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THE LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 

AT CHAPEL HILL 




THE COLLECTION OF 
NORTH CAROLINIANA 



c 917.05 

N87in 

1983 
C.2 



NORTH 



ALLEGHANY 



STOKES 




UNIVERSITY OF N C AT CHAPEL HILL 



00017482895 



^ROLINA 




Form No. A -36 9 



NORTH CAROLINA 
MANUAL 



1983-1984 




Issued by 

THAD EURE 

Secretary of State 



Edited by 

John L. Cheney, Jr. 

Director, Publications Division 
Raleigh 



TO THE 



1923 



1983 MEMBERS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY 
OF NORTH CAROLINA 



TO THE 
STATE, COUNTY, CITY AND TOWN OFFICIALS 



AND TO THE 

PEOPLE OF THE OLD NORTH STATE 

AT HOME AND ABROAD 



THIS MANUAL IS RESPECTFULLY 
DEDICATED 




Secretary of State 






111 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Dedication by Thad Eure, Secretary of State ill 



PARTI 
HISTORICAL MISCELLANEA 

A Brief History of the State 3 

The Great Seal of the Stale of North Carolina 9 

The North Carohna State Capitol 17 

Description of the Capitol, by Architect David Patton 20 

"The Capitol," by Edwin Gill 21 

The Legislative Building 23 

The Executive Residences of North Carolina 27 

The State Flag 35 

The Mecklenburg Declaration of20lh May, 1775 38 

The Halifax Resolution 39 

The Declaration of Independence 40 

The American Flag, Its Origin 43 

The Proper Display 45 

The Pledge of Allegiance 49 

The State Bird, Flower, and Insect 51 

The State Tree and Mammal 53 

Name and Nicknames of the State 53 

The State Shell and Salt Water Fish 55 

The State Motto 55 

The State Colors 55 

The State Precious Stone 56 

The State Reptile 57 

The State Rock 58 

The Slate Song 59 

The Stale Toast 60 

Public Holidays 61 



PART II 
CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF NORTH CAROLINA 

C hapter One, A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina 

Narrative, by John L. Sanders 65 

North Carolina Constitutional Propositions Voted on by the People, 1868-1982 78 

Chapter Two, The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 

Preamble 79 

Article I, Declaration of Rights 79 

Article II, Legislature 82 

Article III, Executive 85 

Article IV, Judicial 89 

Article V, Finance 94 

Article VI, Suffrage and Eligibility to Office 98 



Art 
Art 
Art 
Art 
Art 
Art 
Art 
Art 



cle VII, Local Government 100 

cle VIII, Corporations 100 

cle IX, Education 101 

cle X, Homesteads and Exemptions 103 

cle XI, Punishments, Corrections, and Charities 104 

cle XII, Military Forces 104 

cle XIII, Conventions, Constitutional Amendments and Revision 104 

cle XIV, Miscellaneous 105 



Chapter Three, The Constitution of the United States 

Preamble 107 

Article I (Legislative) 107 

Article 1 1 ( Executive) Ill 

Article III (Judicial) 113 

Article IV (Rights of Citizens and States) 114 

Article V (Amending the Constitution) 115 

Article VI (Miscellaneous) 115 

Article VIII (Ratification of the Constitution) 115 

Amendments to the Constitution 117 

The Ten Original Amendments (The Bill of Rights) 117 

Subsequent Amendments 118 



PART III 
CENSUS 

Population of the State of North Carolina, 20th Census: 1980 127 

State Population Statistics — Census Statistics and Projections 1 28 

County Population Satistics 129 

Population of Incorporated Places of 10.000 or More 131 

Population of Incorporated Places of 2,500-9,999 132 

Population of Incorporated Places of 1 ,000-2,499 1 34 

Population of Incorporated Places of Less than 1,000 137 



PART IV 
THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES 

Chapter One, The Executive Branch 

President of the United States 145 

Presidents of the United States 147 

Presidential Cabinet and Major Appointments 149 

Chapter Two, The Inited States Congress 

The Capitol at Washington 151 

The Senate: 

Senate Officers and Standing Committees 153 

Senators from North Carolina 155 

The House of Representatives: 

House of Representatives Officers and Standing Committees 159 

vi 



Representatives from North Carolina 161 

Chapter Three, The llnited States Judiciary 

The United States Supreme Court 183 

The United States Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals 183 

The United States District Courts North Carolina 

Judges 1 83 

United States Attorneys 183 

Clerks 183 

Biographical Sketches: 

United States Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals (North Carolinians) 185 

United States District Court (North Carolina Judges) 187 



PARTY 
NORTH CAROLINA STATE GOVERNMENT 

Chapter One, The Legislative Branch 

Historical Introduction 195 

North Carolina Senate; 

Seating Diagram 198 

Officers 199 

Senators 199 

Speakers of the Senate (H istorical List) 20 1 

Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate (Historical List) 202 

President, Pro-Tern 205 

Senate Majority Leader 207 

Senate Minority Leader 209 

Senators — Biographical Sketches 210 

Occupations 259 

Committee Assignments 261 

Rules of the Senate 267 

How An Idea Becomes A Law 285 

North Carolina House of Representatives: 

Seating Diagram 286 

Officers 287 

Representatives 287 

Speakers of the House of Representatives (Historical List) 290 

Speaker 295 

Speaker Pro-Tem 297 

Minority Leader 299 

Representatives ~ Biographical Sketches 300 

Occupations 422 

Committee Assignments 425 

Rules of the House of Representatives 440 

Legislative Services Officer 457 

Chapter Two, The Executive Branch 

Introduction 459 

Office of the Governor: 

Governor 463 

Organizational Chart 464 

The Office of the Governor 465 

Boards and Commissions within the Office of the Governor 469 



Vll 



Governors of North Carolina (Historical List) 471 

Office of the Lieutenant Governor; 

Lieutenant Governor 483 

Organizational Chart 484 

The Office of the Lieutenant Governor 485 

Lieutenant Governors of North Carolina (Historical List) 487 

Department of the Secretary of State: 

Secretary of State 489 

Organizational Chart 490 

The Department of the Secretary of State 491 

Secretaries of North Carolina (Historical List) 495 

Department of the State Auditor: 

State Auditor 499 

Organizational Chart 500 

The Department of the State Auditor 501 

Boards within the Department of the State Auditor 503 

Auditors of Public Accounts & State Auditors (Historical List) 504 

Department of the State Treasurer: 

State Treasurer 507 

Organizational Chart 508 

The Department of the State Treasurer 509 

Boards within the Department of the State Treasurer 515 

Treasurers of North Carolina (Historical List) 517 

Department of Public Education: 

Superintendent of Public Instruction 521 

Organizational Chart 522 

The Department of Public Education 523 

Boards within the Department of Public Education 527 

Superintendents of Common Schools and Public Instruction (Historical List) 531 

Department of Justice: 

Attorney General 533 

Organizational Chart 534 

The Department of Justice 535 

Boards within the Department of Justice 544 

Attorney General of North Carolina (Historical List) 545 

Department of Agriculture: 

Commissioner of Agriculture 551 

The Department of Agriculture 553 

Organizational Chart 554 

Boards within the Department of Agriculture 565 

Commissioners of Agriculture (Historical List) 569 

Department of Labor: 

Commissioner of Labor 571 

The Department of Labor 573 

Organizational Chart 574 

Boards within the Department of Labor 578 

Commissioners of Labor (Historical List) 579 

Department of Insurance: 

Commissioner of Insurance 581 

Organizational Chart 582 

The Department of Insurance 583 

Boards within the Department of Insurance 586 

Commissioners of Insurance (Historical List) 589 

Department of Administration: 

Secretary of Administration 591 

Organizational Chart 592 

The Department of Administration 593 

Boards within the Department of Administration 597 



Vlll 



Secretaries, Department of Administration (Historical List) 613 

Department of Commerce: 

Secretary of Commerce 615 

Organizational Chart 616 

The Department of Commerce 617 

Boards within the Department of Commerce 620 

Secretaries, Department of Commerce (Historical List) 629 

Department of Community Colleges: 

President, Department of Community Colleges 631 

Organizational Chart 632 

The Community College System 633 

State Board of Community Colleges 636 

Presidents, Department of Community Colleges (Historical List) 637 

Department of Corrections: 

Secretary of Corrections 639 

Organizational Chart 640 

The Department of Corrections 641 

Boards within the Department of Corrections 647 

Secretaries, Department of Corrections (Historical List) 649 

Department of Crime Control and Public Safety: 

Secretary of Crime Control and Public Safety 651 

Organizational Chart 652 

The Department of Crime Control and Public Safety 653 

Adjutant General (Historical List) 657 

Boards within the Department of Crime Control and Public Safety 658 

Secretaries, Department of Crime Control and Public Safety (Historical List) 661 

Department of Cultural Resources: 

Secretary of Cultural Resources 663 

Organizational Chart 664 

The Department of Cultural Resources 665 

Boards within the Department of Cultural Resources 670 

Secretaries, Department of Cultural Resources (Historical List) 681 

Department of Human Resources: 

Secretary of Human Resources 683 

Organizational Chart 684 

The Department of Human Resources 685 

Boards within the Department of H uman Resources 693 

Secretaries, Department of Human Resources (Historical List) 713 

Department of Natural Resources and Community Development: 

Secretary of Natural Resources and Community Development 715 

Organizational Chart 716 

The Department of Natural Resources and Community Development 717 

Boards within the Department of Natural Resources and Community Development . . . 723 

Secretaries, Department of NRCD (Historical List) 733 

Department of Revenue: 

Secretary of Revenue 735 

Organizational Chart 736 

The Department of Revenue 737 

Property Tax Commission 744 

Secretaries, Department of Revenue (Historical List) 745 

Department of Transportation: 

Secretary of Transportation 747 

Organizational Chart 748 

The Department of Transportation 749 

Boards within the Department of Transportation 756 

Secretaries, Department of Transportation (Historical List) 759 

State Board of Elections: 

Executive Secretary — Director 761 

ix 



The State Board of Elections 762 

Chapter Three, The Judicial Branch 

Introduction 765 

The Appellate Court Division 771 

The North Carolina Supreme Court 773 

The North Carolina Court of Appeals 781 

Director, Administrative OlTice of the Courts 794 

Chief Justices of the Supreme Court of North Carolina (Historical List) 795 

Judges of the Superior Court 797 

District Court Judges 799 

District Attorneys of North Carolina 802 

Public Defenders 802 

Chapter Four, Higher Education in North Carolina 

The University of North Carolina System: 

Organizational Chart 804 

Historical Development 805 

Board of Governors 809 

General Administration 811 

Chancellors of the Constituent Institutions 811 

President, University of North Carolina System , 813 

Chancellors of the Constituent Institutions — Biographical Sketches 815 

The North Carolina Community College System: 

Department of Communit\ Colleges 831 

Presidents of the Community Colleges and Technical Institutes 831 

Private Higher Education in North Carolina: 

Historical Development 833 

Presidents of the Colleges and Universities 835 

Chapter Five, Miscellaneous Boards and Commissions 

Independent Boards 839 

Licensing Boards 850 



PART VI 
POLITICAL PARTIES 

Chapter One, The Democratic Party 

North Carolina Democratic Party Platform 865 

Plan of Organization 875 

Democratic Party Executive Council 900 

Democratic Party County Chairmen 900 

Chapter Two, The Republican Party 

North Carolina Republican Party Platform 905 

Plan of Organization 910 

State Executive Committee 929 

Republican Party County Chairmen 930 

District Officers 932 



PART VII 
ELECTION RETURNS AND VOTER REGISTRATION STATISTICS 

Chapter One, \ oter Registration Statistics 

Introduction 937 

Voter Registration Statistics for the Primary Elections. June 29, 1982 938 

Voter Registration Statistics for the General Elections, November 2, 1982 940 

Voter Registration Statistics for the Primary Elections, May 6, 1980 942 

Voter Registration Statistics for the General Elections, November 4, 1980 944 

Chapter Two, North Carolina Election Districts 

Congressional Districts 947 

Apportionment of Senators by Districts 949 

Apportionment of Members of the House of Representatives by Districts 951 

Judicial and Prosecutorial Districts 955 

Congressional, Senatorial and Representative Districts by County 956 

Chapter Three, President of the I nited States 

Introduction 959 

The Democratic Presidential Preference Primary, May 6, 1980 960 

The Republican Presidential Preference Primary, May 6, 1980 962 

Votes Cast for President, General Elections. November 4, 1980 964 

The North Carolina Presidential Preference Primary, March 23, 1976 966 

Votes Cast for President, General Elections, November 2, 1976 968 

Popular and Electoral Votes for President, 1976 970 

Popular Votes for President. 1960-1972 (County) 971 

Popular Votes for President. 1 960- 1 968 (States)' 972 

Popular Votes for President, 1972 & 1976 (States) 974 

Chapter Four, The I nited States Congress 

Introduction 977 

Votes Cast for United States Senator, General Elections, November 4, 1980 978 

Votes Cast for United States Senator, General Elections, November 7, 1 978 980 

Votes Cast for Members of Congress, 1978-1980 990 

Votes Cast for Members of Congress, 1972-1976 994 

Tabulation of Votes for United States Senator, 1960-1978 998 

Chapter Five, State Officers 

Introduction 1001 

Votes Cast for Governor, Primary Elections, May 6, 1980 1002 

Votes Cast for Governor. Primary Elections, August 17, 1976 1004 

Votes Cast for Governor, General Elections, 1976 & 1980 1006 

Votes Cast for Governor, 1960-1972 1008 

Votes Cast for Lieutenant Governor, Primary Elections. May 6, 1980 1010 

Votes Cast for Lieutenant Governor, General Elections, 1976 & 1980 1012 

Votes Cast for State Officers, Primary Elections. May 6. 1980 1014 

Votes Cast for State Auditor. Second Primary. June 3, 1980 1018 

Votes Cast for State Officers. General Elections. November 4. 1980 1020 

Tabulation of Votes for State Officers. Primary Elections. 1960-1980 1024 

Tabulation of Votes for State Officers. General Elections. 1964-1976 1032 



XI 



PART VIII 
NORTH CAROLINA COUNTY GOVERNMENT 

Chapter One, A Brief History of C ounty Government in North Carolina 1043 

Chapter Two, County Officials 

Alamance 1055 

Alexander 1056 

Alleghany 1057 

Anson 1058 

Ashe 1059 

Avery 1060 

Beaufort 1061 

Bertie 1062 

Bladen 1063 

Brunswick 1064 

Buncombe 1065 

Burke 1066 

Cabarrus 1067 

Caldwell 1068 

Camden 1069 

Carteret 1070 

Caswell 107 1 

Catawba 1072 

Chatham 1073 

Cherokee 1074 

Chowan 1075 

Clay 1076 

Cleveland 1077 

Columbus 1078 

Craven .- 1079 

Cumberland 1080 

Currituck 1081 

Dare 1082 

Davidson 1083 

Davie 1084 

Duplin 1085 

Durham 1086 

Edgecombe 1087 

Forsyth 1088 

Franklin 1089 

Gaston 1090 

Gates 1091 

Graham 1092 

Granville 1093 

Greene 1094 

Guilford 1095 

Halifax 1096 

Harnett 1097 

Haywood 1098 

Henderson 1099 

Hertford 1 100 

Hoke 1101 

Hyde 1 102 

Iredell 1 103 

Jackson 1 104 

Johnston 1105 



Xll 



Jones 1 '06 

Lee 1 107 

Lenoir ' '08 

Lincoln 1 109 

Macon 1110 

Madison 1111 

Martin 1112 

McDowell 1113 

Mecklenburg 1114 

Mitchell 1115 

Montgomery 1116 

Moore 1117 

Nash 1118 

New Hanover 1119 

Northampton 1 1 20 

Onslow 1121 

Orange 1 1 22 

Pamlico 1 123 

Pasquotank 1 124 

Pender 1125 

Perquimans 1 1 26 

Person 1 127 

Pitt 1 128 

Polk 1 1 29 

Randolph 1 130 

Richmond 1131 

Robeson 1132 

Rockingham 1133 

Rowan 1 1 34 

Rutherford 1 135 

Sampson 1136 

Scotland 1 1 37 

Stanly 1 1 38 

Stokes 1 1 39 

Surry 1 140 

Swain 1141 

Transylvania 1 142 

Tyrrell 1 143 

Union 1 144 

Vance 1 145 

Wake 1 146 

Warren 1 147 

Washington 1 148 

Watauga 1 149 

Wayne 1 1 50 

Wilkes 1151 

Wilson 1152 

Yadkin 1 153 

Yancey 1 1 54 



TABLE OF DIAGRAMS AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTS 

North Carolina State Government, Organizational Chart 458 

The Legislative Branch, Organizational Chart 194 

xiii 



North Carolina Slate Senate. Sealing Diagram 198 

How An Idea Becomes a Law 285 

North CaroMna State House of Representatives, Seating Diagram 286 

Office of the Governor, Organizational Chart 464 

Office of Ihe Lieutenant Governor, Organizational Chart 484 

Department of the Secretary of State, Organizational Chart 490 

Department of the State Auditor. Organizational Chart 500 

Department of the State Treasurer, Organizational Chart 508 

Department of Public Education. Organizational Chart 522 

Department of Public Instruction, Organizational Chart 460 

Controller's Office, Organizational Chart 462 

Department of Justice, Organizational Chart 534 

Department of Agriculture. Organizational Chart 552 

Department of Labor. Organizational Chart 574 

Department of Insurance. Organizational Chart 582 

Department of Administration. Organizational Chart 592 

Department of Commerce. Organizational Chart 616 

Department of Community Colleges, Organizational Chart 632 

Department of Corrections. Organizational Chart 640 

Department of Crime Control and Public Safely, Organizational Chart 652 

Department of Cultural Resources, Organizational Chart 664 

Department of Human Resources. Organizational Chart 684 

Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, Organizational Chart ... 716 

Department of Revenue. Organizational Chart 736 

Department of Transportation, Organizational Chart 748 

The Judicial Branch, Organizational Chart 764 

The University of North Carolina System, Organizational Chart 804 



TABLE OF MAPS 

White Map, 1 585 2 

Ogliby Map, 1 672 4 

Mouzon Map, 1775 6 

North Carolina Highway Districts 700 

North Carolina Congressional Districts. 1971- 946 

North Carolina State Senate Districts. 1971- 948 

North Carolina State House of Representatives, 1971- 952 

North Carolina Counties 980 



TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND PHOTOGRAPHS 

Seal of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina 9 

Seal of the Government of Albemarle, 1 665- 1 730 10 

Seal of the Province of North Carolina. 1 730- 1 767 10 

Seal of the Province of North Carolina, 1767-1776 II 

Seal of the Stale of North Carolina, 1 779-1 794 12 

Great Seal of the Slate of North Carolina, 1794-1836 13 

Great Seal of the State of North Carolina. 1836-1893 14 

Great Seal of the State of North Carolina. 1893-1971 15 

Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1971- 15 



XIV 



The Capitol Building 16 

The Legislative Building 24 

Tryon Palace 26 

The Governor's Executive Mansion 28 

The State Flag 34 

The American Flag 44 

The State Bird, Flower and Insect 50 

The State Tree and Mammal 52 

The State Shell and Salt Water Fish 54 

The State Precious Stone 56 

The State Reptile 57 

The State Rock 58 

The White House 146 

The United States Capitol Building 1 50 

The United States Supreme Court Building 182 

Symbol of the Democratic Party 864 

Symbol otthe Republican Party 904 



XV 



PART I 
HISTORICAL MISCELLANEA 



North Carolina Manual 







r? 



Historical Miscellanea 



A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE STATE 

The first known European exploration of North Carolina occurred during the sum- 
mer of 1524. A Florentine navigator named Giovanni da Verrazzano, in the service of 
France, explored the coastal area of North Carolina between the Cape Fear and Kitty 
Hawk. A report of his findings was sent to Francis I, and published in Richard Hak- 
luyt's Divers Voyages touching the Discoverie of America: however, no attempt was made 
to colonize the area. 

Between 1540 and 1570 several Spanish explorers from the Florida Gulf region ex- 
plored portions of North Carolina, but no permanent settlements were established. 

Coastal North Carolina was the scene of the first attempt to colonize America by 
English-speaking people. Under a charter granted by Queen Elizabeth to Sir Walter 
Raleigh, two colonies were begun in the 1580's. The first, in 1585 under the leadership 
of Ralph Lane, ended in failure. 

A second expedition under the leadership of John White began in the spring of 1587 
when 110 settlers including seventeen women and nine children set sail for the new 
world. The White colony arrived off Hatteras in June, 1587 and went on to Roanoke 
Island, where they found the houses built by the previous expedition sUll standing. 
Shortly after the arrival of the colony two significant events occurred — the baptism of 
two "friendly" Indians and the birth of Virginia Dare, the first child of English- 
speaking parents born in the new colony. As supplies ran short problems beset the colo- 
nists and White, under pressure from the colonists was forced to return to England for 
provisions. Once in England White was unable to immediately return to Roanoke due 
to an impending attack by the Spanish Armada. When he was able to return in 1590 he 
found only the remnants of what was once a settlement. There were no signs of life. 
Carved on a nearby tree he found the word "CROATOAN". Many have speculated as 
to the fate of the "Lost Colony" but none have ever explained it. 

The first permanent English settlers to North Carolina came from the tidewater area 
of Virginia around 1650. These overflow immigrants moved into the Albemarle area of 
northeast North Carolina. 

In 1663 Charles II granted to eight Lords Proprietors a charter for the territory lying 
"within six and thirty degrees of the northern latitude, and to the west as far as the 
south seas, and so southerly as far as the River St. Mattias, which bordereth upon the 
coast of Florida, and within one and thirty degrees of northern latitude, and so west in a 
direct line as far as the south seas aforesaid; . . ." and the colony was called Carolina. In 
1665 another charter was granted in order to clarify territorial questions not answered 
in the first charter. This charter extended the limits of Carolina so that the northern line 
was 36 degrees and 30 minutes north latitude, and the southern line was 29 degrees 
north latitude, and both of these lines extended westward to the South Seas. 

Between 1663 and 1729 North Carolina was under the control of the Lords Proprie- 
tors and their decendents who commissioned colonial officials and authorized the gov- 
ernor and his council to grant lands in the name of the Lords Proprietors. In 1669 John 
Locke wrote the Fundamental Constitutions as a model for the government of Caro- 
lina. Albemarle County was divided into local governmental units called precincts. Ini- 
tially there were three precincts — Berkeley, Carteret and Shaftesbury — but as the col- 
ony expanded to the south and west new precincts were created. By 1729, there were a 



North Carolina Manual 




Historical Miscellanea 



total of eleven precincts — six in Albemarle County and five in Bath County which had 
been created in 1696. Although the Albemarle Region was the first permanent settle- 
ment in the Carolina Area, another region was developed around present-day Charles- 
ton, South Carolina. Because of the natural harbor and easier access to trade with the 
West Indies, more attention was given to developing the Charleston area than her 
northern counterparts. For a twenty-year period, 1692-1712, the two colonies of North 
and South Carolina existed as one unit of government. Although North Carolina still 
had her own assembly and council, the governor of Carolina resided in Charleston and, 
a deputy governor was appointed by him for the northern colony. On December 7, 1710 
Carolina was divided into two distinct colonies; however, it was not until May, 1712 
that a governor was appointed for North Carolina. 

In 1729 seven of the Lords Proprietors sold their interest in North Carolina to the 
Crown and North Carolina became a royal colony. The eighth proprietor Lord Gran- 
ville, retained economic interest and continued granting land in the northern half of 
North Carolina. All political functions were under the supervision of the crown until 
1775. 

Colonial government in North Carolina was essentially the same during both the pro- 
prietary and royal periods. The major difference being who appointed colonial officials. 
Government was conducted by two distinct groups — the governor and his council, on 
the one hand, and the popularly-elected colonial general assembly on the other. There 
were colonial courts, but unlike today, they were rarely involved in the formulation of 
governmental policy. All colonial officials were appointed by either the Lords Proprie- 
tors prior to 1729, or the crown afterwards. Members of the colonial assembly were 
elected from the various precincts and from certain towns which had been granted rep- 
resentation. The term "precinct" as a geological unit ceased to exist after 1735 and these 
areas became known by the term "county" as they are today. About this same time 
"Albemarle County" and "Bath County" ceased to exist as governmental units. 

The governor was an appointed official — as were the colonial secretary, attorney gen- 
eral, surveyor general, and receiver general. All served at the pleasure of either the 
Lords Proprietors or the crown. The council during the proprietary period was com- 
prised of persons appointed as agents by the proprietors to look after their interest in 
the new world. Many council members were also colonial officials. The council during 
both the proprietary and royal periods served as an advisory group to the governor, and 
one of its members was chosen president. The council also served as the upper house of 
the legislature when the assembly was in session. The governor was authorized to carry 
out all mandates of the proprietors, or crown, and could, when vacancies occurred in 
colonial offices or on the council, make a temporary appointment until the vacancy was 
filled by proprietary or royal commission. When a governor, or deputy governor, was 
unable to carry on as chief executive either by illness, death, resignation or absence from 
the colony, the president of the council became the chief executive and exercised all the 
powers of the governor until such time as the governor returned, or a new governor 
commissioned. 

The colonial assembly was made up of men elected from each precinct and town 
where representation had been granted. Not all counties were entitled to the same num- 
ber of representatives. Many of the older counties had five representatives each while 



North Carolina Manual 




Historical Miscellanea 



the new ones — those formed after 1696 — were allowed only two each. Each town grant- 
ed representation was allowed one representative. The presiding officer of the colonial 
assembly was called the speaker and was elected from the entire membership of the 
house. When a vacancy occurred a new election was ordered by the speaker to fill it. On 
the final day of each session the bills passed by the legislature were signed by both the 
speaker and the president of the council. 

The colonial assembly could not meet arbitrarily, but rather convened only when 
called into session by the governor. Since the legislature was the only body authorized 
to grant a salary to the governor and was also responsible for spending tax monies, they 
met on a regular basis until just before the Revolutionary War. However, there was a 
constant battle for authority between the governor and his council on the one hand and 
the general assembly on the other. Two of the most explosive issues were the power of 
the purse and the electing of the treasurer, both privileges of the assembly. Another is- 
sue which raised itself was who had the authority to create new counties. On more than 
one occasion elected representatives from counties created by the governor and council, 
without consultation and proper legislative action by the lower house, were refused 
seats until the matter was resolved. These conflicts between the executive and legislative 
bodies were to have a profound effect on the organization of state government after 
Independence. 

North Carolina, on April 12, 1776, authorized her delegates in the Continental Con- 
gress to vote for independence, and on December 18, 1776, adopted a constitution. 
Richard Caswell became the first governor under this constitution. On November 21, 
1789, the state adopted the United States Constitution, being the twelfth state to enter 
the Federal Union. North Carolina, in 1788, had rejected the Consitution on the 
grounds that certain amendments were vital and necessary to a free people. 

A Constitutional convention was held in 1835 and among several changes made in the 
Constitution was the method of electing the governor. After this change the governor 
was elected by the people for a term of two years instead of being elected by the Legisla- 
ture for a term of one year. Edward Bishop Dudley was the first governor elected by the 
people. 

In 1868 a second constitution was adopted which drastically altered government in 
North Carolina. For the first time all major state officers were elected by the people. 
The governor and other executive officers were elected to four-year terms; while the jus- 
tices of the supreme court and judges of the superior court were elected to eight-year 
terms. The members of the general assembly continued to be elected for two year terms. 
Between 1868 and 1970 numerous amendments were incorporated into the 1868 consti- 
tution, so that in 1970, the people voted to adopt a completely new constitution. Since 
then several amendments have been ratified, but one in particular is a break from the 
past. In 1977 the people voted to allow the governor and lieutenant governor to run for 
reelection successively for one additional term. 

North Carolina has had two permanent capitals — New Bern and Raleigh — and there 
have been three capitol buildings. Tryon's Palace in New Bern was constructed in the 
period, 1767-1770, and the main building was destroyed by fire February 27, 1798. The 
first capitol in Raleigh was completed in 1794 and was destroyed by fire on June 21, 
1831. The present capitol was completed in 1840. 

In 1790 North Carolina ceded her western lands, which was composed of Washing- 



8 North Carolina Manual 



ton, Davidson, Hawkins, Greene, Sullivan, Sumner, and Tennessee counties, to the 
Federal government. Between 1790 and 1796 the territory was known as Tennessee Ter- 
ritory, but in 1796 it became the fifteenth state in the Union. 

When North Carolina adopted the Federal Constitution on November 21, 1789, she 
was authorized to send two senators and five representatives to the Congress of the 
United States according to the constitutional apportionment. In 1792, when the first 
federal census had been completed and tabulated, it was found that North Carolina was 
entitled to ten representatives. It was then that the General Assembly divided the state 
into ten congressional districts. In 1812, the state had grown and increased in popula- 
tion until it was entitled to thirteen representatives in Congress. Between 1812 and 1865, 
however, the population decreased so much in proportion to the population of other 
states of the Union that North Carolina was entitled to only seven representatives. After 
1865 the population of the state showed a steady increase so that beginning in 1943 
North Carolina was entitled to twelve representatives in Congress. The 1970 census 
showed that the state had more than a half million more people than in 1 960, but this in- 
crease was not nearly as much in proportion to that of other states. North Carolina is 
now entitled to only eleven representatives in Congress. 



Historical Miscellanea 



THE GREAT SEAL OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

The use of a seal for attesting to important documents began before the implementa- 
tion of government in North Carolina. In the colonial period North Carolina used suc- 
cessively four different seals. Since the colony became a state, five distinct seals have 
been used. 

Shortly after they were issued their charter in 1663, the Lords Proprietors thought it 
proper to adopt for their newly acquired domains in America, a seal of which no official 
description has been found, but which is to be seen in the British Public Record Office 
in London. The Seal — pictured below — had two sides. The size of this seal was three 
and three-eights inches in diameter, and it was made by placing together two wax cakes 
with tape between before being impressed. The impression after being made was about 
one-fourth inch thick. This seal was used on all official papers of the Lords Proprietors 
of Carolina, embracing both North Carolina and South Carolina. 





Seal of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina 

About 1665 the Government of Albemarle was organized and it adopted for a seal the 
reverse side of the seal of the Lords Proprietors. Between the coats-of-arms the word 
A-L-BE-M-A-R-L-E was fixed in capitals, beginning with the letter "A" between the 
arms of Clarendon and Albemarle, "L" between Albemarle and Craven, "BE" between 
the Craven arms and those of Lord John Berekeley, et cetera.. 

This was a small seal — one and seven-sixteenths inches in diameter, with one face 
only — and is now frequently to be found attached to colonial papers. It is generally im- 
pressed on red wax, but is occasionally seen impressed on a wafer which is stuck to the 
instrument with soft wax. It was first used for the government of the county of Albe- 
marle, and then became the seal of the Province of North Carolina, being used until just 
after the purchase by the crown. During the troublous times of the Cary Rebellion the 
Albemarle seal was not used. In 1708 Cary used his family arms on a large seal to his of- 
ficial papers. A fine specimen of this seal showing the Cary arms is preserved in the pa- 
pers of the secretary of state located in the North Carolina Archives. During William 
Glover's presidency (1710) he used his private seal. 



10 



North Carolina Manual 




Seal of Government of Albemarle and Province of North Carolina, 1665-1730 

When North CaroHna was purchased by the Crown in 1729, the old "Albemarle" seal 
was no longer applicable. On February 3, 1729/30, the Board of Trade recommended to 
the king that he order a public seal for the Province of North Carolina. 

On February 21, 1729/30, his Majesty in council was pleased to approve the recom- 
mendations and ordered ". . .that a Publick Seal be prepared and given to the Governor 
of the said Province of North Carolina, And that the said Lords Commissioners for 
Trade and Plantations do cause a Draft of such Seal, to be prepared and laid before His 
Majesty at the Board, for his Royall Approbation." 

On March 25, 1730, The Board of Trade laid before his Majesty for his royal appro- 
bation a draft of a proposed seal for the Province of North Carolina. On the 10th day of 
April, 1730, the king approved the recommendations, except that it appears "Georgius 
Secundus" was to be substituted for the original "Geo. II.," and his chief engraver of 
seals was ordered to "engrave a silver Seal according to said draught. ..." A certain 
Rollos, his Majesty's engraver was ordered to prepare a draft of the seal. 





Obverse Reverse 

Seal of the Province of North Carolina, 1730-1767 



Historical Miscellanea 



11 



There was some delay in receiving the new seal, for at a council held at Edenton, 
March 30, 1731, it was "Ordered that the old seal of the Colony be used till the new seal 
arrives." The latter part of April the seal came, and "The Messenger that went to Cape 
Fear to fetch the Publick Seal of this Province" was paid the sum often pounds for his 
journey. This seal was made by placing two cakes or layers of wax together, between 
which was the ribbon or tape with which the instrument was interlaced and by which the 
seal was appended. It was customary to put a piece of paper on the outside of three 
cakes before they were impressed. The complete seal was four and three-eighths inches 
in diameter and from one-half to five-eighths inches thick and weighed about five and 
one-half ounces. 

At a council held at New Bern, December 14, 1767, Governor Tryon produced to the 
Board a new Great Seal for the province with his Majesty's Royal Warrant bearing date 
at the Court of St. James the 9th day of July, 1767. The old seal was sent to New York 
by Captain [John Abraham] Collet, commander of Fort Johnston, to be returned to his 
Majesty's Council office at Whitehall. Accompanying his Majesty's warrant was a de- 
scription of the new seal. This seal was to be used in sealing all patents and grants of 
lands and all public instruments passed in the king's name for service within the prov- 
ince. It was four inches in diameter, one-half to five-eighths inches thick, and weighed 
four and one-half ounces. 





Obverse 



Reverse 



Seal of the Province of North Carolina, 1767-1776 



It appears that sometimes a smaller seal than the Great Seal was used, as commis- 
sions and grants with a small heart-shaped seal about one inch wide and a quarter of an 
inch thick which was impressed with a crown have been used. Also a seal was occasion- 
ally used about three inches long and two inches wide and half an inch thick, in the 
shape of an ellipse. These impressions were evidently made by putting the wax far 
enough under the edge of the Great Seal to take the impression of the crown. The royal 
governors also sometimes used their private seals on commissions and grants. 



12 



North Carolina Manual 



Lord Granville, on the grants issued by him, used his private seal. The last reference 
found to the colonial seal is in a letter from Governor Martin to the Earl of Hills- 
borough in November, 1771, in which he said "that the Province Seal was broke," but 
that he had had it repaired and that it had been "awkwardly mended but in such man- 
ner as to answer all purposes." 

When the government of the State of North Carolina was organized, the constitution 
adopted at Halifax, December 18, 1776, provided in Section XVII, "That there shall be 
a Seal of this State, which shall be kept by the Governor, and used by him as occasion 
may require; and shall be called the Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, and be 
affixed to all grants and commissions." The Constitutional Convention of 1835 brought 
this section forward unchanged. 

The convention of 1868 adopted a new constitution, and the convention of 1875 
brought the section referring to the seal forward as adopted in 1868. Article III, Section 
16 of the constitution reads: "There shall be a seal of the State, which shall be kept by 
the Governor, and used by him. as occasion may require, and shall be called 'The Great 
Seal of the State of North Carolina" All grants and commissions shall be issued in the 
name and by the authority of the State of North Carolina, sealed with The Great Seal 
of the State,' signed by the Governor and countersigned by the Secretary of State." 

On December 22, 1776, an ordinance was passed by the Provincial Congress at Hali- 
fax appointing William Hooper, Joseph Hewes and Thomas Burke commissioners to 
procure a Great Seal for the State of North Carolina, but no record of a report being 
made by this commission could be found. The ordinance provided that the governor 
should use his "private seal at arms" until the Great Seal for the state was procured. On 
April 29, 1778, a bill which directed the procurement of a Great Seal for the state and 
which became law on May 2, was introduced in the lower house of the general assembly 





Obverse 



Reverse 



Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1779-1794 



Historical Miscellanea 



13 



held in New Bern. It provided that "William Tisdale, Esq., be and he is hereby appoint- 
ed to cut and engrave a Seal, under the Direction of his Excellency the Governor, for the 
use of the State; . . . ." On Sunday, November 7, 1779 the senate concurred in the resolu- 
tion passed by the house of commons allowing William Tisdale, Esq., the sum of one 
hundred and fifty pounds for making the Great Seal of the State. Under this act a seal 
was procured which was used until 1794. The actual size of the seal was three inches in 
diameter and one-fourth inch thick. It was made by putting two cakes of wax together 
with paper wafers on the outside and pressing them between the dies, thus forming the 
obverse and reverse sides of the seal. The seal press must have been very large and un- 
wieldy, for Governor Richard Dobbs Spaight in writing to Colonel Abisha Thomas in 
February, 1793 said: "Let the screws by which the impression is to be made be as port- 
able as possible so as it may be adapted to our present itinerant government. The one 
now in use by which the Great Seal is a present made is so large and unwieldy as to be 
carried only in a cart or wagon and of course has become stationary at the Secretary's 
office which makes it very convenient." Governor Spaight in January, 1793 in writing of 
the Tisdale Seal then in use says, "This old seal is not only nearly worn out but in my 
opinion has always been a reproach to the genius of the State." An official description 
of this seal cannot be found, but many of the seals are still in existence in an almost per- 
fect state of preservation. 

In January, 1792 the general assembly in session at New Bern passed an act author- 
izing and requiring the governor to procure for the state a seal, and provided that it 
should "be prepared with only one side, and calculated to make the impression on the 
face of such grant, commission, record or other public acts, . . . ." Governor Alexander 
Martin commissioned Colonel Abisha Thomas, the agent of North Carolina in Phila- 




The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1794-1836 



14 



North Carolina Manual 



delphia for the settlement of the State's Revolutionary claims against the Federal Gov- 
ernment, to have one made and, at the same time sent him a design therefor. After cor- 
respondence between Governor Martin and Colonel Thomas concerning the seal, in 
which suggestions were made by Dr. Hugh Williamson and Senator Samuel Johnston, 
they concluded that the sketch submitted by Governor Martin would not do and Colo- 
nel Thomas submitted a sketch by an artist. This sketch, with some modification, was fi- 
nally accepted by Governor Spaight, and Colonel Thomas had the seal made accord- 
ingly. The seal was cut some time during the summer of 1793, and Colonel Thomas 
brought it home with him in time for the meeting of the legislature in November, 1793, 
at which session it was "approbated." The screw to the seal would not work, so in 1795 
the general assembly passed an act authorizing the use of the old seal of 1778 until the 
new one could be put in order. The new seal was two and one half inches in diameter 
and was used until around 1835. 

In the winter of 1834-35 the legislature passed an act authorizing the governor to pro- 
cure a new seal. The preamble to the act states that the old seal had been in use since the 
first day of March, 1793. The seal adopted in 1835, which was not changed until 1839, 
was very similar to its predecessor. It was two and one-fourth inches in diameter. In 
1868 the legislature authorized the governor to procure a Great Seal and required him 
to provide a new seal whenever the old one was lost or so worn or defaced as to render it 
unfit for use. 

In 1883 Colonel S. MCD. Tate introduced a bill in the legislature which became law. 
This act did not provide that a new seal be procured but it described in more detail what 
the seal should be like. In 1893 Jacob Battle introduced a bill which became law. This 
made no change in the seal except to add at the foot of the coat-of-arms of the state as 
part thereof the motto Esse Quam Videri and to provide the words "May 20, 1775," be 
incribed at the top of the coat-of-arms. 




The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1836-1893 



Historical Miscellanea 



15 



At this time the ship that appeared in the offing in the seals of George II and George 
III and in our seal from 1835-1893 seems to have disappeared, and the designer of the 
seal shows mountains in the background instead of both mountains and the sea as for- 
merly. 

The preceding history illustrates the great variety in seals and the liberty that was 
taken in the design in the official State seal from time to time. The 1971 General As- 
sembly, in an effort to "provide a standard for the Great Seal of the State of North 
Carolina," passed the following Act amending the General Statutes provision relative 
to the State Seal: 

The Governor shall procure for the State a Seal, which shall be called the 
great seal of the State of North Carolina, and shall be two and one-quarter 
inches in diameter, and its design shall be a representation of the figures of 
Liberty and Plenty, looking toward each other, but not more than half- 
fronting each other and otherwise disposed as follows: Liberty, the first figure, 
standing, her pole with cap on it in her left hand and a scroll with the word 
"Constitution" inscribed thereon in her right hand. Plenty, the second figure, 
sitting down, her right arm half extended toward Liberty, three heads of grain 
in her right hand, and in her left, the small end of her horn, the mouth of 
which is resting at her feet, and the contents of the horn rolling out. 

The background on the seal shall contain a depiction of mountains running 
from left to right to the middle of the seal. A side view of a three-masted ship 
shall be located on the ocean and to the right of Plenty. The date "May 20, 
1775" shall appear within the seal and across the top of the seal and the words 
"esse quam videri" shall appear at the bottom around the perimeter. No other 
words, figures or other embellishments shall appear on the seal. 

It shall be the duty of the Governor to file in the office of the Secretary of 
State an impression of the great seal, certified to under his hand and attested 
to by the Secretary of State, which impression so certified the Secretary of 
State shall carefully preserve among the records of this Office. 




The Great Seal of the State of 
North Carolina, 1893-1971 



The Great Seal of the State of 
North Carolina, 1971— 



Historical Miscellanea 17 



THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE CAPITOL 

The North Carolina State Capitol is one of the finest and best preserved examples of 
a major civic building in the Greek Revival Style of architecture. 

Prior to 1792, North Carolina legislators met in various towns throughout the 
state — Halifax, Hillsboro, and New Bern were the most frequent locations. Meetings 
were held in local plantation houses, court houses, and even churches — whatever was 
available; however, when the City of Raleigh was established as the permanent seat of 
the Government of North Carolina in 1792, a simple, two-story brick State House was 
built on Union Square. The State House was completed in 1796. 

The State House was enlarged in 1820-24 by the architect William Nichols. A third 
floor and eastern and western wings were added to the building, and a domed rotunda 
was constructed at its center to house Antonio Canova's statue of President George 
Washington, acquired by the State in 1821. When the State House burned down on 
June 21, 1831, the statue of Washington was damaged beyond repair. 

The General Assembly of 1832-33 ordered that a new Capitol (as the present building 
has always been called) be built as an enlarged version of the old State House — that is, a 
cross-shaped building with a central, domed rotunda. The sum of $50,000 was appropri- 
ated, and a commission appointed to initiate the plan. The Commissioners for Rebuild- 
ing the Capitol first employed William Nichols, Jr., to help them prepare plans for the 
building. In August of 1833, Nichols was replaced by the distinguished New York archi- 
tectural firm of Ithiel Town and Alexander Jackson Davis. They modified and greatly 
improved the earlier design, giving the Capitol essentially its present appearance and 
plan. David Paton (1802-82), and Edinburgh-born architect who had worked for John 
Seoane, the noted English architect, was hired in September, 1834, to superintend the 
construction of the Capitol. Paton replaced Town and Davis as the Commissioners' ar- 
chitect early in 1835. The Capitol was built under Paton's supervision except for the ex- 
terior stone walls, which were largely in place when he got to Raleigh. Paton made sev- 
eral modificafions in the Town and Davis plans for the interior. He is responsible for 
the cantilevered or overhanging gallery at the second floor level of the rotunda, the 
groined masonry vaulting of the first fioor office and corridor ceilings, and the interior 
arrangement of the east and west wings. After clearing away the rubbish of the old State 
House, excavations were made and a new foundation laid. On July 4, 1833, the corner 
stone was set in place. Following this, work progressed more slowly, and the orignal ap- 
propriation soon exhausted. At the next session of the Legislature, an additional appro- 
priation of $75,000 was necessary so that work could begin on the stone and finer work. 
Many skilled artisans were brought over from Scotland and other countries to carry out 
this phase of construction. 

Most of the architectural details — columns, mouldings, ornamental plasterwork, and 
the honeysuckle crown atop the dome, for example — were carefully patterned after fea- 
tures of particular ancient Greek temples: The exterior columns are Doric in style and 
modeled after those of the Parthenon, the House of Representatives Chamber follows 
the semicircular plan of a Greek theater and its architectural ornament is in the Corin- 
thian style of the Tower of the Winds, and the Senate Chamber is decorated in the Ionic 
style of the Erechtheum. The only non-classical parts of the building are two large 
rooms on the third fioor which were finished in the Gothic Style, then just beginning to 
rise to popularity in America. 



18 North Carolina Manual 



The ornamental ironwork, chandeliers, hardware, and marble mantels of the Capitol 
came from Philadelphia, as did the man who executed all of the ornamental plaster- 
work. The desks and chairs in the House and Senate Chambers were made by a Raleigh 
Cabinetmaker, William Thompson. 

The Capitol was completed in 1840 at a total cost (including furnishings) of 
$532,682.34, or more than three times the yearly general income of the State at that 
time. 

In plan, the Capitol is a cross-shaped building, centering on a domed rotunda where 
the wings join. It is 160 feet from north to south, 140 feet from east to west (including 
the porticoes), and stands 97 Vi feet from the base of the rotunda to the crown atop the 
dome. The exterior walls are built of gneiss (a form of granite). This stone was quarried 
in southeastern Raleigh and hauled to the site on the horse-drawn Experimental Rail 
Road, the first railway in North Carolina. The interior walls are of stone and brick. The 
massive, original wooden truss system still carries the roof. 

The first floor contains eight offices in the north and south wings and smaller rooms 
in the east and west wings. (These offices originally housed all of the executive branch of 
state government — a total of six full-time officials in 1840.) The rotunda contains a 
duplicate original of Canova's statue of Washington, acquired in 1970. In niches around 
the rotunda are busts of three Governors and a United States Senator. Stairways in the 
east and west wings give access to the second floor, where the Senate and House 
Chambers and related offices are located. Rooms in the east and west wings, built as 
legislative committee rooms, have been converted to other uses. On the third floor are 
the galleries of the Senate and House Chambers, and in the east and west wings are the 
original State Supreme Court Chamber and State Library Room, both decorated in the 
Gothic Style. The domed, top-lit vestibules of those two rooms are especially note- 
worthy. 

The Capitol housed all of the state government until the 1880"s. The Supreme Court 
moved to its own building in 1888. The General Assembly moved to the State Legisla- 
tive Building (the State's first building erected exclusively for legislative use) in 1963. 
Today the only official occupants of the Capitol are some of the personnel of the Gover- 
nor and the Secretary of State. 

The Capitol probably has been less changed in appearance, inside and out, than any 
major American civic building of its era. The stonework, the ornamental plaster and 
ironwork, the furniture of the legislative chambers, and all but one of the marble man- 
tels that the visitor sees today are original, not restorations or reproductions. Yet con- 
tinuous and heavy use since 1840 has left its marks on the building, and to cope with 
them the Capitol currently is undergoing a careful rehabilitation. This work was begun 
in 1971 and is intended to preserve and enhance the architectural splendor and decora- 
tive beauty of the Capitol for future generations. Work done to date includes replacing 
the leaky copper roof cleaning and sealing the exterior stone, and repainting the ro- 
tunda in colors similar to those originally used. More recently completed phases include 
repairing plaster-work damaged by roof leaks, replacing obsolete wiring and plumbing, 
reworking the heating and cooling systems in the upper floors to make them less con- 
spicuous, replacing worn carpets and draperies, and repainting the rest of the interior 
according to the original color scheme. 



Historical Miscellanea 19 



1976 was an eventful year not only for our nation, but for our State Capitol building 
as well. After several years of work, the old senate and house chambers and the execu- 
tive offices on the first floor were completed. Shortly after being elected to his first term. 
Governor James B. Hunt, Jr. announced his intention of moving some of the Office of 
the Governor back into the Capitol. Governor Hunt and Secretary of State Thad Eure 
are working residents in this symbol of government in North Carolina. 

In an effort to make the newly renovated Capitol more accessible to the people of 
North Carolina, the building has been opened to the public on weekends with guided 
tours available for all visitors. 



20 North Carolina Manual 



Description of the Capitol 

by 
Architect David Paton 

The State Capitol is 160 feet in length from north to south by 140 feet from east to 
west. The whole height is 97 Vi feet in the center. The apex of pediment is 64 feet in 
height. The stylobate is 18 feet in height. The columns of the east and west porticoes are 
5 feet 2 '/2 inches in diameter. An entablature, including blocking course, is continued 
around the building 12 feet high. 

The columns and entablature are Grecian Doric, and copied from the Temple of 
Minerva, commonly called the Parthenon, which was erected in Athens about 500 years 
before Christ. An octagon tower surrounds the rotunda, which is ornamented with Gre- 
cian cornices, etc., and its dome is decorated at top with a similar ornament to that of 
the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, commonly called the Lanthorn of Demosthenes. 

The interior of the Capitol is divided into three stories: First, the lower story, consist- 
ing often rooms, eight of which are appropriated as offices to the Governor, Secretary, 
Treasurer, and Comptroller, each having two rooms of the same size — the one contain- 
ing an area of 649 square feet, the other 528 square feet — the two committee rooms, 
each containing 200 square feet and four closets: also the rotunda, corridors, vestibules, 
and piazzas, contain an area of 4,370 square feet. The vestibules are decorated with 
columns and antae, similar to those of the Ionic Temple on the Ilissus, near the Acrop- 
olis of Athens. The remainder is groined with stone and brick, springing from columns 
and pilasters of the Roman Doric. 

The second story consists of Senatorial and Representatives' chambers, the former 
containing an area of 2,545 and the latter 2,849 square feet. Four apartments enter from 
Senate Chamber, two of which contain each an area of 169 square feet, and the other 
two contain each an area of 154 square feet; also, two rooms enter from Representa- 
tives' chamber, each containing an area of 170 square feet; of two committee rooms, 
each containing an area of 231 square feet; of four presses and the passages, stairs, lob- 
bies, and colonnades, containing an area of 3,204 square feet. 

The lobbies and Hall of Representatives have their columns and antae of the Octagon 
Tower of Andronicus Cyrrhestes and the plan of the hall is of the formation of the 
Greek theatre and the columns and antae in the Senatorial chamber and rotunda are of 
the Temple of Erectheus, Minerva, Polias, and Pandrosus, in the Acropolis of Athens, 
near the above named Parthenon. 

Third, or attic story, consists of rooms appropriated to the Supreme Court and Li- 
brary, each containing an area of 693 square feet. Galleries of both houses have an area 
of 1,300 square feet; also two apartments entering from Senate gallery, each 169 square 
feet; of four presses and the lobbies' stairs, 988 square feet. These lobbies as well as ro- 
tunda, are lit with cupolas, and it is proposed to finish the court and library in the florid 
Gothic style. 



Historical Miscellanea 21 



THE CAPITOL 

by 
Edwin Gill* 

I am the Capitol; upon my copper dome, I wear a crown. If it were gilded, it would 
flash a signal to the sun. This crown is more than decoration. It is a symbol of sover- 
eignty. 

When the sun is bright and the arch of heaven is clear, the greenish-blue of my dome 
is bold against the sky. But sometimes, when the sun is veiled, the grey of my dome ap- 
pears to blend with infinity. 

Between 1933 and 1840, I was constructed of stone quarried nearby, which time has 
mellowed. These stones were precision cut and, nicely balanced. The traffic of human 
feet has worn some stones, and, occasionally, I have been roughly used. The edges of 
steps have been broken. But I am hale and hearty and will, of course, endure. 

The Court, the Legislature and the Auditor have left me for more modern homes. It is 
rumored that others may go. However, I am assured I shall become a shrine. Now what 
is a shrine? No one seems to know, except they say it has something to do with memory 
and Glory. 

I am complimented that many people are concerned about my condition. Questions 
have been raised. Let me assure one and all that I am solid and sound of body. My 
problems are mostly superficial. 

My roof has leaked a bit, and inquiries should be made into the soundness of the tim- 
bers that undergird it. Also, at appropriate intervals, my electrical wiring should be 
carefully examined. 

In fairness to the past, a sprinkler system was installed beneath my roof in 1939, and 
my exterior was cleaned effectively in 1952. 

But it is well to have the Governor, the Council of State and others concerned about 
my future. It is good to know there are those who care — to have a flutter of interest in 
my behalf. Even the pigeons and squirrels are concerned! 

Some time before the year is out, I am informed, we will dedicate, in an appropriate 
ceremony, the receipt from Italy of the figure of Washington carved in marble. It is meet 
and proper in anticipation of this event that I be cleaned, refurnished and made in every 
way presentable. Incidentally, my architect told me that in the original plans I was to 
have this statue. So, in a sense, I am unfinished until it is in place. 

There are those who think I should be restored to my former splendor. The doctors of 
history suggest I should be arrayed in the mode of 1840. This, I suppose has something 
to do with my ultimate status as a shrine. 

I favor this restoration. But I doubt that such a project can be completely achieved. 
After all, in recent times, I have become a creature of modern conveniences, such as cen- 
tral heating, inside plumbing and electricity — all unavailable in 1840. Whatever is done, 
my comfort should be considered. Especially, I would like to have hot, as well as cold, 
running water! 



*Mr. Gill was State Treasurer of North Carolina from 1953-1977. The above was ordered spread upon the 
minutes of the Council of State on June 17, 1970, 



22 North Carolina Manual 



In my bosom laws were made. Through the decades, I have heard the thunders of elo- 
quence. I have been amused at the wit and tall tales of statesmen. 

Today my halls are silent. People come and go and look at me, and marvel at the 
stories of the past. They say I am a symbol of all that has been achieved within the borders 
of our State. So be it. I am a symbol. 



Historical Miscellanea 23 



THE LEGISLATIVE BUILDING 

The need for larger quarters for legislators and their respective staffs, and the growth 
of services provided by the legislative branch of government led the General Assembly 
of 1959 to appropriate funds for the formation of a Building Commission for the con- 
struction of a new building for the Legislature. A statute creating such a commission 
was ratified on June 12, 1959. It was to "consist of two persons who have served in the 
State Senate, appointed by the President of the Senate; two persons who have served in 
the House of Representatives, appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives; and three persons appointed by the Governor." 

Lieutenant Governor Luther E. Barnhardt, President of the Senate, appointed Archie 
K. Davis and Robert F. Morgan, who was elected Vice-chairman of the Commission; 
Speaker of the House Addison Hewlett appointed B. I. Satterfield and Thomas J. 
White, who was elected Chairman of the Commission; and Governor Hodges appoint- 
ed A. E. Finley, Edwin Gill, and Oliver R. Rowe. In addition to these members, Paul A. 
Johnston, Director of the Department of Administration, was elected Executive Secre- 
tary. The Commission elected Frank B.Turner, State Property Officer as Executive 
Secretary upon the resignation of Mr. Johnson. 

The Commission selected Edward Durell Stone of New York with John S. Holloway 
and Ralph B. Reeves, Jr., Associated as the architectural consultants. 

After a thorough study by the Commission, a site for construction was selected — a 
SVi acre area one block North of the Capitol. This site, encompassing two blocks, is 
bounded by Jones, Salisbury, Lane and Wilmington Streets. A section of Halifax Street 
between Jones and Lane was closed and made a part of the new site. 

Bids on the new building were received in December, 1960 and constrution began 
early the following year. The 1961 General Assembly appropriated an additional $1 mil- 
lion for furnishings and equipment. This brought the total appropriation to $5 V2 mil- 
lion or $1.24 for each citizen of North Carolina. (This figure based on the 1960 census.) 

One of the consulting architects wrote the following description of the new building: 

The State Legislative Building, though not an imitation of historic classical 
styles, is classical in character. Rising from a 340 foot wide podium of North 
Carolina granite, the building proper is 242 feet square. The walls and the 
columns are of Vermont marble, the latter forming a colonnade encompassing 
the building and reaching 24 feet from the podium to the roof of the second 
floor. 

Inset in the south podium floor, at the main entrance, is a 28 foot diameter 
terrazzo mosaid of the Great Seal of the State. From the first fioor main en- 
trance (at Jones Street) the carpeted 22 foot wide main stair extends directly to 
the third floor and the public galleries of the Senate and House, the audi- 
torium, the display area, and the roof gardens. 

The four garden courts are located at the corners of the building. These 
courts contain tropical plants, and three have pools, fountains, and hanging 
planters. The main fioor areas of the courts are located in the first floor, and 
messanines overlook the courts from the second floor. The skylights which 
provide natural lighting are located within the roof gardens overhead. The 
courts provide access to committee rooms in the first floor, the legislative 
chambers in the second floor, and to members' offices in both floors. 



Historical Miscellanea 25 



The Senate and House chambers, each 5,180 square feet in area, occupy the 
east and west wings of the second floor. Following the traditional relationship 
of the two chambers in the Capitol, the two spaces are divided by the rotunda; 
and when the main brass doors are open, the two presiding officers face one 
another. Each pair of brass doors weigh 1,500 pounds. 

The five pyramidal roofs covering the Senate and House chambers, the au- 
ditorium, the main stair, and the rotunda are sheathed with copper, as is the 
Capitol. The pyramidal shape of the roofs is visible in the pointed ceilings in- 
side. The structural ribs form a coffered ceiling; and inside the coffered pat- 
terns, concentric patterns are outlined in gold. In each chamber, the distance 
from the floor to the peak of the ceiling is 45 feet. 

Chandeliers in the chambers and main stair are 8 feet in diameter and weigh 
625 pounds each. The 12 foot diameter chandelier of the rotunda, like the 
others, is of brass, but its weight is 750 pounds. 

Because of the interior environment, the garden courts and rotunda have 
tropical plants and trees. Outside, however, the shrubs and trees are of an in- 
digenous type. Among the trees in the gounds, on the roof areas are sugar 
maples, dogwoods, crabapples, magnolias, crepe myrtles, and pines. 

Throughout the building, the same color scheme is maintained: Walnut, 
white, gold and red, with green foliage. In general, all wood is American wal- 
nut, metal is brass or other gold colored material, carpets are red, and uphol- 
stery is gold or black. 

The enclosed area consists of 206,000 square feet of floor area with a volume 
of 3,210,000 cubic feet. Heating equipment provides over 7,000,000 B.T.U. per 
hour; and the cooling equipment has a capaciy of 620 tones. For lighting, 
motors, and other electircal equipment, the building has a connected service 
load of over 2,000,000 watts. 



Historical Miscellanea 27 



THE EXECUTIVE RESIDENCES OF NORTH CAROLINA 

North Carolina has not always provided an official home for its governors and their 
families. Prior to 1770, the chief executive lived wherever he chose at his own expense. It 
was not until 1776 that the general assembly authorized the construction of the first 
such residence; in 1770 the magnificent Governor's Palace in New Bern was occupied by 
Royal Governor William Tryon. "Tryon's Palace," as the building came to be known, 
was destined to serve as the formal residence of governors for only a short time. It was 
exposed to the threats of enemy forces during the American Revolution, and the palace 
was virtually abandoned. In 1798 a fire destroyed all but the west wing. 

North Carolina's first legislators were traveling men. With no "fixed seat of govern- 
ment," early members of the general assembly traveled from plantation to plantation, 
town to town, until 1792, when a capital "city" was planned and laid out in the "hills of 
Wake" on Joel Lane's plantation. It was named in honor of the Elizabethan patron of 
early colonization, Sir Walter Raleigh. Shortly thereafter an act was passed by the legis- 
lature requiring the governor to reside at the permanent seat of government. Samuel 
Ashe of New Hanover was the first governor to come under this edict. He expressed his 
reaction emphatically: ". . . it was never supposed that a Man annually elected to the 
Chief Magistracy would commit such folly as to attempt the building of a House at the 
seat of Government in which he might for a time reside. 

The committee of the general assembly to whom Ashe's letter was referred hastened 
to inform him that the law was enacted before he was elected governor and could be 
considered "as a condition under the incumbrance of which he accepted the appoint- 
ment." 

Despite the remonstrance to Ashe, the general assembly took steps to provide a 
dwelling for the chief executive. The State Treasurer was instructed to purchase or lease 
a suitable house and, in 1797, a plain, two-story frame building, painted white, and an 
office for the governor were provided on lot 131, the southwest corner of Fayetteville 
and Hargett streets. 

This house proved helplessly inadequate. To remedy this situation, the general assem- 
bly, in 1813, appointed a committee to provide better facilities, and plans were made for 
the erection of a more suitable dwelling. A site was selected at the foot of Fayetteville 
Street facing the capitol. In 1816 the elaborate brick structure with white columned 
porticoes was completed and Governor William Miller became the first occupant of the 
"Governor's Palace." 

In traditional ante-bellum fashion, the twenty succeeding governors resided in the 
Palace, as it was officially termed, and much of the history of the state centered there. 
General Lafayette was a visitor in 1825. Some sessions of the general assembly were 
held in the Palace following the burning of the Capitol in 1831. The last governor to oc- 
cupy the Palace was Zebulon Baird Vance. Sherman and later federal occupants of the 
governor's palace, while they may have injured the pride of local citizens, did no serious 
damage to the building. But years of neglect and the structural inadequacy of the house 
from the very beginning made it unattractive to those governors coming into office in 
the years following the war. During the Reconstruction days, and until the present man- 
sion was built, the chief executives resided in Raleigh living in rented houses, hotels 
or — during two administrations — in their own homes. From 1871 to 1891 the 
Yarborough House, a noted Raleigh hotel, served as the unofficial residence for several 
North Carolina governors. 



Historical Miscellanea 29 



Governor Vance, the last occupant of the Palace, was again in office in 1879. In that 
year he presented the report of a commission appointed two years previously by the 
legislature to investigate the possibiliites of providing a suitable residence for the gover- 
nor. The commission was also charged with the task of selling unused State land in and 
adjacent to the city of Raleigh. Proceeds from these sales were earmarked for the con- 
struction of a house and outbuildings suitable for the governor. 

Meanwhile the matter of hiring an architect was investigated and David Paton natur- 
ally came to mind. Paton had established his reputation in North Carolina as the archi- 
tect of the State Capitol. He was an associate of Ithiel Town of New York, the architect 
originally consulted in rebuilding the Capitol. By the 1880's, however, Paton was in his 
middle seventies and age and poor health made it necessary for him to decline the invi- 
tation to visit Raleigh to help select a location and plan a house for the governor. 

The decision to build the present governor's mansion was made by the general assem- 
bly at the perseverance of Governor Thomas Jarvis. Under the governor's prompting 
the legislature approached the problem of providing adequate housing for the chief 
executive. A bill ratified in February, 1883, authorized construction of a house on 
Burke Square, provided for major furnishings, and required (upon its completion) the 
governor to occupy it. The governor and Council of State were directed to use convict 
labor and such materials as were "manufactured or prepared, either in whole or in 
part," at the penitentiary, when such a procedure seemed feasible. To finance the proj- 
ect, the governor was authorized to use money realized from the sale of State lands 
(1877) and was instructed to sell the old Palace and grounds. Expenditures were not to 
exceed the sum realized and an accurate accounting was demanded; a record of the 
money spent by the governor and council was to be entered on a journal and the auditor 
was instructed to check and file itemized accounts before issuing warrants for payment. 

Two months after passage of the bill, the Council of State met with the governor. 
Jarvis was then instructed to advertise the Palace and grounds for immediate sale and to 
employ an architect to make sketches and specifications for the Council's consideration. 
Governor Jarvis accordingly wrote W. J. Hicks, architect and warden of the prison, sug- 
gesting a plan which called for construction of the house under exclusive direction of the 
penitentiary authorities and payment of a definite sum to that institution. The law pro- 
vided that the council and the governor might call on the penitentiary for all the labor 
and material it could furnish "in whole or in part." Jarvis felt there might be some dif- 
ferences of opinion as to the meaning of the statement. He reasoned that with construc- 
tion work then being done at the penitentiary, by using the same material and labor in 
building the mansion, a saving could be realized in buying in larger quantities. From a 
practical standpoint Jarvis thought the State would profit by having both projects under 
the same management, and experienced businessmen advised such a plan might save the 
State as much as twenty thousand dollars. 

Samuel Sloan of Philadelphia and his assistant, Gustavus Adolphus Bauer, were 
chosen as architects. Sloan arrived in Raleigh on April 28, 1883, with his designs for the 
residence. These were declared "very artistic, representing an ornate bulding, in modern 
style, three stories in height, with the ample porches, hallways, and windows which 
every house built in this climate should have." On May 7 came the news that the designs 
submitted by Sloan had been accepted, with some modifications suggested by "able 
builders" of the city. 



30 North Carolina Manual 



Officers at the penitentiary board making a report (1882-1884) declared the building 
handsome in design, constructed of the best material by the best workers, using pressed 
brick made at the prison and trimmed with North Carolina sandstone which, they felt, 
gave "a very happy relief to the external appearance." They also expressed satisfaction 
with the artistry and convenience of the house's interior and wished to enhance it 
further by using an "elaborate North Carolina hard-wood finish." 

In another progress report, a year later, Jarvis gave the additional information that 
the stone was quarried in Anson County and most of the work in finishing it had been 
done by the convicts. He also favored an interior of North Carolina hardwood, includ- 
ing the ceiling, wainscotting, and woodwork of the halls and rooms of the first floor. 

Dreams of a beautiful mansion for the governor were in danger of being lost as 1889 
dawned. Money for its construction had run out. A meeting of the Council of State and 
the governor was called to discuss the question of beginning work on the house again 
and pushing it to completion. As a result of their discussion, the governor was given au- 
thority "to cause the sale of the property in Raleigh belonging to the fund, the sale of 
which was provided for by the recent legislature, and to appropriate the proceeds to the 
work of completing the mansion." 

By the end of December, 1890, the house was nearly finished but Governor Daniel 
Fowie did not move in until after the new year. He was particularly anxious to occupy 
the house in view of the earlier attempts to abandon it as a residence for the governor. 

As soon as the mansion was reported "erected," the Council of State announced the 
Board of Public Buildings and Grounds would have charge of its supervision. The 
board was to take over in December. But in November, before it was occupied, repair 
and preservation work had already begun with "certain exterior and interior painting" 
of the woodwork. Most of the accounts emphasize the deplorable condition of the 
"completed house. The plumbing was cheap and dirt was laid between the floor to 
deaden sound. 

The third floor and basement were left unfinished. On the lot were stables for "horses 
driven to the governor's carriage" and other outhouses. A pump provided drinking 
water for the mansion and a little gas engine pumped water from the two cisterns in the 
basement to a tank on the top floor. 

The earliest laws providing for the construction of a governor's residence, as well as 
most of the later planning, called for the purchase of furnishings. As the cost of con- 
struction mounted, only a small portion of money remained for furniture. Some pur- 
chases were made, however, before the house was furnished and an appropriation of 
$1500 in 1891 made further purchases possible. Other furnishings were bought by the 
individual occupants during their stay in the mansion. 

On moving in. Governor Fowle brought his own furniture to make up the deficit in 
the mansion, setting a precedent followed for many years before the house was ade- 
quately furnished. He filed a list of furnishings in the treasurer's office to avoid any con- 
fusion in the future as to who owned what. 

Elias Carr was the first governor to live at the mansion for a full term (1893-1897) of 
four years. Like his predecessors he soon found the house in need of furnishings and re- 
pairs. Funds were allocated by the legislature in February for necessary furniture and 
for "completion and repairing the mansion." Two years later another appropriation 
was made for work on the grounds. Some time previously the attorney general had 



Historical Miscellanea 31 



ruled that the mansion and grounds, as pubHc property, were under the care of the 
Board of PubHc Buildings and Grounds and directly under the supervision of the keeper 
of the capitol. 

As frequently seemed the case with new governors. Governor Bickett's residency be- 
gan with an inspection of the mansion and recommendations in keeping with the needs 
found there. The superintendent of buildings and grounds made a detailed report in ad- 
dition to the recommendations for improving the interior made by Architect James A. 
Salter and Mrs. Bickett. The repairs and improvements recommended for the exterior 
and surrounding grounds were extensive, amounting to nearly ten thousand dollars. 

Shortly after Governor Daniel Russell came into office in 1897, the legislature ap- 
pointed a committee to examine the mansion and see whether it needed any alterations. 
The committee reported that repairs were needed and a resolution was promptly intro- 
duced to provide the necessary money. 

Mrs. Bickett wrote a letter to the joint committee on public buildings and grounds of 
the legislature and attached estimates given by Salter. Her plea received sufficient atten- 
tion to merit the introduction of a bill for the requested repairs and renovations with the 
provision that these be made up to an expenditure of $65,000 out of any funds in the 
hands of the State Treasurer not otherwise appropriated." This optimistic bill, however, 
failed to pass and a substitute law was enacted in March, 1917, allowing $4,000 "to ren- 
ovate, equip, and properly furnish the Governor's Mansion and improve the surround- 
ing grounds." The succeeding legislature passed another act, allowing an expenditure of 
$2,000 annually for the years 1919 and 1920. 

As preparations were made for Governor Angus W. McLean's residence in the man- 
sion, previous renovations were considered inadequate by the incoming governor and 
citizens alike. Sentiment for abandoning the house was aroused once more: it was so ob- 
solete and so uncomfortable, public opinion in Raleigh favored scrapping the building 
and providing the governor with a new house in one of the city's residential sections. 
Burke Square could then be used as a public partk. 

Secretary of State W. N. Everett halted the movement. Rather than do away with the 
mansion, he thought it should be repaired and furnished in such a way as to provide a 
comfortable dwelling. Thus, he and Governor McLean must be credited not only with 
saving the mansion but also making it, for the first time, a house in keeping with the dig- 
nity of the governor and his office. 

McLean's plans for renovating and refurnishing were based on information beyond 
that gained through casual observation and the complaints of his predecessors. Some- 
time earlier the legislature had passed a law requiring the State Board of Health to in- 
spect all state institutions for sanitation, and the mansion, coming under this category, 
was inspected in February, 1925, shortly after McLean's inauguration. 

The report from the Board of Health was startling. Inspection was made and ratings 
given on the basis used in inspecting hotels: the mansion received "the very low rating of 
71." The report added that the management of a hotel receiving such a rating would be 
subject to indictment. A further charge was made that the principal deductions in scor- 
ing were for uncleanliness. 

Dr. W. S. Rankin, State Health Officer, after accompanying the sanitary engineer on 
his tour of inspection of the mansion, was so impressed with the necessity of making 
these improvements, he felt it his duty to bring the matter before the general assembly. 



32 North Carolina Manual 



Secretary of State Everett had made his own examination and reported major repairs 
were needed for the sake of preservation. He suggested a sum not exceeding $50,000 for 
these repairs and new furnishings. Although this action was taken without McLean's 
knowledge, upon learning of it, he soon became active in seeking authority to begin the 
much-needed repairs. 

When money became available a firm of architects, Atwood and Nash, were em- 
ployed to carry out the renovations. H. Pier-Giavina, a "decorative artist" of Wilming- 
ton helped in the interior decorating. Renovation included painting throughout and 
modernizing of plumbing and electrical facilities. 

In working out a scheme of decoration and deciding on furniture purchases, the serv- 
ices of Elizabeth Thompson, local interior decorator, and the experience of Mrs. 
McLean were employed. The first lady, whose efforts were bent toward the simple and 
substantial, was eminently fitted for the task by her own "excellent taste and wide ob- 
servation." Cloak rooms and servants quarters were added to the basement and the pre- 
viously unfinished third floor. 

It was not until McLean's administration, in 1925, that the legislature made a specific 
appropriation for maintaining the governor's mansion. Previously, expenditures were 
made, as needed, out of the general fund. 

The renovation undertaken by Governor McLean was not actually completed while 
he was in residence. This was particularly true of the furnishings. Governor-elect Gard- 
ner felt the home of the governor should preserve a uniform appearance regardless of 
the temporary occupant. He asked the Board of Public Buildings and Grounds to 
confer with the McLeans to determine what was needed and to make provisions for 
these needs before he came into office. McLean brought the matter to the attention of 
the board and a "Special Furniture and Equipment Account Available for Incoming 
Governor" was set up for this purpose. 

The Gardners had not been in the mansion long before the legislature passed an act 
authorizing the State Highway Commission to build and maintain walkways and drives 
"within the Mansion Square. . .". Included in this project was a plan for a general 
landscaping of the mansion grounds. 

For advice in landscaping, Thomas W. Sears, landscape architect of Philadelphia, 
was contacted. Blueprints were drawn and plans submitted. Mrs. Gardner's concern for 
landscaping the gounds led to further interest in the exterior appearance of the house 
and at their suggestion the outside woodwork was painted brown to blend with the 
sandstone and brick. 

The master plan drawn by Elizabeth Thompson in 1925, at Governor McLean's re- 
quest, provided a guide for succeeding residents and allowed some consistency in fur- 
nishings and decoration. Governors of the past few decades — Ehringhaus, Hoey, 
Broughton, Cherry, Scott, Umstead, Hodges, Sanford, Moore, and Scott — have wit- 
nessed further changes and improvements. 

The feasibility of continuing to use the Mansion as both an official residence and as 
the domicile of the governor and his family during his term of office has come to the 
forefront in recent years. The massive structure for all its beauty and heritage has been 
questioned from a practical aspect. The 1971 General Assembly created "The Executive 
Residence Building Commission" to study the current needs of the Executive family 
and to make recommendations regarding the future use of the Mansion. The commis- 



Historical Miscellanea 33 



sion was composed of seven members, two appointed by Lieutenant Governor Pat 
Taylor — Mr. John Church and Mr. J. J. Harrington — from the membership of the Sen- 
ate, two appointed by Speaker of the House Phil Godwin — Mr. Kenneth Royall and 
Mr. Dwight Quinn — from the membership of the House, and three appointed by Gov- 
ernor Bob Scott — Mr. Wayne Corpening, Mrs. Gladys Bullard, and Mr. Charles Brad- 
shaw. An advisory committee was also authorized to aid the Residence Commission on 
technical aspects. 

The work of the Commission covered nearly two years of study, including periodic 
meetings as well as visits to other states to view Mansions and residences "which they 
deemed most appropriate in design and suited to the needs of the Governor of North 
Carolina." Following these visits, and after hearing presentations from six architectural 
firms, recommendations were made to the Capital Building Authority, and the firm of 
Dodge and Beckwith was commissioned to draw up the plans and to make cost esti- 
mates for a new Executive Residence. The plans were accepted on October 5, 1972 and 
the cost estimate given to the governor and Advisory Budget Commission on October 
30, for inclusion in the 1973-1975 budget proposals to the general assembly. 

Included in the report made to the 1973 General Assembly was an Addendum con- 
taining suggestions, made at the request of the commission, from Mr. Carroll Mann, 
then State Property Officer, regarding the renovation of the Mansion and the cost of 
such an undertaking. Also included in the Addendum were suggestions by the commis- 
sion members for "modernizing and restoring the Executive Mansion," if it was kept as 
the Executive Residence. As a result of the Study Commission's report, the 1973 Gener- 
al Assembly appropriated $575,000 for renovation and alterations of the Executive 
Mansion. Work began during the summer, 1973, and was completed in late 1974. The 
plans for the constructing of a new executive mansion have been dropped. 

Since these initial renovations in 1973 and 1974, additional renovation and moderni- 
zation work has been done to the Mansion to improve its energy efficiency and live- 
ability. 



34 



North Carolina Manual 




Historical Miscellanea 35 



THE STATE FLAG 

The flag is an emblem of antiquity and has commanded respect and reverence from 
practically all nations from the earliest times. History traces it to divine origin, the early 
peoples of the earth attributing to it strange, mysterious, and supernatural powers. In- 
deed, our first recorded references to the standard and the banner, of which our present 
flag is but a modified form, are from sacred rather than from secular sources. We are 
told that it was around the banner that the prophets of old rallied their armies and 
under which the hosts of Israel were led to war, believing, as they did, that it carried 
with it divine favor and protection. 

Since that time all nations and all peoples have had their flags and emblems, though 
the ancient superstition regarding their divine merits and supernatural powers has dis- 
appeared from among civilized peoples. The flag now, the world over, posseses the same 
meaning and has a uniform significance to all nations wherever found. It stands as the 
symbol of strength and unity, representing the national spirit and patriotism of the peo- 
ple over whom it floats. In both lord and subject, the ruler and the ruled, it commands 
respect, inspires patriotism, and instills loyalty both in peace and war. 

In this country we have a national flag which stands as the emblem of our strength 
and unity as a nation, a living representation of our national spirit and honor. In addi- 
tion to our national flag, each of the states in the Union has a "state flag" symbolic of 
its own individuality and domestic ideals, which is expressive of some particular trait, or 
commemorative of some historical event, of the people over whom it floats. The flags of 
most of the states, however, consist of the coat of arms of that state upon a suitably 
colored field. It is said that the first state flag of North Carolina was built on this model, 
but so far as we can learn from the records the first legislation on this subject of estab- 
lishing and recognizing a "state fiag" was in the year 1861. 

The constitutional convention of 1861, which passed the ordinance of secession, 
adopted what is termed a state flag. On May 20, 1861, the day the secession resolution 
was adopted. Col. John D. Whitford, a member of the convention from Craven County, 
introduced the following ordinance, which was referred to a select committee of seven. 

Be it ordained. That the flag of this State shall be blue field with a white V thereon, 
and a star, incircling which shall be the words ''Surgii astrum. May 20th, 1775." 

Colonel Whitford was made chairman of the committee to which this ordinance was 
referred. The committee secured the aid and advice of William Jarl Browne, an artist of 
Raleigh. Browne prepared and submitted a model to this committee. And this model 
was adopted by the convention of June 22, 1861. It will be observed that the Browne 
model, to be hereafter explained, was vastly different from the one originally proposed 
by Colonel Whitford. Here is the ordinance as it appears in the ordinance and resolu- 
tions passed by the convention: 



AN ORDINANCE IN RELATION TO A STATE FLAG 

Be it ordained by this Convention, and it is hereby ordained by the authority oj the same. 
That the Flag of North Carolina shall consist of a red field with a white star in the cen- 
tre, and with the inscription, above the star, in a semi-circular form, of "May 20th, 
1775," and below the star, in a semicircular form, of "May 20th, 1861." That there shall 
be two bars of equal width, and the length of the field shall be equal to the bar, the width 



36 North Carolina Manual 



of the field being equal to both bars: the first bar shall be blue, and second shall be 
white; and the length of the flag shall be one-third more than its width. [Ratijied the 22nd 
day of June. 1861.] 

This state flag, adopted in 1861, is said to have been issued to North Carolina regi- 
ments of state troops during the summer of that year and was borne by them through- 
out the war, being the only flag, except the national and Confederate colors, used by the 
North Carolina troops during the Civil War. This flag existed until 1885, when the Leg- 
islature adopted a new model. 

As stated above the Legislature of 1885 adopted a new state flag. The bill, which was 
introduced by General Johnstone Jones on February 5, 1885, passed its final reading 
one month later after little or no debate. This act reads as follows: 

AN ACT TO ESTABLISH A STATE FLAG 

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

SECTION 1. That the flag of North Carolina shall consist of a blue union, contain- 
ing in the centre thereof a white star with the letter N. in gilt on the left and the letter C. 
in gilt on the right of said star, the circle containing the same to be one-third the width of 
the union. 

SEC. 2. That the fly of the flag shall consist of two equally proportioned bars; the up- 
per bar to be red, the lower bar to be white; that the length of the bars horizontally shall 
be equal to the perpendicular length of the union, and the total length of the flag shall be 
one-third more than its width. 

SEC. 3. That above the star in the centre of the union there shall be a gilt scroll in 
semi-circular form, containing in black letters this inscription "May 20th, 1775," and 
that below the star there shall be a similar scroll containing in black letters the inscrip- 
tion: "April 12th, 1776." 

SEC. 4. That this act shall take effect from and after its ratification. 
In the General Asembly read three times and ratified this 9th day of March, A.D. 1885. 

Perhaps, it may be of interest to make a passing reference to the significance of the 
dates found on each flag. The first date, "May 20th, 1775," refers to the Mecklenburg 
Declaration of Independence, the authenticity of which we shall not here stop either to 
doubt or to defend. The second date appearing on the state flag of 1861 is that of "May 
20th, 1861." This date commemorated the secession of the State from the Union; but as 
the cause of secession was defeated this date no longer represented anything after the 
Civil War. So when a new flag was adopted in 1885, this date was removed, and an- 
other, "April 12th, 1776," took its place. This date commemorates the Halifax 
Resolves— a document that places the Old North State in the very front rank, both in 
point of time and in spirit, among those that demanded unconditional freedom and ab- 
solute independence from any foreign poer. This document stands out as one of the 
great landmarks in the annals of North Carolina history. 

Since 1885 there has been no change in our state flag. For the most part, it has re- 
mained unknown and a stranger to the good people of our State. However, as we be- 
came more intelligent, and therefore, more patriotic and public spirited, the emblem of 
the Old North State assumed a station of greater prominence among our people. One 
hopeful sign of this increased interest was the act passed by the Legislature of 1907, re- 
quiring the state flag to be floated from all state institutions, public buildings, and 
courthouses. In addition to this, many public and private schools, fraternal orders, and 



Historical Miscellanea 37 



other organizations now float the state flag. The people of the State should become 
acquainted with the emblem of that government to which they owe allegiance and from 
which they secure protection. 

AN ACT TO PROMOTE LOYALTY AND GREATER RESPECT 
FOR THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE STATE 

The General A ssembly of North Carolina do enact: 

SECTION 1. That for the purpose of promoting greater loyalty and respect to the 
state and inasmuch as a special act of the Legislature has adopted an emblem of our gov- 
ernment known as the North Carolina State flag, that it is meet and proper that it shall 
be given greater prominence. 

SEC. 2. That the board of trustees or managers of the several state insitutions and 
public buildings shall provide a North Carolina flag, of such dimensions and materials 
as they may deem best, and the same shall be displayed from a staff upon the top of each 
and every such building at all times except during inclement weather, and upon the 
death of any state officer or any prominent citizen the flag shall be put at half-mast until 
the burial of such person shall have taken place. 

SEC. 3. That the Board of County Commissioners of the several counties in this state 
shall likewise authorize the procuring of a North Carolina flag, to be displayed either on 
a staff upon the top, or draped behind the judge's stand, in each and every courthouse in 
the state, and that the state flag shall be displayed at each and every term of court held, 
and on such other public occasions as the Commissioners may deem proper. 

SEC. 4. That no state flag shall be allowed in or over any building here mentioned 
that does not conform to section five thousand three hundred and twenty-one of the 
Revisal of one thousand nine hundred and five. 

SEC. 5. That this act shall be in force from and after its ratification. 

In the General Assembly read three times, and ratified this the 9th day of March, 
A.D. 1907. 

The "first flag of 1861 had the date "May 20, 1861" as well as that of May 20, 1775. 
The date of May 20, 1861 represented the date North Carolina seceded from the union; 
however, since the secession cause no longer existed after 1865, the date "April 12, 
1776" was substituted in 1885. This date is known to most North Carolinians as the 
date of the Halifax Resolves, a document which was one of the first calls by the colonies 
for unconditional independence from Great Britain. The latter date, May 20, 1775, is 
the date of the alledged signing of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence. His- 
torians have for many years debated the authenticity of the document since no original 
document exists. The only documentation is a reproduction from memory many years 
later by one of the delegates attending the convention. The main argument of historians 
against the authenticity of the document — other than its non-existence in original docu- 
mentation — is that the Mecklenburg Resolves adopted just eleven days after the al- 
ledged adoption of the Declaration are comparatively weak in tone, almost to the point 
of complete opposites. It is difficult for historians to believe that the irreconcilable tone 
of the Declaration could have been the work of the same people who produced the re- 
solves. Efforts have been made to have the date taken off both the flag and the seal, but 
as yet, these have proved fruitless. Removal from the seal would be simple enough, for 
the date of the Halifax Resolves could be substituted easily without changing the basic 
intention of the date. The flag is another matter, for there is no other date of signifi- 
cance which could be easily substituted. 



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North Carolina Manual 



THE MECKLENBURG DECLARATION OF 20TH MAY, 1775* 

OFFICERS 

Abraham Alexander, Chairman 
John McKnitt Alexander, Clerk 



Col. Thomas Polk 
Ephriam Brevard 
Hezekiah J. Balch 
John Phifer 
James Harris 
William Kennon 
John Ford 
Richard Barry 
Henry Downs 



DELEGATES 

Ezra Alexander 
William Graham 
John Quary 
Abraham Alexander 
John McKnitt Alexander 
Hezekiah Alexander 
Adam Alexander 
Charles Alexander 
Zacheus Wilson, Sen. 



Waightsill Avery 
Benjamin Patton 
Mathew McClure 
Neil Morrison 
Robert Irwin 
John Flenniken 
David Reese 
Richard Harris, Sen. 



The following resolutions were presented: 

1. Resolved. That whosoever directly or indirectly abetted or in any way form or 
manner contenanced the unchartered and dangerous invasion of our rights as claimed 
by Great Britain is an enemy to this country, to America, and to the inherent and in- 
alienable rights of man. 

2. Resolved. That we the citizens of Mecklenburg County, do hereby dissolve the 
political bonds which have connected us to the mother country and hereby absolve our- 
selves from all allegiance to the British Crown and abjure all political connections con- 
tract or association with that nation who have wantonly trampled on our rights and lib- 
erties and inhumanly shed the blood of American patriots at Lexington. 

3. Resolved. That we do hereby declare ourselves a free and independent people, are, 
and of right ought to be a sovereign and self-governing association under the control of 
no power other than that of our God and the General Government of the Congress to 
the maintenance of which independence we solemnly pledge to each other our mutual 
cooperation, our lives, our fortunes, and our most sacred honor. 

4. Resolved, That as we now acknowledge the existence and control of no law or legal 
officer, civil or military within this County, we do hereby ordain and adopt as a rule of 
life all, each and every of our former laws — wherein nevertheless the Crown of Great 
Britain never can be considered as holding rights, privileges, immunities, or authority 
therein. 

5. Resolved, That it is further decreed that all, each and every Military Officer in this 
County is hereby reinstated in his former command and authority, he acting conform- 
ably to these regulations. And that every member present of this delegation shall hence- 
forth be a civil officer, viz., a justice of the peace, in the character of a "committee man" 
to issue process, hear and determine all matters of controversy according to said adopt- 
ed laws and to preserve peace, union and harmony in said county, and to use every exer- 
tion to spread the love of Country and fire of freedom throughout America, until a 
more general and organized government be established in this Province. 



*This document is found in Vol. IX, pages 1263-65 of the Colonial Records of North Carolina: however, the 
authenticity of the declaration has become a source of controversy among historians. The controversy arises be- 
cause the text of the Resolves was recalled from memory by the clerk some twenty years after the Mecklenburg 
meeting. The original notes had been lost in a fire. 



Historical Miscellanea 39 



THE HALIFAX RESOLUTION* 

"The Select Committee taking into Consideration the usurpations and violences at- 
tempted and committed by the King and Parliament of Britain against America, and the 
further Measures to be taken for frustrating the same, and for the better defence of this 
province reported as follows, to wit, 

"It appears to your Committee that pursuant to the Plan concerted by the British 
Ministry for subjugating America, the King and Parliament of Great Britain have 
usurped a Power over the Persons and Properties of the People unlimited and uncon- 
trouled; and disregarding their humble Petitions for Peace, Liberty and safety, have 
made divers Legislative Acts, denouncing War Famine and every Species of Calamity 
against the Continent in General. That British Fleets and Armies have been and still are 
daily employed in destroying the People and committing the most horrid devastations 
on the Country. That Governors in different Colonies have declared Protection to 
Slaves who should imbrue their Hands in the Blood of their Masters. That the Ships be- 
longing to America are declared prizes of War and many of them have been violently 
seized and confiscated in consequence of which multitudes of the people have been de- 
stroyed or from easy Circumstances reduced to the most Lamentable distress. 

"And whereas the moderation hitherto manifested by the United Colonies and their 
sincere desire to be reconciled to the mother Country on Constitutional Principles, have 
procured no mitigation of the aforesaid Wrongs and usurpations and no hopes remain 
of obtaining redress by those Means alone which have been hitherto tried. Your Com- 
mittee are of Opinion that the house should enter into the following Resolve, to wit 

"Resolved that the delegates for this Colony in the Continental Congress be im- 
powered to concur with the delegates of the other Colonies in declaring Independency, 
and forming foreign Alliances, resolving to this Colony the Sole, and Exclusive right of 
forming a Constitution and Laws for this Colony, and of appointing delegates from 
time to time (under the direction of a general Representation thereof) to meet the dele- 
gates of the other Colonies for such purposes as shall be hereafter pointed out." 



♦The Halifax Resolves were unanimously adopted on April 12, 1776 by the 83 delegates present at the Fourth 
Provincial Congress assembled in Halifax. This was the first official action calling for independence taken by a 
state. It is important not only for this reason, but also because it was not a unilateral recommendation, but rather 
one directed to all the colonies and their delegates assembled at the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. Vir- 
ginia followed soon after and on July 4 the final draft of the Declaration of Independence was signed. 



40 North Carolina Manual 

THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 

(Unanimously Adopted in Congress, July 4, 1776, at Philadelphia) 

When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve 
the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the 
powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of 
Nature's God entitles them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that 
they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. 

We hold these truths to be self-evident: That all men are created equal; that they are 
endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable Rights; that among these are Life, 
Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That, to secure these rights. Governments are in- 
stituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; That, 
whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of 
the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its founda- 
tions on such principles, and organizing its powers in such forms, as to them shall seem 
most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that 
Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; 
and, accordingly, all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, 
while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they 
are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably 
the same Object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their 
right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for 
their future security. Such has been the patient sufference of these Colonies, and such is 
now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. 
The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and 
usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over 
these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world. 

He has refused his assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public 
good. 

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, 
unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and, when so sus- 
pended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them. 

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, 
unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature— a 
right inestimable to them, and formidable to tyrants only. 

He has called together legislative bodies at placed unusual, uncomfortable and dis- 
tant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them 
into compliance with his measures. 

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firm- 
ness his invasions on the rights of the people. 

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; 
whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People 
at large for their exercise; the State remaining, in the meantime, exposed to all the dan- 
gers of invasion from without, and convulsions within. 

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States for that purpose ob- 
structing the Laws of Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage 



Historical Miscellanea 41 



their migration hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands. 

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his assent to laws for es- 
tabhshing Judiciary Powers. 

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and 
the amount and payment of their salaries. 

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to har- 
ass our people, and eat out their substance. 

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of 
Our Legislature. 

He has affected to render the Military independent of, and superior to, the Civil 
power. 

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitu- 
tion, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Leg- 
islation. For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: 

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they 
should commit on the inhabitants of these States: 

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world: 

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: 

For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by jury: 

For transporting us beyond Seas, to be tried for pretended offenses; 

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighboring Province, estab- 
lishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries, so as to render it 
at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these 
Colonies: 

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fun- 
damentally, the Forms of our Governments: 

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power 
to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. 

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging 
War against us. 

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the 
lives of our people. 

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign mercenaries to complete the 
works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty 
and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the 
Head of a civilized nation. 

He has constrained our fellow-Citizens, taken captive on the high Seas, to bear Arms 
against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to 
fall themselves by their Hands. 

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on 
the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of war- 
fare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions. 

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most hum- 
ble terms; Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, 
whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be 
the ruler of a free people. 



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North Carolina Manual 



Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have warned them 
from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdic- 
tion over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settle- 
ment here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have con- 
jured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpation, which in- 
evitably interrupt our connections with correspondence. They, too, have been deaf to 
the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, 
which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind — 
Enemies in War, in Peace Friends. 

We, Therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in General 
Congress Assembled; appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of 
our intentions, do, in the Name and by authority of the good People of these Colonies, 
solemnly publish and declare. That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be 
free and independent States; that they are Absolved from All Allegiance to the British 
Crown, and that all political connections between them and the State of Great Britain 
is, and ought to be, totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they 
have full power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, 
and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for 
the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Provi- 
dence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred 
Honor. 



Button Gwinnett 

Lyman Hall 

Geo[rge] Walton 

W[illia]m Hooper 

Joseph Hewes 

John Penn 

Tho[ma]s Stone 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton 

James Wilson 

Geo[rge] Ross 

Caesar Rodney 

Geo[rge] Reed 

Tho. M. Kean 

W[illia]m Floyd 

Phil[lip] Livingston 

Fran[cijs Lewis 

Lewis Morris 

Rich[ar]d Stockton 

J[onatha]n Witherspoon 

Fras. Hopkinson 

John Hart 

Abra Clark 

George Wythe 

Richard Henry Lee 

Th[omas] Jefferson 

Benja[min] Harrison 

Tho[ma]s Nelson, Jr. 

Francis Lightfoot Lee 



John Hancock 

Edward Rutiedge 
Thomas Heyward, Junr. 
Thomas Lynch, Junr. 
Arthur Middleton 
Samuel Chase 
W[illia] Paca 
Carter Braxton 
Rob[er]t Morris 
Benjamin Rush 
Benja[min] Franklin 
John Morton 
Geo[rge] Clymer 
Ja[me]s Smith 
Geo[rge] Taylor 
Josiah Bartlett 
W[illia]m Hippie 
Sam[ue]l Adams 
John Adams 
Rob[er]t Treat Payne 
Eldridge Gerry 
Step[hen] Hopkins 
William Eliery 
Roger Sherman 
Samuel Huntington 
W[illia]m Williams 
Oliver Woolcott 
Matthew Thornton 



Historical Miscellanea 43 

THE AMERICAN FLAG 
Its Origin 

In 1775, the Philadelphia Troop of Light Horse carried a standard with thirteen alter- 
nate blue and silver stripes in the upper left-hand corner. At Cambridge on January 2, 
1776, Washington without authorization of the Continental Congress raised a flag con- 
sisting of thirteen alternate white and red stripes with the crosses of St. George and St. 
Andrew in the blue field on the upper left-hand corner. It was called the "Union Flag," 
"Grand Union Flag," and the "Continental Flag," and was employed until displaced 
by the Stars and Stripes adopted by the Continental Congress. 

The beautiful tradition that Betsy Ross, as early as June 1776, made a Stars and 
Stripes flag from a pencil sketch supplied by Washington but changed the points of the 
stars from six to five, has become a classic. Historians doubt its accuracy. Haifa dozen 
localities claim to have been the place where the Stars and Stripes was first used. Within 
New York State such contention has been for Fort Ann on July 8, Fort Stanwix on 
August 3, Bennington on August 13, and Saratoga on September 19, 1777. The flag with 
thirteen stripes and thirteen stars, authorized on June 14, 1777, continued to be used as 
the national emblem until Congress passed the following act, which President Washing- 
ton signed: 

"That from and after May 1, 1795, the flag of the United States be fifteen stripes, al- 
ternate red and white; and that the union be fifteen stars, white in a blue field." 

This action was necessitated by the admission of the States of Vermont and Kentucky 
to the Union. 

The flag of 1795 had the stars arranged in three rows of five each instead of in a circle, 
and served for 23 years. 

With the admission of more new states, however, it became apparent that the 1795 
would have to be further modified; hence in 1818 a law was passed by Congress pro- 
viding: 

"That from and after the fourth day of July next, the flag of the United States be thir- 
teen horizontal stripes, alternate red and white; that the union have twenty stars, white 
in a blue field. 

"That on the admission of every new state into the Union, one star be added to the 
union of the flag; and that such addition shall take effect on the Fourth of July next suc- 
ceeding such admission." 

Since 1818 additional stars have been added until today they are 50 on the fiag. No 
law has been passed to designate how the stars shall be arranged. At one time they 
formed a design of a larger star. Now they form five rows of six stars each and four rows 
of five stars each. 

Betsy Ross, it is now said, lived at 233 Arch Street, Philadelphia, and not at 239. She 
made fiags, but says Theodore D. Gottlieb, she never made the first Stars and Stripes. 
He adds: 

The Department of State, the War and Navy departments, the Historical Sites Com- 
mission of Philadelphia and other official bodies repudiate the legend. The book and 
pamphlet material available is overwhelmingly against the legend. 

The story arose for the first time on March 14, 1870, when William J. Canby read a 
paper before the Pennsylvania Historical Society in which he states that in 1836, when 
his grandmother, Betsy Ross, was 84 years old and he was 1 1, she told him the story. He 
apparently thought little of it because nothing was done until 1857, when at the sugges- 



44 



North Carolina Manual 




Historical Miscellanea 45 



tion of his Aunt Clarissa, oldest daughter of Betsy, he wrote out the notes as he remem- 
bered the conversation. 

Nothing further was done until 1870 when he wrote his paper. The Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania thought so little of the paper it neither catalogued nor kept a copy of it. 
Even George Canby, younger brother of William, disputed several points in the paper. 

The legend grew to strength from 1888 to 1893 when promotors secured an option on 
the so-called Flag House. 

Modern historical researchers are giving much thought to Francis Hopkinson of New 
Jersey as the possible designer and the Fillmore or Bennington flag as the first flag. 



The Proper Display 

SEC. 1. That the following codification of existing rules and customs pertaining to 
the display and use of the flag of the United States of America be, and is hereby, estab- 
lished for the use of such civilians or civilian groups or organizations as may not be re- 
quired to conform with regulations promulgated by one or more executive departments 
of the Government of the United States. The flag of the United States for the purpose of 
this chapter shall be defined according to title 4, United States Code, Chapter 1, section 
1 and section 2 and Executive Order 10834 issued pursuant thereto. 

SEC. 2(a) It is the universal custom to display the flag only from sunrise to sunset on 
buildings and on stationary flagstaffs in the open. However, when a patriotic effect is 
desired, the flag may be displayed twenty-four hours a day if properly illuminated dur- 
ing the hours of darkness. 

(b) The flag should be hoisted briskly and lowered ceremoniously. 

(c) The flag should not be displayed on days when the weather is inclement, 
except when an all weather flag is displayed. 

(d) The flag should be displayed on all days, especially on New Year's Day, 
January 1; Inauguration Day, January 20; Lincoln's Birthday, February 12; Washing- 
ton's Birthday, third Monday in February; Easter Sunday (variable); Mother's Day, 
second Sunday in May; Armed Forces Day, third Saturday in May; Memorial Day 
(half-staff until noon), the last Monday in May; Flag Day, June 14; Independence Day, 
July 4; Labor Day, first Monday in September; Constitution Day, September 17; Col- 
umbus Day, second Monday in October; Navy Day, October 27; Veterans Day, No- 
vember 1 1; Thanksgiving Day, fourth Thursday in November; Christmas Day, Decem- 
ber 25; and such other days as may be proclaimed by the President of the United States: 
The birthdays of States (date of admission); and on State holidays. 

(e) The fiag should be displayed daily on or near the main administration 
building of every public institution. 

(f) The flag should be displayed in or near every polling place on election 
days. 

(g) The flag should be displayed during school days in or near every school- 
house. 



'Public Law 94-344 (94th Congress, S.J. Resolution 49, July 7, 1976.) 



46 North Carolina Manual 



SEC. 3 That the flag, when carried in a procession with another flag or flags, should 
be either on the marching right; that is, the flag's own right, or, if there is a line of other 
flags, in front of the center of that line. 

(a) The flag should not be displayed on a float in a parade except from a staff, 
or as provided in subsection (i). 

(b) The flag should not be draped over the hood, top, sides, or back of a vehi- 
cle or of a railroad train or a boat. When the flag is displayed on a motor car, the staff 
should be fixed firmly to the chassis or clamped to the right fender. 

(c) No other flag or pennant should be placed above or, if on the same level, 
to the right of the flag of the United States of America, except during church services 
conducted by naval chaplains at sea, when the church pennant may be flown above the 
fiag during church services for the personnel of the Navy. 

(d) The flag of the United States of America, when it is displayed with an- 
other flag against a wall from crossed staffs, should be on the right, and its staff should 
be in front of the staff of the other flag. 

(e) The fiag of the United States of America should be at the center and at the 
highest point of the group when a number of flags of States or localities or pennants of 
societies are grouped and displayed from staffs. 

(f) When flags of states, cities, or localities, or pennants of societies are fiown 
on the same halyard with the flag of the United States, the latter should always be at the 
peak. When the flags are flown from adjacent staffs, the flag of the United States should 
be hoisted first and lowered last. No such flag or pennant may be placed above the flag 
of the United States or to the United States Flag's right. 

(g) When flags of two or more nations are displayed, they are to be flown 
from separate staffs of the same height. The flags should be of approximately equal size. 
International usage forbids the display of the flag of one nation above that of another 
nation in time of peace. 

(h) When the flag of the United States is displayed from a staff projecting 
horizontally or at an angle from the window sill, balcony, or front of a building, the 
union of the flag should be placed at the peak of the staff unless the flag is at half staff. 
When the flag is suspended over a sidewalk from a rope extending from a house to a 
pole at the edge of the sidewalk, the flag should be hoisted out, union first, from the 
building. 

(i) When displayed either horizontally or vertically against a wall, the union 
should be uppermost and to the flag's own right, that is, to the observer's left. When dis- 
played in a window, the flag should be displayed in the same way, with the union or blue 
field to the left of the observer in the street. 

(j) When the flag is displayed over tha middle of the street, it should be sus- 
pended vertically with the union to the north in an east and west street or to the east in a 
north and south street. 

(k) When used on a speaker's platform, the flag, if displayed flat should be 
displayed above and behind the speaker. When displayed from a staff in a church or 
public auditorium, the flag of the United States of America should hold the position of 
superior prominence, in advance of the audience, and in the position of honor at the 
clergyman's or speaker's right as he faces the audience. Any other flag so displayed 
should be placed on the left of the clergyman or speaker or to the right of the audience. 



Historical Miscellanea 47 



(1) The flag should form a distinctive feature of the ceremony of unveiling a 
statue or monument, but it should never be used as the covering for the statue or monu- 
ment. 

(m) The flag, when flown at half-staff, should be first hoisted to the peak for 
an instant and then lowered to the half-staff position. The flag should be again raised to 
the peak before it is lowered for the day. On Memorial Day the flag should be displayed 
at half-staff until noon only, then raised to the top of the staff. By order of the Presi- 
dent, the flag shall be flown at half-staff upon the death of principal figures of the 
United States Government and the Governor of a State, territory, or possession, as a 
mark of respect to their memory. In the event of the death of other officials or foreign 
dignitaries, the flag is to be displayed at half-staff according to Presidential instructions 
or orders, or in accordance with recognized customs or practices not inconsistent with 
law. In the event of the death of a present or former official of the government of any 
State, territory, or possession of the United States, the Governor of that State, territory, 
or possession may proclaim that the National flag shall be flown at half-staff. The flag 
shall be flown at half-staff thirty days from the death of the President or a former Presi- 
dent; ten days from the day of death of the Vice president, the Chief Justice or a retired 
Chief Justice of the United States, or the Speaker of the House of Representatives; from 
the day of death until interment of an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, a Secre- 
tary of an executive or military department, a former Vice President, or the Governor of 
a State, territory, or possession; and on the day of death and the following day for a 
Member of Congress. As used in this subsection — 

(1) the term 'half-staff means the position of the flag when it is one-half 
the distance between the top and bottom of the staff; 

(2) the term 'executive or military department' means any agency listed 
under sections 101 and 102 of title 5, United States Code; and 

(3) the term 'Member of Congress' means a Senator, a Representative, a 
Delegate, or the Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico. 

(n) When the flag is used to cover a casket, it should be so placed that the 
union is at the head and over the left shoulder. The flag should not be lowered into the 
grave or allowed to touch the ground. 

(o) When the flag is suspended across a corridor or lobby in a building with 
only one main entrance, it should be suspended vertically with the union of the flag to 
the observer's left upon entering. If the building has more than one main entrance, the 
flag should be suspended vertically near the center of the corridor or lobby with the 
union to the north, when entrances are to the east and west or to the east when en- 
trances are to the north and south. If there are entrances in more than two directions, 
the union should be to the east. 

SEC. 4 That no disrespect should be shown to the flag of the United States of Ameri- 
ca; the flag should not be dipped to any person or thing. Regimental colors. State flags, 
and organization or institutional flags are to be dipped as a mark of honor. 

(a) The flag should never be displayed with the union down, except as a signal 
of dire distress in instances of extreme danger to life or property. 

(b) The flag should never touch anything beneath it, such as the ground, the 
floor, water, or merchandise. 



48 North Carolina Manual 



(c) The flag should never be carried flat or horizontally, but always aloft and 
free. 

(d) The flag should never be used as wearing apparel, bedding, or drapery. It 
should never be festooned, drawn back, nor up, in folds, but always allowed to fall free. 
Bunting of blue, white, and red, always arranged with the blue above, the white in the 
middle, and red below, should be used for covering a speaker's desk, draping the front 
of the platform, and for decoration in general. 

