, subject to the following requirements: 

(1) Each Representative shall represent, as nearly as may be, an equal number of in- 
habitants, the number of inhabitants that each Representative represents being deter- 
mined for this purpose by dividing the population of the district he represents by the 
number of Representatives apportioned to that district; 

(2) Each representative district shall at all times consist of contiguous territory; 

(3) No county shall be divided in the formation of a representative district; 

(4) When established, the representative districts and the apportionment of Repre- 
sentatives shall remain unaltered until the return of another decennial census of popula- 
tion taken by order of Congress. 

Sec. 6. Qualifications for Senator. Each Senator, at the time of his election, shall be 
not less than 25 years of age, shall be a qualified voter of the State, and shall have re- 
sided in the State as a citizen for two years and in the district for which he is chosen for 
one year immediately preceding his election. 

Sec. 7. Qualifications for Representative. Each Representative, at the time of his elec- 
tion, shall be a qualified voter of the State and shall have resided in the district for which 
he is chosen for one year immediately preceding his election. 

Sec. 8. Elections. The election for members of the General Assembly shall be held for 
the respective districts in 1972 and every two years thereafter, at the places and on the 
day prescribed by law. 

Sec. 9. Term of office. The term of office of Senators and Representatives shall com- 
mence at the time of their election. 

Sec. 10. Vacancies. Every vacancy occurring in the membership of the Genera! As- 
sembly by reason of death, resignation, or other cause shall be filled in the manner pre- 
scribed by law. 

Sec. 1 1 . Sessions. 

(1) Regular Sessions. The General Assembly shall meet in regular session in 1973 and 
every two years thereafter on the day prescribed by law. Neither house shall proceeed 
upon public business unless a majority of all of its members are actually present. 

(2) Extra sessions on legislative call. The President of the Senate and the Speaker of 
the House of Representatives shall convene the General Assembly in extra session by 
their joint proclamation upon receipt by the President of the Senate of written requests 
therefor signed by three-fifths of all the members of the Senate and upon receipt by the 
Speaker of the House of Representatives of written requests therefor signed by three- 
fifths of all the members of the House of Representatives. 

Sec. 12. Oath of members. Each member of the General Assembly, before taking his 
seat, shall take an oath or affirmation that he will support the Constitution and laws of 



84 North Carolina Manual 



the United States and the Constitution of the State of North Carolina, and will faith- 
fully discharge his duty as a member of the Senate or House of Representatives. 

Sec. 13. President of the Senate. The Lieutenant Governor shall be president of the 
Senate and shall preside over the Senate, but shall have no vote unless the Senate is 
equally divided. 

Sec. 14. Other officers of the Senate. 

(1) President Pro Tempore - succession to presidency. The Senate shall elect from its 
membership a President Pro Tempore, who shall become President of the Senate upon 
the failure of the Lieutenant Governor-elect to qualify, or upon succession by the Lieu- 
tenant Governor to the office of Governor, or upon the death, resignation, or removal 
from office of the President of the Senate, and who shall serve until the expiration of his 
term of office as Senator. 

(2) President Pro Tempore - temporary succession. During the physical or mental in- 
capacity of the President of the Senate to perform the duties of his office or during the 
absence of the President of the Senate, the President Pro Tempore shall preside over the 
Senate. 

(3) Other officers. The Senate shall elect its other officers. 

Sec. 15. Officers of the House of Representatives. The House of Representatives shall 
elect its Speaker and other officers. 

Sec. 16. Compensation and allowances. The members and officers of the General As- 
sembly shall receive for their services the compensation and allowances prescribed by 
law. An increase in the compensation or allowances of members shall become effective 
at the beginning of the next regular session of the General Assembly following the ses- 
sion at which it was enacted. 

Sec. 17. Journals. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, which shall be 
printed and made public immediately after adjournment of the General Assembly. 

Sec. 18. Protests. Any member of either house may dissent from and protest against 
any act or resolve which he may think injurious to the public or to any individual, and 
have the reasons of his dissent entered on the journal. 

Sec. 19. Record votes. Upon motion made in either house and seconded by one fifth of 
the members present, the yeas and nays upon any question shall be taken and entered 
upon the journal. 

Sec. 20. Powers of the General Assembly. Each house shall be judge of the qualifica- 
tions and elections of its own members, shall sit upon its own adjournment from day to 
day, and shall prepare bills to be enacted into laws. The two houses may jointly adjourn 
to any future day or other place. Either house may, of its own motion, adjourn for a 
period not in excess of three days. 

Sec. 21. Style of the acts. The style of the acts shall be: "The General Assembly of 
North Carolina enacts:". 

Sec. 22. Action on bills. All bills and resolutions of a legislative nature shall be read 
three times in each house before they become laws, and shall be signed by the presiding 
officers of both houses. 



The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 85 



Sec. 23. Revenue bills. No laws shall be enacted to raise money on the credit of the 
State, or to pledge the faith of the State directly or indirectly for the payment of any 
debt, or to impose any tax upon the people of the State, or to allow the counties, cities, 
or towns, or towns to do so, unless the bill for the purpose shall have been read three 
several times in each house of the General Assembly and passed three several readings, 
which readings shall have been on three different days, and shall have been agreed to by 
each house respectively, and unless the yeas and nays on the second and third readings 
of the bill shall have been entered on the journal. 

Sec. 24. Limitations on local, private, and special legislation. 

(1) Prohibited subjects. The General Assembly shall not enact any local, private, or 
special act or resolution: 

(a) Relating to health, sanitation, and the abatement of nuisances; 

(b) Changing the names of cities, towns, and townships; 

(c ) Authorizing the laying out, opening, altering, maintaining, or discontinuing of 
highways, street, or alleys; 

(d) Relating to ferries or bridges; 

(e) Relating to non-navigable streams; 
( f ) Relating to cemeteries; 

(g) Relating to the pay of jurors; 

( h ) Erecting new townships, or changing township lines, or establishing or changing 

the lines of school districts; 
( i ) Remitting fines, penalties, and forfeitures, or refunding moneys legally paid into 

the public treasury; 
( j ) Regulating labor, trade, mining, or manufacturing; 
(k ) Extending the time for the levy or collection of taxes or otherwise relieving any 

collector of taxes from the due performance of his official duties or his sureties 

from liability; 

( 1 ) Giving effect to informal wills and deeds; 

(m) Granting a divorce or securing alimony in any individual case; 

(n ) Altering the name of any person, or legitimating any person not born in lawful 
wedlock, or restoring to the rights of citizenship any person convicted of a fel- 
ony. 

(2) Repeals. Nor shall the General Assembly enact any such local, private, or special 
act by the partial repeal of a general law; but the General Assembly may at any time re- 
peal local, private, or special laws enacted by it. 

(3) Prohibited acts void. Any local, private, or special act or resolution enacted in vio- 
lation of the provisions of this Section shall be void. 

(4) General laws. The General Assembly may enact general laws regulating the mat- 
ters set out in this Section. 



ARTICLE III 

Executive 



Section 1. Executive power. The executive power of the State shall be vested in the 

nvernnr 



Governor 



86 North Carolina Manual 

Sec. 2. Governor and Lieutenant Governor; election, term, and qualifications. 

(1) Election and term. The Governor and Lieutenant Governor shall be elected by the 
qualified voters of the State in 1972 and every four years thereafter, at the same time 
and places as members of the General Assembly are elected. Their term of office shall be 
four years and shall commence on the first day of January next after their election and 
continue until their successors are elected and qualified. 

(2) Qualifications. No person shall be eligible for election to the office of Governor or 
Lieutenant Governor unless, at the time of his election, he shall have attained the age of 
30 years and shall have been a citizen of the United States for five years and a resident of 
this State for two years immediately preceding his election. No person elected to the of- 
fice of Governor or Lieutenant Governor shall be eligible for election to more than two 
consecutive terms of the same office. 

Sec. 3. Succession to office of Governor. 

(1) Succession as Governor. The Lieutenant Governor-elect shall become Governor 
upon the failure of the Governor-elect to qualify. The Lieutenant Governor shall be- 
come Governor upon the death, resignation, or removal from office of the Governor. 
The further order of succession to the office of Governor shall be prescribed by law. A 
successor shall serve for the remainder of the term of the Governor whom he succeeds 
and until a new Governor is elected and qualified. 

(2) Succession as Acting Governor. During the absence of the Governor from the 
State, or during the physical or mental incapacity of the Governor to perform the duties 
of his office, the Lieutenant Governor shall be Acting Governor. The further order of 
succession as Acting Governor shall be prescribed by law. 

(3) Physical incapacity. The Governor may, by a written statement filed with the At- 
torney General, declare that he is physically incapable of performing the duties of his 
office, and may thereafter in the same manner declare that he is physically capable of 
performing the duties of his office. 

(4) Mental incapacity. The mental incapacity of the Governor to perform the duties of 
his office shall be determined only by joint resolution adopted by a vote of two-thirds of 
all the members of each house of the General Assembly. Thereafter, the mental capacity 
of the Governor to perform the duties of his office shall be determined only by joint res- 
olution adopted by a vote of a majority of all the members of each house of the General 
Assembly. In all cases, the General Assembly shall give the Governor such notice as it 
may deem proper and shall allow him an opportunity to be heard before a joint session 
of the General Assembly before it takes final action. When the General Assembly is not 
in session, the Council of State, a majority of its members concurring, may convene it in 
extra session for the purpose of proceeding under this paragraph. 

Sec. 4. Oath of office for Governor. The Governor, before entering upon the duties of 
his office, shall, before any Justice of the Supreme Court, take an oath or affirmation 
that he will support the Constitution and laws of the United States and of the State of 
North Carolina, and that he will faithfully perform the duties pertaining to the office of 
Governor. 



The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 87 



Sec. 5. Duties of Governor. 

(1) Residence. The Governor shall reside at the seat of government of this State. 

(2) Information to General Assembly. The Governor shall from time to time give the 
General Assembly information to the affairs of the State and recommend to their con- 
sideration such measures as he shall deem expedient. 

(3) Budget. The Governor shall prepare and recommend to the General Assembly a 
comprehensive budget of the anticipated revenue and proposed expenditures of the 
State for the ensuing fiscal period. The budget as enacted by the General Assembly shall 
be administered by the Governor. 

The total expenditures of the State for the fiscal period covered by the budget shall 
not exceed the total of receipts during that fiscal period and the surplus remaining in the 
State Treasury at the beginning of the period. To insure that the State does not incur a 
deficit for any fiscal period, the Governor shall continually survey the collection of the 
revenue and shall effect the necessary economies in State expenditures, after first mak- 
ing adequate provision for the prompt payment of the principal of and interest on 
bonds and notes of the State according to their terms, whenever he determines that re- 
ceipts during the fiscal period, when added to any surplus remaining in the State Treas- 
ury at the beginning of the period, will not be sufficient to meet budgeted expenditures. 
This section not be construed to impair the power of the State to issue its bonds and 
notes within the limitations imposed in Article V of this Constitution, nor to impair the 
obligation of bonds and notes of the State now outstanding or issued hereafter. 

(4) Execution of laws. The Governor shall take care that the laws be faithfully exe- 
cuted. 

(5) Commander in Chief. The Governor shall be Commander in Chief of the military 
forces of the State except when they shall be called into the service of the United States. 

(6) Clemency. The Governor may grant reprieves, commutations, and pardons, after 
conviction, for all offenses (except in cases of impeachment), upon such conditions as he 
may think proper, subject to regulations prescribed by law relative to the manner of ap- 
plying for pardons. The terms reprieves, commutations, and pardons shall not include 
paroles. 

(7) Extra sessions. The Governor may, on extraordinary occasions, by and with the 
advice of the Council of State, convene the General Assembly in extra session by his 
proclamation, stating therein the purpose or purposes for which they are thus covened. 

(8) Appointments. The Governor shall nominate and by and with the advice and con- 
sent of a majority of the Senators appoint all officers whose appointments are not other- 
wise provided for. 

(9) Information. The Governor may at any time require information in writing from 
the head of any administrative department or agency upon any subject relating to the 
duties of his office. 

(10) Administrative reorganization. The General Assembly shall prescribe the func- 
tions, powers, and duties of the administrative departments and agencies of the State 
and may alter them from time to time, but the Governor may make such changes in the 



88 North Carolina Manual 

allocation of offices and agencies and in the allocation of those functions, powers, and 
duties as he considers necessary for efficient administration. If those changes affect ex- 
isting law, they shall be set forth in executive orders, which shall be submitted to the 
General Assembly not later than the sixtieth calendar day of its session, and shall be- 
come effective and shall have the force of law upon adjournment sine die of the session, 
unless specifically disapproved by resolution of either house of the General Assembly or 
specifically modified by joint resolution of both houses of the General Assembly. 

Sec. 6. Duties of the Lieutenant Governor. The Lieutenant Governor shall be President 
of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless the Senate is equally divided. He shall per- 
form such additional duties as the General Assembly or the Governor may assign to 
him. He shall receive the compensation and allowances prescribed by law. 

Sec. 7. Other elective officers. 

(1) Officers. A Secretary of State, an Auditor, a Treasurer, a Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, an Attorney General, a Commissioner of Agriculture, a Commissioner of 
Labor, and a Commissioner of Insurance shall be elected by the qualified voters of the 
State in 1972 and every four years thereafter, at the same time and places as members of 
the General Assembly are elected. Their term of office shall be four years and shall com- 
mence on the first day of January next after their election and continue until their suc- 
cessors are elected and qualified. 

(2) Duties. Their respective duties shall be prescribed by law. 

(3) Vacancies. If the office of any of these officers is vacated by death, resignation, or 
otherwise, it shall be the duty of the Governor to appoint another to serve until his suc- 
cessor is elected and qualified. Every such vacancy shall be filled by election at the first 
election for members of the General Assembly that occurs more than 30 days after the 
vacancy has taken place, and the person chosen shall hold the office for the remainder 
of the unexpired term fixed in this Section. When a vacancy occurs in the office of any 
of the officers named in this Section and the term expires on the first day of January suc- 
ceeding the next election for members of the General Assembly, the Governor shall ap- 
point to fill the vacancy for the unexpired term of the office. 

(4) Interim officers. Upon the occurrence of a vacancy in the office of any one of these 
officers for any of the causes stated in the preceding paragraph, the Governor may ap- 
point an interim officer to perform the duties of that office until a person is appointed 
or elected pursuant to this Section to fill the vacancy and is qualified. 

(5) Acting officers. During the physical or mental incapacity of any one of these of- 
ficers to perform the duties of his office, as determined pursuant to this Section, the du- 
ties of his office shall be performed by an acting officer who shall be appointed by the 
Governor. 

(6) Determination of incapacity. The General Assembly shall by law prescribe with re- 
spect to those officers, other than the Governor, whose officers are created by this Arti- 
cle, procedures for determining the physical or mental incapacity of any officer to per- 
form the duties of his office, and for determining whether an officer who has been tem- 
porarily incapacitated has sufficiently recovered his physical or mental capacity to per- 
form the duties of his office. Removal of those officers from office for any other cause 
shall be by impeachment. 



The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 89 



Sec. 8. Council of State. The Council of State shall consist of the officers whose offices 
are established by this Article. 

Sec. 9. Compensation and allowances . The officers whose offices are established by this 
Article shall at stated periods receive the compensation and allowances prescribed by 
law, which shall not be diminished during the time for which they have been chosen. 

Sec. 10. Seal of State. There shall be a seal of the State, which shall be kept by the 
Governor and used by him as occasion may require, and shall be called "The Great Seal 
of the State of North Carolina." All grants or commissions shall be issued in the name 
and by the authority of the State of North Carolina, sealed with "The Great Seal of the 
State of North Carolina," and signed by the Governor. 

Sec. 11. Administrative departments. Not later than July 1, 1975, all administrative de- 
partments, agencies and offices of the State and their respective functions, powers, and 
duties shall be allocated by law among and within not more than 25 principal adminis- 
trative departments so as to group them as far as practicable according to major pur- 
poses. Regulatory, quasi-judicial, and temporary agencies may, but need not, be allo- 
cated within a principal department. 

ARTICLE IV 

Judicial 

Section 1. Judicial power. The judicial power of the State shall, except as provided in 
Section 3 of this Article, be vested in a Court for the Trial of Impeachments and a Gen- 
eral Court of Justice. The General Assembly shall have no power to deprive the judicial 
department of any power or jurisdiction that rightfully pertains to it as a co-ordinate de- 
partment of the government, nor shall it establish or authorize any courts other than as 
permitted by this Article. 

Sec. 2. General Court of Justice. The General Court of Justice shall constitute a uni- 
fied judicial system for purposes of jurisdiction, operation, and administration, and 
shall consist of an Appellate Division, a Superior Court Division, and a District Court 
Division. 

Sec. 3. Judicial powers of administrative agencies. The General Assembly may vest in 
administrative agencies established pursuant to law such judicial powers as may be rea- 
sonably necessary as an incident to the accomplishment of the purposes for which the 
agencies were created. Appeals from administrative agencies shall be to the General 
Court of Justice. 

Sec. 4. Court for the Trial of Impeachments. The House of Representatives solely shall 
have the power of impeaching. The Court for the Trial of Impeachments shall be the 
Senate. When the Governor or Lieutenant Governor is impeached, the Chief Justice 
shall preside over the Court. A majority of the members shall be necessary to a quorum, 
and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the Senators 
present. Judgment upon conviction shall not extend beyond removal from and disquali- 
fication to hold office in this State, but the party shall be liable to indictment and pun- 
ishment according to law. 



90 North Carolina Manual 



Sec. 5. Appellate division. The Appellate Division of the General Court of Justice shall 
consist of the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals. 

Sec. 6. Supreme Court. 

(1) Membership. The Supreme Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and six Associate 
Justices, but the General Assembly may increase the number of Associate Justices, to 
not more than eight. In the event the Chief Justice is unable, on account of absence or 
temporary incapacity, to perform any of the duties placed upon him, the senior Associ- 
ate Justice available may discharge those duties. 

(2) Sessions of the Supreme Court. The sessions of the Supreme Court shall be held in 
the City of Raleigh unless otherwise provided by the General Assembly. 

Sec. 7. Court of Appeals. The structure, organization, and composition of the Court 
of Appeals shall be determined by the General Assembly. The Court shall have not less 
than five members, and may be authorized to sit in division, or other than en banc. Ses- 
sions of the Court shall be held at such times and places as the General Assembly may 
prescribe. 

Sec. 8. Retirement of Justices and Judges. The General Assembly shall provide by gen- 
eral law for the retirement of Justices and Judges of the General Court of Justice, and 
may provide for the temporary recall of any retired Justice or Judge to serve on the 
court from which he was retired. The General Assembly shall also prescribe maximum 
age limits service as a Justice or Judge. 

Sec. 9. Superior Courts. 

(1) Superior Court districts. The General Assembly shall, from time to time, divide the 
State into a convenient number of Superior Court judicial districts and shall provide for 
the election of one or more Superior Court Judges for each district. Each regular Supe- 
rior Court Judge shall reside in the district for which he is elected. The General Assem- 
bly may provide by general law for the selection or appointment of special of emergency 
Superior Court Judges not selected for a particular judicial district. 

(2) Open at all times; sessions for trial of cases. The Superior Courts shall be open at 
all times for the transaction of all business except for trial of issues of fact requiring a 
jury. Regular trial sessions of the Superior Court shall be held at times fixed pursuant to 
a calendar of courts promulgated by the Supreme Court. At least two sessions for the 
trial of jury cases shall be held annually in each county. 

(3) Clerks. A Clerk of the Superior Court for each county shall be elected for a term 
of four years by the qualified voters thereof, at the same time and places as members of 
the General Assembly are elected. If the office of Clerk of the Superior Court becomes 
vacant otherwise than by the expiration of the term, or if the people fail to elect, the sen- 
ior regular resident Judge of the Superior Court serving the county shall appoint to fill 
the vacancy until an election can be regularly held. 

Sec. 10. District Courts. The General Assembly shall, from time to time, divide the 
State into a convenient number of local court districts and shall prescribe where the Dis- 
trict Courts shall sit, but a District Court must sit in at least one place in each county. 
District judges shall be elected for each district for a term of four years, in a manner pre- 
scribed by law. When more than one District Judge is authorized and elected for a dis- 



The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 91 



trict, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court shall designate one of the judges as Chief 
District Judge. Every District Judge shall reside in the district for which he is elected. 
For each county, the senior regular resident Judge of the Superior Court serving shall 
appoint for a term of two years, for omination submitted by the Clerk of the Superior 
Court of the county, one or more Magistrates who shall be officers of the District 
Court. The number of District Judges and Magistrates shall, from time to time, be de- 
termined by the General Assembly. Vacancies in the office of District Judge shall be 
filled for the unexpired term in a manner prescribed by law. Vacancies in the office of 
Magistrate shall be filled for the unexpired term in the manner provided for original ap- 
pointment to the office. 

Sec. 1 1. Assignment of Judges. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, acting in ac- 
cordance with rules of the Supreme Court, shall make assignments of Judges of the Su- 
perior Court and may transfer District Judges from one district to another for tempor- 
ary or specialized duty. The principle of rotating Superior Court Judges among the var- 
ious districts of a division is a salutary one and shall be observed. For this purpose the 
General Assembly may divide the State into a number of judicial divisions. Subject to 
the general supervision of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, assignment of Dis- 
trict Judges within each local court district shall be made by the Chief District Judge. 

Sec. 12. Jurisdiction of the General Court of Justice. 

(1) Supreme Court. The Supreme Court shall have jurisdiction to review upon appeal 
any decision of the courts below, upon any matter of law or legal inference. The juris- 
diction of the Supreme Court over "issues of fact" and "questions of fact" shall be the 
same exercised by it prior to the adoption of this Article, and the Court may issue any 
remedial writs necessary to give it general supervision and control over the proceedings 
the other courts. 

(2) Courts of Appeals. The Court of Appeals shall have such appellate jurisdiction as 
the General Assembly may prescribe. 

(3) Superior Court. Except as otherwise provided by the General Assembly, the Supe- 
rior Court shall have original general jurisdiction throughout the State. The Clerks of 
the Superior Court shall have such jurisdiction and powers as the General Assembly 
shall prescribe by general law uniformly applicable in every county of the State. 

(4) District Courts; Magistrates. The General Assembly shall, by general law uni- 
formly applicable in every local court district of the State, prescribe the jurisdiction and 
powers of the District Courts and Magistrates. 

(5) Waiver. The General Assembly may be general law provide that the jurisdictional 
limits may be waived in civil cases. 

(6) Appeals. The General Assembly shall by general law provide a proper system or 
appeals. Appeals from Magistrates shall be heard de novo, with the right of trial by jury 
as defined in this Constitution and the laws of this State. 

Sec. 13. Forms of action; rules of procedure. 

(1) Forms of Action. There shall be in this State but one form of action for the enforce 
or protection of private rights or the redress of private wrongs, which shall be denomi- 
nated a civil action, and in which there shall be a right to have issues of fact tried before 



92 North Carolina Manual 



a jury. Every action prosecuted by the people of the State as a party against a person 
charged with a public offense, for the punishment thereof, shall be termed a criminal ac- 
tion. 

(2) Rules of procedure. The Supreme Court shall have exclusive authority to make 
rules of procedure and practice for the Appellate Division. The General Assembly may 
make rules of procedure and practice for the Superior Court and District Court Divi- 
sions, and the General Assembly may delegate this authority to the Supreme court. No 
rule of procedure or practice shall abridge substantive rights or abrogate or limit the 
right of trial by jury . If the General Assembly should delegate to the Supreme Court the 
rule-making power, the General Assembly may, nevertheless, alter, amend, or repeal 
any rule of procedure or practice adopted by the Supreme Court for the Superior Court 
or District Court Divisions. 

Sec. 14 Waiver of jury trial. In all issues of fact joined in any court, the parties in any 
civil case may waive the right to have the issues determined by a jury, in which case the 
finding of the judge upon the facts shall have the force and effect of a verdict by a jury. 

Sec. 15. Administration. The General Assembly shall provide for an administrative of- 
fice of the courts to carry out the provisions of this Article. 

Sec. 16. Terms of office and election of Justices of the Supreme Court, Judges of the 
Court of Appeals, and Judges of the Superior Court. Justices of the Supreme Court, 
Judges of the Court of Appeals, and regular Judges of the Superior Court shall be elect- 
ed by the qualified voters and shall hold office for terms of eight years and until their 
successors are elected and qualified. Justices of the Supreme Court and Judges of the 
Court of Appeals shall be elected by the qualified voters of the State. Regular Judges of 
the Superior Court may be elected by the qualified voters of the State or by the voters of 
their respective districts, as the General Assembly may prescribe. 

Sec. 17. Removal of Judges, Magistrates and Clerks. 

(1) Removal of Judges by the General Assembly. Any Justice or Judge of the General 
Court of Justice may be removed from office for mental or physical incapacity by joint 
resolution of two-thirds of all the members of each house of the General Assembly. Any 
Justice or Judge against whom the General Assembly may be about to proceed shall re- 
ceive notice thereof, accompanied by a copy of the causes alleged for his removal, at 
least 20 days before the day on which either house of the General Assembly shall act 
thereon. Removal from office by the General Assembly for any other cause shall be by 
impeachment. 

(2) Additional method of removal of Judges. The General Assembly shall prescribe a 
procedure, in addition to impeachment and address set forth in this Section, for the re- 
moval of a Justice or Judge of the General Court of Justice for mental or physical in- 
capacity interfering with the performance of his duties which is, or is likely to become, 
permanent, and for the censure and removal of a Justice or Judge of the General Court 
of Justice for wilful misconduct in office, wilful and persistent failure to perform his du- 
ties, habitual intemperance, conviction of a crime involving moral turpitude, or conduct 
prejudicial to the administration of justice that brings the judicial office into disrepute. 

(3) Removal of Magistrates. The General Assembly shall provide by general law for 
the removal of Magistrates for misconduct or mental or physical incapacity. 



The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 93 



(4) Removal of Clerks. Any Clerk of the Superior Court may be removed from office 
for misconduct or mental or physical incapacity by the senior regular resident Superior 
Court Judge serving the county. Any Clerk against whom proceedings are instituted 
shall receive written notice of the charges against him at least ten days before the hear- 
ing upon the charges. Any Clerk so removed from office shall be entitled to an appeal as 
provided by law. 

Sec. 18. District Attorney and Prosecutorial Districts. 

(1) District Attorneys. The Great Assembly shall, from time to time, divide the State 
into a convenient number of solicitorial districts, for each of which a District Attorney 
shall be chosen for a term of four years by the qualified voters thereof, at the same time 
and places as members of the General Assembly are elected. The District Attorney shall 
advise the officers of justice in his district, be responsible for the prosecution of behalf 
of the State of all criminal actions in the Superior Courts of his district, perform such 
duties related to appeals therefrom as the Attorney General may require, and perform 
such other duties as the General Assembly may prescribe. 

(2) Prosecution in District Court Division. Criminal actions in the District Court Divi- 
sion shall be prosecuted in such manner as the General Assembly may prescribe by gen- 
eral law uniformly applicable in every local court district of the State. 

Sec. 19. Vacancies. Unless otherwise provided in this Article, all vacancies occurring 
in the offices provided for by this Article shall be filled by appointment of the Gover- 
nor, and the appointees shall hold their places until the next election for members of the 
General Assembly that is held more than 30 days after the vancancy occurs, when elec- 
tions shall be held to fill the offices. When the unexpired term of any of the offices 
named in this Article of the Constitution in which a vacancy has occurred, and in which 
it is herein provided that the Governor shall fill the vacancy, expires on the first day of 
January succeeding the next election for members of the General Assembly, the Gover- 
nor shall appoint to fill that vacancy for the unexpired term of the office. If any person 
elected or appointed to any of these offices shall fail to qualify, the office shall be ap- 
pointed to, held, and filled as provided in case of vacancies occurring therein. All in- 
cumbents of these offices shall hold until their successors are qualified. 

Sec. 20. Revenues and expenses of the judicial department . The General Assembly shall 
provide for the establishment of a schedule of court fees and costs which shall be uni- 
form throughout the State within each division of the General Court of Justice. The 
operating expenses of the judicial department, other than compensation to process 
servers and other locally paid non-judicial officers, shall be paid from State funds. 

Sec. 21. Fees, salaries, and emoluments. The General Assembly shall prescribe and 
regulate the fees, salaries, and emoluments of all officers provided for in this Article, but 
the salaries of Judges shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. In no 
case shall the compensation of any Judge or Magistrate be dependent upon his decision 
or upon the collection of costs. 

Sec. 22. Qualification of Justices and Judges. Only persons duly authorized to practice 
law in the courts of this State shall be eligible for election or appointment as a Justice of 
the Supreme Court, Judge of the Court of Appeals, Judge of the Superior Court, or 
Judge of District Court. This section shall not apply to persons elected to or serving in 
such capacities on or before January 1, 1981. 



94 North Carolina Manual 

ARTICLE V 

Finance 

Section 1. No capitation tax to be levied. No poll or capitation tax shall be levied by 
the General Assemlby or by any county, city or town, or other taxing unit. 

Sec. 2. State and local taxation. 

(1) Power of taxation. The power of taxation shall be exercised in a just and equitable 
manner, for public purposes only, and shall never be surrendered, suspended, or 
contracted away. 

(2) Classification. Only the General Assembly shall have the power to classify proper- 
ty for taxation, which power shall be exercised only on a State-wide basis and shall not 
be delegated. No class of property shall be taxed except by uniform rule, and every clas- 
sification shall be made by general law uniformly applicable in every county, city and 
town, and other unit of local government. 

(3) Exemptions. Property belonging to the State, counties, and municipal corpora- 
tions shall be exempt from taxation. The General Assembly may exempt cemeteries and 
property held for educational, scientific, literary, cultural, charitable, or religious pur- 
poses, and, to a value not exceeding $300, any personal property. The General Assem- 
bly may exempt from taxation not exceeding $1,000 in value of property held and used 
as the place of residence of the owner. Every exemption shall be on a State-wide basis 
and shall be made by general law uniformly applicable in every county, city and town, 
and other unit of local government. No taxing authority other than the General Assem- 
bly may grant exemptions, and the General Assembly shall not delegate the powers ac- 
corded to it by this subsection. 

(4) Special tax areas. Subject to the limitations imposed by Section 4, the General As- 
sembly may enact general laws authorizing the governing body of any county, city, or 
town to define territorial areas and to levy taxes within those areas, in addition to those 
levied throughout the county, city, or town, in order to finance, provide, or maintain 
services, facilities, and functions in addition to or to a greater extent than those fi- 
nanced, provided, or maintained or the entire county, city, or town. 

(5) Purpose of property tax. The General Assembly shall not authorize any county, 
city or town, special district, or other unit of local government to levy taxes or property, 
except for purposes authorized by general law uniformly applicable throughout the 
State, unless the tax is approved by a majority of the qualified voters of the unit who 
vote thereon. 

(6) Income tax. The rate of tax on incomes shall not in any case exceed ten per cent 
and there shall be allowed the following minimum exemptions, to be deducted from the 
amount of annual incomes: to the income-producing spouse of a married couple living 
together, or to a widow or widower having minor child or children, natural or adopted, 
not less than $2,000; to all other persons not less than $1,000; and there may be allowed 
other deductions, not including living expenses, so that only net incomes are taxed. 

(7) Contracts. The General Assembly may enact laws whereby the State, any county, 
city or town and any other public corporation may contract with and appropriate mon- 



The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 95 



ey to any person, association, or corporation for the accomplishment of public purposes 
only. 

Sec. 3. Limitations upon the increase of State debt. 

(1) Authorized purposes; two-thirds limitation, the General Assembly shall have no 
power to contract debts secured by a pledge of the faith and credit of the State, unless 
approved by a majority of the qualified voters of the State who vote thereon, except for 
the following purposes: 

(a) To fund or refund a valid existing debt; 

(b) to supply an unforeseen deficiency in the revenue; 

(c) to borrow in anticipation of the collection of taxes due and payable within the 
current fiscal year to an amount not exceeding 50 percent of such taxes; 

(d) to suppress riots or insurrections, or to repel invasions; 

(e) to meet emergencies immediately threatening the public health or safety, as con- 
clusively determined in writing by the Governor; 

(f) for any other lawful purpose, to the extent of two-thirds of the amount by which 
the State's outstanding indebtedness shall have reduced during the next preceding 
biennium. 

(2) Gift or loan of credit regulated. The General Assembly shall have no power to give 
or lend the credit of the State in aid of any person, association, or corporation, except a 
corporation in which the State has a controlling interest, unless the subject is submitted 
to a direct vote of the State, and is approved by a majority of the qualified voters who 
vote thereon. 

(3) Definitions. A debt is incurred within the meaning of this Section when the State 
borrows money. A pledge of the faith and credit within the meaning cf this Section is a 
pledge of the taxing power. A loan of credit within the meaning of this Section occurs 
when the State exchanges its obligations with or in any way guarantees the debts of an 
individual, association, or private corporation. 

(4) Certain debts barred. The General Assembly shall never assume or pay any debt or 
obligation, express or implied, incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the 
United States. Neither shall the General Assembly assume or pay any debt or bond in- 
curred or issued by authority of the Convention of 1868, the special session of the Gen- 
eral Assembly of 1868, or the General Assemblies of 1868-69 and 1869-70, unless the 
subject is submitted to the people of the State and is approved by a majority of all the 
qualified voters at a referendum held for that sole purpose. 

(5) Outstanding debt. Except as provided in subsection (4), nothing in this Section 
shall be construed to invalidate or impair the obligation of any bond, note, or other evi- 
dence of indebtedness outstanding or authorized for issue as of July 1, 1973. 

Sec. 4. Limitations upon the increase of local government debt. 

(1) Regulation of borrowing and debt. The General Assembly shall enact general laws 
relating to the borrowing of money secured by a pledge of the faith and credit and the 
contracting of other debts by counties, cities and towns, special districts, and other 
units, authorities, and agencies of local government. 



96 North Carolina Manual 



(2) Authorized purposes; two-thirds limitation. The General Assembly shall have no 
power to authorize any county, city or town, special district, or other unit of local 
government to contract debts secured by a pledge of its faith and credit unless approved 
by a majority of the qualified voters of the unit who vote thereon, except for the follow- 
ing purposes: 

(a) to fund or refund a valid existing debt; 

(b) to supply an unforseen deficiency in the revenue; 

(c) to borrow in anticipation of the collection of taxes due and payable within the 
current fiscal year to an amount not exceeding 50 per cent of such taxes; 

(d) to suppress riots or insurrections; 

(e) to meet emergencies immediately threatening the public health or safety, as con- 
conclusively determined in writing by the Governor; 

(f) for purposes authorized by general laws uniformly applicable throughout the 
State, to the extent of two-thirds of the amount by which the unit's outstanding 
indebtedness shall have been reduced during the next preceding fiscal year. 

(3) Gift or loan of credit regulated. No county, city or town, special district, or other 
unit of local government shall give or lend its credit in aid of any person, association, or 
corporation, except for public purposes as authorized by general law, and unless ap- 
proved by a majority of the qualified voters of the unit who vote thereon. 

(4) Certain debts barred. No county, city or town, or other unit of local government 
shall assume or pay any debt or the interest thereon contracted directly or indirectly in 
aid or support of rebellion or insurrection against the United States. 

(5) Definitions. A debt is incurred within the meaning of this Section when a county, 
city or town, special district, or other unit, authority, or agency of local government 
borrows money. A pledge of faith and credit within the meaning of this Section is a 
pledge of the taxing power. A loan of credit within the meaning of this Section occurs 
when a county, city or town, special district, or other unit, authority, or agency of local 
government exchanges its obligations with or in any way guarantees the debts of an in- 
dividual, association, or private corporation. 

(6) Outstanding debt. Except as provided in subsection (4), nothing in this Section 
shall be construed to invalidate or impair the obligation of any bond, note, or other evi- 
dence of indebtedness outstanding or authorized for issue as of July 1, 1973. 

Sec. 5. Acts levying taxes to state objects. Every act of the General Assembly levying a 
tax shall state the special object to which it is to be applied, and it shall be applied to no 
other purpose. 

Sec. 6. Inviolability of sinking funds and retirement funds. 

(1) Sinking funds. The General Assembly shall not use or authorize to be used any 
part of the amount of any sinking fund for any purpose other than the retirement of the 
bonds for which the sinking fund has been created, except that these funds may be in- 
vested as authorized by the law. 



The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 97 



(2) Retirement funds. Neither the General Assembly nor any public officer, employee, 
or agency shall use or authorized to be used any part of the funds of the Teachers' and 
State Employees' Retirement System or the Local Governmental Employees' Retire- 
ment System for any purpose other than retirement system benefits and purpose, ad- 
ministrative expenses, and refunds; except that retirement system funds may be invested 
as authorized by law, subject to the investment limitation that the funds of the Teachers' 
and State Employees' Retirement System and the Local Governmental Employees' Re- 
tirement System shall not be applied, diverted, loaned to, or used by the State, any State 
agency, State officer, public officer, or public employee. 

Sec. 7. Drawing public money. 

(1) State treasury. No money shall be drawn from the State Treasury but in conse- 
quence of appropriations made by law, and an accurate account of the receipts and 
expenditures of State funds shall be published annually. 

(2) Local treasury. No money shall be drawn from the treasury of any county, city or 
town, or other unit of local government except by authority of law. 

Sec. 8. Health care facilities. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this Constitu- 
tion, the General Assembly may enact general laws to authorize the State, counties, cit- 
ies or towns, and other State and local governmental entities to issue revenue bonds to 
finance or refinance for any such governmental entity or any nonprofit private corpora- 
tion, regardless of any church or religious relationship, the cost of acquiring, construct- 
ing, and financing health care facility projects to be operated to serve and benefit the 
public; provided, no cost incurred earlier than two years prior to the effective date of 
this section shall be refinanced. Such bonds shall be payable from the revenues, gross or 
net, of any such projects and any other health care facilities of any such governmental 
entity or nonprofit private corporation pledged therefor; shall not be secured by a 
pledge of the full faith and credit, or deemed to create an indebtedness requiring voter 
approval of any governmental entity; and may be secured by an agreement which may 
provide for the conveyance of title of, with or without consideration, any such project 
or facilities to the governmental entity or nonprofit private corporation. The power of 
eminent domain shall not be used pursuant hereto for nonprofit private corporations." 

Sec. 9. Capital projects for industry. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Con- 
stitution, the General Assembly may enact general laws to authorize counties to create 
authorities to issue revenue bonds to finance, but not to refinance, the cost of capital 
projects consisting of industrial, manufacturing and pollution control facilities for in- 
dustry and pollution control facilities for public utilities, and to refund such bonds. 

In no event shall such revenue bonds be secured by or payable from any public mon- 
eys whatsoever, but such revenue bonds shall be secured by any payable only from rev- 
enues or property derived from private parties. All such capital projects and all transac- 
tions therefor shall be subject to taxation to the extent such projects and transactions 
would be subject to taxation if no public body were involved therewith; provided, how- 
ever, that the General Assembly may provide that the interest on such revenue bonds 
shall be exempt from income taxes within the State. 

The power of eminent domain shall not be exercised to provide any property for any 
such capital project." 



98 North Carolina Manual 



Sec. 10. Joint ownership of generation and transmission facilities. In addition to other 
powers conferred upon them by law, municipalities owning or operating facilities for 
the generation, transmission or distribution of electric power and energy and joint agen- 
cies formed by such municipalities for the purpose of owning or operating facilities for 
the generation and transmission of electric power and energy (each, respectively, "a unit 
of municipal government") may jointly or severally own, operate and maintain works, 
plants and facilities, within or without the State, for the generation and transmission of 
electric power and energy, or both, with any person, firm, association or corporation, 
public or private, engaged in the generation, transmission or distribution of electric 
power and energy for resale (each, respectively, "a co-owner") within this State or any 
state contiguous to this State, and may enter into and carry out agreements with respect 
to such jointly owned facilities. For the purpose of financing its share of the cost of any 
such jointly owned electric generation or transmission facilities, a unit of municipal gov- 
ernment may issue its revenue bonds in the manner prescribed by the General Assem- 
bly, payable as to both principal and interest solely from and secured by a lien and 
charge on all or any part of the revenue derived, or to be derived, by such unit of muni- 
cipal government from the ownership and operation of its electric facilities; provided, 
however, that no unit of municipal government shall be liable, either jointly or several- 
ly, for any acts, omissions or obligations of any co-owner, nor shall any money or prop- 
erty of any unit of municipal government be credited or otherwise applied to the ac- 
count of any co-owner or be charged with any debt, lien or mortgage as a result of any 
debt or obligation of any co-owner. 

ARTICLE VI 

Suffrage and Eligibility to Office 

Sec. 1. Who may vote. Every person born in the United States and every person who 
has been naturalized, 18 years of age, and possessing the qualifications set out in this 
Article, shall be entitled to vote at any election by the people of the State, except as here- 
in otherwise provided. 

Sec. 2. Qualifications of voter. 

(1) Residence period for State elections. Any person who has resided in the State of 
North Carolina for one year and in the precinct, ward, or other election district for 30 
days next preceding an election, and possesses the other qualifications set out in this Ar- 
ticle, shall be entitled to vote at any election held in this State. Removal from one pre- 
cinct, ward, or other election district to another in this State shall not operate to deprive 
any person of the right to vote in the precinct, ward, or other election district from 
which that person has removed until 30 days after the removal. 

(2) Residence period for presidential elections. The General Assembly may reduce the 
time of residence for persons voting in presidential elections. A person made eligible by 
reason of a reduction in time of residence shall possess the other qualifications set out in 
this Article, shall only be entitled to vote for President and Vice President of the United 
States or for electors for President and Vice President, and shall not thereby become eli- 
gible to hold office in this State. 

(3) Disqualification of felon. No person adjudged guilty of a felony against this State 






The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 99 



or the United States, or adjudged guilty of a felony in another state that also would be a 
felony if it had been committed in this State, shall be permitted to vote unless that per- 
son shall be first restored to the rights of citizenship in the manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 3. Registration. Every person offering to vote shall be at the time legally regis- 
tered as a voter as herein prescribed and in the manner provided by law. The General 
Assembly shall enact general laws governing the registration of voters. 

Sec. 4. Qualification for registration. Every person presenting himself for registration 
shall be able to read and write any section of the Constitution in the English language. 

Sec. 5. Elections by people and General Assembly. All elections by the people shall be 
by ballot, and all elections by the General Assembly shall be viva voce. A contested elec- 
tion for any office established by Article III of this constitution shall be determined by 
joint ballot of both houses of the General Assembly in the manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 6. Eligibility to elective office. Every qualified voter in North Carolina who is 21 
years of age, except as in this Constitution disqualified, shall be eligible for election by 
the people to office. 

Sec. 7. Oath. Before entering upon the duties of an officer, a person elected or ap- 
pointed to the office shall take and subscribe the following oath: 

"I, , do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and 

maintain the Constitution and laws of the United States, and the Constitution and laws 
of North Carolina not inconsistent therewith, and that I will faithfully discharge the du- 
ties of my office as , so help me God." 

Sec. 8. Disqualifications for office. The following shall be disqualified for office: 

First, any person who shall deny the being of Almighty God. 

Second, with respect to any office that is filled by election by the people, any person 
who is not qualified to vote in an election for that office. 

Third, any person who has been adjudged guilty of treason or any other felony 
against this State or the United States, or any person who had been adjudged guilty of a 
felony in another state that also would be a felony if it had been committed in this State, 
or any person who has been adjudged guilty of corruption or malpractice in any office, 
or any person who has been removed by impeachment from any office, and who has not 
been restored to the rights of citizenship in the manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 9. Dual office holding. 

(1) Prohibitions. It is salutary that the responsibilities of self-government be widely 
shared among the citizens of the State and that the potential abuse of authority inherent 
in the holding of multiple offices by an individual by avoided. Therefore, no person who 
holds any office or place of trust or profit under the United States or any department 
thereof, or under any other state or government, shall be eligible to hold any office in 
this State that is filled by election by the people. No person shall hold concurrently any 
two offices in this State that are filled by election of the people. No person shall hold 
concurrently any two or more appointive offices or places of trust or profit, or any com- 
bination of elective and appointive offices or places of trust or profit, except as the Gen- 
eral Assembly shall provide by general law. 



100 North Carolina Manual 



(2) Exceptions. The provisions of this Section shall not prohibit any officer of the 
military forces of the State or of the United States not on active duty for an extensive 
period of time, any notary public, or any delegate to a Convention of the People from 
holding concurrently another office or place of trust or profit under this State or the 
United States or any department thereof. 

Sec. 10. Continuation in office. In the absence of any contrary provision, all officers in 
this State, whether appointed or elected, shall hold their positions until other appoint- 
ments are made or, if the offices are elective, until their successors are chosen and quali- 
fied. 

ARTICLE VII 

Local Government 

Section 1. General Assembly to provide for local government. The General Assembly 
shall provide for the organization and government and the fixing of boundaries of coun- 
ties, cities and towns, and other governmental subdivisions, and, except as otherwise 
prohibited by this Constitution, may give such powers and duties to counties, cities and 
towns, and other governmental subdivisions as it may deem advisable. 

The General Assembly shall not incorporate as a city or town, nor shall it authorize 
to be incorporated as a city or town, any territory lying within one mile of the corporate 
limits of any other city or town having a population of 5,000 or more according to the 
most recent decennial census of population taken by order of Congress, or lying within 
three miles of the corporate limits of any other city or town having a population of 
10,000 or more according to the most recent decennial census of population taken by 
order of Congress, or lying within four miles of the corporate limits of any other city or 
town having a population of 25,000 or more according to the most recent decennial cen- 
sus of population taken by order of Congress, or lying within five miles of the corporate 
limits of any other city or town having a population of 50,000 or more according to the 
most recent decennial census of population taken by order of Congress. Notwithstand- 
ing the foregoing limitations, the General Assembly may incorporate a city or town by 
an act adopted by vote of three-fifths of all the members of each house. 

Sec. 2: Sheriffs. In each county a Sheriff shall be elected by the qualified voters there- 
of at the same time and places as members of the General Assembly are elected and 
shall hold his office for a period of four years, subject to removal for cause as provided 
by law. 

Sec. 3. Merged or consolidated counties. Any unit of local government formed by the 
merger or consolidation of a county or counties and the cities and towns therein shall be 
deemed both a county and a city for the purposes of this Constitution, and may exercise 
any authority conferred by law on counties, or on cities and towns, or both, as the Gen- 
eral Assembly may provide. 

ARTICLE VIII 

Corporations 

Section 1. Corporate charters. No corporation shall be created, nor shall its charter 
be extended, altered, or amended by special act, except corporations for charitable, edu- 






The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 101 



cational, penal, or reformatory purposes that are to be and remain under the patronage 
and control of the State; but the General Assembly shall provide by general laws for the 
chartering, organization, and powers of all corporations, and for the amending, extend- 
ing, and forfeiture of all charters, except those above permitted by special act. All such 
general acts may be altered from time to time or repealed. The General Assembly may 
at any time by special act repeal the charter of any corporation. 

Sec. 2. Corporations defined. The term "corporation" as used in this Section shall be 
construed to include all associations and joint-stock companies having any of the 
powers and privileges of corporations not possessed by individuals or partnerships. All 
corporations shall have the right to sue and shall be subject to be sued in all courts, in 
like cases as natural persons. 

ARTICLE IX 

Education 

Section 1. Education encouraged. Religion, morality, and knowledge being necessary 
to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools, libraries, and the means of 
education shall forever be encouraged. 

Sec. 2. Uniform system of schools. 

(1) General and uniform system; term. The General Assembly shall provide by taxa- 
tion and otherwise for a general and uniform system of free public schools, which shall 
be maintained at least nine months in every year, and wherein equal opportunities shall 
be provided for all students. 

(2) Local responsibility. The General Assembly may assign to units of local govern- 
ment such responsibility for the financial support of the free public schools as it may 
deem appropriate. The governing boards of units of local government with financial re- 
sponsibility for public education may use local revenues to add to or supplement any 
public school or post-secondary school program. 

Sec. 3. School attendance. The General Assembly shall provide that every child of ap- 
propriate age and of sufficient mental and physical ability shall attend the public 
schools, unless educated by other means. 

Sec. 4. State Board of Education. 

(1) Board. The State Board of Education shall consist of the Lieutenant Governor, 
the Treasurer, and eleven members appointed by the Governor, subject to confirmation 
by the General Assembly in joint session. The General Assembly shall divide the State 
into eight educational districts. Of the appointive members of the Board, one shall be 
appointed from each of the eight educational districts and three shall be appointed from 
the State at large. Appointments shall be for overlapping terms of eight years. Appoint- 
ments to fill vacancies shall be made by the Governor for the unexpired terms and shall 
not be subject to confirmation. 

(2) Superintendent of Public Instruction. The Superintendent of Public Instruction 
shall be the secretary and chief administrative officer of the State Board of Education. 

Sec. 5. Powers and duties of Board. The State Board of Education shall supervise and 
administer the free public school system and the educational funds provided for its sup- 



102 North Carolina Manual 



port, except the funds mentioned in Section 7 of this Article, and shall make all needed 
rules and regulations in relation thereto, subject to laws enacted by the General Assem- 
bly. 

Sec. 6. State school fund. The proceeds of all lands that have been or hereafter may be 
granted by the United States to this State, and not otherwise appropriated by this State 
or the United States; all moneys, stocks, bonds, and other property belonging to the 
State for purposes of public education; the net proceeds of all sales of the swamp lands 
belonging to the State; and all other grants, gifts, and devises that have been or hereafter 
may be made to the State, and not otherwise appropriated by the State or by the terms 
of the grant, gift, or devise, shall be paid into the State Treasury and, together with so 
much of the revenue of the State as may be set apart for that purpose, shall be faithfully 
appropriated and used exclusively for establishing and maintaining a uniform system of 
free public schools. 

Sec. 7. County school fund. All moneys, stocks, bonds, and other property belonging 
to a county school fund, and the clear proceeds of all penalties and forfeitures and of all 
fines collected in the several counties for any breach of the penal laws of the State, shall 
belong to and remain in the several counties, and shall be faithfully appropriated and 
used exclusively for maintaining free public schools. 

Sec. 8. Higher education. The General Assembly shall maintain a public system of 
higher education, comprising The University of North Carolina and such other institu- 
tions of higher education as the General Assembly may deem wise. The General Assem- 
bly shall provide for the selection of trustees of The University of North Carolina and of 
the other institutions of higher education, in whom shall be vested all the privileges, 
rights, franchises, and endowments heretofore granted to or conferred upon the trustees 
of these institutions. The General Assembly may enact laws necessary and expedient for 
the maintenance and management of The University of North Carolina and the other 
public instructions of higher education. 

Sec. 9. Benefits of public instructions of higher education. The General Assembly shall 
provide that the benefits of The University of North Carolina and other public institu- 
tions of higher education, as far as practicable, be extended to the people of the State 
free of expense. 

Sec. 10. Escheats. 

(1) Escheats prior to July 1 , 1971. All property that prior to July 1, 1971, accrued to 
the State from escheats, unclaimed dividends, or distributive shares of the estates of de- 
ceased persons shall be appropriated to the use of The University of North Carolina. 

(2) Escheats after June 30, 1971. All property that, after June 30, 1971, shall accrue to 
the State from escheats, unclaimed dividends, or distributive shares of the estates of de- 
ceased persons shall be used to aid worthy and needy students who are residents of this 
State and are enrolled in public institutions of higher education in this State. The meth- 
od, amount, and type of distribution shall be prescribed by law. 



The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 103 



ARTICLE X 

Homesteads and Exemptions 

Section 1. Personal property exemptions. The personal property of any resident of 
this State, to a value fixed by the General Assembly but not less than $500, to be select- 
ed by the resident, is exempt from sale under execution or other final process of any 
court, issued for the collection of any debt. 

Sec. 2. Homestead exemptions. 

(1) Exemption from sale; exceptions. Every homestead and the dwellings and build- 
ings used therewith, to a value fixed by the General Assembly but not less than $1,000, 
to be selected by the owner thereof, or in lieu thereof, at the option of the owner, any lot 
in a city or town with the dwellings and buildings used thereon, and to the same value, 
owned and occupied by a resident of the State, shall be exempt from sale under execu- 
tion or other final process obtained on any debt. But no property shall be exempt from 
sale for taxes, or for payment of obligations contracted for its purchase. 

(2) Exemption for benefit of children. The homestead, after the death of the owner 
thereof, shall be exempt from the payment of any debt during the minority of the own- 
er's children, or any of them. 

(3) Exemption for benefit of widow. If the owner of a homestead dies, leaving a surviv- 
ing spouse but no minor children, the homestead shall be exempt from the debts of the 
owner, and the rents and profits thereof shall inure to the benefit of the surviving spouse 
until he or she remarries, unless the surviving spouse is the owner of a separate home- 
stead. 

(4) Conveyance of homestead. Nothing contained in this Article shall operate to pre- 
vent the owner of a homestead from disposing of it by deed, but no deed made by a mar- 
ried owner of a homestead shall be valid without the signature and acknowledgement of 
his or her spouse. 

Sec. 3. Mechanics' and laborers' liens. The General Assembly shall provide by proper 
legislation for giving to mechanics and laborers an adequate lien on the subject-matter 
of their labor. The provisions of Sections 1 and 2 of this Article shall not be so con- 
strued as to prevent a laborer's lien for work done and performed for the person claim- 
ing the exemption or a mechanic's lien for work done on the premises. 

Sec. 4. Property of married women secured to them. The real and personal property of 
any female in this State acquired before marriage, and all property, real and personal, to 
which she may, after marriage, become in any manner entitled, shall be and remain the 
sole and separate estate and property of such female, and shall not be liable for any 
debts, obligations, or engagements of her husband, and may be devised and bequeathed 
and conveyed by her, subject to such regulations and limitations as the General Assem- 
bly may prescribe. Every married woman may exercise powers of attorney conferred 
upon her by her husband, including the power to execute and acknowledge deeds to 
property owned by herself and her husband or by her husband. 

Sec. 5. Insurance. A person may insure his or her own life for the sole use and benefit 
of his or her spouse or children or both, and upon his or her death the proceeds from the 



104 North Carolina Manual 



insurance shall be paid to or for the benefit of the spouse or children or both, or to a 
guardian, free from all claims of the representatives or creditors of the insured or his or 
her estate. Any insurance policy which insures the life of a person for the sole use and 
benefit of that person's spouse or children or both shall not be subject to the claims of 
creditors of the insured during his or her lifetime, whether or not the policy reserves to 
the insured during his or her lifetime any or all rights provided for by the policy and 
whether or not the policy proceeds are payable to the estate of the insured in the event 
the beneficiary or beneficiaries predecease the insured. 

ARTICLE XI 

Punishments, Corrections, and Charities 

Section 1. Punishments. The following punishments only shall be known to the laws 
of this State: death, imprisonment, fines, removal from office, and disqualification to 
hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under this State. 

Sec. 2. Death punishment. The object of punishments being not only to satisfy justice, 
but also to reform the offender and thus prevent crime, murder, arson, burglary, and 
rape, and these only, may be punishable with death, if the General Assembly shall so en- 
act. 

Sec. 3. Charitable and correctional institutions and agencies. Such charitable, benevol- 
ent, penal, and correctional institutions and agencies as the needs of humanity and the 
public good may require shall be established and operated by the State under such or- 
ganization and in such manner as the General Assembly may prescribe. 

Sec. 4. Welfare policy; board of public welfare. Beneficent provision for the poor, the 
unfortunate, and the orphan is one of the first duties of a civilized and a Christian state. 
Therefore the General Assembly shall provide for and define the duties of a board of 
public welfare. 

ARTICLE XII 

Military Forces 

Section 1. Governor is Commander in Chief. The Governor shall be Commander in 
Chief of the military forces of the State and may call out those forces to execute the law, 
suppress riots and insurrections, and repeal invasion. 

ARTICLE XIII 

Conventions; Constitutional Amendment and Revision 

Section 1. Convention of the People. No Convention of the People of this State shall 
ever be called unless by the concurrence of two-thirds of all the members of each house 
of the General Assembly, and unless the proposition "Convention or No Convention" 
is first submitted to the qualified voters of the State at the time and in the manner pre- 
scribed by the General Assembly. If a majority of the votes cast upon the proposition 
are in favor of a Convention, it shall assemble on the day prescribed by the General As- 
sembly. The General Assembly shall, in the act submitting the convention proposition, 



The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 105 



propose limitations upon the authority of the convention; and if a majority of the votes 
cast upon the proposition are in favor of a Convention, those limitations shall become 
binding upon the Convention. Delegates to the Convention shall be elected by the quali- 
fied voters at the time and in the manner prescribed in the act of submission. The Con- 
vention shall consist of a number of delegates equal to the membership of the House of 
Representatives of the General Assembly that submits the convention proposition and 
the delegates shall be apportioned as is the House of Representatives. A Convention 
shall adopt no ordinance not necessary to the purpose for which the Convention has 
been called. 

Sec. 2. Power to revise or amend Constitution reserved to people. The people of this 
State reserve the power to amend this Constitution and to adopt a new or revised Con- 
stitution. This power may be exercised by either of the methods set out hereinafter in 
this Article, but in no other way. 

Sec. 3. Revision or amendment by Convention of the People. A Convention of the Peo- 
ple of this State may be called pursuant to Section 1 of this Article to propose a new or 
revised Constitution or to propose amendments to this Constitution. Every new or re- 
vised Constitution and every constitutional amendment adopted by a Convention shall 
be submitted to the qualified voters of the State at the time and in the manner pre- 
scribed by the Convention. If a majority of the votes cast thereon are in favor of ratifica- 
tion of the new or revised Constitution or the constitutional amendment or amend- 
ments, it or they shall become effective January first next after ratification by the quali- 
fied voters unless a different effective date is prescribed by the Convention. 

Sec. 4. Revision or amendment by legislative initiation. A proposal of a new or revised 
Constitution or an amendment or amendments to this Constitution may be initiated by 
the General Assembly, but only if three-fifths of all the members of each house shall 
adopt an act submitting the proposal to the qualified voters of the State for their ratifi- 
cation or rejection. The proposal shall be submitted at the time and in the manner pre- 
scribed by the General Assembly. If a majority of the votes cast thereon are in favor of 
the proposed new or revised Constitution or constitutional amendment or amendments, 
it or they shall become effective January first next after ratification by the voters unless 
a different effective date is prescribed in the act submitting the proposal or proposals to 
the qualified voters. 

ARTICLE XIV 

Miscellaneous 

Section 1. Seat of government. The permanent seat of government of this State shall 
be at the City of Raleigh. 

Sec. 2. State boundaries. The limits and boundaries of the State shall be and remain 
as they now are. 

Sec. 3. General laws defined. Whenever the General Assembly is directed or author- 
ized by this Constitution to enact general laws, or general laws uniformly applicable 
throughout the State, or general laws uniformly applicable in every county, city and 



106 North Carolina Manual 



town, and other unit of local government, or in every local court district, no special or 
local act shall be enacted concerning the subject matter directed or authorized to be ac- 
complished by general or uniformly applicable laws, and every amendment or repeal of 
any law relating to such subject matter shall also be general and uniform in its effect 
throughout the State. General laws may be enacted for classes defined by population or 
other criteria. General laws uniformly applicable throughout the State shall be made 
applicable without classification or exception in every unit of local government of like 
kind, such as every county, or every city and town, but need not be made applicable in 
every unit of local government in the State. General laws uniformly applicable in every 
county, city and town, and other unit of local government, or in every local court dis- 
trict, shall be made applicable without classification or exception in every unit of local 
government, or in every local court district, as the case may be. The General Assembly 
may at any time repeal any special, local or private act. 

Sec. 4. Continuity of laws; protection of office holders. The laws of North Carolina not 
in conflict with this Constitution shall continue in force until lawfully altered. Except as 
otherwise specifically provided, the adoption of this Constitution shall not have the ef- 
fect of vacating any office or term of office now filled or held by virtue of any election or 
appointment made under the prior Constitution of North Carolina and the laws of the 
State enacted pursuant thereto." 

Sec. 5. Conservation of natural resources. It shall be the policy of this State to con- 
serve and protect its lands and waters for the benefit of all its citizenry, and to this end it 
shall be a proper function of the State of North Carolina and its political subdivisions to 
acquire and preserve park, recreational, and scenic areas, to control and limit the pollu- 
tion of our air and water, to control excessive noise, and in every other appropriate way 
to preserve as a part of the common heritage of this State its forests, wetlands, estuaries, 
beaches, historical sites, openlands, and places of beauty. 

To accomplish the aforementioned public purposes, the State and its counties, cities 
and towns, and other units of local government may acquire by purchase or gift proper- 
ties or interests which shall, upon their special dedication to and acceptance by resolu- 
tion adopted by a vote of three-fifths of the members of each house of the General As- 
sembly for those public purposes, constitute part of the "State Nature and Historic Pre- 
serve", and which shall not be used for other purposes except as authorized by law en- 
acted by a vote of three-fifths of the members of each house of the General Assembly. 
The General Assembly shall prescribe by general law the conditions and procedures un- 
der which such properties or interests therein shall be dedicated for the aforementioned 
public purposes. 






The Constitution of the United States 107 



Chapter Three 
THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES 



Preamble 

We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish 
justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the gen- 
eral welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain 
and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. 



ARTICLE I 

Section 1 — All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the 
United States, which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives. 

Sec. 2 — 1 . The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every 
second year by the people of the several States, and the electors in each State shall have 
the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legis- 
lature. 

2. No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of 
twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, 
when elected, be an inhabitant of the State in which he shall be chosen. 

3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States 
which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which 
shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those 
bound to service for a term of years and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all 
other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first 
meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term often 
years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall 
not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Repre- 
sentative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall 
be entitled to choose 3; Massachusetts, 8; Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, 1; 
Connecticut, 5; New York, 6; New Jersey, 4; Pennsylvania, 8; Delaware, 1; Maryland, 
6; Virginia, 10; North Carolina, 5; South Carolina, 5; and Georgia, 3.* 



*See Article XIV, Amendments. 



108 North Carolina Manual 



4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State the Executive Au- 
thority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies. 

5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers, and 
shall have the sole power of impeachment. 

Sec. 3 — 1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from 
each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof for six years; and each Senator shall have 
one vote.t 

2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they 
shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the 
first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year; of the second class at the 
expiration of the fourth year; and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so 
that one-third may be chosen every second year, and if vacancies happen by resignation, 
or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof 
may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which 
shall then fill such vacancies. t 

3. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, 
and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be 
an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen. 

4. The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall 
have no vote, unless they be equally divided. 

5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore, in 
the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of the President of 
the United States. 

6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for 
that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United 
States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without 
the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present. 

7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from 
office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under 
the United States; but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to in- 
dictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law. 

Sec. 4 — 1. The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and Repre- 
sentatives shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof, but the Congress 
may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choos- 
ing Senators. 

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be 
on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day. 

Sec. 5 — 1. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications 
of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; 
but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel 



tSee Article XVII, Amendments. 






The Constitution of the United States 109 



the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as each 
House may provide. 

2. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for 
disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member. 

3. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish 
the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas 
and nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth 
of those present, be entered on the journal. 

4. Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the 
other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the 
two Houses shall be sitting. 

Sec. 6 — 1. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their 
services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. 
They shall in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged 
from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in go- 
ing to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House they 
shall not be questioned in any other place. 

2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be 
appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States which shall have 
been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; 
and no person holding any office under the United States shall be a member of either 
House during his continuance in office. 

Sec. 7 — 1 . All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; 
but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills. 

2. Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate 
shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he 
approves, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that House 
in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, 
and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration two-thirds of that House shall 
agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent together with the objectives, to the other House, by 
which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that House, it 
shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined 
by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be 
entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the 
President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, 
the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their 
adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law. 

3. Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House 
of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be pre- 
sented to the President of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall 
be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the 
Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed 
in the case of a bill. 



110 North Carolina Manual 

Sec. 8. The Congress shall have power: 

1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide 
for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts 
and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States; 

2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States; 

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and 
with the Indian tribes; 

4. To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of 
bankruptcies throughout the United States; 

5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the stand- 
ards of weights and measures; 

6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of 
the United States; 

7. To establish postoffices and postroads; 

8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for limited times, 
to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries; 

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court; 

10. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and of- 
fenses against the law of nations; 

1 1. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning 
captures on land and water; 

12. To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be 
for a longer term than two years; 

13. To provide and maintain a navy; 

14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces; 

15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress 
insurrections, and repel invasions; 

16. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for governing 
such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to 
the State respectively the appointment of the officers and the authority of training the 
militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress; 

17. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever over such district (not ex- 
ceeding ten miles square) as may be cession of particular States and the acceptance of 
Congress, become the seat of Government of the United States, and to exercise like au- 
thority over all places purchased by the consent of the Legislature of the State, in which 
the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other 
needful buildings; — and 

18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution 



The Constitution of the United States 111 



the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the Govern- 
ment of the United States, or any department or officer thereof. 

Sec. 9 — 1. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States now ex- 
isting shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the 
year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such 
importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person. 

2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in 
cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it. 

3. No bill of attainer or ex post facto law shall be passed. 

4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or 
enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken.* 

5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State. 

6. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the 
ports of one State over those of another; nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one State 
be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another. 

7. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in consequence of appropriations 
made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all 
public money shall be published from time to time. 

8. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; and no person holding 
any office or profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, ac- 
cept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, 
prince, or foreign state. 

Sec. 10 — 1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant let- 
ters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything but gold 
and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainer; ex post facto law, 
or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. 

2. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on 
imports or exports except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection 
laws; and the net produce of all duties and imports, laid by any State on imports or ex- 
ports, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be 
subject to the revision and control of the Congress. 

3. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep 
troops, or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with an- 
other State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in 
such imminent danger as will not admit delay. 

ARTICLE II 

Section 1 — 1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States 



*See Article XVI, Amendments. 



112 North Carolina Manual 



of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and, together with the 
Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows: 

2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof may direct, a 
number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to 
which the State may be entitled in the Congress; but no Senator or Representative or 
person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States shall be appointed an 
elector. 

3. The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for two per- 
sons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves. 
And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for 
each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of 
the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives open all the 
certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number 
of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of 
electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an 
equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by 
ballot one of them for President; and if no person have a majority, then from the five 
highest on the list the said House shall in like manner choose the President. But in 
choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each 
State having one vote; a quorum, for this purpose, shall consist of a member or mem- 
bers from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a 
choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the greatest 
number of votes of the electors shall be the Vice-President. But if there shall remain two 
or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice 
President.* 

4. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors and the day on 
which they shall give their votes, which day shall be the same throughout the United 
States. 

5. No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States, at the 
time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; 
neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age 
of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States. 

6. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation or 
inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on 
the Vice President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, 
resignation, or inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what officer 
shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly until the disability be 
removed, or a President shall be elected. 

7. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensation which 
shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been 



*This clause is superseded by Article XII, Amendments. 



The Constitution of the United States 113 



elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the 
United States, or any of them. 

8. Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or 
affirmation: 

"I do solemly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of 
the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the 
Constitution of the United States." 

Sec. 2 — 1 . The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the 
United States, and of the militia of the several States, when called into the actual service 
of the United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in 
each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their re- 
spective offices; and he shall have power to grant reprieves, and pardons for offenses 
against the United States, except in cases of impeachment. 

2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make 
treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate and, 
by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other 
public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the 
United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which 
shall be established by law; but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such 
inferior officers as they think proper in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in 
the heads of departments. 

3. The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the 
recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next 
session. 

Sec. 3 — He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the State of 
the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge nec- 
essary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both Houses, or 
either of them, and in case of disagreement between them with respect to the time of ad- 
journment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive 
ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully ex- 
ecuted, and shall commission all the officers of the United States. 

Sec. 4— The President, Vice President, and all civil officers of the United States, shall 
be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or 
other high crimes and misdemeanors. 



ARTICLE III 

Section 1 — The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme 
Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and es- 
tablish. The judges, both of the Supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices dur- 
ing good behavior, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation 
which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. 



114 North Carolina Manual 



Sec. 2— 1 . The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under 
this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be 
made, under their authority; — to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers 
and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; — to controversies to 
which the United States shall be a party;— to controversies between two or more 
States; — between citizens of the same State, claiming lands under grants of different 
States, and between a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign States, citizens, or sub- 
jects. 

2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those 
in which a State shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. In 
all the other cases before mentioned the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdic- 
tion, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as the 
Congress shall make. 

3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury, and such 
trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes shall have been committed; but 
when not committed within any State the trial shall be at such place or places as the 
Congress may by law have directed. 

Sec. 3—1. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against 
them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be 
convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or 
on confession in open court. 

2. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason; but no at- 
tainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture except during the life of 
the person attained. 

ARTICLE IV 

Section 1— Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public acts, records, 
and judicial proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general laws 
prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and proceedings shall be proved, and 
the effect thereof. 

Sec. 2—1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities 
of citizens in the several States. 

2. A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee 
from justice and be found in another State, shall, on demand of the Executive authority 
of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having juris- 
diction of the crime. 

3. No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof, escaping 
into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from 
such service or labor, but shall be delivered upon claim of the party to whom such serv- 
ice or labor may be due. 

Sec. 3—1. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new 
State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State 



The Constitution of the United States 115 



be formed by the junction of two or more States, on parts of States, without the consent 
of the Legislatures of the States concerned, as well as of the Congress. 

2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regu- 
lations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States; and 
nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the 
United States or of any particular State. 

Sec. 4— The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a republican 
form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion, and, on applica- 
tion of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened), 
against domestic violence. 

ARTICLE V 

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall pro- 
pose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the Legislatures of two- 
thirds of the several States, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in 
either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when 
ratified by the Legislatures of three-fourths of the several States, or by conventions in 
three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by 
the Congress; provided that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one 
thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses 
in the Ninth Section of the First Article; and that no State, without its consent, shall be 
deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate. 

ARTICLE VI 

1. All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adoption of this 
Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as 
under the Confederation. 

2. This Constitution and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pur- 
suance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the 
United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every State shall 
be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary not- 
withstanding. 

3. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the sev- 
eral State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States 
and of the several States, shall be bound by oath or affirmation to support this Consti- 
tution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or pub- 
lic trust under the United States. 



ARTICLE VII 

The ratification of the Convention of nine States shall be sufficient for the establish- 
ment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the same. 



116 



North Carolina Manual 



Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth 
Day of September, in the Year of Our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty- 
seven, and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth. In witness 
whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names.* 



GEO[RGE] WASHINGTON, 

President and deputy from Virginia 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

John Langdon 
Nicholas Gilman 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Nathaniel Gorham 
Rufus King, 

CONNECTICUT 

W[illiai]m Sam[ue]l Johnson 
Roger Sherman 
Geo[rge]Clymer 
Jared Ingersoll 
Gouv. Morris 

DELAWARE 

Geo[rge] Read 
John Dickinson 
Jaco[b] Broom 
Gunning Bedford, Jr. 
Richard Bassett 

MARYLAND 

James McHerry 
Dan[ie]l Carroll 
Danfiel] of St. Thos. Jenifer 



VIRGINIA 

John Blair 



NEW YORK 

Alexander Hamilton 

NEW JERSEY 

Wilfliam] Livingston 
David Brearley 
W[illia]m Patterson 
Jonathan] Dayton 

PENNSYLVANIA 

B[enjamin] Franklin 
Rob[er]t Morris 
Tho[ma]s Fitzsimmons 
James Wilson 
Thomas Mifflin 
Ja[me]s Madison, Jr. 

NORTH CAROLINA 

W[illia]m Blount 
Hu[gh] Williamson 
Rich[ar]d Dobbs Spaight 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

J[ames] Rutledge 

Charles Pinckney 

Charles Cotesworth Pinckney 

Pierce Butler 

GEORGIA 

William Few 
Abr[aham] Baldwin 



ATTEST: 

William Jackson, Secretary 



'The Constitution was declared in effect on the first Wednesday in March, 1789. 



The Constitution of the United States 117 



AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION 
OF THE UNITED STATES 

THE TEN ORIGINAL AMENDMENTS* 

The following amendments to the Constitution, Article I to X, inclusive, were pro- 
posed at the First Session of the First Congress, begun and held at the City of New 
York, on Wednesday, March 4, 1789, and were adopted by the necessary number of 
States. The original proposal of the ten amendments was preceded by this preamble and 
resolution: 

"The conventions of a number of the States having, at the time of their 
adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruc- 
tion or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses 
should be added, and as extending the ground of public confidence in the Gov- 
ernment will best insure the beneficient ends of its institution: 

"RESOLVED, By the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America, in Congress assembled, two-thirds of both Houses con- 
curring that the following articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the sev- 
eral States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States; all or any 
of which articles, when ratified by three-fourths of the said Legislatures, to be 
valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution, namely"; 

ARTICLE I 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting 
the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press; or the right 
of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of 
grievances. 

ARTICLE II 

A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the 
people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. 



ARTICLE III 

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of 
the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner to be prescribed by law. 



ARTICLE IV 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects 
against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall 
issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly de- 
scribing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. 



'These amendments known as The Bill of Rights, were declared in force December 15, 1791. North Carolina 
ratified these ten amendments on December 22, 1789 (Ch. 19, Laws of 1 789). 



118 North Carolina Manual 



ARTICLE V 

No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless 
on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or na- 
val forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor 
shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or 
limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against him, nor be de- 
prived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property 
be taken for public use, without just compensation. 

ARTICLE VI 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy, and public 
trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been 
committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and be in- 
formed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses 
against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to 
have the assistance of counsel for his defense. 

ARTICLE VII 

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, 
the right of tiral by jury shall be preserved and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise 
re-examined in any court of the United States than according to the rules of the com- 
mon law. 

ARTICLE VIII 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unu- 
sual punishments inflicted. 

ARTICLE IX 

The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny 
or disparage others retained by the people. 

ARTICLE X 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by 
it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. 

SUBSEQUENT AMENDMENTS 

ARTICLE XI 

The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in 
law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States, by citizens of 
another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign State. 

(Proposed to the Legislatures of the several States by the Third Congress on the 5th of March, 1794, and de- 
clared to have been ratified by Executive Proclamation, January 8, 1798. It was ratified by North Carolina on 
February 7, 1795.) 



The Constitution of the United States 119 



ARTICLE XII 

The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for President and 
Vice President, one of whom at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with 
themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in dis- 
tinct ballots the persons voted for as Vice President; and they shall make distinct lists of 
all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice President, and of 
the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit, 
sealed, to the seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of 
the Senate; the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of 
Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted; the person 
having the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, if such number 
be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such 
majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three on the 
list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immedi- 
ately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by 
States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose 
shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of 
all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall 
not choose a President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the 
fourth day of March next following, then the Vice President shall act as President, as in 
the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person hav- 
ing the greatest number of votes as Vice President shall be the Vice President, if such 
number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have 
a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the 
Vice President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole num- 
ber of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But 
no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of 
Vice President of the United States. 

[Proposed by the Eighth Congress on the 12 of December, 1803, declared ratified by the Secretary of State, 
September 25, 1804. It was ratified by North Carolina on December 21, 1803. It was ratified by all the States ex- 
cept Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire.] 

ARTICLE XIII 

1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime 
whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or 
any place subject to their jurisdiction. 

2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

[Proposed by the Thirty-eighth Congress on the 1st of February, 1865, declared ratified by the Secretary of 
State, December 18, 1865. It was ratified by North Carolina on December 4, 1865 (Resolution, Public Laws of 
1865. It was rejected by Delaware and Kentucky; was conditionally ratified by Alabama and Mississippi; and 
Texas took no action.] 

ARTICLE XIV 

1 . All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction 
thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State 



120 North Carolina Manual 



shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges of immunities of citi- 
zens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or prop- 
erty, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal 
protection of the laws. 

2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their 
respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding In- 
dians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for 
President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the 
executive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is 
denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and 
citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebel- 
lion or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the propor- 
tion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citi- 
zens twenty-one years of age in such State. 

3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of Presi- 
dent and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or 
under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as 
an officer of the United Sttaes, or as a member of any State Legislature, or as an execu- 
tive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, 
shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort 
to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each house, re- 
move such disability. 

4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law including 
debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insur- 
rection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State 
shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion 
against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all 
such debts, obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void. 

5. The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate legislation the provisions 
of this article. 

[The Reconstruction Amendment, by the Thirty-ninth Congress on the 16th day of June, 1866, was declared 
ratified by the Secretary of State, July 28, 1868. The amendment got the support of 23 Northern States; it was re- 
jected by Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and 10 Southern States. California took no action. Later it was rati- 
fied by the 10 Southern States. North Carolina ratified it on July 4, 1868 (Resolution 2, Public Laws of 1868).] 

ARTICLE XV 

1. The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or 
abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous 
condition of servitude. 

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

[Proposed by the Fortieth Congress the 27th of February, 1869, and was declared ratified by the Secretary of 
State, March 30, 1870. It was not acted on by Tennessee; it was rejected by California, Delaware, Kentucky, 
Maryland and Oregon; ratified by the remaining 30 States. North Carolina ratified it on March 5, 1869 (Public 
Laws of 1868-69). New York rescinded its ratification January 5, 1870. New Jersey rejected it in 1870, but ratified 
it in 1871.)] 



The Constitution of the United States 121 



ARTICLE XVI 

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever 
source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to 
any census or enumeration. 

[Proposed by the Sixty-first Congress, July 12, 1909, and declared ratified February 25, 1913. The income tax 
amendment was ratified by all the States, except Connecticut, Florida, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Utah, and 
Virginia. North Carolina ratified it on February 11, 1911 (Resolution 11, Public Laws of 1911).] 

ARTICLE XVII 

1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each 
State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. 
The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most 
numerous branch of the State Legislatures. 

2. When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the execu- 
tive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies; Provided, 
That the Legislature of any State may empower the Executive thereof to make tempor- 
ary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by elections as the Legislature may 
direct. 

3. This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any 
Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution. 

[Proposed by the Sixty-second Congress on the 16th day of May, 1912, and declared ratified May 31, 1913. 
Adopted by all the States except Alabama, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Missis- 
sippi, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Utah and Virginia. North Carolina ratified it on January 25, 1913 (Resolu- 
tion 10, Public Laws of 1913).] 

ARTICLE XVIII 

1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or trans- 
portation of intoxicating liquours within, the importation thereof into, or the exporta- 
tion thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof 
for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. 

2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this 
article by appropriate legislation. 

3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment 
to the Constitution by the Legislatures of the several States as provided in the Constitu- 
tion, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Con- 
gress. 

[Proposed by the Sixty-fifth Congress, December 18, 1917, and ratified by 36 States; was declared in effect on 
January 16, 1920. It was ratified by North Carolina on January 16, 1919 (Resolution 8, Public Laws of 1919).] 

ARTICLE XIX 

1 . The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by 
the United States or by any State on account of sex. 

2. Congress shall have power, by appropriate legislation, to enforce the provisions of 
this article. 



122 North Carolina Manual 



[Proposed by the Sixty-fifth Congress. On August 26, 1920, it was proclaimed in effect, having been ratified by 
three-quarters of the States. It was ratified by North Carolina on May 6, 1971 (Ch. 327, Session Laws of 1971). 
The Tennessee House, August 31st, rescinded its ratification, 47 to 24.] 

ARTICLE XX 

1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of 
January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3rd day of Janu- 
ary of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been rati- 
fied; and the terms of their successors shall then begin. 

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be- 
gin at noon on the 3rd day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day. 

3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President 
elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall 
not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the Presi- 
dent elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President 
until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case 
wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declar- 
ing who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be se- 
lected, and such person shall act accordingly, until a President or Vice President shall 
have qualified. 

4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons 
from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of 
choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the per- 
sons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President when the right of choice shall 
have devolved upon them. 

5. Section 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratifica- 
tion of this article. 

6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment 
to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven 
years from the date of its submission. 

[Proposed by the 72nd Congress, First Session. On February 6, 1933, it was proclaimed in effect, having been 
ratified by thirty-nine states. It was ratified by North Carolina on January 5, 1933 (Resolution 4, Public Laws of 
1933).] 

ARTICLE XXI 

1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is 
hereby repealed. 

2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the 
United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws 
thereof, is hereby prohibited. 

3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment 
to the Constitution by convention in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, 
within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress. 



The Constitution of the United States 123 



(Proposed by the 72nd Congress, Second Session. Proclaimed in effect on December 5, 1933, having been rati- 
fied by thirty-six States. North Carolina did not ratify this Amendment. By proclamation of the same date, the 
President proclaimed that the eighteenth amendment to the Constitution was repealed on December 5, 1933.) 



ARTICLE XXII 

1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no 
person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two 
years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the 
office of the President more than once. But this article shall not apply to any person 
holding the office of President when this article was proposed by the Congress, and shall 
not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as Presi- 
dent, during the term within which this article becomes operative from holding the of- 
fice of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term. 

2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment 
to the constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven 
years from the date of its submission to the States by the congress. 

[Proposed by the 80th Congress in 1947 and became effective on Feb. 26, 1951, having been ratified by thirty- 
six states. It was ratified by North Carolina on January 28, 1951 (Ch. 136, Session laws of 1951).] 



ARTICLE XXIII 

1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall ap- 
point in such manner as the Congress may direct: 

A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of 
Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it 
were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addi- 
tion to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purpose of 
the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and 
they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article 
of amendment. 

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

[Proposed by the 86th Congress in June of 1960 and ratified by the 38th State, March 29, 1961 and proclaimed 
a part of the Constitution, April 3, 1961. North Carolina did not ratify it.] 



ARTICLE XXIV 

1 . The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election 
for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Sena- 
tor or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States 
or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax. 

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

[Proposed by the 87th Congress, August 27, 1962 and ratified by the 38th State, January 23, 1964. It was not 
ratified by North Carolina.] 



124 North Carolina Manual 



ARTICLE XXV 

1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, 
the Vice President shall become President. 

2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall 
nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote 
of both Houses of Congress. 

3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and 
the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to 
discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written 
declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice Pres- 
ident as Acting President. 

4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the 
executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit 
to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and 
duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties 
of the office as Acting President. 

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate 
and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no in- 
ability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice Presi- 
dent and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of 
such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the Presi- 
dent pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their 
written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his 
office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours 
for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt 
of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days 
after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses 
that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice 
President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the Presi- 
dent shall resume the powers and duties of his office. 

[Submitted to the Legislatures of the fifty States July 6, 1965. Ratified by the 38th State (Nevada) February 10, 
1967. It was ratified by North Carolina on March 22, 1967 (Ch. 77, Session Laws of 1967).] 



ARTICLE XXVI 

1 . The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to 
vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State on account of age. 

2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legisla- 
tion. 

[Proposed to the States by Congress on March 23, 1971 and ratification completed June 30, 1971. It was rati- 
fied by North Carolina on July 1, 1971 (Ch. 725, Session Laws of 1971).] 



PART HI 

CENSUS 



Census 127 

POPULATION OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

Twentieth Census of the United States — 1980 

The 1980 Census, the Twentieth Census of the United States, was one of the most 
accurate ever taken. There have been numerous challenges to the figures released by 
the Bureau of the Census; however, most of these challenges are the result of growth 
rates being lower than anticipated by local governmental officials. The lower figures 
are due to the figures of the 1970 Census which were found to be higher in many cases 
than they actually were. This created a faulty base on which to make initial projections 
during the decade of the seventies. 

In North Carolina there were 42 incorporated places of 10,000 or more in 1980. 
Three of these reached this size since 1970 — Boone, Havelock, and Laurinburg. Of 
the incorporated places over 10,000, Charlotte is the largest with 314,447 people, fol- 
lowed by Greensboro with 155,642 and Raleigh with 149,771. Winston-Salem, the 
third largest in 1970, experienced a drop from 132,913 in 1970 to 131,885 in 1980. 
During the 1970's several of the incorporated urban areas annexed military bases 
which were adjacent to them. This in part accounts for the dramatic increases in the 
population of certain incorporated areas. 

According to the final figures of the 1980 Census, 97 of the counties gained in popu- 
lation. This is quite a change from the previous census which showed only 62 counties 
with gains while 38 had declines. Currituck County showed the greatest percentage 
gain with an increase of 91.2%. Dare County was a distant second with a 59.0% 
increase. Brunswick County was third at 47.7%. 

The first census of North Carolina was taken in 1790, returning a population of 
393,751. The population has shown an increase in every census since that time. The 
population passed 1,000,000 between 1860 and 1870; 2,000,000 between 1900 and 1910; 
3,000,000 between 1920 and 1930; 4,000,000 between 1940 and 1950; and 5,000,000 
between 1960 and 1970. The recent census reveals that the present population of North 
Carolina is 5,874,429. This represents a growth rate of 15.5%, or more than three 
quarters of a million people, during the last decade as opposed to a rate of approxi- 
mately 12%, or half a million people, during the 1960's. Almost half (47.7%) of the 
1970-1980 change in population was due to net migration. This is in contrast to the 
previous decade where all the growth was due to natural increase (or an excess of 
births over deaths). In fact, natural increase during the 1960's was greater than total 
growth, due to a net out-migration of 70,319 persons during that decade. If the same 
high rate of natural increase in the 1960's had continued during the 1970's the state 
would have had around 271,000 more residents than reflected in the 1980 figure. As it 
was, a tremendous increase in net migration much more than offset the decrease in 
birth rates. 

North Carolina has a total area of 52,712 square miles of which 48,798 is land area 
and 3,914 is water. Based on the population figures of 1980, North Carolina has a 
density of 1 1 1.4 inhabitants per square mile — an increase of 15 over the 1970 density 
figure of 96.4 inhabitants. 

The tables that follow give various population figures based on tabulations made 
during the 1980 census and corrections of initial reporting errors and any changes that 
have occurred since April 1, 1980. 



128 



North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 1. STATE POPULATION STATISTICS - 

CENSUS STATISTICS & PROJECTIONS 



1 - A. Components of Population Change. 



1960-1970 

Growth 528,256 

Births 1,011,061 

Deaths 412.486 

Natural Increase 598,575 

Net Migration -70,319 



1960-1970 
Growth: 

Coastal Plain 72,788 

Piedmont 366,352 

Mountains 89,116 

Births: 

Coastal Plain 379,266 

Piedmont 471,843 

Mountains 159,964 

Deaths: 

Coastal Plain 146,280 

Piedmont 192,378 

Mountains 73,838 

Natural Increase: 

Coastal Plain 232,986 

Piedmont 279,465 

Mountains 86,126 

Net Migration: 

Coastal Plain -160,198 

Piedmont 86,887 

Mountains 2,990 



Percent 
Change 

12.0 
22.0 
9.0 
13.0 
-2.0 

poner 


1970-1980 
790,018 
861,157 
464,508 
396,649 
393,369 

its of Growth. 


Percent 
Change 

15.5 

17.0 

9.0 

8.0 

7.0 


Change 
in Rates 

3.5 
-5.0 

0.0 
-5.0 

9.0 


Percent 
Change 


1970-1980 


Percent 
Change 


Change 
in Rates 


4.47 
17.05 
11.43 


230,888 
410,636 
148,494 


13.58 
16.33 
17.10 


9.11 
-0.72 

5.67 


23.30 
21.96 
20.52 


328,207 
397,598 
135,368 


19.30 
15.81 
15.58 


^.00 
-6.15 
-4.94 


8.99 
8.95 
9.47 


157,489 

222,830 

84,197 


9.26 
8.86 
9.69 


0.27 

-0.09 

0.22 


14.31 
13.01 
11.05 


170,718 

174,768 

51,171 


10.04 
6.95 
5.89 


-4.27 
-6.06 
-5.16 


-9.84 
4.04 
0.38 


60,170 

235,868 

97,323 


3.50 

9.38 

11.20 


13.38 
5.34 

10.82 



1-C. Statewide Census Figures. 



Date of Data 
April 1, 1960 .... 
April 1, 1970 .... 
April 1, 1980 .... 
July 1, 1985* 
April 1, 1990* .. 



Population 
4,556,155 
5,084,411 
5,874,429 
6 241 000 


Change from 
Last Census 

494,226 
528,256 
790,018 


6,601,000 


787,227 



Percent 
Change 

12.2 
11.6 

15.5 



13.5 



Projected Daia 



Census 



129 



TABLE 2. COUNTY POPULATION STATISTICS, 1980 CENSUS 



County 



Land Area 

In Square 

Miles 



1970 Census 
Total 
Population 



Density 



1980 Census 
Total 
Population 



Oenslty 



Percent 

Change 

1970-1980 



Alamance 428 

Alexander 259 

Alleghany 225 

Anson 533 

Ashe 426 

Avery 245 

Beaufort 826 

Bertie 698 

Bladen 883 

Brunswick 856 

Buncombe 657 

Burke 511 

Cabarrus 363 

Caldwell 469 

Camden 239 

Carteret 536 

Caswell 428 

Catawba 394 

Chatham 709 

Cherokee 452 

Chowan 173 

Clay 209 

Cleveland 468 

Columbus 945 

Craven 699 

Cumberland 654 

Currituck 246 

Dare 391 

Davidson 549 

Davie 265 

Duplin 815 

Durham 295 

Edgecombe 510 

Forsyth 419 

Franklin 491 

Gaston 356 

Gates 337 

Graham 292 

Granville 537 

Greene 267 

Guilford 655 

Halifax 734 

Harnett 603 

Haywood 551 

Henderson 378 

Hertford 353 

Hoke 389 

Hyde 613 

Iredell 572 

Jackson 491 



96,502 


225.1 


19,466 


75.2 


8,134 


36.2 


23,488 


44.1 


19,571 


45.9 


12,655 


51.7 


35,980 


43.6 


20,528 


29.4 


26,477 


30.0 


24,223 


28.3 


145,056 


220.8 


60.364 


118.1 


74,629 


205.6 


56,699 


120.9 


5,453 


22.8 


31,603 


59.0 


19,055 


44.5 


90,873 


230.6 


29,554 


41.7 


16,330 


36.1 


10,764 


62.2 


5,180 


24.8 


72,556 


155.0 


46,937 


49.7 


62,554 


89.5 


212,042 


324.2 


6,976 


28.4 


6,995 


17.9 


95,627 


174.2 


18,855 


71.2 


38,015 


46.6 


132.681 


449.8 


52,341 


102.6 


215,118 


513.4 


26,820 


54.6 


148,415 


416.9 


8,524 


25.3 


6,562 


22.5 


32,762 


61.0 


14,967 


56.1 


288,645 


440.6 


53,884 


73.4 


49,667 


82.4 


41,710 


75.7 


42,804 


113.2 


24.439 


66.7 


16,436 


42.3 


5,571 


9.1 


72,197 


126.2 


21,593 


44.0 



99,136 


231.6 


2.7 


24,999 


96.5 


28.4 


9,587 


42.6 


17.9 


25,562 


48.0 


8.8 


22,325 


52.4 


14.1 


14,409 


58.8 


13.9 


40,266 


48.7 


11.9 


21,024 


30.1 


2.4 


30,448 


34.5 


15.0 


35,767 


41.8 


47.7 


160,934 


245.0 


10.9 


72,504 


141.9 


20.1 


85,895 


326.6 


15.1 


67,746 


144.4 


19.5 


5,829 


24.4 


6.9 


41,092 


76.7 


30.0 


20,705 


48.4 


8.7 


105,208 


267.0 


15.8 


33,415 


47.1 


13.1 


18,933 


40.4 


15.9 


12,558 


72.6 


16.7 


6,619 


31.7 


27.8 


83,435 


177.6 


15.0 


51,037 


54.0 


8.7 


71,043 


101.6 


13.6 


247,160 


377.9 


16.6 


11,089 


45.1 


59.0 


13,377 


34.2 


91.2 


113,162 


206.1 


18.3 


24,599 


92.8 


30.5 


40,952 


50.2 


7.7 


152,785 


517.9 


15.2 


55,988 


109.8 


7.0 


243,683 


581.6 


13.3 


30,055 


61.2 


12.1 


162,568 


456.7 


9.5 


8,875 


26.3 


4.1 


7,217 


24.7 


10.0 


33,995 


63.3 


3.8 


16,117 


60.4 


7.7 


317,154 


484.2 


9.9 


55,286 


75.3 


2.6 


59,570 


98.8 


19.9 


46,495 


84.4 


11.5 


58,580 


155.0 


36.9 


23,368 


66.2 


-4.4 


20,383 


52.6 


24.0 


5,873 


9.6 


5.4 


82,538 


144.3 


14.3 


25.811 


52.6 


19.5 



130 



North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 2. COUNTY POPULATION STATISTICS, 
1980 CENSUS (Continued) 



County 



Land Area 

in Square 

Miles 



1970 Census 
Total 
Population 



Density 



1980 Census 
Total 
Population 



Density 



Percent 

Change 

1970-1980 



Johnston 797 

Jones 467 

Lee 256 

Lenoir 400 

Lincoln 297 

McDowell 436 

Macon 513 

Madison 450 

Martin 455 

Mecklenburg 530 

Mitchell 215 

Montgomery 488 

Moore 704 

Nash 544 

New Hanover 185 

Northampton 536 

Onslow 765 

Orange 400 

Pamlico 338 

Pasquotank 228 

Pender 871 

Perquimans 246 

Person 401 

Pitt 655 

Polk 239 

Randolph 798 

Richmond 475 

Robeson 949 

Rockingham 569 

Rowan 523 

Rutherford 563 

Sampson 945 

Scotland 319 

Stanly 398 

Stokes 457 

Surry 536 

Swain 524 

Transylvania 382 

Tyrrell 390 

Union 639 

Vance 249 

Wake 858 

Warren 424 

Washington 343 

Watauga 317 

Wayne 557 

Wilkes 757 

Wilson 375 

Yadkin 336 

Yancey 312 



61,737 


77.5 


9,779 


20.9 


30,467 


119.0 


55,204 


138.0 


32,682 


110.0 


30,648 


70.3 


15,788 


30.8 


16,003 


35.6 


24,730 


54.4 


354,656 


669.2 


13,447 


62.5 


19,267 


39.5 


39,048 


55.5 


59,122 


108.7 


82,996 


448.6 


23.099 


43.1 


103,126 


134.8 


57,567 


143.9 


9,467 


28.0 


26,824 


117.6 


18.149 


20.8 


8,351 


33.9 


25.914 


64.6 


73.900 


112.8 


11,735 


49.1 


76.358 


95.7 


39,889 


84.0 


84,842 


89.4 


72.402 


127.2 


90.035 


172.2 


47,337 


84.1 


44,954 


47.6 


26,929 


84.4 


42.822 


107.6 


23,782 


52.0 


51.415 


95.9 


8,835 


16.9 


19.713 


51.6 


3,806 


9.8 


54.714 


85.6 


32,691 


131.3 


229,006 


266.9 


15,810 


37.3 


14,038 


40.9 


23,404 


73.8 


85,408 


153.3 


49,524 


65.4 


57,486 


153.3 


24,599 


73.2 


12,629 


40.5 



70,599 


88.6 


9,705 


20.8 


36,718 


143.4 


59.819 


149.5 


42,372 


142.7 


35,135 


80.6 


20,178 


39.3 


16.827 


37.4 


25.948 


120.7 


404.270 


762.8 


14,428 


67.1 


22,469 


46.0 


50,505 


71.7 


67,153 


123.4 


103,471 


559.3 


22,584 


42.1 


112.784 


147.4 


77.055 


192.6 


10,398 


30.8 


28,462 


124.8 


22.215 


25.5 


9,486 


38.6 


29.164 


72.7 


83,651 


127.7 


12.984 


54.3 


91.861 


115.1 


45.481 


95.7 


101.577 


107.0 


83,426 


146.6 


99,186 


189.6 


53,787 


95.5 


49,687 


52.6 


32,273 


101.2 


48,517 


121.9 


33,086 


72.4 


59,449 


110.9 


10,283 


19.6 


23,417 


61.3 


3,975 


10.2 


70,380 


110.1 


36,748 


147.6 


300,833 


350.6 


16,232 


38.3 


14,801 


43.2 


31,678 


99.9 


97,054 


174.2 


58,657 


77.5 


63,132 


168.4 


28,439 


84.6 


14,934 


47.9 



14.4 
-0.8 
20.5 
8.4 
29.6 

14.6 

27.8 

5.1 

4.9 

14.0 

7.3 
16.6 
29.3 
13.6 
24.7 

2.2 
9.4 
33.9 
9.8 
6.1 

22.4 
13.6 
12.5 
13.2 
10.6 

20.3 
14.0 
19.7 
15.2 
10.2 

13.6 
10.5 
19.8 
13.3 
39.1 

15.6 
16.4 
18.8 
4.4 
28.6 

12.4 
31.4 

2.7 

5.4 

35.4 

13.6 
18.4 
9.8 
15.6 
18.3 



Census 



131 



TABLE 3. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
10,000 OR MORE 



City or Town 



County 



1970 
Census 



1980 
Census 



Percent 
Change 



Albemarle Stanly 

Asheboro Randolph 

Asheville Buncombe 

Boone Watauga .. 