(e) The flag should 'never be fastened, displayed, used, or stored in such a 
manner as to permit it to be easily torn, soiled, or damaged in any way. 

(f) The flag should never be used as a covering for a ceiling. 

(g) The flag should never have placed upon it, nor on any part of it, nor at- 
tached to it any mark, insignia, letter, word, figure, design, picture, or drawing of any 
nature. 

(h) The flag should never be used as a receptacle for receiving, holding, carry- 
ing or delivering anything. 

(i) The flag should never be used for advertising purposes in any manner 
whatsoever. It should not be embroidered on such articles as cushions or handkerchiefs 
and the like, printed or otherwise impressed on paper napkins or boxes or anything that 
is designed for temporary use and discard. Advertising signs should not be fastened to a 
staff or halyard from which the flag is flown. 

(j) No part of the flag should ever be used as a costume or athletic uniform. 
However, a flag patch may be affixed to the uniform of military personnel, firemen, 
policemen, and members of patriotic organizations. The flag represents a living country 
and is itself considered a living thing. Therefore, the lapel flag pin being a replica, 
should be worn on the left lapel near the heart. 

(k) The flag, when it is in such condition that it is no longer a fitting emblem 
for display, should be destroyed in a dignified way, preferably by burning. 

SEC. 5 During the ceremony of hoisting or lowering the flag or when the flag is pass- 
ing in a parade or in review, all persons present except those in uniform should face the 
flag and stand at attention with the right hand over the heart. Those present in uniform 
should render the military salute. When not in uniform, men should remove their head- 
dress with their right hand and hold it at the left shoulder, the hand being over the heart. 
Aliens should stand at attention. The salute to the flag in a moving column should be 
rendered at the moment the flag passes. 

SEC. 6 During rendition of the national anthem when the flag is displayed, all pres- 
ent except those in uniform should stand at attention facing the flag with the right hand 
over the heart. Men not in uniform should remove their headdress with their right hand 
and hold it at the left shoulder, the hand being over the heart. Persons in uniform 
should render the military salute at the first note of the anthem and retain this position 
until the last note. When the flag is not displayed, those present should face toward the 
music and act in the same manner they would if the flag were displayed there. 

SEC. 7 The Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag, T pledge allegiance to the Flag of the 
United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands, one Nation under 
God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all', should be rendered by standing at at- 
tention facing the flag with the right hand over the heart. When not in uniform men 
should remove their headdress with their right hand and hold it at the left shoulder, the 



Historical Miscellanea 49 



hand being over the heart. Persons in uniform should remain silent, face the flag and 
render the military salute. 

SEC. 8 Any rule or custom pertaining to the display of the flag of the United States 
of America, set forth herein, may be altered, modified, or repealed, or additional rules 
with respect thereto may be prescribed, by the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed 
Forces of the United States, whenever he deems it to be appropriate or desirable; and 
any such alteration or additional rule shall be set forth in a proclamation. 

The Pledge 

"I pledge allegiance to the flag 

of the United States of America, 

And to the Republic for which it stands. 

One Nation under God, indivisible, 

With liberty and justice for all." 

The Pledge to the Flag, according to a report of the Historical Committee of the 
United States Flag Association (May 18, 1939), was written by Francis Bellamy (August 
1892), a member of the editorial staff of The Youth's Companion, in Boston, Massachu- 
setts. It was first repeated at the exercises in connection with the celebration of Colum- 
bus Day (October 12, 1892, Old Style). The idea of this national celebration on Colum- 
bus Day was largely that of James B. Upham, one of the junior proprietors of The 
Youth's Companion. 

Francis Hopkinson, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, was the designer of 
the Stars and Stripes — not Betsy Ross of Philadelphia, who made flags. He also de- 
signed the first Great Seal of the United States, a number of coins and several items of 
paper currency in the early days of the Republic. 

Hopkinson, born in Philadelphia (September 21, 1737), and a graduate of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, was the first native American composer of a secular song, "My 
Days Have Been So Wondrous Free." He was a lawyer and later a judge in New Jersey 
and then in Pennsylvania. He died in Philadelphia (May 9, 1791). His portrait, painted 
by himself, hangs in the rooms of the Pennsylvania Historical Society, Philadelphia. He 
played the organ and harpsichord. 



Historical Miscellanea 51 



THE STATE BIRD 

By popular choice the Cardinal was selected for adoption as our State Bird as of 
March 4, 1943. {Session Laws, 1943 c. 595; G. S. 145-2.) 

This bird is sometimes called the Winter Redbird because it is most conspicuous in 
winter and is the only "redbird" present at that season. It is an all year round resident 
and one of the commonest birds in our gardens and thickets. It is about the size of a 
Catbird with a longer tail, red all over, except that the throat and region around the bill 
is black; the head is conspicuously crested and the large stout bill is red; the female is 
much duller^the red being mostly confined to the crest, wings and tail. There are no 
seasonal changes in the plumage. 

The Cardinal is a fine singer, and what is unusual among birds the female is said to 
sing as well as the male, which latter sex usually has a monopoly of that art in the 
feathered throngs. 

The nest is rather an untidy affiar built of weed stems, grass and similar materials in a 
low shrub, small tree or bunch of briars, usually not over four feet above the ground. 
The usual number of eggs to a set is three in this State, usually four further North. Pos- 
sibly the Cardinal raises an extra brood down here to make up the difference, or pos- 
sibly he can keep up his normal population more easily here through not having to face 
inclement winters of the colder North. A conspicuous bird faces more hazards. 

The Cardinal is by nature a seed eater, but he does not dislike small fruits and insects. 

THE STATE FLOWER 

The General Assembly of 1941 designated the dogwood as the State flower. {Public 
Laws, 1941, c. 289; G.S. 145-1.) 

The Dogwood is one of the most prevalent trees in our State and can be found in all 
parts of the State from the mountains to the coast. Its blossoms which appear in early 
spring and continue on into summer, are most often found in white, although shades of 
pink are not uncommon. 

THE STATE INSECT 

The General Assembly of 1973 designated the Honey Bee as the official State Insect. 
{Session Laws, 1973, c. 55) 

This industrious creature is responsible for the production of more than $2 million 
worth of honey in the state each year. However, its greatest value results from the pol- 
lination of North Carolina crops which is estimated to be worth nearly $50 million an- 
nually. 



Historical Miscellanea 53 



THE STATE TREE 



The pine was officially designated as the State tree by the General Assembly of 1963. 
{Session Laws, 1963, c. 41). 

This choice was not unexpected as the pine is the most common of the trees found in 
North Carolina, as well as the most important one in the history of our State. During 
the Colonial and early Statehood periods, the pine was a vital part of the economy of 
North Carolina. From it came many of the "naval stores"— resin, turpentine, and tim- 
ber — which was needed by merchants and the navy for their ships. It has continued to 
provide North Carolina with a supply of products. 



THE STATE MAMMAL 

The General Assembly of 1969 designated the Gray Squirrel as the official State 
Mammal. {Session Laws, 1969 c. 1207; G. S. 145-5.) 

The gray squirrel is a common inhabitant of most areas of North Carolina from "the 
swamps of eastern North Carolina to the upland hardwood forests of the piedmont and 
western counties." He feels more at home in an "untouched wilderness" environment, 
although a large portion of their population inhabit our city parks and suburbs. During 
the fall and winter months the gray squirrel survives on a diet of hardwoods, with 
acorns providing carbohydrates and other nuts protein. In the spring and summer their 
diet consists of "new growth and fruits" supplemented by early corn, peanuts and in- 
sects. 

NAME OF STATE AND NICKNAMES 

In 1629 King Charles the First of England "erected into a province," all the land 
from Albemarle Sound on the north to the St. John's River on the south, which he di- 
rected should be called Carolina. The word Carolina is from the word Carolus, the 
Latin form of Charles. 

When Carolina was divided in 1710, the southern part was called South Carolina and 
the northern or older settlement was called North Carolina, or the "Old North State." 
Historians had recorded the fact that the principal products of this State were "tar, 
pitch and turpentine." It was during one of the fiercest battles of the War Between the 
States, so the story goes, that the column supporting the North Carolina troops was 
driven from the field. After the battle the North Carolinians, who had successfully 
fought it out alone, were greeted from the passing derelict regiment with the question: 
"Any more tar down in the Old North State, boys?" Quick as a fiash came the answer: 
"No; not a bit; old Jeffs bought it all up." "Is that so; what is he going to do with it?" 
was asked. "He is going to put it on you-uns heels to make you stick better in the next 
fight." Creecy relates that General Lee, hearing of the incident, said: "God bless the Tar 
Heel boys," and from that they took the name.( — Adapted from Grandjather Tales oj 
North Carolina by R. B. Creecy and Histories of North Carolina Regiments, Vol. Ill, by 
Walter Clark). 



Historical Miscellanea 55 



THE STATE SHELL 

The General Assembly of 1965 designated the Scotch Bonnet (pronounced bonay) as 
the State Shell. {Session Laws, 1965, c. 681.) 

A colorful and beautifully shaped shell, the Scotch Bonnet is abundant in North 
Carolina coastal waters between 500 and 200 feet deep. The best source of live speci- 
mens is from offshore commercial fisherman. 



THE STATE SALT WATER FISH 

The General Assembly of 1971 designated the Channel Bass (Red Drum) as the offi- 
cial State Salt Water Fish. {Session Laws, 1971, c. 274; G. S. 145-6) 

Channel Bass usually occur in great supply along the Tar Heel coastal waters and 
have been found to weigh up to 75 pounds although most large ones average between 30 
and 40 pounds. 



THE STATE MOTTO 

The General Assembly of 1893 (chapter 145) adopted the words "Esse Quam Videri" 
as the State's motto and directed that these words with the date "20 May, 1775," should 
be placed with our Coat of Arms upon the Great Seal of the State. 

The words "Esse Quam Videri" mean "to be rather than to seem." Nearly every State 
has adopted a motto, generally in Latin. The reason for their mottoes being in Latin is 
that the Latin tongue is far more condensed and terse than the English. The three 
words, "Esse Quam Videri," require at least six English words to express the same idea. 

Curiosity has been aroused to learn the origin of our State motto. It is found in 
Cicero in his essay on Friendship (Cicero de Amnicitia, Chap. 26) 

It is a little singular that until the act of 1893 the soverign State of North Carolina had 
no motto since its declaration of independence. It was one of the very few states which 
did not have a motto and the only one of the original thirteen without one. (Rev., s 
5320; 1893, c. 145; G. S. 144-2.) 

THE STATE COLORS 

The General Assembly of 1945 declared Red and Blue of shades appearing in the 
North Carolina State Flag and the American Flag as the official State Colors. {Session 
Laws, 1945, c. 878.) 



56 



North Carolina Manual 




THE STATE PRECIOUS STONE 

The General Assembly of 1973 designated the emerald as the official State precious 
stone. {Session Laws, 1973, c. 136.) 

A greater variety of minerals, more than 300, have been found in North Carolina 
than any other state. 

These include some of the most valuable and unique gems in the world. The largest 
Emerald in North Carolina is a 1,438-carat specimen found at Hiddenite, near States- 
ville. Also, the "Carolina Emerald," now owned by Tiffany & Company of New York 
was found at Hiddenite in 1970. When cut to 13.14 carats, the stone was valued at 
$100,000 and became the largest and finest cut emerald on this continent. 



Historical Miscellanea 




THE STATE REPTILE 

The General Assembly of 1979 designated the turtle— specifically the Eastern Box 
Turtle— as the official State Reptile for the State of North Carolina. {Session Laws, 
1979, c. 154) 

The turtle is one of nature's most useful creatures. Through its dietary habits it serves 
to assist in the control of harmful and pestiferous insects and as a clean-up crew, helping 
to preserve the purity and beauty of our waters. At a superficial glance, the turtle ap- 
pears to be a mundane and uninteresting creature; however, closer examination reveals 
that it to be a most fascinating creature, ranging from species well adapted to modern 
conditions to species which have existed virtually unchanged since prehistoric times. 
Derided by many, the turtle is really a cullinary delight, providing the gourmet food 
enthusiast with numerous tasty dishes from soups to entries. 

The turtle watches undisturbed as countless generations of faster "hares" run by to 
quick oblivion, and is thus a model of patience for mankind, and a symbol of our State's 
unrelenting pursuit of great and lofty goals. 



58 



North Carolina Manual 




THE STATE ROCK 

The General Assembly of 1979 designated Granite as the official Rock for the State 
of North Carolina. {Session Laws, 1979, C. 906) 

The State of North Carolina has been blessed with an abundant source of "the noble 
rock" granite. Just outside Mount Airy in Surry County is the largest open face granite 
quarry in the world measuring one mile long and 1,800 feet in width. The granite from 
this quarry is unblemished, gleaming and without interfering seams to mar its splendor 
and the high quality of this granite allows its widespread use as a building material, in 
both industrial applications and in laboratory applications where super smooth surfaces 
are a prerequisite. 

North Carolina granite has been used for many magnificent edifices of government 
throughout the United States such as the Wright Brothers Memorial at Kitty Hawk, the 
gold depository at Fort Knox, the Arlington Memorial Bridge and numerous court- 
houses throughout the land. Granite is a symbol of strength and steadfastness, qualities 
characteristic of North Carolinians. It is fitting and just that the State of North Caro- 
lina recognize the contribution of granite in providing employment to its citizens and 
enhancing the beauty of its public buildings. 



Historical Miscellanea 



59 



THE STATE SONG 

The song known as 'The Old North State" was adopted as the official song of the 
State of North Carolina by the General Assembly of 1927. (Public Laws, 1927, c. 26; G. 
S. 149-1). 



THE OLD NORTH STATE 



(Traditional air as tung in 1926) 



Wnjjui GiaroH 

With spirit 



COLLICCTED Ain> IMIROID 
BT MBS. E. B. RlKOOLn 




ff=r 



^^Ei 



E^ 



4: 



i 






^?=:zS 



1. Car - • li - na! Car - o 

2. Tho' she en - vies not 

3. Then let all those who 



li • nal heav-en's bless-in^s at - tend her, 
oth - ers, their mer - it - ed glo - ry. 
love us, love the land that we hve in. 



I^I 



-• r^ 



^»-i> 4 i .s^ 



i.»v T- 



^^^^ 



:^^==t 



a==s=*^r^* 



:t:^rt:zn: 



:S::=r 



i:=t 






r— i^^^j 






While we live we will chcr - ish, pro • tect and de- fend her, Tho' the 
Say whose name stands the fore - most, in lib • er - ty's sto - ry, Tho' too 

As hao ■ py a re gion as on this side of heaven, Where 







■0T-M- 



:sr--. 



scorn - er -nay sneer at and wit - lings de - fame her, Stil! our hearts swell with 
true to her - self e er io crouch to op -pres-sion. Who can yield to just 
plen - ty and peace, love and joy smile be - fore us. Raise a.loud, rais; to- 








cP5 



t -^ 



npzt^ 



f 



Chordb 



il 



3; 



glad - ness when ev • er we name her. 

rule • more loy -a! sub-mis-sion. Hur • rahl 

geth - er the heart thrill - ing chorus. 



Hur - rahl 



the 



:3?^ 



3E^ 



^^ 



fc:?=t: 




! I J. , -^=^ 

-* » *-*—'-• r- 



t 1 T W" 



rit. 



Old North State for -ev 






■st- 



er, Hur - rah! 

r«S> — 



Q -i -J—- 



^pSJ 



Hur - rahl the goi.->d Old North State. 

Si 



^ 



-V— 



60 North Carolina Manual 



THE STATE TOAST* 

Officially adopted as the toast of North CaroUna by the General Assembly of 1957. 
{Session Laws, 1957, c. 777.) 

Here's to the land of the long leaf pine, 

The summer land where the sun doth shine. 

Where the weak grow strong and the strong grow great. 

Here's to "Down Home," the Old North State! 

Here's to the land of the cotton bloom white, 
Where the scuppernong perfumes the breeze at night. 
Where the soft southern moss and jessamine mate, 
'Neath the murmuring pines of the Old North State! 

Here's to the land where the galax grows, 
Where the rhododendron's rosette glows. 
Where soars Mount Mitchell's summit great. 
In the "Land of the Sky," in the Old North State! 

Here's to the land where maidens are fair. 
Where friends are true and cold hearts rare. 
The near land, the dear land whatever fate. 
The blest land, the best land, the Old North State! 



* Composed in 1904 by Leonora Martin and Mary Burke Kerr. 



Historical Miscellanea 61 



Dates of Public Holidays 

(a) The following are declared to be legal public holidays: 

(1) New Year's Day, January 1. 

(2) Robert E. Lee's Birthday, January 19. 

(3) Washington's Birthday, the third Monday in February. 
(3a) Greek Independence Day, March 25. 

(4) Anniversary of signing of Halifax Resolves, April 12. 

(5) Confederate Memorial Day, May 10. 

(6) Anniversary of Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, May 20. 

(7) Memorial Day, the last Monday in May. 

(8) Easter Monday. 

(9) Independence Day, July 4. 

(10) Labor Day, the first Monday in September. 

(11) Columbus Day, the second Monday in October. 
(11a) Yom Kippur. 

(12) Veterans Day, November 11. 

(13) Tuesday after the first Monday in November in years in which a general elec- 
tion is to be held. 

(14) Thanksgiving Day, the fourth Thursday in November. 

(15) Christmas Day, December 25. 

Provided that Easter Monday and Memorial Day, the last Monday in May, shall be a 
holiday for all State and national banks only. 

(b) Whenever any public holiday shall fall upon Sunday, the Monday following shall 
be a public holiday. (1881, c. 294; Code, s. 3784; 1891, c. 58; 1899, c. 410; 1901, c. 25; 
Rev., s. 2838; 1907, c. 996; 1909, c. 888; 1919, c. 287; C.S., s. 2959; 1935, c. 212; 1959, c. 
1011; 1969, c. 521; 1973, c. 53; 1979, c. 84; 1981, c. 135.) 



PART II 

CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT 

OF NORTH CAROLINA 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina 65 

Chapter One 

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE 
CONSTITUTIONS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



by 
John L. Sanders* 

North Carolina has had three Constitutions in her history as a State: the Constitution 
of 1776, the Constitution of 1868, and the Constitution of 1971. 

Constitution of 1776 

Drafted and promulgated by the Fifth Provincial Congress in December, 1776, with- 
out submission to the people, the Constitution of 1776 and its separate but accompany- 
ing Declaration of Rights sketched the main outlines of the new state government and 
secured the rights of the citizen from governmental interference. While the principle of 
separation of powers was explicitly affirmed and the familiar three branches of govern- 
ment were provided for, the true center of power lay in the General Assembly. That 
body not only exercised full legislative power; it also chose all the state executive and ju- 
dicial officers, the former for short terms and the judges for life. 

Profound distrust of the executive power is evident throughout the document. The 
Governor was chosen by the legislature for a one-year term and was eligible for only 
three terms in six years. The little power granted him was hedged about in many in- 
stances by requiring for itsexercise the concurrence of a seven-member Council of State 
chosen by the legislature. 

Judicial offices were established, but the court system itself was left to legislative de- 
sign. No system of local government was prescribed by the Constitution, although the 
offices of justice of the peace, sheriff, coroner, and constable were created. 

The system of legislative representation was based on units of local government. The 
voters of each county elected one Senator and two members of the House of Commons, 
while six (later seven) towns each elected one member of the House. It was distinctly a 
property owner's government, for only landowners could vote for Senators until 1857, 
and progressive property qualifications were required of members of the House, Sena- 
tors, and the Governor until 1868. Legislators were the only state officers who were 
elected by the people until 1836. 

Dissatisfaction with the legislative representation system, which gave no direct recog- 
nition to population, resulted in the Convention of 1835. Extensive constitutional 
amendments adopted by that Convention were ratified by vote of the people, 26,771 to 
21,606, on November 9, 1835. The Amendments of 1835 fixed the membership of the 
Senate and House at their present levels, 50 and 120. The House apportionment formu- 

*John L. Sanders is Director of the Institute of Government at The University of North Carolina at Chapel 
Hill. (The editor has made some changes to bring portions of the text up to date.) 



66 North Carolina Manual 



la then devised gave one seat to each county and distributed the remainder of the 
seats — nearly half of them at that time — according to a mathematical formula favoring 
the more populous counties. From 1836 until 1868. Senators were elected from districts 
laid out according to the amount of taxes paid to the State from the respective counties, 
thus effecting senatorial representation in proportion to property values. 

The Amendments of 1835 also made the Governor popularly elective for a two-year 
term, greatly strengthening that office; relaxed the religious qualifications for office 
holding; abolished free Negro suffrage; equalized the capitation tax on slaves and free 
white males; prohibited the General Assembly from granting divorces, legitimating per- 
sons, or changing personal names by private act; specified procedures for the impeach- 
ment of state officers and the removal of judges for disability; made legislative sessions 
biennial instead of annual; and provided methods of amending the Constitution. Fol- 
lowing the precedent established in amending the United States Constitution, the 1835 
amendments were appended to the Constitution of 1776, not incorporated in it as is the 
modern practice. 

The Convention of 1861-62, called by act of the General Assembly, took the State out 
of the Union and into the Confederacy and adopted a dozen constitutional amend- 
ments. These were promulgated by the Convention without the necessity of voter ap- 
proval, a procedure that was permitted by the Constitution until 1971. 

The Convention of 1 865-66, called by the Provisional Governor on orders of the Pres- 
ident, nullified secession and abolished slavery, with voter approval, in 1865. It also 
drafted a revised Consitution in 1866. That document was largely a restatement of the 
Constitution of 1776 and the 1835 amendments, plus several new features. It was reject- 
ed by a vote of 21,770 to 19,880 on August 2, 1866. 

Constitution of 1868 

The Convention of 1868, called upon the initiative of Congress but with a popular 
vote of approval, wrote a new Constitution which the people ratified in April of 1868 by 
a vote of 93,086 to 74,016. Drafted and put through the Convention by a combination 
of native Republicans and a few Carpetbaggers, the Constitution was highly unpopular 
with the more conservative elements of the State. For its time it was a progressive and 
democratic instrument of government. In this respect it differed markedly from the pro- 
posed Constitution of 1866. The Constitution of 1868 was an amalgam of provisions 
copied or adapted from the Declaration of Rights of 1 776, the Constitution of 1 776 and 
its amendments, the proposed Constitution of 1866, and the constitutions of other 
states, together with some new and original provisions. Although often amended, a ma- 
jority of the provisions of that document remained intact until 1971, and the Constitu- 
tion of 1971 brought forward much of the 1868 language with little or no change. 

The Constitution of 1868 incorporated the 1776 Declaration of Rights into the Con- 
stitution as Article I and added several important guarantees. To the people was given 
the power to elect all significant state executive officers, all judges, and all county offi- 
cials, as well as legislators. All property qualifications for voting and office holding were 
abolished. The plan of representation in the Senate was changed from a property to a 
popular basis, and the 1835 House apportionment plan was retained. Annual legislative 
sessions were restored. 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina 67 



The executive branch of government was strengthened by popular election for four- 
year terms of office and the Governor's powers were increased significantly. 

A simple and uniform court system was established with the jurisdiction of each court 
fixed in the Constitution. The distinctions between actions at law and suits in equity 
were abolished. 

For the first time, detailed constitutional provision was made for a system of taxa- 
tion, and the powers of the General Assembly to levy taxes and to borrow money were 
limited. Homestead and personal property exemptions were granted. Free public 
schools were called for and the maintenance of penal and charitable institutions by the 
State was commanded. A uniform scheme of county and township government was pre- 
scribed. 

The declared objective of the Conservative Party (under whose banner the older na- 
tive political leaders grouped themselves) was to repeal the Constitution of 1868 at the 
earliest opportunity. When the Conservative Party gained control of the General As- 
sembly in 1870, a proposal to call a convention of the people to revise the constitution 
was submitted by the General Assembly to the voters and rejected in 1871 by a vote of 
95,252 to 86,007. 

The General Assembly thereupon resorted to the legislative initiative for amending 
the Constitution. That procedure then called for legislative approval of each proposed 
amendment at two successive sessions, followed by a vote of the people on the amend- 
ment. The 1871-72 legislative session adopted an act calling for about three dozen 
amendments to the Constitution which had the general purpose of restoring to the Gen- 
eral Assembly the bulk of the power over local government, the courts, and the public 
schools and the University that had been taken from it by the Constitution of 1868. The 
1 872-73 session of the General Assembly approved for the second time and submitted to 
the people only eight of those amendments, all of which were approved by the voters in 
1873 by wide margins. These amendments restored biennial sessions of the General As- 
sembly, transferred control of the University of North Carolina from the State Board of 
Education to the General Assembly, abolished various new state offices, altered the 
double office-holding prohibition, and repealed the prohibition against repudiation of 
the state debt. 

In 1875, the General Assembly called a convention of the people to consider constitu- 
tional revision. No confirmation of that action by popular referendum was had, and 
none was then constitutionally required. The Convention of 1 875 (the most recent in the 
State's history) sat for five weeks in the fall of that year. It was a limited convention, cer- 
tain actions — for example, the reinstatement of property qualifications for office- 
holding or voting — being forbidden to it. 

The Convention of 1875 adopted and the voters on November 7, 1876, approved by a 
vote of 120,159 to 106,554 a set of 30 amendments affecting 36 sections of the Constitu- 
tion. These amendments (which took effect on January 1, 1877) prohibited secret politi- 
cal societies, moved the legislative convening date from November of even numbered 
years to January of odd-numbered years, fixed in the Constitution for the first time the 
rate of legislative compensation, called for legislaUon establishing a State Department 
of Agriculture, abandoned the simplicity and uniformity of the 1868 court system by 
giving the General Assembly power to determine the jurisdiction of all courts below the 
Supreme Court and to establish such courts inferior to the Supreme Court as it might 



68 North Carouna Manual 



see fit, reduced the Supreme Court from five to three members, required Superior Court 
judges to rotate among all judicial districts of the State, disqualified for voting persons 
guilty of certain crimes, established a one-year residency requirement for voting, re- 
quired non-discriminatory racial segregation in the public schools, gave the General As- 
sembly full power to revise or abolish the form and powers of county and township gov- 
ernments, and simplified the procedure for constitutional amendment by providing that 
the General Assembly might by act adopted by three-fifths of each house at one legisla- 
tive session submit an amendment to the voters of the State (thus eliminating the former 
requirement of enactment by two successive sessions of the General Assembly). The 
principal effect of the amendments of 1873 and 1875 was to restore in considerable 
measure the former power of the General Assembly, particularly as to the courts and 
local government. 

The amendments framed by the Convention of 1875 seem to have satisfied most of 
the need for constitutional change for a generation, for only four amendments were sub- 
mitted by the General Assembly to the voters throughout the remainder of the nine- 
teenth century. Three of them were ratified; one failed. 

In 1900 the suffrage article was revised to add the literacy test and poll tax require- 
ment for voting (the latter provision was repealed in 1920). A slate often amendments 
prepared by a constitutional commission and proposed by the General Assembly in 
1913 was rejected by the voters in 1914. With the passage of time and amendments, the 
attitude towards the Constitution of 1868 had changed from resentment to a reverence 
so great that until the second third of the twentieth century, amendments were very dif- 
ficult to obtain. Between 1900 and 1933, the voters ratified 15 and rejected 20 amend- 
ments. During the first third of this century, nevertheless, amendments were adopted 
lengthening the school term from four to six months, prohibiting legislative charters to 
private corporations, authorizing special Superior Court judges, further limiting the 
General Assembly's powers to levy taxes and incur debt, and abolishing the poll tax re- 
quirement for voting and reducing the residence qualification for voters. Amendments 
designed to restrict the legislature's power to enact local, private, and special legislation 
were made partly ineffective by judicial interpretation. 

A significant effort at general revision of the Constitution was made in 1931-33. A 
Constitutional Commission created by the General Assembly of 1931 drafted and the 
General Assembly of 1933 approved a revised Constitution. Blocked by a technicality 
raised in an advisory opinion of the State Supreme Court, the proposed Constitution of 
1933 never reached the voters for approval. It would have granted the Governor the 
veto power; given to a Judicial Council composed of all the judges of the Supreme and 
Superior Courts power to make all rules of practice and procedure in the courts inferior 
to the Supreme Court; required the creation of inferior courts by general laws only; re- 
moved most of the limitations on the taxing powers of the General Assembly; required 
the General Assembly to provide for the organization and powers of local governments 
by general law only; established an appointive State Board of Education with general 
supervision over the public school system; and set forth an enlightened policy of state 
responsibility for the maintenance of educational, charitable, and reformatory institu- 
tions and programs. 

Several provisions of the proposed Constitution of 1933 were later incorporated into 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina 69 



the Constitution by individual amendments, and to a limited extent it served as a model 
for the work of the 1957-59 Constitutional Commission. 

Between the mid-1930's and the late 1950's, greater receptiveness to constitutional 
change resulted in amendments authorizing the classification of property for taxation; 
strengthening the limitations upon public debt; authorizing the General Assembly to 
enlarge the Supreme Court, divide the State into judicial divisions, increase the number 
of Superior Court judges, and create a Department of Justice under the Attorney Gen- 
eral; enlarging the Council of State by three members; creating a new, appointive State 
Board of Education with general supervision of the schools; permitting women to serve 
as jurors; transferring the Governor's power to assign judges to the Chief Justice and his 
parole power to a Board of Paroles; permitting the waiver of indictment in non-capital 
cases; raising the compensation of the General Assembly and authorizing legislative ex- 
pense allowances; increasing the general purpose property tax levy limitation and the 
maximum income tax rate, and authorizing the closing of public schools on a local op- 
tion basis and the payment of educational expense grants in certain cases. 

The increased legislative and public willingness to accept constitutional change be- 
tween 1934 and 1960 resulted in 32 constitutional amendments being ratified by the 
voters while only six were rejected. 

At the request of Governor Luther H. Hodges, the General Assembly of 1957 author- 
ized the Governor to appoint a fifteen-member Constitutional Commission to study the 
need for changes in the Constitution and to make recommendations to the Governor 
and the 1959 General Assembly. 

That Commission recommended rewriting the whole Constitution and submitting it 
to the voters for approval or disapproval as a unit, the changes suggested being too nu- 
merous to be effected by individual amendments. The proposed Constitution drafted by 
the Commission represented in large part a careful job of editorial pruning, rearrange- 
ment, clarification, and modernization, but it also included several significant substan- 
tive changes. The Senate would have been increased from 50 to 60 members and the ini- 
tiative (but not the sole authority) for decennial redistricting of the Senate would have 
been shifted from the General Assembly to an ex-officio committee of three legislative 
officers. Decennial reapportionment of the House of Representatives would have been 
made a duty of the Speaker of the House, rather than of the General Assembly as a 
whole. Problems of succession to constitutional State executive offices and of determi- 
nation of issues of officers' disability would have been either resolved in the Constitu- 
tion or their resolution assigned to the General Assembly. The authority to classify 
property for taxation and to exempt property from taxation would have been required 
to be exercised only by the General Assembly and only on a uniform, statewide basis. 
The requirement that the public schools constitute a "general and uniform system" 
would have been eliminated, and the constitutional authority of the State Board of Edu- 
cation reduced. Fairly extensive changes were recommended in the judicial article of the 
Constitution, including the establishment of a General Court of Justice with an Appel- 
late Division, a Superior Court Division, and a Local Trial Court Divsion. A uniform 
system of District Courts and Trial Commissioners would have replaced the existing 
multitude of inferior courts and justices of the peace, the creation of an intermediate 
Court of Appeals would have been provided for, and uniformity of jurisdiction of the 



70 North Carolina Manual 



courts within each division would have been required. Otherwise, the General Assembly 
would have retained essentially its then-existing power over the courts, their jurisdic- 
tion, and their procedures. 

The General Assembly of 1959 also had before it a recommendation for a constitu- 
tional amendment with respect to the court system that had originated with a Court 
Study Committee of the North Carolina Bar Association. In general, the recommenda- 
tions of that Committee called for more fundamental changes in the courts than those 
of the Constitutional Commission. The principal difference between the two sets of rec- 
ommendations lay in the extent of the proposed authority of the General Assembly over 
the courts. The Constitutional Commission generally favored legislative authority over 
the courts and proposed only moderate curtailment of it; the Court Study Committee 
accepted more literally the concept of an independent judiciary and its proposals would 
have minimized the authority of the General Assembly over the courts of the State, 
though structurally, its system would have been much like that of the Constitutional 
Commission. 

The proposed Constitution received extended attention from the General Assembly 
of 1959. The Senate modified and passed the bill to submit the proposed Constitution to 
the voters, but it failed to pass the House, due chiefly to the inability of the supporters 
of the two divergent approaches to court revision to reach agreement. 

As had been true of the proposed Constitution of 1933, the proposed Constitution of 
1959, though not adopted as a whole, subsequently provided the material for several 
amendment proposals that were submitted individually to the voters and approved by 
them during the next decade. 

In the General Assembly of 1961, the proponents of court reform were successful in 
obtaining enactment of a constitutional amendment, approved by the voters in 1962, 
creating a unified and uniform General Court of Justice for the State. Other amend- 
ments submitted by the same session and approved by the voters provided for the auto- 
matic decennial reapportionament of the State House of Representatives, clarified the 
provisions for succession to elective State executive offices and disability determination, 
authorized a reduction in the residence period for voters for President, allowed in- 
creases in the compensation of elected state executive officers during their terms, and re- 
quired that the power of the General Assembly to classify and exempt property for taxa- 
tion be exercised by it alone and only on a uniform, statewide basis. 

The session of 1963 submitted two amendments: One to enlarge the rights of married 
women to deal with their own property was approved by the voters; one to enlarge the 
Senate from fifty to seventy members and allocate one Representative to each county 
was rejected by the voters. The General Assembly of 1965 submitted and the voters ap- 
proved an amendment authorizing the legislative creation of a Court of Appeals. 

The 1967 General Assembly proposed and the voters approved amendments author- 
izing the General Assembly to fix its own compensation and revising the legislative ap- 
portionment scheme to conform to thejudicially-established requirement of representa- 
tion in proportion to population in both houses. 

Constitution of 1971 

From 1869 through 1968, there were submitted to the voters of North Carolina a to- 
tal of 97 propositions for amending the Constitution of the State. All but one of these 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina 71 



proposals originated in the General Assembly. Of those 97 amendment proposals, 69 
were ratified by the voters and 28 were rejected by them. The changing attitude of the 
voters toward constitutional amendments is well illustrated by the fact that from 1869 
to 1933, 21 of the 48 amendment propositions were rejected by the voters, a failure rate 
of three out of seven. Between 1933 and 1968, only seven of 49 proposed amendments 
were rejected by the voters, a failure rate of one out of seven. 

After the amendments of the early 1960's, the pressure for constitutional change 
seemed at the time to have abated. Yet while an increasingly frequently used amend- 
ment process had relieved many of the pressures that otherwise would have strength- 
ened the case for constitutional reform, it had not kept the Constitution current in all 
respects. Constitutional amendments usually were drafted in response to particular 
problems experienced or anticipated and generally they were limited in scope so as to 
achieve the essential goal, while arousing minimum unnecessary opposition. Thus 
amendments sometimes were not as comprehensive as they should have been to avoid 
inconsistency in result. Obsolete and invalid provisions had been allowed to remain in 
the Constitution to mislead the unwary reader. Moreover, in the absence of a compre- 
hensive reappraisal, there had been no recent occasion to reconsider constitutional pro- 
visions that might be obsolescent but might not have proved so frustrating or unpopular 
in their effect as to provoke curative amendments. 

It was perhaps for these reasons that when Governor Dan K. Moore recommended 
to the North Carolina State Bar in the fall of 1967 that it take the lead in making a study 
of the need for revision of the State Constitution, the response was prompt and affirm- 
ative. The North Carolina State Bar and the North Carolina Bar Association joined to 
create the North Carolina State Constitution Study Commission as a joint agency of the 
two organizations. The 25 members of that commission (fifteen attorneys and ten lay- 
men) were chosen by a steering committee representative of the sponsoring organiza- 
tions. The Chairman of the Commission was former state Chief Justice Emery B. 
Denny. 

The State Constitution Study Commission worked throughout most of 1968. It be- 
came clear early in the course of its proceedings that the amendments the Commission 
wished to propose were too numerous to be submitted to the voters as independent 
propositions. On the other hand, the Commission did not wish to embody all of its pro- 
posed changes in a single document, to be approved or disapproved by the voters on a 
single vote. The compromise procedure developed by the Commission and approved by 
the General Assembly was a blend of the two approaches. The Commission combined 
in a revised text of the Constitution all of the extensive editorial changes that it thought 
should be made in the Constitution, together with such substantive changes as the Com- 
mission deemed not to be controversial or fundamental in nature. These were embodied 
in the document that came to be known as the Constitution of I97I. Those proposals 
for change that were deemed to be sufficiently fundamental or potentially controversial 
in character as to justify it, the Commission set out as independent amendment proposi- 
tions, to be considered by the General Assembly and by the voters of the State on their 
independent merits. Thus the opposition to the latter proposals would not be cumu- 
lated. The separate proposals framed by the Commission were ten in number, including 
one extensive revision of the finance article of the Constitution which was largely the 
work of the Local Government Study Commission, a legislatively-established group 



72 North Carolina Manual 



then at work on the revision of constitutional and statutory provisions with respect to 
local government. The amendments were so drafted that any number or combination of 
them might be ratified by the voters and yet produce a consistent result. 

The General Assembly of 1969, to which the recommendations of the State Constitu- 
tion Study Commission were submitted, received a total of 28 proposals for constitu- 
tional amendments. Constitutional revision was an active subject of interest throughout 
the session. The proposed Constitution of 1971, in the course of seven roll-call votes 
(four in the House and three in the Senate), received only one negative vote. The inde- 
pendent amendments fared variously; ultimately six were approved by the General As- 
sembly and submitted to the voters. These were the executive reorganization amend- 
ment, the finance amendment, an amendment to the income tax provision of the Consti- 
tution, a reassignment of the benefits of the escheats, authorization for calling extra leg- 
islative sessions on the petition of members of the General Assembly, and abolition of 
the literacy test for voting. All but the last two of these amendments had been recom- 
mended by the State Constitution Study Commission. At the election held on Novem- 
ber 3, 1970, the proposed Constitution of 1971 was approved by a vote of 393,759 to 
251,132. Five of the six separate amendments were approved by the voters; the literacy 
test repeal was rejected. 

The Constitution of 1971 took effect under its own terms on July 1, 1971 (hence its 
designation as the "Constitution of 1971"). So did the executive reorganization amend- 
ment, the income tax amendment, the escheats amendment, and the amendment with 
respect to extra legislative sessions, all of which amended the Constitution of 1971 at the 
instant it took effect. The finance amendment, which made extensive revisions in the 
Constitution of 1971 with respect to debt and local taxation, took effect on July I, 1973. 
The two-year delay in its effective date was occasioned by the necessity to conform state 
statutes with respect to local government finance to the terms of the agreement. 

The Constitution of 1971, the State Constitution Study Commission stated in its re- 
port recommending its adoption, 

effects a general editorial revision of the constitution .... The deletions, reorganizations, and im- 
provements in the clarity and consistency of language will be found in the proposed constitution. Some 
of the changes are substantive, but none is calculated to impair any present right of the individual citi- 
zen or to bring about any fundamental change in the power of slate and local government or the dis- 
tribution of that power. 

In the new Constitution, the old fourteen-article organization of the Constitution was 
retained, but the contents of several articles — notably Articles I, II, III, V, IX, and X — 
were rearranged in more logical sequence. Sections were shifted from one article to an- 
other to make a more logical subject-matter arrangement. Clearly obsolete and consti- 
tutionally invalid matter was omitted, as were provisions essentially legislative in char- 
acter. Uniformity of expression was sought where uniformity of meaning was impor- 
tant. Directness and currency of language were also sought, together with standardiza- 
tion in spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and other essentially editorial matters. 
Greater brevity of the Constitution as a whole was a by-product of the revision, though 
not itself a primary objective. 

The Declaration of Rights (Article I), which dates from 1776 with some 1868 addi- 
tions, was retained with a few additions. The organization of the article was improved 
and the frequently used subjunctive mood was replaced by the imperative in order to 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina 73 



make clear that the provisions of that article are commands and not mere admonitions. 
(For example, "All elections ought to be free" became "All elections shall be free.") To 
the article were added a guarantee of freedom of speech, a guarantee of equal protection 
of the laws, and a prohibition against exclusion from jury service or other discrimina- 
tion by the State on the basis of race or religion. Since all of the rights newly expressed 
in the Constitution of 1971 were already guaranteed by the United States Constitution, 
their inclusion simply constituted an explicit recognition by the State of their impor- 
tance. 

In the course of reorganizing and abbreviating Article III (the Executive), the Gover- 
nor's role as chief executive was brought into clear focus. The scattered statements of 
the Governor's duties were collected in one section, to which was added a brief state- 
ment of his budget powers, formerly merely statutory in origin. No change was made in 
the Governor's eligibility or term, or in the list of state executives previously elected by 
the people. To the Council of State (formerly seven elected executives with the Gover- 
nor as presiding officer) were added the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, and Attorney 
General as ex-officio members. 

Having been entirely rewritten in 1962, the judicial article (Article IV) was the subject 
of little editorial alteration and of no substantive change. 

The editorial amendments to Article V, dealing with finance and taxation, were ex- 
tensive. Provisions concerning finance were transferred to it from four other articles. 
The former finance provisions were expanded in some instances to make clearer the 
meaning of excessively condensed provisions. The only substantive change of note gave 
a wife who is the primary wage-earner in her family the same constitutionally guaran- 
teed income tax exemption now granted a husband who is the chief wage-earner; she al- 
ready had that benefit under statute. 

The revision of Article VI (voting and elections) added out-of-state and federal fel- 
onies to felonies committed against the State of North Carolina as grounds for denial of 
voting and office-holding rights in this State. The General Assembly was directed to en- 
act general laws governing voter registration. 

The provision that has been interpreted to mean that only voters can hold office was 
modified to limit its application to popularly elective offices only; thus it is left to the 
legislature to determine whether one must be a voter in order to hold an appointive of- 
fice. 

The Constitution of 1971 prohibits the concurrent holding of two or more elective 
state offices or of a federal office and an elective state office. It expressly prohibits the 
concurrent holding of any two or more appointive offices or places of trust or profit, or 
of any combination of elective and appointive offices or places of trust or profit, except 
as the General Assembly may allow by general law. 

The power to provide for local government remains in the legislature, confining the 
constitutional provisions on the subject to a general description of the General Assem- 
bly's plenary authority over local government, a declaration that any unit formed by the 
merger of a city and a county should be deemed both a city and a county for constitu- 
tional purposes, and a section retaining the sheriff as an elective county officer. 

The education article (Article IX) was rearranged to improve upon the former hodge- 
podge treatment of public schools and higher education, obsolete provisions (especially 



74 North Carouna Manual 



those pertaining to racial matters) were eliminated, and other changes were made to re- 
flect current practice in the administration and financing of schools. 

The constitutionally-mandated school term was extended from six months (set in 
1918) to a minimum of nine months (where it was fixed by statute many years earlier). 
The possibly restrictive age limits on tuition-free public schooling were removed. Units 
of local government to which the General Assembly assigns a share of responsibility for 
financing public education were authorized to finance from local revenues education 
programs, including both public schools and technical institutes and community col- 
leges, without a popular vote of approval. It was made mandatory (it was formerly per- 
missive) that the General Assembly require school attendance. 

The Superintendent of Public Instruction was eliminated as a voting member of the 
State Board of Education but retained as the Board's secretary. He was replaced with an 
additional at-large appointee. A potential conflict of authority between the Superin- 
tendent and the Board (both of which previously had constitutional authority to admin- 
ister the public schools) was eliminated by making the Superintendent the chief admin- 
istrative officer of the Board, which is to supervise and administer the schools. 

The provisions with respect to the state and county school funds were retained with 
only minor editorial modifications. Fines, penalties, and forfeitures continue to be ear- 
marked for the county school fund. 

The former provisions dealing with The University of North Carolina were broad- 
ened into a statement of the General Assembly's duty to maintain a system of higher 
education. 

The General Assembly was authorized by the changes made in Article X (Home- 
steads and Exempfions) to set the amounts of the personal property exemption and the 
homestead exemption (constitutionally fixed at $500 and $1,000 respectively since 1868) 
at what it considers to be reasonable levels, with the constitutional figures being treated 
as minimums. The provision protecting the rights of married women to deal with their 
own property was left untouched. The protection given life insurance taken out for the 
benefit of the wife and children of the insured was broadened. 

The provisions prescribing the permissible punishments for crime and limiting the 
crimes punishable by death (Article XI) were left essentially intact. 

The procedures for constitutional revision (Article XIII) were made more explicit. 

The five constitutional amendments ratified at the same fime as the Constitution of 
1971 deserve particular mention. 

By the end of the 1 960's, North Carolina state government consisted of over 200 state 
administrative agencies. The State Constitution Study Commission concluded on the 
advice of witnesses who had tried it that no governor could effectively oversee an ad- 
ministrative apparatus of such disjointed complexity. The Commission's solution was 
an amendment, patterned after the Model State Constitution and the constitutions of a 
few other states, requiring the General Assembly to reduce the number of administra- 
tive departments to not more than 25 by 1975, and to give the Governor authority to ef- 
fect agency reorganizations and consolidations, subject to disapproval by action of 
either house of the legislature if the changes affected existing statutes. 

The second separate constitutional amendment ratified in 1970 supplemented the ex- 
isting authority of the Governor to call extra sessions of the General Assembly with the 
advice of the Council of State. The amendment provides that on written request of 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina 75 



three-fifths of all the members of each house, the President of the Senate and the 
Speaker of the House of Representatives shall convene an extra session of the General 
Assembly. Thus the legislative branch is now able to convene itself, notwithstanding the 
contrary wishes of the Governor. 

The most significant of the separate amendments and in some ways the most impor- 
tant of the constitutional changes ratified in 1970 was the finance amendment. The 
changes it effected are especially important in the financing of local government. The 
amendment became effective on July 1, 1973. Its principal provisions are as follows: 

(1) All forms of capitation or poll tax are now prohibited. 

(2) The General Assembly is authorized to enact laws empowering counties, cities, 
and towns to establish special taxing districts less extensive in area than the entire 
county or city in order to finance the provision within those special districts of a 
higher level of governmental service than is available in the unit at large, either by 
supplementing existing services or providing services not otherwise available. 
That provision eliminates the previous necessity of creating a new, independent 
governmental unit to accomplish the same result. 

(3) For a century, the Constitution required that the levying of taxes and the borrow- 
ing of money by local government be approved by a vote of the people of the unit, 
unless the money were to be used for a "necessary expense." The court, not the 
General Assembly, was the final arbiter of what was a "necessary expense," and 
the State Supreme Court took a rather restrictive view of the embrace of that con- 
cept. The determination of what types of public expenditures should require voter 
approval and what types should be made by a governing board on its own author- 
ity was found by the General Assembly to be a legislative and not a judicial mat- 
ter. In that conviction, the finance amendment provided that the General Assem- 
bly, acting on a uniform, statewide basis, should make the final determination of 
whether voter approval must be had for the levy of property taxes or the borrow- 
ing of money to finance particular activities of local government. 

(4) To facilitate governmental and private cooperative endeavors, the state and local 
governmental units were authorized by the amendment to enter into contracts 
with and appropriate money to private entitites "for the accomplishment of pub- 
lic purposes only." 

(5) The various forms of public financial obligations were more precisely defined 
than in the previous constitution, with the general effect of requiring voter ap- 
proval only for the issuance of general obligation bonds and notes or for govern- 
mental guarantees of the debts of private persons or organizations. The General 
Assembly was directed to regulate by general law (permitting classified but not lo- 
cal acts) the contracting of debt by local governments. 

(6) The amendments retained the existing limitation that the state and local govern- 
ments may not, without voter approval, borrow more than the equivalent of two- 
thirds of the amount by which the unit's indebtedness was reduced during the last 
fiscal period, except for purposes listed in the Constitution. This list was length- 
ened to include "emergencies immediately threatening public health or safety." 

(7) No change was made in the provisions with respect to the classification and ex- 
emption of property for purposes of property taxation. The limitation of 200 on 



76 North Carolina Manual 



the $100 valuation previously imposed on the general county property tax was 
omitted. 

The fourth independent amendment also dealt with taxation. It struck out a schedule 
of specified minimum exemptions from the constitutional provision on the state income 
tax, leaving those exemptions to be fixed by the General Assembly. This change enabled 
the legislature to provide for the filing of joint tax returns by husbands and wives and to 
adopt a "piggy-back" state income tax to be computed as a percentage of the federal in- 
come tax, thus relieving the taxpayer of two sets of computations. The amendment re- 
tains the maximum tax rate at ten per cent. 

The final amendment ratified in 1970 assigns the benefits of property escheating to 
the State for want of an heir or other lawful claimant to a special fund, to be available to 
help needy North Carolina students attending public institutions of higher education in 
the State. Property escheating prior to July 1, 1971, continues to be held by The Univer- 
sity of North Carolina. 

The one amendment defeated by the voters in 1970 would have repealed the state con- 
stitutional requirement that in order to register as a voter, one must be able to read and 
write the English language. That requirement was already ineffective by virtue of federal 
legislation and therefore the failure of repeal had no practical effect. 

The General Assembly of 1971 submitted to the voters five state constitutional 
amendments, all of which were ratified by the voters on November 7, 1972. Those 
amendments set the constitutionally-specified voting age at 18 years, required the Gen- 
eral Assembly to set maximum age limits for service as justices and judges of the state 
courts, authorized the General Assembly to prescribe procedures for the censure and re- 
moval of state judges and justices, added to the Constitution a statement of policy with 
regard to the conservation and the protection of natural resources, and limited the au- 
thority of the General Assembly to incorporate cities and towns within close proximity 
to existing municipalities. 

The General Assembly at its 1973 session submitted to the voters for action in No- 
vember 1974 an amendment changing the title of the solicitor to that of district attor- 
ney. The 1974 session submitted an additional amendment authorizing the use of reve- 
nue bonds for constructing industrial facilities. The voters ratified the amendment 
changing the title of solicitor, but rejected the one on revenue bonds for industrial facili- 
ties. 

Two amendments were submitted to the people by the 1975 legislature. Both of these 
dealt with the use of revenue bonds to finance construction, the first for health care 
facilities and the second for industrial facilities — a modification of the amendment re- 
jected in 1974. Both amendments were ratified by the voters on March 23, 1976. 

The year 1977 was of profound importance in the constitutional development of 
North Carolina. A distinct departure from the traditions of the past took place with the 
ratification of Senate Bill 292. Entitled "An act to amend the constitution of North 
Carolina to empower the voters to elect the governor and lieutenant governor for two 
consecutive terms," this bill provided for the first time since 1835 that the governor 
serve for consecutive terms. The constitutional convention in 1835 amended our first 
constitution, permitting popular election of the governor for a two-year term and one 
additional consecutive term. The 1971 constitution and its predecessor, the constitution 
of 1868, prohibited the governor and lieutenant governor from serving successive four- 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina 77 



year terms of the same office. The gubernatorial succession amendment was submitted 
to the people along with four other amendments in November, 1977. All five were rati- 
fied by the people. 

Between 1977 and 1982, only one constitutional amendment was submitted to the 
people. In 1980, after The General Assembly of 1979 ratified an act proposing that the 
Constitution be changed "to require justices and judges of the General Court of Justice 
to be authorized to practice law [in the courts of this State]," the people approved the 
amendment at the general elections held November 4, 1980. In order not to disqualify 
anyone already serving in the court system, the law exempted anyone who was serving 
or who would begin serving "on or before Janaury 1, 1981." 

In 1982, five amendments were submitted to the people at the primary elections held 
June 29, 1982. One amendment created much controversy and garnered substantial op- 
position from current and past political leaders of both parties, as well as the general 
citizenry of North Carolina. This amendment called for increasing the term of office for 
legislators from two years to four years. It, along with an amendment granting "to ap- 
propriate public bodies . . . additional powers to develop new and existing seaports and 
airports . . ." and one authorizing "the issuance of revenue bonds to finance and re- 
finance higher education facilities owned by nonprofit corporafions," were rejected by 
the people — the former rather handily, the other two by narrow margins. Two amend- 
ments were ratified by the people in 1982. One permitted the temporary recall of retired 
justices or judges of the State Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals "to serve on the 
court or courts of the division from which he was retired." The other amendment 
adopted provided "for a direct appeal from the North Carolina Utilities Commission to 
the Supreme Court" of "a final order or decision of the North Carolina Utilities com- 
mission." January 1, 1983, was the effective date for both of the adopted amendments. 

Conclusion 

The people of North Carolina have treated their constitution with conservatism and 
respect. The fact that we have adopted only three constitutions in two centuries of exist- 
ence as a state is the chief evidence of that attitude. (Some states have adopted as many 
as five or ten constitutions in a like period.) The relative fewness of amendments, even 
in recent years, is another point of contrast to many states. It reflects the fact that North 
Carolina has been less disposed than have many states to write into its state constitution 
detailed provisions with respect to transitory matters better left to legislation. The Con- 
stitution has allowed the General Assembly wide latitude for decision on public affairs, 
and legislators have been willing to accept responsibility for and act on matters within 
their authority instead of passing the responsibility for difficult decisions on to the 
voters in the form of constitutional amendments. 

Constitutional draftsmen have not been so convinced of their own exclusive hold on 
wisdom or so doubtful of the reliability of later generations of legislators that they 
found it necessary to write into the Constitution the large amount of regulatory detail 
often found in state constitutions. Delegates to constitutional conventions and members 
of the General Assembly have acted consistently with the advice of the late John J. 
Parker, Chief Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit 
(1925-58), who observed: 



78 North Carolina Manual 



The purpose of a state constitution is two-fold: (1) to protect the rights of the individual from en- 
croachment by the State; and (2) to provide a framework of government for the State and its sub- 
divisions. It is not the function of a constitution to deal with temporary conditions, but to lay down 
general principles of government which must be observed amid changing conditions. It follows, then, 
that a constitution should not contain elaborate legislative provisions, but should lay down briefly and 
clearly fundamental principles upon which the government shall proceed, leaving it to the people's rep- 
resentatives to apply these principles through legislation to conditions as they arise. 



NORTH CAROLINA 

CONSTITUTIONAL PROPOSITIONS 

VOTED ON BY THE PEOPLE, 1868-1982 



Year 






of Vote 


Ratified 


Rejected 


1868 


1 





1873 


8 





1876 


1 





1880 


2 





1888 


1 





1892 





I 


1900 


I 





1914 





10 


1916 


4 





1918 


2 





1920 


2 





1922 





I 


1924 


3 


I 


1926 


I 





1928 


I 


2 


1930 





3 


1932 


1 


3 


1936 


5 





1938 


2 





1942 


2 





1944 


5 





1946 


I 


I 


1948 


1 


3 


1950 


5 





1952 


3 





1954 


4 


I 


1956 


4 





1958 





I 


1962 


6 





1964 


1 


I 


1966 


I 





1968 


2 





1970 


6 


1 


1972 


5 





1974 


I 


I 


1976 


2 





1977 


5 





1980 


1 





1982 


2 


3 


TntaU 


92 


.33 



In the above table, each issue on which the people have voted is counted as one. whether it involved only a 
single section (as was often the case), a whole article (as in the case of the 1900 suffrage amendment and the 
1962 court amendment, or a revision of the entire Constitution (as in 1868 and 1970). 



The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 79 



Chapter Two 



CONSTITUTION 

of 

NORTH CAROLINA 



PREAMBLE 

We, the people of the State of North Carolina, grateful to Almighty God, the Sover- 
eign Ruler of Nations, for the preservation of the American Union and the existence of 
our civil, political and religious liberties, and acknowledging our dependence upon Him 
for the continuance of those blessings to us and our posterity, do for the more certain 
security thereof and for the better government of this State, ordain and establish this 
Constitution. 

ARTICLE I 

Declaration of Rights 

That the great, general and essential principles of liberty and free government may be 
recognized and established and that the relations of this State to the Union and govern- 
ment of the United States and those of the people of this State to the rest of the Ameri- 
can people may be defined and affirmed, we do declare that: 

Section 1. The equality and rights of persons. We hold it to be self-evident that all per- 
sons are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable 
rights; that among these are life, liberty, the enjoyment of the fruits of their own labor, 
and the pursuit of happiness. 

Sec. 2. Severeignty of the people. All political power is vested in and derived from the 
people; all government "of right originates from the people, is founded upon their will 
only, and is instituted solely for the good of the whole. 

Sec. 3. Internal government of the State. The people of this State have the inherent, 
sole, and exclusive right of regulating the internal government and police thereof, and of 
altering or abolishing their Constitution and form of government whenever it may be 
necessary to their safety and happiness; but every such right shall be exercised in pur- 
suance of law and consistently with the Constitution of the United States. 

Sec. 4. Secession prohibited. This State shall ever remain a member of the American 
Union; the people thereof are part of the American nation; there is no right on the part 
of this State to secede; and all attempts, from whatever source or upon whatever pre- 
text, to dissolve this Union or to sever this Nation, shall be resisted with the whole 
power of the State. 



80 North Carouna Manual 



Sec. 5. Allegiance to the United States. Every citizen of this State owes paramount 
allegiance to the Constitution and government of the United States, and no law or ordi- 
nance of the State in contravention or subversion thereof can have any binding force. 

Sec. 6. Separation of powers. The legislative, executive, and supreme judicial powers 
of the State government shall be forever separate and distinct from each other. 

Sec. 7. Suspending laws. All power of suspending laws or the execution of laws by any 
authority, without the consent of the representatives of the people, is injurious to their 
rights and shall not be exercised. 

Sec. 8. Representation and taxation. The people of this State shall not be taxed or 
made subject to the payment of any impost or duty without the consent of themselves or 
their representatives in the General Assembly, freely given. 

Sec. 9. Frequent elections. For redress of grievances and for amending and strengthen- 
ing the laws, elections shall be often held. 

Sec. 10. Free elections. All elections shall be free. 

Sec. 11. Property qualifications. As political rights and privileges are not dependent 
upon or modified by property, no property qualification shall affect the right to vote or 
hold office. 

Sec. 12. Rights of assembly and petition. The people have a right to assemble together 
to consult for their common good, to instruct their representatives, and to apply to the 
General Assembly for redress of grievances; but secret political societies are dangerous 
to the liberties of a free people and shall not be tolerated. 

Sec. 13. Religious liberty. All persons have a natural and inalienable right to worship 
Almighty God according to the desires of their own consciences, and no human author- 
ity shall, in any case whatever control or interfere with the rights of conscience. 

Sec. 14. Freedom of speech and press. Freedom of speech and of the press are two of 
the great bulwarks of liberty and therefore shall never be restrained, but every person 
shall be held responsible for their abuse. 

Sec. 15. Education. The people have a right to the privilege of education, and it is the 
duty of the State to guard and maintain that right. 

Sec. 16. Ex post facto laws. Retrospective laws, punishing acts committed before the 
existence of such laws and by them only declared criminal, are oppressive, unjust, and 
incompatible with liberty, and therefore no ex post facto law shall be enacted. No law 
taxing retrospectively sales, purchases, or other acts previously done shall be enacted. 

Sec. 17. Slavery and involuntary servitude. Slavery is forever prohibited. Involuntary 
servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the parties have been adjudged 
guilty, is forever prohibited. 

Sec. 18. Courts shall be open. All courts shall be open; every person for an injury done 
him in his lands, goods, or reputation shall have remedy by due course of law; and right 
and justice shall be administered without favor, denial, or delay. 

Sec. 19. Law of the land; equal protection of the laws. No person shall be taken, impris- 
oned, or disseized of his freehold, liberties, or privileges, or outlawed, or exiled, or in 



The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 81 



any manner deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by the law of the land. No per- 
son shall be denied the equal protection of the laws; nor shall any person be subjected to 
discrimination by the State because of race, color, religion, or national origin. 

Sec. 20. General warrants. General warrants, whereby any officer or other person may 
be commanded to search suspected places without evidence of the act committed, or to 
seize any person or persons not named, whose offense is not particularly described and 
supported by evidence, are dangerous to liberty and shall not be granted. 

Sec. 21. Inquiry into restraints on liberty. Every person restrained of his liberty is en- 
titled to a remedy to inquire into the lawfulness thereof, and to remove the restraint if 
unlawful, and that remedy shall not be denied or delayed. The privilege of the writ of 
habeas corpus shall not be suspended. 

Sec. 22. Modes of prosecution. Except in misdemeanor cases initiated in the District 
Court Division, no person shall be put to answer any criminal charge but by indictment, 
presentment, or impeachment. But any person, when represented by counsel, may, un- 
der such regulations as the General Assembly shall prescribe, waive indictment in non- 
capital cases. 

Sec. 23. Rights of accused. In all criminal prosecutions, every person charged with 
crime has the right to be informed of the accusation and to confront the accusers and 
witness with other testimony, and to have counsel for defense, and not be compelled to 
give self-incriminating evidence, or to pay costs, jail fees, or necessary witness fees of the 
defense, unless found guilty. 

Sec. 24. Right of jury trial in criminal cases. No person shall be convicted of any crime 
but by the unanimous verdict of a jury in open court. The General Assembly may, how- 
ever, provide for other means of trial for misdemeanors, with the right of appeal for 
trial de novo. 

Sec. 25. Right of jury trial in civil cases. In all controversies at law respecting property, 
the ancient mode of trial by jury is one of the best securities of the rights of the people, 
and shall remain sacred and inviolable. 

Sec. 26. Jury service. No person shall be excluded from jury service on account of sex, 
race, color, religion, or national origin. 

Sec. 27. Bail, fines, and punishments. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive 
fines imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishments inflicted. 

Sec. 28. Imprisonment for debt. There shall be no imprisonment for debt in this State, 
except in cases of fraud. 

Sec. 29. Treason against the State. Treason against the State shall consist only of levy- 
ing war against it or adhering to its enemies by giving them aid and comfort. No person 
shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt 
act, or on confession in open court. No conviction of treason or attainder shall work 
corruption of blood or forfeiture. 

Sec. 30. Militia and the right to bear arms. A well regulated militia being necessary to 
the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be in- 
fringed; and, as standing armies in time of peace are dangerous to liberty, they shall not 



82 North Carolina Manual 



be maintained, and the military shall be kept under strict subordination to, and gov- 
erned by, the civil power. Nothing herein shall justify the practice of carrying concealed 
weapons, or prevent the General Assembly from enacting statutes against that practice. 

Sec. 31. Quartering of soldiers. No soldier shall in time of peace be quartered in any 
house without the consent of the owner, not in time of war but in a manner prescribed 
by law. 

Sec. 32. Exclusive emoluments. No person or set of persons is entitled to exclusive or 
separate emoluments or privileges from the community but in consideration of public 
services. 

Sec. 33. Hereditary emoluments and honors. No hereditary emoluments, privileges, or 
honors shall be granted or conferred in this State. 

Sec. 34. Perpetuities and monopolies. Perpetuities and monopolies are contrary to the 
genius of a free state and shall not be allowed. 

Sec. 35. Recurrence to fundamental principals. A frequent recurrence to fundamental 
principles is absolutely necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty. 

Sec. 36. Other rights of the people. The enumeration of rights in this Article shall not 
be construed to impair or deny others retained by the people 

ARTICLE II 

Legislative 

Section 1. Legislative power. The legislative power of the State shall be vested in the 
General Assembly, which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives. 

Sec. 2. Number of Senators. The Senate shall be composed of 50 Senators, biennially 
chosen by ballot. 

Sec. 3. Senate districts: apportionment of Senators. The Senators shall be elected from 
districts. The General Assembly, at the first regular session convening after the return of 
every decennial census of population taken by order of Congress, shall revise the senate 
districts and the apportionment of Senators among those districts, subject to the follow- 
ing requirements: 

(1) Each Senator shall represent, as nearly as may be, an equal number of inhabitants, 
the number of inhabitants that each Senator represents being determined for this pur- 
pose by dividing the population of the district that he represents by the number of Sena- 
tors apportioned to that district; 

(2) Each senate district shall at all times consist of contiguous territory; 

(3) No county shall be divided in the formation of a senate district; 

(4) When established, the senate districts and the apportionment of Senators shall re- 
main unaltered until the return of another decennial census of population taken by or- 
der of Congress. 

Sec. 4. Number of Representatives. The House of Representatives shall be composed 
of 120 Representatives, biennially chosen by ballot. 



The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 83 



Sec. 5. Representative district; apportionment of Representatives. The Representatives 
shall be elected from districts. The General Assembly, at the first regular session con- 
vening after the return of every decennial census of population taken by order of Con- 
gress, shall revise the representative districts and the apportionment of Representatives 
among those districts, subject to the following requirements: 

(1) Each Representative shall represent, as nearly as may be, an equal number of in- 
habitants, the number of inhabitants that each Representative represents being deter- 
mined for this purpose by dividing the population of the district he represents by the 
number of Representatives apportioned to that district; 

(2) Each representative district shall at all times consist of contiguous territory; 

(3) No county shall be divided in the formation of a representative district; 

(4) When established, the representative districts and the apportionment of Repre- 
sentatives shall remain unaltered until the return of another decennial census of popula- 
tion taken by order of Congress. 

Sec. 6. Qualifications for Senator. Each Senator, at the time of his election, shall be 
not less than 25 years of age, shall be a qualified voter of the State, and shall have re- 
sided in the State as a citizen for two years and in the district for which he is chosen for 
one year immediately preceding his election. 

Sec. 7. Qualifications for Representative. Each Representative, at the time of his elec- 
tion, shall be a qualified voter of the State and shall have resided in the district for which 
he is chosen for one year immediately preceding his election. 

Sec. 8. Elections. The election for members of the General Assembly shall be held for 
the respective districts in 1972 and every two years thereafter, at the places and on the 
day prescribed by law. 

Sec. 9. Term of office. The term of office of Senators and Representatives shall com- 
mence on the first day of January next after their election. 

Sec. 10. Vacancies. Every vacancy occurring in the membership of the General As- 
sembly by reason of death, resignation, or other cause shall be filled in the manner pre- 
scribed by law. 

Sec. 1 1 . Sessions. 

(1) Regular Sessions. The General Assembly shall meet in regular session in 1973 and 
every two years thereafter on the day prescribed by law. Neither house shall proceeed 
upon public business unless a majority of all of its members are actually present. 

(2) Extra sessions on legislative call. The President of the Senate and the Speaker of 
the House of Representatives shall convene the General Assembly in extra session by 
their joint proclamation upon receipt by the President of the Senate of written requests 
therefor signed by three-fifths of all the members of the Senate and upon receipt by the 
Speaker of the House of Representatives of written requests therefor signed by three- 
fifths of all the members of the House of Representatives. 

Sec. 12. Oath of members. Each member of the General Assembly, before taking his 
seat, shall take an oath or affirmation that he will support the Constitution and laws of 



84 North Carolina Manual 



the United States and the Constitution of the State of North Carolina, and will faith- 
fully discharge his duty as a member of the Senate or House of Representatives. 

Sec. 13. President of the Senate. The Lieutenant Governor shall be president of the 
Senate and shall preside over the Senate, but shall have no vote unless the Senate is 
equally divided. 

Sec. 14. Other officers of the Senate. 

(1) President Pro Tempore - succession to presidency. The Senate shall elect from its 
membership a President Pro Tempore, who shall become President of the Senate upon 
the failure of the Lieutenant Governor-elect to qualify, or upon succession by the Lieu- 
tenant Governor to the office of Governor, or upon the death, resignation, or removal 
from office of the President of the Senate, and who shall serve until the expiration of his 
term of office as Senator. 

(2) President Pro Tempore - temporary succession. During the physical or mental in- 
capacity of the President of the Senate to perform the duties of his office or during the 
absence of the President of the Senate, the President Pro Tempore shall preside over the 
Senate. 

(3) Other officers. The Senate shall elect its other officers. 

Sec. 15. Officers of the House of Representatives. The House of Representatives shall 
elect its Speaker and other officers. 

Sec. 16. Compensation and allowances. The members and officers of the General As- 
sembly shall receive for their services the compensation and allowances prescribed by 
law. An increase in the compensation or allowances of members shall become effective 
at the beginning of the next regular session of the General Assembly following the ses- 
sion at which it was enacted. 

Sec. 17. Journals. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, which shall be 
printed and made public immediately after adjournment of the General Assembly. 

Sec. 18. Protests. Any member of either house may dissent from and protest against 
any act or resolve which he may think injurious to the public or to any individual, and 
have the reasons of his dissent entered on the journal. 

Sec. 19. Record votes. Upon motion made in either house and seconded by one fifth of 
the members present, the yeas and nays upon any question shall be taken and entered 
upon the journal. 

Sec. 20. Powers of the General Assembly. Each house shall be judge of the qualifica- 
tions and elections of its own members, shall sit upon its own adjournment from day to 
day, and shall prepare bills to be enacted into laws. The two houses may jointly adjourn 
to any future day or other place. Either house may, of its own motion, adjourn for a 
period not in excess of three days. 

Sec. 21. Style of the acts. The style of the acts shall be: "The General Assembly of 
North Carolina enacts:". 

Sec. 22. Action on bills. All bills and resolutions of a legislative nature shall be read 
three times in each house before they become laws, and shall be signed by the presiding 
officers of both houses. 



The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 85 



Sec. 23. Revenue bills. No laws shall be enacted to raise money on the credit of the 
State, or to pledge the faith of the State directly or indirectly for the payment of any 
debt, or to impose any tax upon the people of the State, or to allow the counties, cities, 
or towns, or towns to do so, unless the bill for the purpose shall have been read three 
several times in each house of the General Assembly and passed three several readings, 
which readings shall have been on three different days, and shall have been agreed to by 
each house respectively, and unless the yeas and nays on the second and third readings 
of the bill shall have been entered on the journal. 

Sec. 24. Limitations on local, private, and special legislation. 

(1) Prohibited subjects. The General Assembly shall not enact any local, private, or 
special act or resolution: 

(a) Relating to health, sanitation, and the abatement of nuisances; 
{b\ Changing the names of cities, towns, and townships; 

(c ) Authorizing the laying out, opening, altering, maintaining, or discontinuing of 
highways, street, or alleys; 

(d) Relating to ferries or bridges; 

(e) Relating to non-navigable streams; 

(f ) Relating to cemeteries; 

(g) Relating to the pay of jurors; 

(h ) Erecting new townships, or changing township lines, or establishing or changing 
the lines of school districts; 

( i ) Remitting fines, penalties, and forfeitures, or refunding moneys legally paid into 
the public treasury; 

( j ) Regulating labor, trade, mining, or manufacturing; 

(k ) Extending the time for the levy or collection of taxes or otherwise relieving any 
collector of taxes from the due performance of his official duties or his sureties 
from liability; 

( 1 ) Giving effect to informal wills and deeds; 

(m) Granting a divorce or securing alimony in any individual case; 

(n) Altering the name of any person, or legitimating any person not born in lawful 
wedlock, or restoring to the rights of citizenship any person convicted of a fel- 
ony. 

(2) Repeals. Nor shall the General Assembly enact any such local, private, or special 
act by the partial repeal of a general law; but the General Assembly may at any time re- 
peal local, private, or special laws enacted by it. 

(3) Prohibited acts void. Any local, private, or special act or resolution enacted in vio- 
lation of the provisions of this Section shall be void. 

(4) General laws. The General Assembly may enact general laws regulating the mat- 
ters set out in this Section. 

ARTICLE III 

Executive 

Section 1. Executive power. The executive power of the State shall be vested in the 
Governor. 



86 North Carolina Manual 



Sec. 2. Governor and Lieutenant Governor; election, term, and qualifications. 

(1) Election and term. The Governor and Lieutenant Governor shall be elected by the 
qualified voters of the State in 1972 and every four years thereafter, at the same time 
and places as members of the General Assembly are elected. Their term of office shall be 
four years and shall commence on the first day of January next after their election and 
continue until their successors are elected and qualified. 

(2) Qualifications. No person shall be eligible for election to the office of Governor or 
Lieutenant Governor unless, at the time of his election, he shall have attained the age of 
30 years and shall have been a citizen of the United States for five years and a resident of 
this State for two years immediately preceding his election. No person elected to the of- 
fice of Governor or Lieutenant Governor shall be eligible for election to more than two 
consecutive terms of the same office. 

Sec. 3. Succession to office of Governor. 

(1) Succession as Governor. The Lieutenant Governor-elect shall become Governor 
upon the failure of the Governor-elect to qualify. The Lieutenant Governor shall be- 
come Governor upon the death, resignation, or removal from office of the Governor. 
The further order of succession to the office of Governor shall be prescribed by law. A 
successor shall serve for the remainder of the term of the Governor whom he succeeds 
and until a new Governor is elected and qualified. 

(2) Succession as Acting Governor. During the absence of the Governor from the 
State, or during the physical or mental incapacity of the Governor to perform the duties 
of his office, the Lieutenant Governor shall be Acting Governor. The further order of 
succession as Acting Governor shall be prescribed by law. 

(3) Physical incapacity. The Governor may, by a written statement filed with the At- 
torney General, declare that he is physically incapable of performing the duties of his 
office, and may thereafter in the same manner declare that he is physically capable of 
performing the duties of his office. 

(4) Mental incapacity. The mental incapacity of the Governor to perform the duties of 
his office shall be determined only by joint resolution adopted by a vote of two-thirds of 
all the members of each house of the General Assembly. Thereafter, the mental capacity 
of the Governor to perform the duties of his office shall be determined only by joint res- 
olution adopted by a vote of a majority of all the members of each house of the General 
Assembly. In all cases, the General Assembly shall give the Governor such notice as it 
may deem proper and shall allow him an opportunity to be heard before a joint session 
of the General Assembly before it takes final action. When the General Assembly is not 
in session, the Council of State, a majority of its members concurring, may convene it in 
extra session for the purpose of proceeding under this paragraph. 

Sec. 4. Oath of office for Governor. The Governor, before entering upon the duties of 
his office, shall, before any Justice of the Supreme Court, take an oath or affirmation 
that he will support the Constitution and laws of the United States and of the State of 
North Carolina, and that he will faithfully perform the duties pertaining to the office of 
Governor. 



The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 87 



Sec. 5. Duties of Governor. 

(1) Residence. The Governor shall reside at the seat of government of this State. 

(2) Information to General Assembly. The Governor shall from time to time give the 
General Assembly information to the affairs of the State and recommend to their con- 
sideration such measures as he shall deem expedient. 

(3) Budget. The Governor shall prepare and recommend to the General Assembly a 
comprehensive budget of the anticipated revenue and proposed expenditures of the 
State for the ensuing fiscal period. The budget as enacted by the General Assembly shall 
be administered by the Governor. 

The total expenditures of the State for the fiscal period covered by the budget shall 
not exceed the total of receipts during that fiscal period and the surplus remaining in the 
State Treasury at the beginning of the period. To insure that the State does not incur a 
deficit for any fiscal period, the Governor shall continually survey the collection of the 
revenue and shall effect the necessary economies in State expenditures, after first mak- 
ing adequate provision for the prompt payment of the principal of and interest on 
bonds and notes of the State according to their terms, whenever he determines that re- 
ceipts during the fiscal period, when added to any surplus remaining in the State Treas- 
ury at the beginning of the period, will not be sufficient to meet budgeted expenditures. 
This section not be construed to impair the power of the State to issue its bonds and 
notes within the limitations imposed in Article V of this Constitution, nor to impair the 
obligation of bonds and notes of the State now outstanding or issued hereafter. 

(4) Execution of laws. The Governor shall take care that the laws be faithfully exe- 
cuted. 

(5) Commander in Chief. The Governor shall be Commander in Chief of the military 
forces of the State except when they shall be called into the service of the United States. 

(6) Clemency. The Governor may grant reprieves, commutations, and pardons, after 
conviction, for all offenses (except in cases of impeachment), upon such conditions as he 
may think proper, subject to regulations prescribed by law relative to the manner of ap- 
plying for pardons. The terms reprieves, commutations, and pardons shall not include 
paroles. 

(7) Extra sessions. The Governor may, on extraordinary occasions, by and with the 
advice of the Council of State, convene the General Assembly in extra session by his 
proclamation, stating therein the purpose or purposes for which they are thus covened. 

(8) Appointments. The Governor shall nominate and by and with the advice and con- 
sent of a majority of the Senators appoint all officers whose appointments are not other- 
wise provided for. 

(9) Information. The Governor may at any time require information in writing from 
the head of any administrative department or agency upon any subject relating to the 
duties of his office. 

(10) Administrative reorganization. The General Assembly shall prescribe the func- 
tions, powers, and duties of the administrative departments and agencies of the State 
and may alter them from time to time, but the Governor may make such changes in the 



88 North Carolina Manual 



allocation of offices and agencies and in the allocation of those functions, powers, and 
duties as he considers necessary for efficient administration. If those changes affect ex- 
isting law, they shall be set forth in executive orders, which shall be submitted to the 
General Assembly not later than the sixtieth calendar day of its session, and shall be- 
come effective and shall have the force of law upon adjournment sine die of the session, 
unless specifically disapproved by resolution of either house of the General Assembly or 
specifically modified by joint resolution of both houses of the General Assembly. 

Sec. 6. Duties of the Lieutenant Governor. The Lieutenant Governor shall be President 
of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless the Senate is equally divided. He shall per- 
form such additional duties as the General Assembly or the Governor may assign to 
him. He shall receive the compensation and allowances prescribed by law. 

Sec. 7. Other elective officers. 

(1) Officers. A Secretary of State, an Auditor, a Treasurer, a Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, an Attorney General, a Commissioner of Agriculture, a Commissioner of 
Labor, and a Commissioner of Insurance shall be elected by the qualified voters of the 
State in 1972 and every four years thereafter, at the same time and places as members of 
the General Assembly are elected. Their term of office shall be four years and shall com- 
mence on the first day of January next after their election and continue until their suc- 
cessors are elected and qualified. 

(2) Duties. Their respective duties shall be prescribed by law. 

(3) Vacancies. If the office of any of these officers is vacated by death, resignation, or 
otherwise, it shall be the duty of the Governor to appoint another to serve until his suc- 
cessor is elected and qualified. Every such vacancy shall be filled by election at the first 
election for members of the General Assembly that occurs more than 30 days after the 
vacancy has taken place, and the person chosen shall hold the office for the remainder 
of the unexpired term fixed in this Section. When a vacancy occurs in the office of any 
of the officers named in this Section and the term expires on the first day of January suc- 
ceeding the next election for members of the General Assembly, the Governor shall ap- 
point to fill the vacancy for the unexpired term of the office. 

(4) Interim officers. Upon the occurrence of a vacancy in the office of any one of these 
officers for any of the causes stated in the preceding paragraph, the Governor may ap- 
point an interim officer to perform the duties of that office until a person is appointed 
or elected pursuant to this Section to fill the vacancy and is qualified. 

(5) Acting officers. During the physical or mental incapacity of any one of these of- 
ficers to perform the duties of his office, as determined pursuant to this Section, the du- 
ties of his office shall be performed by an acting officer who shall be appointed by the 
Governor. 

(6) Determination of incapacity. The General Assembly shall by law prescribe with re- 
spect to those officers, other than the Governor, whose officers are created by this Arti- 
cle, procedures for determining the physical or mental incapacity of any officer to per- 
form the duties of his office, and for determining whether an officer who has been tem- 
porarily incapacitated has sufficiently recovered his physical or mental capacity to per- 
form the duties of his office. Removal of those officers from office for any other cause 
shall be by impeachment. 



The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 89 



Sec. 8. Council of State. The Council of State shall consist of the officers whose offices 
are established by this Article. 

Sec. 9. Compensation and allowances. The officers whose offices are established by this 
Article shall at stated periods receive the compensation and allowances prescribed by 
law, which shall not be diminished during the time for which they have been chosen. 

Sec. 10. Seal of State. There shall be a seal of the State, which shall be kept by the 
Governor and used by him as occasion may require, and shall be called "The Great Seal 
of the State of North Carolina." All grants or commissions shall be issued in the name 
and by the authority of the State of North Carolina, sealed with "The Great Seal of the 
State of North Carolina," and signed by the Governor. 

Sec. \ I. Administrative departments. Noilaier ihan July 1, 1975, all administrative de- 
partments, agencies and offices of the State and their respective functions, powers, and 
duties shall be allocated by law among and within not more than 25 principal adminis- 
trative departments so as to group them as far as practicable according to major pur- 
poses. Regulatory, quasi-judicial, and temporary agencies may, but need not, be allo- 
cated within a principal department. 

ARTICLE IV 

Judicial 

Section 1. Judicial power. The judicial power of the State shall, except as provided in 
Section 3 of this Article, be vested in a Court for the Trial of Impeachments and a Gen- 
eral Court of Justice. The General Assembly shall have no power to deprive the judicial 
department of any power or jurisdiction that rightfully pertains to it as a co-ordinate de- 
partment of the government, nor shall it establish or authorize any courts other than as 
permitted by this Article. 

Sec. 2. General Court of Justice. The General Court of Justice shall constitute a uni- 
fied judicial system for purposes of jurisdiction, operation, and administration, and 
shall consist of an Appellate Division, a Superior Court Division, and a District Court 
Division. 

Sec. 3. Judicial powers of administrative agencies. The General Assembly may vest in 
administrative agencies established pursuant to law such judicial powers as may be rea- 
sonably necessary as an incident to the accomplishment of the purposes for which the 
agencies were created. Appeals from administrative agencies shall be to the General 
Court of Justice. 

Sec. 4. Court for the Trial of Impeachments. The House of Representatives solely shall 
have the power of impeaching. The Court for the Trial of Impeachments shall be the 
Senate. When the Governor or Lieutenant Governor is impeached, the Chief Justice 
shall preside over the Court. A majority of the members shall be necessary to a quorum, 
and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the Senators 
present. Judgment upon conviction shall not extend beyond removal from and disquali- 
fication to hold office in this State, but the party shall be liable to indictment and pun- 
ishment according to law. 



90 North Carouna Manual 



Sec. 5. Appellate division. The Appellate Division of the General Court of Justice shall 
consist of the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals. 
Sec. 6. Supreme Court. 

(1) Membership. The Supreme Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and six Associate 
Justices, but the General Assembly may increase the number of Associate Justices, to 
not more than eight. In the event the Chief Justice is unable, on account of absence or 
temporary incapacity, to perform any of the duties placed upon him, the senior Associ- 
ate Justice available may discharge those duties. 

(2) Sessions of the Supreme Court. The sessions of the Supreme Court shall be held in 
the City of Raleigh unless otherwise provided by the General Assembly. 

Sec. 7. Court of Appeals. The structure, organization, and composition of the Court 
of Appeals shall be determined by the General Assembly. The Court shall have not less 
than five members, and may be authorized to sit in division, or other than en banc. Ses- 
sions of the Court shall be held at such times and places as the General Assembly may 
prescribe. 

Sec. 8. Retirement of Justices and Judges. The General Assembly shall provide by gen- 
eral law for the retirement of Justices and Judges of the General Court of Justice, and 
may provide for the temporary recall of any retired Justice or Judge to serve on the 
court from which he was retired. The General Assembly shall also prescribe maximum 
agelimits service as a Justice or Judge. 

Sec. 9. Superior Courts. 

(1) Superior Court districts. The General Assembly shall, from time to time, divide the 
State into a convenient number of Superior Court judicial districts and shall provide for 
the election of one or more Superior Court Judges for each district. Each regular Supe- 
rior Court Judge shall reside in the district for which he is elected. The General Assem- 
bly may provide by general law for the selection or appointment of special of emergency 
Superior Court Judges not selected for a particular judicial district. 

(2) Open at all times; sessions for trial of cases. The Superior Courts shall be open at 
all times for the transaction of all business except for trial of issues of fact requiring a 
jury. Regular trial sessions of the Superior Court shall be held at times fixed pursuant to 
a calendar of courts promulgated by the Supreme Court. At least two sessions for the 
trial of jury cases shall be held annually in each county. 

(3) Clerks. A Clerk of the Superior Court for each county shall be elected for a term 
of four years by the qualified voters thereof, at the same time and places as members of 
the General Assembly are elected. If the office of Clerk of the Superior Court becomes 
vacant otherwise than by the expiration of the term, or if the people fail to elect, the sen- 
ior regular resident Judge of the Superior Court serving the county shall appoint to fill 
the vacancy until an election can be regularly held. 

Sec. 10. District Courts. The General Assembly shall, from time to time, divide the 
State into a convenient number of local court districts and shall prescribe where the Dis- 
trict Courts shall sit, but a District Court must sit in at least one place in each county. 
District judges shall be elected for each district for a term of four years, in a manner pre- 
scribed by law. When more than one District Judge is authorized and elected for a dis- 
trict, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court shall designate one of the judges as Chief 
District Judge. Every District Judge shall reside in the district for which he is elected. 



The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 91 



For each county, the senior regular resident Judge of the Superior Court serving shall 
appoint for a term of two years, for omination submitted by the Clerk of the Superior 
Court of the county, one or more Magistrates who shall be officers of the District 
Court. The number of District Judges and Magistrates shall, from time to time, be de- 
termined by the General Assembly. Vacancies in the office of District Judge shall be 
filled for the unexpired term in a manner prescribed by law. Vacancies in the office of 
Magistrate shall be filled for the unexpired term in the manner provided for original ap- 
pointment to the office. 

Sec. 11. Assignment of Judges. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, acting in ac- 
cordance with rules of the Supreme Court, shall make assignments of Judges of the Su- 
perior Court and may transfer District Judges from one district to another for tempor- 
ary or specialized duty. The principle of rotating Superior Court Judges among the var- 
ious districts of a division is a salutary one and shall be observed. For this purpose the 
General Assembly may divide the State into a number of judicial divisions. Subject to 
the general supervision of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, assignment of Dis- 
trict Judges within each local court district shall be made by the Chief District Judge. 

Sec. 12. Jurisdiction of the General Court of Justice. 

(1) Supreme Court. The Supreme Court shall have jurisdiction to review upon appeal 
any decision of the courts below, upon any matter of law or legal inference. The juris- 
diction of the Supreme Court over "issues of fact" and "questions of fact" shall be the 
same exercised by it prior to the adoption of this Article, and the Court may issue any 
remedial writs necessary to give it general supervision and control over the proceedings 
the other courts. The Supreme Court also has jurisdiction to review, when authorized 
by law, direct appeals from a final order or decision of the North Carolina Utilities 
Commission. 

(2) Courts of Appeals. The Court of Appeals shall have such appellate jurisdiction as 
the General Assembly may prescribe. 

(3) Superior Court. Except as otherwise provided by the General Assembly, the Supe- 
rior Court shall have original general jurisdiction throughout the State. The Clerks of 
the Superior Court shall have such jurisdiction and powers as the General Assembly 
shall prescribe by general law uniformly applicable in every county of the State. 

(4) District Courts; Magistrates. The General Assembly shall, by general law uni- 
formly applicable in every local court district of the State, prescribe the jurisdiction and 
powers of the District Courts and Magistrates. 

(5) Waiver. The General Assembly may be general law provide that the jurisdictional 
limits may be waived in civil cases. 

(6) Appeals. The General Assembly shall by general law provide a proper system or 
appeals. Appeals from Magistrates shall be heard de novo, with the right of trial by jury 
as defined in this Constitution and the laws of this State. 

Sec. 13. Forms of action; rules of procedure. 

(1) Forms of Action. There shall be in this State but one form of action for the enforce 
or protection of private rights or the redress of private wrongs, which shall be denomi- 
nated a civil action, and in which there shall be a right to have issues of fact tried before 



92 North Carole^ia Manual 



a jury. Every action prosecuted by the people of the State as a party against a person 
charged with a pubUc offense, for the punishment thereof, shall be termed a criminal ac- 
tion. 

(2) Rules of procedure. The Supreme Court shall have exclusive authority to make 
rules of procedure and practice for the Appellate Division. The General Assembly may 
make rules of procedure and practice for the Superior Court and District Court Divi- 
sions, and the General Assembly may delegate this authority to the Supreme court. No 
rule of procedure or practice shall abridge substantive rights or abrogate or limit the 
right of trial by jury. If the General Assembly should delegate to the Supreme Court the 
rule-making power, the General Assembly may, nevertheless, alter, amend, or repeal 
any rule of procedure or practice adopted by the Supreme Court for the Superior Court 
or District Court Divisions. 

Sec. 14 Waiver of jury trial. In all issues of fact joined in any court, the parties in any 
civil case may waive the right to have the issues determined by a jury, in which case the 
finding of the judge upon the facts shall have the force and effect of a verdict by a jury. 

Sec. 15. Administration. TheGcneral Assembly shall provide for an administrative of- 
fice of the courts to carry out the provisions of this Article. 

Sec. 16. Terms of office and election of Justices of the Supreme Court, Judges of the 
Court of Appeals, and Judges of the Superior Court. Justices of the Supreme Court, 
Judges of the Court of Appeals, and regular Judges of the Superior Court shall be elect- 
ed by the qualified voters and shall hold office for terms of eight years and until their 
successors are elected and qualified. Justices of the Supreme Court and Judges of the 
Court of Appeals shall be elected by the qualified voters of the State. Regular Judges of 
the Superior Court may be elected by the qualified voters of the State or by the voters of 
their respective districts, as the General Assembly may prescribe. 

Sec. 17. Removal of Judges, Magistrates and Clerks. 

(1) Removal of Judges by the General Assembly. Any Justice or Judge of the General 
Court of Justice may be removed from office for mental or physical incapacity by joint 
resolution of two-thirds of all the members of each house of the General Assembly. Any 
Justice or Judge against whom the General Assembly may be about to proceed shall re- 
ceive notice thereof, accompanied by a copy of the causes alleged for his removal, at 
least 20 days before the day on which either house of the General Assembly shall act 
thereon. Removal from office by the General Assembly for any other cause shall be by 
impeachment. 

(2) Additional method of removal of Judges. The General Assembly shall prescribe a 
procedure, in addition to impeachment and address set forth in this Section, for the re- 
moval of a Justice or Judge of the General Court of Justice for mental or physical in- 
capacity interfering with the performance of his duties which is, or is likely to become, 
permanent, and for the censure and removal of a Justice or Judge of the General Court 
of Justice for wilful misconduct in office, wilful and persistent failure to perform his du- 
ties, habitual intemperance, conviction of a crime involving moral turpitude, or conduct 
prejudicial to the administration of justice that brings the judicial office into disrepute. 

(3) Removal of Magistrates. The General Assembly shall provide by general law for 
the removal of Magistrates for misconduct or mental or physical incapacity. 



The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 93 



(4) Removal of Clerks. Any Clerk of the Superior Court may be removed from office 
for misconduct or mental or physical incapacity by the senior regular resident Superior 
Court Judge serving the county. Any Clerk against whom proceedings are instituted 
shall receive written notice of the charges against him at least ten days before the hear- 
ing upon the charges. Any Clerk so removed from office shall be entitled to an appeal as 
provided by law. 

Sec. 18. District Attorney and Prosecutorial Districts. 

(1) District Attorneys. The Great Assembly shall, from time to time, divide the State 
into a convenient number of solicitorial districts, for each of which a District Attorney 
shall be chosen for a term of four years by the qualified voters thereof, at the same time 
and places as members of the General Assembly are elected. The District Attorney shall 
advise the officers of justice in his district, be responsible for the prosecution of behalf 
of the State of all criminal actions in the Superior Courts of his district, perform such 
duties related to appeals therefrom as the Attorney General may require, and perform 
such other duties as the General Assembly may prescribe. 

(2) Prosecution in District Court Division. Criminal actions in the District Court Divi- 
sion shall be prosecuted in such manner as the General Assembly may prescribe by gen- 
eral law uniformly applicable in every local court district of the State. 

Sec. 19. Vacancies. Unless otherwise provided in this Article, all vacancies occurring 
in the offices provided for by this Article shall be filled by appointment of the Gover- 
nor, and the appointees shall hold their places until the next election for members of the 
General Assembly that is held more than 30 days after the vancancy occurs, when elec- 
tions shall be held to fill the offices. When the unexpired term of any of the offices 
named in this Article of the Constitution in which a vacancy has occurred, and in which 
it is herein provided that the Governor shall fill the vacancy, expires on the first day of 
January succeeding the next election for members of the General Assembly, the Gover- 
nor shall appoint to fill that vacancy for the unexpired term of the office. If any person 
elected or appointed to any of these offices shall fail to qualify, the office shall be ap- 
pointed to, held, and filled as provided in case of vacancies occurring therein. All in- 
cumbents of these offices shall hold until their successors are qualified. 

Sec. 20. Revenues and expenses of the judicial department. The General Assembly shall 
provide for the establishment of a schedule of court fees and costs which shall be uni- 
form throughout the State within each division of the General Court of Justice. The 
operating expenses of the judicial department, other than compensation to process 
servers and other locally paid non-judicial officers, shall be paid from State funds. 

Sec. 21. Fees, salaries, and emoluments. The General Assembly shall prescribe and 
regulate the fees, salaries, and emoluments of all officers provided for in this Article, but 
the salaries of Judges shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. In no 
case shall the compensation of any Judge or Magistrate be dependent upon his decision 
or upon the collection of costs. 

Sec. 22. Qualification of Justices and Judges. Only persons duly authorized to practice 
law in the courts of this State shall be eligible for election or appointment as a Justice of 
the Supreme Court, Judge of the Court of Appeals, Judge of the Superior Court, or 
Judge of District Court. This section shall not apply to persons elected to or serving in 
such capacities on or before January 1, 1981. 



94 North Carolina Manual 

ARTICLE V 

Finance 



Section !. No capitation tax to be levied. No poll or capitation tax shall be levied by 
the General Assembh or b\ an\ county, city or town, or other taxing unit. 

Sec. 2. State and local taxation. 

(1) Power of taxation. The power of taxation shall be exercised in a just and equitable 
manner, for public purposes only, and shall never be surrendered, suspended, or 
contracted away. 

(2) Classification. Onl\ the General Assembly shall have the power to classify 
property for taxation, which power shall be exercised only on a State-wide basis and 
shall not be delegated. No class of property shall be taxed except by uniform rule, and 
every classification shall be made by general law uniformly applicable in every county, 
city and tow n, and other unit of local government. 

(3) Exemptions. Property belonging to the State, counties, and municipal corpora- 
tions shall be exempt from taxation. The General Assembly may exempt cemeteries and 
property held for educational, scientific, literary, cultural, charitable, or religious pur- 
poses, and, to a value not exceeding $300, any personal property. The General As- 
sembly may exempt from taxation not exceeding $1,000 in value of property held and 
used as the place of residence of the owner. Every exemption shall be on a State-wide 
basis and shall be made b\ general law uniformly applicable in every county, city and 
town, and other unit of local government. No taxing authority other than the General 
Assembly may grant exemptions, and the General Assembly shall not delegate the 
powers accorded to it b\ this subsection. 

(4) Special tax areas. Subject to the limitations imposed by Section 4. the General As- 
sembly may enact general laws authorizing the governing body of any county, city, or 
town to define territorial areas and to levy taxes within those areas, in addition to those 
levied throughout the county, city, or town, in order to finance, provide, or maintain 
services, facilities, and functions in addition to or to a greater extent than those 
financed, provided, or maintained or the entire county, city, or town. 

(5) Purpose of property tax. The General Assembh shall not authorize any county. 
city or town, special district, or other unit of local government to levy taxes or property, 
except for purposes authorized by general law uniformly applicable throughout the 
State, unless the tax is approved by a majority of the qualified voters of the unit who 
vote thereon. 

(6) Income tax. The rate of tax on incomes shall not in any case exceed ten per cent 
and there shall be allowed personal exemptions and deductions so that only net incomes 
are taxed. 

(7) Contracts. The General Assembly may enact laws whereby the State, any county, 
city or town and any other public corporation may contract with and appropriate 



The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 95 

money to any person, association, or corporation for the accomplishment of public pur- 
poses only. 

Sec. 3. Limitations upon the increase of State debt. 

(1) Authorized purposes; two-thirds limitation, the General Assembly shall have no 
power to contract debts secured by a pledge of the faith and credit of the State, unless 
approved by a majority of the qualified voters of the State who vote thereon, except for 
the following purposes: 

(a) To fund or refund a valid existing debt; 

(b) to supply an unforeseen deficiency in the revenue; 

(c) to borrow in anticipation of the collection of taxes due and payable within the 
current fiscal year to an amount not exceeding 50 percent of such taxes; 

(d) to suppress riots or insurrections, or to repel invasions; 

(e) to meet emergencies immediately threatening the public health or safety, as con- 
clusively determined in writing by the Governor; 

( f ) for any other lawful purpose, to the extent of two-thirds of the amount by which 
the State's outstanding indebtedness shall have reduced during the next preceding 
biennium. 

(2) Gift or loan of credit regulated. The General Assembly shall have no power to give 
or lend the credit of the State in aid of any person, association, or corporation, except a 
corporation in which the State has a controlling interest, unless the subject is submitted 
to a direct vote of the State, and is approved by a majority of the qualified voters who 
vote thereon. 

(3) Definitions. A debt is incurred within the meaning of this Section when the State 
borrows money. A pledge of the faith and credit within the meaning of this Section is a 
pledge of the taxing power. A loan of credit within the meaning of this Section occurs 
when the State exchanges its obligations with or in any way guarantees the debts of an 
individual, association, or private corporation. 

(4) Certain debts barred. The General Assembly shall never assume or pay any debt or 
obligation, express or implied, incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the 
United States. Neither shall the General Assembly assume or pay any debt or bond in- 
curred or issued by authority of the Convention of 1868, the special session of the Gen- 
eral Assembly of 1868, or the General Assemblies of 1868-69 and 1869-70, unless the 
subject is submitted to the people of the State and is approved by a majority of all the 
qualified voters at a referendum held for that sole purpose. 

(5) Outstanding debt. Except as provided in subsection (4), nothing in this Section 
shall be construed to invalidate or impair the obligation of any bond, note, or other evi- 
dence of indebtedness outstanding or authorized for issue as of July 1, 1973. 

Sec. 4. Limitations upon the increase of local government debt. 

(1) Regulation of borrowing and debt. The General Assembly shall enact general laws 
relating to the borrowing of money secured by a pledge of the faith and credit and the 
contracting of other debts by counties, cities and towns, special districts, and other 
units, authorities, and agencies of local government. 



96 North Carolina Manual 

(2) Authorized purposes; two-thirds limitation. The General Assembly shall have no 
power to authorize any county, city or town, special district, or other unit of local 
government to contract debts secured by a pledge of its faith and credit unless approved 
by a majority of the qualified voters of the unit who vote thereon, except for the follow- 
ing purposes: 

(a) to fund or refund a valid existing debt; 

(b) to supply an unforseen deficiency in the revenue; 

(c) to borrow in anticipation of the collection of taxes due and payable within the 
current fiscal year to an amount not exceeding 50 per cent of such taxes; 

(d) to suppress riots or insurrections; 

(e) to meet emergencies immediately threatening the public health or safety, as con- 
conclusively determined in writing by the Governor; 

(f) for purposes authorized by general laws uniformly applicable throughout the 
State, to the extent of two-thirds of the amount by which the unit's outstanding 
indebtedness shall have been reduced during the next preceding fiscal year. 

(3) Gift or loan of credit regulated. No county, city or town, special district, or other 
unit of local government shall give or lend its credit in aid of any person, association, or 
corporation, except for public purposes as authorized by general law, and unless ap- 
proved by a majority of the qualified voters of the unit who vote thereon. 

(4) Certain debts barred. No county, city or town, or other unit of local government 
shall assume or pay any debt or the interest thereon contracted directly or indirectly in 
aid or support of rebellion or insurrection against the United States. 

(5) Definitions. A debt is incurred within the meaning of this Section when a county, 
city or town, special district, or other unit, authority, or agency of local government 
borrows money. A pledge of faith and credit within the meaning of this Section is a 
pledge of the taxing power. A loan of credit within the meaning of this Section occurs 
when a county, city or town, special district, or other unit, authority, or agency of local 
government exchanges its obligations with or in any way guarantees the debts of an in- 
dividual, association, or private corporation. 

(6) Outstanding debt. Except as provided in subsection (4), nothing in this Section 
shall be construed to invalidate or impair the obligation of any bond, note, or other evi- 
dence of indebtedness outstanding or authorized for issue as of July 1, 1973. 

Sec. 5. Acts levying taxes to state objects. Every act of the General Assembly levying a 
tax shall state the special object to which it is to be applied, and it shall be applied to no 
other purpose. 

Sec. 6. Inviolability of sinking funds and retirement funds. 

(1) Sinking funds . The General Assembly shall not use or authorize to be used any 
part of the amount of any sinking fund for any purpose other than the retirement of the 
bonds for which the sinking fund has been created, except that these funds may be in- 
vested as authorized by the law. 



The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 97 



(2) Retirement funds. Neither the General Assembly nor any public officer, employee, 
or agency shall use or authorized to be used any part of the funds of the Teachers' and 
State Employees' Retirement System or the Local Governmental Employees' Retire- 
ment System for any purpose other than retirement system benefits and purpose, ad- 
ministrative expenses, and refunds; except that retirement system funds may be invested 
as authorized by law, subject to the investment limitation that the funds of the Teachers' 
and State Employees' Retirement System and the Local Governmental Employees' Re- 
tirement System shall not be applied, diverted, loaned to, or used by the State, any State 
agency, State officer, public officer, or public employee. 

Sec. 7. Drawing public money. 

(1) State treasury. No money shall be drawn from the State Treasury but in conse- 
quence of appropriations made by law, and an accurate account of the receipts and 
expenditures of State funds shall be published annually. 

(2) Local treasury. No money shall be drawn from the treasury of any county, city or 
town, or other unit of local government except by authority of law. 

Sec. 8. Health care facilities. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this Constitu- 
tion, the General Assembly may enact general laws to authorize the State, counties, cit- 
ies or towns, and other State and local governmental entities to issue revenue bonds to 
finance or refinance for any such governmental entity or any nonprofit private corpora- 
tion, regardless of any church or religious relationship, the cost of acquiring, construct- 
ing, and financing health care facility projects to be operated to serve and benefit the 
public; provided, no cost incurred earlier than two years prior to the effective date of 
this section shall be refinanced. Such bonds shall be payable from the revenues, gross or 
net, of any such projects and any other health care facilities of any such governmental 
entity or nonprofit private corporation pledged therefor; shall not be secured by a 
pledge of the full faith and credit, or deemed to create an indebtedness requiring voter 
approval of any governmental entity; and may be secured by an agreement which may 
provide for the conveyance of title of, with or without consideration, any such project 
or facilities to the governmental entity or nonprofit private corporation. The power of 
eminent domain shall not be used pursuant hereto for nonprofit private corporations." 

Sec. 9. Capital projects for industry. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Con- 
stitution, the General Assembly may enact general laws to authorize counties to create 
authorities to issue revenue bonds to finance, but not to refinance, the cost of capital 
projects consisting of industrial, manufacturing and pollution control facilities for in- 
dustry and pollution control facilities for public utilities, and to refund such bonds. 

In no event shall such revenue bonds be secured by or payable from any public mon- 
eys whatsoever, but such revenue bonds shall be secured by any payable only from rev- 
enues or property derived from private parties. All such capital projects and all transac- 
tions therefor shall be subject to taxation to the extent such projects and transactions 
would be subject to taxation if no public body were involved therewith; provided, how- 
ever, that the General Assembly may provide that the interest on such revenue bonds 
shall be exempt from income taxes within the State. 

The power of eminent domain shall not be exercised to provide any property for any 
such capital project." 



98 North Carolina Manual 



Sec. 10. Joint ownership of generation and transmission facilities. In addition to other 
powers conferred upon them by law, municipalities owning or operating facilities for 
the generation, transmission or distribution of electric power and energy and joint agen- 
cies formed by such municipalities for the purpose of owning or operating facilities for 
the generation and transmission of electric power and energy (each, respectively, "a unit 
of municipal government") may jointly or severally own, operate and maintain works, 
plants and facilities, within or without the State, for the generation and transmission of 
electric power and energy, or both, with any person, firm, association or corporation, 
public or private, engaged in the generation, transmission or distribution of electric 
power and energy for resale (each, respectively, "a co-owner") within this State or any 
state contiguous to this State, and may enter into and carry out agreements with respect 
to such jointly owned facilities. For the purpose of financing its share of the cost of any 
such jointly owned electric generation or transmission facilities, a unit of municipal gov- 
ernment may issue its revenue bonds in the manner prescribed by the General Assem- 
bly, payable as to both principal and interest solely from and secured by a lien and 
charge on all or any part of the revenue derived, or to be derived, by such unit of muni- 
cipal government from the ownership and operation of its electric facilities; provided, 
however, that no unit of municipal government shall be liable, either jointly or several- 
ly, for any acts, omissions or obligations of any co-owner, nor shall any money or prop- 
erty of any unit of municipal government be credited or otherwise applied to the ac- 
count of any co-owner or be charged with any debt, lien or mortgage as a result of any 
debt or obligation of any co-owner. 

ARTICLE VI 

Suffrage and Eligibility to Office 

Sec. 1. Who may vote. Every person born in the United States and every person who 
has been naturalized, 18 years of age, and possessing the qualifications set out in this 
Article, shall be entitled to vote at any election by the people of the State, except as here- 
in otherwise provided. 

Sec. 2. Qualifications of voter. 

(1) Residence period for State elections. Any person who has resided in the State of 
North Carolina for one year and in the precinct, ward, or other election district for 30 
days next preceding an election, and possesses the other qualifications set out in this Ar- 
ticle, shall be entitled to vote at any election held in this State. Removal from one pre- 
cinct, ward, or other election district to another in this State shall not operate to deprive 
any person of the right to vote in the precinct, ward, or other election district from 
which that person has removed until 30 days after the removal. 

(2) Residence period for presidential elections. The General Assembly may reduce the 
time of residence for persons voting in presidential elections. A person made eligible by 
reason of a reduction in time of residence shall possess the other qualifications set out in 
this Article, shall only be entitled to vote for President and Vice President of the United 
States or for electors for President and Vice President, and shall not thereby become eli- 
gible to hold office in this State. 

(3) Disqualification of felon. No person adjudged guilty of a felony against this State 



The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 99 

or the United States, or adjudged guilty of a felony in another state that also would be a 
felony if it had been committed in this State, shall be permitted to vote unless that per- 
son shall be first restored to the rights of citizenship in the manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 3. Registration. Every person offering to vote shall be at the time legally regis- 
tered as a voter as herein prescribed and in the manner provided by law. The General 
Assembly shall enact general laws governing the registration of voters. 

Sec. 4. Qualification for registration. Every person presenting himself for registration 
shall be able to read and write any section of the Constitution in the English language. 

Sec. 5. Elections by people and General Assembly. All elections by the people shall be 
by ballot, and all elections by the General Assembly shall be viva voce. A contested elec- 
tion for any office established by Article III of this constitution shall be determined by 
joint ballot of both houses of the General Assembly in the manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 6. Eligibility to elective office. Every qualified voter in North Carolina who is 21 
years of age, except as in this Constitution disqualified, shall be eligible for election by 
the people to office. 

Sec. 7. Oath. Before entering upon the duties of an officer, a person elected or ap- 
pointed to the office shall take and subscribe the following oath: 

"I, , do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and 

maintain the Constitution and laws of the United States, and the Constitution and laws 
of North Carolina not inconsistent therewith, and that I will faithfully discharge the du- 
ties of my office as , so help me God." 

Sec. 8. Disqualifications for office. The following shall be disqualified for office: 

First, any person who shall deny the being of Almighty God. 

Second, with respect to any office that is filled by election by the people, any person 
who is not qualified to vote in an election for that office. 

Third, any person who has been adjudged guilty of treason or any other felony 
against this State or the United States, or any person who had been adjudged guilty of a 
felony in another state that also would be a felony if it had been committed in this State, 
or any person who has been adjudged guilty of corruption or malpractice in any office, 
or any person who has been removed by impeachment from any office, and who has not 
been restored to the rights of citizenship in the manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 9. Dual office holding. 

(1) Prohibitions. It is salutary that the responsibilities of self-government be widely 
shared among the citizens of the State and that the potential abuse of authority inherent 
in the holding of multiple offices by an individual by avoided. Therefore, no person who 
holds any office or place of trust or profit under the United States or any department 
thereof, or under any other state or government, shall be eligible to hold any office in 
this State that is filled by elecUon by the people. No person shall hold concurrently any 
two offices in this State that are filled by election of the people. No person shall hold 
concurrently any two or more appointive offices or places of trust or profit, or any com- 
bination of elective and appointive offices or places of trust or profit, except as the Gen- 
eral Assembly shall provide by general law. 



100 North Carolina Manual 



(2) Exceptions. The provisions of this Section shall not prohibit any officer of the 
military forces of the State or of the United States not on active duty for an extensive 
period of time, any notary public, or any delegate to a Convention of the People from 
holding concurrently another office or place of trust or profit under this State or the 
United States or any department thereof. 

Sec. 10. Continuation in office. In the absence of any contrary provision, all officers in 
this State, whether appointed or elected, shall hold their positions until other appoint- 
ments are made or, if the offices are elective, until their successors are chosen and quali- 
fied. 

ARTICLE VII 

Local Government 

Section 1. General Assembly to provide for local government. The General Assembly 
shall provide for the organization and government and the fixing of boundaries of coun- 
ties, cities and towns, and other governmental subdivisions, and, except as otherwise 
prohibited by this Constitution, may give such powers and duties to counties, cities and 
towns, and other governmental subdivisions as it may deem advisable. 

The General Assembly shall not incorporate as a city or town, nor shall it authorize 
to be incorporated as a city or town, any territory lying within one mile of the corporate 
limits of any other city or town having a population of 5,000 or more according to the 
most recent decennial census of population taken by order of Congress, or lying within 
three miles of the corporate limits of any other city or town having a population of 
10,000 or more according to the most recent decennial census of population taken by 
order of Congress, or lying within four miles of the corporate limits of any other city or 
town having a population of 25,000 or more according to the most recent decennial cen- 
sus of population taken by order of Congress, or lying within five miles of the corporate 
limits of any other city or town having a population of 50,000 or more according to the 
most recent decennial census of population taken by order of Congress. Notwithstand- 
ing the foregoing limitations, the General Assembly may incorporate a city or town by 
an act adopted by vote of three-fifths of all the members of each house. 

Sec. 2. Sheriffs. In each county a Sheriff shall be elected by the qualified voters there- 
of at the same time and places as members of the General Assembly are elected and 
shall hold his office for a period of four years, subject to removal for cause as provided 
by law. 

Sec. 3. Merged or consolidated counties. Any unit of local government formed by the 
merger or consolidation of a county or counties and the cities and towns therein shall be 
deemed both a county and a city for the purposes of this Constitution, and may exercise 
any authority conferred by law on counties, or on cities and towns, or both, as the Gen- 
eral Assembly may provide. 

ARTICLE VIII 

Corporations 

Section 1. Corporate charters. No corporation shall be created, nor shall its charter 
be extended, altered, or amended by special act, except corporations for charitable, edu- 



The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 101 



cational, penal, or reformatory purposes that are to be and remain under the patronage 
and control of the State; but the General Assembly shall provide by general laws for the 
chartering, organization, and powers of all corporations, and for the amending, extend- 
ing, and forfeiture of all charters, except those above permitted by special act. All such 
general acts may be altered from time to time or repealed. The General Assembly may 
at any time by special act repeal the charter of any corporation. 

Sec. 2. Corporations defined. The term "corporation" as used in this Section shall be 
construed to include all associations and joint-stock companies having any of the 
powers and privileges of corporations not possessed by individuals or partnerships. All 
corporations shall have the right to sue and shall be subject to be sued in all courts, in 
like cases as natural persons. 

ARTICLE IX 

Education 

Section 1. Education encouraged. Religion, morality, and knowledge being necessary 
to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools, libraries, and the means of 
education shall forever be encouraged. 

Sec. 2. Uniform system of schools. 

(1) General and uniform system: term. The General Assembly shall provide by taxa- 
tion and otherwise for a general and uniform system of free public schools, which shall 
be maintained at least nine months in every year, and wherein equal opportunities shall 
be provided for all students. 

(2) Local responsibility. The General Assembly may assign to units of local govern- 
ment such responsibility for the financial support of the free public schools as it may 
deem appropriate. The governing boards of units of local government with financial re- 
sponsibility for public education may use local revenues to add to or supplement any 
public school or post-secondary school program. 

Sec. 3. School attendance. The General Assembly shall provide that every child of ap- 
propriate age and of sufficient mental and physical ability shall attend the public 
schools, unless educated by other means. 

Sec. 4. State Board of Education. 

(1) Board. The State Board of Education shall consist of the Lieutenant Governor, 
the Treasurer, and eleven members appointed by the Governor, subject to confirmation 
by the General Assembly in joint session. The General Assembly shall divide the State 
into eight educational districts. Of the appointive members of the Board, one shall be 
appointed from each of the eight educational districts and three shall be appointed from 
the State at large. Appointments shall be for overlapping terms of eight years. Appoint- 
ments to fill vacancies shall be made by the Governor for the unexpired terms and shall 
not be subject to confirmation. 

(2) Superintendent of Public Instruction. The Superintendent of Public Instructiuon 
shall be the secretary and chief administrative officer of the State Board of Education. 

Sec. 5. Powers and duties of Board. The State Board of Education shall supervise and 
administer the free public school system and the educational funds provided for its sup- 



102 North Carolina Manual 



port, except the funds mentioned in Section 7 of this Article, and shall make all needed 
rules and regulations in relation thereto, subject to laws enacted by the General Assem- 
bly. 

Sec. 6. State school fund. The proceeds of all lands that have been or hereafter may be 
granted by the United States to this State, and not otherwise appropriated by this State 
or the United States; all moneys, stocks, bonds, and other property belonging to the 
State for purposes of public education; the net proceeds of all sales of the swamp lands 
belonging to the State; and all other grants, gifts, and devises that have been or hereafter 
may be made to the State, and not otherwise appropriated by the State or by the terms 
of the grant, gift, or devise, shall be paid into the State Treasury and, together with so 
much of the revenue of the State as may be set apart for that purpose, shall be faithfully 
appropriated and used exclusively for establishing and maintaining a uniform system of 
free public schools. 

Sec. 7. County school fund. All moneys, stocks, bonds, and other property belonging 
to a county school fund, and the clear proceeds of all penalties and forfeitures and of all 
fines collected in the several counties for any breach of the penal laws of the State, shall 
belong to and remain in the several counties, and shall be faithfully appropriated and 
used exclusively for maintaining free public schools. 

Sec. 8. Higher education. The General Assembly shall maintain a public system of 
higher education, comprising The University of North Carolina and such other institu- 
tions of higher education as the General Assembly may deem wise. The General Assem- 
bly shall provide for the selection of trustees of The University of North Carolina and of 
the other institutions of higher education, in whom shall be vested all the privileges, 
rights, franchises, and endowments heretofore granted to or conferred upon the trustees 
of these institutions. The General Assembly may enact laws necessary and expedient for 
the maintenance and management of The University of North Carolina and the other 
public instructions of higher education. 

Sec. 9. Benefits of public instructions of higher education. The General Assembly shall 
provide that the benefits of The University of North Carolina and other public institu- 
tions of higher education, as far as practicable, be extended to the people of the State 
free of expense. 

Sec. 10. Escheats. 

(1) Escheats prior to July I, 1971. All property that prior to July 1, 1971, accrued to 
the State from escheats, unclaimed dividends, or distributive shares of the estates of de- 
ceased persons shall be appropriated to the use of The University of North Carolina. 

(2) Escheats after June 30. 1971. All property that, after June 30, 1971, shall accrue to 
the State from escheats, unclaimed dividends, or distributive shares of the estates of de- 
ceased persons shall be used to aid worthy and needy students who are residents of this 
State and are enrolled in public institutions of higher education in this State. The meth- 
od, amount, and type of distribution shall be prescribed by law. 



The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 103 



ARTICLE X 

Homesteads and Exemptions 

Section 1. Personal property exemptions. The personal property of any resident of 
this State, to a value fixed by the General Assembly but not less than $500, to be select- 
ed by the resident, is exempt from sale under execution or other final process of any 
court, issued for the collection of any debt. 

Sec. 2. Homestead exemptions. 

(1) Exemption from sale; exceptions. Every homestead and the dwellings and build- 
ings used therewith, to a value fixed by the General Assembly but not less than $1,000, 
to be selected by the owner thereof, or in lieu thereof, at the option of the owner, any lot 
in a city or town with the dwellings and buildings used thereon, and to the same value, 
owned and occupied by a resident of the State, shall be exempt from sale under execu- 
tion or other final process obtained on any debt. But no property shall be exempt from 
sale for taxes, or for payment of obligations contracted for its purchase. 

(2) Exemption for benefit of children. The homestead, after the death of the owner 
thereof, shall be exempt from the payment of any debt during the minority of the own- 
er's children, or any of them. 

(3) Exemption for benefit of widow. If the owner of a homestead dies, leaving a surviv- 
ing spouse but no minor children, the homestead shall be exempt from the debts of the 
owner, and the rents and profits thereof shall inure to the benefit of the surviving spouse 
until he or she remarries, unless the surviving spouse is the owner of a separate home- 
stead. 

(4) Conveyance of homestead. Nothing contained in this Article shall operate to pre- 
vent the owner of a homestead from disposing of it by deed, but no deed made by a mar- 
ried owner of a homestead shall be valid without the signature and acknowledgement of 
his or her spouse. 

Sec. 3. Mechanics' and laborers' liens. The General Assembly shall provide by proper 
legislation for giving to mechanics and laborers an adequate lien on the subject-matter 
of their labor. The provisions of Sections 1 and 2 of this Article shall not be so con- 
strued as to prevent a laborer's lien for work done and performed for the person claim- 
ing the exemption or a mechanic's lien for work done on the premises. 

Sec. 4. Property of married women secured to them. The real and personal property of 
any female in this State acquired before marriage, and all property, real and personal, to 
which she may, after marriage, become in any manner entitled, shall be and remain the 
sole and separate estate and property of such female, and shall not be liable for any 
debts, obligations, or engagements of her husband, and may be devised and bequeathed 
and conveyed by her, subject to such regulations and limitations as the General Assem- 
bly may prescribe. Every married woman may exercise powers of attorney conferred 
upon her by her husband, including the power to execute and acknowledge deeds to 
property owned by herself and her husband or by her husband. 

Sec. 5. Insurance. A person may insure his or her own life for the sole use and benefit 
of his or her spouse or children or both, and upon his or her death the proceeds from the 



104 North Carolina Manual 



insurance shall be paid to or for the benefit of the spouse or children or both, or to a 
guardian, free from all claims of the representatives or creditors of the insured or his or 
her estate. Any insurance policy which insures the life of a person for the sole use and 
benefit of that person's spouse or children or both shall not be subject to the claims of 
creditors of the insured during his or her lifetime, whether or not the policy reserves to 
the insured during his or her lifetime any or all rights provided for by the policy and 
whether or not the policy proceeds are payable to the estate of the insured in the event 
the beneficiary or beneficiaries predecease the insured. 

ARTICLE XI 

Punishments, Corrections, and Charities 

Section 1. Punishments. The following punishments only shall be known to the laws 
of this State: death, imprisonment, fines, removal from office, and disqualification to 
hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under this State. 

Sec. 2. Death punishment. The object of punishments being not only to satisfy justice, 
but also to reform the offender and thus prevent crime, murder, arson, burglary, and 
rape, and these only, may be punishable with death, if the General Assembly shall so en- 
act. 

Sec. 3. Charitable and correctional institutions and agencies. Such charitable, benevol- 
ent, penal, and correctional institutions and agencies as the needs of humanity and the 
public good may require shall be established and operated by the State under such or- 
ganization and in such manner as the General Assembly may prescribe. 

Sec. 4. Welfare policy: board of public welfare. Beneficent provision for the poor, the 
unfortunate, and the orphan is one of the first duties of a civilized and a Christian state. 
Therefore the General Assembly shall provide for and define the duties of a board of 
public welfare. 

ARTICLE XII 

Military Forces 

Section 1. Governor is Commander in Chief. The Governor shall be Commander in 
Chief of the military forces of the State and may call out those forces to execute the law, 
suppress riots and insurrections, and repeal invasion. 

ARTICLE XIII 

Conventions; Constitutional Amendment and Revision 

Section 1. Convention of the People. No Convention of the People of this State shall 
ever be called unless by the concurrence of two-thirds of all the members of each house 
of the General Assembly, and unless the proposition "Convention or No Convention" 
is first submitted to the qualified voters of the State at the time and in the manner pre- 
scribed by the General Assembly. If a majority of the votes cast upon the proposition 
are in favor of a Convention, it shall assemble on the day prescribed by the General As- 
sembly. The General Assembly shall, in the act submitting the convention proposition. 



The Constitution of the State of North Carolina 105 



propose limitations upon the authority of the convention; and if a majority of the votes 
cast upon the proposition are in favor of a Convention, those limitations shall become 
binding upon the Convention. Delegates to the Convention shall be elected by the quali- 
fied voters at the time and in the manner prescribed in the act of submission. The Con- 
vention shall consist of a number of delegates equal to the membership of the House of 
Representatives of the General Assembly that submits the convention proposition and 
the delegates shall be apportioned as is the House of Representatives. A Convention 
shall adopt no ordinance not necessary to the purpose for which the Convention has 
been called. 

Sec. 2. Power to revise or amend Constitution reserved to people. The people of this 
State reserve the power to amend this Constitution and to adopt a new or revised Con- 
stitution. This power may be exercised by either of the methods set out hereinafter in 
this Article, but in no other way. 

Sec. 3. Revision or amendment by Convention of the People. A Convention of the Peo- 
ple of this State may be called pursuant to Section 1 of this Article to propose a new or 
revised Constitution or to propose amendments to this Constitution. Every new or re- 
vised Constitution and every constitutional amendment adopted by a Convention shall 
be submitted to the qualified voters of the State at the time and in the manner pre- 
scribed by the Convention. If a majority of the votes cast thereon are in favor of ratifica- 
tion of the new or revised Constitution or the constitutional amendment or amend- 
ments, it or they shall become effective January first next after ratification by the quali- 
fied voters unless a different effective date is prescribed by the Convention. 

Sec. 4. Revision or amendment by legislative initiation. A proposal of a new or revised 
Constitution or an amendment or amendments to this Constitution may be initiated by 
the General Assembly, but only if three-fifths of all the members of each house shall 
adopt an act submitting the proposal to the qualified voters of the State for their ratifi- 
cation or rejection. The proposal shall be submitted at the time and in the manner pre- 
scribed by the General Assembly. If a majority of the votes cast thereon are in favor of 
the proposed new or revised Constitution or constitutional amendment or amendments, 
it or they shall become effective January first next after ratification by the voters unless 
a different effective date is prescribed in the act submitting the proposal or proposals to 
the qualified voters. 

ARTICLE XIV 

Miscellaneous 

Section 1. Seat of government. The permanent seat of government of this State shall 
be at the City of Raleigh. 

Sec. 2. State boundaries. The limits and boundaries of the State shall be and remain 
as they now are. 

Sec. 3. General laws defined. Whenever the General Assembly is directed or author- 
ized by this Constitution to enact general laws, or general laws uniformly applicable 
throughout the State, or general laws uniformly applicable in every county, city and 






106 North Carolina Manual 



town, and other unit of local government, or in every local court district, no special or 
local act shall be enacted concerning the subject matter directed or authorized to be ac- 
complished by general or uniformly applicable laws, and every amendment or repeal of 
any law relating to such subject matter shall also be general and uniform in its effect 
throughout the State. General laws may be enacted for classes defined by population or 
other criteria. General laws uniformly applicable throughout the State shall be made 
applicable without classification or exception in every unit of local government of like 
kind, such as every county, or every city and town, but need not be made applicable in 
every unit of local government in the State. General laws uniformly applicable in every 
county, city and town, and other unit of local government, or in every local court dis- 
trict, shall be made applicable without classification or exception in every unit of local 
government, or in every local court district, as the case may be. The General Assembly 
may at any time repeal any special, local or private act. 

Sec. 4. Continuity of laws; protection of office holders. The laws of North Carolina not 
in conflict with this Constitution shall continue in force until lawfully altered. Except as 
otherwise specifically provided, the adoption of this Constitution shall not have the ef- 
fect of vacating any office or term of office now filled or held by virtue of any election or 
appointment made under the prior Constitution of North Carolina and the laws of the 
State enacted pursuant thereto." 

Sec. 5. Conservation of natural resources. It shall be the policy of this State to con- 
serve and protect its lands and waters for the benefit of all its citizenry, and to this end it 
shall be a proper function of the State of North Carolina and its political subdivisions to 
acquire and preserve park, recreational, and scenic areas, to control and limit the pollu- 
tion of our air and water, to control excessive noise, and in every other appropriate way 
to preserve as a part of the common heritage of this State its forests, wetlands, estuaries, 
beaches, historical sites, openlands, and places of beauty. 

To accomplish the aforementioned public purposes, the State and its counties, cities 
and towns, and other units of local government may acquire by purchase or gift proper- 
ties or interests which shall, upon their special dedication to and acceptance by resolu- 
tion adopted by a vote of three-fifths of the members of each house of the General As- 
sembly for those public purposes, constitute part of the "State Nature and Historic Pre- 
serve", and which shall not be used for other purposes except as authorized by law en- 
acted by a vote of three-fifths of the members of each house of the General Assembly. 
The General Assembly shall prescribe by general law the conditions and procedures un- 
der which such properties or interests therein shall be dedicated for the aforementioned 
public purposes. 



107 



Chapter Three 
THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES 



Preamble 



We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, estabhsh 
justice, insure domestic tranquihty, provide for the common defense, promote the gen- 
eral welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain 
and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. 



ARTICLE I 

Section 1 — All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the 
United States, which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives. 

Sec. 2 — 1 . The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every 
second year by the people of the several States, and the electors in each State shall have 
the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legis- 
lature. 

2. No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of 
twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, 
when elected, be an inhabitant of the State in which he shall be chosen. 

3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States 
which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which 
shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those 
bound to service for a term of years and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all 
other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first 
meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term often 
years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall 
not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Repre- 
sentative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall 
be entitled to choose 3; Massachusetts, 8; Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, 1; 
Connecticut, 5; New York, 6; New Jersey, 4; Pennsylvania, 8; Delaware, 1; Maryland, 
6; Virginia, 10; North Carolina, 5; South Carolina, 5; and Georgia, 3.* 



*See Article XIV, Amendments. 



108 North Carolina Manual 



4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State the Executive Au- 
thority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies. 

5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers, and 
shall have the sole power of impeachment. 

Sec. 3 — 1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from 
each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof for six years; and each Senator shall have 
one vote.t 

2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they 
shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the 
first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year; of the second class at the 
expiration of the fourth year; and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so 
that one-third may be chosen every second year, and if vacancies happen by resignation, 
or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof 
may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which 
shall then fill such vacancies. t 

3. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, 
and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be 
an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen. 

4. The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall 
have no vote, unless they be equally divided. 

5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore, in 
the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of the President of 
the United States. 

6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for 
that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United 
States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without 
the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present. 

7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from 
office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under 
the United States; but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to in- 
dictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law. 

Sec.4 — 1 . The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and Repre- 
sentatives shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof, but the Congress 
may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choos- 
ing Senators. 

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be 
on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day. 

Sec. 5 — 1. Each House shall be thejudge of the elections, returns, and qualifications 
of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; 
but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel 



tSee Article XVII, Amendments. 



The Constitution of the United States 109 



the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as each 
House may provide. 

2. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for 
disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member. 

3. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish 
the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas 
and nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth 
of those present, be entered on the journal. 

4. Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the 
other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the 
two Houses shall be sitting. 

Sec. 6 — 1. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their 
services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. 
They shall in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged 
from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in go- 
ing to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House they 
shall not be questioned in any other place. 

2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be 
appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States which shall have 
been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; 
and no person holding any office under the United States shall be a member of either 
House during his continuance in office. 

Sec. 7 — 1 . All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; 
but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills. 

2. Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate 
shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he 
approves, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that House 
in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, 
and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration two-thirds of that House shall 
agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent together with the objectives, to the other House, by 
which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that House, it 
shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined 
by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be 
entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the 
President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, 
the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their 
adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law. 

3. Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House 
of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be pre- 
sented to the President of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall 
be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the 
Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed 
in the case of a bill. 



110 North Carolina Manual 

Sec. 8. The Congress shall have power: 

1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide 
for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts 
and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States; 

2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States; 

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and 
with the Indian tribes; 

4. To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of 
bankruptcies throughout the United States; 

5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the stand- 
ards of weights and measures; 

6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of 
the United States; 

7. To establish postoffices and postroads; 

8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for limited times, 
to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries; 

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court; 

10. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and of- 
fenses against the law of nations; 

11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning 
captures on land and water; 

12. To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be 
for a longer term than two years; 

13. To provide and maintain a navy; 

14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces; 

15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress 
insurrections, and repel invasions; 

16. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for governing 
such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to 
the State respectively the appointment of the officers and the authority of training the 
militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress; 

17. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever over such district (not ex- 
ceeding ten miles square) as may be cession of particular States and the acceptance of 
Congress, become the seat of Government of the United States, and to exercise like au- 
thority over all places purchased by the consent of the Legislature of the State, in which 
the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other 
needful buildings; — and 

18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution 



The Constitution of the United States 111 



the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the Govern- 
ment of the United States, or any department or officer thereof. 

Sec. 9 — 1. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States now ex- 
isting shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the 
year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such 
importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person. 

2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in 
cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it. 

3. No bill of attainer or ex post facto law shall be passed. 

4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or 
enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken.* 

5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State. 

6. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the 
ports of one State over those of another; nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one State 
be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another. 

7. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in consequence of appropriations 
made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all 
public money shall be published from time to time. 

8. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; and no person holding 
any office or profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, ac- 
cept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, 
prince, or foreign state. 

Sec. 10 — 1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant let- 
ters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything but gold 
and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainer; ex post facto law, 
or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. 

2. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on 
imports or exports except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection 
laws; and the net produce of all duties and imports, laid by any State on imports or ex- 
ports, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be 
subject to the revision and control of the Congress. 

3. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep 
troops, or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with an- 
other State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in 
such imminent danger as will not admit delay. 

ARTICLE II 

Section 1 — 1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States 



*See Article XVI, Amendments. 



112 North Carolina Manual 



of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and, together with the 
Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows: 

2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof may direct, a 
number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to 
which the State may be entitled in the Congress; but no Senator or Representative or 
person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States shall be appointed an 
elector. 

3. The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for two per- 
sons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves. 
And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for 
each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of 
the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives open all the 
certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number 
of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of 
electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an 
equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by 
ballot one of them for President; and if no person have a majority, then from the five 
highest on the list the said House shall in like manner choose the President. But in 
choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each 
State having one vote; a quorum, for this purpose, shall consist of a member or mem- 
bers from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a 
choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the greatest 
number of votes of the electors shall be the Vice-President. But if there shall remain two 
or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice 
President.* 

4. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors and the day on 
which they shall give their votes, which day shall be the same throughout the United 
States. 

5. No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States, at the 
time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; 
neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age 
of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States. 

6. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation or 
inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on 
the Vice President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, 
resignation, or inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what officer 
shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly until the disability be 
removed, or a President shall be elected. 

7. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensation which 
shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been 



*This clause is superseded by Article XII, Amendments. 



The Constitution of the United States 113 



elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the 
United States, or any of them. 

8. Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or 
affirmation: 

"I do solemly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of 
the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the 
Constitution of the United States." 

Sec. 2 — 1 . The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the 
United States, and of the militia of the several States, when called into the actual service 
of the United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in 
each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their re- 
spective offices; and he shall have power to grant reprieves, and pardons for offenses 
against the United States, except in cases of impeachment. 

2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make 
treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate and, 
by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other 
public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the 
United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which 
shall be established by law; but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such 
inferior officers as they think proper in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in 
the heads of departments. 

3. The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the 
recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next 
session. 

Sec. 3 — He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the State of 
the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge nec- 
essary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both Houses, or 
either of them, and in case of disagreement between them with respect to the time of ad- 
journment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive 
ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully ex- 
ecuted, and shall commission all the officers of the United States. 

Sec. 4 — The President, Vice President, and all civil officers of the United States, shall 
be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or 
other high crimes and misdemeanors. 



ARTICLE III 

Section 1 — The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme 
Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from Ume to time ordain and es- 
tablish. The judges, both of the Supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices dur- 
ing good behavior, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation 
which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. 



114 North Carolina Manual 



Sec. 2 — 1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under 
this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be 
made, under their authority; — to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers 
and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; — to controversies to 
which the United States shall be a party; — to controversies between two or more 
States; — between citizens of the same State, claiming lands under grants of different 
States, and between a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign States, citizens, or sub- 
jects. 

2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those 
in which a State shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. In 
all the other cases before mentioned the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdic- 
tion, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as the 
Congress shall make. 

3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury, and such 
trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes shall have been committed; but 
when not committed within any State the trial shall be at such place or places as the 
Congress may by law have directed. 

Sec. 3 — 1. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against 
them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be 
convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or 
on confession in open court. 

2. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason; but no at- 
tainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture except during the life of 
the person attained. 

ARTICLE IV 

Section 1 — Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public acts, records, 
and judicial proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general laws 
prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and proceedings shall be proved, and 
the effect thereof. 

Sec. 2—1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities 
of citizens in the several States. 

2. A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee 
from justice and be found in another State, shall, on demand of the Executive authority 
of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having juris- 
diction of the crime. 

3. No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof, escaping 
into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from 
such service or labor, but shall be delivered upon claim of the party to whom such serv- 
ice or labor may be due. 

Sec. 3—1. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new 
State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State 



The Constitution of the United States 115 



be formed by thejunction of two or more States, on parts of States, without theconsent 
of the Legislatures of the States concerned, as well as of the Congress. 

2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regu- 
lations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States; and 
nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the 
United States or of any particular State. 

Sec. 4 — The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a republican 
form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion, and, on applica- 
tion of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened), 
against domestic violence. 

ARTICLE V 

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall pro- 
pose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the Legislatures of two- 
thirds of the several States, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in 
either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when 
ratified by the Legislatures of three-fourths of the several States, or by conventions in 
three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by 
the Congress; provided that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one 
thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses 
in the Ninth Section of the First Article; and that no State, without its consent, shall be 
deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate. 

ARTICLE VI 

1. All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adoption of this 
Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as 
under the Confederation. 

2. This Constitution and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pur- 
suance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the 
United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every State shall 
be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary not- 
withstanding. 

3. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the sev- 
eral State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States 
and of the several States, shall be bound by oath or affirmation to support this Consti- 
tution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or pub- 
lic trust under the United States. 



ARTICLE VII 

The ratification of the Convention of nine States shall be sufficient for the establish- 
ment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the same. 



116 



North Carouna Manual 



Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth 
Day of September, in the Year of Our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty- 
seven, and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth. In witness 
whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names.* 



GEO[RGE] WASHINGTON, 

President and deputy from Virginia 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

John Langdon 
Nicholas Gilman 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Nathaniel Gorham 
Rufus King, 

CONNECTICUT 

W[illiai]m Sam[ue]l Johnson 
Roger Sherman 
Geo[rge]Clymer 
Jared Ingersoll 
Gouv. Morris 

DELAWARE 
Geo[rge] Read 
John Dickinson 
Jaco[b] Broom 
Gunning Bedford, Jr. 
Richard Bassett 

MARYLAND 

James McHenry 
Dan[ie]l Carroll 
Dan[iel] of St. Thos. Jenifer 



VIRGINIA 

John Blair 



NEW YORK 

Alexander Hamilton 

NEW JERSEY 

Wil[liam] Livingston 
David Brearley 
W[illia]m Patterson 
Jona[than] Dayton 

PENNSYLVANIA 

B[enjamin] Franklin 
Rob[er]t Morris 
Tho[ma]s Fitzsimmons 
James Wilson 
Thomas Mifflin 
Ja[me]s Madison, Jr. 

NORTH CAROLINA 

W[illia]m Blount 
Hu[gh] Williamson 
Rich[ar]d Dobbs Spaight 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

J[ames] Rutledge 

Charles Pinckney 

Charles Cotesworth Pinckney 

Pierce Butler 

GEORGIA 

William Few 
Abr[aham] Baldwin 



ATTEST: 

William Jackson, Secretary 



*The Constitution was declared in effect on the first Wednesday in March, 1789. 



The Constitution of the United States 117 



AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION 
OF THE UNITED STATES 

THE TEN ORIGINAL AMENDMENTS* 

The following amendments to the Constitution, Article I to X, inclusive, were pro- 
posed at the First Session of the First Congress, begun and held at the City of New 
York, on Wednesday, March 4, 1789, and were adopted by the necessary number of 
States. The original proposal of the ten amendments was preceded by this preamble and 
resolution: 

"The conventions of a number of the States having, at the time of their 
adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruc- 
tion or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses 
should be added, and as extending the ground of public confidence in the Gov- 
ernment will best insure the beneficient ends of its institution: 

"RESOLVED, By the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America, in Congress assembled, two-thirds of both Houses con- 
curring that the following articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the sev- 
eral States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States; all or any 
of which articles, when ratified by three-fourths of the said Legislatures, to be 
valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution, namely"; 

ARTICLE I 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting 
the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press; or the right 
of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of 
grievances. 



ARTICLE II 

A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the 
people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. 



ARTICLE III 

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of 
the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner to be prescribed by law. 



ARTICLE IV 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects 
against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall 
issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly de- 
scribing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. 



*These amendments known as The Bill of Rights, were declared in force December 15, 1791. North Carolina 
ratified these ten amendments on December 22, 1789 (Ch. 19, Laws oj 1789). 



118 North Carolina Manual 



ARTICLE V 

No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless 
on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or na- 
val forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor 
shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or 
limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against him, nor be de- 
prived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property 
be taken for public use, without just compensation. 

ARTICLE VI 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy, and public 
trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been 
committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and be in- 
formed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses 
against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to 
have the assistance of counsel for his defense. 

ARTICLE VII 

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, 
the right of tiral by jury shall be preserved and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise 
re-examined in any court of the United States than according to the rules of the com- 
mon law. 

ARTICLE VIII 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unu- 
sual punishments inflicted. 

ARTICLE IX 

The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny 
or disparage others retained by the people. 

ARTICLE X 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by 
it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. 

SUBSEQUENT AMENDMENTS 

ARTICLE XI 

The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in 
law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States, by citizens of 
another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign State. 

(Proposed to the Legislatures of the several States by the Third Congress on the 5th of March. 1794. and de- 
clared to have been ratified by Executive Proclamation, January 8, 1798. It was ratified by North Carolina on 
February 7, 1795.) 



The Constitution of the United States 119 



ARTICLE XII 

The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for President and 
Vice President, one of whom at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with 
themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in dis- 
tinct ballots the persons voted for as Vice President; and they shall make distinct lists of 
all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice President, and of 
the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit, 
sealed, to the seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of 
the Senate; the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of 
Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted; the person 
having the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, if such number 
be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such 
majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three on the 
list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immedi- 
ately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by 
States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose 
shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of 
all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall 
not choose a President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the 
fourth day of March next following, then the Vice President shall act as President, as in 
the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person hav- 
ing the greatest number of votes as Vice President shall be the Vice President, if such 
number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have 
a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the 
Vice President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole num- 
ber of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But 
no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of 
Vice President of the United States. 

[Proposed by the Eighth Congress on the 12 of December. 1803, declared ratified by the Secretary of State, 
September 25, 1804. It was ratified by North Carolina on December 21, 1803. It was ratified by all the States ex- 
cept Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire.] 

ARTICLE XIII 

1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime 
whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or 
any place subject to their jurisdiction. 

2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

[Proposed by the Thirty-eighth Congress on the 1st of February, 1865, declared ratified by the Secretary of 
State, December 18, 1865. It was ratified by North Carolina on December 4, 1865 (Resolution, Public Laws of 
1865. It was rejected by Delaware and Kentucky; was conditionally ratified by Alabama and Mississippi; and 
Texas took no action.] 

ARTICLE XIV 

1 . All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction 
thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State 



120 North Carolina Manual 



shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges of immunities of citi- 
zens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or prop- 
erty, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal 
protection of the laws. 

2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their 
respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding In- 
dians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for 
President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the 
executive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is 
denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and 
citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebel- 
lion or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the propor- 
tion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citi- 
zens twenty-one years of age in such State. 

3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of Presi- 
dent and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or 
under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as 
an officer of the United Sttaes, or as a member of any State Legislature, or as an execu- 
tive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, 
shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort 
to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each house, re- 
move such disability. 

4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law including 
debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insur- 
rection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State 
shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion 
against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all 
such debts, obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void. 

5. The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate legislation the provisions 
of this article. 

[The Reconstruction Amendment, by the Thirty-ninth Congress on the 1 6th day of June. 1866, was declared 
ratified by the Secretary of State, July 28, 1 868. The amendment got the support of 23 Northern States; it w as re- 
jected by Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and 10 Southern States. California took no action. Later it was rati- 
fied by the 10 Southern States. North Carolina ratified it on July 4, 1868 (Resolution 2, Public Laws of 1868).) 

ARTICLE XV 

1. The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or 
abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous 
condition of servitude. 

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

[Proposed by the Fortieth Congress the 27th of February, 1869, and was declared ratified by the Secretary of 
State, March 30, 1870. It was not acted on by Tennessee; it was rejected by California, Delaware, Kentucky, 
Maryland and Oregon; ratified by the remaining 30 States. North Carolina ratified it on March 5, 1869 (Public 
Laws of 1868-69). New York rescinded its ratification January 5, 1870. New Jersey rejected it in 1870, but ratified 
it in 1871.)] 



The Constitution of the United States 121 



ARTICLE XVI 

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever 
source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to 
any census or enumeration. 

[Proposed by the Sixty-first Congress, July 12, 1909. and declared ratified February 25, 1913. The income tax 
amendment was ratified by all the States, except Connecticut, Florida, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Utah, and 
Virginia. North Carolina ratified it on February II, 1911 (Resolution 11, Public Laws of 1911).] 

ARTICLE XVII 

1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each 
State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. 
The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most 
numerous branch of the State Legislatures. 

2. When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the execu- 
tive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies; Provided, 
That the Legislature of any State may empower the Executive thereof to make tempor- 
ary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by elections as the Legislature may 
direct. 

3. This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any 
Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution. 

[Proposed by the Sixty-second Congress on the 16th day of May, 1912, and declared ratified May 31, 1913. 
Adopted by all the States except Alabama, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Missis- 
sippi, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Utah and Virginia. North Carolina ratified it on January 25, 1913 (Resolu- 
tion 10, Public Laws of 1913).] 

ARTICLE XVIII 

1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or trans- 
portation of intoxicating liquours within, the importation thereof into, or the exporta- 
tion thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof 
for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. 

2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this 
article by appropriate legislation. 

3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment 
to the Constitution by the Legislatures of the several States as provided in the Constitu- 
tion, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Con- 
gress. 

[Proposed by the Sixty-fifth Congress, December 18, 1917, and ratified by 36 States: was declared in effect on 
January 16, 1920. It was ratified by North Carolina on January 16, 1919 (Resolution 8, Public Laws of I9l9i.] 

ARTICLE XIX 

1 . The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by 
the United States or by any State on account of sex. 

2. Congress shall have power, by appropriate legislation, to enforce the provisions of 
this article. 



122 North Carolina Manual 



[Proposed by the Sixty-fifth Congress. On August 26, 1920, it was proclaimed in effect, having been ratified by 
three-quarters of the States. It was ratified by North Carolina on May 6, 1971 (Ch. 327, Session Laws of 1971). 
The Tennessee House, August 31st, rescinded its ratification, 47 to 24.] 

ARTICLE XX 

1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of 
January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3rd day of Janu- 
ary of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been rati- 
fied; and the terms of their successors shall then begin. 

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be- 
gin at noon on the 3rd day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day. 

3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President 
elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall 
not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the Presi- 
dent elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President 
until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case 
wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declar- 
ing who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be se- 
lected, and such person shall act accordingly, until a President or Vice President shall 
have qualified. 

4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons 
from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of 
choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the per- 
sons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President when the right of choice shall 
have devolved upon them. 

5. Section 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratifica- 
tion of this article. 

6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment 
to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven 
years from the date of its submission. 

[Proposed by the 72nd Congress, First Session. On February 6, 1933, it was proclaimed in effect, having been 
ratified by thirty-nine states. It was ratified by North Carolina on January 5, 1933 (Resolution 4, Puhlic Laws of 
1933).] 

ARTICLE XXI 

1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is 
hereby repealed. 

2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the 
United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws 
thereof, is hereby prohibited. 

3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment 
to the Constitution by convention in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, 
within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress. 



The Constitution of the United States 123 



(Proposed by the 72nd Congress, Second Session. Proclaimed in effect on December 5, 1933, having been rati- 
fied by thirty-six Stales. North Carolina did not ratify this Amendment. By proclamation of the same date, the 
President proclaimed that the eighteenth amendment to the Constitution was repealed on December 5, 1933.) 



ARTICLE XXII 

1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no 
person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two 
years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the 
office of the President more than once. But this article shall not apply to any person 
holding the office of President when this article was proposed by the Congress, and shall 
not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as Presi- 
dent, during the term within which this article becomes operative from holding the of- 
fice of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term. 

2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment 
to the constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven 
years from the date of its submission to the States by the congress. 

[Proposed by the 80th Congress in 1947 and became effective on Feb. 26, 1951, having been ratified by thirty- 
six states. It was ratified by North Carolina on January 28, 1951 (Ch. 136, Session laws of 1951).] 



ARTICLE XXIII 

1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall ap- 
point in such manner as the Congress may direct: 

A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of 
Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it 
were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addi- 
tion to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purpose of 
the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and 
they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article 
of amendment. 

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

[Proposed by the 86th Congress in June of 1960 and ratified by the 38th State, March 29, 1961 and proclaimed 
a part of the Constitution, April 3, 1961. North Carolina did not ratify it.) 



ARTICLE XXIV 

1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election 
for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Sena- 
tor or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States 
or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax. 

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

[Proposed by the 87th Congress, August 27, 1962 and ratified by the 38th State, January 23, 1964. It was not 
ratified by North Carolina.) 



124 North Carolina Manual 



ARTICLE XXV 

1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, 
the Vice President shall become President. 

2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall 
nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote 
of both Houses of Congress. 

3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and 
the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to 
discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written 
declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice Pres- 
ident as Acting President. 

4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the 
executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit 
to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and 
duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties 
of the office as Acting President. 

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate 
and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no in- 
ability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice Presi- 
dent and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of 
such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the Presi- 
dent pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their 
written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his 
office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours 
for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt 
of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days 
after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses 
that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice 
President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the Presi- 
dent shall resume the powers and duties of his office. 

[Submitted to the Legislatures of the fifty States July 6, 1965. Ratified by the 38th State (Nevada) February 10, 
1967. It was ratified by North Carolina on March 22, 1967 (Ch. 77, Session Laws of 1967).] 



ARTICLE XXVI 

1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to 
vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State on account of age. 

2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legisla- 
tion. 

[Proposed to the States by Congress on March 23, 1971 and ratification completed June 30, 1971. It was rati- 
fied by North Carolina on July 1, 1971 (Ch. 725, Session Laws of 1971).] 



PART III 

CENSUS 



Census 127 

POPULATION OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

Twentieth Census of the United States — 1980 

The 1980 Census, the Twentieth Census of the United States, was one of the most 
accurate ever taken. There have been numerous challenges to the figures released by 
the Bureau of the Census; however, most of these challenges are the result of growth 
rates being lower than anticipated by local governmental officials. The lower figures 
are due to the figures of the 1970 Census which were found to be higher in many cases 
than they actually were. This created a faulty base on which to make initial projections 
during the decade of the seventies. 

In North Carolina there were 42 incorporated places of 10,000 or more in 1980. 
Three of these reached this size since 1970 — Boone, Havelock, and Laurinburg. Of 
the incorporated places over 10,000, Charlotte is the largest with 314,447 people, fol- 
lowed by Greensboro with 155,642 and Raleigh with 149,771. Winston-Salem, the 
third largest in 1970, experienced a drop from 132,913 in 1970 to 131,885 in 1980. 
During the 1970's several of the incorporated urban areas annexed military bases 
which were adjacent to them. This in part accounts for the dramatic increases in the 
population of certain incorporated areas. 

According to the final figures of the 1980 Census, 97 of the counties gained in popu- 
lation. This is quite a change from the previous census which showed only 62 counties 
with gains while 38 had declines. Currituck County showed the greatest percentage 
gain with an increase of 91.2%. Dare County was a distant second with a 59.0% 
increase. Brunswick County was third at 47.7%. 

The first census of North Carolina was taken in 1790, returning a population of 
393,751. The population has shown an increase in every census since that time. The 
population passed 1,000,000 between 1860 and 1870; 2,000,000 between 1900 and 1910; 
3,000,000 between 1920 and 1930; 4,000,000 between 1940 and 1950; and 5,000,000 
between 1960 and 1970. The recent census reveals that the present population of North 
Carolina is 5,874,429. This represents a growth rate of 15.5%, or more than three 
quarters of a million people, during the last decade as opposed to a rate of approxi- 
mately 12%, or half a million people, during the 1960's. Almost half (47.7%) of the 
1970-1980 change in population was due to net migration. This is in contrast to the 
previous decade where all the growth was due to natural increase (or an excess of 
births over deaths). In fact, natural increase during the 1960's was greater than total 
growth, due to a net out-migration of 70,319 persons during that decade. If the same 
high rate of natural increase in the 1960's had continued during the 1970's the state 
would have had around 271,000 more residents than reflected in the 1980 figure. As it 
was, a tremendous increase in net migration much more than offset the decrease in 
birth rates. 

North Carolina has a total area of 52,712 square miles of which 48,798 is land area 
and 3.914 is water. Based on the population figures of 1980, North Carolina has a 
density of 1 1 1.4 inhabitants per square mile — an increase of 15 over the 1970 density 
figure of 96.4 inhabitants. 

The tables that follow give various population figures based on tabulations made 
during the 1980 census and corrections of initial reporting errors and any changes that 
have occurred since April 1, 1980. 



128 



North Carouna Manual 



TABLE 1. STATE POPULATION STATISTICS - 

CENSUS STATISTICS & PROJECTIONS 



1-A. Components of Population Change. 



1960-1970 

Growtii 528,256 

Births 1,011,061 

Deaths 412,486 

Natural Increase 598,575 

Net Migration -70,319 



Percent 
Change 

12.0 
22.0 
9.0 
13.0 
-2.0 



1-B. Regional Components of Growth 



Growth: 

Coastal Plain . 

Piedmont 

Mountains 

Births: 

Coastal Plain . 

Piedmont 

Mountains 

Deaths: 

Coastal Plain . 

Piedmont 

Mountains 

Natural Increase: 
Coastal Plain . 

Piedmont 

Mountains 

Net Migration: 
Coastal Plain . 

Piedmont 

Mountains 



1960-1970 

72.788 

366,352 

89,116 



379,266 
471,843 
159,964 



146.280 

192,378 

73,838 



232,986 

279,465 

86,126 



160,198 

86,887 

2,990 



Percent 
Change 

4.47 
17.05 
11.43 



23.30 
21.96 
20.52 



8.99 
8.95 
9.47 



14.31 
13.01 
11.05 



-9.84 
4.04 
0.38 



1970-1980 


Change 


790.018 


15.5 


861.157 


17.0 


464.508 


9.0 


396,649 


8.0 


393.369 


7.0 


vth. 


Percent 


1970-1980 


Change 


230,888 


13.58 


410,636 


16.33 


148,494 


17.10 


328,207 


19.30 


397,598 


15.81 


135,368 


15.58 


157,489 


9.26 


222,830 


8.86 


84,197 


9.69 


170,718 


10.04 


174,768 


6.95 


51,171 


5.89 


60,170 


3.50 


235,868 


9.38 


97,323 


11.20 



Change 
in Rates 


3.5 


5.0 


0.0 


-5.0 


9.0 


Change 
In Rates 


9.11 


-0.72 


5.67 


-4.00 


-6.15 


-4.94 


0.27 


-0.09 


0.22 


^.27 


-6.06 


-5.16 


13.38 


5.34 


10.82 



1-C. Statewide Census Figures. 



Date ol Data 
April 1, 1960 .... 
April 1, 1970 .... 
April 1. 1980 .... 
July 1, 1985* 
April 1, 1990* .. 





Change Irom 


Population 


Last Census 


4,556.155 


494,226 


5,084.411 


528.256 


5,874,429 


790,018 


6 24 1 000 




6,601,000 


787,227 



Percent 
Change 

12.2 
11.6 
15.5 



13.5 



Projected Daia 



Census 



129 



TABLE 2. COUNTY POPULATION STATISTICS, 1980 CENSUS 



County 



Land Area 

in Square 

Miles 



1970 Census 
Total 
Population 



Density 



1980 Census 
Total 
Population 



Density 



Percent 

Change 

1970-1980 



Alamance ... 
Alexander ... 
Alleghany ... 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick .. 

Buncombe .. 

Burke 

Cabarrus .... 

Caldwell 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham .... 
Cherokee .... 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland ... 
Columbus ... 
Craven 

Cumberland 
Currituck .... 

Dare 

Davidson .... 
Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe . 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville .... 
Greene 

Guilford 

Halifa.x 

Harnett 

Haywood .... 
Henderson .. 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 



428 


96,502 


225.1 


99.319 


232.1 


2.9 


259 


19,466 


75.2 


24.999 


96.5 


28.4 


225 


8,134 


36.2 


9.587 


42.6 


17.9 


533 


23,488 


44.1 


25.649 


48.1 


8.9 


426 


19,571 


45.9 


22.325 


52.4 


14.1 


245 


12.655 


51.7 


14,409 


58.8 


13.9 


826 


35,980 


43.6 


40,355 


48.9 


12.2 


698 


20.528 


29.4 


21.024 


30.1 


2.4 


883 


26,477 


30.0 


30.491 


34.5 


15.1 


856 


24,223 


28.3 


35,777 


41.8 


47.7 


657 


145.056 


220.8 


160.934 


245.0 


10.9 


511 


60.364 


118.1 


72.504 


141.9 


20.1 


363 


74,629 


205.6 


85.895 


326.6 


15.1 


469 


56.699 


120.9 


67.746 


144.4 


19.5 


239 


5,453 


22.8 


5.829 


24.4 


6.9 


536 


31,603 


59.0 


41.092 


76.7 


30.0 


428 


19,055 


44.5 


20.705 


48.4 


8.7 


394 


90,873 


230.6 


105.208 


267.0 


15.8 


709 


29,554 


41.7 


33.415 


47.1 


13.1 


452 


16.330 


36.1 


18.933 


40.4 


15.9 


173 


10.764 


62.2 


12.558 


72.6 


16.7 


209 


5,180 


24.8 


6.619 


31.7 


27.8 


468 


72,556 


155.0 


83.435 


177.6 


15.0 


945 


46,937 


49.7 


51.037 


54.0 


8.7 


699 


62,554 


89.5 


71.043 


101.6 


13.6 


654 


212,042 


324.2 


247.160 


377.9 


16.6 


246 


6,976 


28.4 


11.089 


45.1 


59.0 


391 


6,995 


17.9 


13.377 


34.2 


91.2 


549 


95,627 


174.2 


113,162 


206.1 


18.3 


265 


18,855 


71.2 


24,599 


92.8 


30.5 


815 


38,015 


46.6 


40,952 


50.2 


7.7 


295 


132,681 


449.8 


152,785 


517.9 


15.2 


510 


52,341 


102.6 


55,988 


109.8 


7.0 


419 


215,118 


513.4 


243,683 


581.6 


13.3 


491 


26,820 


54.6 


30.055 


61.2 


12.1 


356 


148.415 


416.9 


162.568 


456.7 


9.5 


337 


8,524 


25.3 


8.875 


26.3 


4.1 


292 


6,562 


22.5 


7,217 


24.7 


10.0 


537 


32,762 


61.0 


34.043 


63.4 


3.9 


267 


14,967 


56.1 


16.117 


60.4 


7.7 


655 


288.645 


440.6 


317,154 


484.2 


9.9 


734 


53.884 


73.4 


55,286 


75.3 


2.6 


603 


49.667 


82.4 


59.570 


98.8 


19.9 


551 


41.710 


75.7 


46.495 


84.4 


11.5 


378 


42,804 


113.2 


58,580 


155.0 


36.9 


353 


24,439 


66.7 


23,368 


66.2 


-4.4 


389 


16,436 


42.3 


20,383 


52.6 


24.0 


613 


5,571 


9.1 


5,873 


9.6 


5.4 


572 


72,197 


126.2 


82,538 


144.3 


14.3 


491 


21.593 


44.0 


25.811 


52.6 


19.5 



130 



North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 2. COUNTY POPULATION STATISTICS, 
1980 CENSUS (Continued) 



County 



Land Area 

in Square 

Miles 



1970 Census 
Total 
Population 



Density 



1980 Census 
Total 
Population 



Density 



Percent 

Change 

1970-1980 



Johnston 797 

Jones 467 

Lee 256 

Lenoir 400 

Lincoln 297 

McDowell 436 

Macon 513 

Madison 450 

Martin 455 

Mecklenburg 530 

Mitchell 215 

Montgomery 488 

Moore 704 

Nash 544 

New Hanover 185 

Northampton 536 

Onslow 765 

Orange 400 

Pamlico 338 

Pasquotank 228 

Pender 871 

Perquimans 246 

Person 401 

Pitt 655 

Polk 239 

Randolph 798 

Richmond 475 

Robeson 949 

Rockingham 569 

Rowan 523 

Rutherford 563 

Sampson 945 

Scotland 319 

Stanly 398 

Stokes 457 

Surry 536 

Swain 524 

Transylvania 382 

Tyrrell 390 

Union 639 

Vance 249 

Wake 858 

Warren 424 

Washington 343 

Watauga 317 

Wayne 557 

Wilkes 757 

Wilson 375 

Yadkin 336 

Yancey 312 



61,737 


77.5 


9,779 


20.9 


30,467 


119.0 


55,204 


138.0 


32,682 


110.0 


30,648 


70.3 


15,788 


30.8 


16,003 


35.6 


24,730 


54.4 


354,656 


669.2 


13,447 


62.5 


19,267 


39.5 


39,048 


55.5 


59,122 


108.7 


82,996 


448.6 


23,099 


43.1 


103,126 


134.8 


57,567 


143.9 


9,467 


28.0 


26,824 


117.6 


18,149 


20.8 


8,351 


33.9 


25,914 


64.6 


73,900 


112.8 


11,735 


49.1 


76,358 


95.7 


39.889 


84.0 


84,842 


89.4 


72,402 


127.2 


90,035 


172.2 


47,337 


84.1 


44,954 


47.6 


26,929 


84.4 


42,822 


107.6 


23,782 


52.0 


51,415 


95.9 


8,835 


16.9 


19,713 


51.6 


3,806 


9.8 


54,714 


85.6 


32,691 


131.3 


229,006 


266.9 


15,810 


37.3 


14,038 


40.9 


23,404 


73.8 


85,408 


153.3 


49,524 


65.4 


57,486 


153.3 


24,599 


73.2 


12,629 


40.5 



70,599 


88.6 


14.4 


9.705 


20.8 


-0.8 


36,718 


143.4 


20.5 


59,819 


149.5 


8.4 


42,372 


142.7 


29.6 


35,135 


80.6 


14.6 


20,178 


39.3 


27.8 


16,827 


37.4 


5.1 


25,948 


120.7 


4.9 


404,270 


762.8 


14.0 


14,428 


67.1 


7.3 


22,469 


46.0 


16.6 


50,505 


71.7 


29.3 


67.153 


123.4 


13.6 


103,471 


559.3 


24.7 


22,584 


42.1 


-2.2 


112,784 


147.4 


9.4 


77.055 


192.6 


33.9 


10.398 


30.8 


9.8 


28.462 


124.8 


6.1 


22.215 


25.5 


22.4 


9.486 


38.6 


13.6 


29.164 


72.7 


12.5 


90,146 


137.6 


22.0 


12,984 


54.3 


10.6 


91,728 


114.9 


20.1 


45,481 


95.7 


14.0 


101,610 


107.0 


19.8 


83,426 


146.1 


15.2 


99,186 


189.6 


10.2 


53,787 


95.5 


13.6 


49.687 


52.6 


10.5 


32,273 


101.2 


19.8 


48,517 


121.9 


13.3 


33,086 


72.4 


39.1 


59,449 


110.9 


15.6 


10,283 


19.6 


16.4 


23,417 


61.3 


18.8 


3,975 


10.2 


4.4 


70,380 


110.1 


28.6 


36.748 


147.6 


12.4 


301.327 


351.2 


31.6 


16.232 


38.3 


2.7 


14.801 


43.2 


5.4 


3 1 ,666 


99.8 


35.3 


97,054 


174.2 


13.6 


58,657 


77.5 


18.4 


63,132 


168.4 


9.8 


28,439 


84.6 


15.6 


14,934 


47.9 


18.3 



Census 131 



TABLE 3. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
10,000 OR MORE 



1970 1980 Percent 

City or Town County Census Census Cliange 

Albemarle Stanly 11,126 15,110 35.8 

Asheboro Randolph 10,797 15,252 41.3 

Asheville Buncombe 57,820 53,583 -7.3 

Boone Watauga 8,754 10,191 16.4 

Burlington Alamance 35,930 37,266 3.7 

Cary Wake 7,640 21,763 184.9 

Chapel Hill Durham, Orange 26,199 32,421 23.7 

Charlotte Mecklenburg 241,420 314,447 30.2 

Concord Cabarrus 18,464 16,942 -8.2 

Durham Durham 95,438 100,831 5.7 

Eden Rockingham 15,871 15,672 -1.3 

Elizabeth City Pasquotank, Camden 14,381 14,002 -2.6 

Fayetteville Cumberland 53,510 59,507 11.2 

Gastonia Gaston 47,322 47,333 0.0 

Goldsboro Wayne 26,960 31,871 18.2 

Greensboro Guilford 144,076 155,642 8.0 

Greenville Pitt 29,063 35,740 23.0 

Havelock Craven 3,012 17,718 488.2 

Henderson Vance 13.896 13,522 -2.7 

Hickory Burke, Catawba 20,569 20,757 0.9 

High Point Randolph, Guilford 63,229 63,380 0.2 

Jacksonville Onslow 16,289 17,056 4.7 

Kinston Lenoir 23,020 25,234 9.6 

Laurinburg Scotland 8,859 11,480 29.6 

Lenoir Caldwell 14,705 13,748 -6.5 

Lexington Davidson 17.205 15,711 -8.7 

Lumberton Robeson 16,961 18,340 8.1 

Monroe Union 11.282 12.639 12.0 

Morganton Burke 13,625 13.763 1.0 

New Bern Craven 14,660 14,557 -0.7 

Raleigh Wake 122,830 150,255 22.3 

Reidsville Rockingham 13,636 12,492 -8.4 

Roanoke Rapids Halifax 13,508 14,702 8.8 

Rocky Mount Edgecombe, Nash 34,284 41,283 20.4 

Salisbury Rowan 22,515 22*677 0.7 

Sanford Lee 11,716 14,773 26.1 

Shelby Cleveland 16,328 15,310 -6.2 

Statesville Iredell 20,007 18,622 -6.9 

Thomasville Davidson 15,230 14,144 -7.1 

Wilmington New Hanover 46,169 44,000 -4.7 

Wilson Wilson 29,347 34,424 17.3 

Winston-Salem Forsyth 133.683 131,885 -1.3 



132 North Carouna Manual 



TABLE 4. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
2,500-9,999 INHABITANTS 



1970 1980 Percent 

City or Town County Census Census Change 

Ahoskie Hertford 

Apex Wake 

Archdale Randolph, Guilford 

Beaufort Carteret 

Belmont Gaston 



Benson Johnston 

Bessemer City Gaston 

Black Mountain Buncombe ... 

Brevard Transylvania 

Canton Haywood 



Carrboro Orange ... 

Cherryville Gaston ... 

Clayton Johnston 

Clinton Sampson 

Conover Catawba 



Dallas Gaston 

Davidson Mecklenburg, Iredell 

Dunn Harnett 

Edenton Chowan 

Elizabethtown Bladen 



Elkin Surry, Wilkes 

Elon College Town Alamance 

Enfield Halifax 

Erwin Harnett 

Fairmont Robeson 



Farmville Pitt 

Forest City Rutherford 

Franklin Macon 

Fuquay-Varina Wake 

Garner Wake 



Gibsonville Guilford, Alamance 

Graham Alamance 

Granite Falls Caldwell 

Hamlet Richmond 

Hendersonville Henderson 



Hillsborough Orange 

Hope Mills Cumberland 

Hudson Caldwell 

Kernersville Forsyth 

Kings Mountain Cleveland, Gaston 



La Grange Lenoir 

Lincolnton Lincoln 

Longview Burke, Catawba 

Louisburg Franklin 

Lowell Gaston 



5,105 


4,887 


-4.3 


2,234 


2,847 


27.4 


4,874 


5,745 


17.9 


3,368 


3,826 


13.6 


5,054 


4,607 


-8.8 


2.267 


2,792 


23.2 


4,991 


4,787 


-4.1 


3,204 


4,083 


27.4 


5,412 


5,323 


1.5 


5,158 


4,631 


-10.2 


5,058 


7,517 


48.6 


5,258 


4,844 


-7.9 


3.103 


4,091 


31.8 


7,157 


7,552 


5.5 


3,355 


4.245 


26.5 


4,059 


3.340 


-17.7 


2.931 


3,241 


10.6 


8,302 


8,962 


7.9 


4,956 


5,264 


6.2 


1,418 


3,551 


150.4 


2,899 


2,858 


-1.4 


2,150 


2,873 


33.6 


3,272 


2,995 


-8.5 


2,852 


2,828 


-0.8 


2,827 


2,658 


-6.0 


4,424 


4,707 


6.4 


7,179 


7,688 


7.1 


2,336 


2,640 


13.0 


3,576 


3,110 


-13.0 


4,923 


9,556 


94.1 


2,019 


2,865 


41.9 


8,172 


8,674 


6.1 


2,388 


2,580 


8.0 


4,627 


4,720 


2.0 


6,443 


6,862 


6.5 


1,444 


3,019 


109.1 


1,866 


5,412 


190.0 


2,820 


2,888 


2.4 


4,815 


6,802 


41.3 


8,465 


9,080 


7.3 


2,679 


3,147 


17.5 


5,293 


4,879 


-7.8 


3.360 


3,587 


6.8 


2.941 


3,238 


10.1 


3,307 


2,917 


-11.8 



Census 133 



TABLE 4. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
2,500-9,999 INHABITANTS (Continued) 



1970 1980 Percent 

City or Town County Census Census Change 



Madison Rockingham 

Maiden Catawba, Lincoln . 

Marion McDowell 

Maxton Robeson, Scotland 

Mayodan Rockingham 



Mebane Alamance. Orange 

Mint Hill Mecklenburg 

Mocksville Davie 

Mooresville Iredell 

Morehead City Carteret 



Mount Airy Surry 

Mount Holly Gaston 

Mount Olive Duplin, Wayne 

Murfreesboro Hertford 

Nashville Nash 



Newton Catawba 

North Wilkesboro Wilkes 

Oxford Granville 

Pembroke Robeson 

Plymouth Washington 

Raeford Hoke 

Red Springs Robeson 

Rockingham Richmond ... 

Roxboro Person 

Rutherfordton Rutherford , 



Scotland Neck Halifax .. 

Selma Johnston 

Siler City Chatham 

Smithfield Johnston 

Southern Pines Moore ... 



Southport Brunswick ... 

Spencer Rowan 

Spindale Rutherford . 

Spring Lake Cumberland 

Tabor City Columbus ... 



Tarboro Edgecombe .. 

Troy Montgomery 

Valdese Burke 

Wadesboro Anson 

Wake Forest Wake 



Wallace Duplin, Pender 

Warsaw Duplin 

Washington Beaufort 

Waynesviile Haywood 

Whiteville Columbus 



Williamston Martin 

Wingate Union 

Woodfin Buncombe 

Wrightsville Beach New Hanover 



2,018 


2,806 


39.0 


2,416 


2,574 


6.5 


3,335 


3,684 


10.5 


1,885 


2,711 


43.8 


2,875 


2,627 


-8.6 


2,573 


2,782 
7,915 


8.1 


2,529 


2,637 


4.3 


8,808 


8,575 


-2.6 


5,233 


4,359 


-16.7 


7,325 


6,862 


-6.3 


5,107 


4,530 


-11.3 


4,914 


4,876 


-0.8 


4,418 


3.007 


-31.0 


1,670 


2,678 


60.4 


7,857 


7,624 


-3.0 


3,357 


3,260 


-2.9 


7,178 


7,603 


5.7 


1,982 


2,698 


36.1 


4,774 


4,571 


-4.3 


3,180 


3,630 


14.2 


3,383 


3,607 


6.6 


5,852 


8,300 


41.8 


5,370 


7,532 


40.3 


3,245 


3,434 


5.8 


2,869 


2,834 


-1.2 


4,356 


4,762 


9.3 


4,689 


4,446 


-5.2 


6,677 


7,288 


9.2 


5.937 


8,620 


45.2 


2.220 


2,824 


27.2 


3,075 


2,938 


-4.5 


3,848 


4,246 


10.3 


3,968 


6,273 


58.1 


2,400 


2,710 


12.9 


9,425 


8,634 


-8.4 


2,429 


2,702 


11.2 


3,182 


3,364 


5.7 


3,977 


4,119 


3.6 


3.148 


3,780 


20.1 


2,905 


2,903 


-0.1 


2,701 


2,910 


7.7 


8,961 


8,418 


-6.1 


6,488 


6,765 


4.3 


4,195 


5,565 


32.7 


6,570 


6,159 


-6.3 


2,569 


2,615 
3,260 
2,910 


1.8 


1,701 


71.3 



134 North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 5. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 

1,000-2,499 



1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 

Aberdeen Moore 

Andrews Cherokee 

Angier Harnett 

Aulander Bertie 

Banner Elk Avery 



Belhaven Beaufort ... 

Bethel Pitt 

Beaulavilie Duphn 

Biltmore Forest Buncombe 



Bladenboro Bladen 

Blowing Rock Caldwell, Watauga 

Boiling Springs Cleveland 

Boonville Yadkin 

Bryson City Swain 



Burgaw Pender 

Burnsville Yancey 

Carolina Beach New Hanover 

Chadbourn Columbus 

China Grove Rowan 



Coats Harnett 

Cornelius Mecklenburg 

Clyde Haywood 

Cramerton Gaston 

Creedmore Granville 



Dobson Surry 

Drexel Burke 

East Spencer Rowan 

Ellerbe Richmond 

Elm City Wilson 



Fair Bluff Columbus 

Four Oaks Johnston 

Franklinton Franklin 

Fremont Wayne 

Garysburg Northampton 

Granite Quarry Rowan 

Grifton Lenoir, Pitt .... 

Harrisburg Cabarrus 

Haw River Alamance 

Hazelwood Haywood 



Hertford Perquimans .. 

Huntersville Mecklenburg 

Jamestown Guilford 

Jefferson Ashe 

Jonesville Yadkin 



1,592 


1,945 


1,383 


1,621 


1,431 


1,709 


947 


1,214 


754 


1,087 


2,259 


2,430 


1,514 


1,825 


1,156 


1,060 


1,298 


1,499 


783 


1,385 


801 


1,337 


2,284 


2,381 


687 


1,028 


1,290 


1,556 


1.744 


1,586 


1,348 


1,452 


1,663 


2,000 


2,213 


1,975 


1,788 


2,081 


1,051 


1,385 


1,296 


1,460 


814 


1,008 


2,142 


1,869 


1,405 


1,641 


933 


1,222 


1,431 


1,392 


2,217 


2,150 


913 


1,415 


1,201 


1,561 


1,039 


1,095 


1,057 


1,049 


1,459 


1,394 


1,596 


1,736 


231 


1,434 


1,344 


1,294 


1,860 


2,179 




1,433 




2,117 


2,057 


1,811 


2,023 


1,941 


1,538 


1,294 


1,297 


2,148 


943 


1,086 


1,659 


1,752 



Census 135 



TABLE 5. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
1,000-2,499 (Continued) 



City or Town County 



1970 


1980 


Census 


Census 


1,370 


1,433 


357 


1,796 


924 


1,133 


2.297 


2,092 


2,167 


1,997 


1,155 


1.948 




1,590 


493 


1,834 


610 


1,070 


1,623 


2,126 


1,405 


2,011 


783 


1,648 


1,286 


1,423 


1,174 


1,210 


2.082 


2,070 


414 


1,020 


1,735 


1.883 


1,896 


1,818 


1,309 


1,090 


1,379 


1,465 


1,948 


1,525 


1,447 


1,332 


1,044 


1,034 


654 


1,508 


1,328 


1,162 


2,312 


2.156 


2,092 


1.774 


1,254 


1.057 


1,059 


1.256 


777 


1.370 


1,910 


1.981 


999 


1,339 


1,235 


1,227 


1,448 


1,508 


1,358 


1,841 




1,336 




1,108 


2,011 


1,639 


1,359 


1,374 


1,304 


1,687 


1,334 


1,254 


2,333 


2,282 




1,826 


2.336 


2,341 


1,030 


1.054 



Kenly Johnston. Wilson 

Kill bevel Hills Dare 

Lake Waccamaw Columbus 

Landis Rowan 

Liberty Randolph 



Lillington Harnett 

Locust Stanly 

Long Beach Brunswick 

Lucama Wilson 

Mars Hill Madison ... 



Marshville Union 

Matthews Mecklenburg 

Mount Gilead Montgomery 

Mount Pleasant Cabarrus 

Murphy Cherokee 



Nags Head Dare 

Newport Carteret 

Norwood Stanly 

Pilot Mountain Surry 

Pinetops Edgecombe 



Pineville Mecklenburg 

Pittsboro Chatham 

Princeton Johnston 

Princeville Edgecombe ... 

Ramseur Randolph 



Randleman Randolph 

Ranlo Gaston 

Rich Square Northampton 

Robbins Moore 

Robbinsville Graham 



Robersonville Martin .... 

Rockwell Rowan .... 

Roseboro Sampson 

Rose Hill Duplin .... 

Rowland Robeson . 



Rural Hall Forsyth .... 

Rutherford College Burke 

St. Pauls Robeson .. 

Snow Hill Greene 

Sparta Alleghany 



Spring Hope Nash 

Spruce Pine Mitchell 

Stallings Union 

Stanley Gaston 

Stoneville Rockingham 



136 North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 5. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
1,000-2,499 (Continued) 



1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 

Swansboro Onslow 

Sylva Jackson 

Tayiorsville Alexander 

Trentwoods Craven 

Troutman Iredell 



Tryon Polk 

Walnut Cove Stokes 

Waxhaw Union 

Weaverville Buncombe 

Weldon Halifax 



Wendell Wake .. 

Whispering Pines Moore 

Wilkesboro Wilkes 

Windsor Bertie .. 

Winterville Pitt 



Yadkinville Yadkin 

Zebulon Wake .. 



1,207 


976 


1.561 


1,699 


1,231 


1,103 


719 


1,177 


797 


1,360 


1,951 


1,796 


1,213 


1.147 


1,248 


1,208 


1,280 


1,495 


2,304 


1,844 


1,929 


2,222 


362 


1,160 


2.038 


2,335 


2,199 


2,126 


1,437 


2,052 


2,232 


2,216 


1,839 


2,055 



Census 137 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
LESS THAN 1,000 



1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 

Alexander Mills Rutherford 

Alamance Alamance 

Alliance Pamlico 

Anson ville Anson 

Arapahoe Pamlico 



Arlington Yadkin 

Ashewville Bertie 

Atkinson Pender 

Aurora Beaufort 

Autryville Sampson 

Ayden Pitt 

Bailey Nash 

Bakersville Mitchell 

Bath Beaufort 

Battleboro Edgecombe, Nash 

Bayboro Pamlico 

Beargrass Martin 

Belville Brunswick 

Belwood Cleveland 

Black Creek Wilson 



Boiling Spring Lakes Brunswick . 

Bolivia Brunswick . 

Bolton Columbus .. 

Bostic Rutherford 

Bridgeton Craven 



Broadway Lee 

Brookford Catawba ... 

Brunswick Columbus , 

Bunn Franklin ... 

Calabash Brunswick 



Calypso Duplin 

Cameron Moore 

Candor Montgomery 

Cape Carteret Carteret 

Carthage Moore 



Casar Cleveland 

Cashiers Jackson .... 

Castalia Nash 

Caswell Beach Brunswick 

Catawba Catawba ... 



Centerville Franklin .. 

Cerro Gordo Columbus 

Chadwick Acres Onslow .... 

Chocowinity Beaufort .. 

Claremont Catawba .. 



988 


643 




320 


577 


616 


694 


794 


474 


467 


711 


872 


247 


227 


325 


298 


620 


698 


213 


228 


3,450 


184 


724 


685 


409 


373 


231 


207 


562 


632 


821 


759 


99 


82 


59 


102 




613 


449 


523 


245 


998 


185 


252 


534 


563 


289 


476 


520 


461 


694 


908 


590 


467 


206 


223 


284 


505 


128 




462 


639 


204 


225 


561 


868 


616 


944 


1,034 


925 


339 


346 


230 


553 


265 


358 




110 


565 


509 


123 


135 


322 


295 


12 


15 


566 


644 


788 


880 



138 North Carouna Manual 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
LESS THAN 1,000 (Continued) 



1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 

Clarkton Bladen 

Cleveland Rowan 

Cofield Hertford 

Colerain Bertie 

Columbia Tyrrell 



Columbus Polk 

Como Hertford 

Conetoe Edgecombe .... 

Conway Northampton 

Cove City Craven 



Creswell Washington 

Crossnore Avery 

Danbury Stokes 

Dellview Gaston 

Denton Davidson .... 



Dillsboro Jackson 

Dover Craven 

Dortches Nash 

Dublin Bladen 

East Arcadia Bladen 

Earl Cleveland .. 

East Bend Yadkin 

East Laurinburg Scotland .... 

Elk Park Avery 

Ellenboro Rutherford 



Emerald Isle Carteret 

Eureka Wayne .. 

Everetts Martin .. 

Faison Duplin .. 

Faith Rowan .. 



Fallston Cleveland 

Falcon Cumberland, Sampson 

Falkland Pitt 

Fountain Pitt 

Foxfire Moore 



Franklinville Randolph 

Garland Sampson 

Gaston Northampton 

Gatesville Gates 

Gibson Scotland 



Glen Alpine Burke 

Godwin Cumberland 

Goldston Chatham 

Greenevers Duplin 

Grimesland Pitt 



662 


664 


614 


595 


318 


465 


373 


284 


902 


758 


731 


727 


211 


89 


160 


215 


694 


678 


485 


500 


633 


426 


264 


297 


152 


140 




7 


1017 


949 


215 


179 


585 


600 




885 


283 


477 




461 




206 


485 


602 


487 


536 


503 


535 


465 


560 


122 


865 


263 


303 


198 


213 


598 


636 


506 


552 


301 


614 


357 


339 


130 


118 


434 


424 




153 


794 


607 


656 


885 


1,105 


883 


338 


363 


502 


533 


797 


645 


129 


340 


364 


353 


424 


477 


394 


453 



Census 139 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
LESS THAN 1,000 (Continued) 



1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 

Grover Cleveland 

Halifax Halifax 

Hamilton Martin 

Harmony Iredell 

Harrells Duplin, Sampson 



Harrellsville Hertford 

Hassell Martin 

Hayesville Clay 

High Shoals Gaston, Lincoln 

Highlands Macon 



Hildebran Burke 

Hobgood Halifax 

Hoffman Richmond 

Holden Beach Brunswick 

Holly Ridge Onslow 



Holly Springs Wake 

Hollyville Pamlico 

Hookerton Greene 

Hot Springs Madison 

Indian Beach Carteret 

Indian Trail Union 

Jackson Northampton 

Jamesville Martin 

Kelford Bertie 

Kenansville Duplin 



Kittrell Vance 

Knightdale Wake 

Kure Beach New Hanover 

Lake Lure Rutherford .... 

Lansing Ashe 



Lasker Northampton 

Lattimore Cleveland 

Laurel Park Henderson 

Lawndale Cleveland 

Leggett Edgecombe ..., 



Lewiston Bertie 

Lilesville Anson 

Linden Cumberland 

Linville Avery 

Littleton Halifax 



Love Valley Iredell 

Lumber Bridge Robeson .... 

Macclesfield Edgecombe 

McAdenville Gaston 

McDonald Robeson .... 



555 


597 


335 


253 


579 


638 


377 


470 


249 


255 


165 


151 


160 


109 


428 


376 




586 


583 


653 


481 


628 


530 


483 


434 


389 


136 


232 


415 


465 


697 


688 




100 


441 


460 


653 


678 




54 


405 


811 


762 


720 


533 


604 


295 


254 


762 


931 


427 


225 


815 


985 


394 


611 


456 


488 


283 


194 


114 


96 


257 


237 


581 


764 


544 


469 


120 


99 


327 


459 


641 


588 


205 


365 




244 


903 


820 


40 


55 


117 


171 


536 


504 


950 


947 


80 


117 



140 North Carouna Manual 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
LESS THAN 1,000 (Continued) 



1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 

McFarland Anson 

Macon Warren 

Maggie Valley Haywood 

Magnolia Duplin 

Manteo Dare 



Marshall Madison , 

Maysville Jones 

Mesic Pamlico .. 

Micro Johnston 

Middleburg Vance 



Middlesex Nash 

Milton Caswell 

Minnesott Beach Pamlico .... 

Montreal Buncombe 

Morrisville Wake 



Morven Anson 

Mooresville Cleveland 

Navassa Brunswick 

Newland Avery 

New London Stanly 



Newton Grove Sampson . 

Norlina Warren 

Norman Richmond 

Oakboro Stanly 

Oak City Martin 



Ocean Isle Beach Brunswick 

Old Fort McDowell 

Oriental Pamlico ... 

Orrum Robeson .. 

Pantego Beaufort .. 



Parkton Robeson . 

Parmele Martin .... 

Patterson Springs Cleveland 

Peachland Anson 

Pikeville Wayne .... 



Pinebluff Moore .... 

Pine Level Johnston 

Pink Hill Lenoir .... 

Pine Knoll Shores Carteret ., 

Polkton Anson 



Polkville Cleveland 

Pollocksville Jones 

Powellsville Bertie 

Proctorville Robeson . 

Raynham Robeson . 



140 


133 


179 


153 




202 


614 


592 


547 


902 


982 


809 


912 


877 




390 


300 


438 


149 


185 


729 


837 


235 


235 




171 


581 


741 


209 


251 


562 


765 




405 




439 


524 


722 


285 


454 


546 


564 


696 


901 


157 


252 


568 


587 


559 


475 


78 


143 


676 


752 


445 


536 


162 


167 


218 


185 


550 


564 


373 


484 




731 


556 


506 


260 


662 


570 


935 


983 


953 


522 


644 




646 


845 


762 


494 


528 


456 


318 


247 


320 


157 


205 




83 



Census 141 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
LESS THAN 1,000 (Continued) 



1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 



Red Oak Nash 

Rennert Robeson 

Rhodhiss Burke, Caldwell 

Richfield Stanly 

Richlands Onslow 



Rolesville Wake 

Ronda Wilkes 

Roper Washington . 

Rosman Transylvania 

Roxobel Bertie 



Ruth Rutherford .... 

Salemburg Sampson 

Saluda Polk 

Saratoga Wilson 

Seaboard Northampton 



Seagrove Randolph 

Seven Devils Watauga, Avery 

Seven Springs Wayne 

Severn Northampton .... 

Shady Forest Brunswick 



Shallotte Brunswick 

Sharpsburg Edgecombe, Nash, Wilson 

Simpson Pitt 

Sims Wilson 

Southern Shores Dare 



Speed Edgecombe 

Spencer Mountain Gaston 

Staley Randolph .. 

Stanfield Stanly 

Stantonsburg Wilson 



Star Montgomery 

Stedman Cumberland 

Stem Granville 

Stonewall Pamlico 

Stovall Granville 



Sunset Beach Brunswick 

Surf City Pender 

Swansboro Onslow 

Tarheel Bladen 

Teachey Duplin 



Topsail Beach Pender ... 

Trenton Jones 

Turkey Sampson 

Vanceboro Craven ... 

Vandemere Pamlico . 



359 


314 




178 


784 


727 


306 


373 


935 


825 


533 


381 


465 


457 


649 


795 


407 


512 


347 


278 


360 


381 


669 


742 


546 


607 


391 


381 


611 


687 


354 


294 




21 


188 


166 


356 


309 




43 


597 


680 


789 


997 




407 


205 


192 




392 


142 


95 


300 


169 


239 


204 


458 


463 


869 


920 


8^2 


816 


505 


723 


242 


222 


335 


360 


405 


417 


108 


304 


166 


391 


1,207 


976 


87 


118 


219 


373 


108 


264 


539 


407 


329 


417 


758 


833 


379 


335 



142 North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
LESS THAN 1,000 (Continued) 



1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 

Vass Moore 

Waco Cleveland 

Wade Cumberland 

Wagram Scotland 

Waist onburg Greene 



Warrenton Warren .. 

Washington Park Beaufort 

Watha Pender ... 

Webster Jackson . 

West Jefferson Ashe 



Whitakers Edgecombe /Nash 

White Lake Bladen 

Williamsboro Vance 

Winfall Perquimans 

Winton Hertford 



Woodland Northampton 

Woodville Bertie 

Yaupon Beach Brunswick 

Youngsville Franklin 



885 


828 


245 


322 


315 


474 


718 


617 


176 


181 


1.035 


908 


517 


514 


181 


196 


189 


200 


889 


822 


926 


924 


232 


968 




59 


581 


634 


917 


825 


744 


861 


253 


212 


334 


569 


555 


486 



PART IV 

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE 

UNITED STATES 



144 



North Carouna Manual 




The Executive Branch 145 

Chapter One 
THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH 



RONALD WILSON REAGAN 

PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 

Early Years: Born in Tampico, Illinois, on February 6. 1911, to John Edward and 
Nelle Wilson Reagan. 

Education: Graduated Dixon (Illinois) High School, 1932; Eureka College (Illi- 
nois)1932, B.A. (Economics and Sociology). 

Professional Background: Rancher; spokesman for conservation cause (raido broad- 
casts and syndicated news column), 1975-1980; motion picture actor (50 feature- 
length films), 1937-1966; television series host and sometimes actor ("General Elec- 
tric Theater" and "Death Valley Days"), 1962-1966; sportscaster (WOC in 
Davenport, Iowa; WHO in DesMoines, Iowa), 1932-1937. 

Organizations:. Member, Screen Actors Guild (President, 1947-1952 and 1959); Tau 
Kappa Epsilon; Friars Club. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Presidential Commission Investigating the CIA, 
1974-1975; Committee on the Present Danger (Board of Directors),1977-1978; 
founded Citizens for the Republic. 

Political Activities: President of the United States of America, 1981-; Governor of 
1967-1975; Chairman, Republican Governors Association, 1969; active campaigner 
for Republican candidates and spokesman for conservative political views. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army Reserves, Captain (1942-1945). 

Literary Works: Author, Creative Society {^t\N York, 1968); Where's the Rest of Me? 
(New York, 1965). 

Honors: National Humanitarian Award, National Conference of Christians and Jews; 
City of Hope "Touch of Life" Award for Humanitarian Service; Horatio Alger 
Award; American Newspaper Guild Award; Freedoms Foundation Awards; Dis- 
tinguished American Award, National Football Foundation Hall of Fame; Ameri- 
can Patriots Hall of Fame; and Medal of Valor of the State of Israel. 

Religious Activities: Attends Hollywood Beverly Christian Church (California). 

Family: Married Nancy Davis, March 4, 1952; Children: Patricia and Ronald; Mau- 
reen (by previous marriage to Jane Wyman); and Michael (adopted.) 



146 



North Carolina Manual 







'%t ^ 



The Executive Branch 147 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES 

No. Name Native State Born Inau. 

1. George Washington (F) Va 1732 1789 

2. John Adams (F) Mass 1735 1797 

3. Thomas Jefferson (D-R) Va 1743 1801 

4. James Madison (D-R) Va 1751 1809 

5. James Monroe Va 1758 1817 

6. John Quincy Adams (D-R) Mass 1767 1825 

7. Andrew Jackson (D) S. S 1767 1829 

8. Martin Van Buren (D) N. Y 1782 1837 

9. William H. Harrison' (A) Va 1773 1841 

10. John Tyler (W) Va 1790 1841 

11. James Knox Polk (D) N. C 1795 1845 

12. Zachary Taylor^ (A) Va 1784 1849 

13. Millard Fillmore (A) N. Y 1800 1850 

14. Franklin Pierce (D) N. H 1804 1853 

15. James Buchanan (D) Pa 1791 1857 

16. Abraham LincolnMR) Ky 1809 1861 

17. Andrew Johnson^ (-) N. C 1808 1865 

18. Ulysses S. Grant (R) Ohio 1822 1869 

19. Rutherford B. Hayes (R) Ohio 1822 1877 

20. James A. GarfieldMR) Ohio 1831 1881 

21. Chester A. Arthur (R) Vt 1830 1881 

22. Grover ClevelandMD) N.J 1837 1885 

23. Benjamin Harrison (R) Ohio 1833 1889 

24. Grover ClevelandMD) N.J 1837 1893 

25. William McKinleyMR) Ohio 1843 1897 

26. Theodore Roosevelt (R) N. Y 1858 1901 

27. William H. Taft(R) Ohio 1857 1909 

28. Woodrow Wilson (D) Va 1856 1913 

29. Warren G. Harding' (R) Ohio 1865 1921 

30. Calvin Coolidge(R) Vt 1872 1923 

31. Herbert C. Hoover (R) Iowa 1874 1929 

32. Franklin D. Rooseveltio(D) N. Y 1882 1933 



'Harrison died on April 4, 1841. 

^Taylordied on July 9. 1850. 

^Lincoln was shot April 14, 1865. and died the following day. 

■•Andrew Johnson — a Democrat, nominated vice president by Republicans and elected with Lincoln on 
National Union ticket. 

'Garfield was shot July 2. 1881, and died September 19. 

''According to a ruling of the State Dept., Grover Cleveland is counted twice, as the 22nd and the 24th 
President, because his two terms were not consecutive. Only 39 individuals ha\e been President. 

■'See footnote 6. 

"McKinley was shot September 6. 1901 . and died September 14. 

'Harding died on August 2. 192.1. 

'"Roosevelt died on April 12. 1945. 



148 North Carolina Manual 



No. Name Native State Born Inau. 

33. Harry S. Truman (D) Missouri 1884 1945 

34. Dwight D. Eisenhower (R) Texas 1890 1953 

35. John F. Kennedy" (D) Massachusetts... 1917 1961 

36. Lyndon B. Johnson (D) Texas 1908 1963 

37. Richard M. Nixoni2(R) California 1913 1969 

38. Gerald R. Ford (R) Michigan 1913 1974 

39. James Earl Carter (D) Georgia 1924 1977 

40. Ronald Wilson Reagan (R) lUinois 1911 1981 



"Kennedy was assassinated on November 22. 1963. 

'-Nixon resigned August 9. 1974 following several months of pressure over the "Watergate" coverup and 
related issues. 



The Executive Branch 149 



PRESIDENTIAL CABINET 

Vice President George Bush 

Secretary of Agriculture John R. Block 

Secretary of Commerce Malcolm Balridge 

Secretary of Defense Casper W. Weinberger 

Secretary of Education Terrell H. Bell 

Secretary of Energy James B. Edwards 

Secretary of Health and Human Resources Richard S. Schweiker 

Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Samuel R. Pierce, Jr. 

Secretary of the Interior James G. Watt 

Secretary of Labor Raymond J. Donovan 

Secretary of State George P. Schultz 

Secretary of Transportation Elizabeth Hanford Dole 

Secretary of the Treasury Donald T. Regan 

Attorney General William French Smith 

Ambassador to the United Nations Jeane J. Kirkpatrick 



MAJOR APPOINTMENTS 

Press Secretary James S. Brady 

Director, Central Intelligence Agency William J. Casey 

Chairman, Council on Wage and Price Stability Alfred E. Kahn 

Chairman, Federal Reserve Board Paul A. Volcker 

Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. David C. Jones 

Director, Office of Management and Budget David A. Stockman 

Postmaster General William F. Bolger 



The United States Congress 151 

Chapter Two 
THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS 



THE CAPITOL AT WASHINGTON 



The Capitol building in Washington, D. C, is situated on a plateau 88 feet above 
the level of the Potomac River and covers an area of 153, 112 square feet, or approxi- 
mately three and one-half acres. Its length, from north to south, is 751 feet, four 
inches; its width, including approaches, is 350 feet; and its location is described as 
being in latitude 38°53'20.4" N. and longitude 70°00'35.7" W. from Greenwich. Its 
height above the base line on the east front to the top of the Statue of Freedom is 287 
feet, five and one-half inches. The dome is built of iron, and the aggregate weight of 
material used in its construction is 8,909,200 pounds. 

The Statue of Freedom surmounting the dome is of bronze and weighs 14,985 
pounds. It was modeled by Thomas Crawford, father of Francis Marion Crawford, the 
novelist, in Rome, and the plaster model shipped to this country. It was cast in bronze 
at the shops of Clark Mills, on the Bladensburg Road, near Washington. The cost of 
the casting and the expenses in connection were $20,796.82, and the sculptor was paid 
$3,000 for the plaster model. It was erected and placed in its present position 
December 2, 1863. 

The grounds have had an area of 58.8 acres, at one time a part of Cern Abby 
Manor, and at an early date was occupied by a subtribe of the Algonquin Indians 
known as the Powhatans, whose council house was then located at the foot of the hill. 
By subsequent purchase of ground at the North of the Capitol and at the west of the 
new House Office building the area of the grounds has been increased to 139!/2 acres. 

The Rotunda is 97 feet 6 inches in diameter, and its height from the floor to the top 
of the canopy is 180 feet, 3 inches. 

The Senate Chamber is 1 13 feet, 3 inches, in length by 80 feet, 3 inches, in width and 
36 feet in height. The galleries will accommodate 682 persons. 

The Representatives' Hall is 139 feet in length by 93 feet in width and 36 feet in 
height. 

The room, until 1935 the meeting place of the Supreme Court, was, until 1859, 
occupied as the Senate Chamber. Previous to that time the court occupied the room 
immediately beneath, now used as a law library. 

The Capitol has a floor area of 14 acres, and 430 rooms are devoted to office, 
committee, and storage purposes. There are 14,518 square feet of skylights, 679 win- 
dows, and 550 doorways. 

The dome receives light through 108 windows, and from the architect's office to the 
dome there are 365 steps, one for each day of the year. 

The southeast cornerstone of the original building was laid September 18, 1793, by 
President Washington, with Masonic ceremonies. It is constructed of sandstone from 



152 North Carouna Manual 



quarries on Aquia Creek. Va. The original designs were prepared by Dr. William 
Thornton, and the work was done under the direction of Stephen H. Hallet, James 
Hoban, George Hadfield. and B. H. Latrobe, architects. 

The north wing was finished in 1800 and the south wing in 1811. A wooden pas- 
sageway connected them. On August 24, 1814, the interior of both wings was des- 
troyed by fire, set by the British. The damage to the building was immediately 
repaired. 

In 1818 the central portion of the building was commenced under the architectural 
superintendence of Charles Bullfinch. The original building was finally completed in 
1827. Its cost, including the grading of the grounds, alterations, and repairs, up to 
1827, was $2,433,844.13. 

The cornerstone of the extensions was laid on the Fourth of July, 1851, by President 
Fillmore, Daniel Webster officiating as orator. The work was prosecuted under the 
architectual direction of Thomas U. Walter until 1865, when he resigned, and it was 
completed under the supervision of Edward Clark. The material used in the walls is 
white marble from the quarries of Lee, Massachusetts, and that in the columns from 
the quarries from Cockeysville, Maryland. The House extension was first occupied for 
legislative purposes December 16, 1857, and the Senate January 4, 1859. 

The House office building was begun in 1905 and occupied on January 10, 1908; 
later a story on top was added. The Senate office building was started in 1906 and 
occupied on March 5, 1909. The House building cost, with site, $4,860,155; the Senate 
structure, $5,019,251. 

Among the paintings in the Capitol are: 

In Rotunda: Signing of the Declaration of Independence, Surrender of General Bur- 
goyne. Surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown, Va., George Washington Resigning 
His Commission as Commander in Chief of the Army, all by John Trumbull. 

Baptism of Pocahontas, by John G. Chapman; Landing of Columbus, by John 
Vanderlyn; Discovery of the Mississippi River by DeSoto, by William H. Powell; 
Embarkation of the Pilgrims, by Robert W. Weir. 

In House Wing: Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way, by Emanuel 
Leutze; First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation, by Francis Bicknell 
Carpenter. 

In Senate Wing: Battle of Lake Erie, by William H. Powell; Battle of Chapultepec, 
by James Walker. 



The United States Congress 153 

SENATE 

OFFICERS 

President, George Bush 
President Pro tempore, James O. Eastland 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry 

Appropriations 

Armed Services 

Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs 

Budget 

Commerce, Science, and Transportation 

Energy and Natural Resources 

Environment and Public Works 

Finance 

Foreign Relations 

Government Affairs 

Judiciary 

Labor and Human Resources 

Rules and Administration 

Small Business 

Veterans' Affairs 

SELECT COMMITTEES 

Ethics Intelligence 

Indian Affairs 

SPECIAL COMMITTEES 

Aging 

JOINT COMMITTEES 

Economic Printing 

Library Taxation 



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The United States Congress 155 

SENATORS FROM NORTH CAROLINA 

JESSE HELMS 
(Republican) 

Early Years: Born in Monroe, Union County, October 18, 1921, to Jesse A. and Ethel 
Mae Helms. 

Education: Graduated Monroe High School; Wingate College; Wake Forest University. 

Professional Background: Past Executive Vice-President, Vice-Chairman of the 
Board, and Assistant Chief Executive Officer, Capitol Broadcasting Company in 
Raleigh; Editorialist — WRAL Television, eighty radio stations (NC) and 200 
newspapers across the country; past City Editor, The Raleigh Times. 

Organizations: President and vice-president, Raleigh Rotary Club; President, Raleigh 
Exchange Club; former trustee of Campbell College, Wingate College, Meredith 
College; Camp Willow Run (Youth Camp for Christ); Member, NC Tobacco 
Council; Director, United Fund of Raleigh; State Advisor to council the "Young 
Americans for Freedom;" Director, Raleigh Chamber of Commerce; Mason, 
member Raleigh Lodge No. 500; Grand Orator, Grand Lodge of NC, 1966. 

Political Activities: U.S. Senator, 1973- (elected, 1972; reelected, 1978); Raleigh City 
Council, 1957-1961; Administrative Assistant, U.S. Senator Willis Smith; Adminis- 
trative Assistant, U.S. Senator Alton Lennon (after death of Senator Smith); 
direced radio-television campaign for Democratic Candidate Richard B. Russell of 
Georgia, 1952. 

Honors: Honorary Degrees, Grove City College (Pennsylvania) and Bob Jones Uni- 
versity (South Carolina); Taxpayers Best Friend Award, 1981 & 1982; Most 
Admired Conservative in Congress (National Poll by Conservative Digest), 1980 & 
1981; N.C. Public Service Award, 1980; National Man of the Year in Politics 
(Christian Voice), 1980; Legislator of the Year (Christians for Better America), 
1980; Honorary director of NC Cerebral Palsy Hospital at Durham; Holds Annual 
Freedoms Foundation Award for the television editorial judged to be best in 
America. 

Religious Activities: Member Hayes Barton Baptist Church of Raleigh; Deacon and 
Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Married Dorothy Jane Coble, October 31, 1942; Three Children: Jane (Mrs. 
Charles R. Knox), Nancy (Mrs. John C. Stuart), and Charles. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman, Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Committee 

Chairman, Steering Committee 

Foreign Relations Committee 

Rules Committee 

Ethics Committee 



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North Carouna Manual 




The United States Congress 157 

JOHN PORTER EAST 
(Republican) 

Early Years: Born in Springfield, Illinois on May 5, 1931, to Laurence and Virginia 
Porter East (both deceased). 

Education: Attended Earlham College (Richmond, Indiana); graduated University of 
Illinois Law School, 1959, Law Degree; University of Florida. 1964, M.A. and 
Ph.D. (Political Science). 

Professional Background: Professor of Political Science, East Carolina University, 
1964—. 

Organizations: Member, Phi Beta Kappa; Florida Bar Association. 

Political Activities: U.S. Senator, 1981 — (elected, 1980); Republican National Com- 
mitteeman from NC and Republican Platform Committeeman, 1976; 2nd term 
National Committeeman, 1980. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Marine Corps, Lieutenant, 1953-1955. 

Literary Works: Council- Manager Government (doctoral dissertation published as a 
book by UNC Press, Chapel Hill); Editorial Boards for Modern Age and Political 
Science Review; Published articles in the previously mentioned journals and in 
Human Events, The Wall Street Journal, Western Political Quarterly, and others; 
weekly participant, "Crossfire" television program in Greenville where he repres- 
ented the conservative point of view in a debate format with a liberal member of 
the ECU faculty). 

Religious Activities: Member, Jarvis Memorial United Methodist Church of Greenville. 

Family: Married Priscilla ("Sis") Sherk, September, 1953; children: Kathryn and 
Martha. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Committee on Armed Services 

(Subcommittee on Military Construction, Subcommittee on Manpower and 

Personnel, Subcommittee on Seapower and Force Projection) 

Committee on the Judiciary 

(Chairman, Subcommittee on Separation of Powers, 

Subcommittee on Courts, Subcommittee on Security and Terrorism) 

Committee on Labor and Human Resources 

(Subcommittee on Labor, Subcommittee on Education Arts, and Humanities, 

Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse) 



The United States Congress 159 



HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

OFFICERS 

Speaker, Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr., Massachusetts 
Clerk, W. Pat Jennings, Virginia 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

Agriculture 

Appropriations 

Armed Services 

Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs 

Budget 

District of Columbia 

Education and Labor 

Energy and Commerce 

Foreign Affairs 

Government Operations 

House Administration 

Interior and Insular Affairs 

Judiciary 

Merchant Marine and Fisheries 

Post Office and Civil Service 

Public Works and Transportation 

Rules 

Science and Technology 

Small Business 

Standards of Official Conduct 

Veterans' Affairs 

Ways and Means 

SELECT COMMITTEES 

Aging 

Intelligence 

Narcotics Abuse and Control 



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North Carolina Manual 




The United States Congress 161 

REPRESENTATIVES FROM NORTH CAROLINA 

WALTER BEAMAN JONES 
(Democrat — First Congressional District) 

(Counties: Beaufort, Bertie. Camden, Carteret, Chowan, Craven, Currituck, Dare, 
Gates, Greene, Hertford, Hyde. Lenoir, Martin, Northhampton, Pamlico, Pasquo- 
tank. Perquimans. Pitt. Tyrrell, and Washington. Population: 536,219). 

Early Years: Born in Fayetteville, Cumberland County, August 19, 1913, to Walter G. 
and Fannie M. (Anderson) Jones. 

Education: Attended Elise Academy, 1926-1930; graduated, NC State College, 1934, 
B.S. (Education). 

Professional Background: Office Equipment dealer 

Organizations: Director, Farmville Savings & Loan Association; Member, Masonic 
Lodge; Scottish Rite; Rotary Club, President, 1949; Loyal Order of Moose; Junior 
Order; Elks Lodge. 

Political Activities: U.S. Congressman, 1966- (Elected to U.S. House of Representa- 
tives, 1966 — special election to fill unexpired term of Herbert C. Bonner, who had 
died; elected to full term, 1966, and in each subsequent elecion — now in his 9th 
term); served in N.C. Senate, 1965; Served in N.C. House of Representatives, 1955- 
1959; Mayor, Town of Farmville (and Judge, Farmville Recorder's Court), 1949- 
1953; Member, Board of Commissioners, Town of Farmville, 1947-1949 (Mayor 
Pro Tem, 1947-1949). 

Religious Activities: Baptist, Deacon since 1945. 

Family: Married Doris Long, April 26, 1934; Children: Mrs. Robert Moye and Walter 
B. Jones, U. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman, Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee 

Agriculture Committee 
(Ranking Member, Peanut and Tobacco Subcommittee) 



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North Carolina Manual 




- \ 




The United States Congress 163 

ITIMOUS THADDEUS VALENTINE, JR. 
(Democrat — Second Congressional District) 

(Counties: Caswell, Durham, Edgecombe, Granville, Halifax, Nash, Person, Vance. 
Warren, and Wilson; and O'Neals Township in Johnston County. Population: 
536,210). 

Early Years: Born in Rocky Mount, Nash County, March 15, 1926, to Itimous T. and 
Hazel (Armstrong) Valentine. 

Education: Graduated The Citadel (Charleston, S.C.), 1948, AB in Political Science; 
The University of North Carolina Law School, 1952, LL.B. 

Professional Background: Practicing Attorney-at-Law (Senior member. Law Firm of 
Valentine, Adams & Lamar). 

Organizations: Member, N.C. Bar Association; Seventh Judicial Bar Association; 
Nash-Edgecombe Bar Association (Past President); American Bar Association; 
North Carolina Academy of Trial Lawyers. Past Master & member. Morning Star 
Lodge No. 85 A.F. & A.M.; Past President, Nashville Lions Club, Nashville Jay- 
cees and Nashville Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, North Carolina Courts Commission; Former 
Member, Nash General Hospital Board of Trustees. 

Political Activities: Elected to U.S. House of Representatives, 1982; Chairman, NC 
Democrative Executive Committee, 1966-1968; Legislative Counsel to Governor 
Dan K. Moore, 1967; Legal Advisor to Governor Dan K. Moore, 1965; Served in 
the NC House of Representatives, 1955-56, 1957, and 1959. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army Air Corps, July, 1944-August, 1946. 

Religious Activities: Member and Trustee, Nashville Baptist Church; Former chair- 
man. Board of Deacons. 

Family: Widowed. Children: Stephen M., Mark L., Philip C, and Anna E. Valentine. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Public Works and Transportation 

(Subcommittee on Economic Development) 

(Subcommittee on Aviation) 

Science and Technology 

(Subcommittee on Natural Resources, Agriculture Research, and Environment) 

(Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology) 



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J 



The United States Congress 165 

CHARLES ORVILLE WHITLEY 
(Democrat — Third Congressional District) 

(Counties: Bladen, Duplin, Harnett, Jones, Lee, Onslow, Pender, Sampson, Wayne, 
and N.E. part of Moore. Population: 535,906). 

Early Years: Born in Siler City, Chatham County, January 3, 1927, to John and 

Mamie (Goodwin) Whitley. 
Education: Attended Siler City Public Schools; graduated Wake Forest University, 

1948, B.A. and 1950, LLB; George Washington University, 1974, MA (Legislative 

Affairs). 
Professional Background: Attorney; Town Attorney, Mount Olive, 1951-1956. 
Organizations: Member, NC Bar Association and Wayne County Bar; Masonic Order; 

WOW; American Legion; Moose; Past President, Mt. Olive Jaycees; Rotary Club. 
Political Activities: U.S. Congressman, 1977- (elected to U.S. House of Representa- 
tives, 1976, elected 1978, 1980 and 1982); Administrative Assistant, Congressman 

David N. Henderson, 1961-1976. 
Military Service: Served in US Army, Lieutenant (Active, 1944-1946; Reserves, 

1946-1950). 
Religious Activities: Member, Baptist Church; Deacon; Sunday School Teacher since 

1952. 
Family: Married Audrey Kornegay, June 11, 1949; Children: Charles, Jr., Martha, 

and Sara. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Agriculture Committee 

(Chairman, Forestry, Family Farms, and Energy Subcommittee) 

(Tobacco and Peanuts Subcommittee) 

(Cotton, Rice, and Sugar Subcommittee) 



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4 









The United States Congress 167 

IKE FRANKLIN ANDREWS 
(Democrat — Fourth Congressional District) 

(Counties: Chatham, Franklin, Orange, Randolph, and Wake. Population: 533,580). 

Early Years: Born in Bonlee, Chatham County, September 2, 1925, to Archie Franklin 
and Ina (Dunlap) Andrews. 

Education: Attended Bonlee High School, 1931-1941; Fork Union Military Academy, 
(Fork Union, Virginia), 1941-1942; Mars Hill College, 1942-1943; University of 
North CaroHna, 1946-1952, B.S. and L.L.B. degrees. 