Burlington Alamance 



Cary Wake 

Chapel Hill Durham. Orange 

Charlotte Mecklenburg 

Concord Cabarrus 

Durham Durham 



Eden Rockingham 

Elizabeth City Pasquotank. Camden 

Fayetteville Cumberland 

Gastonia Gaston 

Goldsboro Wayne 



Greensboro Guilford 

Greenville Pitt 

Havelock Craven 

Henderson Vance 

Hickory Burke. Catawba 



High Point Randolph. Guilford 

Jacksonville Onslow 

Kinston Lenoir 

Laurinburg Scotland 

Lenoir Caldwell 



Lexington Davidson 

Lumberton Robeson . 

Monroe Union 

Morganton Burke 

New Bern Craven .... 



Raleigh Wake 

Reidsville Rockingham 

Roanoke Rapids Halifax 

Rocky Mount Edgecombe. Nash. 

Salisbury Rowan 



Sanford Lee 

Shelby Cleveland 

Statesville Iredell 

Thomasville Davidson 

Wilmington New Hanover 



Wilson Wilson . 

Winston-Salem Forsyth 



11.126 
10.797 
57.820 
8,754 
35.930 

7.640 

26.199 

241,420 

18.464 

95,438 

15,871 
14.381 
53,510 
47.322 
26,960 

144.076 

29.063 

3,012 

1 3.896 

20,569 

63,229 
16.289 
23.020 
8.859 
14.705 

17.205 
16.961 
11,282 
13,625 
14,660 

122,830 
13,636 
13,508 
34,284 
22,515 

11,716 
16,328 
20.007 
15,230 
46,169 

29,347 
133,683 



15.110 
15.252 
53.281 
10.191 
37.266 

21,612 

32.421 
314.447 

16.942 
100.831 

15,672 

13,784 
59,507 
47,333 
31,871 

155,642 
35.740 
17.718 
13,522 
20,757 

64,107 
17,056 
25,234 
11.480 
13.748 

15,711 

18,340 
12,639 
13,763 
14,557 

149,771 
12.492 
14.702 
41,283 
22,677 

14,773 
15,310 
18.622 
14.144 
44.000 

34,424 
131,885 



35.8 
41.3 
-7.9 
16.4 

3.7 

182.9 
23.7 
30.2 
-8.2 

5.7 

-1.3 
-4.2 
11.2 
0.0 
18.2 

8.0 

23.0 

488.2 

-2.7 

0.9 

1.4 

4.7 

9.6 

29.6 

-6.5 

-8.7 
8.1 

12.0 
1.0 

-0.7 

21.9 
-8.4 

8.8 
20.4 

0.7 

26.1 
-6.2 
-6.9 
-7.1 
-4.7 

17.3 
-1.3 



132 North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 4. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
2,500-9,999 INHABITANTS 



1970 1980 Percent 

City or Town County Census Census Change 

Ahoskie Hertford 

Apex Wake 

Archdale Randolph, Guilford 

Beaufort Carteret 

Belmont Gaston 



Benson Johnston 

Bessemer City Gaston 

Black Mountain Buncombe ... 

Brevard Transylvania 

Canton Haywood 



Carrboro Orange 

Cherryville Gaston 

Clayton Johnston 

Clinton Sampson 

Conover Catawba 

Dallas Gaston 

Davidson Mecklenburg, Iredell 

Dunn Harnett 

Edenton Chowan 

Elizabethtown Bladen 



Elkin Surry, Wilkes 

Elon College Town Alamance 

Enfield Halifax 

Erwin Harnett 

Fairmont Robeson 



Farmville Pitt 

Forest City Rutherford 

Franklin Macon 

Fuquay-Varina Wake 

Garner Wake 



Gibsonville Guilford, Alamance 

Graham Alamance 

Granite Falls Caldwell 

Hamlet Richmond 

Hendersonville Henderson 



Hillsborough Orange 

Hope Mills Cumberland 

Hudson Caldwell 

Kernersville Forsyth 

Kings Mountain Cleveland, Gaston 



La Grange Lenoir 

Lincolnton Lincoln 

Longview Burke, Catawba 

Louisburg Franklin 

Lowell Gaston 



5,105 


4,887 


-4.3 


2,234 


2,847 


27.4 


4,874 


5,305 


8.8 


3,368 


3,826 


13.6 


5,054 


4,607 


-8.8 


2,267 


2,792 


23.2 


4,991 


4,787 


-4.1 


3,204 


4,083 


27.4 


5,412 


5,323 


1.5 


5,158 


4,631 


-10.2 


5,058 


7,517 


48.6 


5,258 


4,844 


-7.9 


3,103 


4,091 


31.8 


7,157 


7,552 


5.5 


3,355 


4,245 


26.5 


4,059 


3,340 


-17.7 


2,931 


3,241 


10.6 


8,302 


8,962 


7.9 


4,956 


5,264 


6.2 


1,418 


3,551 


150.4 


2,899 


2,858 


-1.4 


2,150 


2,873 


33.6 


3,272 


2,995 


-8.5 


2,852 


2,828 


-0.8 


2,827 


2,658 


-6.0 


4,424 


4,707 


6.4 


7,179 


7,688 


7.1 


2,336 


2,640 


13.0 


3,576 


3,110 


-13.0 


4,923 


9,556 


94.1 


2,019 


2,865 


41.9 


8,172 


8,415 


3.0 


2,388 


2,580 


8.0 


4,627 


4,720 


2.0 


6,443 


6,862 


6.5 


1,444 


3,019 


109.1 


1,866 


5,412 


190.0 


2,820 


2,888 


2.4 


4,815 


6,802 


41.3 


8,465 


9,080 


7.3 


2,679 


3,147 


17.5 


5,293 


4,879 


-7.8 


3,360 


3,587 


6.8 


2,941 


3,238 


10.1 


3,307 


2,917 


-11.8 



Census 133 



TABLE 4. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
2,500-9,999 INHABITANTS (Continued) 



Mebane Alamance, Orange 

Mint Hill Mecklenburg 

Mocksville Davie 

Mooresville Iredell 

Morehead City Carteret 



Mount Airy Surry 

Mount Holly Gaston 

Mount Olive Duplin, Wayne 

Murfreesboro Hertford 

Nashville Nash 



Newton Catawba 

North Wilkesboro Wilkes 

Oxford Granville 

Pembroke Robeson 

Plymouth Washington 

Raeford Hoke 

Red Springs Robeson 

Rockingham Richmond ... 

Roxboro Person 

Rutherfordton Rutherford . 



Scotland Neck Halifax .. 

Selma Johnston 

SilerCity Chatham 

Smithfield Johnston 

Southern Pines Moore ... 



Southport Brunswick ... 

Spencer Rowan 

Spindale Rutherford . 

Spring Lake Cumberland 

Tabor City Columbus ... 



Tarboro Edgecombe .. 

Troy Montgomery 

Valdese Burke 

Wadesboro Anson 

Wake Forest Wake 



Wallace Duplin, Pender 

Warsaw Duplin 

Washington Beaufort 

Waynesville Haywood 

Whiteville Columbus 



Williamston Martin 

Wingate Union 

Woodfin Buncombe 

Wrightsville Beach New Hanover 



1970 1980 Percent 

City or Town County Census Census Change 

Madison Rockingham 

Maiden Catawba, Lincoln 

Marion McDowell 

Maxton Robeson, Scotland 

Mayodan Rockingham 



2,018 


2,806 


39.0 


2,416 


2,574 


6.5 


3,335 


3,684 


10.5 


1,885 


2,711 


43.8 


2,875 


2,627 


-8.6 


2,573 


2,782 
9 830 


8.1 


2,529 


2,637 


4.3 


8,808 


8,575 


-2.6 


5,233 


4,359 


-16.7 


7,325 


6,862 


-6.3 


5,107 


4,530 


-11.3 


4,914 


4,876 


-0.8 


4,418 


3,007 


-31.0 


1,670 


2,678 


60.4 


7,857 


7,624 


-3.0 


3,357 


3,260 


-2.9 


7,178 


7,580 


5.6 


1,982 


2,698 


36.1 


4,774 


4,571 


-4.3 


3,180 


3,630 


14.2 


3.383 


3,607 


6.6 


5,852 


8,300 


41.8 


5,370 


7,532 


40.3 


3,245 


3,434 


5.8 


2,869 


2,834 


-1.2 


4,356 


4,762 


9.3 


4,689 


4,446 


-5.2 


6,677 


7,288 


9.2 


5,937 


8,620 


45.2 


2,220 


2,824 


27.2 


3,075 


2,938 


-4.5 


3,848 


4,246 


10.3 


3,968 


6,273 


58.1 


2,400 


2,710 


12.9 


9,425 


8,634 


-8.4 


2,429 


2,702 


11.2 


3,182 


3,364 


5.7 


3,977 


4,119 


3.6 


3,148 


3,780 


20.1 


2,905 


2,903 


-0.1 


2,701 


2,910 


7.7 


8,961 


8,418 


-6.1 


6,488 


6,765 


4.3 


4,195 


5,565 


32.7 


6,570 


6,159 


-6.3 


2,569 


2,615 
3,260 


1.8 


1,701 


2,910 


71.3 



134 North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 5. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
1,000-2,499 



1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 

Aberdeen Moore 

Andrews Cherokee 

Angier Harnett 

Aulander Bertie 

Banner Elk Avery 



Belhaven Beaufort ... 

Bethel Pitt 

Beaulaville Duplin 

Biltmore Forest Buncombe 



Bladenboro Bladen 

Blowing Rock Caldwell, Watauga 

Boiling Springs Cleveland 

Boonville Yadkin 

Bryson City Swain 



Burgaw Pender 

Burnsville Yancey 

Carolina Beach New Hanover 

Chadbourn Columbus 

China Grove Rowan 



Coats Harnett 

Cornelius Mecklenburg 

Clyde Haywood 

Cramerton Gaston 

Creedmore Granville 



Dobson Surry 

Drexel Burke 

East Spencer Rowan 

Ellerbe Richmond 

Elm City Wilson 



Fair Bluff Columbus 

Four Oaks Johnston 

Franklinton Franklin 

Fremont Wayne 

Garysburg Northampton 



Granite Quarry Rowan 

Grifton Lenoir, Pitt 

Harrisburg Cabarrus ... 

Haw River Alamance .. 

Hazelwood Haywood ... 



Hertford Perquimans .. 

Huntersville Mecklenburg 

Jamestown Guilford 

Jefferson Ashe 

Jonesville Yadkin 



1,592 


1,945 


1,383 


1,621 


1,431 


1,709 


947 


1,214 


754 


1,087 


2,259 


2,430 


1,514 


1,825 


1,156 


1,060 


1,298 


1,499 


783 


1,385 


801 


1,337 


2,284 


2,381 


687 


1,028 


1,290 


1,556 


1,744 


1,586 


1,348 


1,452 


1,663 


2,000 


2,213 


1,975 


1,788 


2,081 


1,051 


1,385 


1,296 


1,460 


814 


1,008 


2,142 


1,869 


1,405 


1,641 


933 


1,222 


1,431 


1,392 


2,217 


2,150 


913 


1,415 


1,201 


1,561 


1,039 


1,095 


1,057 


1,049 


1,459 


1,394 


1,596 


1,736 


231 


1,434 


1,344 


1,294 


1,860 


2,179 




1,433 




2,117 


2,057 


1,811 


2,023 


1,941 


1,538 


1,294 


1,297 


2,148 


943 


1,086 


1,659 


1,752 



Census 135 



TABLE 5. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
1,000-2,499 (Continued) 



1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 

Kenly Johnston, Wilson 

Kill Devel Hills Dare 

Lake Waccamaw Columbus 

Landis Rowan 

Liberty Randolph 



Lillington Harnett 

Locust Stanly 

Long Beach Brunswick 

Lucama Wilson 

Mars Hill Madison ... 



Marshville Union 

Matthews Mecklenburg 

Mount Gilead Montgomery 

Mount Pleasant Cabarrus 

Murphy Cherokee 



Nags Head Dare 

Newport Carteret 

Norwood Stanly 

Pilot Mountain Surry 

Pinetops Edgecombe 



Pineville Mecklenburg 

Pittsboro Chatham 

Princeton Johnston 

Princeville Edgecombe ... 

Ramseur Randolph 



Randleman Randolph 

Ranlo Gaston 

Rich Square Northampton 

Robbins Moore 

Robbinsville Graham 



Robersonville Martin 

Rockwell Rowan 

Roseboro Sampson . 

Rose Hill Duplin 

Rowland Robeson .. 

Rural Hall Forsyth .... 

Rutherford College Burke 

St. Pauls Robeson .. 

Snow Hill Greene 

Sparta Alleghany 



Spring Hope Nash 

Spruce Pine Mitchell 

Stallings Union 

Stanley Gaston 

Stoneville Rockingham 



1,370 


1,433 


357 


1,796 


924 


1,133 


2,297 


2,092 


2,167 


1,997 


1,155 


1,948 




1,590 


493 


1,834 


610 


1,070 


1,623 


2,126 


1,405 


2,011 


783 


1,648 


1,286 


1,423 


1,174 


1,210 


2,082 


2,070 


414 


1,020 


1,735 


1,883 


1,896 


1,818 


1,309 


1,090 


1,379 


1,465 


1,948 


1,525 


1,447 


1,332 


1,044 


1,034 


654 


1,508 


1,328 


1,162 


2,312 


2,156 


2,092 


1,774 


1,254 


1,057 


1,059 


1,256 


777 


1,370 


1,910 


1,981 


999 


1,339 


1,235 


1,227 


1,448 


1,508 


1,358 


1,841 




1,336 




1,108 


2,011 


1,639 


1,359 


1,374 


1,304 


1,687 


1,334 


1,254 


2,333 


2,282 




1,826 


2,336 


2,341 


1,030 


1,054 



136 North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 5. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
1,000-2,499 (Continued) 



1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 

Swansboro Onslow 

Sylva Jackson 

Taylorsville Alexander 

Trentwoods Craven 

Trout man Iredell 



Tryon Polk 

Walnut Cove Stokes 

Waxhaw Union 

Weaverville Buncombe 

Weldon Halifax 



Wendell Wake .. 

Whispering Pines Moore 

Wilkesboro Wilkes 

Windsor Bertie .. 

Winterville Pitt 



Yadkinville Yadkin 

Zebulon Wake ... 



1,207 


976 


1,561 


1,699 


1,231 


1,103 


719 


1,177 


797 


1,360 


1,951 


1,796 


1,213 


1,147 


1,248 


1,208 


1,280 


1,495 


2,304 


1,844 


1,929 


2,222 


362 


1,160 


2,038 


2,335 


2,199 


2,126 


1,437 


2,052 


2,232 


2,216 


1,839 


2,055 



Census 137 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
LESS THAN 1,000 



1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 

Alexander Mills Rutherford 

Alamance Alamance 

Alliance Pamlico 

Ansonville Anson 

Arapahoe Pamlico 



Arlington Yadkin 

Ashewville Bertie 

Atkinson Pender 

Aurora Beaufort 

Autryville Sampson 

Ayden Pitt 

Bailey Nash 

Bakersville Mitchell 

Bath Beaufort 

Battleboro Edgecombe, Nash 

Bayboro Pamlico 

Beargrass Martin 

Belville Brunswick 

Belwood Cleveland 

Black Creek Wilson 



Boiling Spring Lakes Brunswick . 

Bolivia Brunswick . 

Bolton Columbus .. 

Bostic Rutherford 

Bridgeton Craven 



Broadway Lee 

Brookford Catawba .., 

Brunswick Columbus . 

Bunn Franklin ... 

Calabash Brunswick 



Calypso Duplin 

Cameron Moore 

Candor Montgomery 

Cape Carteret Carteret 

Carthage Moore 



Casar Cleveland 

Cashiers Jackson ... 

Castalia Nash 

Caswell Beach Brunswick 

Catawba Catawba ... 



Centerville Franklin .. 

Cerro Gordo Columbus 

Chadwick Acres Onslow .... 

Chocowinity Beaufort .. 

Claremont Catawba .. 



988 


643 




320 


577 


616 


694 


794 


474 


467 


711 


872 


247 


227 


325 


298 


620 


698 


213 


228 


3,450 


184 


724 


685 


409 


373 


231 


207 


562 


632 


821 


759 


99 


82 


59 


102 




613 


449 


523 


245 


998 


185 


252 


534 


563 


289 


476 


520 


461 


694 


908 


590 


467 


206 


223 


284 


505 


128 




462 


639 


204 


225 


561 


868 


616 


944 


1,034 


925 


339 


346 


230 


553 


265 


358 




110 


565 


509 


123 


135 


322 


295 


12 


15 


566 


644 


788 


880 



138 



North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
LESS THAN 1,000 (Continued) 



City or Town 



County 



1970 
Census 



1980 
Census 



Clarkton Bladen ... 

Cleveland Rowan ... 

Cofield Hertford 

Colerain Bertie 

Columbia Tyrrell ... 



Columbus Polk 

Como Hertford 

Conetoe Edgecombe ... 

Conway Northampton 

Cove City Craven 



Creswell Washington 

Crossnore Avery 

Danbury Stokes 

Dellview Gaston 

Denton Davidson .... 



Dillsboro Jackson 

Dover Craven 

Dortches Nash 

Dublin Bladen 

East Arcadia Bladen 

Earl Cleveland .. 

East Bend Yadkin 

East Laurinburg Scotland .... 

Elk Park Avery 

Ellenboro Rutherford 



Emerald Isle Carteret 

Eureka Wayne .. 

Everetts Martin .. 

Faison Duplin .. 

Faith Rowan .. 



Fallston Cleveland 

Falcon Cumberland, Sampson 

Falkland Pitt 

Fountain Pitt 

Foxfire Moore 



Franklinville Randolph 

Garland Sampson 

Gaston Northampton 

Gatesville Gates 

Gibson Scotland 



Glen Alpine Burke 

Godwin Cumberland 

Goldston Chatham .... 

Greenevers Duplin 

Grimesland Pitt 



662 


664 


614 


595 


318 


465 


373 


284 


902 


758 


731 


727 


211 


89 


160 


215 


694 


678 


485 


500 


633 


426 


264 


297 


152 


140 




7 


1017 


949 


215 


179 


585 


600 




885 


283 


477 




461 




206 


485 


602 


487 


536 


503 


535 


465 


560 


122 


865 


263 


303 


198 


213 


598 


636 


506 


552 


301 


614 


357 


339 


130 


118 


434 


424 




153 


794 


607 


656 


885 


1,105 


883 


338 


363 


502 


533 


797 


645 


129 


340 


364 


353 


424 


477 


394 


453 



Census 139 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
LESS THAN 1,000 (Continued) 



1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 

Grover Cleveland 

Halifax Halifax 

Hamilton Martin 

Harmony Iredell 

Harrells Duplin, Sampson 



Harrellsville Hertford 

Hassell Martin 

Hayesville Clay 

High Shoals Gaston, Lincoln 

Highlands Macon 



Hildebran Burke 

Hobgood Halifax 

Hoffman Richmond 

Holden Beach Brunswick 

Holly Ridge Onslow .... 



Holly Springs Wake 

Hollyville Pamlico 

Hookerton Greene 

Hot Springs Madison 

Indian Beach Carteret 

Indian Trail Union 

Jackson Northampton 

Jamesville Martin 

Kelford Bertie 

Kenansville Duplin 



Kittrell Vance 

Knightdale Wake 

Kure Beach New Hanover 

Lake Lure Rutherford .... 

Lansing Ashe 



Lasker Northampton 

Lattimore Cleveland 

Laurel Park Henderson 

Lawndale Cleveland 

Leggett Edgecombe ... 



Lewiston Bertie 

Lilesville Anson 

Linden Cumberland 

Linville Avery 

Littleton Halifax 



Love Valley Iredell 

Lumber Bridge Robeson .... 

Macclesfield Edgecombe 

McAdenville Gaston 

McDonald Robeson .... 



555 


597 


335 


253 


579 


638 


377 


470 


249 


255 


165 


151 


160 


109 


428 


376 




586 


583 


653 


481 


628 


530 


483 


434 


389 


136 


232 


415 


465 


697 


688 




100 


441 


460 


653 


678 




54 


405 


811 


762 


720 


533 


604 


295 


254 


762 


931 


427 


225 


815 


985 


394 


611 


456 


488 


283 


194 


114 


96 


257 


237 


581 


764 


544 


469 


120 


99 


327 


459 


641 


588 


205 


365 




244 


903 


820 


40 


55 


117 


171 


536 


504 


950 


947 


80 


117 



140 North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
LESS THAN 1,000 (Continued) 



1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 

McFarland Anson 

Macon Warren 

Maggie Valley Haywood 

Magnolia Duplin 

Manteo Dare 



Marshall Madison 

Maysville Jones 

Mesic Pamlico .. 

Micro Johnston 

Middleburg Vance 



Middlesex Nash 

Milton Caswell 

Minnesott Beach Pamlico .... 

Montreat Buncombe 

Morrisville Wake 



Morven Anson 

Mooresville Cleveland 

Navassa Brunswick 

Newland Avery 

New London Stanly 



Newton Grove Sampson . 

Norlina Warren .... 

Norman Richmond 

Oakboro Stanly 

Oak City Martin 



Ocean Isle Beach Brunswick 

Old Fort McDowell 

Oriental Pamlico ... 

Orrum Robeson .., 

Pantego Beaufort .., 



Parkton Robeson . 

Parmele Martin .... 

Patterson Springs Cleveland 

Peachland Anson 

Pikeville Wayne .... 



Pinebluff Moore ... 

Pine Level Johnston 

Pink Hill Lenoir ... 

Pine Knoll Shores Carteret . 

Polkton Anson 



Polkville Cleveland 

Pollocksville Jones 

Powellsville Bertie 

Proctorville Robeson . 

Raynham Robeson . 



140 


133 


179 


153 




202 


614 


592 


547 


902 


982 


809 


912 


877 




390 


300 


438 


149 


185 


729 


837 


235 


235 




171 


581 


741 


209 


251 


562 


765 




405 




439 


524 


722 


285 


454 


546 


564 


696 


901 


157 


252 


568 


587 


559 


475 


78 


143 


676 


752 


445 


536 


162 


167 


218 


185 


550 


564 


373 


484 




731 


556 


506 


260 


662 


570 


935 


983 


953 


522 


644 




646 


845 


762 


494 


528 


456 


318 


247 


320 


157 


205 




83 



Census 141 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
LESS THAN 1,000 (Continued) 



1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 

Red Oak Nash 

Rennert Robeson 

Rhodhiss Burke, Caldwell 

Richfield Stanly 

Richlands Onslow 



Rolesville Wake 

Ronda Wilkes 

Roper Washington . 

Rosman Transylvania 

Roxobel Bertie 



Ruth Rutherford ... 

Salemburg Sampson 

Saluda Polk 

Saratoga Wilson 

Seaboard Northampton 



Seagrove Randolph 

Seven Devils Watauga. Avery 

Seven Springs Wayne 

Severn Northampton ... 

Shady Forest Brunswick 



Shallotte Brunswick 

Sharpsburg Edgecombe. Nash. Wilson 

Simpson Pitt 

Sims Wilson 

Southern Shores Dare 



Speed Edgecombe 

Spencer Mountain Gaston 

Staley Randolph .. 

Stanfield Stanly 

Stantonsburg Wilson 



Star Montgomery 

Stedman Cumberland 

Stem Granville 

Stonewall Pamlico 

Stovall Granville 



Sunset Beach Brunswick 

Surf City Pender 

Swansboro Onslow .... 

Tarheel Bladen 

Teachey Duplin 



Topsail Beach Pender ... 

Trenton Jones 

Turkey Sampson 

Vanceboro Craven ... 

Vandemere Pamlico . 



359 


314 




178 


784 


727 


306 


373 


935 


825 


533 


381 


465 


457 


649 


795 


407 


512 


347 


278 


360 


381 


669 


742 


546 


607 


391 


381 


611 


687 


354 


294 




21 


188 


166 


356 


309 




43 


597 


680 


789 


997 




407 


205 


192 




392 


142 


95 


300 


169 


239 


204 


458 


463 


869 


920 


892 


816 


505 


723 


242 


222 


335 


360 


405 


417 


108 


304 


166 


391 


1,207 


976 


87 


118 


219 


373 


108 


264 


539 


407 


329 


417 


758 


833 


379 


335 



142 North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
LESS THAN 1,000 (Continued) 



1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 

Vass Moore 

Waco Cleveland 

Wade Cumberland 

Wagram Scotland 

Walstonburg Greene 



Warrenton Warren . 

Washington Park Beaufort 

Watha Pender ... 

Webster Jackson 

West Jefferson Ashe 



Whitakers Edgecombe/ Nash 

White Lake Bladen 

Williamsboro Vance 

Winfall Perquimans 

Winton Hertford 



Woodland Northampton 

Woodville Bertie 

Yaupon Beach Brunswick 

Youngsville Franklin 



885 


828 


245 


322 


315 


474 


718 


6J7 


176 


181 


1,035 


908 


517 


514 


181 


196 


189 


200 


889 


822 


926 


924 


232 


968 




59 


581 


634 


917 


825 


744 


861 


253 


212 


334 


569 


555 


486 



PART IV 

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE 

UNITED STATES 






144 



North Carolina Manual 




The Executive Branch 145 

RONALD WILSON REAGAN 
PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 

Early Years: Born in Tampico, Illinois, on February 6, 1911, to John Edward and 

Nelle Wilson Reagan. 
Education: Graduated Dixon (Illinois) High School, 1932; Eureka College (Illinois) 

1932, B.A. (Economics and Sociology). 

Professional Background: Rancher; spokesman for conservative cause (radio broad- 
casts and syndicated news column), 1975-1980; motion picture actor (50 feature- 
length films), 1937-1966; television series host and sometimes actor ("General Elect- 
ric Theater" and "Death Valley Days"), 1962-1966; sportscaster (WOC in 
Davenport, Iowa; WHO in DesMoines, Iowa), 1932-1937. 

Organizations: Member, Screen Actors Guild (President, 1947-1952 and 1959); Tau 

Kappa Epsilon; Friars Club. 
Boards and Commissions: Member, Presidental Commission Investigating the CIA, 

1974-1975; Committee on the Present Danger (Board of Directors), 1977-1978; 

founded. Citizens for the Republic. 

Political Activities: President of the United States of America, 198 1-; Governor of 
California, 1967-1975; Chairman, Republican Governors Association, 1969; active 
campaigner for Republican candidates and spokesman for conservative political 
views. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army Reserves, Captain (1942-1945). 

Literary Works: Author, Creative Society (New York, 1968); Where's the Rest of Me? 
(New York, 1965). 

Honors: National Humanitarian Award, National Conference of Christians and Jews; 
City of Hope "Touch of Life" Award for Humanitarian Service; Horatio Alger 
Award; American Newspaper Guild Award; Freedoms Foundation Awards; Dis- 
tinguished American Award, National Football Foundation Hall of Fame; Ameri- 
can Patriots Hall of Fame; and Medal of Valor of the State of Israel. 

Religious Activities: Attends Hollywood Beverly Christian Church (California). 
Family: Married Nancy Davis, March 4, 1952; Children: Patricia and Ronald; Mau- 
reen (by previous marriage to Jane Wyman); and Michael (adopted.) 



146 



North Carolina Manual 





The Executive Branch 147 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES 

No. Name Native State Born Inau. 

1. George Washington (F) Va 1732 1789 

2. John Adams (F) Mass 1735 1797 

3. Thomas Jefferson (D-R) Va 1743 1801 

4. James Madison (D-R) Va 1751 1809 

5. James Monroe Va 1758 1817 

6. John Quincy Adams (D-R) Mass 1767 1825 

7. Andrew Jackson (D) S. S 1767 1829 

8. Martin Van Buren (D) N. Y 1782 1837 

9. William H. Harrison 1 (A) Va 1773 1841 

10. John Tyler (W) Va 1790 1841 

11. James Knox Polk (D) N. C 1795 1845 

12. Zachary Taylor 2 (A) Va 1784 1849 

13. Millard Fillmore (A) N. Y 1800 1850 

14. Franklin Pierce (D) N. H 1804 1853 

15. James Buchanan (D) Pa 1791 1857 

16. Abraham Lincoln 3 (R) Ky 1809 1861 

17. Andrew Johnson 4 (-) N. C 1808 1865 

18. Ulysses S. Grant (R) Ohio 1822 1869 

19. Rutherford B. Hayes (R) Ohio 1822 1877 

20. James A. Garfield 5 (R) Ohio 1831 1881 

21. Chester A. Arthur (R) Vt 1830 1881 

22. Grover Cleveland 6 (D) N.J 1837 1885 

23. Benjamin Harrison (R) Ohio 1833 1889 

24. Grover Cleveland 7 (D) N.J 1837 1893 

25. William McKinley 8 (R) Ohio 1843 1897 

26. Theodore Roosevelt (R) N. Y 1858 1901 

27. William H. Taft (R) Ohio 1857 1909 

28. Woodrow Wilson (D) Va 1856 1913 

29. Warren G. Harding 9 (R) Ohio 1865 1921 

30. Calvin Coolidge (R) Vt 1872 1923 

31. Herbert C. Hoover (R) Iowa 1874 1929 

32. Franklin D. Roosevelt 10 (D) N. Y 1882 1933 



'Harrison died on April 4, 1841. 

2 Taylor died on July 9, 1850. 

'Lincoln was shot April 14, 1865, and died the following day. 

4 Andrew Johnson— a Democrat, nominated vice president by Republicans and elected with Lincoln on 
National Union ticket. 

'Garfield was shot July 2, 1881, and died September 19. 

'According to a ruling of the State Dept., Grover Cleveland is counted twice, as the 22nd and the 24th 
President, because his two terms were not consecutive. Only 39 individuals have been President. 

'See footnote 6. 

"McKinley was shot September 6, 1901, and died September 14. 

'Harding died on August 2, 1923. 

'"Roosevelt died on April 12, 1945. 



148 North Carolina Manual 



No. Name Native State Born Inau. 

33. Harry S. Truman (D) Missouri 1884 1945 

34. Dwight D. Eisenhower (R) Texas 1890 1953 

35. John F. Kennedy" (D) Massachusetts... 1917 1961 

36. Lyndon B. Johnson (D) Texas 1908 1963 

37. Richard M. Nixon 12 (R) California 1913 1969 

38. Gerald R. Ford (R) Michigan 1913 1974 

39. James Earl Carter (D) Georgia 1924 1977 

40. Ronald Wilson Reagan (R) Illinois 1911 1981 



"Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963. 

l2 Nixon resigned August 9, 1974 following several months of pressure over the "Watergate" coverup and 
related issues. 



The Executive Branch 149 



PRESIDENTIAL CABINET 

Vice President George Bush 

Secretary of Agriculture John R. Block 

Secretary of Commerce Malcolm Balridge 

Secretary of Defense Casper W. Weinberger 

Secretary of Education Terrell H. Bell 

Secretary of Energy James B. Edwards 

Secretary of Health and Human Resources Richard S. Schweiker 

Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Samuel R. Pierce, Jr. 

Secretary of the Interior James G. Watt 

Secretary of Labor Raymond J. Donovan 

Secretary of State Gen. Alexander M. Haig, Jr. 

Secretary of Transportation Andrew L. Lewis, Jr. 

Secretary of the Treasury Donald T. Regan 

Attorney General William French Smith 

Ambassador to the United Nations Jeane J. Kirkpatrick 



MAJOR APPOINTMENTS 

Press Secretary James S. Brady 

Director, Central Intelligence Agency William J. Casey 

Chairman. Council on Wage and Price Stability .' Alfred E. Kahn 

Chairman, Federal Reserve Board Paul A. Volcker 

Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. David C. Jones 

Director, Office of Management and Budget David A. Stockman 

Postmaster General William F. Bolger 



150 



North Carolina Manual 




The United States Congress 151 

Chapter Two 
THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS 



THE CAPITOL AT WASHINGTON 



The Capitol building in Washington, D. C, is situated on a plateau 88 feet above 
the level of the Potomac River and covers an area of 153, 112 square feet, or approxi- 
mately three and one-half acres. Its length, from north to south, is 751 feet, four 
inches; its width, including approaches, is 350 feet; and its location is described as 
being in latitude 38°53'20.4" N. and longitude 70°00'35.7" W. from Greenwich. Its 
height above the base line on the east front to the top of the Statue of Freedom is 287 
feet, five and one-half inches. The dome is built of iron, and the aggregate weight of 
material used in its construction is 8,909,200 pounds. 

The Statue of Freedom surmounting the dome is of bronze and weighs 14,985 
pounds. It was modeled by Thomas Crawford, father of Francis Marion Crawford, the 
novelist, in Rome, and the plaster model shipped to this country. It was cast in bronze 
at the shops of Clark Mills, on the Bladensburg Road, near Washington. The cost of 
the casting and the expenses in connection were $20,796.82, and the sculptor was paid 
$3,000 for the plaster model. It was erected and placed in its present position 
December 2, 1863. 

The grounds have had an area of 58.8 acres, at one time a part of Cern Abby 
Manor, and at an early date was occupied by a subtribe of the Algonquin Indians 
known as the Powhatans, whose council house was then located at the foot of the hill. 
By subsequent purchase of ground at the North of the Capitol and at the west of the 
new House Office building the area of the grounds has been increased to 139'/2 acres. 

The Rotunda is 97 feet 6 inches in diameter, and its height from the floor to the top 
of the canopy is 180 feet, 3 inches. 

The Senate Chamber is 1 13 feet, 3 inches, in length by 80 feet, 3 inches, in width and 
36 feet in height. The galleries will accommodate 682 persons. 

The Representatives' Hall is 139 feet in length by 93 feet in width and 36 feet in 
height. 

The room, until 1935 the meeting place of the Supreme Court, was, until 1859, 
occupied as the Senate Chamber. Previous to that time the court occupied the room 
immediately beneath, now used as a law library. 

The Capitol has a floor area of 14 acres, and 430 rooms are devoted to office, 
committee, and storage purposes. There are 14,518 square feet of skylights, 679 win- 
dows, and 550 doorways. 

The dome receives light through 108 windows, and from the architect's office to the 
dome there are 365 steps, one for each day of the year. 

The southeast cornerstone of the original building was laid September 18, 1793, by 
President Washington, with Masonic ceremonies. It is constructed of sandstone from 



152 North Carolina Manual 



quarries on Aquia Creek, Va. The original designs were prepared by Dr. William 
Thornton, and the work was done under the direction of Stephen H. Hallet, James 
Hoban, George Hadfield, and B. H. Latrobe, architects. 

The north wing was finished in 1800 and the south wing in 1811. A wooden pas- 
sageway connected them. On August 24, 1814, the interior of both wings was des- 
troyed by fire, set by the British. The damage to the building was immediately 
repaired. 

In 1818 the central portion of the building was commenced under the architectural 
superintendence of Charles Bullfinch. The original building was finally completed in 
1827. Its cost, including the grading of the grounds, alterations, and repairs, up to 
1827, was $2,433,844.13. 

The cornerstone of the extensions was laid on the Fourth of July, 1851, by President 
Fillmore, Daniel Webster officiating as orator. The work was prosecuted under the 
architectual direction of Thomas U. Walter until 1865, when he resigned, and it was 
completed under the supervision of Edward Clark. The material used in the walls is 
white marble from the quarries of Lee, Massachusetts, and that in the columns from 
the quarries from Cockeysville, Maryland. The House extension was first occupied for 
legislative purposes December 16, 1857, and the Senate January 4, 1859. 

The House office building was begun in 1905 and occupied on January 10, 1908; 
later a story on top was added. The Senate office building was started in 1906 and 
occupied on March 5, 1909. The House building cost, with site, $4,860,155; the Senate 
structure, $5,019,251. 

Among the paintings in the Capitol are: 

In Rotunda: Signing of the Declaration of Independence, Surrender of General Bur- 
goyne. Surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown, Va., George Washington Resigning 
His Commission as Commander in Chief of the Army, all by John Trumbull. 

Baptism of Pocahontas, by John G. Chapman; Landing of Columbus, by John 
Vanderlyn; Discovery of the Mississippi River by DeSoto, by William H. Powell; 
Embarkation of the Pilgrims, by Robert W. Weir. 

In House Wing: Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way, by Emanuel 
Leutze; First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation, by Francis Bicknell 
Carpenter. 

In Senate Wing: Battle of Lake Erie, by William H. Powell; Battle of Chapultepec, 
by James Walker. 



The United States Congress 153 

SENATE 

OFFICERS 

President, George Bush 
President Pro tempore, James O. Eastland 

STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE SENATE 

Aeronautical and Space Sciences 

Agriculture and Forestry 

Appropriations 

Armed Services 

Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs 

Commerce 

District of Columbia 

Finance 

Foreign Relations 

Government Operations 

Interior and Insular Affairs 

Judiciary 

Labor and Public Welfare 

Post Office and Civil Service 

Public Works 

Rules and Administration 

Veterans' Affairs 



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The United States Congress 155 



SENATORS FROM NORTH CAROLINA 

JESSE HELMS 
(Republican) 

Early Years: Born in Monroe, Union County, October 18, 1921, to Jesse A. and Ethel 

Mae Helms. 
Education: Graduated Monroe High School; Wingate College; Wake Forest University. 

Professional Background: Past Executive Vice-President, Vice-Chairman of the Board, 
and Assistant Chief Executive Officer, Capitol Broadcasting Company in Raleigh; 
Editorialist — WRAL Television, eighty radio stations (NC) and 200 newspapers 
across the country; past City Editor, The Raleigh Times. 

Organizations: President and vice-president, Raleigh Rotary Club; President, Raleigh 
Exchange Club; former trustee of Campbell College, Wingate College, Meredith 
College; Trustee of John F. Kennedy College, Douglas MacArthur Freedom 
Academy, Delaware Law School and Camp Willow Run (Youth Camp for Christ); 
Member, NC Tobacco Council; Director, United Fund of Raleigh; State Advisor to 
council the "Young Americans for Freedom;" Director, Raleigh Chamber of Com- 
merce; Mason, member Raleigh Lodge No. 500; Grand Orator, Grand Lodge of 
NC, 1966. 

Political Activities: U.S. Senator, 1973- (elected, 1972; reelected, 1978); Raleigh City 
Council, 1957-1961; Administrative Assistant, U.S. Senator Willis Smith; Adminis- 
trative Assistant, U.S. Senator Alton Lennon (after death of Senator Smith); 
direced radio-television campaign for Democratic Candidate Richard B. Russell of 
Georgia, 1952. 

Honors: At age twenty became youngest reporter to win the Annual NC Press Associ- 
ation Award for enterprising reporting; Recipient, Southern Baptist National 
Award for Service to Mankind and Especially on Behalf of Crippled Children; 
Honorary director of NC Cerebral Palsy Hospital at Durham; Holds Annual Free- 
doms Foundation Award for the television editorial judged to be best in America. 

Religious Activities: Member Hayes Barton Baptist Church of Raleigh; Deacon and 
Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Married Dorothy Jane Coble, October 31, 1942; Three Children: Jane (Mrs. 
Charles R. Knox), Nancy (Mrs. John C. Stuart), and Charles. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman, Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Committee 

Chairman, Steering Committee 

Foreign Relations Committee 

Rules Committee 

Ethics Committee 



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The United States Congress 157 

JOHN PORTER EAST 
(Republican) 

Early Years: Born in Springfield, Illinois on May 5, 1931, to Laurence and Virginia 
Porter East (both deceased). 

Education: Attended Earlham College (Richmond, Indiana); graduated University of 
Illinois Law School, 1959, Law Degree; University of Florida, 1964, M.A. and 
Ph.D. (Political Science). 

Professional Background: Professor of Political Science, East Carolina University, 
1964—. 

Organizations: Member, Phi Beta Kappa; Florida Bar Association. 

Political Activities: U.S. Senator, 1981 — (elected, 1980); Republican National Com- 
mitteeman from NC and Republican Platform Committeeman, 1976; 2nd term 
National Committeeman, 1980. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Marine Corps, Lieutenant, 1953-1955. 

Literary Works: Council- Manager Government (doctoral dissertation published as a 
book by UNC Press, Chapel Hill); Editorial Boards for Modern Age and Political 
Science Review; Published articles in the previously mentioned journals and in 
Human Events, The Wall Street Journal, Western Political Quarterly, and others; 
weekly participant, "Crossfire" television program in Greenville where he repres- 
ented the conservative point of view in a debate format with a liberal member of the 
ECU faculty). 

Religious Activities: Member, Jarvis Memorial United Methodist Church of Greenville. 

Family: Married Priscilla ("Sis") Sherk, September, 1953; children: Kathryn and 
Martha. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Judiciary Committee 
(Chairman, Subcommittee on Separation of Powers) 

Energy Committee 

Labor Committee 



The United States Congress 159 



HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

OFFICERS 

Speaker, Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr. — Massachusetts 
Clerk, W. Pat Jennings — Virginia 

STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE HOUSE 

Agriculture 

Appropriations 

Armed Services 

Banking and Currency 

District of Columbia 

Education and Labor 

Foreign Affairs 

Government Operations 

House Administration 

Interior and Insular Affairs 

Interstate and Foreign Commerce 

Judiciary 

Merchant Marine and Fisheries 

Post Office and Civil Service 

Public Works 

Rules 

Science and Astronautics 

Standards of Official Conduct 

Veterans' Affairs 

Ways and Means 



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The United States Congress 161 



REPRESENTATIVES FROM NORTH CAROLINA 

WALTER BEAMAN JONES 
(Democrat — First Congressional District) 

(Counties: Beaufort, Bertie, Camden, Carteret, Chowan, Craven, Currituck, Dare, 
Gates, Greene, Hertford, Hyde, Jones, Lenoir, Martin, Pamlico, Pasquotank, Per- 
quimans, Pitt, Tyrrell, and Washington. Population: 516,756). 

Early Years: Born in Fayetteville, Cumberland County, August 19, 1913, to Walter G. 
and Fannie M. (Anderson) Jones. 

Education: Attended Elise Academy, 1926-1930; graduated, NC State College, 1934, 
B.S. (Education). 

Professional Background: Office Equipment dealer 

Organizations: Director, Farmville Savings & Loan Association; Member, Masonic 
Lodge; Scottish Rite; Rotary Club, President, 1949; Loyal Order of Moose; Junior 
Order; Elks Lodge. 

Political Activities: U.S. Congressman, 1966- (Elected to U.S. House of Representa- 
tives, 1966 — special election to fill unexpired term of Herbert C. Bonner, who had 
died; elected to full term, 1966, and in each subsequent elecion — now in his 9th 
term); served in N.C. Senate, 1965; Served in N.C. House of Representatives, 1955- 
1959; Mayor, Town of Farmville (and Judge, Farmville Recorder's Court), 1949- 
1953; Member, Board of Commissioners, Town of Farmville, 1947-1949 (Mayor 
Pro Tern, 1947-1949). 

Religious Activities: Baptist, Deacon since 1945. 

Family: Married Doris Long, April 26, 1934; Children: Mrs. Robert Moye and Walter 
B. Jones, II. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman, Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee 

Agriculture Committee 
(Ranking Member, Peanut and Tobacco Subcommittee) 



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The United States Congress 163 

L. H. FOUNTAIN 
(Democrat — Second Congressional District) 

(Counties: Caswell, Edgecombe, Franklin, Granville, Halifax, Nash, Northampton, 
Orange, Person, Vance, Warren, and Wilson. Population: 508,097). 

Early Years: Born in the Village of Leggett, Edgecombe County, April 23, 1913, to 
Lawrence H. and Sallie (Barnes) Fountain (both deceased). 

Education: Attended Public Schools of Edgecombe County; graduated University of 
North Carolina at Chapel Hill, A.B. and J.D. degrees. 

Professional Background: Practicing Attorney-at-Law, 1936-1954. 

Organizations: Member, Local and State Bar Associations; Farm Bureau; American 
Legion; Grange; Elks Clubs; Kiwanis, Lt. Gov., 6th Division of Kiwanis Interna- 
tional; Executive Committee, East Carolina Council, Boy Scouts of America; 
former Jaycee. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Presidential Advisory Committee on Federalism; 
past member, Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations. 

Political Activities: U.S. Congressman, 1953- (elected to U.S. House of Representa- 
tives, 1952 and re-elected in each subsequent election — now in his 15th term); 
Served in N.C. Senate, 1947-1951; Reading Clerk, N.C. Senate, 1936-1941. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army, Judge Advocate General's office, Major (1942- 
1946); Lt. Col. (Ret.), Army Reserves. 

Honors: Recipient, Distinguished Service Award, Tarboro Jaycees, 1948; Distin- 
guished Service Award, NC Citizens Association, 1971; Distinguished Service 
Award, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 1973; Distinguished Ser- 
vice to Higher Education Award, Association of American University Presses, 
1975; Distinguished Service Award, NC League of Municipalities, 1976; Leadership 
and Distinguished Service Award, 1978; Honorary LL.D., University of North 
Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1981. 

Religious Activities: Member, Presbyterian Church; Elder. 

Family: Married Christine Dail of Mount Olive; One Daughter: Nancy Dail. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Foreign Affairs Committee 

(International Security and Scientific Affairs Subcommittee) 

(Europe and the Middle East Subcommittee) 

Government Operations Committee 
(Chairman, Intergovernmental Relations and Human Resources Subcommittee) 



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North Carolina Manual 




The United States Congress 165 

CHARLES ORVILLE WHITLEY 
(Democrat — Third Congressional District) 

(Counties: Bladen, Duplin, Harnett, Johnston, Lee, Onslow, Pender, Sampson, and 
Wayne. Population: 520,027). 

Early Years: Born in Siler City, Chatham County, January 3, 1927, to John and 
Mamie (Goodwin) Whitley. 

Education: Attended Siler City Public Schools; graduated Wake Forest University, 
1948, B.A. and 1950, LLB; George Washington University, 1974, MA (Legislative 
Affairs). 

Professional Background: Attorney; Town Attorney, Mount Olive, 1951-1956. 

Organizations: Member, NC Bar Association and Wayne County Bar; Masonic Order; 
WOW; American Legion; Moose; Past President, Mt. Olive Jaycees; Rotary Club. 

Political Activities: U.S. Congressman, 1977- (elected to U.S. House of Representa- 
tives, 1976, elected 1978 and 1980); Administrative Assistant, Congressman David 
N. Henderson, 1961-1976. 

Military Service: Served in US Army, Lieutenant (Active, 1944-1946; Reserves, 
1946-1950). 

Religious Activities: Member, Baptist Church; Deacon; Sunday School Teacher since 
1952. 

Family: Married Audrey Kornegay, June 11, 1949; Children: Charles, Jr., Martha, and 
Sara. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Agriculture Committee 

(Tobacco and Peanuts Subcommittee) 

(Livestock, Dairy, and Poultry Subcommittee) 

(Cotton, Rice, and Sugar Subcommittee) 



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North Carolina Manual 




The United States Congress 167 

IKE FRANKLIN ANDREWS 

(Democrat — Fourth Congressional District) 

(Counties: Chatham, Durham, Randolph, and Wake. Population 578,894). 

Early Years: Born in Bonlee, Chatham County, September 2, 1925, to Archie Franklin 

and Ina (Dunlap) Andrews. 
Education: Attended Bonlee High School, 1931-1941; Fork Union Military Academy, 

(Fork Union, Virginia), 1941-1942; Mars Hill College, 1942-1943; University of 

North Carolina, 1946-1952, B.S. and L.L.B. degrees. 

Professional Background: Attorney at Law. 

Organizations: Member, NC State Bar; NC Bar Association; American Bar Associa- 
tion; District Bar Association Executive Committee, 1958-59; NC Bar Association 
Standing Committee on Legislation and Law Reform; served as Chairman of 
Chancellor Selection Committee, University of NC-Chapel Hill; Executive Commit- 
tee Occoneechee Council, Boy Scouts of America; Chairman, Chatham District 
Boy Scouts of America; Chatham County Civil Defense; President, Junior 
Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards & Commissions: Member, Board of Trustees, University of NC since 1959 and 
member of Executive Committee since 1969; Board of Directors, Siler City 
Chamber of Commerce; Board of Trustees and Executive Committee, Chatham 
Hospital; NC Judicial Council, 1959-61. 

Political Activities: U.S. Congressman, 1973- (elected to U.S. House of Representa- 
tives, 1972 and in each subsequent election — now in his 5th term); Served in N.C. 
House of Representatives, 1961, 1967-1971; Served in N.C. Senate, 1959; Solicitor, 
Tenth-A District, July, 1961 -December, 1962. 

Military Service: Served US Army, Field Artillery Forward Observer, 1943-45, Master 
Sergeant (Awarded Broze Star and Purple Heart, European Theatre, World War 
II). 

Honors: American Legion Oratorical Contest; Young Man of the Year, Siler City, 
1958; Elected Poet Laureate of Senate, 1959. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Siler City; Chairman, Board of 
Deacons. 

Family: Two Daughters: Alice Cecelia and Nina Patricia. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Education and Labor Committee 

(Chairman, Human Resources Subcommittee) 

(Post Secondary Education Subcommittee) 

(Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Subcommittee) 

Select Committee on Aging 



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North Carolina Manual 




The United States Congress 169 

STEPHEN LYBROOK NEAL 
(Democrat — Fifth Congressional District) 

(Counties: Alleghany, Ashe, Davidson, Forsyth, Stokes, Surry, and Wilkes. Popula- 
tion: 539,949). 

Early Years: Born in Winston-Salem, Forsyth County, November 7, 1934, to Charles 
Herbert and Mary Martha (Lybrook) Neal. 

Education: Attended University of California at Santa Barbara; graduated University 
of Hawaii, 1959, A.B. (Psychology). 

Professional Background: Former mortgage banker and newspaper publisher (Presi- 
dent and Publisher, The Suburbanite in Winston-Salem, 77?? King Times-News in 
King, ad The Yadkin Enterprise in Jonesville; President, Community Press, Inc.) 

Organizations: Member, Sigma Delta Chi; Former member, Winston-Salem Rotary 
Club, Chamber of Commerce; Torch Club; NC Press Association; National News- 
papers Association; and International Newspaper Promotion Association. 

Boards & Commissions: Member, Board of Trustees, Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation; 
Former member, Board of Directors, Tanglewood Park; Forsyth Mental Health 
Association; Forsyth Kidney Foundation, and the Civic Music Association of 
Winston-Salem. 

Political Activities: U.S. Congressman, 1975- (elected to U.S. House of Representa- 
tives, 1974; re-elected 1976, 1978, and 1980); member: Congressional Rural Caucus, 
Environmental Study Conference, Travel and Tourism Caucus, Congressional 
Clearinghouse of the Future, Export Task Force, Democratic Study Group, Con- 
servative Democratic Forum, United Democrats of Congress, Members of Con- 
gress for Peace Through Law, Textile Caucus, Agricultural Exports Task Force, 
Congressional Advisory Committee on National Tax Limitation Committee, U.S. 
Advisory Board of Pan Pacific Community Association; Sunbelt Council. 

Religious Activities: Member and Sunday School Teacher, Presbyterian Church. 

Family: Married Rachel Landis Miller, June 13, 1963; Children: Mary Piper and Ste- 
phen L., Jr. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs Committee 

(Chairman, Subcommittee on International Trade, Investment and Monetary Policy) 

(Subcommittee on Domestic Monetary Policy) 

(Subcommittee on International Development Institutions and Finance) 

Government Operations Committee 

(Subcommittee on Intergovernmental Relations and Human Resources) 

(Subcommittee on Commerce, Consumer, and Monetary Affairs) 



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The United States Congress 171 



WALTER EUGENE JOHNSTON, III 
(Republican — Sixth Congressional District) 

(Counties: Alamance, Guilford, and Rockingham. Population 499,716). 

Early Years: Born in Winston-Salem, Forsyth County, March 3, 1936, to Judge Walter 
Eugene and Bessie (Martin) Johnston, Jr. 

Education: Attended Duke University; graduated Wake Forest University, LL.B. with 
honors; postgraduate work in accounting. Wake Forest University (CPA certificate 
in 1963). 

Professional Background: Attorney of Corporate and Tax Law; former accountant 
with A. M. Pullen and Company (Greensboro); President, Fisher-Harrison Corpo- 
ration, Johnston Properties, Inc. 

Organizations: Member, NC State Bar; Young Presidents Organization; American 
Institute of Certified Public Accountants; NC Association of Certfied Public 
Accountants; Life member, Greensboro Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards & Commissions: Member, Board of Directors, Fisher-Harrison Corporation 
(Past President); Johnson Properties (Past President); Director of several national 
and multinational companies. 

Political Activities: U.S. Congressman, 1981- (elected to U.S. House of Representa- 
tives, 1980). 

Military Service: Served US Army, Spec. 4, 1954-57. 

Religious Activities: Member, Centenary United Methodist Church (Past Member, 
Board of Stewards). 

Family: Children: Walter E. IV, Mary Kathryn, James Martin, Robert Norris, and 
Micheal McConnell. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Budget Committee 

Education and Labor Committee 

(Labor Standards Subcommittee) 

(Health and Safety Subcommittee) 

(Labor-Management Relations Subcommittee) 



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North Carolina Manual 




The United States Congress 173 

CHARLES GRANDISON ROSE, III 

(Democrat — Seventh Congressional District) 

(Counties: Brunswick, Columbus, Cumberland, Hoke, New Hanover and Robeson. 
Population 559,395). 

Early Years: Born in Fayetteville, Cumberland County, August 10, 1939, to Charles G. 
Rose and Frances Duckworth Rose. 

Education: Graduated Fayetteville High School, 1957; Davidson College, 1969, B.A.; 
University of North Carolina Law School, 1964, L.L.B. 

Professional Background: Attorney at Law. 

Organizations: Member, Cumberland County Bar Association; NC State Bar. 

Political Activities: U.S. Congressman, 1973- (elected to U.S. House of Representa- 
tives, 1972 and in each subsequent election — now in his 5th term); Chief District 
Court Prosecutor, 12th Judicial District, 1967-70. 

Literary Works: Editor, Davidson College yearbook. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Fayetteville; Sunday School 
Teacher. 

Family: Married Sara Richardson, June 30, 1962; Children: Charles G. Rose, IV, Sara 
Louise. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Agriculture Committee 

(Chairman, Tobacco and Peanuts Subcommittee) 

(Livestock, Dairy and Poultry Subcommittee) 

House Administration Committee 

(Accounts Subcommittee; Services Subcommittee) 

(Chairman, Policy Group on Information and Computers) 

Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence 
(Chairman, Oversight and Evaluation Subcommittee) 

Chairman, Speaker's Advisory Committee on Broadcasting 



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The United States Congress 175 



W. G. (BILL) HEFNER 
(Democrat - Eighth Congressional District) 

(Counties: Anson, Cabarrus, Davie, Montgomery, Moore, Richmond, Rowan, Sco- 
tland, Stanly, Union and Yadkin. Population 533,306). 

Early Years: Born in Elora, Tennessee, April 1 1, 1930. 

Professional Background: President, WRK.B Radio Station, Kannapolis, NC Enter- 
tainer — Harvesters Quartet; Television performer. 

Organizations: President, Odell School PTA; Member, Concord Noon Optimist Club; 
Publicity Committee for Cabarrus County United Appeal. 

Boards & Commissions: Member: Board of Directors, Cabarrus County Chapter of 
American Cancer Society; Board of Directors, Cabarrus County Boys Club; Board 
of Directors, Cabarrus County Humane Society. 

Political Activities: U.S. Congressman, 1975- (elected to U.S. House of Representa- 
tives, 1974; re-elected 1976, 1978, and 1980); member: Congressional Textile Cau- 
cus, Congressional Travel and Tourism Caucus, and Conservative Democratic 
Forum. 

Religious Activities: Member, North Kannapolis Baptist Church. 

Family: Married Nancy Hill of Gadsden, Alabama; children: Stacye and Shelly. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Appropriations Committee 
(Defense Subcommittee; Military Construction Subcommittee) 

Budget Committee 

Leadership Assignments 

Democratic Steering and Policy Committee 

Democratic Caucus Committee on Party Effectiveness 



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The United States Congress 177 

JAMES GRUBBS MARTIN 

(Republican — Ninth Congressional District) 

(Counties: Iredell, Lincoln and Mecklenburg. Population 529, 180). 

Early Years: Born in Savannah, Georgia, December 11, 1935, to Reverend Arthur M. 
Martin and Mary Julia Grubbs Martin. 

Education: Graduated Mt. Zion Institute, Winnsboro, S.C., 1953; Davidson College, 
1957, B.S.; Princeton University, 1960, Ph.D., Chemistry. 

Professional Background: Associate Professor of Chemistry, Davidson College. 

Organizations: Member, Beta Theta Ph (Social) Fraternity; National Vice President, 
1966-69; former member, Charlotte Symphony, 1962-66; Founder and First Chair- 
man, Centralina Council of Governments, 1968-70; Vice President, National Asso- 
ciation of Regional Councils, 1969-71; Mason; Shriner, Chairman, 1967-68 and 
1970-71. 

Boards & Commissions: Mecklenburg County Commissioners, 1966-72; President, NC 
Association of County Commissioners, 1970-71. 

Political Activities: U.S. Congressman, 1973- (elected to U.S. House of Representa- 
tives, 1972, and in subsequent elections — now in his 5th Term). 

Religious Activities: Member Presbyterian Church; Deacon, 1969-71. 

Family: Married Dorothy Ann McAulay, June 1, 1957; children: James, Jr.; Emily; 
and Benson. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Budget Committee 

Ways and Means Committee 
(Oversight Subcommittee) 



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The United States Congress 179 

JAMES THOMAS BROYHILL 

(Republican — Tenth Congressional District) 

(Counties: Alexander, Burke, Caldwell, Catawba, Cleveland, Gaston and Watauga. 
Population 548, 138). 

Early Years: Born in Lenoir, Caldwell County, August 19, 1927, to James Edgar and 
Satie Leona (Hunt) Broyhill. 

Education: Attended Lenoir Public Schools, 1933-46; Graduated Lenoir High School, 
1946; University of North Carolina, 1950, B.S. Degree in Commerce. 

Professional Background: Furniture Manufacturer. 

Organizations: Member, Southern Furniture Manufacturers Association; North Carol- 
ina Forestry Association; Industrial Planning Committee of the Northwest North 
Carolina Development Association; Member, Hibriten Lodge No. 262, A.F. & 
A.M.; Oasis Temple of the Shrine. 

Boards & Commissions: Lenoir Chamber of Commerce (Past President and Director); 
Commerce; past member, City of Lenoir Recreation Commission; Lenoir Planning 
and Zoning Commission; former member: Board of Advisors, Lees-McRae College; 
Board of Visitors, Lenoir-Rhyne College; Board of Trustees, Wake Forest Univer- 
sity; current member, Development Board, Lenoir-Rhyne College. 

Political Activities: U.S. Congressman, 1963- (elected to U.S. House of Representa- 
tives, 1962, and in each subsequent election — now in his 10th term). 

Honors: Young Man of the Year, Lenoir and Caldwell County, 1957; Honorary Doc- 
tor of Laws degree, Catawba College, Salisbury, NC, 1966; University of North 
Carolina at Chapel Hill, Distinguished Service Award, 1981. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Lenoir, NC. 

Family: Married Louise Horton Robbins, June 2, 1951; children: Marilyn Louise 
(Mrs. Robert Beach), James Edgar, II (Married to Melanie Pennell), and Phillip 
Robins; grandchild: Melanie Elizabeth. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Energy and Commerce Committee 
(Ranking Minority Leader and Ex Officio Member of all Subcommittees) 



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The United States Congress 181 

WILLIAM M. HENDON 
(Republican — Eleventh Congressional District) 

(Counties: Avery, Buncombe, Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Haywood, Henderson, Jack- 
son, McDowell, Macon, Madison, Mitchell, Polk, Rutherford, Swain, Transylvania 
and Yancey. Population 540,971). 

Early Years: Born in Buncombe County, November 9, 1944, to J. William and Mary 
Adams (Ward) Hendon. 

Education: Attended Grace Elementary; David Millard Junior High; Lee Edwards 
High School; graduated University of Tennessee, 1966, B.A.; University of Tennes- 
see, 1971, M.A. 

Organizations: Member, Sigma Alpha Epsilon; Founder and first President, Asheville 
Boy's Club. 

Boards & Commissions: Board of Directors, Memorial Mission Hospital; Trustee, 
Asheville Orthopedic Hospital. 

Political Activities: U.S. Congressman, 1981- (elected to U.S. House of Representa- 
tives, 1980). 

Literary Works: Article in Transportation Journal. 

Religious Activities: Member, Trinity Episcopal Church; Chairman, Every Member 

Canvas, 1974; Vestry, 1973-75; Vestry Secretary, 1972. 
Family: Married Robbie Peters; Children: Carrie and Jennie 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Interior Committee 

(Public Lands and National Parks Subcommittee) 

(Oversight Subcommittee) 

Select Committee on Aging 



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The Judicial System 183 

Chapter Three 
THE UNITED STATES JUDICIARY 



THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT 

Warren E. Burger Chief Justice Minnesota 

William H. Rehnquist Associate Justice Arizona 

Byron R. White Associate Justice Colorado 

Thurgood Marshall Associate Justice New York 

William J. Brennan, Jr Associate Justice New Jersey 

Lewis F. Powell, Jr Associate Justice Virginia 

Harry A. Blackmun Associate Justice Minnesota 

Vacancy Associate Justice 



UNITED STATES FOURTH CIRCUIT COURT OF APPEALS 

James Dickson Phillips, Jr Judge Chapel Hill 

Sam J. Ervin, III Judge Morganton 

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT - NORTH CAROLINA 

Judges 

Eastern District Franklin T. Dupree, Jr., Chief Judge Raleigh 

W. Earl Britt Fayetteville 

Middle District Eugene A. Gordon, Chief Judge Burlington 

Hiram H. Ward Denton 

Richard C. Erwin Winston-Salem 

Western District Woodrow W. Jones, Chief Judge Asheville 

James B. McMillan Charlotte 

United States Attorneys 

Eastern District James L. Blackburn Raleigh 

Middle District Henry M. Michaux Greensboro 

Western District Harold M. Edwards Asheville 

Clerks 

Eastern District J. Rich Leonard Raleigh 

Middle District Carmon J. Stuart Greensboro 

Western District J. Toliver Davis Asheville 



184 



North Carolina Manual 





The Judicial System 185 



UNITED STATES FOURTH CIRCUIT 
COURT OF APPEALS 

JAMES DICKSON PHILLIPS, JR. 
Judge 

James Dickson Phillips, Jr. was born in Scotland County, September 23, 1922, to 
James Dickson (deceased) and Helen Shepherd Phillips. Graduated Davidson College, 
1943, B.S. cum laude; University of North Carolina School of Law, 1945-48, J.D. with 
honors. Judge, United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. Member, 
Democratic Party; Kappa Sigma Fraternity; Board of Directors, NC Nature Conser- 
vancy; and NC Bar Association. Received John J. Parker Memorial Award; Thomas 
Jefferson Award and Distinguished Alumni Professor. Served U.S. Army, First Lieu- 
tenant in Parachute infantry (May 1944 - January 1946). Member, Presbyterian 
Church, Elder (1967-1977); Deacon (1964-1966); University Presbyterian Church, 
Chapel Hill - Member (1970-76); Chairman ( 1971-1974); Permanent Judicial Commis- 
sion, Presbyterian Church in the U.S. Married Jean Duff Nanalee, July 16, 1960. 
Children: Evelyn P. Perry, James Dickson, III, Elizabeth Duff, and Ida Wills. 



SAMUEL JAMES ERVIN, III 
Judge 

Samuel James Ervin, III was born in Morganton, Burke County, March 2, 1926, to 
Samuel James and Margaret Bruce (Bell) Ervin, Jr. Attended Morganton Public 
Schools; graduated, Morganton High School, 1943; Davidson College, B.S., 1948; 
Harvard Law School, L.L.B., 1951. Judge, United States Court of Appeals for the 
Fourth Circuit. Served as NC Superior Court Judge, 25th Judicial District, 1967-1980; 
served in NC House of Representatives, 1965-1967; Solicitor, Burke County Criminal 
Court, 1954-1956. Formerly an Attorney at Law, 1952-1967. Member, Burke County 
Bar Association; NC Bar Association; Mason. Served in US Army, Colonel in Infan- 
try and Judge Advocate General's Corps (July, 1944 - October, 1946; August, 1951 
-November, 1952; Active Duty, NC Army National Guard, 1955-69. Received "Young 
Man of the Year," Distinguished Service Award, 1954, from Morganton Jr. Chamber 
of Commerce. Member, First Presbyterian Church; Elder; Deacon; Adult Sunday 
School Teacher; Senior High Youth Advisor. Married Elizabeth Crawford, October 
25, 1952; Children: Samuel James, IV, Elizabeth Fore, Robert Crawford, and Mar- 
garet Bell. 



186 



North Carolina Manual 





The Judicial System 187 

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 
NORTH CAROLINA 

FRANKLIN TAYLOR DUPREE, JR. 
Chief Judge — Eastern District 

Franklin Taylor Dupree, Jr. was born in Angier, Harnett County, October 18, 1913, 
to Franklin T. and Elizabeth Mason (Wells) Dupree. Attended Angier High School, 
1925-1928; Campbell College High School 1928-29; graduated University of North 
Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1933, A.B.; University of North Carolina Law School, 1936, 
LL.B. Judge, United States District Court. Member, Wake County Bar Association; 
NC Bar Association. American Bar Association; American Judicature Society. 
Member, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. Member, Republican Party; Judge, 
US District Court, 1970-. Served in US Navy, Lieutenant (1943-46). Member, Hayes 
Barton Baptist Church. Married Rosalyn Dupree, December 30, 1939; children: Eliza- 
beth D. Dement and Nancy D. Miller. 



W. EARL BRITT 
Judge — Eastern District 

W. Earl Britt was born in McDonald, Robeson County, December 7, 1932, to Dud- 
ley H. and Martha Mae (Hall) Britt. Graduated Rowland High School, 1950; 
Attended Campbell College, 1950-1952; graduated Wake Forest University, B.S., 1956; 
Wake Forest University School of Law, LL.B., 1958. Judge, United States District 
Court. Member, American Bar Association; NC Bar Association. Member, Demo- 
cratic Party. Served in US Army, Corporal (1953-1955). Named "Tar Heel of the 
Week," The News and Observer, February 1, 1981. Member, McDonald Baptist 
Church. Married Judith Moore, April 17, 1976; children: Clifford Paul, Mark Earl, 
and Elizabeth Carol. 



188 



North Carolina Manual 






The Judicial System 189 

EUGENE ANDREW GORDON 
Chief Judge — Middle District 

Eugene Andrew Gordon was born in Brown Summitt, July 10, 1917, to Charles 
Robert and Carrie Scott Gordon. Graduated Elon College, 1939, A.B.; Duke Univer- 
sity Law School, 1941, LL.B. Judge, United States District Court. Member, American 
Judicature Society; Federal Bar Association; American Bar Association; NC Bar 
Association; Phi Delta Phi International Legal Fraternity. Member, Democratic 
Party; Judge, US District Court, 1964-. Served in US Army, Captain in Field Artillery 
(January, 1942 - May, 1946). Member, Starmount Presbyterian Church. Married Vir- 
ginia Stoner, January 1, 1943; children: Eugene Andrew and Rosemary Ann. 

HIRAM HAMILTON WARD 
Judge — Middle District 

Hiram Hamilton Ward was born in Thomasville, Davidson County, April 29, 1923, 
to O. L. Ward and Margaret A. (Lowdermilk) Ward. Attended Denton High School; 
Wake Forest University; graduated. Wake Forest University School of Law, 1950, 
J.D. Judge, United States District Court. Member, American Judicature Society; 
American Bar Association; NC Bar Association. Member, Masons; Phi Alpha Delta 
Law Fraternity; Trustee, Wingate College; Liberty Baptist Association. Member, 
Democratic Party; Judge, US District Court, 1972-; Served on NC State Board of 
Elections, 1964-1972 (3 terms); Chairman, Federal Land Condemnation Commission, 
1964-65. Served in US Air Force (October, 1940 - May, 1945); Pilot and Lt. Col., Civil 
Air Patrol. Member, Baptist Church; Deacon; Sunday School Teacher. Married 
Evelyn McDaniel, June 1, 1947; children: William M. and James Randolph. 

RICHARD CANNON ERWIN 

Judge — Middle District 

Richard Cannon Erwin was born in Marion, McDowell County, August 23, 1923, to 
John Adams and Flora Cannon Erwin. Attended McDowell County Public Schools; 
Johnson C. Smith University (Charlotte, NC), B.A., 1947; Howard University School 
of Law (Washington, D.C.), LL.B., 1951. Judge, United States District Court. 
Member, Forsyth County Bar Association (Past President); NC State Bar Association; 
Bar of the United States Supreme Court. Member, Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity. 
Member, Democratic Party; Judge, US District Court, 1980-; Judge, NC Court of 
Appeals, 1977-1980 (appointed December 2, 1977; elected, 1978); Served in NC House 
of Representatives, 1975-1977. Served in US Army, First Sergeant (1945-1946). 
Winner, Silver Cup, Citizens Coalition of Forsyth County, August, 1974. Member, St. 
Pauls United Methodist Church (served as National Methodist Layman). Married 
Demerice Whitley, August 25, 1946; children: Aurelia Whitley and Richard Cannon, 
Jr. 



190 



North Carolina Manual 





The Judicial System 191 

WOODROW WILSON JONES 
Chief Judge — Western District 

Woodrow Wilson Jones was born near Rutherfordton, Rutherford County, January 
26, 1914, to Bernard B. and Karl Jane (Nanney) Jones. Attended Rutherford County 
Public Schools, 1920-1932; graduated Mars Hill College, 1934, A.S.; Wake Forest 
University School of Law, 1937, LL.B. Judge, United States District Court. Member, 
NC Bar Association; American Bar Association; Rutherford County Bar Association 
(President, 1946). Judge, US District Court, 1967-; served in US House of Representa- 
tives (11th District), 1950-1957; served in NC House of Representatives, 1947-1949; 
Solicitor, Recorder's Court of Rutherford County, 1941-1943; Member, NC Demo- 
cratic Executive Committee, 1938-1960. Past Director, Citizens Federal Savings and 
Loan Association of Rutherfordton, 1957-1967; Union Trust Company of Shelby, 
1960-1967. Member, Board of Trustees, Gardner-Webb College. Former member, 
Rutherfordton Kiwanis Club (Past President); Rutherfordton Chamber of Commerce 
(Past Director). Presented Outstanding Service Award by Rutherfordton Lions Club, 
October 23, 1950; Awarded Special Citation for outstanding service to Gardner-Webb 
College, May 12, 1965. Member, First Baptist Church, Rutherfordton; teacher and 
deacon. Married Rachel Phelps, November 22, 1936; children: W. Wilson, Jr. and 
Michael A. 



JAMES BRYAN MCMILLAN 
Judge — Western District 

James Bryand McMillan was born in Goldsboro, Wayne County, December 19, 
1916, to Robert Hunter and Sarah Outlaw McMillan. Attended Lumberton Public 
Schools; Presbyterian Jr. College (now St. Andrews College), 1932-1934, A. A.; gradu- 
ated University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1937, M.A.; Harvard Law School, 
J.D., 1940. Judge, United States District Court. Member Mecklenburg County Bar 
Association (President, 1957-58); NC Bar Association (President, 1960-61); American 
Bar Association; NC State Bar, Inc.; American Judicature Society. Judge, US District 
Court, 1968-. Member, Omicron Delta Kappa; Order of the Golden Fleece. Served in 
US Navy, 1942-1946. Author of opinions and orders in numerous district court and 
some Circuit Court of Appeals Cases. Member, First Presbyterian Church (Deacon, 
1957-1963; Treasurer, 1962-1963; Ruling Elder, 1963-1971, 1975-). Married Margaret 
Blair Miles, February 27, 1944; children: James Bryan, Jr. and Marjorie Miles McMil- 
lan Rodell. 



PART V 

NORTH CAROLINA STATE 

GOVERNMENT 



194 



North Carolina Manual 



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The Legislative Branch 195 

Chapter One 

THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 



The general assembly is the oldest governmental body in North Carolina. According 
to tradition a "legislative assembly of free holders" met sometime in 1666; however, 
there is no extant proof that such a meeting took place. Actual provisions for a repre- 
sentative assembly did not exist prior to the adoption of the Concessions and Agree- 
ments of 1665. Then an unicameral body composed of the governor, his council, and 
"twelve men . . . chosen annually" sat as a legislature. This system of representation pre- 
vailed until 1670 when Albemarle County was divided in three "precincts" — Berkely, 
Carteret and Shaftsbury. At that time each precinct was apparently allowed five repre- 
sentatives. Around 1682, four new precincts were created from the original three as pop- 
ulation and western expansion increased. The number of representatives allowed new 
precincts was usually two, although some had more. Beginning with the Assembly of 
1723, some of the larger, more important towns were allowed representatives. Edenton 
was the first, followed by Bath, New Bern, Wilmington, Brunswick, Halifax, Cambell- 
ton (now Fayetteville), Salisbury, Hillsborough and Tarborough (now Tarboro). By 
the middle of the eighteenth century, the term "precinct" had been replaced by 
"county" in reference to the geographical subdivisions. 

The unicameral form of the legislature continued until around 1697 when a bicameral 
form was adopted. The "upper house" was composed of the governor, or chief execu- 
tive at the time, and his council; the elected "precinct" representative sat as the "lower 
house" or "House of Burgesses." The lower house could adopt its own rules of pro- 
cedure and elect its own speaker and other officers; however, it could meet only when 
the governor called it into session and only at a location designated by him. This did not 
prove a disadvantage since the lower house had "the power of the purse." As a result, 
the governor usually called them into session at least once during a biennium, and 
usually more often, in order that he might be paid his salary. Throughout the colonial 
period, this "power of the purse" was a source of constant controversy between the gov- 
ernor and the lower house, and the house used it effectively to increase its influence and 
prestige. 

In 1776, when our first State Constitution was adopted, the effects of the executive- 
legislative conflicts of the colonial period were reflected in its provisions. The legislature 
was the primary organ of state government with control over all phases of government. 
Its most important power was its power to elect all officials in the executive and judicial 
branches. This was done by joint ballot of the members of the two houses. This con- 
tinued until 1835 when the governor became a popularly elected official; however, it was 



196 North Carolina Manual 



not until 1868, that the remaining executive officials and the judiciary were popularly 
elected. 

The Constitution of 1776 provided for a bicameral legislature, both elected by the 
people. The senate was composed of one representative from each county, and the 
house of commons was composed of two representatives from each county, one from 
each town listed in the Constitution. This arrangement continued until 1835 when sev- 
eral amendments were adopted affecting the general assembly. The membership of the 
senate was set at fifty and the state was divided into districts with representation based 
on the population of the district. The membership of the house of commons was set at 
120 with representation based on the population of the county in accordance with pro- 
visions set forth in the amendment; however, each county was entitled to at least one 
representative. Provisions were made so that future representation would be based on 
the federal census taken every ten years. 

In 1868, a new constitution was adopted which changed the name of the "house of 
commons" to the "house of representatives" and eliminated the previously unfair 
"property qualifications" for holding office. Also the current organizational structure 
with the lieutenant governor as president of the senate and provisions for the elction of 
a president pro tempore came into existance. 

In 1966, the house of representatives adopted a district setup similar to that used by 
the senate. Today, the general assembly is the legislative branch of state government. It 
is equal with, but independent of, the executive and judicial branches. The legislative 
body is composed of two chambers, the senate and the house of representatives, which 
convene in odd-year biennial sessions on the first Wednesday after the second Monday 
in January. (By parliamentary means, the general assembly may divide the biennal ses- 
sion into annual segments.) (The senate has fifty members and the house has 120 mem- 
bers, all of whom are elected biennially from districts containing approximately equal 
populations.) However, one of the distinct disadvantages of the district system, par- 
ticularly as it relates to the house of representaitves, is that an increasingly large number 
of counties are without a "resident" legislator. 

As the legislative branch of government, the general assembly has three major func- 
tions: to enact general and local laws governing the affairs of the state, to provide and 
allocate funds for operating the government by enacting tax and appropriation laws, 
and to conduct investigations into such operations of the state as it deems necessary for 
regulation and funding. The main work of the general assembly is the enactment of sub- 
stantive legislation. 

Much of the legislative work of the general assembly is done in committees composed 
of members of the respective houses. Senate Committees are appointed by the lieu- 
tenant governor, who serves as presiding officer of the senate (President of the Senate); 
House Committees are appointed by the Speaker of the House, who is elected from 
among the membership of the house of representatives. 

Administrative authority for the general assembly is vested in the Legislative Services 
Commission. The president pro tempore of the senate and the speaker of the house are 
ex officio chairmen of the Services Commission; each appoints six members from his 
respecitve house to serve on the commission. The Services Commission employs a legis- 
lative services officer as chief staff officer, a director of fiscal research to deal with 
money matters, and a director of research to handle all other informational needs. The 



The Legislative Branch 197 



Legislative Research Commission is separated from the Legislative services Commis- 
sion, and its authority is limited to research projects. Again, the president pro tempore 
and the Speaker are ex officio chairmen of the Research Commission; each appoints five 
members to sit on this commission. 

The staff and elective officers of the general assembly assist the membership in ac- 
complishing legislative tasks. The Legislative Services Commission is responsible for 
general and fiscal research, disbursing supplies and materials, production and storage of 
legislative documents, personnel management, supervision and maintenance of the leg- 
islative building, contracting for services, and payment of accounts. The commission 
employs a staff, directed by the legislative services officer, to carry out these functions. 
The Legislative Research Commission produces extensive study documents and drafts 
legislation for consideration by the general assembly. Special study commissions are set 
up to investigate difficult or technical subjects for later reports to the legislature. In ad- 
dition, standing committees of the general assembly have been authorized to meet dur- 
ing interim periods to carry on committee business and to conduct related studies. The 
Services Commission provides, or arranges, for staff assistance to the Research Com- 
mission and standing committees and coordinates staff work with the special commis- 
sions. 





PRESIDENT 



The Legislative Branch 199 

1981 NORTH CAROLINA SENATE 

Officers 

President James C. Green 

President Pro Tem W. Craig Lawing 

Majority Leader Kenneth C. Royall, Jr. 

Minority Leader Donald R. Kincaid 

Principal Clerk Sylvia M. Fink 

Reading Clerk LeRoy Clark, Jr. 

Sergeant-at-Arms Mrs. Gerda Pleasants 

Senators 

Name County Dist. Address Seat 

Alford, Dallas L., Jr Nash 7th Rocky Mount 9 

Allred, Cary D. (R) Alamance 18th Burlington 44 

Allsbrook, Julian R Halifax 6th Roanoke Rapids 1 

Baker, Harold A. (R) Wilkes 24th Millers Creek 40 

Ballenger. T. Cass (R) Catawba 23rd Hickory 37 

Barnes, Henson P Wayne 8th Goldsboro 38 

Boger, Gilbert Lee (R) Davie 21st Mocksville 36 

Cavanagh, John J., Jr. (R) Forsyth 20th Winston-Salem 45 

Clarke, James McClure Buncombe 26th Fairview 33 

Cockerham, Walter C. (R) Guilford 19th Greensboro 41 

Creech, William A Wake 14th Raleigh 19 

Daniels, Melvin R., Jr Pasquotank 1st Elizabeth City 26 

Duncan, Conrad R., Jr Rockingham 15th Stoneville 5 

Frye, Henry E Guilford 19th Greensboro 34 

Garrison, James B Stanly 17th Albemarle 21 

Gray, Rachel G Guilford 19th High Point 22 

Hancock, William G.. Jr Durham 13th Durham 47 

Hardison, Harold W Lenoir 5th Deep Run 8 

Harrington. J. J Bertie 1st Lewiston 25 

Harris, Ollie Cleveland 25th Kings Mountain 3 

Jenkins, Cecil R., Jr Cabarrus 22nd Kannapolis 1 1 

Jernigan, Glenn R Cumberland 10th Fayetteville 

Johnson, Joseph E Wake 14th Raleigh 18 

Jordan, Robert B., Ill Montgomery 17th Mount Gilead 48 

Kincaid, Donald R. (R) Caldwell 24th Lenoir 39 

Lawing, W. Craig Mecklenburg 22nd Charlotte 12 

Marion, George W., Jr Surry 15th Dobson 15 

Marvin, Helen Rhyne Gaston 25th Gastonia 23 

Mathis, Carolyn W Mecklenburg 22nd Charlotte 31 

McDuffie, James D Mecklenburg 22nd Charlotte 29 

Mills, W. D Onslow 3rd Swansboro 24 

Noble, Sam R Robeson 12th Lumberton 16 

Palmer, Joe H Haywood 27th Clyde 13 

Rauch, Marshall A Gaston 25th Gastonia 4 

Raynor. Joseph B Cumberland 10th Fayetteville 27 

Redman, Wm. W., Jr. (R) Iredell 23rd Statesville 42 

Royall, Kenneth C, Jr Durham 13th Durham 46 

Smith, Paul S. (R) Rowan 21st Salisbury 35 

Speed. James D Franklin 7th Louisburg 10 

Soles, R. C, Jr Columbus 11th Tabor City 28 

Swain, Robert S Buncombe 26th Asheville 14 

Thomas, Joseph F. Craven 2nd Vanceboro 17 



200 North Carolina Manual 



Name County Dist. Address Seat 

Thomas, R. P Henderson 27th Hendersonville 32 

Vickery, Charles E Orange 16th Chapel Hill 30 

Walker, Russell G Randolph 16th Asheboro 6 

Ward, Marvin Forsyth 20th Winston-Salem 50 

Warren, Robert D Johnston 9th Benson 49 

White, Vernon E Pitt 6th Winterville 2 

Wright, J. A. (R) New Hanover 4th Wilmington 43 

Wynne, Robert W Wake 14th Raleigh 20 



The Legislative Branch 201 



SPEAKERS OF THE SENATE 

Assembly Senator Residence 

1777 Samuel Ashe New Hanover 

1778 Whitmel Hill Martin 

Allen Jones Northampton 

1779 Allen Jones Northampton 

Abner Nash Jones 

1780 Abner Nash Jones 

Alexander Martin Guilford 

1781 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1782 Alexander Martin Guilford 

Richard Caswell Dobbs 

1783 Richard Caswell Dobbs 

1784 (April) Richard Caswell Dobbs 

1784 (October) Richard Caswell Dobbs 

1785 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1786-87 James Coor Craven 

1787 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1788 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1789 Richard Caswell Dobbs 

Charles Johnston Chowan 

1790 William Lenoir Wilkes 

1791-92 William Lenoir Wilkes 

1792-93 William Lenoir Wilkes 

1793-94 William Lenoir Wilkes 

1794-95 William Lenoir Wilkes 

1795 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

1796 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

1797 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

1798 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

1799 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

1800 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1801 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1802 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1803 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1804 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1805 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1806 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1807 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1808 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1809 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1810 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1811 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1812 George Outlaw Bertie 

1813 George Outlaw Bertie 

1814 George Outlaw Bertie 

1815 John Branch Halifax 

1816 John Branch Halifax 

1817 John Branch Halifax 

Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1818 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1819 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1820 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1821 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

'822 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 



202 North Carolina Manual 



Assembly Senator Residence 

1823-24 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1824-25 Bartlett Yancey Caswell' 

1825-26 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1826-27 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1827-28 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1828-29 Jesse Speight Greene 

1829-30 Bedford Brown Caswell 

David F. Caldwell Rowan 

1830-31 David F. Caldwell Rowan 

1831-32 David F. Caldwell Rowan 

1832-33 William D. Mosely Lenoir 

1833-34 William D. Mosely Lenoir 

1834-35 William D. Mosely Lenoir 

1835 William D. Mosely Lenoir 

1836-37 Hugh Waddell Orange 

1838-39 Andrew Joyner Halifax 

1840-41 Andrew Joyner Halifax 

1842-43 Lewis D. Wilson Edgecombe 

1844-45 Burgess S. Gaither Burke 

1846-47 Andrew Joyner Halifax 

1848-49 Calvin Graves Caswell 

1850-51 WeldonN. Edwards Warren 

1852 WeldonN. Edwards Warren 

1854-55 Warren Winslow Cumberland 

1856-57 William W. Avery Burke 

1858-59 Henry T. Clark Edgecombe 

1860-61 Henry T. Clark Edgecombe 

1862-64 Giles Mebane Alamance 

1864-65 Giles Mebane Alamance 

1865-66 Thomas Settle Rockingham 

1866-67 Matthias E. Manly Craven 

Joseph H. Wilson Mecklenburg 



(NOTE: With the adoption of a new constitution in 1868, the office of "Speaker of the Senate" ceased to exist. A provision in the 
constitution created the office of "lieutenant governor" whose duties and functions were similar to those previously carried out by 
the speaker. The lieutenant governor presides over the senate and is called "The President of the Senate" when serving in this 
capacity. The senators also elected one of their own to serve as "President Pro Tempore" during periods when the lieutenant can 
not preside.) 



PRESIDENTS PRO TEMPORE OF THE SENATE 

Assembly Senator Residence 

1868-69 Charles S. Winstead Person 

1870-72 Edward J. Warren Beaufort 

1872-74 James T. Morehead Guilford 

1874-75 

1876-77 James L. Robinson Macon 

1879-80 William A. Graham Lincoln 

1881 William T. Dorch Buncombe 

1883 

1885 E. T. Boykin Sampson 

1887 



The Legislative Branch 203 



Assembly Senator Residence 

1889 [Edwin W. Kerr] Sampson 

1891 William D. Turner Iredell 

1893 John L. King Guilford 

1895 E. L. Franck, Jr Onslow 

1897 

1899-1900 R. L. Smith Stanly 

F. A. Whitaker Wake 

1901 Henry A. London Chatham 

1903 Henry A. London Chatham 

1905 Charles A. Webb Buncombe 

1907-1908 Charles A. Webb Buncombe 

1909 Whitehead Klutz Rowan 

191 1 Henry N. Pharr Mecklenburg 

1913 Henry N. Pharr Mecklenburg 

1915 Oliver Max Gardner Cleveland 

1917 FordyceC. Harding Pitt 

1919-20 Lindsey C. Warren Washington 

1921 William L. Long Halifax 

1923-24 William L. Long Halifax 

1925 William S. H. Burgwyn Northampton 

1927 William L. Long Halifax 

1929 Thomas L. Johnson Robeson 

1931 Rivers D. Johnson Duplin 

1933 William G. Clark Edgecombe 

1935 Paul D. Grady Johnston 

1937-38 Andrew H. Johnston Buncombe 

James A. Bell Mecklenburg 

1939 Whitman E. Smith Stanly 

1941 John D. Larkins, Jr Jones 

1943 John H. Price Rockingham 

1945 Archie C. Gay Northampton 

1947 Joseph L. Blythe Mecklenburg 

1949 James C. Pittman Lee 

1951 Rufus G. Rankin Gaston 

1953 Edwin Pate Scotland 

1955-56 Paul E. Jones Pitt 

1957 Claude Currie Durham 

1959 Robert F. Morgan Cleveland 

1961 William L. Crew Halifax 

1963 Ralph H. Scott Alamance 

1965-66 Robert B. Morgan Harnett 

1967 Herman A. Moore Mecklenburg 

1969 Neill H. McGeachy Cumberland 

1971 Frank N. Patterson, Jr Stanly 

Gordon P. Allen Person 

1973-74 Gordon P. Allen Person 

1975-76 John T. Henley Cumberland 

1977-78 JohnT. Henley Cumberland 

1979-80 W. Craig La wing Mecklenburg 

1981-82 W. Craig Lawing Mecklenburg 



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The Legislative Branch 205 

WILLIAM CRAIG LA WING 

PRESIDENT PRO TEM 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 

(Twenty-second Senatorial District - - Four Senators.) 
(Counties: Cabarrus and Mecklenburg.) 

Early Years: Born in Mecklenburg County, July 6, 1925, to Samuel Oliver and Essie O. (Dunn) 
Lawing. 

Education: Attended Mecklenburg County Public Schools, 1931-42; University of Chattanooga as 
Aviation Cadet, United States Army Air Force, 1943-44; Repperts School of Auctioneering, 
1958; CAI in Auctioneering, University of Indiana, 1978-80. 

Occupation: Insurance, Real Estate, and Auctioneering (President, Lawing, Inc.); President, 
Duckworth Home Furnishing Company; Board of Directors, Belhaven Limited Inc. 

Organizations: N.C. Association of Relators; Member, Paw Creek American Legion Post No. 353, 
Commander, 1958-51; Voiture 1400 Forty and Eight, Voiture Correspondent, 1953-53; Grand 
Chiminot Forty and Eight, 1954-55; Member, Excelsior Lodge No. 261, A.F. & A.M.; 
Carolina Consistory Scottish Rite; Oasis Temple of the Shrine; Chairman, Legislative Commit- 
tee of Paw Creek American Legion Post, 1961-71; Commander, Mecklenburg County Council 
of American Legion Post 1968-69; Auctioneers Association of N.C, President, 1962-65; 
National Auctioneers Assocaition, on Board of Directors, three-year term, 1969-72. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Board of County Commissioners, Mecklenburg County, 1952- 
56, 1958-64; Vice-Chairman, 1954-56, 1962-64; Served on Mecklenburg County Welfare Board, 
1961-64; Member, Charlotte Board of Relators; National Association of Real Estate Boards. 

Political Activities: Served in N. C. Senate, 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981; Senate President Pro Tern, 
1979-80 and 1981; Served in House of Representatives, 1971, 1973-74, and 1975-76; Co Chair- 
man, Legislative Services, 1979-80, 1981-82; Co Chairman, Legislative Research, 1979-80, 
1981-82. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Rules & Operations of the Senate; Vice Chairman, Bank- 
ing; Vice Chairman, Ways & Means; Appropriations; Appropriations Committee on Human 
Resources; Base Budget; Finance, Insurance, Pensions and Retirement; Public Utilities & 
Energy; Redistrict — Senate; Small Business; State Government Transportation. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army Air Force as Aviation Cadet and Gunnery Instructor, 1943- 
46. 

Honors: Received "Go-Getter" designation and star for past 23 years in American Legion; chosen 
one of 10 Outstanding Men of the Year by Charlotte Jaycees, 1959, and 1969; Awarded City of 
Charlotte Citizenship Award, 1964 and Certificate of Appreciation by Charlotte-Mecklenburg 
Board of Education, 1964. 