Professional Background: Attorney at Law. 

Organizations: Member, NC State Bar; NC Bar Association; American Bar Associa- 
tion; District Bar Association Executive Committee, 1958-59; NC Bar Association 
Standing Committee on Legislation and Law Reform; served as Chairman of 
Chancellor Selection Committee, University of NC-Chapel Hill; Executive Commit- 
tee Occoneechee Council, Boy Scouts of America; Chairman, Chatham District 
Boy Scouts of America; Chatham County Civil Defense; President, Junior 
Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards & Commissions: Member, Board of Trustees, University of NC since 1959 and 
member of Executive Committee since 1969; Board of Directors, Siler City 
Chamber of Commerce; Board of Trustees and Executive Committee, Chatham 
Hospital; NC Judicial Council, 1959-61. 

Political Activities: U.S. Congressman, 1973- (elected to U.S. House of Representa- 
tives, 1972 and in each subsequent election — now in his 6th term); Served in N.C. 
House of Representatives, 1961, 1967-1971; Served in N.C. Senate, 1959; Solicitor, 
Tenth-A District, July, 1961-December, 1962. 

Military Service: Served US Army, Field Artillery Forward Observer, 1943-45, Master 

Sergeant (Awarded Broze Star and Purple Heart, European Theatre, World War 

II). 
Honors: American Legion Oratorical Contest; Young Man of the Year, Siler City, 

1958; Elected Poet Laureate of Senate, 1959. 
Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Siler City; Chairman, Board of 

Deacons. 

Family: Two Daughters: Alice Cecelia and Nina Patricia. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Education and Labor Committee 

(Chairman, Human Resources Subcommittee) 

(Post Secondary Education Subcommittee) 

(Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Subcommittee) 

Select Committee on Aging 
(Health and Long Term Care Subcommittee) 



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North Carolina Manual 




The United States Congress 169 

STEPHEN LYBROOK NEAL 
(Democrat — Fifth Congressional District) 

(Counties: Alexander, Alleghany, Ashe, Forsyth, Rockingham. Stokes, Surry, and 
Wilkes. Population: 535,212). 

Early Years: Born in Winston-Salem, Forsyth County, November 7, 1934, to Charles 
Herbert and Mary Martha (Lybrook) Neal. 

Education: Attended University of California at Santa Barbara; graduated University 
of Hawaii, 1959, A.B. (Psychology). 

Professional Background: Former mortgage banker and newspaper publisher (Presi- 
dent and Publisher, The Suburbanite in Winston-Salem, The King Times-News in 
King, and The Yadkin Enterprise in Jonesville; President, Community Press, Inc.) 

Organizations: Member, Sigma Delta Chi; Former member, Winston-Salem Rotary 
Club, Chamber of Commerce; Torch Club; NC Press Association; National News- 
papers Association; and International Newspaper Promotion Association. 

Boards & Commissions: Member, Board of Trustees, Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation; 
Former member. Board of Directors, Tanglewood Park; Forsyth Mental Health 
Association; Forsyth Kidney Foundation, and the Civic Music Association of 
Winston-Salem. 

Political Activities: U.S. Congressman, 1975- (elected to U.S. House of Representa- 
tives, 1974; re-elected 1976, 1978, 1980 and 1982); member: Congressional Rural 
Caucus, Environmental Study Conference, Travel and Tourism Caucus, Congres- 
sional Clearinghouse of the Future, Export Task Force, Democratic Study Group, 
Conservative Democratic Forum, United Democrats of Congress. Members of 
Congress for Peace Through Law, Textile Caucus, Agricultural Exports Task 
Force, Congressional Advisory Committee on National Tax Limitation Commit- 
tee, U.S. Advisory Board of Pan Pacific Community Association; Sunbelt Council. 

Religious Activities: Member and Sunday School Teacher, Presbyterian Church. 

Family: Married Rachel Landis Miller, June 13, 1963; Children: Mary Piper and Ste- 
phen L., Jr. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs Committee 

(Chairman, Subcommittee on International Trade, Investment and Monetary Policy) 

(Subcommittee on Domestic Monetary Policy) 

(Subcommittee on International Development Institutions and Finance) 

Government Operations Committee 

(Subcommittee on Government Information, Justice and Agriculture) 

(Subcommittee on Legislation and National Security) 



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The United States Congress 171 

C. ROBIN BRITT 

(Democrat — Sixth Congressional District) 

(Counties: Alamance, Davidson, and Guilford. Population: 529,635). 

Early Years: Born in San Antonio, Texas County, June 29, 1942, to James Marion 
and Marie (Dobbs) Britt. 

Education: Graduated University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, 1963 (Morehead 
Scholar); University of North Carolina Law School, 1973; New York University, 
Masters in Taxation (Graduate Law Degree). 

Professional Background: Attorney at Law (Partner in the law firm of Smith, Moore, 
Smith, Schell, & Hunter, Greensboro); President, NC Lawyers, Inc. 

Political Activities: Elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, 1982; Chairman, 
Guilford County Democratic Party, 1979-1981; Delegate, Democratic National 
Convention, 1980; Co-Chairman, Preyer for Congress, 1978; President, Guilford 
County Young Democrats, 1977; Member, NC Democratic Party Executive 
Committee. 

Military Service: Commander in U.S. Naval Reserves; President, Ole North State 
Chapter of Naval Reserve Association (1979-1980). 

Honors: Named "One of the Ten Outstanding Young Men of America," United States 

Jaycees, 1978. 
Religious Activities: Member, Irving Park United Methodist Church; Church Lay 

Leader. 
Family: Married to Susan Thomas Britt. Children: Elizabeth, Robin Jr., and David. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Armed Services Committee 

(Investigations Subcommittee) 

(Seapower and Strategic and Critical Materials Subcommittee) 

Small Business Committee 

(General Oversight Subcommittee) 

(Tax Access to Equity Captial and Business Opportunities Subcommittee) 



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North Carolina Manual 




The United States Congress 173 

CHARLES GRANDISON ROSE, III 
(Democrat — Seventh Congressional District) 

(Counties: Brunswick, Columbus, Cumberland, New Hanover and Robeson. Popula- 
tion 539.055). 

Early Years: Born in Fayetteville, Cumberland County, August 10, 1939, to Charles G. 
Rose and Frances Duckworth Rose. 

Education: Graduated Fayetteville High School, 1957; Davidson College, 1961, B.A.; 
University of North Carolina Law School, 1964, L.L.B. 

Professional Background: Attorney at Law. 

Organizations: Member, Cumberland County Bar Association; NC State Bar. 

Political Activities: U.S. Congressman, 1973- (elected to U.S. House of Representa- 
tives, 1972 and in each subsequent election — now in his 6th term); Chief District 
Court Prosecutor, 12th Judicial District, 1967-70. 

Literary Works: Editor, Davidson College yearbook. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Fayetteville; Sunday School 
Teacher. 

Family: Married Joan Teague Rose; Children: Charles G. Rose, IV, Sara Louise. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Agriculture Committee 

(Chairman, Tobacco and Peanuts Subcommittee) 

(Livestock, Dairy and Poultry Subcommittee) 

House Administration Committee 

(Accounts Subcommittee; Services Subcommittee) 

(Chairman, Policy Group on Information and Computers) 

Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence 
(Chairman, Oversight and Evaluation Subcommittee) 

Chairman, Speaker's Advisory Committee on Broadcasting 



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North Carolina Manual 




The United States Congress 175 

W. G. (BILL) HEFNER 
(Democrat - Eighth Congressional District) 

(Counties: Anson, Cabarrus, Davie, Hoke, Montgomery, Moore, Richmond, Rowan, 
Scotland, Stanly, Union and Yadkin. Population 535,526). 

Early Years: Born in Elora, Tennessee, April 11, 1930. 

Professional Background: President, WRKB Radio Station, Kannapolis, NC Enter- 
tainer — Harvesters Quartet; Television performer. 

Organizations: President, Odell School PTA; Member, Concord Noon Optimist Club; 
Publicity Committee for Cabarrus County United Appeal. 

Boards & Commissions: Member: Board of Directors, Cabarrus County Chapter of 
American Cancer Society; Board of Directors, Cabarrus County Boys Club; Board 
of Directors, Cabarrus County Humane Society. 

Political Activities: U.S. Congressman, 1975- (elected to U.S. House of Representa- 
tives, 1974; re-elected 1976, 1978, 1980 and 1982); member: Congressional Textile 
Caucus, Congressional Travel and Tourism Caucus, and Conservative Democratic 
Forum. 

Religious Activities: Member, North Kannapolis Baptist Church. 

Family: Married Nancy Hill of Gadsden, Alabama; children: Stacye and Shelly. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Appropriations Committee 
(Defense Subcommittee; Military Construction Chairman) 

Budget Committee 

Leadership Assignments 
Democratic Caucus Committee on Party Effectiveness 



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The United States Congress 177 

JAMES GRUBBS MARTIN 
(Republican — Ninth Congressional District) 

(Counties: Iredell. Lincoln and Mecklenburg and Buck Shoal and Deep Creek Town- 
ships of Yadkin County. Population 536,325). 

Early Years: Born in Savannah, Georgia, December 11, 1935, to Reverend Arthur M. 
Martin and Mary Julia Grubbs Martin. 

Education: Graduated Mt. Zion Institute, Winnsboro, S.C, 1953; Davidson College, 
1957, B.S.; Princeton University, 1960, Ph.D., Chemistry. 

Professional Background: Associate Professor of Chemistry, Davidson College. 

Organizations: Member, Beta Theta Ph (Social) Fraternity: National Vice President. 
1966-69; former member, Charlotte Symphony, 1962-66; Founder and First Chair- 
man, Centralina Council of Governments, 1968-70; Vice President, National Asso- 
ciation of Regional Councils, 1969-71; Mason; Shriner. 

Boards & Commissions: Mecklenburg County Commissioners, 1966-72, Chairman, 
1967-68 and 1970-71; President, NC Association of County Commissioners, 
1970-71. 

Political Activities: U.S. Congressman, 1973- (elected to U.S. House of Representa- 
tives, 1972, and in subsequent elections — now in his 5th Term). 

Religious Activities: Member Presbyterian Church; Deacon, 1969-71. 

Family: Married Dorothy Ann McAulay, June 1, 1957; children: James, Jr.; Emily; 
and Benson. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Budget Committee 

Ways and Means Committee 

(Oversight Subcommittee )-Ranking 

(Health) 

Chairman, Republican Research Committee 



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/ w 




The United States Congress 179 

JAMES THOMAS BROYHILL 
(Republican — Tenth Congressional District) 

(Counties: Avery. Burke. Caldwell, Catawba, Cleveland. Gaston and Watauga. Popu- 
lation 532.954). 

Early Years: Born in Lenoir, Caldwell County, August 19, 1927, to James Edgar and 

Satie Leona (Hunt) Broyhill. 
Education: Attended Lenoir Public Schools, 1933-46; Graduated Lenoir High School. 

1946; University of North Carolina, 1950, B.S. Degree in Commerce. 

Professional Background: Furniture Manufacturer. 

Organizations: Member, Southern Furniture Manufacturers Association; North Carol- 
ina Forestry Association; Industrial Planning Committee of the Northwest North 
Carolina Development Association; Member, Hibriten Lodge No. 262, A.F. & 
A.M.; Oasis Temple of the Shrine. 

Boards & Commissions: Lenoir Chamber of Commerce (Past President and Director); 
Commerce; past member. City of Lenoir Recreation Commission; Lenoir Planning 
and Zoning Commission; former member: Board of Advisors, Lees-McRae College; 
Board of Visitors, Lenoir-Rhyne College; Board of Trustees, Wake Forest Univer- 
sity; current member. Development Board, Lenoir-Rhyne College. 

Political Activities: U.S. Congressman, 1963- (elected to U.S. House of Representa- 
tives, 1962, and in each subsequent election — now in his 1 1th term). 

Honors: Young Man of the Year, Lenoir and Caldwell County, 1957; Honorary Doc- 
tor of Laws degree, Catawba College, Salisbury, NC, 1966; University of North 
Carolina at Chapel Hill, Distinguished Service Award, 1981. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Lenoir, NC. 

Family: Married Louise Horton Robbins, June 2, 1951; children: Marilyn Louise 
(Mrs. Robert Beach), James Edgar, 11 (Married to Melanie Pennell), and Philip 
Robbins; grandchild: Melanie Elizabeth. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Energy and Commerce Committee 

(Ranking Minority Leader and Ex Officio Member of all Subcommittees) 

Ranking Minority, Oversight and Investigations Subcommittee 

Dean, N.C. Congressional Delegation 

Vice-Chairman, Congressional Textile Caucus 

Member, Republican Committee on Committees 

Member, Republican Research Committee 

Task Force on Regulatory Reform 

Member, Republican Study Committee 

Member, Congressional Sunbelt Council 

Member, Congressional Rural Caucus 
Chairman, Congressional Boosters Club 



^ 




JAMES MCCLURE CLARKE 
(Democrat — Eleventh Congressional District) 

(Counties: Buncombe, Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Haywood, Henderson, Jackson, 
McDowell, Macon, Madison, Mitchell, Polk, Rutherford, Swain, Transylvania, 
and Yancey, and Altamont, Roaring Creek, and Toe River Townships of Avery 
County. Population 531.144). 

Early Years: Born in Manchester, Vermont, June 12, 1917, to Dumont and Annie 
(McClure) Clarke. 

Education: Graduated, Biltmore High School in Asheville. NC, 1935; Princeton Uni- 
versity, A.B.. 1939. 

Professional Background: Dairy Framer and Apple Orchard Operator; Assistant to 
the President, Warren Wilson College, 1969-1981; Associate Editor, Asheville 
Citizen-Times, 1960-1969; Secretary, James G. K. McClure Educational and 
Development Fund, 1956-present. 

Organizations: Member, Asheville Civitan Club (President, 1968). 

Boards & Commissions: Trustee, Southeastern Council of Foundations, 1970-1982; 
North Carolina Historic Sites Advisory Committee, 1964-1970; Trustee, NC School 
of the Arts, 1963-1976. 

Political Activities: Elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, 1982; Served in the 
N.C. Senate, 1981-82; N.C. House of Representatives, 1977-1981; Chairman, Bun- 
combe County Board of Education, 1969-1976. 

Military Service: U.S. Naval Reserve, 1942-1945 (Lieutenant, Senior Grade). 

Religious Activities: Member, Warren Wilson Presbyterian Church (Swannanoa); 
Elder, 1969-1970. 

Family: Married Elspeth McClure of Fairview, NC, February 17, 1945. Children: 
Susie Clarke Hamilton; James Gore King McClure Clarke; Annie Clarke Ager; 
Dumont Clarke, IV; Mark Skinner Clarke; William Clarke, and Douglas Dixon 
Clarke. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Interior and Insular Affairs Committee 

(Energy and Environment Subcommittee) 

(Insular Affairs Subcommittee) 

(Public Lands &. National Parks Subcommittee) 

Public Works and Transportation Committee 

(Public Buildings Subcommittee) 

(Economic Development Subcommittee) 



182 



North Carolina Manual 




The Judicial System 183 

Chapter Three 
THE UNITED STATES JUDICIARY 



THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT 

Warren E. Burger Chief Justice Minnesota 

William H. Rehnquist Associate Justice Arizona 

Byron R. White Associate Justice Colorado 

Thurgood Marshall Associate Justice New York 

William J. Brennan, Jr Associate Justice New Jersey 

Lewis F. Powell, Jr Associate Justice Virginia 

Harry A. Blackmun Associate Justice Minnesota 

Sandra Day O'Connor Associate Justice Arizona 



UNITED STATES FOURTH CIRCUIT COURT OF APPEALS 

James Dickson Phillips, Jr Judge Chapel Hill 

Sam J. Ervin, HI Judge Morganton 

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT — NORTH CAROLINA 

Judges 

Eastern District Franklin T. Dupree, Jr., Chief Judge Raleigh 

W. Earl Britt Fayetteville 

James C. Fox Wilmington 

Middle District Eugene A.Gordon, Chief Judge Burlington 

Hiram H. Ward Denton 

Richard C. Erwin Winston-Salem 

Western District Woodrow W. Jones, Chief Judge Asheville 

James B. McMillan Charlotte 

United States Attorneys 

Eastern District Samuel T. Currin Raleigh 

Middle District Benjamin H. White, Jr Greensboro 

Western District Harold J. Bender Asheville 

Clerks 

Eastern District J. Rich Leonard Raleigh 

Middle District Carmon J. Stuart Greensboro 

Western District J. Toliver Davis Asheville 



184 



North Carolina Manual 





The Judicial System 185 



UNITED STATES FOURTH CIRCUIT 
COURT OF APPEALS 

JAMES DICKSON PHILLIPS, JR. 

Judge 

James Dickson Phillips, Jr. was born in Scotland County, September 23, 1922, to 
James Dickson (deceased) and Helen Shepherd Phillips. Graduated Davidson College, 
1943. B.S. cum laude; University of North Carolina School of Law, 1945-48, J.D. with 
honors. Judge, United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. Member, 
Democratic Party; Kappa Sigma Fraternity; Board of Directors, NC Nature Conser- 
vancy; and NC Bar Association. Received John J. Parker Memorial Award; Thomas 
Jefferson Award and Distinguished Alumni Professor. Served U.S. Army, First Lieu- 
tenant in Parachute infantry (May 1944 - January 1946). Member, Presbyterian 
Church, Elder (1967-1977); Deacon (1964-1966); University Presbyterian Church, 
Chapel Hill - Member (1970-76); Chairman (1971-1974); Permanent Judicial Commis- 
sion, Presbyterian Church in the U.S. Married Jean Duff Nanalee, July 16, 1960. 
Children: Evelyn P. Perry, James Dickson, HL Elizabeth Duff, and Ida Wills. 



SAMUEL JAMES ERVIN, III 
Judge 

Samuel James Ervin, HI was born in Morganton, Burke County, March 2, 1926, to 
Samuel James and Margaret Bruce (Bell) Ervin, Jr. Attended Morganton Public 
Schools; graduated, Morganton High School, 1943; Davidson College, B.S., 1948; 
Harvard Law School, L.L.B., 1951. Judge, United States Court of Appeals for the 
Fourth Circuit. Served as NC Superior Court Judge, 25th Judicial District, 1967-1980; 
served in NC House of Representatives, 1965-1967; Solicitor, Burke County Criminal 
Court, 1954-1956. Formerly an Attorney at Law, 1952-1967. Member, Burke County 
Bar Association; NC Bar Association; Mason. Served in US Army, Colonel in Infan- 
try and Judge Advocate General's Corps (July, 1944 - October, 1946; August, 1951 
-November, 1952; Active Duty, NC Army National Guard, 1955-69. Received "Young 
Man of the Year," Distinguished Service Award, 1954, from Morganton Jr. Chamber 
of Commerce. Member, First Presbyterian Church; Elder; Deacon; Adult Sunday 
School Teacher; Senior High Youth Advisor. Married Elizabeth Crawford, October 
25, 1952; Children: Samuel James, IV, Elizabeth Fore, Robert Crawford, and Mar- 
garet Bell. 



186 



North Carolina Manual 





The Judicial System 187 

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 
NORTH CAROLINA 

FRANKLIN TAYLOR DUPREE, JR. 
Chief Judge — Eastern District 

Franklin Taylor Dupree, Jr. was born in Angier, Harnett County, October 18, 1913, 
to Franklin T. and Elizabeth Mason (Wells) Dupree. Attended Angier High School, 
1925-1928; Campbell College High School 1928-29; graduated University of North 
Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1933, A.B.; University of North Carolina Law School, 1936, 
LL.B. Judge, United States District Court. Member, Wake County Bar Association; 
NC Bar Association. American Bar Association; American Judicature Society. 
Member, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. Member, Republican Party; 
Judge, US District Court, 1970-. Served in US Navy, Lieutenant (1943-46). Member, 
Hayes Barton Baptist Church. Married Rosalyn Dupree, December 30, 1939; Child- 
ren: Elizabeth D. Dement and Nancy D. Miller. 

W. EARL BRITT 

Judge — Eastern District 

W. Earl Britt was born in McDonald, Robeson County, December 7, 1932, to Dud- 
ley H. and Martha Mae (Hall) Britt. Graduated Rowland High School, 1950; 
Attended Campbell College, 1950-1952; graduated Wake Forest University, B.S., 
1956; Wake Forest University School of Law, LL.B., 1958. Judge, United States Dis- 
trict Court. Member, American Bar Association; NC Bar Association. Member, 
Democratic Party. Served in US Army, Corporal (1953-1955). Named "Tar Heel of 
the Week," The News and Observer, February 1, 1981. Member, McDonald Baptist 
Church. Married Judith Moore, April 17, 1976; Children: Clifford Paul, Mark Earl, 
and Elizabeth Carol. 

JAMES CARROLL FOX 
Judge — Eastern District 

James Carrol Fox was born in Atchison, Kansas, on November 6, 1928, to Jared 
Copeland and Ethel Carroll Fox. Graduated Woodberry Forest School (Virginia), 
1946; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1950 (B.S. in Business Administration); School of Law, 
UNC-Chapel Hill, 1957 (LL.B. with Honors). Judge, U.S. District Court, Eastern 
District, 1982-; New Hanover County Attorney, 1967-1981; Partner (Firm of Mur- 
chinson. Fox & Newton, I960-; Associate, 1958-1959). Member: New Hanover 
County Bar (President, 1967-1968); N.C. Bar and American Bar Associations; The 
N.C. State Bar; N.C. Academy of Trial Lawyers. Member: Wilmington Civitan Club; 
Legal Advisor to N.C. Jass Festival, Inc. Member: Board of Directors, New Hanover 
Workshop; First Union National Bank, 1974— (Chairman, 1982-1983). Served in U.S. 
Army Reserves 1951-1959 (Corporal, Honorable Discharge). Member: St. James 
Episcopal Church, Wilmington (Vestryman, 1974-1975; Senior Warden, 1979-1982). 
Married to Katharine deRosset Rhett of Wilmington, December 30, 1950; Children: 
James C, Jr.; Jane Haskell Fox Brown; and Ruth Rhett Fox Jordan. 



188 



North Carolina Manual 






The Judicial System 189 

EUGENE ANDREW GORDON 
Chief Judge — Middle District 

Eugene Andrew Gordon was born in Brown Summitt, July 10, 1917, to Charles 
Robert and Carrie Scott Gordon. Graduated Elon College, 1939, A.B.; Duke Univer- 
sity Law School, 1941, LL.B. Judge, United States District Court. Member, American 
Judicature Society; Federal Bar Association; American Bar Association; NC Bar 
Association; Phi Delta Phi International Legal Fraternity. Member, Democratic 
Party; Judge, US District Court, 1964-. Served in US Army, Captain in Field Artillery 
(January, 1942 - May, 1946). Member, Starmount Presbyterian Church. Married Vir- 
ginia Stoner, January 1, 1943; Children: Eugene Andrew and Rosemary Ann. 

HIRAM HAMILTON WARD 
Judge — Middle District 

Hiram Hamilton Ward was born in Thomasville, Davidson County, April 29, 1923, 
to O. L. Ward and Margaret A. (Lowdermilk) Ward. Attended Denton High School; 
Wake Forest University; graduated. Wake Forest University School of Law, 1950, 
J.D. Judge, United States District Court. Member, American Judicature Society; 
American Bar Association; NC Bar Association. Member, Masons; Phi Alpha Delta 
Law Fraternity; Trustee, Wingate College; Liberty Baptist Association. Member, 
Democratic Party; Judge, US District Court, 1972-; Served on NC State Board of 
Elections, 1964-1972 (3 terms); Chairman, Federal Land Condemnation Commission, 
1964-65. Served in US Air Force (October, 1940 - May, 1945); Pilot and Lt. Col., Civil 
Air Patrol. Member, Baptist Church; Deacon; Sunday School Teacher. Married 
Evelyn McDaniel, June 1, 1947; Children: William M. and James Randolph. 

RICHARD CANNON ERWIN 
Judge — Middle District 

Richard Cannon Erwin was born in Marion, McDowell County, August 23, 1923, 
to John Adams and Flora Cannon Erwin. Attended McDowell County Public 
Schools; Johnson C. Smith University (Charlotte, NC), B.A., 1947; Howard Univer- 
sity School of Law (Washington, D.C.), LL.B., 1951. Judge, United States District 
Court. Member, Forsyth County Bar Association (Past President); NC State Bar 
Association; Bar of the United States Supreme Court. Member, Kappa Alpha Psi 
Fraternity. Member, Democratic Party; Judge, US District Court, 1980-; Judge, NC 
Court of Appeals, 1977-1980 (appointed December 2, 1977; elected, 1978); Served in 
NC House of Representatives, 1975-1977. Served in US Army, First Sergeant (1945- 
1946). Winner, Silver Cup, Citizens Coalition of Forsyth County, August, 1974. 
Member, St. Pauls United Methodist Church (served as National Methodist Layman). 
Married Demerice Whitley, August 25, 1946; Children: Aurelia Whitley and Richard 
Cannon, Jr. 



190 



North Carolina Manual 





The Judicial System 191 

WOODROW WILSON JONES 
Chief Judge — Western District 

Woodrow Wilson Jones was born near Rutherfordton, Rutherford County, January 
26, 1914, to Bernard B. and Karl Jane (Nanney) Jones. Attended Rutherford County 
Public Schools, 1920-1932; graduated Mars Hill College, 1934, A.S.; Wake Forest 
University School of Law, 1937, LL.B. Judge, United States District Court. Member, 
NC Bar Association; American Bar Association; Rutherford County Bar Association 
(President, 1946). Judge, US District Court, 1967-; served in US House of Representa- 
tives (11th District), 1950-1957; served in NC House of Representatives, 1947-1949; 
Solicitor, Recorder's Court of Rutherford County, 1941-1943; Member, NC Demo- 
cratic Executive Committee, 1938-1960. Past Director, Citizens Federal Savings and 
Loan Association of Rutherfordton, 1957-1967; Union Trust Company of Shelby, 
1960-1967. Member, Board of Trustees, Gardner-Webb College. Former member, 
Rutherfordton Kiwanis Club (Past President); Rutherfordton Chamber of Commerce 
(Past Director). Presented Outstanding Service Award by Rutherfordton Lions Club, 
October 23, 1950; Awarded Special Citation for outstanding service to Gardner-Webb 
College, May 12, 1965. Member, First Baptist Church, Rutherfordton; teacher and 
deacon. Married Rachel Phelps, November 22, 1936; Children: W. Wilson, Jr. and 
Michael A. 

JAMES BRYAN MCMILLAN 
Judge — Western District 

James Bryand McMillan was born in Goldsboro, Wayne County, December 19, 
1916, to Robert Hunter and Sarah Outlaw McMillan. Attended Lumberton Public 
Schools; Presbyterian Jr. College (now St. Andrews College), 1932-1934, A. A.; gradu- 
ated University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1937, M.A.; Harvard Law School, 
J.D., 1940. Judge, United States District Court. Member Mecklenburg County Bar 
Association (President, 1957-58); NC Bar Association (President, 1960-61); American 
Bar Association; NC State Bar, Inc.; American Judicature Society. Judge, US District 
Court, 1968-. Member, Omicron Delta Kappa; Order of the Golden Fleece. Served in 
US Navy, 1942-1946. Author of opinions and orders in numerous district court and 
some Circuit Court of Appeals Cases. Member, First Presbyterian Church (Deacon, 
1957-1963; Treasurer, 1962-1963; Ruling Elder, 1963-1971, 1975-). Married Margaret 
Blair Miles, February 27, 1944; Children: James Bryan, Jr. and Marjorie Miles 
McMillan Rodeil. 



PARTY 

NORTH CAROLINA STATE 

GOVERNMENT 



194 



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I I 



The Legislative Branch 195 

Chapter One 

THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 



The general assembly is the oldest governmental body in North Carolina. According 
to tradition a "legislative assembly of free holders" met sometime in 1666; however, 
there is no extant proof that such a meeting took place. Actual provisions for a repre- 
sentative assembly did not exist prior to the adoption of the Concessions and Agree- 
ments of 1665. Then an unicameral body composed of the governor, his council, and 
"twelve men . . . chosen annually" sat as a legislature. This system of representation pre- 
vailed until 1670 when Albemarle County was divided in three "precincts" — Berkely, 
Carteret and Shaftsbury. At that time each precinct was apparently allowed five repre- 
sentatives. Around 1682, four new precincts were created from the original three as pop- 
ulation and western expansion increased. The number of representatives allowed new 
precincts was usually two, although some had more. Beginning with the Assembly of 
1723, some of the larger, more important towns were allowed representatives. Edenton 
was the first, followed by Bath, New Bern, Wilmington, Brunswick, Halifax, Cambell- 
ton (now Fayetteville), Salisbury, Hillsborough and Tarborough (now Tarboro). By 
the middle of the eighteenth century, the term "precinct" had been replaced by 
"county" in reference to the geographical subdivisions. 

The unicameral form of the legislature continued until around 1697 when a bicameral 
form was adopted. The "upper house" was composed of the governor, or chief execu- 
tive at the time, and his council; the elected "precinct" representative sat as the "lower 
house" or "House of Burgesses." The lower house could adopt its own rules of pro- 
cedure and elect its own speaker and other officers; however, it could meet only when 
the governor called it into session and only at a location designated by him. This did not 
prove a disadvantage since the lower house had "the power of the purse." As a result, 
the governor usually called them into session at least once during a biennium, and 
usually more often, in order that he might be paid his salary. Throughout the colonial 
period, this "power of the purse" was a source of constant controversy between the gov- 
ernor and the lower house, and the house used it effectively to increase its influence and 
prestige. 

In 1776, when our first State Constitution was adopted, the effects of the executive- 
legislative conflicts of the colonial period were reflected in its provisions. The legislature 
was the primary organ of state government with control over all phases of government. 
Its most important power was its power to elect all officials in the executive and judicial 
branches. This was done by joint ballot of the members of the two houses. This con- 
tinued until 1835 when the governor became a popularly elected official; however, it was 



196 North Carolina Manual 



not until 1868, that the remaining executive officials and the judiciary were popularly 
elected. 

The Constitution of 1776 provided for a bicameral legislature, both elected by the 
people. The senate was composed of one representative from each county, and the 
house of commons was composed of two representatives from each county, one from 
each town listed in the Constitution. This arrangement continued until 1835 when sev- 
eral amendments were adopted affecting the general assembly. The membership of the 
senate was set at fifty and the state was divided into districts with representation based 
on the population of the district. The membership of the house of commons was set at 
120 with representation based on the population of the county in accordance with pro- 
visions set forth in the amendment; however, each county was entitled to at least one 
representative. Provisions were made so that future representation would be based on 
the federal census taken every ten years. 

In 1868, a new constitution was adopted which changed the name of the "house of 
commons" to the "house of representatives" and eliminated the previously unfair 
"property qualifications" for holding office. Also the current organizational structure 
with the lieutenant governor as president of the senate and provisions for the elction of 
a president pro tempore came into existance. 

In 1966, the house of representatives adopted a district setup similar to that used by 
the senate. Today, the general assembly is the legislative branch of state government. It 
is equal with, but independent of, the executive and judicial branches. The legislative 
body is composed of two chambers, the senate and the house of representatives, which 
convene in odd-year biennial sessions on the first Wednesday after the second Monday 
in January. (By parliamentary means, the general assembly may divide the biennal ses- 
sion into annual segments.) (The senate has fifty members and the house has 120 mem- 
bers, all of whom are elected biennially from districts containing approximately equal 
populations.) However, one of the distinct disadvantages of the district system, par- 
ticularly as it relates to the house of representaitves, is that an increasingly large number 
of counties are without a "resident" legislator. 

In 1982, a constitutional amendment was approved by the voters of North Carolina 
setting January 1, following the November General Election as the date legislator of- 
ficially took office. 

As the legislative branch of government, the general assembly has three major func- 
tions: to enact general and local laws governing the affairs of the state, to provide and 
allocate funds for operating the government by enacting tax and appropriation laws, 
and to conduct investigations into such operations of the state as it deems necessary for 
regulation and funding. The main work of the general assembly is the enactment of sub- 
stantive legislation. 

Much of the legislative work of the general assembly is done in committees composed 
of members of the respective houses. Senate Committees are appointed by the lieu- 
tenant governor, who serves as presiding officer of the senate (President of the Senate); 
House Committees are appointed by the Speaker of the House, who is elected from 
among the membership of the house of representatives. 

Administrative authority for the general assembly is vested in the Legislative Services 
Commission. The president pro tempore of the senate and the speaker of the house are 
ex officio chairmen of the Services Commission; each appoints six members from his 



The Legislative Branch 197 



respective house to serve on the commission. The Services Commission employs a legis- 
lative services officer as chief staff officer, a director of fiscal research to deal with 
money matters, and a director of research to handle all other informational needs. The 
Legislative Research Commission is separated from the Legislative services Commis- 
sion, and its authority is limited to research projects. Again, the president /^ro tempore 
and the Speaker are ex officio chairmen of the Research Commission; each appoints five 
members to sit on this commission. 

The staff and elective officers of the general assembly assist the membership in ac- 
complishing legislative tasks. The Legislative Services Commission is responsible for 
general and fiscal research, disbursing supplies and materials, production and storage of 
legislative documents, personnel management, supervision and maintenance of the leg- 
islative building, contracting for services, and payment of accounts. The commission 
employs a staff, directed by the legislative services officer, to carry out these functions. 
The Legislative Research Commission produces extensive study documents and drafts 
legislation for consideration by the general assembly. Special study commissions are set 
up to investigate difficult or technical subjects for later reports to the legislature. In ad- 
dition, standing committees of the general assembly have been authorized to meet dur- 
ing interim periods to carry on committee business and to conduct related studies. The 
Services Commission provides, or arranges, for staff assistance to the Research Com- 
mission and standing committees and coordinates staff work with the special commis- 
sions. 





pRESIDE/vr 



The Legislative Branch 199 

1983 NORTH CAROLINA SENATE 

Officers 

President James C. Green 

President Pro Tern W. Craig Lawing 

Majority Leader Kenneth C. Royall, Jr. 

Minority Leader Donald R. Kincaid 

Principal Clerk Sylvia M. Fink 

Reading Clerk LeRoy Clark, Jr. 

Sergeant-al-Arms Mrs. Gerda Pleasants 

Senators 

Name County Oist. Address Seat 

Altord, Dallas L., Jr Nash 10th Rocky Mount 9 

Allred, Cary D. (R) Alamance 21st Burlington 40 

Allsbrook, Jullian R Halifax 6th Roanoke Rapids 1 

Ballenger, T. Cass (R) Catawba 26th Hickory 37 

Barnes, Henson P Wayne 8th Goldsboro 38 

Barnes, Richard W Forsyth 20th Winston-Salem 35 

Childers, Jack Davidson 23rd Lexington 45 

Daniels, Melvin R., Jr Pasquotank ist Elizabeth City 20 

Davis, Robert M Rowan 23rd Salisbury 43 

Duncan. Conrad R., Jr Rockingham 24th Stoneville 5 

Edwards Elton Guilford 19th Greensboro 16 

Edwards, James H Caldwell 27th Granite Falls 30 

Gray, Rachel G Guilford 32nd High Point 22 

Guy, A. D Onslow 4th Jacksonville 26 

Hancock, William G., Jr Durham 13th Durham 47 

Hardison. Harold W Lenoir 5th Deep Run 8 

Harrington, J. J Bertie 2nd Lewiston 25 

Harris, Kenneth R. (R) Mecklenburg 22nd Charlotte 36 

Harris, Ollie Cleveland 25th Kings Mountain 3 

Hipps, Charles W Haywood 29th Waynesville 13 

Hunt, Wanda Moore 16th Pinehurst 29 

Jenkins, Cecil R., Jr Cabarrus 22nd Concord 11 

Johnson, Joseph E Wake 14th Raleigh 18 

Jordan, Robert B., ill Montgomery 17th Mount Gilead 21 

Kincaid, Donald R. (R) Caldwell 27th Lenoir 39 

Lawing, W. Craig Mecklenburg 22nd Charlotte 12 

Marion, George W., Jr Surry 24th Dobson 15 

Martin. William M Guilford 31st Greensboro 34 

Marvin, Helen Rhyne Gaston 25th Gastonia 23 

Parnell, David R Robeson 30th Parkton 27 

Plyler, Aaron W Union 17th Monroe 48 

Rand, Anthony E Cumberland 12th Fayetteville 7 

Rauch, Marshall A Gaston 25th Gastonia 4 

Redman, Wm. W., Jr. (R) Iredell 26th Statesville 42 

Royall, Kenneth C, Jr Durham 13th Durham 46 

Soles, R. C, Jr Columbus 18th Tabor City 28 

Speed, James D Franklin 1 1th Louisburg 10 

Staton, William W Lee 14th Sanford 44 

Swain, Robert S Buncombe 28th Asheville 14 

Tally, Lura S Cumberland 12th Fayetteville 49 

Thomas, Joseph E Craven 3rd Vanceboro 17 

Thomas, R. P Henderson 29th Hendersonville 32 



200 North Carolina Manual 



Name County Dist. Address Seat 

Tison, Benjamin T Mecklenburg 22nd Charlotte 31 

Walker, Russell G Randolph 16th Asheboro 6 

Ward, Marvin Forsyth 20th Winston-Salem 50 

Warren, Robert D Johnston 15th Benson 24 

White, Vernon E Pitt 9th Winterville 2 

Winner, Dennis Buncombe 28th Asheville 33 

Woodard, Wilma C Wake 14th Garner 19 

Wright, J. A. (R) New Hanover 7th Wilmington 41 



The Legislative Branch 201 



SPEAKERS OF THE SENATE 

Assembly Senator Residence 

1777 Samuel Ashe New Hanover 

1778 Whitmel Hill Martin 

Allen Jones Northampton 

1779 Allen Jones Northampton 

Abner Nash Jones 

1780 Abner Nash Jones 

Alexander Martin Guilford 

1781 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1782 Alexander Martin Guilford 

Richard Caswell Dobbs 

1783 Richard Caswell Dobbs 

1784 (April) Richard Caswell Dobbs 

1784 (October) Richard Caswell Dobbs 

1785 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1786-87 James Coor Craven 

1787 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1788 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1789 Richard Caswell Dobbs 

Charles Johnston Chowan 

1790 William Lenoir ...;.... Wilkes 

1791-92 William Lenoir Wilkes 

1792-93 William Lenoir Wilkes 

1793-94 William Lenoir Wilkes 

1794-95 William Lenoir Wilkes 

1795 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

1796 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

1797 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

1798 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

1799 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

1800 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1801 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1802 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1803 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1804 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1805 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1806 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1807 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1808 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1809 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1810 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1811 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1812 George Outlaw Bertie 

1813 George Outlaw Bertie 

1814 George Outlaw Bertie 

1815 John Branch HaHfax 

1816 John Branch Halifax 

1817 John Branch Halifax 

Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1818 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1819 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1820 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1821 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1822 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 



202 North Carolina Manual 



Assembly Senator Residence 

1823-24 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1824-25 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1825-26 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1826-27 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1827-28 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1828-29 Jesse Speight Greene 

1829-30 Bedford Brown Caswell 

David F. Caldwell Rowan 

1830-31 David F. Caldwell Rowan 

1831-32 David F. Caldwell Rowan 

1832-33 William D. Mosely Lenoir 

1833-34 William D. Mosely Lenoir 

1834-35 William D. Mosely Lenoir 

1835 William D. Mosely Lenoir 

1836-37 Hugh Waddell Orange 

1838-39 Andrew Joyner Halifax 

1840-41 Andrew Joyner Halifax 

1842-43 Lewis D. Wilson Edgecombe 

1844-45 Burgess S. Gaither Burke 

1846-47 Andrew Joyner Halifax 

1848-49 Calvin Graves Caswell 

1850-51 Weldon N. Edwards Warren 

1852 Weldon N. Edwards Warren 

1854-55 Warren Winslow Cumberland 

1856-57 William W. Avery Burke 

1858-59 Henry T. Clark Edgecombe 

1860-61 Henry T. Clark Edgecombe 

1862-64 Giles Mebane Alamance 

1864-65 Giles Mebane Alamance 

1865-66 Thomas Settle Rockingham 

1866-67 Matthias E. Manly Craven 

Joseph H. Wilson Mecklenburg 



PRESIDENTS PRO TEMPORE OF THE SENATE* 

Assembly Senator Residence 

1870-72 Edward J. Warren Beaufort 

1872-74 James T. Morehead Guilford 

1874-75 

1876-77 James L. Robinson Macon 

1879-80 William A. Graham Lincoln 

1881 William T. Dorch Buncombe 

1883 

1885 E. T. Boykin Sampson 

1887 ^_ 



•With the adoption of a new constitution in 1868, the office of "Speaker of the Senate" ceased to exist. A provision in the 
constitution created the office of "Meutenant governor" whose duties and functions were similar to those previously carried out by 
the speaker. The lieutenant governor presides over the senate and is called "The President of the Senate" when serving in this 
capacity. The senators also elected one of their own to serve as "President Pro Tempore" during periods when the lieutenant can 
not preside. 



The Legislative Branch 203 



Assembly Senator Residence 

1889 [Edwin W. Kerr] Sampson 

1891 William D. Turner Iredell 

1893 John L. King Guilford 

1895 E. L. Franck, Jr Onslow 

1897 

1899-1900 R. L. Smith Stanly 

P. A. Whitaker Wake 

1901 Henry A. London Chatham 

1903 Henry A. London Chatham 

1905 Charles A. Webb Buncombe 

1907-1908 Charles A. Webb Buncombe 

1909 Whitehead Klutz Rowan 

191 1 Henry N. Pharr Mecklenburg 

1913 Henry N. Pharr Mecklenburg 

1915 Oliver Max Gardner Cleveland 

1917 FordyceC. Harding Pitt 

1919-20 Lindsey C. Warren Washington 

1921 William L. Long Halifax 

1923-24 William L. Long Halifax 

1925 William S. H. Burgwyn Northampton 

1927 William L. Long Halifax 

1929 Thomas L. Johnson Robeson 

1931 Rivers D. Johnson Duplin 

1933 William G. Clark Edgecombe 

1935 Paul D. Grady Johnston 

1937-38 Andrew H. Johnston Buncombe 

James A. Bell Mecklenburg 

1939 Whitman E. Smith Stanly 

1941 John D. Larkins, Jr Jones 

1943 John H. Price Rockingham 

1945 Archie C. Gay Northampton 

1947 Joseph L. Blythe Mecklenburg 

1949 James C. Pittman Lee 

1951 Rufus G. Rankin Gaston 

1953 Edwin Pate Scotland 

1955-56 Paul E. Jones Pitt 

1957 Claude Currie Durham 

1959 Robert F. Morgan Cleveland 

1961 William L. Crew Halifax 

1963 Ralph H. Scott Alamance 

1965-66 Robert B. Morgan Harnett 

1967 Herman A. Moore Mecklenburg 

1969 Neill H. McGeachy Cumberland 

1971 Frank N. Patterson, Jr Stanly 

Gordon P. Allen Person 

1973-74 Gordon P. Allen Person 

1975-76 John T. Henley Cumberland 

1977-78 JohnT. Henley Cumberland 

1979-80 W. Craig La wing Mecklenburg 

1981-82 W. Craig La wing Mecklenburg 

1983-84 W. Craig Lawing Mecklenburg 



204 



North Carolina Manual 




The Legislative Branch 205 



WILLIAM CRAIG LAWING 

PRESIDENT PRO TEM 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 

Twenty-Second Senatorial District Cabarrus and Mecklenburg Counties Four Senators. 

Early Years: Born in Mecklenburg County, July 6, 1925, to Samuel Oliver and Essie O. 
(Dunn) Lawing. 

Education: Attended Mecklenburg County Public Schools. 1931-42: University of Chat- 
tanooga as Aviation Cadet. United States Army Air Force. 1943-44; Repperts School 
of Auctioneering, 1958: CAI in Auctioneering. University of Indiana, 1980. 

Occupation: Insurance: Real Estate, and Auction (President, Lawing, Inc.); President, 
Duckworth Home Furnishing Company. 

Organizations: Member: N.C. Association of Realtors; Paw Creek American Legion 
Post No. 353 (Commander. 1948-1951; Chairman. Legislative Committee. 1961- 
1971); Voiture 1400 Forty and Eight (Correspondent, 1952-53; Grand Chiminot, 
1954-55); Excelsior Lodge No. 261, A.F. & A.M.; Carolina Consistory Scottish rite; 
Oasis Temple of the Shrine. Commander, Mecklenburg County Council of American 
Legion Post, 1968-69; Auctioneers Association of N.C. (President, 1962-1965); 
National Auctioneers Association (Board of Directors, three-year term, 1969-1972). 

Boards and Commissions: Member: Mecklenburg County Welfare Board, 1961-1964; 
Charlotte Board of Realtors; National Association of Real Estate Boards. 

Political Activities: Served in N. C. Senate, 1977-78, 1979-80. 1981-82, and 1983 (Presi- 
dent Pro Tem, 1979-80, 1981-82, and 1983; Co-Chairman, Legislative Services Com- 
mission, 1979-80, 1981-83; Co-Chairman. Legislative Research Commission, 1979- 
80, 1981-83); Served in N.C. House of Representatives. 1972, 1973-74, and 1975-76; 
Mecklenburg County Board of County Commissioners, 1952-1956, 1958-1964; (Vice 
Chairman, 1954-1956. 1962-1964). 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army Air Force. 1943-1946. Aviation Cadet and Gun- 
nery Instructor. 

Honors: "Outstanding Legislator of the Year Award" by N.C. Association of Long- 
Term Care Facility, 1982; "Go-Getter" designation and star for past 23 years in the 
American Legion: one of 10 Outstanding Men of the Year. Charlotte Jaycees, 1959 
and 1960; City of Charlotte Citizenship Award, 1964; Certificate of Appreciation by 
Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, 1964. 

Religious Activities: Member, United Methodist Church of Charlotte; Official Board, 
1960-1968 (Chairman, 1966-1968; Chairman. Membership and Evangelism Commit- 
tee, 1968-1970); Teacher. Glenn Lackey Adult Sunday School Class, 1958--; Taught 
Men's Bible Class. Pleasant Grove United Methodist Church, 1956-1958. 

Family: Married, Jane Gaffney, December 31, 1943; Children: Diane Lawing Hagler and 
Sally Ann Lawing. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Rules and Operations of the Senate 

Vice Chairman: Banking. Ways and Means 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations -- Human Resources: Base 
Budget; Finance: Insurance; Pensions and Retirement; Public Utilities 
and Energy; State Government: Ways and Means -- Economy. 



206 



North Carolina Manual 




The Legislative Branch 207 



KENNETH CLAIBORNE ROYALL, JR. 

SENATE MAJORITY LEADER 

(Democrat — Durham County) 

Thirteenth Senatorial District ~ Durham, Granville, and Person Counties; and Cedar Grove, Eno, 
and Little River Townships of Orange County — Two Senators. 

Early Years: Born in Warsaw, Duplin County, September 2, 1918, to Kenneth Claiborne 
and Margaret Pierce (Best) Royall, Sr. 

Education: Attended Goldsboro High School, Goldsboro, 1932-1934; Graduated 
Episcopal High School, Alexandria, Virginia, 1936; University of North Carolina — 
Chapel Hill, 1940, A.B., Attended University of Virginia Law School, 1940-41; Wake 
Forest Law School, 1941-42. 

Occupation: Furniture Retailer (Owner, Style Craft Interiors). 

Organizations: Director, NC Merchant's Association, 1975-76; Director, Training for 
Hearing Impaired Children, 1971-76; 2nd Vice-President, NC Committee for the 
Prevention of Blindness, 1973-76. Member; Rotary Club; Elks Club; Delta Kappa 
Epsilon Fraternity; President, Durham Merchants Association, 1959. 

Boards and Commissions: Advisory Budget Commission, 197 1-72 (Vice Chairman, 1977- 
1980; Chairman, 1981-1983); Chairman, Council of State Governments, 1981-82; 
Chairman, Southern Leadership Conference, 1977-1983 (Chairman, 1980-81); 
Legislative Building Commission, 1971-72; Board of Higher Education, 1971-72; Ex- 
ecutive Residence Building Commission, 1972; Chairman, Mental Health Study 
Commission, 1973-1983; Governmental Operations Study Commission, 1974-1984; 
Board of Directors, Eckerd Wilderness Educational System of NC, 1978-1981; 
Durham Advisory Board to Duke Hospital, 1975-1983; Board of Directors, 
American Red Cross: Board of Directors, YMCA; Durham Chamber of Commerce, 
1962-1972 (Board of Directors & Vice-President, 1972); Board of Directors, Triangle 
Service Center, Inc., 1974-1983; Executive Committee, NCSL, 1976-1978, 1980-81. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 
and 1983. Senate Majority Leader, 1973-74, 1977-84; (Legislative Services Commis- 
sion, 1973-1983); Served in NC House of Representatives, 1967, 1969 and 1971. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Marine Corps, 1942-45, Major (Platoon Leader in South 
Pacific, World War II); Received Bronze Star with Combat V. 

Honors: Certificate of Appreciation and Recognition for contributions to Psychology, 
N.C. Psychology Association, 1983, Honorary LL.D., NCCU, 1982; "Legislator of 
the Year," NCSEA, 1980; "Outstanding State Legislator Award," NCSGEA, 1980; 
"Outstanding State Legislator Award," Assembly of Governmental Employees, 
1980 (One of the Ten Outstanding Young Legislators in the United States); Voted 
"Most Influential Member of the North Carolina Senate" by fellow Senators, 1979- 
80, 1981-82; Distinguished Service Award for Outstanding Legislative Service, NC 
Mental Health Centers Association, 1978; Civic Honor Award, Durham Chamber of 
Commerce, 1977; Valand Award for outstanding service to Mental Health, 1976; 
Distinguished Service Award, NC Public Health Association, 1975; Certificate of 
Commendation, National Association of Mental Health, 1974. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Phillips Episcopal Church in Durham (Junior War- 
den, 1959; Senior Warden, 1964); Member of Vestry, three years. 

Family: Married, Julia Bryan Zollicoffer, February 10, 1945; Children: Kenneth C. 
Royall, III; Jere Zollicoffer Royall; and Julia Bryan Royall. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice-Chairman: Appropriations; Rules and Operations of the Senate: Ways and Means. 

Member: All Senate Committees as "President's Coordinator of Committees" 



208 



North Carouna Manual 




The Legislative Branch 209 



DONALD RAYVAUGH KINCAID 

SENATE MINORITY LEADER 

(Republican Caldwell County) 

Twenty-Seventh Senatorial District Avery. Burke, Caldwell, Mitchell, and Wilkes Counties — 
Two Senators. 

Early Years: Born in Caldwell County, June 2, 1936, to Hugh T. and Myrtle (McCall) 

Kincaid. 
Education: Graduated, Gamewell High School, 1954; Appalachian State Teachers 

College, 1959, B.S.: Clevenger's Business College, 1955. 

Occupation: School Teacher; Insurance Agent (Owner of Kincaid Insurance Agency, 

Lenoir). 
Organizations: Member: Lenoir Lions Club (Lion Tamer; past Secretary); Lenoir Rotary 

Club; N.C. Cattlemen's Association; Carolina Association of Professional Insurance 

Agents (Board of Directors); Carolina Association of Mutual Insurance Agents; 

Caldwell County Chamber of Commerce. Past Member: N.C.A.E.; Gamewell 

Ruritan Club. 
Boards & Commissions: Legislative Advisory Board, C. A. P.I. A.; Board of Trustees, 

Gardner-Webb College. Former Member:N.C. Board of Agriculture. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82 
and 1983 (Senate Minority Leader, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983); Served in N.C. 
House of Representatives, 1967, 1969 and 1971. 

Military Service: Served in N.C. National Guard for nine years, 5-E. 

Religious Activities: Member, Grandview Park Baptist Church in Lenoir. 

Family: Married, Syretha Weatherford, June 30, 1956; Four Children. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations — Natural and Economic 
Resources; Base Budget; Insurance; Judiciary I; Manufacturing, Labor, 
and Commerce; Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife. 



210 North Carolina Manual 




DALLAS L. ALFORD, JR. 

(Democrat — Nash County) 

Tenth Senatorial District — Wilson County and Coopers, Jackson, 
Nashville. North Whitakers, Oak Level, Red Oak, Rocky Mount, South 
Whitakers. and Stony Creek Townships of Nash County - - One Senator. 



Early ^'ears: Born in Durham, Durham County, to Dallas L. and Sali\ Catherine (Pope) 

Alford, Sr. 
Education: Graduated from Durham Public Schools; Duke University. 

Occupation: Real Estate Broker: Director, Carbisco Flour and Feed Mills; Director, 
Citizens Savings and Loan Association of Rocky Mount. 

Organizations: Member Lodge 1038, B.P.O.E.; 40 and 8; Kiwanis Club; Benveenue 
Country Club, Rocky Mount; Delta Sigma Phi (Social Fraternity); Commander, 
American Legion, 1948); Past President. Rocky Mount Realtors Association and 
Rocky Mount Mutural Insurance Agents Association; Past President, Rocky Mount 
Jaycees; Past President, N.C. Jaycees; Past President, N.C. Association of County 
Commissioners. 

Board and Commissions: Member, N. C. Traffic Safety Authority, 1966; Chairman, 
Commission to Study Welfare Problems for State of North Carolina, 1962; Nash 
County Board of Health, 1952-1958. 

Political .Activities: Served in N. C. Senate, 1959, 1961, 1965, 1967, 1973-74, 1975-76, 
1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, and 1983; Member, Nash County Board of County Com- 
missioners, 1948-1958 (Chairman, 1952-1958); Member, Board of Aldermen, City of 
Rocky Mount, 1939-1942. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Navy, 1942-1946, Lieutenant Commander. 

Honors: Mutual Insurance Agency for the Year for North Carolina and South Carolina, 

1966. 
Religious Activities: Member, First Methodist Church of Rocky Mount. 
Family: Married Margarette Glenn Griffin, November 17, 1945; Children: Dallas L. 

Alford, III; Margarette A. Rivenbark; Benjamin G. Alford; Cathy A. Duncan. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations — Natural and Economic Resources 
Vice Chairman: Ways and Means — Transportation; Appropriations: Bank- 
ing; Base Budget: Pensions and Retirement; Ways and Means 
Member: Appropriations; Banking; Base Budget; Pensions and Retirement 
Ways and Means. 



The Legislative Branch 



211 




CARY D. ALLRED 

(Republican — Alamance County) 



Twenty-First Senatorial District 
One Senator. 



Alamance and Caswell Counties 



Early Years: Born in Mebane. Alamance County, February 7, 1947. to Maurice Frank 

Allred and Rosa Sykes Allred. 
Education: Graduated Southern Alamance High School, 1965; Elon College 1970, B.A.; 

Graduate Study, University of North Carolina -- Greensboro. 
Occupation: Sales Executive (President, Econo Med, Inc.) 
Organizations: Boy Scouts of America Alumni Association; Alamance County Heart 

Association (Special Gifts Chairman, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982); Ducks Unlimited; 

Elon College Alumni Association. 
Boards & Commissions: Board of Directors, Alamance County Heart Association, 1980, 

1981, and 1982. 
Political Activities: Served in NC Senate, 1981-82 and 1983-84;Chairman, Alamance 

County Republican Party, 1979. 
Military Service: Served in U.S. Naval Reserve. 1966-1968, E-4. 
Honors: Free Enterprise Award, Graham Jaycees. 1979; Alamance County Dis- 
tinguished Service Award. Graham Jaycees, 1981; N.C. Heart Association Founders 

Award; 4-H Alumni Award, 1982. 
Religious Activities: Member, Stony Creek Presbyterian Church. 
Family: Married: Wanda Jean Brown. November 5, 1967; Children: Brian Kirk Allred. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Finance; Judiciary I; Public Utilities and Energy; State Govern- 
ment; State Government -- Election Laws; Ways and Means. 




212 North Carolina Manual 



JULLIAN RUSSELL ALLSBROOK 

(Democrat — Halifax County) 

Sixth Senatorial District -- Warren County; Township Nos. 1 (Tarboro), 2 
(Lower Conetoe), 5 (Lower Fishing Creetc), 6 (Upper Fishing Creek), 7 
(Swift Creek), 8 (Sparta). 9 (Otter Creek), 10 (Lower Town Creek). 11 
(Walnut Creek), 12 (Rocky Mount), 13 (Cokey), and 14 (Upper Town 
Creek) of Edgecombe County: and Brinkleyville, Butterwood, Enfield, 
Faucett. Littleton, Roanoke Rpaids, and Weldon Townships of Halifax 
County - One Senator. 

Early Years: Born in Roanoke Rapids, Halifax County, February 17, 1903, to William 
Clemmons and Bennie Alice (Waller) Allsbrook. 

Education: Graduated from Roanoke Rapids Public Schools, 1920; Attended University 
of North Carolina — Chapel Hill, 1920-1924; Graduated, University of North 
Carolina Law School, 1924 (Student Body President, 1923-24; Permanent Vice Presi- 
dent, Class of 1924.) 

Occupation: Attorney at Law. 

Organizations: Member: Halifax County Bar Assn.; N.C. Bar Assn.; American Bar 
Assn.; N.C. and U.S. Supreme Court Bars; American Judicature Society; Phi Alpha 
Delta Law Fraternity; Tau Alpha Debating Fraternity; Golden Fleece; Order of the 
Grail; American Legion, AMVETS; Woodmen of the World; Roanoke Rapids 
Kiwanis Club; Mason, Widow's Lodge No. 519. 

Boards & Commissions: Former Member, Board of Trustees, Roanoke Rapids School 
District; Chairman, Commission for the Study of the Rules of Civil Procedure, 
1967- ; Member, Governor's Study Commission on the Public School System on 
N.C. 1967. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1935, 1949, 1951, 1967, 1971, 1973-74, 1975- 
76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, and 1983; N.C. House of Representatives (Halifax 
County) 1941; Board of City Commissioners, Roanoke Rapids, 1 term; Presidential 
Elector, 2nd Congressional District, 1936; Chairman Committee on Platform & 
Resolutions, State Democratic Convention, 1956-1958. 

Military Service: Lieutenant, U. S. Naval Reserves, 1942-1945; now Lieutenant Com- 
mander, U.S. Naval Reserves. 

Honors: Registered in Who's Who in the South and The National Register of Prominent 
Americans; Trustee, Chowan College, Murfreesboro, 1950-1954; N. C. Symphony 
Inc.; received N. C. Public Health Assn. Award for Distinguished Service, 1965; 
presented Roanoke Rapids Lions Club's Distinguished Service Award, May 14, 1974; 
Special Honor Award for Service, N. C. Assn. of Health, Physical Education and 
Recreation, November, 1974. 

Religious Activities: Baptist. 

Family: Married Frances Virginia Brown (now deceased) of Garysburg, June 24, 1926; 
Children: Richard Brown Allsbrook, Mary Frances Allsbrook, and Alice Harris 
Allsbrook. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary I 

Vice Chairman: Public Utilities and Energy 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations -- General Government; Base 
Budget; Human Resources; Rules and Operations of the Senate; Ways 
and Means Transportation. 



The Legislative Branch 



213 




THOMAS CASS BALLENGER 

(Republican — Catawba County) 

Twenty-Sixth Senatorial District - Alexander, Catawba, Iredell, and 
Yadkin Counties - Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Hickory, Catawba County, December 6, 1926, to Richard E. and 
Dorothy (Collins) Ballenger. 

Education: Graduated Episcopal High School, 1944; Attended University of North 
CaroHna — Chapel Hill, 1944-45; Graduated Amherst College, 1948, B.A. 

Occupation: Manufacturing Executive (President, Hickory Paper Box Co.; President, 
Plastic Packaging.) 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-81, and 1983; 
Catawba County Board of County Commissioner 1966-1974 (Chairman, 1970-1974). 

Military Service: Served U.S. Naval Air Corps, 1944-45. 

Religious Activities: Member, Episcopal Church (Senior Warden; Junior Warden); Lay 
Leader. 

Family: Married Donna David Ballenger, June 14, 1952; Children: Lucinda Garrison 
Ballenger, Mellissa Jane Ballenger Jordan, and Dorothy Davis Ballenger. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations -- Human Resources; Banking; 
Base Budget; Judiciary III; Judiciary III Law Enforcement and 
Criminal Justice; Manufacturing, Labor, and Commerce; Public 
Utilities and Energy; Rules and Operation of the Senate; Ways and 
Means; Ways and Means — Small Business. 



214 North Carolina Manual 




HENSON PERRYMOORE BARNES 

(Democrat — Wayne County) 

Eighth Senatorial District — Greene and Wayne Counties — One Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Bladen, November 18, 1934, to Rev. Lalon L. and Mable Cumbee 
Barnes. 

Education: Graduated from Garland High School, Sampson County, 1953; Graduated 
Wilmington College, 1958, A.A.; University of North Carolina — Chapel Hill, 1959, 
A.B.; University of North Carolina Law School. 1961, J.D. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law; Farm owner. 

Organizations: Member: Wayne County Bar Association; North Carolina Bar Associa- 
tion; American Bar Association: American Trial Lawyers Association. Member: 
Masons; Shriners, Elks Lodge; American Legion; Moose Lodge, Civitan Club. 

Boards & Commissions: Energy Policy Council, Courts Commission, Criminal Code 
Commission, Emergency Medical Services Advisory Council and Law Enforcement 
Officer's Benefit and Retirement Fund. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, and 1983; Served 
in N.C. House of Representatives, 1975-76; Chairman, Wayne County Democratic 
Party: Past President, Wayne County Young Democrats. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army, Paratrooper. 1953-56. 

Honors: Outstanding Young Man Award, Goldsboro,1963; Av\arded the Robert H. 

Futrelle Good Government Award for 1975; Honorary Degree of Doctor of Humane 

Letters from William Carter College. 1979. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Goldsboro; Deacon; Sunday School 

Teacher; Budget. Finance Board. 
Family: Married, Kitty Allen Barnes, August 27, 1961; Children: Rebecca Barnes and 

Amy Barnes. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary III 

Yice Chairman: State Government 

Member: Agriculture: Appropriations — Justice and Public Safety; Base 
Budget; State Government — Housing. 



The Legislative Branch 



215 




RICHARD WALTER BARNES 

(Democrat -- Forsyth County) 

Twentieth Senatorial District - Abbotts Creek, Bethania, Broadbay, 
Clemmonsville, Lewisville, Middle Fork, Old Richmond, Old Town, 
Salem Chapel, South Fork, Vienna and Winston Townships of Forsyth 
County Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Newton, Catawba County, June 6, 1943, to William Miles and Elsie 
Irene (Galloway) Barnes. 

Education: Graduated Newton-Conover High School, 1959; Attended U.S. Air Force 
Institute, 1960-1964. 

Occupation: Banking Executive (Business Development Officer, Citizens National 
Bank). 

Organizations: Member: 32 Mason, Shriner, Eastern Star; American Legion. Former 
member, Kiwanis Club, Member Elks--Moose. 

Political Activities: Served in NC Senate, 1983; Served in NC House of Representatives, 
1979-80 and 1981-82. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Air Force, 1960-1964 (E-4). 

Religious Activities: Member, Lutheran Epiphany Church. 

Family: Married, Carol Kowalko, May 24, 1970; One Child: Kimberly Dawn. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: State Government - Veterans and Military Affairs 
Vice Chairman: State Government - Senior Citizens Affairs 
Member: Finance; Local Government and Regional Affairs; State Govern- 
ment; Ways and Means; Ways and Means -- Small Business 



216 



North Carolina Manual 




JACK CELY CHILDERS 

(Democrat — Davidson County) 

Tv\enl\ -Third Senatorial District — Davidson, Davie and Rowan Coun- 
ties Two Senators. 



Early Vears: Born in Anderson County, SC, December 30. 1909. to James W. and Delia 
Cely Childers (both deceased). 

Education: Graduated Greenville High School (SC); Clemson University, 1931, B.S. in 
Textile Engineering; Advanced Management Program, Harvard Business School, 
1946. 

Occupation: Retired Corporate Executive (President, Erlanger Mills, Inc.). 

Organizations: Vice President, Lexington Chamber of Commerce; Former member: Lex- 
ington Kiwanis Club (President, 1949), American Legion Post #8 (Post Commander, 
1948); Past President. NC Textile Manufacturers Association, 1971; American Tex- 
tile Manufacturers Institute (Director & Chairman, Education Committee). 

Boards & Commissions: Past Member: Board of Directors. N.C. Chapter, American 
Cancer Society; Board of Directors, Lexington YMCA; Lexington Memorial 
Hospital (Vice Chairman); Lexington Good Neighbor Council. 

Political .Activities: Served in N.C. Senate. 1975-76. 1977-78. 1979-80, and 1983; Lex- 
ington City School Board (2 Terms). 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army Reserves. 1931-1952 (Colonel); Active Duty, 
1941-1946, European Theater, Commander of Tank Battalion (Decorated with the 
Silver Star, Bronze Star, Purple Heart, ETO Campaign Medal with two Oak Leaf 
Clusters, Russion Order of the Fatherland.) 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church in Lexington (Deacon; Ruling 
Elder); Superintendent of Sunday Schools. 

Family: Married Edith Anderson of Seneca. S.C, May 24, 1934; Children: Dr. Jack C. 
Childers, Jr. and James A. Childers. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Manufacturing, Labor, and Commerce 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations — General Government 

Member: Appropriations; Banking; Base Budget; Public Utilities and 
Energy; State Government; State Government — Veterans and Military 
Affairs; Wavs and Means. 




The Legislative Branch 217 



MELVIN ROY DANIELS, JR. 

(Democrat — Pasquotank County) 

(First Senatorial District — Camden, Currituck, Dare, Hyde, Pasquotank, 
Perquimans, and Tyrrell Counties; Bath, Long Acre, Pantego, Richland, 
and Washington Townships of Beaufort County; and Scuppernong and 
Skinnersville Townships of Washington County One Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Wanchese, Dare County, October 7, 1925, to Melvin Roy and 
Carrie Daniels. 

Education: Graduated Manteo High School; Campbell College; North Carolina State 
College: Virginia Polytechnical Institute. 

Occupation: Banking Executive (Senior Vice President, People's Bank & Trust, 
Elizabeth City. 

Organizations: Member: American Bankers Association; N.C. Bankers Association; 
N.C. Marine Science Council: South Atlantic Fishery Council (Vice Chairman). 
Member: Lions: Elks: Masonic: Order, Scottish Rite; Roanoke Island Historical 
Association (Chairman. Finance Board); Past President, Pasquotank County Chap- 
ter, American Cancer Society: Past Director, Elizabeth City Boys Club and Elizabeth 
City Girls Club; Past President, Elizabeth City Junior Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards & Commissions: Member: Elizabeth City Airport Commission; Past Chairman, 
Elizabeth City Planning Commission (10 years): Director, Salvation Army Advisory 
Board; Director, Board of Managers, Peoples Bank, 1972; Past Chairman, First 
Flight Society; Advisory Budget Commission. 

Political Activities: Served in NC Senate, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, and 1983; 
Past President, Pasquotank County Young Democrats Club: Past Chairman, Pas- 
quotank County Detnocratic Executive Committee and past member. State 
Democratic Executive Committee. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army Air Force, 1943-44. 

Honors: Citizen of Year, Elks Club, 1980; U.S. "Senate Club", Jaycees, 1979; N.C. Soil 
and Water Conservationist of the Year, 1979; Legislator of the Year, 1981, 
N.C.S.E.A.: On list of Ten Outstanding Legislator in the U.S., 1982. 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church. 

Family: Married, Gladys Toxey Daniels, August 18, 1950; Children: Melvin Roy 
Daniels, HI: Linda Dianne Daniels; and Donna DeLane Daniels. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Small Business. 

Vice Chairman: Public Utilities and Energy: Ways and Means — Economy. 

Member: Agriculture: Appropriations — Natural and Economic 
Resources: Banking; Base Budget; Natural and Economic Resources 
and Wildlife: Wavs and Means. 



218 North Carolina Manual 



ROBERT MONROE DAVIS 

(Democrat -- Rowan County) 

^^jj| sfeil^* Twenty-Third Senatorial District - Davidson, Davie, and Rowan Coun- 
~ ties -- Two Senators. 





f 






I 



Early Years: Born in China Grove, Rowan County, February 27, 1927, to Robert 
Jackson and Eva Mae (Phillips) Davis. 

Education: Graduated China Grove Public Schools, 1943; Pheiffer College, 1947; Wake 
Forest University School of Law, 1950, LL.B. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law. 

Organizations: Member: Rowan County Bar Association (President); 19th District Bar 
Association (President); Eureka Masonic Lodge, China Grove (Master, 1952); 
American Legion (State Commander, 1966-67); Woodman of the World (Consul 
Commander, 1952): Moose; Elks; Chamber of Commerce; North Carolina State 
Bar; North Carolina Bar Association; American Trial Lawyers Association; North 
Carolina Academy of Trial Lawyers. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1983; Chairman, Rowan County Democratic 
Party, 1956-1963; President, N.C. Young Democratic Club, 1958; Judge, Rowan 
County Court, 1954-1956; Prosecuting Attorney, Rowan County, 1952-1954. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church of Salisbury (Chairman, Board of 
Deacons; Chairman, Board of Trustees, 1978); Sunday School Teacher, 1952 — . 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Navy. 

Family: Married Mary Anne Austin of Salisbury, June 1, 1952; Children: Robert M. 

Davis, Jr., former N.C. Senator (1979-1980); James Austin and Janet Anne (twins); 

Jonathan David and Jennifer Mae (twins). 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Judiciary III Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations — Education; Base Budget; 
Education; Judiciary IH; Local Government and Regional Affairs. 




The Legislative Branch 219 



CONRAD R. DUNCAN, JR. 

(Democrat — Rockingham County) 

Twenty-Fourth Senatorial District Alleghany, Ashe, Rockingham, 
Stokes, Surry and Watauga Counties Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Carroll County, Virginia, October 9, 1928, to Conrad R. and 
Bertha (Birchfield) Duncan, Sr. 

Education: High School Education. 

Occupation: General Contractor. 

Organizations: Member: Southern Association of General Contractors of America; 

Masons: Shriners. 
Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1977-78 (appointed to fill seat of Wesley D. 

Webster), 1979-80, 1981-82, and 1983; Served in N.C. House of Representatives, 

1975-76 (appointed to fill seat of David M. Blackwell) and 1977-78. 
Military Service: Served in U.S. Air Force, 1948-49, Corporal. 
Religious Activities: Member, Centenary United Methodist Church: Official Board; 

Finance and Miscellaneous Offices. 
Family: Married, Becky Tuttle Duncan, June 9, 1951; Children: Patty Duncan Clarke, 

Kathy Sue Duncan, Howard Keith Duncan, and Amy Christen Duncan; 3 

Grandchildren. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Co-Chairman: Finance 

Vice Chairman: Banking 

Member: Agriculture; Manufacturing, Labor, and Commerce; Public 
Utilities and Energy; Rules and Operations of the Senate; State Govern- 
ment; State Government - Veterans and Military Affairs; Ways and 
Means; Ways and Means -- Economy; Ways and Means -- Transporta- 
tion. 



220 North Carouna Manual 




ELTON EDWARDS 

(Democrat -- Guilford County) 

Nineteenth Senatorial District -- Belews Creek and Kernersville 
Townships of Forsyth County; Bruce, Center Grove, Clay, Fentress, 
Greene. Madison, Monroe, Oak Ridge, Rock Creek, Washington 
Townships, and Greensboro Precincts 10, 20, 21, 27, 28, 32, 34, 35, 35, and 
Friendship Precinct 1 of Guilford County -- One Senator. 



Early ^'ears: Born in Wayne County, August 14, 1923, to Charles Henry and Lillie Es- 
telle (Thornton) Edwards. 

Education: Graduated Chapel Hill High School, 1939; University of North Carolina — 
Chapel Hill, 1943; A.B.; University of North Carolina Law School, 1948, J.D. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law (Partner in law firm of Edwards and Weeks); Secretary and 
Member, Board of Directors, Triad Bank of Greensboro. 

Organizations: Member; American Bar Association, N.C. Bar Association, Greensboro 
Bar Association, and Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity. Member: Greensboro Kiwanis 
Club, Reserve Officers Association (State President, 1973), and Air Force Associa- 
tion (State President, 1974). Former Member: Greensboro Jaycees (President, 1953- 
54), Guilford Lodge .656 AF & AM, and Oasis Shrine. 

Boards & Commissions: Member: John Motley Morehead Memorial Commission 
(Chairman, 1975- ), Handiclean Family Foundation (Chairman of the Board, 
1968--); Former Member: NC Board of Juvenile Correction, 1955-1965; Greensboro 
War Commission, 1956-1960; NC Board of Science and Technology, 1969-1971. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1969-71 and 1983; Served in N.C. House of 

Representatives, 1965-69. 
Military Service: Served in U.S. Air Force, Colonel, (Active, 1943-1945; Reserves, 1942- 

43, 1950-1980); received the Legion of Merit. 
Honors: Named "Boss of the Year," 1971 by the Greensboro Jaycees. 
Religious Activities: Member of the First Presbyterian Church of Greensboro (Elder, 

1968 ; Deacon, 1963-1968); Sunday School Teacher. 
Family: Married to Jessie Macon Sapp of Greensboro, March 27. 1954; Children; Elton 

Thornton Edwards, Jr. and Ruth Macon Edwards. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Co-Chairman: Base Budget 

Vice Chairman: Judiciary II — Constitutional Amendments 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations -- Justice and Public Safety; 

Finance; Higher Education; Insurance; Ways and Means; Ways and 

Means -- Economy. 




The Legislative Branch 221 

JAMES HARRELL EDWARDS 

(Democrat — Caldwell County) 

Twenty-Seventh Senatorial District - Avery, Biirl<e, Caldwell, Mitchell, 
and Wilkes Counties ~ Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Ayden, Pitt County, November 25, 1926, to James Josiah and Ella 

Ree (Stokes) Edwards. 
Education: Graduated Chicod High School; Attended Christian College and East 

Carolina University. 

Occupation: Private Investigator (President, Edwards & Associates); Insurance Adjuster 
(President, Southeastern Adjustment Company of Hickory, Inc.; Vice President, 
Southeastern Adjustment Company, Inc.); President, Carolinian Investors, Inc.; 
President, Jim Edwards, Inc. 

Organizations: Member: National Association of Independent Insurance Adjusters; 
National Association of Fire Investigators; International Society of Stress Analysts; 
International Association of Arson Investigaors; N.C. Association of Audio Stress 
Examiners; N.C. Adjuster's Association; Northwest North Carolina Adjuster's 
Association; International Loss Adjuster's Association. 

Boards & Commissions: Former Member: Private Protective Services Board; Criminal 
Justice Education and Training Standards Commission. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1979-80 and 1983; Served in N.C. House of 
Representatives 1975-76 and 1977-78; President, Northwest North Carolina 
Democratic Executive Committee. 

Military Service: U.S. Naval Reserves. 

Religious Activities: Member, Bethlehem Lutheran Church of Hickory; Deacon, 
Hollywood Presbyterian Church in Greenville. 

Family: Married, Katie Minor of Greensboro, August 14, 1982; Children: James L. 
Edwards; Charles T. Edwards; Johnny H. Edwards; Ella Ann Wharam; and Paige 
(step-daughter). 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Banking 

Vice Chairman: Human Resources 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations - Education; Base Budget; In- 
surance; Judiciary III; Judiciary III Law Enforcement and Criminal 
Justice; Ways and Means. 



222 North Carolina Manual 




RACHEL GILLEAN GRAY 

(Democrat — Guilford County) 

Thirt\-Second Senatorial District — Deep River Township; Friendship 
Precinct II: Greensboro Precincts 1. 2. 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 22, 23, 26, 
31,33, and r36: and High Point Precincts 1,2,4,8.9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 
18,20. and 21 of Guilford County — One Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Salisbury, Rowan County, September 26, 1930, to Jesse Frank and 
Janet (Miller) Giliean. 

Education: Graduated from Boyden High School, 1948 (Valedictorian); Attended 
Catawba College, 1948-1950; High Point College Evening School, 1960"s. 

Occupation: Legislator. 

Organizations: Member: Junior League (Sustaining Member); Women's Forum of NC; 
YWCA; High Point Historical Society; Women's Professional Forum; Past Mem- 
ber; Board of Uwharrie, Council Boy Scouts; League of Women Voters; Mayor's 
Committee Status of Women, High Point; Past City Hostee and organizer New- 
comers Club; Ferndale Junior High PTA (Past President); Past Chairman, Residen- 
tial Cancer Crusade; Past President, High Point Garden Council; Vice-President, 
Women's Society of Christian Service, 1960's; Past President Mental Health 
Association. 

Boards and Commissions: Member: Archaeological Advisory Committee; Mental 
Health Study Committee; N.C. Advisory Council on Teacher Education; Triad Park 
Commission; Board of Directors, High Point Development Corporation and The 
High Point Women's Shelter, Inc. Past Member: N.C. Council on Status of Women; 
various Study Committees in areas of Mental Health, State Parks, State Employees 
and Education. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, and 1983; Mayor 
Protem, City of High Point, 1973 and 1975. 

Honors: High Pointer of the Week, May 1964; 1979 Recipient, Catawba College Dis- 
tinguished Alumni Award. 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church. 

Family: Married, William Bruce Gray, June 26, 1950; Three Children: William Bruce 
Gray, Jr.; James Frank Gray; and Thomas Edward Gray. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: State Government — Housing 
Vice-Chairman: State Government. 

Member: Banking: Finance; Human Resources; Rules and Operations of 
the Senate. 




The Legislative Branch 223 



ALEXANDER DUKE GUY 

(Democrat Onslow County) 

Fourth Senatorial District -- Onslow County One Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Calypso, Duplin County, November 20. 1918. to Alexander Buck 
and Elizabeth Faust Guy. 

Education: Graduated. Calypso High School. 1935; North Carolina State College, NYA 
Program. 1936-37: Institute of Government, University of North Carolina — Chapel 
Hill. 1958-59. 

Occuaption: Insurance and Real Estate Agent. 

Organizations: Member: Independent Insurance Agents of NC, Inc.: Continental 
National American Insurance Companies, 1975-1977: N.C. Association of Realtors; 
Professional Producers Council. Member: Loyal Order of the Moose: Jacksonville 
Toast Masters (Charter Member, 1955). Founder, Jacksonville Municipal Court, 
1958; Founder, First Biracial.Committee, City of Jacksonville. 1963; Past President, 
Jacksonville Rotary Club, 1962-63; Charter President, Onslow County Chapter 
American Cancer Society, 1958; Past Campaign Chairman, American Red Cross 
Society, 1956. 

Boards and Commissions: National Association of Real Estate Boards; Jacksonville 
Board of Realtors; Onslow Memorial Hospital Authority. 1977-78; Jacksonville 
Hospital Authority, 1977-1979; Board of Directors, N.C. League of Municipalities, 
1962-1965; Board of Directors. Home Federal Savings & Loan Association, 1965; 
N.C. Mayor's Co-Operating Committee, 1964; Atlantic States Marine Fisheries 
Commission; National Conference of State Legislatures Committee on Energy. 

Political Activities: Served in the N.C. Senate, 1983; Served in N.C. House of Represen- 
tatives, 1979-80 and 1981-82; Jacksonville City Council, six years (Mayor, two years; 
Mayor Pro Tem, two years); Onslow County Board of County Commissioners, 
1969-1970. 

Religious Activities: Member, Trinity United Methodist Church; Board of Trustees, 
currently 1976-81; Administrative Board, concurrently. 1968-78; Chairman, Fund 
Raising Campaign Christian Higher Education, 1959. 

Family: Married, Margaret Holmes, January 31, 1975; Children: Alexander Duke Guy 
II: Bundage Humphrey Guy; and Douglas Bryan Guy. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Public Utilities and Energy 

Yice Chairman: State Government — Veterans and Military Affairs 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations; Appropriations — General 
Government; Banking; Base Budget; Finance, Manufacturing, Labor, 
and Commerce; State Government. 



224 



North Carolina Manual 




WILLIAM G. HANCOCK, JR. 

(Democrat — Durham County) 

Thirteenth Senatorial District - Durham. Granville, and Person: and 
Cedar Grove, Eno, and Little River Townships of Orange County — Two 
Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Charlotte, Mecklenburg Count}, July 29, 1943, to William Ger- 
emain Hancock Sr. (deceased) and Lucille Annette (Wiley) Hancock. 

Education: Graduated Myers Park High School, Charlotte, 1961; University of North 
Carolina — Chapel Hill. 1965. A.B. in History: Duke University School of Law, 
1968. J.D. 

Occuaption: Attorney at Law (Law Firm of Everett, and Hancock, in Durham.) 

Organizations: Member: Durham County Bar Association: North Carolina Bar 
Association: American Bar Association; North Carolina State Bar. 

Boards and Commissions: Vice-Chairman, NC Board of Ethics, 1977-1981; Chairman, 
Board of Directors, NC Center for Public Policy Research. 1975-1979; Member: 
Board of Directors, Hospice of NC, Inc.. 1978-79; Board of Directors. Friends of 
University Network, Inc., 1976-1981; Board of Directors, The Children's 100, 1975- 
1977 N.C. Council for Hearing Impaired. Agency for Public Telecommunications 
(1980-1982); N.C. Electronic Town Hall Task Force: Governor's Council for Per- 
sons with Disabilities. 

Political Activities: Served in NC Senate. 1980, (appointed to replace Willis P. 
Whichard), 1981-82, and 1983; Member. State Democratic Party Executive Commit- 
tee, 1977-1981. 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Co-Chairman: State Government 
Vice-Chairman: Judiciary II. 

Member: Appropriations: Appropriations — Human Resources; Base 
Budget: Higher Education; Human Resources: Judiciary II — Con- 
stitutional Amendments; Ways and Means. 




The Legislative Branch 225 



HAROLD WOODROW HARDISON 

(Democrat — Lenoir County) 

Fifth Senatorial District - Duplin, Jones, and Lenoir: and Columbia and 
Union Townships of Pender County - One Senator. 



A 



^fe 



Early Years: Born in Deep Run, Lenoir County, September 8, 1923, to Rutha and An- 
nie (Stroud) Hardison. 

Education: Graduated Deep Run High School: Attended Atlantic Christian College. 

Occupation: President, Eastern United Tires, Inc. of Kinston and Goldsboro. 

Organizations: NC Charter Member, Deep Run Ruritan Club: Board Member, Selec- 
tive Service Board No. 55, Lenoir County; Past Master, Pleasant Hill Masonic 
Lodge No. 304: Shriner, Member Sudan Temple, Former Lt. Commander of the 
Legion of Honor; Past Chairman, Lenoir County United Fund: Honorary Member 
of Kenansville Jaycees. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Deep Run School Board and South Lenoir School 
Board; Member, Neuse River Economic Development Commission; Kinston Lenoir 
County Industrial and Agricultural Developmental Commission: Member, Board of 
Directors Mount Olive College, and Executive Board: Board of Directors of NCNB, 
Kinston; Board of Directors of First Financial Savings & Loan, Inc., Kinston; First 
President, now member. Board of Directors, Deep Run Water Corp. 

Political Activities: Served in NC Senate, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 
and 1983; Served in N.C. House of Representatives, 1971. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Air Force, 1942-47. 

Religious Activities: Member, Deep Run Free Will Baptist Church: Sunday School 
Teacher; Former Chairman, Finance Committee. 

Family: Married, Arlene Humphrey, June 14, 1944; One Child: Pamela Hardison 
Braxton. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations 

Member: Banking: Base Budget: Finance: Human Resources; Pensions and 
Retirement: Public Utilities and Energy; Rules and Operations of the 
Senate; State Government: State Government -- Housing; Ways and 
Means: Wavs and Means -- Economv. 



226 



North Carolina Manual 




JOSEPH JULIAN HARRINGTON 

(Democrat - Bertie County) 

Second Senatorial District - Bertie, Chowan, Gates, Hertford, and 
Northampton Counties; 3 (Upper Conetoe) and 4 (Deep Creek) 
Townships of Edgecombe County: Conoconnara, HaHfax, Palmyra, 
Roseneath. and Scotland Neck Townships of Halifax County; Goose 
Nest. Hamilton and Robersonville Townships of Martin County; and 
Lees Mills and Plymouth Townships of Washington County One 
Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Lewiston, Bertie County, February 18, 1919, to Julian Pincott and 

Ethel Mae (Barnes) Harrington. 

Education: Graduated Lewiston-Woodville High School. 

Occupation: President, Harrington Mfg. Co., Lewiston. 

Organizations: Member: Farm Bureau Federation; Southern Farm Equipment Associa- 
tion; David Lodge No. 39. Lewiston; 32nd Degree Scottish Rite; Shriner, Sudan 
Temple, New Bern. 

Boards and Commissions: Member: Lewiston-Woodville Local School Board, 1955-59; 
Trustee, Chowan College, Murfreesboro; Governor's Blue Ribbon Commission, 
Member: Environmental Management Commission; Chairman Governor's Produc- 
tivity Commission; Former Trustee, North Carolina State University, Elizabeth 
City, North Carolina; North Carolina State University, School of Veterinary 
Medicine Board. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1963, 1965, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975- 
76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, and 1983. 

Military Service: Technical Sergeant, World War II, 1942-1945. 

Honors: Past "Tarheel of the Week", News and Observer; Honorary Attorney for State 
of North Carolina and for N.C. Senate. 

Religious Activities: Member, Lewiston Baptist Church; Deacon. 
Family: Married, Dianne P. Harrington; Children: Robert E. Harrington; Julian Picott 
Harrington, II; and Victoria Harrington. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Co-Chairman: Ways and Means 
Vice-Chairman: Finance 

Member: Insurance; Pensions and Retirement; Public Utilities and Energy; 
Rules and Operation of the Senate. 




The Legislative Branch 227 



OLLIE HARRIS 

(Democrat — Cleveland County) 

Twenty-fifth Senatorial District — Cleveland, Gaston, Lincoln, and 
Rutherford Counties — Three Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Anderson, S.C., September 2, 1913, to J. Frank and Jessie Ham- 
bright Harris. 

Education: Graduated Shelby High School 1931; Gupton-Jones College of Embalming, 
1935. 

Occupation: Funeral Director and Embalmer, (President and Treasurer, Harris Funeral 
Home, Inc.) 

Organizations: Member, NC Funeral Directors Association; National Funeral Director 
Association; National Selected Morticians; Mason; Shriner; Past President, NC 
Coroner's Association; Past President, NC Funeral Directors Association; Past 
President, NC State Board of Funeral Directors & Embalmers. 

Boards & Commissions: Member, N.C. Funeral Directing and Embalming Board; NC 
Mental Health Study Commission, 1977-78, 1979-80. Former Trustee, Gardner- 
Webb College. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1971-72, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 
and 1983: Cleveland County Coroner, 1946-70. 

Military Service: Served Army, 85th Field Hospital, European theatre 1943-46; Holder, 
Bronze Star. 

Honors: Valand Award by NC Mental Health Association, 1979; Legislator of the Year, 
NC Health Department Association, 1979. 

Religious Activities: Baptist Church; Board Member — Baptist State Convention. 

Family: Married, Abbie Jane Wall, May 4, 1934; Children: John OUie, Jr., and Mrs. 
Becky Harris Hambright; Four Grandchildren; Resides at: 921 Sharon Dr., Kings 
Mountain (28086). 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Human Resources 

Vice-Chairman: Appropriations — Human Resources 

Member: Appropriations; Banking; Base Budget; Judiciary I; Rules and 
Operation of the Senate; Ways and Means. 



228 North Carolina Manual 




KENNETH RHYNE HARRIS 

(Republican — Mecklenburg County) 

Twenty-Second Senatorial District -- Cabarrus and Mecklenburg Coun- 
ties — Four Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Statesviile, Iredell County, May 16, 1935, to Roy Lee and Beulah 
Mae (Barker) Harris. 

Education: Graduated Harmony High School, 1953; University of North Carolina — 
Charlotte, 1957, A. A.; University of North Carolina — Chapel Hill, 1959, B.A. in 
Business Administration (major in Accounting and Finance); Graduate Certificate 
specializing in Investments, American Institute of Banking. 

Occupation: General Agent (New England Mutual Life Insurance Company); Cor- 
porate Executive (Chairman and CEO, Income and Capital Associates, Inc.; Chair- 
man and CEO, Erisa Services, Inc.). 

Organizations: Member: Greater Charlotte Chamber of Commerce; Charlotte General 
Agents & Mangers Association (Past President); Charlotte Rotary Club (Past Presi- 
dent) Charlotte Athletic Club (Board of Directors); Charlotte Country Club; 
Charlotte City Club. 

Boards & Commissions: Charlotte Estate Planning Council; Board of Trustees, Johnson 
C. Smith University (Charlotte); Advisory Board, Duke University Medical Center 
(Durham); Board of Directors, UNC at Charlotte Foundation. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1983; Mayor of Charlotte. 1977-1979; 
Charlotte City Council, 1973-1975. 

Military Service: Served in N.C. National Guard, 1953-1973, Major (retired). 

Honors: Qualifying and Life Member, Million Dollar Round Table, New England Life 

Hall of Fame; New England Life Vanguard Award; National Management Award. 

Religious Activities: Member, Covenant Presbyterian Church of Charlotte (Past Elder) 

Family: Married, Sarah Trent of Durham. 1971; Children: Charles C. Lucas, III; Josiah 

C.T. Lucas, Benjamin N.D. Lucas, Shannon E. Harris, Katherine R. Harris, Sarah 

F. Harris, Kenneth R. Harris, Jr., Christopher M. Harris, and Matthew C. Harris. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Education; Finance; Insurance; Local Government and Regional 
Affairs; Pension and Retirement; State Government; State Government 
— Senior Citizens Affairs. 




The Legislative Branch 229 



CHARLES WILLIAM HIPPS 

(Democrat -- Haywood County) 

Tuenty-Ninth Senatorial District - Cherol<ee, Clay, Graham, Haywood, 
Henderson. Jackson, Macon, Polk, Swain, and Transylvania Counties ~- 
Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Waynesville, Haywood County, October 18, 1943, to John Gudger 
and Hazel (Rhinehart) Hipps. 

Education: Graduated Wa\ nesville Township High School, 1961; University of North 
Carolina Chapel Hill, 1965, A.B. in Political Science; Emory University Law 
School, 1966; University of North Carolina Law School, 1968. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law (Senior Partner in Law Firm of Hipps and Jordan, P. A.); 
College Professor, Southwestern Technical College. 

Organizations: Member: Haywood County Chamber of Commerce (Board of Direc- 
tors); Waynesville Rotary Club. Former President, Waynesville Merchants 
Association. 

Boards & Commissions: Member: Board of Trustees. Western Carolina University, 
1980-1982; Executive Director, Southwestern Criminal Justice Planning Agency and 
French Broad Criminal Justice Planning Agency. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1983; Mayor Pro Tem, Waynesville, 1979- 
1982; Chairman, Haywood County Democratic Party; Assistant District Attorney, 
1970-1973; Town Attorney, Waynesville and Maggie Valley. 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church of Waynesville (Board of 
Trustees Secretary). 

Family: Married, Jane Bates of Charlotte, June 1, 1968; Children: Elizabeth Hipps, Will 
Hipps, and John Hipps. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Co-Chairman: Local Government and Regional Affairs 
Vice Chairman: Agriculture 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations — Natural and Economic 
Resources; Base Budget; Judiciary IH; Natural and Economic 
Resources and Wildlife; Public Utilities and Energy; State Government; 
State Government -- Election Laws. 



230 North Carolina Manual 




WANDA H. HUNT 

(Democrat — Moore County) 

Sixteenth Senatorial District - Chatham. Moore, and Randolph Coun- 
ties, and Bingham, Chapel Hill, Cheeks, and Hillsborough Townships of 
Orange County — Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Bakersville, Mitchell County, March 22, 1944, to Farrall and Jane 
(Ledford) Holder. 

Education: Graduated Southwest High School in Clemmons; Attended Appalachian 
State University. 

Occupation: Legislator: 18'': years previous business experience, 11 of which were in 
state government; 2 public school employee: 7 '/: years in private business corporate 
secretary for small computer business). 

Organizations: Member: N.C. State Government Employees Association: N.C. School 
Board Assocaition: N.C. Social Services Board Association: Women in State 
Government: N.C. Status of Women: N.C. Heart Fund Association; Certified Judge 
for "Junior Miss" and "Miss" Pageants. Former Member: Cystic Fibrosis (Past 
President); Southern Pines Jaycettes (Past VP); Moore County Bicentennial Ball 
(Past Chairman); Southern Pines Junior Women's Club (Former Education Chair- 
man). Moore County Heart Fund Ball Chairman. The American Council of Young 
Political Leaders Member & Delegate to El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and 
Panama. Member, N.C. Assembly on Women and the Economy. 

Boards and Commissions: Past Chairman. Social Services Board. 

Political .Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1983; Moore County Board of Education, 
1976 — 83; Y.D.C., Appalachian State University; Precinct Chairman; Moore County 
Democratic Women: Secretary, Moore County Democratic Executive Committee; 
Delegate to various State, District and Local conventions. Delegate to Miami Con- 
ference on the Caribbean. 

Honors: National Cystic Fibrosis Volunteer Service Award; Heart Fund Certificate of 
Appreciation and Founders Award; Social Services Award, 1978-1981; Golden 
Mountaineer Award, A.S.U. Moore County Schools Distinguished Service Award as 
member of Moore County Board of Education, 7 years 1976-1983. 

Religious Activities: Member, Pinehurst Community Church; Youth Coordinator. 

Family: Married, Robert Frank Hunt of Pinehurst, March 24, 1962; One child: Donna 
Lynn Hunt. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice-Chairman: Education. 

Member: Finance: Higher Education; Natural and Economic Resources 
and Wildlife: Public Utilities and Energy: State Government; State 
Government Senior Citizens, Local Government. 




The Legislative Branch 231 



CECIL ROSS JENKINS, JR. 

(Democrat — Cabarrus County) 

Twenty-Second Senatorial District - Cabarrus and Mecklenburg Coun- 
ties Four Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Lincolnton, Lincoln County, July 22, 1941, to Cecil R., Sr. and 
Martha Mae (McGinnis) Jenkins. 

Education: Graduated Cherryville High School, 1959; East Tennessee State University, 

1965, B.S.: University of Tennessee Law School, 1970. 
Occupation: Attorney at Law. 

Organizations: Member: N.C. Academy of Trial Lawyers; N.C. Bar Association; 
American Bar Association; Sigma Alpha Epsilon & Phi Alpha Delta; Cabarrus Bar 
Association; Cabarrus County Cancer Board. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1979-80, 1981-82, and 1983. 

Religious Activities: Member, All Saints Episcopal Church. 

Family: Married, Phyllis S., April 20, 1963; Children: Melissa Rhyne, Phillip Ross, and 
Celeste Wood; Resides at: 670 Knollcrest Dr., Concord (28025). 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Insurance 

Vice-Chairman: Pensions and Retirement 

Member: Finance; Human Resources; Judiciary L Manufacturing, Labor 
and Commerce; Rules and Operation of the Senate; Ways and Means; 
Ways and Means — Economy; Ways and Means — Transportation. 



232 



North Carolina Manual 




JOSEPH EDWARD JOHNSON 

(Democrat — Wake County) 

Fourteenth Senatorial District — Harnett and Lee Counties; and 
Buckhorn, Cary, Cedar Fork, Holly Springs, House Creek, Marks Creek, 
Meredith, Middle Creek. Neuse, Panther Branch, Raleigh, St. Mary's, St. 
Matthews, Swift Creek, and White Oak Townships of Wake County — 
Three Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Raleigh, Wake County, on October 17, 1941, to Ira Edward and 
Grace Ivey Johnson. 

Education: Attended Raleigh Public Schools, 1946-59; North Carolina State University, 
1959-61; Graduated, 1966 Wake Forest University, 1964 B.B.A.: School of Law, 
Wake Forest University, J.D. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law. 

Organizations: Member: Wake County Bar Association; North Carolina Bar Associa- 
tion; American Bar Association; Alpha Kappa Psi (Business) Fraternity: Phi Delta 
Phi (Legal) Fraternity. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1981-82 and 1983; Served in N.C. House of 
Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78 and 1979-80. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Army, 1967-1969, Military Police Corps, 1st Lieutenant. 

Honors: ArmyCommendation Medal. 

Religious Activities: Member, Edenton Street United Methodist Church of Raleigh; Ad- 
ministrative Board; Assistant Superintendent, Sunday School; Sunday School 
Teacher. 

Family: Married, Jane Francum Johnson, January 31, 1964; Children: Jane Elizabeth 
Johnson, Kathryn Ivey Johnson, and Susan Briles Johnson. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: State Government — Housing 
Co-Chairman: Base Budget 
Vice-Chairman: Insurance 

Member: Appropriations: Appropriations — General Government; Banking: 
Judiciary II — Constitutional Amendments: Manufacturing. Labor and Com- 
merce: Public Utilities and Enersv; State Government. 



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233 




Seventeenth 

Scotland, Stanlv 



ROBERT BYRD JORDAN, III 

(Democrat — Montgomery County) 

Senatorial District — Anson, Montgomery, Richmond, 



and Union Counties — Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Mt. Gilead, Montgomery County, October 1 1. 1932. to Robert B., 

Jr. (deceased) and Irene (Pritchett) Jordan. 
Education: Graduated, Mt. Gilead High School, 1950; North Carolina State University, 

1954, B.S. (Forestry). 
Occupation: Lumber Executive. 
Organizations: Past President, Southeastern Lumber Manufacturers Association, 

(Atlanta, Georgia); Director, NC Forestry Association. Member: Masons and Lions; 

President, N.C. State Forestry Foundation. 

Boards & Commissions: Board of Control, Southern Regional Education Board; Capital 
Building Authority; Board of Sciences and Technology; Former Member, Board of 
Trustees University of North Carolina System, 1969-197L Former member. Board of 
Governor's University of N.C. 1971-76. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, and 1983. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Army, 1955-1956, Isl Lieutenant. 

Honors: "Outstanding Young Alumnus," N.C. State University, 1966; Montgomery 
County Jaycees "Distinguished Service Award," 1967; "Outstanding Alumnus," 
School of Forest Resources, N.C. State University, 1979. 

Religious Activities: Member, United Methodist Church; Chairman, Stewardship Com- 
mittee; Chairman, Administrative Board, 1970-1972; Bishop's Committee on Higher 
Education, 1974. 

Family: Married, Sarah Cole, June 21, 1958; Children: Betsy Lynn Jordan; Robert Byrd 
Jordan, IV; and Janie Cole Jordan. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Co-Chairman: Base Budget 

Vice-Chairman: State Government — Housing 

Member: Appropriations; Finance; Insurance; Manufacturing, Labor and 
Commerce; State Government; State Government — Senior Citizens Af- 
fairs; Ways and Means; Ways and Means — Economy; Rules 



234 



North Carolina Manual 




GEORGE W. MARION, JR. 

(Democrat — Surry County) 

Twenty-Fourth Senatorial District - Alleghany, Ashe, Rockingham, 
Stokes, Surry, and Watauga Counties — Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Surry County, April 14, 1935, to George W. and Lula Stanley 
Marion, Sr. 

Education: Graduated Dobson High School, 1953; Appalachian University, four years. 

Occupation: Housewares Distributors; Real Estate Broker 

Organizations: Member: Lions Club (President, Dobson Lions Club, 1969); P.T.A., 
Northwest Development Association; President, Dobson P.T.A., 1966-67, 1968-69. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82 and 1983; 
Served in N.C. House of Representative, 1971; Surry County Y.D.C., 1969; Presi- 
dent, 5th District, Y.D.C., 1969. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army, 1954-1956, Spec. 3. 

Religious Activities: Member, Dobson Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Patty Hodges, 1959; Children: Three Daughters. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Co-Chairman: Local Government and Regional Affairs 
Vice-Chairman: Appropriations — Justice & Public Safety 



Member: Appropriations; Base Budget; Insurance; Judiciary I. 




The Legislative Branch 235 



WILLIAM NELSON MARTIN 

(Democrat — Guilford County) 

Thirtv-first Senatorial District — Jefferson and Sumner Townships; 
Greensboro Precincts 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 19, 25, 29, and 30; High Point 
Precincts 3, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, and 19; Jamestown Precincts 1, 2, and 3; and 
Block 921 of Census Tract 166 in High Point Township One Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Eden, Rockingham County, May 25, 1945. to Thomas William and 
Carolyn (Henderson) Martin. 

Education: Graduated Douglas High School in Eden, 1962: North Carolina A & T Un- 
iversity, 1966, B.S. in Economics; George Washington University School of Law, 
1973, J.D. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law. 

Organizations: Member: D.C. Bar; North Carolina Bar: One Step Further, Inc. 
(Guilford County Dispute Settlement Center, Co-Founder and President, 1982—); 
National Black Child Development Institute, 1976— (Chairman, Public Policy Com- 
mittee); Greensboro Citizens Forum, 1979 — ; Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, 1965 — 
(President, Local Chapter, 1978-1980; Vice President, 1976-1978). Past Member: Co- 
Chairman, Social Concerns Committee; Council of Churches (Bridgeport, Connec- 
ticut); Congress of Racial Equality (Special Assistant to Northeastern Regional 
Director, 1969-1973). 

Boards and Commissions: Greensboro Housing Commission, 1979 ; Guilford County 
School Finance Study Commission, 1982—; Triad Sickle Cell Anemia Foundation 
(Board of Directors, 1978 ); Board of Directors, National Black Child Develop- 
ment Institute, 1979-1982. Past Member; N.C. Task Force for 1980 White House 
Conference on Families: Guilford County Delegate to 1981 White House Conference 
on Children. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1983. 

Religious Activities: Member, Providence Baptist Church in Greensboro. 

Family: Children: Thomas William Martin and William Nelson Martin, Jr. (twins). 
SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 
Vice Chairman: Higher Education 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations Committee on Education; Base 
Budget; Education; Human Resources; Judiciary II; State Government; 
State Government — Election Laws. 



236 



North Carolina Manual 




HELEN RHYNE MARMN 

(Democrat — Gaston County) 

T\\ent\-Fifth Senatorial District Clc\eland. Gaston. Lincoln, and 

Rutherford Three Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Gastonia, Gaston Counl\, November 30, 1917, to Dane S. and 
Tessie (Hastings) Rh\ ne. 

Education: Graduated Gastonia High School. 1934; Furnian Uni\ersit\. 1938: B.A. 
Magna Cum Laude (History: Political Science): Louisiana Slate University, 1939: 
M.A. (Government): Post graduate work at Winthrop College, UNC-Chapel Hill 
and UNC-C: University of Colorado, University of Vermont, University of Oslo 
(Norway). 

Occupation: College Instructor (Parttime), Gaston College: Realtor (President, Marvin 
Rhyne Realty Co.) 

Organizations: Member. Southern and NC Political Science Association (Past Presi- 
dent): Rho Chapter of Delta Kappa Gamma (Association of Women Educators): 
Past Chairman, Advisor\ Committee, NCCCSSA: Past President: Gaston College 
UNIT. NCAE: Communit\ College Division, NC Association of Educators: Gaston 
College Faculty Senate: Member, Altrusa Club of Gastonia. 

Boards and Commissions: Member of Board: Holy Angels Nursery, Gaston County Un- 
ited Way, Gaston County Mental Health Association, Gaston County Family Plan- 
ning Council, Gaston County Council for Children with Special Needs. Past mem- 
ber: Southern Piedmont Health Services Agency (secretary): N.C. State Health 
Coordinating Council: N.C. Textbook Commission: Council on the Status of 
Women (chairperson): N.C. Social Services Commission, N.C. Da\ Care Advisory 
Council. Member, Governor's Advocacy Council on Children and Youth: N.C. Ap- 
prenticeship Council. Board of Trustees, Vagabond School of Drama and Flat Rock 
Playhouse: N.C. Commission on the Year^2000: N.C.S.L. The Arts & the Stales 
Committee. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1977-78. 1979-80, 1981-82. and 1983: Served 
two terms as President. Gaston County Democratic Women: Member, Gaston 
County Democrats Century Club: past member of Gaston County and N.C. State 
Democratic Executive Committees: N.C. Democratic Party Unity Committee. 1980: 
Delegate to National Democratic Convention, 1972. 

Honors: Valand Award to Outstanding Leislator in Mental Health Field, 1980: Selected 
by Gastonia Civitan Club for "Woman of the Year" .Award, 1978: Gaston College 
Outstanding Educator Award. 1975: Valedictorian. College Graduating Class. 