Religious Activities: Member, United Methodist Church; Official Board, 1960-68, Chairman, 1966- 
68; Chairman, Membership and Evangelism Committee, 1968-70; Teacher Glenn Lackey Adult 
Sunday School Class since 1958; taught Men's Bible Class, Pleasant Grove United Methodist 
Church, 1956-58. 

Family: Married Jane Gaffney, December 31, 1943; Children: Diane Lawing Hagler and Sally 
Ann; Resides at: RFD No. 9, Box 195-G, Charlotte, (28208). 



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The Legislative Branch 207 

KENNETH CLAIBORNE ROYALL, JR. 

SENATE MAJORITY LEADER 

(Democrat — Durham County) 

(Thirteenth Senatorial District — Two Senators.) 
(Counties: Durham, Person, and Granville.) 

Early Years: Born in Warsaw, September 2, 1918, to Kenneth Claiborne and Margaret Pierce 
(Best) Royal 1. 

Education: Attended Goldsboro High School, Goldsboro, 1932-34; Episcopal High School, Alex- 
andria, Virginia, 1934-36; University of NC, Chapel Hill, 1939-40, A.B. Degree; University of 
Virginia Law School, 1940-41; Wake Forest Law School, 1941-42. 

Occupation: Furniture Retailer (Owner, Style Craft Interiors) 

Organizations: Director, NC Merchant's Association, 1975-76; Director, Training for Hearing Im- 
paired Children, 1971-76; 2nd Vice-President, NC Committee for the Prevention of Blindness, 
1973-76; Member, Rotary Club; Elks Club; Delta Kappa Epsilon Fraternity; President, 
Durham Merchants Association, 1959. 

Boards and Commissions: Legislative Research Commission-Chairman, Sub-Committee on 
Health, 1969; Advisory Budget Commission, 1971-72; Legislative Building Commission, 1971- 
72; Board of Higher Education, 1971-72; Executive Residence Building Commission, 1972; 
Chairman, Mental Health Study Commission, 1973-81; Legislative Services Commission, 1973- 
81; Governmental Expenditures Study Commission, 1974-81; Vice-Chairman, Advisory 
Budget Commission, 1977-80; Chairman Advisory Budget Commission, 1981; Board of Direc- 
tors, Eckerd Wilderness Educational System of NC, 1978-81; Durham Advisory Board to 
Duke Hospital, 1975-81; Board of Directors, Red Cross; Board of Directors, YMCA; Durham 
Chamber of Commerce, 1962-72, Board of Directors & Vice-President, 1972. 

Political Activities: Served in NC Senate, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981, Senate 
Majority Leader 1973-'74, 1977, 78, 1979-80, and 1981; Served in NC House of Represen- 
tatives, 1967, 1969, and 1971. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Ways & Means; Vice Chairman, Rules & Operation of 
the Senate; Vice Chairman, University Board of Governors; Appropriations; Banking, 
Finance; Human Resources; Pension & Retirement; Public Utilities & Energy; Redistricting - 
Senate; State Government; Transportation. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Marine Corps, 1942-45; Major; Received Bronze Star with Combat 
V while serving as platoon leader in South Pacific during World War II. 

Honors: Legislator of the Year, by NCSEA, 1980; Outstanding State Legislator Award, by 
NCSGEA, 1980; Outstanding State Legislator Award, by Assembly of Governmental Em- 
ployees, 1980 (Selected as one of the Ten Outstanding Young Legislators in the United States); 
Voted "Most Influential Member of the North Carolina Senate" by Colleagues, 1979-80; Dis- 
tinguished Service Award for Outstanding Legislative Service, NC Mental Health Centers 
assocaition, 1978; Civic Honor Award, Durham Chamber of Commerce, 1977; Valand Award 
for outstanding service to Mental Health, 1976; Distinguished Service Award, NC Public 
Health Association, 1975; Certificate of commendation, National Association of Mental 
Health, 1974. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Phillips Episcopal Church, Durham; Junior Warden, 1959; 
Senior Warden, 1964; Member of Vestry, three terms. 

Family: Married Julia Bryan Zollicoffer, February 10, 1945; Children: Kenneth, III, Jere Zollicof- 
fer and Julia Bryan; Resides at: 64 Beverly Drive, Durham, (27707). 



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The Legislative Branch 209 

DONALD RAYVAUGHN KINCAID 

SENATE MINORITY LEADER 

(Republican — Caldwell County) 

(Twenty-fourth Senatorial District - Two Senators.) 
(Counties: Avery, Burke, Caldwell, Mitchell, Watauga, and Wilkes.) 

Early Years: Born in Caldwell County, June 2, 1936, to Hugh T. and Myrtle (McCall) Kincaid. 
Education: Attended Gamewell Elementary School; Graduate, Gamewell High School, 1954; Ap- 
palachian State Teachers College, 1955-59, B.S., Clevenger's Business College, 1955. 
Occupation: School Teacher; Insurance Agent (Owner, Kincaid Insurance Agency, Lenoir). 

Organizations: Member, Lenoir Lions Club, Lion Tamer, immediate past Secretary; Past member, 
N.C.A.E.; Gamewell Ruritan Club; N.C. Cattlemen's Association; Carolina Association of 
Professional Insurance Agents; Member Carolina Association of Mutual Insurance Agents; 
Caldwell County Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: Legislative Advisory Board, C.A.P.I.A.; Former Members, NC Board of 
Agriculture. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981; Served in 
N.C. House of Representatives, 1967, 1969 and 1971; Senate Minority Leader, 3 Terms. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Appropriations, Appropriations Committee on Natural & 
Economic Resources; Insurance; Judiciary I; Manufacturing, Labor & Commerce; Natural & 
Economic Resources & Wildlife; Pensions & Retirement; Redistricting -- Senate, Rules & 
Operation of the Senate; University Board of Governors. 

Military Service: Served in N.C. National Guard for nine years, 5-E. 

Religious Activities: Member, Grandview Park Baptist Church. 

Family: Married Syretha Weatherford, June 30, 1956; Four Children; Resides at: 113 Spencer 
Heights, Lenoir, (28645). 



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North Carolina Manual 




DALLAS L. ALFORD, JR. 

(Democrat — Nash County) 

(Seventh Senatorial District — Two Senators.) 
(Counties: Franklin, Nash, Vance, Warren, and Wilson.) 



Early Years: Born in Durham, NC, to Dallas L. and Sally Catherine (Pope) Alford. 
Education: Graduated from Durham Public Schools; Duke University. 

Occupation: Real Estate; Director, Carbisco Flour and Feed Mills; Director, Citizens Savings anc 
Loan Association of Rocky Mount. 

Organizations: Rocky Mount Chamber of Commerce; Member, Lodge 1038, B.P.O.E.: 40 and 8 
Kiwanis Club; Benevenue Country Club, Rocky Mount; Delta Sigma Phi (Social Fraternity) 
Chairman, Nash County Board of Health 1952-58; Commander, American Legion, 1948; Pas 
President, Rocky Mount Realtors Association and Rocky Mount Mutual Insurance Agent: 
Association; Past Member, N.C. Junior Chamber of Commerce and N.C. County Com 
missioners Association. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, N.C. Traffic Safety Authority, 1966; Chairman, Commissior 
to Study Welfare Problems for State of North Carolina, 1962; Nash County Board of Com 
missioners, 1948-58 (Chairman, 1952-58); Member, Board of Aldermen, City of Rocky Mount 
1939-42. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1959, 1961, 1965, 1967, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979 
80 and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Appropriations Committee on Natural and Economii 
Resources; Vice Chairman, Economy; Member, Appropriations; Banking; Base Budget; Pen 
sion & Retirement; Redistricting — Congressional; Senior Citizens Affairs; Transportation 
Ways & Means. 

Military Service: Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy, 1942-46. 

Honors: Mutual Insurance Agent for the Year for North Carolina and South Carolina, 1966-67-68 
Religious Activities: Methodist; Member, Official Board of First Methodist Church of Rock} 
Mount. 

Family: Married Margarette Glenn Griffin, November 17, 1945; Children: Dallas L., Ill 
Margarette A. Rivenbark; Benjamin G.; and Cathy A. Duncan. Resides at 100 Wildwooc 
Avenue, Rocky Mount. 




CARY D. ALLRED 

(Republican — Alamance County) 

(Eighteenth Senatorial District — One Senator.) 
(County: Alamance.) 



Early Years: Born in Mebane, Alamance County, February 7, 1947, to Maurice Frank and Ros; 
Sykes Allred. 



The Legislative Branch 211 



Education: Attended Alexander Wilson Elementary School, 1953-61; Southern Alamance High, 
1961-65; Graduated Eton College 1970, BA; UNC-Greensboro, graduate study. 

Occupation: Sales Executive (President, Econo Med, Inc.). 

Organizations: Boy Scouts of America, Committee Member; Alamance County Heart Association; 
Director and Special Gifts Chairman, 1979, 1980, and 1981. 

Boards and Commissions: Alamance County Heart Association, Director, 1980, and 1981. 

Political Activities: Served in NC Senate, 1981; Chairman Alamance Republican Party, 1979. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Economy; Finance; Higher Education; Human Resources; 
Judiciary I; Manufacturing, Labor and Commerce; Redistricting — Senate; Senior Citizens 
Affairs; Small Business. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Naval Reserve. 

Religious Activities: Member, Stony Creek Presbyterian. 

Family: Married Wanda Jean Brown, November 5, 1967; Child: Brian Kirk. Resides at Rt. 2, Box 
320, Burlington, N.C. (27215). 



JULIAN RUSSELL ALLSBROOK 

(Democrat - - Halifax County) 

(Sixth Senatorial District — Two Senators.) 
(Counties: Edgecombe, Halifax, Martin and Pitt.) 



Early Years: Born in Roanoke Rapids, February 17, 1903, to William Clemmons and Bennie 
Alice (Waller) Allsbrook. 

Education: Graduated from Roanoke Rapids Public Schools, 1920; University of North Carolina, 
1920-1924; UNC Law School, 1922-1924; Student Body President, 1923-24; permanent Vice 
President, Class of 1924. 

Occupation: Lawyer. 

Organizations: Member, Halifax County Bar Assn.; N.C. Bar Assn.; N.C. and U.S. Supreme Ct. 
Bars; American Judicature Society; Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity; Tau Alpha Debating 
Fraternity; Golden Fleece; Order of the Grail; American Legion, AMVETS; Woodmen of the 
World; Roanoke Rapids Kiwanis Club; Mason, Widow's Lodge No. 519; Trustee, Chowan 
College, Murfreesboro, 1950-1954; N.C. Symphony Inc. 

Boards and Commissions: Former Member, Board of Trustees, Roanoke Rapids School District; 
Chairman, Commission for the Study of the Rules of Civil Procedure, 1967 — , Member, 
Governor's Study Commission on the Public School System on N.C. 1967. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1935, 1949, 1951, 1967, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977- 
78, 1979-80 and 1981; Served in N.C. House of Representatives, Halifax County, 1941; Board 
of City Commissioners, Roanoke Rapids, 1 term; Presidential Elector, 2nd Congressional Dis- 
trict, 1936; Chairman Committee on Platform & Resolutions, State Democratic Convention, 
1956-1958. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Judiciary I; Vice Chairman, Constitutional Amend- 
ments; Vice Chairman, Redistricting — Senate; Appropriations, Appropriations Committee 
on General Government; Human Resources; Law Enforcement & Crime Control; Public 
Utilities & Energy; Rules & Operation of the Senate; Ways & Means. 

Military Service: Lieutenant, U. S. Naval Reserves, 1942-1945; now Lieutenant Commander, U. 
S. Naval Reserves. 




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North Carolina Manual 



Honors: Registered in Who's Who in the South and The National Register of Prominent Americans; 
N. C. Public Health Assn. Award for Distinguished Service, 1965; Roanoke Rapids Lions 
Club's Distinguished Service Award, May 14, 1974; Special Honor Award for Service, N. C. 
Assn. of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, November, 1974; In appreciation of 
Senator Julian R. Allsbrook for Legislative support and personal interest, Halifax County 
Mental Health Association, September 19, 1980; In appreciation of Senator Julian R. 
Allsbrook for 56 years service to the people of Halifax County and the N.C. Bar Association, 
Halifax County Bar Association, December 11, 1980. 

Religious Activities: Baptist. 

Family: Married Frances Virginia Brown (deceased) of Garysburg, June 24, 1926; Children: 
Richard Brown, Mary Frances, and Allice Harris; Resides at: 423 Washington St., Roanoke 
Rapids (27870). 




HAROLD AUBREY BAKER 

(Republican — Wilkes County) 

(Twenty-fourth Senatorial District - - Two Senators.) 
(Counties: Avery, Burke, Caldwell, Mitchell, Watauga, and 
Wilkes.) 



Early Years: Born in Lenoir, Caldwell County, June 13, 1930, to Robert Lee and Jesse McCall 

Baker. 
Education: Graduated from Lenoir High School, 1949; Attended Clevenger Business, two terms, 

1950s. 

Occupation: Baker's Dozen Convenience Store; Baker Auction Co.; Yesterday's Antiques. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Courts & Judicial Districts & Criminal 
Justice; Election Laws; Finance; Law Enforcement & Crime Control; Local Government & 
Regional Affairs; Natural & Economic Resources & Wildlife; Small Business. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian, North Wilkesboro. 

Family: Married Barbara Jean Baker, July 18, 1949. Children: Anthony David, Harold A., Jr., and 
Barbara Arlene. Resides at: Route I, Box 581, Millers Creek, N.C. (28651). 




THOMAS CASS BALLENGER 

(Republican — Catawba County) 

(Twenty-third Senatorial District - Two Senators.) 
(Counties: Alexander, Catawba, Iredell, and Yadkin.) 



Early Years: Born in Hickory, N.C, December 6, 1926, to Richard E. and Dorothy (Collins] 

Ballenger. 
Education: Graduated from Episcopal High School, 1944; Attended UNC-Chapel Hill, 1944-45; 

Amherst, 1945-48, B.A. 



The Legislative Branch 213 



Occupation: Manufacturing President, Plastic Packaging. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981; Served in N.C. House of 
Representatives, 1975-76; Catawba County Commissioner, 1966-74 (Chairman, 1970-74). 

1981 Committee Assignments: Appropriations; Appropriations Committee on Human Resources; 
Banking; Insurance; Judiciary III; Local Government & Regional Affairs; Manufacturing, 
Labor & Commerce; Pensions & Retirement; Redistricting — Senate; Rules & Operation of 
the Senate; Ways & Means. 

Military Service: Served U.S.N. Air Corps, 1944-45. 

Religious Activities: Member, Episcopal Church: Senior Warden; Junior Warden; Lay Reader. 

Family: Married Donna Davis Ballenger, June 14, 1952; Three Daughters: Lucinda Garrison; 
Mellissa Jane; Dorothy Davis; Resides at 867 20th Avenue Drive, N.W., Hickory (28601). 



HENSON PERRYMOORE BARNES 

(Democrat — Wayne County) 

(Eighth Senatorial District — One Senator.) 
(Counties: Greene and Wayne.) 




Early Years: Born in Bladen, November 18, 1934, to Rev. Lalon L. and Mable Cumbee Barnes. 

Eduation: Graduated from Garland High School, Sampson County, 1953; Graduated Wilmington 
College, 1958, A. A.; University of North Carolina, 1959, A.B.; University of North Carolina 
Law School, 1961, J.D. 

Occupation: Attorney and farm owner. 

Organizations: Member Wayne County Bar Association; North Carolina Bar Association; 
American Bar Assocaition; American Trial Lawyers Association; Masons; Shriners; Elks 
Lodge; American Legion; Moose Lodge, Civitan Club. 

Boards and Commissions: Energy Policy Council, Courts Commission, Criminal Code Commis- 
sion, Emergency Medical Services Advisory Council and Law Enforcement Officer's Benefit 
and Retirement Fund. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981; Served in N.C. House of 
Representatives, 1975-76; Served as Chairman of Wayne County Democratic Party; Served as 
President of Wayne County Young Democrats. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, State Government; Vice Chairman, Judiciary III; Vice 
Chairman, Pensions & Retirement; Agriculture; Appropriations; Appropriations Committee 
on Justice & Public Safety; Courts & Judicial Districts & Criminal Justice; Redistricting — 
Congressional; Redistricting — Senate; Rules & Operation of the Senate; Ways & Means. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army, Paratrooper, 1953-56. 

Honors: Outstanding Young Man Award, Goldsboro, 1963; Awarded the Robert H. Futrelle 

Good Government Award for 1975; Honorary Degree of Doctor of Humane Letters from 

William Carter College, 1979. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Goldsboro; Deacon; Sunday School Teacher; 
Budget, Finance Board. 

Family: Married Kitty Allen Barnes, August 27, 1961; Two Daughters: Rebecca and Amy; Resides 
at 707 Park Avenue, Goldsboro (27530). 



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North Carolina Manual 




GILBERT LEE BOGER 

(Republican — Davie County) 

(Twenty-first Senatorial District — Two Senators.) 
(Counties: Davidson, Davie, and Rowan.) 



Early Years: Born in Cana, Davie County, May 22, 1927, to Clyde H. Boger and Lula Ritchie 
Boger. 

Education: Graduate of Mocksville High School. 

Occupation: Real Estate Broker and Building Contractor. 

Organizations:Member, Masonic Lodge, Scottish Rite. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. House of Representatives, 1967, 1969, and 1973. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Agriculture; Appropriations; Appropriations Committee on 
General Government; Constitutional Amendments; Redistricting — Senate; Senior Citizens 
Affairs; Small Business; Ways & Means. 

Religious Activities: Member, Smith Grove United Methodist Church; Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Married Maxine Smith Boger, April 20, 1952. Children: Ronald Lee Boger, Cynthia Boger 
Mitchell, Warren Smith Boger; Resides at: Route 3, Mocksville, N.C. (27028). 



JOHN J. CAVANAGH, JR. 

(Republican — Forsyth County) 




(Twentieth Senatorial District — Two Senators.) 
(County: Forsyth.) 



Early Years: Born in Flushing, Queens County, New York, February 5, 1942, to John J. and 
Wanda W. Cavanagh, Sr. 

Education: Attended Bayside High School; graduated Elon College, 1964, B.A.; Appalachian State 
University, 1965, M.A. (Business Administration). 

Occupation: Life Insurance Broker (John J. Cavanagh and Associates); President, Capital Group; 
Partner, Piedmont Properties. 

Political Activities: Served in Winston-Salem Board of Aldermen, 1977-80; N. C. Senate, 1981-; 

Organizations: Board of Advisors, Lees-McRae College; Past President, Winston-Salem Associa- 
tion of Life Underwriters, Kidney Foundation of Forsyth County, Youth for Christ, Inc., For- 
syth Education Services, Inc.; Board Member: Winston-Salem Swim Club, Inc.; Winston- 
Salem Tennis, Inc.; Forsyth County Diabetic Association; Reynolds Toastmasters Club, Inc.; 
N.C. Association of Life Underwriters, Inc.; Member, N.C. Board of Realtors; Greater 
Winston-Salem Chamber of Commerce; Million Dollar Round Table; Past Vice Chairman, 
Winston-Salem Transportation Advisory Council. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Courts & Judicial Districts & Criminal Justice; Election Laws; 
Finance; Higher Education; Local Government & Regional Affairs; Redistricting — Senate; 
Small Business; Veterans & Military Affairs. 



The Legislative Branch 215 



Religious Activities: Member, Reynolda Presbyterian Church; Missionary, Send the Light 
Ministries, Summer 1977. 

Family: Married Martha Marlowe, November 4, 1960; Children: Dawn (Mrs. Mark Modley), 
Kelly A., Jacqueline M., and Heidi E.; Resides at: 2200 Rosewood Ave., Winston-Salem, N.C. 
(27103). 




JAMES MCCLURE CLARKE 

(Democrat — Buncombe County) 

(Twenty-sixth Senatorial District - - Two Senators.) 
(Counties: Buncombe, Madison, McDowell, Yancey.) 



Early Years: Born in Manchester, Vermont, June 12, 1917, to Dumont and Annie McClure Clarke. 

Education: Attended Public Schools and graduated from Asheville School, 1935; Princeton Un- 
iversity, A.B., 1939. 

Occupation: Dairy Farmer and Orchard Operator: Foundation Administrator; College 
Administrator. 

Organizations: Secretary and Trustee, James G.K. McClure Educational and Development Fund; 
Assistant to the President, Warren Wilson College; Trustee, Southeastern Council of Founda- 
tions; Secretary and President, Farmers Federation Cooperative, 1946-59; Associate Editor, 
Asheville Citizen-Times, 1960-68; Member and Former President, Asheville Civitan Club; For- 
mer Director, Fairview Volunteer Fire Department; Former Trustee and Vice Chairman, NC 
School of the Arts; Former Trustee, Memorial Mission Hospital; Trustee, Semans Fund, at the 
NC School of the Arts. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Governor's Crime Commission. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1981; N.C. House of Representatives, 1977-78 and 1979- 
80; Chairman, Buncombe County Board of Education, 1969-76. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Constitutional Amendments; Vice Chairman, Higher 
Education; Vice Chairman, Insurance; Appropriations; Appropriations Committee on Natural 
& Economic Resources; Education; Law Enforcement & Crime Control; Local Government & 
Regional Affairs; Redistricting — Senate; Senior Citizens Affairs. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Naval Reserve, Pacific Theatre, 1942-45; Lieutenant, Senior 
Grade. 

Religious Activities: Member, Warren Wilson Presbyterian Church (former Elder). 

Family: Married Elspeth McClure, February 17, 1945; Children: Susie Clarke Hamilton, James 
Gore King McClure Clarke, Annie Clarke Ager, Dumont Clarke IV, Mark Skinner Clarke, 
William Clarke, and Douglas Dixon Clarke; Resides at Hickory Nut Gap Farm, Fairview 
(28730). 



216 North Carolina Manual 




WALTER CARL COCKERHAM, JR. 

(Republican -- Guilford County) 

(Nineteenth Senatorial District - Three Senators) 
(County: Guilford) 



Early Years: Born in Jonesville, NC, June 15, 1929, to Walter Carl Cockerham and Eva Lewis 
Cockerham. 

Education: Graduated Mountain Park High School, 1945; Completed Training School, Curtis Bay, 
Maryland, 1946; USCG Training Center-Groton, Conn., 1946; Attended Technical Institutes 
in Engineering, 1948-52. 

Occupation: Founder & President, Cockerham Construction Company, Inc., Greensboro, 1948- 
present; President, Cockerham Realty Co., 1964-present; President, C.C.&S Investment Co., 
industrial & commercial development, 1973-79; Partner, Triad Partnership, commercial 
development, 1972-75; Owner, Air Express Inc., air freight lines, 1976-present, Cockerham 
Partners, Real Estate Investment Co.; Partner, Gateway Bank, Founder & Vice Chairman of 
the Board of Directors, 1975-78 and current member of the Board of Directors. 

Organizations: Member, Associated General Contractors of America; Greensboro Engineers Club; 
Central Piedmont Contractors Association; North Carolina Citizens Association; Aircraft Ow- 
ners & Pilots Association; Independent Order of the Oddfellows (Past Grand); American 
Legion, Henry K. Burtner Post 53, Greensboro; Battleground Civitan Club, 1969-71; 
Greensboro Sertoma Club, 1967-69; Lions Club, (Sec. and Treas.) 1956-58; Director, Guilford 
Wildlife Club, 1959-62; Guilford County Pilots Association, 1972-77; Sponsor, Little League 
Baseball, Greensboro, 1973-79. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Greensboro Parks & Recreation Commission, 1976-79; 
Trustee, Kendall Center Advisory Board, 1971-74; Advisory Board, Manpower Development 
Corp., 1967-69. 

Political Activities: Greensboro City Councilman, 1967-1969; Chairman, City Manager's Selection 
Committee; Chairman, Mayor's Committee on Downtown Renewal; Chairman, Finance Com- 
mittee for Greensboro Budget, 1969; Chairman, Guilford County Finance Committee - 
Reagan for President, 1976; NC Senate 1979-80, 198 1-; Director, NC Housing Finance Agency, 
1980-present; Member, Local Government Advocacy Council, 1979-1981; Member, Educators' 
Salary Schedule Committee, 1980. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Appropriations; Appropriations Committee on Justice & Public 
Safety; Banking; Courts & Judicial Districts & Criminal Justice; Economy; Judiciary II; 
Manufacturing, Labor & Commerce; Public Utilities & Energy; Redistricting — Congressional; 
Ways & Means. 

Military Service: Served U.S. Coast Guard, Petty Officer with Merchant Marine Officer's License, 
1946-48, North Atlantic Zone. 

Honors: Represented City of Greensboro, US Conference of Mayor, Honolulu, Hawaii, 1967; 
Senator of the Year, Good Government Committee, 1979; Legislative Award, N.C.C.U. 100% 
Rating for Voting Record, 1979; Guilford Council of the Blind, 1980 Award; Appreciation 
Award from City of Toledo, Ohio, 1977, Advisor to Redevelopment Committee. 

Religious Activities: Non-Denominational, Protestant. 

Family: Married Jeanne Castle, October 20, 1959; Children: John Carl, Joan Carol Hill, Debra 
Jean Ladd, Caron Marie McKee, and Gregory Eugene; Resides at 1300 Benjamin Parkway, 
Greensboro 27408. 



The Legislative Branch 217 




WILLIAM AYDEN CREECH 

(Democrat - - Wake County) 

(Fourteenth Senatorial District - Three Senators) 
(Counties: Harnett, Lee, and Wake) 



Early Years: Born in Smithfield, August 5, 1925. 

Education: Attended Public Schools of North Carolina; University of N.C., A.B., 1948; University 
of Oslo, Blindern, Norway, 1947; George Washington University, 1949, 1952, 1953; 
Georgetown University Law School, J.D., 1958. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law; former Economic Assistant, American Embassy, Baghdad, Iraq, 
1949-51; International Economist, Near East and African Division, Bureau of Foreign Com- 
merce, Department of Commerce, 1952-54; Economic Officer American Embassy, London, 
England, 1954-55; Professional Staff Member, U.S. Senate Committee on Small Business, 
Washington, D.C., 1955-58; Counsel, U.S. Senate Committee on small Business, Washington, 
D.C., 1958-59; Attorney at Law, Smithfield, 1959-61; Chief Counsel and Staff Director, Sub- 
Committee on Constitutional Rights of the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, Washington, 
D.C., 1961-66; Attorney at law, Raleigh, 1965. 

Organizations: Member, American Legion, Mason; Advisory Committee, N.C. Symphony 
Society, Inc., 64-67, 1973, 1974 (Board of Directors, 1967-77); Member, Tuscarora Council, 
Boy Scouts of America, 1961; NC State March of Dimes Chairman, 1960 & 1961. 

Boards and Commissions: Former member, many associations, commissions, and committees on 
Mental Health and Mental Retardation; NC American Revolution Bicentennial Commission, 
1967-79 (Vice-Chairman). 

Political Activities: Served in NC Senate, 1979-80 and 1981; Served in NC House of Represen- 
tatives, 1977-78; Aid to Senator Sam J. Ervin, Jr., 1964 National Democratic Convention; 
Alternate Delegate, 1968 National Democratic Convention; Chairman, Committee on Perma- 
nent Organization, NC State Democratic Convention, 1960. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Judiciary III; Vice Chairman, Law Enforcement & 
Crime Control; Vice Chairman, Small Business; Constitutional Amendments; Economy; 
Education; Finance; Local Government & Regional Affairs; Redistricting — Senate; Ways & 
Means. 

Military Service: Veteran, World War II. 

Honors: Recipient, Junior Chamber of Commerce Distinquished Service Award, 1961; Award for 
Outstanding Service, Johnston County Historical Society, 1965; Award for Outstanding Effort 
for Achievement in Accredidation, Campbell College, 1966; Author of several articles in state 
and national law journals, newspapers, and other publications. 

Religious Activities: Member, United Methodist Church; Chairman, Ministry of Social Concerns; 
Sunday School Teacher; Chairman, Board of Child Development Center, 73-78; Member of 
Official Board of Church, 1971-77; Board of Methodist Home for Children, 1976-present. 

Family: Married Sally Wood; Children: Lawrence, Ezekial, and Charles; Family resides at: 929 
Holt Drive, Raleigh, 27608. 



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MELVIN ROY DANIELS, JR. 

(Democrat — Pasquotank County) 

(First Senatorial District — Two Senators) 

(Counties: Beaufort, Bertie, Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Dare, 

Gates, Hertford, Hyde, Northampton, Pasquotank, Perquimans, 

Tyrell, and Washington) 



Early Years: Born in Wanchese, Dare County, October 7, 1925, to Melvin Roy and Carrie Daniels. 

Education: Graduated Manteo High School; Campbell College; North Carolina State College; 
Virginia Polytechnical Institute. 

Occupation: Banker; Senior Vice-President People's Bank and Trust, Elizabeth City. 

Organizations: Member, N.C. Marine Science Council; Member, Lions; Elks; Masonic Order, 
Scottish Rite; Member, South Atlantic Fishery Council (Federal); Member, American Bankers 
Association; North Carolina Bankers Association; Past president, Pasquotank County Chap- 
ter, American Cancer Society; Past Director, Elizabeth City Boys Club and Elizabeth City Girls 
Club. 

Boards and Commissions: Vice-Chairman, Elizabeth City Airport Commission; Member, Past 
President, Elizabeth City Junior Chamber of Commerce; Past Chairman, Elizabeth City Plann- 
ing Commission, 10 years; Director, Salvation Army Advisory Board; Chairman, Finance 
Board of the Roanoke Island Historical Association; Director, Board of Managers, Peoples 
Bank. 

Political Activities: Served in NC Senate, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981; Past President, Pas- 
quotank County Young Democrats Club; Past Chairman, Pasquotank County Democratic Ex- 
ecutive Committee and past member, State Democratic Executive Committee. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Appropriations Committee on General Government; 
Vice Chairman, Economy; Vice Chairman, Redisricting — Congressional; Agriculture; Ap- 
propriations; Base Budget; Higher Education; Human Resources; Natural & Economic 
Resources & Wildlife; Ways & Means. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army Air Force, 1943-44; Reserve Status: Lt. Col. 

Honors: Citizen of Year, Elks Club, 1980; U.S. "Senate Club", Jaycees, 1979; N.C. Soil and Water 
Conservationist of the Year, 1979. 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church. 

Family: Married Gladys Toxey Daniels, August 18, 1950; Children: Melvin Roy, III, Linda Dianne 
and Donna DeLane; Resides at: 1618 Rochelle Drive, Elizabeth City, 27909. 




,»- v>»» 



V 



CONRAD R. DUNCAN, JR. 

(Democrat — Rockingham County) 

(Fifteenth Senatorial District - - Two Senators) 
(Counties: Alleghany, Ashe, Caswell, Rockingham, Stokes and 

Surry.) 



Early Years: Born October 9, 1928, in Carroll County, Virginia, to Conrad R. and Bertha 
Birchfield Duncan. 



The Legislative Branch 219 



Education: High School Education. 

Occupation: General Contractor. 

Organizations: Member, AGC of America; Mason; Shriner. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1977-78 (appointed to fill seat vacated by Wesley D. 
Webster), 1979-80 and 1981; Served in N.C. House of Representatives, 1975-76, (appointed to 
fill seat vacated by David M. Blackwell, and 1977. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Finance; Vice Chairman, Natural & Economic 
Resources & Wildlife; Vice Chairman, Redistricting — Senate; Banking, Economy; Election 
Laws; Local Government & Regional Affairs; Manufacturing, Labor & Commerce; Pensions 
& Retirement; Small Business; Transportation; Ways & Means. 

Military Service: Served in Air Force, Corporal, 1948-49. 

Religious Activities: Member, Centenary United Methodist: Official Board, Finance and Mis- 
cellaneous Offices. 

Family: Married Becky Tuttle Duncan, June 9, 1951; Children; Patty Duncan Clarke, Kathy Sue 
Duncan, Howard Keith Duncan, and Amy Christen Duncan; Resides at Route 1, Box 282, 
Stonville 27048. 




HENRY E. FRYE 

(Democrat — Guilford County) 

(Nineteenth Senatorial District - - Three Senators) 
(County: Guilford.) 



Early Years: Born in Ellerbe, August 1, 1932, to Walter A. (deceased) and Pearl (Motley) Frye. 

Education: Attended Mineral Springs School, Ellerbe; A & T State University, B.S., 1953; Univer- 
sity of NC, Chapel Hill, J.D. with Honors, June, 1959. 

Occupation: Lawyer, (Practicing Attorney, 1959-63 and 1967); Banker; Organizer & President, 
Greensboro National Bank, 1971-; Former Professor of Law, NC Central University, 1965-67; 
Assistant U.S. Attorney, Middle District, 1963-65. 

Organizations: Member, Greensboro Bar Association; NC, American and National Bar Associa- 
tions; Member, Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity; Board of Directors, NC Mutual Life Insurance 
Company. 

Boards and Commissions: Advisory Budget Commission, 198 1-. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1981; Served in N.C. House of Representatives, 1969- 
1980. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Appropriations Committee on Education; Vice Chair- 
man, Higher Education; Vice Chairman, Judiciary III; Appropriations; Base Budget; Con- 
stitutional Amenments; Election Laws; Redistricting — Congressional; Small Business, Univer- 
sity Board of Governors; Ways & Means. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Air Force, Captain, 1953-1955. 

Honors: Doctor of Laws, Shaw University, 1971; Alumni Excellence Award, A & T State Univer- 
sity, 1972. 

Religious Activities: Member, Providence Baptist Church; Deacon; Former Youth Sunday School 
Teacher. 

Family: Married Edith Shirley Taylor, August 25, 1956; Children: Henry Eric and Harlan Elbert; 
Resides at 1401 S. Benbow Rd, Greensboro 27406. 



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North Carolina Manual 




JAMES BANKS GARRISON 

(Democrat — Stanly County) 

(Seventeenth Senatorial District Two Senators.) 
(Counties: Anson, Montgomery, Richmond, Scotland and 
Union.) 



Early Years: Born in Badin, May 25. 1925, to B.T. and Myrtle Kirk Garrison. 

Education: Graduated Badin High School; Stanton Military Academy; University of NC, 1950, 

B.A. in Economics. 
Occupation: Gasoline Distributor; President, South Central Oil Company, Inc; (Shopping Center 

Developer); President of J.B. Garrison, Inc. 
Organizations: Past President: NC Oil Jobbers Association, Albemarle-Stanly County Chamber 

Commerce, Albemarle Junior Chamber of Commerce. 
Boards and Commissions: Past President, Stanly County Welfare Board; Vice-Chairman, Stanly 

County Industrial Commission. 

PoliticalActivities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1971 (appointed to succeed Frank Patterson, Jr.), 1973- 
74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981; Four-year Term as Albemarle City Councilman and 
four years as Mayor of Albemarle. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Economy; Vice Chairman, Appropriations; Vice Chair- 
man, Banking; Vice Chairman, Public Utilities & Energy; Appropriations Committee on 
Natural & Economic Resources; Constitutional Amendments; Redistricting — Senate; State 
Government; Transportation; Ways & Means. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Marine Corps, Corporal, 1943-46. 

Honors: Young Man of the Year, 1956; Community Service Award, Stanly County, 1971; Senior 
Man of the Year; Felix S. Barker Award, 1977. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Albemarle. 

Family: Married Betty Jane Hearne, 1948; Two Children: James Banks, Jr., and Jane Garrison 
Lisk; Resides at 819 North Sixth Street, Albemarle 28001. 




«* 



RACHEL GILLEAN GRAY 

(Mrs. William Bruce Gray) 
(Democrat — Guilford County) 

(Nineteenth Senatorial District — Three Senators) 
(County: Guilford) 



Early Years: Born in Rowan County, September 26, 1930, to Jesse Frank and Janet (Miller) 
Gillean. 

Education: Attended Frank B. John Elementary School; High Point Jr & Sr High Schools; 
Graduated from Boyden High School, 1948, (Valedictorian); Catawba College, 1948-50; High 
Point College Evening Schol in 1960's. 

Organizations: Member, Junior League; Past President, High Point Garden Council; Vice- 
President, Women's Society of Christian Service, 1960's: Past President, Mental Health 



The Legislative Branch 221 



Association; Archaeological Advisory Committee; NC Council on Status of Women; NC Ad- 
visory Council on Teacher Education; Member, Women's Professional Forum, Greensboro; 
Member, Women's Forum of NC; Member, YWCA; Member, High Point Historical Society; 
Organizer and first Vice President, Sheraton Hills Swim Club; Past Member, Board of 
Uwharrie, Council Boy Scouts; Past Member, League of Women Voters; Past Mayor's Com- 
mittee Status of Women, High Point; Past City Hostess and organizer Newcomers Club; Past 
President, Ferndale Junior High PTA. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981; Mayor Protem, City of High 
Point, 1973 and 1975. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairperson, Senior Citizens Affairs; Vice Chairperson, Con- 
stitutional Amendments; Banking; Courts & Judicial Districts & Criminal Justice; Economy; 
Finance; Human Resources; Redisricting — Senate. 

Honors: High Pointer of the Week, May 1964; 1979 Recipient, Catawba College Distinguished 

Alumni Award. 
Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church. 

Family: Married William Bruce Gray, June 26, 1950; Three Children: William Bruce, Jr, James 
Frank, and Thomas Edward; Resides at 612 Gatewood AVE, High Point 27260. 




WILLIAM G. HANCOCK, JR. 

(Democrat — Durham County) 

(Thirteenth Senatorial District — Two Senators) 
(Counties: Durham, Granville, and Person) 



Early Years: Born in Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, July 29, 1943, to William Geremain Han- 
cock Sr. (deceased) and Lucille Annette (Wiley) Hancock. 

Education: Attended Myers Park High School, Charlotte, 1958-61; UNC-Chapel Hill, A.B., 
History, 1965; Duke University School of Law, J.D., 1968. 

Occupation: Attorney (Law Firm: Everett, Creech, Hancock, and Herzig in Durham.) 

Organizations: Member, Durham County Bar Association; North Carolina Bar Association; 

American Bar Association; North Carolina State Bar. 
Boards and Commissions: Vice-Chairman, NC Board of Ethics, 1977-81; Chairman, Board of 

Directors, NC Center for Public Policy Research, 1975-79; Board Member, Hospice of NC, 

Inc., 1978-79; Board Member, Friends of University Network Television, Inc., 1976-81; Board 

Member, The Children's 100, 1975-77. 

Political Activities: Served in NC Senate, 1980, (appointed to serve remainder of Senator Willis P. 
Whichard's term in 1979 General Assembly), and 1981; Member, State Democratic Party Ex- 
ecutive Committee, 1977-81. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Vice Chairman, Courts & Judicial Districts & Criminal Justice; Vice 
Chairman, Judiciary II; Appropriations; Appropriations Committee on Human Resources; 
Human Resources; Natural & Economic Resources & Wildlife; Senior Citizens; State Govern- 
ment; Ways & Means. 

Religous Activities: Member, Methodist Church. 

Family: Resides at: 901 Urban Ave., Durham 27701. 



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HAROLD WOODROW HARDISON 

(Democrat — Lenoir County) 

(Fifth Senatorial District — One Senator) 
(Counties: Duplin, Jones, and Lenoir) 



Early Years: Born in Deep Run, Lenoir County, September 8, 1923, to Rutha and Annie (Strouc 
Hardison. 

Education: Attended Deep Run High School; Atlantic Christian College. 

Occupation: Oil Distributor Business; President, Humphrey-Hardison Oil Company of Deep Ru 
and Mount Olive; President, Eastern United Tires, Inc. of Kinston and Goldsboro; Presiden 
Humphrey-Hardison Inc., Mt. Olive. 

Organizations: NC Charter Member, Deep Run Ruritan Club; Board Member, Selective Servic 
Board No. 55, Lenoir County; Past Master, Pleasant Hill Masonic Lodge No. 304: Shrine 
Member Sudan Temple, Former Lt. Commander of the Legion of Honor; Past Chairmai 
Lenoir County United Fund. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Deep Run School Board and South Lenoir School Boan 
Member, Neuse River Economic Development Commission; Kinston Lenoir County Ir 
dustrial and Agricultural Developmental Commission; Member, Board of Directors Mour 
Olive College, and Executive Board; Board of Directors of NCNB, Kinston; Board of Dire< 
tors of First Financial Savings & Loan, Inc., Kinston; First President, now member. Board ( 
Directors, Deep Run Water Corp. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981; Served i 
N.C. House of Representatives, 1971. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Appropriations; Vice Chairman, Ways & Mean 
Agriculture; Banking; Base Budget; Finance; Human Resources; Pensions & Retiremen 
Public Utilities & Energy; Redistricting— Senate; Rules & Operation of the Senate; Stal 
Government; Transportation. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Air Force, 1942-46. 

Religious Activities: Baptist; Member, Deep Run Free Will Baptist Church; Sunday Schot 

Teacher; Chairman, Finance Committee, for 1 1 years. 
Family: Married Arlene Humphrey, June 14, 1944. One Daughter: Pamela Jane Braxton; Resid< 

in Deep Run, 28525. 




JOSEPH JULIAN HARRINGTON 

(Democrat — Bertie County) 

(First Senatorial District — Two Senators) 
(Counties: Beaufort, Bertie, Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Dare 
Gates, Hertford, Hyde, Northampton, Pasquotank, Perquimans 
Tyrell and Washington) 



Early Years: Born in Lewiston, February 18, 1919, to Julian Picott and Ethel Mae (Barnes 
Harrington. 



The Legislative Branch 223 



Education: High School, Lewiston-Woodville High School. 

Occupation Farm Equipment Manufacturing (President, Harrington Mfg. Co., Lewiston). 
Organizations: Member, Farm Bureau Federation; Southern Farm Equipment Association; Davis 
Lodge No. 39, Lewiston; 32nd Degree Scottish Rite; Shriner, Sudan Temple, New Bern. 

Boards and Commissions: Member: Lewiston-Woodville Local School Board, 1955-59; Trustee, 
Chowan College, Murfreesboro; Environmental Management Commission; Chairman Gover- 
nor's Productivity Commission; Former Trustee, Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth 
City, North Carolina; North Carolina State University, School of Veterinary Medicine Board. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1963, 1965, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 
1979-80, and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Transportation; Vice Chairman, Rules & Operation of 
the Senate; Agriculture; Election Laws; Finance; Manufacturing, Labor & Commerce; Pen- 
sions & Retirement; Public Utilities & Energy; Redistricting — Senate; University Board of 
Governors. 

Military Service: Technical Sergeant, World War II, 1942-45. 

Honors: Former Tarheel of the Week, News and Observer; Honorary Attorney for State of North 
Carolina, for N.C. Senate. 

Religious Activities: Baptist; Deacon, Lewiston Baptist Church. 

Family: Children: Robert E.H.; Julian Picott, II; and Victoria Harrington Banks. 




JOHN OLLIE HARRIS 

(Democrat — Cleveland County) 

(Twenty-fifth Senatorial District — Three Senators) 
(Counties: Cleveland, Gaston, Lincoln, and Rutherford) 



Early Years: Born in Anderson, S.C., September 2, 191 3, to J. Frank and Jessie Hambright Harris. 

Education: Graduated Shelby High School 1931; Gupton-Jones College of Embalming, 1935. 

Occupation: Funeral Director and Embalmer (President and Treasurer, Harris Funeral Home, 
Inc.) 

Organizations: Member, NC Funeral Director Association; National Funeral Director Associa- 
tion; National Selected Morticians; Mason; Shriner; Past President, NC Coroner's Associa- 
tion; Past President, NC Funeral Directors Association. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, NC Mental Health Study Commission, 1977-78, 1979-80. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1971-72, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981: Cleveland 
County Coroner, 1946-70. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Human Resources; Vice Chairman, Senior Citizens Af- 
fairs; Appropriations; Appropriations Committee on Human Resources; Banking; Judiciary I; 
Rules & Operation of the Senate; University Board of Governors; Ways & Means. 

Military Service: Served Army, 65th Field Hospital, European Theatre 1943-46; Holder, Bronze 

Star. 

Honors: Valand Award by NC Mental Health Association, 1979; Legislator of the Year, NC 

Health Department Association, 1979. 
Religious Activities: Baptist Church. 
family: Married Abbie Jane Wall, May 4, 1934; Children: John Ollie, Jr., and Mrs. Becky Harris 

Hambright; Four Grandchildren; Resides at: 921 Sharon Dr., Kings Mountain (28086). 



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North Carolina Manual 




CECIL ROSS JENKINS, JR. 

(Democrat — Cabarrus County) 

(Twenty-second Senatorial District — Four Senators) 
(Counties: Cabarrus and Mecklenburg) 



Early Years: Born in Lincolnton, NC, July 22, 1941, to Cecil R., Sr. and Martha Mae (McGinni; 
Jenkins. 

Education: Graduated Cherryville Hill School, 1959; East Tennessee State University 1965, B.S 
University of Tennessee Law School, 1970-JD Lawyer. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law. 

Organizations: Member, N.C. Academy of Trial Lawyers; N.C. Bar Association; American Bi 
Association; Member, Sigma Alpha Epsilon & Phi Alpha Delta; Cabarrus, Bar Association 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1979-80 and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Pensions & retirement; Vice Chairman, Judiciary I; Vic 
Chairman, Local Government & Regional Affairs; Vice Chairman, Veterans & Military Al 
fairs; Alcoholic Beverage Control; Economy; Finance; Law Enforcement & Crime Contro 

Religious Activities: Member, All Saints Episcopal Church; Board of Trustees. 
Family: Married Phyllis S., April 20, 1963; Children: Melissa Rhyne, Phillip Ross, and Celest 
Wood; Resides at: 670 Knollcrest Dr., Concord (28025). 




GLENN REGINALD JERNIGAN 

(Democrat — Cumberland County) 

(Tenth Senatorial District — Two Senators) 
(County: Cumberland) 



Early Years: Born in LaGrange, April 10, 1939, to Claude J., Sr. (deceased) and Lydia E. (Jones 
Jernigan (deceased). 

Education: Graduated Fayetteville High School, 1957; Campbell College, A. A., 1959; Ea 

Carolina University, B.A., 1961. 
Occupation: Real Estate and Investments 
Organizations: Mortgage Bankers Association; Homebuilders Association; Fayetteville Kiwan 

Club; Director, Cumberland County Boys Club, 1968-7 1; President, Cumberland County Bo; 

Club, 1972; V.P., Fayetteville Jaycees; Chairman, East Carolina University Pirates Club; Boai 

of Trustees, East Carolina University. 
Boards and Commissions: Member, Fayetteville Board of Realtors; Chairman of the Boan 

Wachovia Bank and Trust Co., Fayetteville; Member, Ethics Committee; N.C. State B< 

Association. 
Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1975-77, 1980 (appointed to fill vacancy created b 

resignation of John T. Henly) and 1981; Served in N.C. House of Representatives, 1971 an 

1973-74; Secy, and Vice-Chairman, Cumberland County Democratic Executive Committe 

Past President Cumberland County YDC. 



The Legislative Branch 225 



1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Manufacturing, Labor & Commerce; Vice Chairman, 
Election Laws; Alcoholic Beverage Control; Economy; Finance; Redisricting 
Congressional; Senior Citizens Affairs. 

Honors: Received Distinguished Service Award for Fayetteville and Cumberland County 1969; 
Fayetteville Jaycees Young Man of the Year; Realtor of the Year Award, 1971; E.J. Wells 
Award for Fayetteville Kiwanis, 1968; Director of the Year (Boys Club), 1961; Who's Who In 
American Colleges and Universities. 

Religious Activities: Member, Highland Presbyterin Church; Deacon and Session Member; Sunday 
School Teacher; Church Stewardship Committee. 

Family: Married Jane Clark Jernigan, August 3, 1963; Children: Lisa and Glenn, Jr; Resides at: 
2414 Rollinghill Road, Fayetteville. 



JOSEPH EDWARD JOHNSON 

(Democrat — Wake County) 

(Fourteenth Senatorial District - Three Senators) 
(Counties: Harnett, Lee and Wake) 



Early Years: Born in Raleigh, Wake County, on October 17, 1941, to Ira Edward and Grace Ivey 
Johnson. 

Education: Attended Raleigh Public Schools, 1946-59; North Carolina State University, 1959-61; 
Wake Forest University, 1961-63, B.B.A. Degree, 1964; School of Law, Wake Forest Univer- 
sity, 1963-66, J.D. Degree. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law. 

Organizations: Wake County, North Carolina & American Bar Associations; Alpha Kappa Psi 
(Business) Fraternity; Phi Delta Phi (Legal) Fraternity. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1981; Served in N.C. House of Representatives, 1975-76, 
1977-78 and 1979-80. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Public Utilities & Energy; Vice Chairman, Manufactur- 
ing, Labor & Commerce; Appropriations; Appropriations Committee on Justice & Public 
Safety; Banking; Election Laws; Judiciary II; Law Enforcement & Crime Control; Senior 
Citizens Affairs; State Government. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Army, Military Police Corps, 1st Lt., 1967-69. 

Honors: Army Commendation Medal. 

Religious Activities: Member, Edenton St. United Methodist Church; Administrative Board; 

Assistant Superintendent, Sunday School; Sunday School Teacher. 
Family: Married Jane Francum Johnson, January 31, 1964; Children: Jane Elizabeth, Kathryn 

Ivey, and Susan Briles; Resides at: 1011 Harvey St., Raleigh, (27608). 




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North Carolina Manual 




ROBERT BYRD JORDAN, III 

(Democrat — Montgomery County) 

(Seventeenth Senatorial District -- Two Senators) 
(Counties: Anson, Montgomery, Richmond, Scotland, Stanly 

and Union.) 



Early Years: Born in Mt. Gilead, October 11, 1932, to Rupert B., Jr. (deceased) and Irene 
(Pritchett) Jordan. 

Education: Attended Mt. Gilead Elementary; Graduated Mt. Gilead High School, 1950; N.C. State 
University, 1954, B.S., Forestry. 

Occupation: Lumber Executive 

Organizations: Past President, Southeastern Lumber Manufacturers Association, Atlanta Georgia; 

Director, NC Forestry Association; Member, Masons and Lions; Past President, N.C. State 

Forestry Foundation. 
Boards and Commissions: Board of Control, Southern Regional Education Board; Capital Building 

Authority; Board of Science and Technology; Member, Board of Trustees University of N.C. 

System, 1961-71; Board of Governors, UNC, 1971-1976. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Base Budget; Vice Chairman, State Government; Vice 
Chairman, Ways & Means; Appropriations; Finance; Higher Education; Insurance; Manufac- 
turing, Labor & Commerce; Redistricting — Congressional; Rules & Operation of the Senate; 
University Board of Governors; Chairman, Administrative Rule Review Committee. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Army, 1st Lieutenant, January 1955-December, 1956. 

Honors: Outstanding Young Alumnus, N.C. State University, 1966; Montgomery County Jaycees 
Distinguished Service Award, 1967; Outstanding Alumnus School of Forest Resources, N.C. 
State University, 1979. 

Religious Activities: Member, United Methodist Church; Chairman, Pastor Parrish Committee; 
Chairman, Administrative Board, 1970-72; Bishop's Committee on Higher Education, 1974. 

Family: Married Sarah Cole, June 21, 1958; Children: Betsy Lynn, Robert Byrd IV, and Janie Cole; 
Resides at: PO Box 98, East Allenton St, Mt. Gilead, (27306). 




GEORGE W. MARION, JR. 

(Democrat — Surry County) 

(Fifteenth Senatorial District - - Two Senators) 
(Counties: Alleghany, Ashe, Caswell, Rockingham, Stokes, and 

Surry) 



Early Years: Born in Surry County, April 14, 1935, to George W. and Lula Stanley Marion, Sr. 
Education: Attended Dobson High School, Graduated, 1953; Appalachian University, four years. 
Occupation: Real Estate. 

Organizations: Member, Lions Club; President, Dobson Lions Club, 1969; P.T.A., Northwest 
Development Association; President, Dobson P.T.A., 1966-67, 1968-69. 



The Legislative Branch 227 



Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981; Served in N.C. 

House of Representatives, 1971; Surry County Y.D.C., 1969; President, 5th District, Y.D.C., 

1969. 
1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Local Government & Regional Affairs; Vice Chairman, 

Courts & Judicial District & Criminal Justice; Appropriations; Appropriations Committee on 

General Government; Education; Insurance; Judiciary III; Small Business; Veterans & 

Military Affairs. 
Military Service: Served in U.S. Army, 1954-56, Spec. 3. 
Religious Activities: Member, Dobson Baptist Church. 
Family: Married Patty Hodges, 1959; Three Daughters; Resides at: Forest Oaks Drive, Dobson. 







HELEN RHYNE MARVIN 

(Mrs. Ned I. Marvin) 
(Democrat — Gaston County) 

(Twenty-fifth Senatorial District - Three Senators) 
(Counties: Cleveland, Gaston, Lincoln, and Rutherford) 



Early Years: Born in Gastonia, November 30, 1917, to Dane S. and Tessie (Hastings) Rhyne. 

Education: Graduated Gastonia High School, 1934; Graduated magna cum laude Furman Univer- 
sity, 1938, B.A. in History and Political Science; Louisiana State University, 1938, M.A. in 
Government; Post graduate work in Political Science, History, and Economics at Winthrop 
College; UNC-Chapel Hill and UNC-C; University of Colorado University of Vermont; Un- 
iversity of Oslo (Norway). 

Occupation: Part time instructor of Political Science, Gaston College. 

Organizations: Member, Southern and NC Political Science Association; Rho Chapter of Delta 
Kappa Gamma (Association of Women Educators); Past President, N.C.P.S.A.; Past Chair- 
man, Advisory Committee, NCCCSSA; Past President, Gaston College Unit, NCAE; Past 
President, Community College Division, NC Association of Educators; Past President, Gaston 
College Faculty Senate; Member, Altrusa Club of Gastonia. 

Boards and Commissions: Member of Board: Gaston County United Way, Gaston County Mental 
Health Association, Gaston County Family Planning Council, Gaston County for Children 
with Special Needs; Past member and Secretary, Southern Piedmont Health Services Agency; 
N.C. State Health Coordinating Council; N.C. State Textbook Commission; Presently, Chair- 
person, N.C. Council on the Status of Women; Member; N.C. State Social Services Commis- 
sion; N.C. Day care Advisory Council; Governor's Advocacy Council on Children and Youth; 
N.C. Apprenticeship Council; Board of Trustees, Vagabond School of Drama and Flat Rock 
Playhouse. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981; Served two terms 
as President, Gaston County Democratic Women; Member, Gaston County Democrats Cen- 
tury Club; past member of Gaston County and N.C. State Democratic Executive Committees; 
N.C. Democratic Party Unity Committee, 1980; Delegate to National Democratic Convention, 
1972. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairperson, Redisricting -- Congressional; Vice Chairperson. 
Education: Vice Chairperson, Law Enforcement & Crime Control; Appropriations; Ap- 
propriations Committee on Natural & Economic Resources; Human Resources; Judiciary III; 
Small Business; State Government. 



228 North Carolina Manual 



Honors: Selected by Gastonia Civitan Club for "Woman of the Year" Award, 1978; Gaston 
College Outstanding Educator Award, 1975; Valedictorian, College Graduating Class. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian, Gastonia; past service as Sunday School Teacher; 
former Chairman, Primary Dept.; Circle Bible Moderator; and Deacon. 

Family: Married Ned I. Marvin, November 21, 1941; Children: Kathryn Andrea (Marvin) Nisbet, 
Richard Morris, and David Rhyne; 3 grandchildren; Resides at; 119 Ridge Lane, Gastonia, 
(28052) 




CAROLYN WILLIAMSON MATHIS 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 

(Twenty-second Senatorial District — Four Senators) 
(Counties: Cabarrus and Mecklenburg) 



Early Years: Born in Sampson County in 1942, to Mr. and Mrs. Horace Williamson. 

Education: Graduated Clinton High School, 1959; UNC-Greensboro, 1963, to B.S. in Home 
Economics; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1970, M.Ed, in Special Education. 

Occupation: Special Educator, Charlotte-Mecklenburg School System; Real Estate Management. 

Organizations: Former chairman of Charlotte Council for Exceptional Children; Mecklenburg 
Association for Retarded Citizens; Charlotte Classroom Teachers Association; Association for 
Children with Learning Disabilities; Association of Community Educators; Exceptional 
Children's Advocacy Council; NC Association of Educators (former Legislative chairman- 
Charlotte). 

Boards and Commissions: Legislative Research Commission; Commission on Children with Special 
Needs; Chairman Council on Educational Services for Exceptional Children, (Advisory to the 
State Board of Education); School Health Education Advisory Committee (to State Board); 
Southern Legislative Conference Committee on Human Resources; National Legislative Con- 
ference Committee on Urban Affairs; Cooperative Planning Consortium of University Special 
Educator; New Generation Interagency Committee; Conference of Insurance Legislators; 
Youth Homes, Inc. Board; Advisory Board for Charlotte Council on Alcoholism; Goodwill In- 
dustries, Inc. Board. 

Political Activities: Served in NC Senate, 1976-77, 1978-79, 1980-81; Chairman of Insurance Com- 
mittee; Vice-Chairman, Base Budget and Alcohol Beverage Control; Legislative Research 
Commission; Served in House of Representatives, 1973-74 and 1975-76; Former National 
Committeewoman for NC Federation of Young Republicans; Mecklenburg Young 
Democrats; Democratic Women of Mecklenburg County; Charlotte Women's Caucus. 

Honors: 1980 Dedicated Service Award, Mecklenburg County Association for Retarded Citizens; 

1979 Outstanding Service Award, NC Association of Directors of Developmental Disabilities 

Centers. 
Religious Activities: Member, Myers Park United Methodist Church. 
Family: Married Alfred Ray Mathis; One Daughter: Carole Bentley Mathis; Resides at: 7111 

Hopeton Road, Charlotte, (28210). 



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229 




JAMES DOYLE MCDUFFIE 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 

(Twenty-second Senatorial District Four Senators) 
Counties: Cabarrus and Mecklenburg) 



Early Years: Born in Kannapolis, NC, November 17, 1929, to James Dewey (deceased) and Viola 
Cress McDuffie (deceased). 

Education: Graduated Cannon High School, 1946; Attended Lenoir Rhyne College, 1946; 
Graduated, Pheiffer College, A. A., 1948; Catawba College, B.A., 1950; University of Denver, 
M.A., 1955. 

Occupation: Self-employed — Insurance Agency (State Farm Mutual Insurance Company) 

Organizations: Member, East Mecklenburg Optimist Club; American Legion; Tar Heel Cyclists. 

Boards and Commissions: Former Member of Board, Carolinas Chapter Multiple Sclerosis Society. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1975-76, 1977-78 and 1981; Charlotte City Council, 
1971-73. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Election Laws; Vice Chairman, Transportation; Con- 
stitutional Amendments; Courts & Judicial Districts & Criminal Justice; Finance; Judiciary II; 
Senior Citizens Affairs; State Government. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Air Force, Sergeant, 1950-53. 
Honors: Distinguished Alumni Award, Catawba College, 1979. 

Family: Married M. Darlene (Pat) McDuffie, April 10, 1953; Children: James David, Mark 
Steven, Patricia Karen, and John Patrick; Resides at: 1800 Eastway Drive, Charlotte (28205). 







WILLIAM DONALD MILLS 

(Democrat — Onslow County) 

(Third Senatorial District — One Senator) 
(County: Onslow) 



Early Years: Born in Maysville, NC, October 8, 1932, to Leo Bell and Mildred Jones Mills. 

Education: Graduated White Oak High School, 1950; E.C.U., 1953. 

Occupation: Real Estate & General Insurance Agency. 

Organizations: Member, Carolina Association of Professional Insurance Agents; Member, Local 
Order of Moose No. 1425, Swansboro, NC; Seaside Lodge No. 429, Mason; New Bern Scottish 
Rite Bodies; Sudan Temple. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1979-80 and 1981; Served in 
House of Representatives, 1965-66, and 1967. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Banking; Vice Chairman, Natural & Economic 
Resources & Wildlife; Vice Chairman, Finance; Education; Redisricting — Senate; Rules & 
Operation of the Senate; University Board of Governors; Veterans & Military Affairs; Ways & 
Means. 



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North Carolina Manual 



Military Service: Served in U.S. Army, Cpl., December 1950 - December, 1953. 

Religious Activities: Member, Belgrade United Methodist Church; Superintendent, 1954-58. 

Family: Married Donniere, January 25, 1952; Children: William Donald, Jr, Robert Duane, and 
Kathy Darlene; Resides in Maysville, (28555). 




SAMUEL RUDOLPH NOBLE 

(Democrat — Robeson County) 

(Twelfth Senatorial District -- One Senator) 
(Counties: Hoke and Robeson) 



Early Years: Born in Butters, NC, May 5, 1928, to John Clayton and Grace Martin Noble. 
Education: Graduated Lumberton High School, 1945; Attended University of South Carolina, 

1945-46; Catawba College, 1947-49. 
Occupation: Insurance, Real Estate Development and Construction. 

Organizations: Member, National Association of Life Underwriters; National Association of Real 
Estate Brokers; National Association of Auctioneers; Member, Loyal Order of Moose and 
Benevolent Protective Order of Elks. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1977-78 (appointed to fill vacancy created by the death 
of Luther J. Britt, Jr.), 1979-80 and 1981; Member, Board of County Commissioners, Robeson 
County 1968-78. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Alcoholic Beverage Control; Vice Chairman, Local 
Government & Regional Affairs; Appropriations; Appropriations Committee on Justice & 
Public Safety; Education; Insurance; Pensions & Retirement; Redistricting — Senate; Small 
Business; Ways & Means. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Navy Sea Bee's, 2nd Class Petty Officer, 1950-52. 

Religious Activities: Members, First Baptist Church. 

Family: Married Jean Bullard Noble; Children: Lyda Susan, Sam R., Jr., and Leslie Martin; 
Resides at: 2406 Roberts Avenue, Lumberton, (28358). 




JOE H. PALMER 

(Democrat — Haywood County) 

(Twenty-seventh Senatorial District - - Two Senators) 

(Counties: Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Haywood, Henderson, 

Jackson, Macon, Polk, Swain, and Transylvania) 



Early Years: Born in Haywood, NC, September 17, 1919, to Glenn C. and Fannie (Ferguson) 

Palmer. 
Education: Attended Clyde High School, 1933-37; NC State University, B.S., 1942. 
Occupation: Farmer, Real Estate Broker. 
Organizations: Member, Farm Bureau; American Legion; Cattlemen's Association; Former Presi- 



The Legislative Branch 231 



dent, NC Tomato Association; Life Member of Veterans of Foreign Wars and Disabled 
American Veterans. 
Boards and Commissions: Member, N.C. Governor's Crime Commission, 1979; Advisory Budget 
Commission, 1979-80; Cherokee Historical Association; Board of Directors, Thorns Hospital 
and Flat Rock Playhouse; Chairman, Veterans and Military Affairs Committee, 1977-78, 1979- 
80, 1981-82; Vice-Chairman, Haywood County Library Board; National Conference of State 
Legislatures, Committee on Rural Development. 

Political Activities: Served in NC Senate, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981; Served in N.C. 
House of Representatives, 1953. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Veterans & Military Affairs; Vice Chairman, 
Agriculture; Appropriations; Appropriations Committee on General Government; Pensions & 
Retirement; Public Utilities & Energy; Redistricting — Senate; Transporation; Ways & Means. 

Military Service: Served in Marine Corps, Sgt. 1942-45. 

Honors: Bronze Star; Purple Heart; American Legion Award for Dedicated Service and Out- 
standing Legislative Support; Tennessee Valley Authority, Superior Service Award. 
Religious Activities: Member, Crabtree Methodist Church; Lay Leader. 

Family: Married Elise DeLozier (Daughter of John C. and Roxanne Woody DeLozier), 1949; 
Four children: John, Amy, Kim and Chris; Resides at: Route 3, Clyde. 



■■■■^M 




MARSHALL ARTHUR RAUCH 

(Democrat — Gaston County) 

(Twenty-fifth Senatorial District - Three Senators) 
(Counties: Cleveland, Gaston, Lincoln, and Rutherford) 



Early Years: Born in New York City, February 2, 1923, to Nathan A. and Tillie P. (Wohl) Rauch. 

Education: Graduated Woodmere High School (Woodmere, Long Island, NY), 1940; Duke 
University. 

Occupation: Corporate Executive; Chairman of the Board, President and Director, Rauch In- 
dustries, Inc.; Director and Treasurer, E.P. Press, Inc.; President and Director, Magic Limited; 
President and Director, P.D.R. Trucking, Inc.; Director, Majestic Insurance Financing 
Corporation. 

Organizations: Director, Holy Angels Nursery (Belmont, NC), 1960-1973; Gastonia YMCA 1959- 
1962, 1967-1972 (Director, 1959-1962 and 1967-72; First Vice President, 1970; President, 1971); 
Salvation Army Boys Club, 1963-1971; Gaston Boys Club, 1947-1971 (Senior Advisor, 1943- 
1963; Director, 1964-1971); Gaston-Cleveland Tuberculosis Association for 1968; United 
Fund, 1963-1967; Gaston Skills, 1964-1966; Gastonia Chamber of Commerce (Director, 1965- 
66); Director, Gaston Community Action, Inc., 1966; Director, Gaston Museum of Natural 
History, 1963-64; President, Duke University Gaston Alumni Association, 1961-62; Big 
Brother, 1951-1960; Carolinas A.A.U., 1951-1953. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Wildlife Tax Study Commission, 1979-80; Board of Trustees, 
NC Land Conservance, 1978-1980; Advisory Budget Commission, 1973-74 and 1977-1980: 
Legislative Services Commission, 1977-1980; Vice Chairman, Governmental Evaluation Com- 
mission, 1977-1980; Chairman, Legislative Tax Study Commission, 1977-1980; Sports Facility 
Commission, 1977-1980; Vice Chairman, Governmental Incentive Commission, 1977-1979; 
Vice-Chairman, Governmental Evaluation Commission, 1977-78; Intangibles Tax Study Com- 
mission, 1978; Board of Advisors, Gardner Webb College, 1969-1977; Board of Trustees, Un- 
iversity of North Carolina, 1969-1973; Member, NC Citizens Committee for Dental Health, 



232 North Carolina Manual 



1968-1973; Advisory Committee, NC Vocational Textile School, 1970-71; Governor's Good 
Neighbor Council, 1963-1969; Advisory Council, NC Committee for Children and Youth, 
1968-69; Chairman, NC Committee on Population and Family, 1968-1969; Member, NC Jail 
Study Commission, 1968; Chairman, Gastonia Human Relations Committee, 1964-1967. 
Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80 
and 1981; Member, City Council, City of Gastonia, 1953-54 and 1961-1965 (Mayor Pro Tern, 
1952-1954 and 1961-1963). 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army, Infantry in European Theater, World War II. 

Honors: Human Services Award, N.C. Association of Jewish Men and State of North Carolina 
1980; Man of the Year, Gastonia Red Shield Boys Club, 1970; National Council of Christians 
and Jews Brotherhood Award, 1969; Man of the Year, N.C. Health Department; Man of the 
Year, Gaston County Omega Psi Phi, 1966; National Recreation Association Citation, 
National Recreation Association, 1965; Man of the Year, Gastonia Junior Woman's Club, 
1964; Man of the Year, Gastonia Junior Chamber of Commerce, 1957; Listed in Who's Who in 
World Jewry, Who's Who in the South and Southwest, Who's Who in Israel, Who's Who in 
American Politics, Leading Man in the United States, and The National Register oj Prominent 
Americans; Senior Class President, Duke University; Received Combat Infantry Award, WW 
II. 

Religious Activities: Board of Governors, NC Jewish Home for the Aged, 1968-70; Director, NC 
United Jewish Appeal Cabinet, 1968-70; Chairman, Gaston Jewish Welfare Fund, 1958-62, 
1968-70; First Vice President; NC Association of Jewish Men, 1966; President, Temple 
Emanuel (Gastonia), 1962-64; Sunday School Teacher, 1951-56; President, Frank Goldberg 
Lodge, B'Nai B'Rith, 1951-52. 

Family: Married Jeanne Girard, May 18, 1946; Children: John, Ingrid, Marc, Peter, and 
Stephanie; Resides at: 1121 Scotch Drive, Gastonia. 




JOSEPH BRYANT RAYNOR, JR. 

(Democrat — Cumberland County) 

(Tenth Senatorial District - - Two Senators) 
(County: Cumberland) 



Early Years: Born in Cumberland County, January 26, 1923, to Joseph Bryant and Beatrice 
(Owen) Raynor, Sr. 

Education: Attended Haymount Grade School, 1929-32; Seventy-first Elementary School. 1933- 
36; Graduated Seventy-first High School, 1940; Electronic and Engineering School, 1944; Cer- 
tified Hypnosis Investigator, Law Enforcement Institute of Hypnosis, Los Angeles, California. 

Occupation: Automotive Supplies; (Owner of Raynor Supply Company). 

Organizations: Fayetteville Exchange Club; Seventy-first Ruritan Club; Cumberland County 
Young Democratic Club; Cumberland County Mental Health Association; Past President of 
Cumberland County Chapter NC Society for Crippled Children and Adults; Past President. 
Carousel Club; Member, Cumberland County Wildlife Association; Member, Knights of 
Pythias; Loyal Order of Moose; United Commercial Travelers of America; The Ancient Mystic 
Order of Bagmen of Bagdad; Vice-President, TIHE (the study of Human Ecology); United 
Brotherhood of Magicians; Society Investigative and Forensic Hypnosis. 

Boards and Commissions: Serving, Mental Retardation Study Commission; the Mental Health 
Study Commission; former member. Study Commission on Alcoholism; Appointed by, 
Legislative Research Commission, Study State Mental Health Facilities; Board of Directors for 



The Legislative Branch 233 



Cumberland County Cancer Society; Board of Directors, Miss United Teenager, served as 
Judge in two national contests; Legislative Services Commission and Commission on Excep- 
tional Children. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1972, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981; Served in House of 
Representatives, 1965, 1967, 1969 and 1971. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Law Enforcement & Crime Control; Vice Chairman, 
Finance; Vice Chairman, Human Resources; Agriculture; Education; Judiciary II; 
Redistricting — Senate; Rules & Operation of the Senate; Veterans & Military Affairs; Ways & 
Means. 

Honors: Exchangite of the Year, 1959; Certificate of recognition, for service to Nation and Selec- 
tive Service System in Administration of University Military Training and Service Act by Presi- 
dent Lyndon B. Johnson, June 30, 1964; Listed in Who's Who in American Politics; Listed in 
National Register of Prominent Americans. 

Religious Activities: Member, Camp Ground Methodist Church. 

Family: Married Mildred Home, January 15, 1944; Resides at: 2108 Morganton Rd., Apt. #1, 
Fayetteville (28305). 




WILLIAM WALTER REDMAN, JR. 

(Republican - - Iredell County) 

(Twenty-third Senatorial District - Two Senators) 
(Counties: Alexander, Catawba, Iredell and Yadkin) 



Early Years: Born in Statesville, NC, October 15, 1933, to William Walter and Mildred Huie 
Redman. 

Education: Graduated Statesville Senior High, 1952; Attended University of Southern California, 
1966; Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 1972, B.S.; Command & General Staff College 
(PHII), 1974; Realtors Institute, UNC 1978, GRI; Bank Marketing Institute, University of 
Maryland, 1975. 

Occupation: Real Estate Broker (owner, Redman Realty); Retired Lt. Colonel, U.S. Army. 

Organizations: Civitan, Retired Officers Association; Board of Directors, North Carolina Board 
of Realtors; Statesville Lodge 1823, B.P.O.E.; Legion Post 65; Veterans of Foreign Wars. 

Boards and Commissions: Gardner-Webb College Advisory Board; Salvation Army Advisory 
Board; Governor's Council on Physical Fitness and Health; Adoption Laws Study Commis- 
sion; Design, Inspection and Construction of Public Facilities Study Commission; Ex Office 
member of Mental Health Study Commission. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1979-80 and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Agriculture; Finance; Human Resources; Law Enforcement & 

Crime Control; Natural & Economic Resources & Wildlife; Redistricting — Congressional; 

Transportation; Veterans & Military Affairs. 

Military Service: Served U.S. Army, Lt. Colonel, 1954-74, (Retired); Awarded two Distinguished 
Flying Crosses; Three Bronze Stars; Sixteen Air Medals; Meritorious Service Medal & two 
Commendation Medals; Master Aviator & Commercial Pilot in Helicopters & Fixed Wing 
Aircraft; NC Air National Guard, 1952-53; NC Army National Guard, 1953-54. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church Sunday School Teacher, 1974-78; Deacon, 
1976—. 

Family: Married Elizabeth Wilhelm, December 28, 1956; Children: Lisa Dawn, Kathryn Marlene, 
and Adrienne Ann; Resides at: Route 2, Box 43, Statesville, (28677). 



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North Carolina Manual 




PAUL SANDERS SMITH 

(Republican - - Rowan County) 

(Twenty-first Senatorial District Two Senators) 
(Counties: Davidson, Davie, and Rowan.) 



Early Years: Born in Salisbury, Rowan County, March 16, 1927, to Karl F. and Mary Sanders 
Smith. 

Education: Attended Boyden High School, 1944-48; Catawba College, 1948-49: Management In- 
stitute of UNC-Chapel Hill, 1966-70. 

Occupation: Gas and Oil Distributor (V.P., Holding Brothers, Inc. Texaco Distributors 
Marketing and Operations). 

Organizations: Member, Salisbury-Rowan Chamber of Commerce: Member, Salisbury Rotary 
Club; Member, Salisbury Sales & Marketing Executive Club: Member, Salisbury-Rowan 
Merchants Association; Member, N.C. Oil Jobbers Association: Little League Coach; 
Scoutmaster. 

Boards and Commissions: Rowan County Board of Commissioners, 1976-80, Chairman. 1978. 
Political Activities: Served in NC Senate, 1981; Rowan County Board of Commissioners, 1976-80. 
Chairman, 1978. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Economy; Finance; Higher Education; Public Utilities & Energy: 
Small Business; State Government; Veterans & Military Affairs. 

Military Service: Served. U.S. Navy, Seaman First Class, 1943-45. 

Honors: CWI "Boss of the Year," Optimists Club "Young Man of the Year," Lions Club "Man 
of the Year," Civitans Club "Citizen of the Year." 

Religious Activities: Member, St. John's Lutheran; Member, Church Council; Chairman, Educa- 
tion Committee. 

Family: Married Alda Clark Smith, September 4, 1950; Children: Paula Smith Thomas, Charles 
Sanders, and Amy Clark Smith: Resides at: 114 N. Milford Drive, Salisbury, (28144). 




ROBERT CHARLES SOLES, JR. 

(Democrat — Columbus County) 

(Eleventh Senatorial District — One Senator) 
(Counties: Bladen, Brunswick, and Columbus) 



Early Years: Born in Tabor City, December 17, 1934, to Robert C. and Myrtle (Norris) Soels. 

Education: Attended Tabor City High School; Wake Forest Universitv, B.S.. 1956; and University 
of NC School of Law, J.D., 1959. 

Occupation: Lawyer. 

Organizations: Member, American Bar Association; NC Bar Association; American Trial 

Lawyers Association; NC Association of County Attorneys; Member, Phi Alpha Delta Law 

Fraternity; Rotary Club, past President. 



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235 



Boards and Commissions: Former Member, University of North Carolina Board of Trustees; 
Board of Trustees, University of NC at Wilmington; President, of Southeastern Community 
College Foundation; Southern Growth Policies Board. 

Political Activities: Served in NC Senate, 1977-78, 1978-80 and 1981: Served in NC House of 
Representatives, 1969, 1971. 1973-74, and 1975-76. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Judiciary II; Vice Chairman, Insurance: Agriculture: 
Banking: Finance: Local Government & Regional Affairs: Redisricting- Senate: Rules & 
Operation of the Senate; Transportation; University Board of Governors. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army, 1957-67. (Reserve), Captain. 

Religious Activities: Member, Tabor City Baptist Church. 

Family: Resides at: Box 6. Tabor City, (28463). 




JAMES DAVIS SPEED 

(Democrat - Franklin County) 

(Seventh Senatorial District - Two Senators) 
(Counties: Franklin, Nash, Vance, Warren and Wilson) 



Education: Attended Gold Sand High School; NC State University. 

Occupation: Farmer and Tobacco Warehouseman. 

Organizations: Member, Farm Bureau; Member, NC Agri-business Council; Mason; Shriner. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, NC Board of Agriculture: Member, NC Emergency Medical 
Advisory Board. 

Political Activities: Served in NC Senate, 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981; Served in NC House of 
Representatives, 1961, 1963, 1965, 1967, 1969, and 1971. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman. Education: Vice Chairman, Agriculture: Finance: 
Judiciary III; Law Enforcement & Crime Control; Natural & Economic Resources & Wildlife: 
Redistricting — Senate; Senior Citizens Affairs; Transportation; Ways & Means. 

Honors: President, NCSU Tobacco Foundation. 

Religious Activities: Member, Baptist Church. 

Family: Married Martha Matthews, November 29, 1947; Children: Claudia. Tommy, and James 
M.: Resides at: Route 6, Box 474, Louisburg, (27549). 




ROBERT STRINGFIELD SWAIN 

(Democrat Buncombe County) 

(Twenty-Sixth Senatorial District - Two Senators) 
(Counties: Buncombe, Madison, McDowell and Yancey) 



Early Years: Born in Asheville, July 25, 1921, to John Edward and Mozelle Brewster (Stringfield) 
Swain. 



236 North Carolina Manual 



Education: Graduated Lee H. Edwards High School, 1939; Attended Mars Hill (Wake Forest- 
Meredith Summer School), 1939; UNC 1939-40; Biltmore College, 1940; University of New 
Mexico, 1941-42; UNC Law School, 1946-49, L.L.B. 

Occupation: Lawyer. 

Organizations: Member, Buncombe County Bar Association; NC Bar Association; NC Trial 
Lawyer's Association; Member, Moose International; Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity. 

Political Activities: Served in NC Senate, 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981; Solicitor 19th District. Bun- 
combe and Madison Counties, 1955-67. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Courts & Judicial Districts & Criminal Justice: Vice 
Chairman, Alcoholic Beverage Control; Vice Chairman, Judiciary I: Finance; Law Enforce- 
ment & Crime Control; Redistricting — Congressional; University Board of Governors; Ways 
& Means. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army Corps, First Lieutenant, January 1943 to January 1946. 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church; Member, Board of Stewards and Sunday School 
Teacher. 

Family: Divorced; Children: Jennifer Ellen, Barbara Giffen, Patricia Ann, Robert Edward, and 
Katherine Anne; Resides at: Route 5, Box 1112, Asheville, (28803). 




JOSEPH EUGENE THOMAS 

(Democrat — Craven County) 

(Second Senatorial District -- One Senator) 
(Counties: Carteret, Craven, and Pamlico) 



Early Years: Born in Askins, NC, July 18, 1941, to Edison E. and Elsie Cowan Thomas. 

Education: Attended Ernul Elementary School, 1947-54; Vanceboro Farm Life School, 1955-59; 
Graduated NCSU, 1963, B.S., Forestry. 

Occupation: Real Estate (Vice-President & General Manager, Westminster Company, Eastern 
Region). 

Organizations: Member, Vanceboro Rotary Club, Past President; East Carolina Engineers; 
Society of American Foresters; National Association of Home Builders; NCSU Alumni Club; 
Sponsor, Ducks Unlimited; Vanceboro Fire Department; NC Registered Forester; BPOE, New 
Bern; Chairman, Vanceboro Medical Center, Inc; Director, NC Agriculture Foundation, Inc.: 
Member, Craven County Advisory Council for Vocational Education, 1978; NC Society of 
Engineers. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Advisory Board of N.C.N. A., 1972-76: Chairman, Vanceboro 
Planning Board; NC Board of Water and Air Resources, 1969-75; Chairman, Water Resources 
Management & Development Committee of the Environmental Management Commission, 
1972-75: Member, NC Board of Transportation, 1977-79 (Highway Commissioner, 2nd Divi- 
sion.); N.C. Agency for Public Telecommunication. N.C. Wildlife Resources Commission. 

Political Activities: Served in NC Senate, 1979-80 (Appointed January 5, 1979 to fill the seat 
vacated by death of Senator D. Livingstone Stallings) and 1981; Mayor of Vanceboro, 1967-68. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Natural & Economic Resources & Wildlife; Vice Chair- 
man, Veterans & Military Affairs; Appropriations; Appropriations Committee on Education: 
Higher Education; Law Enforcement & Crime Control; Local Government & Regional Af- 
fairs; Redistricting — Senate; Transportation; Ways & Means. 



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237 



Religious Activities: Member and Trustee, Kitt Swamp Christian Church; Deacon, 1963; has held 

all offices. 
Family: Married Linda Morris, October 5, 1963; Children: Scott Eugene, Allen Morris, Joel 

Brynn, and Emma Jo-Lin; Resides at: PO Box 337, Vanceboro, (28586). 



ROYCE PHELPS THOMAS 

(Democrat — Henderson County) 




(Twenty-seventh Senatorial District - Two Senators) 

(Counties: Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Haywood, Henderson, 

Jackson, Macon, Polk, Swain, and Transylvania) 



Early Years: Born in Avon Park, Florida, January 3, 1932, to J.R. and Eunice M. (Phelps) 

Thomas. 
Education: Attended Blue Ridge School for Boys, Hendersonville, NC, 1946-48; Duke University, 

Durham, NC, 1948-51; U.S. Army Advanced Infantry Officers School, Fort Benning, Georgia, 

1957-58. 
Occupation: Fruit and Vegetable Distributor. 
Organizations: Member, B.P.O.E. Elks Lodge #1616, Hendersonville, NC; Member, Lions Club, 

Hendersonville. 
Political Activities: Served in NC Senate, 1979-80 and 1981; Chairman, 11th Congressional Dis- 
trict Democratic Party of North Carolina 1980-81. 
1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Small Business; Vice Chairman, Finance; Election 

Laws; Insurance; Judiciary III; Local Government & Regional Affairs; Manufacturing, Labor 

& Commerce; Redistricting — Senate. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army, Captain, Infantry, 1951-60; Member, Hall of Fame, US 
Army Infantry Officers Candidate School. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian, Hendersonville, NC; Deacon, 1979-81. 
Family: Married Margaret C. Stonecipher, May 19, 1951; Children: James Royce, Mary Cecille 
(Thomas) Vieira, and Richard Latt; Resides at: 714 Heatherwood Dr, Hendersonville, (28793). 




CHARLES EUGENE VICKERY 

(Democrat — Orange County) 

(Sixteenth Senatorial District Two Senators) 
(Counties: Chatham, Moore, Orange, and Randolph) 



Early Years: Born in Greenville, S.C., September 22, 1943, to Victor Van and Edna B. (Freeman) 

Vickery. 
Education: Attended, Cool Spring High School, Forest City; The Citadel, 1965, B.S.; University of 

NC School of Law, 1968. 
Occupation: Attorney; (Senior Partner, Law Firm of Vickery, Culpepper and Wolfington.) 
Organizations: Member, Orange County Bar Association; Fifteenth Judicial District Bar 



238 North Carolina Manual 



Association; North Carolina Bar Association, Committee on Legislation and Law Reform; 
American Bar Association, North Carolina Academy of Trial Lawyers; Phi Delta Theta Legal 
Fraternity; Nc Symphony Society Council; St. Andrew's Society of NC. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of University of North Carolina Center for Public Television. 

Political Activities: Served in NC Senate, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981; Assistant District 
Attorney, 29th Judicial District, 1970; Assistant District Attorney, 15th Judicial District, 1970- 

71. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, University Board of Governors; Vice Chairman, 
Judiciary II; Alcoholic Beverage Control; Banking; Courts & Judicial; Criminal Justice; 
Constitutional Amendments; Finance; Higher Education. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army Reserves, 1968-74. 

Religious Activities: Member, Baptist Church. 

Family: Married Jean Marshall Vickery, June 4, 1970; Children: Andrew Marshall and Marv 
Claire; Resides at: 124 Wolfs Trail, Chapel Hill, (27514). 




RUSSELL GRADY WALKER 

(Democrat — Randolph County) 

(Sixteenth Senatorial District - Two Senators) 
(Counties: Chatham, Moore, Orange, and Randolph) 



Early Years: Born in Conetoe, NC, August 26, 1918, to Ashley and Alline Bryant Walker. 

Education: Graduated, High Point High School; Graduated, United States Army Air Corps Pilot 
Training School. 

Occupation: Retired Chain Super Market Operator; Former President, Food Line Super Markets, 
Inc. 

Organizations: Member, Masonic Order, Balfour Lodge, Asheboro, N.C.; Asheboro Kiwanis 
Club, Past President Asheboro Club; Past Lt. Governor, Carolinas District; Past President, 
N.C. Food Dealers Association. 

Boards and Commissions: Vice-chairman, Commission on Children with Special Needs; NC In- 
tangible Tax Study Commission; Ex-Officio Member, Mental Health Study Commission; 
Chairman, Asheboro Airport Authority; Member, North Carolina Energy Policy Council, 
1975-78; Co Chairman, Social Services Study Commission; Co Chairman, Legislative Research 
Commission on Waste Disposal, Planning and Management; Member, Governor's Task Force 
on Waste Management; Member, Legislative Research Commission on Revenue Sharing with 
Counties and Municipalities. 

Political Activities: Served in NC Senate, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981; Chairman, NC 
Democratic Party, 1979-80; 1981-; Two terms, Asheboro City Council, 1961-65. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Appropriations Committee on Human Resources; Vice 
Chairman, Human Resources; Appropriations, Base Budget; Economy; Election Laws; 
Redistricting — Senate; Small Business; Transportation; Ways & Means. 

Military Service: Served in US Army Air Corps, 1941-46, Captain; United States Air Force 
Reserve, 1947-55. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Asheboro; Deacon, 1968-71. 

Family: Married Ruth Brunt Walker, July 13, 1941; Children: Russell G., Jr., Mrs. Susan Walker 
Smith, and Stephen Allen; Six Grandchildren; Resides at: 1004 Westmont Drive, Asheboro, 
(27203). 



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239 




MARVIN MARTIN WARD 

(Democrat - Forsyth County) 

(Twentieth Senatorial District - Two Senators) 
(County: Forsyth) 



Early Years: Born in Morrison, Virginia, February 10, 1914, to Charles Tilden and Nora Belle 

(Martin) Ward. 
Education: Graduated, East Bend High School, 1930; Appalachian University, 1934, B.S.; UNC- 

Chapel Hill, 1940, M.A. 
Occupation: Retired (Former Superintendent of Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools.) 

Organizations: Member, American Association of School Administrators: NC Division of 
Superintendents; Past President, Mid-URBAN Superintendents, Past Board member; Life 
Member National Education Association; Life Member, Parent Teachers Association; Lions 
Club; Ardmore Community Club, Past President; Winston-Salem Automobile Club, Board of 
Directors; Southern Regional Education Board. 

Boards and Commissions: Legislative Commissions; Chairman, School Finance Studies; Public 
School Dropouts, Recodification of Public School Laws Construction Needs for Archives and 
History; Ex-officio Member, Mental Health Study Commission. 

Political Activities: Served in NC Senate, 1979-80 and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Appropriations Committee on Justice & Public Safety; 
Vice Chairman, Education; Alcoholic Beverage Control; Appropriations; Base Budget; Human 
Resources; Manufacturing, Labor & Commerce; Natural & Economic Resources & Wildlife; 
Redistricting — Congressional; Senior Citizens Affairs; Transportation. 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Cetenary Church; Sunday School Superintendent, 1958- 
61; Chairman, Staff Parrish Committee, 1974-77; Member, Administrative Board & Sunday 
School Teacher. 

Family: Married Mary June Darden, August 23, 1941; Children: Elizabeth Ward Cone, and Mar- 
vin Thomas; Resides at: 641 Yorkshire Rd., Winston-Salem, (27106). 




ROBERT DAVIS WARREN 

(Democrat - - Johnston County) 

(Ninth Senatorial District -- One Senator) 
(Counties: Johnston and Sampson) 



Early Years: Born in Sampson County, July 22, 1928, to Opheus and Neta (Jackson) Warren. 

Education: Graduated N.C. State University, B.S., 1950; M.Ed., 1968; Additional Courses at East 
Carolina. 

Occupation: Educator, Realtor, and Auctioneer. 

Organizations: Member, N.C. Association of Educators; National Education Association; N.C. 
Principals/Asst. Principals Association; Masonic Order; Scottish Rite Shrine, Sudan Temple: 



240 North Carolina Manual 



NC Farm Bureau, Johnston County Arts Society; NC Wildlife Federation; Mental Health 
Association of Johnston County; Coats Hunting & Fishing Club; Benson Chamber of Com- 
merce; Sampson County Democratic Men's Club. 

Boards and Commissions: Governor's Advisory Committee on Vocational Education, 1969-73; 
Benson Recreation Commission. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Vice Chairman, Economy; Vice Chairman, Education; Agriculture; 
Appropriations; Appropriations Committtee on Education; Banking; Judiciary I; 
Redistricting — Senate; State Government; Transportation. 

Honors: Benson Jaycees, "Young Man of the Year Award," 1960; Johnston County, "Boss of the 
Year" Award; Benson Citizen of the Year Award, 1980; FFA Honorary Chapter Farmer 
Degree; FFA Honorary State Farmer Degree. 

Religious Activities: Member, Benson Baptist Church; Deacon, 1950-80; Chairman, Sunday 
School Superintendent; Sunday School Teacher (Married Couples' Class), 1966-80. 

Family Married, Ann Sparks Warren, January 20, 1951; Children: Robert Davis, Jr., and Gary 
Burrell; One Granddaughter; Resides at: Route 3, Box 25, Benson (27504). 




VERNON E. WHITE 

(Democrat — Pitt County) 

(Sixth Senatorial District - Two Senators) 
(Counties: Edgecombe, Halifax, Martin, and Pitt) 



Early Years: Born in Hertford County, April 27, 1906, to Charles Thomas and Emma Dale (Liver- 
man White). 

Education: Attended Aulander High School, Class of 1925; Wake Forest University, B.S. Degree 
1929, B.A. Degree, 1931. 

Occupation: Farmer, Principal and Teacher (1929-40). 

Organizations: County Supervisor, Farmer's Home Administration 1941-43; Member, Ruritan 
Club; Kiwanis International; Loyal Order of the Moose; President, Winterville Kiwanis Club, 
1963; NC Veterinary Medical Foundation, Inc.; NC Tobacco Foundation, Inc.; The Carolina 
Charter Corporation. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Board of Trustees, Pitt Community College; Board of 
Trustees, Chowan College; Board of Trustees, Sheperd Memorial Library, Greenville; Former 
Chairman, Pitt County Planning Board; Former Member and Treasurer, Pitt County Develop- 
ment Commission; Former Member, Pitt County Draft Board (Chairman for three years); For- 
mer Member, Pitt County Board of Health, Chairmen, 1966. 

Political Activities: Served in NC Senate, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78. 1979-80 and 1981: 
Member, Pitt County Board of Commissioners, 1963-66 (Chairman, 1966). 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Agriculture; Vice Chairman. Appropriations; Ap- 
propriations Committee on Education; Economy; Education; Finance; Rules & Operations of 
the Senate; Senior Citizens Affairs; Ways & Means. 

Military Service: Veteran of World War II. 

Honors: Given a citation award for "Steadfast Leadership in Legislative Matters of Vital Interest 
to North Carolina Soybean Farmers," 1975, by the NC Soybean Association; Tribute of Ap- 
preciation for efforts in the advancement of Veterinary Medicine in North Carolina, 1977; Ad- 
ministration Building, Pitt Community College, named the Vernon E. White Building, May 5, 
1980; given the Distinguished Service Award, 1980, by the NC Association of Sheltered 
Workshop, Inc. 



The Legislative Branch 



241 




Religious Activities: Member, Winterville missionary Baptist Church; Board of Deacons lor 
twenty-two years (five times Chairman); Director, Sunday School for twenth-one years. 

Family: Married Louise Ange of Winterville, 1931; One Son: Charles Vernon; Resides at: PO Box 
41, Winterville. 



JULIUS ARNETTE WRIGHT 

(Republican - New Hanover County) 

(Fourth Senatorial District -- One Senator) 
Counties: New Hanover and Pender) 



Early Years: Born in Waycross, Georgia, Ware County, October 10, 1951, to Julius A. and Shirley 

Gordon Wright, Jr. 
Education: Attended Roswell High School, Roswell, Ga., 1967-69; Valdosta State College, 1971- 

74, B.S. in Chemistry, (Magna Cum Laude); Georgia State University, 1976-78, M.B.A. in 

Finance and Economics, (Magna Cum Laude). 

Occupation: Process Engineer (Corning Glass works). 

Organizations: American Chemical Society; American Association of MBA; Sigma Alpha Epsilon 
Alumni Association. 

Political Activities: Served in NC Senate, 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Economy; Education; Finance; Higher Education; Natural & 
Economic Resources & Wildlife; Public Utilities and Energy; Redistricting — Senate; Veterans 
& Military Affairs. 

Honors: Alpha Chi Honor Society. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Wilmington; Usher, 1979-80. 

Family: Married Phyllis Ann Powell, June 14, 1975; Resides at: 5118 Hunters Trail, Wilmington, 
(28406). 




ROBERT WEBB WYNNE 

(Democrat — Wake County) 

(Fourteenth Senatorial District -- Three Senators) 
(Counties: Harnett, Lee and Wake) 



Early Years: Born in Raleigh, September 24, 1937, to Robert W. Wynne, Jr. and Marion Womble. 

Education: Graduated Needham B. Broughton High School, 1955; Graduated Davidson College, 
1959, A.B. Degree; Cincinnati College of Mortuary Science, 1963-64. 

Occupation: Funeral Home (President, Brown-Wynne Funeral Homes, Inc). 