Religious Acti>ities: Member, First Presbyterian. Gastonia: former Sunday School 
Teacher (Chairman. Primary Dept.): Circle Bible Moderator: Deacon. 

Family: Married, Ned I. Marvin, November 21, 1941: Children: Kathr\n Andrea (Mar- 
vin) Nisbet: Richard Morris Mar\in. and David Rh\ne Mar\in: 5 erandchildren. 



SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Constitutional Amendments 

\'ice-Chairman: Appropriations — Natural and Economic Resources: 
State Go\ernmcnt 

Member: Appropriations: Base Budget: Education: Human Resources: 
Judiciar\ II. 




The Legislative Branch 237 

DAVID RISSELL PARNELL 

(Democrat — Robeson County) 

Thirtieth Senatorial District Hoi<e and Robeson Counties One 

Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Parklon. Robeson County, November \(\ 1925, to John Quincy 

and Clelia (Brilt) Parnell. 
Education: Attended Parkton Public Schools. 1931-1941: Oak Ridge Military institute. 

1941-1944; Graduated Wake Forest University. 1949. B.S. 

Occupation: Merchant and Farmer. 

Organizations: Member: N.C. Merchants Association: N.C. Oil Jobbers Association: 
N.C. State Humanities Foundation. 1975-1979: N.C. Plant Food Association (Board 
of Directors. 1981 — ). 

Boards and Commissions: Member: Board of Trustees, Meredith College. 1977: Member, 
Robeson County Industrial Development Commission. 1963 to present: Former 
Member. N.C. State Highway Commission. 1969-1972. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate. 1983: Served in N.C. House of Represen- 
tatives, 1975-76. 1977-78. 1979-80. and 1981-82: Mayor, Town of Parkton, 1964-1969. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Arms. 1945-1946, Corporal. 

Religious .Activities: Member. Parkton Baptist Church: Chairman. Board of Deacons, 

1974-75, 1972-73. 1968-69: Church Treasurer. 1950-1972: Sunda\ School Teacher. 

1950 to present. 
Family: Married. Barbara Johnson Parnell. June 1 1. 1948: Children: David R. Parnell, 

Jr.. .Anne J. Parnell: and Timothy Scott Parnell. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations — General Government 
Vice Chairman: State Government — Election Laws 

Member: Appropriations: Base Budget: Finance: Human Resources: In- 
surance: State Government: Wa\s and Means - Transportation. 



238 



North Carolina Manual 




AARON VV. PL^ LER 

(Democrat - Union County) 

Seventh Senatorial District Anson. Montgomer>, 

Scotland. Stanl\. and Union Counties Two Senators. 



Richmond, 



Early Years: Born in Union Count). October !. 1926; to Isom F. and Ida (Foard) 
Plyler. 

Education: Attended Benton Heights School: Florida Military Academy. 

Occupation: Independent Businessman (Presidenl/0\\ ner Plyler Grading and Paving. 
Inc.; President. Hill Top Enterprises); Farming and real estate interests. 

Organizations: Member/Past President. Wingate College Patron Club; Member/Past 
President Monroe-Union. County Chamber of Commerce; Member. North 
Carolina Restaurant Association; North Carolina Citizens Association; Associated 
General Contractors of America; National Federation Independent Businessmen; 
Rolling Hills Countr\ Club. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, General Board of Directors. United Carolina Bank; 
Board of Directors; North Carolina Restaurant Association; Hill Top Enterprises: 
Yadkin-Pee Dee Ri\er Basin; Mecklenburg-Union Count\ United Way; Board of 
Advisors, Universit\ o\' North Carolina - Charlotte. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate. 1983: Served in N.C. House of Represen- 
tatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80. and 1981-82: Precinct Chairman 10 years; Past 
Chairman, Union Count\ Democratic Part\ . 

Honors: 1970. Monroe-Union County Leadership Award: 1971. Union County "Man 
of the Year" Award: 1971. Wingate College Patron Club .Award: 1973. Union 
County Leadership Award: 1980 Andrew Jackson Award. 

Religious .Activities: Member. Benton Heights Presbyterian Church (Ruling Elder): Past 
Chairman, Board of Deacons. 

Family: Married, Doroth\ Moser Plyler. May 22. 1948; Children: Barbara Plyler Faulk; 
Dianne Phler Housh: .Aaron W. Phler. Jr.; Alan Plvler; and Alton Phler. 



SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Pensions and Retirement 

Nice Chairman: Wa\s and Means -- Small Business 

Member: .Agriculture; Appropriations - Justice & Public Safety: Base 
Budget; Finance; HimKin Resources; Wavs and Means. 



The Legislative Branch 



239 




ANTHONY EDEN RAND 

(Democrat -- Cumberland County) 

Twelfth Senatorial District Black River. Car\ers Creek, Cedar Creek, 
Cross Creek, Easto\er. Grav's Creek, Manchester. Pearces Mill, 
Rockl'ish. and Seventh-First Townships of Cumberland Countv Two 
Senators. 



Early V'ears: Born in Garner. Wake County, September 1, 1939, to Walter and Geneva 
(Yeargan) Rand, Jr. 

Education: Graduated Garner High School, 1957; University of North Carolina 
Chapel Hill, 1961; University of North Carolina Law School. 1964. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law (Partner of Rose, Rand, Ray, Winfrey & Gregory, P. A.). 

Organizations: Member: N.C. Bar Association; Bar Association of the District of 
Columbia; American Bar Association; American Judicature Society; Association of 
Trial Lawyers of America; Cumberland County Bar Association; N.C. Academy of 
Trial Lawyers. Member: Kiwanis Club; Fayetteville Homebuilders Association; 
Association of the U.S. .Army; Fayetteville Area Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: Member: Legislative Services Commission. N.C. General 
Assembly 1982-Present, Committee on Law and Justice of the National Conference 
of State Legislatures State-Federal Assembly, Special Activities Committee, Fort 
Bragg. N.C; Cumberland County Auditorium Commission (Vice Chairman, 1982; 
Secretary, 1980-81); ABLE Program -- Compensatory Education Board. Past Mem- 
ber; Board of Directors, Fayetteville Homebuilders Association, 1974-1980. 

Political .Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1981-82 (appointed December 19, 1981, to 
replace Glen Jernigan), 1983; Executive Committee, N.C. State Democratic Party, 
1975-198 1; Chairman. Cumberland Countv Democratic Executive Committee, 1977- 
1981. 

Religious .Activities: Member, St. Johns Episcopal Church of Fayetteville; Lay Reader. 

Family: Married, Karen L. Skarda, of Chicago, 111., May 30. 1981; Children: Ripley 
Eagles Rand and Craven McLean Rand. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciar\ III - Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice 
Vice Chairman: Judiciarv III 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations -- Justice and Public Safety; 
Base Budget; Insurance; Local Government and Regional Affairs; 
Manufacturing, Labor and Coinmrece; State Government; State 
Government -^ Veterans and Military Affairs. 



240 



North Carouna Manual 




MARSHALL ARTHl R RAUCH 

(Democrat — Gaston County) 

T\\ent\ -Fifth Senatorial District Cleveland. Gaston. Lincoln, and 
Rutherford Counties - Three Senators. 



Early \ears: Born in Nev\ York Cil\, Februar\ 2, 1923. lo Nathan A. and Tillie P. 
(Wohl) Ranch. 

Education: Graduated Woodmere High School (Woodmere. Long Island. NY). 1950; 
Duke University. 

Occupation: Corporate Executive (Chairman of the Board. President and Director, 
Ranch Industries. Inc.; Director and Treasurer. E.P. Press. Inc.; President and Direc- 
tor, Magic Limited: President and Director. P.D.R. Trucking, Inc.; Director, Ma- 
jestic Insurance Financing Corporation). 

Organizations: Director. Hoh Angels Nurserv (Belmont), 1960-1973; Director, Gas- 
tonia YMCA. 1959-1962. 1967- 1^972 ( 1st VP. 1970; President. 1971); Salvation Army 
Boys Club. 1963-1971; Ga.ston Boys Club, 1947-1971 (Sr. Advisor. 1943-1963; Dir., 
1964-1971); Gaston-Cle\eland Tuberculosis Association. 1968; United Fund, 1963- 
1967; Gastonia Chamber of Commerce (Director, 1965-66); Director, Gaston Com- 
munity Action Inc., 1966; Director, Gaston Museum of Natural Histor>. 1963-64; 
President. Duke University Gaston Alumni Association. 1961-62. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman. Wildlife Tax Study Commission. 1979-80; Board of 
Trustees. NC Land Conservance, 1978-1980; Advisory Budget Commission, 1973-74, 
1977-1980; Legislative Services Commission. "l977-l980; Vice Chairman. 
Governmental Evaluation Commission. 1977-1980; Chairman, Legislative Tax Study 
Commission, 1977-1980; Sports Facility Commission, 1977-1980; Vice Chairman, 
Governmental Incentive Commission, 1977-1979; Vice-Chairman, Governmental 
Evaluation Commission, 1977-78; Intangibles Tax Study Commission, 1978; Board 
of Advisors, Gardner Webb College, 1969-1977; Board of Trustee, University of 
North Carolina, 1969-1973; NC Citizens Committee for Dental Health, 1968-1973; 
Advisory Committee, NC Vocational Textile School, 1970-71; Governor's Good 
Neighbor Council. 1963-1969; Advisor\ Council. NC Committee for Children and 
YoLith. 1968-69; Chairman, NC Committee for Children and Youth, 1968-69; Chair- 
man, NC Committee on Population and Family, 1968-1969; NC Jail Study Commis- 
sion, 1968; Chairman, Gastonia Human Relations Committee, 1964-1967. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate. 1967. 1969. 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78. 
1979-80. 1981-82. and 1983; Member. Citv Council, City of Gastonia, 1953-54 and 
1961-1965 (Mayor Pro Tem, 1952-1954, f961-1963). 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Arm\. Infantry in European Theater. World War II. 

Honors: Human Ser\ices Award, N.C. Association of Jewish Men and State of North 
Carolina; Man of the Year. Gastonia Red Shield Bo\s Club, 1970; National Council 
o\' Christians and Jews Brotherhood Award, 1969; Man of the Year, N.C. Health 
Department; Man of the Year. Gaston County Omega Psi Phi, 1966; National 
Recreation Association Citation. National Recreation Association, 1965; Man of the 
Year. Gastonia Junior Woman's Club. 1964: Man of the Year. Gastonia Junior 



The Legislative Branch 241 



Chamber of Commerce, 1957; Listed in Who's Who in World Jewry, Who's Who in the 
South and Southwest, Who's Who in Israel, Who's Who in American Politics, Leading 
Men in the United States, and The National Register oj Prominent Americans: Senior 
Class President, Duke University; Received Combat Infantry Award, WW 11. 

Religious Activities: Board o\' Governors, NC Jewish Home for the Aged, 1968-70; 
Director, NC United Jewish Appeal Cabinet, 1968-70; Chairman, Gaston Jewish 
Welfare Fund, 1958-62, 1968-70; First Vice President, NC Association of Jewish 
Men, 1966; President. Temple Emanuel (Gastonia), 1962-64; Sunday School Teacher, 
1951-56; President, Frank Goldberg Lodge, B'Nai B'Rith. 1951-52. 

Family: Married, Jeanne Girard. May 18, 1946; Children: John. Ingrid, Marc, Peter, and 
Stephanie Ranch. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Legislative Ethics; Senate Ethics. 

Co-Chairman: Finance. 

Vice-Chairman: Rules and Operation of the Senate. 

Member: Higher Education; Manufacturing, Labor and Commerce; Public 
Utilities and Energy; State Government; Ways and Means; Ways and 
Means — Small Business. 



242 



North Carolina Manual 




WILLIAM WALTER REDMAN, JR. 

(Republican — Iredell County) 

Twenty-Sixth Senatorial District - Alexander, Catawba, Iredel 
Yadkin Counites - Two Senators. 



and 



Early Years: Born in Statesville, Iredell County, October 15, 1933, to William Walter 
and Mildred Huie Redman, 

Education: Graduated Statesville Senior High, 1952: Attended University of Southern 
California, 1966: Embrv-Riddle Aeronautical University, 1972, B.S,; Command & 
General Staff College '(PHII), 1974: Relators Institute, UNC 1978, GRI: Bank 
Marketing Institute, University of Maryland, 1975. 

Occupation: Real Estate Broker: Retired Army Officer, 

Organizations: Civitan, Retired Officers Association: Statesville Lodge 1823, B,P,0,E.; 
Legion Post 65: Veterans of Foreign War: Disabled Veterans. 

Boards and Commissions: Gardner- Webb College Advisory Board: Past Member, Salva- 
tion Army Advisory Board: Governor's Council on Physical Fitness and Health: Ex 
officio -- Mental Health Study Commission: New Health Licensing Laws Study 
Commission: State Regional Offices Study Commission, 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1979-80, 1981-82, and 1983, 

Military Service: Served U.S. Army, 1954-1974, (Lt. Col., Retired): Awarded two Dis- 
tinguished Flying Crosses: Three Bronze Stars: Sixteen Air Medals: Meritorious Ser- 
vice Medal & two Commendation Medals: Master Aviator & Commercial Pilot in 
helicopters & Fixed Wing Aircraft: NC Air National Guard, 1952-53: NC Army 
National Guard, 1953-54^ 

Honors: Member, Infantry Officers Candidate School "Hall of Fame" 

Religious .Activities: Member, First Baptist Church of Statesville: Sunday School 
Teacher, 1974-78: Deacon, 1976-79, 1982—. 

Family: Married, Elizabeth Wilhelm, December 28, 1956: Children: Lisa Dawn 
Flanigan: Kathryn Marlene Redman: and Adreinne Ann Redman, 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture: Finance: Human Resources: Natural and Economic 
Resources and Wildlife: State Government: State Government -- 
Veterans and Military Affairs; Ways and Means: Ways and Means — 
Transportation: Legislative Ethics. 




The Legislative Branch 243 

ROBERT CHARLES SOLES, JR. 

(Democrat — Columbus County) 

Eighteenth Senatorial District- Bladen. Brunswick and Columbus Coun- 
ties; and Beaver Dam Township of Cumberland County - One Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Tabor City, Columbus County, December 17, 1934, to Robert C. 
and Myrtle (Norris) Soles. 

Education: Graduated Tabor City High School; Wake Forest University, 1956; B.S., and 
University of North Carolina School of Law, 1959. J.D. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law. 

Organizations: Member; American Bar Association; North Carolina Bar Association; 
American Trial Lawyers Association; North Carolina Association of County Attor- 
neys; Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity; Rotary Club, (Past President). 

Boards and Commissions: Former Member, University of North Carolina Board of 
Trustees; Board of Trustees, University of North Carolina at Wilmington; President, 
Southeastern Community College Foundation; Southern Growth Policies Board. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1977-78, 1978-80, 1981-82, and 1983; Served 
in N.C. House of Representatives, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, and 1975-76. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army, 1957-67, (Reserve), Captain. 

Religious Activities: Member. Tabor City Baptist Church. 

Family: Resides in Tabor City, (28463). 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary II 
Vice-Chairman: Insurance 

Member: Agriculture, Banking, Finance and Ways and Means. 



244 



North Carouna Manual 




JAMES DAVIS SPEED 

(Democrat — Franklin County) 

Eleventh Senatorial District - Franklin and Vance Counties; Baileys', 

Castalia. Dry Wells. Ferrells, Griffins, and Mannings Township of Nash 
County; and Bartons Creek. Leesville. Little River. New Light, and Wake 
Forest Townships of Wake County One Senator. 



Educated: Graduated Gold Sand High School; Attended North Carolina State 

University. 
Occupation: Farmer; Tobacco Warehou.seman. 
Organizations: Member: Farm bureau; N.C. Agri-Business Council; Mason; Shriner. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, NC Emergency Medical Advisory Board; NC 
Tobacco Foundation (past president). 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1977-78. 1979-80, 1981-82 and 1983; Served in 
N.C. House of Representatives 1961, 1963, 1965-66, 1967, 1969, and 1971. 

Military Service: 

Honors: Past Member, North Carolina Board of Agriculture; Past Master, Louisburg 

Masonic Lodge; Past Member, State Board of Directors, North Carolina Farm 

Bureau Federation. 

Religious .Activities: Member. Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Martha Matthews, November 29, 1947; Children: Claudia, Tommy, 
and James M. Speed. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Education 
Vice-Chairman: Agriculture 

Member: Finance, Human Resources, Pensions and Retirement; Ways and 
Means; Ways and Means— Transportation. 




The Legislative Branch 245 



WILLIAM WAYNE STATON 

(Democrat - Lee County) 

Fourteenth Senatorial District - Harnett and Lee Counties; and 
Buckhorn. Car\ . Cedar Fork, Holly Springs. House Creek, Marks Creek. 
Meridith. Middle Creek. Neuse. Panther Branch, Raleigh, St. Marys, St. 
Mattheus. Swift Creek, and White Oak Townships of Wake County - 
Three Senaliirs. 



Early \'ears: Born in Olive Branch, Union County, October 1 I, 1917, to Oscar M. and 
Mae (Young) Stalon. 

Education: Graduated Mt. Ulla High School (Mt. Ulla, NC); Wake Forest University, 
1938; B.S,; Wake Forest School of Law, 1941. LL.B. and J.D. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law (Senior Member of the Law Firm of Staton, Perkinson. 
West and Doster); Former Attorney for the Sanford Board of Education, 1956-1972; 
Attorney for Lee County, 1958-1960; Attorney for Central Carolina Technical 
College,' 1960-1972; Citv Attorney for City of Sanford, 1962-1964; Attorney for the 
Town^ofCarrboro. 1971-1972. 

Organizations: Member: Eleventh Judicial District Bar Association (President); North 
Carolina Bar Association; American Bar Association. Member; B.P.O. Elks; Royal 
Order of Moose; Veterans of Foreign Wars; American Legion; Disabled American 
Vets; Woodmen of the World. Former Member; Sanford Chamber of Commerce 
(President); United Fund of Lee County (President); Sanford Cotillion Club (Presi- 
dent); Lee District Boys Scouts (Chairman); Occoneechee Council B.S. A. (Vice 
President); Cape Fear Basin Development Association (President, 1948-1950); San- 
ford Executive Club (President). 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Directors; Mid-South Bank & Trust Company, 
1974--; Golden Corral Corporation, 1974--; Investors Management Corporation, 
1974--. Advisory Council, Occoneechee Council B.S. A. Past Member; N.C. 
Veterans Cominission (1966); N.C. Commission for Improved Courts. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, and 1983; Ser- 
ved in N.C. House of Representatives, 1967; Member: Democratic National Com- 
mittee, 1960-1964; N.C. Democratic Executive Committee, 1951-1952, 1960-1964; 
President, Young Democrats of North Carolina, 1951-1952; Lee County Democratic 
Executive Committee, 1948-1949. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army, 1942-1946, Colonel (Judge Advocate Corps); Re 
Reserves, 1948-1968; Awarded three Battle Stars (European Theater of Operations), 
Purple Heart (Battle of the Bulge); Bronze Star Medal for Valor (Ordennes Cam- 
paign of 1945). 

Honors: N.C. Legion of Merit; Sanford Community Service Award, 1982. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church of Sanford (Board of Deacons; 

Chairman, Board of Trustees); Teacher of Men's Bible Class (27 years). 
Family: Married, Ellen Boone, of Jackson, June 28, 1947; Children: William Wayne 

Staton, Jr. and Allyn Moore Staton. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Co-Chairman: State Govermnent 

Vice Chairman: Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife 

Member: Banking; Finance; Judiciary I; Ways and Means 



246 North Carolina Manual 




ROBERT STRINGFIELD SWAIN 

(Democrat — Buncombe County) 

Twenty-Eighth Senatorial District Buncombe. McDowell, Madison, 
and Yancev Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Asheville. July 25. 1921. to John Edward and Mozelle Brewster 
(Stringfield) Swain. 

Education: Graduated Lee H. Edwards High School, 1939; Attended Mars Hill (Wake 
Forest-Meredith Summer School). 1939; UNC-CH 1939-40; Biltmore College. 
(1940; Universit) of New Mexico, 1941-42; Graduated, University of North 
Carolina Law School, 1949. L.L.B. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law. 

Organizations: Member: Buncombe Count) Bar Association; North Carolina Bar 
Association; North Carolina Trial Lawyer's Association. Member: Moose Inter- 
national; Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Criminal Justice Commission of SLC; Governor's 
Crime Commission. 

Political ."Xcti^ities: Served in N.C. Senate. 1977-78. 1979-80, 1981-82. and 1983; 
Solicitor 19th District, Buncombe and Madison Counties, 1955-67. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Arm\ Corps, 1943-1946, First Lieutenant. 

Religious .Activities: Member. Methodist Church; Board of Stewards and Sunday 
School Teacher. 

Eamily: Children: Jennifner Ellen. Barbara Griffen. Patricia Ann. Robert Edwards, and 
Katherine Anne. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations — Justice & Public Safety 
V ice-Chairman: Judiciary I 

Member: Appropriations; Base Budget; Rules and Operation of the Senate; 
Ways and Means; Ways and Means — Economy. 



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247 




LIRA SELF TALLY 

(Democrat -- Cumberland County) 

Twelfth Senatorial District Black River, Carvers Creek, Cedar Creek, 
Cross Creek, Eastover, Gra\'s Creek, Manchester, Pearces Mill, 
Rocktish. and Seventy-First Townships of Cumberland County Two 
Senators. 



Early ^'ears: Born in Slatcsville, Iredell County, December 9, 1921, to R.O. and Sara 
Sherrill (Cowles) Self. 

Education: Attended Raleigh Public Schools and graduated Needham Broughton High 
School, 1938: Attended Peace College: Graduated, Duke University, 1942 A.B. 
North Carolina State University, Graduate School of Education. 1970 M.A. 

Occupation: Teacher and Guidance Counselor (Fayetteville City Schools): Teacher, 
Adult Education (Fayetteville Technical Institute.) 

Organizations: Member: Kappa Delta Sorority: NEA: North Carolina Association of 
Educators; NC Personnel and Guidance Association; American Association of Un- 
iversity Women: Business and Professional Women's Club: North Carolina Federa- 
tion of Women's Clubs: Past President, NC Society for Preservation of Antiquities: 
former President, Fayetteville Woman's Club: President, Cumberland County Men- 
tal Health Association: Coordinator of Volunteers, Cumberland County Mental 
Health Center, 

Boards and Commissions: Member: Fayetteville Recreation Commission: Juvenile Code 
Revision Commission, 1977-79; and Board of Fayetteville Technical Institute 1983; 
N.C. State University Foundations Board. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1983; Served in N.C. House of Represen- 
tatives, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1981-82. 

Honors: Business & Professional Women of the Year for Fayetteville, 1978. 

Religious Activities: Member, Hay Street Methodist Church, Fayetteville. 

Family: Children: Robert Taylor Tally and John Cowles Tally; Four Grandsons. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Higher Education 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations -- Education 

Member: Appropriations; Education: Judiciary II; Judiciary III -- Con- 
stitutional Amendments; Public Utilities and Energy. 



248 North Carolina Manual 




JOSEPH EUGENE THOMAS 

(Democrat — Craven County) 

Third Senatorial District — Carteret, Craven, and Pamlico Counties 
One Senator. 



Early \'ears: Born in Askins, Craven Countv, Jul\ 18, 1941, to Edison E. Thomas. 

Education: Attended Ernul Elementary School, 1947-1954; Farm Life School, 1955- 
1959; Gradauted North Carolina State University, 1963. B.S.. Forestry. 

Occupation: Corporate Executive (Senior Vice-President, Westimster Company, Eastern 
Region); Farmer; Realtor; Licensed Contractor; Registered Forrester. 

Organizations: Member: Vanceboro Rotary Club (Past President); East Carolina 
Engineers; Society of American Foresters; National Association of Home Builders; 
NCSU Alumni Club; Sponsor Ducks Unlimited; Vanceboro Fire Department; 
BPOE, New Bern; Chairman, Vanceboro Medical Center, Inc.; Director. N.C. 
Agriculture Foundation. Inc.; Craven County Advisory Council for Vocational 
Education, 1978; N.C. Society of Engineers. 

Boards and Commissions: Advisory Board of N.C.N. A., 1972-1976; Chairman, Van- 
ceboro Planning Board; NC Board of Water and Air Resources, 1969-75; Chairman. 
Water Resources Management & Development Committee of the Environmental 
Management Commission. 1972-75; Member. NC Board of Transportation. 1977-79 
(Highway Commissioner. 2nd Division); Wildlife Resources Commission; N.C. 
Board of Telecommunications. 

Political .Activities: Served in NC Senate. 1979-80. 1981-82. and 1983. (Appointed 
January 5. 1979 to fill the seat vacated by death of Senator D. Livingstone Stallings). 

Honors: Various awards of merit from Weyerhaeuser Company. 

Religious .Activities: Member, Kitt Swamp Christian Church; Deacon, 1963; has held all 

offices. 
Family: Married. Linda Morris. October 5. 1963; Children; Scott Eugene Thomas; Allen 

Morris Thomas; Joel Br\nn Thomas; and Emma Jo-Lin Thomas. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife 
Vice-Chairman: Ways and Means — Transportation 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations; Appropriations — Natural and 
Economic Resources; Base Budget; Local Go\ernment and Regional Af- 
fairs; Rules and Operations of the Senate; Wa\s and Means. 



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249 




ROYCE PHELPS THOMAS 

(Democrat — Henderson County) 

Twenty-Ninth Senatorial District — Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Haywood, 
Henderson, Jackson, Macon, Polk, Swain, and Transylvania Counties — 
Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Avon Park, Florida, January 3, 1932, to J.R. and Eunice M. 
(Phelps) Thomas. 

Education: Attended Blue Ridge School for Boys (Hendersonville) 1946-1948; Duke Un- 
iversity, 1948-51; U.S. Army Advanced Infantry Officers School, Fort Benning, 
Georgia, 1957-58. 

Occupation: Fruit and Vegetable Distributor. 

Organizations: Member: B.P.O. Elks Lodge .1616; Lions Club. 

Political Activities: Served in NC Senate, 1979-80, 1981-82, and 1983; Chairman, 11th 
Congressional District. Democratic Party, 1980-81, 1982-83. 

Military Service: Served in U. S. Army. (Infantry) 1951-1960, Captain. Hall of Fame, 

Infantry O.C.S. 
Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian, Hendersonville, NC; Deacon, 1979-81. 

Family: Married, Margaret C. Stonecipher, May 19, 1951; Children: James Royce 
Thomas; Mary Cecille (Thomas) Vierira, and Richard Latt Thomas. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Co-Chairman: Ways and Means 
Vice-Chairman: Finance 

Member: Agriculture; Judiciary I; Manufacturing, Labor and Commerce; 
Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife; Pensions and Retire- 
ment. 



250 North Carolina Manual 




BENJAMIN THOMPSON TISON, II 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 

Twenty-second Senatorial District — Cabarrus and Mecklenburg Coun- 
ties Four Senators. 



Early Years:Born in Charlotte, Mecklenburg County. November 4, 1930, to Benjamin 
Thompson (deceased) and Bryte (Washam) Tison, Jr. 

Education: Attended Charlotte Public Schools and graduated Central High School, 
1949; Graduated University of North Carolina — Chapel Hill, 1953. B.S. (School of 
Business): University of North Carolina School of Law, 1958, J.D.: Attended 
Graduate School of Credit and Financial Management, Harvard University, 1971. 

Occupation:Bank Executive. NC National Bank. 

Organizations: Member: North Carolina State Bar; N.C. Industrial Development 
Association. 

Boards and Commissions: Member: Advisory Budget Commission and Economic 
Development Board. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1983: Served in N.C. House of Represen- 
tatives, 1973-74, 1975-76. 1977-78. 1979-80, and 1981-82. 

Military Service: Served U.S.N.R., 1953-1963, Lieutenant. 

Religious .Activities: Member, Covenant Presbyterian Church in Charlotte. 

Family: Married, Roma Wornall, December 12. 1971: Children: William Woodbridge 
Tison and Clay Wornall Tison. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Ways and Means — Economy 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations; Base Budget 

Member: Appropriations — General Government: Base Budget: Finance; 

Judiciary III: Manufacturing, Labor, and Commerce; Public Utilities 

and Energy; Ways and Means. 



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251 




RUSSELL GRADY WALKER 

(Democrat — Randolph County) 

Sixteenth Senatorial District Chatham. Moore, and Randolph Coun- 
ties; and Bingham, Chapel Hill, Cheeks, and Hillsborough Townships of 
Orange County — Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Conetoe, Edgecombe County, August 26, 1918, to Ashley and 

Alleen Bryant Walker. 
Education: Graduated. High Point High School; Graduated, United States Army Air 

Corps Pilot Training School. 
Occupation: Retired Chain Super Market Operator (Former President, Food Line Super 

Markets, Inc.) 

Organizations: Member: Masonic Order, Balfour Lodge, Asheboro, N.C.; Asheboro 
Kiwanis Club (Past President: Past Lt. Governor, Carolinas District): Past President, 
N.C. Food Dealers Association. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Commission on Children with Special Needs; Ex- 
officia Member, Mental Health Study Commission; Member, Asheboro Airport 
Authority (Former Chairman); Member, North Carolina Energy Policy Council, 
1975-1978; Member, Legislative Research Commission. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, and 1983; 
Chairman, N.C. Democratic Party, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983—; Two terms, Asheboro 
City Council, 1961-1965. 

Military Service: Served in US Army Air Corps, 1941-1946, Captain; United States Air 
Force Reserve, 1947-1955. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church of Asheboro (Deacon, 1968-1971). 
Family: Married, Ruth Brunt Walker, July 13, 1941; Children: Russell G. Walker, Jr.; 
Mrs. Susan Walker Smith: and Stephen Allen Walker: 7 Grandchildren. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations Human Resources. 
Vice-Chairman: Human Resources. 

Member: Appropriations: Base Budget; Local Government and Regional 
Affairs; State Government — Election Laws; Ways and Means; Ways 
and Means — Small Business. 



252 



North Carolina Manual 




MARVIN MARTIN WARD 

(Democrat -- Forsyth County) 

Twentieth Senatorial District Abbots Creek, Bethania. Boardbay, 

Clemnionsviile. Lewisville. Middle Fork, Old Richmond, Old Town, 
Salem Chapel, South Fork, Vienna, and Winston Townships of Forsyth 
CountN Two Senators. 



Early \ears: Born in Morrison, Virginia, February 10, 1914, to Charles Tilden and 
Nora Belle (Martin) Ward. 

Education: Graduated. East Bend High School, 1930: Appalachian State University, 
1934, B.S.; University of North Carolina -- Chapel Hill, 1940, M.A. 

Occupation: Retired Educator (Former Superintendent of Winston-Salem/Forsyth 
Count) ). 

Organizations: Member: American Association of School Administrators: NC Division 
of Superintendents: Past President, Mid-URVAN Superintendents, past Board 
member: Life Member National Education Association: Life Member, Parent 
Teachers Association: Lions Club; Ardmore Community Club. Past President: 
Winston-Salem Automobile Club, Board of Directors: Southern Regional Educa- 
tion Board. 

Boards and Commissions: Board member, Forsyth County Mental Health Association: 
Ex-officio member. Mental Health Study Commission: Co-Chairman, 12th Grade 
Optional Study Committee. Member: State Mental Health Coordinating Council: 
Needs of Women Study Committee: Leasing of State Land Study Committee: Salary 
Schedule of Certified Teachers Study Committee. Chairman. Human Resources Ad 
Hoc Committee on insurance. 

Political .Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1979-80. 1981-82, and 1983. 

Religious .Activities: Member. Methodist Cetenary Church of Winston-Salem: Sunday 
School Superintendent. 1958-1961; Chairman.' Staff Parish Committee. 1974-1977; 
Member, Administrative Board & Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Married, Mary June Darden, August 23, 1941: Children: Elizabeth Ward Cone 
and Marvin Thomas Ward. 



SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations -- Education 

Vice-Chairman: Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife 
Member: Appropriations; Base Budget: Education; Higher Education: 
Human Resources; Ways and Means; Ways and Means -- Transporta- 
tion. 




The Legislative Branch 253 



ROBERT DAVIS WARREN 

(Democrat — Johnston County) 

Fifteenth Senatorial District Johnston and Sampson Counties — One 
Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Sampson County, July 22, 1928, to Opheus and Neta (Jackson) 

Warren. 
Education: Gradauated North Carolina State University, 1950, B.S.: 1968, M.Ed.: Ad- 
ditional Graduate Courses at East Carolina University. 
Occupation: Realtor: Auctioneer: and Retired Educator. 
Organizations: Member: Masonic Order: Scottish Rite Shrine, Sudan Temple: NC Farm 

Bureau, Johnston County Arts Society: NC Wildlife Federation: Mental Health 

Association of Johnston County: Coats Hunting & Fishing Club: Benson Chamber 

of Commerce: Sampson County Democratic Men's Club. 
Boards and Commissions: Governor's Advisory Committee on Vocational Education, 

1969-73: Benson Recreation Commission: Council on Developmental Disabilities; 

Electronic Townhall Task force. 
Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1981-82 and 1983. 
Honors: Benson Jaycees, "Young Man of the Year Award," 1960: Johnston County, 

"Bossof the Year" Award: Benson Citizen of the Year Award, 1980: FFA Honorary 

Chapter Farmer Degree: FFA Honorary State Farmer Degree: "Outstanding Mason 

Award," 1981, Relief Lodge #431. 
Religious .Activities: Member, Benson Baptist Church: Deacon, 1950-present: Sunday 

School Superintendent: Sunday School Teacher, Married Couples" Class, 1966- 

present. 
Family: Married, Ann Sparks Warren, January 20,1 951: Children: Robert Davis 

Warren, Jr. and Gary Burrell Warren: Two Granddaughters. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Ways and Means — Transportation 

Vice Chairman: Education: Agriculture 

Memher: Appropriations: Appropriations — Education: Base Budget: 

Judiciary III: State Government: State Government — Housing: Ways 

and Means. 



254 



North Carolina Manual 




VERNON E. WHITE 

(Democrat — Pitt County) 

Ninth Senatorial District - Pitt County: Chocovsinity Township of 
Beaufort County; and Beargrass, Cross Roads. Griffins, Jamesvilie, Pop- 
lar Point. Williams, and Williamston Townships of Martin County — 
One Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Hertford County, April 27. 1906, to Charles Thomas and Emma 
Dale (Liverman) White. 

Education: Attended Aulander High School, Class of 1925: Wake Forest University, 
1929, B.S. 1931, B.A. 

Occupation: Farmer: Principal and Former Teacher (1929-1940). 

Organizations: County Supervisor, Farmer's Home Administration, 1941-1943: Mem- 
ber: Ruritan Club: Kiwanis International: Loyal Order of Moose: Past President, 
Winterville Kiwanis Club. 1963; NC Veterinary Medical Foundation, Inc.: N.C. 
Tobacco Foundation. Inc.: N.C. Tobacco Foundation. Inc.: The Carolina Charter 
Corporation. 

Boards and Commissions: Member: Board of Trustees, Pitt Community College: Board 
of Trustees: Chowan College: Former Member, Board of Trustees, Sheperd 
Memorial Library, Greenville: Former Chairman. Pitt Count\ Planning Board: For- 
mer Member and Treasurer, Pitt County Development Commission: Former Mem- 
ber, Pitt County Draft Board (Chairman for three years): Former Member. Pitt 
County Board of Health, Chairman. 1966: Member, N.C. Board of Agriculture, 
1981-82. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate. 1969. 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979- 
80, 1981-82, and 1983: Member: Pitt County Board of Commissioners, 1963-1966 
(Chairman, 1966). 

Military Service: Veteran of World War II. 

Honors: Given a citation award for "Steadfast Leadership in Legislative Matters of Vital 
Interest to North Carolina Soybean Farmers." 1975. by the NC Soybean Associa- 
tion: Tribute of Appreciation for efforts in the advancement of Veterinary Medicine 
in North Carolina, 1977: Administration Building, Pitt Community College, named 
the Vernon E. White Building, May 5, 1980: given the Distinguished Service Award, 
1980, by the NC Association of Sheltered Workshop, Inc. 

Religious Activities: Member, Winterville Missionary Baptist Church: Board of Deacons 
for twenty-two years (five times Chairman): Director, Sunday School for twenty-one 
years. 

Family: Married, Louise Anae of Winterville, 1931: One Son: Charles Vernon White. 



SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Agriculture 
Vice-Chairman: Appropriations 

Member: Appropriations — Education: Base Budget: Education: Finance: 
Ways and Means: Ways and Means - Transportation: Rules and 
Operation of the Senate. 




The Legislative Branch 255 



DENNIS JAY WINNER 

(Democrat — Buncombe County) 

Tuentv-fjuhlh Senatorial District Buncombe. McDowell, Madison, 
and Yance\ Counties - Two Senators. 



Early V'ears: Born in Canton. Buncombe County, March 29, 1942, to Harry and 
Julienne (Marder) Winner. 

Education: Graduated Lee H. Edwards High School (Asheville), 1960: University of 
North Carolina -- Chapel Hill, 1963; A.B.: University of North Carolina Law 
School, 1966, J.D. with Honors. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law (Law firm of Erwin, Winner, and Smathers, P. A.). 

Organizations: Life Member: NEA, National Retired Teachers Association: President, 
Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Council. IRA, 1973-74: Former Member, ATE, 
NCAE, NCARE, and Citizens United for Improvement of Reading American 
Educational Research Association: Life Member and Chairman Life Membership 
Committee, NAACP: Treasuer Prince's Feather Garden Club: Life Member, Omega 
Psi Phi Fraternity: Member, Century Club, YMCA: Advisory Committee DEEP, 
Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools. 1974-present: Winston-Salem Power 
Squadron: Phi Delta Kappa Fraternity: Urban League Guild: Emancipation 
Association: Tanglewood Arboretum Committee: Winston-Salem Improvement 
Association: American Lung Association: Northwestern Region of ALANC: For- 
syth County Mental Health Association: International Municipal Cooperation 
Committee of Winston-Salem. 

Boards and Commissions: Member: Board of Directors, Asheville Chamber Music 
Association: Board of Directors, U.N.C. Law Alumni Association, 1982--: U.N.C. 
Board of Visitors, 1976- : Board of Directors, Asheville Art Museum. Past member: 
N.C. Judicial Council, 1973-1974; N.C. Courts Commission. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1983; Superior Court Judge, 1972-1975; Dis- 
trict Court Judge, 1970-1972; President, Buncombe County Young Democrats Club. 
1968. 

Military Service: Served in N.C. Air National Guard. 1966-1972, Sargeant. 

Religious Activities: Member, Congregation Beth Ha Tephila in Asheville. 

Family: Married, Jane Linda Cogdill of Asheville, August 21. 1965: Children: Leanne 
Winner and Lauren Winner. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Higher Education 

Member: Appropriations: Appropriations ~- General Government; Base 
Budget: Judiciary II Constitutional Amendments; Local Government 
and Regional Affairs: Manufacturing, Labor and Commerce. 



256 North Carouna Manual 




WILMA CUMMINGS WOODARD 

(Democrat — Wake County) 

Fourteenth Senatorial District Harnett and Lee Counties; Buckhorn, 
Cary. Cedar Fori<, Holly Springs. House Creek, Marks Creek, Meredith, 
Middle Creek, Neuse, Panther Branch. Raleigh, St. Mary's, Matthews, 
Swift Creek, and White Oak Townships of Wake County -- Three 

Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Angler, Harnett County, November 18, 1934, to C. Claud and 
Lutheria (Searcy) Cummings. 

Education: Attended, Beaufort High School: University of North Carolina -- Chapel 
Hill: Graduated, North Carolina State University, 1979, B..'\. in History: Public Af- 
fairs, Department of Political Science. 

Occupation: Legislator: Homemaker. 

Organizations: Charter member, Raleigh-Wake Urban League (Board of Directors): 
Wake County PTA Council (Vice-President, 1977): Wake County Kidney Council 
(Board of Directors); NCSU Alumni Association (Board of Directors, 1974-1981); 
Garner Chamber of Commerce; National Order of Women Legislators, 1980: 
Womens Forum (Board of Directors. 1980). 

Boards and Commissions: Garner Planning and Zoning Board (Vice Chairman): Raleigh 
Wake Land-Use Code Committee, 1977; Wake County CETA Advisory Board, 
1977; Advisory Board, NC Student Legislature, 1980; Advisory Commission, NC 
State Museum of Natural History. 1979; Mental Health Advisory Commission. 
1980: Capital Planning Commission. 1980; Co-Chairman, Legislative Research 
Study Commission on Alternative Work Schedules: Task Force on Aging, NC Con- 
ference for Social Service, 1980; Task Force on Employment, NC White House Con- 
ference on Aging, 1980-1981; State-v\ide Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Ad- 
vocacy Committee, 1980; Triangle J. Project 2000 (Board of Directors, 1980); Gover- 
nor's Blue Ribbon Committee to assess the needs of NC Training Schools, 1983; co- 
chairperson. Governor's Conference on Women & the Economy. 1983. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1983: Served in N.C. House of Represen- 
tatives. 1978 (Appointed to fill vacancy created by resignation of Robert L. Farmer), 
1979-80 and 1981-82; Treasurer, Wake County Democratic Party, 1977; Member, 
Democratic Women of Wake County and Wake Women's Political Caucus. 

Honors: Received B.F. Brown Award for Outstanding Liberal Arts Student. 1969; 
Member, Phi Kappa Phi, Honorary Scholastic Fraternity, NCSU: Honorary Chair- 
man, Wake County Cancer Society, 1983. 

Religious Activities: Member, United Methodist Church in Garner. 

Family: Married, Dr. Warden Lewis Woodard, Jr.. March 17. 1952; Children: Mary 
Ellen Nixon; Warden Lewis Woodard, III; Albert Searcy Woodard, and Richard 
Allen Woodard; one grandchild. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: State Government -- Election Laws 
Nice-Chairman: Local Government and Regional Affairs 

Member: Appropriations: Appropriations - Human Resources: Base 
Budget: Judiciary III; Judiciary III - Law Enforcement and Criminal 
Justice; Stale Government. 



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257 




JULIUS ARNETTE WRIGHT 

(Republican — New Hanover County) 

Seventh Senatorial District - New Hanover County; and Burgaw, 
Canetuck, Caswell, Grady, Holly. Long Creek: Rocky Point, and Topsail 
Townships of Pender County - One Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Waycross, Ware County. Georgia, October 10, 1951, to Julius A. 
and Shirley (Gordon) Wright, Jr. 

Education: Attended Roswell High School, Roswell, Ga., 1967-69; Graduated, Valdosta 
State College, 1974, B.S. in Chemistry. (Magna Cum Laude); Georgia State Univer- 
sity, 1978. M.B.A. in Finance and Economics. (Magna Cum Laude). 

Occupation: Process Engineer (Corning Glass Works). 

Organizations: American Chemical Society; American Association of MBA; Sigma 
Alpha Epsilon Alumni Assocition (Vice President). 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Directors, American Cancer Society. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1981-82 and 1983; Member, Executive Com- 
mittee, N.C. Republican Party. 

Honors: Selected "Outstanding Freshman Republican Senator," 1981; Alpha Chi 
Honor Society. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church of Wilmington (Usher, 1979-80). 

Family: Married, Phyllis Ann Powell. June 14. 1975. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Education; Finance; Education; Judiciary 11; Local Government 
and Regional Affairs; Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife. 



258 



North Carolina Manual 




SYLVIA MORRIS FINK 

Senate Principal Clerk 



Sylvia Morris Fink was born in Charlotte, North Carolina on August 8, 1936, to 
Warren Reid (deceased) and Effie Howard Morris. Graduated (honor student) from 
Mount Holly High School, Mount Holly, North Carolina, 1954; attended Pfeiffer 
College, Misenheimer, North Carolina 1955-56 where she is immediate past Program 
Chairman and presently a member of the Executive Committee. A registered Demo- 
crat, active in Wake Democratic Women and the American Society of Legislative 
Clerks and Secretaries. Prior to her General Assembly employment, she was employed 
by the Charlotte Chamber of Commerce, Cannon Mills Company, Duke Power Com- 
pany, and was Deputy Clerk to the North Carolina Court of Appeals in 1967-1968. 
She has served on the staff of the General Assembly in the following positions: Senate 
Committee Clerk- 1967; Assistant Senate Journal Clerk -1973, 1974; Senate Journal 
Clerk— 1975, 1976; elected Principal Clerk— July 1, 1976, being the first female to 
serve in this capacity; re-elected, January, 1977, 1979, 1981, and 1983, Affiliated with 
the United Methodist Church, she has served as organist, chancel choir member. Vice 
President and President of the Women's Society of Christian Service (holding two life 
memberships in this organization presented by separate churches). MYF counselor 
and Sunday School teacher; currently a member of Benson Memorial United Metho- 
dist Church. Daughter: Paige Elizabeth Fink. 



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259 



Attorney 

Allsbrook, Jullian R. 
Barnes, Henson P. 
Davis, Robert M. 
Edwards, Elton 
Hancock, William G., Jr. 
Hipps, Charles W. 
Jenkins, Cecil R., Jr. 
Johnson, Joseph E. 
Martin, William M. 
Rand, Anthony E. 
Soles, Robert C, Jr. 
Staton, William W. 
Swain, Robert S. 
Winner, Dennis 

Auctioneering 

Lawing, W. Craig 
Warren, Robert D. 

Banking 

Barnes, Richard W. 
Daniels, Melvin R., Jr. 
Tison, Benjamin T. 

College Professor 

Hipps, Charles W. 
Marvin, Helen Rhyne 

Contractor (General) 

Duncan, Conrad R., Jr. 
Thomas, Joseph E. 

Contractor (Grading) 

Plyler, Aaron W. 

Educator (Retired) 

Ward, Marvin M. 
Warren, Robert D. 
White, Vernon E. 

Farming 

Barnes, Henson P. 
Parnell, David R. 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Speed, James D. 
Thomas, Joseph E. 
White, Vernon E. 



OCCUPATIONS OF SENATORS 

Funeral Home Owner 

Harris, Ollie 



Furniture Retailer 

Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 

Gas/Oil Distributor 

Hardison, Harold W. 

Housewares Distributor 

Marion, George W., Jr. 

Insurance Adjuster 

Edwards, James H. 

Insurance Agent 

Alford, Dallas L., Jr. 
Edwards, James H. 
Guy, A.D. 
Harris, Kenneth R. 
Kincaid, Donald R. 

Legislator 

Gray, Rachel G. 
Hunt, Wanda 
Tally, Lura S. 
Woodard, Wilma C. 

Lumber Business 

Jordan, Robert Byrd, III 

Mfg. — Farm Equipment 

Harrington, J. J. 

Mfg. — Paper & Plastics 

Ballenger, T. Cass 

Produce Distributor 

Thomas, R. P. 

Mfg. — Textiles 

Rauch, Marshall A. 

Merchant 

Parnell, David R. 

Military, U.S. (Retired) 

Redman, William W.. Jr. 



260 



North Carolina Manual 



Motel & Restaurant 

Pl\ ler, Aaron W. 

Private Investigator 

Edwards. James H. 

Process Engineer 

Wright. Julius A. 

Real Estate 

Alford. Dallas L., Jr. 
Guy. A.D. 
Lawing. W. Craig 
Marion. George W.. Jr. 
Marvin. Helen Rhyne 
Redman. William W.. Jr. 
Thomas. Joseph E. 
Warren. Robert D. 



Retired Businessman 

Childers. Jack 
Walker. Russell G. 

Sales Executive 

Allred. Gary D. 

School Teacher 

Kincaid. Donald R. 
Tally. Lura S. 

Tobacco W arehouseman 
Speed, James D. 



i 



i 



The Legislative Branch 



261 



1983 SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 



Barnes, Henson P. 
Guy, AD. 

Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
Thomas. R.P. 



AGRICULTURE 

Chairman: White. Vernon E. 

Vice-Chairman: Hipps, Charles W. 

Vice-Chairman: Speed, James D. 

Vice-Chairman: Warren. Robert D. 

Daniels. Melvin R., Jr. 
Plvler, Aaron W. 
Soles, R.C., Jr. 



Duncan, Conrad, R., Jr. 
Redman, Wm. W., Jr. 
Thomas, Joseph E. 



Alford, Dallas L.. Jr. 
Barnes, Henson P. 
Davis, Robert M. 
Guy, AD. 
Hipps, Charles W. 
Kincaid, Donald R. 
Martin, William M. 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Tally, Lura S. 
Ward. Marvin 
Woodard, Wilma C. 



APPROPRIATIONS 

Chairman: Hardison, Harold W. 

Vice-Chairman: Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Tison, Benjamin T. 

Vice-Chairman: White. Vernon E. 

Allsbrook. Julian R. 
Childers, Jack 
Edwards, Elton 
Hancock, William G., Jr. 
Johnson. Joseph E. 
Lawing, W. Craig 
Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
Rand, Anthony E. 
Thomas, Joseph E. 
W arren, Robert D. 



Ballenger. T. Cass 
Daniels. Melvin R., Jr. 
Edwards, James H. 
Harris, Ollie 
Jordan, Robert B., Ill 
Marion, George W., Jr. 
Parnell, David" R. 
Swain, Robert S. 
Walker, Russell G. 
Winner, Dennis 



Davis, Robert M. 
White, Vernon E. 



APPROPRIATIONS — EDUCATION 



Chairman: Ward, Marvin 
Vice-Chairman: Tall\. Lura S. 

Edwards. James H. 



Warren, Robert D. 



APPROPRIATIONS — GENERAL GOVERNMENT 



Allsbrook, Julian R. 
Tison, Benjamin T. 



Chairman: Parnell, David R. 
Vice-Chairman: Childers, Jack 

Guy, A.D. 

Winner, Dennis 



Johnson, Joseph E. 



APPROPRIATIONS — HUMAN RESOURCES 



Ballenger, T. Cass 
Woodard, Wilma C. 



Chairman: Walker, Russell G. 
Vice-Chairman: Harris, Ollie 

Hancock, William G., Jr. 



Lawing, W. Craig 



APPROPRIATIONS — JUSTICE & PUBLIC SAFETY 



Barnes, Henson P. 
Rand, Anthony E. 



Chairman: Swain, Robert S. 
Vice-Chairman: Marion, George W., Jr. 
Edwards. Elton 



Plvler, Aaron W. 



262 



North Carolina Manual 



APPROPRIATIONS — NATURAL AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES 



Daniels, Melvin R.. Jr. 
Thomas, Joseph E. 



Chairman: Alford, Dallas L., Jr. 
Vice-Chairman: Marvin. Helen Rh\ne 

Hipps, Charles W. 



Kincaid, Donald R. 



Alford, Dallas L.. Jr. 
Daniels, Melvin R., Jr. 
Hardison, Harold W. 
Rovall. Kenneth C, Jr. 



BANKING 

Chairman: Edwards, James H. 

Vice-Chairman: Duncan, Conrad R., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Lavving, W. Craig 

Ballenger. T. Cass 
Gray, Rachel G. 
Harris, OIlie 
Soles, R.C., Jr. 



Chiiders, Jack 
Guy, AD. 
Johnson, Joseph E. 
Staton, William W. 



BASE BUDGET 

Co-Chairmen: Edwards. Elton & Jordan. Robert B.. Ill 



Alford, Dallas L., Jr. 
Barnes, Henson P. 
Davis, Robert M. 
Guy, A.D. 
Harris, Ollie 
Jordan, Robert B., Ill 
Marion, George W., Jr. 
Parnell, David R. 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
Thomas, Joseph E. 
Warren, Robert D. 
Woodard, Wilma C. 



Vice-Chairman: Tison, Benjamin T. Ill 

.Allsbrook, Julian R. 
Chiiders, Jack 
Edwards, Elton 
Hancock, William G., Jr. 
Hipps, Charles W. 
Kincaid, Donald R. 
Martin, William M. 
Plyler, Aaron 
Swain, Robert S. 
Walker, Russell G. 
White, Vernon E. 



Ballenger, T. Cass 
Daniels, Melvin R., Jr. 
Edwards, James H. 
Hardison, Harold W. 
Johnson, Joseph E. 
Lawing, W. Craig 
Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
Rand, Anthony E. 
Tally, Lura S. 
Ward, Marvin 
Winner, Dennis 



Chiiders, Jack 
Martin, William M. 
Tally, Lura S. 
Wright, J. A. 



EDUCATION 

Chairman: Speed, James D. 

Vice-Chairman: Hunt, Wanda 

Vice-Chairman: Warren, Robert D. 

Davis, Robert M. 
Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
Ward, Marvin 



Harris, Kenneth R. 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
White, Vernon E. 



FINANCE 

Co-Chairmen: Duncan, Conrad R., Jr. & Ranch, Marshall A. 



Allred. Gary D. 
Gray, Rachel G. 
Harris, Kenneth R, 
Jordan, Robert B., 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Soles, R.C., Jr. 
Tison, Benjamin T. 



Ill 



Vice-Chairman: Harrington, J.J. 
Vice-Chairman: Thomas. R.P. 

Barnes, Richard W. 
Guy, A.D. 
Hunt, Wanda 
Lawing, W. Craig 
Redman, Wm. W.. Jr. 
Speed, James D. 
White. Vernon E. 



Edwards, Elton 
Hardison, Harold W. 
Jenkins, Cecil R., Jr. 
Parnell, David R. 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
Staton, William W. 
Wrieht, J.A. 



The Legislative Branch 



263 



Edwards, Elton 
Rauch, Marshall A. 
Wricht. J.A. 



HIGHER EDUCATION 

Chairman: Tally, Lura S. 

Vice-Chairman: Marvin, Helen Rhyne 

Vice-Chairman: Winner, Dennis 

Hancock, William G., Jr. 
Rovall. Kenneth C, Jr. 



Hunt. Wanda 
Ward. Marvin M. 



Allsbrook, Julian R. 
Hancock, William G., 
Martin. William M. 
Redman, Wm. W., Jr. 
Ward, Marvin 



Jr. 



HUMAN RESOURCES 

Chairman: Harris, OIlie 
Vice-Chairman: Edwards, James H. 
Vice-Chairman: Walker, Russell G. 

Gray, Rachel G. 
Jenkins, Cecil R., Jr. 
Parnell, David R. 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
Warren, Robert D. 



Hardison, Harold W. 
Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Speed. James D. 



Edwards, Elton 
Harris, Kenneth R. 
Lawing, W. Craig 
Rand, Anthony E. 



INSURANCE 

Chairman: Jenkins. Cecil R., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Johnson, Joseph E. 

Vice-Chairman: Soles, R.C.. Jr. 

Edwards. James H. 
Jordan. Robert B., Ill 
Marion, George W., Jr. 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 



Harrington, J.J. 
Kincaid, Donald R. 
Parnell, David R. 



Allred. Cary D. 
Kincaid, Donald R. 
Staton, William W. 



JUDICIARY I 

Chairman: Allsbrook, Julian R. 
Vice-Chairman: Swain, Robert S. 

Harris, Ollie 

Marion, George W., Jr. 

Thomas, R.P. 



Jenkins, Cecil R., Jr. 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 



Edwards, Elton 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
Wright, J. A. 



JUDICIARY II 

Chairman: Soles, R.C., Jr. 
Vice-Chairman: Hancock, William G., Jr. 

Martin, William M. 
Tally, Lura S. 



Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
Winner, Dennis J. 



JUDICIARY II — CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS 



Hancock, William G., Jr. 
Winner, Dennis 



Chairman: Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
Vice-Chairman: Edwards, Elton 

Johnson, Joseph E. 



Tally, Lura S. 



Ballenger,T. Cass 
Hipps, Charles W. 
Warren, Robert D. 



JUDICIARY III 

Chairman: Barnes, Henson P. 
Vice-Chairman: Rand. Anthony E. 

Davis, Robert M. 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
Woodard, Wilma C. 



Edwards, James H. 
Tison, Benjamin T. 



264 North Carolina Manual 



JUDICIARY III — LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE 

Chairman: Rand, Anthony E. 
Vice-Chairman: Davis, Robert M. 
Ballenger, T. Cass Edwards, James H. Woodard, Wilma C. 

LOCAL GOV ERNMENT AND REGIONAL AFFAIRS 

Co-Chairman: Hipps. Charles W. & Marion, George W., Jr. 
Vice-Chairman; Woodard, Wilma C. 
Barnes, Richard W. Davis, Robert M. Harris. Kenneth R. 

Rand, Anthonv E. Royal!, Kenneth C, Jr. Thomas, Joseph E. 

Walker, Russell G. Winner, Dennis Wright, J. A. 

MANUFACTl RING, LABOR AND COMMERCE 

Chairman: Childers, Jack 

Ballenger. T. Cass Duncan. Conrad R.. Jr. Guy. A.D. 

Jenkins. Cecil R.. Jr. Johnson, Joseph E. Jordan, Robert B., MI 

Kincaid. Donald R. Rand, Anthony E. Rauch. Marshall A. 

Royall. Kenneth C. Jr. Thomas. R. P. Tison, Benjamin T. 

Winner, Dennis 

NATURAL AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES AND WILDLIFE 

Chairman: Thomas, Joseph E. 
Vice-Chairman: Staton, William W. 
Vice-Chairman: Ward. Marvin 
Daniels. Melvin R.. Jr. Hipps, Charles W. Hunt, Wanda 

Kincaid. Donald R. Redman, Wm. W.. Jr. Royall. Kenneth C. Jr. 

Thomas, R. P. Wright, J.A. 

PENSIONS AND RETIREMENT 

Chairman: Plyler, Aaron W. 
Vice-Chairman: Jenkins. Cecil R.. Jr. 
Alford, Dallas L., Jr. Hardison, Harold W. Harrington. J.J. 

Harris, Kenneth R. Lawing, W. Craig Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 

Speed. James D. Thomas. R.P. 

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND ENERGY 

Chairman: Guy. A.D. 
Vice-Chairman: Allsbrook, Julian R. 
Vice-Chairman: Daniels, Melvin R.. Jr. 
Allred.Cary D. Ballenger, T. Cass Childers, Jack 

Duncan, Conrad R.. Jr. Hardison, Harold W. Harrington, J.J. 

Hipps, Charles W. Johnson, Joseph E. Lawing, W. Craig 

Rauch, Marshall A. Royall. Kenneth C, Jr. Tally. Lura S. 

Tison. Benjamin T. 



The Legislative Branch 265 



RULES AND OPERATIONS OF THE SENATE 

Chairman: Lawing, W. Craig 
Vice-Chairman: Ranch, Marshall A. 
Vice-Chairman: Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
Allsbrooiv, Julian R. Ballenger, T. Cass Duncan, Conrad R., Jr. 

Gray, Rachel G. Hardison, Harold W. Harrington, J.J. 

Harris, Ollie Jenkins, Cecil R., Jr. Jordan, Robert B.. Ill 

Swain, Robert S. Thomas, Joseph E. White, Vernon E. 

STATE GOVERNMENT 

Co-Chairman: Hancock, William G., Jr. & Staton. William W. 
Vice-Chairman: Gray, Rachel G. 
Vice-Chairman: Marvin. Helen Rhyne 
Vice-Chairman: Barnes, Henson P. 
Allred.Cary D. Barnes, Richard W. Childers, Jack 

Duncan, Conrad R., Jr. Guy, A.D. Hardison, Harold W. 

Harris, Kenneth R. Hipps, Charles W. Hunt. Wanda 

Johnson, Joseph E. Jordan. Robert B.. Ill Lawing, W. Craig 

Martin, William M. Parnell, David R. Rand, Anthony E. 

Rauch, Marshall A. Redman, Wm. W., Jr. Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 

Warren. Robert D. Woodard. Wilma C. 

STATE GOVERNMENT — ELECTION LAWS 

Chairman, Woodard, Wilma C. 
Vice-Chairman: Parnell, David R. 

Allred, Carv D. Hipps, Charles W. Martin, William M. 

Walker, Russell G. 

STATE GOVERNMENT — HOUSING 

Chairman: Johnson, Joseph E. 
Vice-Chairman: Jordan, Robert B., Ill 
Barnes, Richard W. Hardison, Harold W. Warren, Robert D. 

STATE GOVERNMENT — SENIOR CITIZENS AFFAIRS 

Chairman: Gray. Rachel G. 
Vice-Chairman: Barnes. Richard W. 

Harris, Kenneth R. Hunt. Wanda Jordan, Robert B., Ill 

STATE GOVERNMENT — VETERANS AND MILITARY AFFAIRS 

Chairman: Barnes, Richard W. 
Vice-Chairman: Guy, A.D. 

Childers, Jack Duncan. Conrad R., Jr. Rand, Anthony E. 

Redman, Wm. W., Jr. 



266 



NdTH Carolina Manual 



Alford, Dallas L.. Jr. 
Ballenger. T. Cass 
Daniels, Melvin R., Jr. 
Edwards, James H. 
Harris. Oiiie 
Parneil, David R. 
Redman, Wm. W., Jr. 
Staton, William W. 
Tison, Benjamin T. 
Warren, Robert D. 



WAYS AND MEANS 

Co-Chairmen: Harrington, J.J. & Thomas, R.P. 

Vice-Chairman: Lawing, W. Craig 

Vice-Chairman: Rovall, Kenneth C, Jr. 



Allred, Carv D. 
Barnes, Richard W. 
Duncan, Conrad R., Jr. 
Hancock, William G., Jr. 
Jenkins, Cecil R., Jr. 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Soles, R.C., Jr. 
Swain, Robert S. 
Walker. Russell G. 
White. Vernon E. 



Allsbrook, Julian D. 
Childers, Jack 
Edwards, Elton 
Hardison, Harold W. 
Jordan, Robert B., Ill 
Rauch, Marshall A. 
Speed, James D. 
Thomas, Joseph E. 
Ward, Marvin 



WAYS AND MEANS — ECONOMY 



Duncan, Conrad R., Jr. 
Jenkins, Cecil R.. Jr. 
Swain, Robert S. 



Chairman: Tison. Benjamin T. 
Vice-Chairman: Daniels, Melvin R.. Jr. 



Edwards, Elton 
Jordan, Robert B. 



Ill 



Hardison, Harold W. 
Lawing, W. Craig 



WAYS AND MEANS — SMALL BUSINESS 



Ballenger, T. Cass 
Walker, Russell G. 



Chairman: Daniels, Melvin R., Jr. 
Vice-Chairman: Plyler, Aaron W. 

Barnes, Richard W. 



Rauch, Marshall A. 



Allsbrook, Julian R. 
Parneil, David R. 
Ward, Marvin 



WAYS AND MEANS — TRANSPORTATION 

Chairman: Warren, Robert D. 

Vice-Chairman: Alford, Dallas L., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Thomas, Joseph E. 

Duncan, Conrad R., Jr. 
Redman, Wm. W., Jr. 
White, Vernon E. 



Jenkins, Cecil R., Jr. 
Speed, James D. 



The Legislative Branch 267 

PERMANENT RULES OF THE SENATE 
1983 GENERAL ASSEMBLY (SENATE RESOLUTION 70) 

I. Orderof Business, Rules 1-7 

II. Conduct ofDebate, Rules 8-17 

III. Motions, Rules 18-24 

IV. Voting, Rules 25-30 

V. Committees, Rules 31-37 
VI. Handling Bills, Rules 38-59 
VII. Legislative Officers and Employees, 

Rules 60-65 
VIII. General Rules, Rules 66-77 

L Order of Business 

RULE 1. Rules controlling the Senate of North Carolina and its Committees. — The 
following rules shall govern and control all actions and procedures of the Senate and its 
committees. 

RULE 2. Convening hour. — The President shall take the Chair at the hour fixed by 
the Senate upon adjournment on the preceding legislative day, and shall call the mem- 
bers to order. In case the Senate adjourned on the preceding legislative day without hav- 
ing fixed the hour of reconvening, the Senate shall reconvene on the next legislative day 
at 1:00 p.m. 

RULE 3. Opening the session. — The President shall, upon order being obtained, 
have the sessions of the Senate opened with prayer. 

RULE 4. Convening in absence of President. — In the absence of the President, the 
President Pro Tempore shall reconvene the Senate and preside, and during such time 
shall be vested with all powers of the President except that of casting a vote in case of tie 
when he has already voted on the question as a Senator. In the event of the absence of 
the President and President Pro Tempore at any time fixed for the reconvening of the 
Senate, the Principal Clerk of the Senate, or in his absence also, some member of the 
Senate Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate, shall call the Senate to order 
and designate some member to act as President. 

RULE 5. Quorum. — (a) A quorum consists of a majority of all the qualified mem- 
bers of the Senate. 

(b) When a lesser number than a quorum convene, the Senators present may send the 
doorkeeper or any person, for any or all absent Senators, as a majority of the Senators 
present determine. 

RULE 6. Approval of Journal. — After the prayer, and upon appearance of a quo- 
rum, the President shall cause the Journal of the preceding day to be read and approved, 
unless the Chairman of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate or some 
member of the Senate by motion sustained by a majority of the members present, has 
the reading thereof dispensed with and the same approved as written. 



268 North Carolina Manual 



RULE 7. Order of Business. — After approval of the journal, the order of business 
shall be as follows: 

(1) Reports of standing committees. 

(2) Reports of select committees. 

(3) Introduction of bills, petitions, and resolutions. 

(4) Messages from the House of Representatives. 

(5) Unfinished business of preceding day. 

(6) Special orders. 

(7) General Orders: 

(a) Local bills in numerical order, Senate bills first 
(i) Third reading roll call and electronic 

voting system votes 
(ii) Second reading roll call and electronic 

voting system votes 
(iii) Second reading ivva voce 
(iv) Third reading viva voce 

(b) Public bills in numerical order. Senate bills first 
(i) Third reading roll call and electronic 

voting system votes 
(ii) Second reading roll call and electronic 

voting system votes 
(iii) Second reading viva voce 
(iv) Third reading viva voce 

II. Conduct of Debate 

RULE 8. President to maintain order. — The President shall have general direction of 
the Hall of the Senate and shall be authorized to take such action as is necessary to 
maintain order, and in case of any disturbance or disorderly conduct in the galleries or 
lobbies, he shall have the power to order those areas cleared. 

RULE 9. Substitution for President. — The President shall have the right to call on 
any member to perform the duties of the Chair, but substitution shall not extend be- 
yond one day. 

RULE 10. Points of order. — (a) The President shall preserve order and decorum and 
proceed with the business of the Senate according to the rules adopted. He shall decide 
all questions of order, subject to an appeal to the Senate by any member, on which ap- 
peal no member shall speak more than once unless by leave of the Senate. A two-thirds 
vote of the membership of the Senate is necessary to sustain any appeal from the ruling 
of the Chair. 

(b) In the event the Senate Rules do not provide for, or cover any point of order 
raised by any Senator, the rules of the United States House of Representatives shall 
govern. 

(c) When a Senator is called to order he shall take his seat until the President de- 
termines whether he was in order or not; if decided to be out of order, he shall not pro- 
ceed without the permission of the Senate: and every question of order shall be decided 



The Legislative Branch 269 



by the President, subject to an appeal to the Senate by any Senator; and if a Senator is 
called to order for words spoken, the words excepted to shall be immediately taken 
down in writing, that the President or Senate may be better able to judge the matter. 

RULE 1 1. Debating and voting by Lieutenant Governor. — The Lieutenant Governor, 
as President of the Senate, being a Constitutional Officer shall not have the right to de- 
bate any question or to address the Senate upon any proposition unless by permission 
of the majority of members present, and shall have the right to vote only when there is a 
tie vote upon any question or election. 

RULE 1 2. Obtaining recognition. — (a) When any Senator is about to speak in debate 
or deliver any matter to the Senate, he shall rise from his seat and respectfully address 
the President. No member shall speak further until recognized by the President, and 
when two or more members rise at the same time, the President shall name the member 
to speak. 

(b) A Senator who has the floor may yield the floor to another Senator only for the 
purpose of allowing another Senator to state a question. Only the Chair may award the 
floor to any Senator for the purposes of allowing that Senator to engage in general de- 
bate. 

(c) A senator who has obtained the floor may be interrupted only for the following 
reasons: 

1. a request that the member speaking yield for a question, 

2. a point of order, or 

3. a parliamentary inquiry. 

RULE 1 3. Recognition for extending courtesies. — (a) Courtesies of the floor and gal- 
leries shall be extended only by the President on his own motion or upon the written re- 
quest of a member of the Senate to former members of the General Assembly or to dis- 
tinguished visitors. 

(b) Members may designate Honorary Pages by a statement delivered to the Principal 
Clerk who will have a certificate issued therefor. 

(c) The President may upon written request at intervals between various orders of 
business extend courtesies to schools or other special large groups visiting in the gal- 
leries while they are present, and the President shall, at such times as he deems ap- 
propriate, express to those visitors in the galleries the pleasure of the Senate for their 
presence. 

RULE 14. Limitations on individual debate. — (a) No Senator shall speak on the same 
day more than twice on the main question, nor longer than thirty minutes for the first 
speech and fifteen minutes for the second speech. No senator shall speak on the same 
day more than once on an amendment or a motion to reconsider, commit, appeal or 
postpone, and then no longer than ten minutes. The Senate may, by consent of a majori- 
ty of the senators present, suspend the operation of this subsection of this rule during 
any debate on any particular question. 

(b) By permission of the President any member of the Senate may address the Senate 
from the lectern located on the fioor before the dais for the purpose of explaining a bill 
or resolution, stating a point of personal privilege or for the purpose of debate. 



270 North Carouna Manual 



RULE 15. Priority of business. — All questions relating to priority of business shall 
be decided without debate. 

RULE 16. Reading of papers. — When the reading of a paper, other than a petition, is 
called for, and any Senator objects to the reading, the question shall be determined by 
the Senate without debate. 

RULE 17. General decorum. — (a) Male Senators and male visitors shall uncover 
their heads upon entering the Senate Chamber while the Senate is in session and shall 
continue uncovered during their continuance in the Chamber, unless one's religion re- 
quires his head to be covered. 

(b) No remark reflecting personally upon the action of any Senator shall be in order 
upon the floor of the Senate unless preceded by a motion or resolution of censure. 

(c) When the President is putting a question, or a division by counting is in progress, 
no Senator shall walk out of or across the Chamber, nor when a Senator is speaking, 
pass between him and the President. 

(d) When a motion to adjourn or for recess is affirmatively determined, no member 
or officer shall leave his place until adjournment or recess is declared by the President. 

(e) Smoking shall not be allowed in the galleries of the Senate during sessions. 

(f) No remark soliciting the donation of funds for the support of any person or or- 
ganization shall be in order upon the floor of the Senate, unless the remark has some 
relevance to a bill or resolution before the body. 

in. Motions 

RULE 18. Motions generally. — All motions shall be reduced to writing, if desired by 
the President or a Senator, delivered at the table, and read by the President or Reading 
Clerk before the same are debated: but any motion may be withdrawn by the introducer 
at any time before decision or amendment. Except as otherwise specificially provided in 
these rules, no second is required. 

RULE 19. Motions; order of precedence. — When a question is before the Senate no 
motion shall be received except those herein specified, which motions shall have prece- 
dence as follows: 

(1) To adjourn. 

(2) To lay on the table. 

(3) For the previous question. 

(4) To postpone indefinitely. 

(5) To postpone to a certain day. 

(6) To commit to a standing committee. 

(7) To commit to a select committee. 

(8) To amend. 

(9) To substitute. 

RULE 20. Motions to adjourn and to lay on the table. — The motions to adjourn and 
to lay on the table shall be seconded and decided without debate, and the motion to ad- 
journ shall always be in order when made by a Senator entitled to the floor. 



The Legislative Branch 271 



RULE 21. Motions to postpone to certain day and to commit. — The respective mo- 
tions to postpone to a certain day, or to commit to a standing or select committee, shall 
preclude debate on the main question. 

RULE 22. Action when previous question pending. — When a motion for the previous 
question is made and is pending, debate shall cease. After a motion for the previous 
question is made, pending a second thereto, any member may give notice that he desires 
to offer an amendment to the bill or other matter under consideration; and after the pre- 
vious question is seconded such member shall be entitled to offer his amendment in pur- 
suance of such notice. 

RULE 23. Motion for previous question. — The previous question shall be as follows: 
"Shall the main question be now put?" and until it is decided shall preclude all amend- 
ments and debate. If this question is decided in the affirmative, the "main question" 
shall be on the passage of the bill, resolution, or other matter under consideration; but 
when amendments are pending, the question shall be taken upon such amendments in 
their inverse order, without further debate or amendment: Provided, that no one shall 
move the previous question except the chairman of the committee submitting the report 
on the bill or other matter under consideration, or the member introducing the bill or 
other matter under consideration or the member in charge of the measure, who shall be 
designated by the chairman of the committee reporting the same to the Senate at the 
time the bill or other matter under consideration is reported to the Senate or taken up 
for consideration. 

RULE 24. Motion to reconsider. — When a question has been once put and decided, 
any Senator who voted in the majority may move to reconsideration thereof; but no 
motion for the reconsideration of any vote shall be in order after the bill, resolution, 
message, report, amendment, or motion upon which the vote was taken has gone out of 
the possession of the Senate; nor shall any motion for reconsideration be in order unless 
made on the same day or in the next following legislative day on which the vote pro- 
posed to be reconsidered took place, unless the motion is made by the Committee on 
Rules and Operation of the Senate for verbal or grammatical errors in the bills, when 
the motion may be made at any time: Provided, that when the next legislative day has by 
motion of the Senate, been restricted as to matters which may be considered, a motion 
to reconsider shall be in order on the next succeeding day upon which regular business is 
conducted. No question shall be reconsidered more than once. 

IV. Voting 

RULE 25. Use of electronic voting system. — (a) Votes on the following questions 
shall be taken on the electronic voting system, and the ayes and noes shall be recorded 
on the Journal: 

(1) All questions on which the Constitution of North Carolina requires that the ayes 
and noes be taken and recorded on the Journal. 

(2) All questions on which a call for the ayes and noes under Rule 26(b) has been sus- 
tained. 

(3) Both second and third readings of bills proposing amendment of the Constitution 
of North Carolina. 



272 North Carolina Manual 



(b) Votes on the following questions shall be taken on the electronic voting system, 
and a copy of the machine print-out of the votes shall be filed in the Legislative Library 
where it shall be open to public inspection: 

( 1 ) Second reading of all public bills, all amendments to public bills offered after sec- 
ond reading, third reading if a public bill was amended after second reading, and 
all conference reports on public bills. 

(2) Any other question upon direction of the Chair or upon motion of any Senator 
supported by one-fifth of the Senators present. 

(c) When the electronic voting system is used, the Chair shall fix and announce the 
time, not to exceed one minute, which shall be allowed for voting on the question before 
the Senate. The system shall be set to lock automatically and to record the vote when 
that time has expired. Once the system has locked and recorded a vote, the vote shall be 
printed by the system. 

(d) The voting station at each Senator's desk in the Chamber shall be used only by 
the Senator to which the station is assigned. Under no circumstances shall any other 
person vote at a Senator's station. It is a breach of the ethical obligation of a Senator 
either to request that another vote at the requesting Senator's station, or to vote at an- 
other Senator's station. The Chair shall enforce this rule without exception. 

(e) When the electronic voting system is used, the Chair shall state the question and 
shall then state substantially the following: "All in favor vote 'aye'; all opposed vote 

'no'; seconds will be allowed for voting on this question; the Clerk will unlock the 

machine." After the machine locks and records the vote, the Chair shall announce the 
vote and declare the result. 

(0 One copy of the machine print-out of the vote record shall be filed in the office of 
the Principal Clerk, and one copy shall be filed in the Legislative Library where it shall 
be open to public inspection. 

(g) When the Chair ascertains that the electronic voting system is inoperative before 
a vote is taken or while a vote is being taken on the electronic system, he shall announce 
that fact to the Senate and any partial electronic system voting record shall be voided. 
In such a case, if the Constitution of North Carolina or the Rules of the Senate require a 
call of the ayes and noes, the Clerk shall call the roll of the Senate, and the ayes and noes 
shall be taken manually and shall be recorded on the Journal. All other votes shall be 
taken by voice vote as prescribed in Senate Rule 26(a). If, after a vote is taken on the 
electronic system, it is discovered that a malfunction caused an error in the electronic 
system print-out, the Chair shall direct the Reading Clerk and the Principal Clerk to 
verify and correct the print-out record and so advise the Senate. 

(h) For the purpose of identifying motions on which the vote is taken on the elec- 
tronic system (the identification codes having no relation to the order of precedence o( 
motions), the motions are coded as follows: 

1. To lay on the table. 

2. For the previous question. 

3. To postpone indefinitely. 

4. To postpone to a day certain. 

5. To refer to a committee. 

6. To reconsider. 



The Legislative Branch 273 



7. To adopt. 

8. To concur. 

9. To take from the table. 
10. Miscellaneous. 

RULE 26. Voice votes; call for ayes and noes. — (a) When the electronic voting system 
is not used, all votes on which a call of the roll of the Senate is not required shall be 
taken by voice vote. The question shall be put as follows: "Those in favor say 'aye','" 
and, after the affirmative vote is expressed, "Opposed 'no'"; after which the Chair shall 
announce the result. If a division on any vote is desired, it must be called for im- 
mediately before the result of the voting is announced on any question, and upon such 
call, the Chair shall require the members to stand and be counted for and against the 
proposition under consideration. 

(b) The ayes and the noes may be called for on any question before the vote is taken. 
If a Senator desires the ayes and noes recorded on the Journal on a question, he shall 
address the Chair and obtain recognition and say, "Upon that question I call for the 
ayes and noes." Whereupon the Chair shall say, "Is the call sustained?" If one-fifth of 
the Senators present then stand, the vote shall be taken on the electronic voting sytem if 
it is operative, and the ayes and noes shall be recorded on the Journal. If the electronic 
voting system is inoperative, the roll of the Senate shall be called and the ayes and noes 
taken manually and recorded on the Journal. If fewer than one-fifth of the Senators 
present stand to sustain the call, the Chair shall announce, "an insufficient number up" 
and a vote by electronic voting or by voice, whichever is appropriate under the Rules of 
the Senate, shall be taken. 

RULE 27. Pairs. — If a Senator is paired with another Senator on a question, the 
Senator shall announce the pair as follows: "Mr. President, I desire to announce a pair. 
If Senator were present, he would vote ; I would vote (the oppo- 
site)." The Senator shall send forward at that time a written statement of the pair on a 
form provided by the Principal Clerk and neither member of the pair shall vote on the 
question. A pair shall be announced before the vote is taken viva voce, or if the electronic 
voting system is used, before the machine is unlocked. The Clerk shall record the pair 
on the Journal when the Constitution or Rules of the Senate require a call of the roll 
and shall record on the electronic system print-out all pairs announced. 

RULE 28. Dividing question. — If any question contains several distinct propositions, 
it shall be divided by the President, at the request of any Senator, provided each subdivi- 
sion, if left to itself, forms a substantive proposition. 

RULE 29. Duty to vote; excuses. — (a) Every Senator who is within the bar of the 
Senate when the question is stated by the Chair shall vote thereon unless he is excused 
by the Senate. The bar of the Senate shall include the entire Senate Chamber. 

(b) Any Senator may request to be excused from voting, either immediately before or 
after the vote has been called for and before a viva voce vote result has been announced 
or before the electronic voting system has been unlocked. The Senator may make a brief 
statement of the reasons for making such request, and shall send forward to the Princi- 
pal Clerk, on a form provided by the Clerk, a concise statement of the reason for the re- 
quest, and the Clerk shall include this statement in the Journal. The question on grant- 
ing of the request shall be taken without debate. 



274 North Carouna Manual 



RULE 30. Explanation of vote. — Any Senator may explain his vote on any bill pend- 
ing by obtaining permission of the President after the final vote is taken: Provided, that 
not more than three minutes shall be consumed in such explanation. 

RULE 30. 1. Questions of personal privilege. — Upon recognition by the President for 
that purpose, any Senator may speak to a question of personal privilege for a time not 
exceeding three minutes. Personal privilege may not be used to explain a vote or debate 
a bill. The President shall determine if the question raised is one of privilege and shall, 
without the point of order being raised, enforce this rule. 

V. Committees 

RULE 31. Appointment of Committees. — (a) The President of the Senate, unless he 
has by law disqualified himself from that office, shall have the exclusive right and au- 
thority to appoint all Committees, regular or select, and to appoint Committee Chair- 
men and Vice-Chairmen. but he may delegate said authority in any instance, as he may 
choose. Upon the recommendation of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the 
Senate, the Senate may authorize, by majority vote of the Senators present and voting, a 
change in the number o'( standing committees. 

(b) The President o^ the Senate shall appoint all standing committees at the begin- 
ning of the session. 

RULE 32. List of Standing Committees. — The standing committees shall be: 

Agriculture 

Appropriations 

Appropriations Committee on Education 

Appropriations Committee on General Government 

Appropriations Committee on Human Resources 

Appropriations Committee on Justice and Public Safety 

Appropriations Committee on Natural 

and Economic Resources and Wildlife 
Banking 
Base Budget 

Constitutional Amendments 
Economy 
Education 
Election Laws 
Finance 

Higher Education 
Housing 

Human Resources 
Insurance 
Judiciary I 
Judiciary II 
Judiciary III 

Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice 
Local Government and Regional Affairs 
Manufacturing, Labor and Commerce 



The Legislative Branch 275 



Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife 

Pensions and Retirement 

Public Utilities and Energy 

Rules and Operation of the Senate 

Senior Citizens Affairs 

Small Business 

Stale Government 

Transportation 

Veterans and Militarv Affairs 

Ways and Means 

RULE 33. Notice of committee meetings. — (a) Public notice of all committee meet- 
ings shall be given in the Senate. The required notice may be waived as to any meeting 
by the attendance at that meeting of all of the members of the committee, or by personal 
waiver. 

(b) The chairman of the committee shall notify or cause to be notified the sponsor of 
each bill which is set for hearing or consideration before the committee as to the date, 
time and place of that meeting. 

RULE 34. Membership of committees: quorum. — Membership on standing com- 
mittees shall consist o'( not more than 22 or less than 5 Senators, including the Chair- 
man and Vice-Chairman who shall be designated by the President: provided, the com- 
mittee membership on the Appropriations Committee, Base Budget, Finance Com- 
mittee, State Government and Ways and Means Committee shall not be limited as to 
membership but shall be left to the discretion of the President. No Senator except the 
President's coordinator of committees shall hold membership on more than 1 2 standing 
committees unless the Rules and Operation of the Senate Committee provides other- 
wise. A quorum of the Appropriations. Base Budget, Finance. State Government or 
Ways and Means Committee shall consist of a majority of the committee. A quorum of 
any other committee shall consist of either the chairman and five members or a majority 
of the committee, whichever is fewer. 

RULE 35. (Reserved for future use.) 

RULE 36. Committee meetings. — No committee or subcommittee shall hold a 
secret meeting, and all meetings of committees and subcommittees shall be open to the 
public: Provided, that any committee or subcommittee has the inherent right to hold an 
executive session when it determines that it is absolutely necessary to have such a ses- 
sion in order to prevent personal embarrassment, or when it is in the best interest of the 
State: and in no event shall final action be taken by any committee or subcommittee ex- 
cept in open session. 

RULE 36.1. Committee minutes to Legislative Library. The chairman of a com- 
mittee shall insure that written minutes are compiled for each of the committee's meet- 
ings. The minutes shall indicate the number of members present and the actions taken 
by the committee at the meeting. Not later than 20 days after the adjournment of each 
session of the General Assembly, the chairman, except the chairman of the Appropria- 
tions, Finance, or Ways and Means Committee, shall deliver the minutes to the Legisla- 
tive Library. The President Pro Tempore of the Senate ma\ grant a reasonable ex- 
tension of time for filing said minutes upon application of the committee chairman. 



276 North Carouna Manual 



RULE 37. (Reserved for interim operations rule.) 

VI. Handling Bills 

RULE 38. Construction of rules. — All provisions of these rules applying to bills shall 
apply also to resolutions, memorials and petitions. 

RULE 39. Form and copies of hills. — (a) Unless variation is authorized by the Com- 
mittee on Rules and Operation of the Senate, bills submitted for introduction shall be in 
a computer-typed form prepared by the Legislative Services Office. When a bill which is 
introduced is not in the prescribed form, the Principal Clerk shall cause the bill to be re- 
typed in the prescribed form, and the retyped copy shall become the official copy of the 
bill for all purposes. The original bill shall then be returned to the introducer of the bill 
and shall not become a part of the records or documents of the Senate. 

(b) Whenever a bill is introduced, 20 copies shall be submitted to the Principal Clerk. 
Any bill submitted without the required number of copies shall be immediately returned 
to the introducer. 

RULE 39. 1 . Public and local bills; availability of copies of bills. — A public bill is a bill 
affecting 15 or more counties. A local bill is one affecting fewer than 15 counties. No 
public bill and, upon objection by a member, no local bill may be considered unless 
copies of the bill have been made available to the entire membership of the Senate. 

RULE 40. Introduction of bills. — (a) Every bill filed for introduction shall contain on 
the outside cover the title of the document and the name of the Senator or Senators pre- 
senting it. Bills shall be delivered by the primary sponsor of the document or with the 
prescribed authorization form signed by the primary sponsor to the office of the Senate 
Principal Clerk who shall receive them during regular session according to the following 
schedule: 

Monday until 8:30 o'clock P.M.; 

Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday until 4:00 o'clock 

P.M.; 
Friday until 3:00 o'clock P.M. 

All bills shall be numbered by the Office of the Principal Clerk when filed and shall be 
considered introduced when presented to the Senate on the next following legislative 
day for the first reading and reference to committee. 

(b) Filing of bills during the interim shall be under the direction of the Rules and 
Operation of the Senate Committee as approved by the Senate. 

(c) All celebration, commendation, and commemoration resolutions, except those 
honoring the memory of deceased persons, shall be excluded from introduction in the 
Senate if the House has a substantially similar rule on these resolutions. 

RULE 41. Deadline on introduction of certain bills. — All bills prepared to be intro- 
duced by departments, agencies or institutions of the State must be introduced in the 
Senate not later than April 1 of the session. All local bills must be introduced not later 
than March 9 of the session. All resolutions, except those honoring the memory of de- 
ceased persons, must be introduced not later than April 1 of the session. 



The Legislative Branch 277 



RULE 41.1. Relationship between Ways and Means Committee and other committees 
dealing with money matters: relationship between these other committees dealing with 
money matters. — The Committee on Ways and Means shall have responsibility for 
final consideration of bills dealing with money matters before the bills are considered on 
the floor of the Senate. All bills referred by the President to the Committee on Appro- 
priations, the Committee on Finance, and the Committee on Economy shall be referred 
by the chairman of the respective committee to the Committee on Ways and Means for 
consideration before the bills go to the floor of the Senate, except that bills referred to 
the Appropriations or Finance Committees may be reported directly back to the floor 
with the agreement of the Chairmen of the Ways and Means, Appropriations, and Fi- 
nance Committees. Bills referred to the Committee on Appropriations by the President 
may be referred by the Chairman of the Committee on Appropriations to the Appropri- 
ations Committee on Human Resources, Appropriations Committee on Education, 
Appropriations Committee on General Government, Appropriations Committee on 
Justice and Public Safety, Appropriations Committee on Natural and Economic Re- 
sources and Wildlife, or the Committee on Base Budget for a report back to the Com- 
mittee on Appropriations. 

RULE 42. References of appropriations and finance bills. — All bills introduced in the 
Senate providing for appropriations from the State, or any subdivision thereof, shall, 
before being considered by the Senate, be referred to the Committee on Appropriations, 
and bills referred to other committees carrying any such provisions shall be reported to 
the Senate as being bills to be referred to the Appropriations Committee before proper 
action may be taken by the Senate. All bills introduced in the Senate providing for bond 
issues, levying taxes, or in any manner affecting the taxing power of the State or any 
subdivision thereof, shall, before being considered by the Senate, be referred to the 
Committee on Finance, and bills referred to other committees carrying any such pro- 
visions shall be reported to the Senate as being bills to be referred to the Finance Com- 
mittee before proper action may be taken by the Senate. 

RULE 42.1. Fiscal notes. — (a) The Chairman or Vice-Chairman of the Appropria- 
tions Committee, of the Finance Committee or of the Rules Committee, or of the Ways 
and Means Committee, upon the floor of the Senate, may request that a fiscal analysis 
be made of a bill, resolution or an amendment to a bill or resolution which is in the pos- 
session of the Senate and that a fiscal note be attached to the measure, when in the opin- 
ion of that Chairman or Vice-Chairman the fiscal effects of that measure are not ap- 
parent from the language of the measure. 

(b) The fiscal note shall be filed and attached to the bill or amendment within two leg- 
islative days of the request. If it is impossible to prepare a fiscal note within two legisla- 
tive days, the Director of Fiscal Research shall, in writing, so advise the Presiding Of- 
ficer, the Principal Clerk, and the member introducing or proposing the measure and 
shall indicate the time when the fiscal note will be ready. 

(c) The fiscal note shall be prepared by the Fiscal Research Division on a form ap- 
proved by the Rules Committee as to content and form and signed by the staff member 



278 North Carolina Manual 



or members preparing it. If no estimate in dollars is possible, the fiscal note shall indi- 
cate the reasons that no estimate is provided. The fiscal note shall not comment on the 
merit but may identify technical problems. The Fiscal Research Division shall make the 
fiscal note available to the membership of the Senate. 

(d) A sponsor of a bill or amendment may deliver a copy of his bill or amendment to 
the Fiscal Research Division for the preparation of a fiscal note. Prior to the filing of 
the bill or proposing of the amendment, the Fiscal Research Division, except to the 
sponsor, shall keep in confidence the identity of the sponsor. The sponsor shall attach 
the fiscal note to the bill when he files the bill or to the amendment when he moves its 
adoption. 

(e) The sponsor of a bill or amendment to which a fiscal note is attached who objects 
to the estimates and information provided may reduce to writing his objections. These 
objections shall be appended to the fiscal note attached to the bill or amendment and to 
the copies of the fiscal note available to the membership. 

(f) Subsection (a) of this rule shall not apply to the current operations appropriations 
bill or the capital improvements appropriations bill. This rule shall not apply to a bill or 
amendment requiring an actuarial note under these rules. 

RULE 42.2. Actuarial notes. — (a) Every bill or resolution proposing any change in 
the law relative to any State-administered retirement or pension system shall have at- 
tached to it at the time of its consideration by any committee a brief explanatory state- 
ment or note which shall include a reliable estimate of the financial and actuarial effect 
of the proposed change to that retirement or pension system. The actuarial note shall be 
attached to the jacket of each proposed bill or resolution which is reported favorably by 
any committee, shall be separate therefrom, and shall be clearly designated as an actu- 
arial note. 

(b) The sponsor of the bill or resolution shall present a copy of the measure, with his 
request for an actuarial note, to the Fiscal Research Division which shall prepare the ac- 
tuarial note as promptly as possible but not later than two weeks after the request is 
made. Actuarial notes shall be prepared in the order of receipt of request and shall be 
transmitted to the sponsor of the measure. The actuarial note of the Fiscal Research 
Division shall be prepared and signed by an actuary. 

(c) The sponsor of the bill or resolution shall also present a copy of the measure to 
the chief administrative officer of the retirement or pension system affected by the meas- 
ure. The chief administrative officer shall have an actuarial note prepared by the sys- 
tem's actuary on the measure and shall transmit the note to the sponsor of the measure 
not later than two weeks after the request is received. The actuarial note shall be at- 
tached to the jacket of the measure. 

(d) The note shall be factual and shall, if possible, provide a reliable estimate of both 
the immediate effect and, if determinable, the long range fiscal and actuarial effect of 
the measure. If, after careful investigation, it is determined that no dollar estimate is 
possible, the note shall contain a statement to that effect, setting forth the reasons why 
no dollar estimate can be given. No comment or opinion shall be included in the actuar- 
ial note with regard to the merits of the measure for which the note is prepared. Techni- 
cal and mechanical defects in the measure may be noted. 



The Legislative Branch 279 



(e) When any committee reports a measure to which an actuarial note is attached at 
the time of committee consideration, with any amendment of such nature as would sub- 
stantially affect the cost to or the revenues of any retirement or pension system, the 
chairman of the committee reporting the measure shall obtain from the Fiscal Research 
Division an actuarial note of the fiscal and actuarial effect of the proposed amendment. 
The actuarial note shall be attached to the jacket of the measure. An amendment to any 
bill or resolution shall not be in order if the amendment affects the costs to or the reve- 
nues of a State-administered retirement or pension system, unless the amendment is ac- 
companied by an actuarial note, prepared by the Fiscal Research Division, as to the ac- 
tuarial effect of the amendment. 

(f) The Fiscal Research Division shall make all relevant actuarial notes available to 
the membership of the Senate. 

RULE 43. First reading; reference to committee. — All bills filed, upon presentation 
to the Senate, shall be read in regular order of business by their number and title which 
shall constitute the first reading of the bill and unless otherwise disposed of, the Presi- 
dent or Presiding Officer shall announce the referral of the document. The title and re- 
ferral shall be entered on the Journal. 

RULE 44. Bills to receive three readings. — Every bill shall receive three readings 
previous to being passed, and the President shall give notice at each whether it be the 
first, second, or third. After the first reading, unless a motion is made by some Senator, 
the President shall refer the bill to an appropriate committee. No bill shall be amended 
upon the fioor of the Senate until it has been twice read. Senate simple resolutions shall 
not require three readings. 

RULE 45. Reports of committees. — Every Senator presenting a report of a commit- 
tee shall endorse the report with the name of the committee and, in case of a minority 
report, with the names of the members making the report. The report of the committee 
shall show that a majority of the committee were present and voted. Every report of the 
committee upon a bill or resolution shall stand upon the general orders with the bill or 
resolution. No committee shall report a bill or resolution without prejudice. 

RULE 45.1. Action on amendment before re-referral. — If any committee recom- 
mends adoption of an amendment or committee substitute of a bill which, under the 
rules of the Senate must be referred to the Committee on Appropriations or Committee 
on Finance, the amendment or committee substitute shall be considered and, if adopt- 
ed, the amendment or substitute engrossed before the bill is re-referred. 

RULE 46. Unfavorable report by committee. — (a) All bills reported unfavorably by 
the committee to which they were referred, and having no minority report, shall lie 
upon the table, but may be taken from the table, and placed upon the calendar by a two- 
thirds vote of the membership of the Senate. 

(b) When a bill is reported by a committee with an unfavorable report, but accom- 
panied by a minority report, signed by at least three members of the committee who 
were present and who voted on the bill when the bill was considered in committee, then 
the minority report shall be placed on the calendar and considered the following day, 
and the question before the Senate shall be 'The adoption of the Minority Report". If 
the minority report is adopted by a majority vote, the bill shall be placed upon the cal- 
endar; if the minority report is not adopted, the bill shall lie upon the table. 



280 North Carolina Manual 



RULE 47. Recall of bill from committee. — When a bill has been introduced and re- 
ferred to a committee, if after 10 days the committee has failed to report thereon, then 
the author of the bill may, after three days' public notice given in the Senate and deliv- 
ered in writing to the chairman of the committee, on motion supported by a vote of two- 
thirds of the membership of the Senate, recall the bill from the committee to the floor of 
the Senate for consideration and such action thereon as a majority of the Senators 
present may direct. This rule shall not be temporarily suspended without one day's no- 
tice on the motion given in the Senate and delivered in writing to the chairman of the 
committee and to sustain that motion two-thirds of the membership of the Senate shall 
be required. 

RULE 48. Calendar: order to be followed. — The President and the Principal Clerk of 
the Senate shall see that all bills are acted upon by the Senate in the order in which they 
stand upon the calendar, unless otherwise ordered as hereinafter provided. The publish- 
ed calendar shall include all bills reported favorably from committees, or reported with 
a minority report attached, or placed on the calendar on motion: Provided, that the pub- 
lished local calendar may carry the number of each bill, the county or counties referred 
to, and an abbreviated statement of the title of the bill. 

RULE 49. Considering bills out of regular order. — Except as provided in Rule 50, any 
bill or other matter may be taken up out of order upon order of the President or upon 
motion sustained by a majority of the membership of the Senate. 

RULE 50. Third reading requirements. — No bill on its third reading shall be acted 
upon out of the regular order in which it stands on the calendar, and no bill shall be act- 
ed upon on its third reading the same day on which it passed its second reading, unless 
so ordered by two-thirds of the membership of the Senate. 

RULE 5 1 . Special orders. — Any bill or other matter may be made a special order for 
a particular day or hour by a vote of the majority of the Senators voting, and if action 
on the bill is not completed on that day, it shall be returned to its place on the calendar, 
unless it is made a special order for another day: and when a special order is under con- 
sideration it shall take precedence over any special order or subsequent order for the 
day, but such subsequent order may be taken up immediately after the previous special 
order has been disposed of. 

RULE 52. Procedure when necessary number of Senators not present. — If, on taking 
the question on a bill, it appears that a constitutional quorum is not present, or if the 
bill requires a vote of a certain proportion of all the Senators to pass it, and it appears 
that such number is not present, the bill shall be again read and the question taken 
thereon; if the bill fails a second time for the want of the necessary number being present 
and voting, the bill shall not be finally lost, but shall be returned to the calendar in its 
proper order. 

RULE 53. Effect of defeated bill. — (a) After a bill has been tabled, has failed to pass 
on any of its readings, or has been placed on the unfavorable calendar, the contents of 
such bill or the principal provisions of its subject matter shall not be embodied in any 
other measure. Upon the point of order being raised and sustained by the Chair, such 
measure shall be laid upon the table, and shall not be taken therefrom except by a vote 
of two-thirds of the qualified membership of the Senate: Provided, no local bill shall be 



The Legislative Branch 281 



held by the Chair as embodying the provisions, or being identical with any statewide 
measure which has been laid upon the table or failed to pass any of its readings. 

(b) When a bill has been postponed indefinitely by the Senate, the bill shall lie upon 
the table, and shall not be taken therefrom except by a vote of two-thirds of the mem- 
bership of the Senate. 

RULE 54. Taking hill from table. — No bill which has been laid upon the table shall 
be taken therefrom except by a vote of two-thirds of the Senators present. 

RULE 54.1. Bill title. — The title of each bill shall adequately and fairly reflect its 
subject matter. 

RULE 55. Amending titles of bills. — When a bill is materially modified or the scope 
of its application extended or decreased, or if the county, or counties, to which it applies 
is changed, the title of the bill shall be changed by the Senator introducing the bill or by 
the committee having it in charge, or by the Principal Clerk, so as to indicate the full 
purport of the bill as amended and the county or counties to which it applies. 

RULE 56. Corrections of typographical errors in bills. — The Enrolling Clerk is au- 
thorized to make corrections of typographical errors in the text of bills at any time prior 
to ratification. Before the correction is made, the Enrolling Clerk shall have the approv- 
al of the Chairman of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate. 

RULE 57. Conference committees. — Whenever the Senate declines or refuses to con- 
cur in amendments put by the House to a bill originating in the Senate, or refuses to 
adopt a substitute adopted by the House for a bill originating in the Senate, a confer- 
ence committee shall be appointed upon motion and the bill under consideration shall 
thereupon go to and be considered by the joint conferees on the part of the Senate and 
House. In considering matters in difference between the Senate and House committed 
to the conferees, only such matters as are in difference between the two houses shall be 
considered by the conferees, and the conference report shall deal only with such mat- 
ters. The conference report shall not be amended. Except as herein set out, the rules of 
the United States House of Representatives shall govern the appointment, conduct, and 
reports of the conferees. 

RULE 57. 1 . Amendments and committee substitutes adopted by the House to bills origi- 
nating in the Senate. — (a) Whenever the House has adopted an amendment or a com- 
mittee substitute for a bill originating in the Senate, and has returned the bill to the Sen- 
ate for concurrence in that amendment or committee substitute, the Senate may not 
concur in that amendment or committee substitute until the next legislative day follow- 
ing the day on which the Senate receives that measure. 

(b) The Presiding Officer may, and upon motion supported by a majority of the Sen- 
ate present and voting, shall refer the bill to an appropriate committee for consideration 
of the amendment or committee substitute. 

(c) The Presiding Officer shall, in placing the bill on the calendar, rule whether the 
amendment or committee substitute is a material amendment under Article H, Section 
23, of the State's Constitution. If the measure was referred to committee, the committee 
shall: 

(i.) report the bill with the recommendation either that the Senate concur or that 
the Senate do not concur: and 



282 North Carolina Manual 



(ii.) advise the presiding officer as to whether or not the amendment or commit- 
tee substitute is a material amendment under Article II, Section 23, of the 
State's Constitution. 

(d) If the amendment or committee substitute for a bill is not a material amendment, 
the question before the Senate shall be concurrence. 

(e) If the amendment or committee substitute for a bill is a material amendment, the 
receiving of that bill on messages shall constitute first reading and the question before 
the house shall be concurrence on second reading. If the motion is passed, the question 
then shall be concurrence on third reading on the next legislative day. 

(f) No committee substitute adopted by the House to a bill originating in the Senate 
may be amended by the Senate. 

RULE 58. Certification of passage of bills. — The Principal Clerk shall certify the pas- 
sage of bills by the Senate, with the date thereof, together with the fact whether passed 
by vote of three-fifths or two-thirds of the Senate, whenever such vote may be required 
by the Constitution or laws of the State. 

RULE 59. Transmittal of bills to House. — No bill shall be sent from the Senate on 
the day of its passage except on the last day of the session, unless otherwise ordered by a 
vote of two-thirds of the membership of the Senate. 

RULE 59.1. Engrossment. — Bills and resolutions, except those making appropria- 
tions, which originate in the Senate and which are amended shall be engrossed before 
being sent to the House. 

VII. Legislative Officers and Employees 

RULE 60. Pages. — The President of the Senate shall appoint pages. The President, 
or such person as he may designate, shall supervise the pages and assign to them their 
duties. Each page shall be at least 14 years of age. 

RULE 61. Sergeants-at-Arms. — (a) There shall be 14 positions of Assistant Ser- 
geants-at-Arms to be appointed by the Sergeant-at-Arms who are to work under his 
supervision and to be assigned such duties and powers as he shall direct. 

(b) The Sergeant-at-Arms shall be responsible for the safety of the members and em- 
ployees of the Senate while in the Senate Chamber, or any place in which the Senate or 
its committees are in session. 

(c) The Sergeant-at-Arms shall serve all warrants and subpoenas issued by orders of 
the Senate and signed by the President of the Senate, and said warrants and subpoenas 
shall be returnable to the Principal Clerk of the Senate. 

RULE 62. Principal Clerk's staff — The Principal Clerk of the Senate shall employ 
all necessary employees and clerks required to carry out the duties of his office. The 
Principal Clerk shall have supervision and control, and shall assign such duties and 
powers as he shall direct to his employees and clerks. 

RULE 63. Committee Clerks and Secretaries. — (a) Each committee shall have a 
clerk. The clerk to a committee shall serve as secretary to the chairman of that commit- 
tee. 

(b) Each member shall be assigned a secretary, unless he has a committee clerk to 
serve as his secretary. 



The Legislative Branch 283 

(c) The selection and retention of clerks and secretaries shall be the prerogative of the 
individual members subject to the approval of the President of the Senate. 

RULE 64. Senate Journal. — The Principal Clerk shall prepare and be responsible for 
the Journal. The Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate shall examine the 
Journal to determine if the proceedings of the previous day have been correctly rec- 
orded. 

RULE 65. (Reserved for future addition to rules.) 

Vin. General Rules 

RULE 66. President to sign papers. — All acts, addresses and resolutions, and all war- 
rants and subpoenas issued by order of the Senate shall be signed by the President. 

RULE 67. Admission to the floor of the Senate. — No person except members of the 
Senate, members of the House of Representatives, staff of the General Assembly; 
Judges of the Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, and Superior Courts; the Governor 
and members of the Council of State; former members of the General Assembly; and 
persons particularly invited and extended the privileges of the floor by the President 
shall be admitted to the floor of the Senate during its session. No registered lobbyist 
shall be admitted to the floor of the Senate or Senate Chamber while the Senate is in ses- 
sion. 

RULE 68. Privileges of the floor. — Any group or individual other than members of 
the Senate who desires to make remarks upon the floor of the Senate will first obtain ap- 
proval of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate. 

RULE 69. News media, -r- The President is authorized to assign area and equipment 
on the floor of the Senate for the use of the representatives of news media; and the Presi- 
dent shall provide regulations for the operation of the representatives of the news media 
on the floor of the Senate. 

RULE 70. Absence without leave. — No Senator or officer of the Senate shall depart 
the service of the Senate without leave, or receive pay as a Senator or officer for the time 
he is absent without leave. 

RULE 7 1 . Placing material on Senators' desks. — Any person other than a member of 
the Senate desiring to place articles of any kind on or about desks in the Senate Cham- 
ber or in the offices of the members of the Senate shall make written application to, and 
obtain written approval from the Principal Clerk. 

RULE 72. Assignment of offices. — The Chairman of the Committee on Rules and 
Operation of the Senate, subject to the approval of the Committee, is authorized to 
make assignments of committee rooms and offices to designated committees, chairmen, 
and members of the Senate. The office adjacent to any committee room assigned to a 
principal committee by the Chairman of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the 
Senate, subject to the approval of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate, 
shall be automatically assigned to the chairman of the principal committee. In making 
such assignments of individual offices, the said Rules Committee Chairman shall give 
preferential consideration to the respective members according to the length of service 
which each member has rendered in the General Assembly prior to the 1981 session and 
in the Senate thereafter. 



284 North Carolina Manual 

RULE 73. Administrative rules and regulations involving Senate employees. — All ad- 
ministrative rules, regulations and orders involving all individuals employed to perform 
duties for the Senate, other than those appointed by the Principal Clerk and the Ser- 
geant-at-Arms, shall be first approved by the Committee on Rules and Operation of the 
Senate. 

RULE 74. Notice of public hearings. — Notice shall be given not less than five calen- 
dar days prior to public hearings. Such notices shall be issued as information for the 
press and the information shall be posted in the places designated by the Principal 
Clerk. 

RULE 75. Public hearings, filing of written statements. — Persons desiring to appear 
and be heard at a public hearing are encouraged to file with the chairman of the com- 
mittee a brief or a written statement of the remarks to be made at least 24 hours before 
the time of the hearing. 

RULE 76. Voting in Joint sessions. — When any Senate Committee sits jointly with 
the House Committee, the Senate Committee reserves the right to vote separately from 
the House Committee. 

RULE 77. Alterations, suspension or rescission of rules. — (a) These rules may not be 
permanently rescinded or altered except by Senate simple resolution passed by a two- 
thirds vote of the membership of the Senate. The introducer of the resolution must, on 
the floor of the Senate, give notice of his intent to introduce the resolution on the legis- 
lative day preceding its introduction. 

(b) Except as otherwise provided herein, the Senate, upon two-thirds vote of the 
membership of the Senate, may temporarily suspend any of these rules. 

Sec. 2. This resolution is effective upon its adoption. 



The Legislative Branch 



285 



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North Carolina Manual 





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CLERKS 



SPEAKER 



CLERKS 



The Legislative Branch 287 

1983 NORTH CAROLINA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Officers 

Speaker Listen B. Ramsey 

Speaker Pro Tern Allen C. Barbee 

Minority Leader Harold J. Brubaker 

Principal Clerk Grace Collins 

Reading Clerk Sam J. Burrow, Jr. 

Sergeant-at-Arms Larry P. Eagles 

Representatives 

Name County Dist. Address Seat 

Adams, Allen Wake 21st Raleigh 81 

AUran, Austin M. (R) Catawba 45th Hickory 1 16 

Anderson, Gerald L Craven 3rd New Bern 31 

Auman, T. Clyde Moore 31st West End 78 

Ballance, Frank W., Jr Warren 7th Warrenton 106 

Barbee, Allen C Nash 8th Spring Hope 20 

Barker, Chris S., Jr Craven 3rd New Bern 1 

Barnes, Anne C Orange 24th Chapel Hill 70 

Beall, Charles W Haywood 52nd Clyde 18 

Beam, Sam L Gaston 44th Cherryville 59 

Beard, R. D Cumberland 18th Fayetteville 30 

Berry, Phillip O Mecklenburg 36th Charlotte 105 

Black, James B Mecklenburg 36th Matthews 42 

Blue, Daniel T., Jr Wake 21st Raleigh 80 

Bowen, Edward C Sampson 12th Harrells 39 

Brannan, George W Johnston 20th Smithfield 91 

Brawley, C. Robert (R) Iredell 43rd Mooresville 100 

Brennan, Louise S Mecklenburg 36th Charlotte 5 

Brown, John Walter (R) Wilkes 41st Elkin Ill 

Brubaker, Harold J. (R) Randolph 38th Asheboro 117 

Bumgardner, David W Gaston 44th Belmont 47 

Bundy, Sam D.' Pitt 9th Farmville 3 

Burnley, Dorothy R. (R) Guilford 28th High Point 98 

Chapin, Howard B Beaufort 2nd Washington 50 

Childress R. J Forsyth 39th Winston-Salem 89 

Church, John T Vance 22nd Henderson 9 

Clark, William E Cumberland 18th Fayetteville 44 

Coble, J. Howard (R) Guilford 27th Greensboro 97 

Cochrane, Betsy L. (R) Davie 37th Advance 104 

Colton, Marie W Buncombe 51st Asheville 51 

Cook, Ruth E Wake 21st Raleigh 82 

Crawford, James W., Jr Granville 22nd Oxford 107 

Crawford, Narvel J., Jr Buncombe 51st Asheville 63 

Creecy, C. Melvin Northampton 5th Rich Square 68 

Devane, Daniel H Hoke 16th Raeford 57 

Diamont, David Hunter Surry 40th Pilot Mountain 93 

Easterling, Ruth M Mecklenburg 36th Charlotte 16 

Economos, Gus Mecklenburg 36th Charlotte 28 

Edwards, C. R Cumberland 17th Fayetteville 29 

Enloe, Jeff H., Jr Macon 53rd Franklin 75 

Etheridge, Bobby R Harnett 19th Lillington 35 

Ethridge, Bruce Onslow 4th Swansboro 34 

Evans, Charles D Dare 1st Nags Head 37 



•Democrat unless indicated otherwise 



288 North Carolina Manual 



Name* County Dist. Address Seat 

Fenner, Jeanne T Wilson 8th Wilson 32 

Fletcher, Ray C Burke 47th Valdese 71 

Foster, Jo Graham Mecklenburg 36th Charlotte 4 

Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr Carteret 4th Atlantic Beach 1 1 

Fussell, Aaron E Wake 21st Raleigh 10 

Gentry, J. Worth Stokes 40th King 94 

Gist, Herman C Guilford 26th Greensboro 74 

Gillam, John B., Ill Bertie 6th Windsor 36 

Greenwood, Gordon H Buncombe 51st Black Mountain 64 

Grimsley, William T Guilford 29th Summerfield 73 

Hackney, Joe Orange 24th Chapel Hill 69 

Hasty, John Calvin Robeson 16th Maxton 86 

Hauser, C. B Forsyth 39th Winston-Salem 90 

Hayden, Margaret B Alleghany 40th Sparta 19 

Helms, H. Parks Mecklenburg 36th Charlotte 6 

Hightower, Foyle R., Jr Anson 33rd Wadesboro 46 

Holmes, George M. (R) Yadkin 41st Hamptonville 1 19 

Holt, Bertha M Alamance 25th Burlington 66 

Hudson. Joe R Union 34th Waxhaw 84 

Hughes, Charles H. (R) Henderson 50th Hendersonville 108 

Hughes, James F. (R) Avery 46th Linville 113 

Hunt, John J Cleveland 48th Lattimore 23 

Hunter, Robert C McDowell 49th Marion 76 

Huskins, J. P Iredell 42nd Statesville 14 

James, Vernon G Pasquotank 1st Elizabeth City 24 

Jarrell, Mary Guilford 28th High Point 62 

Jeralds, Luther R Cumberland 17th Fayetteville 41 

Jones, Walter B., Jr.- Pitt 9th Farmville 3 

Jordan, John M Alamance 25th Saxapahaw 53 

Keesee, Margaret P. (R) Guilford 27th Greensboro 109 

Kennedy, Annie Brown Forsyth 39th Winston-Salem 88 

Lacey, S. B., Jr. (R) Avery 46th Newland 1 12 

Lambeth, James E Davidson 37th Thomasville 55 

Lancaster, Martin Wayne 1 1th Goldsboro 26 

Lee, Hugh Richmond 32nd Rockingham 118 

Ligon, Bradford V. (R) Rowan 35th Salisbury 102 

Lilley, Daniel T Lenoir 3rd Kinston 2 

Locks, Sidney A Robeson I6th Lumberton 87 

Lutz, Edith Ledford Cleveland 48th Lawndale 12 

Mauney, D. R., Jr Gaston 44th Cherryville 60 

Matthews, Tom Nash 8th Rocky Mount 33 

Mavretic, Josephus L Edgecombe 8th Tarboro 49 

McAlister, Robert L Rockingham 25th Ruffin 65 

McDowell, Timothy H Alamance 25th Mebane 54 

Miller, George W., Jr Durham 23rd Durham 43 

Murphy, Wendell H Duplin lOth Rose Hill 96 

Musselwhite, Marvin D., Jr Wake 21st Raleigh 79 

Nash, Robie L Rowan 35th Salisbury 21 

Nesbitt, Martin L Buncombe 51st Asheville 52 

Owens, Charles Rutherford 48th Forest City 1 10 

Payne, Harry E., Jr New Hanover 13th Wilmington 85 

Poole, Murray Sampson 12th Clinton 40 

Poovey, J. Reid (R) Catawba 45th Hickory 1 15 

Pulley, W. Paul Durham 23rd Durham 38 

Quinn, Dwight W Cabarrus 34th Kannapolis 7 

Rabon, Tom B., Jr Brunswick 14th Winnabow 13 



The Legislative Branch 289 



Name* County Dist. Address Seat 

Ramsey, Listen B Madison 52nd Marshall 120 

Redding, Frank (R) Randolph 30th Asheboro 1 14 

Rhodes, S. Thomas (R) New Hanover 13th Wilmington 72 

Roberts, J. B Gaston 44th Gastonia 58 

Robinson, George S. (R) Caldwell 46th Lenoir 99 

Seymour, Mary P Guilford 27th Greensboro 61 

Slaughter, Robert L Stanly 34th Albemarle 83 

Spaulding, Kenneth B Durham 23rd Durham 45 

Spoon, LeRoy P. (R) Mecklenburg 36th Charlotte 103 

Stamey, Margaret Wake 21st Raleigh 92 

Tennille, Margaret R Forsyth 39th Winston-Salem 77 

Thomas, Betty Dorton Cabarrus 34th Concord 8 

Tyndall, J. Paul Onslow 4th Jacksonville 95 

Tyson, Henry M Cumberland 18th Fayetteville 17 

Varner, John W Davidson 37th Lexington 56 

Warren, Ed N Pitt 9th Greenville 15 

Watkins, William T Granville 22nd Oxford 48 

Wicker, Dennis A Lee 19th Sanford 22 

Womble, Thomas C Forsyth 39th Winston-Salem 101 

Woodard, Barney Paul Johnston 20th Princeton 67 

Woodard, Charles D Wayne 11th Goldsboro 27 

Wright, Richard Columbus 15th Tabor City 25 



' Bunds died Januar\ \9. 198.\ 

-Jones was appointed Januan 31. 19X3 to replace Bund_\. 



290 North Carolina Manual 

SPEAKERS OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 
Lower House of the Colonial Assembly 

Assembly Representative Residence 

1666 George Catchmaid Albemarle 

1672 Valentine Bird [Pasquotank] 

1673 [Valentine Bird] [Pasquotank] 

1675 Thomas Eastchurch 

1677 Thomas Cullen [Chowan] 

1679 George Durant [Currituck] 

1689 John Nixon [Chowan] 

1697,98 John Porter [Bath] 

[1703] William Wilkison [Chowan] 

1707 Thomas Boyd 

1708 Edward Mosely [Chowan] 

1709 Richard Sanderson [Currituck] 

1711 William Swann [Currituck] 

1711/ 12 Thomas Snoden [Perquimans] 

1715/16 Edward Moseley [Chowan] 

1720 [Edward Moseley] [Chowan] 

1722 Edward Moseley [Chowan] 

1723 Edward Moseley [Chowan] 

1725-26 Maurice Moore [Perquimans] 

John Baptista Ashe Beaufort 

1727 [John Baptista Ashe] [Beaufort] 

1729 Thomas Swann [Pasquotank] 

1731 Edward Moseley Chowan 

1733 Edward Moseley Chowan 

1734 Edward Moseley Chowan 

1735 William Downing Tyrrell 

1736-37 William Downing Tyrrell 

1738-39 William Downing Tyrrell 

1739,40-1740 John Hodgson Chowan 

1741 John Hodgson Chowan 

1742/43-1744 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1744-45 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1746 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1746 47-1752 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1753-54 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1754-60 John Campbell Bertie 

Samuel Swann Onslow 

1760 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1761 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1762 Samuel Swann Onslow 

John Ashe New Hanover 

1764-65 John Ashe New Hanover 

1766-68 John Harvey Perquimans 

1769 John Harvey Perquimans 

1770-71 Richard Caswell Craven 

1773 John Harvey Perquimans 

1773-74 John Harvey Perquimans 

1775 John Harvey Perquimans 



The Legislative Branch 291 

House of Commons 

Assembly Representative Residence 

1777 Abner Nash Craven 

1778 John Williams Granville 

Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1779 Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1780 Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1781 Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1782 Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1783 Edward Starkey Onslow 

1784 (April) Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1784 (October) William Blount Craven 

1785 Richard Dobbs Spaight Craven 

1786-87 John B. Ashe Halifax 

1787 John Sitgreaves Craven 

1788 John Sitgreaves Craven 

1789 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1790 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1791-92 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1792-93 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1793-94 John Leigh Edgecombe 

1794-95 Timothy Blood worth New Hanover 

1795 John Leigh Edgecombe 

1796 John Leigh Edgecombe 

1797 Musendine Matthews Iredell 

1798 Musendine Matthews Iredell 

1799 Musendine Matthews Iredell 

1800 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1801 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1802 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1803 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1804 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1805 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1806 John Moore Lincoln 

1807 Joshua Grainger Wright New Hanover 

1808 Joshua Grainger Wright New Hanover 

William Gaston Craven 

1809 Thomas Davis Cumberland 

1810 William Hawkins Granville 

1811 William Hawkins Granville 

1812 William Miller Warren 

1813 William Miller Warren 

1814 William Miller Warren 

1815 John Craig Orange 

1816 Thomas Ruffins Orange 

James Iredell Chowan 

1817 James Iredell, Jr Chowan 

1818 James Iredell, Jr Chowan 

1819 Romulus M. Saunders Caswell 

1820 Romulus M. Saunders Caswell 

1821 James Mebane Orange 

1822 John D. Jones New Hanover 

1823-24 Alfred Moore Brunswick 

1824-25 Alfred Moore Brunswick 

1825-26 John Stanly Craven 

1826-27 John Stanly Craven 

1827-28 James Iredell, Jr Chowan 



292 North Carolina Manual 



Assembly Representative Residence 

1828-29 Thomas Settle Rockingham 

1829-30 William J. Alexander Mecklenburg 

1830-31 Charles Fisher Rowan 

1831-32 Charles Fisher Rowan 

1832-33 Louis D. Henry Cumberland 

1833-34 William J. Alexander Mecklenburg 

1834-35 William J. Alexander Mecklenburg 

1835 William D. Haywood. Jr Wake 

1836-37 William H. Haywood, Jr Wake 

1838-39 William A. Graham Orange 

1840-41 William A. Graham Orange 

Robert B. Gilliam Granville 

1842-43 Clavin Graves Caswell 

1844-45 Edward Stanly Beauford 

1846-47 Edward Stanly Beauford 

Robert B. Gilliam Granville 

1848-49 Robert B. Gilliam Granville 

1850-51 James C. Dobbs Cumberland 

1852 John Baxter Henderson 

1854-55 Samuel P. Hill Caswell 

1856-57 Jesse G. Shepherd Cumberland 

1858-59 Thomas Settle, Jr Rockingham 

1860-61 William T. Dortch Wayne 

Nathan N. Fleming Rowan 

1862-64 Robert B. Gilliam Granville 

Richard S. Donnell Beaufort 

Marmaduke S. Robbins Randolph 

1864-65 Richard S. Donnel Beaufort 

1865-66 Samuel F. Phillips Orange 

1866-67 Rufus Y. McAden Alamance 



House of Representatives* 

1868 Joseph W. Holden Wake 

1869-70 Joseph W. Holden Wake 

1870 Thomas J. Jarvis Tyrrell 

1872 James L. Robinson Macon 

1874-75 James L. Robinson , Macon 

1876-77 Charles Price Davie 

1879 John M. Moring Chatham 

1881 Charles M. Cooke Franklin 

1883 George M. Rose Cumberland 

1885 Thomas M. Holt Alamance 

1887 John R. Webster Rockingham 

1889 Augustus Leazar Iredell 

1891 Rufus A. Doughton Alleghany 

1893 Lee S. Overman Rowan 

1895 Zeb V. Walser Davidson 



♦With the adoption of a new State Constitution in 1868, the name "House of Commons" was 
changed to "House of Representatives." 



The Legislative Branch 293 



Assembly Representative Residence 

1897 A. F. Hileman Cabarrus 

1899-1900 Henry G. Connor Wilson 

1901 Walter E. Moore Jackson 

1903 S. M. Gattis Orange 

1905 Owen H. Guion Craven 

1907 E. J. Justice Guilford 

1909 A. W. Graham Granville 

1911 W. C. Dowd Mecklenburg 

1913 George Connor Wilson 

1915 Emmett R. Wooten Lenoir 

1917 Walter Murphy Rowan 

1919 Dennis G. Brummitt Granville 

1921 Harry P. Grier Iredell 

1923-24 John G. Dawson Lenoir 

1925 Edgar W. Pharr Mecklenburg 

1927 Richard T. Fountain Edgecombe 

1929 A. H. Graham Orange 

1931 WilHs Smith Wake 

1933 R. L. Harris Person 

1935-36 Robert Johnson Pender 

1937 R. Gregg Cherry Gaston 

1939 D. L. Ward Craven 

1941 0. M. Mull Cleveland 

1943 John Kerr, Jr Warren 

1945 Oscar L. Richardson Union 

1947 Thomas J. Pearsall Nash 

1949 Kerr Craig Ramsay Rowan 

1951 W. Frank Taylor Wayne 

1953 Eugene T. Bost. Jr Cabarrus 

1955-56 Larry I. Moore, Jr Wilson 

1957 James K. Doughton Alleghany 

1959 Addison Hewlett New Hanover 

1961 Joseph M. Hunt, Jr Guilford 

1963 H. Clifton Blue Moore 

1965-66 H. Patrick Taylor, Jr Anson 

1967 David M. Britt Robeson 

1969 Earl W. Vaughn Rockingham 

1971 Philip P. Godwin Gates 

1973-74 James E. Ramsey Person 

1975-76 James C. Green Bladen 

1977-78 Carl J. Stewart, Jr Gaston 

1979-80 Carl J. Stewart, Jr Gaston 

1981-82 Liston B. Ramsey Madison 

1983 Liston B. Ramsey Madison 



294 



North Carolina Manual 




The Legislative Branch 295 

LISTON BRYAN RAMSEY 
SPEAKER 

(Democrat -- Madison County) 

Fifty-Second Representative District Haywood, Jackson, Madison, and Swain Counties; and 
Setcoah and Yellow Creek Townships of Graham County Two Representatives. 

Early Years: Born in Marshall, February 26, 1919, to John Morgan and Delia Lee 
(Bryan) Ramsey. 

Education: Attended Mars Hill College, 1938. 

Occupation: (Retired) Merchant. 

Organizations: Elk; Mason; American Legion, Former Commander; Veterans of 
Foreign Wars. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Advisory Budget Commission, 1973-74, 1975-76, 
1977-78, and 1979-80; Member, Legislative Services Commission, 1971, 1973-74, 
1975-76, 1981-82 and 1983, Co-Chairman; Member; Legislative Research Commis- 
sion, 1975-76, 1981-82 and 1983, Co-Chairman; Member, Blue Ribbon Study Com- 
mission on Transportation, 1979-80; Co-Chairman, Joint Committee on Separation 
of Powers, 1982. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. House of Representatives. 1961, 1963, 1967, 1969, 
1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82 and 1983; Speaker, House of 
Representatives, 1981-82 and 1983-84; Member, Executive Committee of Southern 
Legislative Conference, 1981-82 and 1983-84; County Chairman, Democratic Ex- 
ecutive Committee, 1958-60 and 1962; Delegate to 1968 Democratic National Con- 
vention; Member, Board of Aldermen; Town of Marshall 1949-61; Chairman; 
Eleventh Congressional District Democratic Executive Committee, 1972, 1974, 1976 
and 1980. 

Military Service: Served in Army Air Corps, Sergeant, 1944-1946. 

Honors: Received 1st Annual Roy A. Taylor Service Award, 1978. 

Religious Activities: Baptist. 

Family: Married, Florence McDevitt; Child: Mrs. Martha Louise Ramsey Geouge of 
Asheville, NC. Resides in Marshall, N.C. 



296 



North Carolina Manual 




The Legislative Branch 297 



ALLEN CROMWELL BARBEE 
SPEAKER PRO TEM 

(Democrat — Nash County) 

Eighth Representative District — Edgecombe. Nash, and Wilson Counties 
— Four Representatives. 

Early Years: Born in Spring Hope, December 18, 1912, to John Lucian and Deborah 

Lena (Vester) Barbee. 
Education: Attended Spring Hope High School; University of North Carolina. 
Occupation: Farmer; Broker; Developer; Hotel Operator. 
Organizations: Member, Elks; Mason; Shriner. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. House of Representatives, 1961, 1963, 1965-66, 1967, 
1969, 1971, 1975-76. 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82 and 1983; Served, Town Com- 
missioner, Spring Hope, 1951-52; Mayor, Spring Hope, 1952-60. 

Military Service: Served U.S. Air Force, Captain, June 18, 1942-June 18, 1946; European 
Theater of Operations; Allied Airborne Invasion Medal, June 7. 1942. 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church; Official Board, 1946-76; Chairman, 
1947-57. 

Family: Married, Mabel McCleltan Dixon Barbee, March 7, 1942; Children: Rebecca 
Barnes Barbee, and Allen Cromwell. II. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice-Chairman: Finance; Rules and Operation of the House; Small Business 

Member: Corporations — Local Government L State Government; 
Transportation; University Board of Governors Nominating Commit- 
tee. 



298 



North Carolina Manual 




The Legislative Branch 299 

HAROLD JAMES BRUBAKER 
MINORITY LEADER 

(Republican — Randolph County) 

Thirty-Eighth Representative District Back Creei<, Brower, Cedar Grove, Concord, Grant, 
Level Cross, New Hope, New Market, Pleasant Grove, Richland, Tabernacle, Trinity, and Union 
Townships of Randolph County One Representative. 

Early Years: Born in Mount Joy, Pennsylvania, November 11, 1946, to Paul N. and 
Verna Mae (Miller) Brtibaker. 

Education: Graduated Pennsylvania State University, 1969, B.S. (Agricultural 
Economics); N.C. State University, 1971, Masters of Economics. 

Occupation: (President) Harold J. Brubaker & Associates, (Real Estate Appraisals — 
Economic Feasibility Studies Investment Analysis). 

Organizations: Former VP, National FFA; Randolph County Farm Bureau; Grange, 
North Carolina Holstein Association; 4-H Club Leader. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Randolph County Board of Elections; Chairman, 
Westside Volunteer Fire Department; Board of Directors Salvation Army; Board of 
Directors Randolph Technical College Foundation; Presient, North Carolina 4-H 
Development Fund; Former Member, Board of Directors National Conference on 
Citizenship. 

Political Activities: Served, in House of Representatives, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82 and 
1983; Chairman, Randolph County Young Republicans, 1971; Former Assistant 
Secretary North Carolina Republican Party; Member NC Republican Party Ex- 
ecutive Committee; Member, NC Republican Party Central Committee; Member, 
Randolph County Republican Party Executive Committee; Former member, Fourth 
District Republican Party Executive Committee; Co-Chairman, 1980 Regan-Bush 
Committee for NC; Member, Executive Committee National Association for 
Republican Legislators; Joint Caucus Leader Republican Members NC General 
Assembly, 1979-80; Delegate at Large to National Republican Convention, 1980; 
House Minority Leader, 1981-82 and 1983. 

Military Service: 

Honors: One of the Five Outstanding Young Men in North Carolina, 1981; Named 

Outstanding 4-H Alumni of North Carolina, 1981; Distinguished Service Award, 

1981. 
Religious Activities: Member. St. Johns Lutheran Church; Chairman, Congregation and 

Vice-Chairman Board of Deacons. 
Family: Married, Geraldine (Baldwin) Brubaker, November, 1972; One Son: Jonathon 

Nissley Brubaker. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base 
Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Appropriations-- Expansion 
Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and Public 
Safety; Banks & Thrift Institutions; Economy; Election Laws; Health; State 
Personnel; University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 



300 North Carouna Manual 



ALLEN ADAMS 

(Democrat - Wake County) 
i Tv\enl\ -First Representative Dislriet - Wake County - Six 



Yf^^h ^f 



Representatives. 




Early ^'ears: Born in Greensboro. January 15. 1932. to J. Allen and Marion L. (Craw- 
ford) Adams. 

Education: Attended Phillips Exeter Academy, 1945-1948; Cambridge High and Latin, 
Massachusetts, 1948: Boston University, 1948-49; Graduated, University of North 
Carolina, 1952, A.B.; 1954, J.D. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law (Sanford, Adams, McCullough & Beard). 

Organizations: Member. Wake County Bar Association; North Carolina Bar Associa- 
tion; American Bar Association; NC State Bar; NC Academy of Trial Lawyers; 
Naval Reserve Lawyers Assocaition; Secretary, Wake County Bar. 1961; Member, 
Phi Delta Phi. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Wake County Public Library Board, 1970-74; 
Raleigh Civil Service Commission, 1972-75. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. House of Representatives, 1975-76. 1977-78. 1979-80. 
1981-82, and 1983; Member, Advisory Budget Commission, 1981-83; Chairman, 
Natural and Economic Resources Committee, 1979-80; Chairman, Wake County 
Democratic Party, 1968-72; President. Wake Counts Young Democrats Club. 1964; 
Delegate. Democratic National Convention. 1976. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Naval Reserve. Captain. JAG Corps; Commanding Of- 
ficer. Naval Reserve VTU (Law) 0708. Raleigh. 1980-1982. 

Honors: Outstanding Young Democrat, 1962; North Carolina Law Review, 1953-54. 

Religious Activities: Member. Community United Church of Christ; Chairman. Finance 
Committee. 1945-66; Chairman, Institute of Religion, 1963. 

Family: Married, Betty Blomgren Eichenberger, June 10, 1977; Children: Ann Adams 
Borden, Jefferson Hodges, and Spencer Allen; Stepchildren: Kurt, Peter, Tom, 
David, and John Eichenberger. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations — Base Budget 

Vice-Chairman: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Rules and Operation of the House 

Member: Appropriations — Expansion Budget; Bank and Thrift Institutions; 

Economy; Election Laws; Employment Security; Judiciary III; Manufacturers 

and Labor. 



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301 




AUSTIN MURPHY ALLRAN 

(Republican - Catawba County) 

Forty-Fifth Representative District -- Lower Fork and Upper Fork 
Townships of Burke County: and Bandy's Clines, Hickory, Jacobs Fork, 
and Newton Townships of Catawba County Two Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Hickory, Catawba County, December 13, 1951, to Albert M. and 
Mary Ethel (Houser) Allran. 

Education: Attended Hickory High School, 1967-70; Duke University, B.A., 1974; 
Southern Methodist University, School of Law, J.D., 1978. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law. 

Organizations: Member. N.C. Bar Association; N.C. State Bar; Catawba County Bar 
Association; The Catawba County Chamber of Commerce; The Hickory Museum of 
Art; The Catawba County Historical Association; The Hickory Jaycees; The 
Catawba County Young Republican Club; The Duke University Alumni 
Association. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. House of Representatives, 1981-82 and 1983; 
Worked in Congressman James T. BroyhilTs office, Washington, D.C., as Con- 
gressional Intern, 1973; Worked as Legislative Assistant in the Administration of 
Governor James Holshouser, 1974. 

Literary Works: Author of "JOHN GODFREY ARENDS: A BIOGRAPHICAL 
SKETCH," (the pioneer Lutheran minister of Western NC). 

Religious Activities: Life-long member of Corinth Reformed, United Church of Christ, 
Hickory. 

Family: Married, Judy Mosbach Allran, September 27, 1980. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Finance; Corrections; Courts & Ad- 
ministration of Justice; Judiciary II; Local Government I; Manufacturers and 
Labor; and Pensions and Retirement. 



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North Carolina Manual 




GERALD L. ANDERSON 

(Democrat — Craven County) 

Third Representative District — Craven, Lenoir, and Pamlico Counties 
Three Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Craven County, June 29, 1939, to Noah L. and Hazel Rowe 

Anderson. 

Education: Graduate, New Bern High School. 1958; Deaver Realty Institute, 1974; 
Realtors Institute, Chapel Hill. 

Occupation: Businessman (Forestry, Logging and Real Estate). 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Directors. Craven County Committee of 100; 
Kinston Board of Realtors; Member, New Bern-Craven County Chamber of Com- 
merce; New Bern Board of Realtors. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. House of Representatives. 1980. (Appointed to fill the 
unexpired term of Representative Joe L. Bright), 1981-82, and 1983; Craven County 
Commissioner. December, 1978 — January 1980. 

Religious Activities: Member, Pleasant Acres Free Will Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Marie Stilley Anderson, January 25, 1959; Children; Teresa, Tina, 
Jerry, Lisa, and Josh. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Economy 

Vice-Chairman: Agriculture; Natural and Economic Resources 

Member: Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget 
Committee on Education; Appropriations — Expansion Budget; Ap- 
propriations Expansion Budget Committee on Education; Commercial 
Fishing; Health; Insurance; Water and Air Resources; Wildlife 
Resources. 




The Legislative Branch 303 

TOFFIE CLYDE AUMAN 

(Democrat — Moore County) 

Thirty-first Representative District Moore County — One 

Representative. 



Early Years: Born in Jackson Springs, March 1 1, 1909, to Claude and Lillie Catherine 
(Graham) Auman. 

Education: Graduated, Jackson Springs High School, 1927; N.C. State University, 1931 
(majoring in horticulture and animal husbandry). 

Occupation: Farmer. 

Organizations: Charter member, Moore County Farm Bureau, served as President, 
1940-50; Member, NC Peach Council, served as President, 1955-65; Charter Member, 
Sandhill Production Credit Assocaition, served as director, 1948-79; Chairman, 1965- 
78; Director, NC Farm Bureau, 1950-60; Director, NC Farm Bureau Insurance Com- 
pany, 1952-56; Member, Sandhill Lions Club, Seven Lakes, served as President, 1949- 
50; Member, Sandhills Area Mental Health Association; Chairman, West End Rural 
Fire District, Past President National Peach Council. 

Boards and Commissions: Member: Board of Directors, Weymouth Center, Southern 
Pines; Board of Directors. Malcolm Blue Historical Farm; Director, Moore County 
Red Cross Board; Director and President, NCSU Agricultural Foundation, 1954; 
Advisory Council to Dean of Agriculture, NCSU; Charter Director, NC Tobacco 
Foundation, NCSU, 1972-1982; Charter Director, NCSU Veterinarian Foundation, 
1975-80; Director, NC Railroad, 1949-50; NC Board of Juvenile Correction, 1950-76; 
NC Committee for Better Schools, 1958; Director, NC Mental Health Association, 
1970; Director, NC Forestry Association, 1960. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. House of Representatives, 1965-66, 1967, 1969, 1971, 
1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1983; Commissioner to Legislature, 1955. 

Honors: Received Gamma Sigma Delta Award, NCSU for Contributions to 
Agriculture; Recipient of the Ralph H. Scott Award; Award, NC citizen who has 
made significant contributions to the field of services for children; Builder's Cup 
Award, Kiwanis Club; Distinguished Alumni Award, NCSU, School of Agriculture 
and Life Science, 1982; Watauga Medal awarded by NCSU, 1982. 

Religious Activities: Member, West End Presbyterian Church; Elder; Past Deacon; Sun- 
day school Superintendent; President, Men of the Church of Fayetteville Presbytery. 

Family: Married, Sally Watts, August 7. 1936; Children: Clyde Watts, Robert M., Nancy 
(Mrs. Charles Cunningham), and Laura Graham (Mrs. Robert M. Pitts); Four 
grand-daughters. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: University Board of Governors Nominating Committee 
Member: Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on Human Resources; Appropriations — Expansion Budget; Appropria- 
tions Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources; Corrections; 
Education; Governmental Ethics, Highway Safety; Human Resources, 
Transportation. 



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North Carolina Manual 




FRANK W. BALLANCE, JR. 

(Democrat -- Warren County) 

Se\enth Representative District Brinkleyville, Buttervvood, Conocon- 
nara, Enfield, Faucett, Halifax, Palmyra, Roseneath, Scotland Neck, and 
Weldon Townships of Halifax County; Goose Nest. Hamilton, and 
Robersonville Townships of Martin County: and Fishing Creek, Fork, 
Sandy Creek, Shocco, and Warrenton Townships of Warren County — 
One Representative. 



Early Years: Born in Windsor, Bertie County, February 15, 1942. 

Education: Graduated, W. S. Etheridge High School, 1959; NC Central University, 
1963, B.A.; 1965, J.D. 

Occupation: Attorney. Director, Region Four National Bar Association: President, NC 
Association of Black Lawyers: President, Ninth Judicial Bar Association: President, 
NCCU, Law School Alumni Association: Member, Dean Search Committee, 
NCCU Law School: Vice-Chairman, Warren County Political Action Council: 
Chairman Second Congressional District Black Caucus: Omega Psi Phi Fraternity: 
NC Association of Trial Lawyers: Charles Williamson Bar Association: Warren 
County Bar Association: Member, NCCU Chancellor Search Committee. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Warren County Board of Elections: Member, 
board of Trustees. Elizabeth City State University: Board of Governors, National 
Bar Association: Vice-Chairman. Board of Trustees. NCCU: Board of Governors 
and Parliamentarian. NC Association of Black Lawyers. 

Political .Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1983. 

Military Service: Former member. N.C. National Guard. 

Religious .Activities: Member, Greenwood Baptist Church: Member, Board of Trustees. 

Family: Married. Bernadine S. Ballance. July. 1969: Children: Ganey, Angela, and 
Valerie. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Finance: Bank and Thrift Institutions: Courts & Administration of 
Justice; Election Laws: Insurance: Judiciary IV: Law Enforcement: University 
Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 




The Legislative Branch 305 

CHRISTOPHER SYLVANUS BARKER, JR. 

(Democrat — Carven County) 

Third Representative District - Craven, Lenoir, and Pamlico Counties 
— Three Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Trenton, September 7, 1911, to Dr. Christopher Sylvanus 
(deceased) and Ruth Jane (Henderson) Barker (deceased), March 4. 1981. 

Education: Attended New Bern High School, 1928; United States Naval Academy, B.S., 

1933. 
Occupation: Retired: Associate Professor of Naval Science, Princeton University, 1945- 

48; University of South Carolina, 1954-57; Registered Securities Representative, 

1965-75; Professor of Naval Science. 

Organizations: Vice-President, New Bern USO, 1971-73; Member and past President, 
New Bern Civitan Club, 1964-65; Member and past President, Craven County Chap- 
ter for Retarded Citizens, 1965-66; Treasurer of Coastal Carolina Council, Navy 
League of the United States, 1966-73; 32nd Mason; Shriner, Sojourner: Elk; Moose; 
American Legion; Veterans of Foreign Wars; New York Yacht Club; East Carolina 
Yacht Club. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman of the Board of Directors, Craven Unit of theNeuse 
Development Association, 1964-66; Member, Mental Health Study Commission, 
1973 — ; member. Commission on Mental Health and Mental Retardation, 1977- 
1982; Member, Legislative Research Commission, 1977-778, 1979-80, and 1981-82; 
Vice-Chairman, Commercial and Sports Fisheries Advisory Board, 1969-74; Chair- 
man, Study Commission on the Use of Illegal and Harmful Drugs in the State of 
North Carolina 1970; Chairman, North Carolina Drug Authority, 1971-75. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975- 
76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, and 1983. 

Military Service: Served. U.S. Navy, 1928-1959, Rear Admiral; Awarded "Lgion of 
Merit" and "Bronze Star" during World War IL 

Honors: New Bern Citizen of the Year, 1975; Outstanding Legislator 1980, Mental 
Health Area Boards Association; Mental Health Valand Award 1980. 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church; Official Board, 1963-66 and Ad- 
ministrative Board, 1972-75, 1978-1981. 

Family: Married, Jean Kouwenhoven, December 30, 1949; Children: Christopher 
Sylvanus III (married, Janet Westover, 1976), Marie Anne (married. Tommy 
Faulkenberry, 1979) and Gary Cornelius (married, Elizabeth Madden, 1977). 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Mental Health 
Vice-Chairman: Finance; Public Utilities 

Member: Corporations — Education, Governmental Ethics; Military and 
Veterans Affairs; Wildlife Resources. 



306 North Carouna Manual 




ANNE CRAIG BARNES 

(Democrat — Orange County) 

Twenty-Fourth Representative District — Orange County; and Baldwin, 
Cape Fear, Center, Hadley, Haw River, Hickory Mountain, Matthews, 
New Hope. Oakland, and Williams Townships of Chatham County — 
Two Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Gastan County. March 29. 1932. to George Hoyle and Jessie 
(Tariton) Craig. 

Education: Graduated, Mount Holly High School, 1950. 

Occupation: Legislator. 

Organizations: Member: NC Recreation and Park Society; Past Member. Chapel Hill 
Service League: Orange County Democratic Party, Executive Committee. 1969-76, 
Vice-Chairman, 1972-74. Chairman. 1974-76: NC Democratic Party. Executive Com- 
mittee, 1974-78. Platform Committee. 1980. 

Boards and Commissions: Member: Juvenile Law Study Commission; Orange Car- 
diovascular Foundation. Board of Directors; Orange County Board of Social Ser- 
vices. 1978-81; Chapel Hill Recreation & Parks Commissions. 1969-72, Chairman, 
1970-72; NC Association of County Commissioners and National Association of 
Counties, 1978-81; Chapel Hill Charter Commission, 1973-74. Region J Employment 
Training Advisory Council: Administrative Rules Review Committee; Committee on 
Economic Status of Women in NC: Orange County Council on Aging. 1978-80: 
Orange County Recreation Study Committee. 1973-74; Orange/Durham CETA Ad- 
visory Council. Orange County Agricultural Task Force. Chairman, 1980-81. 

Political Activities: Orange County Board of Commissioners. 1978-1981; Served in NC 
House of Representatives. 1981-82 (appointed December 11, 1981, to replace Patricia 
S. Hunt), and 1983: County. District and State Convention Delegate, 1969-1982; 
Orange County Democratic Party, Executive Committee. 1969-76, Vice-Chairman, 
1972-74, Chairman. 1974-76; 1979. Voter Registration Committee, 1980; NC 
Democratic Party, Executive Committee, 1974-78. Platform Committee. 1980: 
National Convention Delegate, 1974: Carter/Mondale Campaign Staff, 1980. 

Honors: Orange County "Distinguished Democrat", 1976. 

Religious .4ctivities: Baptist Church SchoolTeacher; Youth Adviser; Long Range Plann- 
ing Committee; Building Committee; Recreation Leader: Deacon, 1977-80. 
Family: Married, Billy Ebert Barnes. July 19. 1952; Children: Billy, Jr. and Betsy. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 
Vice Chairman: Housing 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations Base 
Budget Committee on Education: Appropriations — Expansion Budget; Ap- 
propriations Expansion Budget Committee on Education; Commissions & 
Schools For the Blind & Deaf; Election Laws; Health: Local Government L 
Manufacturers and Labor; Mental Health. 




The Legislative Branch 307 

CHARLES MILLWEE BEALL 

(Democrat — Haywood County) 

Fifty-Second Representative District Haywood. Jackson, Madison, 
and Swain Counties; and Stecoah and Yellow Creek Townships of 
Graham County — Two Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Asheville, Buncombe County, October 20, 1920, to Charles M. and 
Nina P. (Morgan) Beall. 

Education: Graduated Bethel High School, 1936; Brevard College, 1937-38. 

Occupation: Inventory Controller (Champion Papers, Canton, N.C.) 

Organizations: Past Master & Member, Pigeon River Lodge No. 386, A.F. & A.M.; 
Member, Asheville Consistory Scottish Rite, 32 degree; Member, Vaner-Rhinehart 
Post American Legion; Past High Priest, Canton Chapter, York Rite Masons. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, NC Commission on the Future of NC; Member, 
Commission on Manufactured Housing; Governor's Task Force on Financing of 
Public School Faclities, 1982; House Member, Revenue Laws Committee, 1981; 
Member, Judicial Nominating Committee, 1981; Chairman, Haywood County 
Board of Elections, Eight years. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981-82 (appointed Decem- 
ber 1, 1981, to replace Ernest Messer) and 1983; Chairman, Haywood County 
Democratic Executive Committee, Six years; Delegate National Democratic Conven- 
tion, New York City, 1980; Chairman, Vance-Aycock Banquet, Asheville, 1980. 
Board of Alderman, Town of Canton, two terms. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army Air Force, Air Transport Command, World War 
II (Good Conduct Medal, American Theater Operations Medal.). 

Religious Activities: Member, Central United Methodist of Clyde; Chairman, Ad- 
ministrative Board, 1978-present; Past Finance Chairman; Past Treasurer; Present 
Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Married, Margaret Jewell Rhinehart, January 19, 1954; Children: Anna K. 
Beall, Cynthia H. Hyatt, and Margaret F. Beall. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Subcommittee Public Utilities; Subcommittee Election Laws; Sub- 
committee Base Budget General Government 

Member: Aging; Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget 
Committee on General Government; Appropriations - Expansion Budget; 
Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on General Government; Elec- 
tion Laws; Higher Education; Insurance; Manufacturers and Labor; Public 
Utilities; Rules and Operation of the House; Transportation. 



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North Carolina Manual 




SAMMY LEE BEAM 

(Democrat — Gaston County) 

Gaston and Lincoln Counties 



Forty-Fourth Representative District 
Four Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Homestead, Dade County, Florida, February 20, 1947, to H. 
Bryan, and Juanita Wehunt Beam; Moved to Lincoln County at age of one month. 

Education: Completed grammar school education in Lincoln County; graduated 
Cherryviile High School, 1965; Central Piedmont Community College, A.D., 1967. 

Occupation: Private Investor. 

Organizations: President, Cherryviile Optimist Club; Director, Cherryviile Rotary Club; 
Member of Gaston County Advisory Health Committee to the Board of Education; 
Member, Gaston County Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Gaston County Board of Health; Director, 
Southeastern Saving & Loans. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981-82 and 1983. 

Honors: Member, National Honor Society. 

Religious Activities: Member. Mt. Zion Baptist; Sunday School Teacher, 1969. 

Family: Married, Ruth McGinnis Beam, December 30, 1971; Children: Tonya Juanita, 
Doree Ann, and Loree Lee. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Yice-Chairman: Corrections; Health; Human Resources 

Member: Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on Human Resources; Appropriations — Expansion Budget; Appropria- 
tions Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources; Banks and Thrift 
Institutions; Employment Security; Judiciary IV; Mental Health; Rules and 
Operation of the House. 




The Legislative Branch 309 

RAYFORD DONALD BEARD 

(Democrat Cumberland County) 

Highleenth Representative District The remainder of Cumberland 
Count\ no included in District 17 Three Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Beard. March 24, 1923, to William A. and Lola (Maxwell) Beard. 

Education: Graduated Central High School, 1942; Various Insurance Courses. 

Occupation: Insurance. 

Organizations: Member, Professional Insurance Agents Association: NC Independent 
Agents Association; NC Association of Premium Service Companies; Member, 
Lions Club; Masonic Order; Shriner; Scottish Rite. 

Boards and Commissions: Mental Health Study Commission; Joint Governmental 
Operations Commission. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 

1981-82, and 1983. 
Religious Activities: Member, Snyder Memorial Baptist Church; Sunday School 

Teacher; Deacon since 1950; Past Chairman, Board of Deacons and Church 

Moderator, 1960. 

Family: Married, Katherine Smith Beard, July 30, 1944; Three Children: Linda B. Kay. 
Kathy B. Allen, and Don. Jr.; Four Grandchildren. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations Base Budget Committee on General Government. 
Vice-Chairman: Appropriations Base — Budget: Appropriations — Expansion 
Budget; Constitutional Amendments; Mental Health 

Member: Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on General Government; 
Corporations: Economy: Insurance; Rules and Operation of the House. 



310 North Carolina Manual 




PHILLIP O. BERRY 

(Democrat -- Mecklenburg County) 

Thirty-Sixth Representative District -- Mecklenburg County - Eight 
Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, August 26, 1940. to James Berry 
(deceased) and Burdette Clyburn (deceased). 

Education: Graduated. Plato Price High School, 1957; Central Piedmont Community 
Colelge, A.A.S. - Business, 1978; University of Nebraska. B.E., 1965; Howard Un- 
iversity, E.E. Major, 1957-59; Carolina School of Banking. UNC Chapel Hill. Cer- 
tificate, 1973; Stonier's Graduate School of Banking. 

Occupation: Banking, Business Consultant. 

Organizations: Member, Mecklenburg Jaycees; Member, United Community Services 
Mecklenburg & Union Counties; Chairman, United Negro College Fund, J.C.S.U. 

Boards and Commissions: Member. Greater Charlotte Foundation Board of Directors; 
Member. Drug Education Center. Board of Directors; Chairman. State Advisory 
Council of Vocational Education, 1978; Secretary, University of NC at Charlotte. 
Board of Trustees; Member. Board of Directors, NC School Boards Association; 
President. NC School Boards Association. 1981-82. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1983; Charlotte — 
Mecklenburg Board of Education, 1972-1982, (Chairman, 1976-1982). 

Military Service: Served in US Air Force (Presidential Unit Citation, Vietnam Service 
Medal). 

Honors: NAACP Hall of Fame, 1975; Eagle Scout; Omega Psi Phi-Achievements in 
Banking; Outstanding Young Men, 1971; Phi Theta Kappa -- Honor Society. 

Religious Activities: Member, Salem Baptist Church; President, Laymen's League; 

Deacon; Sunday School Teacher; Asst. Director, Baptist Training Union. 
Family: Children: Audrey Marie, Joy Sabrina, and John Phillip. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Finance; Banks & Thrift Institutions; Corporations; Governmental 
Ethics; Local Government L Manufacturers and Labor; Mental Health; 
Public Utilities. 



The Legislative Branch 



311 




JAMES BOVCE BLACK 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 



Thirty-Sixth Representative District 
Representatives. 



Mecklenburg County -- Eight 



Early Years: Born in Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, March 25, 1935, to Boyce and 
James Margaret (Query) Black. 

Education: Attended East Mecklenburg High School, 1950-53; Lenoir Rhyne College, 
B.A., 1958; Southern College of Optometry, B.S.. 1960; Doctor of Optometry, 1962. 

Occupation: Optometrist. 

Organizations: Member, Mecklenburg County. Association of Optometrists; NC State 
Optometric Society; Thirty second degree Mason; Noble of the Mystic Shrine, 
OASIS Temple; Trustee, North Carolina State Optometric Society; Board Member, 
Mecklenburg Countv Mental Health Association. Board of Directors, United 
Carolina Bank, 1983-84. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981-82 and 1983; Precinct 
Chairman, Democrat Party. 

Military Service: Served U.S. Navy, 3rd Class Petty Officer, 1956-57. 

Religious Activities: Member, Matthews United Methodist Church. 

Family: Married, Betty, May 13, 1956; Children: Deborah Ann, and James Boyce, Jr. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice-Chairman: Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Human Resources; 
Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources; Banks & 
Thrift Institutions; Military and Veterans Affairs 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations — Expan- 
sion Budget; Health; Judiciary III; Public Utilities; Rules and Operation of the 
House; University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 



312 North Carolina Manual 




DANIEL TERRY BLUE, JR. 

(Democrat — Wake County) 

Twenty-First Representative District -- Wake County -- Six 
Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Lumberton, Robeson County, April 18, 1949, to Daniel Terry and 
Allene Morris Blue, Sr. 

Education: Graduated Oak Ridge High School, 1956-66; NC Central University, 
Durham, 1970, B.S. -Mathematics: Duke University School of Law, 1973, J.D.; Cer- 
tificate, National Institute for Trial Advocacy, Boulder, Colorado, 1977. 
Occupation: Attorney at Law (Partner: Thigpen, Blue & Stephens, Attorneys at Law.) 
Organizations: Member, American, N.C. Bar Associations: Member, Executive Com- 
mittee, Wake County Bar Association: Association of Trial Lawyers of America: NC 
Academy of Trial Lawyers, Board of Governors; NC Association of Black Lawyers: 
Duke Law Alumni Council: East Raleigh Citizens Advisory Council: Raleigh-Wake 
Citizens Association: Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity. 

Boards and Commissions: Duke Law School Board of Visitors: Boys Club Board of 
Directors: Community Day Care Center Board of Directors: N.C. Courts Commis- 
sion: N.C. Criminal Code Commission: N.C. Center for Public Policy Research 
Board of Directors: East Central Community Legal Services, Board of Directors, 
President: NC Juvenile Code Revision Committee: Board of Directors, Tenth 
Judicial District Bar. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. House of Representatives, 198 1-82 & 1983; Active in 
Democratic Party Politics on all levels; Member, State Democratic Executive Com- 
mittee; Member, Wake YDC: Former Precinct Committee person (Raleigh Precinct 
39); Delegate to County, District and State Conventions: Chairman, Raleigh 
Precinct 28; Chairman, Wake County Democratic Campaign, 1978; Chairman, 
Wake County Black Democratic Caucus 1974-79; Member, NC Democratic Black 
Leadership Caucus: Permanent Chairman. 1979, Wake County Democratic 
Convention. 

Honors: Humanitarian Aw ard, Sigma Gamma Phi Sorority, 1977; Man of Year Award, 
Boyer Consistory, Prince Hall Masons, 1980; Distinguished Public Service Award, 
Shaw University, 1981; Man of the Year Award, Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, 1981; 
Citizen of the Year Award, Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, 1981; Third Annual 
Heritage Award, Shaw University, 1981. 

Religious Activities: Member, Davie St. Presbyterian Church; Board of Trustees. 

Family: Married, Edna Earle Smith, January 26, 1972; Children: Daniel Terry, III; 
Kanika, and Dhamian. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice-Chairman: Finance: Judiciary III; Rules and Operation of the House 
Member: Education: Election Laws; Health, Insurance; Manufacturers and 
Labor; State Personnel. 



The Legislative Branch 



313 




EDWARD C. BOWEN 

(Democrat — Sampson County) 

Twelfth Representative District — Bladen and Sampson Counties; and 
Burgaw, Caswell, Columbia, Holly, Canetuck, Grady, Long Creek, 
Rocky Point, and Union Townships of Pender County — Two 
Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Sampson County, June 15, 1923, to Allie Deen Bowen and Sadie 
Florence Peterson. 

Education: Graduated Franklin High School, 1940. 

Occupation: Legislator. 

Boards and Commissions: Sampson County Planning Development Board, 1978-80; 
Franklin High School Board, 1950-1954; Union High School Board, 1968-1972. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1982 (appointed September 
22, 1982 to replace Ron Taylor) and 1983. 

Military Service: Served In Merchant Marines, 1944-1946. 

Family: Married, Lola M. Owen, November 25, 1948; Children: Kathryn Bowen Thutl; 
John Graham Bowen: Robert Carroll Bowen; Lola Elizabeth Bowen; and William 
Lloyd Bowen. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Aging; Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget 
Committee on General Government; Appropriations — Expansion Budget; 
Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on General Government; 
Education; Law Enforcement; Local Government I: Public Utilities; State 
Properties; Transportation. 



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North Carolina Manual 




GEORGE WYATT BRANNAN 

(Democrat — Johnston County) 

Franklin and Johnston Counties. 



Twentieth Representative District 
Two Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Erwin, Harnett County. March 3, 1932, to Wade Melbry and Han- 
nah (Hollomon) Brannan. 

Education: Attended Dunn High School; NC State University, 1954; B.S. in Mechanical 
Engineering. 

Occupation: Nurseryman. 

Organizations: Past President. NC Association of Nurserymen; Past President. NC 
Association of Landscape Contractors; Charter member, Smithfield Jaycees; Past 
Chairman, Johnston County Airport Authority; Chairman, Horticulture Advisory 
Committee; NC Community Colleges; Governor's Advisory Committee on 
Agriculture. Forestry and Seafood. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981-82 (appointed 
January 28, 1981, to replace J.M. Gardner) and 1983. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army, Captain (Active Duty, 1955-1957; Reserves, 
1957-1965). 

Family: Married, Mary Jane Warrick, June 27, 1954; Children: Beth Ellen Brannan and 
George Wyatt Brannan, Jr. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Housing 

Vice-Chairman: Education; Law Enforcement; Local Government 1 

Member: Finance, Banks & Thrift Institutions, Corrections, Election Laws, Em- 
ployee Hospital and Medical Benefits National Conference of State 
Legislatures Committee on Housing and Economic Development, Energy, 
and Manufacturers and Labor. 



The Legislative Branch 



315 




CLYDE ROBERT BRAWLEY, JR. 

(Republican - Iredell County) 

Forty-Third Representative District - Millers Township of Alexander 
County: Caldwell, Catawba, and Mountain Creek Townships of Catawba 
County: and Barringer, Coddle Creek, Davidson, Fallstown, and Shiloh 
Townships of Iredell County. 



Early Years: Born in Mooresville, Iredell County, April 10, 1944, to Clyde R. and Sarah 

(Goodnight) Brawley. 
Education: Graduated Mooresville Senior High, 1962; NC State University, 1968, B.S. 

(Engineering Operations). 

Occupation: Insurance Agent. 

Organizations: Member: National Association of Life Underwriters; Rotary Club. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981-82 and 1983. 

Military Service: Served, U.S. Army National Guard, 1967-Present, Captain. 

Religious Activities: Member. Triplett Methodist Church; President, Men's Club; Sun- 
day School Teacher. 

Family: Married, Mary Kipka Brawley, March 31, 1972; Children: Woody, Shelly, 
Edward, Sarah, and Susan. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Finance; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Corporations; 
Governmental Ethics; Insurance; Small Business; State Properties, Housing. 



316 North Carolina Manual 



LOUISE SMITH BRENNAN 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 

Thirty-Sixth Representative District — Mecklenburg County - Eight 
Representatives. 



Early \ears: Born in Chester. S.C, November 1 1, 1922, to Tom and Kate Varnadore 

Smith. 

Education: Graduated Hartsell High School, 1939: University of NC at Charlotte, 1970, 
B.A. (Political Science and English): University of N.C. at Chapel Hill, 1978, M.A. 
(Political Science): Working towards Doctorate at University of North Carolina at 
Chapel Hill. 

Occupation: College Professor and Lecturer, Political Science, University of North 
Carolina at Charlotte. Consultant: Fairington Properties, 1974: Vice-President, 
Charlotte Sporting Goods Company, Incorporated, 1949-1963. 

Organizations: Member, Executive Women of Charlotte, 1979-82; American Associa- 
tion of University Women, 1978-79: YWCA, 1978-79: National Organization of 
Women Legislators, 1977-82: Charlotte Chamber of Commerce, 1978^-81. 

Boards and Commissions: Member. Eckerd Wilderness Camps Board of Directors. 1979- 
1985: Member. BOD Mental Health Association of Mecklenburg County. 1980-84: 
Legislative Study Commission of School Food Programs, 1980: Member, Study 
Commission for Public Meetings of Governmental Bodies, 1978: Member, Joint 
Commission of Governmental Operations, 1979-80: Member. Charlotte- 
Mecklenburg Charter Commission. 1969-71: Member. Governor's Commission on 
Party Reform, 1969-71: Board of Directors, Juvenile Diabetes Association, 1978-80: 
Member, Women's Forum, 1977-82. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1969, 1977-78, 1979-80, 
198 1-82, and 1983: Member, Local Government Liason Committee of Governmental 
Bodies, 1978-80: Member, Select Committee on Governmental Ethics, 1979-80: Dis- 
trict Chairman, Ninth District Democratic Party. 1970-1977: Chairman, Mecklen- 
burg Democratic Party, 1970-1972: President, Mecklenburg County Democratic 
Women's Club, 1967: Member, Board of Directors, Mecklenburg County 
Democratic Women's Club, 1968-1981: Charter Member and Board Member, 
Charlotte Women's Political Caucus, 1971-1974. 

Honors: WBT 1982 Woman of the Year, Outstanding Legislator, 1981-82 by North 
Carolina Home Economics Association: Life Member and Honored by the 
Charlotte-Mecklenburg Council for Children for work on behalf o Children: 
Honored with aw ard from the Mecklenburg Council for Mentally Retarded for work 
on behalf of Retarded children: Honored with Certificate for work on behalf of the 
Charlotte Opera Association: Who's Who in American Colleges and Universities, 
1970: "Who's Who in Communit> Leaders of America. 1972: "Who's Who in 
American Politics. 1972-82: Publication: Masters Thesis: Effects of Rule Changes on 
Delegate Selection for Presidential Nominations 1960-76. The North Carolina 
Experience. 



The Legislative Branch 317 



Literary Works: "Effects of Rule Changes or Delegate Selection for Presidential 

Nominations, 1960-976: The North Carolina Experience." (Master's Thesis). 
Religious Activities: Member, Elder in Caldwell Memorial Presbyterian Church. 
Family: Married, Stanley L. Brennan, September 25, 1965; Children: Susan Sutton 

Mitchell, Jane Sutten Coleman, Robert T. Sutton, Jr. (First Marriage to Robert T. 

Sutton, Sr., deceased 1963): Two grandchildren: Shelley Brennan Coleman and 

Elizabeth Louise Coleman. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Human Resources 

Vice-Chairman: Mental Health; State Personnel 

Member: Aging; Appropriations Base Budget: Appropriations Base Budget — 
Committee on HumanResources; Appropriations Expansion Budget: Ap- 
propriations Expansion Budget — Committee on Human Resources; Con- 
stitutional Amendments: Higher Education; Judiciary IV. 



318 North Carouna Manual 




JOHN WALTER BROWN 

(Republican — Wilkes County) 

Forty-First Representative District — Wilkes and Yadkin Counties; and 
Gv\altneys. Sharpes, and Sugar Loaf Townships of" Alexander County. 



Early Years: Born in Traphill Township, Wilkes County, September 12, 1918, to James 
Walter and Nora Blackburn Brown. 

Education: Attended Virginia Trade School, 1940; Appalachian State University, 1937. 

Occupation: Farmer (Beefcattle, Poultry and Tobacco). 

Organizations: Member: NC Cattlemens Association; Woodmen of the World; Farm 
Bureau. 

Political Activities: Served, in House of Representatives, 1971, 1973-74, 1979-80, 1981- 
82, and 1983. 

Military Service: U.S. Army Engineer Corps, World War II, 1944-1946. 

Religious Activities: Member. Charity United Methodist Church; Official Board Mem- 
ber; Church Trustee: Church School Superintendent: Teacher Young Adult Class; 
Church Lay Speaker & Chairman of Official Board. 

Family: Married, Ruth Hanks, September 14. 1941; Children: Betty Ruth Brown 
Morenstein and Johnsie Charles (Mrs. Joseph T. Brown. Jr.). 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Finance; Commission & Schools For The Blind & Deaf; 
Military and Veterans Affairs; State Government; Transportation; Water and 
Air Resources: Wildlife Resources. 




The Legislative Branch 319 

DAVID WEBSTER BUMGARDNER, JR. 

(Democrat - Gaston County) 

Forty-fourth Representative District - Gaston and Lincoln Counties -- 
Four Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Belmont, November 2, 1921, to David Webster and Winnifred 
(Ballard) Bumgardner. 

Education: Attended Belmont Public Schools, 1927-38: Belmont Abbey College, 1938- 
40; Gupton-Jones College of Mortuary Science, Nashville, Tenn, Graduated 1942. 

Occupation: Mortician; President & Treasurer, Bumgardner, Inc.; President, McLean- 
Bumgardner, Inc.; Director, Belmont Savings and Loan; Lakeside Cable TV, Inc. 

Organizations: Member, NC Funeral Directors Assocaition; National Funeral Direc- 
tors Association; Member, Masons, Belmont Lodge No. 627; Gastonia York Rite 
Masonic Orders; Shriner, Oais Temple; Past Presidnet, Belmont Kiwanis Club, Past 
Lt. Governor of Division Two, Carolinas Kiwanis District, 1966; Past President, 
Belmont United Fund, Inc.; Past President, Belmont Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Directors, Conference on Funeral Service Examin- 
ing Boards of the U.S., 1952-1957, served as President, 1955-56; N.C State Board of 
Embalmers and Funeral Directors, 1950-1955, served as President, 1954-55; appoin- 
ted Original Planning and Zoning Board of Belmont; Chairman, Commission for the 
Study of Local and Ad Valorum Tax Structure of NC, 1970; Governmental Evalua- 
tion Commission, 1977-present; Board of Transportation, 1977-1982. 

Political Activities: Served, in House of Representatives, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 
1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82 and 1983. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army, 1942-45; European-African Theatre, 1943-45; 
U.S. Army Reserve, 1949-55; NC National Guard 1955-1974; Lt. Colonel (Retired 
1974.) 

Honors: Received Distinguished Service Award from Dallas Institute, Gupton-Jones 
College of Mortuary Science, 1954; Named 1967 "Man of the Year," by Belmont 
Chamber of Commerce. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Belmont; Former Deacon & 
Church Parliamentarian; Formerly served as Chairman, Finance Committee; Dept. 
Superintendent, Sunday School and on Building Committee. 

Family: Married, Sara Margaret Jones, August 14, 1948; Children: Mrs. Sharon B. Hill 
and Sandra Jo Bumgardner. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Transportation 
Vice-Chairman: Highway Safety 

Member: Appropriations - Base Budget: Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on Natural and Economic Resources; Appropriations - Expansion 
Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and 
Economic Resources; Housing; Judiciary III; Military and Veterans Affairs; 
Public Utilities; State Government; University Board of Governors 
Nominating Committee. 



320 North Carouna Manual 




SAM D. BUNDY* 

(Democrat — Pitt County) 

Ninth Representative District — Greene County; and Arthur, Ayden, 
Belvoir, Chicod, Falkland, Farmville, Fountain, Greenville, Grifton, 
Grimesland, Pactolus, Swift Creek, and Winterviille Townships of Pitt 
County — Two Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Farmville, Pitt County, July 19, 1906. 

Education: Graduated Farmville High School, 1923; Duke University, A.B., 1927; East 
Carolina University. M.A., 1948. 

Occupation: Retired, School Principal: Former Principal of Schools in Duplin, 
Edgecombe, and Martin Counties; Federal Government 1943-44; Principal of 
Farmville Public Schools, 1947-65; Principal, Sam D. Bundy School, 1965-70; 
Rotating Panel Member, NC Today Morning Show, WCNT-TV, Greenville, 1966- 
70. 

Organizations: President, Northeastern District NCAE. 1952-53; President, Pitt County 
Unite NCAE, 1951-52; Past Master Tarboro Masonic Lodge, 1942; Past Master 
Farmville Masonic Lodge, 1950; 32nd Degree Scottish Rite Mason and Member, 
Sudan Temple of the Shrine; District Deupty Grand Master Fifth Masonic District 
NC, 1951-54; Grand Orator, Grand Lodge of Masons in NC, 1961-62; Knight Com- 
mander, Court of Honors; Past President, Tarboro Kiwanis Club, 1941; Past District 
Governor of Carolina Kiwanis District, 1945; Member, Phi Delta Kappa, Pi Kappa 
Phi and Omicron Delta Kappa; Vice-Chairman, Constitutional Amendments Com- 
mittee, 1973, 1975; Vice-Chairman, Education Committee, 1973, 1975; Vice- 
Chairman State Personnel Committee, 1979; Secretary. Farmville Chamber of Com- 
merce. 1946-47; Past President. Tarboro. Yonk Rite Mason. 

Boards and Commissions: Secretary. Tabacca Board of Trade, 1946-47; Member. Mount 
Olive College Board of Trustees; Member. Advisory Budget Commission. 1975-77. 
1981-83. 

Political .4ctivities: Served in NC House of Representatives. 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 
1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82 and 1983. 

Military Service: 

Honors: Farmville, "Man of the Year," 1974; Pitt County, "Outstanding Citizenship 
Award," 1980. 

Religious Activities: Member, Disciples of Christ Chruch; Teacher Men's Class 
Farmville Christian Church Sunday School, 1954; Superintendent Farmville Chris- 
tian Church Sunday School, 1946-53; President. N.C. Christian Men's Fellowship. 
1950-51, 1955-56; President, State Convention Disciples of Christ, 1954. 

Family: Married. Bettie Spencer Bundy; Children: Sam D. Bundy, Jr., and James Henry 
Bundy; Three Grandchildren. 

* Representative Bundy died January 19, 1983. His dedicated service to the people of his district and 
North Carolina and his cheerful personality will be greatly missed. 



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321 




DOROTHY ROCKWELL BURNLEY 

(Republican — Guilford County) 

Twenty-Eiighth Representative District - Deep River Township, 
Friendship Township. High Point Township, Jamestown Precincts 1 and 
3. and South Sunnier Precinct of Guilford County — Two 
Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in High Point, Guilford County, February 27, 1927, to Hubert J. and 

Ella L. (Nurse) Rockwell. 
Education: Attended High Point High School. 1941-42: graduated, Jefferson High 

School (Roanoke, Virginia). 1944; attended Hoilins College, 1944-1946. 
Occupation: Corporate Officer, (Secretary-Treasurer, Craftwood. Inc., High Point.) 

Organizations: Member: Furniture City Woman's Club: High Point Chamber of Com- 
merce: National Federation of Independent Businesses (NFIB). 

Boards and Commissions: Member: Board of Trustees, High Point Public Library; 
Board Member and Past President, High Point Women's Shelter: High Point Mental 
Health Association Board. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981-82 and 1983. 

Honors: 1980, "Woman of the Year," Furniture City Woman's Club. 

Religious Activities: Member, Emerywood Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, James H. Burnley III, October 4. 1947; Children: James H. Burnley 
IV: Mary H. Burnley: Ellen B. Burnley: and Judith L. Burnley. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations — Base Budget: Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on Education: Appropriations — Expansion Budget: Appropriatiosn Ex- 
pansion Budget Committee on Education; Cultural Resources: Education: 
Election Laws; Governmental Ethics; Judiciary 11; Mental Health; Public 
Utilities. 



322 North Carolina Manual 




HOWARD B. CHAPIN 

(Democrat — Beaufort County) 

Second Representative District — Beaufort and Hyde Counties; and Scup- 
pernong Township of Washington County — One Representative. 



Early Years: Born in Ahoskie, December 9, 1921, to Henry B. (deceased) and Lavenia 
(Howard) Chapin (deceased). 

Education: Attended Public Schools of Weldon & Aurora; Graduated Kinston High 
School; Graduated Atlantic Christian College, 1947, A.B.; Attended Civic Institute 
of Government, Chapel Hill; East Carolina University, Political Science Courses. 

Occupation: Former Teacher, Belhaven and Washington City Schools (retired). 

Boards and Commissions: Past Member: Washington Planning Board. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 
1981-82 and 1983. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army Air Force, Sergeant, 8th Air Force, 1943-1945. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Christian Church (Washington, N.C.) 

Family: Married, Mary Alice (Beasley) Chapin, January 29, 1948; Children: J. Michael 
and Kenneth E. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Commercial Fishing 
Vice-Chairman: Corrections; Education 

Member: Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on Natural and Economic Resources; Appropriations — Expansion 
Budget; Appropriatons Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and 
Economic Resources; Cultural Resources; Employment Security; Energy; 
Natural and Economic Resources. 




The Legislative Branch 323 

ROBERT JACKSON CHILDRESS 

(Democrat — Forsyth County) 

Thirty-Ninth Representative District Abbotts Creek, Bethania, Broad- 
bay, Clemmonsviiie, Kernersvilie, Lewisviiie, Middle Fork, Old Rich- 
mond, Old Town, South Fork, Vienna, and Winston Townships of For- 
syth County — Five Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Stokesdale, Guilford County, December 18, 1938, to Oscar C. and 
Primmie E. (Kennedy) Childress. 

Education: Graduated, Stokesdale High School; Chowan College. 

Occupation: Merchant. 

Organizations: Member: Better Business Bureau of WinstonSalem (Membership Chair- 
man); Greater Winston-Salem Chamber of Commerce; Transportation Advisory 
Committee of Winston-Salem/Forsyth County; Member, Arts Council; Sertoma 
Club; Winston-Salem Sales and Marketing Executives, Inc.; Vice-President, North 
Carolina Jaycees, 1970-71. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Winston-Salem Zoning Board of Adjustments; 
Advisory Board of Chowan College; Advisory Board of Winston-Salem/Forsyth 
County Career Center; President's Council of the White House Commission on 
Small Businesses; Chairman, Watershed Imprvoement Commission; Advisory 
Board, N.C. Department of Correction of Forsyth County. 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. House of Representatives, 1983; Winston- 
Salem/Forsyth County Board of Education (Chairman, Budget and Finance Com- 
mittee), Forsyth County Democrats; Young Democrats Club of Forsyth County 

Military Service: Served in United States Army, 1961. 

Religious Activities: Member, Disciple of Christ. 

Family: Married, Margaret Anne McCurry, August 12, 1967; Children: Robert J. 
Childress, Jr. and Julie Anne Childress. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on General Government; Appropriations — Expansion Budget; Ap- 
propriations Expansion Budget Committee on General Government; Educa- 
tion; Employment Security; Highway Safety; Local Government II; Small 
Business; State Personnel; University Board of Governors Nominating Com- 
mittee. 



324 North Carolina Manual 




JOHN TRAMMELL CHURCH 

(Democrat — Vance County) 

Twenty-Second Representative District — Caswell, Granville, Person, 
and Vance Counties: Littleton and Roanoke Rapids Townships of 
Halifax County: and Hawtree, Judkins, Nutbush River, Roanoke, Six- 
pound, and Smith Creek Townships of Warren County — Three 

Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Raleigh, Wake County, September 22, 1917, to Charles R. and 
Lela (Johnson) Church. 

Education: Graduated Boyden High School, Salisbury, 1935: attended. Catawba 
College, 1936-37; graduated University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1942, B.S. 
(Pharmacy). 

Occupation: Chairman of the Board, Rose's Stores, Inc., Henderson; Director, Peoples 
Bank, Rocky Mount; Chairman of Board Advisory Baord, Peoples Bank, Hender- 
son; Past Senior Vice President and Secretary, Rose's Stores, Inc. 

Organizations: NC Merchants Association (member. Executive Committee and Board 
of Directors; Past President); Past Member, Board of Directors, National Retail 
Merchants Assocaition (NEw York, NY); Past President, NC Chain Store Council; 
Past Vice President and Secretary, American Retail Council (Washington, D.C.); 
Secretary, Board of Directors, Association of General Merchandise Chains 
(Washington, D.C.); Board of Directors, University of North Carolina Business 
Foundation (Chapel Hill); Director, NC Citizens Association (Executive Commit- 
tee); Past Director, Atlantic Aero Corp.; Member, Newcomen Society of North 
Carolina; Past Secretary and Member, Executive Committee and Director, NC 
Agribusiness Council. Past President: Junior Chamber of Commerce, Henderson- 
Vance County Chamber of Commerce, Rotary Club, Henderson Country Club, 
Henderson-Vance County United Fund (past Trustee and member. Executive Com- 
mittee of Carolinas United), Vanwarco and North District District of Occoneechee 
Council of Boys Scouts, Past President, UNC Alumni Association & Alumni Giving 
of UNC; Member: Rotary Club, Masons, Shriners, Elks, American Legion, 40 & 8, 
Kappa Alpha Order, Chi-Bet-Phi Scientific Fraternity; Former Jaycee; 1976 Alumni 
Giving Christmas Seal Chairman, Tar River Lung Association; Tar Heel One Hun- 
dred, UNC-CH (Past Member), President, NC Affiliate of National Society to pre- 
vent Blindness. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Advisory Board, South Eastern Regional Council of 
Boy Scouts; Vice Chairman, Board of Trustees, Louisburg College (Louisburg); Past 
Chairman, Board of Visitors, Peace College (Raleigh); Past member. Board of 
Trustees, Peace College (Raleigh); Past Trustee, UNC-Chapel Hill; Past Member, 
Morehead Scholarship Selection Committee (District), UNC-CH; Vice-Chairman, 
Board of Visitors, UNC-CH; Trustee and Secretary, Vance-Granville Community 
College (Henderson); Former Member, Advisory Board, Salvation Army. Member: 
State Art Museum Building Commission, Committee on State Revenue Sharing 
(LRC), Board of Commissioner of the NC Agency for Telecommunications, NC-Va. 
Water Management Committee; Past Chairman, Kerr Lake Commission; Past 
Chairman, UNC Utilities Study Commission; Past Member; Executive Residence 
Building Commission, Tax Study Commission of NC, Legislative Services Commis- 
sion, Member, NC Research Commission, 1982-83; Past Director, North Carolina 
Railroad; Secretary, NC Ports Authority. 



The Legislative Branch 325 



Political Activities: Served in NC House of Repreentatives. 1967. 1969, 1977-78, 1979- 
80, 1981-82, and 1983: Served in Senate 1971: Member, Henderson City Council, 
1966-67: Past Chairman. Democratic Executive Committee of Vance County, 1966 
and 1976: Past Chairman. Democratic Executive Committee of North Carolina, 
1972; Member. Democratic National Committee, 1972: Delegate to the National 
Democratic Convention. 1972 (headed delegation under Governor Bob Scott): 
Delegate to Mini Conventions in Washington, D.C. and Kansas City. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Marine Corps Reserve (Naval Aviation), Captain, 
1942-45 (awarded 3 Distinguished Flying Crosses and 10 Air Medals). 

Honors: "Man of the Year," Henderson-Vance County Chamber of Commerce, 1977: 
Business Man in the News, North Carolina Citizens Association; 'Tar Heel of the 
Week" Silver Beaver Award in Scouting; Distinguished Citizen Award, 1977, Boy 
Scouts of America; O.B. Michael Distinguished Alumnus Award, 1973, Catawba 
College (Salisbury, N.C.). 

Religious Activities: Member. First United Methodist Church, Henderson: Chairman of 
Board: Past President. Administrative Board. Board o\' Trustees; Past Chairman, 
Finance Committee: Past President, Men's Bible Class. 

Family: Married, Emma Thomas Rose of Henderson, December 31, 1943; Children: 
John Trammell, Jr. and Elizabeth Church Bacon; two grandchildren. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: State Government 

Vice-Chairman: Economy: Local Government II 

Member: Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on General Government; Appropriations — Expansion Budget; Ap- 
propriations Expansion Budget Committee on General Government: Higher 
Education; Highway Safety; Rules and Operation of the House; Transporta- 
tion. 



326 



North Carouna Manual 




WILLIAM EDWIN CLARK 

(Democrat — Cumberland County) 

Eighteenth Representative District The remainder of Cumberland 
County not included in District 17 Three Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Fayetteville, January 12, 1943, to Franklin S. and Mary Pride 

(Cruikshank) Clark. 
Education: Graduated Davidson College, 1965, B.A.: UNC-School of Law, 1965-68, 

J.D. 
Occupation: Attorney at Law. City Attorney-City of Fayetteville, 1974-1976; Land 

Developer. 
Organizations: Member: Cumberland County Bar; N.C. Bar; Kiwanis Club. 
Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, 1981-82, and 1983. 
Military Service: Served U.S. Army, Captain, 1970. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Alcoholic Beverage Control 
Vice-Chairman: Insurance; Judiciary II 

Member: Finance; Courts & Administration of Justice; Employment Security; 
Manufacturers and Labor; Water and Air Resources. 



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327 




JOHN HOWARD COBLE 

(Republican — Guilford County) 

Twenty-Seventh Representative District — South Center Grove Precinct, 

Jamestown Precinct 2, North Madison Precinct, South Monroe Precinct, 
North Sumner Precinct, and Greensboro Precincts 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 
13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 
and 36 of Guilford County — Three Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Greensboro, Guilford County, March 18, 1931, to Joe Howard 
and Johnnie E. (Holt) Coble. 

Education: Graduated Alamance High School, 1949; attended Appalachian Stale Un- 
iversity, 1949-50; Guilford College, 1950-1952, 1957-58, B.A.; University of North 
Carolina School of Law, 1959-1962, J.D. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law. 

Organizations:Member; Greensboro Bar Association; N.C. Bar Association; N.C. State 
Bar; American Legion; Lions Club. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1969, 1979-80, 1981-82 and 
1983; Secretary. NC Department of Revenue, 1973-1976; Asst. U.S. Attorney, Mid- 
dle District of N.C, 1969-1973. 

Military Service: Served U.S. Coast Guard & Coast Guard Reserve, 1952-Present. 

Religious Activities: Member, Alamance Presbyterian Church. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 
Member: Alcholic Beverage Control; Finance; Banks & Thrift Institutiosn; 
Courts & Administration of Justice; Economy; Higher Education; Highway 
Safety; Judiciary I. 



328 North Carolina Manual 




BETSY LANE COCHRANE 

(Republican — Davie County) 

Thirty-Seventh Representative District Davidson and Davie Counties; 
and Eagle Mills and Union Grove Townships of Iredell County - Three 
Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Asheboro, Randolph County to William Jennings and Brodus Inez 
(Campbell) Lane. 

Education: Attended Asheboro Grammar Schools and High School, 1942-1954; 
Meredith College, B.A. (Honors graduate. Elementary Education Certificate). 

Occupation: Teacher: Housewife; Legislator. 

Organizations: Member: Kappa Nu Sigma Honorary Fraternity; Vice President, 

Mocksville Woman's Club: Director, Neighborhood Property Owner's Association; 

NC Symphony; NC Museum Association. 

Boards and Commissions: Member; Piedmont Health Systems Agency; NC Advisory 
Council on Teacher Education. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981-82 and 1983: Vice- 
Chairman, Davie County Republican Party; NC Delegate, National Convention, 
1976; Member, Executive committee, NC Republican Party. 

Honors: Meredith College Honors gradaute: Yearbook Editor, College and High 
School: Who's Who in American Colleges and Universities: Who's Who for 
American Women: Outstanding Freshman Representative (GOP), 1981. 

Religious Activities: Member, Knollwood Baptist Church; President, Women's WMU; 
Children/Adult Sunday School Teacher, 1960-77; Nominating Committee. 

Family: Married, Joe Kenneth Cochrane, Children: Lisa Lane Cochrane and Craig 
Campbell Cochrane. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 
Member: Appropriations — Base Budget: Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on Natural and Economic Resources: Appropriations — Expansion 
Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and 
Economic Resources: Corrections; Education; Higher Education: Local 
Government; Manufacturer and Labor; Natural and Economic Resources; 
Universitv Board of Governors Nominatins Committee. 



The Legislative Branch 



329 




MARIE WATTERS COLTON 

(Democrat — Buncombe County) 

Fitty-Firsl Representative District — Buncombe and Transylvania Coun- 
ties: and Crab Creek and Hooper Creek Townships of Henderson County 
Four Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Charlotte, October 20, 1922, to John Piper and Sarah Thomas 

Walters. 
Education: Graduated Chapel High School, 1939; St. Mary's Junior College: University 

of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, 1943, B.A. (Spanish); Post Graduate Studies at Mars 

Hill College and University of North Carolina-Asheville. 
Occupation: Legislator. 
Organizations: Member: Business and Professional Women: League of Women Voters; 

American Association of University of Women; Sir Walter Cabinet; Children's 

Welfare League. 
Boards and Commissions: Member: Thorns Rehabilitation Hospital Board; Historic 

Preservation Society of NC, Inc. Board; Vagabond School of Drama, Board; 

National Board of Advisers, Brevard Music Center; NC Public Radio Advisory 

Committee; NC Art Society Advisory Council; UNC-Chapel Hill Board of Visitors. 
Political .Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, 1981-82, and 1983. 
Eamily: Married, Henry E. Colton; Four Children: Elizabeth Colton, Marie Coiton 

Pelzer, Sarah Colton Villeminot, Walter Colton. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Cultural Resources 

Vice-Chairman: Human Resources; Local Government II 

Member: Appropriations — Base Budget: Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on General Government; Appropriations — Expansion Budget; Ap- 
propriations Expansion Budget Committee on General Government; Banks & 
Thrift Institutions; Constitutional Amendments; Governmental Ethics; 
Health; Housing. 



330 



North Carolina Manual 




RUTH E. COOK 

(Democrat -- Wake County) 



Twenty-First Representative District 
Representatives. 



Wake County — Six 



Early Years: Born in Berlin. Germany, November 1 1, 1929, to Samuel and Use (Meyer) 
Mohr. 

Education: Attended George Washington High School, 1944-47; New York University. 

Occupation: Legislator; Consultant (Former Executive Director of the State Council for 
Social Legislation). 

Organizations: Past-president, NC Consumers Council; Past President, Raleigh Wake 

League of Women Voters. 
Boards and Commissions: Formerly, member of Board of Directors of NC Housing 

Finance Agency; Board of NC Civil Liberties Union; Board of Women's Center of 

Raleigh; Chairman of Consumer Protection Committee of Southern Legislative 

Conference of the Council of State Governments. 
Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 

1981-82 and 1983. 

Military Service: 

Honors: "Tar Heel of the Week," The News and Observer, 1969; "Consumer Advocate 

of the Year" Award, N.C. Consumers Council, May 1977. 
Family: Married, John Oliver Cook (deceased), October 31, 1954; Two Children: Roger 

Mohr and Judith Ellen. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Human Resources 
Vice-Chairman: Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations — Expansion 

Budget; Cultural Resources; Employment Security 
Member: Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources; 

Banks & Thrift Institutions; Economy; Energy; Housing; Judiciary L Mental 

Health. 



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331 




JAMES W. CRAWFORD, JR. 

(Democrat — Granville County) 

Twenty-Second Representative District - Caswell, Granville, Person, 
and Vance Counties: Littleton and Roanoke Rapids Townships of 
Halifax County; and Hawtree, Judkins, Nutbush River, Roanoke, Six- 
pound, and Smith Creek Townships of Warren County Three 
Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Durham, Durham County, October 4, 1937, to James Walker and 
Julia Brent (Hicks) Crawford. 

Education: Graduated, O.xford High School, 1956; University of North Carolina- 
Chapel Hill, 1960, B.S. (Industrial Relations). 

Occupation: Retail Merchant, ("The Fabric Shop"); Coble Blvd. Investments; Vice- 
President, Skateeum, Inc. 

Organizations: Member: NC Merchants Association; Jaycees (Director, Oxford 
Jaycees); Director, Vance Academy, Inc., 1965-82; President, Rucker Recreation 
Association. 

Boards and Commissions: Member: Central Carolina Bank, Local Board of Managers, 
1972-1982. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1983; Oxford City Council, 
1964-1968. 

Military Service: Served in US Navy, Lieutenant, 1960-62. 

Honors: Jaycee DSA Award. 

Religious Activities: Member, Oxford United Methodist Church; Treasurer, 1972; 
Chairman trustees, 1980-81. 

Family: Married, Harriet C. Cannon, February 1 1, 1961; Children: James W. Crawford, 
III; Julia Brent Crawford; and Harriet Cannon Crawford. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Finance; Higher Education; Judiciary I; Local Government I; Mental 
Health; Public Utilities; Small Business; State Government. 



332 North Carolina Manual 




NARVEL JAMES CRAWFORD, JR. 

(Democrat — Buncombe County) 

Fifty-First Representative District Buncombe and Transylvania Coun- 
ties: and Crab Creek and Hoopers Creek Townships of Henderson 
County Four Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Asheville. Buncombe County, November 9. 1929, to Narvel J. and 
Tymah (Phillips) Crawford. 

Education: Attended Lee Edwards High School, Asheville. 1946-1948; Graduated Duke 
University, Durham, 1952: A.B., University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, 1959-60 
(graduate study in History). 

Occupation: Property Management. 

Organizations: V.F.W. Post 789: Asheville Civitan Club: Asheville Chamber of Com- 
merce, Legislative Task Force and Industrial Relations Committees. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Buncombe County Social Services Board; Board 

Member, American Lung Association of NC-Western Region; Board NC 
Hemophilia Foundation: Board Epilepsy Association of NC; Board American 
Foundation for the Deaf & Board North Carolina State Theater (Flat Rock). 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981-82 and 1983; 
Democratic State Executive Committee, serving third term; Secy, Buncombe County 
Democratic Executive Committee, 1978-79; Eleventh Congressional District 
Representative, State Democratic Platform Committee, 1976; Campaign Manager, 
Asheville City Council, 1977; Pres., Democratic Forum of Buncombe County & 
Precinct Chairman 1972-78 (Asheville #3). 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army, Counter Intelligence Corps, 1954-56. 

Honors: Phi Beta Kappa. 

Religious Activities: Member, All Souls Episcopal Church of Asheville; Chalice Ad- 
ministrator: Lector; Member: National Council and American Church Union. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice-Chairman: Election Laws; University Board of Governors Nominating 
Committee 

Member: Apppropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Com- 
mittee on General Government; Appropriations — Expansion Budget; Ap- 
propriatinos Expansion Budget Committee on Committee on General 
Government & Housing Committee; Higher Education; Rules & Operation of 
the House; State Government; Transportation. 



The Legislative Branch 333 

CHARLES MELVIN CREECY 

(Democrat — Northampton County) 

; Fifth Represenlalive District — Northampton County: Indian Woods, 

Roxobel. Snaive Bite, and Woodville Townships of Bertie County: 
,^^^; , Gatesville. Hall Haslett, Hunters Mill, Mintonsville, and Reynoldson 

'^ " • Townships of Gates County: and Harreilsville, Maneys Neck, Mur- 

freesboro. St. Johns, and Winton Townships of Hertford County — One 
Representative. 




Early ^■ears: Born in Rich Sqtiare, Northampton County, December 2, 1920. to William 
Spencer and Susie M. (Griffin) Creecy. 

Education: Rich Square Institute. 1927-36; W. S. Creecy School. 1936-1938: Shaw Un- 
iversity, 1938-1942, B.A.: Shaw University, School of Religion, 1942-1945. M.Div., 
Shaw University. D.D.. Shaw University: Andover-Newton. B.D. Degree: 
Theological School, Boston, Mass., 1976; NC Central University. Social Study. 

Occupation: Minister (Nebs Baptist Church, Zoar Baptist Church, Indian Woods, and 
New Bethany); Farmer. 

Organization: Phi Beta Sigma. 32nd Degree Mason. 

Boards and Commissions: Trustee. Shaw University. Executive Committee & Board; 
Chairman, Committee on Student Affairs; General Baptist State Convention Ex- 
ecutive Committee & Board; Lett Carey Foreign Mission Convention, Executive 
Committee & Board. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981-82 and 1983. 

Honors: D.D.. Shaw University. 

Religious Activities: Member. First Baptist Church, Rich Square. 

Family: Maried. Clementine Savage Creecy. January 28, 1948; Children: Charles M. 
Creecy, Jr.; Bryant Dewitt Creecy; Norma Rose Creecy Jones; and Elizabeth Ann 
Creecy. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice-Chairman: Corrections; Wildlife Resources 

Member: Agriculture; Finance; Highway Safety; Insurance; Mental Health; 
Transportation; Subcommitte, Oversight Corrections; Subcommittee: 
Highway Safety. 



334 



North Carolina Manual 




DANIEL HOWARD DEVANE 

(Democrat — Hoke County) 

Sixteenth Representative District - Hoke and Robeson Counties; and 
Spring Hill, Stewartsville, and Williamsons Townships of Scotland 
County — Three Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Elizabethtown, Bladen County, June 4, 1945, to Junie Franklin and 

Duel (Strickland) DeVane 
Education: Graduated, White Oak High School, 1964; Missouri Auction School, 1975. 

Occupation: Real Estate/Auctioneering, DeVane Realty & Auction. Owner, DeVane's 
Men Clothing, 1972-1982; Raeford Dept. Store, 1969-1972; Fayetteville Police Dept., 
1966-1969. 

Organizations: Past Member: Raeford Kiwanis Club; Hoke County Rescue Squad 
(Commander, 1972-1975); Hillcrest Volunteer Fire Dept., 1969-80; Jaycees. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Trustees, Flora Macdonald Academy, Chairman, 
1981-82. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1983; Region N Council of 
Government, 1976-1982, (Chairman, 1980 Reelected for second term and resigned 
following election to N.C. House); Hoke County Commissioner, 1976-1982. 

Military Service: Served in NC National Guard (Active, 1965 for Six months: Reserves, 

5 1/2 yrs). 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church; Sunday School Teacher. 
Family: Married, Alice Smith, July 6, 1968: Child: Daniel Howard DeVane, II. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on Justice and Public Safety; Appropriations — Expansion Budget; Ap- 
propriations Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety; 
Cultural Resources; Health: Judiciary II; Law Enforcement; Local Govern- 
ment II; Rules and Operation of the House; University Board of Governors 
Nominating Committee. 




The Legislative Branch 335 

DAVID HUNTER DIAMONT 

(Democrat -- Surry County) 

Fortieth Representative District - Alleghany, Ashe, and Surry Counties; 
Big Creek, Danbury, Meadows, Peters Creek, Quaker Gap, Sauratown, 
and Yadkin Townships of Stokes County; and Bald Mountain, Blowing 
Rock, Blue Ridge, Boone, Brushy Fork, Cove Creek, Elk, Meat Camp, 
New River, North Fork, Stony Fork, and Watauga Townships of 
Watauga County - Three Representatives. 

Early Years: Born in Greensboro, February 9, 1946, to David Elijah (deceased) and 
Hyacinth Cleo (Hunter) Diamont. 

Education: Attended East Surry High School, Pilot Mountain, 1961-63; Frank L. 
Ashley High School, Gastonia, 1963-64; Graduated Wake Forest University, B.A., 
1968; Appalachian State University, M.A., 1972. 

Occupation: Teacher and Coach: High School History Teacher and Assistant Football 
Coach, Mount Airy Senior High School, Mt. Airy, 1968-1977; Head Varsity Foot- 
ball Coach and History Teacher at East Surry High School, Pilot Mountain, 1977- 
present (varsity coaching record 41 wins; 24 loses; state playoffs 1979, 1981, and 
1982). 

Organizations: Member: NEA; NCAE; North Carolina Coaches' Association; Lambda 
Chi Alpha, Former Member, Pilot Mountain Jaycees; National Historical Society; 
Sierra Club; Surry County Historical Society; Deacon Club, Wake Forest Univer- 
sity; Pilot Mountain Foundation, Inc., Board ofDirectors. 

Boards and Commissions: Governor's Council on Physical Fitness and Health, 1979- 
present. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 

1981-82 and 1983; Surry County Young Democrats Club (President, 1973-74). 
Honors: Northwest 3-A Conference, "Coach of the Year," 1979. 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church, Pilot Mountain; Board 
of Trustees. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources 
Vice-Chairman: Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations — Expansion 

Budget; Cultural Resources; Water and Air Resources 
Member: Aging: Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Human Resources; 

Banks & Thrift Institutions; Economy; Education; Manufacturers & Labor; 

Rules and Operations of the House. 



336 North Carolina Manual 




RUTH M. EASTERLING 

(Democrat -- Mecklenburg County) 

Thirty-sixth Representative District ~ Mecklenburg County Eight 
Representatives. 



Early ^ ears: Born in Gaffney. S.C., December 26, to Benjamin Harrison and Lillie Mae 
(Crawley) Moss. 

Education: Graduated Centralized High School (Biacksburg, S.C.), 1929: Limestone 
College (Gaffney, S.C.), 1932 (Major in English: minors in Math and History): Post 
Graduated Studies at Queens College, Charlotte, in Business Law, Personnel Ad- 
ministration, Business Administration. 

Occupation: Executive Assistant (to the late LD. Blumenthal, President of Radiator 
Specialty Co., Charlotte, NC and Toronto, Canada). 

Organizations: Trustee, Wildacres Retreat, dedicated to the betterment of human rela- 
tions: Member, American Association of University Women: League of Women 
Voters: Business an Professional Women's Club (National President, 1970-71); 
Professional Secretaries (International): (International Chairman of Public and 
World Affairs, 1975-76): NC Women's Political Caucus (State President, 1974): 
Women Equity Action Leaaue: Women E.xecutive of Charlotte: Women's Forum of 
NC. 

Boards and Commissions: Governor's Advocacy Council for Persons with Disabilities: 
Advisory Council on OSHA: Legislative Study Committee on Physicians" Assistants; 
Research and Education Committee, National Business and Professional Women's 
Foundation, 1978-1981: House Chairman of the Study Committee on the Economic, 
Social and Legal Problems and Needs o\' Women. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 
1983-84; Appointed by Governor Terry Sanford to original Governor's Commission 
on the Status of Women. 1964; Appointed, Charlotte City Council, March 1972 (ser- 
ved 20 months to December 1973). 

Honors: Received WBT Radio Woman of the Year, 1964; Charlotte's Outstanding 
CareerWoman, 1971; Selected by N.C. Federation of Business and Professional 
Women as N.C. Outstanding Career Woman, 1980; Certificate of Achievement, NC 
Assoc, of Women Attorneys, 1982. 

Religious .Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Charlotte; Associate Superinten- 
dent of Training for the Church: Associate Superintendent, Intermediate Depart- 
ment of Sunday School: Member. Library. Financial Planning, and Personnel Com- 
mittees; President. Baptist Business Women, Mecklenburg Baptist Association; 
President, Baptist Business Women, First Baptist Church. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Governmental Ethics 

Vice-Chairman: Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Natural and 
Economic Resources: Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on 
Natural and Economic Resources: Vice-Chairman: Manufacturers and Labor 

Member: Appropriations Base Budget: Appropriations - Expansion Budget: 
Constitutional Amendments; Economy; Energy: Judiciary I; Local Govern- 
ment II. 



The Legislative Branch 



337 




GUS NICKOLAS ECONOMOS 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 

Mecklenburg County 



Thirty-Sixth Representative District 

Representatives. 



Eight 



Early ^'ears: Born in Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, April 22, 1930, to Nickolas and 
Christine (Trahillis) Economos. 

Education: Graduated Charlotte Technical High, 1949; Attended Charlotte College 

(University of North Carolina at Charlotte) 2 1/2 years. 
Occupation: Restauranteur (Co-owner, Gondola Restaurants, Inc.). 

Organizations: Member: NC Restaurant Association; Charlotte Civitan Club; Ahepa 
Marathon Chapter. No. 2; U.S. Chamber of Commerce; Charlotte Chainber of 
Commerce; Commerce's State Legislation Committee, several years; Congressional 
Action Cominittee. 

Boards and Commissions: 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82 
and 1983. 

Military Services: Served in U.S. Army, 1951-1953 (Korean War). 
Religious Activities: Member, Greek Orthodox Holy Trinity Cathederal, Charlotte. 
Family: Married, Patricia (Swaffer) Economos, June 4, 1952; Children: Nickolas 
Economos; Robert Economos, Larry Economos, and Nancy Economos. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Aging 

Vice-Chairman: Health; Mental Health 

Member: Finance; Energy; Highway Safety; Human Resources; Judiciar\ II. 




338 North Carouna Manual 



CHANCY RUDOLPH EDWARDS 

(Democrat — Cumberland County) 

Seventeenth Representative District Block 901 and Enumeration Dis- 
trict 534 of Census Tract 34 in Manchester Township, Block 901 and 
Enumeration District 535 of Census Tract 34 in Seventy-First Townships, 
Block 901 of Census Tract 34 in Carver's Creek Township, Cross Creek 
Precincts 1, 3, 5, 9, 13, 16, 17, and 19, Spring Lake Precinct, Morganton 
Road 1 Precinct, Beaver Lake Precinct, Westarea Precinct, adn that part 
of Cross Creek Township which may be entirely surrounded by Morgan- 
ton Road 1 Precinct shall also be in the District. Block 304 of Census 26 of Cross Creek Township 
is not in the District - Two Representatives. 

Early Years: Born in Nash County, February 28, 1925, to B.H. Edwards (deceased) and 
Lucy Kearney (deceased). 

Education: Nash County Training Schools; Shaw University, 1946, B.A.; Divinity 
School, 1949; M.Div. Union Theological Seminary, NYC; Southeastern Theological 
Seminary, Wake Forest. 

Occupation: Pastor, First Baptist Church, Fayetteville; Pastor, Spring Garden Baptist 
Church, Washington, NC, 1948-53. 

Organizations: Chairman/Member, Cumberland County Community Action Program; 
Chairman/Member, Precinct 19; Member, Mayor's Council for Human Relations; 
Member, Executive committee Baptist World Alliance; President, General Baptist 
State Convention of NC Inc.; President, Lott Carey Baptist Foreign Mission Con- 
vention; Member/Chairman, OIC Organization; Member, Baptist World Alliance 
Executive Committee. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, State Board of Education; Trustee Board, Shaw Un- 
iversity; Member/Chairman, Fayetteville City Board of Education; National Sun- 
day School Board. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1983; Precinct Chairman; 
Delegate to National Democratic Convention. 

Honors: Award of Honor, City of Fayetteville, 1967; Cumberland County Human Rela- 
tions Award, 1971; Distinguished Public Service Award, Shaw University, 1982; Dis- 
tinguished Citizens Award, Occoneechee Council of Boy Scouts of America, 1980. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Pastor, 1953-. 

Family: Married, Liiella Dickens, August 30, 1947; Child: Jewyl Anita Edwards Dunn; 
Two grandchildren. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on Education; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropriations Ex- 
pansion Budget Committee on Education; Education; Higher Education; 
Human Resources; Local Government I; Mental Health; Military and 
Veterans Affairs; Natural and Economic Resources. 



The Legislative Branch 



339 




JEFF HAILEN ENLOE, JR. 

(Democrat — Macon County) 

Fifty-Third Representative District - Cherokee, Clay, and Macon Coun- 
ties; and Cheoah Townships of Graham County One Representative. 



Early Years: Born in Franklin, September 2, 1914, to Jeff H. and Jessie Hester Enloe, Sr. 
Education: Attended Franklin Public Schools; Graduated Franklin High school, 1932; 

NC State College, B.S., 1938, in Agriculture Education. 
Occupation: Retired Government Employee (34 Years of Service with the United States 

Department of Agriculture). 
Boards and Commissions: Member: Advisory Budget Commission; (SHCC) State Health 

Coordinating Council. 
Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 

1981-82, and 1983. 
Military Service: Served in U.S. Navy, 1943-46, (Petty Officer, 2nd Class). 
Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church. 
Family: Married, Ruth Drummond, July 20, 1946; Children: William A., Jeff H., Ill, 

James R. and Gregory M. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Employment Security 
Vice-Chairman: Health; Transportation 

Member: Agriculture: Appropriations — Base Budget: Appropriations Base 
Budget Committee on Education; Appropriations — Expansion Budget: Ap- 
propriations Expansion Budget Committee on Education: Election Laws; 
Local Government II; Military and Veterans Affairs; State Personnel. 



340 North Carolina Manual 




BOBBY R. ETHERIDGE 

(Democrat — Harnett County) 

Nineteenth Representative District — Harnett and Lee Counties — Two 
Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Sampson County, August 7, 1941, to John P. and Beatrice (Coats) 

Etheridge. 
Education: Attended Cleveland School, 1947-1959: graduated Campbell University, 

1965, B.S. (Business Administration): attended North Carolina State University, 

1967- (Additional Work in Economics). 
Occupation: Vice-President Sales, Sorensen-Christian Industries: Layton Supply Co.: 

President WLLN Radio Station: Director, North Carolina National Bank, 

Lillington, Farmer. 
Organizations: Member: Industrial Management Club (Past President): Lillington Lions 

Club: American Legion: Past Chairman, Harnett Cystic Fibrosis Campaign: NC 

Land Use Advisory Council, 1976: Past Chairman, Harnett Youth Advisory Council; 

Chairman. Harnett Sheltered Work Shop 1978: President, Lillington Chamber of 

Commerce, 1977: Chairman, Cape Fear District Boy Scouts: Harnett County Arts 

Council. 
Boards and Commissions: Harnett Mental Health Board, 1975-76: NC Law & Order 

Commission, 1975-76: Board of Directors, Harnett County Farm Bureau: Member, 

Campbell University Alumni Board of Directors: Courts Commission, 1981-1985, 

Governmental Operations Commission. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1979-80. 1981-82 and 1983; 
Harnett County Commissioner, 1973-76: (Chairman, 1974-76); Co-chairman 
Legislative Study Committee (Pension Plan) Rescue Squads. 1979-80 session: 
National Conference of State Legislatures, Committee on Government Operations. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army, 1965-1967. 

Honors: Received Lillington Jaycees Distinguished Service Award, 1975; Lillington 

Community Service Award, 1976; Listed in Outstanding Men in America: Honored 

Distinguished Alumnus Campbell University, 1976. 
Religious .Activities: Member, Leaflet Presbyterian Church: Sunday School Teacher; 

Sunday School Superintendent, 1967-76: President, Fayetteville Presbytery Men, 

1975-76: President. Presbyterian Svnod Men of NC, 1977-78; Deacon, Leaflet 

Church. 1978. 

Family: Married, Faye Cameron, November 25, 1965: Children: Brian Cameron, 
Catherine Anne. David Blair. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Natural and Economic 

Resources 
Vice-Chairman: Appropriations Base Budget: Appropriations — Expansion 

Budget; Pensions and Retirement: Small Business. 
Member: Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Natural & Economic 

Resources: Econom\: Education; Public Utilities; Rules & Operation of the 

House; Transportation. 



The Legislative Branch 341 



^^^^ WILBUR BRUCE ETHRIDGE 

j^m^^k (Democrat — Onslow County) 

^„^_^ Jm Fourth Representative District -- Carteret and Onslow Counties -- Three 

'^ ""^^ ' Representatives. 




tm 



Early Years: Born in Rocky Mount, Nash County, April 17, 1938, to Wilbur Henry and 

Virginia (Sellers) Ethridge. 
Education: Graduated Rocky Mount High School, 1956; attended North Carolina State 

University; Fayetteviile Technical Institute. 

Occupation: Engineer, Carolina Telephone & Telegraph Company. 

Organizations: Member: East Carolina Engineer's Club; NCSU Alumni Wolfpack 

Clubs; Jacksonville Rotary Club; NC Society of Engineers. 
Boards and Commissions: Board of Dirctors, Onslow County United Way. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1978, 1979-80, 198182, and 

1983. 
Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church; Served as Deacon; Sunday School 

Teacher; Church, Staff Committee. 
Family: Married, Katie Tyner, August 9, 1958; Children: Kitty Dare Ethridge and 

Mark Bruce Ethridge. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Natural and Economic Resources 

Vice-Chairman: Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Natural & Economic 

Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Natural & 

Economic Resources; Water and Air Resources 

Member: Aging; Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations Expansion 
Budget; Commercial Fishing; Commissions & Schools for the Blind & Deaf; 
Education; Human Resources, Housing, Environmental Quality and Natural 
Resources Committee of the Southern Legislative Conference. 



342 North Carolina Manual 




CHARLES DOUGLAS EVANS 

(Democrat — Dare County) 

First District Representative — Camden. Chowan. Currituck. Dare. Pas- 
quotank. Perquimans, and Tyrrell Counties: Holly Grove Township of 
Gates County; and Washington County Two Representatives. 



Early \ ears: Born in Manteo. October 8. 1944. to Charles R. and Evelyn (Mann) Evans. 

Education: Graduated. Manteo High School. 1963; University of North Carolina- 
Chapel Hill 1967 B.A. Economics. University of North Carolina, School of Law, 
1972. J.D. Degree. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law. 

Organizations: Member: Dare County, NC. and American Bar Associations; Manteo 
Rotary Club; Past Officer and Member of Albemarle Law & Order Association, 
Albemarle Area De\elopment Assocaition and Albemarle Regional Planning & 
Development Commission; Director. Outer Banks Chamber of Commerce. 1974-77. 

Boards and Commissions: Member: Local Bd. of Directors. First Union National Bank 
and past Chairman of the Bd.. 1979-82; NC Coastal Resources Comm. & NC 
Seafood Industrial Park Authority. 1977-82; NC Coastal Resources Advisory Coun- 
cil, 1974-77; Served on NC Boundary Comm., 1977; Member. Legislative Services 
Comm. for the NC General Assembly. 1981-83; Comm. on Future of NC, Executive 
Committee and Chairman, Natural Resources Panel, 1981-83; Governors Special 
Task Force, Drinking Drivers, 1982-83. 