Organizations: Vice-President, Raleigh Lions Club, 1975-76; Member, NC Citizens Task Force on 

Public Education, 1972; Chairman, Wake County Chapter of American Red Cross, 1978-80; 

President, Wake County Chapter, NC Symphony Society, 1969-70; President, Pine Valley 

Easter Seal Society, 1970-71; President, Raleigh Jaycees, 1968-69. 



. 



242 North Carolina Manual 



Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Board of Visitors, Peace College, 1978-81; Member, NCTax 
Study Commission, 1969-73; Member, Board of Directors on the following: Raleigh Lions 
Clinic for the Blind, 1973-76; Salvation Army, 1968-74; Raleigh Jaycees Zoological Founda- 
tion, 1966-68; Raleigh Chamber of Commerce, 1968-70, 1972-73; United Fund of Raleigh 
Trustees, 1969-71, 1976-78; Rex Hospital Foundation, 1969-73; Hilltop Home for Retarded 
Children, 1968-73; Raleigh Boys Club, 1972-74; Community Ambassador, 1969-71: NC Easter 
Seal Society, 1972-73; Youth Development Advisory Board, 1973; Board of Trustees, 
Methodist Home for Children, 1978-83; Board of Directors, Raleigh Sales Marketing and Ex- 
ecutives, 1970-81; Board of Directors, YMCA, 1979-81; Board of Directors, United Way of 
Wake County, 1981; Board of Directors, Wake County Rehabilitation & Cerebral Palsy Cen- 
ter, 1978-81; Member, Southern Regional Education Board Legislative Advisory Council, 
1980-81; Member, Legislative Study Commission on Mental Health, 1979-80; Co-Chairman, 
Commission to Study Legislative Policy for Providing Assistance to Undergraduate North 
Carolinians. 

Political Activities: Served in NC Senate, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981; Served in House of 
Representatives, 1971-72 and 1973-74; NC Democratic Executive Committee, 1974-76; Mem- 
ber, Host Planning Committee, Southern Legislative Conference of the Council of State 
Governments, 1981; Member, White House Conference on Aging, 1980-81. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Higher Education; Vice Chairman, Redisricting — 
Congressional; Vice Charman, Transportation; Alcoholic Beverage Control; Finance: In- 
surance; Judiciary II; Senior Citizens Affairs. 

Military Service: Army Counter Intelligence Corps, First Lieutenant, 1959-61. 

Honors: Raleigh's "Layman of the Year," 1967; Raleigh's "Young Man of the Year," 1969; "One 
of the Five Outstanding Young Men in NC," 1969; Named "The Outstanding Local Jaycee 
President in NC," 1968-69; Named "One of the Outstanding Local Jaycee Presidents in United 
States," 1968-69. 

Religious Activities: Member, Edenton Street United Methodist Chruch: Superintendent of 
Church School, 1971-73; Budget Chairman, 1968; Chairman, Commission on Finance, 1969: 
Youth Coordinator, 1970-71; Delegate to Annual Conference, 1968-69; Sunday School 
Teacher, 1961-68; Administrative Board; NC Conference Long-Range Planning Committee, 
1968-72. 

Family: Married Margaret (Maggie) Hambley, 1958; Children: Elizabeth Brookshire, Dana 
Woodson, and Rebecca Morton; Resides at: 915 Holt Drive, Raleigh, 27608. 



The Legislative Branch 



243 




SYLVIA MORRIS FINK 

Senate Principal Clerk 

Sylvia Morris Fink was born in Charlotte, North Carolina on August 8, 1936, to Warren Reid 
(deceased) and Effie Howard Morris. Graduated (honor student) from Mount Holly High School, 
Mount Holly, North Carolina, 1954; attended Pfeiffer College, Misenheimer, North Carolina 
1955-56. A registered Democrat, active in Wake Democratic Women and the American Society of 
Legislative Clerks and Secretaries. She has served on the staff of the General Assembly in the 
following positions: Senate Committee Clerk — 1967; Assistant Senate Journal Clerk— 1973, 1974; 
Senate Journal Clerk— 1975, 1976; elected Principal Clerk— July 1, 1976, being the first female to 
serve in this capacity; re-elected January, 1977, 1979, and 1981. Affiliated with the United 
Methodist Church, she has served as organist, chancel choir member. Vice President and President 
of the Women's Society of Christian Service (holding two life memberships in this organization 
presented by separate churches), MYF counsellor and Sunday School teacher; currently a member 
of Benson Memorial United Methodist Church. Daughter: Paige Elizabeth Fink. 



244 



North Carolina Manual 



Barnes, Henson P. 
Boger, Gilbert L. 
Daniels, Melvin R., Jr. 



1981 SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 
AGRICULTURE 

Chairman: White, Vernon E. 

Vice-Chairman: Palmer, Joe H. 

Vice-Chairman: Speed, James D. 

Hardison, Harold W. 
Harrington, J.J. 
Raynor, Joseph B. 



Redman, Wm.W., Jr. 
Soles, R.C., Jr. 
Warren, Robert D. 



Baker, Harold A. 
Jenkins, Cecil R., Jr. 
Jernigan, Glenn R. 



ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE CONTROL 

Chairman: Noble, Sam R. 

Vice-Chairman: Mathis, Carolyn W. 

Vice-Chairman: Swain, Robert S. 

Rauch, Marshall A. 
Vickery, Charles E. 
Ward, Marvin 



Wynne, Robert W. 



Alford, Dallas L., Jr. 
Allsbrook, Julian R. 
Ballenger, T. Cass 
Barnes, Henson P. 
Boger, Gilbert Lee 
Clarke, James McClure 
Cockerham, Walter C. 
Daniels, Melvin R., Jr. 



APPROPRIATIONS 

Chairman: Hardison, Harold W. 

Vice-Chairman: Garrison, James B. 

Vice-Chairman: Mathis, Carolyn W. 

Vice-Chairman: White, Vernon E. 

Frye, Henry E. 
Hancock, William G., Jr. 
Harris, Ollie 
Johnson, Joseph E. 
Jordan, Robert B., Ill 
Kincaid, Donald R. 
Lawing, W. Craig 
Marion, George W., Jr. 



Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
Noble, Sam R. 
Palmer, Joe H. 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
Thomas, Joseph E. 
Walker, Russell G. 
Ward, Marvin 
Warren, Robert D. 



APPROPRIATIONS BASE BUDGET ON EDUCATION 



Mathis, Carolyn W. 
Thomas, Joseph E. 



Chairman: Frye, Henry E. 
Warren, Robert D. 



White, Vernon E. 



APPROPRIATIONS BASE BUDGET ON GENERAL GOVERNMENT 

Chairman: Daniels, Melvin R., Jr. 

Allsbrook, Julian R. Marion, George W., Jr. Palmer, Joe H. 

Boger, Gilbert Lee 



APPROPRIATIONS BASE BUDGET ON HUMAN RESOURCES 

Chairman: Walker, Russell G. 

Ballenger, T. Cass Harris, Ollie 

Hancock, William G., Jr. 



Lawing, W. Craig 



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245 



APPROPRIATIONS BASE BUDGET ON JUSTICE 
AND PUBLIC SAFETY 



Barnes, Henson P. 
Cockerham, Walter C. 



Chairman: Ward, Marvin 
Johnson, Joseph E. 



Noble, Sam R. 



APPROPRIATIONS BASE BUDGET ON NATURAL 
AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES 



Clarke, James McClure 
Garrison, James B. 



Chairman: Alford, Dallas L., Jr. 
Kincaid, Donald R. 



Marvin, Helen Rhyne 



Alford, Dallas L., Jr. 
Ballenger, T. Cass 
Cockerham, Walter C. 
Duncan, Conrad R., Jr. 
Gray, Rachel G. 



BANKING 

Chairman: Mills, W.D. 

Vice-Chairman: Garrison, James B. 

Vice-Chairman: Lawing, W. Craig 

Hardison, Harold W. 
Harris, Ollie 
Johnson, Joseph E. 
Mathis, Carolyn W. 
Royal, Kenneth C, Jr. 



Soles, R.C., Jr. 
Vickery, Charles E. 
Warren, Robert D. 



Alford, Dallas L., Jr. 
Daniels, Melvin R., Jr. 
Frye, Henry E. 



BASE BUDGET 

Chairman: Jordan, Robert B., Ill 
Hardison, Harold W. 
Mathis, Carolyn W. 
Lawing, W. Craig 



Walker, Russell G. 
Ward, Marvin 



Boger, Gilbert Lee 
Creech, William A. 



CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS 

Chairman: Clarke, James McClure 
Vice-Chairman: Allsbrook, Julian R. 
Vice-Chairman: Gray, Rachel G. 
Frye, Henry E. 
Garrison, James B. 



McDuffie, James D. 
Vickery, Charles E. 



COURTS AND JUDICIAL DISTRICTS AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE 



Baker, Harold A. 
Barnes, Henson P. 
Cavanagh, John J., Jr. 



Chairman: Swain, Robert S. 

Vice-Chairman: Hancock, William G., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Marion, George W., Jr. 



Cockerham, Walter C. 
Gray, Rachel G. 



McDuffie, James D. 
Vickery, Charles E. 



J_ 



246 



North Carolina Manual 



Allred, Cary D. 
Cockerham, Walter C. 
Creech, William A. 
Duncan, Conrad R., Jr. 



ECONOMY 

Chairman: Garrison, James B. 

Vice-Chairman: Alford, Dallas L., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Daniels, Melvin R., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Warren, Robert D. 

Gray, Rachel G. 
Jenkins, Cecil R., Jr. 
Jernigan, Glenn R. 
Smith, PaulS. 



Walker, Russell G. 
White, Vernon E. 
Wright, J.A. 



Clarke, James McClure 
Creech, William A. 
Marion, George W., Jr. 



EDUCATION 

Chairman: Speed, James D. 

Vice-Chairman: Marvin, Helen Rhyne 

Vice-Chairman: Ward, Marvin 

Vice-Chairman: Warren, Robert D. 

Mills, W.D. 
Noble, Sam R. 
Raynor, Joseph B. 



White, Vernon E. 
Wright, J.A. 



Baker, Harold A. 
Cavanagh, John J., Jr. 
Duncan, Conrad R., Jr. 



ELECTION LAWS 

Chairman: McDuffie, James D. 
Vice-Chairman: Jernigan, Glenn R. 

Frye, Henry E. 
Harrington, J.J. 
Johnson, Joseph E. 



Thomas, R.P. 
Walker, Russell G. 



Allred, Cary D. 
Baker, Harold A. 
Cavanagh, John J., Jr. 
Creech, William A. 
Gray, Rachel G. 
Hardison, Harold W. 
Harrington, J. J. 
Jenkins, Cecil R., Jr. 



FINANCE 

Chairman: Duncan, Conrad R., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Mills, W.D. 

Vice-Chairman: Rauch, Marshall A. 

Vice-Chairman: Raynor, Joseph B. 

Vice-Chairman: Thomas, R.P. 

Jernigan, Glenn R. 
Jordan, Robert B., Ill 
Lawing, W. Craig 
McDuffie, James D. 
Redman, Wm. W., Jr. 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
Smith, Paul S. 
Soles, R.C., Jr. 



Speed, James D. 
Swain, Robert S. 
Vickery, Charles E. 
White, Vernon E. 
Wright, J.A. 
Wynne, Robert W. 



The Legislative Branch 



247 



Allred, Cary D. 
Cavanagh, John J., Jr. 
Daniels, Melvin R., Jr. 



HIGHER EDUCATION 

Chairman: Wynne, Robert W. 

Vice-Chairman: Clarke, James McClure 

Vice-Chairman: Frye, Henry E. 

Jordan, Robert B., Ill 
Rauch, Marhsall A. 
Smith, Paul S. 



Thomas, Joseph E. 
Vickery, Charles E. 
Wright, J. A. 



Allred, Cary D. 
Allsbrook, Julian B. 
Daniels. Melvin R., Jr. 
Gray, Rachel G. 



HUMAN RESOURCES 

Chairman: Harris, Ollie 
Vice-Chairman: Raynor, Joseph B. 
Vice-Chairman: Walker, Russell G. 

Hancock, William G., Jr. 

Hardison, Harold W. 

Marvin, Helen Rhyne 



Redman, Wm.W., Jr. 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
Ward, Marvin 



Ballenger, T. Cass 
Jordan, Robert B., Ill 
Kincaid, Donald R. 



INSURANCE 

Chairman: Mathis, Carolyn W. 

Vice-Chairman: Clarke, James McClure 

Vice-Chairman: Soles, R.C., Jr. 

Lawing, W. Craig 
Marion, George W., Jr. 
Noble, Sam R. 



Thomas, R.P. 
Wynne, Robert W. 



Allred, Cary D. 
Harris, Ollie 



JUDICIARY I 

Chairman: Allsbrook, Julian B. 

Vice-Chairman: Jenkins, Cecil R., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Swain, Robert S. 

Kincaid, Donald R. 
Mathis, Carolyn W. 



Warren, Robert D. 



Cockerham, Walter C. 
Johnson, Joseph E. 



JUDICIARY II 

Chairman: Soles, R.C., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Hancock, William G., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Vickery, Charles E. 



McDuffie, James D. 
Raynor, Joseph B. 



Wynne, Robert W. 



Ballenger, T. Cass 
Marion, George W., Jr. 



JUDICIARY III 

Chairman: Creech, William A. 

Vice-Chairman: Barnes, Henson P. 

Vice-Chairman: Frye, Henry E. 

Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
Speed, James D. 



Thomas, R.P. 



248 North Carolina Manual 



LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIME CONTROL 

Chairman: Raynor, Joseph B. 

Vice-Chairman: Barnes, Henson P. 

Vice-Chairman: Marvin, Helen Rhyne 

Allsbrook, Julian R. Jenkins, Cecil R., Jr. Speed, James D. 

Baker, Harold A. Johnson, Joseph E. Swain, Robert S. 

Clarke, James McClure Redman, Wm. W., Jr. Thomas, Joseph E. 

LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND REGIONAL AFFAIRS 

Chairman: Marion, George W., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Jenkins, Cecil R., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Noble, Sam R. 

Baker, Harold A. Clarke, James McClure Soles, R.C., Jr. 

Ballenger, T. Cass Creech, William A. Thomas, Joseph E. 

Cavanagh, John J., Jr. Duncan, Conrad R., Jr. Thomas, R. P. 

MANUFACTURING, LABOR AND COMMERCE 

Chairman: Jernigan, Glenn R. 
Vice-Chairman: Johnson, Joseph E. 
Vice-Chairman: Rauch, Marshall A. 

Allred, Cary D. Duncan, Conrad R., Jr. Kincaid, Donald R. 

Ballenger, Julian R. Harrington, J.J. Thomas, R. P. 

Cockerham, Walter C. Jordan, Robert B., Ill Ward, Marvin 

NATURAL AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES AND WILDLIFE 

Chairman: Thomas, Joseph E. 
Vice-Chairman: Duncan, Conrad R., Jr. 
Vice-Chairman: Mills, W.D. 
Baker, Harold A. Kincaid, Donald R. Ward, Marvin 

Daniels, MelvinR., Jr. Redman, Wm. W., Jr. White, Vernon E. 

Hancock, William G., Jr. Speed, James D. 

PENSIONS AND RETIREMENT 

Chairman: Jenkins, Cecil R., Jr. 
Vice-Chairman: Barnes, Henson P. 

Alford, Dallas L., Jr. Harrington, J.J. Noble, Sam R. 

Ballenger, T. Cass Kincaid, Donald R. Palmer, Joe H. 

Duncan, Conrad R., Jr. Lawing, W. Craig Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
Hardison, Harold W. 

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND ENERGY.. 

Chairman: Johnson, Joseph E. 

Vice-Chairman: Garrison, James B. 

Vice-Chairman: Rauch, Marshall A. 
Allsbrook, Julian R. Harrington, J.J. Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 

Cockerham, Walter C. Lawing, W. Craig Smith, Paul S. 

Hardison, Harold W. Palmer, Joe H. Wright, J.A. 



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249 



Alford, Dallas L., Jr. 
Barnes, Henson P. 
Cockerham, Walter C. 
Frye, Henry E. 



REDISRICTING — CONGRESSIONAL 

Chairman: Marvin, Helen Rhyne 

Vice-Chairman: Daniels, Melvin R., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Wynne, Robert W. 

Jernigan, Glenn R. 
Jordan, Robert B., Ill 
Mathis, Carolyn W. 



Redman, Wm. W. 
Swain, Robert S. 
Ward, Marvin 



Jr. 



Allred, Cary C. 
Ballenger, T. Cass 
Barnes, Henson P. 
Boger, Gilbert Lee 
Cavanagh, John J., Jr. 
Clarke, James McClure 
Creech, William A. 
Garrison, James B. 
Gray, Rachel G. 



REDISTRICTING — SENATE 

Chairman: Rauch, Marshall A. 

Vice-Chairman: Duncan, Conrad R., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Allsbrook, Julian R. 

Hardison, Harold W. 
Harrington, J.J. 
Kincaid, Donald R. 
Lawing, W. Craig 
Mills, W.D. 
Noble, Sam R. 
Palmer, Joe H. 
Raynor, Joseph B. 



Royall, Kenneth C. 
Soles, R.C., Jr. 
Speed, James D. 
Thomas, R.P. 
Thomas, Joseph E. 
Walker, Russell G. 
Warren, Robert D. 
Wright, J. A. 



Jr. 



RULES AND OPERATION OF THE SENATE 

Chairman: Lawing, W. Craig 

Vice-Chairman: Harrington, J.J. 

Vice-Chairman: Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 



Allsbrook, Julian R. 
Ballenger, T. Cass 
Barnes, Henson P. 
Hardison, Harold W. 
Harris, Ollie 



Jordan, Robert B., Ill 
Kincaid, Donald R. 
Mathis, Carolyn W. 
Mills, W.D. 



Rauch, Marshall A. 
Raynor, Joseph B. 
Soles, R.C., Jr. 
White, Vernon E. 



Alford, Dallas L., Jr. 
Allred, Cary D. 
Boger, Gilbert Lee 
Clarke, James McClure 



SENIOR CITIZENS AFFAIRS 

Chairman: Gray, Rachel G. 
Vice-Chairman: Harris, Ollie 

Hancock, William G., Jr. 
Jernigan, Glenn R. 
Johnson, Joseph E. 
McDuffie, James D. 



Speed, James D. 
Ward, Marvin 
White, Vernon E. 
Wynne, Robert W. 



Allred, Cary D. 
Baker, Harold A. 
Boger, Gilbert Lee 
Cavanagh, John J., Jr. 



SMALL BUSINESS 

Chairman: Thomas, R.P. 
Vice-Chairman: Creech, William A. 
Duncan, Conrad R., Jr. 
Frye, Henry E. 
Lawing, W. Craig 
Marion, George W., Jr. 



Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
Noble, Sam R. 
Smith, PaulS. 
Walker, Russell D. 



250 



North Carolina Manual 



Garrison, James B. 
Hancock, William G., Jr. 
Hardison, Harold W. 
Johnson, Joseph E. 



STATE GOVERNMENT 

Chairman: Barnes, Henson P. 
Vice-Chairman: Jordan, Robert B., Ill 

Lawing, W. Craig 
Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
McDuffie, James D. 
Rauch, Marshall A. 



Royall, Kenneth C. 
Smith, Paul S. 
Warren, Robert D. 



Jr. 



Alford, Dallas L., Jr. 
Duncan, Conrad R., Jr. 
Garrison, James B. 
Hardison, Harold W. 
Lawing, W. Craig 



TRANSPORTATION 

Chairman: Harrington, J.J. 
Vice-Chairman: McDuffie, James D. 
Vice-Chairman: Wynne, Robert W. 

Palmer, Joe H. 
Rauch, Marshall A. 
Redman, Wm.W., Jr. 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
Soles, R.C., Jr. 



Speed, James D. 
Thomas, Joseph E. 
Walker, Russell G. 
Ward, Marvin 
Warren, Robert D. 



UNIVERSITY BOARD OF GOVERNORS 



Frye, Henry E. 
Harrington, J.J. 
Harris, Ollie 



Chairman: Vickery, Charles E. 
Vice-Chairman: Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 

Jordan, Robert B., Ill 
Kincaid, Donald R. 
Mills, W.D. 



Soles, R.C., Jr. 
Swain, Roberts. 



VETERANS AND MILITARY AFFAIRS 



Cavanagh, John J., Jr. 
Marion, George W., Jr. 
Mills, W.D. 



Chairman: Palmer, Joe H. 

Vice-Chairman: Jenkins, Cecil R., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Thomas, Joseph E. 

Raynor, Joseph B. 
Redman, Wm. W., Jr. 



Smith, Paul S. 
Wright, J.A. 



Allford, Dallas L., Jr. 
Allsbrook, Julian R. 
Ballenger, T. Cass 
Barnes, Henson P. 
Boger, Gilbert Lee 
Cockerham, Walter C. 
Creech, William A. 
Daniels, Melvin R., Jr. 



WAYS AND MEANS 

Chairman: Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
Vice-Chairman: Hardison, Harold W. 
Vice-Chairman: Jordan, Robert B., Ill 

Vice-Chairman: Lawing, W. Craig 

Duncan, Conrad R., Jr. 
Frye, Henry E. 
Garrison, James B. 
Hancock, William G., Jr. 
Harris, Ollie 
Mathis, Carolyn W. 
Mills, W.D. 
Noble, Sam R. 



Palmer, Joe H. 
Rauch, Marshall A. 
Raynor, Joseph B. 
Speed, James D. 
Swain, Robert S. 
Thomas, Joseph E. 
Walker, Russell G. 
White, Vernon E. 



The Legislative Branch 



251 



OCCUPATIONS OF 



Attorney 

Allsbrook, Julian R. 
Barnes, Henson P. 
Creech, William A. 
Frye, Henry E. 
Hancock, William G., Jr. 
Jenkins, Cecil R., Jr. 
Johnson, Joseph E. 
Soles, Robert C, Jr. 
Swain, Robert S. 
Vickery, Charles E. 

Auctioneering 

Baker, Harold A. 
Lawing, W. Craig 
Noble, Samuel R. 
Warren, Robert D. 

Automotive Supplies 

Raynor, Joseph B., Jr. 

Banking 

Daniels, Melvin R., Jr. 
Frye, Henry E. 

College Professor 

Marvin, Helen Rhyne 

Contractor (General) 

Boger, Gilbert L. 
Cockerham, Walter C, Jr. 
Noble, Samuel R. 

Convenience Store Owner 

Baker, Harold A. 

Educator 

Ward, Marvin M. (Ret.) 
Warren, Robert D. 
White, Vernon E. (Ret.) 

Farming 

Barnes, Henson P. 
Clarke, James McClure 
Palmer, Joe H. 
Speed, James D. 
White, Vernon E. 



SENATORS 
Foundation Administrator 

Clarke, James McClure 

Funeral Director 

Harris, Ollie 
Wynne, Robert W. 

Furniture Retailer 

Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 

Gas/Oil Distributor 

Garrison, James B. 
Hardison, Harold W. 
Smith, Paul S. 

Housewares Distributor 

Marion, George W., Jr. 

Insurance Agents 

Alford, Dallas L., Jr. 
Cavanagh, John J., Jr. 
Kincaid, Donald R. 
Lawing, W. Craig 
McDuffie, James D. 
Mills, William D. 
Noble, Samuel R. 

Investments 

Jernigan, Glenn R. 

Lumber Business 

Jordan, Robert Byrd, III 

Mfg. — Farm Equipment 

Harrington, J.J. 

Mfg. — Paper & Plastics 

Ballenger, T. Cass 

Produce Distributor 
Thomas, R.P. 

Military, U.S. 

Redman, William W., Jr. (Ret.) 

Mfg. — Textiles 

Rauch, Marshall A. 



252 



North Carolina Manual 



Merchant 

Gray, Rachel G. 

Process Engineer 

Wright, Julius A. 

Real Estate (Broker) 

Alford, Dallas L., Jr 
Boger, Gilbert L. 
Cockerham, Walter 
Lawing, W. Craig 
Marion, George W., 
Mills, William D. 
Noble, Samuel R. 
Palmer, Joe H. 
Redman, William W 
Thomas, Joesph E. 
Warren, Robert D. 



C, Jr. 



Jr. 



Jr. 



Real Estate (Management) 

Mathis, Carolyn W. 

Retired Businessman 

Walker, Russell G. 

Sales Executive 

Allred, Cary D. 

School Teacher 

Kincaid, Donald R. 
Mathis, Carolyn W. 

Tobacco Warehouseman 

Speed, James D. 



The Legislative Branch 253 

PERMANENT RULES OF THE SENATE 
1981 GENERAL ASSEMBLY (SENATE RESOLUTION 70) 

I. Orderof Business, Rules 1-7 

II. Conduct of Debate, Rules 8-17 

III. Motions, Rules 18-24 

IV. Voting, Rules 25-30 

V. Committees, Rules 31-37 
VI. Handling Bills, Rules 38-59 
VII. Legislative Officers and Employees, 

Rules 60-65 
VIII. General Rules, Rules 66-77 

I. Order of Business 

RULE 1. Rules controlling the Senate of North Carolina and its Committees. — The 
following rules shall govern and control all actions and procedures of the Senate and its 
committees. 

RULE 2. Convening hour. — The President shall take the Chair at the hour fixed by 
the Senate upon adjournment on the preceding legislative day, and shall call the mem- 
bers to order. In case the Senate adjourned on the preceding legislative day without hav- 
ing fixed the hour of reconvening, the Senate shall reconvene on the next legislative day 
at 1:00 p.m. 

RULE 3. Opening the session. — The President shall, upon order being obtained, 
have the sessions of the Senate opened with prayer. 

RULE 4. Convening in absence of President. — In the absence of the President, the 
President Pro Tempore shall reconvene the Senate and preside, and during such time 
shall be vested with all powers of the President except that of casting a vote in case of tie 
when he has already voted on the question as a Senator. In the event of the absence of 
the President and President Pro Tempore at any time fixed for the reconvening of the 
Senate, the Principal Clerk of the Senate, or in his absence also, some member of the 
Senate Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate, shall call the Senate to order 
and designate some member to act as President. 

RULE 5. Quorum. — (a) A quorum consists of a majority of all the qualified mem- 
bers of the Senate. 

(b) When a lesser number than a quorum convene, the Senators present may send the 
doorkeeper or any person, for any or all absent Senators, as a majority of the Senators 
present determine. 

RULE 6. Approval of Journal. — After the prayer, and upon appearance of a quo- 
rum, the President shall cause the Journal of the preceding day to be read and approved, 
unless the Chairman of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate or some 
member of the Senate by motion sustained by a majority of the members present, has 
the reading thereof dispensed with and the same approved as written. 



254 North Carolina Manual 



RULE 7. Order of Business. -- After approval of the journal, the order of business 
shall be as follows: 

(1) Reports of standing committees. 

(2) Reports of select committees. 

(3) Introduction of bills, petitions, and resolutions. 

(4) Messages from the House of Representatives. 

(5) Unfinished business of preceding day. 

(6) Special orders. 

(7) General Orders: 

(a) Local bills in numerical order, Senate bills first 
(i) Third reading roll call and electronic 

voting system votes 
(ii) Second reading roll call and electronic 

voting system votes 
(iii) Second reading viva voce 
(iv) Third reading viva voce 

(b) Public bills in numerical order, Senate bills first 
(i) Third reading roll call and electronic 

voting system votes 
(ii) Second reading roll call and electronic 

voting system votes 
(iii) Second reading viva voce 
(iv) Third reading viva voce 

II. Conduct of Debate 

RULE 8. President to maintain order. — The President shall have general direction of 
the Hall of the Senate and shall be authorized to take such action as is necessary to 
maintain order, and in case of any disturbance or disorderly conduct in the galleries or 
lobbies, he shall have the power to order those areas cleared. 

RULE 9. Substitution for President. — The President shall have the right to call on 
any member to perform the duties of the Chair, but substitution shall not extend be- 
yond one day. 

RULE 10. Points of order. — (a) The President shall preserve order and decorum and 
proceed with the business of the Senate according to the rules adopted. He shall decide 
all questions of order, subject to an appeal to the Senate by any member, on which ap- 
peal no member shall speak more than once unless by leave of the Senate. A two-thirds 
vote of the membership of the Senate is necessary to sustain any appeal from the ruling 
of the Chair. 

(b) In the event the Senate Rules do not provide for, or cover any point of order 
raised by any Senator, the rules of the United States House of Representatives shall 
govern. 

(c) When a Senator is called to order he shall take his seat until the President de- 
termines whether he was in order or not; if decided to be out of order, he shall not pro- 
ceed without the permission of the Senate; and every question of order shall be decided 



The Legislative Branch 255 



by the President, subject to an appeal to the Senate by any Senator; and if a Senator is 
called to order for words spoken, the words excepted to shall be immediately taken 
down in writing, that the President or Senate may be better able to judge the matter. 

RULE 1 1. Debating and voting by Lieutenant Governor. — The Lieutenant Governor, 
as President of the Senate, being a Constitutional Officer shall not have the right to de- 
bate any question or to address the Senate upon any proposition unless by permission 
of the majority of members present, and shall have the right to vote only when there is a 
tie vote upon any question or election. 

RULE 12. Obtaining recognition. — (a) When any Senator is about to speak in debate 
or deliver any matter to the Senate, he shall rise from his seat and respectfully address 
the President. No member shall speak further until recognized by the President, and 
when two or more members rise at the same time, the President shall name the member 
to speak. 

(b) A Senator who has the floor may yield the floor to another Senator only. for the 
purpose of allowing another Senator to state a question. Only the Chair may award the 
floor to any Senator for the purposes of allowing that Senator to engage in general de- 
bate. 

(c) A senator who has obtained the floor may be interrupted only for the following 
reasons: 

1. a request that the member speaking yield for a question, 

2. a point of order, or 

3. a parliamentary inquiry. 

RULE 1 3. Recognition for extending courtesies. — (a) Courtesies of the floor and gal- 
leries shall be extended only by the President on his own motion or upon the written re- 
quest of a member of the Senate to former members of the General Assembly or to dis- 
tinguished visitors. 

(b) Members may designate Honorary Pages by a statement delivered to the Principal 
Clerk who will have a certificate issued therefor. 

(c) The President may upon written request at intervals between various orders of 
business extend courtesies to schools or other special large groups visiting in the gal- 
leries while they are present, and the President shall, at such times as he deems ap- 
propriate, express to those visitors in the galleries the pleasure of the Senate for their 
presence. 

RULE 14. Limitations on individual debate. — (a) No Senator shall speak on the same 
day more than twice on the main question, nor longer than thirty minutes for the first 
speech and fifteen minutes for the second speech. No senator shall speak on the same 
day more than once on an amendment or a motion to reconsider, commit, appeal or 
postpone, and then no longer than ten minutes. The Senate may, by consent of a majori- 
ty of the senators present, suspend the operation of this subsection of this rule during 
any debate on any particular question. 

(b) By permission of the President any member of the Senate may address the Senate 
from the lectern located on the floor before the dais for the purpose of explaining a bill 
or resolution, stating a point of personal privilege or for the purpose of debate. 



256 North Carolina Manual 



RULE 15. Priority of business. — All questions relating to priority of business shall 
be decided without debate. 

RULE 16. Reading of papers. — When the reading of a paper, other than a petition, is 
called for, and any Senator objects to the reading, the question shall be determined by 
the Senate without debate. 

RULE 17. General decorum. — (a) Male Senators and male visitors shall uncover 
their heads upon entering the Senate Chamber while the Senate is in session and shall 
continue uncovered during their continuance in the Chamber, unless one's religion re- 
quires his head to be covered. 

(b) No remark reflecting personally upon the action of any Senator shall be in order 
upon the floor of the Senate unless preceded by a motion or resolution of censure. 

(c) When the President is putting a question, or a division by counting is in progress, 
no Senator shall walk out of or across the Chamber, nor when a Senator is speaking, 
pass between him and the President. 

(d) When a motion to adjourn or for recess is affirmatively determined, no member 
or officer shall leave his place until adjournment or recess is declared by the President. 

(e) Smoking shall not be allowed in the galleries of the Senate during sessions. 

(0 No remark soliciting the donation of funds for the support of any person or or- 
ganization shall be in order upon the floor of the Senate, unless the remark has some 
relevance to a bill or resolution before the body. 

III. Motions 

RULE 18. Motions generally. — All motions shall be reduced to writing, if desired by 
the President or a Senator, delivered at the table, and read by the President or Reading 
Clerk before the same are debated; but any motion may be withdrawn by the introducer 
at any time before decision or amendment. Except as otherwise specificially provided in 
these rules, no second is required. 

RULE 19. Motions; order of precedence. — When a question is before the Senate no 
motion shall be received except those herein specified, which motions shall have prece- 
dence as follows: 

(1) To adjourn. 

(2) To lay on the table. 

(3) For the previous question. 

(4) To postpone indefinitely. 

(5) To postpone to a certain day. 

(6) To commit to a standing committee. 

(7) To commit to a select committee. 

(8) To amend. 

(9) To substitute. 

RULE 20. Motions to adjourn and to lay on the table. — The motions to adjourn and 
to lay on the table shall be seconded and decided without debate, and the motion to ad- 
journ shall always be in order when made by a Senator entitled to the floor. 



The Legislative Branch 257 



RULE 21. Motions to postpone to certain day and to commit. - - The respective mo- 
tions to postpone to a certain day, or to commit to a standing or select committee, shall 
preclude debate on the main question. 

RULE 22. Action when previous question pending. -- When a motion for the previous 
question is made and is pending, debate shall cease. After a motion for the previous 
question is made, pending a second thereto, any member may give notice that he desires 
to offer an amendment to the bill or other matter under consideration; and after the pre- 
vious question is seconded such member shall be entitled to offer his amendment in pur- 
suance of such notice. 

RULE 23. Motion for previous question. — The previous question shall be as follows: 
"Shall the main question be now put?" and until it is decided shall preclude all amend- 
ments and debate. If this question is decided in the affirmative, the "main question" 
shall be on the passage of the bill, resolution, or other matter under consideration; but 
when amendments are pending, the question shall be taken upon such amendments in 
their inverse order, without further debate or amendment: Provided, that no one shall 
move the previous question except the chairman of the committee submitting the report 
on the bill or other matter under consideration, or the member introducing the bill or 
other matter under consideration or the member in charge of the measure, who shall be 
designated by the chairman of the committee reporting the same to the Senate at the 
time the bill or other matter under consideration is reported to the Senate or taken up 
for consideration. 

RULE 24. Motion to reconsider. — When a question has been once put and decided, 
any Senator who voted in the majority may move to reconsideration thereof; but no 
motion for the reconsideration of any vote shall be in order after the bill, resolution, 
message, report, amendment, or motion upon which the vote was taken has gone out of 
the possession of the Senate; nor shall any motion for reconsideration be in order unless 
made on the same day or in the next following legislative day on which the vote pro- 
posed to be reconsidered took place, unless the motion is made by the Committee on 
Rules and Operation of the Senate for verbal or grammatical errors in the bills, when 
the motion may be made at any time: Provided, that when the next legislative day has by 
motion of the Senate, been restricted as to matters which may be considered, a motion 
to reconsider shall be in order on the next succeeding day upon which regular business is 
conducted. No question shall be reconsidered more than once. 

IV. Voting 

RULE 25. Use of electronic voting system. -- (a) Votes on the following questions 
shall be taken on the electronic voting system, and the ayes and noes shall be recorded 
on the Journal: 

(1) All questions on which the Constitution of North Carolina requires that the ayes 
and noes be taken and recorded on the Journal. 

(2) All questions on which a call for the ayes and noes under Rule 26(b) has been sus- 
tained. 

(3) Both second and third readings of bills proposing amendment of the Constitution 
of North Carolina. 



258 North Carolina Manual 



(b) Votes on the following questions shall be taken on the electronic voting system, 
and a copy of the machine print-out of the votes shall be filed in the Legislative Library 
where it shall be open to public inspection: 

( 1 ) Second reading of all public bills, all amendments to public bills offered after sec- 
ond reading, third reading if a public bill was amended after second reading, and 
all conference reports on public bills. 

(2) Any other question upon direction of the Chair or upon motion of any Senator 
supported by one-fifth of the Senators present. 

(c) When the electronic voting system is used, the Chair shall fix and announce the 
time, not to exceed one minute, which shall be allowed for voting on the question before 
the Senate. The system shall be set to lock automatically and to record the vote when 
that time has expired. Once the system has locked and recorded a vote, the vote shall be 
printed by the system. 

(d) The voting station at each Senator's desk in the Chamber shall be used only by 
the Senator to which the station is assigned. Under no circumstances shall any other 
person vote at a Senator's station. It is a breach of the ethical obligation of a Senator 
either to request that another vote at the requesting Senator's station, or to vote at an- 
other Senator's station. The Chair shall enforce this rule without exception. 

(e) When the electronic voting system is used, the Chair shall state the question and 
shall then state substantially the following: "All in favor vote 'aye'; all opposed vote 

'no'; seconds will be allowed for voting on this question; the Clerk will unlock the 

machine." After the machine locks and records the vote, the Chair shall announce the 
vote and declare the result. 

(0 One copy of the machine print-out of the vote record shall be filed in the office of 
the Principal Clerk, and one copy shall be filed in the Legislative Library where it shall 
be open to public inspection. 

(g) When the Chair ascertains that the electronic voting system is inoperative before 
a vote is taken or while a vote is being taken on the electronic system, he shall announce 
that fact to the Senate and any partial electronic system voting record shall be voided. 
In such a case, if the Constitution of North Carolina or the Rules of the Senate require a 
call of the ayes and noes, the Clerk shall call the roll of the Senate, and the ayes and noes 
shall be taken manually and shall be recorded on the Journal. All other votes shall be 
taken by voice vote as prescribed in Senate Rule 26(a). If, after a vote is taken on the 
electronic system, it is discovered that a malfunction caused an error in the electronic 
system print-out, the Chair shall direct the Reading Clerk and the Principal Clerk to 
verify and correct the print-out record and so advise the Senate. 

(h) For the purpose of identifying motions on which the vote is taken on the elec- 
tronic system (the identification codes having no relation to the order of precedence of 
motions), the motions are coded as follows: 

1. To lay on the table. 

2. For the previous question. 

3. To postpone indefinitely. 

4. To postpone to a day certain. 

5. To refer to a committee. 

6. To reconsider. 



The Legislative Branch 259 



7. To adopt. 

8. To concur. 

9. To take from the table. 
10. Miscellaneous. 

RULE 26. Voice votes; call for ayes and noes. — (a) When the electronic voting system 
is not used, all votes on which a call of the roll of the Senate is not required shall be 
taken by voice vote. The question shall be put as follows: "Those in favor say 'aye'," 
and, after the affirmative vote is expressed, "Opposed 'no'"; after which the Chair shall 
announce the result. If a division on any vote is desired, it must be called for im- 
mediately before the result of the voting is announced on any question, and upon such 
call, the Chair shall require the members to stand and be counted for and against the 
proposition under consideration. 

(b) The ayes and the noes may be called for on any question before the vote is taken. 
If a Senator desires the ayes and noes recorded on the Journal on a question, he shall 
address the Chair and obtain recognition and say, "Upon that question I call for the 
ayes and noes." Whereupon the Chair shall say, "Is the call sustained?" If one-fifth of 
the Senators present then stand, the vote shall be taken on the electronic voting sytem if 
it is operative, and the ayes and noes shall be recorded on the Journal. If the electronic 
voting system is inoperative, the roll of the Senate shall be called and the ayes and noes 
taken manually and recorded on the Journal. If fewer than one-fifth of the Senators 
present stand to sustain the call, the Chair shall announce, "an insufficient number up" 
and a vote by electronic voting or by voice, whichever is appropriate under the Rules of 
the Senate, shall be taken. 

RULE 27. Pairs. — If a Senator is paired with another Senator on a question, the 
Senator shall announce the pair as follows: "Mr. President, I desire to announce a pair. 
If Senator were present, he would vote ; I would vote (the oppo- 
site)." The Senator shall send forward at that time a written statement of the pair on a 
form provided by the Principal Clerk and neither member of the pair shall vote on the 
question. A pair shall be announced before the vote is taken viva voce, or if the electronic 
voting system is used, before the machine is unlocked. The Clerk shall record the pair 
on the Journal when the Constitution or Rules of the Senate require a call of the roll 
and shall record on the electronic system print-out all pairs announced. 

RULE 28. Dividing question. — If any question contains several distinct propositions, 
it shall be divided by the President, at the request of any Senator, provided each subdivi- 
sion, if left to itself, forms a substantive proposition. 

RULE 29. Duty to vote; excuses. — (a) Every Senator who is within the bar of the 
Senate when the question is stated by the Chair shall vote thereon unless he is excused 
by the Senate. The bar of the Senate shall include the entire Senate Chamber. 

(b) Any Senator may request to be excused from voting, either immediately before or 
after the vote has been called for and before a viva voce vote result has been announced 
or before the electronic voting system has been unlocked. The Senator may make a brief 
statement of the reasons for making such request, and shall send forward to the Princi- 
pal Clerk, on a form provided by the Clerk, a concise statement of the reason for the re- 
quest, and the Clerk shall include this statement in the Journal. The question on grant- 
ing of the request shall be taken without debate. 



260 North Carolina Manual 



RULE 30. Explanation of vote. — Any Senator may explain his vote on any bill pend- 
ing by obtaining permission of the President after the final vote is taken: Provided, that 
not more than three minutes shall be consumed in such explanation. 

RULE 30.1. Questions of personal privilege. — Upon recognition by the President for 
that purpose, any Senator may speak to a question of personal privilege for a time not 
exceeding three minutes. Personal privilege may not be used to explain a vote or debate 
a bill. The President shall determine if the question raised is one of privilege and shall, 
without the point of order being raised, enforce this rule. 

V. Committees 

RULE 31. Appointment of Committees. — (a) The President of the Senate, unless he 
has by law disqualified himself from that office, shall have the exclusive right and au- 
thority to appoint all Committees, regular or select, and to appoint Committee Chair- 
men and Vice-Chairmen, but he may delegate said authority in any instance, as he may 
choose. Upon the recommendation of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the 
Senate, the Senate may authorize, by majority vote of the Senators present and voting, a 
change in the number of standing committees. 

(b) The President of the Senate shall appoint all standing committees at the begin- 
ning of the session. 

RULE 32. List of Standing Committees. — The standing committees shall be: 

Agriculture 

Alcoholic Beverage Control 

Appropriations 

Appropriations Committee on Education 

Appropriations Committee on General Government 

Appropriations Committee on Human Resources 

Appropriations Committee on Justice and Public Safety 

Appropriations Committee on Natural 

and Economic Resources and Wildlife 
Banking 
Base Budget 

Constitutional Amendments 
Courts and Judicial Districts and Criminal Justice 
Economy 
Education 
Election Laws 
Finance 

Higher Education 
Human Resources 
Insurance 
Judiciary I 
Judiciary II 
Judiciary III 

Law Enforcement and Crime Control 
Local Government and Regional Affairs 



The Legislative Branch 261 



Manufacturing, Labor and Commerce 

Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife 

Pensions and Retirement 

Public Utilities and Energy 

Redistricting — Congressional 

Redistricting — Senate 

Rules and Operation of the Senate 

Senior Citizens Affairs 

Small Business 

State Government 

Transportation 

University Board of Governors 

Veterans and Military Affairs 

Ways and Means 

RULE 33. Notice of committee meetings. — (a) Public notice of all committee meet- 
ings shall be given in the Senate. The required notice may be waived as to any meeting 
by the attendance at that meeting of all of the members of the committee, or by personal 
waiver. 

(b) The chairman of the committee shall notify or cause to be notified the sponsor of 
each bill which is set for hearing or consideration before the committee as to the date, 
time and place of that meeting. 

RULE 34. Membership of committees; quorum. — Membership on standing com- 
mittees shall consist of not more than 22 or less than 8 Senators, including the Chair- 
man and Vice-Chairman who shall be designated by the President; provided, the com- 
mittee membership on the Appropriations Committee, Finance Committee, and Ways 
and Means Committee shall not be limited as to membership but shall be left to the dis- 
cretion of the President. No Senator shall hold membership on more than 12 standing 
committees unless the Rules and Operation of the Senate Committee provides other- 
wise. A quorum of the Appropriations, Finance, or Ways and Means Committee shall 
consist of a majority of the committee. A quorum of any other committee shall consist 
of either the chairman and five members or a majority of the committee, whichever is 
fewer. 

RULE 35. (Reserved for future use.) 

RULE 36. Committee meetings. — No committee or subcommittee shall hold a se- 
cret meeting, and all meetings of committees and subcommittees shall be open to the 
public: Provided, that any committee or subcommittee has the inherent right to hold an 
executive session when it determines that it is absolutely necessary to have such a ses- 
sion in order to prevent personal embarrassment, or when it is in the best interest of the 
State; and in no event shall final action be taken by any committee or subcommittee ex- 
cept in open session. 

RULE 36. 1 . Committee minutes to Legislative Library. — The chairman of a commit- 
tee shall insure that written minutes are compiled for each of the committee's meetings. 
The minutes shall indicate the number of members present and the actions taken by the 
committee at the meeting. Not later than 20 days after the adjournment of each session 



262 North Carolina Manual 



of the General Assembly, the chairman, except the chairman of the Appropriations, Fi- 
nance, or Ways and Means Committee, shall deliver the minutes to the Legislative Li- 
brary. The President Pro Tempore of the Senate may grant a reasonable extension of 
time for filing said minutes upon application of the committee chairman. 

RULE 37. (Reserved for interim operations rule.) 

VI. Handling Bills 

RULE 38. Construction of rules. — All provisions of these rules applying to bills shall 
apply also to resolutions, memorials and petitions. 

RULE 39. Form and copies of bills. — (a) Unless variation is authorized by the Com- 
mittee on Rules and Operation of the Senate, bills submitted for introduction shall be in 
a computer-typed form prepared by the Legislative Services Office. When a bill which is 
introduced is not in the prescribed form, the Principal Clerk shall cause the bill to be re- 
typed in the prescribed form, and the retyped copy shall become the official copy of the 
bill for all purposes. The original bill shall then be returned to the introducer of the bill 
and shall not become a part of the records or documents of the Senate. 

(b) Whenever a bill is introduced, 20 copies shall be submitted to the Principal Clerk. 
Any bill submitted without the required number of copies shall be immediately returned 
to the introducer. 

RULE 39. 1 . Public and local bills; availability of copies of bills. — A public bill is a bill 
affecting 15 or more counties. A local bill is one affecting fewer than 15 counties. No 
public bill and, upon objection by a member, no local bill may be considered unless 
copies of the bill have been made available to the entire membership of the Senate. 

RULE 40. Introduction of bills. — (a) Every bill filed for introduction shall contain on 
the outside cover the title of the document and the name of the Senator or Senators pre- 
senting it. Bills shall be delivered by the primary sponsor of the document or with the 
prescribed authorization form signed by the primary sponsor to the office of the Senate 
Principal Clerk who shall receive them during regular session according to the following 
schedule: 

Monday until 8:30 o'clock P.M.; 

Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday until 4:00 o'clock 

P.M.; 
Friday until 3:00 o'clock P.M. 

All bills shall be numbered by the Office of the Principal Clerk when filed and shall be 
considered introduced when presented to the Senate on the next following legislative 
day for the first reading and reference to committee. 

(b) Filing of bills during the interim shall be under the direction of the Rules and 
Operation of the Senate Committee as approved by the Senate. 

(c) All celebration, commendation, and commemoration resolutions, except those 
honoring the memory of deceased persons, shall be excluded from introduction in the 
Senate if the House has a substantially similar rule on these resolutions. 

RULE 41. Deadline on introduction of certain bills. — All bills prepared to be intro- 
duced by departments, agencies or institutions of the State must be introduced in the 



The Legislative Branch 263 



Senate not later than April 1 of the session. All local bills must be introduced not later 
than March 9 of the session. All resolutions, except those honoring the memory of de- 
ceased persons, must be introduced not later than April 1 of the session. 

RULE 41.1. Relationship between Ways and Means Committee and other committees 
dealing with money matters; relationship between these other committees dealing with 
money matters. — The Committee on Ways and Means shall have responsibility for 
final consideration of bills dealing with money matters before the bills are considered on 
the floor of the Senate. All bills referred by the President to the Committee on Appro- 
priations, the Committee on Finance, and the Committee on Economy shall be referred 
by the chairman of the respective committee to the Committee on Ways and Means for 
consideration before the bills go to the floor of the Senate, except that bills referred to 
the Appropriations or Finance Committees may be reported directly back to the floor 
with the agreement of the Chairmen of the Ways and Means, Appropriations, and Fi- 
nance Committees. Bills referred to the Committee on Appropriations by the President 
may be referred by the Chairman of the Committee on Appropriations to the Appropri- 
ations Committee on Human Resources, Appropriations Committee on Education, 
Appropriations Committee on General Government, Appropriations Committee on 
Justice and Public Safety, Appropriations Committee on Natural and Economic Re- 
sources and Wildlife, or the Committee on Base Budget for a report back to the Com- 
mittee on Appropriations. 

RULE 42. References of appropriations and finance bills. — All bills introduced in the 
Senate providing for appropriations from the State, or any subdivision thereof, shall, 
before being considered by the Senate, be referred to the Committee on Appropriations, 
and bills referred to other committees carrying any such provisions shall be reported to 
the Senate as being bills to be referred to the Appropriations Committee before proper 
action may be taken by the Senate. All bills introduced in the Senate providing for bond 
issues, levying taxes, or in any manner affecting the taxing power of the State or any 
subdivision thereof, shall, before being considered by the Senate, be referred to the 
Committee on Finance, and bills referred to other committees carrying any such pro- 
visions shall be reported to the Senate as being bills to be referred to the Finance Com- 
mittee before proper action may be taken by the Senate. 

RULE 42.1. Fiscal notes. — (a) The Chairman or Vice-Chairman of the Appropria- 
tions Committee, of the Finance Committee or of the Rules Committee, or of the Ways 
and Means Committee, upon the floor of the Senate, may request that a fiscal analysis 
be made of a bill, resolution or an amendment to a bill or resolution which is in the pos- 
session of the Senate and that a fiscal note be attached to the measure, when in the opin- 
ion of that Chairman or Vice-Chairman the fiscal effects of that measure are not ap- 
parent from the language of the measure. 

(b) The fiscal note shall be filed and attached to the bill or amendment within two leg- 
islative days of the request. If it is impossible to prepare a fiscal note within two legisla- 
tive days, the Director of Fiscal Research shall, in writing, so advise the Presiding Of- 
ficer, the Principal Clerk, and the member introducing or proposing the measure and 
shall indicate the time when the fiscal note will be ready. 

(c) The fiscal note shall be prepared by the Fiscal Research Division on a form ap- 
proved by the Rules Committee as to content and form and signed by the staff member 



264 North Carolina Manual 



or members preparing it. If no estimate in dollars is possible, the fiscal note shall indi- 
cate the reasons that no estimate is provided. The fiscal note shall not comment on the 
merit but may identify technical problems. The Fiscal Research Division shall make the 
fiscal note available to the membership of the Senate. 

(d) A sponsor of a bill or amendment may deliver a copy of his bill or amendment to 
the Fiscal Research Division for the preparation of a fiscal note. Prior to the filing of 
the bill or proposing of the amendment, the Fiscal Research Division, except to the 
sponsor, shall keep in confidence the identity of the sponsor. The sponsor shall attach 
the fiscal note to the bill when he files the bill or to the amendment when he moves its 
adoption. 

(e) The sponsor of a bill or amendment to which a fiscal note is attached who objects 
to the estimates and information provided may reduce to writing his objections. These 
objections shall be appended to the fiscal note attached to the bill or amendment and to 
the copies of the fiscal note available to the membership. 

(f) Subsection (a) of this rule shall not apply to the current operations appropriations 
bill or the capital improvements appropriations bill. This rule shall not apply to a bill or 
amendment requiring an actuarial note under these rules. 

RULE 42.2. Actuarial notes. — (a) Every bill or resolution proposing any change in 
the law relative to any State-administered retirement or pension system shall have at- 
tached to it at the time of its consideration by any committee a brief explanatory state- 
ment or note which shall include a reliable estimate of the financial and actuarial effect 
of the proposed change to that retirement or pension system. The actuarial note shall be 
attached to the jacket of each proposed bill or resolution which is reported favorably by 
any committee, shall be separate therefrom, and shall be clearly designated as an actu- 
arial note. 

(b) The sponsor of the bill or resolution shall present a copy of the measure, with his 
request for an actuarial note, to the Fiscal Research Division which shall prepare the ac- 
tuarial note as promptly as possible but not later than two weeks after the request is 
made. Actuarial notes shall be prepared in the order of receipt of request and shall be 
transmitted to the sponsor of the measure. The actuarial note of the Fiscal Research 
Division shall be prepared and signed by an actuary. 

(c) The sponsor of the bill or resolution shall also present a copy of the measure to 
the chief administrative officer of the retirement or pension system affected by the meas- 
ure. The chief administrative officer shall have an actuarial note prepared by the sys- 
tem's actuary on the measure and shall transmit the note to the sponsor of the measure 
not later than two weeks after the request is received. The actuarial note shall be at- 
tached to the jacket of the measure. 

(d) The note shall be factual and shall, if possible, provide a reliable estimate of both 
the immediate effect and, if determinable, the long range fiscal and actuarial effect of 
the measure. If, after careful investigation, it is determined that no dollar estimate is 
possible, the note shall contain a statement to that effect, setting forth the reasons why 
no dollar estimate can be given. No comment or opinion shall be included in the actuar- 
ial note with regard to the merits of the measure for which the note is prepared. Techni- 
cal and mechanical defects in the measure may be noted. 



The Legislative Branch 265 



(e) When any committee reports a measure to which an actuarial note is attached at 
the time of committee consideration, with any amendment of such nature as would sub- 
stantially affect the cost to or the revenues of any retirement or pension system, the 
chairman of the committee reporting the measure shall obtain from the Fiscal Research 
Division an actuarial note of the fiscal and actuarial effect of the proposed amendment. 
The actuarial note shall be attached to the jacket of the measure. An amendment to any 
bill or resolution shall not be in order if the amendment affects the costs to or the reve- 
nues of a State-administered retirement or pension system, unless the amendment is ac- 
companied by an actuarial note, prepared by the Fiscal Research Division, as to the ac- 
tuarial effect of the amendment. 

(0 The Fiscal Research Division shall make all relevant actuarial notes available to 
the membership of the Senate. 

RULE 43. First reading; reference to committee. — All bills filed, upon presentation 
to the Senate, shall be read in regular order of business by their number and title which 
shall constitute the first reading of the bill and unless otherwise disposed of, the Presi- 
dent or Presiding Officer shall announce the referral of the document. The title and re- 
ferral shall be entered on the Journal. 

RULE 44. Bills to receive three readings. — Every bill shall receive three readings 
previous to being passed, and the President shall give notice at each whether it be the 
first, second, or third. After the first reading, unless a motion is made by some Senator, 
the President shall refer the bill to an appropriate committee. No bill shall be amended 
upon the floor of the Senate until it has been twice read. Senate simple resolutions shall 
not require three readings. 

RULE 45. Reports of committees. — Every Senator presenting a report of a commit- 
tee shall endorse the report with the name of the committee and, in case of a minority 
report, with the names of the members making the report. The report of the committee 
shall show that a majority of the committee were present and voted. Every report of the 
committee upon a bill or resolution shall stand upon the general orders with the bill or 
resolution. No committee shall report a bill or resolution without prejudice. 

RULE 45.1. Action on amendment before re-referral. — If any committee recom- 
mends adoption of an amendment or committee substitute of a bill which, under the 
rules of the Senate must be referred to the Committee on Appropriations or Committee 
on Finance, the amendment or committee substitute shall be considered and, if adopt- 
ed, the amendment or substitute engrossed before the bill is re-referred. 

RULE 46. Unfavorable report by committee. — (a) All bills reported unfavorably by 
the committee to which they were referred, and having no minority report, shall lie 
upon the table, but may be taken from the table, and placed upon the calendar by a two- 
thirds vote of the membership of the Senate. 

(b) When a bill is reported by a committee with an unfavorable report, but accom- 
panied by a minority report, signed by at least three members of the committee who 
were present and who voted on the bill when the bill was considered in committee, then 
the minority report shall be placed on the calendar and considered the following day, 
and the question before the Senate shall be "The adoption of the Minority Report". If 
the minority report is adopted by a majority vote, the bill shall be placed upon the cal- 
endar; if the minority report is not adopted, the bill shall lie upon the table. 



266 Nosth Carolina Manual 



RULE 47. Recall of bill from committee. — When a bill has been introduced and re- 
ferred to a committee, if after 10 days the committee has failed to report thereon, then 
the author of the bill may, after three days' public notice given in the Senate and deliv- 
ered in writing to the chairman of the committee, on motion supported by a vote of two- 
thirds of the membership of the Senate, recall the bill from the committee to the floor of 
the Senate for consideration and such action thereon as a majority of the Senators 
present may direct. This rule shall not be temporarily suspended without one day's no- 
tice on the motion given in the Senate and delivered in writing to the chairman of the 
committee and to sustain that motion two-thirds of the membership of the Senate shall 
be required. 

RULE 48. Calendar; order to be followed. — The President and the Principal Clerk of 
the Senate shall see that all bills are acted upon by the Senate in the order in which they 
stand upon the calendar, unless otherwise ordered as hereinafter provided. The publish- 
ed calendar shall include all bills reported favorably from committees, or reported with 
a minority report attached, or placed on the calendar on motion: Provided, that the pub- 
lished local calendar may carry the number of each bill, the county or counties referred 
to, and an abbreviated statement of the title of the bill. 

RULE 49. Considering bills out of regular order. — Except as provided in Rule 50, any 
bill or other matter may be taken up out of order upon order of the President or upon 
motion sustained by a majority of the membership of the Senate. 

RULE 50. Third reading requirements. — No bill on its third reading shall be acted 
upon out of the regular order in which it stands on the calendar, and no bill shall be act- 
ed upon on its third reading the same day on which it passed its second reading, unless 
so ordered by two-thirds of the membership of the Senate. 

RULE 5 1 . Special orders. — Any bill or other matter may be made a special order for 
a particular day or hour by a vote of the majority of the Senators voting, and if action 
on the bill is not completed on that day, it shall be returned to its place on the calendar, 
unless it is made a special order for another day; and when a special order is under con- 
sideration it shall take precedence over any special order or subsequent order for the 
day, but such subsequent order may be taken up immediately after the previous special 
order has been disposed of. 

RULE 52. Procedure when necessary number of Senators not present. — If, on taking 
the question on a bill, it appears that a constitutional quorum is not present, or if the 
bill requires a vote of a certain proportion of all the Senators to pass it, and it appears 
that such number is not present, the bill shall be again read and the question taken 
thereon; if the bill fails a second time for the want of the necessary number being present 
and voting, the bill shall not be finally lost, but shall be returned to the calendar in its 
proper order. 

RULE 53. Effect of defeated bill. — (a) After a bill has been tabled, has failed to pass 
on any of its readings, or has been placed on the unfavorable calendar, the contents of 
such bill or the principal provisions of its subject matter shall not be embodied in any 
other measure. Upon the point of order being raised and sustained by the Chair, such 
measure shall be laid upon the table, and shall not be taken therefrom except by a vote 
of two-thirds of the qualified membership of the Senate: Provided, no local bill shall be 



The Legislative Branch 267 

held by the Chair as embodying the provisions, or being identical with any statewide 
measure which has been laid upon the table or failed to pass any of its readings. 

(b) When a bill has been postponed indefinitely by the Senate, the bill shall lie upon 
the table, and shall not be taken therefrom except by a vote of two-thirds of the mem- 
bership of the Senate. 

RULE 54. Taking bill from table. — No bill which has been laid upon the table shall 
be taken therefrom except by a vote of two-thirds of the Senators present. 

RULE 54.1. Bill title. — The title of each bill shall adequately and fairly reflect its 
subject matter. 

RULE 55. Amending titles of bills. — When a bill is materially modified or the scope 
of its application extended or decreased, or if the county, or counties, to which it applies 
is changed, the title of the bill shall be changed by the Senator introducing the bill or by 
the committee having it in charge, or by the Principal Clerk, so as to indicate the full 
purport of the bill as amended and the county or counties to which it applies. 

RULE 56. Corrections of typographical errors in bills. — The Enrolling Clerk is au- 
thorized to make corrections of typographical errors in the text of bills at any time prior 
to ratification. Before the correction is made, the Enrolling Clerk shall have the approv- 
al of the Chairman of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate. 

RULE 57. Conference committees. — Whenever the Senate declines or refuses to con- 
cur in amendments put by the House to a bill originating in the Senate, or refuses to 
adopt a substitute adopted by the House for a bill originating in the Senate, a confer- 
ence committee shall be appointed upon motion and the bill under consideration shall 
thereupon go to and be considered by the joint conferees on the part of the Senate and 
House. In considering matters in difference between the Senate and House committed 
to the conferees, only such matters as are in difference between the two houses shall be 
considered by the conferees, and the conference report shall deal only with such mat- 
ters. The conference report shall not be amended. Except as herein set out, the rules of 
the United States House of Representatives shall govern the appointment, conduct, and 
reports of the conferees. 

RULE 57. 1 . Amendments and committee substitutes adopted by the House to bills origi- 
nating in the Senate. — (a) Whenever the House has adopted an amendment or a com- 
mittee substitute for a bill originating in the Senate, and has returned the bill to the Sen- 
ate for concurrence in that amendment or committee substitute, the Senate may not 
concur in that amendment or committee substitute until the next legislative day follow- 
ing the day on which the Senate receives that measure. 

(b) The Presiding Officer may, and upon motion supported by a majority of the Sen- 
ate present and voting, shall refer the bill to an appropriate committee for consideration 
of the amendment or committee substitute. 

(c) The Presiding Officer shall, in placing the bill on the calendar, rule whether the 
amendment or committee substitute is a material amendment under Article II, Section 
23, of the State's Constitution. If the measure was referred to committee, the committee 
shall: 

(i.) report the bill with the recommendation either that the Senate concur or that 
the Senate do not concur: and 



L 



268 North Carolina Manual 



(ii.) advise the presiding officer as to whether or not the amendment or commit- 
tee substitute is a material amendment under Article II, Section 23, of the 
State's Constitution. 

(d) If the amendment or committee substitute for a bill is not a material amendment, 
the question before the Senate shall be concurrence. 

(e) If the amendment or committee substitute for a bill is a material amendment, the 
receiving of that bill on messages shall constitute first reading and the question before 
the house shall be concurrence on second reading. If the motion is passed, the question 
then shall be concurrence on third reading on the next legislative day. 

(f) No committee substitute adopted by the House to a bill originating in the Senate 
may be amended by the Senate. 

RULE 58. Certification of passage of bills. — The Principal Clerk shall certify the pas- 
sage of bills by the Senate, with the date thereof, together with the fact whether passed 
by vote of three-fifths or two-thirds of the Senate, whenever such vote may be required 
by the Constitution or laws of the State. 

RULE 59. Transmittal of bills to House. — No bill shall be sent from the Senate on 
the day of its passage except on the last day of the session, unless otherwise ordered by a 
vote of two-thirds of the membership of the Senate. 

RULE 59.1. Engrossment. — Bills and resolutions, except those making appropria- 
tions, which originate in the Senate and which are amended shall be engrossed before 
being sent to the House. 

VII. Legislative Officers and Employees 

RULE 60. Pages. — The President of the Senate shall appoint pages. The President, 
or such person as he may designate, shall supervise the pages and assign to them their 
duties. Each page shall be at least 14 years of age. 

RULE 61. Sergeants-at-A rms. - - (a) There shall be 14 positions of Assistant Ser- 
geants-at-Arms to be appointed by the Sergeant-at-Arms who are to work under his 
supervision and to be assigned such duties and powers as he shall direct. 

(b) The Sergeant-at-Arms shall be responsible for the safety of the members and em- 
ployees of the Senate while in the Senate Chamber, or any place in which the Senate or 
its committees are in session. 

(c) The Sergeant-at-Arms shall serve all warrants and subpoenas issued by orders of 
the Senate and signed by the President of the Senate, and said warrants and subpoenas 
shall be returnable to the Principal Clerk of the Senate. 

RULE 62. Principal Clerk's staff. — The Principal Clerk of the Senate shall employ 
all necessary employees and clerks required to carry out the duties of his office. The 
Principal Clerk shall have supervision and control, and shall assign such duties and 
powers as he shall direct to his employees and clerks. 

RULE 63. Committee Clerks and Secretaries. — (a) Each committee shall have a 
clerk. The clerk to a committee shall serve as secretary to the chairman of that commit- 
tee. 

(b) Each member shall be assigned a secretary, unless he has a committee clerk to 
serve as his secretary. 



The Legislative Branch 269 



(c) The selection and retention of clerks and secretaries shall be the prerogative of the 
individual members subject to the approval of the President of the Senate. 

RULE 64. Senate Journal. -- The Principal Clerk shall prepare and be responsible for 
the Journal. The Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate shall examine the 
Journal to determine if the proceedings of the previous day have been correctly rec- 
orded. 

RULE 65. (Reserved for future addition to rules.) 

VIII. General Rules 

RULE 66. President to sign papers. — All acts, addresses and resolutions, and all war- 
rants and subpoenas issued by order of the Senate shall be signed by the President. 

RULE 67. Admission to the floor of the Senate. - No person except members of the 
Senate, members of the House of Representatives, staff of the General Assembly; 
Judges of the Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, and Superior Courts; the Governor 
and members of the Council of State; former members of the General Assembly; and 
persons particularly invited and extended the privileges of the floor by the President 
shall be admitted to the floor of the Senate during its session. No registered lobbyist 
shall be admitted to the floor of the Senate or Senate Chamber while the Senate is in ses- 
sion. 

RULE 68. Privileges of the floor. — Any group or individual other than members of 
the Senate who desires to make remarks upon the floor of the Senate will first obtain ap- 
proval of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate. 

RULE 69. News media. — The President is authorized to assign area and equipment 
on the floor of the Senate for the use of the representatives of news media; and the Presi- 
dent shall provide regulations for the operation of the representatives of the news media 
on the floor of the Senate. 

RULE 70. Absence without leave. — No Senator or officer of the Senate shall depart 
the service of the Senate without leave, or receive pay as a Senator or officer for the time 
he is absent without leave. 

RULE 7 1 . Placing material on Senators' desks. — Any person other than a member of 
the Senate desiring to place articles of any kind on or about desks in the Senate Cham- 
ber or in the offices of the members of the Senate shall make written application to, and 
obtain written approval from the Principal Clerk. 

RULE 72. Assignment of offices. — The Chairman of the Committee on Rules and 
Operation of the Senate, subject to the approval of the Committee, is authorized to 
make assignments of committee rooms and offices to designated committees, chairmen, 
and members of the Senate. The office adjacent to any committee room assigned to a 
principal committee by the Chairman of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the 
Senate, subject to the approval of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate, 
shall be automatically assigned to the chairman of the principal committee. In making 
such assignments of individual offices, the said Rules Committee Chairman shall give 
preferential consideration to the respective members according to the length of service 
which each member has rendered in the General Assembly prior to the 1981 session and 
in the Senate thereafter. 



270 North Carolina Manual 



RULE 73. Administrative rules and regulations involving Senate employees. — All ad- 
ministrative rules, regulations and orders involving all individuals employed to perform 
duties for the Senate, other than those appointed by the Principal Clerk and the Ser- 
geant-at-Arms, shall be first approved by the Committee on Rules and Operation of the 
Senate. 

RULE 74. Notice of public hearings. — Notice shall be given not less than five calen- 
dar days prior to public hearings. Such notices shall be issued as information for the 
press and the information shall be posted in the places designated by the Principal 
Clerk. 

RULE 75. Public hearings, filing of written statements. — Persons desiring to appear 
and be heard at a public hearing are encouraged to file with the chairman of the com- 
mittee a brief or a written statement of the remarks to be made at least 24 hours before 
the time of the hearing. 

RULE 76. Voting in joint sessions. - - When any Senate Committee sits jointly with 
the House Committee, the Senate Committee reserves the right to vote separately from 
the House Committee. 

RULE 77. Alterations, suspension or rescission of rules. — (a) These rules may not be 
permanently rescinded or altered except by Senate simple resolution passed by a two- 
thirds vote of the membership of the Senate. The introducer of the resolution must, on 
the floor of the Senate, give notice of his intent to introduce the resolution on the legis- 
lative day preceding its introduction. 

(b) Except as otherwise provided herein, the Senate, upon two-thirds vote of the 
membership of the Senate, may temporarily suspend any of these rules. 
Sec. 2. This resolution is effective upon its adoption. 



The Legislative Branch 



271 




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CLERKS 



SPEAKER 



CLERKS 



The Legislative Branch 273 

1981 NORTH CAROLINA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Officers 

Speaker Liston B. Ramsey 

Speaker Pro Tem Allen C. Barbee 

Minority Leader Harold J. Brubaker 

Principal Clerk Grace Collins 

Reading Clerk Sam J. Burrow, Jr. 

Sergeant-at-Arms Larry P. Eagles 

Representatives 

Name* County Dist. Address Seat 

Adams, Allen Wake 15th Raleigh 81 

Allran, Austin M. (R) Catawba 37th Hickory 116 

Almond, P. Ellis (R) Stanly 32nd Albemarle 110 

Anderson, Gerald Craven 3rd New Bern 57 

Barbee, Allen C Nash 7th Spring Hope 20 

Barker, Chris S., Jr Craven 3rd New Bern 1 

Barnes, Richard Forsyth 29th Winston-Salem 90 

Beam, Sam Gaston 38th Cherryville 71 

Beard, R. D Cumberland 20th Fayetteville 29 

Bell, E. Graham Gaston 38th Gastonia 59 

Black, Jim Mecklenburg 36th Charlotte 41 

Blue, Daniel T., Jr Wake 15th Raleigh 80 

Bone, Roger W Nash 7th Rocky Mount 21 

Brannon, George W. 1 Johnston 14th Smithfield 91 

Brawley, C. Robert (R) Iredell 35th Mooresville 100 

Brennan, Louise S Mecklenburg 36th Charlotte 16 

Brown, John Walter (R) Wilkes 34th Elkin 1 1 1 

Brubaker, Harold J. (R) Randolph 24th Asheboro 117 

Bumgardner, David W Gaston 38th Belmont 58 

Bundy, Sam D Pitt 8th Farmville 3 

Burnley, Dorothy R. (R) Guilford 23rd High Point 98 

Chapin, Howard B Beaufort 2nd Washington 50 

Church, John T Vance 13th Henderson 22 

Clark, Douglas A Duplin 10th Kenansville 47 

Clark, William E Cumberland 20th Fayetteville 44 

Coble, J. Howard (R) Guilford 23rd Greensboro 97 

Cochrane, Betsy L. (R) Davie 30th Advance 104 

Colton, Marie W Buncombe 43rd Asheville 51 

Cook, Ruth E Wake 15th Raleigh 82 

Craven, James M. (R) Moore 25th Pinebluff 101 

Crawford, Narvel J., Jr Buncombe 43rd Asheville 63 

Creecy, C. Melvin Northampton 5th Rich Square 68 

Diamont, David Hunter Surry 28th Pilot Mountain 93 

Easterling, Ruth M Mecklenburg 36th Charlotte 15 

Economos, Gus Mecklenburg 36th Charlotte 28 

Edwards, Ralph P Guilford 23rd Greensboro 74 

Ellis, T. W., Jr Vance 13th Henderson 60 

Enloe, Jeff H Macon 45th Franklin 87 

Etheridge, Bobby R Harnett 18th Lillington 35 

Ethridge, Bruce Onslow 4th Swansboro 34 

Evans, Charles D Dare 1st Nags Head 84 

Fenner, Jeanne T Wilson 7th Wilson 32 

Foster, Jo Graham Mecklenburg 36th Charlotte 4 



'Democrat unless indicated otherwise 



274 North Carolina Manual 



Name* County Oist. Address Seat 

Fulcher, G. Malcolm. Jr Carteret 4th Atlantic Beach 1 1 

Fussell, Aaron E Wake 15th Raleigh 10 

Gay, William C Robeson 21st Lumberton 33 

Gardner, J. M. 2 Johnston 14th Smithfield 91 

Grady, Richard R Wayne 9th Seven Springs 96 

Gillam, John B., Ill Bertie 5th Windsor 67 

Greenwood, Gordon H Buncombe 43rd Black Mountain 64 

Guy, A. D Onslow 4th Jacksonville 42 

Hackney, Joe Orange 17th Chapel Hill 69 

Harrison, William D Martin 6th Williamston 76 

Haworth, Byron Guilford 23rd High Point 62 

Hayden, Margaret Alleghany 28th Sparta 94 

Hege, Joe H., Jr. (R) Davidson 30th Lexington 105 

Helms, H. Parks Mecklenburg 36th Charlotte 6 

Hiatt, William S. (R) Surry 28th Mount Airy 107 

Hightower, Foyle R., Jr Anson 26th Wadesboro 46 

Holmes, George M. (R) Yadkin 34th Hamptonville 1 19 

Holt, Bertha Alamance 22nd Burlington 66 

Holt, Charles Cumberland 20th Fayetteville 27 

Hughes, Charles H. (R) Henderson 42nd Hendersonville 108 

Hughes, James F. (R) Avery 39th Linville 1 13 

Hunt, John J Cleveland 40th Lattimore 23 

Hunt, Patricia Stanford Orange 17th Chapel Hill 70 

Hunter, Robert C McDowell 41st Marion 88 

Hunter, Thomas B Richmond 27th Rockingham 37 

Huskins, J. P Iredell 35th Statesville 14 

Hux, George A Halifax 6th Halifax 36 

James, Vernon G Pasquotank 1st Elizabeth City 24 

Jones, Robert A Rutherford 40th Forest City 55 

Jordan, John M Alamance 22nd Saxapahaw 53 

Kaplan, Ted Forsyth 29th Winston-Salem 89 

Keesee, Margaret P. (R) Guilford 23rd Greensboro 109 

Lacey, S. B., Jr. (R) Avery 39th Newland 1 12 

Lancaster, Martin Wayne 9th Goldsboro 95 

Ligon, Bradford V. (R) Rowan 31st Salisbury 102 

Lilley, Daniel T Lenoir 3rd Kinston 2 

Locklear, Horace Robeson 21st Lumberton 39 

Lutz, Edith Ledford Cleveland 40th Lawndale 12 

Mauney, D. R., Jr Gaston 38th Cherryville 56 

Mavretic, Josephus L Edgecombe 7th Tarboro 49 

McAlister, Robert L Rockingham 22nd Ruffin 65 

McDowell, Timothy H Alamance 22nd Mebane 54 

Messer, Ernest B Haywood 44th Canton 18 

Miller, George W., Jr Durham 16th Durham 43 

Morgan, James F Guilford 23rd High Point 73 

Musselwhite, Marvin D., Jr Wake 15th Raleigh 79 

Nash, Robie L Rowan 31st Salisbury 31 

Nesbitt, Martin L Buncombe 43rd Asheville 52 

Nye, Edd Bladen 19th Elizabethtown 25 

Parnell, David R Robeson 21st Parkton 40 

Payne, Harry E., Jr New Hanover 12th Wilmington 85 

Pegg, Mary N. 3 (R) Forsyth 29th Winston-Salem 118 

Plyler, Aaron W Union 33rd Monroe 19 

Poovey, J. Reid (R) Catawba 37th Hickory 1 15 

Pulley, Paul Durham 16th Durham 83 

Quinn, Dwight W Cabarrus 33rd Kannapolis 



The Legislative Branch 275 



Name* County Dist. Address Seat 

Rabon, Tom B., Jr Brunswick 1 1th Winnabow 13 

Radford, John M Johnston I4th Selma 92 

Ramsey, Liston B Madison 44th Marshall ** 

Redding, Frank (R) Randolph 24th Asheboro 1 14 

Rhodes, S. Thomas (R) New Hanover 12th Wilmington 72 

Robinson, George S. (R) Caldwell 34th Lenoir 99 

Seymour, Mary P Guilford 23rd Greensboro 61 

Smith, Ned R Forsyth 29th Winston-Salem 78 

Spaulding, Kenneth B Durham 16th Durham 45 

Spoon, Roy (R) Mecklenburg 36th Charlotte 103 

Stamey, Melvin L. (R) Davidson 30th Thomasville 106 

Tally, Lura S Cumberland 20th Fayetteville 30 

Taylor, Ron Bladen 19th Elizabethtown 38 

Tennille, Margaret Forsyth 29th Winston-Salem 77 

Thomas, Betty Dorton Cabarrus 33rd Concord 8 

Tison, Ben Mecklenburg 36th Charlotte 5 

Tyson, Henry M Cumberland 20th Fayetteville 17 

Warren, Ed N Pitt 8th Greenville 75 

Watkins, William T Granville 13th Oxford 48 

Wicker, Dennis A Lee 18th Sanford 86 

Woodard. Wilma C Wake 15th Garner 9 

Wright, Richard Columbus 19th Tabor City 26 



••Speaker 

'Brannon was appointed by Governor Hunt in 1981 to replace Gardner 

-Gardner died January 14. 1981, just a few short hours after taking the oath of office. 

'Pegg resigned, effective August 13, 1981 



276 North Carolina Manual 

SPEAKERS OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 
Lower House of the Colonial Assembly 

Assembly Representative Residence 

1666 George Catchmaid Albemarle 

1672 Valentine Bird [Pasquotank] 

1673 [Valentine Bird] [Pasquotank] 

1675 Thomas Eastchurch 

1677 Thomas Cullen [Chowan] 

1679 George Durant [Currituck] 

1689 John Nixon [Chowan] 

1697/98 John Porter [Bath] 

[1703] William Wilkison [Chowan] 

1707 Thomas Boyd 

1708 Edward Mosely [Chowan] 

1709 Richard Sanderson [Currituck] 

1711 William Swann [Currituck] 

1711 12 Thomas Snoden [Perquimans] 

1715 16 Edward Moseley [Chowan] 

1720 [Edward Moseley] [Chowan] 

1722 Edward Moseley [Chowan] 

1723 Edward Moseley [Chowan] 

1725-26 Maurice Moore [Perquimans] 

John Baptista Ashe Beaufort 

1727 [John Baptista Ashe] [Beaufort] 

1729 Thomas Swann [Pasquotank] 

1731 Edward Moseley Chowan 

1733 Edward Moseley Chowan 

1734 Edward Moseley Chowan 

1735 William Downing Tyrrell 

1736-37 William Downing Tyrrell 

1738-39 William Downing Tyrrell 

1739 40-1740 John Hodgson Chowan 

1741 John Hodgson Chowan 

1742 43-1744 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1744-45 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1746 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1746 47-1752 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1753-54 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1754-60 John Campbell Bertie 

Samuel Swann Onslow 

1760 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1761 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1762 Samuel Swann Onslow 

John Ashe New Hanover 

1764-65 John Ashe New Hanover 

1766-68 John Harvey Perquimans 

1769 John Harvey Perquimans 

1770-71 Richard Caswell Craven 

1773 John Harvey Perquimans 

1773-74 John Harvey Perquimans 

1775 John Harvey Perquimans 



The Legislative Branch 277 

House of Commons 

Assembly Representative Residence 

1777 Abner Nash Craven 

1778 John Williams Granville 

Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1779 Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1780 Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1781 Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1782 Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1783 Edward Starkey Onslow 

1784 (April) Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1784 (October) William Blount Craven 

1785 Richard Dobbs Spaight Craven 

1786-87 John B. Ashe Halifax 

1787 John Sitgreaves Craven 

1788 John Sitgreaves Craven 

1789 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1790 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1791-92 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1792-93 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1793-94 John Leigh Edgecombe 

1794-95 Timothy Bloodworth New Hanover 

1795 John Leigh Edgecombe 

1796 John Leigh Edgecombe 

1797 Musendine Matthews Iredell 

1798 Musendine Matthews Iredell 

1799 Musendine Matthews Iredell 

1800 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1801 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1802 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1803 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1804 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1805 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1806 John Moore Lincoln 

1807 Joshua Grainger Wright New Hanover 

1808 Joshua Grainger Wright New Hanover 

William Gaston Craven 

1809 Thomas Davis Cumberland 

1810 William Hawkins Granville 

1811 William Hawkins Granville 

1812 William Miller Warren 

1813 William Miller Warren 

1814 William Miller Warren 

1815 John Craig Orange 

1816 Thomas Ruffins Orange 

James Iredell Chowan 

1817 James Iredell, Jr Chowan 

1818 James Iredell, Jr Chowan 

1819 Romulus M. Saunders Caswell 

1820 Romulus M. Saunders Caswell 

1821 James Mebane Orange 

1822 John D. Jones New Hanover 

1823-24 Alfred Moore Brunswick 

1824-25 Alfred Moore Brunswick 

1825-26 John Stanly '. Craven 

1826-27 John Stanly Craven 

1827-28 James Iredell. Jr Chowan 



278 North Carolina Manual 



Assembly Representative Residence 

1828-29 Thomas Settle Rockingham 

1829-30 William J. Alexander Mecklenburg 

1830-31 Charles Fisher Rowan 

1831-32 Charles Fisher Rowan 

1832-33 Louis D. Henry Cumberland 

1833-34 William J. Alexander Mecklenburg 

1834-35 William J. Alexander Mecklenburg 

1835 William D. Haywood, Jr Wake 

1836-37 William H. Haywood, Jr Wake 

1838-39 William A. Graham Orange 

1840-41 William A. Graham Orange 

Robert B. Gilliam Granville 

1842-43 Clavin Graves Caswell 

1844-45 Edward Stanly Beauford 

1846-47 Edward Stanly Beauford 

Robert B. Gilliam Granville 

1848-49 Robert B. Gilliam Granville 

1850-51 James C. Dobbs Cumberland 

1852 John Baxter Henderson 

1854-55 Samuel P. Hill Caswell 

1856-57 Jesse G. Shepherd Cumberland 

1858-59 Thomas Settle, Jr Rockingham 

1860-61 William T. Dortch Wayne 

Nathan N. Fleming Rowan 

1862-64 Robert B. Gilliam Granville 

Richard S. Donnell Beaufort 

Marmaduke S. Robbins Randolph 

1864-65 Richard S. Donnel Beaufort 

1865-66 Samuel F. Phillips Orange 

1866-67 Rufus Y. McAden Alamance 



House of Representatives* 

1868 Joseph W. Holden Wake 

1869-70 Joseph W. Holden Wake 

1870 Thomas J. Jarvis Tyrrell 

1872 James L. Robinson Macon 

1874-75 James L. Robinson Macon 

1876-77 Charles Price Davie 

1879 John M. Moring Chatham 

1881 Charles M. Cooke Franklin 

1883 George M. Rose Cumberland 

1885 Thomas M. Holt Alamance 

1887 John R. Webster Rockingham 

1889 Augustus Leazar Iredell 

1891 Rufus A. Doughton Alleghany 

1893 Lee S. Overman Rowan 

1895 Zeb V. Walser Davidson 



♦With the adoption of a new State Constitution in 1868, the name "House of Commons" was 
changed to "House of Representatives." 



The Legislative Branch 279 



Assembly Representative Residence 

1897 A. F. Hileman Cabarrus 

1899-1900 Henry G. Connor Wilson 

1901 Walter E. Moore Jackson 

1903 S. M. Gattis Orange 

1905 Owen H. Guion Craven 

1907 E. J. Justice Guilford 

1909 A. W. Graham Granville 

1911 W. C. Dowd Mecklenburg 

1913 George Connor Wilson 

1915 Emmett R. Wooten Lenoir 

1917 Walter Murphy Rowan 

1919 Dennis G. Brummitt Granville 

1921 Harry P. Grier Iredell 

1923-24 John G. Dawson Lenoir 

1925 Edgar W. Pharr Mecklenburg 

1927 Richard T. Fountain Edgecombe 

1929 A. H. Graham Orange 

1931 Willis Smith Wake 

1933 R. L. Harris Person 

1935-36 Robert Johnson Pender 

1937 R. Gregg Cherry Gaston 

1939 D. L. Ward Craven 

1941 0. M. Mull Cleveland 

1943 John Kerr, Jr Warren 

1945 Oscar L. Richardson Union 

1947 Thomas J. Pearsall Nash 

1949 Kerr Craig Ramsay Rowan 

1951 W. Frank Taylor Wayne 

1953 Eugene T. Bost, Jr Cabarrus 

1955-56 Larry I. Moore, Jr Wilson 

1957 James K. Doughton Alleghany 

1959 Addison Hewlett New Hanover 

1961 Joseph M. Hunt, Jr Guilford 

1963 H. Clifton Blue Moore 

1965-66 H. Patrick Taylor, Jr Anson 

1967 David M. Britt Robeson 

1969 Earl W. Vaughn Rockingham 

1971 Philip P. Godwin Gates 

1973-74 James E. Ramsey Person 

1975-76 James C. Green Bladen 

1977-78 Carl J. Stewart, Jr Gaston 

1979-80 Carl J. Stewart, Jr Gaston 

1981-82 Liston B. Ramsey Madison 



280 



North Carolina Manual 




The Legislative Branch 281 

LISTON BRYAN RAMSEY 

SPEAKER, HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

(Democrat — Madison County) 

(Forty-fourth Representative District - Two Representatives) 
(Counties: Haywood, Jackson, Madison and Swain.) 

Early Years: Born in Marshall, February 26, 1919, to John Morgan and Delia Lee (Bryan) 

Ramsey. 

Education: Attended Mars Hill College, 1938. 

Occupation: Merchant (Retired). 

Organizations: Elk; Mason; American Legion, Former Commander; Veterans of Foreign Wars. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Advisory Budget Commission, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 
and 1979-80; Member, Legislative Services Commission, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, and 1981-82, 
Co-Chairman; Member, Legislative Research Commission, 1975-76; Member, Blue Ribbon 
Study Commission on Transportation, 1979-80. 

Political Activities: Served in the N.C. House of Representatives, 1961, 1963, 1967, 1969, 1971, 
1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981-82, (Speaker of the House); County Chairman, 
Democratic Executive Committee, 1958-60, 1962; Delegate to 1968 Democratic National Con- 
vention; Member, Board of Aldermen, Town of Marshall 1949-61; Chairman, Eleventh Con- 
gressional District Democratic Executive Committee, 1972, 1974, 1976, and 1980. 

Military Service: Served in Army Air Corps, Sergeant, 1944-46. 

Honors: Received 1st Annual Roy A. Taylor Service Award, 1978. 

Religious Activities: Baptist. 

Family: Married, Florence McDevitt; Child: Martha Louise Ramsey Geouge of Gulfport, Miss.; 
Resides in Marshall. 



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North Carolina Manual 




_ 



The Legislative Branch 283 

ALLEN CROMWELL BARBEE 

SPEAKER PRO TEM 

(Democrat — Nash County 

(Seventh Representative District - - Four Representatives) 
(Counties: Edgecombe, Nash and Wilson) 

Early Years: Born in Spring Hope, December 18, 1912, to John Lucian and Deborah Lena 
(Vester) Barbee. 

Education: Attended Spring Hope High School; University of North Carolina. 

Occupation: Farmer; Real Estate Broker; Developer; Hotel Operator. 

Organizations: Member, Elks; Mason; Shriner. 

Political Activities: Served in the N.C. House of Representatives, 1961, 1963, 1965-66, 1967, 1969, 
1971, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981; Served, Town Commissioner, Spring Hope, 1951- 
52; Mayor, Spring Hope, 1952-60. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Vice Chairman, Congressional Redistricting; Vice Chairman, 
Finance; Alcoholic Beverage Control; Elections Laws; Local Government I; Rules and Opera- 
tion of the House; State Government. 

Military Service: Served U.S. Air Force, Captain, June 18, 1942 - June 18, 1946; European 
Theater of Operations; Allied Airborne Invasion Medal, June 7, 1942. 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church; Official Board, 1946-76; Chairman, 1947-57. 

Family: Married, Mabel McClellan Dixon Barbee, March 7, 1942; Children: Rebecca Barnes 
Barbee, and Allen Cromwell, II; Resides at: 301 Branch St., Spring Hope, (27882). 



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North Carolina Manual 




jr 









The Legislative Branch 285 

HAROLD JAMES BRUBAKER 

MINORITY LEADER 

(Republican — Randolph County) 

(Twenty-fourth Representative District — Two Representatives) 

(County: Randolph) 

Early Years: Born in Mount Joy, Pennsylvania, November 11, 1946, to Paul N. and Verna Mae 
(Miller) Brubaker. 

Education: Graduated Pennsylvania State University, 1969-B.S., Agricultural Economics; NC 
State University, 1971, Masters of Economics. 

Occupation: President, Real Estate Appraising and Investment Consultant, Harold J. Brubaker & 
Associates (Real Estate Appraisals — Economic Feasibility Studies — Investment Analysis). 

Organizations: Former VP, National FFA; Randolph County Farm Bureau; Grange, North 
Carolina Holstein Association; 4-H Club Leader. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Randolph County Board of Elections; Chairman, Westside 
Volunteer Fire Department; Board of Directors Salvation Army; Board of Directors Ran- 
dolph Technical College Foundation; President, North Carolina 4-H Development Fund; For- 
mer Member, Board of Directors National Conference on Citizenship. 

Political Activities: Served, in House of Representatives, 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981; Chairman, 
Randolph County Young Republicans, 1971; Former Assistant Secretary North Carolina 
Republican Party; Member NC Republican Party Executive Committee; Member, NC 
Republican Party Central Committee; Member, Randolph County Republican Party Ex- 
ecutive Committee; Former member, Fourth District Republican Party Executive Committee; 
Co-Chairman, 1980 Regan-Bush Committee for NC; Member, Executive Committee National 
Association for Republican Legislators; Joint Caucus Leader Republican Members NC 
General Assembly, 1979-80; Delegate at Large to National Republican Convention, 1980; 
House Minority Leader, 1981-82. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Agriculture; Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base 
Budget Committee on Education; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expan- 
sion Budget Committee on Education; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Economy; Health; 
Manufacturers and Labor; Small Business. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Johns Lutheran Church; Chairman, Congregation and Vice- 
Chairman Board of Deacons. 

Family: Married, Geraldine (Baldwin) Brubaker, November, 1972; One Son: Jonathon Nissly 
Brubaker; Resides at: Route 3, Box 200, Asheboro, (27203). 



J 



286 North Carolina Manual 




ALLEN ADAMS 

(Democrat — Wake County) 

(Fifteenth Representative District — Six Representatives) 

(County: Wake) 



Early Years: Born in Greensboro, January 15, 1932, to Allen and Marion L. (Crawford) Adams. 

Education: Attended Phillips Exeter Academy, 1945-48; Cambridge High and Latin, 
Massachusetts, 1948; Boston University, 1948-49; University of NC, 1949-52, A.B., 1952 and 
J.D., 1954. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law. 

Organizations: Member, Wake County Bar Association; North Carolina Bar Association; 
American Bar Association; NC State Bar; NC Academy of Trial Lawyers; Naval Reserve 
Lawyers Association; Secretary, Wake County Bar, 1961; Member, Phi Delta Phi. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Wake County Public Library Board, 1970-74; Raleigh Civil 
Service Commission, 1972-75. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981; 
Member, Advisory Budget Commission, 1981; Chairman, Natural and Economic Resources 
Committee, 1979-80; Chairman, Wake County Democratic Party, 1968-72; President, Wake 
County Young Democrats Club, 1964; Delegate, Democratic National Convention, 1976; NC 
Energy Policy Council, 1978-. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Appropriations Base Budget; Vice Chairman, Judiciary 
III; Vice Chairman, Rules and Operation of the House; Appropriations Expansion Budget; 
Banks and Thrift Institutions; Election Laws; Employment Security; Manufacturers and 
Labor. 

Military Service: CDR U.S. Naval Reserve, JAG Corps; Commanding Officer, Naval Reserve 
VTU (Law) 0708, Raleigh. 

Honors: Outstanding Young Democrat, 1962; NC Law Review, 1953-54. 

Religious Activities: Member, Community United Church of Christ; Chairman, Finance Commit- 
tee, 1956-66; Chairman, Institute of Religion, 1963. 

Family: Married, Betty Blomgren Eichenberger, June 10, 1977; Children: Ann Adams Borden, 
Jefferson Hodges, and Spencer Allen; Stepchildren: Kurt, Peter, Tom, David, and John 
Eichenberger; Resides at: PO Box 389, Raleigh 27602; 224 Woodburn Road, Raleigh, 27605. 




AUSTIN MURPHY ALLRAN 

(Republican — Catawba County) 

(Thirty-seventh Representative District — Two Representatives) 

(County: Catawba) 



Early Years: Born in Hickory, Catawba County, December 13, 1951, to Albert M. and Mary 

Ethel (Houser) Allran. 
Education: Attended Hickory High School, 1967-70; Duke University, B.A., 1974; Southern 

Methodist University, School of Law, J.D., 1978. 



The Legislative Branch 287 



Occupation: Attorney at Law. 

Organizations: Member, N.C. Bar Association, Catawba County; Bar Association. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. House of Representatives, 1981; Worked in Congressman 
James T. Broyhill's office, Washington, Congressional Intern, 1973; Administration of Gover- 
nor James Holshouser, 1974. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Com- 
mittee on Human Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expansion 
Budget Committee on Human Resources; Corrections; Education; Energy; Judiciary II; Local 
Government II; Manufacturers and Labor. 

Literary Works: Author of "JOHN GODFREY ARENDS: A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH," 
(the pioneer Lutheran minister of Western NC). 

Religious Activities: Member, Corinth, United Church of Christ, Hickory. 
Family: Married, Judy Mosbach Allran, September 27, 1980; Resides at: 996 22nd St. Place, N.E., 
Hickory, (28601); Post Office Box 2087, Hickory, (28601). 