PoliticaLActivities: Served in N.C. House of Representatives. 1979-80. 1981-82 and 1983; 
Commissioner, Town of Nags Head, 1973-1978 and Mayor, Nags Head, 1975-1978; 
Delegate to the 1980 Democratic National Convention, New York City. 

Military Service: Served. U.S. Army Reserve, 1969-75, (Sgt. E-5). 

Honors: Received Outstanding Young Men of America, 1976 & 1980; Distinguished Ser- 
vice Award by DareCount\ Jaycees, 1978; Author of "Workman's Compensation at 
Sea"' published by Vanderbilt Law Journal; Attended White House briefing on SALT 
II Treaty at invitation of President Carter, 1979; Received award from Governor 
Terry Sanford as NC's most Outstanding Young Man, 1962; State winner in 4-H 
public speaking. 1960 and 4-H citizenship project. 1963; tapped into the State 4-H 
Honor Club, 1964; and delegate to National 4-H Club Congress in Chicago, 1963 and 
Tennessee State 4-H Roundup. 1964. 

Religious Activities: Member. Mount Olive United Methodist Church and past member 
of Administrative Board. 

Family: Married. Rebecca Aydlett. June 27, 1976; Three children; Charles Kramer, Win- 
borne Harrell and Douglas Aydlett. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Bank and Thrift Institutions 

Vice-Chairman: Appropriations Base Budget Committee on General Govern- 
ment; Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on General Government; 
Judiciary III 

Member: Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget; 
Commercial Fishing; Governmental Ethics; Public Utilities; Rules and Opera- 
tion of the House; State Government. 




The Legislative Branch 343 

JEANNE TUCKER FENNER 

(Democrat — Madison County) 

Eighth Representative District Edgecombe. Nash, and Wilson Counties 
— Four Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Washington, D.C., September 3, 1933, to Herbert A. and Geraldine 
(Struble) Tucker. 

Education: Attended Atlantic Christian College, 2 years. 

Occupation: Homemaker. 

Organizations: Association for Retarded Citizens/North Carolina; Wilson Democratic 
Women. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Mental Health Study Commission, 1981-82; 
Legislative Commission on Children with Special Needs. N.C. Council on Develop- 
mental Disabilities. 1977-. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1980 (appointed to fill 
vacancy created by resignation of A. Hartwell Campbell), 1981-82. Elected N.C. 
House 1981-83, 1983-1985. 

Honors: Layman of the Year. NC Association for Retarded Citizens, 1976; Service to 
Manking Award, Wilson Sertoma Club, 1978; Dybward international Award, 
National Association for Retarded Citizens, 1979; National Member of the Year 
Award, National Association for Retarded Citizens, 1980; Legislator of the Year, NC 
Mental Health Centers Association, 1981. Distinguished Service Award, N.C. 
Association of Directors of Developmental Disability Centers, 1983. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Wilson; Past District Director, 
Albemarle Presbyterian WOC; Chairman, Birthday Objective, Albemarle 
Presbyterian WOC, 1974; Former Sunday School Teacher; Former Circle Bible 
Moderator. 

Family: Married, William Eaton Fenner. March 15, 1953; Children: William Eaton, Jr., 
Elizabeth Heyward, Edwin Feebee, Thomas Shaw, and Jeanne Ashley. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Commissions and Schools for the Blind and Deaf 
Vice-Chairman: Governmental Ethics; Mental Health 

Member: Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on Human Resources; Appropriations — Expansion Budget; Appropria- 
tions Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources; Education; Health: 
Judiciary II; State Government. 



344 



North Carolina Manual 




RAY CHARLES FLETCHER 

(Democrat — Burke County) 

Forty-seventh Representative District Linvilie, Lovelady, Morganton, 
Quaker Meadow, and Silver Creek Townships of Burke County — One 
Representative. 



Early \ears: Born in Forest City, Rutherford County, May 4, 1931, to Troy L. Fletcher, 
Sr. and Geneva Beddingfield. 

Education: Graduated, Drevel High School: University North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 
Occupation: Corporate Executive (Secy-Treas., City Motor Company of Valdese, Inc.) 
Organizations: Current Member & President, Rotary Club; Member, Burke County 
Chamber of Commerce: Past President, Valdese Merchants Assciation; Past Presi- 
dent, Lovelady United Fund: Past President, Valdese Jaycees; Past President. Burke 
County Democratic Party: Past Chairman, Burke County Young Democratic Club: 
Past Chainnan, Valdese Parks & Recreation. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman of the Board, NC School for Deaf. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1983: Mayor, Town of 
Valdese. 

Military Service: Served in US Navy, 1951-54. 

Honors: Young Man of the Year Award, 1961, Valdese Jaycees: Rotarian Award of the 
Year Award. 1965. 

Religious Activities: Member, Waldensian Presbyterian Church; Past Deacon. 

Family: Married. Mar\ Beth Goodman, November 29. 1980; Children: Raye Lynn, 
Randy. Ruthie, and Christie Taylor. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations — Base Budget: Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on Justice and Public Safety; Appropriations — Expansion Budget; Ap- 
propriations Expansion Budget Committee of Justice and Public Safety: 
Banks & Thrift Institutions: Election Laws; Local Government I; Mental 
Health; Natural and Economic Resources; Small Business: State Personnel. 




The Legislative Branch 345 

JO GRAHAM FOSTER 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg County) 

Thirly-Si\ Representative District — Mecklenburg County. Eight 

Representatives. 



Early Years: Born May 22. 1915, to Rev. Joseph Alexander and Queen (McDonald) 
Graham. 

Education: Attended McBee S.C. High School. 1927-28, and Spring Hill Central High 
School, 1928-1931: Graduated, Columbia College, 1935. 

Occupation: Former Administrative Assistant to Superintendent, Charlotte- 
Mecklenburg Schools. (Now retired) 

Organizations: Member, Delta Kappa Gamma: National Education Association; NC 
Association of Educators: P.A.C.E., Local Unit of Charlotte-Mecklenburg 
Educators: National Association, Secondary School Principals: Gamma Sigma 
Sorority: Sigma Tau Delta Honorary Society: international Platform Association: 
Precinct Committee: National Task Force on Sex Equity in Education: National 
Committee for Citizenship, Social Studies. State-Federal Assembly. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Education Commission of the States (ECS): Board 
of Visitors Johnson C. Smith University: Board of Visitors Boys Town: Board of 
Bethlehem Center. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 
1979-80, 1981-82 and 1983. 

Honors: Nominee, field of Education, as a Salute to Working Women, 1968, Past Presi- 
dent, N.C.A.E.: Listed in Who's Who of American Platform: Selected Legislator of 
the Year by NC School Counselors, 1979: Selected National Legislator of the Year by 
the American School Counselors, 1979. Awarded World Gideon Bible in 1979. 

Religious Activities: Member, Dilworth Methodist Church, Charlotte: Board of 
Stewards: Adult Sunday School Teacher: Lay Speaker: Served on several committees 
including Committee on Education. 

Family: Married, James Benjamin Foster, June 4, 1937: One Daughter: Mary Jo Foster 
McClure. Twin grandsons. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Education 

Vice-Chairman: Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Education: Ap- 
propriations Expansion Budget Committee on Education: University Board of 
Governors Nominating Committee 

Member: Aging: Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations — Expansion 
Budget: Constitutional Amendments: Insurance: Military and Veterans Af- 
fairs: Pension and Retirement: Advisorv Budcet Commission. 



346 



North Carolina Manual 




GERALD MALCOLM FULCHER, JR. 

(Democrat — Carteret County) 



Fourth Representative District 

Representatives. 



Carteret and Onslow Counties — Three 



Early Years: Born in Morehead City, Carteret County, North Carolina, September 23, 
1940, to Gerald M. and Nellie (Hill) Fulcher. Sr. 

Education: Graduated University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1968, B.A.: Duke 
Graduate School. 

Occupation: Legislator. 

Organizations: Member, NC Association of Education: National Education Associa- 
tion; NC Personnnel and Guidance Assocaition; Classroom Teachers Association. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives. 1977-78. 1979-80, 1981-82 

and 1983. 
Religious Activities: Member. Atlantic United Methodist Church. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Education 
Vice-Chairman: Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations — Expansion 

Budget; Commercial Fishing: Economy 
Member: Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Education; Educa- 
tion: Higher Education: Mental Health: Natural and Economic Resources; 
Public Utilities. 




The Legislative Branch 347 

AARON ELEAZAR FUSSELL 

(Democrat -- Wake County) 

Twenty-First Representative District - Wake County - Six 

Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Rose Hill, Duplin County, July 5, 1923, to C.T. and Myra Blake 
(Cavenaugh) Fussell. 

Education: Graduated Rose Hill High School, 1940; Atlantic Christian College, 1946, 
A.B.; University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, 1952, M.Ed.: Duke University-Post 
Graduate, NCSU. 

Occupation: Retired Educator (35 Years Public Schools, Supt. of Schools). 

Organizations: Member: Educational Chamber: Educational Fraternity: Mason and 
Scottish Rites; Former President — North Raleigh Lions Club. 30 years; 20 civil and 
Political. 

Boards and Commissions: Chmn., The Capital Area Visitor Services Committee: Mem- 
ber The Local Government Advocacy Council. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, 1981-82 and 1983. 

Military Service: Served U.S. Army, Corporal, 194345; 5 Major Campaigns Decorated. 

Honors: Author of "Teacher Evaluation Legal Residence." 

Religious Activities: Member, Millbrook United Methodist Church: Chairman of the 

Board; President, Men's Club; Lay Leader: Teacher and Trustee. 
Family: Married, Polly. August 14, 1949; Four Children; Two Grandchildren. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Highway Safety 
Vice-Chairman: Education; State Personnel 

Member: Aging: Appropriations — Base Budget: Appropriations Base Budget 
Committee on General Government: Appropriations - Expansion Budget: 
Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on General Government: Com- 
missions & Schools for the Blind & Deaf; Energy; Higher Education. 



348 North Carolina Manual 




JAMES WORTH GENTRY 

(Democrat — Stokes County) 

Fortieth Representative District - Aileghanv, Ashe, and Surry Counties; 
Big Creei<, Danbury, Meadows, Peters Creek, Quaker Gap, Sauratown, 
and Yadkin Townships of Stokes County: and Bald Mountain, Blowing 
Rock, Blue Ridge, Boone, Brushy Fork, Cove Creek, Elk, Meat Camp, 
New River, North Fork, Stony Fork, and Watauga Townships of 
Watauga County. 



Early Years: Born in King, Stokes County, August 4, 1908, to Ira Gaston and Mary 

(Kreeger) Gentry. 
Education: Graduated, King High School, 1928; Draughon Business College, 1928-29. 
Occupation: King Guano Company: Gentry Brothers Grading Contractors; General 

farming (tobacco & beef cattle). 

Organizations: Charter member. King Lions Club, 1948-82. President, 1957; Mason; 
President, Stokes County United Fund. 1959; President, NC Agricultural Founda- 
tion, 1972-73; Member. Stokes County Industrial Committee, Northwest Develop- 
ment Association. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Board of Trustees, Stokes-Reynolds Memorial 
Hospital, 1952-82, Chairman of the Board. 1966-76. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1969-70, 1971-72, 1975-76, 
1977-78, and 1983; Served in NC Senate 1961-62. 1965-66 and 1967-68; County 
Commissioner. 1957-58; Chairman, Local Board of Education. 1950-1957. 

Honors: "Citizen of the Year," 1958, King Lions Club. 

Religious Activities: Member, Chestnut Grove United Methodist Church; Steward. 
Religious .Activities: Member, Chestnut Grove United Methodist Church; Steward. 
Family: Married, Marguerite Slate Gentry, June 16, 1934; Children: Marvin Dean, and 
Glenn Worth. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Election Laws 

Vice-Chairman: State Properties; Wildlife Resources 

Member: Finance; Insurance; Local Government II; Transportation, Agriculture 
and Housing. 




The Legislative Branch 349 

JOHN BOND GILLAM, III 

(Democrat — Bertie County) 

Sixth Representative District - Colerain, Merry Hill, Mitchells, Whites, 
and Windsor Townships of Bertie County; Ahoskie Townships of 
Hertford County: Beargrass, Cross Roads, Griffins, Jamesville, Poplar 
Point. Williams, and Williamston Townships of Martin County; and 
Bethel and Carolina Townships of Pitt County One Representative. 



Early Years: Born in Windsor, Bertie County, September 29, 1946, to John B. and Delia 
(Roberson) Gillam. Jr. 

Education: Attended Fork Union Military Academy, 1963-65; Atlantic Christian 
College, 1965-67; University of Hawaii, 1967; University of Georgia, 1967-68, A.B., 
Journaism; University of Virginia, 1971, M. Education (MED). 

Occupation: Agribusiness, (Gillam Bros. Peanut Sheller, Inc.) 

Organizations: Virginia-Carolina Peanut Assocaition; Chairman, Virginia Carolina 
Peanut Advisory Committee; NC Crop Improvement Association; Sigma Phi Ep- 
silon; Historic Hope Foundation, Inc., (President); Member, Windsor Jaycees; 
(President) Windsor Rotary Club; Chairman, 1980-81 and 1982 Tuscarora District 
Boy Scouts of America; Member, NC Community Development Council; President, 
NC Crop Improvement Association, 1981-82; Chairman, Chowan River-Albemarle 
Basen Study Commission, 1982. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Board of Trustees, Fork Union Military Academy; 
Member, Board of Directors, NC Crop Improvement Association, North Carolina 
Fire Commission, 1981-82; North Carolina Telecommunications Board, 1981-82. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981-82 and 1983. 

Honors: "Outstanding Young Man of the Year," 1979-81, U.S. Jaycees; Award of 
Merit (Boy Scouts of America, Tuscarora District); Tuscarora District Association 
Leadership Award, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982; Award of Merit (Boy Scouts of 
America — Tuscarora District); Spark Plug Award (Boy Scouts of America), 1980; 
Reynolds Temple Certificate of Outstanding Leadership, 1982. 

Religious Activities: Member, Windsor United Methodist Church; Sunday School 
Teacher, 1978-80; Lay Leader, 1980-81; Administrative Board, 1978-83. 

Family: Married. Barbara Snead Gillam. January 19, 1973; Children: Peter Snead 
Pastore, and Elizabeth Roberson Snead. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice-Chairman: Agriculture; Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Justice 
and Public Safety; Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Justice 
and Public Safety; Local Government I 

Member: Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget; Banks & 
Thrift Institutions; Corrections; Courts & Administration of Justice; Health; 
Judiciary IV. 



350 North Carouna Manual 






HERMAN COLRIDGE GIST 

(Democrat -- Guilford County) 

Twenty-Sixth Representative District — Providence Township of Ran- 
dolph County and Greensboro Precincts 5, 6, 7, 8, 19, 29, and 30, and 
Fentress Township of Guilford County - One Representative. 



Early \ears: Born in Spartanburg, S.C., December 12, 1923, to Arthur and Louie 

(Casey) Gist. 
Education: Attended, Highland Grade School, 1929-1936: Graduated, Carver High 

School, 1940; N.C. A^& T State University, 1964 B.S. (Biology). 

Occupation: Coffee. Herbs & Teas Manufacturer. 

Organizations: Chairman, Political Awareness: Greensboro, Citizens Forum, 1979- 
present: Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, 1942-present. 

Boards and Commissions: Alcoholic Beverage Control Board, 1980-present. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1983. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army (Corporal. Quartermaster Corp): Good Conduct 

Medal. 
Religious .Activities: Member, St. Matthews Church. 
Family: Married, Grace Grant, November, 1968: Three Children. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control: Appropriations — Base Budget: Ap- 
propriations Base Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety: Appropria- 
tions — Expansion Budget: Apropropriations Expansion Budget Committee 
on Justice and Public Safety: Banks & Thrift Institutions: Employment 
Security: Manufacturers & Labor: Small Business: State Government; Univer- 
sity Board of Governors Nominatinating Committee. 




The Legislative Branch 351 

GORDON HICKS GREENWOOD 

(Democrat -- Buncombe County) 

Fifty-First Representative District - Buncombe and Transylvania Coun- 
ties: and Bowmans Bluff, Crab Creek and Hoopers Creek Townships of 
Henderson County -- Four Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Black Mountain, Buncombe County, July 3, 1909, to James Hicks 
and Louella Ray Greenwood. 

Education: University of Illinois, 1941, B.S., in Journalism: University of London, 
England, 1945. 

Occupation: College Administrator and Former Professor (Asst. to President, 
Montreat-Anderson College; Manager, New England Press Association; Asst. 
Professor of Journalism, Boston University, Boston, Mass, 1951-52; Director of Ad- 
missions, Montreat-Anderson, 1973-76.) 

Organizations: Member, Black Mountain Lodge No. 663 A.F. & A.M., Asheville Chap- 
ter No. 25; Black Mountain Lions Club; Chamber of Commerce; V.F.W.; American 
Legion; D.A.V.; Sons of American Revolution; Sons of Confederate Veterans; One 
of the Organizers of Western North Carolina Development Association. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, State Board of Higher Education, 1963-1968. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1959, 1961, 1963, 1965-66, 
1967, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82 and 1983; Chairman, Buncombe County Board of 
Commissioners, 1968-1972, member of Black Mountain Town Board, 1973-76. 

Military Service: Served overseas in U.S. Army, Psychologist, May 1943-December, 
1945. 

Honors: NC Commissioners of the Year, 1971 and outstanding alumni UNC-A, 1981. 

Religious Activities: Member, Black Mountain United Methodist Church; Member Of- 
ficial Board Several Years. 

Family: Married, Garnet Elizabeth Carder, March 8, 1941; Children: G. Gordon and 
Ricky Eugene. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Education 
Vice-Chairman: Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations — Expansion 
Budget; Energy: Military and Veterans Affairs 

Member: Agriculture: Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Education; 
Commissions & Schools for the Blind & Deaf; Economy; Human Resources; 
Mental Health. 



352 



North Carolina Manual 




WILLIAM T. GRIMSLEY, JR. 

(Democrat — Guilford County) 

Twenty-Ninth Representative District — Belews Creek and Salem Chapel 
Townships of Forsyth County and North Center Grove Precinct, South 
Madison Precinct, North Monroe Precinct and Bruce, Clay, Greene, Jef- 
ferson, Oak Ridge, Rock Creek and Washington Townships of Guilford 
County One Representative. 



Early Years: Born in Greensboro, Guilford County, May 22, 1923, to William T. Sr. 
and Corinne Healan (Justice) Grimsley. 

Education: Graduated, Darlington School, (Rome, GA.) 1940; Davidson College, 1948; 

B.S. Degree, Bowman Gray School Medicine, 1952, MD Degree. 
Occupation: Physician (Family Practice). 

Organizations: American Medical Association; NC State Medical Society; Guilford 
County Medical Society; Past President, Summerfield Community Council, 1975. 

Boards and Commissions: Diplomate American Board of Family Practice; Local Board 
of Directors, Central Carolina Bank; Board of Directors, United Services for Older 
Adults. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1983. 
Military Service: Served in US Navy, 1943-1946, (Lieutenant J.G.); Reserves, 1946- 
1952; American Theater Combat Medal; Pacific Theater Combat Medal. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist; Sunday School Teacher; Young Married 
Class. 

Family: Married, Esther Marion Nowell, December 29, 1967; One Daughter. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Aging; Agriculture; Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations 
Base Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Appropriations Expan- 
sion Budget; Appropriations Expansion Committee on Justice and Public 
Safety; Corrections; Health; Highway Safety; Human Resources; Mental 
Health. 



The Legislative Branch 



353 




JOE HACKNEY 

(Democrat — Orange County) 

Twenty-Fourth Representative District Orange County: and Baldwin, 
Cape Fear, Center, Hadiey, Haw River, Hickory Mountain, Matthews, 
New Hope. Oakland, and Williams Townships of Chatham County -- 
Two Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Slier City, Chatham County, September 23, 1945, to Herbert 

Harold and Ida LiiUan (Dorsett) Hackney. 
Education: Graduated Silk Hope High School, 1963; Attended North Carolina State 

University, 1963-64: graduated University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, 1967, A.B. 

with Honors (Political Science): University of North Carolina School of Law, 1970, 

J.D. 
Occupation: Attorney, (Partner in firm Epting & Hackney, Chapel Hill): Research 

Assistant, NC Supreme Court, for J. Frank Huskins, Associate Justice, 1970-71: 

Assistant District Attorney, 15th District, 1971-74. 
Organizations: Member. American Bar Association: NC Bar Association: (Committee 

on Legislature & Law Reform): Orange County Bar Association; NC Academy of 

Trial Lawyers; Appalachian Trial Conference; Conservation Council of NC. 
Boards and Commissions: Joint Orange-Chatham Community Action, Inc; Conserva- 
tion Foundation of North Carolina: Past President, Orange Chatham Legal Services; 

Citizens Commission on Alternatives to Incarceration, Governor's Crime 

Commission. 
Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981-82 and 1983. 
Honors: Past President. District 15-Bar: Past President, Orange County Bar 

Association. 
Religious Activities: Member, Hickory Mountain Baptist Church. 
Family: Married, Betsy Strandberg Hackney, September 15, 1979. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Energy 

Vice-Chairman: Corrections; Law Enforcement 

Member: Finance; Courts & Administration of Justice; Higher Education; 
Judiciary I; Natural and Economic Resources. 



354 North Carolina Manual 




JOHN CALVIN HASTY 

(Democrat — Robeson County) 

Sixteenth Representative District - Hoke and Robeson Counties: and 
Spring Hill. Stevvartsville. and Williamsons Townships of Scotland 
County — Three Representatives. 



Early Years: Borh in Maxton, Robeson County, March 9, 1930, to William Howard and 

Flora Belle (Currie) Hasty. 
Education: Attended, Maxton Public Schools: Graduated, Maxton High School, 1948; 

Presbyterian Junior College. 1950, A. S.; University of NC at ChapeF Hill, 1953, B.S. 

Occupation: Insurance Agent and Real Estate (Hasty Insurance Agency, Inc., President); 
Pace-Henderson Finance Co., Inc.. President; Future Agency of Laurinburg, Inc., 
President; Hasty Realty, Partner). 

Organizations: Independent Insurance Agents Association; NC Association of Premium 
Finance Companies. Director, 1978-82, Secretary, 1981-82; Mormax Club, President, 
1971; Cape Fear Area Council Boy Scouts of America, President, 1973-75, Director, 
1967-present; President, Maxton Junior Chamber of Commerce, 1959; Director, 
1976, Laurinburg-Scotland Area Chamber of Commerce; Past President, Maxton 
Historical Society. 

Boards and Commissions: Laurinburg-Maxton Airport Commission, Chairman, 1980- 
82; Scotland Memorial Hospital, Executive Committee Board of Trustees; Southern 
National Bank, Local Board Member; Maxton Planning Commission; Maxton Zon- 
ing Board. 

Political .Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1983; Mayor and City 
Council for Town of Maxton. 

Military Service: Served in US Mary, 1953-1955 (101st Airbon Division, Sargeant). 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Pauls United Methodist Church; Chairman, Ad- 
ministrative Board, 1976-77; Chairman, Building Committee, 1972; Delegate to An- 
nual Conference; Chairman, Finance. 

Family: Married. Betty Anne Upchurch, October 22, 1955; Children: John Calvin Hasty, 
Jr.: Flora Anne Hasty: and Elizabeth Upchurch Hasty. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Finance; Insurance; Judiciary III; Law Enforcement: Local Government 
II; Manufacturers and Labor; Public Utilities; State Government. 



The Legislative Branch 355 



■^ CHARLIE BRADY HAUSER 



,-4B 



(Democrat — Forsyth County) 



Thirty-Ninth Representative District — Abbotts Creek, Bethania, Broad- 
bay, Ciemmonsviile, Kernersville, Lewisville, Middle Fork, Old Rich- 
j*^ mond, Old Town, South Fork, Vienna, and Winston Townships of For- 

syth County - Five Representatives. 




Early Years: Born in Yadkinville, October 13, 1917, to Daniel M. (deceased) and Callie 
V. Hauser. 

Education: Graduated, Dunbar High School. 1936: Winston-Salem State University, 
1940, B.S.; University of Pennsylvania, 1947, M.S.; 1956, Ed.D.; Catholic University 
of America, 1941; Texas Southern University, 1968; US Army Administration School 
Proving Ground, 111. 

Occupation: Professor, Winston-Salem State University, 1956-1977; Professor. Allen 
University. 1955-56; Principal, Mary H. Wright Elementary School; Instructor. West 
Virginia State College. 1947-50; Teacher. 14th Street School, Winston-Saiem. 

Organizations: Life Member; NEA, National Retired Teachers Association; President, 
Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Council. IRA, 1973-74; Former Member, ATE, 
NCAE, NCARE. and Citizens United for Improvement of Reading American 
Educational Research Association; Life Member and Chairman Life Membership 
Committee, NAACP; Treasuer Prince's Feather Garden Club; Life Member, Omega 
Psi Phi Fraternity; Member, Century Club, YMCA; Advisory Committee DEEP, 
Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools, 1974-present; Winston-Salem Power 
Squadron; Phi Delta Kappa Fraternity; Urban League Guild; Emancipation 
Association; Tanglewood Arboretum Committee; Winston-Salem Improvement 
Association; American Lung Association; Northwestern Region of ALANC; For- 
syth County Mental Health Association; International Municipal Cooperation 
Committee of Winston-Salem. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Management. Patterson Ave. YMCA; (Chairman, 
two different terms); Dixie Classic Fair Commission. 1978-82; Board of Trustees, 
Forsyth Tech. Institute; Board, YMCA of Winston-Salem/Forsyth County. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives. 1983; Served as Judge, 
Precinct Chairman and Registrar. Paisley Precinct; County and State Executive Com- 
mittee; Delegate to County, District and State conventions; Campaign Chairman, 
first Black elected to a Countvwide office in Forsyth County since Reconstruction, 
1960. 

Military Service: Served in US Army. 1942-45, S/Sgt, 58 2nd Ord. Am. Co.; Received, 
ETO Ribbon with Five Battle Stars; Good Conduct Medal. 

Honors: Inducted, Winston-Salem State University and CIAA/Sports Hall of Fame; 
Certificates & Plaques from various charitable, civic, educational, fraternal and 
religious organizations; Board of Governors of University of NC. 

Religious Activities: Member, Mt. Zion Baptist Church; Asst. Supt. Sunday Church 
School; Trustee; Oraculum Staff; Former Member, Pulpit Search Committee. 

Family: Married, Lois Elizabeth Brown, April 4, 1943; Children: Fay E. Hauser and Lois 
P. Hauser Golding. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Aging; Finance; Corporations; Education; Higher Education; Human 
Resources; Mental Health; Small Business; Housing. 



356 North Carolina Manual 





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MARGARET BLEDSOE HAYDEN 

(Democrat — Alleghany County) 

Forlielh Representative District — Alleghany, Ashe and Surry Counties; 
Big Creek, Danbury, Meadows, Peters Creek, Quaker Gap, Sauratown, 
and Yadkin Townships of Stokes County: and Bald Mountain. Blowing 
Rock. Blue Ridge, Boone, Brushy Fork, Cove Creek, Elk, Meat Camp, 
New River, North Fork, Stony Fork and Watauga Townships of 
Watauga County — Three Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Todd, Ashe Count, March 5, 1939, to Boss George and Eula 
Luther Bledsoe. 

Education: Graduated, Piney Creek High School; Appalachian State University. 1961, 
B.S. (Elementary Education); 1971, M.A. (Special Education); Additional Graduate 
Training, Seminars, and Short Courses, 1965-1980. 

Occupation: Educational Consultant (Program Planning Specialist, Division of Excep- 
tional Children, Department of Public Instruction, Northwest Regional Education 
Center); President, Future Heirlooms Ltd. 

Organizations: Member: NCSEA since 1977; Delta Kappa Gamma International 
Honor Society for Educators; Special Task Force on Sexual Assault, 1981 — ; 
American Association of University Women, 1981 — ; N.C. Women's 
Forum. 1981 — ; Coalition to Save Maternal and Infant Lives, March of Dimes Birth 
Defects Foundation, 1981 — ; Association for Retarded Children, Charter Member 
and Ways and Means Chairman, 1966 — . Past Member: Alleghany Leadership Con- 
ference for Women, 1981 (Leadership Chairman); Selection Committee for 
Morehead Scholarship, Alleghany County, 1980; NCAE, 1966-1977; NAE, 1966- 
1977; Alleghany Educators Association, 1966-1977. 

Boards and Commissions: Member: Board of Trustees, N.C. School of Science and 
Mathematics, 1981—; N.C. 2000 Commission, 1981—; N.C. Council on the Status 
of Women, 1981 — ; Board of Directors, Development Evaluation Center (Boone). 
1981 — ; Council on Exceptional Children. 1966—; Southern Assocaition Evaluation 
Team; Dept. of Pub. Inst., 1978 — . Past Member: N.C. Textbook Commission, 1978- 
79; State Accreditation Evaluation Team, Dept. of Pub. Inst.. 1977-1981; Special 
Task Force on Women & the Economy. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981-82 and 1983; Mayor 
of Sparta, 1977-1981 (Two Terms); N.C. Federation of College Democrats, 1981 — ; 
First Vice Chairperson, Democratic Party. 1967-1977; Secretary-Treasurer, Young 
Democrats Club, 1968-1970. 

Honors: "Outstanding Personalities of the South Award," 1978 & 1980 (Listed in 
Outstanding Personalities of the South); "Outstanding Leaders in Elementary and 
Secondary Education," 1976, by The Outstanding Elementary and Secondary 
Educators; "Outstanding Teachers of Exceptional Children," by America's Out- 
standing Educator. Certificate of Recognition, 1972, by The Pointer (Special Educa- 
tion Magazine); "Teacher of the Year," 1972, Alleghany County; Regional "Teacher 
of the Year," 1972, Department of Public Instruction. 

Religious Activities: Member, Sparta Presbyterian Church; Board of Eldes. 

Family: Married, Herman N. Hayden, Jr., June 3, 1972; Children; Jackson Lane Phipps 
and Steven Zane Phipps. 



The Legislative Branch 357 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Corporations 

Vice-Chairman: Aging; Local Government I 

Member: Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget 

Committee on Education; Education; Health; Mental Health; Transportation; 

Subcommittee on Appropriations Base & Expansion for Education. 



358 



North Carolina Manual 




HAROLD PARKS HELMS 

(Democrat - Mecklenburg County) 



ThirtN -Sixth Representative District 
Representatives. 



Mecklenbura Countv 



Eight 



Early \'ears: Born in Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, November 5, 1935, to Wade H. 
and Ida Parks Helms. 

Education: Attended Charlotte Technical High School, Graduated 1954; University of 
NC, Chapel Hill, Graduated 1959, A. B.^ Degree; University of NC Law School, 
Chapel Hill, L.L.B. Degree, 1961. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law. 

Organizations: 26th Judicial District Bar Association; NC State Bar; NC Bar Associa- 
tion; American Bar Association; American Judicature Society; Phi Delta Theta 
Legal Fraternity; NC Academy of Trial Lawyers; Chi Phi Social Fraternity. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, NC Courts Commission, 1980-83; Judicial Coun- 
cil, 1976-81; Director. Preferred Savings & Loan, Inc. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 
1981-82, and 1983. 

Honors: Elected Charlotte's "Outstanding Young Man of the Year,'' 1970. 

Religious Activities: Member, Park Road Baptist Church, Charlotte; Deacon, 1969-71. 

Eamily: Married, Eleanor Jean Allen, March 26, 1959. Children: Deborah Parks Helms, 
Allen Grant Helms and William Gray Helms. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Courts and Administration of Justice 
Vice-Chairman: Higher Education; Local Government II 

Member: Finance; Constitutional Amendments; Judiciary I; Wildlife Resources; 
Housing. 







The Legislative Branch 359 

FOYLE ROBERT HIGHTOWER, JR. 

(Democrat — Anson County) 

Thirtv-Third Representative District Anson and Montgomery Coun- 
ties One Representative 



Early Years: Born in Wadesboro, Anson County, January 21, 1941, to Foyle Robert, 

and Mildred (Brigman) Hightower. 
Education: Graduated, Wadesboro High School, 1959; Elon College; University of 

North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Graduated, Wingate College (BGS degree). 
Occupation: Corporate Executive, (Vice-President, Hightower Ice & Fuel Co., Inc.) 

Organizations: Member. Kilwinning Lodge No. 64, Wadesboro. Ancient, Free and Ac- 
cepted Masons; 32nd Degree Mason; Shriner; Woodman of the World; Jaycees; 
Civitan, Past Director Wadesboro Club; Past Chairman, Anson Blood Program; 
American Red Cross; Member, Merit Badge Committee, Boy Scouts of America and 
Member Board of Review; Past Area Chairman, Cancer Drive; Master Counsellor 
Order of DeMolay, Wadesboro Chapter, 1959. 

Boards and Commissions: Member; NC Wildlife Resources Commission and Legislative 
Services Commission. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 

1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82 and 1983. 
Military Service: Served in U.S. Army Reserve, 1963-69 (Corporal). 
Honors: Anson County "Man of the Year," 1975. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Wadesboro; Sunday School 
Teacher; Secretary-Treasurer, Men of the Church. 1971; President. Men of the 
Church, 1973, 1977 and 1978; Deacon. Chairman of Board of Deacons, 1981. 

Family: Married, Pauline McElveen of Lake City, S.C.; Child: Victoria Joan 
Hightower. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Insurance 

Vice-Chairman: Finance; State Government 

IVlember: Agriculture; Economy; Transportation; Water and Air Resources; 
Wildlife Resources. 



360 



North Carolina Manual 




GEORGE MILTON HOLMES 

(Republican — Granville County) 

Forty-First Representative District Wilkes and Yadkin Counties: and 
Gwaltneys, Sharpes and Sugar Loaf Townships of Alexander County — 
Two Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Mount Airy, Surry County, June 20, 1929, to John William and 
Thelma Elizabeth (Dobie) Holmes. 

Education: Attended Mount Airy High School, 1944; Western High School, 
Washington, D.C., 1945-48: Appalachian State University, 1954: Travelers Multiple 
Line Insurance School, 1959. 

Occupation: Insurance Agency Executive (President, W.N. Ireland Insurance Agency, 
Inc.) 

Organizations: Member: NC Association of Independent Insurance Agents: National 
Association of Life Underwriters: Member: Yadkin Lodge 162 162 A.F. & A.M.: 
Winston-Salem, Consistory, Scottish Rite of Freemasonry: Shriner, Oasis Temple. 

Boards and Commissions: Member: Governor's Crime Study Commission, 1976: Fire 
and Casulaty Rate Study Commission, 1976: Board of Directors, Carolina Epilepsy 
Research Foundation: Board of Directors, Northwestern Bank, Yadkinville. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1979-80, 1981-82 
and 1983; N.C. House Minority Whip, 1981-82. Minority Party Joint Caucus 
Leaders, 1983-84. Yadkin County Republican Executive Committee: Eighth District 
Republican Executive Committee: State Republican Executive Committee, 1975-76, 
State Republican Central Committee, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84. 

Religious Activities: Member, Flat Rock Baptist Church; Deacon, 1956-70; Secretary, 
1956-60; Trustee, 1970-present; Sunday School Teacher, 1955-58; Superintendent, 
1968-72. 

Family: Married. Barbara Ann Ireland, June 30,1956; One Child: Jennifer Holmes 
Crawley. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations — Base Budget: Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on Justice and Public Safety; Appropriations — Expansion Budget; Ap- 
propriations Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Bank 
& Thrift Institutions: Courts & Administration of Justice: Insurance; Judiciary 
IV; Local Government 11; Rules and Operation of the House; State Personnel. 
Housing; Legislative Ethics. 




The Legislative Branch 361 

BERTHA MERRILL HOLT 

(Democrat - Alamance County) 

Twenty-fifth Representative District - Alamance and Rockingham 
Counties: and Veaver Island and Snow Creek Townships of Stokes 
County Four Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Eufaula, Alabama, August 16. 1916, to William H. Merrill and 
Bertha H. Moore. 

Education: Attended Eufaula High School, Agnes Scott College, Decatur, GA., B.A. 
Degree, 1938; UNC Law School, 1939-40; University of Alabama Law School, 1941, 
L.L.B. Degree; George Washington University, Washington, D.C., 1942 (Worked 
toward Masters.) 

Occupation: Legislator; Homemaker; Attorney (formerly an Attorney, with the Depart- 
ment of Interior and U.S. Treasury) 

Organizations: Pi Beta Phi Sorority; Past President, Alamance County Democratic 
Women; Chairman, Headquarters Committee, 1962-64; Member, Democratic Ex- 
ecutive Committee, 1964-75; Vice-Chairman, Alamance County Democratic Ex- 
ecutive Committee, 1964-66; Member, NC Bar Association; Member, English 
Speaking Union; Les Amis du Vin, Historical Society and Travel Organizations. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Social Services Board, 1973-74; Board of Directors, 
UNC-Chapel Hill Law Alumna Association, 1978-80; Advisory Committee, 
Arachaeology, 1979-80; Board of Directors, Hospice; Board of Directors. State 
Council Social Legislation, 1978-80; Joint Commission on Governmental 
Operations. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, (Appointed 
August, 1975 to replace Jim Long), 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, and 1983. 

Honors: Named "Outstanding Alumna" April, 1978, Agnes Scott College, Atlanta, 
Ga., and awarded the Community Service Award by her Alma Mater; Named in 
Who's Who of American Women. 

Religious Activities: Member, Episcopal Church of Holy Comforter, Burlington; Presi- 
dent, Episcopal Church Women. 1968; Member of Vestry, Senior Warden. 1974; 
Chairman. Finance Committee of Diocese of NC 1973-74; Diocesan Council, 1972- 
74; Standing Committee of Diocee, 1975-77; Teacher. High School Sunday School 
Class; Chairman, Diocesan Grant Committee. 1972-80. 

Family: Married, Winfield Clary Holt, March 14, 1942; Children: Harriet Holt Whitley, 
William Merrill; Winfield Jefferson; Two Grandchildren: Allyson and Anna 
Whitley. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Constitutional Amendments 

Vice-Chairman: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Government Ethics 

Member: Finance; Banks & Thrift Institutions; Judiciary III; Natural and 
Economic Resources; Stale Government. 



362 North Carolina Manual 






JOSEPH RICHARDSON HUDSON 

(Democrat -- Union County) 

Thirty-fourth Representative District -- Cabarrus, Stanly, and Union 
Counties -- Four Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Waxhaw, Union County, October 29, 1931, to Richard Alexander 
and Hilda Loftin Hudson. 

Education: Graduated Waxhaw High School, 1949; Wingate Jr. College, 1951; Queens 
College, 1961 A.B. (Economics). 

Occupation: Corporate Executive (President, RCS, Inc. — Residential and Commercial 
Garbage Service). 

Organizations: Member: Monroe Rotary Club. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1983; Union County Board 
of County Commissioners, 1974-1982 (Chairman, 1978-1982); Chairman, Centralina 
Council of Governments, 1977-1979. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Air Force, 1951-1955. 

Religious Activities: Member, Providence Presbyterian Church; Superintendent; 
Deacon; Elder, 1981-1984. 

Family: Married, Edith Bradley Sise, January 22, 1955; Children; Jamie Susan, 
Catherine Sise, Joseph R. Jr., and Barbara Hilda. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Finance; Judiciary HI; Local Government I; 
Small Business; State Properties; Transportation, Water and Air Resources. 




The Legislative Branch 363 

CHARLES HARRY HUGHES 

(Republican - Henderson County) 

Fiftieth Representative District Blue Ridge, Clear Creek, Edneyville, 
Green River, Hendersonviile, and Mills River Townships of Henderson 
County One Representative. 



Early Years: Born in Asheboro, Randolph County, April 20, 1945, to William Dawson 
and Hazel (Comer) Hughes. 

Education: Attended Asheboro High School, 1959-60, 1962-63; Randolph Tech, 1963; 
Greensboro College, 1963-65, 2 years Credits; University of NC School of Banking, 
1969, General; General Acceptance Corp., 1965, Consumer Finance Degree; Bank 
Administration Institute, General, 1966-71; Mesco Building Systems, Estimating 
and Engineering, 1977, General, Kirby Building Systems, Estimating & Engineering, 
1979, General. 

Occupation: General Contractor; Bank, Vice-President and Manager. 

Organizations: Member, Elks Club; Lions Club; Hendersonviile Jaycees; W.N.C. 
Sportsmans Association; Hendersonviile, Chamber of Commerce. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981-82 and 1983. 

Honors: Award for Excellence in Estimating, 1979, Kirby Building Systems. 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist, Hendersonviile. 

Family: Married, M. Suzanne Hughes, May 8, 1965; Children: William Russell Hughes 
and Angela Christine Hughes. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Aging; Appropriations - Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on Justice & Public Safety; Appropriations -- Expansion Budget; Ap- 
propriations Expansion Budget Cominittee on Commercial Fishing; Courts & 
Administration of Justice; Governmental Ethics; Higher Education; Law En- 
forcement; Wildlife Resources. 



364 



North Carolina Manual 




JAMES FRANK HUGHES 

(Republican — Avery County) 

Fort\-si\th Representative District Avery, Caldwell, and Mitchell 
Counties; Eilendale, Little River, Taylorsviile, and Wittenberg townships 
of Alexander County: Drexei Icard, Jonas Ridge, Lower Creek, Smoky 
Creek, and Upper Creek Townships of Burke County: and Beaverdam, 
Laurel Creek, and Shawneehaw Townships of Watauga County - Three 
Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Linville. Avery County, June 20, 1925, to Columbus Henry and 

Bertha (Boone) Hughes. 
Education: Attended Newland Elementary and Newland High School, 1930-1942. 
Occupation: Owner and Operator. Pixie Motor Inn, Linville, N.C. 

Organizations: Member, Linville Masonic Lodge #489: Oasis Shrine Temple: Newland 
Moose Lodge #489: Life Member, Pat Ray Post VFW: National Rifle Association; 
Highland (Avery County) Shrine Club: Optimist Club of Avery County. 

Boards and Commissions: 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1957, 1981-82 and 1983; 
Served in NC Senate, 1973-74. 

Military Service: Served U.S.Army, 1944-1946. 

Religious Activities: Member, Linville Methodist Church. 

Family: Married, Marietta Pittman Hughes, March 25, 1947; Children: Kaye Hughes 
Greene: Sharon Hughes Peters: and James F. Hughes, Jr. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations -- Base Budget: Appropriations Base Budget Committee on 
Natural and Economic Resources: Appropriations Expansion Budget Com- 
mittee on Natural and Economic Resources: Constitutional Amendments; In- 
surance: Judiciary I; Local Government II; Public Utilities; Transportation; 
Wildlife Resources. 



The Legislative Branch 



365 




JOHN JACKSON HUNT 

(Democrat — Cleveland County) 

Forty-eight Representative District Cleveland, Polk, and Ruther- 
fordton Counties -- Three Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Lattimore, November 27, 1922, to Robert Lee and Alma (Harrill) 
Hunt. 

Education: Graduated Wake Forest University, 1943, B.S.; Emory University, 1946 

D.D.S. 
Occupation: Dentist; Merchant; and Farmer. 

Organizations: Member, ADA; NCDS; Isothermal Dental Society; Member, Mason's; 
Shriner. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Legislative Research Committee; House Member 

National Conference on State Legislatures. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1979-80, 
1981-82 and 1983; Alderman, Lattimore, 1958-1964; Chairman, Military & Veterans 
Affairs Commission, 1979-1980. 

Military Service: Served U.S. Army, 1943-1948 and 1950-1952 (Major). 

Honors: Honorary Member, NC National Guard, AMVETS USS NC Battleship 
Award. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Ruby Cowder, June 22, 1946; Children: Judy Kohler, Penny Corn, 
Libby Sarazen, Sally Jones and Cindy Martin. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Rules and Operation of the House 
Vice-Chairman: Military and Veterans Affairs; Transportation 
Member: Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on Natural and Economic Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget; 
Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and Economic 
Resources; Energy; Law Enforcement; University Board of Governors 
Nominating Committee. 



366 North Carolina Manual 




ROBERT CARL HI NTER 

(Democrat — McDowell County) 

Fort\-Ninlh Representative District - McDowell and Yancey Counties 
One Representative. 



Early Years: Born in Marion, January 14, 1944, to L. Penn and Lucy (Turner) Hunter. 
Education: Attended Glenv\ood School, (grades 1-5); Marion City Schools, (grades 6- 

12): University of NC, Chapel Hill, B.A., 1966: University of NC-Chapel Hill, Law 

School, J.D.,'l969. 
Occupation: Attorney at Law. 
Organizations: McDowell County Bar Assocaition, President: N.C. Bar Association; 

American Bar Association: 29th Judicial District Bar Association, Past President; 

N.C. Academy of Trial Lawyers; Marion Rotary Club, Past President: Marion 

Jaycees, Past Secretary; Former Assistant District Attorney, 29th Judicial District; 

Former Director, McDowell County United Fund: McDowell County Chamber of 

Commerce, Former Director: N.C. County Attorney's Association, Past President; 

UNC Law Alumni Association. Former Director; Alumnus of Sigma Phi Epsilon 

Social Fraternity; Alumnus of Delta Theta Phi Legal Fraternity. 
Boards and Commissions: Past Member, NC Judicial Council; Member, NC Courts 

Commission: Governor's Task Force to Study State-Cherokee Tribe Relations; 

Governor's Stud\ Commission on Length of Sentences in NC. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981-82 and 1983. 
Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church of Marion, NC: Trustee. 
Family: Married, Nancy Hinson Hunter, August 22, 1970: One Child: Megan Allen 
Hunter. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice-Chairman: Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Justice and Public 
Safely: Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and Public 
Safety; Election Law; Judiciary IV 

Member: Appropriatons — Base Budget: Appropriations - Expansion Budget; 
Corrections; Courts & Administration of Justice: Highway Safety; Pensions 
and Retirement: Rules and Operation of the House: Transportation. 




The Legislative Branch 367 

JOSEPH PATTERSON HUSKINS 

(Democrat — Iredell County) 

Forty-Second Representative District - Bethany, Chambersburg, Con- 
cord, Cool Spring, New Hoope, Olin, Sharpesburg, Statesville, and Tur- 
nesburg Townships of Iredell County -- One Representative. 



Early Years: Born in Burnsville, Yancey County, June 23, 1908, to Joseph Erwin and 
Mary Etta (Peterson) Huskins. 

Education: Attended Yancey Collegiate Institute, 1921-1923; Mars Hill Junior College, 
1924-1926; graduated University of North Carolina, 1930, A.B. (Journalism). 

Occupation: Newspaper Publisher. 

Organizations: Member, NC Press Association; Association of Afternoon Dailies; 
Member, Statesville, Lodge No. 27, A.F. & A.M.; Statesville Lodge 1823, B.P.O.E.; 
Past Exalted Ruler, Statesville Elke Lodge; past President, two terms. Associated 
Dailies of NC; Statesville Chamber of Commerce, past President. 

Boards and Commissions: Honorary life member. Red Cross Board of Directors, 
Statesville Chapter; Member, Area Rent Control Board, 1947-51; Statesville Zoning 
Board, 1961-62; State Board of Higher Education, 1965-72; University of North 
Carolina Board of Governors, 1972-73; Mitchell College Board of Trustees (fourth 
term, former Chairman); Member, State Veterinary School and ECU Medical 
School Feasibility Study and Commissions. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 
1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82 and 1983. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Navy, 1943-46 (Lt. SG). 

Honors: Received "Outstanding Citizenship Award," Statesville Chamber of Com- 
merce, 1960; NCPA Editorial Award, 1966. 

Religious Activities: Member, United Methodist Church. 

Family: Married, Mildred Amburn, September 29, 1934; One Daughter: Amburn 
Huskins Power. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Natural & 

Economic Resources 
Vice Chairman: State Government; University Board of Governors Nominating 
Committee 

Member: Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Natural and Economic 
Resources; Courts & Administration of Justice; Cultural Resources; 
Economy; Public Utilities; Rules & Operation of the House; Transportation. 



368 North Carolina Manual 




VERNON GRANT JAMES 

(Democrat — Pasquotank County) 

First Representative District -- Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Dare, Pas- 
quotank, Perquimans, and Tyrrell Counties; Holly Grove Township of 
Gate County; and Lees Mills, Plymouth, and Skinnersviile Townships of 
Washington County -- Two Representatives. 



Early 'N'ears: Born in Pasquotank County. July 11. 1910. to John Calvin and Fannie 
Coppersmith James. 

Education: Graduated, Weekville High School, 1930; Attended North Carolina State 
University, 1930-31. 

Occupation: Farmer and Produce supply business (President and Manager James 
Brothers, Inc.) 

Organizations: Member, NC and National Fresh Fruits and Vegetable Growers 
Association; Secretary and Treasurer, State 4-H Club Council, 1930; Delegate, Inter- 
national 4-H Club Camp in Springfield, Mass., 1930; Charter Member, State 4-H 
Club, 1931; President of National Potato Council, 1956-66; Member, National 
Potato Steering Committee since 1966; appointed by U.S. Secretary of Agriculture 
Orville Freeman to the Potato Advisory Committee, 1961-68, re-appointedby Earl 
Butz 1968-71; Chairman. National Potato Board 1977-78; Served, Board of Direc- 
tors, Elizabeth City Chamber ofCommerce. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Board of Education for Weeksville High School, 
1943-44; Member, Board of Trustees of College of the Albemarle since 1960; Mem- 
ber, Board of Trustees, Greater University of NC, 1947-55; Member Pasquotank 
County-Elizabeth City Airport Commission, 1963. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1945, 1947, 1973-74, 1977- 
78, 1979-80, 1981-82 and 1983. 

Honors: Recipient of 4-H Alumni Recognition Award, 1954; 'Tarheel of the Week" in 
December, 1965; Recipient of Commissioner of Agriculture's Award for Promotion 
of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables, 1971, Recipient of Governor's Award from NC 
Wildlife Federation for Air Conservationist 1981, Recipient of award for out- 
standing contributions to the North Carolina Soybean Association, 1983. 

Religious .Activities: Member, Salem Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Thelma L. Luton, April 1, 1978; Children: John Thomas James and 
Vernon Grant, James, Jr. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Agriculture. 

Vice-Chairman: Constitutional Amendments; Water and Air Resources 
Member: Agriculture; Appropriations - Base Budget; .Appropriations Base 
Budget Committee on Natural and Economic Resoruccs; Appropriations — 
Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Natural 
and Ecoomic Resources; Commercial Fishing: Commissions & Schools for the 
Blind & Deaf: Public Utilities; Rules and Operation o\' the House; Transporta- 
tion. 




The Legislative Branch 369 

MARY LONG JARRELL 

(Democrat — Guilford County) 

Twenty-Eighth Representative District Deep River Township, 

Friendship Township, High Point Township, Jamestown Precincts 1 and 
3, and South Sumner Precinct of Guilford County -- Two 
Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Winston-Salem, Forsyth County, February 16, 1929, to David 

Allison and Jennie Mae (Fife) Long. 
Education: Graduated, Fairfax Hall, 1947: Queens College, 1951 A.B., attended. Un- 
iversity of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, (English and Education) (Educational 

courses toward Masters). 
Occupation: Public School Teacher. 
Organizations: High Point Drug Action Council; President, HighPoint YWCA, 1975- 

77; High Point; Historical Museum, Vice-President, 1970. 
Boards and Commissions: Board of Trustees, Maryfield; Guilford County Historical 

Properties Commission. 
Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1983; High Point City 

Council, 1977-1981 (Mayor Pro Tem, 1977-1979). 
Religious Activities: Member, High Point Friends: Presiding Clerk; Sunday School 

Teacher. 
Family: Married, Harold Thomas Jarrell. June 16, 1956: Children: Jennie W. and 

Harold Thomas. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Finance: Education; Health; Judiciary II; 
Local Government II; Military and Veterans Affairs; Transportation. 



370 



North Carouna Manual 




LUTHER REGINALD JERALDS 

(Democrat — Cumberland County) 

Seventeenth Representative District Block 901 and Enumeration Dis- 
trict 534 of Census Tract 34 in Manchester Township, Block 901 and 
_ Enumeration District 535 of Census Tract 34 in Seventy-First Township, 

^U ■ 7 Block 901 of Census Tract 34 in Carver's Creek Township, Cross Creek 

^K "^m Precincts 1, 3, 5, 9, 13, 16, 17, and 19, Spring Lake Precinct, Morganton 

^K ^^ i^ts-a^aua Ro^d 1 Precinct, Beaver Lake Precinct, Westerea Precinct, and that part 
^K^ m^^ jHHm ^^ Census Tract 33.02 in Precinct Seventy-First 1. Any part of Cross 

Creek Township which may be entirely surrunded by Morganton Road 1 
Precinct shall also be in the District. Block 304 of Census Tract 26 of Cross Creek Township is not 
in the District. 

Early Years: Born in Orrum, Robeson County, August 20, 1938, to Winnie B. and Amy 

Lee (McMillan) Jeralds. 
Education: Attended. Nev\bold Elementary School, 1943-1951; St. Emma Military 

Academy, 1952-1954; graduated E.E. Sm'ith Senior High School, 1956; NC College, 

1961, B.S. Accounting. 
Occupation: Restauranteur and club owner (Emilys Restaurant; 200 Danbury VIP); 

Corporate Executive (President — Treasurer, Nick Jeralds & Associates). 

Organizations: Fayetteville Business and Professional League; NC Restaurant 
Associaton; NC Association, Minority Businesses; Chairman, Membership Com- 
mittee YMCA Knights of Columbus. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Directors, YMCA. 
Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1983. 
Religious .Activities: Member, St. Ann's Catholic Church. 

Family: Married, Jo Ann Fuller, May 7, 1958; Children: Adonis Jeralds, Dominic 
Jeralds, and Minikki Jeralds. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Finance; Constitutional Amendments; Educa- 
tion; Human Resources; Military and Veterans Affairs; Natural and 
Economic Resources; Small Business; Advisory Budget Commission. 




The Legislative Branch 371 

WALTER BEAMAN JONES, JR. 

(Democrat — Pitt County) 

Ninth Representative District - Green County: and Arthur, Ayden, 
Belvoir. Chicod, Fali^land, Farmville, Fountain, Greenville, Grifton, 
Grimesland, Pactolus, Swift Creek, and Winterville Townships of Pitt 
County -- Two Representatives.. 



Early Years: Born in Farmville, February 10, 1943, to Waller B. Jones (U.S. Con- 
gressman) and Doris Long. 

Education: Attended Farmville Public Schools: Graduated Hargrave Military Academy, 
Chatham, Virginia: Attended North Carolina State University, 3 years; Graduated, 
Atlantic Christian College, History Major, 1967, A.B. Degree. 

Occupation: Business Consultant. 

Organizations: Member, Farmville Chamber of Commerce and Farmville Rotary Club. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Mid-East Commission and Farmville Housing 
Authority. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1983. 

Family: Married, Joe Anne Whitehurst, June 26, 1966; One Child: Ashley; sister: Dotdee 
Moye, Farmville. 



372 



North Carouna Manual 




JOHN M. JORDAN 

(Democrat — Alamance County) 

Twenty-Fifth Representative District — Alamance and Rockingham 
Counties: and Beaver Island and Snow Creek Townships of Stokes County 
— Four Representatives. 



Early Years: Born February 16, 1936, to B. Everett and Katherine (McLean) Jordan. 
Education: Attended Saxaphaw Elementary School: Woodberry Forest; Walter 

Williams High School; Duke University, 1958, B.S.; Additional courses at Technical 

College of Alamance, NCSU and Clemson. 

Occupation: Agriculture, Land and Water Developer. 

Organizations: NC Farm Bureau; Founder & President, NC Chianina & Charolais 
Associaton; NC Cattlemen's Association; Mason; Shrine; Moose; Exchange and 
Ruritan; Founder & Explorer Advisor Post 65, Executive Board Cherokee Council 
Boy Scouts of America. 

Boards and Commissions: Alamance Chamber of Commrece and Alamance County 
Planning Board. 

Political Activities: Past President and Treasurer Alamance YDC; NC House of 
Representatives 1975-76, 1979-80. 1981-82, 1983-. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: State Personnel 
Vice-Chairman: Aging; Finance 

Member: Agriculture; Corporations; Energy; Military and Veterans Affairs; 
Public Utilities. 



The Legislative Branch 



373 




MARGARET POLLARD KEESEE-FORRESTER 

(Republican — Guilford County) 

Twenty-Seventh Representative District -- South Center Grove Precinct, 
Jamestown Precinct 2, North Mdison Precinct, South Monroe Precinct, 
North Sumner Precinct, and Greensboro Precincts 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 
13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27. 28, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 
and 36 of Guilford County - Three Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Greensboro, Guilford County, January 6, 1945, to Charles Rogers 

and Margaret Lena (Kersey) Keesee. 
Education: Guilford College, 1967, B.A.; Radford, 1967-Graduate work in Early 

Childhood Education. 
Occupation: Sales Representative, Keesee Office Supplies, Inc.; Former Classroom 

Teacher (Greensboro Public Schools). 
Organizations: Member: Greensboro Branch of American Association of University 

Women, 1973 to the present; Member, Guilford County Women's Political Caucus 

1971-to present; served as State Secretary of NC Women's Political Caucus, 1975-76; 

Member, Greensboro's "Womens Professional Forum, Member, Mental Health 

Association of Greensboro." 
Boards and Commissions: NC State Advisory Committee to US Commission on Civil 

Rights, 1974-present. 
Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 1979-80, 1981-82 

and 1983. 
Honors: Nominated for Greensboro's "Teacher of the Year"; Awarded by the Staff at 

David Jones School, 1976 & 1977. 
Religious Activities: Member, Christ United Methodist Church. 
Family: Married, Charles R. Forrester. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Finance; Constitutional Amendments; Education; Goverment Ethics; 
Human Resources; Local Government II; Mental Health; Natural and 
Economic Resources. 



374 North Carolina Manual 




ANNIE BROWN KENNEDY 

(Democrat — Forsyth County) 

Thirty-Ninth Representative District Abbotts Creek, Bethania, Broad- 
bay. Ciemmonsville, Kernersville, Lewisviile. Middle Fork, Old Rich- 
mond, Old Town, South Fork, Vienna, and Winston Townships of For- 
syth County — Five Representatives. 



Early \'ears: Born in Atlanta, Fulton County, Georgia, October 13, 1924, to Mancy 
(deceased) and Mary Louise (Sheats) Brown. 

Education: Graduated. Booker T. Washington High School, 1941; Spelman College, 
1945. A.B. (Economics); Howard University School of Law, 1951, J.D. Degree. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law (Kennedy, Kennedy, Kennedy & Kennedy). 

Organizations: Member. Altrusa Club of Winston-Salem, President, 1979-80; Winston- 
Salem Forsyth County Council on the Status of Women; YWCA; Member, Univer- 
sity of NC Morehead Scholarship County Selection Committee, NAACP: Former 
Member, League of Women Voters; Clinical Research Practices Committee of Bow- 
man Gray School of Medicine; United Way of Forsyth County, 1972-77, 1979-83; 
National Council of Negro Women; Women's Forum of NC; Member and former 
secretary of Forsyth County Bar Association; Forsyth County Association of 
Women Attorneys; North Carolina Bar Association; NC Academy of Trial Lawyers; 
NC Association of Black Attorneys; National Bar Association. 
Association. 

Boards and Commissions: Former Member, Winston-Salem Bicentennial Commission; 
Member, NC Criminal Code Commission; Board of Visitors, University of NC- 
Chapel Hill; Board of Directors, Winston-Salem State University Foundation, Inc., 
1974-present; YWCA Board of Directors; Board of Directors, Winston-Salem Hous- 
ing Foundation; Board of Directors, Legal Aid Society of Forsyth County, 1966-68; 
Board, Forsyth Tuberculosis Association; Winston-Salem Board of Directors, 
Southern National Bank; Advisory Board, American Federal Savings and Loan 
Association of Greensboro. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1 979-80 and 1983; Member, 
Democratic Women of Forsyth County, 1964-present; Former President, 1970-71; 
NC Democratic Executive Committee, NC Commission on the Status of Women, 
1964; Presidential and Vice-Presidential Democratic Elector from N.C., 1976. Alter- 
nate delegate. Democratic National Convention, 1972. 

Honors: "Citizen of the Year" awarded by Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc.. 1979; 
"Outstanding Business Woman of the Year," Iota Phi Phi Sorority, 1981; Martin 
Luther King, Jr. Drum Major for Justice Award, by Southern Christian Leadership 
Conference, 1983. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church; Board of Trustees, 1974-present. 
Family: Married. Harold L. Kennedy. Jr., December 23. 1950; Children: Harold L. Ken- 
nedy III; Harvey L. Kennedy and Michael D.Kennedy. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Committee on 
General Government; Appropriations — Expansion Budget; Appropriations 
Expansion Budget Committee on General Government; Constitutional 
Amendments; Courts & Administration of Justice; Employment Security; 
Energy; Judiciary I; State Government; University Board of Governors 
Nominating Committee. 



The Legislative Branch 



375 




SWAN BURNETT LACEY, JR. 

(Republican Avery County) 

Forly-sixth Representative District -- Avery, Caldwell, and Mitchell 
Counties: F.liendale, Little River, Taylorsville, and Wittenberg Townships 
of Alexander County; Dre'xel icard, Jonas Ridge, Lower Creek, Smoky 
Creek, and Upper Creek Townships of Burke County; and Beaverdam, 
Laurel Creek, and Shawneehav\ Townships of Watauga County ~- Three 
Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Newland. Avery County, Augu.st 10, 1918, to Swan Burnett and 

Norma Daniels Lacey. 
Education: Graduated Newland High School, 1937: Attended LeesMcRae College, 

1937-1939; Graduated, North Ca^rolina State University, 1941, B.S. 
Occupation: Real Estate Broker (Lacey Realty Company). 
Organizations: Past President. NC Agriculture Teachers Association. 
Boards and Commissions: Past Trustee, Maryland Technical College. 
Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, 1981-82 and 1983. 
Military Service: Served in U.S. Army Air Corp, 1942-1946 (Aviation Cadet). 
Religious .Activities: Member, Baptist Church; Past Superintendent & Trustees; Past 

Teacher of Adult Men's Class. 
Family: Married, Pansy Erwin. December 14. 1944; Children: Michael M. Lacey and R. 

Bruce Lacey. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Finance; Corrections; Employment Security; Insurance; 
Local Government L Military and Veterans Affairs; Transportation. 



376 North Carolina Manual 




JAMES ERWIN LAMBETH, JR. 

(Democrat -- Davidson County) 

Thirty-Seventh Representative District Davidson and Davie Counties; 
and Eagle Mills and Union Grove Townships of Iredell County - Three 
Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Thomasviile, Davidson County, February 2, 1916, to James E. and 
Helen (McAulay) Lambeth. 

Education: Graduated. Thomasviile High School, 1933: Duke University, 1937, B.A.; 
Harvard Business School, 1938. 

Occupation: Corporate Executive (Chairman of the Board, Lambeth Limited, 1981 — ; 
President, 1979-1981; Past Chairman of the Board and Secretary /Treasurer, Erwin- 
Lambeth, Inc., 1946-1979). 

Organizations: Member, Thomasviile Chamber of Commerce (President, 1961-1963); 
High Point Executives Club (President, 1962-63; Director, 1964-1982); Thomasviile 
Chapter of Masonic Lodge; Thomasviile Rotary Club (President, 1960-61; 
Numerous Committees of Rotary International); Davidson County Historical 
Society (President, 1981-82; Chairman of the Board, 1971-72); Thomasviile 
Historical Society (President, 1969-1971); Thomasviile United Fund (President, 
1964-65). 

Boards and Commissions: Director: NCNB, 1953-1980; Piedmont Associated Industries, 
1960-1976 (President, 1963-64); Furniture Library Association, 1973. Member: 
Governor's Commission of Status of Women, 1964-1966; Board of Trustees, 
Thomasviile Community Foundation, 1963-64; College Foundation, Inc. Board of 
Trustees, 1971-1976: North Carolina Wildlife Comm'ission, 1979-1981. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 1979-80, and 1983; 
Thomasviile City Council, 1963-1967 (Mayor Protem, 1963-1967). 

Honors: Recipient: "The Rotary Foundation Citation for Meritorious Service," 1974 
"Silver Beaver Award," Boy Scouts of America, 1961. 

Religious Activities: Member, Thomasviile United Methodist Church; formally on 
Board of Stewards; President, R. L. Pope Bible Class, 1963-64; Chairman, 
Stewardship and Finance Committee, 1964-65. 

Family: Married, Katharine Evermond Covington, August 27, 1938; Children: James E. 
Lambeth, III; Richard C. Lambeth; Mary Katharine Lambeth Cullens (Mrs. 
Royce); and William R. Lambeth. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Wildlife Resources 

Vice-Chairman: Corporations; Cultural Resources 

Member: Agriculture; Finance; Commercial Fishing; Highway Safety; Rules & 
Operation of the House. 




The Legislative Branch 377 

H. MARTIN LANCASTER 

(Democrat — Wayne County) 

Eleventh Representative District Wayne County -- Two 

Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Wayne County, March 24, 1943, to Harold W. and Eva Madena 
(Pate) Lancaster. 

Education: Graduated Pikeville High School, 1961; University of North Carolina- 
Chapel Hill, 1965, A.B.: University of North Carolina School of Law, 1967, J.D. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law. 

Organizations: Member: American Bar Assocaition; NC Bar Association; 8th Judicial 
District Bar Association; Wayne County Bar Association; Member: Mason; Shriner; 
Elk; Goldsboro Kiwanis; NC Society for Historic Preservation. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, North Carolina Arts Council, 1977-81; President, 
Goldsboro Community Arts Council, 1973-74; Chairman. Goldsboro/Wayne 
County Bicentennial Commission, 1975-76; Chairman, Board of Trustees, Wayne 
County Public Library, 1979-80; Chairman, Wayne County Chapter, American Red 
Cross, 1978-79; President, Wayne Community Concert Association, 1972-73. 

Political Activities: Served NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, 1981-82 and 1983. 

Military Service: Served active duty. Navy 1967-1970 (Lieutenant); Air Force Reserves 
1971-1982, (Major); Navy Reserves 1982-present (Lieutenant Commander). 

Honors: Listed in "Who's Who in American Law"; "Distinguished Service 
Award," 1977, by the Goldsboro Jaycees. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church; Deacon, 1972-75; Elder, 1980- 

Family: Married, Alice Matheny, May 31, 1975; Children: Ashley Elizabeth Lancaster 
and Mary Martin Lancaster. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary 111 

Vice-Chairman: Governmental Ethics; Highway Safety 

Member: Finance; Commissions & Schools for the Blind & Deaf; Corrections; 
Housing; Military and Veterans Affairs. 



378 North Carolina Manual 




HUGH ALFRED LEE 

(Democrat — Richmond County) 

Thirty-Second Representative District - Richmond County; and Laurel 
Hill Township of Scotland County One Representative. 



Early Years: Born at Maggie in Haywood County, to M. R. and Mary Lou (Woody) 
Lee. 

Education: University of North Carolina 1947; A.B., Duke University, 1949, J.D. 

Occupation: Lawyer. 

Organizations: Member: Richmond County Bar Association: NC Bar Association; 
American Bar Association: American Legion -- Veterans of Foreign Wars -- Dis- 
abled American Veterans. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Board of Trustees, Richmond Technical College, 
1964-present. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1983; President, Richmond 
County Young Democrats Club, three terms; Chairman, 8th Congressional District, 
Y.D.C.: Chairman, Richmond County Democratic Executive Committee, five 
terms; Delegate, Democratic National conventions, three conventions: Member, 
State Democratic Executive Committee, three terms. 

Military Service: Served in US Army Air Corps and US Air Force: World War II and 
Korean Wars; Major; Active, 1941-1945, 1950-1952. 

Religious Activities: Member, Episcopal, Church of Messiah; Member, Vestry, Junior 
Warden. 

Family: Married, Norma A. Key, March 24, 1951; Child: Hugh Alfred Lee, Jr. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations: Judiciary IV; Courts and Administration of Justice; In- 
surance; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Public Utilities; Water and Air 
Resources; Housing. 



The Legislative Branch 



379 




BRADFORD VERDIZE LIGON 

(Republican — Rowan County) 

Rowan County 



Thirty-fifth Representative District 
Representatives. 



— Two 



Early Years: Born in Buffalo. Union County, South Carolina, January 17, 1922, to 

William H. and Lola Collins Ligon. 
Education: Graduated Union High School, 1940; Medical University of S.C., College of 

Pharmacy, 1950 B.S. (Pharmacy). 
Occupation: Pharmacist (Manager, Kroger Sav-On, Salisbury). 
Organizations: Member: NC Pharmacy Association: Piedmont Pharmacy Association: 

Andrew Jackson Masonic Lodge; American Legion, Harold B. Jarrett Post and 

Veteran of Foreign Wars. 
Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981-82 and 1983; Rowan 

County Commissioner, 1979-80. 
Military Service: Served US Marine Corps 1945 (Corporal). 
Religious Activities: Member, Rockwell Christian; Deacon, 1975; Sunday School 

Teacher, Adult Class. 
Family: Married, Jemelle Huckabee Ligon, January 20, 1945; Children: Bradford Gene 

Ligon and Michael Dennis Ligon. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Aging: Appropriations — Base Budget: Appropriations Base Budget 
Committee on General Government; Appropriations — Expansion Budget; 
Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on General Government: Cor- 
porations; Employment Security: Health; Human Resources; Small Business; 
Water and Air Resources. 



380 North Carolina Manual 




DANIEL T. LILLEY 

(Democrat -- Lenoir County) 

Third Representative District -- Craven, Lenoir, and Pamlico Counties 
- Three Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Martin County, August 15, 1920, to Alfred Tom and Ethel Grace 
(Gurkin) Lilley (both deceased). 

Education: Attended Farm Life High School: Spartan School of Aeronautics, Tulsa, 
Oklahoma; Airline Maintenance Course and School of Flight, Diplomas; Self Study- 
Chartered Life Underwriting Course (C.L.U.), 1967; American College of Life Un- 
derwriters, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania. 

Occupation: Life Insurance Agent (The Penn Mutual Life Insurance Company); 
Minister. 

Organizations: Member: Lenoir County Life Underwriters Association; American 
Society of Chartered Life Underwriters; Kinston Rotary Club; Chairman, Slate 
Aeronautics Council. 

Boards and Commissions: Southern Growth Policies Board; Greene Lamp, Inc. (a Com- 
munity Action Agency); National Conference of State Legislatures -- Chairman, 
State Government Issues and Organization Committee, Assembly on the 
Legislature. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975- 
76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82 and 1983; Member, Lenoir County Board of Com- 
missioners, 1964-1968; Member, National Conference of State Legislators. 

Military Service: Served as Lt. Col. in NC Wing, Civil Air Patrol; US Air Force 
Reserve, Colonel, retired, 6 years Active Duty World War II. 

Honors: Kinston Junior Chamber of Commerce, past President, received D.S.A. 
Award; Kinston Chamber of Commerce, received the First Citizen of the Year 
Award, 1963; National Sales Achievement Award from National Association of Life 
Underwriters, 1974; National Quality Award, National Association of Life Un- 
derwriters, 1980, received the Governor's Award as Conservation Legislator of the 
year, 1975 from the NC Wildlife Federation; Meritorious Service Award from US 
Air Force, 1980. 

Religious Activities: Member, Northwest Christian Church, Kinston; Elder; Board 

Chairman. 
Family: Married, Jean Hites of McPherson, Kansas, July 7, 1944; Children: Eileen 

Lilley and Daniel T. Lilley, Jr. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Local Government I 
Vice-Chairman: Finance; Wildlife Resources 

Member: Agriculture; Alcoholic Beverage Control; Military and Veterans Af- 
fairs; Transportation; Water and Air Resources. 



The Legislative Branch 



381 




SIDNEY ALVIN LOCKS 

(Democrat -- Robeson County) 

Sixteenth Representative District - Hoke and Robeson Counties; and 
Spring Hill, Stewarlsviile, and Williamsons Townships of Scotland 
County - Three Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Lafayette, Lafayette County, Louisiana, February 5, 1949, to Sid- 
ney A. and Gloria Jean (Harris) Locks. 
Education: Graduated, J. C. Clark High School (Louisiana); Wiley College, 1972, B.A. 

Morehouse School of Religion, 1975, Masters of Divinity. 
Occupation: Minister/Pastor; Day Care Administrator. 
Organizations: Member: Robeson County Democratic Party/Operation Sickle Cell 

Volunteer; Robeson County Alpha Phi Alpha; Member, Golden Leaf Lodge. #126; 

Member, Carpenters Consistery #164, NAACP of Robeson County; Past Chairman, 

Lumberton Ministerial Association, Alpha Phi Omega Fraternity, and ACLU; 

Member, Robeson County Church and Community Center, and Progressive 

National Baptist Convention, Inc. 
Boards and Commissions: Past Chairman, Lumberton Human Relations Commission; 

Member, Board of Four County Community Action. 
Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1983; Lumberton Board of 

Education. 
Honors: Outstanding Young Men of America, 1981. 
Religious Activities: Pastor, Sandy Grove Baptist Church. 
Family: Married, Carol Ann Freeman, June 2, 1973; Children: Sidney Alvin Edward 

Locks; Frederick Douglas Maynard Locks, and Odetta Tandawi Carol Locks. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations -- Base Budget; Appropriations Base 
Budget Committee on Human Resources; Appropriations -- Expansion 
Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources 
Commercial Fishing; Governmental Ethics; Health; Human Resources; 
Natural and Economic Resources; Public Utilities; Rules & Operation of the 
House. 



382 North Carolina Manual 




EDITH LEDFORD LUTZ 

(Democrat -- Cleveland County) 

Forty-Eight Representative District -- Cleveland, Polk, and Rutherford 
Counties Three Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Lawndale, October 20, 1914, to Thomas Curtis and Annie (Hoyle) 
Ledford. 

Education: Graduate of Belwood High School. 

Occupation: Farmer and Fruit Grower. 

Organizations: Cleveland County Farm Bureau: Upper Cleveland County Chamber of 
Commerce; NC Apple Grower's Association: Sheltered Workshops of Rutherford 
County: American Association of Business Women. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Directors, Farm Bureau of Cleveland County; NC 
Board of Directors, Sheltered Work Shops, Rutherford County; Board of Directors, 
Upper Cleveland County Chamber of Commerce, Cleveland County. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1976, 1977-78, 1979-80, 
1981-82 and 1983. 

Honors: "Who's Who of American Women." 

Religious Activities: Member, Kadish Methodist Church: Sunday School Teacher; 
Treasurer Woman's Organization; Counselor for Youth Fellowship. 

Family: Married, M. Everett Lutz, October 25, 1933: Child: E. Jacob Lutz. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Local Government II 

Vice-Chairman: Agriculture: Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Human 

Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources 

Member: Aging; Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations — Expansion 
Budget; Governmental Ethics; Human Resources; Insurance; Mental Health. 




The Legislative Branch 383 



THOMAS HILL MATTHEWS 

(Democrat — Nash County) 

Eighth Representative District - Edgecombe. Nash, and Wilson Coun- 
ties - Four Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Rocky Mount. Nash County. September 5, 1927, to Edd R. and 
Corinna Parrish Matthews. 

Education: Graduated Rocky Mount Senior High. 1945: attended Duke University, 
1945-1946; graduated UNC, 1952, B.S. (Business Administration); J.D. Law; atten- 
ded Tax Practice Institute. Washington, D.C. 

Occupation: Tax Accounting, Du Pont: NC Practicing Attorney; (former Assistant 
Clerk of Court; District Attorney; Recorders Court Judge: Juvenile Judge; NC Dis- 
trict Judge Retired); Business Interest: Construction, Swimming Pools. Plastics 
Manufacturing. Barbecue and Fast Foods. Tobacco and Farming. Rental 
Warehouses. Realestate, Mtg. Banking. President-Matthews Investments. Feature 
News Reporter, News Paper and Radio. 

Organizations: Member: Nash Bar Association; 7th District Bar Association; NC Bar 
Association; American Bar Association: American Judicature Society; President, 
NC District Judges Association. 1970-71; Kiwanis, Editor of Newsletter, 1981-82; 
Nash County Historical Society; PastMember, Jr. Chamber of Commerce; Past 
Member. Chamber of Commerce; Disaster Chairman. Red Cross. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Directors, American Legion, 1978-80; Friends of 
Hope Plantation Board, Governor Stone Home. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1983; Elected Recorders 
Court Judge; Elected NC District Court Judge; Elected to office three times in City 
of Rocky Mount; Elected to office three times in 7th Judicial District; Member, NC 
Democratic Party: NC Young Democrats: Nash County Democratic Executive 
Committee: President. Nash County Young Democrats. 1959-61; President. Mens 
Democratic Club Nash County, 1980-82. 

Military Service: Served in US Air Force, 1946-1948. 

Honors: Rocky Mount Firemen and Police Award: Feature articles for newspapers and 
radio covering Democratic National Convention in N.Y. City: Briefing. NC 
Democratic Delegates at White House in Washington. D.C: First Shuttle Launch at 
Cape Canaveral. Fla.; Gator Bowl and other sports events. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Billie Jo Works, April 9, 1960; Child: Thomas Hill Matthews, II. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Finance; Banks & Thrift Institutions; Courts & Ad- 
ministration of Justice; Energy; Judiciary IV; Public Utilities; Small Business; 
Housing 



384 North Carolina Manual 




DAVID RUDISILL MAUNEY, JR. 

(Democrat Gaston County) 

Forty-Fourth Representative District Gaston and Lincoln Counties 
Four Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Cherryville, Gaston County, November 17, 1914, to David 
Rudisill and Lura Lassiter (Perry) Mauney. 

Education: Attended Cherrvviiie High School. 1928-32; Lenoir Rhyne College, B.S., 

Pre-Med, 1936. 
Occupation: Cotton Merchant and Broker (President, Mauney Cotton Co.. Inc.) 

Organizations: President, Lenoir Rhyne College General Alumni Association, 1950-53; 
President, Gaston County Cotton Merchants Association. 1955-56; Cotton 
Warehouse Association of America: Atlantic Cotton Association (Va., N.C., S.C., 
Ga. & Ala.); President, Carolina Cotton Association, (N.C. & S.C), 1977-78; 
Delegate, National Cotton Council. 1975-78; Elks Club; President, Cherryville Lions 
Club, 1944-45; District Governor, Lions Internatinoal, 1946-47; Masonic Lodge, 
32nd degree Mason; Shriner; President, NC State Association for the Blind. 1950-51; 
Member. NC Bureau of Employment for the Blind, 1946-70; District President, NC 
School Board Assocaition, 1955-56; President, Gaston County Historical Society, 
1979-1982; President, Cherryville Chamber of Commerce, 1969-71. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Directors: Cotton Warehouse Association of 
America. 1975-78; Atlantic Cotton Association, 1975-1978; Pioneer Girl Scout 
Counil, 1958-62; Chairman, Cherryville Economic Development Commission, 1977- 
1980; Member: N.C. Commission for the Blind, 1965-1969. Board of Trustees: 
Governor Morehead's State School for the Blind and Deaf. 1961-1965; Lenoir 
Rhyne College (several terms): Gaston College. 1964-1983; President. Cherryville In- 
dustrial Development Corporation. 1980-1983; Director: Piedmont Educational 
Foundation, Lenoir Rhyne College, 1945-1976; Lenoir Rh\ne College Loyalty Fund 
Campaign, 1959. 

Political .Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives. 1981-82 and 1983; Member. 
Board of Education, Cherryville City School, 1950-1968 (Chairman, 1952-1968); 
Member, Cherryville City Council, 1946-1948. 

Honors: Eagle Scout Award; Lenoir Rhyne College Distinguished Service Award. 1972. 

Religious Activities: Member. St. John's Lutheran Church; Sunday School Superinten- 
dent. 1945-48; Member. Church Council, 1978-81; Delegate, National Lutheran 
Convention, 1957. 

Family: Married, Mary Frances Bagby, June 10. 1939; Children: Martha Mauney 
Phillips. Caroline Mauney Nichols, Anna Mauney Spence, and Mary Harriet 
Mauney. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice-Chairman: Aging; Commissions & Schools for the Blind & Deaf; Education 
Member: Appropriations - - Base Budget: Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on Education: Appropriations -- Expansion Budget; .Appropriations Ex- 
pansion Budget Committee on Education; Cultural Resources; Energy; 
Higher Education; Public Utilities; Wildlife Resources. 




The Legislative Branch 385 

JOSEPHUS LYMAN MAVRETIC 

(Democrat — Edgecombe County) 

Eighth Representative District -- Edgecombe, Nash, and Wilson Coun- 
ties - Four Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Powells Point, Currituck County, July 29, 1934, to Joseph M. 
(deceased) and Virginia Bateman Mavretic. 

Education: Attended public High School in New Bern; Graduated University of North 
Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1956, A.B., English; George Washington University, 1972, 
M.S. (Political Science/International Affairs); Naval War College, distinguished 
graduate, 1972. 

Occupation: Retired, United States Marine Corps. 

Organizations: Rotary Club of Tarboro; Retired Officers Association; American Legion 
Post #58; Marine Corps Aviation Association; Director, Edgecombe County Charier 
American Red Cross; Phi Gamma Delta Social Fraternity; Loyal Order of the 
Moose; Coordinator, Cub Scout Pack #96; Director, NC Division, American Cancer 
Society; Director, NC Council on Alcoholism; Director, Edgecombe County 
Historic Preservation Fund; Steering Committee, NC Education Policy Seminars; 
Director, NC Museum of History Associates. 

Boards and Commissions: Former Chairman, Laurel Bay S.C. School Board; Former 
member. First Carolina Bank Board. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives. 1980 (appointed to fill 
vacancy created by resignation of James Ezzell), 1981-82 and 1983. 

Military Service: Served US Marine Corp, 1956 to 1977, Lt. Col., (300 combat missions 
in Vietnam: 3000 fiight hours in military fighter aircraft); Bronze Star with Combat 
"V"; 2 years service in Vietnam. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. James United Methodist Church; President, 
Methodist Men's Club, 1981; Member, Finance Committee, 1980; Member, Ad- 
ministrative Board, 1981. 

Family: Married, Ruth Duvall Clark, September 5, 1968; Children; Duvall Clark 
Schultz (stepdaughter) and Frances Brown (stepdaughter). 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Pensions and Retirement 
Vice-Chairman: Finance; Transportation 

Member: Agriculture; Education; Highway Safety; Water and Air Resources, 
Judiciary III. 



386 North Carolina Manual 




ROBERT LEE McALISTER 

(Democrat — Rockingham County) 

Twenty-Fifth Representative District - Alamance and Rockingham 
Counties; and Beaver Island and Snow creek Townships ofStokes County 
— Four Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Reidsville, Rockingham County, February 6, 1923, to James 
Denny and Maggie Ehzabeth (Meador) McAlister. 

Education: Graduated. Ruffin High School, 1942. 

Occupation: Farm Operator & Agri Business 

Organizations: Member: NC Farm Bureau; NC Agri-Business Council; Rockingham 

County Development Association. 
Boards and Commissions: Rockingham County Farm Bureau, Vice Chairman, Member 

Tobacco and Legislative Committee; NC Farm Bureau, Tobacco Committee; 

Northern Piedmont Area Development Association, Director; Rockingham County 

FCX Service, Chairman Advisory Board; NC Agriculture Foundation, NC State 

University, Director; NC Tobacco Foundation, NC State University, Director; 

Rockingham County Extension Advisory Board, Chairman; Rockingham County 

Draft Board, Member. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, (Appointed to fill 
vacancy created by resignation of Conrad R. Duncan, Jr.), 1979-80, 1981-82 and 
1983; 7th Division Secondary Roads Councilman, 1977; NC House District Ex- 
ecutive Committee, 1975. 

Military Service: Served in U.S., 1943-1947 and 1950-1951 (Anti-Aircraft Artillary, 
Sergeant First Class) 

Honors: Progressive Community Leadership Award, Northern Piedmont Area 
Development Association; Award for contributions in the field of irrigation. North 
Carolina Irrigation Society; Leadership award, NC Agriculture Foundation, Inc. for 
work in E. Y. Floyd Endowed Scholarship Program at NC State University. 

Religious Activities: Member, Mt. Carmel United Methodist Church; Financial 
Secretary, March 1969-January 1975; Administrative Board, 1967-76; Trustee, 1970- 

74. 

Family: Married, Doris Elizabeth Cox, February 1, 1944; Children: Dennis Lee 
McAlister and Sidney Robert McAlister; One Grandchild: Beverly Denise 
McAlister. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Water and Air Resources 
Vice-Chairman: Election Laws; State Properties 

Member: Agriculture; Finance; Local Government I; Rules and Operation of the 
House; Transportation. 




The Legislative Branch 387 

TIMOTHY HILL McDOWELL 

(Democrat — Alamance County) 

Twenty-Fiflh Representative District — Alamance and Rockingham 
Counties; and Beaver Island and Snow Creek Townships of Stokes County 
— Four Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Burlington, Alamance County, January 16, 1946, to Charles Lamar 
and Golda Marjorie (Perry) McDowell. 

Education: Attended Technical College of Alamance, 1970, A.A.S.: graduated Elon 
College, 1976, B.A.S. 

Occupation: Director, Public Information, Elon College: Former Editor, Mebane Enter- 
prise Journal, 1970-1974. 

Organizations: Member, Burlington Rotary Club; College News Association of the 
Carolinas. 

Boards and Commissions: Member. Mebane Board of Adjustments, 1973-74; Director, 
Elon Home for Children: Director. Alamance Arts Council: Council for Advance- 
ment and Support of Education: Director, Volunteers for People. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82 
and 1983. 

Military Service: Served US Navy Reserves, 1966-1971, (Third Class Petty Officer). 

Honors: Council for Advancement and Support of Education, Received 2nd Place, Best 
Editorial, NC Press Association, 1973: Outstanding Contribution to Conservation' 
Award, Orange County Soil and Water Conservation District, 1972; Named an 
"Outstanding Young Men in America," 1980. 

Religious Activities: Member, Hawfields Presbyterian Church. 

Family: Married. Zorado Kernodle, February 25, 1967; Children; Chris Michelle 
McDowell and Joshua Truth McDowell. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Corrections 

Vice-Chairman: Higher Education; Natural and Economic Resources 

Member: Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on Education: Appropriations — Expansion Budget: Appropriations Ex- 
pansion Budget Committee on Education; Constitutional Amendments; 
Manufacturers and Labor; Rules & Operation of the House; University Board 
of Governors Nominating Committee. 



388 



North Carolina Manual 




GEORGE W. MILLER, JR. 

(Democrat — Durham County) 

Durham County 



Twenty-Third Representative District 

Representatives. 



Three 



Early Years: Born in Spencer, Rowan County, May 14, 1930, to George W. and Blanche 

M. (Iddings) Miller. 
Education: Graduated Spencer High School, 1948; University of North Carolina, B.S., 

Business Administration; University of North Carolina Law School, 1957, L.L.B. 

Degree. 
Occupation: Attorney at Law (firm of Haywood, Denny & Miller). 
Organizations: Member: North Carolina Bar Association; American Bar Association; 

Durham County Bar Association; International Association of Insurance Counsel; 

Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity; Sertoma Club. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Visitors, NC Central School of Law; Utility Review 

Commission. 
Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 

1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82 and 1983; NC Young Democrats Clubs (President, 1964- 

65). 
Military Service: Served US Marine Corps 1951-1953 (Sergeant). 

Religious Activities: Member, Duke Memorial Methodist Church, Durham; Former 
Chairman, Duke Memorial Week Day School Committee, 1968; Former Member, 
Official Board. 

Family: Married, Eula Hux, June 21, 1958; Children: Elizabeth Ann Miller, Blanche 
Rose Miller, and George W. Miller, III. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary I 

Vice-Chairman: Governmental Ethics; Insurance 

Member: Finance; Public Utilities; Rules & Operation of the House; University 
Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 



The Legislative Branch 389 

WENDELL HOLMES MURPHY 

(Democrat -- Duplin County) 

;i:S[» ^ ' Tenth Representative District - Duplin and Jones Counties - One 

Representative. 






Early Years: Born in Rose Hill, Duplin County, September 23, 1938, to Holmes and 
Lois King Murphy. 

Education: Graduated. Rose Hill High School, 1956; North Carolina State University, 
B.S. Degree, Agricultural Education, i960. 

Occupation: Farming & Agribusiness (Executive Vice-President, Murphy Farms, Inc.). 

Organizations: Director, First Union National Bank; Director, NC State University 
Student Aid Association; Past Vice-President and Director, NC Pork Producers 
Association. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1983. 

Honors: Pork All American. 1975; NC Outstanding Pork Producer Award, 1980. 

Religious Activities: Member, Rose Hill Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Linda Godwin, June, 1979; Children: Wendell H. Murphy, Jr. and 
Wendy Deanne Murphy, and Cindy Hairr and Wesley Hairr (stepchildren). 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations Base 
Budget Committee on Natural and Economic Resources; Appropriations — 
Expansion Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Natural 
& Economic Resources; Banks & Thrift Institutions; Elections Laws; Higher 
Education; Insurance; Local Government II; Public Utilities; University 
Board of Governor's Nominating Committee. 



390 North Carolina Manual 




MARVIN DUNCAN MUSSELWHITE, JR. 

(Democrat — Wake County) 

Twenty-First Representative District -- Wake County - Six 
Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Greenville, Pitt County, January 12, 1938, to Marvin D. and Hazel 
Britt Musselwhite. 

Education: Graduated Clinton High School. 1956; Duke University, 1960, A.B.: Duke 
University School of Law, 1963, J.D. Degree. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law (Partner with Poyner, Geraghty, Hartsfield & Townsend, 
Raleigh) 

Organizations: Member: Wake County Bar Association, (Former Member of Executive 
Committe); American Bar Association (Member of Labor Law Committee): NC Bar 
Association; (Chairman, Labor Law Committee, 1976-80;) NC Trial Lawyer's 
Association; American Trial Lawyer's Association; NC State Bar; Raleigh Kiwanis 
Club; Former Member of the Raleigh Jaycees, (Director). 

Boards and Commissions: Member: NC Courts Commission; Former Member, Duke 
University National Council; Member, Duke University Athletic Council; Director, 
Tammy Lynn Memorial Foundation, Inc.; Trustee and Former Member Executive 
Committee, NC Symphony Society, Inc.; Director, Research Triangle Region 
American Lung Association of NC; Director; Y.M.C.A. of Raleigh. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981-82 and 1983. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Michaels Episcopal Church; former Member of 
Vestry; Senior Warden and Treasurer. 

Family: Married, Barbara Lynn Fortune, December 20, 1959; Children: Elizabeth Lynn 

Museelwhite and Robert Britt Musselwhite. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice-Chairman: Corporations; Judiciary I; Manufacturers and Labor 
Member: Finance; Banks & Thrift Institutions; Courts & Administration of 
Justice; Public Utilities; Small Business; State Properties. 




The Legislative Branch 391 

ROBIE LEE NASH 

(Democrat - Rowan County) 

ThirtN-Fifth Representative District - Rowan County Two 

Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in East Spencer, Rowan County, October 5, 1910, to Archie Lee and 

Mary (Kenerly) Nash. 
Education: Graduated, Salisbury High School, 1927: Nightclasses for two semesters in 

Catawba College. 

Occupation: Manager. Real Estate Investments. 

Organizations: Member: North Carolina Forestry Association: Salisbury Lions Club 
(President, 1945-46): Andrew Jackson Masonic Lodge No. 576: Salisbury-Rowan 
County, Chamber of Commerce: Yadkin-Pee Dee River Basin Committee 
Chairman. 

Boards and Commissions: Member: Consumer and Advocacy Advisory Committee for 
the Blind. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 
1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82 and 1983: Salisbury City Council. 1951-1953 and 1953-55. 

Religious Activities: Member. First United Methodist Church. Salisbury. NC Co- 
Chairman Building Program, 1951-54: Chairman, Trustees. 1969-74: District 
Trustees, 1964-80. 

Family: Married, Ethel (Arey) Nash, August 24, 1936: Children: John Lee Nash, 
Samuel Arey Nash, and Lona Marie Nash Duggins. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and Public 

Safety 
Vice-Chairman: Appropriations — Base Budget: Appropriations, Expansion 

Budget: State Properties: Transportation 

Member: Agriculture: Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Justice and 
Public Safety: Economy; Law Enforcement: Mental Health: Water and Air 
Resources. 



392 



North Carolina Manual 




MARTIN L. NESBITT, JR. 

(Democrat — Buncombe County) 

Fifty-First Representative District — Buncombe and Transylvania Coun- 
ties: and Crab Creek and Hoopers Creek BlutT Townships of Henderson 
Count} Four Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Asheville, Buncombe County, September 25, 1946, to Martin L. 
and Mary (Cordell) Nesbitt. Sr. 

Education: Graduated Reynolds High School, 1964; University of North Carolina 
Chapel Hill, 1970, B.A.': 1973, J.D. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law. 

Organizations: Member: Buncombe Count} Bar Association: NC State Bar Association; 
American Bar Association: Coach, East Asheville Youth League. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1979-80 (appointed to fill 
unexpired term created by the death of Mary C. Nesbitt). 1981-82 and 1983. 

Religious .Activities: Member, St. Lukes Episcopal Church. 

Family: Married. Deane Sellers Nesbitt, September 28, 1979: Children: William Martin 
Nesbitt and Chad Sellers (stepson). 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Small Business 

Vice-Chairman: Constitutional Amendments; Judiciary I 

Member: Finance: Courts & Administration of Justice: Law Enforcement; Local 
Government II: Pensions and Retirement. 



The Legislative Branch 



393 




CHARLES DONALD OWENS 

(Democrat — Rutherford County) 



Forty-Eighth Representative District 
Counties Three Representatives. 



Cleveland. Polk, and Rutherford 



Early \ears: Born in Forest City, Rutherford County, June 6, 1925, to Charles Lee and 

Essie Green Owens. 
Education: Attended. Public Schools: graduated Appalachian State University. 1949, 

B.S. 
Occupation: Real Estate Land Developments & Auctions (Owner) 
Organizations: Member: Kivvanis Club. (Past Presidnet, 1964): Chamber of Commerce, 

1965-1967. 
Boards and Commissions: Board of Trustees, Appalachian State University, 1979-1982. 
Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives. 1983: Mayor and City 

Council, Town of Forest City: Chairman. County Democrat. 1972-1976. 
Military Service: Served in US Marine Corp., 1943-1945 (PFC). 
Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church: Board of Building Fund: 

Methodist Church International Development: Church Lay Leader. 
Family: Married, Edna Ogle, May 20, 1950: Child; Charles D. Owens, Jr. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 
Member: Finance: Education: Human Resources: Law Enforcement: Local 
Government 1: Natural and Economic Resources: State Properties: Water and 
Air Resources. 



394 



North Carolina Manual 




HARRY EUGENE PAYNE, JR. 

(Democrat — New Hanover County) 

Thirteenth Representative District - Federal Point, Harnett, Mason- 
boro, and Wilmington Townships of New Hanover County -- Two 
Representatives. 



Early 'Sears: Born in Wilmington, New Hanover County. September 1 1, 1952, to Harry 
Eugene and Margaret Tucker Payne. 

Education: Graduated New Hanover High School, 1970; University of North Carolina- 
Chapel Hill. 1974, A.B.. (Political Science. Psvchology); Wake Forest University, 
School of Law, 1977, J.D. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law (Private Practice, Wilmington). 

Organizations: Member: American Bar Association; NC Bar Association; NC State 
Bar; New Hanover County Bar Assocaition; NC Academy of Trial Lawyers. 

Boards and Commissions: Advisory Commission-Neighborhood Justice Program: Of- 
fender Aid and Restoration Child Advocacy Commission. 

Political .Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives. 1981-82 and 1983. 

Religious Activities: Member. Grace United Methodist Church. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Co-Chairman: Administrative Rules Review Committee 

Vice-Chairman: Courts and Administration of Justice; Judiciary I; Public Utilities 
Member: Appropriations -- Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on Natural and Economic Resources; Appropriations - Expansion 
Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Natural & 
Economic Resources; Banks & Thrift Institutions; Higher Education; 
Highway Safety; Law Enforcement Manufacturers and Labor; Rules and 
Operation of the House. 



The Legislative Branch 



395 




MURRAY POWELL POOL 

(Democrat — Sampson County) 

Twelfth Representative District Bladen and Sampson Counties; and 
Burgaw. Caswell, Columbia, Holly, Canetuck, Grady, Long Creek, 
Rocky Point, and Union Townships of Pender County Two 

Representatives. 



Early \ears: Born in Raleigh, Wake County, January 24, 1947, to Rufus Aldolphus, 11, 
and Pauline Pool. 

Education: Graduated Clinton High School: University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. 
1969, B.A., (Histor\): graduate work in History. University of North Carolina- 
Chapel Hill: Graduate of Radcliffs Publishing Procedures Course. 

Occupation: Gasoline Marketer and Convenient Store Operator (President, R.A. Pool 
Oil Company, Inc.: President, Super C Marl, Inc.). 

Organizations: Member: NC Oil Jobbers Association; NC Association of Convenience 
Stores: Board of Directors. NC Association of Convenience Stores: Rotary Club: 
Duplin Group Homes, Inc.. President, 1979-82: Morehead Scholarship Selection 
Committee, Sampson County. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Directors, Sampson Technical College, 1981- 
present; Board of Directors, Clinton Chamber of Commerce, 1982-present: Board of 
Directors, NC Association of Convenience Stores, 1981 -present: Clinton ABC 
Board, 1978-81. 

Political Activities: Served in House of Representatives, 1983; Chairman, Sampson 
County Democratic Party, 1979-1981; Chairman, Third Congressional District 
Democratic Party, 1982-present. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church. 

Family: Children: Murray Powell Pool, Jr. and Jennifer Marger\ Pool. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Alcoholic Beverage Control: Finance: Law Enforcement; 
Local Government I; Mental Health: Small Business; Water and Air 
Resources; House Select Committee on National Guard. 



396 North Carolina Manual 



JULIUS REID POOVEY 

(Republican -- Catawba County) 

Forty-Fifth Representative District - Lower Fork and Upper Fork 
"'-i^ j^v Townships of Burke County; and Bandy's Clines, Hickory, Jacobs Fork, 

and Newton Townships of Catawba County Two Representatives. 




i 



Early ^'ears: Born in Hickory, Catawba County, September 24, 1902, to Lloyd Willard 
and Nancy Thomas (Reid) Poovey. 

Education: Attended Hickory City Schools; Weaver Colelge; Lenoir-Rhyne College, 
Commercial graduate, 1922. 

Occupation: Retired Accountant. 

Boards and Commissions: Member; Catawba County Board of Elections; Board of Ad- 
visors of NC Federation of College Republican. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1967, 1977-78, 1979-80, 
1981-82 and 1983; Served in NC Senate, 1969 and 1973-74; Served as Judge; Pro-tem, 
Hickory Municipal Court; Member of State, County and Precinct Republican Ex- 
ecutive Committee. 

Military Service: Served in U.S.C.G.R. 1944-1945 (T) Sic. 

Religious Activities: Episcopalian. 

Family: Married, Kathryn Violet Icard, April 7, 1928; Children: Mrs. Walter N. Yount, 
Jr.; J. Reid Poovey, Jr.; Major William B. Poovey, USAF (retired); and Dr. James 
N. Poovey. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Finance; Constitutional Amendments; Election Laws; Military and 
Veterans Affairs; State Government; State Personnel; Transportation; 
Wildlife Resources. 




The Legislative Branch 397 

WILLIAM PAUL PULLEY, JR. 

(Democrat — Durham County) 

Twenty-Third Representative District — Durham County Three 

Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Durham, Durham County. August 30. 1936, to Wilham Paul and 
Josie Bullard Pulley. 

Education: Graduated University of North Carolina-Chapoei Hill. 1958. A.B.; Univer- 
sity of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. School of Law, 1961. L.L.B. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law. 

Organizations: Member: NC Academy of Trial Lawyers; 14th Judicial Bar; American 
Trial Lawyers Association; NC Bar Association; UNC Law Alumni Foundation. 

Boards and Commissions: Past Member, Executive Committee, 14th Judicial District 
Bar; Board Member. LINC Law Alumni Foundation and UNC Law Alumni 
Association; Founder and Past Presidnet. Hollow Rock Racquet and Swim Club; 
LRC Committee on Evidence; LRC Committee to Study the Taxation ofAlcoholic 
Beverages; Select Committee to Study theDepartment of Transportation. 

Political .Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives. 1979-80, 1981-82 and 1983. 

Honors: 

Religious Activities: Member, Braggtown Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Elizabeth Dees Nelson, February 10, 1968; Children: William Paul 
Pulley, in, Bradley Larkin Pulley, Debra Ann Nelson, Margaret Dees Nelson, and 
Hugh Reavis Nelson, III. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary IV 

Vice-Chairman: Bank & Thrift Institutions; Manufacturers and Labor 

Member: Finance; Housing; Local Government I; Rules and Operation of the 
House; Water and Air Resources. 



398 North Carolina Manual 



DWIGHT WILSON QUINN 

(Democrat - Cabarrus County) 

Thirty-Fourth Representative District - - Cabarrus, Stanly, and Union 
* Counties - Four Representatives. 

'^ .'ft 




Early Years: Born in York, South Carolina, to William Lytle (deceased) and Lucy 

(Wilson) Quinn. 
Education: Educated in Cabarrus County Schools and the University of North Carolina 

extension schools. 

Occupation: Executive with Cannon Mills Co., Kannapolis, N.C. 

Organizations: Member, American Legion; Post 1 1 5, served as Vice-Commander of the 
American Legion; 40 and 8; Rotarian; Cannon Memorial Lodge, No. 626, A.F. & 
A.M.; Scottish Rite Bodies; Shriner, Oasis Temple. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Directors, Southern Region Education Board; 
Board of Directors, Cannon Memorial Y.M.C.A.; Board of Directors, Cabarrus 
County Boys Club; Former Chairman, Board of Trustees, Executive Committee, 
Appalachian State University; Served as Chairman of Governor's Commission, 
reorganization of State Government, 1961-62; Executive Committee Governor's 
Committee on Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Crime; Committee appointed by At- 
torney General. Criminal Code Revision; Governor's Study Commission, Architec- 
tural Barriers for the Benefit of Handicapped; Board of Visitors, Appalachian State 
University. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1951, 1953, 1955-56, 1957. 
1959, 1961, 1963, 1965-66, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 
1981-82 and 1983; Delegate to National Democratic Convention, 1960, (Los 
Angeles, California) and 1968, (Chicago, Illinois). 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army, 1944-45. 

Honors: Voted Kannapolis, Man of the Year, 1948, by Jaycees; Received Amvets 
National Distinguished Service Award for outstanding Community Service, 1953; 
Honorary Doctor of Laws. Appalachian State University, 1978 and presently. Mem- 
ber, Board of Visitors there. 

Religious Activities: Member. Kimball Memorial Lutheran Church; has served as mem- 
ber. Church Council. 

Family: Married, Marian Elizabeth Isenhour, One Daughter: Mrs. Lester V. Dodge. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Finance 

Vice-Chairman: Employment Security; Rules and Operation of the House; Pen- 
sions & Retirement 

Member: Aging; Health; Judiciary III; Manufacturers and Labor; Public 
Utilities. 



The Legislative Branch 



399 




TOM BRAGG RABON, JR. 

(Democrat — Brunswick County) 

Fourteenth Representative District Brunswick County; Cape Fear 
Township of New Hanover County: and Topsail Township of Pender 
County - One Representative. 



Early Years: Born in Wilmington, New Hanover County, June 6, 1954, to Tom B. and 
Lois King Rabon. 

Education: Graduated Bolivia High School, 1972; attended University of North 
Carolina-Wilmington, 1972-1974; Graduated University of North Carolina-Chapel 
Hill, 1976, B.A. 

Occupation: Farmer; Former Community Development Consultant, United Telecom- 
munications, Inc.. Kansas City, Missouri; Former School Teacher, (South 
Brunswick High School.) 

Organizations: Former Director of Planning, Brunswick County; Member, Morehead 
Schoalrship Selection Committee, Brunswick County. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, 1981-82 and 1983; 
Past President, Brunswick County Young Democrats Club; Member, NC Young 
Democrats; Member, Democratic State Executive Committee. 

Literary Works: Co-Author of "The Community Development Handbook." 

Religious Activities: Member, New Hope Presbyterian Church. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Manufacturers and Labor 

Vice-Chairman: Banks & Thrift Institutions; Employment Security 
Member: Appropriations -- Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on Human Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Appropria- 
tions Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources; Cultural 
Resources; Energy; Higher Education; Public Utilities; Highway Safety. 