PEARSON ELLIS ALMOND 

(Republican — Stanly County) 
(Thirty-second Representative District — One Representative) 




(County: Stanly) 



Early Years: Born in Oakboro, Stanly County, April 20, 1926, to Sidney Fred and Ada 
(Honeycutt) Almond. 

Education: Attended Oakboro High School, 1931-42; Pfeiffer College, 1970-72; U.S. Department 

of Justice Training Academy, Washington, D.C., 1955, 1957, and 1962. 
Occupation: Retired U.S. Marshal. 

Organizations: Member, NC Law Enforcement Officers Association; U.S. Marshal's Association; 
National Law Enforcement Officers Association; Past Commander, D.A.V.; Member DAV 
VFW American Legion. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. House of Representatives, 1980 (Appointed to fill vacancy 
created by the death of H. Otha Carter) and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Com- 
mittee on General Government; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expansion 
Budget Committee on General Government; Corporations; Courts and Judicial Districts; 
Governmental Ethics; Highway Safety; Legislative Redistricting; State Personnel. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Navy, PN12C, November 20, 1944 - April 21, 1946. 

Religious Activities: Member, Salem Methodist; Member, Board of Stewards; Sunday School 
Teacher. 

Family: Married, Betty Hatley Almond, December 27, 1947; Children: Terry W., Marilyn D., 
Mark E., and Paula Ann; Resides at: Route 3, Box 670A, Albemarle. 



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North Carolina Manual 




GERALD L. ANDERSON 

(Democrat — Craven County) 

(Third Representative District - Three Representatives) 
(Counties: Craven, Jones, Lenoir and Pamlico) 



Early Years: Born in Craven County, June 29, 1939, to Noah L. and Hazel Rowe Anderson. 
Education: Graduate, New Bern High School, 1958; Deaver Realty Institute, 1974; Realtors In- 
stitute, Chapel Hill. 

Occupation: Logging and Real Estate; President, Gerald Anderson Logging Co., Inc.; President, 
Gerald Anderson Realty. 

Organizations: Civitan Club. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Directors, Craven County Committee of 100; Kinston Board of 
Realtors; Member, New Bern-Craven County Chamber of Commerce, Board of Directors. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. House of Representatives, 1980, (Appointed to fill the unex- 
pired term of Representative Joe L. Bright) and 1981; Craven County Commissioner, Decem- 
ber, 1978 - January 1980. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Agriculture; Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base 
Budget Committee on Education; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expan- 
sion Budget Committee on Education; Commercial Fishing; Economy: Natural and Economic 
Resources; Small Business; Water and Air Resources. 

Religious Activities: Member, Calvary Baptist Church, New Bern; Board of Deacons, 1971-74. 
Family: Married, Marie Stilley Anderson, January 25, 1959; Children: Teresa, Tina, Jerry, Lisa, 
and Josh; Resides at: PO Box 1546, 1400 Laurel Street, New Bern, (28560). 




CHRISTOPHER SYLVANUS BARKER, JR. 

(Democrat — Craven County) 

(Third Representative District — Three Representatives) 
(Counties: Craven, Jones, Pamlico and Lenoir) 



Early Years: Born in Trenton, September 7, 1911, to Dr. Christopher Sylvanus and Ruth Jane 
(Henderson) Barker (Both deceased). 

Education: Attended New Bern High School, 1928; United States Naval Academy, B.S., 1933. 

Occupation: Retired; Past Associate Professor of Naval Science, Princeton University, 1945-48; 
Professor of Naval Science, University of South Carolina, 1954-57; Registered Securities 
Representative, 1965-75. 

Organizations: Vice-President, New Bern USO, 1971-73; Member and past President, New Bern 
Civitan Club, 1964-65; Member and past President, Craven County Chapter for Retarded 
Citizens, 1965-66; Treasurer of Coastal Carolina Council, Navy League of the United States, 
1966-73; 32nd Mason; Shriner, Sojourner; Elk; Moose; American Legion; Veterans of Foreign 
Wars; New York Yacht Club; East Carolina Yacht Club. 



The Legislative Branch 289 



Boards and Commissions: Chairman of the Board of Directors, Craven Unit of the Neuse Develop- 
ment Association, 1964-66; Member, Mental Health Study Commission, 1973 — ; Member 
Commission on Mental Health and Mental Retardation, 1977 — ; Member, Legislative Research 
Commission, 1977-78 and 1979-80; Vice-Chairman, Commercial and Sports Fisheries Advisory 
Board, 1969-74; Chairman, Study Commission on the Use of Illegal and Harmful Drugs in the 
State of North Carolina Drug Authority, 1971-75. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 
1979-80, and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Mental Health; Vice Chairman, Finance; Vice Chair- 
man, Military and Veterans Affairs; Commercial Fishing; Congressional Redistricting; 
Governmental Ethics; Law Enforcement; Public Utilities. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Navy, 1928-1959, Rear Admiral; Awarded "Legion of Merit" and 
"Bronze Star" during World War II. 

Honors: New Bern Citizen of the Year, 1975; Outstanding Legislator 1980, Mental Health Area 
Boards Association; Mental Health Valand Award 1980. 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church; Official Board, 1963-66 and Administrative 
Board, 1972-75, 1978—. 

Family: Married, Jean Kouwenhoven, December 30, 1949; Children: Christopher Sylvanus III 
(married Janet Westover, 1976), Marie Anne (married Tommy Faulkenberry, 1979) and Gary 
Cornelius (married Elizabeth Madden, 1977); Resides at: 3911 Trent Pines Drive, New Bern, 
(28560). 



RICHARD WALTER BARNES 

(Democrat — Forsyth County) 

(Twenty-ninth Representative District - Five Representatives) 

(County: Forsyth) 



Early Years: Born in Newton, June 6, 1943, to William Miles and Elsie Irene (Galloway) Barnes. 

Education: Attended U.S. Air Force Institute, 1960-64. 

Occupation: Business Executive (Investments). 

Organizations: Member: Kiwanis, 32 Mason, Shriner, Eastern Star; American Legion, Elks. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1979-80 and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Corporations; Vice Chairman, Aging; Vice Chairman, 

Alcoholic Beverage Control; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Finance; Health; Insurance; 

Legislative Redistricting; Manufacturers and Labor. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Air Force, E-4, 1960-64. 

Religious Activities: Member, Lutheran Church. 

Family: Married, Carol Kowalko, May 24, 1970; Child: Kimberly Dawn; Resides at: 3810 Coral 
Lane, Winston-Salem. 




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North Carolina Manual 




SAMMY LEE BEAM 

(Democrat — Gaston County) 

(Thirty-eighth Representative District — Four Representatives) 
(Counties: Gaston and Lincoln) 



Early Years: Born in Homestead, Dade County, Florida, February 20, 1947, to Henry B., and 
Juanita Wehunt Beam; Moved to Lincoln County at age of one month and completed grammar 
school education in Lincoln County. 

Education: Graduated Cherryville High School, 1965; Central Piedmont Community College, 
A.D., 1967. 

Occupation: Nursing Home Administrator. 

Organizations: President, Cherryville Optimist Club; Director, Cherryville Rotary Club; Member, 
Gaston County Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Gaston County Board of Health. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Com- 
mittee on Human Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expansion 
Budget Committee on Human Resources; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Employment Security; 
Health; Human Resources; Judiciary II; Legislative Redistricting. 

Honors: Member, National Honor Society. 

Religious Activities: Member, Mt. Zion Baptist; Sunday School Teacher, 1969. 

Family: Married, Ruth McGinnis Beam, December 30, 1971; Children: Tonya Juanita, Doree 
Ann, and Loree Lee; Resides at: 700 Self St., Cherryville, (28021). 




RAYFORD DONALD BEARD 

(Democrat — Cumberland County) 

(Twentieth Representative District — Five Representatives) 
(County: Cumberland) 



Early Years: Born in Beard, March 24, 1923, to William A. and Lola (Maxwell) Beard. 

Education: Graduated Central High School, 1942; Various Insurance Courses. 

Occupation: Insurance. 

Organizations: Member, Professional Insurance Agents Association; NC Independent Agents 
Association; NC Association of Premium Service Companies; Member, Lions Club; Masonic 
Order; Shriner; Scottish Rite. 

Boards and Commissions: Mental Health Study Commission; Joint Governmental Operations 
Commission. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981. 



The Legislative Branch 291 



1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on 
Natural and Economic Resources; Vice Chairman, Appropriations Base Budget; Vice Chair- 
man, Appropriations Expansion Budget; Vice Chairman, Constitutional Amendments; Vice 
Chairman, Mental Health; Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Natural and Economic 
Resources; Education; Insurance; Judiciary II; Rules and Operation of the House. 

Religious Activities: Member, Snyder Memorial Baptist Church; Sunday School Teacher; Deacon 
since 1950; Past Chairman, Board of Deacons and Church Moderator, 1960. 

Family: Married, Katherine Beard, July 30, 1944; Three Children: Linda B. Kay, Kathy B. Allen, 
and Don, Jr.; Four Grandchildren: Resides at: 2918 Skye Drive, Fayetteville, (28303). 




E. GRAHAM BELL 

(Democrat — Gaston County) 

(Thirty-eighth Representative District — Four Representatives) 
(Counties: Gaston and Lincoln) 



Early Years: Born in Gastonia, Gaston County, April 16, 1939, to J. Clyde (deceased) and Thelma 
Henley Bell. 

Education: Attended Gaston Public Schools; Business Schools in Atlanta and IBM Computer 
School in New York. 

Occupation: President of Bell Property, Inc.; President of Bell General Stores; Chairman of Board 
of First Stock Savings and Loan Corporation; Chairman of the Board of Dyslexia School of 
North Carolina; President of Bell Real Estate and Development Company; President of Ma- 
jestic Insurance Finance Corporation, and President of Bell Insurance Agency. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, North Carolina Housing Finance Agency, 1974 — ; Board of 
Directors, North Carolina Savings Guaranty Corporation, 1978-1979 

Political Activities: North Carolina Young Democratic Committee, Nation's Committeeman 
1966-68; 10th District President of North Carolina Young Democratic Committee in 1965; 
President of Gaston Young Democratic Committee in 1966; Secretary of Gaston Democratic 
Party, 1970-1972. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on 
Human Resources; Vice Chairman, Appropriations Base Budget; Vice Chairman, Appropria- 
tions Expansion Budget; Vice Chairman, Congressional Redistricting; Vice Chairman, Election 
Laws; Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Human Resources; Banks and Thrift In- 
stitutions; Insurance; Public Utilities; University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 

Honors: One of the top Ten Young Democrats, N.C., 1965. 

Religious Activities: Member, Holy Trinity Lutheran Church, Gastonia; Chairman: Church Coun- 
cil; Finance Committee; and Building Committee. 

Family: Married, Gayle Walker, February 7 1957; Children: E. Graham Bell, Jr., (Chuck) Chris, 
Craig, Ann Margaret, and Patrick; Resides at: 1325 Airport Road, Gastonia, (28052). 



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North Carolina Manual 




JAMES BOYCE BLACK 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 

(Thirty-Sixth Representative District — Eight Representatives) 
(County: Mecklenburg) 



Early Years: Born in Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, March 25, 1935, to Boyce and James 
Margaret (Query) Black. 

Education: Attended East Mecklenburg High School, 1950-53; Lenoir Rhyne College, B.A., 1958; 
Southern College of Optometry, B.S., 1962; Doctor of Optometry. 

Occupation: Optometrist. 

Organizations: Member, Mecklenburg County, Association of Optometrists; NC State Op- 
tometric Society; Thirty second degree Mason; Noble of the Mystic Shrine; Trustee, North 
Carolina Optometric Society. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981; Precinct Chairman, Democrat 
Party. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Appropriations Base Budget; Ap- 
propriations Base Budget Committee on Human Resources; Appropriations Expansion 
Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources; Congressional 
Redistricting; Health; Judiciary III; Rules and Operations of the House; Small Business. 

Military Service: Served U.S. Navy, 3rd Class Petty Officer, 1956-57. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Johns Methodist Church; Sunday School Class President. 

Family: Married, Betty, May 13, 1956; Children: Deborah Ann, and James Boyce; Resides at: 417 
Lynderhill Lane, Matthews, (28105). 




DANIEL TERRY BLUE, JR. 

(Democrat — Wake County) 

(Fifteenth Representative District — Six Representatives) 

(County: Wake) 



Early Years: Born in Lumberton, Robeson County, April 18, 1949, to Daniel Terry and Allene 
Morris Blue, Sr. 

Education: Graduated Oak Ridge High School, 1956-66; NC Central University, Durham, 1970, 
B.S. — Mathematics; Duke University School of Law, 1973, J.D.; Certificate, National Institute 
for Trial Advocacy, Boulder, Colorado, 1977. 

Occupation: Lawyer, (partner; Thigpen, Blue & Stephens, Attorneys at Law.) 

Organizations: Member, American, N.C. Bar Associations; Member, Executive Committee, Wake 
County Bar Association; Association of Trial Lawyers of America; NC Academy of Trial 
Lawyers; NC Association of Black Lawyers; Duke Law Alumni Council; East Raleigh Citizens 
Advisory Council; Raleigh- Wake Citizens Association; Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity; Greater 
Raleigh Chamber of Commerce. 



The Legislative Branch 293 



Boards and Commissions: Duke Law School Board of Visitors; Boys Club Board of Directors 
(Former Member); Community Day Care Center Board of Directors; N.C. Criminal Code 
Commission; N.C. Center for Public Policy Research Board of Directors; East Central 
Community Legal Services, Board of Directors, President; NC Juvenile Code Revision 
Committee; Board of Directors, Tenth Judicial District Bar, Wake County Chapter; American 
Red Cross, Board. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. House of Representatives, 1981; Member, State Democratic 
Executive Committee; Member, Wake YDC; Former Precinct Committeeperson (Raleigh 
Precinct 39); Delegate to County, District and State Conventions; Chairman, Raleigh Precinct 
28; Chairman, Wake County Democratic Campaign, 1978; Chairman, Wake County Black 
Democratic Caucus 1974-79; Member, NC Democratic Black Leadership Caucus; Permanent 
Chairman, 1979, Wake County Democratic Convention. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Congressional Redistricting; Education; Finance; Judiciary II; 

Legislative Redistricting; Manufacturers and Labor; Rules and Operation of the House; State 

Personnel. 
Honors: Humanitarian Award, Sigma Gamma Phi Sorority, 1977; Man of Year Award, Boyer 

Consistory, Prince Hall Masons, 1980; Distinguished Service Award, Shaw University, 1980; 

Heritage Festival Award, Shaw University, 1981; Man of the Year Award, Kappa Alpha Psi 

Fraternity, 1981. 

Religious Activities: Member, Davie St. United Presbyterian Church; Board of Trustees. 
Family: Married, Edna Earle (Smith), January 26, 1972; Children: Daniel Terry, III; Kanika, and 
Dhamian; Resides at: 2541 Albemarle Ave., Raleigh, (27610). 



ROGER WAYNE BONE 

(Democrat — Nash County) 

(Seventh Representative District — Four Representatives) 
(Counties: Edgecombe, Nash and Wilson) 




Early Years: Born in Nash County, 1939, to R. Winslow Bone. 

Education: Graduated Coopers High School; NCSU, B.S., Agriculture Business; Attended 
numerous International Harvester Management Schools. 

Occupation: Corporate Executive (President, General Manager, Bone International, Inc., and 
Bone Rental & Leasing). 

Organizations: Member, Rotary Club; Rocky Mount Dealers Association; Personalities of the 
South; Past President, Rocky Mount Auto Dealers Association; International Harvester 
National Dealer Conference Chairman; Member, Elks Club, Benvenue Country Club; Mem- 
ber, Rocky Mount Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: Rocky Mount Board of Adjustment. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. House of Representatives, 1979-80 and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Banks and Thrift Institutions; Vice Chairman, Highway 

Safety; Vice Chairman, Water and Air Resources; Agriculture; Appropriations Base Budget; 

Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Education; Appropriations Expansion Budget; 

Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Education; Legislative Redistricting; 

Manufacturers and Labor; Small Business. 
Honors: Received D.S.A. Jaycees'; American Truck Dealers Association, Outstanding Young 

Men of America, 1974. 



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North Carolina Manual 



Religious Activities: Member, Englewood Methodist Church; Past Member, Board of Trustees; 
Finance Committee. 

Family: Married, Reba Batten, December 20, 1964; One Child: Frederick Lloyd; Resides at: 3620 
Mansfield Drive, Rocky Mount, (27801). 




GEORGE WYATT BRANNAN 

(Democrat — Johnston County) 

(Fourteenth Representative District — Two Representatives) 
(Counties: Franklin and Johnston) 



Early Years: Born in Erwin, Harnett County, March 3, 1932, to Wade Melbry and Hannah 
(Hollomon) Brannan. 

Education: Attended Dunn High School; NC State University, 1954; B.S. in Mechanical 
Engineering. 

Occupation: Nurseryman. 

Organizations: President, NC Association of Nurserymen; President, NC Association of 
Landscape Contractors; Charter member, Smithfield Jaycees; Chairman, Johnston County 
Airport Authority; Chairman, Horticulture Advisory Committee; Boy Scouts; NC Com- 
munity Colleges; Governor's Advisory Committee on Agriculture, Forestry and Seafood. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Executive Board, Tuscarora Council. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981 (appointed to replace Gardner). 

1981 Committee Assignments: Commercial Fishing; Corporations; Cultural Resources; Energy; 
Finance; Local Government I; State Properties; Transportation. 

Military Service: Served U.S. Army, Captain, Active Duty 1955-57, Reserve 1957-65. 

Family: Married, Mary Jane Warrick, June 27, 1954; Children: Beth Ellen and George Wyatt; 
Resides at: 309 Maplewood Drive, Smithfield (27577). 




CLYDE ROBERT BRAWLEY, JR. 

(Republican — Iredell County) 

(Thirty-fifth Representative District — Two Representatives) 
(Counties: Alexander and Iredell) 



Early Years: Born in Mooresville, Iredell County, April 10, 1944, to Clyde R. and Sarah (Good- 
night) Brawley. 

Education: Attended Mooresville Senior High, 1959-62; NC State University, 1968, B.S. in 
Engineering Operations. 

Occupation: Insurance Agent. 

Organizations: Member, National Association of Life Underwriters, Rotary Club. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981. 




The Legislative Branch 295 



1981 Committee Assignments: Banks and Thrift Institutions; Corporations; Energy; Finance; 

Governmental Ethics; Mental Health; Natural and Economic Resources. 
Military Service: Captain NC Army National Guard, 1967-Present. 
Religious Activities: Member, Triplett Methodist Church; President, Men's Club; Sunday School 

Teacher. 
Family: Married, Mary Kipka Brawley, March 31, 1972; Children: Woody, Shelly, Edward, 

Sarah, and Susan; Resides at: Route 5, Box 96, Mooresville (28115). 



LOUISE SMITH BRENNAN 

(Mrs. Stanley L. Brennan) 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 

(Thirty-Sixth Representative District — Eight Representatives) 
(County: Mecklenburg) 



Early Years: Born in Chester, S.C. November 11, 1922, to Tom and Kate Varnadore Smith. 

Education: Graduated Hartsell High School, 1939; University of NC at Charlotte, 1963-70, B.A., 
Political Science and English; University of N.C., at Chapel Hill, M.A., (Political Science); Un- 
iversity of N.C. at Chapel Hill, 1974-date, working toward doctorate in Political Science. 

Occupation: Lecturer, Political Science Department-UNCC, 1976-80 (part-time); Consultant, 
Fairington Properties, 1974; Vice-President, Charlotte Sporting Goods Co. Inc., 1949-63. 

Organizations: Member, Executive Women of Charlotte, 1978-80; American Association of Un- 
iversity Women, 1978; YWCA, 1978-79; National Organization of Women Legislators, 1977- 
80; Charlotte Chamber of Commerce, 1978-80. 

Boards and Commissions: Legislative Study Commission on School Food Programs, 1980; 
Legislative Study Commission on Eckerd Wilderness Camps, 1979; Board of Directors, Eckerd 
Wilderness Camps, 1979-82; Member, Study Commission for Public Meetings of Governmen- 
tal Bodies, 1978; Member, Joint Commission on Governmental Operations, 1979-80; Member, 
Charlotte-Mecklenburg Charter Commission, 1969-71; Member, Governor's Commission of 
Party Reform, 1969-71; Board of Directors, (Honorary) Juvenile Diabetes Association, 1978- 
80; Board of Directors, Women's Forum, 1977-80. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1969 (appointed by Governor Scott to 
replace Philip Baugh, resigned); 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981; Member, Local Government 
Liason Committee of Governmental Bodies, 1978-80; Member, Select Committee on 
Governmental Ethics, 1979-80; District Chairman, 9th District Democrats, 1970-77; Chm., 
Mecklenburg Democratic Party, 1970-72; Board of Directors, Mecklenburg County 
Democratic Women's Club, 1967-79; Charter Member and Past Board Member, Charlotte 
Women's Political Caucus, 1971-74. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Vice Chairman, Appropriations Base Budget Committee on 
Human Resources; Vice Chairman, Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Human 
Resources; Vice Chairman, Higher Education; Aging; Appropriations Base Budget; Ap- 
propriations Expansion Budget; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Constitutional Amendments; 
Judiciary III; Legislative Redistricting. 

Honors: Listed in "Who's Who in American Colleges and Universities, 1970; "Who's Who in 
Community Leaders of America, 1972; "Who's Who in American Politics, 1972-78. 

Religious Activities: Member, Caldwell Memorial Presbyterian Church. 

Family: Married, Stanley L. Brennan, September 25, 1965; Children: Susan S. Mitchell, Jane S. 

Coleman, and Robert T. Sutton, Jr.; One Grandchild; Resides at: 2101 Dilworth Rd., East, 

Charlotte, (28203). 



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296 North Carolina Manual 




JOHN WALTER BROWN 

(Republican — Wilkes County) 

(Thirty-fourth Representative District — Three Representatives) 
(Counties: Caldwell, Wilkes and Yadkin) 



Early Years: Born in Traphill Township, Wilkes County, September 12, 1918, to James Walter 
and Nora Blackburn Brown. 

Education: Attended Virginia Trade School, 1940; Appalachian State University, 1937. 

Occupation: Farmer — Beefcattle, poultry & tobacco. 

Organizations: Member, NC Cattlemens Association; Woodmen of the World; Farm Bureau. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1971, 1973-74, 1979-80, and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Agriculture; Congressional Redistricting; Finance; Health; Military 
and Veterans Affairs; Transportation; Wildlife Resources. 

Military Service: U.S. Army Engineer Corps, World War II, Private, 1944-46. 

Religious Activities: Member, Charity United Methodist Church; Official Board Member; Church 
Trustee; Church School Superintendent; Teacher Young Adult Class; Church Lay Speaker & 
Chairman of Official Board. 

Family: Married, Ruth Hanks, September 14, 1941; Children: Betty Ruth (Mrs. Michael I. 
Morenskin) and Johnsie Charles (Mrs. Joseph T. Brown, Jr.); Resides at: Route 2, Box 84-A, 
Elkin. 




DAVID WEBSTER BUMGARDNER, JR. 

(Democrat — Gaston County) 

(Thirty-eighth Representative District — Four Representatives) 
(Counties: Gaston and Lincoln) 



Early Years: Born in Belmont, November 2, 1921, to David Webster and Winnifred (Ballard) 

Bumgardner. 
Education: Attended Belmont Public Schools, 1927-38; Belmont Abbey College, 1938-40; Gupton- 

Jones College of Mortuary Science, Nashville, Tenn., Graduated 1942. 

Occupation: Mortician (President & Treasurer, Bumgardner, Inc. and Vice-President, McLean- 
Bumgardner, Inc.); Director, Belmont Savings and Loan; Director, Lakeside Cable TV, Inc. 

Organizations: Member, NC Funeral Directors Association; National Funeral Directors Associa- 
tion; Member, Masons, Belmont Lodge No. 627; Gastonia Yrok Rite Masonic Orders; 
Shriner, Oasis Temple; Past President, Belmont Kiwanis Club, Past Lt. Governor of Division 
Two, Carolinas Kiwanis District, 1966; Past President, Belmont United Fund, Inc.; Past Presi- 
dent, Belmont Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Directors, Conference of Funeral Service Examining Boards of 
the US, 1952-56, served as President, 1955-56; N.C. State Board of Embalmers and Funeral 
Directors, 1950-55, served as President, 1954-55; appointed Original Planning and Zoning 



The Legislative Branch 297 



Board of Belmont; Chairman, Commission for the Study of Local and Ad Valorem Tax Struc- 
ture of NC, 1970; Governmental Evaluation Commission, 1977-present; Board of Transporta- 
tion, 1977-present. 

Political Activities: Served, in House of Representatives, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977- 
78, 1979-80 and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Transportation; Vice Chairman, Appropriations Base 
Budget Committee on Natural and Economic Resources; Vice Chairman, Appropriations Ex- 
pansion Budget Committee on Natural and Economic Resources; Vice Chairman, Military and 
Veterans Affairs; Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Energy; 
Highway Safety; Small Business; State Government. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army, 1942-45; European-African Theatre, 1943-45; U.S. Army 
Reserve, 1949-55; NC National Guard since 1955; Lt. Colonel (Retired 1974.) 

Honors: Received Distinguished Service Award from Dallas Institute, Gupton-Jones College of 
Mortuary Science, 1954; Named 1967, "Man of the Year," by Belmont Chamber of 
Commerce. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Belmont; Former Deacon & Church 
Parliamentarian; Formerly served as Chairman, Finance Committee; Dept. Superintendent, 
Sunday School and on Building Committee. 

Family: Married, Sara Margaret Jones, August 14, 1948; Children: Mrs. Sharon B. Hill, and San- 
dra Jo; Resides at: 209 Peachtree Street, Belmont, (28012). 




SAM D. BUNDY 

(Democrat — Pitt County) 

(Eighth Representative District -- Two Representatives) 
(Counties: Greene and Pitt) 



Early Years: Born in Farmville, Pitt County, July 19, 1906. 

Education: Graduated Farmville High School, 1923; Duke University, A.B., 1927; East Carolina 
University, M.A., 1948. 

Occupation: Retired, School Principal; Former Principal of Schools in Duplin, Edgecombe, and 
Martin Counties; Federal Government 1943-44; Principal of Farmville Public Schools, 1947- 
65; Principal, Sam D. Bundy School, 1965-70; Rotating Panel Member, NC Today Morning 
Show, WNCT-TV, Greenville, 1966-70. 

Organizations: President, Northeastern District NCAE, 1952-53; President, Pitt County Unit 
NCAE, 1951-52; Past Master Tarboro Masonic Lodge, 1942; Past Master Farmville Masonic 
Lodge, 1950; 32nd Degree Scottish Rite Mason and Member, Sudan Temple of the Shrine; Dis- 
trict Deputy Grand Master Fifth Masonic District NC, 1951-54; Grand Orator, Grand Lodge 
of Masons in NC, 1961-62; Knight Commander, Court of Honors; Past President, Tarboro 
Kiwanis Club, 1941; Past District Governor of Carolina Kiwanis District, 1945; Member, Phi 
Delta Kappa, Pi Kappa Phi and Omicron Delta Kappa; Vice-Chairman, Constitutional 
Amendments Committee, 1973, 1975; Vice-Chairman, Education Committee, 1973, 1975; Vice- 
Chairman State Personnel Committee, 1979; Secretary, Farmville Chamber of Commerce, 
1946-47; Yonk Rite Mason. 

Boards and Commissions: Secretary, Tobacca Board of Trade, 1946-47; Member, Mount Olive 
College Board of Trustees; Member, Advisory Budget Commission, 1975-77, 1981-83. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House, of Representatives, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 
1979-80, and 1981. 



298 North Carolina Manual 



1981 Committee Assignments: Vice Chairman, Education; Vice Chairman, Legislative 
Redistricting; Vice Chairman, State Personnel; Constitutional Amendments; Finance; Human 
Resources; Pensions and Retirement. 

Honors: Farmville, "Man of the Year," 1974; Pitt County, "Outstanding Citizenship Award," 
1980. 

Religious Activities: Member, Disciples of Christ Church; Teacher Men's Class Farmville Chris- 
tian Church Sunday School, 1954; Superintendent Farmville Christian Church Sunday School, 
1946-53; President, NC Christian Men's Fellowship, 1950-51, 1955-56; President, State Con- 
vention Disciples of Christ, 1954. 

Family: Married, Bettie Spencer Bundy; Children: Sam D., Jr., and James Henry; Three 
Grandchildren; Resides at: Box 30, Farmville, (27828). 




DOROTHY ROCKWELL BURNLEY 

(Republican — Guilford County) 

(Twenty-third Representative District — Seven Representatives) 

(County: Guilford) 



Early Years: Born in High Point, Guilford County, February 27, 1927, to Hubert J. and Ella L. 
(Nurse) Rockwell. 

Education: Attended High Point School, 1941-42; Jefferson High School, Roanoke, Va., 1942-44; 
Hollins College, 1944-46. 

Occupation: Corporate Officer, (Secretary-Treasurer, Craftwood, Inc., High Point.) 

Organizations: Member, Furniture City Woman's Club; High Point Chamber of Commerce; U.S. 
Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Trustees, High Point Public Library; Board Member & Past 
President, High Point Women's Shelter; Board Member, High Point Mental Health 
Association. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Commissions and Institutions for the Blind and Deaf; Cultural 
Resources; Finance; Mental Health; Public Utilities; State Government; State Personnel. 

Honors: 1980, "Woman of the Year," Furniture City Woman's Club. 

Religious Activities: Member, Emerywood Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, James H. Burnley III, October 4, 1947; Children: James H., IV, Mary H., Ellen 
B., and Judith L.; Resides at: 508 Ashe Street, High Point, (27260). 



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299 




HOWARD B. CHAPIN 

(Democrat — Beaufort County) 

(Second Representative District -- One Representative) 
(Counties: Beaufort and Hyde) 



Early Years: Born in Ahoskie, December 9, 1921, to Henry B. (deceased) and Lavenia (Howard) 
Chapin. 

Education: Attended Public Schools of Weldon & Aurora; Graduated Kinston High School; 
Graduated Atlantic Christian College, 1947, A.B.; Attended Civic Institute of Government, 
Chapel Hill; East Carolina University, Political Science Courses. 

Occupation: Teacher, Belhaven and Washington City Schools. 

Organizations: Member, NEA; NCAE; ACT; Past President, Belhaven Lions Club; Past Presi- 
dent, Washington Kiwanis Club; Charter Member, Tri-Community Ruritan Club; V.F.W. 
Post 6088 Washington. 

Boards and Commissions: Past Member, Washington Planning Board. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, State Properties; Vice Chairman, State Personnel; Vice 
Chairman, Natural and Economic Resources; Commercial Fishing; Education; Finance; 
Legislative Redistricting. 

Military Service: Served, Sgt., 8th Air Force, October 1943 - November 1945. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Christian Church, Washington, N.C. 

Family: Married, Mary Alice (Beasley) Chapin, January 29, 1948; Children: J. Michael and Ken- 
neth E.; Resides at: 212 Smaw Rd., Runyon Hills, Washington, (27889). 




JOHN TRAMMELL CHURCH 

(Democrat — Vance County) 

(Thirteenth Representative District — Three Representatives.) 
(Counties: Caswell, Granville, Person, Vance and Warren.) 



Early Years: Born in Raleigh, Wake County, September 22, 1917, to Charles R. and Lela 

(Johnson) Church. 
Education: Graduated, Boyden High School, Salisbury, 1935; attended, Catawba College, 1936- 

37; graduated, UNC at Chapel Hill, 1942, B.S. (Pharmacy). 
Occupation: Chairman of the Board, Rose's Stores, Inc., Henderson; Director, Peoples Bank, 

Rocky Mount; Chairman of Board Advisory Board, Peoples Bank, Henderson; Past Senior 

Vice President and Secretary, Rose's Stores, Inc. 



300 North Carolina Manual 



Organizations: NC Merchants Association, (member, Executive Committee and Board of Direc- 
tors; Past President); Past Member, Board of Directors, National Retail Merchants Assosica- 
tion (New York, NY); Past President, NC Chain Store Council; Past Vice President and 
Secretary, American Retail Council (Washington, D.C.); Secretary, Board of Directors, 
Association of General Merchandise Chains (Washington, D.C.); Board of Directors, Univer- 
sity of North Carolina Business Foundation (Chapel Hill); Director, NC Citizens Association 
(Executive Committee); Past Director, Atlantic Aero Corp.; Member, Newcomer Society of 
North Carolina; Past Secretary and Member, Executive Committee and Director, NC 
Agribusiness Council. Past President: Junior Chamber of Commerce, Henderson-Vance 
County Chamber of Commerce, Rotary Club, Henderson Country Club, Henderson-Vance 
County United Fund (past Trustee and member, Executive Committee of Carolinas United), 
Vanwarco and North District of Occoneechee Council of Boy Scouts, Occoneechee Council of 
Boy Scouts, Alumni Giving of UNC; Member: Rotary Club, Masons, Shriner, Elks, American 
Legion, 40 & 8, Kappa Alpha Order, Chi-Beta-Phi Scientific Fraternity; Former Jaycee; 1976 
Christmas Seal Chairman, Tar River Lung Association; Member, Tar Heel One Hundred, 
UNC-CH. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Advisory Board, South Eastern Regional Council of Boy 
Scouts; Vice Chairman, Board of Trustees, Louisburg College (Louisburg); Past Chairman, 
Board of Visitors, Peace College (Raleigh); Past member, Board of Trustees, Peace College 
(Raleigh); Past Trustee, UNC-Chapel Hill; Past Member, Morehead Scholarship Selection 
Committee (District), UNC-CH; Member, Board of Visitors, UNC-CH; Trustee and 
Secretary, Vance-Granville Community College (Henderson); Former Member, Advisory 
Board, Salvation Army. Member: State Art Museum Building Commission, Committee on 
State Revenue Sharing (LRC), Board of Commissioner of theNC Agency for Telecommunica- 
tions, NC-Va. Water Resources Management Commiitee; Past Chairman, Kerr Lake Com- 
mission; Past Chairman, UNC Utilities Study Commission; Past Member: Executive 
Residence Building Commission, Tax Study Commission of NC, Legislative Services Commis- 
sion; Past Director, North Carolina Railroad; Secretary, NC Ports Authority. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1967, 1969, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 
1981; Served in Senate, 1971; Member, Henderson City Council, 1966-67; Past Chairman, 
Democratic Executive Committee of Vance County, 1966 and 1976; Past Chairman, 
Democratic Executive Committee of North Carolina, 1972; Member, Democratic National 
Committee, 1972; Delegate to the National Democratic Convention, 1972 (headed delegation 
under Governor Bob Scott); Delegate to Mini Conventions in Washington, D.C. and Kansas 
City. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, State Government; Vice Chairman, Appropriations 
Base Budget Committee on Education; Vice Chairman, Appropriations Expansion Budget 
Committee on Education; Vice Chairman, Local Government I; Appropriations Base Budget; 
Appropriations Expansion Budget; Higher Education; Legislative Redistricting; Rules and 
Operations of the House; Transportation. 

Military Service: Served in the U.S. Marine Corps Reserve (Naval Aviation), Captain, 1942-45 

(awarded 3 Distinguished Flying Crosses and 10 Air Medals). 
Honors: "Man of the Year," Henderson-Vance County Chamber of Commerce, 1977; Business 

Man in the News, North Carolina Citizens Association; "Tar Heel of the Week" Silver Beaver 

Award in Scouting; Distinguished Citizen Award, 1977, Boy Scouts of America; O.B. Michael 

Distinguished Alumnus Award, 1973, Catawba College (Salisbury, N.C.). 
Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church, Henderson; Chairman of Board; 

Past President, Administrative Board, Board of Trustees; Past Chairman, Finance Committee; 

Past President, Men's Bible Class. 
Family: Married, Emma Thomas Rose of Henderson, December 31, 1943; Children: John Tram- 

mell, Jr. and Elizabeth Church Bacon; two grandchildren; Resides at: 420 Woodland Road, 

Henderson, (27536). 



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301 




DOUGLAS ADRON CLARK 

(Democrat — Duplin County) 

(Tenth Representative District — One Representative) 
(County: Duplin) 



Early Years: Born in Wallace, June 27, 1944, to the late Adron Emmett Clark and Evelyn Grace 

Sandlin Clark. 
Education: Attended Beulaville School, 1950-61; Oak Ridge Military Institute, 1961-62; UNC- 

Wilmington, 1969, B.A. in Business Administration. 

Occupation: Certified Public Accountant. 

Organizations: Member, American Institute of Certified Public Accountants; NC Association of 

Certified Public Accountants; Member, York and Scottish Rite Masons; Shriner; Past Master, 

Beulaville Masonic Lodge; Member, Kenansville Fire Department. 

Boards and Commissions: Board Member, UNC Center for Public Television. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1979-80 and 1981; Duplin County 
Chairman of Democratic Party, 1976-78; Treasurer of the North Carolina Democrats, 1975-76; 
President, Duplin County Young Democrats, 1973-74. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Election Laws; Vice Chairman, Agriculture; Vice Chair- 
man, State Government; Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on General Government; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expansion 
budget Committee on General Government; Legislative Redisricting; Rules and Operation of 
the House; Small Business. 

Military Service: U.S. Army, Military Police Corps, Corporal, 1966-68. 

Honors: Duplin Democrat of the Year, First Annual Award, 1977. 

Religious Activities: Member, Grove Presbyterian Church. 

Family: Married, Sue Darlene Hanshaw, May 1, 1977; Children: Melanie Lee, Thomas Otis, and 
Andrea Hanshaw Fulcher; Resides at: Main Street, Kenansville (28349). 




WILLIAM EDWIN CLARK 

(Democrat — Cumberland County) 

(Twentieth Representative District — Five Representatives) 
(County: Cumberland) 



Early Years: Born in Fayetteville, January 12, 1943, to Franklin S. and Mary Pride (Cruikshank) 

Clark. 
Education: Graduated Davidson College, 1965, B.A.; UNC-School of Law, 1965-68, J.D. 
Occupation: Attorney/Land Developer; City Attorney — City of Fayetteville, 1974-76. 
Organizations: Member, Cumberland County Bar; N.C. Bar; Member, Kiwanis Club. 
Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1979-80 and 1981. 



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North Carolina Manual 



1981 Committee Assignments: Vice Chairman, Courts and Judicial Districts; Vice Chairman, 
Wildlife Resources; Election Laws; Finance; Insurance; Judiciary I; University Board of 
Governors Nominating Committee; Water and Air Resources. 

Military Service: Served U.S. Army, Captain, 1970. 

Family: Resides at: 109 Magnolia Avenue, Fayetteville, N.C. 28305. 




JOHN HOWARD COBLE 

(Republican — Guilford County) 

(Twenty-third Representative District — Seven Representatives) 

(County: Guilford) 



Early Years: Born in Greensboro, March 18, 1931, to Joe Howard and Johnnie E. (Holt) Coble. 
Education: Graduated Alamance High School, 1949; Appalachian State University, 1949-50; 

Guilford College, 1950-52, 1957-58, B.A.; UNC School of Law, 1959-62, J.D. 
Occupation: Lawyer. 
Organizations: Greensboro and NC Bar Association; NC State Bar; Member, American Legion; 

Lions Club. 
Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1969, 1979-80, and 1981; Secretary, 

NC Department of Revenue, 1973-76; Asst. U.S. Attorney, Middle District of N.C, 1969-73. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Banks and Thrift Institutions; Congressional Redistricting; 

Economy; Finance; Higher Education; Highway Safety; Judiciary III. 
Military Service: Served U.S. Coast Guard & Coast Guard Reserve, Captain, 1952-Present. 
Religious Activities: Member, Alamance Presbyterian Church. 
Family: Resides at: 1615 Alamance Church Rd., Greensboro, (27406). 




BETSY LANE COCHRANE 

(Republican — Davie County) 

(Thirtieth Representative District — Three Representatives) 
(Counties: Davidson, and Davie) 



Early Years: Born in Asheboro, Randolph County, January 20, to William Jennings and Brodus 

Inez (Campbell) Lane. 
Education: Attended Asheboro Grammar Schools and High School, 1942-54; Meredith College, 

1958, B.A. Degree, honors graduate, Elementary Education Certificate. 
Occupation: Teacher; Housewife. 
Organizations: Member, Kappa Nu Sigma Honorary Fraternity; Vice President, Mocksville 

Woman's Club; Director, Neighborhood Property Owner's Association; NC Symphony; NC 

Museum Associations. 



The Legislative Branch 303 



Boards and Commissions: Piedmont Health Systems Agency. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981; Vice-Chairman, Davie Co. 

Republican Party; NC Delegate, National Convention, 1976; Member, Executive Committee, 

NC Republican Party. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Com- 
mittee on Natural and Economic Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Apropriations 
Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and Economic Resources; Corrections; Education; 
Higher Education; Local Government II; Manufacturers and Labor; Small Business. 

Honors: Meredith College honors graduate; Yearbook Editor, College and High School; Who's 
Who in American Colleges & Universities. 

Religious Activities: Member, Knollwood Baptist Church; President, Women's WML); 
Children/Adult Sunday School Teacher, 1960-77; Nominating Committee. 

Family: Married, Joe Kenneth Cochrane, June 14, 1958; Children: Lisa Lane, and Craig 
Campbell; Resides at: Box 517, Bermuda Run, Advance, (27006). 




MARIE WATTERS COLTON 

(Democrat — Buncombe County) 

(Forty-third Representative District — Four Representatives) 
(Counties: Buncombe and Transylvania) 



Early Years: Born in Charlotte, October 20, 1922, to John Piper and Sarah Thomas Watters. 
Education: Graduated Chapel High School, 1939; St. Mary's Junior College; UNC-Chapel Hill, 
1943, B.A., Spanish; Post Graduate Studies, Mars Hill College & UNC-Asheville. 

Occupation: Homemaker. 

Organizations: Member, Business and Professional Women; League of Women Voters; American 
Association of University Women; Sir Walter Cabinet; Children's Welfare League. 

Boards and Commissions: Thorns Rehabilitation Hospital Board; Historic Preservation Society of 
NC, Inc. Board; Vagahond School of Drama Board; United Way of Buncombe County Board; 
NC Agency for Public Telecommunications Board; UNC-Chapel Hill, Board of Visitors. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, and 1981; First, Vice- 
President Democratic Women of NC, 1976 and 1977; District Director, 11th Congressional 
District for Democratic Women, 1974-76. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Cultural Resources; Vice Chairman, Health; Vice Chair- 
man, Small Business; Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Committee on 
Natural and Economic Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expan- 
sion Budget Committee on Natural and Economic Resources; Local Government I; Natural 
and Economic Resources. 

Honors: Honorary Degree, 1979, (Associate in Humane Letters) St. Mary's College. 
Religious Activities: Member, Trinity Episcopal Church; Vestry, 1973-76; Chairman of Every- 
Member Canvass, 1977. 

Family: Married, Henry Elliott Colton, September 4, 1943; Children: Marie Jaquelin Pelzer, 
Sarah Prince Villeminot, Walter Stokes, and Elizabeth Overton; Resides at 392 Charlotte 
Street, Asheville, (28801). 



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RUTH E. COOK 

(Mrs. John O. Cook) 
(Democrat — Wake County) 

(Fifteenth Representative District — Six Representatives) 
, (County: Wake) 

'4. 

Early Years: Born in Berlin, Germany, November 11, 1929, to Samuel and Use (Meyer) Mohr. 

Education: Attended George Washington High School, 1944-47; New York University. 

Occupation: Consultant; Former Executive Director of the State Council for Social Legislation. 

Organizations: First Vice-president, NC Consumers Council; Past President, Raleigh Wake 
League of Women Voters. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Directors of NC Housing Finance Agency; Board of Women's 
Center of Raleigh; 1st Vice-Chmn of Consumer Protection Committee of Southern Legislative 
Council of State Governments; Chairman, N.C. Council for the Hearing Impaired. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981- 

82. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Human 
Resources; Vice Chairman, Appropriations Base Budget; Vice Chairman, Appropriations Ex- 
pansion Budget; Vice Chairman, Human Resources; Vice Chairman, Mental Health; Banks 
and Thrift Institutions; Corrections; Judiciary I; Public Utilities. 

Honors: "Tar Heel of the Week," The News and Observer, 1969; "Consumer Advocate of the 
Year" Award, NC Consumers Council, May 1977. 

Family: Married, John Oliver Cook (deceased), October 31, 1954; Two Children: Roger Mohr and 
Judith Ellen; Resides at: 3413 Churchill Road, Raleigh. 




JAMES MILLARD CRAVEN 

(Republican — Moore County) 

(Twenty-fifth Representative District — One Representative) 

(County: Moore) 



Early Years: Born in Jackson Springs, Moore County, July 17, 1930, to James C. and Martha A. 
(Pusser) Craven. 

Education: Attended Ellerbe High School, Graduated 1948. 

Occupation: Hot-Dip Galvanizing & Plating Industry; Chairman of Board, New South Industries. 

Organizations: Member, American Hot-Dip Galvanizing Association; Masonic Lodge #550. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Directors, American Hot-Dip Galvanizing Association, 4 
years. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981; Moore County Commissioner, 
1978-80. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Agriculture; Finance; Legislative Redistricting; Local Government 
I; Mental Health; Natural and Economic Resources; Water and Air Resources. 



The Legislative Branch 305 



Military Service: Served in U.S. Army, M/Sgt, 1948-68. 

Religious Activities: Member, Pinebluff Methodist Church; Board of Trustees. 

Family: Married, Kathleen Craven, September 5, 1950; Children: Richard C, Donna Kay, 
Stephen M., and Jennifer Dawn; Resides in Pine Bluff, (28373). 




NARVEL JAMES CRAWFORD, JR. 

(Democrat — Buncombe County) 

(Forty-third Representative District - - Four Representatives) 
(Counties: Buncombe and Transylvania) 



Early Years: Born in Asheville, Buncombe County, November 9, 1929, to Narvel J. and Tymah 
(Phillips) Crawford. 

Education: Attended Lee Edwards High School, Asheville, 1946-48; Duke University, Durham, 

A.B., 1952; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1959-60, graduate study in History. 
Occupation : Property Management. 

Organizations: V.F.W. Post 89; Asheville Civitan Club; Asheville Chamber of Commerce, 
Legislative Task Force and Industrial Relations Committees. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Buncombe County Social Services Board; Board Member, 
American Lung Association of NC-Western Region; Board of Directors, State Theater of 
N.C., (Flat Rock). 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981; Democratic State Executive 
Committee, serving third term; Secy, Buncombe County Democratic Executive Committee, 
1978-79; Eleventh Congressional District Representative, State Democratic Platform Commit- 
tee, 1976; Campaign Manager, Asheville City Council, 1977; Pres., Democratic Forum of Bun- 
combe County. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Com- 
mittee on General Government; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expansion 
Budget Committee on General Government; Congressional Redistricting; Election Laws; 
Rules and Operation of the House; State Government; Transportation; University Board of 
Governors Nominating Committee. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army, Counter Intelligence Corps, 1954-56. 
Honors: Phi Beta Kappa. 

Religious Activities: Member, All Souls Episcopal, Asheville; Chalice Administrator; Lector; 
Member, National Council, American Church Union. 

Family: Single. Resides at: 99 Merrimon Ave., Asheville. 



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North Carolina Manual 




CHARLES MELVIN CREECY 

(Democrat — Northampton) 

(Fifth Representative District — Two Representatives) 
(Counties: Bertie, Gates, Hertford and Northampton) 



Early Years: Born in Rich Square, Northampton County, December 2, 1920, to William Spencer 
and Susie M. (Griffin) Creecy. 

Education: Rich Square Institute, 1927-36; W.S. Creecy School, 1936-38; Shaw University, 1938- 
1942, B.A.; Shaw University, School of Religion, 1942-45, B.D.; Shaw University, M.D.; 
Andover-Newton, B.D. Degree; Theological School, Boston, Mass., 1976; NC Central Univer- 
sity, Social Study. 

Occupation: Minister; Farmer. 

Organizations: Phi Beta Sigma, 32nd Degree Mason. 

Boards and Commissions: Trustee, Shaw University, Executive Committee & Board; General Bap- 
tist State Convention, Committee & Board; Lott Carey Foreign Mission Convention, Ex- 
ecutive Committee & Board. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Agriculture; Congressional Redistricting; Corrections; Finance; 
Highway Safety; Legislative Redistricting; Mental Health; Wildlife Resources. 

Honors: D.D. Shaw University. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Rich Square. 

Family: Married, Clementine Elizabeth Savage, January 28, 1948; Children: Charles Melvin, Jr., 
Bryant DeWitt, Norma Rose (Philadelphia, Pa.), and Elizabeth Ann; Reside in Rich Square. 




DAVID HUNTER DIAMONT 

(Democrat — Surry County) 

(Twenty-eighth Representative District — Three Representatives) 
(Counties: Alleghany, Ashe, Stokes, Surry, and Watauga) 



Early Years: Born in Greensboro, February 9, 1946, to David Elijah (deceased) and Hyacinth 

Cleo (Hunter) Diamont. 
Education: Attended East Surry High School, Pilot Mountain, 1961-63; Frank L. Ashley High 

School, Gastonia, 1963-64; Graduated Wake Forest University, B.A., 1968; Appalachian State 

University, M.A., 1972. 
Occupation: Teacher and Coach: High School History Teacher and Assistant Football Coach, 

Mount Airy Senior High School, Mt. Airy, 1968-77; Head Varsity Football Coach and History 

Teacher at East Surry High School, Pilot Mountain, 1977-present. 
Organizations: Member, NEA; NCAE; North Carolina Coaches' Association; Lambda Chi 

Alpha; Member, Pilot Mountain Jaycees; Surry County Young Democrats Club, President, 

1973-74; National Historical Society; Sierra Club; Surry County Historical Society; Deacon 

Club, Wake Forest University. 




The Legislative Branch 307 



Boards and Commissions: Governor's Council on Physical Fitness and Health, 1979-present. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Vice Chairman, Energy; Vice Chairman, Local Government II; Ap- 
propriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Human Resources; Ap- 
propriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Human 
Resources; Legislative Redistricting; Natural and Economic Resources; Small Business; Water 
and Air Resources. 

Honors: Northwest 3-A Conference, "Coach of the Year," 1979. 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church, Pilot Mountain; President, MYF. 

Family: Resides at: PO Box 784, Pilot Mountain, (27141). 



RUTH M. EASTERLING 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 

(Thirty-sixth Representative District — Eight Representatives) 
(County: Mecklenburg) 



Early Years: Born in Gaffney, S.C., December 26, to Benjamin Harrison and Lillie Mae (Crawley) 
Moss. 

Education: Graduated Centralized High School, Blacksburg, S.C., 1929; Graduated Limestone 
College, Gaffney, S.C., 1932; Major in English, minors in Math and History; Post Graduate 
Studies at Queens College, Charlotte, in Business Law, Personnel Administration, Business 
Administration. 

Occupation: Executive Assistant to I.D. Blumenthal, President of Radiator Specialty Co., 
Charlotte, NC and Toronto, Canada. 

Organizations: Trustee, Wildacres Retreat, dedicated to the betterment of human relations; Mem- 
ber, American Association of University Women; League of Women Voters; Business and 
Professional Women's Club (National President, 1970-71); National Secretaries Association 
(International Chairman of Public and World Affairs, 1975-76); N.C. Women's Political 
Caucus (State President, 1974); Women's Equity Action League; Women Executives of 
Charlotte; Women's Forum of N.C. 

Boards and Commissions: Governor's Advocacy Council for Persons with Disabilities; Advisory 
Council on OSHA; Legislative Study Committee on Physicians' Assistants; Research and 
Education Committee, National Business and Professional Women's Foundation, 1978-1981. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981; Appoin- 
ted by Governor Terry Sanford to original Governor's Commission on the Status of Women, 
1964; Appointed, Charlotte City Council, March 1972 (served 20 months to December 1973). 

1981 Committee Assignments: Vice Chairman, Appropriations Base Budget Committee on 
Natural and Economic Resources; Vice Chairman, Appropriations Expansion Budget Com- 
mittee on Natural and Economic Resources; Vice Chairman, Manufacturers and Labor; Vice 
Chairman, Rules and Operation of the House; Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations 
Expansion Budget; Economy; Judiciary II; Local Government II; State Government. 

Honors: Received WBT Radio Woman of the Year, 1964; Charlotte's Outstanding Career 
Woman, 1971; Selected by N.C. Federation of Business and Professional Women as N.C. Out- 
standing Career Woman, 1980. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Charlotte; Associate Superintendent of Train- 
ing for the Church; Associate Superintendent, Intermediate Department of Sunday School; 



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North Carolina Manual 



Member, Library, Financial Planning, and Personnel Committees; President, Baptist Business 
Women, Mecklenburg Baptist Association; President, Baptist Business Women in the Church 
at various times since joining the First Baptist Church in 1947. 

Family: Resides at: 811 Bromley Road, Apt. 1, Charlotte, (28207). 




GUS NICKOLAS ECONOMOS 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 

(Thirty-sixth Representative District — Eight Representatives) 
(County: Mecklenburg) 



Early Years: Born in Charlotte, April 22, 1930, to Nickolas and Christine (Trahillis) Economos. 

Education: Graduated Charlotte Technical High, 1949; Charlotte College, UNCC. 

Occupation: Restauranteur; Co-owner, Gondola Restaurants, Inc. 

Organizations: Member: NC Restaurant Association; Charlotte Civitan Club; Ahepa Marathon 
Chapter, No. 2; U.S. Chamber of Commerce; Charlotte Chamber of Commerce; Commerce's 
State Legislation Committee, several years; Congressional Action Committeee; Chamber of 
Commerce, (ten years); Mecklenbury County Mental Health Association (Board of Directors) 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Human Resources; Vice Chairman, Aging; Vice Chair- 
man, Mental Health; Finance; Highway Safety; Judiciary II; Local Government. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army, 1951-53, Korean War. 

Religious Activities: Member, Greek Orthodox Holy Trinity Cathedral, Charlotte. 

Family: Married, Patricia (Swaffer) Economos, June 4, 1952; Children: Nickolas, Robert, Larry, 
and Nancy; Resides at: 2400 Dalesford Dr., Charlotte, (28205). 




RALPH PEARSON EDWARDS 

(Democrat — Guilford County) 

(Twenty-third Representative District — Seven Representatives) 

(County: Guilford) 



Early Years: Born in Charlotte, February 20, 1925, to William James and Amy (Shields) Edwards. 

Education: Attended Central High School, 1940-43; Duke University, 1948, A.B. Degree. 

Occupation: Banking (City Executive, First Peoples Savings and Loan Association in Greensboro). 

Organizations: Past President & Past Fund Chairman, United Way, Greensboro; Past President, 
Greensboro Kiwanis Club; Past Chairman & President of United Arts Council; Past President 
& Chairman of Junior Achievement; Past Chairman, March of Dimes; Honorary Chairman, 
GGO Golf Tournament. 

Boards and Commissions: Board Member & Past Chairman of Greensboro YMCA; Past Board 
Member, Greensboro Merchants Association; Past Board Member, Piedmont Sales Ex- 



J 



The Legislative Branch 309 



ecutives; Past Board Member, Salvation Army; Board Member, Redevelopment Commission; 
Board Member, Chamber of Commerce and 8 o'clock Club; Board Member, Greensboro 
Housing Foundation; Wachovia Bank; Governors Conference on Aging. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1979-80 and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Alcoholic Beverage Control; Vice Chairman, Con- 
gressional Redistricting; Vice Chairman, State Properties; Banks and Thrift Institutions; 
Finance; Mental Health; Rules and Operations of the House. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Navy, Seaman, June 1943-April 1946. 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church; Administrative Board; President, Sunday 

School Class; Choir Member. 
Family: Married, Bennie Harris; Children: Ralph P., Jr., Jennie G., Robert W., and Nancy C; 

Resides at: 204 Fisher Park Circle, Greensboro (27401). 




THOMAS WILLIAM ELLIS, JR. 

(Democrat — Vance County) 

(Thirteenth Representative District — Three Representatives) 
(Counties: Caswell, Granville, Person, Vance and Warren) 



Early Years: Bom in Henderson, January 9, 1919, to Thomas William Sr. and Verlie (Weldon) 
Ellis. 

Education: Attended Public Schools of Henderson; Graduated Henderson High School, 1936; At- 
tended Mars Hill College; UNC-Chapel Hill, B.A., 1940; NC State College, 1941. 

Occupation: Automobile Executive; Farmer - Retired. 

Organizations: Member, NC Auto Dealers and National Auto Dealers Association, served 14 
years as area Chairman, both groups; Member, Lions club, President, 1955-56; Zone Chair- 
man, 1962-63; Director, 1972-74; National Committee — Taxation and Finance — National 
Association of County Officials, 1968-69; Vice-Chairman, Cherokee District Boy Scouts, 1966- 
71; Trustee, NC Retirement System; President, Henderson-Vance County Chamber of Com- 
merce, 1964; Deputy, District Governor, 1963-64. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, NC Seashore Commission, 1961-65; Served Vance County 
Board of Commissioners, 1967-68-69; Board of Trustees of Maria Parham Hospital; Chair- 
man, Area Mental Health Board, 1971-72; Served NC Highway Commission, 1969-73; Mem- 
ber, Vance County Planning Board; Appointed Trustee NC College by Governor Umstead, 
1954; Member, Henderson City School Board, 1958-66, (Chairman two terms); National Con- 
ference of State Legislatures Committee on Pensions; Board of Trustees of N.C. Teachers' and 
State Employees' Retirement Systems Board of Commissioners of the N.C. Law Enforcement 
Officers Benefit and Retirement Fund.. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Pensions and Retirement; Vice Chairman, Economy; 

Vice Chairman, Finance; Agriculture; Corporations; Employment Security; Natural and 

Economic Resources; Small Business. 

Military Service: Veteran World War II, served European Theater, Infantry Ordance 29th Divi- 
sion, Rank First Sergeant. 

Honors: First "Man of the Year Award" by Henderson- Vance Chamber of Commerce, 1970. 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church, Henderson; Chairman of the Board 

of Trustees; Member Administrative Board; Former Lay Leader. 
Family: Married, Dorothy Wiggins Ellis, July 24, 1942; Three Children: Dorothy Mae, Dianne 

Marie, and Thomas William, III, Resides at: 370 Forrest Road, Henderson, (27536). 



310 North Carolina Manual 




JEFF HAILEN ENLOE, JR. 

(Democrat — Macon County) 

(Forty-fifth Representative District — One Representative) 
(Counties: Cherokee, Clay, Graham and Macon) 



Early Years: Born in Franklin, September 2, 1914, to Jeff H. and Jessie Hester Enloe, Sr. 

Education: Attended Franklin Public Schools; Graduated Franklin High School, 1932; NC State 
College, B.S., 1938, in Agriculture Education. 

Occupation: Retired Government Employee (34 Years of Service with the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture). 
Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Employment Security; Vice Chairman, Local Govern- 
ment II; Vice Chairman, Transportation; Agriculture; Appropriations Base Budget; Ap- 
propriations Base Budget Committee on Education; Appropriations Expansion Budget Com- 
mittee on Education; Health; Legislative Redistricting; State Personnel. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Navy, 1943-46, Petty Officer, 2nd Class. 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church. 

Family: Married, Ruth Drummond, July 20, 1946; Children: William A., Jeff H., Ill, James R. 
and Gregory M.; Resides at: RFD 1, Box 38, Franklin, (28734). 




BOBBY R. ETHERIDGE 

(Democrat — Harnett County) 

(Eighteenth Representative District — Two Representatives) 
(Counties: Harnett and Lee) 



Early Years: Born in Sampson County, August 7, 1941, to John P. and Beatrice (Coats) Etheridge. 

Education: Attended Cleveland High School, August, 1947-June 1959; Campbell University, 1965, 
B.S., Business Administration; NCSU, 1967-Additional Work in Economics. 

Occupation: Vice-President Sales, Sorensen-Christian Industries Building Supply Co.; President 
WLLN Radio Station; Director, Bank of N.C. 

Organizations: Member, Industrial Management Club (Past President); Member, Lillington Lions 
Club; American Legion; Past Chairman, Harnett Cystic Fibrosis Campaign; President, C.F. 
Campaign; Fund Raiser Boy Scouts of America; NC Land Use Advisory Council, 1976; Past 
Chairman, Harnett Youth Advisory Council; Chairman, Harnett Sheltered Work Shop, 1978; 
President, Lillington Chamber of Commerce, 1977. 

Boards and Commissions: Harnett Mental Health Board, 1975-76; NC Law & Order Commission, 
1975-76; Board of Directors, Harnett County Farm Bureau; Member, Campbell University 
Alumni Board of Directors. 



The Legislative Branch 311 



Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, and 1981; Harnett County 
Commissioner, 1973-76; (Chairman, 1974-76); Co-Chairman Legislative Study Committee 
(Pension Plan) Rescue Squads, 1979-80 session; National Conference of State Legislatures, 
Committee on Government Operations. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Small Business; Vice Chairman, Appropriations Base 
Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Vice Chairman, Appropriations Expansion 
Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Vice Chairman, Transportation; Appropria- 
tions Base Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Education; Legislative Redistricting; 
Pensions and Retirement; Public Utilities. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army — December 1965 — December 1967. 

Honors: Received Lillington Jaycees Distinguished Service Award, 1975; Lillington Community 
Service Award, 1976; Listed in Outstanding Men in America; Honored Distinguished Alumnus 
Campbell University, 1976; Boy Scout District Award of Merit, 1980. 

Religious Activities: Member, Leaflet Presbyterian Church; Sunday School Teacher; Sunday 
School Superintendent, 1967-76; President, Fayetteville Presbytery Men, 1975-76; President, 
Presbyterian Synod Men of NC, 1977-78; Deacon, Leaflet Church, 1978. 

Family: Married, Faye Cameron, November 25, 1965; Children: Brian Cameron, Catherine Anne, 
David Blair; Resides in Lillington. 




WILBUR BRUCE ETHRIDGE 

(Democrat — Onslow County) 

(Fourth Representative District — Three Representatives) 
(Counties: Carteret and Onslow) 



Early Years: Born in Rocky Mount, April 17, 1938, to Wilbur Henry and Virginia (Sellers) 
Ethridge. 

Education: Graduated Rocky Mount High School, 1956; Attended NCSU; Fayetteville Technical 
Institute. 

Occupation: Engineer, Carolina Telephone & Telegraph Company. 

Organizations: Member: NCSU Alumni; Wolfpack Club; Jacksonville Rotary Club; NC Society 
of Engineers; East Carolina Engineer's Club. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Directors, Onslow County United Way and President Onslow 
County Heart Fund. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1978, 1979-80, and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Vice Chairman, Natural and Economic Resources; Vice Chairman, 
Water and Air Resources; Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on Natural and Economic Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations 
Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and economic Resources; Congressional 
Redistricting; Rules and Operation of the House; Small Business; Transportation. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church; Serving as Deacon. 

Family: Married, Katie Tyner, August 9, 1958; Children: Kitty Dare and Mark Bruce; Resides at: 
Route 2, Box 27, Swansboro, (28584). 



312 North Carolina Manual 




CHARLES DOUGLAS EVANS 

(Democrat — Dare County) 

(First District Representative — Two Representatives) 

(Counties: Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Dare, Pasquotank, 

Perquimans, Tyrrell and Washington) 



Early Years: Born in Manteo, October 8, 1944, to Charles R. and Evelyn (Mann) Evans. 

Education: Graduated, Manteo High School, 1963; University of NC, B.A. in Economics, 1967; 
University of NC Law School, J.D. Degree, 1972. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law. 

Organizations: Member, Dare County, North Carolina, NC and American Bar Associations; 
Manteo Rotary Club; Past Officer and Member of Albemarle Law & Order Association; 
Albemarle Area Development Association and Albemarle Regional Planning & Development 
Commission; Director, Outer Banks Chamber of Commerce, 1974-77. 

Boards and Commissions: Member Local Board of Directors, First Union National Bank and past 
Chairman of the Board; Member, NC Coastal Resources Commission and NC Seafood 
Industrial Park Authority; Served on NC Boundary Commission, 1977; Member of Legislative 
Services Commission for the NC General Assembly. 

Political Activities: Representative, First District, NC General Assembly, 1979, 1981 Sessions; 
Town of Nags Head Commissioner, 1973-78 and Mayor of Nags Head, 1975-78; Delegate to 
the 1980 Democratic National Convention, New York City. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Governmental Ethics; Vice Chairman, Insurance; Vice 
Chairman, Judiciary II; Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Committee 
on General Government; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expansion 
Budget Committee on General Government; Highway Safety; Legislative Redistricting; Rules 
and Operation of the House; State Government. 

Military Service: U.S. Army Reserve, 1969-75, Sgt. E-5. 

Honors: Received Outstanding Young Men of America, 1976 & 1980; Distinguished Service 
Award by Dare County Jaycees, 1978; Author of "Workman's Compensation at Sea" 
published by Vanderbilt Law Journal; Attended White House briefing on SALT II Treaty at 
invitation of President Carter, 1979; Received award from Governor Terry Sanford as NC's 
most Outstanding Young Man, 1962; State winner in 4-H public speaking, 1960 and 4-H 
citizenship project, 1963; tapped into the State 4-H Honor Club, 1964; and represented NC 4- 
H'ers at the National Congress in Chicago, 1963 and Tennessee State 4-H Roundup, 1964. 

Religious Activities: Member of Administrative Board of Mount Olivet United Methodist Church. 

Family: Married, Rebecca Aydlett, June 27, 1976; Two Children: Charles Kramer & Winborne 
Harrell; Resides at: Dunube Street, Box 909, Nags Head, (27959). 



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313 




JEANNE TUCKER FENNER 

(Democrat — Wilson County) 

(Seventh Representative District — Four Representatives) 
(Counties: Edgecombe, Nash and Wilson) 



Early Years: Born in Washington, D.C., September 3, 1933, to Herbert A. and Geraldine (Struble) 

Tucker. 
Education: Attended Atlantic Christian College, 2 years. 
Occupation: Legislature. 
Organizations: Association for Retarded Citizens; Altrusa Club; Wilson Democratic Women. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1980 (appointed to fill vacancy 
created by resignation of A. Hartwell Campbell) and 1981; appointed to NC Council on 
Developmental Disabilities, 1977. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Agriculture; Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base 
Budget Committee on Human Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations 
Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources; Education; Health; Human Resources; 
Mental Health; Natural and Economic Resources. 

Honors: Layman of the Year, NC Association for Retarded Citizens, 1976; Service to Mankind 
Award, Wilson Sertoma Club, 1978; Dybwad International Award, National Association for 
Retarded Citizens, 1979; National Member of the Year Award, National Association for 
Retarded Citizens, 1980. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Wilson; Past District Director, 
Albemarle Presbyterian WOC; Chairman, Birthday Objective, Albemarle Presbyterian WOC, 
1974; Former Sunday School Teacher; Former Circle Bible Moderator. 

Family: Married, William Eaton Fenner, March 15, 1953; Children: William Eaton, Jr., Elizabeth 
Heyward, Edwin Feebee, Thomas Shaw, and Jeanne Ashley; Resides at: 1003 W. Nash St., 
Wilson, (27893). 




JO GRAHAM FOSTER 

(Mrs. James B. Foster) 
(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 

(Thirty-sixth Representative District — Eight Representatives) 
(County: Mecklenburg) 



Early Years: Born May 22, 1915, to Rev. Joseph Alexander and Queen (McDonald) Graham. 

Education: Attended McBee S.C. High School, 1927-28, and Spring Hill Central High School, 

1928-31; Graduated Columbia College, May 26, 1935. 
Occupation: Retired as Administrative Assistant to Superintendent, Charlotte-Mecklenburg 

Schools. 

Organizations: Member, Delta Kappa Gamma; National Education Association; NC Association 
of Educators; P.A.C.E., Local Unit of Charlotte-Mecklenburg Educators; National Associa- 



314 North Carolina Manual 



tion, Secondary School Principals; Gamma Sigma Sorority; Sigma Tau Delta Honorary 
Sorority; International Platform Association; Precinct Committee; National Task Force on Sex 
Equity in Education; National Committee for Citizenship, Social Studies. N.C. Representative 
to State-Federal Assembly (Education). 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Education Commission; States (ECS) Commissioners. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 
and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Education; Vice Chairman, Pensions and Retirement; 
Vice Chairman, University Board of Governors Nominating Committee; Aging; Appropria- 
tions Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Education; Banks and Thrift 
Institutions; Military and Veterans Affairs. 

Honors: Nominee, field of Education, as a Salute to Working Women, 1968, Past President, 
N.C.A.E.; Listed in Who's Who of American Platform; Selected Legislator of the Year by NC 
School Counselors, 1979; Selected National Legislator of the year by the American School 
Counselors, 1979. 

Religious Activities: Member, Dilworth Methodist Church, Charlotte; Board of Stewards; Adult 
Sunday School Teacher; Lay Speaker; Served on several committees including Committee on 
Education. 

Family: Married, James Benjamin Foster, June 4, 1937; One Daughter: Mary Jo Foster McClure; 
Resides at: 1520 Maryland Ave., Charlotte, (28209). 




GERALD MALCOLM FULCHER, JR. 

(Democrat — Carteret County) 

(Fourth Representative District — Three Representatives.) 
(Counties: Carteret, and Onslow.) 



Early Years: Born in Morehead City, Carteret County, September 23, 1940, to Gerald M. and 
Nellie (Hill) Fulcher, Sr. 

Education: Graduated University of NC at Chapel Hill, 1968, B.A.; Duke Graduate School- 
Summer of 1975; NC State Graduate School, Summer of 1976. 

Occupation: Guidance Counselor, West Carteret High School. 

Organizations: Member, NC Association of Educators; National Education Association; NC Per- 
sonnel and Guidance Association; Classroom Teachers Association. 
Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Education; 
Vice Chairman, Appropriations Expansion Budget; Vice Chairman, Appropriations Base 
Budget; Vice Chairman, Corrections; Vice Chairman, Higher Education; Appropriations Ex- 
pansion Budget Committee on Education; Commercial Fishing; Congressional Redistricting; 
Constitutional Amendments; Education. 

Religious Activities: Member, Atlantic United Methodist Church. 

Family: Resides in Atlantic Beach. 



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AARON FUSSELL 

(Democrat — Wake County) 

(Fifteenth Representative District — Six Representatives) 

(County: Wake) 



Early Years: Born in Rose Hill, July 5, 1923, to C. T. and Myra Blake (Cavenaugh) Fussell. 
Education: Graduated Rose Hill High School, 1940; Atlantic Christian, 1946, A.B.; UNC-Chapel 

Hill, 1952, M.Ed.; Duke University— Post Graduate, NCSU. 
Occupation: Retired, 1977, 34 Years 9 Months Public Schools and Military. 
Organizations: Member, Chamber of Commerce; Educational Fraternity; Mason and Scottish 

Rites; Former President — North Raleigh Lions Club, 28 years. 
Boards and Commissions: Member of The Capital Area Visitor Services Committee; Member of 

The Local Government Advocacy Council. 
Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1979-80 and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Commissions and Institutions for the Blind and Deaf; 
Vice Chairman, Education; Vice Chairman, State Personnel; Aging; Agriculture; Appropria- 
tions Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Committee on General Government; Ap- 
propriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on General 
Government; Highway Safety. 

Military Service: Served U.S. Army, 1943-45. 

Honors: N.C. Superintendents' Award, Music Education, 1975. 

Religious Activities: Member, Millbrook United Methodist Church; Chairman, Board of Trustees; 
Past President, Men's Club; Teacher and Trustee. 

Family: Married, Polly, August 14, 1949; Children: Aaron, Jr., Charles Thomas, Polly Blake, and 
Bonnie Lorette; Resides at: 1201 Briarpatch Lane, Raleigh, (27609). 




JONAS MELVIN GARDNER* 

(Democrat — Johnston County) 

(Fourteenth Representative District — Two Representatives) 
(Counties: Franklin and Johnston) 



Early Years: Born in Johnston County, September 11, 191 1, to Jonas Bailey and Mary Elizabeth 
(Baker) Gardner. 

Education: Attended Brogden Elementary School, 1918-25; Princeton High School, 1925-29; 
UNC-Chapel Hill, Business Management School. 

Occupation: Oil Jobber; President, Gardner-Creech Oil Co., Inc; Farmer; Citrus Grower; Real 
Estate Businessman; Dir., First National Bank in Smithfield & Four Oaks, N.C. 

Organizations: Member, Fellowship Lodge No. 84, A.F. & A.M.; Master of Fellowship No. 84, 
1959; 32nd Degree Scottish Rite Mason; Shriner; Member, Sudan Temple; Past Chairman, 
Johnston County Oil Men's Association; Member, NC Farm Bureau; Member, Carolina 



316 North Carolina Manual 



Country Club, Raleigh; Member, NC Oil Jobbers Association; Charter Member, Smithfield 
Lions Club; Past Director, Smithfield Chamber of Commerce; Member, Smithfield-Selma 
Chamber of Commerce. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, and 
1981; Town Commissioner, Smithfield, 1965-70 (Mayor Pro-Tern 1967-70.) 

Military Service: Served U.S. Army, Private First Class, August 14, 1942 to December 11, 1942. 

Religious Activities: Member, Presbyterian Church. 

Family: Resided in Smithfield, (27577). 

* Representative Gardner died January 14, 1981, just a few short hours after taking his oath of 
office. His dedicated service to his county and the citizens of North Carolina will be greatly 
missed. 



WILLIAM CARRELL GAY 

(Democrat — Robeson County) 
(Twenty-first Representative District — Three Representatives.) 




(Counties: Hoke, Robeson and Scotland.) 



Early Years: Born in Pleasant Hill Township, Northampton County, January 11, 1924, to James 
Henry and Iona Brewer Gay. 

Education: Attended Gaston High School, 1930-41; Louisburg Jr. College, 1946-47; East Carolina 
University, 1947-49, May- 1949, B.S. English & Soc. St.; East Carolina University, 1949-50, 
M.A., Public School Administration & Political Science. 

Occupation: Retired (Former Principal, Lumberton Senior High; Real Estate Salesman, Highland 
Realty, Lumberton.) 

Organizations: Member, NC Association of Educators; National Education Association; NC 
Division of Principals; Masons. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Commissions and Institutions for the Blind and Deaf; Corrections; 
Education; Finance; Health; Mental Health; University Board of Governors Nominating 
Committee. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Navy, First Class Petty Officer, 1941-46. 

Honors: President, Halifax Unit N.C.E.A.; District President, Division of Principals; N.C. Prin- 
cipal of the Year from tenth District, 1979. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist, Lumberton; Teacher, Men's Fellowship Class, 14 
years. 

Family: Married, Marie Lewis Gay, April 1 1, 1952; Children: William Carrell, and Dana Collette; 
Resides at: 405 West 36th St., Lumberton, (28358). 



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JOHN BOND GILLAM, III 

(Democrat — Bertie County) 

(Fifth Representative District — Two Representatives) 
(Counties: Bertie, Gates, Hertford, and Northampton) 



Early Years: Born in Windsor, September 29, 1946, to John B., Jr. and Delia Roberson Gillam. 

Education: Attended Fork Union Military Academy, 1963-65; Atlantic Christian College, 1965- 
67; University of Hawaii, 1967; University of Georgia, 1967-69, A.B., Journalism; University of 
Virginia, 1971, M. Education (MED). 

Occupation: Agribusiness, (Gillam Bros. Peanut Sheller, Inc.) 

Organizations: Virginia-Carolina Peanut Association; Virginia Carolina Peanut Advisory Com- 
mittee; NC Crop Improvement Association; Sigma Phi Epsilon; Historic Hope Foundation, 
Inc., President; Member, Windsor Jaycees (President) Windsor Rotary Club; Chairman, 
Tuscarora District Boy Scouts of America; Member, N.C. Community Development Council. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Board of Trustees, Fork Union Military Academy; Member, 
Board of Directors, NC Crop Improvement Association. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Agriculture; Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base 
Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Ap- 
propriations Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Banks and Thrift In- 
stitutions; Education; Employment Security; Legislative Redistricting; Natural and Economic 
Resources. 

Honors: Outstanding Young Man of the Year, 1979, U.S. Jaycees. 

Religious Activities: Member, Windsor United Methodist Church; Sunday School Teacher, 1978- 

80; Lay Leader, 1980; Administrative Board, 1978-81. 
Family: Married, Barbara Snead Gillam, January 19, 1973; Children: Peter Snead Pastore, and 

Elizabeth Roberson Snead; Resides at: 103 South Queen St., Windsor (27983). 




RICHARD RALPH GRADY 

(Democrat — Wayne County) 

(Ninth Representative District — Two Representatives.) 
(County: Wayne.) 



Early Years: Born in Seven Springs, May 12, 1927, to Ralph and Zilphia Ann (Smith) Grady. 

Education: Attended NC State University, 1946-48. 

Occupation: Farmer. 

Organizations: Wayne County ASCS Committee, 1955-56. 

Boards and Commissions: Wayne County Board of Commissioners, 1969-70. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981. 




318 North Carolina Manual 



1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Local Government; Vice Chairman, Health: 
Agriculture; Commissions and Institutions for the Blind and Deaf; Finance; Legislative 
Redistricting; Mental Health; Public Utilities. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Navy, Seaman First Class, (March 1945-May 1946). 

Honors: Received, Farm Family of the Year, 1968. 

Religious Activities: Member, Seven Springs United Methodist Church; Chairman, Finance Com- 
mittee, 1960-76. 

Family: Married, Alma Lee Jones, November 1, 1947; Children: Richard Dwight and Mack; 
Resides at: Route 2, Box 597, Seven Springs (28578). 



GORDON HICKS GREENWOOD 

(Democrat — Buncombe County) 

(Forty-third Representative District — Four Representatives) 
(Counties: Buncombe and Transylvania) 



Early Years: Born in Black Mountain, July 3, 1909, to James Hicks Greenwood and Louella Ray. 
Education: University of Illinois, 1941, B.S., in Journalism; University of London, England, 1945. 

Occupation: College Administrator and Former Professor (Asst. to President, Montreat- 
Anderson College; Manager, New England Press Association; Asst. Professor of Journalism, 
Boston University, Boston, Mass, 1951-52; Director of Admissions, Montreat-Anderson, 1973- 
76.) 

Organizations: Member, Black Mountain Lodge No. 663 A.F. & A.M., Asheville Chapter No. 25; 
Black Mountain Lions Club; Chamber of Commerce; V.F.W.; American Legion; D.A.V.; Sons 
of American Revolution; Sons of Confederate Veterans; Organizer of Western North Carolina 
Development Association. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, State Board of Higher Education, 1963-68. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1959, 1961, 1963, 1965, 1967, 1977-78, 
1979-80 and 1981; Chairman, Buncombe County Board of Commissioners, 1968-72. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on 
Education; Vice Chairman, Appropriations Base Budget; Vice Chairman, Appropriations Ex- 
pansion Budget; Vice Chairman, Energy; Vice Chairman, State Properties; Aging; Appropria- 
tions Base Budget Committee on Education; Highway Safety; Human Resources; Mental 
Health; State Personnel. 

Military Service: Served in the U.S. Army, Psychologist, May 1943-December, 1945. 

Honors: NC Commissioner of the Year, 1971. 

Religious Activities: Member, Black Mountain United Methodist Church; Member Official Board 
Several Years. 

Family: Married, Garnet Elizabeth Carder, March 9, 1941; Children: G. Gordon and Ricky 
Eugene; Resides in Black Mountain, (28711). 



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ALEXANDER DUKE GUY 

(Democrat — Onslow County) 

(Fourth Representative District — Three Representatives) 
(Counties: Carteret and Onslow) 



Early Years: Born in Calypso, November 20, 1918, to Alexander Buck and Elizabeth Faust Guy. 
Education: Graduated, Calypso High School, 1935; NC State College, NYA Program, 1936-37; 

Institute of Government, UNC Chapel Hill, 1958-59. 
Occupation: Insurance and Real Estate Investments. 

Organizations: Independent Insurance Agents of NC, Inc.; Director, NC League of 
Municipalities, 1962-65; Onslow Memorial Hospital Authority, 1977-78; Member, NC 
Association of Realtors; Member, Professional Producers Council; Continental National 
American Insurance Companies, 1975-77; Past President, Jacksonville Rotary Club, 1962-63; 
Charter President, Onslow County Chapter American Cancer Society, 1958; Past Campaign 
Chairman, American Red Cross Society, 1956; Director Home Federal Savings & Loan 
Association, 1965; Member, Loyal Order of the Moose; Charter Member, Jacksonville Toast 
Masters, 1955; Founder Jacksonville Municipal Court, 1958; Founder of First Biracial Com- 
mittee, City of Jacksonville, 1963; Member, NC Mayor's Co-Operating Committee, 1964. 

Boards and Commissions: National Association of Real Estate Boards; Jacksonville Board of 
Realtors. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1979-80 and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Commercial Fishing; Vice Chairman, Health; Chair- 
man, Manufacturers and Labor; Finance; Legislative Redistricting; Military and Veterans Af- 
fairs; State Government. 

Religious Activities: Member, Trinity United Methodist Church; Board of Trustees, currently 
1976-81; Administrative Board, concurrently, 1968-78; Chairman, Fund Raising Campaign 
Christian Higher Education, 1959. 

Family: Married, Margaret Holmes, January 31, 1975; Children: Alexander Duke II, Bundage 
Humphrey, and Douglas Bryan; Resides at: 306 Woodland Drive, Jacksonville, (28540). 




JOE HACKNEY 

(Democrat — Orange County) 

(Seventeenth Representative District — Two Representatives) 
(Counties: Chatham and Orange) 



Early Years: Born in Siler City, Chatham County, September 23, 1945, to Herbert Harold and Ida 
Lillian (Dorsett) Hackney. 

Education: Attended Silk Hope High School, graduated 1963; NC State University, 1963-64; Uni- 
versity of NC-Chapel Hill, 1964-67, A.B. with Honors, Political Science, 1967; University of 
NC Law School, 1967-70, J.D., 1970. 



320 North Carolina Manual 



Occupation: Attorney, (Partner in firm Epting, Hackney & Long, Chapel Hill); Research Assis- 
tant, NC Supreme Court, for J. Frank Huskins, Associate Justice, 1970-71, and Assistant Dis- 
trict Attorney, 15th District, 1971-74. 

Organizations: Member: American Bar Association; NC Bar Association; Orange County Bar 
Association; NC Academy of Trial Lawyers. 

Boards and Commissions: Joint Orange-Chatham Community Action, Inc.; Conservation Foun- 
dation of North Carolina; Orange-Chatham Legal Services; Citizens Commission on Alter- 
natives to Incarceration, Governor's Crime Commission. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Com- 
mittee on Human Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expansion 
Budget Committee on Human Resources; Corrections; Courts and Judicial Districts; Employ- 
ment Security; Higher Education; Judiciary I; Legislative Redistricting. 

Honors: President, District 15-Bar; President, Orange County Bar Association. 

Religious Activities: Member, Hickory Mountain Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Betsy Strandberg Hackney, September 15, 1979; Resides in Chapel Hill, (27514). 



WILLIAM DAVIS HARRISON 

(Democrat — Martin County) 

(Sixth Representative District — Two Representatives) 
(Counties: Halifax and Martin) 



Early Years: Born in Williamston, Martin County, January 22, 1924, to William and Mattie 
Roberson Harrison. 

Education: Bear Grass Public Schools, 1930-41; Campbell College, 1941-42; Hampden-Sidney 
College, 1942-43; Atlantic Christian College, 1946-48, B.A.; East Carolina University, 1950-52, 
, M.A. 

Occupation: Writer, Educator, & Politician. 
Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Cultural Resources; Education; Finance; Higher Education; Local 
Government I; Public Utilities; Wildlife Resources. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Navy, Petty Officer, 1942-46. 

Literary Works: Author of "Come Walk With Me," (A volume of Poetry). 

Religious Activities: Member, Baptist Church; Past Sunday School Teacher and Deacon. 

Family: Children: Gordan Alan, Deborah Ann Whitley, and Forrest Todd; Resides at: Route 3, 
Box 999, Williamston, (27892). 




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BYRON ALLEN HAWORTH 

(Democrat — Guilford County) 

(Twenty-third Representative District — Seven Representatives) 

(County: Guilford) 



Early Years: Born in Danville, Indiana, June 27, 1907, to Herman Lindsay and Smythie Hadley 
Haworth. 

Education: Attended Burlington High School, 1924; Guilford College, 1928, A.B. Degree; Duke 
University Law School, 1934, L.L.B. degree. 

Occupation: Lawyer. 

Organizations: Member, NC Bar; High Point Bar; Rotary Club; Masons. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1955-56, 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981; 
Judge of Municipal and District Courts, 1956-77. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Manufacturers and Labor; Vice Chairman, Human 
Resources; Vice Chairman, Constitutional Amendments; Aging; Appropriations Base Budget; 
Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Appropriations Expan- 
sion Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety; 
Courts and Judicial Districts; Judiciary II. 

Religious Activities: Member, Religious Society of Friends; Clerk, Springfield Monthly Meeting, 
1956-62; NC Yearly Meeting of Friends, 1962-67; Friends United Meeting, 1967-70. 

Family: Married, Sarah Clapp, April 1, 1950; Children: Ann, Byron Allen, Jr., and David 
Lindsay; Resides at: 902 Fairway Drive, High Point, (27262). 




MARGARET BLEDSOE HAYDEN 

(Democrat — Alleghany County) 

(Twenty-eighth Representative District — One Representative) 
(Counties: Alleghany, Ashe, Stokes, Surry and Watauga) 



Early Years: Born in Todd, Ashe County, March 5, 1939, to Boss George and Eula Luther 
Bledsoe. 

Education: Attended Piney Creek High School; Appalachian State University, B.S., 1961; Ap- 
palachian State University, M.A., Sp.Ed., 1971. 

Occupation: Educational Consultant, (Planning Specialist, Division of Exceptional Children, 
Dept. P.I. Northwest Regional Education Center.) 

Organizations: Member, NC State Employees Association; Delta Kappa Gamma International 
Honor Society; Alleghany Co. "Selection Committee for Morehead Scholarship;" Council on 
Appalachian Women; Alleghany Arts Council; Sparta Womens' Club. 

Boards and Commissions: NC Textbook Commission; Executive Board, Region D Council of 
Government, 1978-80; NC School of Science and Mathematics Board of Trustees 1980-83; 1st 
Vice Chair, of Alleghany Co. Democratic Exec. Committee 1967-77; Alleghany Co. Chair. NC 
Council on Status of Women. 



322 North Carolina Manual 



Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981; Mayor of Sparta, two terms. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Aging; Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget 
Committee on General Government; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Ex- 
pansion Budget Committee on General Government; Education; Local Government 1; Mental 
Health; Natural and Economic Resources; State Personnel. 

Honors: "Teacher of the Year," 1972, District 3; "Teacher of the Year," 1972, Alleghany County; 
Listed in Outstanding Teachers of Exceptional Children; Listed in Outstanding Young Woman 
of the Year, 1972; Listed in 1980 Edition, Personalities of The South. 

Religious Activities: Member, Sparta Presbyterian; Chairperson, Board of Deacons. 

Family: Married, Herman N. Hayden, Jr., June 3, 1972, Children: Jackson Lane Phipps, and 
Steven Zane Phipps; Resides at: 711 Delp Heights, Sparta, (28675). 




JOE H. HEGE, JR. 

(Republican — Davidson County) 

(Thirtieth Representative District -- Three Representatives) 
(Counties: Davidson and Davie) 



Early Years: Born in Lexington, Davidson County, January 28, 1926, to Joe H., Sr., and Ellen 
Josephine (Hilliard) Hege. 

Education: Attended Pilot High School, Thomasville, 1932-43; Institute of Government, UNC- 
Chapel Hill, 1969; Office Continuing Education, Oklahoma University, Norman, Oklahoma. 

Occupation: Office Manager and Cost Accountant; Asst. Dir., Division of Services for the Blind, 
1974-77. 

Organizations: Amvets-Verterans of Foreign Wars; Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, and 1981; 
Sheriff, Davidson County, 1969-70, appointed; House Minority Whip, 1969 and 1971; 
Joint/House Senate GOP Caucus Secretary, 1973; Member, State Republican Executive Com- 
mittee; Treasurer, 5th District Republican Executive Committee. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on Justice and Public Safety; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expansion 
Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Courts and Judicial Districts; Election Laws; 
Judiciary II; Legislative Redistricting; Local Government I; State Government. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army, Combat Veteran Europe, Sgt., August 1944-June 1946. 

Religious Activities: Member, Pilgrim Reformed United Church of Christ, President of Consistory; 
Elder; Deacon; Treasurer; Teacher; Chairman, Audit and Cemetary Committees. 

Family: Married, Jane Owen, November 27, 1948; Children; Joe H., Ill, Karen L. Hege Watford 
and Edwin Lamar; Resides at: 1526 Greensboro Street, Lexington, (27292). 






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HAROLD PARKS HELMS 

(Democrat - - Mecklenburg County) 

(Thirty-sixth Representative District - Eight Representatives) 
(County: Mecklenburg) 



Early Years: Born in Charlotte, November 5, 1935, to Wade H. and Ida Parks Helms. 

Education: Attended Charlotte Technical High School, Graduated 1954; University of NC, Chapel 
Hill, Graduated 1959, A. B. Degree, University of NC Law School, Chapel Hill, L.L.B. Degree. 
1961. 

Occupation: Attorney. 

Organizations: 26th Judicial District Bar Association; NC State Bar; NC Bar Association; 
American Bar Association; American Judicature Society; Phi Delta Theta Legal Fraternity; 
NC Academy of Trial Lawyers; Chi Phi Social Fraternity. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, NC Courts Commission, 1980-83; Judicial Council, 1976-81; 
Director, Future Savings and Loan, Inc. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981- 

82. 
1981 Committee Assignments: Vice Chairman, Constitutional Amendments; Vice Chairman, 

Judiciary I; Courts and Judicial Districts; Finance; Local Government II; Mental Health; 

Small Business. 
Honors: Elected Charlotte's Outstanding Young Man of the Year, 1970. 
Religious Activities: Member, Park Road Baptist Church, Charlotte; Deacon, 1969-71, 1973 to 

present. 
Family: Married, Eleanor Jean Allen, March 26, 1959; Children: Deborah Parks, Allen Grant, and 

William Gray, Resides at: 4901 Hadrian Way, Charlotte, (28211). 




WILLIAM SETH HIATT 

(Republican - - Surry County) 

(Twenty-eighth Representative District - One Representative) 
(Counties: Alleghany, Ashe, Stokes, Surry, and Watauga) 



Early Years: Born in Mount Airy, Surry County, February 15, 1932, to David L. and Ethel M. 

Puckett Hiatt. 
Education: Attended Flat Rock Elementary and Flat Rock High School, graduated 1949; Brigham 

Young University, B.S., 1953; NC State University, graduate work. 

Occupation: Teacher & Contractor. 

Organizations: National Educational Association; NC Association of Educators; American 

Legion; The Conservation Caucus; United Commercial Travelers of America. 
Boards and Commissions: Chairman, State Library Board, 1974-75; State Recycling, Reclaimation 

& Litter-Control, 1975-77. 




324 North Carolina Manual 



Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, and 1981; Member, NC 
Republican Party Executive since 1972; Republican Candidate for Lt. Governor, 1976. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Constitutional Amendments; Education; Finance; Law Enforce- 
ment; Legislative Redistricting; Military and Veterans Affairs; Public Utilities. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army, Specialist 4th Grade, 1953-55. 

Religious Activities: Member, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Morman); Sunday 
School Teacher, Presently; Sunday School Superintendent, 1968-72; Stake Mission President, 
1970-73; Seventy, Presently. 

Family: Married, Rita R. Adkins, December 25, 1952, Children: Shelia Yvonne, Gina Adair. 
Melody Dawn, Chrystal Leigh, and Ashley Elizabeth; Resides at: Route 1, Box 586. Mount 
Airy, (27030). 



FOYLE ROBERT HIGHTOWER, JR. 

(Democrat — Anson County) 

(Twenty-sixth Representative District -- One Representative) 
(Counties: Anson and Montgomery) 



Early Years: Born in Wadesboro. January 21, 1941, to Foyle Robert, Sr., and Mildred (Brigman) 
Hightower. 

Education: Attended Wadesboro Public Schools: graduated Wadesboro High School, 1959; Elon 

College, University of NC, Chapel Hill. 
Occupation: Corporate Executive, (Vice-President, Hightower Inc. & Fuel Co., Inc.) 

Organizations: Member Kilwinning Lodge No. 64, Wadesboro, Ancient, Free and Accepted 
Masons; 32nd Degree Mason; Shriner; Woodman of the World; Jaycees; Civitan, Past Director 
Wadesboro Club: Past Chairman. Anson Blood Program: American Red Cross: Member, 
Merit Badge Committee, Boy Scouts of America and Member Board of Review; Past Area 
Chairman, Cancer Drive; Master Counsellor Order of DeMolay, Wadesboro Chapter, 1959. 

Boards and Commissions: NC Wildlife Resources Commission and Legislative Services 

Commission. 
Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979- 

80. and 1981. 
1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Wildlife Resources; Vice Chairman, Finance; Vice Chair- 
man, State Government; Agriculture, Corrections; Insurance; Legislative Redistricting; State 

Properties. 
Military Service: Served in U.S. Army Reserve, 1963-69; Corporal. 
Honors: Anson County, "Man of the Year, 1975." 
Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Wadesboro; Sunday School Teacher; 

Secretary-Treasurer, Men of the Church, 1971; President, Men of the Church, 1973, 1977 and 

1978; Deacon, Chairman of Board of Deacons, 1981. 
Family: Married, Pauline McElveen of Lake City, S.C.; Child: Victoria Joan. Resides at: 715 East 

Wade Street, Wadesboro, (28170). 



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GEORGE MILTON HOLMES 

(Republican — Yadkin County) 

(Thirty-fourth Representative District — Three Representatives) 
(Counties; Caldwell, Wilkes, and Yadkin) 



Early Years: Born in Mount Airy, June 20, 1929, to John William and Thelma Elizabeth (Dobie) 

Holmes. 
Education: Attended Mount Airy High School, 1944; Western High School, Washington, D.C., 

1945-48; Appalachian State University, 1954; Travelers Multiple Line Insurance School, 1959. 

Occupation: Insurance Agency Executive (President, W.N. Ireland Insurance Agency, Inc.) 

Organizations: Member, NC Association of Independent Insurance Agents; National Association 
of Life Underwriters: Member, Yadkin Lodge 162 A.F. & A.M.; Winston-Salem, Consistory, 
Scottish Rite of Freemasonry; Shriner, Oasis Temple. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Governor's Crime Study Commission, 1976; Fire and Casualty 
Rate Study Commission, 1976; Board of Directors, Carolina Epilepsy Research Foundation; 
Board of Directors, Northwestern Bank, Yadkinville. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1979-80, and 1981; Yadkin 
County Republican Executive Committee; Eighth District Republican Executive Committee; 
State Republican Executive Committee, 1975-76. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on Human Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expansion 
Budget Committee on Human Resources; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Constitutional 
Amendments; Insurance; Judiciary III; Law Enforcement; Legislative Redistricting; Rules and 
Operation of the House. 

Religious Activities: Member, Flat Rock Baptist Church; Deacon, 1956-70; Secretary, 1956-60; 
Trustee, 1970-present; Sunday School Teacher, 1955-68; Superintendent, 1968-72. 

Family: Married, Barbara Ann Ireland, June 30, 1956; One Child; Jennifer Leigh; Resides at: 
Route 1, Box 14, Hamptonville, (27020). 




BERTHA MERRILL HOLT 

(Democrat - Alamance County) 

(Twenty-second Representative District — Four Representatives) 
(Counties: Alamance and Rockingham) 



Early Years: Born in Eufaula, Alabama, August 16, 1916, to William H. Merrill and Bertha H. 
Moore. 

Education: Attended Eufaula High School, Agnes Scott College, Decatur, GA., B.A. Degree 1938; 
UNC Law School, 1939-40; University of Alabama Law School, 1941, L.L.B. Degree; George 
Washington University, Washington, D.C., 1942 (Worked toward Masters.) 

Occupation: Attorney; Previously an Attorney, Department of Interior and U.S. Treasury. 



326 North Carolina Manual 



Organizations: Pi Beta Phi Sorority; Past President, Alamance County Democratic Women; Chair- 
man, Headquarters Committee, 1962-64; Member, Democratic Executive Committee, 1964-75; 
Vice-Chairman, Alamance County Democratic Executive Committee, 1964-66; Member, 
English Speaking Union; Les Amis du Vin, Historical Society and Travel Organizations. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Social Services Board, 1970-1974 (Chairman, 1974); Board of 
Directors, UNC-Chapel Hill Law Alumna Association, 1979-81; NC Board of Science and 
Technology, 1979-81; Advisory Committee, Archaeology, 1979-81; Board of Directors, 
Hospice; Board of Directors, State Council Social Legislation, 1978-81. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, (appointed to fill vacancy 
created by Resignation of James Long); 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Constitutional Amendments; Vice Chairman, Alcoholic 
Beverage Control; Vice Chairman, Governmental Ethics; Banks and Thrift Institutions: 
Cultural Resources; Finance; Judiciary III. 

Honors: April, 1978, Agnes Scott College, Atlanta, Ga., Named "Outstanding Alumna" and 
awarded the Community Service Award by her Alma Mater. 

Religious Activities: Member, Episcopal Church of Holy Comforter, Burlington; President, 
Episcopal Church Women, 1968; Member of Vestry, Senior Warden, 1974; Chairman, Finance 
Committee of Diocese of NC 1973-74; Diocesan Council, 1972-74; Standing Committee of 
Diocee, 1975-77; Teacher, High School Sunday School Class; Chairman, Diocesan Grant 
Committee, 1972-80. 

Family: Married, Winfield Clary Holt, March 14, 1942; Children: Harriet Holt Whitley, William 
Merrill; Winfield Jefferson; Two Grandchildren: Allyson and Anna Whitley; Resides at: 509 
Country Club Drive, Burlington, (27215). 



CHARLES B.C. HOLT 

(Democrat — Cumberland County) 

(Twentieth Representative District - Five Representatives) 
(County: Cumberland) 



Earlv Years: Born in Fayetteville, February 16, 1933, to William DeRossett and Hannah Pickett 
(Lilly) Holt. 

Education: Attended Fayetteville High School, 1946; Fishburne Military School 1947-50; Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, 1957, B.A., History; Army Security Agency School, 1953. 

Occupation: Jobber, Amoco Oil Co. 

Organizations: Fayetteville Area Industrial Development Committee; Delta Kappa Epsilion; 
Member, Sierra Club; Conservation Council of NC; State Wildlife; National Wildlife; Fayet- 
teville City Council, 1963-69; Chamber of Commerce; First Vice-President, Chamber of Com- 
merce, 1972-73. 

Boards and Commissions: Governor's Task Force on Hazardous Waste; Chairman, Committee on 
Banks and Thrift Insts. 1979-80. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981: 
Mayor, Fayetteville 1969-71; Chairman, Committee on Corporations, 1977-79. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Economy; Vice Chairman, Wildlife Resources; Banks 
and Thrift Institutions; Finance; Governmental Ethics; Health; Insurance. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army, Corporal, 1952-55. 

Religious Activities: Member, Episcopal Church; Vestry Member, 1968. 

Family: Children: Sarah E. and Hannah L.; Resides in: Fayetteville, (28305). 




The Legislative Branch 327 




CHARLES HARRY HUGHES 

(Republican — Henderson County) 

(Forty-second Representative District -- One Representative) 
(County: Henderson) 



Early Years: Born in Asheboro, Randolph County, April 20, 1945, to William Dawson and Hazel 
(Comer) Hughes. 

Education: Attended Asheboro High School, 1959-60, 1962-63; Randolph Tech, 1963; Greensboro 
College, 1963-65, 2 years Credits; University of NC School of Banking, 1969, General; General 
Acceptance Corp. 1965, Consumer Finance Degree; Bank Administration Institute, General, 
1966-71; Mesco Building Systems, Estimating & Engineering, 1977, General; Kirby Building 
Systems, Estimating & Engineering, 1979, General. 

Occupation: General Contractor; Bank, Vice-President and Manager. 

Organizations: Member, Elks Club; Lions Club; Hendersonville Jaycees; W.N.C. Sportsman 
Association; Hendersonville, Chamber of Commerce. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Aging; Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget 
Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations 
Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Banks and Thrift Institutions; 
Courts and Judicial Districts; Economy; Small Business; Transportation. 

Honors: Award for Excellence in Estimating, 1979, Kirby Building Systems. 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist, Hendersonville. 

Family: Married, Mary S. Hughes, May 8, 1965; Children: William Russell, and Angela Christine; 
Resides at: 1208 Highland Ave., Flendersonville, (28739). 




JAMES FRANK HUGHES 

(Republican — Avery County) 

(Thirty-ninth Representative District -- Two Representatives) 
(Counties: Avery, Burke, and Mitchell) 



Early Years: Born in Linville, Avery County, June 20, 1925, to Columbus Henry and Bertha 

(Boone) Hughes. 
Education: Attended Newland Elementary and Newland High School, 1930-42. 
Occupation: Owner and Operator, Pixie Motor Inn, Linville, N.C. 

Organizations: Member, Linville Masonic Lodge #489; Oasis Shrine Temple; Newland Moose 
Lodge #489; Life Member, Pat Ray Post VFW; National Rifle Association; Highland (Avery 
County) Shrine Club; Optimist Club of Avery County. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1957-58, and 1981; Served in NC 
Senate, 1973-74. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on Natural and Economic Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget: Appropriations 



328 North Carolina Manual 



Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and Economic Resources; Congressional 

Redistricting; Cultural Resources, Insurance; Judiciary I; State Government; Transportation; 

Wildlife Resources. 
Military Service: Served U.S. Army, PFC, 1944-46. 
Religious Activities: Member, Linville Methodist Church. 
Family: Married, Marietta Pittman Hughes, March 25, 1947; Children: Kaye Hughes Greene, 

Sharon, and James F., Jr.; Resides in Linville, (28646). 




JOHN JACKSON HUNT 

(Democrat - - Cleveland County) 

(Fortieth Representative District - Three Representatives) 
(Counties: Cleveland, Polk and Rutherford) 



Early Years: Born in Lattimore, November 27, 1922, to Robert Lee and Alma (Harrill) Hunt. 

Education: Graduated Wake Forest University, 1943, B.S.; Emory University, 1946 D.D.S. 

Occupation: Dentist, Merchant, and Farmer. 

Organizations: Member, ADA; NCDS; Isothermal Dental Society; Member, Mason's; Shriner. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Legislative Research Committee; House Member National 
Conference of State Legislatures. 

Politicaal Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1979-80, and 1981; 
Alderman, Lattimore, 1958-64; Chairman, Military & Veterans Affairs Commission, 1979-80; 
Chairman, Rules & Operation of House, 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Rules and Operations of the House; Vice Chairman, 
Corporations; Vice Chairman, Military and Veterans Affairs; Appropriations Base Budget: 
Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Natural and Economic Resources; Appropriations 
Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and Economic 
Resources; Energy; Legislative Redistricting; University Board of Governors Nominating 
Committee. 

Military Service: Served U.S. Army, Major, 1943-48 and 1950-52. 

Honors: Honorary Member, NC National Guard; AMVETS USS NC Battleship Award. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Ruby Cowder, June 22, 1946, Children: Judy Kohler, Penny Corn, Libby 
Sarazen, Cindy, and Sally Jones; Resides in Lattimore. 



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329 




PATRICIA STANFORD HUNT 

(Mrs. Thomas M. Hunt, Sr.) 
(Democrat Orange County) 

(Seventieth Representative District Two Representatives) 
(Counties: Orange and Chatham) 



Early Years: Born in Dunn, June 9, 1928, to Lewis Knox Denning (deceased) and Florence Hib- 

bette Cooper Denning. 
Education: Graduated from Coral Gables Senior High School in Florida, 1946; Attended Sweet 

Briar College, 1946-48; Graduated University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, A.B. Degree, 

1948-50; University of NC-Chapel Hill, M.A. Degree, 1966, and Postgraduate work, 1966-70; 

Received J.D., UNC-Chapel Hill, 1978. 
Occupation: Attorney. 
Organizations: Member, Phi Beta Kappa: Alpha Delta Pi; Valkyries; Women's Forum, President, 

1980; NC Bar Association; NC Academy of Trial Lawyers; Chapel Hill Junior Service League, 

President, 1961. 
Boards and Commissions: Board of Trustees, Governor's School, 1975-79; Board of Visitors, Peace 

College, 1972-76; Board of Trustees Learning Institute of N.C., 1977-81; Recreation Commis- 
sion, Town of Chapel Hill, 1971; Governor's Council on Advocacy of Youth and Children. 

1973-77; Board of Directors, NC Prisoner Legal Rights, 1980. 
Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1970 (appointed by Governor Scott 

following death of first husband, Donald Mclver Stanford), 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979- 

80, and 1981. 
1981 Committee Assignments: Vice Chairman, Law Enforcement; Vice Chairman, University 

Board of Governors Nominating Committee; Bank and Thrift Institutions, Congressional 

Redistricting; Finance; Health; Judiciary III. 
Honors: Woman of the Year, Chapel Hill-Carrboro, 1977; Co-Author, "North Carolina History, 

Geography, and Government"; Received Irene Lee Cup for Outstanding Woman Graduate of 

University of N.C., 1950. 
Religious Activities: Member, University Presbyterian Church, Chapel Hill. 
Family: Married, Donald Mclver Stanford, June 30, 1949 (died May 1970); Married, Thomas 

Montague Hunt, Sr., June 17, 1972; Four Children; Donald Mclver, Jr., Randolph Lewis, 

Charles Ashley, and James Cooper Stanford, Resides at: 406 Fairoaks Circle, Chapel Hill. 

(27514). 




ROBERT CARL HUNTER 

(Democrat - - McDowell County) 

(Forty-first Representative District - One Representative) 
(Counties: McDowell and Yancey) 



Early Years: Born in Marion, January 14, 1944, to L. Penn and Lucy (Turner) Hunter. 
Education: Attended Glenwood School, (grades 1-5); Marion City Schools, (grades 6-12); Univer- 
sity of NC, Chapel Hill, B.A., 1966; University of NC-Chapel Hill, Law School, J.D., 1969. 



330 North Carolina Manual 



Occupation: Attorney at Law. 

Organizations: Member, McDowell County Bar Association; N.C. Bar Association; American Bar 
Association; 29th Judicial District Bar Association; NC Academy of Trial Lawyers; Past Presi- 
dent, Marion Rotary Club; Past Secretary, Marion Jaycees; Alumnus of Sigma Phi Epsilon 
Social Fraternity; Alumnus of Delta Theta Phi Legal Fraternity; Former Assistant, District At- 
torney; Former Director, McDowell County United Fund; Past President, 29th Judicial Dis- 
trict Bar; Vice-President, McDowell County Bar Association; Former Director, McDowell 
County Chamber of Commerce; President, NC County Attorney's Association; Director, 
UNC Law Alumni Association. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, N.C. Judicial Council. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Election Laws; Finance; Judiciary III: Legislative Redisricting; 
Local Government II; Rules and Operation of the House; Transportation. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Marion; Trustee. 

Family: Married, Nancy Hinson Hunter, August 22, 1970; One Child: Megan Allen Hunter; 

Resides at: 565 Forest Heights Drive, Marion, (28752); Mailing Address; PO Drawer 1330, 

Marion, (28752). 




THOMAS BELL HUNTER 

(Democrat — Richmond County) 

(Twenty-seventh Representative District — One Representative) 

(County: Richmond) 



Early Years: Born in Rockingham, Richmond County, October 20, 1916, to Dr. Norman C. and 

Carrie (Jones) Hunter. 
Education: Attended Laurinburg and Rockingham City Schools; Attended University of NC, 

Chapel Hill. 
Occupation: Life Insurance Sales. 
Organizations: Member, Mason; Shriner. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1963, 1967, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 

1977-78, and 1981; Mayor of Rockingham, 1957-63. 
1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Health; Vice Chairman, Finance; Vice Chairman, Law 

Enforcement; Constitutional Amendments; Election Laws; Legislative Redistricting; Rules and 

Operation of the House. 
Military Service: Served in U.S. Army, Captain, 1942-45. 
Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church; Trustees; Administrative Board: 

Chairman, Finance Committee. 
Family: Married, Florence Dockery Ledbetter, September 18, 1947; Children: Thomas B., Jr., 

Henry L., and John W.; Resides at; 618 Fayetteville Rd., Rockingham, (28379). 



The Legislative Branch 331 




JOSEPH PATTERSON HUSKINS 

(Democrat — Iredell County) 

(Thirty-fifth Representative District Two Representatives) 
(Counties: Alexander and Iredell) 



Early Years: Born in Burnsville, June 23, 1908, to Joseph Erwin and Mary Etta (Peterson) 
Huskins. 

Education: Attended Yancey Collegiate Institute, 1921-23; Mars Hill Junior College, 1924-26; Uni- 
versity of NC, 1928-30, A.B. Degree in Journalism. 

Occupation: Newspaper Publisher. 

Organizations: Member, NC Press Association; Association of Afternoon Dailies; International 
Platform Association; Member, Statesville Lodge No. 27, A.F. & A.M.; Statesville Lodge 
1823, B.P.O.E.; Past Exalted Ruler, Statesville Elks Lodge; past President, two terms. 
Associated Dailies of NC; Statesville Chamber of Commerce, past President. 

Boards and Commissions: Honorary life member. Red Cross Board of Directors, Statesville Chap- 
ter; Member, Area Rent Control Board, 1947-51; Statesville Zoning Board, 1961-62; State 
Board of Higher Education 1965-1972; University N.C. Board of Governors, 1972-73; Mitchell 
College Board of Trustees, fourth term, former Chairman; Member, State Veterinary School 
and ECU Medical School Feasibility Study Commissions. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979- 
80, and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Congressional Redisricting; Vice Chairman, Public 
Utilities; Vice Chairman, University Board of Governors Nominating Committee; Appropria- 
tions Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Ap- 
propriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and 
Public Safety; Constitutional Amendments; Courts and Judicial Districts; Transportation. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Navy, 1943-46, Lt. (s.g.). 

Honors: Received Outstanding Citizenship Award, Statesville Chamber of Commerce 1960: 
NCPA Editorial Award, 1966. 

Religious Activities: Member, United Methodist Church. 

Family: Married, Mildred Amburn, September 29, 1934; One Daughter: Amburn; Resides at: Our 
Dell, Statesville, (28677). 




GEORGE AUSTIN HUX 

(Democrat — Halifax County) 

(Sixth Representative District - - Two Representatives) 
(Counties: Halifax and Martin) 



Early Years: Born in Halifax, May 11, 1915, to George Alpheus and Ethel Bertha (Smith) Hux. 

Education: Attended Public Schools of Halifax County; Graduated University of North Carolina, 
1936, B.A.; University of NC Law School, 1938, J.D. 




332 North Carolina Manual 



Occupation: Attorney. 

Organizations: Member, Masons; Royal White Hart Lodge No. 2 A.F. & A.M. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981; Mayor, 

Town of Halifax, 1942-43. Clerk Superior Court, Halifax County, 1943-57. 
1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Courts and Judicial Districts; Vice Chairman, 

Agriculture; Vice Chairman, Judiciary I; Aging; Finance; State Personnel; Transportation. 
Religious Activities: Member, United Methodist Church. 
Family: Married, Jeanette Harris Hux, January 11, 1953; Resides in Halifax. 



VERNON GRANT JAMES 

(Democrat — Pasquotank County) 

(First Representative District - - Two Representatives) 

(Counties: Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Dare, Pasquotank, 

Perquimans, Tyrrell and Washington) 



Early Years: Born in Pasquotank County, July 11, 1910, to John Calvin and Fannie Coppersmith 
James. 

Education: Graduated, Weeksville High School, 1930; Attended NC State University, 1930-31. 

Occupation: Farmer and farm produce supply business (President and Manager James Brothers, 
Inc.) 

Organizations: Member. NC and National Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Growers Association; 
Secretary and Treasurer, State 4-H Club Council, 1930; Delegate, International 4-H Club 
Camp in Springfield, Mass., 1930; Charter Member, State 4-H Club, 1931; President of 
National Potato Council, 1956-66: Member, National Potato Steering Committee since 1966; 
appointed by U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Orville Freeman to the Potato Advisory Commit- 
tee, 1961-68, re-appointed by Earl Bqtz 1968-71: Chairman, National Potato Board Promotion 
Board 1977-78; Served, Board of Directors, Elizabeth City Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Board of Education for Weeksville High School, 1943-44; 
Member, Board of Trustees of College of the Albermarle since 1960; Member, Board of 
Trustees, Greater University of NC, 1947-55; Member Pasquotank County-Elizabeth City Air- 
port Commission, 1963. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1945, 1947, 1973-74, 1977-78, 1979-80, 
and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Agriculture; Vice Chairman, Commercial Fishing; Vice 
Chairman, Public Utilities; Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Com- 
mittee on Natural and Economic RESOURCES: Appropriations Expansion Budget; Ap- 
propriations Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and Economic Resources; Con- 
stitutional Amendments; Transportation; Water and Air Resources. 

Honors: Recipient of 4-H Alumni Recognition Award, 1954; "Tarheel of the Week" in December, 
1965; Recipient of Commissioner of Agriculture's Award for Promotion of Fresh Fruits and 
Vegetables, 1971. 

Religious Activities: Member, Salem Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Thelma L. Luton, April 1, 1978; Children: John Thomas and Vernon Grant, Jr.: 
Resides at: Route 4, Box 251, Elizabeth City, (27909). 



The Legislative Branch 333 




ROBERT ALDEN JONES 



(Democrat — Rutherford County) 

(Fortieth Representative District - Three Representatives) 
(Counties: Cleveland, Polk, Rutherford) 



Early Years: Born in Forest City, June 8, 1931, to Basil Thomas and Rosagray (Chesson) Jones, Jr. 
Education: Attended Forest City Elementary and High School, 1937-48; Brevard Junior College, 

Summer of 1948, received high school diploma, August 1948; Wake Forest College, B.A. 

Degree, 1959; Wake Forest Law School, 1958-60; Cum Laude Graduate with L.L.B. Degree. 

Occupation: Lawyer, (Jones and Jones, Forest City); former Research Assistant, Justice Carlisle 
Higgins, NC Supreme Court, 1960-61; County Attorney, County of Rutherford 1972-1978. 

Organizations: P.A.D. Law Fraternity; Member, Rutherford County Bar, President, 1967-69; 29th 
Judicial Bar, President, 1967; Member, NC State Bar; NC Bar Association; President, Forest 
City PTA, 1965-67; President, Forest City Jaycees, 1964-65; District Vice-President, NC 
Jaycees, 1966-67; County Chairman, Gardner- Webb College Fund Drive: Parliamentarian and 
Legal Counsel, NC Congress, Parents and Teachers, 1968-70; Director, Rutherford County 
Civil Defense 1968-74; Member, NC Land Policy Council, 1976-77; Charter Director of 
Performing Arts Guild; former Director and Vice-President, Forest City Chamber of 
Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: Served District Commissioner and Advancement Chairman, Boy Scouts, 
1962-65; Member, Gardner-Webb Board of Advisors; Director, Rutherford County Mental 
Health Advisory Board, President, 1967-68; Director and former Vice-President, Rutherford 
County Vocational Rehabilitation and Guidance Board; Member, Rutherford County Plan- 
ning Board; Member, Board of Directors, Biblical Recorder, 1969-73; Board of Trustees, 
Florence Crittenton Services, 1968-72. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 
and 1981; Vice-Chairman, NC Property Tax Commission since 1978. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Co-Chairman, Legislative Redistricting; Vice Chairman, Judiciary 
II; Alcoholic Beverage Control; Constitutional Amendments; Courts and Judicial Districts; 
Election Laws; Finance; Rules and Operation of the House; State Government. 

Military Service: Served in U.S.A.F., 1950-53 (Staff Sgt.); O.C.S. 1953, First Lt., 1956; Presently 
Lt. Col. U.S.A. F.R. 

Honors: Received Distinguished Service Award, Forest City Jaycees, (lifetime Membership), 1966. 

Religious Activities: Baptist; Sunday School Teacher, 1961-71; Junior Deacon and Usher, 1961-71. 

Family: Married, Nancy Hardwick, April 3, 1954; Children; Pamela, Robert A., Jr., and John 
Hardwick; Resides at: 122 Woodland Avenue, Forest City, (28043). 



334 



North Carolina Manual 




JOHN M. JORDAN 

(Democrat - Alamance County) 

(Twenty-second Representative District — Four Representatives 
(Counties: Alamance and Rockingham) 



Early Years: Born in Durham, February 16, 1936, to B. Everett and Katherine (McLean) Jordan. 
Education: Attended Saxaphaw Elementary School; Woodberry Forest; Walter Williams High 

School; Duke University, 1958, B.A.; Additional courses at Technical Institute of Alamance, 

NCSU and Clemson. 
Occupation: Agriculture, Land and Water Developer. 
Organizations: NC Farm Bureau; Founder & President, NC Chianina & Charolais Association; 

NC Cattlemen's Association; Member, Mason; Shrine; Moose; Exchange and Ruritan; Mem- 
ber, Boy Scouts of America, Founder & Explorer Advisor Post 65, and Executive Board; 

President & Treasurer of Alamance YDC. 
Boards and Commissions: Alamance Chamber of Commerce and Alamance County Planning 

Board. 
Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1979-80, and 1981. 
1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, State Personnel; Vice Chairman, Aging; Vice Chairman, 

Finance; Agriculture; Congressional Redistricting; Economy; Energy; Public Utilities. 
Honors: Eagle with 3 palms, Silver Beaver; Captain of Track team in High School; Class officer 

and Honor Fraternity at Duke University. 
Religious Activities: Member, Saxapahaw Methodist Church; Sr. High Sunday School Teacher; 10 

years. Church School Superintendent; 3 years, Lay Speaker; 6 years, Official Board; 15 years, 

Chairman of Trustees. 
Family: Married, Margaret Carter, November 25, 1960; Children: John M. Jr., Margaret Louise, 

Thomas Carter, and Dorothy May; Resides in Saxapahaw. 




IAN THEODORE KAPLAN 

(Democrat - Forsyth County) 

(Twenty-ninth Representative District - Five Representatives) 

(County: Forsyth) 



Early Years: Born in Greensboro, December 26, 1946, to Leon and Renee (Myers) Kaplan. 
Education: Graduated R.J. Reynolds High School, 1965; Attended Guilford College. 
Occupation: Vice-President, Kaplan School Supply Corporation. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981. 
1981 Committee Assignments: Vice Chairman, Election Laws; Vice Chairman, Small Business; 

Congressional Redistricting; Energy; Finance; Natural and Economic Resources; Rules and 

Operation of the House. 



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335 



Military Service: Served, U.S. Navy, Seaman, 1967-73. 

Religious Activities: Member, Temple Emanuel. 

Family: Resides at: 702 Summit Street, Winston-Salem, (27101). 




MARGARET POLLARD KEESEE 

(Republican - Guildford County) 

(Twenty-third Representative District — Seven Representatives) 

(County: Guilford) 



Early Years: Born in Greensboro, January 6, 1945, to Charles Rogers and Margaret Lena (Ker- 
sey) Keesee. 

Education: Attended Greensboro Public Schools; Grimsley High School, 1963; Guilford College, 
1967, B.A.; Radford, 1967-Graduate work in Early childhood Education. 

Occupation: Classroom Teacher, (Greensboro Public Schools, Foust School). 

Organizations: Member, NC Association of Educators; Association of Classroom Teachers; 
National Education Association; Member, Greensboro Branch of American Association of 
University Women, 1973-78; Served as State Secretary of NC Women's Political Caucus, 1975- 
76; Member, Greensboro's "Womens Professional Forum." 

Boards and Commissions: NC State Advisory Committee to US Commission on Civil Rights, 
1974-present. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 1979-80, and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Com- 
mittee on General Government; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expan- 
sion Budget Committee on General Government; Constitutional Amendments; Education; 
Employment Security; Governmental Ethics; Local Government II; Mental Health. 

Honors: Nominated for Greensboro's "Teacher of the Year"; Awarded by the Staff at David 
Jones School, 1976 & 1977. 

Religious Activities: Member, Christ United Methodist Church. 

Family: Resides at: 511 North Mendenhall Street, Greensboro, (27401). 




SWAN BURNETT LACEY, JR. 

(Republican — Avery County) 

(Thirty-ninth Representative District -- Two Representatives) 
(Counties: Avery, Burke, and Mitchell) 



Early Years: Born in Newland, August 10, 1918, to Swan Burnett and Norma Daniels Lacey. 
Education: Attended Newland High School, 1933-37; Lees McRae College, 1937-39; NCSU, 1939- 
41, B.S. 



336 North Carolina Manual 



Occupation: Real Estate Broker (Lacey Realty Company.) 

Organizations: Past President, NC Agriculture Teachers Association. 

Boards and Commissions: Past Trustee, Mayland Technical College. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1979-80 and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Agriculture; Courts and Judicial Districts; Finance; Legislative 

Redistricting; Local Government I; Military and Veterans Affairs; Natural and Economic 

Resources; Transportation. 
Military Service: Served in U.S. Army Air Corp, Aviation Cadet, 1942-46. 
Religious Activities: Member, Baptist Church; Superintendent & Trustees; Teacher of Adult Men's 

Class. 
Family: Married, Pansy Erwin, December 14, 1944; Children: Michael M. and R. Bruce; Resides in 

Newland. 




H. MARTIN LANCASTER 

(Democrat Wayne County) 

(Ninth Representative District - - Two Representatives) 
(County: Wayne) 



Early Years: Born in Wayne County, March 24, 1943, to Harold W. and Eva Madena (Pate) 
Lancaster. 

Education: Attended Pikeville High School, 1948-61; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1965, A.B.; UNC Law 
School, 1967, J.D. 

Occupation: Attorney. 

Organizations: Member, American Bar Association; NC Bar Association; 8th Judicial District Bar 
Association; Wayne County Bar Association; Member, Mason; Shriner; Elk; Goldsboro 
Kiwanis; NC Society for Historic Preservation. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, North Caorlina Arts Council, 1977-81; President, Goldsboro 
Community Arts Council, 1973-74; Chairman, Goldsboro/Wayne County Bicentennial Com- 
mission, 1975-76; Chairman, Board of Trustees, Wayne County Public Library, 1979-80; 
Chairman, Wayne County Chapter, American Red Cross; President, Wayne Community Con- 
cert Association, 1972-73. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1978-79, 1979-80 and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Highway Safety; Vice Chairman, Education; Vice Chair- 
man, Governmental Ethics; Appropriations Base Budget: Appropriations Base Budget Com- 
mittee on General Government; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expan- 
sion Committee on General Government; Judiciary II; Mental Health. 

Military Service: Served active duty, Navy; Reserves, Air Force; Lieutenant (Navy); Major (Air 
Force); Navy; 1967-70; Air Force: 1971-present. 

Honors: Listed in "Who's Who in American Law"; 1977 Distinguished Service Award, Goldsboro 
Jaycees; 1981 Outstanding Legislator Award, N.C. Academy of Trial Lawyers. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church; Deacon, 1972-75; Elder, 1980-. 

Family: Married, Alice Matheny, May 31, 1975; Children: Ashley Elizabeth and Mary Martin; 
Resides in Goldsboro. 



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337 




BRADFORD VERDIZE LIGON 

(Republican - Rowan County) 

(Thirty-first Representative District - Two Representatives) 

(County: Rowan) 



Early Years: Born in Buffalo, South Carolina, Union County, January 17, 1922, to William H. 
Ligon and Lola Collins. 

Education: Attended Buffalo Grammar School, 1928-35; Union High School, 1936-40; Medical 
University of S.C., College of Pharmacy, B.S., Pharmacy, 1950. 

Occupation: Pharmacist, (Manager, Kroger Sav-On, Salisbury). 

Organizations: Member, NC Pharmacy Association; Piedmont Pharmacy Association; Andrew 

Jackson Masonic Lodge; American Legion, Harold B. Jarrett Post and Veteran of Foreign 

Wars. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981; Rowan County Commissioner, 
1979-80. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Aging; Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget 
Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations 
Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Congressional Redistricting; Cor- 
porations; Human Resources; State Properties; Water and Air Resources. 

Military Service: Served US Marine Corp., Corporal, August 1942-October 1945. 

Religious Activities: Member, Rockwell Christian: Deacon, 1975, Sunday School Teacher, Adult 
Class. 

Family: Married, Jemelle Huckabee Ligon, January 20, 1945; Children: Bradford Gene, and 
Michael Dennis; Resides at: Route 12, Box 460, Salisbury. 




DANIEL T. LILLEY 

(Democrat — Lenior County) 

(Third Representative District Three Representatives.) 
(Counties: Craven, Jones, Lenoir, and Pamlico.) 



Early Years: Born in Martin County, August 15, 1920, to Alfred Tom (deceased) and Ethel Grace 
(Gurkin) Lilley (deceased). 

Education: Attended Farm Life High School; Spartan School of Aeronautics, Tulsa, Oklahoma; 
Airline Maintenance Course and School of Flight, Diplomas; Self Study-Chartered Life Un- 
derwriting Course (C.L.U.), 1967; American College of Life Underwriters, Bryn Mawr, 
Pennsylvania. 

Occupation: Life Insurance Salesman, (The Penn Mutual Life Insurance Company). 

Organizations: Member, Lenoir County Life Underwriters Association; American Society of Char- 
tered Life Underwriters; Kinston Rotary Club; Chairman, State Aeronautics Council. 

Boards and Commissions: Southern Growth Policies Board; Greene Lamp, Inc. (a Community Ac- 
tion Agency); National Conference of State Legislatures — Reappointment Committee. 



338 North Carolina Manual 



Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1969, 1971, 1973-74. 1975-76. 1977-78. 
1979-80 and 1981: Member. Lenoir County Board of Commissioners. 1964-68: Member. 
National Conference of State Legislators Ethics, Elections and Reapportionment Committee. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Co-Chairman, Legislative Redisricting: Vice Chairman. Finance: 
Vice Chairman, Local Government I; Agriculture; Alcoholic Beverage Control; Insurance: 
Transportation; Wildlife Resources. 

Military Services: Served as Lt. Col. in NC Wing. Civil Air Patrol; US Air Force Reserve. Colonel. 
retired, 6 years Active Duty World War II. 

Honors: Kinston Junior Chamber of Commerce, past President, received D.S.A. Award: Kinsion 
Chamber of Commerce, received the First Citizen of the Year Award. 1963; National Sales 
Achievement from National Association of Life Underwriters, 1974; National Quality Award. 
National Association of Life Underwriters, 1980; received the Governor's Award as Conserva- 
tion Legislator of the Year, 1975 from the NC Wildlife Federation: Meritorious Service Award 
from US Air Force, 1980. 

Religious Activities: Member, Northwest Christian Church, Kinston; Elder. 

Family: Married, Jean Hites of McPherson, Kansas, July 7. 1944; Children: Eileen and Dan. Jr.. 
Resides at: 1805 Sedgefield Drive, Kinston. 




k 



HORACE LOCKLEAR 

(Democrat — Robeson County) 

(Twenty-first Representative District — Three Representatives) 
(Counties: Hoke, Robeson, and Scotland) 



Early Years: Born in Lumberland, November 27, 1942, to Riley and Margaret Locklear. 

Education: Graduated Magnolia High School; Pembroke State University, 1964, B.S.; North 
Carolina Central University, 1972, J.D. 

Occupation: Attorney. 

Organizations: Member, NC Bar Association; Robeson County Bar Association; American In- 
dian Lawyers Association; first Indian to be admitted to NC Bar; Member, Saddletree Jaycees. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, University Board of Governors Nominating Committee; 
Vice Chairman, Corporations; Vice Chairman, Judiciary III; Agriculture: Education: Finance; 
Rules and Operation of the House. 

Religious Activities: Member, Mount Olive Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Barbara B. Locklear, May 11. 1963: Children: Millicent, Horace Bryan, and 
Jasper Edwin; Resides in Lumberton. 



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339 




EDITH LEDFORD LUTZ 

(Democrat - Cleveland County) 

(Fortieth Representative District - Three Representatives) 
(Counties: Cleveland, Polk and Rutherford) 



Early Years: Born in Lawndale, October 20, 1914, to Thomas Curtis and Annie (Hoyle) Ledford. 
Education: Graduate of Belwood High School 
Occupations: Farmer and Fruit Grower. 

Organizations: Elk's Auxiliary; Cleveland County Farm Bureau; Upper Cleveland County Cham- 
ber of Commerce; NC Apple Grower's Association; Sheltered Workshops of Rutherford 
County; American Association of Business Women. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Directors, Farm Bureau of Cleveland County; Board of Direc- 
tors, Sheltered Work Shops, Rutherford County; Board of Directors, Upper Cleveland 
County Chamber of Commerce, Cleveland County. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1976, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Local Government II; Vice Chairman, Agriculture; Vice 
Chairman, Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Human Resources; Vice Chairman, 
Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources; Appropriations Base 
Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Corrections; Election Laws; Human Resources; 
Mental Health. 

Honors: "Who's Who of American Women." 

Religious Activities: Member, Radish Methodist Church; Sunday School Teacher; Treasurer 
Woman's Organization; Counselor for Youth Fellowship. 

Family: Married, M. Everett Lutz, October 25. 1933; Child: E. Jacob Lutz; Resides at Route 3, 
Box 197, Lawndale, (28090). 




DAVID RUDISILL MAUNEY, JR. 

Democrat - - Gaston County) 

(Thirty-eighth Representative District Four Representatives) 
(Counties: Gaston and Lincoln) 



Early Years: Born in Cherryville, Gaston County, November 17. 1914, to David Rudisill and Lura 
Lassiter (Perry) Mauney. 

Education: Attended Cherryville High School, 1928-32; Lenoir Rhyne College, B.S., Pre- Med , 

1936. 

Occupation: Cotton Merchant and Broker, (President, Mauney Cotton Co., Inc.) 
Organizations: President, Lenoir Rhyne College General Alumni Association, 1950-53; President, 
Gaston County Cotton Merchants Association, 1955-56; Cotton Warehouse Association of 
America; Atlantic Cotton Association, (Va., N.C., S.C., Ga. & Ala.); President Carolina Cot- 
ton Association (N.C. & S.C.), 1977-78; Delegate, National Cotton Council, 1975-78; Elks 



340 North Carolina Manual 



Club; District Governor, Lions International, 1946-47; Masonic Lodge, 32nd degree Mason; 
Shriner; President, N.C. State Association for the Blind, 1950-51; Member, NC Bureau of Em- 
ployment for the Blind, 1946-70; District President, NC School Board of Association, 1955-56; 
President, Gaston County Historical Society, 1979-80; President, Cherryville Chamber of 
Commerce, 1969-71. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Directors, Cotton Warehouse Association of America, 1975- 
78; Board of Directors, Atlantic Cotton Association, 1975-78; Chairman, Cherryville 
Economic Development Commission, 1977-80; Member, N.C. Commission for the Blind, 
1965-69: Member, Board of Trustees, Governor Morehead's State School for the Blind and 
Deaf, 1961-65; Member, Board of Trustees, Lenoir Rhyne College for several terms; Member, 
Board of Trustees, Gaston College, 1964-80; President, Cherryville Industrial Development 
Corporation, 1980-81. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981; Member, Board of Education, 
Cherryville City Schools, 1950-68, (Chairman, 1952-68); Member, Cherryville City Council, 
1946-48. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Aging; Commissions and Institutions for the Blind and Deaf; 
Courts and Judicial Districts; Education; Finance; Higher Education; Public Utilities. 

Honors: Recipient, Lenoir Rhyne College Distinguished Service Award, 1972. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. John's Lutheran Church; Sunday School Superintendent, 1945- 
48; Member, Church Council, 1978-81; Delegate, National Lutheran Convention, 1957. 

Family: Married, Mary Frances Bagby, June 10, 1939; Children: Martha Mauney Phillips, 
Caroline Mauney Nichols, Anna Mauney Spence, and Mary Harriet Mauney; Resides at: 500 
Old Post Road, Cherryville. 




JOSEPHUS LYMAN MAVRETIC 

(Democrat - Edgecombe County) 

(Seventh Representative District Four Representatives) 
(Counties: Edgecombe, Nash, and Wilson) 



Early Years: Born in Powells Point, Currituck County, July 29, 1934, to Joseph M. (deceased) and 
Virginia Bateman Mavretic. 

Education: Attended public High School in New Bern: University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 
A.B., English, 1956; George Washington University, M.S., Political Science/International Af- 
fairs, 1972; Naval War College, distinguished graduate, 1972. 

Occupation: Retired Marine. 

Organizations: Rotary Club of Tarboro; Retired Officers Association; American Legion Post #58; 
Marine Corps Aviation Association; Director, Edgecombe County Chapter American Red 
Cross; Phi Gamma Delta Social Fraternity; Loyal Order of the Moose; Coordinator, Boy 
Scout Troop #96. 

Boards and Commissions: Former Chairman, Laurel Bay S.C. School Board; Former member. 
First Carolina Bank Board. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1980 (appointed to fill vacancy 
created by resignation of James Ezzell), and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Agriculture; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Commissions and In- 
stitutions for the Blind and Deaf; Cultural Resources; Economy; Finance; Water and Air 
Resources. 




The Legislative Branch 341 



Military Service: Served US Marine Corp. Lt. Col., June 1956 to July 1977; 300 combat missions 
in Vietnam; 3000 flight hours in military fighter aircraft; Bronze Star; 2 years service in 
Vietnam. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. James United Methodist Church; President, Methodist Men's 
Club. 1981; Member, Finance Committee, 1980; Member, Administrative Board, 1981. 

Family: Married, Ruth Duvall Clark. September 5, 1968; Children: Duvall Clark Schultz (step- 
daughter) and Frances Schultz Brown (stepdaughter); Resides at: 601 St. Andrew, Tarboro. 



ROBERT LEE McALISTER 

(Democrat Rockingham County) 

(Twenty-second Representative District — Four Representatives 
(Counties: Alamance and Rockingham) 



Early Years: Born in Reidsville, February 6, 1923. to James Denny and Maggie Elizabeth 

(Meador) McAlister. 
Education: Graduated, Ruffin High School. 1942. 
Occupation: Tobacco and grain farming. 
Organizations: Member, NC Farm Bureau; NC Agri-Business Council: Rockingham County 

Development Association. 

Boards and Commissions: Rockingham County Farm Bureau, Vice Chairman, Member Tobacco 
and Legislative Committee; NC Farm Bureau, Tobacco Committee; Northern Piedmont Area 
Development Association, Director and Chairman; Rockingham County FCX Service, Chair- 
man Advisory Board; NC Agriculture Foundation, NC State University, Director; NC 
Tobacco Foundation, NC State University, Director; Rockingham County Extension Ad- 
visory Board, Chairman; Rockingham County Draft Board. Member. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, (appointed to fill vacancy 
created by resignation of Conrad R. Duncan, Jr.), 1979-80, and 1981; 7th Division Secondary 
Roads Councilman 3/77 to 6/30/77; NC House Dist. Exc. Comm. 1975. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Vice Chairman, Agriculture; Vice Chairman, Transportation; Vice 
Chairman, Water and Air Resources; Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base 
Budget Committee on Education: Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expan- 
sion Budget Committee on Education: Election Laws; Legislative Redistricting; State 
Government. 

Military Service: Served Army Anti-Aircraft Artillary, Seageant First Class, January 1943- May 
1947 and November 1950 to November 1951. 

Honors: Progressive Community Leadership Award. Northern Piedmont Area Development 
Association; Award for contributions in the field of irrigation. North Carolina Irrigation 
Society; Leadership award, NC Agriculture Foundation, Inc. for work in E.Y. Floyd En- 
dowed Scholarship Program at NC State University. 

Religious Activities: Member, Mt. Carmel United Methodist Church; Financial Secretary, March 
1969- January 1975; Administrative Board, 1967-76: Trustee, 1970-74. 

Family: Married, Doris Elizabeth Cox, February 1, 1944; Children; Dennis Lee and Sidney 
Robert: Resides at: Route 1, Box 336. Ruffin: One Grandchild: Beverlv Denise McAlister. 



342 



North Carolina Manual 




TIMOTHY HILL McDOWELL 

(Democrat — Alamance County) 

(Twenty-second Representative District — Four Representatives) 
(Counties: Alamance and Rockingham) 



Early Years: Born in Burlington, January 16, 1946, to Charles Lamar and Golda Marjorie (Perry) 
McDowell. 

Education: Attended Technical College of Alamance, 1970, A.A.S.; Hon College, 1976, B.A.S. 

Occupation: Director, Community Relations, Elon College; Former Editor, Mebane Enterprise 
Journal, 1970-74. 

Organizations: Member, Burlington Rotary Club; College News Association of the Carolinas. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Mebane Board of Adjustments, 1973-74; Director, Elon Home 
for Children; Director, Alamance Arts Council; Council for Advancement and Support of 
Education. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Law Enforcement; Vice Chairman, Higher Education; 
Vice Chairman, Natural and Economic Resources; Appropriations Base Budget; Appropria- 
tions Base Budget Committee on General Government; Appropriations Expansion Budget 
Committee on General Government; Constitutional Amendments; Manufacturers and Labor; 
University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 

Military Service: Served US Navy Reserves, 1966-71, Third Class Petty Officer. 

Honors: Received 2nd Place, Best Editorial, NC Press Association, 1973; Outstanding Contribu- 
tion to Conservation Award, Orange County Soil and Water Conservation District, 1972; 
Named an "Outstanding Young Men in America," 1980. 

Religious Activities: Member, Hawfields Presbyterian Church. 

Family: Married, Zorado Kernodle, February 25, 1967; Children: Chris Michelle and Joshua 
Truth; Resides at: Route 6, Box 96, Mebane. (27302). 




ERNEST BRYAN MESSER 

(Democrat — Haywood County) 

(Forty-fourth Representative District — Two Representatives) 
(Counties: Haywood, Jackson, Madison, and Swain) 



Early Years: Born in Waynesville, December 21, 1913, to Forest W. And Effie (Furr) Messer. 

Education: Attended James Chapel, 1920-27; Lee Edwards High School, 1927-31; Carson Newman 
College, B.A. Degree, 1935. 

Occupation: Supervisor, Wood Procurement Department, Champion International, Inc, Canton; 

Former Teachers and basketball coach, Haywood County Schools, 1935-39. 
Organizations: Member: Canton Lions Club; Canton Toastmasters Club; American Legion; 

Veterans of Foreign Wars; Chairman, Haywood County Democratic Executive Committee, 



The Legislative Branch 343 



1958-62; Haywood County Historial Association; Chairman, Canton Chapter Red Cross 
Bloodmobile; Chairman, Inplant United Fund Drive; Trustee Haywood Technical Institute; 
Member, State Mental Health Services. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Directors and President, Haywood County Mental Health 
Association; Board of Directors, Champion, Y.M.C.A. and Champion Credit Union; 
Haywood County Planning Board; Conservation and Development Study Commission; Water 
and Air Resources Study Commission; Member, Legislative Research Commission, Board of 
Directors, State of Franklin Health Council; Chmn. NC Professional Liability Insurance Study 
Commission. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1963, 1965, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 
1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Aging; Vice Chairman, Higher Education; Vice Chair- 
man, Legislative Redistricting; Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget 
Committee on Human Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expan- 
sion Budget Committee on Human Resources; Insurance; Manufacturers and Labor; Rules 
and Operation of the House; Transportation. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Navy as Lieutenant, World War II, 1942-45. 

Honors: 1974 Layman's Award for Distinguished Service to Education given by Phi Delta Kappa 
of Western Carolina University. 

Religious Activities: Baptist; Former Teacher, Adult Sunday School Class; Former, Training Un- 
ion Director. 

Family: Married, Jincy Owen, January 11, 1936; Child: Mrs. Clyde Poovey, Jr., Atlanta, Ga.; 
Resides at; 15 Forest View Circle, Canton, (28716). 




GEORGE W. MILLER, JR. 

(Democrat — Durham County) 

(Sixteenth Representative District - - Three Representatives) 

(County: Durham) 



Early Years: Born in Spencer, May 14, 1930, to George W. and Blanche M. (Iddings) Miller. 
Education: Attended Spencer Elementary and High School, 1936-48; University of North 

Carolina, B.S., Business Administration; University of North Carolina Law School, 1954-57, 

L.L.B. Degree. 

Occupation: Lawyer, (firm of Haywood, Denny & Miller). 

Organizations: Member: North Carolina Bar Association; American Bar Association; Durham 
County Bar Association; International Association of Insurance Counsel; Phi Alpha Delta 
Law Fraternity; Sertoma Club; NC Symphony Society, Inc.; Vice President, Citizens Advisory 
Council for Center for Alcohol Studies, Division of Health Sciences. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Visitors, N.C. Central School of Law. 
Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979- 
80 and 1981, NC Young Democratic Clubs (President 1964-65). 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Judiciary I; Vice Chairman, Employment Security: Vice 
Chairman, Highway Safety; Finance; Insurance; Law Enforcement; Public Utilities; University 
Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 

Military Service: Served US Marine Corps, Sergeant, 1951-53. 




344 North Carolina Manual 



Religious Activities: Member, Duke Memorial Methodist Church, Durham: Chairman. Duke 
Memorial Week Day School Committee, 1968: Member. Official Board. 

Family: Married, Eula Hux, June 21, 1958: Children: Elizabeth Ann, Blanche Rose, and George. 
Ill: Resides at: 3862 Somerset Drive, Durham, (27707). 



JAMES FRANKLIN MORGAN 

(Democrat — Guilford County) 

(Twenty-third Representative District -- Seven Representatives 

(County: Guilford) 



Early Years: Born in High Point, June 21, 1943, to James Virgil and Dorothy B. Morgan. 
Education: Graduated High Point Central; Guilford College, B.A. Degree: Cumberland School of 

Law, Sanford University, Doctor of Jurisprudence. 
Occupation: Attorney. 

Organizations: Member, High Point Bar Association: 18th Judicial Bar Association: NC Bar: NC 
Bar; American Bar Association: NC and American Trial Lawyers Association; Sigma Chi 
Fraternity, President; High Point Jaycees; Chairman, Steering Committee; Chairman. High 
Point Volunteers to the Court: United Appeal: Chairman, Heart Association: Chairman. Legal 
Aid; Criminal Justice Training and Standards Council: NC Outuard Bound School: Youth 
Unlimited: NC Society for the Prevention of Blindness: Salvation Army Boss Club: President. 
NC Jaycees; Legal Counsel, US Jaycees: Urban Ministry of High Point, Inc.: Nat Greene 
Youth Development. Inc.; Good Will Industries; Chamber of Commerce, Treasurer. YMCA: 
Furniture Club; Emerywood Center Club. 

Boards and Commissions: Board, North State Caucus; Board, Preferred Savings and Loan; N.C. 
Consumer Council. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1977-78. 1979-80, and 1981-82; Chair- 
man Alcoholic Beverage Control Committee, 1979-80; Chairman, Judiciary III Committee. 
1981-82; Chairman, Guilford County Delegation, 1979-present; Criminal Justice Training and 
Standard Council, 1972-75. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Judiciary III: Vice Chairman. Highway Safety: Vice 
Chairman, State Government; Alcoholic Beverage Control; Finance; Legislative Redistricting. 

Honors: One of the Five Outstanding Young Men in N.C, 1973 and 1974; Distinguished Service 
Award High Point (Young Man of the Year), 1973 and 74; Who's Who — North Carolina; Per- 
sonalities of The South; Who's Who — American Law; Outstanding Young Men in America; JCI 
Senator, USJC Ambassor; Clayton Frost Memorial Award; Nick Lawrence Award, Linn B. 
Gariabalda Award; Good Government Commission Legislator of Year, 1981. 

Religious Activities: Member, Christ United Methodist Church; Member, Administrative Board, 
1970-73; Methodist Men's Club; Sunday School Teacher, 1970, 1972, and 1973: Sunday School 
Superintendent, June 1970-June 1972; Pastor Parish Committee, 1970, 1973, 1974; Nominating 
Committee, 1970-73, 1974; Choir; Chairman, Area for Building Fund Drive. 

Family: Married, Ann Tinsley Morgan, June 29, 1963; Children: Lea Evans Morgan and James 
Franklin Morgan, II; Resides at: 416 Hillcrest Road, High Point, (27260). 



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345 




MARVIN DUNCAN MUSSELWHITE, JR. 

(Democrat - Wake County) 

(Fifteenth Representative District -- Six Representatives) 

(County: Wake) 



Early Years: Born in Greenville, Pitt County, January 12, 1938, to Marvin D. and Ha/el Britt 
Musselwhite; reared in Clinton, Sampson Co. 

Education: Attended Clinton City Schools, 1944-1956; Duke University, graduated 1960, A.B. 
Degree; Duke University School of Law, Graduated June 1963, J.D. Degree. 

Occupation: Attorney. (Partner with Poyner, Geraghty, Hartsfield & Townsend.) 

Organizations: Member, Wake County Bar Association, (Former Member of Executive Commit- 
tee): American Bar Association (Member of Labor Law Committee); NC Bar Association: 
(Chairman, Labor Law Committee, 1976-80;) NC Trial Lawyer's Association; American Trial 
Lawyer's Association; NC State Bar: Raleigh Kiwanis's Club; Former Member of the Raleigh 
Jaycees, (Director). 

Boards and Commissions: Former Member Duke University National Council; Member. Duke 
University Athletic Council; Director, Tammy Lynn Memorial Foundation, Inc.: Trustee and 
Member Executive Committee, NC Symphony Society, Inc.; Director, Research Triangle 
Region Lung Association of NC; Director, Y.M.C.A. of Raleigh. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Congressional Redisricting: Corporations: Courts and Judicial Dis- 
tricts; Finance; Judiciary I; Manufacturers and Labor; Small Business: State Properties. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Michael's Episcopal Church: (Former Member, of Vestry, Senior 
Warden and Treasurer.) 

Family: Married, Barbara Lynn Fortune, December 20, 1959; Children: Elizabeth Lynn, and 
Robert Britt; Resides at: 1903 St. Mary's Street, Raleigh. 




ROBIE LEE NASH 

(Democrat - Rowan County) 

(Thirty-first Representative District Two Representatives) 

(County: Rowan) 



Early Years: Born in East Spencer, October 5, 1910, to Archie Lee and Mary (Kenerly) Nash. 
Education: Attended East Spencer School, 1916-24; Salisbury High School, 1924-27; Night classes 
for two semesters in Catawba College. 

Occupation: Manager, Real Estate Investments. 

Organizations: North Carolina Forestry Association; Salisbury Lions Club, President, 1945-46; 

Andrew Jackson Masonic Lodge No. 576; Salisbury-Rowan County, Chamber of Commerce. 
Boards and Commissions: Member: Consumer and Advocacy Advisory Committee for the Blind; 

Environmental Management Commission. 



346 North Carolina Manual 



Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979- 
80, and 1981; Salisbury City Council, 1951-53 and 1953-55. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Justice 
and Public Safety: Vice Chairman, Appropriations Base Budget; Vice Chairman, Appropria- 
tions Expansion Budget; Vice Chairman, Commissions and Institutions for Blind and Deaf; 
Vice Chairman, Economy; Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Justice and Public 
Safety: Energy; Legislative Redistricting; University Board of Governors Nominating Com- 
mittee; Water and Air Resources. 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church, Salisbury; NC Co-Chairman 
Building Program, 1951-54; Chairman, Official Board, 1953-1954; Chairman, Trustees, 1969- 
74; District Trustees. 1964-80. 

Family: Married, Ethel (Arey) Nash, August 24, 1936: Children: John Lee, Samuel Arey, and Lona 
Marie Nash Duggins; Resides at: #232 Richmond Road. Salisbury, (28144). 




MARTIN L. NESBITT 

(Democrat — Buncombe County) 

(Forty-third Representative District Four Representatives) 
(Counties: Buncombe and Transylvania) 



Early Years: Born in Asheville, Buncombe County, September 25, 1946, to Martin L. and Mary 
(Cordell) Nesbitt, Sr. 

Education: Graduated Reynolds High School, May 1964; UNC-Chapel Hill, Undergraduate 1970, 

J.D.. 1973. 
Occupation: Attorney: Partner, Mountain Marine, Inc. 

Organizations: Buncombe County Bar Association; NC State Bar Association; American Bar 
Association; Coach, East Asheville Youth League. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1979-80 (appointed to fill unexpired 
term created by the death of Mary C. Nesbitt) and 1981; Buncombe County Young Democrats. 
(Past President); Democratic Mens Club (Board of Trustees). 

1981 Committee Assignments: Banks and Thrift Institutions; Constitutional Amendments; Courts 
and Judicial Districts: Finance; Judiciary I; Legislative Redistricting: Pensions and Retirement. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Luke's Episcopal Church. 

Family: Married, Deane Sellers Nesbitt, September 28, 1979; Children: William Martin and Chad 
Sellers (stepson); Resides at: 6 Maple Ridge Lane, Asheville, (28806). 



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347 




EDD NYE 

(Democrat - Bladen County) 

(Nineteenth Representative District - Three Representatives) 
(Counties: Bladen, Columbus, Sampson) 



Early Years: Born in Gulf, September 12. 1932, to Joseph Burke and Vera R. (Johnson) Nye. 
Education: Graduated Clarkton High School, 1951; S.E. Community College, A. A., 1969; North 
Carolina State University, Fort Bragg Extension, 1972. 

Occupation: Insurance Agency. 

Organizations: Member, Bladen Masonic Lodge 646, V.F.W. 

Boards and Commissions: Sunset Commission. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981; Served in 
NC Senate, 1975-76; Bladen County Commissioner, June 1966 to December 1972. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on 
General Government; Vice Chairman, Appropriations Base Budget; Vice Chairman, Ap- 
propriations Expansion Budget; Vice Chairman, State Government; Vice Chairman, Transpor- 
tation; Agriculture; Appropriations Base Budget Committee on General Government; 
Legislative Redistricting; Pensions and Retirement; Small Business. 

Military Service: Served US Air Force, 1952-56. 

Religious Activities: Member, Elizabethtown Baptist Church; Deacon; Sunday School Teacher; 
Moderator, Bladen Baptist Association, 1966-68. 

Family: Married, Peggy McK.ee, January 9, 1955; Three Children: Shannon Sue, (Edward McK.ee) 
and Allison Hope; Resides in Elizabethtown. 




DAVID RUSSELL PARNELL 

(Democrat - Robeson County) 

(Twenty-first Representative District - Three Representatives) 
(Counties: Hoke, Robeson, and Scotland) 



Early Years: Born in Parkton, November 16, 1925, to John Quincy and Clelia (Britt) Parnell. 

Education: Attended Parkton Public Schools, 1931-41; Oak Ridge Military Institute, 1941-44; 
Wake Forest University, B.S. Degree, 1949. 

Occupation: Merchant and Farmer. 

Organizations: NC Merchants Association; NC Oil Jobbers Association; Member, NC State 

Humanities Foundation, 1975-1979; NC Plant Food Association. 
Boards and Commissions: NC State Highway Commissioner, 1969-72; Member, Board of Trustees, 

Meredith College, 1977; Member, Robeson County Industrial Development Commission, 1963 

to present. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981; 
Mayor, Town of Parkton, 1964-69. 



348 North Carolina Manual 



1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Appropriations Base Budget Committee on General 
Government; Vice Chairman, Appropriations Base Budget; Vice Chairman, Appropriations 
Expansion Budget; Vice Chairman, Courts and Judicial Districts; Vice Chairman, Public 
Utilities; Agriculture; Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on General Government; 
Congressional Redisricting; State Government; Wildlife Resources. 

Military Service: Served US Army, Corporal, 1945-46. 

Religious Activities: Member, Parkton Baptist Church; Chairman, Board of Deacons, 1974-75, 
1972-73, 1968-69; Church Treasurer, 1950-72; Sunday School Teacher, 1950 to present. 

Family: Married, Barbara Johnson Parnell, June 1 1, 1948; Children: David R. Jr., Anne J., and 
Timothy Scott; Resees in Parkton. 




HARRY EUGENE PAYNE, JR. 

(Democrat - - New Hanover County) 

(Twelfth Representative District - Two Representatives.) 
(County: New Hanover.) 



Early Years: Born in Wilmington, New Hanover County, September 11, 1952, to Harry Eugene 
and Margaret Tucker Payne. 

Education: Attended New Hanover High School, 1967-70; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1970-74, A.B. 
(Political Science and Psychology); Wake Forest University, School of Law, 1974-77, J.D. 

Occupation: Attorney (Private Practice, Wilmington). 

Organizations: Member, American Bar Association; NC Bar Association; NC STATE Bar; New 
Hanover County Bar Association; NC Academy of Trial Lawyers. 

Boards and Commissions: Advisory Commission-Neighborhood Justice Program: Offender Aid 
and Restoration Child Advocacy Commission. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on Natural and Economic Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations 
Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and Economic Resources; Higher Education; 
Judiciary I; Law Enforcement; Local Government I; Transportation; Water and Air 
Resources. 

Religious Activities: Member, Grace United Methodist Church. 

Family: Resides in Wilmington. 



The Legislative Branch 349 




MARY NORWOOD PEGG* 

(Republican — Forsyth County) 

(Twenty-ninth Representative District -- Five Representatives) 

(County: Forsyth) 



Early Years: Born in Rockingham, June 24, 1938, to Stephen Garland and Katherine Louise 
Patrick Norwood. 

Education: Attended Rockingham Schools, 1944-56; Wingate College; UNC-Greensboro; La 
Salle, 1971, Degree in Interior Design. 

Occupation: Homemaker. 

Organizations: Volunteer in various civic and cultural organizations. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on Education; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget Com- 
mittee on Education; Energy; Health; Higher Education; Human Resources; Local Govern- 
ment II; Mental Health. 

Honors: NC Conservation Union, Legislative Award, 1979; Eagle Forum, Eagle Award, 1979; 
Who's Who Women in Politics, 12th Edition. 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church. 

Family: Children: Katherine Elizabeth, Stephen Jabez, and Jennifer Gail; Resides at: 28 1 1-G Tully 
Sq., Winston, Salem. 



*Resigned August 14, 1981 




AARON W. PLYLER 

(Democrat — Union County) 

(Thirty-third Representative District -- Three Representatives) 
(Counties: Cabarrus and Union) 



Early Years: Lifelong resident Union County; Born October 1, 1926; to Isom F. and Ida Foard 
Plyler. 

Education: Attended Benton Heights School; Forida Military Academy. 

Occupation: Independent Businessman; President/Owner Plyler Grading and Paving, Inc.; Presi- 
dent, Hill Top Enterprises; Farming and real estate interests. 

Organizations: Vice President, at Large Mecklenburg-Union County United Community Services; 
Member, Andrew Jackson Memorial Committee; Member/Past President, Wingate College 
Patron Club; Member/Past President Monroe-Union County Chamber of Commerce; Mem- 
ber, North Carolina Restaurant Association; North Carolina Citizens Association; Associated 
General Contractors of America; National Federation Independent Businessmen; Rolling Hills 
Country Club. 



350 North Carolina Manual 



Boards and Commissions: Member General Board of Directors United Carolina Bank; Board of 
Directors, North Carolina Restaurant Association; Sun Corporation; H.R. Johnson Construc- 
tion Company; H.R. Johnson Realty; Board of Directors, North Carolina Economic Develop- 
ment Board; Member, State Inmate Labor Commission; Co-Chairman, 1981 Southern 
Legislative Conference Planning Committee. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981- 
83; Precinct Chairman 10 years; Past Chairman, Union County Democratic Party. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Natural and 
Economic Resources; Vice Chairman, Agriculture; Vice Chairman, Appropriations Base 
Budget; Vice Chairman, Appropriations Expansion Budget; Vice Chairman, Corrections; Ap- 
propriations Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and Economic Resources; Con- 
gressional Redistricting; Law Enforcement; Local Government I; Small Business; 
Transportation. 

Honors: 1970, Monroe-Union County Leadership Award; 1971, Union County "Man of the Year" 
Award; 1971, Wingate College Patron Club Award; 1973, Union County Leadership Award; 
1979, General Vice Chairman, Mecklenburg-Union County United Way Campaign. 

Religious Activities: Member, Benton Heights Presbyterian Church; Past Chairman, Board of 
Deacons; Ruling Elder. 

Family: Married, Dorothy Moser Plyler, May 22, 1948; Children: Barbara Plyler Faulk, Diane 
Plyler Hough, Aaron W., Jr., Alan, and Alton; Resides at: Route 7, Box 62, Monroe, (281 10). 



JULIUS REID POOVEY 

(Republican - Catawba County) 

(Thirty-Seventh Representative District -- Two Representatives) 

(County: Catawba) 



Early Years: Born in Hickory, September 24. 1902, to Lloyd Willard and Nancy Thomas (Reid) 

Poovey. 
Education: Attended Hickory City Schools; Weaver College; Lenoir-Rhyne College, Commercial 

graduate, 1922. 
Occupation: Retired Accountant. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Catawba County Board of Elections; Member, Board of Ad- 
visors of NC Federation of College Republicans. 
Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1967, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981: 

Served in NC Senate, 1969 and 1973-74; Served as Judge, Pro-tern, Hickory Municipal Court; 

Member of State, County and Precinct Republican Executive Committee. 
1981 Committee Assignments: Elections Laws: Finance: Health; Higher Education: Military and 

Veterans Affairs; State Personnel: Wildlife Resources. 
Military Service: Served in U.S.C.G.R. (T) Sic, 1944-45. 
Religious Activities: Episcopalian. 
Family: Married, Kathryn Violet Icard, April 7. 1928: Children: Mrs. Walter N. Yount, Jr., J. 

Reid, Jr., Major William B., USAF (retired), and Dr. James N.; Resides at: 61 Twentieth Ave., 

N.W., Hickory, (28601). 




The Legislative Branch 351 




WILLIAM PAUL PULLEY, JR. 

(Democrat - - Durham County) 

(Sixteenth Representative District - Three Representatives) 

(County: Durham) 



Early Years: Born in Durham, August 30, 1936, to William Paul and Josie Bullard Pulley. 

Education: Attended UNC-Chapel Hill, 1958, A.B.; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1961, L.L.B. 

Occupation: Attorney. 

Organizations: Member, NC Academy of Trial Lawyers; 14th Judicial Bar; American Trial 
Lawyers Association; NC Bar Association; UNC Law Alumni Foundation. 

Boards and Commissions: Past Member, Executive Committee, 14th Judicial District Bar; Board 
Member, UNC Law Alumni Foundation and UNC Law Alumni Association; Founder and 
Past President, Hollow Rock Racquet and Swim Club. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1979-80 and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Vice Chairman, Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Justice 
and Public Safety; Vice Chairman, Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Justice 
and Public Safety; Vice Chairman, Higher Education; Vice Chairman, Judiciary III; Ap- 
propriations Base Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Banks and Thrift Institutions; 
Congressional Redistricting; Insurance; Water and Air Resources. 

Religious Activities: Member, Braggtown Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Elizabeth Dees Nelson, February 10, 1968; Children: William Paul, III, Bradley 
Larkin, Debra Ann Nelson, Margaret Dees Nelson, and Hugh Reavis Nelson, III; Resides in 
Durham. 







DWIGHT WILSON QUINN 

(Democrat - - Cabarrus County) 

(Thirty-third Representative District - Three Representatives) 
(Counties: Cabarrus and Union) 



Early Years: Born in York, South Carolina, September 12, 1917, to William Lytle (deceased) and 
Lucy (Wilson) Quinn. 

Education: Educated in Carbarrus County Schools and the University of North Carolina extension 
schools; Received Honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Appalachian State University, 1978, 
and presently a member of the Board of Visitors. 

Occupation: Executive with Cannon Mills Co., Kannapolis, N.C. 

Organizations: Member, American Legion; Post 1 15, served as Vice-Commander of the American 
Legion; 40 and 8; Rotarian; Member Cannon Memorial Lodge, No. 626, A.F. & A.M.; Scot- 
tish Rite Bodies; Shriner, Oasis Temple. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Board of Directors, Southern Region Education Board; Mem- 
ber, Board of Directors, Cannon Memorial Y.M.C.A; Member, Board of Directors, Cabarrus 



352 North Carolina Manual 



County Boys Club; Board of National Cerebral Palsy Association; Former Chairman, Board of 
Trustees, Executive Committee, Appalachian State University; Served as chairman of Gover- 
nor's Commission, reorganization of State Government, 1961-62; Member, Executive Com- 
mittee Governor's Committee on Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Crime; Member, Commit- 
tee appointed by Attorney General, Criminal Code Revision; Member, Governor's Study 
Commission. Architectural Barriers for the Benefit of Handicapped. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1951, 1953, 1955-56, 1957, 1959, 1961, 
1965-66, 1967. 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981; Delegate to National 
Democratic Convention, 1960, (Los Angeles, California) and 1968, (Chicago, Illinois). 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Finance; Vice Chairman, Employment Security; Vice 
Chairman, Rules and Operation of the House; Education; Health; Judiciary II; Legislative 
Redistricting; Manufacturers and Labor; Public Utilities. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army, 1944-45. 

Honors: Voted Kannapolis, Man of the Year, 1948, by Jaycees; Received Amvets National Dis- 
tinguished Service Award for outstanding Community Service, 1953; Honorary Doctor of 
Laws, Appalachian State University, 1978 and presently. Member, Board of Visitors there. 

Religious Activities: Member, Kimball Memorial Lutheran Church; has served as member. Church 
Council. 

Family: Married, Marian Elizabeth Isenhour, February 23, 1936; One Daughter: Mrs. Lester V. 
Dodge: Resides at 213 South Main Street. Kannapolis. 




TOM BRAGG RABON, JR. 

(Democrat - Brunswick County) 

(Eleventh Representative District -- One Representative) 
(Counties: Brunswick and Pender) 



Early Years: Born in Wilmington, June 6, 1954, Tom B. and Lois King Rabon. 

Education: Attended Bolivia High School, August, 1960-May, 1972; UNC- Wilmington, 1972-74; 
UNC-Chapel Hill, 1974-1976, B.A. 

Occupation: Farmer; Former Community Development Consultant, United Telecommunications, 
Inc., Kansas City, Missouri; Former School Teacher, (South Brunswick High School.) 

Organizations: Former Director of Planning, Brunswick County; Member, Morehead Scholarship 
Selection Committee, Brunswick County: Board of Advisors, Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation: 
Alumni Board of Directors, UNC Chapel Hill: N.C. Energy Policy Council: Energy Commit- 
tee, National Conference of State Legislatures; Board of Directors, Cape Fear Area United 
Way. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1979-80. and 1981; Past President. 
Brunswick County Young Democrats Club; Member, NC Young Democrats; Member, 
Democratic State Executive Committee. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Energy; Vice Chairman, Manufacturers and Labor; Vice 
Chairman, Banks and Thrift Institutions; Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base 
Budget Committee on Education; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expan- 
sion Budget Committee on Education; Higher Education; Legislative Redistricting; Public 
Utilities. 

Honors: Co-Author of "The Community Development Handbook." 

Religious Activities: Member, New Hope Presbyterian Church. 

Family: Resides in Winnabow. 



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353 




JOHN MARION RADFORD 

(Democrat - - Johnston County) 

(Fourteenth Representative District Two Representatives) 
(Counties: Franklin and Johnston) 



Early Years: Born in Selma, Johnston County, July 22, 1931, to David R. and Elizabeth (Enson) 
Radford. 

Education: Attended Selma High School, 1937-49; NC State University, 1954-57, B.S.: East 
Carolina University, 1958-61, M.A. 

Occupation: Agri-Business, (Cargill Inc., 20 years); Former High School Teacher, 1957-59. 

Organizations: Mason; Shriner; and Farm Bureau; Past Lions; Kiwanis. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Governor's Advisory Committee, Agriculture, Forestry & 
Seafood, 1977-78. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981; Member, Johnston County 
Board of Education, 1968-80, (past Chairman.) 

1981 Committee Assignments: Agriculture; Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base 
Budget Committee on Natural and Economic Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget: 
Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and Economic Resources: Banks 
and Thrift Institutions; Education; Local Government I; Manufacturers and Labor: State 
Personnel. 

Military Service: Served US Army, Finance, E-5, 1950-54, (Korean War.) 
Religious Activities: Member, Selma Baptist Church; Chairman Board of Deacons, 1974-78; Sun- 
day School Teacher, as needed. 

Family: Married, Addie Williamson Radford, September 4, 1954; Children: Nancy Sue. John M., 
Jr.. Paula E., and Barbara D.; Resides at: 903 N. Sharpe St., Selma. 




WILLIAM FRANK REDDING, III 

(Republican - Randolph County) 

(Twenty-fourth Representative District - Two Representatives) 

(County: Randolph) 



Early Years: Born in Asheboro, March 11. 1930. to Viola Sanborn Redding and W. Frank 
Redding, Jr. 

Education: Attended Asheboro High School, 1943-48; University of UNC-Chapel Hill, B.S., in 
Business Administration, 1952. 

Occupation: Insurance Agent (President of Johns & Redding Insurance Agency, Inc.) 

Organizations: Member, Rotary International; Pi Kappa Alpha; Phi Beta Kappa; Beta Gamma 

Sigma, Honorary Business Scholastic Fraternity: Member, The Independent Insurance Agents 

of N.C., Inc.; and The National Association of Life Underwriters. 
Boards and Commissions: Member, State Crime Study Commission, 1973-77; State Law-Focused 

Education Advisory Committee; Director, Randolph-Asheboro Chamber of Commerce, 1978- 

81. 



354 



North Carolina Manual 



Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 1979-80, and 1981; Member, 
Asheboro City Board of Education, 1965-72, (Vice-Chairman, 1969-72.) 

1981 Committee Assignments: Constitutional Amendments; Election Laws; Finance; Law Enforce- 
ment; Legislative Redistricting; State Properties; Transportation. 

Military Service: Served US Air Force, First Lieutenant, September, 1952- August, 1954. 

Honors: Received 1978 Boss of the Year from Randolph County Association of Insurance Women. 

Religious Activities: Member, Central United Methodist Church; Church School Teacher; Mem- 
ber, Administrative Board. 

Family: Married, Joan Sistrunk, November 28, 1953; Children: Rebecca, Marianne, and Nancy; 
Resides in Asheboro. 




SAMUEL THOMAS RHODES 

(Republican — New Hanover County) 

(Twelfth Representative District - - Two Representatives) 
(County: New Hanover) 



Early Years: Born in Wilmington, October 12, 1944, to Samuel Thomas and Dorothy (Williamson) 
Rhodes. 

Education: Graduated New Hanover High School, 1962; University of North Carolina, 1966, B.A.: 
Auburn University, 1969, M.S.; Work toward Ph.D. done at NC State University. 

Occupation: Account Executive, E.F. Hutton & Co., Inc. 

Organizations: Member, American Institute of Biological Sciences; Member, International 
Oceanographic Foundation; Member, Historical Society; Member, Ancient, Free and Accept- 
ed Masons of NC (St. John's Lodge No. 1 ); Scottish Rite of Free Masonry Southern Jurisdic- 
tion of the United States; Ancient Arabic Order of Nobles, Mystic Shrine (Sudan Temple); 
Arab Shrine Club, Member, Board of Directors, 1970-72; Order of Demolay, Advisor and 
Member of Board of Directors and founding Fathers, 1972; Member, Wilmington Jaycees; 
Member & Former Chairman, NC Marine Science Council, Member, Board of Directors, New 
Hanover County Marine Science Consortium; Member, Board of Directors, NC Ocean 
Sciences Institute; Member, Board of Directors, the New Hanover Friends of the Public 
Library; Cape Fear Sportsman Club; Member, Historic Wilmington Foundation; Greater 
Wilmington Chamber of Commerce. 

Board and Commissions: Former Member, NC Board of Transportation. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 
and 1981. 

Honors: Presented Jaycees Distinguished Service Award for 1973; Nominee NC State Jaycee Man 
of the Year Award, 1973; Has had two scientific papers published. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Andrews Covenant Presbyterian Church, Wilmington; Member, 
Board of Deacons. 

Family: Married, Kleist W. Rhodes; Children: Ashely and Brandon; Resides in Wilmington. 



The Legislative Branch 



355 




GEORGE S. ROBINSON 

(Republican Caldwell County) 

(Thirty-fourth Representative District - Three Representatives) 
(Counties: Caldwell, Wilkes, and Yadkin) 



Early Years: Born in Lenoir, Caldwell County, November 15, 1945, to Charles M. and Lorraine M. 
Robinson. 

Education: Attended Oak Ridge Military Institute, 1963-64; University of Tennessee, 1964-68, 

1972-73. 
Occupation: Lumber Executive. (President, Robinson Lumber Company, Inc.; President, 

Southeastern Lumber Company.) 

Organizations: Lenoir Rotary Club; Lenoir Housing Authority; Alpha Tau Omega (Tennessee Pi); 
President, Lenoir Little League; District Commissioner, Boy Scouts of America. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Agriculture: Congressional Redistricting; Finance; Human 
Resources; Manufacturers and Labor: Public Utilities: State Government. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Air Force, Sergeant. 1968-72. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian of Lenoir 

Family: Married, Ann P. Robinson, April 14, 1974; One Child: Ricky; Resides at: 118 Beall Street, 
N.W.. Lenoir. 




MARY POWELL SEYMOUR 

(Democrat —Guilford County) 

(Twenty-third Representative District — Seven Representatives) 

(County: Guilford) 



Early Years: Born in Raleigh, April 12, 1922. to Robert C. (deceased) and Annie Rebecca 
(Seymour) Powell (deceased). 

Education: Graduated Needham B. Broughton High School, 1939; Peace College, 1941; Course 
Study Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1946-47; Pilot Nursery School Study Program, 
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1949-50; Leadership Development Training. 
Center of Creative Leadership, 1978. 

Occupation: Legal Assistant; Licensed Real Estate Broker. 

Organizations: Member. Womens Professional Forum: O. Henry Woman's Club: Greensboro 

Council of Garden Clubs, Inc: Greensboro Legal Auxiliary: Honorary Member. Business & 

Professional Women; Chamber of Commerce, Community Development Council. 
Board and Commissions: Tarheel Triad Girl Scout Council, Inc; Board of Visitors, Peace College. 

Board of Directors, Hayes Taylor YMCA: N.C. Arts Council. 1981-83. N.C. Parks & 

Recreation Council. 1979-82. 



356 North Carolina Manual 



Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981; Member, 
Greensboro City Council, 1967-75; Mayor Pro Tempore, 1973-75; YDC; Democratic Women. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Insurance; Vice Chairman, Appropriations Base Budget 
Committee on General Government; Vice Chairman, Appropriations Expansion Budget Com- 
mittee on General Government; Vice Chairman, Local Government I; Appropriations; 
Economy; Judiciary I; Public Utilities; University Board of Governors Nominating Commit- 
tee; Legislative Services Commission. NCSL State and The Arts Committee. 

Honors: Received, 1970 Eleanor Roosevelt Award; Woman of Year, City Beautification; 1971 
Bryant Citizenship Award, District 7, NC FWC; Chamber of Commerce Dolly Madison 
Award; 1972, Quota Club Woman of Year; Distinguished Alumna, Peace College; 1974 Dis- 
tinguished Service Award, YWCA; 1975 "Who's Who in Government; 1976-77 Bowker, 
"Women in Public Office." 

Religious Activities: Member, College Park Baptist Church; Sunday School Teacher. (10 years.) 

Family: Married, Hubert E. Seymour, Jr., February 3, 1945; Children: Hubert E., Ill, and Robert 
J.; Two Granddaughters: Resides at; 1 105 Pender Lane, Greensboro. 



NED RAEFORD SMITH 

(Democrat — Forsyth) 

(Twenty-ninth Representative District — Five Representatives) 

(County: Forsyth) 



Early Years: Born in Granite Falls, Caldwell County, January 16, 191 1, to Lloyd Poole and Dora 
Bradley Smith. 

Education: Attended R.J. Reynold's High School, 1929; Duke University, A.B., 1935; University 
of North Carolina, M.A.', 1943. 

Occupation: Retired Educator (Associate Superintendent of Winston-Salem Forsyth County 
Schools). 

Organizations: National Educators Association, NC Retired Teacher Personnel, NC Association 
of Community College Trustees; Winston-Salem Chamber of Commerce; NC Wildlife Federa- 
tion; Sertoma Club; Phi Delta Theta Fraternity; NC Association of Retired School Personnel. 

Boards and Commissions: Co-Chairman, Joint House- Senate Study Commission on Consumer 
Product Safety, 1977-79; Member, Study Commission, Re-codificiation of Public School Laws, 
1975-78. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Water and Air Resources; Vice Chairman, Health; Ag- 
ing: Finance; Higher Education; State Personnel; Transportation. 

Honors: Service Award, NC Community College Trustees; Service Award, United Fund Drive of 
Forsyth County. 

Religious Activities: Member, Ardmore United Methodist Church; Board of Stewards; Sunday 
School Class President; Sunday School Teacher; Member, Official Board for 15 Years. 

Family: Married, Marguerite Britt, June 5, 1936; Children: Ned Britt, and Carol Smith Strittmat- 
ter; Five Grandchildren; Resides at: 773 N. Stratford Road, Winston-Salem. 




The Legislative Branch 



357 




KENNETH BRIDGEFORTH SPAULDING 

(Democrat — Durham County) 

(Sixteenth Representative District — Three Representatives) 

(County: Durham) 



Early Years: Born in Durham, November 29, 1 944, to Asa T. and Elna (Bridgeforth) Spaulding Sr. 

Education: Attended Oakwood School, 1959-63; Howard University, B.A., 1967; UNC School of 
Law, 1967-70, J.D. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law. 

Organizations: Member, NC State Bar; 14th Judicial District Bar; George H. White Bar Associa- 
tion; NC Academy of Trial Lawyers. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Vice Chairman, Congressional Redistricting; Vice Chairman, 
Courts and Judicial Districts; Vice Chairman, Judiciary II; Appropriations Base Budget; Ap- 
propriations Base Budget Committee on Education; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Ap- 
propriations Expansion Budget Committee on Education; Constitutional Amendments; Elec- 
tion Laws; Legislative Redistricting; Local Government II. 

Honors: Received Darrow Society's Award; Member, Pi Sigma Alpha Honorary Government 
Society. 

Religious Activities: Member, White Rock Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Jean Ellen Gaillard, July 6, 1968; Children: Chandler Gaillard, and Courtney 
Gaillard; Resides at: No. 2 Shelly Place. Durham. 




LEROY PAGE SPOON, JR. 

(Republican — Mecklenburg County) 

(Thirty-Sixth Representative District — Eight Representatives) 
(County: Mecklenburg) 



Early Years: Born in Athens, Georgia, October 19, 1924, to LeRoy Page Sr. and Kathryn (Warren) 
Spoon. 

Education: Attended Central High School, Charlotte; Attended Clemson College; Boston Univer- 
sity; University of Georgia. 

Occupation: Manufacturer-Electrical Equipment (President, L.P. Spoon, Inc; Electrical Manufac- 
turer's Agent and Switching Equipment Manufacturing Co., and Electrical Manufacturer and 
Engraver.) 

Organizations: Member, Masons; Lions Club; Toastmaster Club; Barium Springs Home for 
Children: Chairman, Lansdowne School Committee. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Regents; Board of Directors, Mecklenburg Mental Health 
Association; Former Member, Erskine College, Board of Trustees; Member Department of 
Social Services Commission. 



358 



North Carolina Manual 



Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80 

and 1981. 
1981 Committee Assignments: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Employment Security; Finance; 

Highway Safety; Judiciary II; Military and Veterans Affairs; Rules and Operation of the 

House. 
Military Service: Served in US Army, 1942-46, Combat Infantryman in European Theatre and 

Engineer Korean in Theatre from 1950-52: Served as Member, NC National Guard, 1953-63 as 

member of 105th Combat Engineer Battalion, 30th Infantry Division (Highest Rank, Captain 

CE). 
Religious Activities: Member, Sardis Presbyterian Church in Charlotte: Elder; Chairman, Christian 

Education Committee: Presbyterian Family Life Center, Board of Directors. 

Family: Married, Ruth Elizabeth Atwell, September 1 1, 1948; Children: Carolyn Christina, LeRoy 
P.Spoon. Ill, and Wilfred: Resides at: 7028 Folger Drive, Charlotte. 




MELVIN LINDSEY STAMEY 

(Republican - - Davidson County) 

(Thirtieth Representative District - Three Representatives) 
(Counties: Davidson and Davie) 



Early Years: Born in High Point, Guilford County, December 17, 1917, to Thomas C. and Mattie 

(Garner) Stamey. 
Education: Attended High Point City School, 1924-35; Consolidated Federal Law Enforcement 

Training Center, Greenville, S.C., 1958; US Marshalls Service Training Academy, Washington, 

D.C., 1960. 
Occupation: Law Enforcement Officer (Retired). 
Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981. 
1981 Committee Assignments: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Commercial Fishing; Employment 

Security; Finance; Human Resources; Public Utilities; State Properties. 
Military Service: Served in US Air Force, Sergeant, January 1943-November 1945. 
Religious Activities: Member, Calvery UCC; Supt. Sunday School Teacher, 1948-80; President, 

Elder, Deacon, Treasurer, Calvery UCC. 
Family: Married, Marie Stamey, October 12, 1940: Resides at: 112 Beck Road. Thomasville. 



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LURA SELF TALLY 

(Democrat - - Cumberland County) 

(Twentieth Representative District - - Five Representatives) 
(County: Cumberland) 



Early Years: Born in Statesville, December 9, 1921, to R.O. and Sara Sherrill (Cowles) Self. 



The Legislative Branch 359 



Education: Attended Raleigh Public Schools and graduated Needham Broughton High School, 
1938; Attended Peace College; Graduated Duke University, A.B. Degree, 1942; North 
Carolina State University, Graduate School of Education, M.A. Degree, 1970. 

Occupation: Teacher and Guidance Counselor (Fayetteville City Schools); Teacher, Adult Educa- 
tion (Fayetteville Technical Institute.) 

Organizations: Member: Kappa Delta Sorority; NC Personnel and Guidance Association; 
American Association of Universtiy Women; Business and Professional Women's Club; 
Federation of Women's Clubs and Fayetteville Woman's Club; Past President, NC Society for 
Preservation of Antiquities; former President, Fayetteville Woman's Club; President, Cum- 
berland County Mental Health Association; Coordinator of Volunteers, Cumberland County 
Mental Health Center. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Fayetteville Recreation Commission; Juvenile Code Revision 
Commission, 1977-79; Member, North Carolina Art Society, Board of Fayetteville Art 
Museum and Board of Fayetteville Little Theatre. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 
and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Higher Education; Vice Chairman, Appropriations Base 
Budget Committee on Education; Vice Chairman, Appropriations Expansion Budget Commit- 
tee on Education; Vice Chairman, Courts and Judicial Districts; Appropriations Base Budget; 
Appropriations Expansion Budget; Energy; Human Resources; Judiciary I; Public Utilities. 

Honors: Business & Professional Women of the Year for Fayetteville, 1978. 

Religious Activities: Member, Hay Street Methodist Church. 

Family: Divorced; Two Sons: Robert Taylor and John Cowles; Three Grandsons; Resides at: 3100 
Tallywood Drive, Fayetteville, (28303). 



GEORGE RONALD TAYLOR 

(Democrat - Bladen County) 

(Nineteenth Representative District — Three Representatives) 
(Counties: Bladen, Columbus, and Sampson) 



Early Years: Born in Elizabethtown, August 28, 1952, to Miller and Lucille (Carroll) Taylor. 

Education: Graduated East Carolina University, B.S., 1974. 

Occupation: President, and Chief Executive Officer, Taylor Tobacco Enterprises, Inc. dba Taylor 
Manufacturing Company; Sec.-Treas., Taylor-Wilkes Helicopter Services, Inc.; Sec.-Treas., 
Taylor Tractor and Implement Co., inc., President, Taylor-Thompson Co., Inc. (tobacco auc- 
tion warehouse); President, Taylor Tobacco Enterprise, (Ontario, Inc.); Sec.-Treas. Dublin 
Racetrack, Inc.; President, National Lease Services, Inc.; President, Taylor Equipment Co. 
Inc., Grifton, NC; President, G.R. Taylor Manufacturing Co., Inc.; Partner, Taylor Farms; 
Partner, Taylor Hardware. 

Organizations: Past Area Chairman, East Carolina University Stadium Fund Drive; Bladen 
Technical Institute Foundation; N.C. Cotton Technical Advisory Committee; Past President, 
N.C. Tobacco Producers Association; Past Bladen County Campaign Committee Chairman 
for United Cerebral Palsy of N.C; Dublin Area Jaycees; Bladen County Wildlife and Conser- 
vation Club; Member, Jr. Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: Governor's Advocacy Council on Children and Youth; North Carolina 
Tobacco Foundation; Board of Directors, Southern Flue-Cured Tobacco Festival, Inc.; Joint 
Legislative Commission on Governmental Operations. 




360 North Carolina Manual 



Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981; Past 3rd 
Vice-Chairman, Bladen County Democratic Executive Committee; Past Secretary, Bladen 
County Democratic Executive Committee: Past President, Bladen County Young Democrats; 
Past District Organizer, 3rd Congressional District Young Democrats. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Public Utilities; Vice Chairman, Employment Security; 
Agriculture; Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Justice 
and Pulbic Safety; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expansions Budget 
Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Legislative 
Redistricting; Small Business. 

Religious Activities: Member, Dublin First Baptist Church; Teacher, 1974-80; Associational Direc- 
tor of Brotherhood. 

Family: Single: PO Box 1637, Elizabethtown, (28337). 



MARGARET ROSE TENNILLE 

(Mrs. Norton F. Tennille) 
(Democrat — Forsyth County) 

(Twenty-ninth Representative District - Five Representatives) 

(County: Forsyth) 



Early Years: Born in Hopewell, Virginia, March 25, 1917, to Robert Wilson Rose and Byrd 
McClure Rose. 

Education: Attended R.J. Reynolds High School, Winston-Salem, 1929-33: Salem College. 
Winston-Salem, 2 years, 1934-35. 

Occupation: Retired, (Former, Administrative Assistant Mayor of Winston-Salem, 1961-71.) 

Organizations: Member, Womens Forum, National Order of Women Legislators; Forsyth 
Democratic Women; United Daughters of Confederacy. 

Boards and Commissions: Appointed by Governor Hunt, Juvenile Code Revision, Planning Com- 
mission for Math-Science High School; Member, Commission of Youth Services, 1975; Mem- 
ber, Board of Directors, Forsyth Bank & Trust Co; NC Alcoholism Research Authority. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80. and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Justice and 
Public Safety; Vice Chairman, Appropriations Base Budget; Vice Chairman, Appropriations 
Expansion Budget; Vice Chairman, Economy; Vice Chairman, Human Resources; Appropria- 
tions Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Banks and Thrift Institutions; 
Education; Local Government II; Public Utilities. 

Religious Activities: Member, Centenary United Methodist Church; Board of Trustees, Centenan. 
United Methodist Church; Two terms on Board of Stewards, 1961-64, 1971-74. 

Family: Married, Norton F. Tennille, April 22, 1939 (deceased); Children: Norton F., Jr.. Wilson 
R., and Ben F.; Resides at 2307 Greenwich Rd., S.W., Winston-Salem, (27103). 




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361 




BETTY MARIE (DORTON) THOMAS 

(Democrat - - Cabarrus County) 

(Thirty-third Representative District Three Representatives) 
(Counties: Cabarrus and Union) 



Early Years: Born in Shelby, September 10, 1923, to Dr. J.S. (deceased) and Marie Biggerstaff 

Dorton (deceased). 
Education: Attended Shelby High School, 1936-39; UNC-Greensboro, 1940-44, B.S., Secretarial 

Administration. 

Occupation: President, A.W. Thomas & Son. 

Organizations: Member, Business & Professional Women; American Legion Auxiliary; National 
Organization of Women Legislators; Service Award, UNC-G, 1979; Former Trustee of UNC- 
Charlotte; Former Trustee of The Greater University Board of Trustees: Trustee, Barber- 
Scotia College. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76 (appointed to complete term 
of her deceased husband), 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Natural and Economic Resources; Vice Chairman, 
Banks and Thrift Institutions; Vice Chairman, Human Resources; Aging; Appropriations Base 
Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Human Resources; Appropriations Ex- 
pansion Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources; Educa- 
tion; Higher Education; Insurance; Local Government Advocacy Council Representative. 

Honors: Named Concord, Woman of the Year, 1976; NC Legislator of the Year, Counselor 
Association of Public Educators, 1980; Honorable Mention in the National Competition, 1980. 

Religious Activities: Member, Central United Methodist Church; all offices in Sunday School 

Class, 1948-60; Secretary, Women of the Church, 1969; Trustees, 1975-76; Council on 

Ministries, 1974-76; Administrative Board, 1975 & 1981. 
Family: Married, A.W. (Art) Thomas, Jr. (deceased), April 3, 1948; Children: Bettina Marie 

(Tina), Mrs. Robert Howard Bullock (Terre), and Arthur Webster (Tom), III; Resides at: B-9 

Candlewood Sq., Concord, (28052). 




BENJAMIN THOMPSON TISON, III 

(Democrat Mecklenburg County) 

(Thirty-sixth Representative District Eight Representatives) 
(County: Mecklenburg) 



Early Years: Born in Charlotte, November 4, 1930, to Benjamin Thompson (deceased) and Bryte 
(Washam) Tison, Jr. 

Education: Attended Charlotte Public Schools and graduated Central High School, 1949: 
Graduated UNC School of Business. B.S. Degree, 1953; UNC School of Law, J.D.. 1958, At- 
tended Graduate School of Credit and Financial Management, Harvard University, 1971. 

Occupation: NC National Bank; Industrial Developer, Vice President. 



362 North Carolina Manual 



Organizations: Member. NC State Bar; NC Industrial Development Association. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives. 1973-74. 1975-76, 1977-78. 1979-80 

and 1981. 
1981 Committee Assignments: Vice Chairman, Manufacturers and Labor: Vice Chairman, Public 

Utilities, Corporations: Finance: Judiciary III: State Government: Wildlife. 

Military Service: Served U.S.N.R., Lieutenant, 1953-63. 
Religious Activities: Member. Covenant Presbyterian Church. 

Family: Married, Roma Wornall. December 12, 1971: Children: William Woodbridge Tison. and 
Clay Wornall Tison: Resides at: 1200 Queen Rd., West, Charlotte. (28207). 




HENRY MCMILLAN TYSON 

(Democrat - - Cumberland County) 

(Twentieth Representative District Five Representatives) 
(County: Cumberland) 



Early Years: Born in Cumberland County, October 31, 1914, to Henry Grady and Tommie 
(Marsh) Tyson. 

Education: Graduated Gray's Creek High School, 1934. 

Occupation: Farmer and Farm Supply Dealer; Sales Supervisor, Fayetteville Tobacco Market, 9 
Years. 

Organizations: Member, North Carolina Farm Bureau: Cumberland County Livestock Associa- 
tion; Gray's Creek Ruritan Club, Past President; Member, John Huske Anderson Lodge No. 
731 (Masonic); Past President, Parent-Teacher Association; Member, Fayetteville Kiwanis 
Club: Member, Fayetteville Eastern Star #334: Member, Cumberland County Agricultural Ad- 
visory Council. 

Boards and Commissions: Charter member, Cumberland County Soil Conservation Commission, 
1946-52. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1973-74. 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981; 
Cumberland County Commissioner, (Chairman, Seven Years); served as a County Com- 
missioner of Cumberland County, 12 years. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Military and Veterans Affairs, Vice Chairman, Aging; 
Vice Chairman, Agriculture: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Congressional Redistricting; 
Finance; Local Government II; Water and Air Resources. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Fayetteville; Past Deacon and Past Elder: 
Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Married, Addie Amelia Williams, June 16, 1940; Children: Carrie Eula, Henry McMillan. 
Hand John Marsh; Resides at: Route 7, Box 284, Fayetteville, (28306). 



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363 




ED NELSON WARREN 

(Democrat Pitt County) 

(Eighth Representative District - Two Representatives) 
(Counties: Greene and Pitt) 



Early Years: Born in Stokes, Pitt County, November 29, 1926, to Elmer Edward and Daisy (Cox) 
Warren. 

Education: Attended Campbell University, 1950, A. A.; Atlantic Christian College, 1951, A.B.; 
East Carolina University, 1953, M.A.; Duke University, 1960-61, Attended Doctoral Program. 

Occupation: Investor, Tobacco Warehouse: Tobacco Farming; Rental Properties; Education Ad- 
ministrator, 25 years. 

Organizations: Member, Greenville Rotary Club; Member, Pitt County Airport Authority; Past 
Chairman, Pitt County Heart Association; Board of Directors, Greenville Chamber of Com- 
merce; United Fund; Greenville Golf and Country Club. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Pitt County Health Board; Salvation Army, Board of 
Trustees; Past Chairman, Pitt Memorial Hospital Board of Trustees. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981; Chairman, Pitt County Board of 
Commissioners, 1973-79; North Tar Fellowship Club. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Agriculture; Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base 
Budget Committee on Natural and Economic Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget; 
Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and Economic Resources; Educa- 
tion; Local Government I; Rules and Operation of the House; Wildlife Resources. 

Military Service: Served in US Air Force, Sgt., 1945-48. 

Honors: Tar Heel of the Week; Outstanding Personalities of the South. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Christian Church: President, Christian Mens Fellowship; 
Deacon. 

Family: Married, Joan Braswell Warren, 1953; Resides at: 227 Country Club Dr., Greenville. 




WILLIAM THOMAS WATKINS 

(Democrat Granville County) 

Thirteenth Representative District - Three Representatives) 
(Counties: Caswell, Granville, Person, Vance and Warren) 



Early Years: Born in Granville County, July 1, 1921, to John Stradley and Belle (Norwood) 

Watkins. 
Education: Attended Oak Hill High School, 1927-39; Mars Hill Junior College, 1942; Wake Forest 

College, 1939-41 and 1946-48; Wake Forest College, B.S., 1949; Wake Forest Law School, 

1949-52, L.L.B. 
Occupation: Attorney, (City Attorney for City of Creedmoor, 1955-68); Attorney for Granville 

County. 



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North Carolina Manual 



Organizations: Member, NC State Bar Association; Ninth District Bar and Granville County Bar; 
Member, Pi Kappa Alpha; Phi Delta Phi, Jagister, 1952. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 
1979-80 and 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Appropriations Expansion Budget; Vice Chairman, 
Election Laws; Vice Chairman, Wildlife Resources; Appropriations Base Budget; Con- 
stitutional Amendments; Courts and Judicial Districts; Health; Judiciary II; Small Business. 

Military Service: Served in US Army, Staff Sergeant, 1942-46. 

Religious Activities: Member, Oxford Baptist Church, Oxford; Sunday School Teacher, 1956-60. 

Family: Married, Louise Marie Best, November 18, 1944; Children: Mrs. Martin L. (Alma Marie) 
Nesbitt, Jr. and Mrs. Jerry (Annabell) Barker: Resides at: 213 W. Thorndale Drive, Oxford. 




DENNIS ALVIN WICKER 

(Democrat Lee County) 

(Eighteenth Representative District Two Representatives) 
(Counties: Harnett and Lee) 



Early Years: Born in Sanford, Lee County, June 14, 1952, to J. Shelton and Clarice (Burns) Wicker. 

Education: Attended University of NC, Chapel Hill, 1974, B.A.; Wake Forest University, 1978, 
J.D. 

Occupation: Attorney (Love & Wicker, P.A., Sanford, NC) 

Organizations: Member, NC State Bar; ABA; NC Bar Association; Academy of Trial Lawyers; 
Lions Club; Moose Club; Modern Woodsman of the World. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Congressional Redistricting; Courts and Judicial Districts; Finance; 
Judiciary I; Law Enforcement; Military and Veterans Affairs; State Properties. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Luke Methodist Church, Sanford; Administrative Board Mem- 
ber; Sunday School Teacher. 
Family: Resides at: 1201 Burns Drive, Sanford, (27330). 




WILMA CUMMINGS WOODARD 

(Democrat - - Wake County) 

(Fifteenth Representative District Six Representatives.) 

(County: Wake.) 



Early Years: Born in Angier, Harnett County, November 18, 1934, to C. Claud and Lutheria 
Searcy Cummings. 

Education: Attended, Beaufort High School; UNC-Chapel Hill; graduated, NCSU, 1969, B.A. 
(History); Public Affairs, Department of Political Science. 



The Legislative Branch 365 



Occupation: Housewife. 

Organizations: Charter member, Raleigh-Wake Urban League (Board of Directors); Wake 
County PTA Council (Vice-President, 1977); Wake County Kidney Council (Board of Direc- 
tors); NCSU Alumni Associaiton (Board of Directors, 1974-1981); Garner Chamber of Com- 
merce; National Order of Women Legislators, 1980; Womens Forum (Board of Directors, 
1980). 

Boards and Commissions: Garner Planning and Zoning Board (Vice Chairman); Raleigh-Wake 
Land-Use Code Committee, 1977; Wake County CETA Advisory Board, 1977; Advisory 
Board, NC Student Legislature, 1980; Advisory Commission, NC State Museum of Natural 
History, 1979; Mental Health Advisory Commission, 1980; Capital Planning Commission, 
1980; Co-Chairman, Legislative Research Study Commission on Alternatives Work 
Schedules; Task Force on Aging, NC Conference for Social Service, 1980; Task Force on Em- 
ployment, NC White House Conference on Aging, 1980; State-wide Child Abuse and Neglect 
Prevention Advocacy Committee, 1980; Triangle J. Project 2000 (Board of Directors, 1980). 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1978 (Appointed to fill vacancy- 
created by resignation of Robert L. Farmer), 1979-80 and 1981; Treasurer, Wake County 
Democratic Party, 1977; Member, Democratic Women of Wake County; Wake Women's 
Political Caucus. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Corrections; Vice Chairman, Cultural Resources; Vice 
Chairman, Constitutional Amendments; Aging; Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations 
Base Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Ap- 
propriations Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Commissions and In- 
stitutions for the Blind and Deaf; Governmental Ethics; Health. 

Honors: B.F. Brown Award for Outstanding Liberal Arts Student, 1969; Member Phi Kappa Phi, 
Honorary Scholastic Fraternity, NCSU. 

Religious Activities: Member, United Methodist Church. 

Family: Married, Dr. Warden Lewis Woodard Jr., March 17, 1952; Children: Mary Ellen Nixon, 
Warden Lewis, III, Albert Searcy, and Richard Allen; Resides in Garner. 




RICHARD WRIGHT 

(Democrat — Columbus County) 

(Ninteenth Representative District -- Three Representatives) 
(Counties: Bladen, Columbus and Sampson) 

Early Years: Born in Loris, South Carolina, October 8, 1944, to Ottis R. and Olive (Battle) Wright; 
Native of Tabor City, Columbus County. 

Education: Attended Tabor City High School, September 1959- June 1963; University of NC at 
Chapel Hill, A.B., Degree in Political Science, 1967; University of NC at Chapel Hill Law 
School, J.D. Degree, 1971. 

Occupation: Attorney and Farmer; Town Attorney for Tabor City; Owner of various rental 
properties; Member, Firm of McGougan and Wright. 

Organizations: North Carolina Bar Association; Director 13th Judicial District Bar Association; 
Columbus County Bar Association and Columbus County Farm Bureau; Director, Columbus 
County Arts Council; Director, Columbus County Mental Health Association; Director, 
Southeastern Oratorio Society; Columbus County Cattleman's Association; President, 
Columbus County UNC-Alumni Association; Chairman, Columbus County Morehead 
Scholarship Committee; Civitan Club; Director, Southeastern Community College Founda- 



366 North Carolina Manual 



tion; Sampson and Columbus Historical Societies; S.C. Genealogy Society. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Trustees, NC Art Museum; NC Commission on Criminal 
Justice Training Education and Standards. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80 and 1981; 
Presidential Elector, 1976; Member, State Democratic Executive Committee. 

1981 Committee Assignments: Chairman, Judiciary II; Vice Chairman, Education; Vice Chairman, 

Rules and Operation of the House; Courts and Judicial Districts; Employment Security; 

Finance; Military and Veterans Affairs. 
Honors: Phi Beta Kappa; Order of The Old Well; several articles published in Columbus County 

History, published 1980. 
Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church; Council on Ministeries and Administrative 

Board. 
Family: Married, Jenny McKinnon; Children: Elizabeth Armstrong Wright and Sarah McKinnon; 

Resides in Tabor City. 




GRACE AVERETTE COLLINS 

Principal Clerk — House of Representatives 

Grace Averette Collins was born in Fuquay-Varina. Daughter of Alozona Deems Averette and 
Minnie Lee (Helms) Averette. Graduated Fuquay-Varina High School, 1949; Kings Business 
College, 1951. Attended Raleigh School of Commerce and Hardbarger Business College, refresher 
courses. Homemaker. National Society of Legislative Clerks and Secretaries, receiving Out- 
standing Achievement Award in 1975 and Leadership Award, 1976. Served on committee on Com- 
parative Development Center, 1974-75; Agenda Committee 1975-76, 1977-78; Executive 
Nominating Committee for National Conference of State Legislatures, 1978. Is presently serving as 
Vice-President of National Society of Legislative Clerks and Secretaries. General Assembly Ex- 
perience: Assistant Calendar Clerk 1969; Journal Clerk 1971-1973; and Principal Clerk, 1974, 1975, 
1976, 1977, 1978, 1978, and 1981,. Served as First Vice-chairman of Middle Creek Fuquay precinct, 
1969-1971. Served as Chairman for precinct 1971-1973. Served as Cub Scout Den Mother, active in 
community affairs — fund raising, etc., served on Wake County Bicentennial Committee, 1972; 
Town Board Recreation Committee. Who's Who in State Government, 1976. Member Fuquay 
Methodist Church, Board of Mission, Sunday school teacher. Member of Chancel Choir. Married 
John Nolan Collins October 4, 1952. Children: John N., Jr., Joseph A., James D., and Laurie E. 
Address: 518 East Academy St., Fuquay-Varina, N.C. 27526. 



The Legislative Branch 



367 




JOHN LAWRENCE ALLEN, JR. 

LEGISLATIVE SERVICES OFFICER 

John Lawrence Allen,. Jr., was born in Greensboro, N.C., January 7, 1923. Son of John 
L. and Swannie (Putnam) Allen. Graudate Greensboro High School and Fork Union 
Military, Fork Union, Virginia. Entered State Government as an Interviewer with the 
Employment Security Commission in 1946; served on Employment Security Commission 
Training Staff, 1947-1949; Administrative Assistant, 1949-1952; Business Manager, 
1952-1961; Assistant Director of the Department of Conservation and Development, 
1961-1963; Assistant and State Budget Officer, 1963-1964; State Personnel Director, 
1964-1965; Controller State Highway Commission, 1965-1968. Director of Operations, 
North Carolina Manpower Development Corporation, 1968-1969. Executive Vice Presi- 
dent and Secretary-Treasurer of Andy Griffith Company; President, Treasurer, and 
Board Director of Coastal Plains Enterprises, Inc.; and President, Treasurer, and Board 
Director of Barbecue Barn, Inc., 1969-1972. Director Employment Security Commission, 
1972-1976; Administrative Officer, North Carolina General Assembly, 1976; Director, 
Fiscal Research Division, North Carolina General Assembly, 1977-1978. Appointed 
Legislative Services Officer, July, 1978. Served with Army Air Force in the Pacific 
(1942-1945) and participated in the invasion of New Guinea and the liberation of the 
1'hillippines. Past Chairman Supervisory Committee of State Employees' Credit Union. 
Former member Committee on Policies and Practices in Public Employment of the 
Governor's Commission on Status of Women; Raleigh Community Relations Committee 
representing State Government. Methodist; Past Steward and member of Official Board 
of Wynnewood Park Methodist Church; formerly served as Chairman of Official Board, 
Treasurer, and Secretary of Wesley Memorial Methodist Church; past member of 
Raleigh Methodist Board of Missions and Church Extension. Married Frances Lee Gor- 
don. Three daughters: Sandra (Mrs. Paul Rogers), Jacqueline (Mrs. Bruce Davis), and 
Jane Gordon. Address 916 Merwin Road, Raleigh, N.C. 



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North Carolina Manual 



1981 HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

AGING 

Chairman: Messer, Ernest B. 

Vice-Chairman: Barnes, Richard 

Vice-Chairman: Economos. Gus 

Vice-Chairman: Jordan, John M. 

Vice-Chairman: Tvson. Henry M. 



Brennan, Louise S. 
Foster. Jo Graham 
Fussell. Aaron E. 
Greenwood. Gordon H. 
Haworth. Byron 



Hayden. Margaret 
Hughes. Charles H. 
Hux. George A. 
Ligon. Bradford V. 



Mauney. D. R.. Jr. 
Smith. Ned R. 
Thomas. Betty Dorton 
Woodard. Wilma C. 



Anderson, Gerald 
Bone. Roger W. 
Brown. John Walter 
Brubaker. Harold J. 
Craven, James M. 
Creecy, C. Melvin 
Ellis. T. W.. Jr. 
Enloe. Jeff H. 



AGRICULTURE 

Chairman: James. Vernon G. 
Vice-Chairman: Clark. Douglas A. 

Vice-Chairman: Hux. George A. 

Vice-Chairman: Lutz, Edith Ledford 

Vice-Chairman: McAlister. Robert L. 

Vice-Chairman: Plyler, Aaron W. 

Vice-Chairman: Tvson. Henrv M. 



Fenner. Jeanne T. 
Fussell, Aaron E. 
Gillam. John B.. Ill 
Grady. Richard R. 
Hightower, Foyle R., Jr. 
Jordan. John M. 
Lacey. S. B.. Jr. 
Lillev. Daniel T. 



Locklear. Horace 
Mavretic. Josephus L. 
Nye. Edd 
Parnell. David R. 
Radford. John M. 
Robinson, George S. 
Taylor. Ron 
Warren. Ed N. 



Barbee. Allen C. 
Black. Jim 
Jones. Robert A. 



ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE CONTROL 

Chairman: Edwards, Ralph P. 

Vice-Chairman: Barnes. Richard 

Vice-Chairman: Holt. Bertha 



Lilley. Daniel T. 
Morgan. James F. 
Spoon. Roy 



Stamey. Melvin L. 
Tvson. Henrv M. 



APPROPRIATIONS BASE BUDGET 

Chairman: Adams, Allen 

Vice-Chairman: Beard. R. D. 

Vice-Chairman: Bell. E. Graham 

Vice-Chairman: Cook, Ruth E. 

Vice-Chairman: Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Greenwood. Gordon H. 

Vice-Chairman: Nash, Robie L. 

Vice-Chairman: Nye, Edd 

Vice-Chairman: Parnell. David R. 

Vice-Chairman: Plyler. Aaron W. 

Vice-Chairman: Tennille. Margaret 



The Legislative Branch 



369 



Allran, Austin M. 
Almond, P. Ellis 
Anderson, Gerald 
Beam, Sam 
Black. Jim 
Bone, Roger W. 
Brennan. Louise S. 
Brubaker, Harold J. 
Bumgardner, David W. 
Church, John T. 
Clark. Douglas A. 
Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Colton, Marie W. 
Crawford, Narvel J., Jr. 
Diamont, David Hunter 
Easterling, Ruth M. 
Enloe, Jeff H. 
Etheridge, Bobby R. 



Ethridge, Bruce 
Evans, Charles D. 
Fenner, Jeanne T. 
Foster, Jo Graham 
Fussell, Aaron E. 
Gillam, John B., Ill 
Hackney, Joe 
Haworth, Byron 
Hayden. Margaret 
Hege, Joe H., Jr. 
Holmes, George M. 
Hughes, Charles H. 
Hughes, James F. 
Hunt, John J. 
Huskins, J. P. 
James, Vernon G. 
Kessee. Margaret P. 
Lancaster, Martin 



Ligon, Bradford V. 
Lutz, Edith Ledford 
McAlister, Robert L. 
McDowell, Timothy H. 
Messer, Ernest B. 
Payne, Harry E., Jr. 
Pegg, Mary N. 
Pulley, Paul 
Rabon, Tom B., Jr. 
Radford, John M. 
Seymour, Mary P. 
Spaulding, Kenneth B. 
Tally, Lura S. 
Taylor, Ron 
Thomas, Betty Dorton 
Warren, Ed N. 
Watkins, William T. 
Woodard, Wilma C. 



APPROPRIATIONS BASE BUDGET COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION 

Chairman: Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Church, John T. 

Vice-Chairman: Tally, Lura S. 



Anderson, Gerald 
Bone, Roger W. 
Brubaker, Harold J. 
Enloe, Jeff H. 



Foster, Jo Graham 
Greenwood, Gordon H. 
McAlister, Robert L. 



Pegg, Mary N. 
Rabon, Tom B., Jr. 
Spaulding, Kenneth B. 



APPROPRIATIONS BASE BUDGET 
COMMITTEE ON GENERAL GOVERNMENT 



Almond, P. Ellis 
Clark. Douglas A. 
Crawford, Narvel J., Jr. 
Evans, Charles D. 



Chairman: Parnell, David R. 
Vice-Chairman: Seymour, Mary P. 



Fussell, Aaron E. 
Hayden, Margaret 
Keesee, Margaret P. 



Lancaster, Martin 
McDowell, Timothy H. 
Nye, Edd 



APPROPRIATIONS BASE BUDGET 
COMMITTEE ON HUMAN RESOURCES 

Chairman: Cook, Ruth E. 
Vice-Chairman: Brennan, Louise S. 
Vice-Chairman: Lutz, Edith Ledford 



Allran, Austin M. 
Beam, Sam 
Bell. E. Graham 
Black, Jim 



Diamont, David Hunter 
Fenner, Jeanne T. 
Hackney, Joe 



Holmes, George M. 
Messer, Ernest B. 
Thomas, Betty Dorton 



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North Carolina Manual 



APPROPRIATIONS BASE BUDGET COMMITEE 
ON JUSTICE AND PUBLIC SAFETY 

Chairman: Tennille, Margaret 

Vice-Chairman: Etheridge, Bobby R. 

Vice-Chairman: Pullev. Paul 



Gillam. John B.. HI 
Haworth. Byron 
Hege. Joe H.. Jr. 



Hughes, Charles H. 
Huskins, J. P. 
Ligon, Bradford V. 



Nash. Robie L. 
Taylor, Ron 
Woodard. Wilma C. 



APPROPRIATIONS BASE BUDGET COMMITTEE 
ON NATURAL AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES 

Chairman: Plyler, Aaron W. 

Vice-Chairman: Bumgardner, David W. 

Vice-Chairman: Easterling. Ruth M. 



Beard, R. D. 
Cochrane. Betsy L. 
Colton. Marie W. 
Ethridge. Bruce 



Hughes. James F. 
Hunt. John J. 
James, Vernon G. 



Payne, Harry E., Jr. 
Radford. John M. 
Warren, Ed N. 



APPROPRIATIONS EXPANSION BUDGET 

Chairman: Watkins, William T. 

Vice-Chairman: Beard, R. D. 

Vice-Chairman: Bell, E. Graham 

Vice-Chairman: Cook, Ruth E. 

Vice-Chairman: Fulcher, G. Malcolm. Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Greenwood. Gordon H. 

Vice-Chairman: Nash, Robie L. 

Vice-Chairman: Nye. Edd 

Vice-Chairman: Parnell, David R. 

Vice-Chairman: Plyler, Aaron W. 

Vice-Chairman: Tennille, Margaret 



Adams. Allen 
Allran. Austin M. 
Almond, P. Ellis 
Anderson, Gerald 
Beam, Sam 
Black, Jim 
Bone. Roger W. 
Brennan. Louise S. 
Brubaker, Harold J. 
Bumgardner, David W. 
Church, John T. 
Clark, Douglas A. 
Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Colton, Marie W. 
Crawford, Narvel J., Jr. 
Diamont, David H. 
Easterling, Ruth M. 
Enloe, Jeff H. 



Etheridge, Bobby R. 
Ethridge, Bruce 
Evans, Charles D. 
Fenner, Jeanne T. 
Foster, Jo Graham 
Fussell, Aaron E. 
Gillam, John B., Ill 
Hackney, Joe 
Haworth, Byron 
Hayden. Margaret 
Hege, Joe H., Jr. 
Holmes. George M. 
Hughes, Charles H. 
Hughes, James F. 
Hunt, John J. 
Huskins, J. P. 
James, Vernon G. 
Keesee, Margaret P. 



Lancaster. Martin 
Ligon. Bradford V. 
Lutz, Edith Ledford 
McAlister, Robert L. 
McDowell. Timothy H. 
Messer, Ernest B. 
Payne, Harry E., Jr. 
Pegg. Mary N. 
Pulley. Paul 
Rabon. Tom B.. Jr. 
Radford, John M. 
Seymour, Mary P. 
Spaulding, Kenneth B. 
Tally, Lura S. 
Taylor, Ron 
Thomas, Betty Dorton 
Warren, Ed N. 
Woodard, Wilma C. 



The Legislative Branch 371 



APPROPRIATIONS EXPANSION BUDGET 
COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION 

Chairman: Greenwood, Gordon H. 

Vice-Chairman: Church, John T. 

Vice-Chairman: Tally. Lura S. 

Anderson, Gerald Foster, Jo Graham Pegg, Mary N. 

Bone, Roger W. Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. Rabon, Tom B.. Jr. 

Brubaker, Harold J. McAlister, Robert L. Spaulding, Kenneth B. 
Enloe, Jeff H. 

APPROPRIATIONS EXPANSION BUDGET 
COMMITTEE ON GENERAL GOVERNMENT 

Chairman: Nye, Edd 
Vice-Chairman: Seymour, Mary P. 

Almond, P. Ellis Fussell, Aaron E. Lancaster, Martin 

Clark, Douglas A. Hayden, Margaret McDowell, Timothy H. 

Crawford, Narvel J., Jr. Keesee, Margaret P. Parnell, David R. 
Evans, Charles D. 

APPROPRIATIONS EXPANSION BUDGET 
COMMITTEE ON HUMAN RESOURCES 

Chairman: Bell, E. Graham 
Vice-Chairman: Brennan, Louise S. 
Vice-Chairman: Lutz, Edith Ledford 

Allran, Austin M. Diamont, David Hunter Holmes, George M. 

Beam, Sam Fenner, Jeanne T. Messer, Ernest B. 

Black. Jim Hackney, Joe Thomas, Betty Dorton 
Cook, Ruth E. 

APPROPRIATIONS EXPANSION BUDGET COMMITTEE 
ON JUSTICE AND PUBLIC SAFETY 

Chairman: Chairman: Nash, Robie L. 

Vice-Chairman: Etheridge. Bobby R. 

Vice-Chairman: Pulley, Paul 

Gillam, John B., Ill Hughes, Charles H. Taylor, Ron 

Haworth, Byron Huskins, J. P. Tennille, Margaret 

Hege. Joe H., Jr. Ligon, Bradford V. Woodard, Wilma C. 

APPROPRIATIONS EXPANSION BUDGET COMMITTEE 
ON NATURAL AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES 

Chairman: Beard, R. D. 

Vice-Chairman: Bumgardner, David W. 

Vice-Chairman: Easterling. Ruth M. 

Cochrane, Betsy L. Hunt, John J. Plyler, Aaron W. 

Colton, Marie W. James, Vernon G. Radford, John M. 

Ethridge, Bruce Payne, Harry E., Jr. Warren, Ed N. 
Hughes, James F. 



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North Carolina Manual 



Adams, Allen 
Barnes. Richard 
Beam, Sam 
Brawley, C. Robert 
Brennan, Louise S. 
Brubaker. Harold J. 
Coble, J. Howard 
Cook, Ruth E. 



BANKS AND THRIFT INSTITUTIONS 

Chairman: Bone, Roger W. 

Vice-Chairman: Rabon. Tom B.. Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Thomas. Bern Dorton 



Edwards. Ralph P. 
Foster, Jo Graham 
Gillam. John B., Ill 
Holmes, George M. 
Holt, Bertha 
Holt, Charles 
Hughes, Charles H. 



Hunt, Patricia S. 
Mavretic, Josephus L. 
Nesbitt, Martin L. 
Pulley. Paul 
Radford, John M. 
Taylor, Ron 
Tennille, Margaret 



COMMERCIAL FISHING 



Anderson, Gerald 
Barker. Chris S., Jr. 



Chairman: Guy, A.D. 
Vice-Chairman: James, Vernon G. 

Brannan, George W. 
Chapin, Howard B. 



Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. 
Stamey, Melvin L. 



COMMISSIONS AND INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND AND DEAF 



Burnley. Dorothy R. 
Gay. William C. 



Chairman: Fussell, Aaron E. 
Vice-Chairman: Nash. Robie L. 

Grady, Richard R. 
Mauney, D. R., Jr. 



Mavretic, Josephus L. 
Woodard. Wilma C. 



CONGRESSIONAL REDISTRICTING 

Chairman: Huskins. J. P. 

Vice-Chairman: Barbee. Allen C. 

Vice-Chairman: Bell. E. Graham 

Vice-Chairman: Edwards, Ralph P. 

Vice-Chairman: Spaulding. Kenneth B. 



Barker, Chris, S., Jr. 
Black, Jim 
Blue, Daniel T., Jr. 
Brown, John Walter 
Coble, J. Howard 
Crawford, Narvel J., Jr. 
Creecy, C. Melvin 



Ethridge, Bruce 
Fulcher, G. Malcolm. Jr. 
Hughes, James F. 
Hunt, Patricia S. 
Jordan, John M. 
Kaplan, Ted 
Ligon, Bradford V. 



Musselwhite, Marvin D., Jr. 
Parnell, David R. 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Pulley, Paul 
Robinson, George S. 
Tyson, Henry M. 
Wicker, Dennis A. 



CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS 

Chairman: Holt, Bertha 

Vice-Chairman: Beard, R. D. 

Vice-Chairman: Haworth, Byron 

Vice-Chairman: Helms. H. Parks 

Vice-Chairman: Woodard. Wilma C. 



Brennan, Louise S. 
Bundy. Sam D. 
Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. 
Hiatt, William S. 
Holmes, George M. 



Hunter, Thomas B. 
Huskins, J. P. 
James, Vernon G. 
Jones, Robert A. 
Keesee. Margaret P. 



McDowell, Timothy H. 
Nesbitt. Martin L. 
Redding, Frank 
Spaulding, Kenneth B. 
Watkins, William T. 



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373 



Almond, P. Ellis 
Brannan. George W. 
Brawlev. C. Robert 



CORPORATIONS 

Chairman: Barnes. Richard 

Vice-Chairman: Hunt. John J. 

Vice-Chairman: Locklear. Horace 



Ellis. T. W.. Jr. 
Ligon. Bradford V. 



Musselwhite. Marvin D . Jr. 
Tison, Ben 



Allran, Austin M. 
Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Cook. Ruth E. 



CORRECTIONS 

Chairman: Woodard, Wilma C. 

Vice-Chairman: Fulcher. G. Malcolm. Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Plvler, Aaron W. 



Creecy. C. Melvin 
Gay. William C. 
Hacknev, Joe 



Hightower. Foyle R.. Jr. 
Lutz. Edith Ledford 



COURTS AND JUDICIAL DISTRICTS 

Chairman: Hux. George A. 

Vice-Chairman: Clark. William E. 

Vice-Chairman: Parnell. William R. 

Vice-Chairman: Spaulding. Kenneth B. 

Vice-Chairman: Tally. Lura S. 



Almond. P. Ellis 
Hackney, Joe 
Haworth. Byron 
Hege. Joe H.. Jr. 
Helms. H. Parks 



Brannan. George W. 
Burnley, Dorothy R. 



Anderson, Gerald 
Brubaker, Harold J. 
Coble, J. Howard 



Hughes. Charles H. 
Huskins, J. P. 
Jones, Robert A. 
Lacey. S. B.. Jr. 
Maunev. D. R., Jr. 



Musselwhite. Marvin D., Jr. 
Nesbitt. Martin L. 
Watkins, William T. 
Wicker. Dennis A. 
Wright. Richard 



CULTURAL RESOURCES 



Chairman: Colton. Marie W. 
Vice-Chairman: Woodard, Wilma C. 



Harrison. William D. 
Holt, Bertha 

ECONOMY 



Hughes. James F. 
Mavretic, Josephus L. 



Chairman: Holt. Charles 

Vice-Chairman: Ellis. T. W.. Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Nash. Robie L. 

Vice-Chairman: Tennille. Margaret 



Easterling, Ruth M. 
Hughes, Charles H. 
Jordan. John M. 



Mavretic. Josephus L. 
Seymour, Mary P. 



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North Carolina Manual 



Allran. Austin M. 
Beard. R. D. 
Blue. Daniel T., Jr. 
Chapin, Howard B. 
Cochrane. Betsy L. 
Etheridge. Bobby R. 
Fenner, Jeanne T. 
Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. 



EDUCATION 

Chairman: Foster, Jo Graham 

Vice-Chairman: Bundy, Sam D. 

Vice-Chairman: Fussell, Aaron E. 

Vice-Chairman: Lancaster, Martin 

Vice-Chairman: Wright, Richard 



Gay, William C. 
Gil'lam, John B., Ill 
Harrison, William D. 
Hayden, Margaret 
Hiatt. William S. 
Keesee, Margaret P. 
Locklear, Horace 



Mauney, D. R., Jr. 
Quinn, Dwight W. 
Radford, John M. 
Rhodes, S. Thomas 
Tennille, Margaret 
Thomas, Betty Dorton 
Warren. Ed N. 



Adams, Allen 
Barbee, Allen C. 
Clark, William A. 
Crawford. Navel J. 
Hege, Joe H., Jr. 



Jr. 



Adams. Allen 
Beam. Sam 
Ellis, T. W., Jr. 



Allran, Austin M. 
Brannan, George W. 
Brawley, C. Robert 
Bumgardner, David W. 



ELECTION LAWS 

Chairman: Clark, Douglas A. 

Vice-Chairman: Bell. E. Graham 

Vice-Chairman: Kaplan. Ted 

Vice-Chairman: Watkins. William T. 



Hunter, Robert C. 
Hunter. Thomas B. 
Jones, Robert A. 
Lutz, Edith Ledford 



McAlister. Robert L. 
Poovey, J. Reid 
Redding, Frank 
Spaulding, Kenneth B. 



EMPLOYMENT SECURITY 

Chairman: Enloe, Jeff H. 

Vice-Chairman: Miller. George W., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Quinn. Dwight W. 

Vice-Chairman: Taylor. Ron 



Gillam. John B. Ill 
Hackney. Joe 
Keesee, Margaret P. 

ENERGY 



Spoon, Roy 
Stamey, Melvin L. 
Wright. Richard 



Chairman: Rabon, Tom B., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Diamont, David 

Vice-Chairman: Greenwood, Gordon H. 



Hunt, John J. 
Jordan, John M. 
Kaplan, Ted 



Nash, Robie L. 
Pegg. Mary N. 
Tally. Lura S. 



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375 



Barnes, Richard 
Blue, Daniel T., Jr. 
Brannan, George W. 
Brawley, C. Robert 
Brown, John Walter 
Bundy, Sam D. 
Burnley, Dorothy R. 
Chapin, Howard B. 
Clark, William E. 
Coble. J. Howard 
Craven, James M. 
Creecy, C. Melvin 
Economos, Gus 
Edwards. Ralph P. 
Gay, William C. 
Grady, Richard R. 



FINANCE 

Chairman: Quinn, Dwight W. 

Vice-Chairman: Barbee, Allen C. 

Vice-Chairman: Barker, Chris S., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Ellis, T. W., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Hightower, Foyle R., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Hunter, Thomas B. 

Vice-Chairman: Jordan, John M. 

Vice-Chairman: Lilley, Daniel T. 



Guy, A. D. 
Harrison, William D. 
Helms. H. Parks 
Hiatt, William S. 
Holt. Bertha 
Holt, Charles 
Hunt, Patricia S. 
Hunter, Robert C. 
Hux, George A. 
Jones, Robert A. 
Kaplan, Ted 
Lacey, S. B., Jr. 
Locklear, Horace 
Mauney, D. R., Jr. 
Mavretic, Josephus L. 



Miller, George W., Jr. 
Morgan, James F. 
Musselwhite, Marvin D., Jr. 
Nesbitt, Martin L. 
Poovey, J. Reid 
Redding, Frank 
Rhodes. S. Thomas 
Robinson, George S. 
Smith, Ned R. 
Spoon, Roy 
Stamey, Melvin L. 
Tison, Ben 
Tyson, Henry M. 
Wicker, Dennis A. 
Wright, Richard 



GOVERNMENTAL ETHICS 

Chairman: Evans, Charles D. 

Vice-Chairman: Holt, Bertha 

Vice-Chairman: Lancaster, Martin 



Almond, P. Ellis 
Barker. Chris S., Jr. 



Brawley, C. Robert 
Holt, Charles 



Keesee, Margaret P. 
Woodard, Wilma C. 



Barnes. Richard 
Beam, Sam 
Black, Jim 
Brown. John Wlater 
Brubaker, Harold J. 



HEALTH 

Chairman: Hunter, Thomas B. 

Vice-Chairman: Colton, Marie W. 

Vice-Chairman: Grady, Richard R. 

Vice-Chairman: Guy, A. D. 

Vice-Chairman: Smith, Ned R. 



Enloe, Jeff H. 
Fenner, Jeanne T. 
Gay, William C. 
Holt, Charles 
Hunt. Patricia S. 



Pegg. Mary N. 
Poovey. J. Reid 
Quinn, Dwight W. 
Watkins, William T. 
Woodard, Richard 



376 



North Carolina Manual 



Church. John T. 
Coble. J. Howard 
Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Hackney, Joe 
Harrison, William S. 



HIGHER EDUCATION 

Chairman: Tally, Lura S. 

Vice-Chairman: Brennan, Louise S. 

Vice-Chairman: Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: McDowell, Timothy H. 

Vice-Chairman: Messer, Ernest B. 

Vice-Chairman: Pulley, Paul 



Mauney, D. R.. Jr. 
Payne, Harry E., Jr. 

Pegg, Mary N. 
Poovey, J. Reid 



Rabon, Tom B., Jr. 
Rhodes, S. Thomas 
Smith, Ned R. 
Thomas, Betty Dorton 



Almond, P. Ellis 
Bumgardner, David W. 
Coble. J. Howard 



Beam, Sam 
Bundy. Sam D. 
Fenner, Jeanne T. 
Greenwood, Gordon 



HIGHWAY SAFETY 

Chairman: Lancaster, Martin 

Vice-Chairman: Bone, Roger W. 

Vice-Chairman: Miller, George W., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Morgan, James F. 

Fussell, Aaron E. 
Greenwood, Gordon H. 
Spoon, Roy 



Creecy, C. Melvin 
Economos, Gus 
Evans, Charles D. 



HUMAN RESOURCES 

Chairman: Economos, Gus 

Vice-Chairman: Cook, Ruth E. 

Vice-Chairman: Haworth. Byron 

Vice-Chairman: Tennille, Margaret 

Vice-Chairman: Thomas, Betty Dorton 



Ligon, Bradford V. 
Lutz, Edith Ledford 
Pegg, Mary N. 



Robinson, George S. 
Stamey, Melvin L. 
Tally. Lura S. 



H. 



Barnes, Richard 
Beard, R. D. 
Bell, E. Graham 
Clark, William E. 
Hightower, Foyle R., Jr. 



INSURANCE 

Chairman: Seymour, Mary P. 
Vice-Chairman: Evans, Charles D. 



Holmes, George M. 
Holt, Charles 
Hughes, James F. 
Lilley, Daniel T. 
Messer, Ernest B. 



Miller. George W., Jr. 
Pulley, Paul 
Rhodes. S. Thomas 
Thomas. Betty Dorton 



Clark, William E. 
Cook, Ruth E. 
Hackney, Joe 
Hughes, James F. 



JUDICIARY I 

Chairman: Miller, George W., Jr. 
Vice-Chairman: Helms, H. Parks 
Vice-Chairman: Hux, George A. 

Musselwhite, Marvin D., Jr. 
Nesbitt, Martin L. 
Payne. Harry E., Jr. 



Seymour, Mary P. 
Tally, Lura S. 
Wicker. Dennis A. 



The Legislative Branch 



377 



Allran, Austin M. 
Beam, Sam 
Beard, R. D. 
Blue, Daniel T., Jr. 



Black, Jim 
Brennan, Louise S. 
Coble, J. Howard 



JUDICIARY II 

Chairman: Wright, Richard 

Vice-Chairman: Evans, Charles D. 

Vice-Chairman: Jones, Robert A. 

Vice-Chairman: Spaulding, Kenneth B. 



Easterling, Ruth M. 
Economos, Gus 
Haworth, Byron 
Hege, Joe H., Jr. 

JUDICIARY III 



Lancaster, Martin 
Quinn, Dwight W. 
Spoon, Roy 
Watkins, William T. 



Chairman: Morgan, James F. 

Vice-Chairman: Adams, Allen 

Vice-Chairman: Locklear, Horace 

Vice-Chairman: Pulley, Paul 



Holmes, George M. 
Holt. Bertha 
Hunt, Patricia S. 



Hunter, Robert C. 
Tison, Ben 



Barker, Chris S., Jr. 
Hiatt, William S. 
Holmes, George M. 



Almond, P. Ellis 
Barnes, Richard 
Beam, Sam 
Blue, Daniel T., Jr. 
Bone, Roger W. 
Brennan, Louise S. 
Chapin, Howard B. 
Church, John T. 
Clark, Douglas A. 
Craven. James M. 
Creecy, C. Melvin 
Diamont, David H. 



LAW ENFORCEMENT 

Chairman: McDowell, Timothy H. 

Vice-Chairman: Hunt. Patricia S. 

Vice-Chairman: Hunter, Thomas B. 



Miller, George W., Jr. 
Payne, Harry E., Jr. 
Plyler, Aaron W. 



Redding, Frank 
Wicker, Dennis A. 



LEGISLATIVE REDISTRICING 

Co-Chairman: Jones, Robert A. 

Co-Chairman: Lilley. Daniel T. 

Vice-Chairman: Bundy, Sam D. 

Vice-Chairman: Messer, Ernest B. 



Etheridge, Bobby R. 
Evans, Charles D. 
Gillam, John B. Ill 
Grady. Richard R. 
Guy, A. D. 
Hackney, Joe 
Hege, Joe H., Jr. 
Hiatt, William S. 
Hightower, Foyle R. 
Holmes, George M. 
Hunt, John J. 
Hunter, Robert C. 



Jr. 



McAlister, Robert L. 
Morgan, James F. 
Nash, Robie L. 
Nesbitt, Martin L. 
Nye. Edd 

Quinn, Dwight W. 
Rabon, Tom B., Jr. 
Redding. Frank 
Rhodes, S. Thomas 
Spaulding, Kenneth B. 
Taylor, Ron 



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North Carolina Manual 



LOCAL GOVERNMENT I 

Chairman: Grady, Richard R. 

Vice-Chairman: Church, John T. 

Vice-Chairman: Lilley, Daniel T. 

Vice-Chairman: Seymour, Mary P. 



Barbee, Allen C. 
Brannan, George W. 
Colton, Marie W. 
Craven, James M. 



Allran, Austin M. 
Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Easterling, Ruth M. 
Economos, Gus 



Adams, Allen 
Allran, Austin M. 
Barnes, Richard 
Blue, Daniel T., Jr. 
Bone, Roger W. 



Brawley, C. Robert 
Burnley, Dorothy R. 
Craven, James M. 
Creecy, C. Melvin 
Edwards, Ralph P. 



Harrison, William D. 
Hayden, Margaret 
Hege, Joe H., Jr. 
Lacey, S. B., Jr. 



Payne, Harry E., Jr. 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Radford, John M. 
Warren, Ed N. 



LOCAL GOVERNMENT II 

Chairman: Lutz, Edith Ledford 

Vice-Chairman: Diamont, David H. 

Vice-Chairman: Enloe, Jeff H. 



Helms, H. Parks 
Hunter, Robert C. 
Keesee, Margaret P. 
Pegg, Mary N. 



Spaulding, Kenneth B. 
Tennille, Margaret 
Tyson, Henry M. 



MANUFACTURERS AND LABOR 

Chairman: Haworth, Byron 
Vice-Chairman: Easterling, Ruth M. 

Vice-Chairman: Guy, A. D. 
Vice-Chairman: Rabon, Tom B., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Tison, Ben 



Brubaker, Harold J. 
Cochrane, Betsy L. 
McDowell, Timothy H. 
Messer, Ernest B. 
Musselwhite, Marvin D. 



Quinn, Dwight W. 
Radford, John M. 
Rhodes, S. Thomas 
Robinson. George S. 



Jr. 



MENTAL HEALTH 

Chairman: Barker, Chris S., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Beard, R. D. 

Vice-Chairman: Cook, Ruth E. 

Vice-Chairman: Economos, Gus 

Fenner, Jeanne T. 
Gay, William C. 
Grady, Richard R. 
Greenwood, Gordon H. 
Hayden, Margaret 



Helms, H. Parks 
Keesee, Margaret P. 
Lancaster, Martin 
Lutz, Edith Ledford 
Pegg, Mary N. 



MILITARY AND VETERANS AFFAIRS 

Chairman: Tyson, Henry M. 

Vice-Chairman: Barker, Chris S.. Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Bumgardner, David W. 

Vice-Chairman: Hunt, John J. 



Brown, John Walter 
Foster, Jo Graham 
Guy, A. D. 



Hiatt, William S. 
Lacey, S. B., Jr. 
Poovey, J. Reid 



Spoon, Roy 
Wicker, Dennis A. 
Wright, Richard 



The Legislative Branch 



379 



NATURAL AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES 

Chairman: Thomas, Betty Dorton 

Vice-Chairman: Chapin, Howard B. 

Vice-Chairman: Ethridge, Bruce 

Vice-Chairman: McDowell, Timothy H. 



Anderson. Gerald 
Brawley, C. Robert 
Colton, Marie W. 
Craven, James M. 



Bundy, Sam D. 
Etheridge, Bobby R. 



Barker, Chris S., Jr. 
Bell. E. Graham 
Burnley, Dorothy R. 
Cook, Ruth E. 
Etheridge. Bobby R. 
Grady. Richard R. 



Diamont, David H. 
Ellis, T. W„ Jr. 
Fenner, Jeanne T. 
Gillam, John B. Ill 



Hayden, Margaret 
Kaplan, Ted 
Lacey, S. B., Jr. 



PENSIONS AND RETIREMENT 



Chairman: Ellis, T 
Vice-Chairman: Foster 

Nesbitt. Martin L. 



W.. Jr. 

Jo Graham 



Nye, Edd 



PUBLIC UTILITIES 

Chairman: Taylor, Ron 

Vice-Chairman: Huskins, J. P. 

Vice-Chairman: James. Vernon G. 

Vice-Chairman: Parnell, David R. 

Vice-Chairman: Tison, Ben 

Harrison. William D. 
Hiatt. William S. 
Jordan. John M. 
Mauney. D. R., Jr. 
Miller. George W., Jr. 
Quinn. Dwight W. 



Rabon, Tom B., Jr. 
Robinson, George S. 
Seymour, Mary P. 
Stamey, Melvin L. 
Tally, Lura S. 
Tennille. Margaret 



RULES AND OPERATION OF THE HOUSE 

Chairman: Hunt, John J. 

Vice-Chairman: Adams. Allen 

Vice-Chairman: Easterling, Ruth M. 

Vice-Chairman: Quinn. Dwight W. 

Vice-Chairman: Wright, Richard 



Barbee, Allen C. 

Beard, R. D. 

Black. Jim 

Blue. Daniel T.. Jr. 

Church. John T. 

Clark. Douglas A. 

Crawford, Narvel J., Jr. 



Edwards. Ralph P. 
Ethridge. Bruce 
Evans, Charles D. 
Holmes, George M. 
Hunter. Robert C. 
Hunter. Thomas B. 



Jones, Robert A. 
Kaplan. Ted 
Locklear, Horace 
Messer, Ernest B. 
Spoon. Roy 
Warren, Ed N. 



380 



North Carolina Manual 



Anderson. Gerald 
Black. Jim 
Bone, Roger W. 
Brubaker. Harold J. 
Bumgardner, David W 
Clark, Douglas A. 



Barbee, Allen C. 
Bumgardner. David W. 
Burnley. Dorothy R. 
Crawford, Narvel J.. Jr. 
Easterling, Ruth M. 



Almond, P. Ellis 
Blue, Daniel T.. Jr. 
Burnlev, Dorothy R. 
Enloe.Jeff H. 



SMALL BUSINESS 

Chairman: Etheridge, Bobby R. 

Vice-Chairman: Colton. Marie W. 

Vice-Chairman: Kaplan, Ted 

Vice-Chairman: Taylor, Ron 

Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Diamont, David H. 
Ellis. T. W., Jr. 
Ethridge, Bruce 
Helms. H. Parks 
Hughes, Charles H. 

STATE GOVERNMENT 



Chairman: Church, John T. 

Vice-Chairman: Clark. Douglas A. 

Vice-Chairman: Hightower. Foyle R.. Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Morgan, James F. 

Vice-Chairman: Nye, Edd 



Musselwhite, Marvin D., Jr. 

Nye. Edd 
Plyler. Aaron W. 
Rhodes, S. Thomas 
Watkins, William T. 



Evans, Charles D. 
Guy, A. D. 
Hege, Joe H.. Jr. 
Hughes, James F. 
Jones, Robert A. 

STATE PERSONNEL 



Chairman: Jordan. John M. 

Vice-Chairman: Bundy. Sam D. 

Vice-Chairman: Chapin. Howard B. 

Vice-Chairman: Fussell. Aaron E. 



McAlister, Robert L. 
Parnell. David R. 
Robinson, George S. 
Tison, Ben 



Greenwood, Gordon H. 
Hayden, Margaret 
Hux, George A. 



Poovey. J. Reid 
Radford, John M. 
Smith. Ned R. 



Brannan, George W. 
Hightower, Foyle R. 
Ligon, Bradford V. 



Jr. 



STATE PROPERTIES 

Chairman: Chapin. Howard B. 

Vice-Chairman: Edwards, Ralph P. 

Vice-Chairman: Greenwood, Gordon H. 



Musselwhite, Marvin D. 
Redding, Frank 



Jr. Stamey, Melvin L. 
Wicker, Dennis A. 



The Legislative Branch 



381 



Brannan, George W. 
Brown, John Walter 
Church, John T. 
Crawford, Narvel J., 
Ethridge, Bruce 
Hughes, Charles H. 



Jr. 



TRANSPORTATION 

Chairman: Bumgardner, David W. 

Vice-Chairman: Enloe, Jeff H. 

Vice-Chairman: Etheridge, Bobby R. 

Vice-Chairman: McAlister, Robert L. 

Vice-Chairman: Nye, Edd 



Hughes, James F. 
Hunter, Robert C. 
Huskins. J. P. 
Hux. George A. 
James, Vernon G. 
Lacey, S. B., Jr. 



Lilley, Daniel T. 
Messer, Ernest B. 
Payne, Harry E., Jr. 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Redding, Frank 
Smith, Ned R. 



UNIVERSITY BOARD OF GOVERNORS NOMINATING COMMITTEE 

Chairman: Locklear, Horace 

Vice-Chairman: Foster, Jo Graham 

Vice-Chairman: Hunt, Patricia S. 

Vice-Chairman: Huskins, J. P. 



Bell, E. Graham 
Clark, William E. 
Crawford. Narvel J., Jr. 



Gay, William C. 
Hunt. John J. 
McDowell, Timothy H. 



Miller, George W. 
Nash, Robie L. 
Seymour, Mary P. 



Jr. 



Anderson, Gerald 
Clark, William E. 
Craven. James M. 
Diamont. David H. 



WATER AND AIR RESOURCES 

Chairman: Smith, Ned R. 

Vice-Chairman: Bone, Roger W. 

Vice-Chairman: Ethridge, Bruce 

Vice-Chairman: McAlister, Robert L. 



James, Vernon G. 
Ligon, Bradford V. 
Mavretic, Josephus L. 
Nash. Robie L. 



Payne, Harry E., Jr. 
Pulley, Paul 
Tyson, Henry H. 



Brown. John Walter 
Creecy, C. Melvin 
Harrison, William D. 



WILDLIFE RESOURCES 

Chairman: Hightower, Foyle R., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Clark. William E. 

Vice-Chairman: Holt, Charles 

Vice-Chairman: Watkins. William T. 



Hughes, James F. 
Lilley, Daniel T. 
Parnell, David R. 



Poovey, J. Reid 
Tison, Ben 
Warren, Ed N. 



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North Carolina Manual 



OCCUPATIONS OF REPRESENTATIVES 



Account Executive 

Rhodes, Samuel T. 

Accountant 

Hege, Joe H., Jr. 
Poovey, J. Reid (Ret.) 

Agri-Business 

Bone, Roger W. 
Gillam, John B., Ill 
James, Vernon G. 
Jordan, John M. 
McAlister, Robert L. 
Radford, John M. 
Taylor, George Ronald 
Tyson, Henry M. 

Administrative Assistant 

Tennille, Margaret R. (Ret.) 

Attorney 

Adams, Allen 
Allran, Austin M. 
Blue, Daniel T., Jr. 
Clark, William E. 
Coble, John H. 
Evans, Charles D. 
Hackney, Joe 
Haworth, Byron A. 
Helms, H. Parks 
Holt, Bertha M. 
Hunt, Patricia S. 
Hunter, Robert C. 
Hux, George A. 
Jones, Robert A. 
Lancaster, H. Martin 
Locklear, Horace 
Miller, George W., Jr. 
Morgan, James F. 
Musselwhite, Marvin D., Jr. 
Nesbit, Martin L. 
Payne, Harry E., Jr. 
Pulley, W. Paul, Jr. 
Spaulding, Kenneth B. 
Watkins, William T. 
Wicker, Dennis A. 
Wright, Richard 



Automobile Dealership 
Ellis, T.W., Jr. 

Banking 

Hughes, Charles H. 
Tison, Ben T., Ill 

Certified Public Accountant 

Clark, Douglas A. 

Coal, Ice, LP Gas & Appliance Dealer 

Hightower, Foyle 

College Professor 

Barker, Chris S., Jr. (Ret.) 
Brennan, Louise S. 

Contractor 

Hiatt, William S. 
Hughes, Charles H. 

Corporate Executive 

Barnes, Richard W. 
Bone, Roger W. 
Brennan, Louise S. 
Burnley, Dorothy R. 
Church, John T. 
Craven, James M. 
Easterling, Ruth M. 
Economos, Gus 
Etheridge, Bobby R. 
Hightower, Foyle R., Jr. 
Hughes, Charles H. 
Kaplan, Ian Theodore 
Mauney, David R., Jr. 
Messer, Ernest 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Quinn, Dwight W. 
Robinson, George S. 
Spoon, LeRoy P., Jr. 
Thomas, Betty M. 

Dentist 

Hunt, John J. 

Educational Consultant 

Hayden, Margaret B. 



The Legislative Branch 



383 



Education 

Bundy, Sam D. (Ret.) 
Chapin, Howard B. 
Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Diamont, David H. 
Foster, Jo Graham (Ret.) 
Fussell, Aaron E. (Ret.) 
Gay, William C. (Ret.) 
Harrison, William D. 
Hiatt, William S. 
Smith, Ned R. (Ret.) 

Engineer 

Ethridge, W. Bruce 

Earm Supplies 

Tyson, Henry M. 

Farming 

Barbee, Allen C. 
Brown, John W. 
Bundy, Sam D. 
Creecy, C. Melvin 
Ellis, Thomas W., Jr. 
Gillam, John B., Ill 
Grady, Richard R. 
Hunt, John J. 
James, Vernon G. 
Lutz, Edith L. 
McAllister, Robert L. 
Parnell, David R. 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Rabon, Tom B., Jr. 
Taylor, George Ronald 
Tyson, Henry M. 
Warren, Ed N. 
Wright, Richard 

Funeral Director 

Bumgardner, David W., Jr. 

Guidance Counselor 

Fulcher, Gerald M., Jr. 
Tally, Lura S. 

Homemaker 

Colton, Marie W. 
Holt, Bertha M. 
Pegg, Mary N. 
Woodard, Wilma C. 



Hotel/Motel Owner 

Barbee, Allen C. 
Hughes, James F. 

Insurance 

Beard, Rayford B. 
Bell, E. Graham 
Brawley, Clyde R., Jr. 
Guy, Alexander D. 
Holmes, George M. 
Hunter, Thomas B. 
Hux, George H. 
Lilley, Daniel T. 
Nye, Edd 
Redding, William F., Ill 

Jobber 

Holt, Charles 

Land Developer 

Barbee, Allen C. 
Clark, William E. 
Jordan, John M. 
Thomas, Betty M. 

Law Enforcement 

Almond, P. Ellis (Ret.) 
Stamey, Melvin L. (Ret.) 

Legal Assistant 

Seymour, Mary P. 

Logging/ Lumber Industry 

Anderson, Gerald L. 
Robinson, George S. 

Mfg. — Electrical Equipment 

Spoon, LeRoy P., Jr. 

Mfg. — Farm Equipment 

Taylor, George Ronald 

Marketing Enterprising 

Brubaker, Harold J. 

Metal Plating/Galvanizing 

Craven, James M. 



384 



North Carolina Manual 



Merchant 

Hunt, John H. 
Parnell, David R. 
Ramsey, Liston B. (Ret.) 

Minister 

Creecy, C. Melvin 

Military, U.S. 

Barker, Chris S., Jr. (Ret.) 
Craven, James M. (Ret). 
Mavretic, Josephus L. (Ret.) 

Nurseryman 

Brannan, George W. 

Nursing Home Administrator 

Beam, Sammy L. 

Optometrist 

Black, James B. 

Pharmacist 

Ligon, Bradford, V. 

Public Affairs (College) 

McDowell, Timothy H. 

Publisher 

Huskins, Joseph P. 

Radio — Television Station 

Etheridge, Bobby R. 

Real Estate (Appraising) 

Brubaker, Harold J. 



Real Estate (Brokerage) 

Anderson, Gerald L. 
Barbee, Allen C. 
Bell, E. Graham 
Guy, Alexander, D. 
Lacey, S.B., Jr. 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Seymour, Mary P. 

Real Estate (Management) 

Crawford, Narvel J., Jr. 
Nash, Robie L. 
Warren, Ed N. 
Wright, Richard 

Restauranteur 

Economos, Gus 

School Teacher 

Keesee, Margaret P. 
Tally, Lura S. 

Stockbroker 

Rhodes, S. Thomas 

Tobacco Warehouse 

Taylor, George Ronald 

U.S. Government 

Enloe, Jeff H., Jr. (Ret.) 

Writer 

Harrison, William D. 

No Occupation Given 

Cook, Ruth E. 
Fenner, Jeanne T. 



The Legislative Branch 385 



RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

1981 GENERAL ASSEMBLY 

(HOUSE RESOLUTION 23) 

I. Order of Business 

RULE 1. Convening Hour. — The House shall convene each legislative day at the hour 
fixed by the House. In the event the House adjourns on the preceding legislative day 
without having fixed an hour for reconvening, the House shall convene on the next 
legislative day at 1:30 p.m. 

RULE 2. Opening the Session. -- At the convening hour on each legislative day the 
Speaker shall call the members to order and shall have the session opened with prayer. 

RULE 3. Quorum. — (a) A quorum consists of a majority of the qualified members of 
the House. 

(b) Should the point of a quorum be raised, the doors shall be closed and the Clerk shall 
call the roll of the House, after which the names of those not responding shall again be 
called. In the absence of a quorum, fifteen members are authorized to compel the 
attendance of absent members and may order that absentees for whom no sufficient 
excuses are made be taken into custody wherever they may be found by special messenger 
appointed for that purpose. 

RULE 4. Approval of Journal. — (a) The Committee on Rules and Operation of the 
House shall cause the Journal of the House to be examined daily before the hour of 
convening to determine if the proceedings of the previous day have been correctly 
recorded. 

(b) Immediately following the opening prayer and upon appearance of a quorum, the 
Speaker shall call for the Journal report by the Chairman of the Committee on Rules and 
Operation of the House or by a Representative designated by the Chairman as to whether 
the proceedings of the previous day have been correctly recorded. Without objection, the 
Speaker shall cause the Journal to stand approved. 

RULE 5. Order of Business of the Day. -- After the approval of the Journal of the 
preceding day, the House shall proceed to business in the following order: 

( 1 ) The receiving of petitions, memorials and papers addressed to the General Assem- 
bly or to the House; 

(2) Reports of standing committees; 

(3) Reports of select committees; 

(4) First reading and reference to committee of bills and resolutions; 

(5) Messages from the Senate; 

(6) Concurrence with Senate amendments or Senate committee substitutes; 

(7) The unfinished business of the preceding day; 

(8) Calendar (each category in accordance with Rule 40): 

(a) Local bills (roll call) third reading 

(b) Local bills (roll call) second reading 

(c) Local bills third reading 

(d) Local bills second reading 

(e) Public bills (roll call) third reading 
(0 Public bills (roll call) second reading 

(g) Public bills and resolutions, third reading 
(h) Public bills and resolutions, second reading; 



386 North Carolina Manual 



(9) Reading of Notices and Announcements; but messages and motions to elect officers 
shall always be in order. 

II. Conduct of Debate 

RULE 6. Duties and Powers of the Speaker. The Speaker shall have general 
direction of the Hall. He may name any member to perform the duties of the Chair, but 
substitution shall not extend beyond one day, except in the case of sickness or by leave of 
the House. 

RULE 7. Obtaining Floor. - - (a) When any member desires recognition for any 
purpose, he shall rise from his seat and respectfully address the Speaker. No member shall 
proceed until recognized by the Speaker. 

(b) When a member desires to interrupt a member having the floor, he shall first obtain 
recognition by the Speaker and permission of the member occupying the floor, and when 
such recognition and permission have been obtained, he may propound a question to the 
member occupying the floor; but he shall not otherwise interrupt the member having the 
floor, except as provided in subsection (c) of this rule; and the Speaker shall, without the 
point of order being raised, enforce this rule. 

(c) A member who has obtained the floor may be interrupted only for the following 
reasons: 

(1) a request that the member speaking yield for a question. 

(2) a point of order, or 

(3) a parliamentary inquiry. 

RULE 8. Questions oj Personal Privilege . — Upon recognition by the Speaker for that 
purpose, any member may speak to a question of personal privilege for a time not to 
exceed three (3) minutes. Personal privilege may not be used to explain a vote or debate a 
bill. The Speaker shall determine if the question is one of privilege and shall, without the 
point of order being raised, enforce this rule. 

RULE 9. Points of Order. — (a) The Speaker shall decide questions of order and may 
speak to points of order in preference to other members arising from their seats for that 
purpose. Any member may appeal from the ruling of the Chair on questions of order; on 
such appeal no member may speak more than once, unless by leave of the House. A 
two-thirds (2, 3) vote of the members present shall be necessary to sustain any appeal from 
the ruling of the Chair. 

(b) When the Speaker calls a member to order, the member shall take his seat except 
that a member called to order may clear a matter of fact, or explain, but shall not proceed 
in debate so long as the decision stands. If the member appeals from the ruling of the Chair 
and the decision by a two-thirds (2/3) vote of the members present be in favor of the 
member called to order, he may proceed; if otherwise, he shall not; and if the case, in the 
judgment of the House, requires it, he shall be liable to censure by the House. 

RULE 10. Limitations on Debate. — No member shall speak more than twice on the 
main question, nor longer than thirty minutes for the first speech and fifteen minutes for 
the second speech, unless allowed to do so by the affirmative vote of a majority of the 
members present; nor shall he speak more than once upon an amendment or motion to 
reconsider, commit, appeal or postpone, and then not longer than ten minutes. The House 
may, however, by consent of a majority of the members present, suspend the operation of 
this rule during any debate on any particular question before the House. 



The Legislative Branch 387 



RULE 11. Reading of Papers. -- When there is a call for the reading of the text of a 
paper which has been presented to the House, and there is objection to such reading, the 
question shall be determined by a majority vote of the members of the House present. 
Except for protests permitted by the Constitution, no member may have material printed 
in the Journal until said material has been presented to the House and the printing 
approved by the House, and said material shall not exceed 1,000 words. 

RULE 12. General Decorum. — (a) The Speaker shall preserve order and decorum. 

(b) Decency of speech shall be observed and disrespect to personalities carefully 
avoided. 

(c) When the Speaker is putting any question, or addressing the House, no person shall 
speak, stand up, walk out of or cross the House, nor when a member is speaking, engage in 
disruptive discourse or pass between the member and the Chair. 

(d) Food or beverages shall not be permitted on the floor of the House. 

(e) The reading of newspapers shall not be permitted on the floor of the House while the 
House is in session. 

(0 Smoking or the consumption of food or beverages shall not be permitted in the 
galleries at any time. 

(g) Special recitals, performances by musicians or other groups shall not be permitted 
on the floor of the House and special guests of members of the House shall not be 
permitted on the floor of the House. 

(h) Members shall observe appropriate attire, coat and tie for male members and 
dignified dress for female members. 

III. Motions 

RULE 13. Motions Generally. — (a) Every motion shall be reduced to writing, if the 
Speaker or any two members request it. 

(b) When a motion is made, it shall be stated by the Speaker, or, if written, it shall be 
handed to the Chair and read aloud by the Speaker or Clerk before debate. 

(c) After a motion has been stated by the Speaker or read by the Speaker or Clerk, it 
shall be in the possession of the House; but it may be withdrawn before a decision or 
amendment, except in case of a motion to reconsider, which motion, when made by a 
member, shall be in possession of the House and shall not be withdrawn without leave of 
the House. 

RULE 14. Motions, Order of Precedence. — When there are motions before the House, 
the order of precedence is as follows: 
To adjourn 
To lay on the table 
To postpone indefinitely 
Previous question 
To postpone to a day certain 
To commit 

To amend an amendment 
To amend 
To substitute 
To pass the bill 
No motion to lay on the table, to postpone indefinitely, to postpone to a day certain, to 



388 North Carolina Manual 



commit or to make a particular amendment, being decided, shall be again allowed at the 
same stage of the bill or proposition. 

RULE 15. Motion to Adjourn. — (a) A motion to adjourn shall be seconded before the 
motion is put to the vote of the House. 

(b) A motion to adjourn shall be decided without debate, and shall always be in order, 
except when the House is voting or some member is speaking; but a motion to adjourn 
shall not follow a motion to adjourn until debate or some other business of the House has 
intervened. 

RULE 16. Motion to Table. -- (a) A motion to table shall be seconded before the 
motion is put to the vote of the House and is in order except when a motion to adjourn is 
before the House. 

(b) A motion to table shall be decided without debate. 

(c) A motion to table a bill shall constitute a motion to table the bill and all amend- 
ments thereto. 

(d) When the question before the House is the adoption of an amendment to a bill 
or resolution, a motion to table the bill is not in order, and a motion to table an 
amendment applies to the amendment only, and the motion may not expressly or by 
implication or construction be expanded to include a motion to table the bill also. 

(e) When a question has been tabled, it shall not thereafter be considered except on 
motion to reconsider under Rule 18, or to remove from the table approved by a two- 
thirds (2 3) vote. 

RULE 17. Motion to Postpone Indefinitely. -- A motion to postpone indefinitely is 
in order except when a motion to adjourn or to lay on the table is before the House. 
However, after one motion to postpone indefinitely has been decided, another motion 
to postpone indefinitely shall not be allowed at the same stage of the bill or proposi- 
tion. When a question has been postponed indefinitely, it shall not thereafter be consi- 
dered except on motion to reconsider under Rule 18, or to place on the favorable 
calendar approved by a two-thirds (2/3) vote. 

RULE 18. Motion to Reconsider. -- (a) When a question has been decided, it is in 
order for any member to move for the reconsideration thereof, on the same or the 
succeeding legislative day; provided that if the vote by which the motion was originally 
decided was taken by a recorded vote, only a member of the majority may move for 
reconsideration. 

(b) A motion to reconsider shall be determined by a majority vote, except a motion 
to reconsider a vote upon a motion to table, a motion to postpone indefinitely, a 
motion to remove a bill from the unfavorable calendar, a motion that a bill be read 
twice on the same day. or a motion to remove from the table, which shall require a 
two-thirds (2/3) vote. 

RULE 19. Previous Question. -- (a) The previous question may be called only by 
the member submitting the report on the bill or other matter under consideration, by 
the member introducing the bill or other matter under consideration, or by the 
member in charge of the measure, who shall be designated by the Chairman of the 
committee reporting the same to the House at the time the bill or other matter under 
consideration is reported to the House or taken up for consideration. 

(b) The previous question shall be as follows: "Shall the main question now be put?" 
When the call for the previous question has been decided in the affirmative by a major- 



The Legislative Branch 389 



ity vote of the House, the "main question" is on the passage of the bill, resolution or 
other matter under consideration. 

(c) The call for the previous question shall preclude all motions, amendments and 
debate, except the motion to adjourn or motion to table or motion to postpone indefi- 
nitely made prior to the determination of the previous question. 

(d) If the previous question is decided in the negative, the main question remains 
under debate. 

IV. Voting 

RULE 20. Use of Electronic Voting System. — (a) Votes on the following questions 
shall be taken on the electronic voting system, and the ayes and noes shall be recorded 
on the Journal: 

( 1 ) All questions on which the Constitution of North Carolina requires that the ayes 
and noes be taken and recorded on the Journal. 

(2) All measures affecting a fee imposed by the State or any subdivision thereof. 

(3) All questions on which a call for the ayes and noes under Rule 24(a) has been 
sustained. 

(4) Both second and third readings of bills proposing amendment of the Constitu- 
tion of North Carolina or ratifying resolutions amending the Constitution of the 
United States. 

(b) Votes on the following questions shall be taken on the electronic voting system: 

(1) Second reading of all public bills, all amendments to public bills offered after 
second reading, third reading if a public bill was amended after second reading 
or if the reading occurs on a day or days following the second reading, all con- 
ference reports on public bills, all motions to lay public bills on the table, and all 
motions to postpone public bills indefinitely. 

(2) Upon a call for division. 

(3) Any other question upon direction of the Speaker or upon motion of any 
member supported by one-fifth (1/5) of the members present. 

(c) When the electronic voting system is used, twenty seconds shall be allowed for 
voting on the question before the House unless the Chair shall direct otherwise. The 
system shall be set to close automatically when that time has expired. After the system 
is closed, the Speaker may allow any member to vote until he orders the system 
locked. Once the system is locked, the vote shall be recorded and printed. 

(d) The voting station at each member's desk in the Chamber shall be used only by 
the member to which the station is assigned. Under no circumstances shall any other 
person vote at a member's station. It is a breach of the ethical obligation of a member 
either to request that another person vote at the requesting member's station, or to 
vote at another member's station. The Speaker shall enforce this rule without 
exception. 

(e) When the electronic voting system is used, the Speaker shall state the question 
and shall then state substantially the following: "All in favor vote 'aye'; all opposed 
vote 'no'; the Clerk will open the vote." After the allotted time for voting has elapsed, 
the Speaker shall say: "The Clerk will now lock the machine and record the vote." 
After the machine is locked and the vote recorded, the Speaker shall announce the 
vote and declare the result. 



390 North Carolina Manual 



(0 One copy of the machine printout of the vote record of all votes taken on the 
electronic system shall be filed in the office of the Principal Clerk, and one copy shall 
be filed in the Legislative Library where it shall be open to public inspection. 

(g) When the Speaker ascertains that the electronic voting system is inoperative 
before a vote is taken or while a vote is being taken on the electronic system, he shall 
announce that fact to the House and any partial electronic system voting record shall 
be voided. In such a case, if the Constitution of North Carolina or the Rules of the 
House require a call of the ayes and noes, the Clerk shall call the roll of the House, 
and the ayes and noes shall be taken manually and shall be recorded on the Journal. 
All roll call votes shall be taken alphabetically. All other votes shall be taken by voice 
vote. If, after a vote is taken on the electronic system, it is discovered that a malfunc- 
tion caused an error in the electronic system printout, the Speaker shall direct the 
Reading Clerk and the Principal Clerk to verify and correct the printout record and so 
advise the House. 

(h) For the purpose of identifying motions on which the vote is taken on the elec- 
tronic system, the motions are coded as follows: 
(l)To adjourn 
(2)To lay on the table 
(3)To postpone indefinitely 
(4)Previous question 
(5)To postpone to a day certain 
(6)To commit 

(7)To amend an amendment 
(8)To amend 
(9)To substitute 
( 10)To reconsider 
( 1 1 )To concur or not concur 
(12)Miscellaneous 

RULE 21. Voice Votes; Stating Questions. -- (a) When the electronic voting system 
is not used, the Speaker shall rise and put a question. 

(b) The question shall be put in this form, namely, "Those in favor (as the question 
may be) will say 'Aye'," and after the affirmation voice has been expressed, "Those 
opposed will say 'No" ". 

RULE 22. Determining Questions. — Unless otherwise provided by the Constitution 
of North Carolina or by these rules, all questions shall be determined by a simple 
majority of the members present and voting. 

RULE 23. Voting by Division. Any member may call for a division of the 
members upon the question before the result of the vote has been announced. Upon a 
call for a division, the Speaker shall cause the number voting in the affirmative and in 
the negative to be determined. Upon a division and count of the House on any ques- 
tion, no member away from his seat shall be counted. 

RULE 24. Roll Call Vote. -- (a) Before a question is put, any member may call for 
the ayes and noes. If the call is sustained by one-fifth (1/5) of the members present, the 
question shall be decided by the ayes and noes upon a roll call vote. 

(b) Every member who is in the Hall of the House when the question is put shall 
vote upon a call of the ayes and noes, unless excused pursuant to Rule 24.1 A. 



The Legislative Branch 391 



RULE 24.1 A. Excuse From Deliberations and Voting on a Bill. (a) Any member 
shall upon request be excused from the deliberations and voting on a particular bill, 
but to do so must make that request after the second reading of the bill and before any 
motion or vote on the bill or any amendment thereto. If the reason for the request 
arises at some point later in the proceedings, the request may be made at that time. 

(b) The member may make a brief statement of the reasons for making that request. 
The member may send forward to the Principal Clerk, on a form provided by the 
Clerk, a concise statement of the reason for the request, and the Clerk shall include 
this statement in the Journal. 

(c) The member so excused shall not debate the bill or any amendment to the bill, 
vote on the bill, offer or vote on any amendment to the bill, or offer or vote on any 
motion concerning the bill at that reading, any subsequent reading, or any subsequent 
consideration of the bill. 

(d) A member may request that his excuse from deliberations on a particular bill be 
withdrawn. 

RULE 24. IB. Separation of Propositions. -- Any member may call for a question 
to be divided into two or more propositions to be voted on separately, and the Speaker 
shall determine whether the question admits of such a division. 

RULE 25. Voting by Speaker. -- In all elections the Speaker may vote. In all other 
instances he may exercise his right to vote, or he may reserve this right until there is a 
tie in which event he may vote, but in no instance may he vote twice on the same 
question. 

V. Committees 

RULE 26. Committees Generally. — (a) All standing and select committees shall be 
appointed by the Speaker. The Speaker shall appoint all standing committees at the 
beginning of the session. 

(b) Ten legislative days after the Speaker makes his initial appointments to a stand- 
ing or select committee, he shall not increase the membership of that committee, but 
may fill any vacancies which occur on that committee. 

(c) The first member announced on each committee shall be Chairman, and where 
the Speaker so desires he may designate a cochairman and one or more vice chairmen. 

(d) Either the Chairman or the Acting Chairman, designated by the Chairman or by 
the Speaker, and five other members of the committee, or a majority of the committee, 
whichever is fewer, shall constitute a quorum of that committee. 

(e) In any joint meeting of the Senate and House Committees, the House Committee 
reserves the right to vote separately. 

RULE 27. List of Standing Committees. -- The standing committees are: 

Aging. 

Agriculture. 

Alcoholic Beverage Control. 

Appropriations Base Budget. 

Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Education. 

Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety. 

Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Human Resources. 

Appropriations Base Budget Committee on General Government. 



392 North Carolina Manual 



Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Natural and Economic Resources. 

Appropriations Expansion Budget. 

Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Education. 

Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety. 

Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources. 

Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on General Government. 

Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and Economic Resources. 

Banks and Thrift Institutions. 

Commercial Fishing 

Commissions and Institutions for the Blind and Deaf. 

Congressional Redistricting. 

Constitutional Amendments. 

Corporations. 

Corrections. 

Courts and Judicial Districts. 

Cultural Resources. 

Economy. 

Education. 

Election Laws. 

Employment Security. 

Energy. 

Finance. 

Governmental Ethics. 

Health. 

Higher Education. 

Highway Safety. 

Human Resources. 

Insurance. 

Judiciary No. I. 

Judiciary No. II. 

Judiciary No. III. 

Law Enforcement. 

Legislative Redistricting. 

Local Government No. I. 

Local Government No. II. 

Manufacturers and Labor. 

Mental Health. 

Military and Veterans' Affairs. 

Natural and Economic Resources. 

Pensions and Retirement (Refer to G.S. 120-1 11.1). 

Public Utilities. 

Rules and Operation of the House. 

Small Business. 

State Government. 

State Personnel. 

State Properties. 



The Legislative Branch 393 



Transportation. 

University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 

Water and Air Resources. 

Wildlife Resources. 

Redistricting Committee. In the session next after the federal decennial census, 
the Speaker shall appoint a standing committee or committees on redistricting. 

RULE 28. Committee Meetings. -- (a) Standing committees and subcommittees of 
standing committees shall be furnished with suitable meeting places pursuant to a 
schedule adopted by the Committee on Rules and Operation of the House. Select 
committees shall be furnished with suitable meeting places as their needs require by the 
Chairman of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the House. 

(b) Subject to the provisions of the subsection (c) of this Rule, committees and 
subcommittees thereof shall permit other members of the General Assembly, the press, 
and the general public to attend all sessions of said committees or subcommittees. 

(c) The Chairman or other presiding officer shall have general direction of the meet- 
ing place of the committee or subcommittee and, in case of any disturbance or disor- 
derly conduct therein, or if the peace, good order, and proper conduct of the legislative 
business is hindered by any person or persons, the Chairman or presiding officer shall 
have power to exclude from the session any individual or individuals so hindering the 
legislative business or, if necessary, to order the meeting place cleared of all persons 
not members of the committee or subcommittee. 

(d) Procedure in the committees shall be governed by the rules of the House, so far 
as the same may be applicable to such procedure. Before a question is put, any 
member may call for the ayes and noes. If the call is sustained by one-fifth ( 1 / 5) of the 
members present, the question shall be decided by the ayes and noes upon a roll call 
vote. All roll call votes shall be taken alphabetically. 

(e) No committee or subcommittee shall meet on any day when the House shall not 
convene except by permission of the Speaker or by approval of the House by resolu- 
tion adopted by a majority vote of the House. 

(0 No committee or subcommittee shall meet during any session of the House and 
all committee and subcommittee meetings shall adjourn no later than 15 minutes 
preceding a regular session of the House. 

(g) Any call or notice of a standing committee meeting between legislative sessions 
shall be mailed to each member of the committee by certified mail at least five days 
prior to such meeting. 

(h) During committee meetings the Chairman may exercise his right to vote, or he 
may reserve this right until there is a tie, in which event he may vote, but in no 
instance may the Chairman vote twice on the same question. 

RULE 29. Notice of Committee Meetings and Committee Hearings; Minutes. - 
Public notice of all standing committee meetings shall be given in the House. The 
Chairman of the committee shall notify or cause to be notified the sponsor of each bill 
which is set for hearing or consideration before the committee as to the date, time and 
place of that meeting. 

RULE 29.1. Public Hearings. -- (a) Any member may request in writing a public 
hearing on a public bill. Refusal to grant a member's request may be appealed to the 
Speaker. Requests by other than members may be granted in the discretion of the 



394 North Carolina Manual 



Chairman. Notice shall be given not less than five calendar days prior to public hear- 
ings. These notices shall be issued as information for the press and information shall 
be posted in the places designated by the Principal Clerk. 

(b) Persons desiring to appear and be heard at a public hearing shall submit their 
request to the Chairman of the committee. The committee Chairman may designate 
one or more members to arrange the order of appearance of interested parties. A brief, 
written statement of testimony may be submitted to the committee without oral pres- 
entation and shall be incorporated in the minutes of the public hearing. 

(c) Committee Minutes to Legislative Library. The Chairman of a committee shall 
insure that written minutes are compiled for each of the committee's meetings. The 
minutes shall indicate the members present and the actions taken by the committee at 
the meeting. Not later than 20 days after the adjournment of each session of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, the Chairman shall deliver the minutes to the Legislative Library. The 
Speaker of the House may grant a reasonable extension of time for filing said minutes 
upon application of the committee Chairman. 

RULE 30. Committee of the Whole House. — (a) A Committee of the Whole House 
shall not be formed, except by suspension of the rules, if there be objection by any 
member. 

(b) After passage of a motion to form a Committee of the Whole House, the 
Speaker shall appoint a Chairman to preside in committee, and the Speaker shall leave 
the Chair. 

(c) The rules of procedure in the House shall be observed in the Committee of the 
Whole House, so far as they may be applicable, except the rule limiting the time of 
speaking and the previous question. 

(d) In the Committee of the Whole House a motion that the committee rise shall 
always be in order, except when a member is speaking, and shall be decided without 
debate. 

(e) When a bill is submitted to the Committee of the Whole House, it shall be read 
and debated by sections, leaving the preamble to be last considered. The body of the 
bill shall not be defaced or interlined, but all amendments, noting the page and line, 
shall be duly entered by the Clerk on a separate paper as the same shall be agreed to 
by the committee, and be so reported to the House. After report, the bill shall again be 
subject to be debated and amended by sections before a question on its passage be 
taken. 

VI. Handling of Bills 

RULE 31. Introduction of Bills and Resolutions. - - (a) All bills and resolutions 
shall be introduced by submitting same to the Principal Clerk's office on the legislative 
day prior to the first reading and reference thereof according to the following schedule: 
by 8:30 o'clock p.m. each Monday, by 3:00 o'clock p.m. each Tuesday, Wednesday. 
Thursday, and Friday. 

(b) Bills shall not become resolutions provided the Senate has a similar rule. Resolu- 
tions shall not become bills. Resolutions are not law but may be used when a law is 
not necessary for the purpose contained therein. Resolutions shall not be used to 
appropriate funds for any purpose, but, for example, may be used to express opinions 
of the House, to create study commissions or committees or establish investigative 



The Legislative Branch 395 



committees, to honor persons, to commend, to memorialize, and to adopt House rules 
and internal affairs. Resolutions cannot amend, repeal, or modify a statute; nor do 
they have life beyond the term of the Session during which they are adopted. 

(c) Every bill or resolution shall be read in regular order of business, except upon 
permission of the Speaker or on the report of a committee. 

(d) All bills and resolutions shall show in their captions a brief descriptive statement 
of the true substance of same, which captions may thereafter be amended; provided 
that third reading shall not be had on any bill or resolution on the same day that such 
caption is amended. 

(e) A Substitute Bill shall be covered with the same color jacket as the original bill 
and shall be prefaced as follows: 

"House Substitute for" or "House Committee Substitute for " 

(0 House Resolutions need not be read more than twice. 

(g) Celebration, Commendation and Commemoration Resolutions. All celebration, 
commendation, and commemoration resolutions, except those honoring the memory 
of deceased persons, shall be excluded from introduction in the House if the Senate 
has a substantially similar rule on these resolutions. 

RULE 31.1. Deadline on Introduction of Certain Bills. All local bills or bills 
prepared to be introduced for departments, agencies, or institutions of the State must 
be introduced not later than April 1 of the session year. 

RULE 32. Reference to Commitee. -- Each bill, joint resolution, or House resolu- 
tion not introduced on the report of a committee shall immediately upon its first read- 
ing be referred by the Speaker to such committee as he deems appropriate. 

RULE 33. Papers Addressed to the House. -- Petitions, memorials and other papers 
addressed to the House shall be presented by the Speaker. A brief statement of the 
contents thereof may be orally made by the introducer before reference to a commit- 
tee, but such papers shall not be debated or decided on the day of their first being read 
unless the House shall direct otherwise. 

RULE 34. Introduction of Resolutions and Bills, Copies Required. — (a) Whenever 
any resolution or bill is introduced, a duplicate copy thereof shall be attached thereto, 
and the Principal Clerk shall cause said duplicate copy to be numbered as the original 
resolution or bill is numbered, and shall cause the same to be available at all times to 
the member introducing the same. 

(b) Numbering of House Bills shall be designated as "H.B " (No. following). A 

Joint Resolution shall be designated as "H.J.R. " (No. following). A House 

Resolution shall be designated as "H.R " (No. following). 

(c) Whenever any resolution or bill is filed for introduction, it shall be in such form 
and have such copies accompanying same as designated by the Speaker, and any reso- 
lution or bill introduced without the required number of copies shall be immediately 
returned to the introducer. The Clerk shall stamp the copies with the number stamped 
upon the original bill. 

RULE 35. Duplicating of Bills. -- (a) The Legislative Services Officer shall cause 
such bills as are introduced to be duplicated in such numbers as may be specified by 
the Speaker. The Legislative Services Officer shall cause one copy of each resolution 
and public bill for each legislator to be delivered to his clerk or secretary who shall 
place it in the appropriate notebook on the legislator's desk. If a legislator so requests. 



396 North Carolina Manual 



a second copy shall be delivered to his clerk or secretary who shall place it in the 
legislator's office. The remaining copies shall be placed in the Printed Bills Room and 
made available to the committees to which the bill is referred, to individual legislators 
on request, and to the general public. 

(b) Availability of Copies of Bills. A public bill is a bill affecting 15 or more coun- 
ties. A local bill is one affecting fewer than 15 counties. No public bill and. upon 
objection by a member, no local bill may be considered unless copies of the bill have 
been made available to the entire membership of the House. 

RULE 36. Report by Committee. All House bills and resolutions shall be 

reported from the committee to which referred, with such recommendations as the 
committee may desire to make except in the case where the principal introducer 
requests in writing to the Chairman of the committee that the bill not be considered. 
The Chairmen of the full Appropriations Committees may refer a bill or resolution to 
another appropriations committee specifically charged with the subject matter of the 
bill or resolution; the committee to which the bill or resolution is referred shall report 
the bill or resolution back to the full Appropriations Committees. 

(a) Favorable Report. When a committee reports a bill with the recommendation 
that it be passed, the bill shall be placed on the favorable calendar for the next suc- 
ceeding legislative day; except that Committee Substitutes for bills shall be placed on 
the favorable calendar for the second next succeeding legislative day after being reported. 

(b) Report Without Prejudice. When a committee reports a bill without prejudice, 
the bill shall be placed on the favorable calendar. 

(c) Postponed Indefinitely. When a committee reports a bill with the recommenda- 
tion that it be postponed indefinitely, and no minority report accompanies it, the bill 
shall be placed on the unfavorable calendar. 

(d) Unfavorable Report. When a committee reports a bill with the recommendation 
that it be not passed, and no minority report accompanies it, the bill shall be placed on 
the unfavorable calendar. 

(e) Minority Report. When a bill is reported by a committee with a recommendation 
that it be not passed or that it be postponed indefinitely, but it is accompanied by a 
minority report signed by at least one-fourth (1/4) of the members of the committee 
who were present and voting when the bill was considered in committee, the question 
before the House shall be: "The adoption of the minority report." If the minority 
report is adopted by majority vote, the bill shall be placed on the favorable calendar 
for consideration. If the minority report fails of adoption by a majority vote, the bill 
shall be placed on the unfavorable calendar. 

RULE 37. Removing Bill from Unfavorable Calendar. — A bill may be removed 
from the unfavorable calendar upon motion carried by a two-thirds (2/3) vote. A 
motion to remove a bill from the unfavorable calendar is debatable. 

RULE 38. Reports on Appropriation and Revenue Bills. - - (a) All committees, 
other than the Committees on Appropriations, when favorably reporting any bill 
which carries an appropriation from the State, shall indicate same in the report, and 
said bill shall be referred to the Committees on Appropriations for a further report 
before being acted upon by the House. All committees, other than the Committee on 
Finance, when favorably reporting any bill which in any way or manner raises revenue, 
reduces revenue, levies a tax, or authorizes the issue of bonds or notes, whether public. 



The Legislative Branch 397 



public-local, or private, shall indicate same in the report, and said bill shall be referred 
to the Committee on Finance for a further report before being acted upon by the 
House. 

(b) Action on Amendment Before Re-Referral. If any committee recommends adop- 
tion of an amendment or committee substitute of a bill which, under the rules of the 
House must be referred to the Committees on Appropriations or Committee on 
Finance, the amendment or committee substitute shall be considered and, if adopted, 
the amendment or substitute engrossed before the bill is re-referred. 

RULE 39. Recall of Bill from Committee. - - When a House bill has been intro- 
duced and referred to a committee, if after 10 legislative days the committee has failed 
to report thereon, then the introducer of the bill or some member designated by him 
may, after three legislative days' public notice given in the House and delivered in 
writing to the Chairman of the committee, on motion supported by a majority vote of 
the members present and voting, recall the same from the committee to the floor of the 
House for consideration and such action thereon as a majority of the members present 
may direct. This rule shall not be temporarily suspended without one day's notice on 
the motion given in the House and delivered in writing to the Chairman of the com- 
mittee, and to sustain that motion two-thirds (2/3) of the members present and voting 
shall be required. 

RULE 39.1. Recall of Bill by the Senate. - - Upon a request by the Senate that a 
measure in the possession of the House be recalled and returned to the Senate, the 
question will be put "Shall the measure be returned?" This rule will be effective only if 
the Senate has a substantially similar rule. 

RULE 40. Calendars and Schedules of Business. --The Clerk of the House shall 
prepare a daily schedule of business, including the Calendar of Bills and Resolutions 
for consideration and debate that day, in accordance with the Order of Business of the 
Day (Rule 5). The Clerk shall number all bills and resolutions in the order in which 
they are introduced. All bills and resolutions shall be taken up as they appear in each 
category (Rule 5(8)) in the order they were reported by committee; but the Committee 
on Rules and Operation of the House may at any time arrange the order of precedence 
in which bills may be considered. 

RULE 41. Reading of Bills. (a) Every bill shall receive three readings in the 
House prior to its passage. The first reading and reference to committee of a House 
bill shall occur on the next legislative day following its introduction. The first reading 
and reference to committee of a Senate bill shall occur on the next legislative day 
following its receipt on messages from the Senate. The Speaker shall give notice at 
each subsequent reading whether it be the second or third reading. 

(b) No bill shall be read more than once on the same day without the concurrence of 
two-thirds (2/3) of the members present and voting; provided, no bill governed by 
Article II, Section 23 of the North Carolina Constitution or described in Rule 20 (a)(2) 
herein shall be read twice on one day under any circumstance. 

RULE 42. Effect of a Defeated Bill. -- (a) Subject to the provisions of subsection 
(b) of this rule, after a bill has 

(1) been tabled, 

(2) been postponed indefinitely, 

(3) failed to pass on any of its readings, or 

(4) been placed on the unfavorable calendar. 



398 North Carolina Manual 



the contents of that bill or the principal provisions of its subject matter shall not be 
considered in any other measure originating in the Senate or originating thereafter in 
the House. Upon the point of order being raised and sustained by the Chair, that 
measure shall be laid upon the table, and shall not be taken therefrom except by a 
two-thirds (2/ 3) vote of the members present and voting. 

(b) No local bill shall be held by the Chair to embody the contents of or the princi- 
pal provisions of the subject matter of any statewide measure which has been laid on 
the table, has failed to pass on any of its readings, or has been placed on the unfavora- 
ble calendar. 

RULE 43. Amendments and Riders. --No amendment or rider to a bill before the 
House shall be in order unless such rider or amendment is germane to the bill under 
consideration. 

Only one principal (first degree) amendment shall be pending at any one time. If a 
subsequent or substitute principal amendment shall be offered, the Speaker shall rule it 
out of order. However, any member desiring to offer a subsequent or substitute princi- 
pal amendment in opposition to the pending amendment may inform the House by 
way of argument against the pending amendment that if it is defeated he proposes to 
offer another principal amendment, and he may then read and explain such proposed 
amendment. 

Perfecting (or second degree) amendments may be offered and considered without 
limitation as to number, and in the event of multiple perfecting amendments, they shall 
be voted upon in inverse order. 

RULE 43.1. Engrossment. -- Bills and resolutions, except those making appropria- 
tions, which originate in the House and which are amended, shall be engrossed before 
being sent to the Senate. 

RULE 43.2. House Concurrence in Senate Amendments to House Bills. — The 
House shall not concur in a Senate amendment to a bill originating in the House until 
the next legislative day after the day on which the House receives the Senate 
amendment. 

RULE 43.3. Committee Substitutes Adopted by the Senate to Bills Originating in 
the House. — (a) Whenever the Senate has adopted a committee substitute for a bill 
originating in the House, and has returned the bill to the House for concurrence in 
that committee substitute, the House may not concur in that committee substitute until 
the next legislative day following the day on which the House receives that committee 
substitute. 

(b) The Speaker may, and upon motion supported by a majority of the House pres- 
ent and voting shall, refer the bill to an appropriate committee for consideration of the 
committee substitute. 

(c) The Speaker shall, in placing the bill on the calendar, rule whether the committee 
substitute is a material amendment under Article II, Section 23, of the State's Consti- 
tution. If the committee substitute was referred to committee, the committee shall: 

i. report the bill with the recommendation either that the House concur or that the 

House do not concur; and 
ii. advise the Speaker as to whether or not that committee substitute is a material 

amendment under Article II, Section 23, of the State's Constitution. 

(d) If the committee substitute for a bill is not a material amendment, the question 
before the House shall be concurrence. 



The Legislative Branch 399 



(e) If the committee substitute for a bill is a material amendment, the receiving of 
that bill on messages shall constitute first reading and the question before the House 
shall be concurrence on second reading. If the motion is passed, the question then shall 
be concurrence on third reading on the next legislative day. 

(0 No committee substitute adopted by the Senate to a bill originating in the House 
may be amended by the House. 

RULE 44. Conference Committees. - (a) Whenever the House shall decline or 
refuse to concur in amendments put by the Senate to a bill originating in the House, or 
shall refuse to concur in a substitute adopted by the Senate for a bill originating in the 
House or whenever the Senate shall decline or refuse to concur in amendments put by 
the House to a bill originating in the Senate, or shall refuse to concur in a substitute 
adopted by the House for a bill originating in the Senate, a conference committee may 
be appointed by the Speaker upon his own motion or shall be appointed upon request 
by the principal sponsor of the original bill, the Chairman of the House Committee 
which reported the bill, or by the sponsor of the amendment in which the Senate 
refused to concur; and the bill under consideration shall thereupon go to and be consi- 
dered by the joint conferees on the part of the House and Senate. In appointing 
members to conference committees the Speaker shall appoint no less than a majority 
of members who generally supported the House position as determined by the 
Speaker. 

(b) Only such matters as are in difference between the two houses shall be consi- 
dered by the conferees, and the conference report shall deal only with such matters. 
The conference report may be made by a majority of the House members of such 
conference committee and shall not be amended. 

(c) If the conferees fail to agree, new conferees may be appointed. However, if either 
house refuses to adopt the report of its conferees, no new conferees may be appointed. 

VII. Legislative Officers and Employees 

RULE 45. Elected Officers. — (a) The House shall elect one of its members Speaker. 

(b) The House shall elect one of its members Speaker Pro Tempore who shall per- 
form such duties as the Speaker may assign and shall preside over the House in the 
absence or incapacity of the Speaker and shall perform all of the duties of the Speaker 
until such time the Speaker may assume the Chair. 

(c) The House shall elect a Principal Clerk, a Reading Clerk and a Sergeant-at- 
Arms, each of whom shall have and perform such duties and responsibilities not 
inconsistent with these Rules as the Speaker may assign. The Principal Clerk shall 
continue in office until another is elected. 

RULE 46. Assistants to Principal Clerk and Sergeant-at-Arms. — The Principal 
Clerk and the Sergeant-at-Arms may appoint, with the approval of the Speaker, such 
assistants as may be necessary to the efficient discharge of the duties of their respective 
offices. 

RULE 47. Speaker's Clerk, Chaplain, and Pages. — (a) The Speaker may appoint 
one or more clerks to the Speaker, a Chaplain of the House, and pages to wait upon 
the sessions of the House. 

(b) When the House is not in session, the pages shall be under the supervision of the 
Supervisor of Pages. 



400 North Carolina Manual 



(c) No member may have more than 10 persons designated as honorary pages. 

RULE 48. Committee Clerks and Secretaries. — (a) Each committee shall have a 
clerk. The clerk to a committee shall serve as secretary to the chairman of that 
committee. 

(b) Each member shall be assigned a secretary, unless he has a committee clerk to 
serve as his secretary. 

(c) The selection and retention of clerks and secretaries shall be the sole prerogative 
of the individual member or members. Such clerks and secretaries shall file initial 
applications for employment with the Legislative Services Office and shall receive 
compensation as prescribed by the Legislative Services Commission. The employment 
period of clerks and secretaries shall commence not earlier than the convening date of 
the General Assembly and shall terminate not later than the final adjournment or 
recess of the General Assembly unless employment for an extended period is approved 
by the Speaker. The clerks and secretaries shall adhere to such uniform rules and 
regulations not inconsistent with these Rules regarding hours and other conditions of 
employment as the Legislative Services Commission shall fix by appropriate 
regulations. 

RULE 49. Compensation of Clerks and Secretaries. — No clerk, laborer, or other 
person employed or appointed under Rules 47, 48, and 49 hereof shall receive during 
such employment, appointment, or service, any compensation from any department of 
the State government, and there shall not be voted, paid or awarded any additional 
pay, bonus or gratuity to any of them, but they shall receive only the pay now pro- 
vided by law for such duties and services. 

VIII. Privileges of the Hall 

RULE 50. Admittance to Floor. No person except members, officers and 

employees of the General Assembly and former members of the General Assembly 
who are not registered under the provisions of Article 9 of Chapter 120 of the General 
Statutes of North Carolina shall be allowed on the floor of the House during its ses- 
sion, unless permitted by the Speaker or otherwise provided by law. 

RULE 51. Admittance of Press. — Reporters wishing to take down debates may be 
admitted by the Speaker, who shall assign such places to them on the floor or else- 
where, to effect this object, as shall not interfere with the convenience of the House. 

RULE 52. Extending Courtesies. — Courtesies of the floor, galleries or lobby shall 
only be extended at the discretion of the Speaker. 

RULE 53. Order in Galleries and Lobby. — In case of any disturbance or disorderly 
conduct in the galleries or lobby, the Speaker or other presiding officer is empowered 
to order the same to be cleared. 

IX. General Rules 

RULE 54. Attendance of Members. - - No member or officer of the House shall 
absent himself from the service of the House without leave, unless from sickness or 
disability. 

RULE 55. Documents to be Signed by the Speaker. — All acts, addresses, and reso- 
lutions and all warrants and subpoenas issued by order of the House shall be signed by 
the Speaker or other presiding officer. 



The Legislative Branch 401 



RULE 56. Printing or Reproducing Materials. -There shall be no printing or 
reproducing of paper(s) that are not legislative in essence except upon approval of the 
Speaker. 

RULE 57. Placement or Circulation of Materials. — Persons other than members of 
the General Assembly, officers or staff thereof shall not place or cause to be placed any 
materials on members' desks in the House Chamber without obtaining approval of the 
Speaker. Any material so placed, or circulated to House members anywhere in the 
Legislative Building, shall bear the name of the originator. 

RULE 58. Rules, Rescission and Alteration. — (a) These rules shall not be perman- 
ently rescinded or altered except by House simple resolution passed by a two-thirds 
(2/3) vote of the members present and voting. The introducer of the resolution must 
on the floor of the House give notice of his intent to introduce the resolution on the 
legislative day preceding its introduction. 

(b) Except as otherwise provided herein, the House upon two-thirds (2/3) vote of 
the members present and voting may temporarily suspend any rule. 

RULE 59. Limitation on Cosponsorship of Bills and Resolutions. — Any member 
wishing to cosponsor a bill or resolution which has been introduced may do so by 
appearing in the office of the Principal Clerk for such purpose within one-half hour 
following the adjournment of the session during which such bill or resolution was first 
read and referred. 

RULE 60. Correcting of Typographical Errors. — The Legislative Services Officer 
may correct typographical errors appearing in House bills or resolutions provided that 
such corrections are made before ratification and do not conflict with any actions or 
rules of the Senate and provided further that such correction be approved by the 
Chairman of the Rules Committee, the Speaker or other presiding officer. 

RULE 61. Changing of Seats Prohibited. — After initial assignment of seats, a 
member shall continue to occupy the seat to which initially assigned for the entire 
biennial session. In event of vacancy that member's successor will occupy the seat of 
the member he replaces for the remainder of the biennial session, but such successor 
shall not be considered as one who has served in the immediate preceding session for 
the purposes of seat assignment in the subsequent biennial session. 

RULE 62. Matters not Covered in These Rules. — Except as herein set out the rules 
of the House of Representatives of Congress shall govern the operation of the House. 

Sec. 2. This resolution is effective upon adoption. 



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The Executive Branch 403 

Chapter Two 
THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH 



INTRODUCTION 

Under provisions in the Constitution of North Carolina, the three major branches of 
state government — legislative, executive and judicial — are "distinct and separate from 
each other 1 ' (Article I, Section 6). This separation of powers has been a primary princi- 
pal of government since our independence. In the nearly two hundred years since the 
forming of the State of North Carolina, many changes have occurred in her govern- 
mental organization. North Carolina state and local government has grown from a 
small, ill-funded endeavor of a few hundred "employees" in 1776, to a multi-billion dol- 
lar enterprise of thousands of public servants and programs. Along with this growth has 
come problems. In 1970 there were over 200 independent state agencies making up our 
Executive Branch. Recognizing this problem the General Assembly took steps toward 
reorganizing state government, particularly the executive branch began to be formu- 
lated. 

State Government Reorganization 

In a speech on October 27, 1967, Governor Dan K. Moore urged the North Carolina 
State Bar to take the lead in sponsoring a study to determine the need for revising or re- 
writing the Constitution of North Carolina. The Council of the North Carolina State 
Bar and the North Carolina Bar Association joined in appointing a steering committee 
which selected twenty-five persons to constitute the North Carolina State Constitution 
Study Commission. The report of the commission, submitted on December 16, 1968, 
contained a proposed amendment which would require the General Assembly to reduce 
the administrative departments of state government to 25 and authorize the governor to 
reorganize the administrative departments subject to legislative approval. 

The 1969 General Assembly submitted the proposed constitutional amendment to a 
vote of the people and also authorized the governor to begin a study of consolidation of 
state agencies and to prepare recommendations for the General Assembly. Governor 
Robert W. Scott established the State Government Reorganization Study in October of 
1969. Later, in May 1970, a fifty member citizens Committee on State Government 
Reorganization was appointed by the governor to review the study and make specific 
recommendations. 

The constitutional amendment requiring the reduction of the number of state admin- 
istrative departments to not more than 25 by 1975 was adopted in the General Election 
on November 3, 1970, and the Committee on State Government Reorganization sub- 
mitted its recommendations to the governor on February 4, 1971. 



404 North Carolina Manual 



The committee recommended implementation of the amendment in two phases: 
Phase I would begin with general legislation in 1971 grouping agencies together in a 
limited number of functional departments; Phase II would consist of the period between 
1971 and 1973 when the agencies would work together. Bills to Tevise the existing 
statutes would be drafted on the basis of the agencies' experience and presented to the 
1973 General Assembly. 

With strong support from Governor Scott, the Executive Organization Act of 1971 
was ratified July 14, 1971. It created 19 principal offices and departments consisting of 
ten offices and departments headed by elected officials and nine other departments 
formed by the grouping of agencies along functional lines. The Act provided for two 
types of transfers to accomplish the first phase of reorganization. Under the Act a Type 
I transfer meant the transferring of all or part of an agency, including its statutory au- 
thority, powers and duties, to a principal department. A Type II transfer meant the 
transferring intact of an existing agency to a principal department with the transferring 
agency retaining its statutory authority and functions, except for management func- 
tions, which would be performed under the direction and supervision of the head of the 
principal department. 

All offices and departments called for by the Executive Organization Act of 1971 
were created by executive order of Governor Scott prior to the July 1, 1972, deadline set 
by the Act. The principal offices and departments created were: Office of the Governor, 
Office of the Lieutenant Governor, Department of the Secretary of State, Department 
of the State Auditor, Department of State Treasurer, Department of Public Education, 
Department of Justice, Department of Agriculture, Department of Labor, Department 
of Insurance, Department of Administration, Department of Transportation and High- 
way Safety, Department of Natural and Economic Resources, Department of Human 
Resources, Department of Social Rehabilitation and Control (now Department of Cor- 
rection), Department of Commerce, Department of Revenue, Department of Art, Cul- 
ture and History (now Department of Cultural Resources), and Department of Military 
and Veterans' Affairs. By executive order issued June 26, 1972, an Executive Cabinet 
was formed consisting of the heads of these offices and departments. Meetings of the 
Cabinet have been a major tool in solving the problems of Phase II of reorganization. 

Between 1972 and 1977 some additional alterations were made which further imple- 
mented reorganization of state government in North Carolina. In 1973, the Legislature 
passed the Executive Organizations Act of 1973 which affected four of the newly created 
departments— Cultural Resources, Human Resources, Military and Veterans Affairs 
and Revenue. Broadly speaking, the 1973 law vested final administrative and manageri- 
al powers for the Executive Branch in the hands of the governor and gave him powers to 
appoint a secretary for each of the departments named. The law also set forth the 
powers of the secretaries, but left intact specifically designed areas and decisions already 
vested in various commissions— these cannot be countermanded by either the governor 
or departmental secretary. 

Specifically, the 1973 act changed the name of the Department of Art, Culture and 
History to the Department of Cultural Resources. Various Boards, Commissions, 
Councils, and Societies which relate to a cultural orientation were brought under the 
umbrella of the Department of Cultural Resources. 



The Executive Branch 405 



Two previously created Departments, Human Resources and Revenue, were re- 
created making some technical changes not found in the original law. Specifically, in the 
Department of Human Resources, a Board of Human Resources was created to serve as 
an Advisory Board to the Secretary on any matter which might be referred to it by the 
Secretary. 

In the 1973 Act, the Department of Military and Veterans Affairs was specifically 
charged with providing National Guard troops trained to Federal Standards; being re- 
sponsible for military and civil preparedness; and assisting veterans and their families 
and dependents. A new Veterans' Affairs Commission was created to assist the Secre- 
tary with veterans services programs. 

Reorganization was to have been completed by the end of 1975, and, as provided for 
in the 1971 and 1973 Laws, it was. However, the present administration sponsored sev- 
eral legislative proposals aimed at further reorganizational changes — most of which 
affect four state departments — Commerce, Military and Veterans Affairs, Natural and 
Economic Resources, and Transportation. 

The 1977 General Assembly enacted several laws implementing the new proposals. 
The old Department of Military and Veteran's Affairs has been replaced by a new 
Department of Crime Control and Public Safety. The Veterans Affairs Commission 
formerly in MVA is now under the Department of Administration. All of the other divi- 
sions— except the Energy Division formerly in MVA have been transferred by a Type I 
Transfer to the Department of Crime Control and Public Safety. Also the State High- 
way Patrol, formerly in the Division of Motor Vehicles, Department of Transportation, 
has been transferred by a Type I Transfer to the new department. A newly created Gov- 
ernor's Crime Commission is also part of the new department. 

In reorganizing the old Department of Military and Veterans Affairs, the Energy 
Division and the Energy Policy Council were transferred to the Department of Com- 
merce. Also transferred to the Department of Commerce are three agencies previously 
under the Department of Transportation — the State Ports Authority, and two commis- 
sions on Navigation and Pilotage. Other legislative changes were enacted to further 
reorganize the Department of Commerce by transferring to it the Economic Develop- 
ment Division of the Department of Natural and Economic Development and to create 
a new council — the Labor Force Development Council — to coordinate the needs of In- 
dustry with the programs offered in our educational institutions. There was some oppo- 
sition to moving Economic Development from NER because the current setup allows 
new prospective industry to deal with only one department in finding out economic op- 
portunities within the State and what environmental requirement and restrictions there 
might be. 



The Executive Branch 407 



OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR 

JAMES B. HUNT, JR. 
Governor 

Early Years: Born in Greensboro, Guilford County, May 16, 1937, to James B. and 
Elsie (Brame) Hunt. 

Education: Graduated Rock Ridge High School, Wilson County; NC State University, 
B.S. (Agricultural Education), M.S. (Agricultural Economics); University of North 
Carolina School of Law, J.D. 

Professional Background: Governor; Served two years, Economic Advisor to His Ma- 
jesty's Government in Nepal, 1964-1966; Partner, law firm of Kirby, Webb and 
Hunt, in Wilson, 1966-1972. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, National Governor's Association Committee on 
Human Resources; Past Chairman, Democratic Governors' Conference; Southern 
Growth Policies Board, Southern Regional Education Board, National Governor's 
Association Committee on Criminal Justice and Public Protection, National Gover- 
nor's Association Subcommittee on Small Cities and Rural Development; Past State 
Co-Chairman, COASTAL Plains Regional Commission and Appalachian Regional 
Commission. 

Political Activities: Governor, 1977 (elected, 1976; reelected, 1980); Lieutenant 
Governor, 1973-1977; National College Director for Democratic National Commit- 
tee, 1962-1963; Elected President, Wilson Young Democratic Club, 1967; President, 
NCYDC in 1968; Delegate to 1968 National Democratic Convention; Appointed 
Assistant State Party Chairman, 1969; in charge of reorganizing the party to allow 
greater participation by women, minorities and young people. 

Honors: While at NCSU served two terms as student Government President, was 
chosen "Outstanding Senior" in 1959. 

Literary Works: "Acreage Controls and Poundage Controls: Their Effects on Most 
Profitable Production Practices for Flue Aired Tobacco," (Master's Thesis - 
chosen in 1963 as one of the three best in U.S. and Canada by American Farm 
Economic Association); "Rally Around the Precinct" (Precinct Manual for NC 
Democratic Party); Edited "Agriculturalist" - student publication of the School of 
Agriculture and Life Sciences. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church of Wilson; Member, elder and 
former deacon. 

Family: Married Carolyn Leonard of Mingo, Iowa; Children: Rebecca Hunt Hawley, 
Baxter, Rachel and Elizabeth. 



408 North Carolina Manual 



GOVERNORS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

GOVERNORS OF "VIRGINIA" 

Name Qualified Term 

Ralph Lane [April 9], 1585 1585-1586 

John White [April 26], 1587 1587 



PROPRIETARY CHIEF EXECUTIVES 

Name Qualified Term 

(Samuel Stephens) [1622-1664] 

William Drummond February 23, 1665 1665-[1667] 

Samuel Stephens , 1667 [1667-1670] 

Peter Carteret March 10, 1670 1670-1671 

Peter Carteret 1671 1671-1672 

John Jenkins [May _], 1672 1672-1675 

Thomas Eastchurch October 1675 1675-1676 

[Speaker-Assembly] [Spring, 1676] 1676 

John Jenkins March _, 1676 1676-1677 

Thomas Eastchurch 

Thomas Miller July _ , 1677 1677 

[Rebel Council] December _ , 1677 1677-1679 

Seth Sothel 

John Harvey July _ , 1679 1679 

John Jenkins December _ , 1679 1679-1681 

Henry Wilkinson 

Seth Sothel [1682] [1682]- 1 689 

John Archdale December _ , 1683 1683-1686 

John Gibbs November _ , 1689 1689-1690 

Phillip Ludwell May _ . 1690 1690-1691 

Thomas Jarvis July _ , 1690 1690-1694 

Phillip Ludwell November _ , 1693 1693-1695 

Thomas Harvey July _ , 1694 1694-1699 

John Archdale June _ , 1695 1695 

John Archdale January 1697 1697 

Henderson Walker July _', 1699 1699-1703 

Robert Daniel July _ , 1703 1703-1705 

Thomas Cary March 21, 1705 1705-1706 

William Glover July 13, 1706 1706-1707 

Thomas Cary August 1707 1707 

William Glover October 28, 1707 1707-1708 

Thomas Cary July 24, 1708 1708-1711 

[William Glover] [1709-1710] 

Edward Hyde January 22, 171 1 1711-1712 

Edward Hvde May 9, 1712 1712 

Thomas Pollock September 12, 1712 1712-1714 



•The names which are indented first are those who served as chief executive, but were appointed either 
deputv or lieutenant governor. Those indented second served while president of the council. 



The Executive Branch 409 



Name Qualified Term 

Charles Eden May 28, 1714 1714-1722 

Thomas Pollock March 30, 1722 1722 

William Reed September 7, 1722 1722-1724 

George Burrington January 15, 1724 1724-1725 

Edward Moseley October 31, 1724 1724 

Sir Richard Everard July 17, 1725 1725-1731 



ROYAL CHIEF EXECUTIVES 

George Burrington February 25, 1731 1731-1734 

Nathaniel Rice April 17, 1734 1734 

Gabriel Johnston November 2, 1734 1734-1752 

Nathaniel Rice July 17, 1752 1752-1753 

Matthew Rowan February 1, 1753 1753-1754 

Arthur Dobbs November 1, 1754 1754-1765 

James Hasell October 15, 1763 1763 

William Tryon April 3, 1765 1765 

William Tryon December 20, 1765 1765-1771 

James Hasell July 1, 1771 1771 

Josiah Martin August 12, 1771 1771-1775 

James Hasell October 8, 1774 1774 

GOVERNORS ELECTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY 

Name Residence Qualified Term 

Richard Caswell Dobbs December 21, 1776 1776-1777 

Richard Caswell Dobbs April 18, 1777 1777-1778 

Richard Caswell Dobbs April 20, 1778 

Richard Caswell Dobbs May 4, 1779 

Abner Nash Craven April 21, 1780 

Thomas Burke Orange June 26, 1781 

Alexander Martin Guilford October 5, 1781 

Alexander Martin Guilford April 22, 1782 

Alexander Martin Guilford April 30, 1783 

Alexander Martin Guilford May 3, 1784 1784-1785 

Richard Caswell Dobbs December 12, 1785 1785-1786 

Richard Caswell Dobbs December 23, 1786 1786-1787 

Samuel Johnston Chowan December 20, 1787 1787-1788 

Samuel Johnston Chowan November 18, 1788 1788-1789 

Samuel Johnston Chowan November 18, 1789 1789 

Alexander Martin Guilford December 17, 1789 1789-1790 

Alexander Martin Guilford December 9, 1790 1790-1792 

Alexander Martin Guilford January 2, 1792 1792 

Richard Dobbs Spaight Craven December 14, 1792 1792-1793 

Richard Dobbs Spaight Craven December 26, 1793 1793-1795 

Richard Dobbs Spaight Craven January 6, 1795 1795 



1778- 


1779 


1779- 


1780 


1780- 


1781 


1781- 


1782 


1781- 


1782 


1782- 


1783 


1783- 


1784 



410 



North Carolina Manual 



Name Residence Qualified 

Samuel Ashe New Hanover November 19, 

Samuel Ashe New Hanover December 19. 

Samuel Ashe New Hanover December 5. 

William R. Davie Halifax December 7, 

Benjamin Williams Moore November 23 

Benjamin Williams Moore November 29 

Benjamin Williams Moore November 28 

John Baptiste Ashe 1 Halifax 



James Turner Warren December 6, 

James Turner Warren December 6, 

James Turner Warren November 29 

Nathaniel Alexander Mecklenburg December 10 

Nathaniel Alexander Mecklenburg December 1. 

Benjamin Williams Moore December 1, 

David Stone Bertie December 12 

David Stone Bertie December 13 

Benjamin Smith Brunswick December 5, 

William Hawkins Warren December 9, 

William Hawkins Warren December 8. 

William Hawkins Warren December 7, 

William Miller Warren December 7, 

William Miller Warren December 7, 

William Miller Warren December 7, 

John Branch Halifax December 6, 

John Branch Halifax December 5, 

John Branch Halifax December 7, 

Jesse Franklin Surry December 7, 



Gabriel Holmes 

Gabriel Holmes 

Gabriel Holmes 

Hutchings G. Burton 
Hutchings G. Burton 



Sampson December 7. 

Sampson December 7, 

Sampson December 6, 

Halifax December 7, 

Halifax December 6, 

Hutchings G. Burton Halifax December 29 

James Iredell, Jr Chowan December 8, 

John Owen Bladen December 12 

John Owen Bladen December 10 

Montford Stokes Wilkes December 18 

Montford Stokes Wilkes December 13 

David L. Swain Buncombe December 6, 

David L. Swain Buncombe December 9, 

David L. Swain Buncombe December 10 

Richard Dobbs Spaight, Jr. ... Craven December 10 



Term 

1795 1795-1796 

1796 1796-1797 

797 1797-1798 

798 1798-1799 

1799 1799-1800 

1800 1800-1801 

1801 1801-1802 

802 1802-1803 

803 1803-1804 

1804 1804-1805 

1805 1805-1806 

806 1806-1807 

807 1807-1808 

1808 1808-1809 

1809 1809-1810 

810 1810-1811 

811 1811-1812 

812 1812-1813 

813 1813-1814 

814 1814-1815 

815 1815-1816 

816 1816-1817 

817 1817-1818 

818 1818-1819 

819 1819-1820 

820 1820-1821 

821 1821-1822 

822 1822-1823 

823 1823-1824 

824 1824-1825 

825 1825-1826 

1826 1826-1827 

827 1827-1828 

1828 1828-1829 

1829 1829-1830 

1830 1830-1831 

1831 1831-1832 

832 1832-1833 

833 1833-1834 

1834 1834-1835 

1835 1835-1836 



'Ashe died before he could take office. 



The Executive Branch 411 



GOVERNORS ELECTED BY THE PEOPLE 

Name Residence Qualified Term 

Edward B. Dudley New Hanover December 31. 1836 1836-1838 

Edward B. Dudley New Hanover December 29. 1838 1838-1841 

John M. Morehead Guilford January 1. 1841 1841-1842 

John M. Morehead Guilford December 31, 1842 1842-1845 

William A. Graham Orange January 1. 1845 1845-1847 

William A. Graham Orange January 1. 1847 1847-1849 

Charles Manly Wake January 1. 1849 ; 1849-1851 

David S. Reid Rockingham January 1, 1851 1851-1852 

David S. Reid Rockingham December 22, 1852 1852-1854 

Warren Winslow Cumberland December 6. 1854 1854-1855 

Thomas Bragg Northampton January 1. 1855 1855-1857 

Thomas Bragg Northampton January 1, 1857 1857-1859 

John W. Ellis Rowan January 1. 1859 1859-1861 

John W. Ellis 2 Rowan January 1, 1861 1861 

Henry T. Clark Edgecombe July 7, 1861 1861-1862 

Zebuion B. Vance Buncombe September 8, 1862 1862-1864 

Zebulon B. Vance Buncombe December 22, 1864 1864-1865 

William W. Holden' Wake May 29, 1865 1865 

Jonathan Worth Randolph December 15, 1865 1865-1866 

Jonathan Worth Randolph December 22, 1866 1866-1868 

William W. Holden 4 Wake July 1, 1868 1868-1870 

Tod R. Caldwell Burke December 15, 1870 1870-1873 

Tod R. Caldwell 5 Burke January 1, 1873 1873-1874 

Curtis H. Brogden Wayne July 14, 1874 1874-1877 

Zebulon B. Vance Buncombe January 1, 1877 1877-1879 

Thomas J. Jarvis Pitt February 5, 1879 1879-1881 

Thomas J. Jarvis Pitt January 18, 1881 1881-1885 

James L. Robinson Macon September 1, 1883 1883 

Alfred M. Scales Rockingham January 21, 1885 1885-1889 

Daniel G. Fowle 6 Wake January 17, 1889 1889-1891 

Thomas M. Holt Alamance April 8, 1891 1891-1893 

Elias Carr Edgecombe January 18, 1893 1893-1897 

Daniel L. Russell Brunswick January 12, 1897 1897-1901 

Charles B. Aycock Wayne January 15. 1901 1901-1905 

Robert B. Glenn Forsyth January 11, 1905 1905-1909 

William W. Kitchin Person January 12, 1909 1909-1913 

Locke Craig Buncombe January 15, 1913 1913-1917 

Thomas W. Bickett Franklin January 1 1, 1917 1917-1921 

Cameron Morrison Mecklenburg January 12. 1921 1921-1925 

Angus W. McLean Robeson January 14, 1925 1925-1929 

Oliver Max Gardner Cleveland January II, 1929 1929-1933 

2 Ellis died July 7. 1861. 

'Holden, a Republican, was appointed provisional governor by the occupation commander. 

4 Holden was removed from office. Following his conviction on six of eight impeachment charges. 

'Caldwell died July 11. 1874. 

''Fowledied April 7. 1891. 



412 North Carolina Manual 



Name Residence Qualified Term 

John C. B. Ehringhaus Pasquotank January 5, 1933 1933-1937 

Clyde R. Hoey Cleveland January 7, 1937 1937-1941 

John Melville Broughton Wake January 9, 1941 1941-1945 

Robert Gregg Cherry Gaston January 4, 1945 1945-1949 

William Kerr Scott Alamance January 6, 1949 1949-1953 

William B. Umstead 7 Durham January 8, 1953 1953-1954 

Luther H. Hodges Rockingham November 7, 1954 1954-1957 

Luther H. Hodges Rockingham February 7, 1957 1957-1961 

Terry Sanford Cumberland January 5, 1961 1961-1965 

Daniel K. Moore Jackson January 8, 1965 1965-1969 

Robert W. Scott Alamance January 3, 1969 1969-1973 

James E. Holshouser, Jr Watauga January 5, 1973 1973-1977 

James B. Hunt, Jr Wilson January 8, 1977 1977-1981 

James B. Hunt, Jr Wilson January 10, 1981 1981- 



7 Umstead died November 7, 1954. 



The Executive Branch 413 



THE OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR 

The office of the governor is the oldest governmental office in North Carolina. The 
first governor was Ralph Lane, who served as governor of Sir Walter Raleigh's first col- 
ony on Roanoke Island (1585). The first permanent governor was William Drummond, 
appointed by William Berkely, Governor of Virginia and one of the Lords Proprietors, 
at the request of his colleagues. During the colonial period governors were appointed by 
the Lords Proprietors prior to 1729, and the Crown afterward 1730. These people 
served at the pleasure of their appointors, usually until a governor died or resigned, al- 
though there were several instances where other factors were involved. When a regularly 
appointed governor, for whatever reason, could no longer perform his functions as chief 
executive, either the president of the council, or the deputy, or lieutenant governor, took 
over until a new governor was appointed and qualified. Following our independence in 
1776, and the adoption of our first State Constitution, the governor was elected by the 
two houses of the general assembly. He was elected to serve a one-year term and could 
serve no more than three years in any six. 

In 1835 with the clamors for a more democratic form of government being felt in 
Raleigh, a constitutional convention was called to amend certain sections of the consti- 
tution. One of the amendments provided for the popular election of the governor every 
two years; however, little was done to increase his authority in any area other than that 
of appointments. In 1868 a second constitution was adopted by the State of North 
Carolina which reflected the principals resulting from the Civil War. Under provisions 
in this new constitution, the governor's term of office was expanded from two to four 
years, and his duties and powers were greatly increased. 

Today North Carolina is governed by her third constitution and while several 
changes were made in its content, the Article dealing with the executive branch, and the 
governor in particular, remains basically in tact. In recent years there has been a grow- 
ing concern over two basic omissions in the powers of the governor as found in our 
Constitution. One of these is veto power over legislation passed by the General Assem- 
bly — North Carolina is the only state that does not allow its governor veto power. The 
second is the right of a governor to succeed himself in office. The citizens of North 
Carolina addressed the issue of gubernatorial succession in 1977 and voted to allow the 
governor and lieutenant governor to run for re-election. Governor Jim Hunt is the first 
North Carolina governor since 1866 to be elected to two consecutive terms in office. 

In 1972, the Office of the Governor was created as one of the 19 major departments in 
the Executive Branch of state government. Under his immediate jurisdiction are such 
assistants and personnel as he may need to carry out the functions as chief executive of 
the State. In North Carolina, the governor is not only the state's chief exective, but he is 
also the director of the budget, with responsibilities for all phases of budgeting from the 
initial preparation to final execution; he is commander-in-chief of the state military; and 
he is chairman of the Council of State, which he may convene at any time for advice on 
allotments from the Contingency and Emergency Fund and for the disposition of state 
property. He also has the authority to convene the general assembly into extra session 
should affairs of the State dictate such a move. The governor is directed by the North 
Carolina Constitution to "take care" that all state laws are faithfully executed. He has 
the power to grant pardons and communications; issue extradition warrants and re- 



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The Executive Branch 415 



quests; join interstate compacts; and reorganize and consolidate state agencies. The 
governor has final authority over all expenditures of the state, and he is also responsible 
for the administration of all funds and loans from the federal government. At the start 
of each regular session of the general assembly, the governor delivers legislative and 
budgetary messages to the legislators. To help him carry out his administrative duties 
and run his office the governor has several assistants. 

Executive Assistant 

The Executive Assistant to the Governor serves as the Governor's primary link to the 
Cabinet. He serves as a liaison between the Council of State and Cabinet and the Gov- 
ernor. He is also responsible for advising the Governor on various matters of state, and 
sometimes serves as the Governor's representative at special events which the Governor 
himself cannot attend. 

Since January 1978, the Executive Assistant has been the State Budget Officer, pro- 
viding a close link between the Governor, as Director of the Budget, and the Office of 
State Budget and Management. 

Senior Assistant 

The Senior Assistant serves as the chief of staff for all personnel in the Governor's 
Office. It is his responsibility to see that the office functions smoothly and that the right 
decisions are made to maintain its smooth operation. In addition, the Senior Assistant 
meets with people that the Governor is unable to see himself. 

Appointments Office 

As North Carolina's chief executive, the Governor has the responsibility for making 
appointments to more than 300 statutory bodies and to approximately 45 non-statutory 
advisory groups created or required by federal legislation, executive orders, or the by- 
laws of private organizations. He is likewise responsible for filling vacancies in some 
elective offices. To assist him in performing these duties, the Governor's special assist- 
ant for appointments to boards and commissions receives recommendations, researches 
qualifications and requirements, maintains records, and provides liaison with associa- 
tions, agencies, and interested individuals and groups. Through these functions, the ap- 
pointments office provides information and advice to the Governor on matters relating 
to his powers of appointment. 

Special Assistant for Minority Affairs 

The Special Assistant for Minority Affairs serves as a liaison between the Governor's 
Office and the statewide minority population. He keeps the Governor informed about 
important issues of minority interest, concerns and problems. He also is responsible for 
studying and making recommendations concerning current policies relating to minority 
affairs. The Special Assistant maintains constant contact with minority citizens and 
serves as the Governor's representative at meetings of local minority organizations and 
community action groups. He also assists in carrying out the state's Affirmative Action 
Program. 



416 North Carolina Manual 



Legal Counsel to the Governor 

The Legal Counsel to the Governor is appointed by the Governor to assist and advise 
him on legal matters and obligations relating to the Office of the Governor. Specifically, 
he is delegated the responsibility of investigating the merits of requests for pardons, 
commutations, reprieves, extradition, rewards, and payment of legal fees charged the 
state, and reporting to the Governor those findings for his consideration. He is available 
to the public to assist them with problems relating to state government in areas where 
the Governor has jurisdiction. The Legal Counsel researches the legality and contents of 
executive orders, participates in structuring the Governor's legislative program and 
budget, is involved with inter-departmental program coordination, and advises the 
Governor on general policy issues. 

Press Office 

The News Secretary serves as the head of the Governor's information center — the 
press office — as well as his designated spokesman on matters when the Governor can- 
not be reached personally. He serves as a liaison between the Governor and the working 
press — keeping them informed on matters of interest and importance which affect the 
state. 

Office of Citizen Affairs 

Governor Jim Hunt created the Office of Citizen Affairs in 1977 to promote greater 
citizen awareness of and personal involvement in state and local government programs, 
services and activities. The office also serves to facilitate citizen communication with the 
Governor and state government and to promote and encourage the growth of voluntar- 
ism across North Carolina. 

The Governor's Office of Citizen Affairs receives and responds to thousands of re- 
quests for assistance from citizens each month. The office cuts through red tape, gets 
answers to complicated questions, acts as a go-between for citizens and government 
agencies when the need arises. The office is the people's advocate in Raleigh. In addi- 
tion, the office maintains WASTELINE (toll-free, 800-662-7952), designed to receive 
ideas from the public on ways to increase productivity in state government and reduce 
waste. 

Special Assistant for Federal-State Relations 

The Special Assistant for Federal-State Relations is the Governor's liaison on matters 
involving other states, key federal officials and various national and regional associa- 
tions of states. He is responsible for obtaining a timely state response to congressional 
legislation, federal agency program directives and national policy positions. He coordi- 
nates the working relationship between the Governor's Office, the Division of Policy 
Development and the North Carolina Washington Office on state-federal matters and 
for structuring the state's impact in this area. He advises the Governor on state-federal 
and multi-state policy issues. 



The Executive Branch 417 



Office of State Budget and Management 

In September, 1979 Governor Jim Hunt, by executive order, moved the Office of 
State Budget and Management from the Department of Administration to the Office of 
the Governor. The office helps state departments and institutions develop biennial bud- 
gets for submission to the Governor, the Advisory Budget Commission and the General 
Assembly. As the primary fiscal administrator for state government, the office also 
supervises and manages budget appropriations by the General Assembly. 

Office of Non-Public Education 

Governor Jim Hunt established the Office of Non-Public Education in October 1 979 
to provide a liaison between the state and the private, independent and church-related 
schools. The office monitors health and safety factors, required testing programs and 
other such areas in the state's non-public schools. 



418 North Carolina Manual 



BOARDS WITHIN THE OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR 

LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADVOCACY COUNCIL 
(G.S. 143-506.14) 

Purpose: To advocate on behalf of local government and to advise the Governor and his 
cabinet on the development and implementation of policies and programs which 
directly affect local government. 
To function as liaison for State and local relations and communications 
To identify problem areas and recommend policies of State, regional and local rela- 
tions. 

To review, monitor and evaluate current and proposed State program policies, 
practices, procedures, guidelines and regulations and their effect on local goverment. 

Composition: 19 members — 3 at large appointed by the Governor; 2 Senators appointed 
by the President of the Senate; 2 Representatives appointed by the Speaker of the 
House; 6 representing county government (5 who are members of the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Association of County Commissioners and 1 who is the Executive Direc- 
tor); 6 representing municipal government (5 who are members of the Executive 
Committee of the League of Municipalities and 1 who is the Executive Director). 

Term: Representatives for the Association of County Commissioners and League of 
Municipalities serve terms consistent with their terms as Executive Committee mem- 
bers. At-large members serve at the pleasure of the Governor and legislative members 
serve terms consistent with their legislative terms. At-large and legislative members 
may serve no more than 2 consecutive terms. 

Officers: Chairman President of the Association of County Commissioners. Vice- 
Chairman -- President of the League of Municipalities. Office rotates between the 
League and Association annually. 



The Executive Branch 419 

JUDICIAL NOMINATING COMMITTEE FOR SUPERIOR 

COURT JUDGES 

(Executive Order #30) 

Purpose: To identify and nominate for appointment those persons most highly qualified 
personally and professionally to be Superior Court Judges without regard to any par- 
tisan political considerations. 

Composition: 35 members — 13 citizens who are not licensed to practice law in the State 
appointed by the Governor (no less than 3 and no more than 4 residents of the same 
judicial division); 13 attorneys licensed to practice law in the State by the Chief Justice 
of the North Carolina Supreme Court (no less than 3 and no more than 4 residents of 
the same judicial division); 3 by the President Pro Tern of the Senate (2 citizens not 
licensed to practice law in the State; 3 by the Speaker of the House (3 citizens not 
licensed to practice law in the State and 1 attorney licensed to practice law in the 
State); 1 jointly by the President Pro Tern of the Senate and Speaker of the House (an 
attorney licensed to practice law in the State); 2 members of the North Carolina 
Supreme Court appointed by that court. 

Term: First term was from July 28, 1977 to December 31, 1980 with members to serve un- 
til successors are confirmed. 

Officers: Chairman and Chairman Pro Tern are the two members of the Supreme Court. 



The Executive Branch 421 



OFFICE OF THE LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR 

JAMES COLLINS GREEN 
Lieutenant Governor 

Early Years: Born in Halifax County, Virginia, February 24, 1921, to John Collins and 

Frances Sue (Oliver) Green. 
Education: Graduated Volens High School, Nathalie, Virginia; Attended Washington 

and Lee University, Lexington, Virginia. 
Professional Background: Farmer and businessman; (Owner and operator of tobacco 

warehouses in Chadbourn and Clarkton, N.C., Brookneal, VA., and Greeneville 

and Newport, Tennessee). 

Organizations: Past President, Clarkton Rotary Club; Director, Clarkton Community 
Corp. and Clarkton Merchants Association; President, Brown Marsh Development 
Corporation, Clarkton; Member, French Lodge No. 270 A.F. and A.M.; Thirty- 
second Degree Scottish Rite Mason; Shriner; Sudan Temple; Clarkton Woodmen 
of the World Camp; Member, American Legion; Veterans of Foreign Wars; AM- 
VETS; Life Member, U.S. Marine Corps League. 

Boards and Commissions: Member: State Board of Education; State Board of Com- 
munity Colleges; Commission of Indian Affairs; Capital Planning Commission; NC 
Board of Economic Development. Chairman: Governmental Operations Commit- 
tee. Former Member: Trustee of Southeastern Community College in Columbus 
County (Chairman, Building Committee); Board of Trustees, Consolidated Univer- 
sity of NC; Board of Trustees, University of NC at Greensboro; Board of 
Transportation. 

Political Activities: Lieutenant Governor, 1977 — (elected, 1976; reelected, 1980); Ser- 
ved in NC House of Representatives, 1961, 1963, 1965-66, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, and 
1975-76, (Speaker, 1975-76); Served in NC Senate, 1967; Member, Bladen County 
Board of Education, 1955-1961; Bladen County Democratic Executive Committee; 
Precinct Chairman or Vice-Chairman for ten years. 

Military Service: Served as Corporal in U.S. Marine Corps, 1944-1946; Participated in 
invasion of Iwo Jima as a machine gunner with Third Marine Division. 

Religious Activities: Member, Clarkton Presbyterian Church; Deacon; past Super- 
intendent Sunday School. 

Family: Married Alice McAulay Clark, October 7, 1943; Children: Sarah Frances, 
Susan Clark, and James Collins, Jr. 



422 



North Carolina Manual 



LIEUTENANT GOVERNORS OF NORTH CAROLINA 1 



Name Residence 

Tod R. Caldwell 2 Burke July 

Curtis H. Brogden 3 Wayne January 

Thomas J. Jarvis 4 Pitt January 

James L. Robinson 5 Macon January 

Charles M. Stedman New Hanover January 21 

Thomas M. Holt 6 Alamance January 

Rufus A. Doughton Alleghany January 

Charles A. Reynolds Forsyth January 

Wilfred D. Turner Iredell January 

Francis D. Winston Bertie January 

William C. Newland Caldwell January 

Elijah L. Daughtridge Edgecombe January 

Oliver Max Gardner Cleveland January 

William B. Cooper New Hanover January 

Jacob E. Long Durham January 

Richard T. Fountain Edgecombe January 

Alexander H. Graham Orange January 5 



Qualified Term 

, 1868 1868-1870 

1873 1873-1874 



877 . 

1881 

1885 

1889 

1893 

1897 

1901 

1905 



1877- 
1881- 
1885- 
1889- 
1893- 
1897- 
1901- 
1905- 



1879 
1885 
1889 
1891 
1897 
1901 
1905 
1909 



1909 1909-1913 

1913 1913-1917 

1917 1917-1921 

1921 1921-1925 

1925 1925-1929 

1929 1929-1933 

1933 1933-1937 



Wilkins P. Horton Chatham January 7, 1937 1937-1941 

Reginald L. Harris Person January 9, 1941 1941-1945 

Lynton Y. Ballentine Wake January 4, 1945 1945-1949 

Hoyt Patrick Taylor Anson January 6, 1949 1949-1953 

Luther H. Hodges 7 Rockingham January 8, 1953 1953-1954 

Luther E. Barnhardt Cabarrus February 7, 1957 1957-1961 

Harvey Cloyd Philpott 8 Davidson January 5, 1961 1961 

Robert W. Scott Alamance January 8, 1965 1965-1969 

Hoyt Patrick Taylor, Jr Anson January 3, 1969 1969-1973 

James B. Hunt, Jr Pitt January 5, 1973 1973-1977 

James C.Green Bladen January 8, 1977 1977-1981 

James C.Green Bladen January 10, 1981 1981- 



'The office of Lieutenant Governor was created by the North Carolina Constitution of 1868. 
2 Caldwell became governor following the removal of Holden from office in 1870. 
'Brogden became governor following the death of Caldwell. 
4 Jarvis became governor following the resignation of Vance. 
5 Robinson resigned from office on October 13, 1884. 
'Holt became governor following the death of Fowle. 
'Hodges became governor following the death of Umstead. 
^Philpott died on August 18, 1961. 



The Executive Branch 423 



THE OFFICE OF THE LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR 

In North Carolina, the Lieutenant Governor is a constitutional officer elected to a 
four-year term by the citizens. 

A quick look at the history books reveals that the origin of the office of the Lieuten- 
ant Governor probably goes back to 16th century England, when the English Crown es- 
tablished the office of the Lord Lieutenant, a county official who represented the King 
in the management of local affairs. 

Although several early American colonial charters referred to "Deputy Governor," 
the phrase "Lieutenant Governor" was used for the first time in the Massachusetts 
Charter of 1691. That charter also made it clear that the Lieutenant Governor would 
succeed to the Governorship in the event of a vacancy. The office of the Lieutenant 
Governor in colonial times seems to have been established expressly to cope with the 
problem of gubernatorial absence. 

The concept of the Lieutenant Governor presiding over the upper house of the state 
legislature may have had its roots in the colonial practice of making the Lieutenant 
Governor the chief member of the Governor's council. 

The North Carolina State Constitution adopted in 1776 made no provision for a 
Lieutenant Governor. However, the constitutional convention of 1868, brought to- 
gether to frame a constitution to grant suffrage to blacks, also called for the elective of- 
fice of the Lieutenant Governor. Hugh Lefler, in his book, North Carolina, the History 
of a Southern State, called that Constitution of 1868 ". . . so modern and democratic 
that with some changes it has remained effective to this date." 

Under that Constitution, and the one adopted in 1970, under which we operate to- 
day, the Lieutenant Governor is named President of the Senate, a member of the Coun- 
cil of State, and of the State Board of Education, and he ". . . shall perform such addi- 
tional duties as the General Assembly or the Governor may assign him." 

Between 1868 and 1970, the Lieutenant Governor was a parttime official with very 
limited authority. He served only when the General Assembly was in session or in the 
absence of the Governor. His primary responsibility was that of presiding officer of the 
Senate, and in that capacity, he appointed Senators to committees, and oversaw legisla- 
tion as it passed through the Senate. 

There seems to be a trend throughout the nation toward making the ofice of the Lieu- 
tenant Governor a more significant and important one. Forty-two of the states have 
Lieutenant Governors, and almost that many, including North Carolina, have made it a 
full-time office. 

Part of the reason for that trend is to more fully prepare the Lieutenant Governor for 
the role of Governor if he should have to take over quickly. Another part of the reason 
for that trend is that the number two position in the big business of state government 
puts a heavy work-load on the person who occupies that position. 

A 1970 constitutional amendment made the Lieutenant Governor a full-time officer 
of the state, and the State Reorganization Act of 197 1 established an office with a signif- 
icant budget and staff support, effective January 1973. 

Some of the commissions on which the Lieutenant Governor presently serves include 
the Commission on Interstate Cooperation, the Commission on Indian Affairs, the 
North Carolina Land Policy Council, the Board of Economic Development, the State 



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The Executive Branch 425 



Board of Community Colleges and the North Carolina Capital Planning Commission. 
The Lieutenant Governor is also the chairman of the Governmental Operations Com- 
mittee, which has the authority to scrutinize the expenditure of tax dollars by State 
Government agencies. 

The Lieutenant Governor's primary responsibility is still that of presiding officer of 
the Senate. In this capacity he not only appoints committees and their respective chair- 
men and vice-chairmen, he also appoints and supervises pages, supervises certain activi- 
ties of the sergeant-at-arms, and appoints clerks to committees. 

Today, the Lieutenant Governor enjoys the right to seek reelection to an additional 
four-year-term thanks to the ratification in 1977 of a constitutional amendment to allow 
the Governor and Lieutenant Governor to succeed themselves. 



The Executive Branch 427 



DEPARTMENT OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

THAD EURE 
Secretary of State 

Early Years: Born in Gates County, on November 15, 1899, to Tazewell A. and Ar- 

mecia (Langstun) Eure. 
Education: Attended Gatesville High School, 1913-1917; University of North Carolina, 

1917-1919; University of North Carolina Law School, 1921-1922. 
Professional Background: Lawyer (Past County Attorney for Hertford County, 1923- 

1931.) 
Organizations: President, Ahoskie Kiwanis Club, 1927; Theta Chi Fraternity; Junior 

Order; B.P.O. Elks and a Grand Lodge Chair Office, 1956; T.P.A.; American 

Legion, Forty and Eight; President, National Association of Secretaries of State, 

1942, and became Dean, 1961. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Council of State; Local Government Commission; 
Chairman, Board of Trustees, Elon College. 

Political Activities: Secretary of State, 1936 — (Elected Secretary of State on November 
3, 1936, and assumed duties of the office December 21, 1936, by virtue of executive 
appointment, ten days prior to the commencement of constitutional term, due to a 
vacancy that then occurred; re-elected Secretary of State in the general elections of 
1940, 1944, 1948, 1952, 1956, 1960, 1964, 1968, 1972, 1976, and 1980); Principal 
Clerk, House of Representatives, Sessions of 1931, 1933, 1935 and Extra Session, 
1936; Served in NC House of Representatives, 1929 (representing Hertford County); 
Mayor of Winton, 1923-1928; Presidential Elector, First District of N.C., 1932; Es- 
cheats Agent, University of NC, 1933-1936; Keynote Speaker, Democratic State 
Convention, 1950, and Permanent Chairman, 1962; Votes in Winton, Hertford 
County. 

Military Service: Private, World War I. 

Honors: Award of Merit by N.C. State University, 1965; Distinguished Service 
American Legion and 40 & 8; Elon College Citizens Service Award, 1980; Theta Chi 
Fraternity Alumni Award; Kentucky Colonel; King of the Ramps; "Boss of the 
Year," Cary Jaycees, 1978; Doctor of Laws (honorary), Elon College, 1958. 

Religious Activities: Member, United Church of Christ. 

Family: Married Minta Banks of Winton, NC, November 15, 1924; Children: Mrs. 
Norman Black, Jr., and Thad Eure, Jr.; Seven grandchildren. 



428 North Carolina Manual 



SECRETARIES OF NORTH CAROLINA 

COLONIAL SECRETARIES 

Name Term 
Richard Cobthrop 



Peter Carteret 1665-[1672] 

Robert Holden 1675-1677 

[Thomas Miller] 1677-[1679] 

Robert Holden 1679-[1683] 

Woodrowe [1683-1685] 

Francis Hartley [1685-1692] 

Daniel Akerhurst [1692-1700] 

Samuel Swann [1700]- 1704 

Tobias Knight 1704-1708 

George Lumley 1704 

George Lumley 1708 

Nevil Low 

Tobias Knight 1712-1719 

John Lovick 1719-1722 

John Lovick 1722-1731 

Joseph Anderson 1731 

Nathaniel Rice 1731-1753 

James Murray 1753-1755 

Henry McCulloch 1755 

Richard Spaight 1755-1762 

Thomas Faulkner 

Richard Spaight * 1762 

Benjamin Heron 1762-1769 

John London 1769-1770 

Robert Palmer 1770-1771 

Samuel Strudwick 1772-[1775] 

SECRETARIES OF STATE 

Name Residence Term 

James Glasgow 1777-1798 

William White 1798-1811 

William Hill 1811-1857 

Rufus H. Page 1857-1862 

John P. H. Russ 1862-1864 

Charles R. Thomas 1864-1865 

Robert W. Best 1865-1868 

Henry J. Menninger Wake 1868-1873 

William H. Howerton Rowan 1873-1877 

Joseph A. Engelhard New Hanover 1877-1879 

John Manning Wake 



The Executive Branch 429 



William L. Saunders Wake 1879-1891 

OctaviusCoke Wake 1891-1895 

Charles M. Cooke Franklin 1895-1897 

Cyrus Thompson Onslow 1897-1901 

John Bryan Grimes Pitt 1901-1923 

William N. Everett Richmond 1923-1928 

James A. Hartness Richmond 1928-1933 

Stacey W. Wade Carteret 1933-1936 

Charles G. Powell Granville 1936 

Thaddeus A. Eure Hertford 1936- 



430 North Carolina Manual 



THE DEPARTMENT OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

The office of secretary is the second oldest governmental office in North Carolina. 
Shortly after the Lords Proprietors were granted their charter, the first secretary was ap- 
pointed to maintain the records of the colony. The office continued to function following 
the purchase of North Carolina by the Crown in 1 728. Following independence, the office 
of secretary of state, was created in a special resolution and was later incorporated into 
the Constitution of 1 776; and, except for expansion as new responsibilities were assigned 
it, the office has remained one of the primary constitutional offices of State government. 

Today, the Secretary of State is a constitutional officer elected to a four-year term by 
the general citizenry. He heads the Department of the Secretary of State which was cre- 
ated by the Executive Organization Act of 197 1 . The Secretary of State is a member of the 
Council of State which must approve acquisitions and conveyances of state lands and al- 
lotments from the Contingency and Emergency Fund. He is ex officio member of the Lo- 
cal Government Commission and Capital Planning Commission. He is required by law 
to attend every session of the general assembly to receive bills which have become laws 
and to perform other duties prescribed by resolution of either or both Houses. He assigns 
seats to members of both houses by Resolution of the 1939 General Assembly, and con- 
venes the house of representatives, presiding until a speaker is elected. The original Jour- 
nals of each house are delivered to him for preservation. He is empowered by law to ad- 
minister oaths to any public official of whom an oath is required, and he is frequently 
called upon to administer oaths to officers of the Highway Patrol and similar agencies. 

The purpose and objective of the Department of the Secretary of State is to faithfully 
perform the duties assigned to the secretary of state by the Constitution and laws of the 
State of North Caorlina. The Department of the Secretary of State is charged with the 
duty of maintaining certain records pertaining to state and local government actions and 
the commercial activity of private business. This duty is imposed by widely scattered sec- 
tions of the General Statutes of North Carolina and involves varying degrees of responsi- 
bility to review the documents for conformity to statutory requirements prior to filing. 
The Department has responsibility under approximately fifty separate statutes which 
may be divided into categories dealing with custodianship of the Constitution and laws of 
the State, administrative commercial law, the elective process, the general assembly and 
public information. 

The management functions of the department are the responsibility of the Secretary 
of State and his deputy. In addition, miscellaneous statutory duties and responsibilities 
not mentioned above which are not assigned to one of the departmental divisions are 
performed by the Secretary of State or Deupty Secretary of State. These functions in- 
clude: countersigning all commissions issued by the Governor; attesting all documents 
issued in the name of the state; assigning seats to members of general assembly; in con- 
vening the house of representatives; receiving and preserving original laws of the general 
assembly and furnishing certified copies thereof. The reason for each specific function 
varies, but basic to the majority is the right of citizens to information about their gov- 
ernment. The Department of the Secretary of State serves as a central source of public 
information on a continuing basis. 



The Executive Branch 431 



Deputy Secretary of State 

The Deputy Secretary of State has responsibility for registration of trademarks and 
service marks and the filing of municipal annexation ordinances. The processing of sum- 
mons and complaints served on the Secretary of State on behalf of corporations which 
cannot be served with process otherwise is under his supervision. Registration of Lob- 
byists, the filing of their letters of authority and expenses are under the direct supervision 
of the Secretary of State and, in his absence, the Deputy Secretary of State. 

Corporation Division 

A corporation is a legal entity created under the authority of the laws of the State 
which enjoys the capacity of perpetual succession, the ability to act as a single unit and 
limited liability for its stockholders or members. The various corporation laws of the 
State of North Carolina are enabling statutes under which a corporation may be 
organized and continue to exist, control its internal affairs, and determine its relation 
with the State while its existence continues. The responsibility of the Secretary of State 
is to insure uniform compliance with such statutes, record information required as a 
public record, prevent duplication of corporate names and furnish information to the 
public. 

Uniform Commercial Code Division 

Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code provides a method for giving interested 
third parties adequate notice of security interests in personal property. The method 
adopted is a "notice" filing system, the objective of which is to apprise interested third 
parties of the fact of possible adverse interest, leaving to inquiry of the debtor the ascer- 
tainment of the extent and terms of existence of the interest. 

The Secretary of State, as central filing officer, receives and files Financing Statements 
and related "notice" statements and furnishes information about such filings. He is also 
central filing officer for Federal Tax Liens which are handled in the same manner as 
UCC filings. Finance Statements are generally effective for five years and may be con- 
tinued within six months of their expiration for an additional five year period. 

Securities Division 

The primary purpose of the North Carolina Securities Law is to protect the general 
public from "wildcat" organizers, promoters and unscrupulous persons, whether foreign 
or domestic, preying upon an unsuspecting and confiding public by selling worthless se- 
curities. This purpose is achieved through the formulating administrative rules, exami- 
nation and registration of securities prior to sale, licensing of securities salesmen and 
dealers, investigation and prosecution where there is violation of Securities Law, co- 
operation with the Securities and Exchange Commission, Department of Justice, and 
other state and federal government agencies, participation in conferences of the National 
Association of Securities Administrators; information presentations to the industry and 
civic groups. 



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The Executive Branch 433 



Publications Division 



The primary purpose of the Publications Division is to compile and publish informa- 
tion useful to the general assembly, state agencies, and the public; to maintain for public 
inspection certain records required to be kept in the custody of the Secretary of State, 
and to distribute publications of the general assembly. This is achieved through the pub- 
lishing of the Election Returns, the Directory of State and County Officials and The 
North Carolina Manual; assisting researchers in the records of North Carolina Land 
Grants; and through sale and distribution of the Session Laws, House Journal, and Sen- 
ate Journal. 

In more recent years, the Division of Publications has tried to serve as a bridge be- 
tween the people of North Carolina and their representatives in State Government. 
Under the direction of the Secretary of State, a map is now available to visitors to the 
downtown Governmental complex which will aid them in finding the location of state 
agencies. A much larger scale of this same map will be placed in the lobby areas of all 
major state buildings. Another new project which will greatly help the public in finding 
assistance in State government will be the publishing of a comprehensive "Directory of 
State Governmental Services." 

Notary Public Division 

The functions of issuing commissions to Notaries Public was transferred to the Secre- 
tary of State from the Governor under the Executive Organization Act of 1971. 

The purpose of the Notary Public Division is to provide a convenient means for es- 
tablishing the authenticity of certain documents. This is accomplished through the 
issuing of commissions to Notaries Public in the several counties of the State. 



L 



The Executive Branch 435 



DEPARTMENT OF THE STATE AUDITOR 

EDWARD RENFROW 
State Auditor 

Early Years: Born in Johnston County, September 17, 1940, to Donnie T. and Ilamae 
(Lewis) Renfrow. 

Education: Graduated Clayton High School, 1958; Hardbargers Junior College of 
Business, Associate degree in Business Administration with Accounting Major; 
completed courses toward advance degree at Atlantic Christian College and 
Johnston Technical Institute. 

Professional Background: Accountant. 

Organizations: Member: NC Society of Accountants (President, 1972-73; First Presi- 
dent, Scholarship Fund, 1973-74), National Society of Public Accountants (seminar 
speaker), Phi Theta Phi Fraternity. Member: Raleigh Hosts Lions Club, American 
Legion Post #71, Smithfield-Selma Chamber of Commerce (First Vice President, 
1974). 

Boards and Commissions: Member: Discrimination Study Committee, 1975; Com- 
munity College Advisory Council, 1977-78; Study Committee to Rewrite NC Game 
Laws, 1977-1979; NC Wildlife Commission, 1977-79; Study Commission to 
Recodify Community College Laws, 1977-79; NC Criminal Justice Education and 
Training Standards Commission, 1978-80; Capitol Planning Commission; Local 
Government Commission; State Pension Board; Law Enforcement Officer's Benefit 
and Retirement Fund; Board of Directors, NC Wildlife Federation. Chairman: 
Commision on Public School Laws, 1977; Governor's Commission on Public 
School Finance, 1978; Board of Trustees, Fireman's Pension Fund. 

Political Activities: State Auditor 1981 (elected 1980); Served in NC Senate 

(representing Johnston and Sampson Counties), 1974-1980; Treasurer, NC 
Democratic Executive Committee, 1973-1974; NC Chairman, Democratic National 
Telethon, 197 1973. 

Military Service: Served NC National Guard, Specialist 4th Class, 1962-66; Honorary 

member at present. 
Honors: Received Distinguished Service Award, Smithfield Jaycees, 1974; Boss of the 

Year Award, 1975; NC Wildlife Federation's Governor's Award for Conservation 

Legislator of the Year, 1977 and 1979. 

Religious Activities: Member, Sharon Baptist Church; Chairman, Deacon Board, two 
terms; Sunday School Teacher; Member, General Board of Baptist State Conven- 
tion, 1970-74; Past Treasurer, Johnston Baptist Association. 

Family: Married Rebecca (Becky) Stephenson Renfrow, December 4, 1960; Children: 
Candace Elaine and Elizabeth Paige. 



436 North Carolina Manual 



AUDITORS OF PUBLIC ACCOUNTS 

Name Residence Qualified 

Samuel F. Phillips Orange 1862-1864 

Richard H. Battle Wake 1864-1865 

STATE AUDITORS 

Name Residence Term 

Henderson Adams 1868-1873 

John Reilly Cumberland 1873-1877 

Samuel L. Love Haywood 1877-1881 

William P. Roberts Gates 1881-1889 

George W. Sandlin Lenoir 1889-1893 

Robert M. Furman Buncombe 1893-1897 

Hal W. Ayer Wake 1897-1901 

Benjamin F. Dixon Cleveland 1901-1910 

Benjamin F. Dixon, Jr Wake 1910-1911 

William P. Wood Randolph 1911-1921 

Baxter Durham Wake 1921-1937 

George Ross Pou Johnston 1937-1947 

Henry L. Bridges Guilford 1947-1981 

Edward Renfrow Johnston 1981- 



The Executive Branch 437 



DEPARTMENT OF THE STATE AUDITOR 

The office of State Auditor was created by the Constitution of 1868, although the of- 
fice of "Auditor of Public Accounts" had existed since 1862. Today, the State Auditor is 
a constitutional officer elected by the people every four years. It is the duty of his office 
to conduct annual audits of the financial affiars of all state agencies and such other spe- 
cial audits as may be requested by the governor. Advisory Budget Commission, or when 
he feels an audit is warranted. In order to insure that accounting systems used in the 
various state agencies are efficient, he conducts surveys and makes changes when neces- 
sary. Also under his jurisdiction is the administration of the Firemen's Pension Fund 
and the State Board of Pensions. 

In addition to his duties as the state's financial watchdog, the State Auditor has sev- 
eral other duties assigned to him by virtue of his office. He is a member of the Council 
of State, the Capitol Planning Commission, the Local Governmental Commission, the 
State Pension Board, the Law Enforcement Officers' Benefit and Retirement Fund, as 
well as Chairman of the Firemen's Pension Fund. 

The Department of State Auditor is divided into the following divisions: General 
Administration, Auditing Division, (Financial, Operational and Ceta Audits), Ac- 
counting Systems Division, Firemen's Pension Fund Division, and the State Board of 
Pensions. 

General Administration 

This division, under the direct supervision of the State Auditor, his deputies and spe- 
cial assistant, handles all administrative matters, personnel, budget, overall planning, 
and coordination of activities for all functions assigned to the State Auditor by statute 
or under the Reorganization of State Government. 

Auditing Division 

The State Auditor is responsible for conducting a thorough post audit of the financial 
transactions of each and every state agency which in any manner handles state funds. A 
state agency is defined to mean any state department, institution, board, commission, 
official or officer of the State. The post audit of a financial and compliance nature is to 
be conducted annually. In addition to the annual audit, the Auditor conducts opera- 
tional audits of selected programs administered by state agencies. The purpose of these 
operational audits is to determine that the programs are being administred as intended 
and that they are accomplishing the desired results in an efficient and effective manner. 
The Auditor also conducts special investigations upon written requests from the Gover- 
nor, Advisory Budget Commission or whenever he deems that such an examination is 
necessary. These special investigations are normally related to embezzlements or misuse 
of state property. Upon the completion of each audit or investigation, the Auditor re- 
ports his findings and recommendations to the Advisory Budget Commission, the Gov- 
ernor, the head of the state agency and all other interested parties. 

The financial and compliance audit conducted by the State Auditor covers all funds 
administered by the state agency, including federal funds. For some federally funded 
programs, special reports are prepared at the request of the federal agencies. The feder- 



DEPARTMENT OF THE STATE AUDITOR 



Special 
Assistant 



Director ol Accounting 
Systems Division 



Systems Accountants 



Financial Auditing 



STATE AUDITOR 



Chief Deputy 
State Auditor 



Deputy 
State Auditor 



Director 
of Adits 



Assistant Director 
of Audits 



Director of 
CETA Division 



Asst Director 
CETA Division 



CETA 
Auditors 



Secretary 



Director of 
Firemen's Pension Fund 



I Assistant I 



Director of 
Operational Auditing 



Asst Director 
Operational Auditing 



Operational 
Auditors 



Raleigh District 
Supervisors 



[ Field Auditors] 



Western District 
Supervisor 



Asheville Morganton 
Field Auditors 



Piedmont District 
Supervisor 



Charlotte Greensboro 
Winston-Salem 
Field Auditors 



Fayetteville 
Supervisor 



Fayetteville 
Field Auditors 



Greenville 
Supervisor 



Greenville 
Field Auditors 



The Executive Branch 439 



ally funded CETA Program requires so much audit coverage that a large segment of the 
audit staff is assigned solely to these audits. 

The State Auditor is independent of any fiscal control exercised by the Director of the 
Budget (Governor) or the Budget Division. He is responsible to the Advisory Budget 
Commission, the General Assembly and the people of North Carolina for the efficient 
and faithful exercise of his duties and responsibilities. 

Accounting Systems Division 

The Accounting Systems Division under the direction of the State Auditor may, as 
often as he deems advisable, conduct a detailed review of the bookkeeping and account- 
ing systems in use in the various departments, institutions, commissions, boards and 
agencies which are supported partially or entirely from State funds. Such examinations 
would be for the purpose of evaluting the adequacy of systems in use by these agencies 
and institutions. In instances where the Auditor determines that existing systems are 
outmoded, inefficient or otherwise inadequate, he shall prescribe and supervise the 
installation of such changes, as in his judgment appear necessary to secure and maintain 
internal control and facilitate the recording of accounting data for the purpose of pre- 
paring reliable and meaningful financial statements and reports. In all cases in which 
major changes in the accounting systems are made, he will be responsible for seeing that 
the new system is designed to accumulate information required for the preparation of 
budget reports and other financial records required by the Budget Division of the De- 
partment of Administration. In instances in which departments, institutions, boards, 
commissions and agencies feel that it is desirable to revise or alter existing accounting 
systems, said agencies or institutions shall request the Auditor to make a survey of their 
systems for the purpose of seeing if such a change is desirable, including the advisability 
of purchasing or renting accounting equipment. Requisitions for the purchase of 
accounting equipment or contracts of the rental of accounting equipment for any state 
department, institution, or agency shall be approved by the Auditor. 

Firemen's Pension Fund Division 

The Firemen's Pension Fund operates under the provisions of G.S. 118-18. The Fund 
has a Board of Trustees which is responsible for formulating Rules and Regulations 
within the framework of the statutes, for the efficient and effective operation of the 
Fund. The State Auditor is responsible for day to day operation of the Fund. 

The Fund was created for the purpose of providing firemen with a small monthly 
pension. Membership is open to all firemen, both paid and volunteer, of a certified or 
rated fire department. Each member pays into the fund $5.00 per month to help finance 
the pension program. In addition to the member's contribution, the State appropriates 
approximately over $1,000,000 annually. This plus the interest the Fund receives from 
its investments finances the program. 

At age 55 with 20 years service a fireman may retire and receive a monthly pension of 
$50.00. 



440 North Carolina Manual 



BOARDS WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT OF THE STATE 

AUDITOR 

FIREMAN'S PENSION FUND 
(G.S. 118-19; 1974) 

Purpose: To request appropriations out of the general fund for administrative expenses 
and to provide for the financing of the pension fund; to employ necessary clerical 
assistance; to determine all applications for pensions; to provide for the payment; 
and to make necessary rules and regulations of eligibility. 

Composition: 5 members — 3 appointed by the Governor (1 paid fireman; 1 volunteer 
fireman; and 1 representative of the public at-large) and 2 ex officio (State Auditor 
and State Insurance Commissioner.) 

Term: 4 years. 

Officers: State Auditor is Chairman. 



The Executive Branch 443 



DEPARTMENT OF THE STATE TREASURER 

HARLAND EDWARD BOYLES 
State Treasurer 

Early Years: Born in Vale, Lincoln County, May 6, 1929, to Curtis E. and Kate 
Schronce Boyles. 

Education: Attended North Brook Schools, Lincoln County, 1935-45; Crossnore 
School, Avery County, 1945-47; University of Georgia, 1947-48; University of NC 
at Chapel Hill, 1948-51, B.S. 

Professional Background: Certified Public Accountant. 

Organizations: Member: Municipal Finance Officers Association, NC Association of 
Certified Public Accountants (past President, Triangle Chapter), National Associa- 
tion of State Auditors, Comptrollers and Treasurers (Treasurer and Executive 
Director). Member: Rotary Club of Raleigh; Raleigh Chamber of Commerce (Past 
Director); Raleigh Salvation Army Advisory Board. 

Boards and Commissions: Member: Council of State; State Board of Education; 
Capitol Planning Commission; NC Capitol Building Authority; Governor's Com- 
mittee on Data Processing Information Systems; Board of Directors, NC Art 
Society; John Motley Morehead Memorial Commission; Governor's Commission 
on Governmental Productivity. Chairman: Local Government Commission; Tax 
Review Board: State Banking Commission; Board of Trustees, Teachers' and State 
Employee's Retirement Systems; Board of Trustees, Local Governmental Em- 
ployee's Retirement System; Board of Commissioners, Law Enforcement Officers' 
Benefit and Retirement Fund. Former member, U.S. Securities and Exchange Com- 
mission's Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board. 

Political Activities: State Treasurer, 1977— (elected 1976; reelected, 1980). 

Literary Works: Author of "North Carolina and Federal Income Tax Law"; "A 

Statewide Accounting System for Local Government" ; "Housing and the State"; and 

"Elected Officials and Fiscal Management." 

Religious Activities: Member, Westminister Presbyterian Church; Deacon; Elder; 
Treasurer and Clerk. 

Family: Married Frances (Frankie) Wilder of Johnston County, May 17, 1952; 
Children: Mrs. G.E. Ferrell, Lynn Boyles Freeman, and Harland Edward Boyles, 
Jr. 



444 North Carolina Manual 



TREASURERS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

COLONIAL TREASURER 

Name Term 

Edward Moseley 1715-1735 

William Smith 

William Downing 1735-1739 

Edward Moseley 1735-1749 

William Smith 1739-1740 

John Hodgson 1740-1748 

Thomas Barker 1748-1752 

Eleazer Allen 1749-1750 

John Starkey 1750-1765 

John Haywood 1752-1754 

Thomas Barker 1754-1764 

Joseph Montford 1764-1775 

Samuel Swann 1765-1766 

John Ashe 1766-1773 

Richard Caswell 1773-1775 

Samuel Johnston 1775 

Richard Caswell 1775 

STATE TREASURER 

Name Residence Term 

Samuel Johnston Chowan 1775-1777 

Richard Caswell Dobbs 1775-1776 

Samuel Johnston Chowan 

John Ashe New Hanover 1777-1779 

William Skinner Perquimans 1777-1779 

William Skinner Perquimans 1779-1784 

Green Hill Franklin 1779-1784 

William Johnston Orange 

Richard Cogdell Craven 1779-1782 

William Cathey [Rowan] 1779-1781 

John Ashe New Hanover 1779-1781 

Nathaniel Rochester Orange 

Matthew Jones Chatham 1779-1782 

Timothy Bloodworth Surry 1781-1784 

Robert Lanier New Hanover 1780-1783 

Memucan Hunt Granville 1782-1784 

John Brown Wilkes 1782-1784 

Benjamin Exum Dobbs 1782-1784 

Joseph Cain [New Hanover] 1783-1784 

William Locke [Rowan] 1784 

Memucan Hunt Granville 1784-1787 

John Haywood Edgecombe 1787-1827 

John S. Haywood Wake 

William Robards Granville 1827-1830 

Robert H. Burton Lincoln 

William S. Mhoon Bertie 1831-1835 



The Executive Branch 445 



Samuel F. Patterson Wilkes 1835 

Samuel F. Patterson Wilkes 1836-1837 

Daniel W. Courts Surry 1837-1839 

Charles L. Hinton Wake 1839-1843 

John H. Wheeler Lincoln 1843-1845 

Charles L. Hinton Wake 1845-1851 

Daniel W. Courts Surry 1851-1862 

Jonathan Worth Randolph 1862-1865 

William Sloan Anson , 1865-1866 

Kemp P. Battle Wake 1866-1868 

David A. Jenkins Gaston 1868-1876 

John M. Worth Randolph 1876-1885 

Donald W. Bain Wake 1885-1892 

Samuel McD. Tate Burke 1892-1895 

William H. Worth Guilford 1895-1901 

Benjamin R. Lacy Wake 1901-1929 

Nathan O'Berry Wayne 1929-1932 

John P. Stedman Wake 1932 

Charles M. Johnson Pender 1933-1949 

Brandon P. Hodges Buncombe 1949-1953 

Edwin M. Gill Scotland 1953-1977 

Harlan E. Boyles Wake 1977- 































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The Executive Branch 447 

THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE TREASURER OF NORTH CAROLINA 

The State Treasurer, A Brief History 

Beginning in 1669 during the Colonial period, a Treasurer's Court was responsible for 
the public money of the State. The office of Treasurer was formally created in 1715 and 
appointments to that office were made by the lower house of the General Assembly. For 
39 years ( 1 740 to 1 779), there was one Treasurer each for the Northern and Southern dis- 
tricts of the State. For three years ( 1 779 to 1 782), there were six Treasurers, each serving a 
given geographical area; and for two additional years until 1784, there were seven Treas- 
urers. The General Assembly of 1784 eliminated the provision for the multiple Treasurers 
and assigned the full duties of the office to a single individual elected by a joint vote of the 
two houses. The Treasurer thereafter, until 1868, served for a two-year period. At that 
time, the new Constitution (after the War Between the States) provided that the Treas- 
urer would be elected by the people and that the term of office would be for four years. 
Those provisions remain in effect to the present time. 

Many of the current duties and functions which are charged to the State Treasurer 
had their beginnings in the 1868 State Constitution. This new Constitution served to 
formalize the more important fiscal and financial aspects of the office. Before that time, 
the functions varied widely from time to time and from administration to administration. 

The North Carolina constitution of 1868 provided that there would be one Treasurer 
elected by the people for a four year term. A majority of the provisions adopted at that 
time currently remain in effect. Since 1868, only twelve men have been elected and occu- 
pied the office of the State Treasurer. The longest tenure by one person as Treasurer was 
from 1901 to 1929 by Benjamin R. Lacy of Wake County. The second longest tenure was 
by the late Edwin Gill of Scotland County from 1953 to 1977. 

The men who have occupied the office have earned and maintained a nationwide repu- 
tation for fiscal integrity and financial responsibility. The fact that the State Treasurer is 
able to operate in an atmosphere of political freedom is contributory to the influence of 
the office throughout the State. 

One interesting incident occurred in 1 843, shortly after the election of the Treasurer by 
the General Assembly. A spirited situation developed between Governor Morehead and 
the Treasurer elect, John Hill Wheeler, over the terms of a fidelity bond then required of 
the Treasurer. The bond was ultimately presented at the Governor's office; the Gover- 
nor, however, refused to accept the bond as written. His action was too late, because at 
that very moment, Wheeler was being sworn in as Treasurer in another part of the capi- 
tol. Even though Wheeler maintained his hold on the office, strained relations between 
the Governor and Wheeler were evident. The extent of the relationship became clear 
some ten days later when the Treasurer refused to pay the Governor $3.00 per diem for 
his services on a board with the comment that "this is part of the Governor's regular du- 
ties and is included in his annual salary of $2,000.00". Wheeler proved to be a very color- 
ful and resourceful individual during his tenure of office. 

The Current Role of the State Treasurer 

During the early formative years of the office, there were many activities which the 
Treasurer regularly performed. In recent years, many of these activities have been either 



448 North Carolina Manual 



discontinued or transferred to other State agenices. Modern times have brought about 
substantive changes in the duties of the State Treasurer, the majority of which are cur- 
rently along conventional functional lines. 

The Treasurer is a constitutional officer of the State of North Carolina. In addition to 
his traditional duties, he serves as an ex-officio member of many State boards and com- 
missions. He is chairman of many of the commissions and boards which affect the State 
fiscal policy or the expenditure of State funds. 

The Treasurer serves as an advisor to monetary committees of the North Carolina 
General Assembly. His primary fiscal duties are to assure that all public funds are uti- 
lized in conformity with the mandates of the General Assembly, to invest surplus funds 
wisely and prudently, and to satisfy the bonded indebtedness of the State. 

The Department of State Treasurer is organized along conventional lines with three 
operating divisions and one support division as shown below. 

Operations of the Department of State Treasurer 

The operations of the Department are carried out by the four divisions under the 
supervision of the State Treasurer. 

The Retirement and Health Benefits Division 

A reorganization of State government in 1971 established the present duties of the 
State Treasurer. One of the more important changes was the shifting of the administra- 
tion of the state authorized retirement systems to the Department of State Treasurer. 
Since that time a number of public employee retirement systems have been blended into 
the total system. 

The Treasurer is Chairman of the Board of the Teachers' and State Employees' Re- 
tirement System and the several other retirement systems which operate under its juris- 
diction. More than 400,000 active and retired public employees, their beneficiaries, and 
dependents owe a large part of their security to this well developed and well run system. 
As of January 1, 1980, there were 313,775 active employees and 48,775 retired 
employees within the various retirement systems. The retirees or their beneficiaries are 
paid more than $18,000,000 each month in retirement benefits. 

The primary purpose of each retirement system is to provide payments of salary for 
past services which have been rendered. Each State employee contributes 6% of his 
salary during his years of work and the State makes a significant contribution. The 
amount received at retirement is based on a formula which takes into consideration the 
annual salary and the years of State service of each employee. Essentially the program is 
designed to guarantee freedom from want during old age or disability. The program is 
an incentive for good employees to make a career of public service. Long service is the 
best means of guaranteeing an adequate retirement income. All systems have been de- 
clared actuarially sound. The total assets for all the Retirement Systems on January 1, 
1980 was $3,500,000,000. 

The Retirement Division oversees the collection of all Social Security payment for the 
State and all of its political subdivisions. This fulfills an agreement between the State 
and the Social Security agency which was consummated on July 16, 1951. Social Securi- 
ty payments are collected from the employees of the 1,268 State and local units of gov- 
ernment. The funds are remitted to the Social Security Agency on a monthly basis. 



The Executive Branch 449 



Another important function of the Retirement Division is the administration of the 
Salary Continuation Plan. This is a program to provide each disabled employee an in- 
come of up to 60% of his salary during the duration of his disability. The program was 
initiated in 1972 by the General Assembly to meet the special needs of the State employ- 
ees. 

The Investment and Banking Division 

The Investment and Banking Division is organized to carry out three of the State 
Treasurer's primary functions. The first of these is acting as the State's banker in receiv- 
ing and disbursing all State monies. The second is administering the State's Cash Man- 
agement Program and serving as the custodian of and investment officer for various 
State Trust Funds. The third is arranging for the prompt payment of the principal and 
interest on the State's general obligation debt as it matures. These functions are both 
constitutional and statutory in origin. 

Investment of Monies. In order to mobilize daily statewide receipts, the Accounting 
Section of the Division of Investment and Banking daily drafts into the central clearing 
accounts in Raleigh all monies deposited throughout the State. The funds at each 
depository location have little impact of their own, but all of them added together and 
invested form the basis of an important source of non-tax revenue. The total averages 
more than $38,000,000 every working day. The Investment Management Section com- 
putes daily the "idle cash" which is available for investment. This figure is determined 
by using the ending balance on the previous day, plus or minus the net difference 
between the certified deposits and the disbursing warrants for the current day. The 
funds remaining, if any, are the Treasurer's cash balances and they are invested in high- 
ly liquid, short-term securities as are permitted by law. Because all funds are ultimately 
subject to disbursement upon presentation of valid warrants, the primary consideration 
in making such investments is liquidity and safety; the second is income. In fiscal year 
1979-1980, nearly $124,000,000 was realized through the cash management program. It 
was the largest source of non-tax revenue in the State. While there is a constant flow of 
funds in and out, there is a core of deposits that is not subject to immediate withdrawal. 
Thus, a reasonable amount can be placed in certificate of deposits and savings certifi- 
cates issued by North Carolina banks and savings and loan associations. While these 
investments are not highly liquid, they must by law produce a rate of return equal to 
U.S. Government or agency securities of comparable maturity. In addition, this type of 
investment keeps the funds working in and for the State and its people. 

The Trust Fund Investment Program. All retirement systems are a part of the State 
Trust Funds. Among others in the Trust Funds are the Employee Disability Fund, the 
Public School Fire Insurance Fund, the Escheat Fund, and the State Property Fire In- 
surance Fund. The objective of all trust funds is to earn the highest yield consistent with 
safety of the principal. These investments are usually long term, but are constantly re- 
viewed so that opportunities to improve the quality of the investments are not ignored 
or passed up. There is a special legal provision for holding inviolate the funds of the re- 
tirement systems. It is Article 5, Section 6 of the North Carolina Constitution. It states 
that such funds may not be used "for any purpose other than retirement system benefits 
and purposes, administrative expenses and refunds". It further states that such funds 



450 North Carolina Manual 



"shall not be applied, diverted, loaned to or used by the State, any State agency. State 
officer, public officer or public employee". 

Investment Pooling Program. The 1979 General Assembly ratified Chapter 467; "an 
act to consolidate and recodify those portions of the General Statutes concerning the 
State Treasurer's investment programs." Some fourteen separate laws were combined. 
In addition, new U.S. Government and Agency obligations became eligible, and the 
pooling of funds under the investment management program was authorized. At the 
direction of the State Treasurer, the Investment Management Division has established 
three investment funds: 

1. The Short-Term Fixed Income Investment Fund, 

2. The Long-Term Fixed Income Investment Fund, 

3. The Equity Investment Fund. 

State and Local Government Finance Division 

The State and Local Government Finance Division was organized to provide the 
State Treasurer with staff assistance in such areas as he requests and to provide the staff 
required by the Local Government Commission to fulfill its statutory functions. The 
Division is organized along functional lines to provide two major groups of services to 
the State and to the local units of governments: Debt Management and Fiscal Manage- 
ment. In addition, the Deputy Treasurer-Division Director serves as the Secretary of the 
Local Government Commission. 

The North Carolina Local Government Commission approves the issuance of the in- 
debtedness of all units of local government and assists these units in the area of fiscal 
management. The Commission is composed of nine members: the State Treasurer, the 
Secretary of State, the State Auditor, the Secretary of Revenue, and five others by ap- 
pointment (three by the Governor, one by the Lieutenant Governor, and one by the 
Speaker of the House of Representaives). The State Treasurer serves as Chairman and 
selects the Secretary of the Commission, who heads the administrative staff serving the 
Commission. 

Assistance to State Agencies 

Debt Management. The State Treasurer is responsible for the issuance and servicing 
of all State debts secured by a pledge of the taxing power of the State. After approval of 
a bond issue, the Division assists in determining the cash needs and most appropriate 
time for scheduling sales after consultation with other State agencies; the planning for 
repayment of the debt (maturity schedules); preparing, with the advice and cooperation 
of bond counsel and the assistance of other State agencies, the Official Statement 
describing the bond issue and other required disclosures about the State; and in the 
actual sale and delivery of the bonds. The staff of the Division maintains the State bond 
records and Register of Bonds and initiates the debt service payments when they be- 
come due. In addition, the Division is responsible for the issuance of revenue bonds for 
the North Carolina Medical Care Commission and the North Carolina Housing 
Finance Agency. 

Fiscal Management. The staff of the Division provides technical assistance in finan- 
cial matters within the Department of State Treasurer and to other Departments of the 



The Executive Branch 451 



State as may be required. A project may also include work on the national level if it con- 
cerns generally accepted accounting principles for government. 

Assistance to Local Governments 

Assistance is rendered to local governments and public authorities in North Carolina 
on behalf of the Local Government Commission. 

Debt Management. A major function is the approval, sale and delivery of all North 
Carolina local government bonds and notes upon the recommendation of the staff of 
the Division. Before any unit can incur debt, the proposed issue must be approved by 
the Commission. The statues require that, before giving its approval, the Commission 
must make affirmative determination in the areas of necessity and expediency, size of 
the issue, the unit's debt management policy, taxes needed to service the debt and the 
ability of the unit to repay. 

Fiscal Management. A second key function is monitoring certain fiscal and account- 
ing standards prescribed for the units by the Local Government Budget and Fiscal Con- 
trol Act. In addition, the Division furnishes, upon request, on-site assistance to local 
governments concerning existing financial and accounting systems as well as aid in 
establishing new systems. Also, the Division strives to ensure that the local units follow 
generally accepted accounting principles, systems and practices. The Division staff 
counsels the units in treasury and cash management, budget preparation, and invest- 
ment policies and procedures. Educational programs, in the form of seminars or classes, 
are also provided by the staff. The monitoring of the units' financial system is accom- 
plished through the examination and analysis of the annual audited financial statements 
and other required reports. The Local Government Budget and Fiscal Control Act re- 
quires each unit of local government to have its accounts audited annually by a certified 
public accountant or by an accountant certified by the Commission as qualified to audit 
local government accounts. A written contract must be submitted to the Secretary of the 
Commission for his approval prior to the commencement of the audit. Continued 
assistance is also provided to the independent auditors through individual assistance 
and continuing professional education. 

The State and Local Finance Division is continuously working in all areas concerning 
improved fiscal management and clarity of reporting in order to better serve the State 
Treasurer, the local units of governments, public authorities, school administrative 
units and their independent auditors. 

Administrative Services Division 

The Administrative Services Division provides administrative, technical and special- 
ized support to the Office of the Treasurer and to the three operating divisions. The 
functions which are performed can better be accomplished on the centralized basis 
rather than independently by the various divisions. These include various housekeeping 
functions such as supply and mail operations, personnel, forms management, printing, 
generalize training and budget matters. On a selective basis, several of the functions and 
sub-functions carried on within the Department have been placed on the internal com- 
puter. Of major significance are those programs having a bearing on the various retire- 
ment systems and the Treasurer's investment processes. Vital functions are performed 



452 North Carolina Manual 



by the Word Processing Center. Approximately 95% of the original and repetitive 
departmental correspondence is accomplished by the Center. In addition, through the 
utilization of a photocomposer, camera-ready copy for all departmental printing re- 
quirements is satisfied internally. Significant cost savings have been realized through the 
use of these closely coordinated systems of document production. The Division moni- 
tors the operation and the progress of the Escheat Fund for the State Treasurer. All 
abandoned and unclaimed properties whose owners cannot be located become the 
property of the State and is placed in the Fund. Such property consist of both real and 
personal including abandoned banking accounts, uncashed checks, and contents of 
safety deposit boxes. As a trust activity, escheat monies are invested in high quality 
securities. The return on the investments is used within the State supported institutions 
of higher learning to aid needy and worthy students. During the 1979-1980 fiscal year, 
nearly 1 and 1/4 million dollars was allocated to this purpose. 









The Executive Branch 453 



BOARDS WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT OF THE 
STATE TREASURER 



LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS BENEFIT AND RETIREMENT 

FUND 
(G.S. 143-166B) 

Purpose: To control all payments to be made from the fund; to hear and decide all ap- 
plications for compensation and retirement benefits; to make all necessary rules for 
its administration; to determine the membership eligibility of any member or appli- 
cant; to receive gifts, grants or property; to make a report containing a statement of 
receipts and disbursements to the Governor. 

Composition: 10 members — 5 appointed by the Governor (1 Sheriff, 1 police officer, 1 
State Law Enforcement Officer, 1 Retired Law Enforcement Officer in receipt of an 
allowance from the fund, and 1 public member); 1 appointed by the Speaker of the 
House (1 Representative); 1 appointed by the President of the Senate (1 Senator); 
and 3 ex officio (State Treasurer, State Auditor, and the Commissioner of 
Insurance). 

Term: Pleasure of the Governor. 

Officer: State Treasurer is Chairman. 



LOCAL GOVERNMENT COMMISSION 
(G.S. 159-3) 

Purpose: To approve, sell and deliver all North Carolina bonds and notes and to ap- 
prove certain financial agreements; to give local governmental units help with their 
financial and accounting systems; to provide educational programs for local of- 
ficials in the area of finance and cash management. 

Composition: 9 members — 3 appointed by the Governor (1 shall be, or have been the 
mayor or member of the governing body of a city and 1 shall be, or have been a 
member of a County Board of Commissioners); 1 appointed by the Lieutenant 
Governor; 1 appointed by the Speaker of the House; and 4 ex officio (State 
Treasurer, State Auditor, Secretary of State and Secretary of Revenue). 

Term: Four (4) years. 

Officers: State Treasurer is Chairman. 



454 North Carolina Manual 

LOCAL GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM 

— BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

(G.S. 128-21 through 128-38) 

Purpose: To provide benefits to all the employees of cities, towns, counties, boards, 
commissions and other entities of local government in North Carolina. 

Composition: 14 members --12 appointed by the Governor; 1 appointed by the Presi- 
dent of the Senate; and 1 appointed by the Speaker of the House. 

Governed by the same Board of Trustees as the Teachers and State Employees 
Retirement System Board of Trustees with the exception of two additional members 
representing a city or town and a county. 

Officers: State Treasurer is Chairman. 

MUNICIPAL BOARD OF CONTROL 
(G.S. 160A-6) 

Purpose: To accept, review and decide upon petitions for incorporation as a city from 
qualified voters residing within the area proposed for incorporation; to hold public 
hearings on the petition; and to prepare and issue a charter for a city. 

Composition: 5 members -- 2 appointed by the Governor (1 elected municipal official 
and 1 elected county official) and 3 ex officio (Secretary of the Local Government 
Commission, the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Local Government and the 
Chairman of the House of Representatives Committee on Local Government. 

Term: Pleasure of the Governor. 

Officers: Chairman is the Secretary of the Local Government Commission. 

TAX REVIEW BOARD 

(G.S. 105-269.2) 

Purpose: To hear appeals from taxpayers from the final decisions of the Secretary of 
Revenue and the Department of Insurance; to issue orders to have companies 
develop a different method for determining taxable income and issue predeterming 
orders; and to approve regulations made by the Secretary of Revenue. 

Composition: 4 members - 1 appointed by the Governor and 3 ex officio (State 
Treasurer, Chairman of the Utilities Commission, and the Secretary of Revenue. 

Term: Four (4) years. 

Officers: Chairman is the State Treasurer. 



The Executive Branch 455 

TEACHERS AND STATE EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM 

— BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
(G.S. 135-1 through 135.18.5) 

Purpose: To provide benefits to all full-time teachers and state employees in all public 
school systems, universities, departments, institutions and agencies. 

Composition: 12 members -- 10 appointed by the Governor; 1 appointed by the Presi- 
dent of the Senate (a Senator); and 1 appointed by the Speaker of the House (a 
Representative). The Superintendent of Public Instruction and State Treasurer are 
ex officio members. 

Term: Four (4) years. 

Officers: Chairman is the State Treasurer. 



The Executive Branch 457 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC EDUCATION 

ANDREW CRAIG PHILLIPS 

Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Early Years: Born in Greensboro, Guilford County, November 1, 1922, to Guy B. and 
Annie Elizabeth (Craig) Phillips (both deceased). 

Education: Attended Greensboro High School; Graduated Chapel Hill High School, 
1938; Post Grad Stonybrook Prep School (Long Island, N.Y.), 1939; University of 
North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1943, B.S.; 1948, M.A.; 1955, Ed. D. 

Professional Background: Superintendent Winston-Salem City Schools, 1955-1962; 
Superintendent Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools, 1962-1967; Administrative Vice 
President, Smith Richardson Foundation, 1967-1968; Asst. Superintendent, Prin- 
cipal, Asst. Principal, Teacher, Winston-Salem Schools, 1946-1956. 

Organizations: Member: American Association of School Administrators, Council of 
Chief State School Officers, NC Association of Educators; NC Association of 
School Administrators. 

Boards and Commissions: Member: Council of State; Board of Directors, AASA 
National Academy for School Executives (NASE), 1965-1969; Board of Trustees, 
Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, 1970-1974; Advisory Board, NC 
Association of Educational Office Personnel; Board of Visitors, Duke Divinity 
School; Board of Trustees, Joint Council on Economic Education; Steering Com- 
mittee, Education Commission of the States. Secretary, State Board of Education. 

Political Activities: Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1969 — (elected, 1968: Reelec- 
ted, 1972, 1976 and 1980; President, Southeastern Regional Council of Educational 
Improvement, 1980-1981; Member, by Presidential Appointment, Inter- 
governmental Advisory Council of Education; Member, Governor's Commission 
to Study the North Carolina Public School System, 1967-1969; Member, Steering 
Committee. 

Military Service: Served USNR, Lt., 1942-1946, Served on LST Invasion of Nor- 
mandy, Southern France, Later, duty in Pacific. 

Honors: Young Man of the Year, (Distinguished Service Award), Junior Chamber of 
Commerce, Winston-Salem, 1957; Elected by the National Association of 
Educational Secretaries, National Educational Administrator of the Year, 1978- 
1979; President, Council of Chief State School Officer, 1978-1979. 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church; Member, Board of Visitors, Duke 

Divinity School. 
Family: Married, Mary Martha Cobb, November 27, 1943; Children: Martha Gatlin, 

Andrew Craig, Jr. Elizabeth and Eva Craig. 



458 North Carolina Manual 



Superintendent of Common Schools 

Name Residence Elected Qualified 

Calvin H. Wiley Guilford December 13, 1852 1852-1865 



Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Name Party Residence Term 

Samuel S. Ashley Republican New Hanover 1868-1871 

Alexander Mclver Republican Guilford 1871-1875 

James C. Reid Republican 

Kemp P. Battle [Republican] Wake 1873 

Stephen D. Pool Republican Craven 1875-1876 

John Pool Republican Pasquotank 1876-1877 

John C. Scarborough Democrat Johnston 1877-1885 

Sidney M. Finger Democrat Catawba 1855-1893 

John C. Scarborough Democrat Hertford 1893-1897 

Charles H. Mebane Republican Catawba 1897-1901 

Thomas F. Toon Democrat Robeson 1901-1902 

James Y. Joyner Democrat Guilford 1902-1903 

James Y. Joyner Democrat Guilford 1903-1919 

Eugene C. Brooks Democrat Durham 1919-1921 

Eugene C. Brooks Democrat Durham 1921-1923 

Arch T. Allen Democrat Alexander 1923-1925 

Arch T.Allen Democrat Alexander 1925-1934 

Clyde A. Erwin Democrat Rutherford 1934-1937 

Clyde A. Erwin Democrat Rutherford 1937-1952 

Charles F. Carroll Democrat Duplin 1952-1953 

Charles F. Carroll Democrat Duplin 1953-1959 

Andrew Craig Phillips Democrat Guilford 1969- 



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The Executive Branch 461 



THE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC EDUCATION 

The Department of Public Education is headed by the State Board of Education, 
which is directed by the North Carolina Constitution to supervise and administer the 
free public school system and the educational funds provided for its support. Consistent 
with other laws enacted by the General Assembly, the board decides rules and regula- 
tions for the public school system. Board membership includes the lieutenant governor, 
the state treasurer, and eleven gubernatorial appointees, who are subject to confirma- 
tion by the General Assembly in joint session. 

The North Carolina Department of Public Instruction was formed in December 
1852, although the current title and specific delineation of responsibilities were first set 
forth in the 1868 State Constitution. The head of the Department originally went by the 
title "Superintendent of Common Schools"; however, this office was abolished in 1865. 
Today the department is headed by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction who 
is a constitutional officer and a member of the Council of State. He is elected by popular 
vote every four years. The superintendent is the administrative head of the Department 
of Public Instruction as well as secretary and chief administrative officer of the State 
Board of Education. 

State Department of Public Instruction 

The purpose of the Department of Public Instruction is to insure through informed 
and effective leadership at the state and local levels that learning experiencs which are 
compatible with individual need, interests and capabilities, will lead to continued educa- 
tion and/or employment for all students. 

The Department of Public Instruction is organized in to six broad functional areas: 
Administrative Services, Instructional Services, Personnel Relations, Research and 
Development, Student Services, and Teacher Education. In addition, eight regional 
education centers provide instructional and support services for local school adminis- 
trative units. 

Administrative Services. The Administrative Services Area directs the programs of 
child nutrition, community schools, compensatory education, migrant education, 
school athletics, school planning, sports medicine, and veterans education in the state 
education agency and in local education agencies. 

Instructional Services. The Instructional Services Area gives leadership and direction 
to the K-12 instructional program in the state's public schools; assists staff in local units 
with program planning, implementation, and evaluation; develops curriculum materi- 
als; provides staff development for upgrading skills of LEA personnel; and works with 
other agencies, organizations, and groups for educational improvement. 

Personnel Relations. The Personnel Relations Area provides planning services to the 
state agency, assists local school systems in developing the comprehensive planning 
capabilities necessary for obtaining state accreditation, administers the procedures for 
state accreditation, and guides each local school system in the development of creditable 
personnel policies and practices. 

Research and Development. Research and Development strives to discover new and 
better ways to teach children and youth and monitors and implements the Annual Test- 
ing Program and Competency Test Program. 




























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