400 



North Carolina Manual 




WILLIAM FRANK REDDING, III 

(Republican — Randolph County) 

Thirtieth Representative District — Albright, Bear Creek, and Gulf 
Townships of Chatham County; and Asheboro, Coleridge, Columbia, 
Franklinville, Liberty, and Randleman Townships of Randolph County 
— One Representative. 



Early Years: Born in Asheboro, Randolph County, March 11, 1930, to W. Frank 
Redding, Jr. and Viola Sanborn Redding. 

Education: Graduated Asheboro High School, 1948; University of North Carolina- 
Chapel Hill, 1952 B.S. (in Business Administration). 

Occupation: Insurance Agent, (President of Johns & Redding Insurance Agency, Inc.). 

Organizations: Member: The Independent Insurance Agents of N.C., Inc.; and The 
National Association of Life Underwriters; Member: Rotary Internatinoal; Pi Kappa 
Alpha; Phi Beta Kappa; Beta Gamma Sigma, Honorary Business Scholastic 
Fraternity. 

Boards and Commissions: State Crime Study Commission, 1973-77; State Law-Focused 
Education Advisory Committee; Director, Randolph Asheboro Chamber of Com- 
merce, 1978-81. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 1979-80, 1981-82 
and 1983; Member, Asheboro City Board of Education, 1965-1972, (Vice-Chairman, 
1969-1972.) 

Military Service: Served US Air Force 1952-1954 (First Lieutenant). 

Honors: Received 1978 "Boss of the Year," Randolph County Association of Insurance 
Women. 

Religious Activities: Member, Central United Methodist Church; Served as Church 
School Teacher; Member, Administrative Board. 

Family: Married, Joan Sistrunk, November 28. 1953; Children: Rebecca Redding, 
Marianne Redding Millikan, and Nancy Redding. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Finance; Corporations; Education; Highway Safety; Judiciary III; Law 
Enforcement; Natural and Economic Resources; Water and Air Resources. 




The Legislative Branch 401 

SAMUEL THOMAS RHODES 

(Republican — New Hanover County) 

Thirteenth Representative District — Federal Point, Harnett, Masonboro, 
and Wilmington Townships of New Hanover County — Two 
Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Wilmington, New Hanover County, October 12, 1944, to Samuel 
Thomas and Dorothy (Williamson) Rhodes. 

Education: Graduated New Hanover High School, 1962; University of North Carolina, 
Chapel Hill, 1966, B.A.; Auburn University, 1969, M.S.; Work toward Ph.D. done at 
North Carolina State University. 

Occupation: Investment Executive (E.F. Hutton & Co., Inc.) 

Organizations: Member: Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons of NC (St. John's Lodge 
No. 1 ); Scottish Rite of Free Masonry Southern Jurisdiction of the United States; An- 
cient Arabic Order of Nobles, Mystic Shrine (Sudan Temple); Arab Shrine Club, 
(Board of Directors, 1970-1972); Full Gospel Business Men's Fellowship (Member, 
Board of Directors); Greater Wilmington Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: Former Member, NC Board of Transportation; Member & 
Former Chairman, NC Marine Science Council; Member, Advisory Board New 
Hanover Friends of Public Radio. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 
1979-80, 1981-82 and 1983. 

Honors: Presented Jaycees "Distinguished Service Award," 1973; Nominee NC State 
Jaycee Man of the Year Award, 1973; Has had two scientific papers published. 

Religious Activities: Member, Myrtle Grove Presbyterian Church, Wilmington. 

Family: Married, Kleist W. Rhodes; Children; Ashely Rhodes and Brandon Rhodes. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Finance; Cultural Resources; Education; Local Government II; Pen- 
sions and Retirement; University Board of Governors Nominating Committee, 
Water and Air Resources; Insurance. 



402 North Carolina Manual 




JOSEPH BOXLEY ROBERTS, III 

(Democrat — Gaston County) 

Forty-Fourth Representative District - Gaston and Lincoln Counties 
Four Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Gastonia, Gaston County, May 24, 1940, to Joseph B. and Nell 
Rose (Dixon) Roberts. Jr. 

Education: Graduated Aurora High School, 1958; University of North Carolina at 
Chapel Hill. 1962. A.B. Degree, 1964: L.L.B. Degree. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law (President, Roberts and Planer, P. A., Attorneys at Law). 

Organizations: Community Civil Organization, Chairman, Gaston County Cancer 
Society, 1966: Gaston County Red Cross Association, 1968: President, 27A Judicial 
District Bar Association, 1980-82: Chairman. Gaston County Democratic Party, 
1980-81: President, Gaston County Young Democrats, 1968-69. 

Boards and Commissions: NC Pharmacy Board-Lay Member, appointed by Gov. Jim 
Hunt, 1982: Board of Trustees, Gaston County Library, 1981-82: Board of Trustees, 
Gaston-Lincoln Regional Library, 1981-82: State Library, Board of Trustees, 1981- 
82: Chairman, Gaston County Board of Elections, 1976-78; Schiele Museum Board 
of Trustees, 1980-82. 

Political .Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1983. 

Honors: Ten Most Outstanding Young Democrats in NC, 1969. 

Religious Activities: Member. St. Mark's Episcopal Church: Member, Vestry, 1970-72. 

Family: Married, Linda McFariand. January 6, 1962: Children: Bradford Ashley 
Roberts, Scott William Roberts, and Allison Kimberly Roberts. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Finance: Constitutional Amendments: Courts & Administration of 
Justice; Election Laws: Judiciary II; Local Government II; Manufacturers 
and Labor: State Personnel. 



The Legislative Branch 



403 




GEORGE S. ROBINSON 

(Republican — Caldwell County) 

Forty-Sixth Representative District Avery. Caldwell, and Mitchell 
Counties; Ellendale, Little River, Tayiorsvilie, and Wittenberg Townships 
of Alexander County: Drexel Icard, Jonas Ridge, Lower Creek, Smoky 
Creek, and Upper Creek Townships of Burke County; and Beaverdam, 
Laurel Creek, and Shawneehaw Townships of Watauga County - Three 
Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Lenoir, Caldwell County, November 15, 1945, to Charles M. and 
Lorraine M. Robin.son. 

Education: Attended Oak Ridge Military Institute, 1963-64: University of Tennessee, 
1964-68, 1972-73. 

Occupation: Lumber Executive (President, Robinson Lumber Company, Inc.; Presi- 
dent, Southeastern Lumber Company.) 

Organizations: Lenoir Rotary Club: Lenoir Housing Authority: Alpha Tau Omega 
(Tennessee Pi): President, Lenoir Little League: District Commissoner, Boy Scouts 
of America. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981-82 and 1983. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Air Force 1968-1972 (Sergeant). 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian of Lenoir. 

Family: Married, Ann P. Robinson. Aprill4, 1974: One Child: Ricky Robinson. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Finance: Banks & Thrift Institutions: Employment Security: Health; 
Maunfacturers and Labor: Military and Veterans Affairs: Public Utilities. 



404 North Carolina Manual 



r 







MARY POWELL SEYMOUR 

(Democrat - Guilford County) 

^,^^' Twenty-Seventh Representative District South Center Grove Precinct, 
Jamestown Precinct 2, North Madison Precinct. South Monroe Precinct, 
North Sumner Precinct, and Greensboro Precincts 1, 2, 3,4,9, 10, 11, 12, 
13, 14, 15. 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 
and 36 of Guilford County - Three Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Raleigh, Wake County, April 12, 1922, to Robert C. and Annie 
Rebecca (Seymour) Powell (both deceased). 

Education: Graduated Needham B. Broughton High School, 1939; Peace College. 1941; 
Course Study Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1946-47; Pilot Nursery School 
Study Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1949-50; Leadership 
Development Training. Center for Creative Leadership, 1978. 

Occupation: Legal Assistant; Licensed Real Estate Broker. 

Organizations: Member: Womens Professional Forum; O. Henry Woman's Club; 
Greensboro Council of Garden Clubs, Inc.; Greensboro Legal Auxiliary; Honorary 
Member, Business & Professional Women; Hayes Taylor YMCA; Chamber of Com- 
merce, Community Development Council. 

Board and Commissions: Tarheel Traid Girl Scout Council, Inc.; Board of Visitors. 
Peace College, Board of Directors, Hayes Taylor YMCA; NC Arts Council, 1981- 
83, NC Parks & Recreation Council, 1979-1985; NC Law-Related Education Com- 
mittee, 1980-84; State Transportation Advisory Council, 1981-83; Board of Direc- 
tors. National Conference of Insurance Legislators, 1980-83; Chairman, Guilford 
County Legislative Delegation, 1982-84. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives. 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82 
and 1983; Member, Greensboro City Council, 1967-1975 (Mayor Pro Tempore, 
1973-1975); YDC; Democratic Women. 

Honors: Received, 1970 Eleanor Roosevelt Award; Woman of Year, City Beautifica- 
tion; 1971 Bryant Citizenship Award, District 7, NC FWC; Chamber of Commerce 
Dolley Madison Award; 1 972, Quota Club Woman of Year; Distinguished Alumna, 
Peace College; 1974 Distinguished Service Award, YWCA; 1975 "Who's Who in 
Government; 1976-77 Bowker, "Women in Public Office"; NC Bar Assoc. 
Legislative Recognition, 1980; Distinguished Service Award, NC Public Health 
Assoc. 1982; "Good Sam" Awardfor legislation affecting the hearing impaired, 
1982. 

Religious Activities: Member. College Park Baptist Church; Sunday School Teacher. (10 
years.) 

Family: Married. Hubert E. Seymour. Jr.. February 3, 1945; Children: Hubert E. 
Seymour. Ill and Robert J. Seymour; Two Granddaughters. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Public Utilities 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations Base Budget Committee on General Govern- 
ment; Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on General Government, 
Health; University Board of Governor's Nominating Committee. 

Member: Appropriations - Base Budget; Appropriations -- Expansion Budget; 
Banks & Thrift Institutions; Insurance; Judiciary I; Local Government II. 



I 



The Legislative Branch 405 

ROBERT L. SLAUGHTER 

(Democrat — Stanly County) 

Thirty-Fourth Representative District - Cabarrus, Stanly, and Union 
Counties - Four Representatives. 






Early Years: Born in Raleigh, Wake County, December 18, 1950, to James Clifton and 
Lucy Lanier Slaughter. 

Education: Attended, Fuquay-Varina High School; Episcopal High School, 1967-69; 

graduated University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1973. A.B. degree. Wake 

Forest University School of Law, 1976, J.D. Degree. 
Occupation: Attorney at Law (partner Hopkins, Hopkins, and Tucker). 
Organizations: Member: Stanly County Bar Association; NC Bar Association; 

Albemarle Optimist Club; Past President, Stanly County Heart Association, 1979- 

80; Past Chairman, Stanly County Democratic Party, 1981-82. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Directors, Albemarle House, Inc. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1983; Chairman, Stanly 
County Democratic Party, 1981-82. 

Religious Activities: Member, Main Street United Methodist Church; Trustee; Sub- 
stitute Sunday School Teacher. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations - Base Budget; Appropriations Base 
Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Appropriations Expansion 
Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and Public 
Safety; Health; Highway Safety; Judiciary III; Law Enforcement; Small 
Business; Transportation; Higher Education. 



406 



North Carolina Manual 




KENNETH BRIDGEFORTH SPAULDING 

(Democrat - Durham County) 

Twenty-Third Representative District Durham County Two 

Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Durham, Durham County, November 29, 1944, to Asa T. and 
Elna (Bridgeforth) Spaulding Sr. 

Education: Attended Oakwood School, 1959-1963; Graduated Howard University, 
1967, B.A., University of North Carolina, School of Law, 1970, J.D. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law. 

Organizations: Member: NC State Bar; 14th Judicial District Bar; George H. White Bar 
Association; NC Academy of Trial Lawyers. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representaives, 1979-80, 1981-82 and 1983. 
Honors: Received Darrow Society's Award; Member, PI Sigma Alpha Honorary 

Government Society. 
Religious Activities: Member, White Rock Baptist Church. 

Family: Married; Jean Ellen Gaillard, July 6, 1968; Children: Chandler Gaillard 
Spaulding and Courtney Gaillard Spaulding. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on General 

Government 
Vice-Chairman: Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations -- Expansion 

Budget; Constitutional Amendments; Judiciary II 

Member: Appropriations Base Budget Committee on General .Government; 
Courts & Administration of Justice; Economy; Election Laws; Local Govern- 
ment II; University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 




The Legislative Branch 407 

LEROY PAGE SPOON, JR. 

(Republican — Mecklenburg County) 

Thirty-Sixth Representative District — Mecklenburg County — Eight 
Representatives. 






Early Years: Born in Athens, Georgia, October 19, 1924, to LeRoy Page and Kathryn 
(Warren) Spoon. 

Education: Attended Central High School, Charlotte; Attended Clemson College; 
Boston University; University of Georgia. 

Occupation: Manufacturer of Electrical Equipment (President, L. P. Spoon, Inc.; Elec- 
trical Manufacturer's Agent and Switching Equipment Manufacturing Co., and Elec- 
trical Manufacturer and Engraver.) 

Organizations: Member: Masons; Lions Club; Toastmaster Club; Barium Springs Home 
for Children: Chairman, Lansdowne School Committee. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Regents; Board of Directors, Mecklenburg Mental 
Health Association; Former Member, Erskine College, Board of Trustees; Member 
Department of Social Services Commission. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 
1979-80, 1981-82 and 1983. 

IVIilitary Service: Served in US Army, 1942-1946 and 1950-1952 (Combat Infantryman in 
European Theatre and Engineer in Korean Theatre); Served in NC National Guard, 
1975-1983, (105th Combat Engineer Battalion, 30th Infantry Division); Highest 
Rank, Captain CE. 

Religious Activities: Member, Sardis Presbyterian Church in Charlotte; Elder; Chair- 
man, Christian Education Committee; Presbyterian Family Life Center, Board of 
Directors. 

Family: Married, Ruth Elizabeth Atwell, September 11, 1948; Children: Carolyn 
Christina Fincher Spoon; LeRoy P. Spoon, III; and Wilfred Spoon. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Finance; Corrections; Highway Safety; Judiciary II; Mental Health; 
Military and Veterans Affairs; Rules and Operation of the House; Alcoholic 
Beverage Control. 



408 North Carolina Manual 




MARGARET "PEGCY ' ANN STAMEY 

(Democrat — Wake County) 

Twentv-First Representative District Wai<e County - Six 

Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Asheville, Buncombe County, March 17, 1932, to Chester Franklin 
and Sudie (Aiken) Mcintosh. 

Education: Attended, Plonk School of Creative Arts, 1948-51; Brevard Colelge, 1951-52; 
Liberal Arts; University of Maryland, 1958-, Political Science; Fridan School of Data 
Systems, 1959-60. 

Occupation: Fishery Consultant (South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Chair- 
man, 1980; current member). 

Organizations: Triangle International Trade Association; Member, Triangle Kidney 
Foundation; NC Museum of History Associates; Cary Chamber of Commerce; 
Women in State Government. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, SAF Council, 1980; National Coalition for Conser- 
vation of Marine Resources, 1979-present; U.S. Advisor, International Commission, 
Conservation of Atlantic Tuxas, 1980-present, from South Atlantic region. Capital 
Planning Commission. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1983; National Com- 
mittteewoman, N.C.. Y.D.C., 1968; Vice-Chairman, Wake County, 1972-1976, 
Chairman, Wake County. Y.D.C. Democratic Women of Wake County; 1977-79; 
National Democratic Committee. 

Honors: Thad Eure Award, 1978; Jim Hunt Campaign Award. 1976; NC Democratic 
Party Appreciation Award, 1977; One of Ten Outstanding YDC in NC, 1968; Cita- 
tion for service to Kidney Foundation, 1977. 

Religious Activities: Member, White Plains Methodist Church. 

Family: Married, James H. Slamey, January 3, 1953; Children: Dianna Dee Stamey- 

Fulmer, James Franklin Stamey, Susan Alice Stamey, and Melissa Jane Stamey 

Broadwell. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Subcommittee on Commercial Fishing 

Member: Aging; Finance; Commercial Fishing; Education; Highway Safety; 
Judiciary II; Law Enforcement; State Government. 




The Legislative Branch 409 



MARGARET ROSE TENNILLE 
(Mrs. Norton F. Tennille) 

(Democrat — Forsyth County) 

%, ' * Thirty-Ninth Representative District Abbotts Creei<, Bethania, Broad- 

% , .1 bay, Clemmonsville, Kernersville, Lewisviile, Middle Forte, Old Rich- 

mond. Old Town, South Fori<, Vienna, and Winston Townships of For- 
k^ syth County Five Representatives. 

^/:/- ^^^ ■ . 

Early Years: Born in Hopewell, Virginia, March 25, 1917, to Robert Wilson and Byrd 
McClure Rose. 

Education: Graduated R. J. Reynolds High School, Winston-Salem, 1933; Salem 
College, Winston-Salem, 2 years, 1934-35. 

Occupation: Reitred, (Former. Administrative Assistant to Mayor of Winston-Salem, 
1961-71.) 

Organizations: Member: Womens Forum, National Order of Women Legislators; For- 
syth Democratic Women: United Daughters of Confederacy: Woman's Club, 
Phoenix, AR. 

Boards and Commissions: Appointed by Governor Hunt, Juvenile Code Revision, Plann- 
ing Commission for Math-Science High School: Member, Commission of Youth Ser- 
vices, 1975; Member, Board of Directors, Forsyth Bank & Trust Co.; City Board of 
Directors, Southern National Bank; NC Alcoholism Research Authority. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 
1981-82 and 1983. 

Religious Activities: Member, Centenary United Methodist Church; Board of Trustees, 
Centenary United Methodist Chruch; Two terms on Board of Stewards, 1961-64, 
1971-74. 

Family: Married. Norton F. Tennille, April 22, 1939 (deceased): Children: Norton F. 
Tennille, Jr.; Wilson R. Tennille: and Ben F. Tennille. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

C hairman: Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety 
Vice-Chairman: Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations — Expansion 
Budget: Economy: Public Utilities 

Member: Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and Public 
Safety; Banks & Thrift Institutions; Human Resources: Judiciary IV; Rules 
and Operation o{ the House: University Board of Governors Nominating 
Committee; Task Force on Public School Facilities. 



410 North Carolina Manual 




BETTY MARIE (DORTON) THOMAS 

(Democrat — Cabarrus County) 

Thirty-Fourth Representative District -- Cabarrus, Stanly, and Union 
Counties ~- Four Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Shelby. Cleveland County, September 10, 1923, to Dr. J. S. and 
Marie Biggerstaff Dorton (both deceased). 

Education: Graduated Shelby High School, 1939: University of North Carolina- 
Greensboro, 1944, B.S. (Secretarial Administration). 

Occupation: Corporate Executive (President. A.W. Thomas & Son: Thomas Develop- 
ment. Inc.) 

Organizations: Member, Business & Professional Women; American Legion Auxiliary; 
National Organization of Women Legislators: Service Award, UNC-G, 1979; For- 
mer Trustee of UNC-Charlotte: Former Trustee of The Greater University Board of 
Trustees; Trustee, Barber-Scotia College. 

Political .Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76 (appointed to com- 
plete term of her deceased husband), 1977-78, 1979-80. 1981-82 and 1983. 

Honors: Named Concord. Woman of the Year. 1976: NC Legislator of the Year, Coun- 
selor Association of Public Educator's, 1980; Honorable Mention in the National 
Competition, 1980. 

Religious Activities: Member, Central United Methodist Church; all offices in Sunday 
School Class, 1948-60; Secretary, Women of the Church, 1969; Trustees, 1975-76; 
Council on Ministreis, 1974-76; Administrative Board, 1975 & 1981. 

Family: Married, A.W. (Art) Thomas, Jr. (deceased), April 3, 1948; Children: Mrs. Fred 
Smith, Jr. (Tina), Mrs. Robert Howard Bullock (Terre), and Arthur Webster 
Thomas (Tom), III. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Higher Education 

Vice-Chairman: Banks & Thrift Institutions; State Government 

Member: Aging: Appropriations Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget 
Committee on Education; Appropriations - - Expansion Budget: Appropria- 
tions Expansion Budget Committee on Education: Human Resources; 
Judiciary 111; University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 




The Legislative Branch 411 

JAMES PAUL TYNDALL 

(Democrat Onslow County) 

Fourth Representative District - Carteret and Onslow Counties -- Three 
Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Arapahoe, Pamlico County, March 28, 1914, to James A. and 

Fannie T. Tyndall. 
Education: Graduated, Arapahoe High School, 1929; Washington Collegiate Institute, 

1930; Rutherford Junior College, ^932; Atlantic Christian College, 1936, A.B.; East 

Carolina University, 1958, M.A. Degree. 
Occupation: Retired Educator (Teacher; Coach; Principal; Asst. Superintendent; 

Superintendent). Board of Education Member — Onslow County 10 years after I 

retired as Superintendent. 
Organizations: NC Retired School Personnel; State Chairman, Legislative Committee; 

NC Retired Governmental Employee Legislative Committee; NCAE, NEA; AASA; 

NC Division of Principals; NC Division of Superintendents, life memberships; 

Kiwanis Club, 1962-72. 
Boards and Commissions: Member, State School Boards Association, on the Legislative 

Committee; Onslow County Board of Health, 1963-1972; Onslow County Hospital 

Board, 1967-1969; appointed by Gov. Bob Scott, two terms, NC Learning Institute 

Board. 
Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1983; Elected, three terms, 

Onslow County Board of Education; Lobbied, School Systems in NC; NEA Budget 

Committee, Federal Funding; Federal Relations Network, Represented 3rd Con- 
gressional District — Represented N.C. Impacted Area School Districts for Federal 

Funding several years. 
Honors: "The American Educators Award'', Freedom Foundation of Valley Forge, 

1969; Community Man Award, Jacksonville Jaycees, 1971; WNCT-TV, "Today's 

Outstanding N.C. Citizen", 1969. 
Religious Activities: Member, Trinity United Methodist; Sunday School Teacher (Adult 

Class), 8 years. 
Family: Married, Eunice Wilson, June 23, 1979; Four Children. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Finance; Commercial Fishing; Education: Mental Health; Military and 
Veterans Affairs; Pensions & Retirement; Public Utilities; Wildlife Resources. 



4 1 2 North Carolina Manual 




HENRY MCMILLAN TYSON 

(Democrat -- Cumberland County) 

Eighteenth Representative District - The remainder of Cumberland 
Countv not included in District 17. 



Early Years: Born in Cumberland County. October 31. 1914. to Henry Grady andTom- 
mie (Marsh) Tyson. 

Education: Gray's Creek High School. 

Occupation: Farmer and Farm Supply Dealer: Sales Supervisor. Fayetteville Tobacco 
Market. 9 years. 

Organizations: Member. North Carolina Farm Bureau: Cumberland Count\ Livestock 
Association; Gray's Creek Ruritan Club. Past President: Member. John Huske An- 
derson Lodge No. 731 (Masonic): Past President. Parent-Teacher Association: 
Member, Fayetteville Eastern Star334: Member, Cumberland County Agricultural 
Advisory Council: Chairman. Agri-Business Commission, Fayetteville Chamber of 
Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: Charter member, Cumberland County Soil Conservation 
Commission, 1946-52. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 1977-78, 1979-80, 

1981-82 and 1983: Cumberland County Commissioner, (Chairman. Seven Years); 

served as a County Commissioner of Cumberland County, 12 years. 
Religious Activities: Member. First Presbyterian Church, Fayetteville: Past Deacon and 

Elder; Sunday School Teacher. 
Family: Married, Addie Amelia Williams, June 21, 1940; Children: Carrie Eula Tyson; 

Henry McMillan Tyson. II: and John Marsh Tyson. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: State Properties 
Vice-Chairman: Water and Air Resources 

Member: Agriculture: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Appropriations -- Base 
Budget; Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Natural and Economic 
Resources; Appropriations — Expansion Budget: Appropriations Expansion 
Budget Committee on Natural & Economic Resources: Health: Insurance; 
Public Utilities. 




The Legislative Branch 413 

JOHN WESLEY VARNER 

(Democrat — Davidson County) 

Thirl) -Scvcnih Representative District - Davidson and Davie Counties: 
and Eagle Mills and Union Grove Tov\nships of Iredell County Three 
Representatives. 



Early Years: Bom in Randolph County, September 30, 1906, to James Milton and Dora 

(Plummer) Varner. 
Education: Attended Rutherford College, 1922-1929: Graduated Duke University, 

1928, B.A., University Tennessee Medical School, 1932, M.D., Completed 

Residency in Psychiatry, John Umstead Hospital, 1965. 
Occupation: Retired Psychiatrist. 
Organizations: Former Member, Davidson County Medical Society: N.C. Medical 

Society: American Medical Society: NC Neuro-Psychiatric Association; Kiwanis 

Club, Lexington. 
Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1974-75, 1976-77, 1978-79, 

and 1983. 
Military Service: Served in NC National Guard, Sixteen Years, Lt. Colonel. 
Honors: "Irene McCain McFarland Award", 1978, NC Mental Health Association for 

the Volunteer of the Year: "Valand Award", 1979, NC Mental Health Association 

for working with Mental Health: NC Mental Health Association, outstanding work 

for Mental Health in General Assembly, 1979. 
Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church: Administrative Board, 

1969-71: Board of ARC, Davidson County: Board of Davidson County Sheltered 

Workshop. 
Family: Married, Willie Lee Jordan, December 18, 1934: Children: Dr. Roy Van Var- 
ner, John Wesley Varner. Jr.: and Virginia Varner Clifford. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Military and Veterans Affairs 

Vice-Chairman: Commissions & Schools for the Blind & Deaf: Human Resources 
Member: Appropriations -- Base Budget: Appropriations Base Budget Commit- 
tee on Human Resources: Appropriations - Expansion Budget: Appropria- 
tions Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources: Corrections; Em- 
ployment Security: Health: Mental Health. 



414 



North Carolina Manual 




ED NELSON WARREN 

(Democrat — Pitt County) 

Ninith Representative District - Greene County: and Arthur, Ayden, 
Belvoir. Chicod, Falkland, Farmville. Fountain, Greenville. Griflon, 
Grimesland. Paclolus. Swift Creek, and Winlerville Townships of Pitt 
Count\ Two Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Stoke,s, Pitt County, November 29, 1926, to Elmer Edward and 
Daisy (Cox) Warren. 

Education: Attended Campbell University, 1950, A. A.: Graduated Atlantic Christian 
College, 1951, A.B.; East Carolina University, 1953: M.A.: Duke University, 1960- 
61, Attended Doctoral Program. 

Occupation: Investor. Tobacco Warehouse; Tobacco Farming: Rental Properties. 

Organizations: Member: Greenville Rotary Club: Pitt County Airport Authority: Past 
Chairman, Pitt County Heart Association; Board of Directors, Greenville Chamber 
of Commerce; United Fund: Greenville Golf and Country Club; North Tar 
Fellowship Club. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Pitt County Health Board; Salvation Army, Board 
of Trustees; Past Chairman. Pitt Memorial Hospital Board of Trustees. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981-82 and 1983; Chair- 
man, Pitt County Board of Commissioners, 1973-1979. 

Military Service: Served in US Air Force, 1945- 1948. 

Honors: Tar Heel of the Week; Outstanding Personalities of the South. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Christian Church; Deacon. 

Family: Married, Joan Braswell Warren, 1953. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice-Chairman: Agriculture; Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Educa- 
tion; Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Education: Higher 
Education 

Member: Appropriations — Base Budget: Appropriations — Expansion Budget; 
Banks & Thrift Institutions: Corrections: Education; Judiciary III; Local 
Government I; Rules and Operation of the House. 



The Legislative Branch 



415 




WILLIAM THOMAS WATKINS 

(Democrat -- Granville County) 

Twenty-Second Representative District -- Caswell, Granville, Person, 
Vance and Warren. Three Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Granville County, July 1, 1921, to John Stradley and Belle 
(Norwood) Watkins. 

Education: Attended Oak Hill High School, 1927-1939; Mars Hill Junior College, 1942; 
Wake Forest College. 1939-1941 and 1946-1948; graduated Wake Forest College, 
B.S., 1949; Wake Forest Law School, 1952, L.L.B. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law (City Attorney for City of Creedmoor, 1955-1968; Attor- 
ney for Granville County). 

Organizations: Member: NC State Bar Association; Ninth District Bar and Granville 
County Bar; Pi Kappa Alpha; Phi Delta Phi, Jagister, 1952. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975- 
7, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82 and 1983. 

Military Service: Served in US Army, 1942-1946 (Staff Sergeant). 
Religious Activities: Member, Oxford Baptist Church, Oxford; Sunday School Teacher, 
1956-60. 

Family: Married, Louise Marie Best, November 18, 1944; Children: Mrs. Martin L. 
(Alma Marie), Nesbitt, Jr. and Mrs. Jerry (Annabell) Barker. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriation - Expansion Budget; Committee on Employee 

Hospital and Major Medical Benefits 
Vice Chairman: Courts & Administration of Justice; Judiciary IV 

Member: Appropriations - Base Budget; Constitutional Amendments; 
Economy; Election Laws; Health; Small Business; Wildlife Resources. 



416 



North Carolina Manual 




DENNIS ALVIN WICKER 

(Democrat -- Lee County) 



Nineteenth Representative District 
Representatives. 



Harnett and Lee Counties - Two 



Early ^ears: Born in Sanford, Lee County, June 14, 1952. to J. Shelton and Clarice 

(Burns) Wicker. 
Education: Graduated University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1974, B.A.: Wake 

Forest University, School of Law, 1978, J.D. 

Occupation: Attorney at Law, (Love & Wicker, P.A.. Sanford, NC) 

Organizations: Member: NC State Bar: American Bar Association; NC Bar Assocai- 
tion; Academy of Trial Lawyers: Lions Club; Modern Woodsman of the World. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1981-82 and 1983. 
Religious .Activities: Member, St. Luke Methodist Church, Sanford; Administrative 
Board Member; Sunday School Teacher. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Law Enforcement 

Vice-Chairman: Courts & Administration of Justice; Highway Safety 

Member: Finance; Election Laws: Judiciary II; Militar> and Veterans Affairs; 
Small Business; Transportation. 



The Legislative Branch 



417 




THOMAS C. WOMBLE, JR. 

(Democrat — Forsyth County) 

Thirty-Ninth Representative District - Abbotts Creek, Bethania, Broad- 
ba\. Clemmonsville, Kernersviile. Lev\isville. Middle Fork. Old Rich- 
mond. Old Town. South Fork. Vienna, and Winston Townships of For- 
syth County — Five Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Cary, Wake County, May 16, 1936, to Thomas Carlyle and 
Elizabeth (Weaver) Womble. 

Education: Graduated, Cary High School, 1954: Wake Forest University, 1958, B.A. 
Degree; Southeastern Seminary. 1962, M.D. Degree: Babcock School of Business 
Management Institute, Wake Forest, 1974. 

Occupation: Ministry: Self Employed -- Investments. 

Organizations: President, Wake Forest Sportman Club: Board of Directors^Junior 
Achievement: Winston-Salem Arts Council: Member: Rotary Club (Past Presidnet), 
Easter Seal, Mental Health, and PTA Council: Past Member, Mental Health Com- 
mittee: Officer Urban-Suburban School Districts: President, NC Baptist Pastor's 
Conference, 1975-76. Forsyth County Nursing Homes Advisory, Chairman. 

Boards and Commissions: Vice-President. General Board, NC Baptist State Convention, 
1976-80: Board of Directors, Junior Achivement, 1978-82. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1983: Winston- 
Salem/Forsyth, Board of Education, 1976-1982, (Chairman, 1978-1982.) Clemmons 
Precinct Officer. 

Literary Works: "Weekly Column for Clemmons Courier" & subordinate. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist: Officer NC Baptist State Convention & 
Southern Baptist Convention. 

Family: Married. Jo Mustian, May 19, 1956: Children: Thomas Daniel Womble and 
Elizabeth Anne Womble. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Finance: Banks & Thrift Institutions: Corrections: Education; 
Governmental Ethics: Health: Law Enforcement: Wildlife Resources. 



418 North Carolina Manual 




BARNEY PAUL WOODARD 

(Democrat — Johnston County) 

Twentieth Representative District — Franklin and Johnston Counties 
Two Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Princeton, Johnston County, November 23, 1914, to John Richard 
and Elizabeth (Wail) Woodard. 

Education: Graduated, Princeton High School; University of North Carolina at Chapel 
HIill, 1938 B.S. (in Pharmacy). 

Occupation: Pharmacist (Owner, Woodard Pharmacy). 

Organizations: Member: NC Pharmaceutical Association, 1978; National Association of 
Retail Druggist; Princeton Lions Club; Past Member. St. Patrick Lodge #617 
(Mason); Member, Johnston County Shrine Club; Johnston County Mental Health 
Association; Johnston County Drug Club; Member, Keep Johnston County 
Beautiful; Past Chairman; Princeton Advisory School Committee, 1969-71; Past 
President, Princeton Lions Club, 1945; Past Chairman, Boy Scout Committee serving 
on Tuscarora Council, 1966-68; Fund Chairman, Mental Health Association, 1971- 
72; Past Fund Chairman, TB Association, 1969; Past Member, Princeton Town 
Council, 1948. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1967, 1973-74, 1975-76, 
1977-78, 1979-80. 1983. 

Honors: "Bowl of Hygea"' Award, 1978; Outstanding Community Service in Pharmacy. 

Religious .Activities: Member, United Methodist Church; Member, Trustee, Ad- 
ministrative Board; Teacher, 1969-71. 

Family: Married, Annie Louise Sugg, September 6, 1941; Children: Barney Paul 
Woodard, Jr.; (Mrs. Kenneth Taylor) Dianne Louise Woodard; Michael Sugg 
Woodard; and Mrs. Bruce McLeod. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Health 

Vice-Chairman: State Personnel; Agriculture 

Member: VC Agriculture; Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations Base 

Budget Committee on Human Resources; Appropriations — Expansion 

Budget; Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources; 

Commissions & Schools for the Blind & Deaf; Employment Security; Highway 

Safety; Judiciary III. 




The Legislative Branch 419 

CHARLES DALMER WOODARD 

(Democrat — Wayne County) 

Eleventh Representative District — Wayne County - Two 
Representatives. 



Early Years: Born in Goldsboro, Wayne County, May 5, 1948, to Dalmer Vernon and 
Bertha (Capps) Woodard. 

Education: Graduated, Goldsboro High School; Mt. Olive College; Attended, Brooks 
Army Medical Training. Texas. 

Occupation: President, Woodaard Care, Inc.; President, Woodard Retirement Village; 
Owner, Woodard's Radiator & Muffler Service; Owner, Woodard Rentals. 

Organizations: Goldsboro Jaycees, External Vice-President, 1979; Goldsboro Jaycees, 
President, 1981; Mental Health, Committee Member, Goldsboro Exchange Club- 
member; Wayne County Young Democrat, 1981; Wayne County Democrat Party, 
1981. 

Boards and Commissions: Governor Charles B. Aycock Commission, Board Member; 

Chairman of Board, Goldsboro Jaycees; Board Member, W.A.G.E.S. 
Political Activities: Served, NC House of Representatives, 1983. 

Military Service: Served NC National guard. Active, 1967; (E-6 Staff Serg.); Reserves, 
1968-1980. 

Honors: Outstanding Young Man of Wayne County; Outstanding Local Presidnet, NC 
Jaycees. 

Religious Activities: Member, Oak Heights Baptist; President, Sunday School Class Of- 
fice, 1968-74, Secretary, 1975-76. 

Family: Married, Phyllis Grice, October 27, 1968; Children: Brian and Kevin. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Aging; Appropriations — Base Budget; Appropriations Base Budget 
Committee on Human Resources; Appropriations Expansion Budget; Ap- 
propriations Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources; Education; 
Human Resources; Judiciary II; Law Enforcement; Mental Health; Military 
and Veterans Affairs. 



420 North Carolina Manual 




RICHARD WRIGHT 

(Democrat — Columbus County) 

Fifteenth Representative District Columbus County — One 

Representative. 



Early Years: Born in Loris. South Carolina, October 8, 1944. to Ottis R. and Olive (Bat- 
tle) Wright. Lived in Columbus County, N.C. since October 11. 1944. 

Education: Graduated Tabor City High School, 1963; University of North Carolina at 
Chapel Hill, 1967 A.B., (Political Science): University of North Carolina. Chapel Hill 
School of Law 1971, J.D. Degree. 

Occupation: Attorney (Town Attorney for Tabor City, Fair Bluff and Cerro Gordo), 
Farmer; Owner of Various rental properties; (Member. Firm of McGougan, Wright 
and Worley.) 

Organizations: North Carolina Bar Association; Director 13th Judicial District Bar 
Association; Columbus County Bar Association and Columbus County Farm 
Bureau; Director. Columbus County Arts Council; Director. Columbus County 
Mental Health Association; Director, Southeastern Oratorio Society; Columbus 
County Young Farmers Association; President, Columbus County UNC-Alumni 
Association; Chairman, Columbus County Morehead Scholarship Committee; 
Civitan Club; Director, Southeastern Community College Foundation; Sampson and 
Columbus Historical Societies; S.C. Genealog\ Societv; Columbus Cotillion; Board 
of Directors '^STRIKE at the WIND"", 1979-'. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Trustees, NC Art Museum, 1980-82; NC Commis- 
sion on Criminal Justice Training Education and Standard, 1979-82; State 
Archaeology Commission. 1975-77; NC Criminal Justice Education and Training 
Systems Council. 1977-79. 

Political Activities: Served in NC House of Representatives, 1975-76. 1977-78, 1979-80, 
1981-82 and 1983; Presidential Elector, 1976; Member, State Democratic Executive 
Committee, 1977-. 

Honors: Phi Beta Kappa; Order of The Old Well, Society of Janus, several articles 
published in Columbus County Histor>, published, 1980. 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church; Council on Ministries and Ad- 
ministrative Board; Youth Co-ordinator; U.M.Y.F. Counselor. 

Family: Married, Jenny McKinnon; Children: Elizabeth Armstrong Wright and Sarah 
McKinnon Wright. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciar\ II 

\'ice-Chairman: Militarv and Veterans Affairs; Rules and Operation of the House 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Finance; Courts & Administration of 
Justice; Employment Security; Public Utilities. 



The Legislative Branch 



421 




GRACE AVERETTE COLLINS 

(Principal Clerk — House of Representatives) 

Grace Averette Collins was born in Fuquay-Varina. Daughter oi' Alozona Deems 
Averette and Minnie Lee (Helms) Averette. Graduated Fuquay-Varina High School, 
1949; Kings Business College, 1951. Attended Raleigh School of Commerce and 
Hardbarger Busines College, refresher courses. Homemaker. National Society of 
Legislative Clerks and Secretaries, receiving Outstanding Achievement Award in 1975 
and Leadership Award, 1976. Served on committee on Comparative Development Cen- 
ter, 1974-75; Agenda Committee 1975-76, 1977-78; Executive Nominating Committee 
for National Conference of State Legislatures, 1978. Is presently serving as Vice- 
President of National Society of Legislative Clerks and Secretaries. General Assembly 
Experience; Assistant Calendar Clerk 1979; Journal Clerk 1971-1973; and Principal 
Clerk, 1974. 1975-76, 1977. 1978, 1981-82 and 1983. Served as First Vice-Chairman of 
Middle Creek Fuquay precinct. 1969-1971. Served as Chairman for precinct 1971-1973. 
Served as Cub Scout Den Mother; active in community affairs fund raising, etc., ser- 
ved on Wake County Bicentennial Committee, 1972; Town Board Recreation Com- 
mitee. Who's Who in State Government, 1976. Member Fuquay Varina Methodist 
Church; Board of Mission; Sunday school teacher; Member of Chancel Choir. Married 
John Nolan Collins, October 4, 1952; Children: John N. Collins, Jr., Joseph A. Collins; 
James D. Collins; and Laurie E. Collins. 



422 



North Carolina Manual 



OCCUPATIONS OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Account Executive Businessman 

Rhodes, S. Thomas Gist, Herman C. 



Accountant 

Poovey, J. Reid (Ret.) 

Agri-Business 

Gillam, John B., Ill 
James, Vernon G. 
Jordan, John M. 
McAlister, Robert L. 
Murphy, Wendell 
Tyson, Henry M. 

Administrative Assistant 

Foster, Jo Graham (Ret.) 

Attorney 

Adams, Allen 
Allran, Austin M. 
Ballance, Frank W., Jr. 
Blue, Daniel T., Jr. 
Clark, William E. 
Coble, John H. 
Evans, Charles D. 
Hackney, Joe 
Helms, H. Parks 
Holt, Bertha M. 
Hunter, Robert C. 
Kennedy, Annie Brown 
Lancaster, H. Martin 
Lee, Hugh 
Matthews, Tom 
Miller, George W., Jr. 
Musselwhite, Marvin D., Jr. 
Nesbitt, Martin L. 
Payne, Harry E., Jr. 
Pulley, W. Paul, Jr. 
Roberts, J. B., Ill 
Slaughter, Robert L. 
Spaulding, Kenneth B. 
Watkins, William T. 
Wicker, Dennis A. 
Wright, Richard 

Auctioneering 

DeVane, Daniel H. 

Banking 

Berry, Phillip O. 
Hughes, Charles H. 



Coach (High School) 

Diamont, David H. 

College Administrator 

Greenwood, Gordon H. 

College Counsellor 

McDowell, Timothy H. 

College Professor 

Barker, Chris S., Jr. (Ret.) 
Brennan, Louise S. 
Greenwood, Gordon H. 
Hauser, C. B. (Ret.) 

Consultant (Business) 
Berry, Phillip O. 
Jones, Walter B., Jr. 

Consultant (Education) 
Hayden, Margaret B. 

Consultant (Fisheries) 

Stamey, Peggy 

Consultant (Investments) 

Brubaker, Harold J. 

Contractor (General) 

Brawley, C. Robert, Jr. 
Hughes, Charles H. 

Corporate Executive 

Burnley, Dorothy R. 
Church, John T. 
Easterling, Ruth M. 
Economos, Gus 
Etheridge, Bobby R. 
Fletcher, Ray C. 
Hightower, Foyle R., Jr. 
Hudson, Joe R. 
Lambeth, James F. 
Quinn, Dwight W. 
Robinson, George S. 
Spoon, LeRoy P., Jr. 
Thomas, Betty M. 
Woodard, Charles D. 



I 



The Legislative Branch 



423 



Dentist 

Hunt, John J. 

Educator 

Chapin, Howard B. (Ret.) 
Foster, Jo Graham (Ret.) 
Fussell, Aaron E. (Ret.) 
Tyndall, J. Paul 

Engineer 

Ethridge, W. Bruce 

Farm Supplies 

Tyson, Henry M. 

Farming 

Auman, T. Clyde 
Barbee, Allen C. 
Brown, John W. 
Creecy, C. Melvin 
Gentry, J. Worth 
Gillam, John B., Ill 
Hunt, John J. 
James, Vernon G. 
Lutz, Edith L. 
Mavretic, Josephus L. 
McAllister, Robert L. 
Murphy, Wendell H. 
Rabon, Tom B., Jr. 
Tyson, Henry M. 
Warren, Ed N. 
Wright, Richard 

Fuel Dealership 

Hightower, Foyle R., Jr. 

Funeral Service Director 
Bumgardner, David W., Jr. 

Grading 

Gentry, J. Worth 

Homemaker 

Colton, Marie W. 
Fenner, Jeanne T. 
Holt, Bertha M. 
Stamey, Peggy 

Hotel/Motel Owner 

Barbee, Allen C. 
Evans, Charles D. 
Hughes, James F. 



Insurance 

Beard, Rayford B. 
Brawley, C. Robert. Jr. 
Hasty, John C. 
Holmes, George M. 
Lilley, Daniel T. 
Redding, W. Frank, III 

Investments 

Beam. Sam L. 
Warren, Ed N. 

Judge (Ret.) 

Matthews, Tom 

Land Developer 

Barbee, Allen C. 
Clark, William E. 
Jordan, John M. 
Thomas, Betty M. 
Owens, Charles 

Lecturer 

Brennan, Louise S. 

Legal Assistant 

Seymour, Mary P. 

Legislator 

Barnes, Anne C. 
Bowen, Edward C. 
Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Colton, Marie W. 
Cook, Ruth E. 
Fenner, Jeanne T. 
Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. 
Tennille, Margaret R. 
Womble, Tom C. 

Logging/ Lumber Industry 

Anderson. Gerald L. 
Robinson, George S. 

Mfg — Electrical Equip. 

Spoon, LeRoy P., Jr. 

Mfg — Paper 

Beall, Charles M. 



424 



North Carolina Manual 



Merchant 

Childress, R. J. 
Hunt, John J. 
Mauney, D. R., Jr. 
Pool, Murray 
Ramsey, Liston B. (Ret.) 

Minister 

Creecy, C. Melvin 
Edwards, C.R. 
Locks, Sidney A. 
Womble, Tom C. (Ret.) 

Nurseryman 

Brannan, George W. 

Oil 

Pool, Murray 

Optometrist 

Black, James B. 

Pharmacist 

Ligon, Bradford V. 
Woodard, Barney Paul 

Physician 

Grimsley, William T. 
Varner, John T. (Ret.) 

Publisher 

Huskins, Joseph P. 

Radio-Television Station 

Etheridge, Bobby R. 

Real Estate (Appraising) 

Brubaker, Harold J. 

Real Estate (Brokerage) 

Anderson, Gerald L. 
Barbee, Allen C. 
Berry, Phillip O. 
Brubaker, Harold J. 
DeVane, Daniel H. 
Lacey, S. B., Jr. 
Owens, Charles 
Seymour, Mary P. 



Real Estate (Management) 

Crawford, Narvel J., Jr. 
Evans, Charles D. 
Nash, Robie L. 
Warren, Ed N. 
Wright, Richard 

Restauranteur 

Economos, Gus 
Jeralds. Luther R. 

Retail Merchant 

Crawford, James W. 

Sales Representative 

Keesee-Forrester, Margaret P. 

Teacher 

Chapin, Howard B. (Ret.) 
Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Diamont, David H. 
Jarrell, Mary 

Stockbroker 

Rhodes, S. Thomas 

Tobacco Warehouse 

Warren, Ed N. 

U.S. Government (Retired) 

Enloe, Jeff H., Jr. (Ret.) 

U.S. Military (Retired) 

Barker, Chris S., Jr. 
Mavretic, Josephus L. 



The Legislative Branch 



425 



1983 HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

AGING 

Chairman: Economos.Gus 

Vice-Chairman: Crawford, Narvel J., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Hayden. Margaret B. 

Vice-Chairman: Jordan, John M. 
Vice-Chairman: Maunev, D. R., Jr. 



Beail. Charles S. 
Diamont, David Hunter 
Fusseil, Aaron E. 
Hughes, Charles H. 
Quinn, Dvvight W. 
Woodard. Charles D. 



Bowen. Edward C. 
Ethridge, Bruce 
Grimsley, William T. 
Ligon, Bradford V. 
Stamey, Margaret 



Brennan, Louise S. 
Foster, Jo Graham 
Hauser, C.B. 
Lutz, Edith Ledford 
Thomas, Bettv Dorton 



Barnes, Annie C. 
Brubaker, Harold J. 
EnlocJeffH., Jr. 
Hightower, Foyle R., 
Lambeth, James E. 
McAlister, Robert L. 
Murphy. Wendell H. 
Puilev, W.Paul 



Jr. 



AGRICULTURE 

Chairman: James, Vernon G. 

Vice-Chairman: Anderson, Gerald L. 

Vice-Chairman: Gillam. John B.. Ill 

Vice-Chairman: Lutz. Edith Ledford 

Vice-Chairman: Warren, Ed N. 

Vice-Chairman: Woodard, Barney Paul 

Black, James B. 
Brown, John Walter 
Greenwood, Gordon H. 
Jordan, John M. 
Lilley, James E. 
Matthews, Tom 
Nash, RobieL. 
Slauahter. Robert L. 



Brawley, C. Robert 
Creecy, C. Melvin 
Grimsley, William T. 
Lacey, S. B., Jr. 
Locks, Sidney A. 
Mavretic, Josephus L. 
Pool, Murray 
Tyson, Henry M. 



Allran, Austin M. 
Hudson, Joe R. 
Lilley, Daniel T. 
Wright. Richard 



ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE CONTROL 

Chairman: Clark. William E. 

Vice-Chairman: Adams, Allen 

Vice-Chairman: Holt, Bertha M. 



Coble, J. Howard 
Jarrell, Mary 
Pool, Murray 



Gist. Herman C. 
Jeralds, Luther R. 
Tvson, Henry M. 



426 



North Carolina Manual 



APPROPRIATIONS BASE BUDGET 

Chairman: Adams, Allen 

Vice-Chairman: Beard, R. D. 

Vice-Chairman: Cook, Ruth E. 

Vice-Chairman: Diamont, David Hunter 

Vice-Chairman: Etheridge, Bobby R. 

Vice-Chairman: Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Greenwood, Gordon H. 

Vice-Chairman: Huskins, J. P. 

Vice-Chairman: Nash, Robie L. 

Vice-Chairman: Spaulding, Kenneth B. 

Vice-Chairman: Tennille, Margaret R. 



Anderson, Gerald L. 
Beall, Charles W. 
Bowen, Edward C. 
Bumgardner, David W. 
Childress, R. J. 
Colton. Marie W. 
Easterling, Ruth M. 
Ethridge, Bruce 
Fletcher, Ray C. 
Gillam,John B., Ill 
Hayden. Margaret B. 
Hughes, James F. 
James, Vernon G. 
Ligon, Bradford, V. 
McDowell, Timothy H. 
Payne, Harry E., Jr. 
Slaughter, Robert L. 
Varner, John W. 
Woodard, Barney Paul 



Auman, T. Clyde 
Beam, Sam L. 
Brennan, Louise S. 
Burnley, Dorothy R. 
Church, John T. 
Crawford, Narvel J., Jr. 
Edwards, C. R. 
Evans, Charles D. 
Foster, Jo Graham 
Gist, Herman C. 
Holmes, George M. 
Hunt, John J. 
Kennedy, Annie Brown 
Locks, Sidney A. 
Mauney, D. R., Jr. 
Rabon, Tom B., Jr. 
Thomas, Betty Dorton 
Warren, Ed N. 
Woodard, Charles D. 



Barnes, Annie C. 
Black, James B. 
Brubaker, Harold J. 
Chapin, Howard B. 
Cochrane, Betsy L. 
DeVane, Daniel H. 
Enloe,JeffH.,Jr. 
Fenner, Jeanne T. 
Fussell, Aaron E. 
Grimsley, William T. 
Hughes, Charles H. 
Hunter, Robert C. 
Lee, Hugh 
Lutz, Edith Ledford 
Murphy, Wendell H. 
Seymour, Mary P. 
Tyson, Henry M. 
Watkins, William T. 



APPROPRIATIONS BASE BUDGET COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION 

Chairman: Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr., 

Vice-Chairman: Foster, Jo Graham 

Vice-Chairman: Warren, Ed N. 



Anderson, Gerald L. 
Edwards, C. R. 
Hayden, Margaret B. 
Thomas, Betty Dorton 



Barnes, Annie C. 
Enloe, JeffH.,Jr. 
McDowell, Timothv H. 



Burnley, Dorothy R. 
Greenwood, Gordon H. 
Mauney, D. R., Jr. 



APPROPRIATIONS BASE BUDGET COMMITTEE ON JUSTICE & 

PUBLIC SAFETY 

Chairman: Tennille, Margaret R. 

Vice-Chairman: Gillam, John B., Ill 

Vice-Chairman: Hunter, Robert C. 



Brubaker, Harold J. 
Gist, Herman C. 
Lee, Hugh 
Woodard, Charles 



Devane, Daniel H. 
Grimsley, William T. 
Nash, Robie L. 



Fletcher, Ray C. 
Holmes, George M. 
Slaughter, Robert L. 



The Legislative Branch 427 



APPROPRIATIONS BASE BUDGET COMMITTEE ON 
HUMAN RESOURCES 

Chairman: Cook, Ruth E. 

Vice-Chairman: Black, James B. 

Vice-Chairman: Lutz, Edith Ledford 

Auman,T. Clyde Beam, Sam L. Brennan, Louise S. 

Diamont, David Hunter Fenner, Jeanne T. Hughes, Charles H. 

Locks, Sidney A. Rabon, Tom B., Jr. Varner, John W. 
Woodard, Barney Paul 

APPROPRIATONS BASE BUDGET COMMITTEE ON 
GENERAL GOVERNMENT 

Chairman: Beard, R. D. 
Vice-Chairman: Evans, Charles D. 
Vice-Chairman: Seymour, Mary P. 

Beall, Charles W. Bowen, Edward C. Childress, R. J. 

Church, John T. Cotton, Marie W. Crawford, Narvel J., Jr. 

Fussell, Aaron E. Kennedy, Annie Brown Ligon, Bradford V. 
Spaulding, Kenneth B. 

APPROPRIATIONS BASE BUDGET COMMITTEE ON 
NATURAL AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES 

Chairman; Etheridge, Bob 

Vice-Chairman: Easterling, Ruth M. 

Vice-Chairman: Ethridge, Bruce 

Bumgardner, David W. Chapin, Howard B. Cochrane, Betsy L. 

Hughes, James F. Hunt, John J. Huskins, J. P. 

James, Vernon G. Murphy, Wendell H. Payne, Harry E., Jr. 
Tyson, Henry M. 

APPROPRIATIONS — EXPANSION BUDGET 

Chairman: Watkins, William T. 

Vice-Chairman: Beard, R. D. 

Vice-Chairman: Cook, Ruth E. 

Vice-Chairman: Diamont, David Hunter 

Vice-Chairman: Etheridge, Bobby R. 

Vice-Chairman: Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Greenwood, Gordon H. 

Vice-Chairman: Huskins, J. P. 

Vice-Chairman: Nash, Robie L. 

Vice-Chairman: Spaulding, Kenneth B. 

Vice-Chairman: Tennille, Margaret R. 



428 



North Carolina Manual 



Adams, Allen 
Barnes, Annie C. 
Black, James B. 
Brubaker, Harold J. 
Chapin, Howard B. 
Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Devane, Daniel H. 
Enloe,JeffH., Jr. 
Fenner, Jeanne T. 
Fussell, Aaron E. 
Grimsley, William t. 
Hughes, Charles H. 
Hunter, Robert C. 
Lee. Hugh 
Lutz, Edith Ledford 
Murphy, Wendell H. 
Seymour, Mary P. 
Tyson, Henry M. 
Woodard, Barney Paul 



Anderson, Gerald L. 
Beall, Charles W. 
Bowen, Edward C. 
Bumgardner, David W. 
Childers, R. J. 
Colton, Marie W. 
Easlerling, Ruth M. 
Ethridge, Bruce 
Fletcher, Ray C. 
Gillam, John B., ill 
Hayden, Margaret B. 
Hughes, James F. 
James, Vernon G. 
Ligon, Bradford V. 
McDowell, Timothy H. 
Payne, Harry E., Jr. 
Slaughter, Robert L. 
Varner, John W. 
Woodard, Charles D. 



Auman, T. Clyde 
Beam, Sam L. 
Brennan, Louise S. 
Burnley, Dorothy R. 
Church, John T. 
Crawford, Narvel J., Jr. 
Edwards, C. R. 
Evans, Charles D. 
Foster, Jo Graham 
Gist, Herman C. 
Holmes, George M. 
Hunt, John J. 
Kennedy, Annie Brown 
Locks, Sidney A. 
Mauney, D. R., Jr. 
Rabon, Tom B., Jr. 
Thomas, Betty Dorton 
Warren, Ed N. 
Warren, Ed N. 



APPROPRIATIONS EXPANSION BUDGET COMMITTEE 

ON EDUCATION 

Chairman: Greenwood, Gordon H. 

Vice-Chairman: Foster, Jo Graham 

Vice-Chairman: Warren. Ed N. 



Anderson, Gerald L. 
Edwards, C. R. 
Hayden, Margaret B. 
Thomas, Betty Dorton 



Barnes, Annie C. 
Enloe, JeffH.,Jr. 
McDowell, Timothy H. 



Burnley, Dorothy R. 
Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. 
Mauney, D. R., Jr. 



APPROPRIATIONS EXPANSION BUDGET COMMITTEE ON 
JUSTICE & PUBLIC SAFETY 

Chairman: Nash, Robie L. 

Vice-Chairman: Gillam, John B., ill 

Vice-Chairman: Hunter, Robert G. 



Brubaker, Harold J. 
Gist, Herman C. 
Lee, Hugh 
Woodard, Charles D. 



Devane, Daniel H. 
Grimsley, William T. 
Slaughter, Robert L. 



Fletcher, Ray C. 
Holmes, George M. 
Tennille, Margaret R. 



APPROPRIATIONS EXPANSION COMMITTEE ON 
HUMAN RESOURCES 

Chairman: Diamont. David Hunter 

Vice-Chairman: Black. James B. 
Vice-Chairman: Lutz, Edith Ledford 



Auman, T. Clyde 
Cook, Ruth E. 
Locks, Sidney A. 
Woodard, Burney Paul 



Beam, Sam L. 
Fenner, Jeanne T. 
Rabon, Tom B., Jr. 



Brennan, Louise S. 
Hughes, Charles H. 
Varner, John W. 



The Legislative Branch 



429 



APPROPRIATIONS EXPANSION BUDGET COMMITTEE ON 
GENERAL GOVERNMENT 

Chairman: Spaulding, Kenneth B. 
Vice-Chairman: Evans, Charles D. 
Vice-Chairman: Seymour, Mary P. 



Beall, Charles W. 
Childress, R.J. 
Crawford, N. J., Jr. 
Ligon, Bradford V. 



Beard, R. D. 
Church, John T. 
Fussell, Aaron E. 



Bowen, Edward C. 
Colton, Marie W. 
Kennedy, Annie Brown 



APPROPRIATIONS EXPANSION BUDGET COMMITTEE ON 
NATURAL AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES 

Chairman: Huskins, J. P. 

Vice-Chairman: Easlerling, Ruth M. 

Vice-Chairman: Etheridge, Bruce 



Bumgardner, David W. 
Ethridge, Bobby R. 
James, Vernon G. 
Tyson, Henry M. 



Chapin, Howard B. 
Hughes, James F. 
Murphy, Wendell H. 



Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Hunt, John J. 
Payne, Harry E., Jr. 



BANKS AND THRIFT INSTITUTIONS 

Chairman: Evans. Charles D. 

Vice-Chairman: Black, James B. 

Vice-Chairman: Pulley, W. Paul 

Vice-Chairman, Rabon, Tom B., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Thomas, Betty Dorton 



Adams, Allen 
Berry, Phillip O. 
Brubaker, Harold J. 
Cook, RuthE. 
Gillam, John B., Ill 
Holmes, George M. 
Musselwhite, Marvin D., Jr. 
Seymour, Mary P. 
Womble, Thomas C. 



Ballance, Frank W., Jr. 
Brannon, George W. 
Coble, J. Howard 
Diamont, David Hunter 
Gist, Herman C. 
Matthews, Tom 
Payne, Harry E., Jr. 
Tennille, Margaret R. 



Beam, Sam L. 
Brawley, C. Robert 
Colton, Marie W. 
Fletcher, Ray C. 
Holt, Bertham M. 
Murphy, Wendell H. 
Robinson, George S. 
Warren, Ed N. 



Anderson, Gerald L. 
Gillam, John B., Ill 
Lambeth, James E. 
Spoon, LeRoy P. 



COMMERCIAL FISHING 

Chairman: Chapin, Howard B. 
Vice-Chairman: Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. 



Ethridge, Bruce 
Hughes, Charles H. 
Locks, Sidney A. 
Stamey, Margaret 



Evans, Charles D. 
James, Vernon G. 
Rhodes, S. Thomas 



430 



North Carolina Manual 



COMMISSIONS & SCHOOLS FOR THE BLIND AND DEAF 

Chairman: Fenner. Jeanne T. 

Vice-Chairman: Mauney, D. R., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Varner, John W. 



Barnes, Annie C. 
Fusse'.l, Aaron E. 
Woodard, Barney Paul 



Brown, John Waiter 
Greenwood, Gordon H. 



Ethridge, Bruce 
Lancaster, Martin 



CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS 

Chairman: Holt, Bertha M. 

Vice-Chairman: Beard, R. D. 

Vice-Chairman: James, Vernon G. Vice-Chairman: Nesbitt, Martin L. 

Vice-Chairman: Spauiding, Kenneth B. 



Brennan, Louise S. 
Easterling, Ruth M. 
Hughes, James F. 
Kennedy, Annie Brown 
Roberts, J. B. 



Bundy, Sam D. 
Foster, Jo Graham 
Jeralds, Luther R. 
McDowell, Timothy H. 
Watkins, William T. 



Colton, Marie W. 
Helms, H. Parks 
Keesee-Forrestr, Margaret P. 
Poovey, J. Reid 



CORPORATIONS 

Chairman: Hayden, Margaret B. 

Vice-Chairman: Lambeth, James E. 

Vice-Chairman: Musselwhite, Marvin D., Jr. 



Auman, T. Clyde 
Beard, R. D. 
Hauser, C. B. 
Redding, Frank 



Barker, Chris S.. Jr. 
Berry, Phillip O. 
Jordan, John M. 



Barbee, Allen C. 
Brawley, C. Robert 
Ligon, Bradford V. 



Aliran, Austin M. 
Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Grimsley, William T. 
Lancaster, Martin 
Varner, John W. 



CORRECTIONS 

Chairman: McDowell, Timothy H. 

Vice-Chairman: Beam, Sam L. 

Vice-Chairman: Chapin, Howard B. 

Vice-Chairman: Creecy, C. Melvin 

Vice-Chairman: Hackney, Joe 

Auman, T. Clyde 
Crawford, Narvei J., Jr. 
Hunter, Robert C. 
Lee, Hugh 
Warren, Ed N. 



Brannon, George W. 
Gillam, John B., Ill 
Lacey, S. B., Jr. 
Spoon, LeRoy P. 
Womble, Thomas C. 



COURTS AND ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE 

Chairman: Helms, H. Parks 

Vice-Chairman: Payne, Harry E., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Watkins, William T. 

Vice-Chairman: Wicker, Dennis A. 



Aliran, Austin M. 
Coble, J. Howard 
Holmes, George M. 
Huskins, J. P. 
Matthews, Tom 
Roberts, J. B. 



Ballance, Frank W., Jr. 
Gillam, John B., Ill 
Hughes, Charles H. 
Kennedy, Annie Brown 
Musselwhite, Marvin D. 
Spauiding, Kenneth B. 



Jr. 



Clark, William E. 
Hackney, Joe 
Hunter, Robert C. 
Lee, Hugh 
Nesbitt, Marvin L. 
Wright, Richard 



The Legislative Branch 



431 



Burnley, Dorothy R. 
Huskins, J. P. 
Rabon, Tom B., Jr. 



CULTURAL RESOURCES 

Chairman: Collon, Marie W. 

Vice-Chairman: Cook, Ruth E. 

Vice-Chairman: Diamont, David Hunter 

Vice-Chairman: Lambeth, James E. 

Chapin, Howard B. 
Jarrell, Mary 
Rhodes, S. Thomas 



Devane, Daniel Hunter 
Mauney, D. R., Jr. 



ECONOMY 

Chairman: Anderson, Gerald L. 

Vice-Chairman: Church, John T. 

Vice-Chairman: Fuicher, G. Malcolm, Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Tennille, Margaret R. 



Adams, Allen 
Coble, J. Howard 
Edwards, C. R. 
Fenner, Jeanne T. 
Hayden, Margaret B. 
Keesee-Forrester, Margaret P. 
Owens, Charles 
Stamey, Margaret 
Womble, Thomas C. 



Beard, R. D. 
Cook, Ruth E. 
Etheridge, Bobby R. 
Fuicher, G. Malcolm, Jr. 
Jarrell, Mary 
Lee, Hugh 
Redding, Frank 
Tyndall, J. Paul 
Woodard, Charles D. 



Brubaker, Harold J. 
Diamont, David Hunter 
Ethridge, Bruce 
Hauser, C. B. 
Jeralds, Luther R. 
Mavretic, Josephus L. 
Rhodes, S. Thomas 
Warren, Ed N. 



Adams, Allen 
Beall, Charles W. 
Brubaker, Harold J. 
Enloe,JeffH.,Jr. 
Poovey, J. Reid 
Wicker, Dennis A. 



ELECTION LAWS 

Chairman: Gentry, J. Worth 

Vice-Chairman: Crawford, Narvel J., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Hunter, Robert C. 

Vice-Chairman: McAlister, Robert L. 

Ballance, Frank W., Jr. 
Blue, Daniel T., Jr. 
Bundy, Sam D. 
Fletcher, Ray C. 
Spaulding, Kenneth B. 



Barnes, Annie C. 
Brannan, George W. 
Burnley, Dorothy R. 
Murphy, Wendell H. 
Watkins, William T. 



Adams, Allen 
Childress, R. J. 
Kennedy, Annie Brown 
Robinson, George L. 
Wright, Richard 



EMPLOYMENT SECURITY 

Chairman: Enloe, Jeff H., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Cook, Ruth E. 

Vice-Chairman: Quinn, Dwight W. 

Vice-Chairman: Rabon, Tom B., Jr. 

Beam, Sam L. 
Clark, William E. 
Lacey, S. B., Jr. 
Varner, John W. 



Chapin, Howard B. 
Gist. Herman C. 
Ligon, Bradford V. 
Woodard, Barney Paul 



432 



North Carolina Manual 



Brannan, George W. 
Easterling, Ruth M. 
Hunt, John J. 
Matthews, Tom 



ENERGY 

Chairman: Hackney, Joe 
Vice-Chairman: Greenwood, Gordon H. 

Chapin, Howard B. 
Economos, Gus 
Jordan, John M. 
Mauney, D. R., Jr. 



Cook, Ruth E. 
Fussell, Aaron E. 
Kennedy, Annie Brown 
Rabon, Tom B., Jr. 



FINANCE 

Chairman: Quinn, Dwight W. 

Vice-Chairman: Barbee, Allen C. 

Vice-Chairman: Barker, Chris S., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Blue, Daniel T., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Bundy, Sam D. 

Vice-Chairman: Hightower, Foyle R., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Jordan, John M. 

Vice-Chairman: Lilley, Daniel T. 

Vice-Chairman: Mavretic, Josephus L. 



AUran, Austin M. 
Brannon, George W. 
Clark, William E. 
Creecy, C. Melvin 
Hackney, Joe 
Helms, H. Parks 
Jarrell, Mary 
Lacey, S. B., Jr. 
McAlister, Robert L. 
Musselwhite, Marvin D., Jr. 
Pool, Murray 
Redding, Frank 
Robinson, George S. 
Tyndall, J. Paul 
Wright, Richard 



Ballance, Frank W.. 
Brawley, C. Robert 
Coble, J. Howard 
Economos, Gus 
Hasty, John Calvin 
Holt, Bertha M. 
Jeralds, Luther R. 
Lambeth, James E. 
Matthews, Tom 
Nesbilt, Martin L. 
Poovey, J. Reid 
Rhodes, S. Thomas 
Spoon, LeRoy P. 
Wicker, Dennis A. 



Jr. 



Berry, Phillip O. 
Brown, John Walter 
Crawford, James W., Jr. 
Gentry, J. Worth 
Hauser, C. B. 
Hudson, Joe R. 
Keesee-Forrester, Margaret P. 
Lancaster, Martin 
Miller, George W., Jr. 
Owens, Charles 
Pulley, W. Paul 
Roberts, J. B. 
Stamey, Margaret 
Womble, Thomas C. 



Auman, T. Clyde 
Brawley, C. Robert 
Evans, Charles D. 
Locks, Sidney A. 



GOVERNMENTAL ETHICS 

Chairman: Easterling, Ruth M. 

Vice-Chairman: Fenner, Jeanne T. 

Vice-Chairman: Holt, Bertha M. 

Vice-Chairman: Lancaster, Martin 

Vice-Chairman: Miller, George W., Jr. 

Barker, Chris S., Jr. 
Burnley, Dorothy R. 
Hughes. Charles H. 
Lutz, Edith Ledford 



Berry, Phillip O. 
Colton, Marie W. 
Keesee-Forrester, Margaret P. 
Womble, Thomas C. 



The Legislative Branch 



433 



Anderson, Gerald L. 
Blue, Daniel T., Jr. 
Devane, Daniel H. 
Grimsley, William T. 
Ligon, Bradford V. 
Robinson, George S. 
Varner, John W. 



HEALTH 

Chairman: Woodard, Barney Paul 
Vice-Chairman: Beam, Sam L. 

Vice-Chairman: Economos, Gus 
Vice-Chairman: Enloe, Jeff H., Jr. 
Vice-Chairman: Seymour, Mary P. 

Barnes, Annie C. 
Brubaker, Harold J. 
Fenner, Jeannie T. 
Hayden, Joe 
Locks, Sidney A. 
Slaughter, Robert L. 
Watkins, William T. 



Black, James B. 
Colton, Marie W. 
Gillam,John B., Ill 
Jarrell, Mary 
Quinn, Dwight W. 
Tyson, Henry M. 
Womble, Thomas C. 



HIGHER EDUCATION 

Chairman: Thomas, Betty Dorton 

Vice-Chairman: Helms, H. Parks 

Vice-Chairman: McDowell, Timothy H. 

Vice-Chairman: Warren, Ed N. 



Beall, Charles W. 
Church, John T. 
Crawford, James W. 
Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. 
Hauser, C. B. 
Mauney, D. R., Jr. 
Rabon, Tom B., Jr. 



Brennan, Louise S. 
Coble, J. Howard 
Craw ford, Narvel J., 
Fussell, Aaron E. 
Hughess, Charles H. 
Murphy, Wendell H. 



Jr. 



Bundy, Sam D. 
Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Edwards, C. R. 
Hackney, Joe 
Lee, Hugh 
Payne, Harry E., Jr. 



Auman. T. Clyde 
Coble, J. Howard 
Grimsley, William T. 
Mavretic, Josephus L. 
Slaughter, Robert L. 
Woodard, Barney Paul 



HIGHWAY SAFETY 

Chairman: Fussell, Aaron E. 

Vice-Chairman: Bumgardner, David W. 

Vice-Chairman: Lancaster, Martin 

Vice-Chairman: Wicker, Dennis A. 

Childress, R.J. 
Creecy, C. Melvin 
Hunter, Robert C. 
Payne, Harry E., Jr. 
Spoon, LeRoy P. 



Church, John T. 
Economos, Gus 
Lambeth, James E. 
Redding, Frank 
Stanley, Margaret 



Auman, T. Clyde 
Ethridge, Bruce 
Hause.V. B. 
Ligon, Hugh 
Owens, Charles 
Woodard, Charles D. 



HUMAN RESOURCES 

Chairman: Brennan, Louise S. 

Vice-Chairman: Beam, Sam L. 

Vice-Chairman: Colton, Marie W. 

Vice-Chairman: Varner, John W. 

Economos, Gus 
Greenwood, Gordon H. 
Jeralds, Luther R. 
Locks, Sidney A. 
Tennille, Margaret R. 



Edwards, C. R. 
Grimsley, William T. 
Keesee-Forrester, Margaret P. 
Lutz, Edith Ledford 
Thomas, Betty Dortim 



434 



North Carolina Manual 



Anderson, Gerald L. 
Beard. R. D. 
Creecy, C. Melvin 
Hasty, John Calvin 
Lacey, S. B.. Jr. 
Murphy. Wendell H. 



INSURANCE 

Chairman: Hightower, Foyie R., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Clark. William E. 

Vice-Chairman: Miller. George W.. Jr. 



Ballance. Frank W.. 
Blue, Daniel T., Jr. 
Foster, Jo Graham 
Holmes, George M. 
Lee, Hugh 
Seymour, Margaret 



Jr. 



Beaii. Charles W. 
Bravvley, C. Robert 
Gentry, J. Worth 
Hughes, James F. 
Lutz, Edith Ledford 
Tyson, Henry M. 



Coble, J. Howard 
Hackney. Joe 
Kennedy, Annie Brown 



JUDICIARY I 

Chairman: Miller, George W., Jr. 
Vice-Chairman: Musselwhite. Marvin D., 
Vice-Chairman: Nesbitt. Martin L. 
Vice-Chairman: Payne. Harry E., Jr. 

Crawford, James W. 
Helms. H. Parks 
Seymour. Marv P. 



Jr. 



Easterling, Ruth M. 
Hughes. James F. 



Allran, Austin M. 
Economos, Gus 
Roberts, J. B. 
Wicker, Dennis A. 



JUDICIARY II 

Chariman: Wright, Richard 

Vice-Chairman: Clark, William E. 

Vice-Chairman: Spaulding, Kenneth B. 

Burnley, Dorolh) R. 
Fenner, Jeanne T. 
Spoon, LeRoy P. 



Devane, Daniel H. 
Jarrell, Mary 
Stamey, Margaret 



Adams, Allen 
Hasty, John Calvin 
Mavretic, Josephus L. 
Slaughter, Robert L. 
Woodard. Barnev Paul 



JUDICIARY III 

Chairman: Lancaster, Martin 

Vice-Chairman: Blue. Daniel T.. Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Evans. Charles D. 

Black. James B. 
Holt, Bertha M. 
Quinn. Dwight W. 
Thomas, Betty Dorton 



Bumgardner, David W. 
Hudson, Joe R. 
Redding, Frank 

Warren, Ed N. 



Ballance, Frank W., Jr. 
Cook, Ruth E. 
Lee, Hu2h 



JUDICIARY IV 

Chairman: Pulley. W. Paul 

Vice-Chairman: Hunter, Robert C. 

Vice-Chairman: Watkins, William T. 

Beam, Sam L. 
Gillam, John B., Ill 

Matthews, Tom 



Brennan, Louise S. 
Holmes, George M. 
Tennille, Margaret R. 



The Legislative Branch 



435 



Ballance, Frank W., Jr. 
Hasty, John Calvin 
Nash, Robie L. 
Pool, Murray 
Slaughter, Robert L. 
Woodard, Charles D. 



LAW ENFORCEMENT 

Chairman: Wicker, Dennis A. 

Vice-Chairman: Brannan, George W. 

Vice-Chairman: Hackney, Joe 

Bowen, Edward C. 
Hughes, Charles H. 
Nesbitt, Martin L. 
Redding, Frank 
Stamey, Margaret 



Devane, Daniel H. 
Hunt, John J. 
Owens, Charles 
Roberts, J. B. 
Womble, Thomas C. 



Ailran, Austin M. 
Berry, Phillip O. 
Crawford, J. W. 
Hudson, Joe R. 
Owens, Charles 
Warren, Ed N. 



LOCAL GOVERNMENT 

Chairman: Lilley, Daniel T. 
Vice-Chairman: Brannan, George W. 
Vice-Chairman: Giliam, John B., HI 
Vice-Chairman: Hayden, Margaret B. 

Barbee, Allen C. 
Bowen, Edward C. 
Edwards, C. R. 
Lacey, S. B.. Jr. 
Pool, Murray 



Barnes, Annie C. 
Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Fletcher, Ray C. 
McAlister, Robert L. 
Pulley, W. Paul 



Bundy, Sam D. 
Easterling, Ruth M. 
Hasty, John Calvin 
Jarrell, Mary 
Nesbitt, Martin L. 
Seymour, Mary P. 



LOCAL GOVERNMENT II 

Chairman: Lutz, Edith Ledford 

Vice-Chairman: Church, John T. 

Vice-Chairman: Colton, Marie W. 

Vice-Chairman: Helms, H. Parks 

Childress, R.J. 
Enloe, JeffH.,Jr. 
Holmes, George M. 
Keesee-Forrester, Margaret P. 
Rhodes, S. Thomas 



Devane, Daniel H. 
Gentry, J. Worth 
Hughes, James F. 
Murphy, Wendell H. 
Roberts, J. B. 



MANUFACTURERS AND LABOR 

Chairman: Rabon, Tom B., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Easterling, Ruth M. 

ViceChairman: Musselwhite, Marvin D., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Pulley, W. Paul 



Adams, Allen 
Beall, Charles W. 
Brannan, George W. 
Diamont, David Hunter 
McDowell, Timothy H. 
Roberts, J. B. 



Ailran, Austin M. 
Berry, Phillip O. 
Clark, William E. 
Gist, Herman C. 
Payne, Harry E., Jr. 
Robinson, George S. 



Barnes, Annie C. 
Blue, Daniel T., Jr. 
Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Hasty, John Calvin 
Quinn, Dwight W. 



436 



North Carolina Manual 



Barnes, Anne C. 
Burnley, Dorothy R. 
Creecy, C. Melvin 
Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. 
Hauser, C. B. 
Lutz, Edith Ledford 
Spoon, LeRoy P. 
Woodard, Charles D. 



MENTAL HEALTH 

Chairman: Barker, Chris S., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Beard, R. D. 

Vice-Chairman: Brennan, Louise S. 

Vice-Chairman: Economos, Gus 
Vice-Chairman: Fenner, Jeanne T. 

Beam, Sam L. 
Cook, Ruth E. 
Edwards, C. R. 
Greenwood, Gordon H. 
Hayden, Margaret B. 
Nash, Robie L. 
TvndalKJ. Paul 



Berry, Phillip O. 
Crawford, James W., Jr. 
Fletcher, Ray C. 
Grimsley, William T. 
Keesee-Forrester, Margaret P. 
Pool, Murray 
Varner, John W. 



Barker, Chris S., 
Edwards, C. R. 
Jarrell, Mary 
Lacey, S. B., Jr. 
Poovey, J. Reid 
Tvndall, J. Paul 



Jr. 



MILITARY & VETERANS AFFAIRS 

Chairman: Varner, John W. 

Vice-Chairman: Black, James B. 

Vice-Chairman: Hunt, John J. 

Vice-Chairman: Greenwood, Gordon H. 

Vice-Chairman: Wright, Richard 



Brown, John Walter 
Enloe,JetTH..Jr. 
Jeralds, Luther R. 
Lancaster, Martin 
Robinson, George L. 
Wicker. Dennis A. 



Bumgardner, David W. 
Foster, Jo Graham 
Jordan, John M. 
Lilley, Daniel T. 
Spoon, LeRoy P. 
Woodard, Charles D. 



NATURAL & ECONOMIC RESOURCES 

Chairman: Ethridge, Bruce 
Vice-Chairman: Anderson, Gerald L. 
Vice-Chairman: McDovsell, Timothv H. 



Chapin, Howard B. 
Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. 
Jeralds, Luther R. 
Owens, Charles 



Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Hackney, Joe 
Keesee-Forrester, Margaret P. 



Edwards, C. R. 
Holt, Bertha M. 
Locks. Sidney A. 



Allran, Austin M. 
Nesbitt, Martin L. 



PENSIONS & RETIREMENT 

Chairman: Mavretic, Josephus L. 

Vice-Chairman: Bundy, Sam D. 

Vice-Chairman: Etheridge, Bobby 

Foster, Jo Graham 
Rhodes, S. Thomas 



Hunter, Robert C. 
Tyndall.J. Paul 



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437 



Beall, Charles W. 
Bowen, Edward C. 
Crawford, James W., Jr. 
Fulcher, G. Malcolm, Jr. 
Huskins, J. P. 
Lee, Hugh 
Mauney, D. R., Jr. 
Musselwhite, Marvin D., 
Robinson, George S. 



Jr. 



PUBLIC UTILITIES 

Chairman: Seymour, Mary P. 

Vice-Chairman: Barker, Chris S.. Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Payne, Harry E., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Tennille, Margaret R. 

Vice-Chairman: Tyson, Henry M. 

Berry, Phillip O. 
Bumgardner, David W. 
Etheridge, Bobby R. 
Hasty, John Calvin 
James, Vernon G. 
Locks, Sidney A. 
Miller, George W.. Jr. 
Quinn. Dwight W. 
Tvndall, J. Paul 



Black, James B. 
Burnley, Dorothy R. 
Evans, Charles D. 
Hughes, James F. 
Jordan, John M. 
Matthews, Tom 
Murphy, Wendell H. 
Rabon, Tom B., Jr. 
Wright, Richard 



RULES AND OPERATION OF THE HOUSE 

Chairman: Hunt. John J. 

Vice-Chairman: Adams, Allen 

Vice-Chairman: Barbee, Allen C. 

Vice-Chairman: Blue, Daniel T., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Quinn, Dwight W. 

Vice-Chairman: Wright, Richard 



Beall, Charles W. 
Black, James B. 
Devane, Daniel H. 
Evans, Charles D. 
Huskins, J. P. 
Locks, Sidney A. 
Mavretic. Josephus L. 
Spoon, LeRoy P. 



Beam, SamL. 
Crawford, Narvel J., Jr. 
Diamont, David Hunter 
Holmes, George M. 
James, Vernon G. 
McAlister, Robert L. 
Miller, George W., Jr. 
Tennille, Margaret R. 



Beard, R. D. 
Church, John T. 
Etheridge, Bobby R. 
Hunter, Robert C. 
Lambeth, James E. 
McDowell, Timothy H. 
Payne, Harry E., Jr. 
Warren, Ed N. 



Brawley, C. Robert 
Fletcher, Ray C. 
Hudson, Joe R. 
Matthews, Tom 
Slaughter, Robert L. 



SMALL BUSINESS 

Chairman: Nesbitt, Martin L. 

Vice-Chairman: Barbee, Allen C. 

Vice-Chairman: Etheridge, Bobby R. 

Childress. R.J. 
Gist, Herman C. 
Jeralds. Luther R. 
Musselwhite, Marvin D., Jr. 
Watkins. William T. 



Crawford, James W., Jr. 
Hauser, C. B. 

Ligon, Bradford V. 
Pool, Murray 
Wicker, Dennis A. 



Barbee, Allen C. 
Crawford, James W. 
Fenner, Jeanne T. 
Holt, Bertha M. 
Stamey, Margaret 



Jr. 



STATE GOVERNMENT 

Chairman: Church, John T. 
Vice-Chairman: Hightower, Foyle R., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Huskins, J. P. 
Vice-Chairman: Thomas, Betty Dorton 

Brown, John Walter 
Crawford, Narvel J., Jr. 
Gist, Herman C. 
Kennedy, Annie Brown 



Bumgardner, David W. 
Evans, Charles D. 
Hasty, John Calvin 
Poovey, J. Reid 



438 



North Carolina Manual 



Blue, Daniel T., Jr. 
Enloe, JeftH.Jr. 
Poovey, J. Reid 



STATE PERSONNEL 

Chairman; Jordan, John M. 

Vice-Chairman: Brennan, Louise S. 

Vice-Chairman: Bundy, Sam D. 

Vice-Chairman: Fusseii, Aaron E. 

Vice-Chairman: Woodard, Barney Paul 

Brubaker, Harold J. 
Fletcher, Ray C. 
Roberts, J. B. 



Childress, R.J. 
Holmes, George M. 



Bowen, Edward C. 
Musselwhite, Marvin D., Jr. 



STATE PROPERTIES 

Chairman: Tyson, Henry M. 

Vice-Chairman: Gentry, J. Worth 

Vice-Chairman: McAlister, Robert L. 

Vice-Chairman: Nash, Robie L. 

Brawley, C. Robert 



Hudson, Joe R. 



Auman, T. Clyde 
Bowen, Edward C. 
Crawford, Narvel J. 
Gentry, J. Worth 
Hudson, Joe R. 
Huskins, J. P. 
Lacey, S. B., Jr. 
Poovey, J. Reid 



Jr. 



TRANSPORTATION 

Chairman: Bumgardner, David W. 

Vice-Chairman: Enloe, Jeff H., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Hunt. John J. 

Vice-Chairman: Mavretic, Josephus L. 

Vice-Chairman: Nash, Robie L. 

Barbee, Allen C. 
Brown, John Walter 
Creecy, C. Melvin 
Hayden, Margaret B. 
Hughes, James F. 
James, Vernon G. 
Lilley, Daniel T. 
Slaughter, Robert L. 



Beall, Charles W. 
Church, John T. 
Etheridge, Bobby R. 
Hightower, Foyle R., Jr. 
Hunter, Robert C. 
Jarrell, Mary 
McAlister, Robert L. 
Wicker, Dennis A. 



UNIVERSITY BOARD OF GOVERNORS NOMINATING COMMITTEE 

Chairman: Auman, T. Clyde 

Vice-Chairman: Crawford, Narvel J., Jr. 

Vice-Chairman: Foster, Joe Graham 

Vice-Chairman: Huskins, J. P. 
Vice-Chairman: Seymour, Mary P. 



Ballance, Frank W., Jr. 
Brubaker, Harold J. 
Childress, R.J. 
Gist, Herman C. 
McDowell. Timothy H. 
Rhodes, S. Thomas 
Thomas, Betty Dorton 



Barbee, Allen C. 
Bumgardner, David W. 
Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Hunt, John J. 
Miller, George W., Jr. 
Spaulding, Kenneth B. 



Black, James B. 
Bundy, Sam D. 
Devane, Daniel H. 
Kennedy, Annie Brown 
Murphy, Wendell H. 
Tennille, Margaret R. 



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439 



Anderson, Gerald L. 
Hightower, Foyle R. 
Lilley, Daniel T. 
Owens, Charles 
Redding, Frank 



Jr. 



WATER AND AIR RESOURCES 

Chairman: McAlister, Robert L. 

Vice-Chairman: Diamont, David Hunter 

Vice-Chairman: Ethridge, Bruce R. 

Vice-Chairman: James, Vernon G. 

Vice-Chairman: Tyson, Henry M. 



Brown, Edward C. 
Hudson, Joe R. 
Mavretic, Josephus L. 
Pool, Murray 



Clark, William E. 
Ligon, Bradford V. 
Nash, RobieL. 
Pulley, W. Paul 



Anderson, Gerald L. 
Helms, H. Parks 
Hughes, James F. 
Tyndall, J. Paul 



WILDLIFE RESOURCES 

Chairman: Lambeth, James E. 

Vice-Chairman: Creecy, C. Melvin 

Vice-Chairman: Gentry, J. Worth 

Vice-Chairman: Lilley, Daniel T. 

Barker, Chris S., Jr. 
Hightower, Foyle R., Jr. 
Mauney, D. R., Jr. 
Watkins, William T. 



Brown, John Walter 
Hughes, Charles H. 
Poovey, J. Reid 
Womble, Thomas C. 



440 North Carolina Manual 



RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

1983 GENERAL ASSEMBLY 

(HOUSE RESOLUTION 23) 

I. Order of Business 

RULE I. Convening Hour. — The House shall convene each legislativeday at the hour 
fixed by the House. In the event the House adjourns on the preceding legislative day 
without having fixed an hour for reconvening, the House shall convene on the next 
legislative day at 1:30 p.m. 

RULE 2. Opening the Session. — At the convening hour on each legislative day the 
Speaker shall call the members to order and shall have the session opened with prayer. 

RULE 3. Quorum. — (a) A quorum consists of a majority of the qualified members of 
the House. 

(b) Should the point of a quorum be raised, the doors shall be closed and the Clerk shall 
call the roll of the House, after which the names of those not responding shall again be 
called. In the absence of a quorum, fifteen members are authorized to compel the 
attendance of absent members and may order that absentees for whom no sufficient 
excuses are made be taken into custody wherever they may be found by special messenger 
appointed for that purpose. 

RULE 4. Approval of Journal. — (a) The Committee on Rules and Operation of the 
House shall cause the Journal of the House to be examined daily before the hour of 
convening to determine if the proceedings of the previous day have been correctly 
recorded. 

(b) Immediately following the opening prayer and upon appearance of a quorum, the 
Speaker shall call for the Journal report by the Chairman of the Committee on Rules and 
Operation of the House or by a Representative designated by the Chairman as to whether 
the proceedings of the previous day have been correctly recorded. Without objection, the 
Speaker shall cause the Journal to stand approved. 

RULE 5. Order of Business of the Day. — After the approval of the Journal of the 
preceding day, the House shall proceed to business in the following order: 

( 1 ) The receiving of petitions, memorials and papers addressed to the General Assem- 
bly or to the House; 

(2) Reports of standing committees; 

(3) Reports of select committees; 

(4) First reading and reference to committee of bills and resolutions; 

(5) Messages from the Senate; 

(6) Concurrence with Senate amendments or Senate committee substitutes; 

(7) The unfinished business of the preceding day; 

(8) Calendar (each category in accordance with Rule 40): 

(a) Local bills (roll call) third reading 

(b) Local bills (roll call) second reading 

(c) Local bills third reading 

(d) Local bills second reading 

(e) Public bills (roll call) third reading 
(0 Public bills (roll call) second reading 

(g) Public bills and resolutions, third reading 
(h) Public bills and resolutions, second reading; 



The Legislative Branch 441 



(9) Reading of Notices and Announcements; but messages and motions to elect officers 
shall always be in order. 

II. Conduct of Debate 

RULE 6. Duties and Powers of the Speaker. — The Speaker shall have general 
direction of the Hall. He may name any member to perform the duties of the Chair, but 
substitution shall not extend beyond one day, except in the case of sickness or by leave of 
the House. 

RULE 7. Obtaining Floor. — (a) When any member desires recognition for any 
purpose, he shall rise from his seat and respectfully address the Speaker. No member shall 
proceed until recognized by the Speaker. 

(b) When a member desires to interrupt a member having the floor, he shall first obtain 
recognition by the Speaker and permission of the member occupying the floor, and when 
such recognition and permission have been obtained, he may propound a question to the 
member occupying the floor; but he shall not otherwise interrupt the member having the 
floor, except as provided in subsection (c) of this rule; and the Speaker shall, without the 
point of order being raised, enforce this rule. 

(c) A member who has obtained the floor may be interrupted only for the following 
reasons: 

( 1 ) a request that the member speaking yield for a question, 

(2) a point of order, or 

(3) a parliamentary inquiry. 

RULES. Questions of Personal Privilege. — Upon recognition by the Speaker for that 
purpose, any member may speak to a question of personal privilege for a time not to 
exceed three (3) minutes. Personal privilege may not be used to explain a vote or debate a 
bill. The Speaker shall determine if the question is one of privilege and shall, without the 
point of order being raised, enforce this rule. 

RULE 9. Points of Order. — (a) The Speaker shall decide questions of order and may 
speak to points of order in preference to other members arising from their seats for that 
purpose. Any member may appeal from the ruling of the Chair on questions of order; on 
such appeal no member may speak more than once, unless by leave of the House. A 
two-thirds (2/ 3) vote of the members present shall be necessary to sustain any appeal from 
the ruling of the Chair. 

(b) When the Speaker calls a member to order, the member shall take his seat except 
that a member called to order may clear a matter of fact, or explain, but shall not proceed 
in debate so long as the decision stands. If the member appeals from the ruling of the Chair 
and the decision by a two-thirds (2/3) vote of the members present be in favor of the 
member called to order, he may proceed; if otherwise, he shall not; and if the case, in the 
judgment of the House, requires it, he shall be liable to censure by the House. 

RULE 10. Limitations on Debate. — No member shall speak more than twice on the 
main question, nor longer than thirty minutes for the first speech and fifteen minutes for 
the second speech, unless allowed to do so by the affirmative vote of a majority of the 
members present; nor shall he speak more than once upon an amendment or motion to 
reconsider, commit, appeal or postpone, and then not longer than ten minutes. The House 
may, however, by consent of a majority of the members present, suspend the operation of 
this rule during any debate on any particular question before the House. 



442 North Carolina Manual 



RULE 11. Reading of Papers. — When there is a call for the reading of the text of a 
paper which has been presented to the House, and there is objection to such reading, the 
question shall be determined by a majority vote of the members of the House present. 
Except for protests permitted by the Constitution, no member may have material printed 
in the Journal until said material has been presented to the House and the printing 
approved by the House, and said material shall not exceed 1,000 words. 

RULE 12. General Decorum. — (a) The Speaker shall preserve order and decorum. 

(b) Decency of speech shall be observed and disrespect to personalities carefully 
avoided. 

(c) When the Speaker is putting any question, or addressing the House, no person shall 
speak, stand up, walk out of or cross the House, nor when a member is speaking, engage in 
disruptive discourse or pass between the member and the Chair. 

(d) Food or beverages shall not be permitted on the floor of the House. 

(e) The reading of newspapers shall not be permitted on the floor of the House while the 
House is in session. 

(f) Smoking or the consumption of food or beverages shall not be permitted in the 
galleries at any time. 

(g) Special recitals, performances by musicians or other groups shall not be permitted 
on the floor of the House and special guests of members of the House shall not be 
permitted on the floor of the House. 

(h) Members shall observe appropriate attire, coat and tie for male members and 
dignified dress for female members. 

III. Motions 

RULE 13. Motions Generally. — (a) Every motion shall be reduced to writing, if the 
Speaker or any two members request it. 

(b) When a motion is made, it shall be stated by the Speaker, or, if written, it shall be 
handed to the Chair and read aloud by the Speaker or Clerk before debate. 

(c) After a motion has been stated by the Speaker or read by the Speaker or Clerk, it 
shall be in the possession of the House; but it may be withdrawn before a decision or 
amendment, except in case of a motion to reconsider, which motion, when made by a 
member, shall be in possession of the House and shall not be withdrawn without leave of 
the House. 

RULE 14. Motions, Order of Precedence. — When there are motions before the House, 
the order of precedence is as follows: 
To adjourn 
To lay on the table 
To postpone indefinitely 
Previous question 
To postpone to a day certain 
To commit 

To amend an amendment 
To amend 
To substitute 
To pass the bill 
No motion to lay on the table, to postpone indefinitely, to postpone to a day certain, to 



The Legislative Branch 443 



commit or to make a particular amendment, being decided, shall be again allowed at the 
same stage of the bill or proposition. 

RULE 15. Motion to Adjourn. — (a) A motion to adjourn shall be seconded before the 
motion is put to the vote of the House. 

(b) A motion to adjourn shall be decided without debate, and shall always be in order, 
except when the House is voting or some member is speaking; but a motion to adjourn 
shall not follow a motion to adjourn until debate or some other business of the House has 
intervened. 

RULE 16. Motion to Table. — (a) A motion to table shall be seconded before the 
motion is put to the vote of the House and is in order except when a motion to adjourn is 
before the House. 

(b) A motion to table shall be decided without debate. 

(c) A motion to table a bill shall constitute a motion to table the bill and all amend- 
ments thereto. 

(d) When the question before the House is the adoption of an amendment to a bill 
or resolution, a motion to table the bill is not in order, and a motion to table an 
amendment applies to the amendment only, and the motion may not expressly or by 
implication or construction be expanded to include a motion to table the bill also. 

(e) When a question has been tabled, it shall not thereafter be considered except on 
motion to reconsider under Rule 18, or to remove from the table approved by a two- 
thirds (2/3) vote. 

RULE 17. Motion to Postpone Indefinitely. — A motion to postpone indefinitely is 
in order except when a motion to adjourn or to lay on the table is before the House. 
However, after one motion to postpone indefinitely has been decided, another motion 
to postpone indefinitely shall not be allowed at the same stage of the bill or proposi- 
tion. When a question has been postponed indefinitely, it shall not thereafter be consi- 
dered except on motion to reconsider under Rule 18, or to place on the favorable 
calendar approved by a two-thirds (2/3) vote. 

RULE 18. Motion to Reconsider. — (a) When a question has been decided, it is in 
order for any member to move for the reconsideration thereof, on the same or the 
succeeding legislative day; provided that if the vote by which the motion was originally 
decided was taken by a recorded vote, only a member of the majority may move for 
reconsideration. 

(b) A motion to reconsider shall be determined by a majority vote, except a motion 
to reconsider a vote upon a motion to table, a motion to postpone indefinitely, a 
motion to remove a bill from the unfavorable calendar, a motion that a bill be read 
twice on the same day, or a motion to remove from the table, which shall require a 
two-thirds (2/3) vote. 

RULE 19. Previous Question. — (a) The previous question may be called only by 
the member submitting the report on the bill or other matter under consideration, by 
the member introducing the bill or other matter under consideration, or by the 
member in charge of the measure, who shall be designated by the Chairman of the 
committee reporting the same to the House at the time the bill or other matter under 
consideration is reported to the House or taken up for consideration. 

(b) The previous question shall be as follows: "Shall the main question now be put?" 
When the call for the previous question has been decided in the affirmative by a major- 



444 North Carolina Manual 



ity vote of the House, the "main question" is on the passage of the bill, resolution or 
other matter under consideration. 

(c) The call for the previous question shall preclude all motions, amendments and 
debate, except the motion to adjourn or motion to table or motion to postpone indefi- 
nitely made prior to the determination of the previous question. 

(d) If the previous question is decided in the negative, the main question remains 
under debate. 

IV. Voting 

RULE 20. Use of Electronic Voting System. — (a) Votes on the following questions 
shall be taken on the electronic voting system, and the ayes and noes shall be recorded 
on the Journal: 

(1) All questions on which the Constitution of North Carolina requires that the ayes 
and noes be taken and recorded on the Journal. 

(2) All measures affecting a fee imposed by the State or any subdivision thereof. 

(3) All questions on which a call for the ayes and noes under Rule 24(a) has been 
sustained. 

(4) Both second and third readings of bills proposing amendment of the Constitu- 
tion of North Carolina or ratifying resolutions amending the Constitution of the 
United States. 

(b) Votes on the following questions shall be taken on the electronic voting system: 

(1) Second reading of all public bills, all amendments to public bills offered after 
second reading, third reading if a public bill was amended after second reading 
or if the reading occurs on a day or days following the second reading, all con- 
ference reports on public bills, all motions to lay public bills on the table, and all 
motions to postpone public bills indefinitely. 

(2) Upon a call for division. 

(3) Any other question upon direction of the Speaker or upon motion of any 
member supported by one-fifth (1/5) of the members present. 

(c) When the electronic voting system is used, twenty seconds shall be allowed for 
voting on the question before the House unless the Chair shall direct otherwise. The 
system shall be set to close automatically when that time has expired. After the system 
is closed, the Speaker may allow any member to vote until he orders the system 
locked. Once the system is locked, the vote shall be recorded and printed. 

(d) The voting station at each member's desk in the Chamber shall be used only by 
the member to which the station is assigned. Under no circumstances shall any other 
person vote at a member's station. It is a breach of the ethical obligation of a member 
either to request that another person vote at the requesting member's station, or to 
vote at another member's station. The Speaker shall enforce this rule without 
exception. 

(e) When the electronic voting system is used, the Speaker shall state the question 
and shall then state substantially the following: "All in favor vote 'aye'; all opposed 
vote 'no'; the Clerk will open the vote." After the allotted time for voting has elapsed, 
the Speaker shall say: "The Clerk will now lock the machine and record the vote." 
After the machine is locked and the vote recorded, the Speaker shall announce the 
vote and declare the result. 



The Legislative Branch 445 



(0 One copy of the machine printout of the vote record of all votes taken on the 
electronic system shall be filed in the office of the Principal Clerk, and one copy shall 
be filed in the Legislative Library where it shall be open to public inspection. 

(g) When the Speaker ascertains that the electronic voting system is inoperative 
before a vote is taken or while a vote is being taken on the electronic system, he shall 
announce that fact to the House and any partial electronic system voting record shall 
be voided. In such a case, if the Constitution of North Carolina or the Rules of the 
House require a call of the ayes and noes, the Clerk shall call the roll of the House, 
and the ayes and noes shall be taken manually and shall be recorded on the Journal. 
All roll call votes shall be taken alphabetically. All other votes shall be taken by voice 
vote. If, after a vote is taken on the electronic system, it is discovered that a malfunc- 
tion caused an error in the electronic system printout, the Speaker shall direct the 
Reading Clerk and the Principal Clerk to verify and correct the printout record and so 
advise the House. 

(h) For the purpose of identifying motions on which the vote is taken on the elec- 
tronic system, the motions are coded as follows: 
(l)To adjourn 
(2)To lay on the table 
(3)To postpone indefinitely 
(4)Previous question 
(5)To postpone to a day certain 
(6)To commit 

(7)To amend an amendment 
{8)To amend 
(9)To substitute 

(lO)To reconsider 

( 1 1 )To concur or not concur 

(12)Miscellaneous 

RULE 21. Voice Votes; Stating Questions. — (a) When the electronic voting system 
is not used, the Speaker shall rise and put a question. 

(b) The question shall be put in this form, namely, "Those in favor (as the question 
may be) will say 'Aye'," and after the affirmation voice has been expressed, "Those 
opposed will say 'No' ". 

RULE 22. Determining Questions. — Unless otherwise provided by the Constitution 
of North Carolina or by these rules, all questions shall be determined by a simple 
majority of the members present and voting. 

RULE 23. Voting by Division. — Any member may call for a division of the 
members upon the question before the result of the vote has been announced. Upon a 
call for a division, the Speaker shall cause the number voting in the affirmative and in 
the negative to be determined. Upon a division and count of the House on any ques- 
tion, no member away from his seat shall be counted. 

RULE 24. Roll Call Vote. — (a) Before a question is put, any member may call for 
the ayes and noes. If the call is sustained by one-fifth (1/5) of the members present, the 
question shall be decided by the ayes and noes upon a roll call vote. 

(b) Every member who is in the Hall of the House when the question is put shall 
vote upon a call of the ayes and noes, unless excused pursuant to Rule 24. 1 A. 



446 North Carolina Manual 



RULE 24.1 A. Excuse From Deliberations and Voting on a Bill. — (a) Any member 
shall upon request be excused from the deliberations and voting on a particular bill, 
but to do so must make that request after the second reading of the bill and before any 
motion or vote on the bill or any amendment thereto. If the reason for the request 
arises at some point later in the proceedings, the request may be made at that time. 

(b) The member may make a brief statement of the reasons for making that request. 
The member may send forward to the Principal Clerk, on a form provided by the 
Clerk, a concise statement of the reason for the request, and the Clerk shall include 
this statement in the Journal. 

(c) The member so excused shall not debate the bill or any amendment to the bill, 
vote on the bill, offer or vote on any amendment to the bill, or offer or vote on any 
motion concerning the bill at that reading, any subsequent reading, or any subsequent 
consideration of the bill. 

(d) A member may request that his excuse from deliberations on a particular bill be 
withdrawn. 

RULE 24. IB. Separation of Propositions. — Any member may call for a question 
to be divided into two or more propositions to be voted on separately, and the Speaker 
shall determine whether the question admits of such a division. 

RULE 25. Voting by Speaker. — In all elections the Speaker may vote. In all other 
instances he may exercise his right to vote, or he may reserve this right until there is a 
tie in which event he may vote, but in no instance may he vote twice on the same 
question. 

V. Committees 

RULE 26. Committees Generally. — (a) All standing and select committees shall be 
appointed by the Speaker. The Speaker shall appoint all standing committees at the 
beginning of the session. 

(b) Ten legislative days after the Speaker makes his initial appointments to a stand- 
ing or select committee, he shall not increase the membership of that committee, but 
may fill any vacancies which occur on that committee. 

(c) The first member announced on each committee shall be Chairman, and where 
the Speaker so desires he may designate a cochairman and one or more vice chairmen. 

(d) Either the Chairman or the Acting Chairman, designated by the Chairman or by 
the Speaker, and five other members of the committee, or a majority of the committee, 
whichever is fewer, shall constitute a quorum of that committee. 

(e) In any joint meeting of the Senate and House Committees, the House Committee 
reserves the right to vote separately. 

RULE 27. List of Standing Committees. — The standing committees are: 

Aging. 

Agriculture. 

Alcoholic Beverage Control. 

Appropriations Base Budget. 

Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Education. 

Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety. 

Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Human Resources. 

Appropriations Base Budget Committee on General Government. 



The Legislative Branch 447 



Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Natural and Economic Resources. 

Appropriations Expansion Budget. 

Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Education. 

Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety. 

Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources. 

Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on General Government. 

Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and Economic Resources. 

Banks and Thrift Institutions. 

Commercial Fishing 

Commissions and Schools for the Blind and Deaf. 

Congressional Redistricting. 

Constitutional Amendments. 

Corporations. 

Corrections. 

Courts and Administration oi' Justice. 

Cultural Resources. 

Economy. 

Education. 

•Election Laws. 

Employment Security. 

Energy. 

Finance. 

Governmental Ethics. 

Health. 

Higher Education. 

Highway Safety. 

Human Resources. 

Insurance. 

Judiciary No. I. 

Judiciary No. H. 

Judiciary No. HI. 

Judiciary No. IV. 

Law Enforcement. 

Legislative Redistricting. 

Local Government No. I. 

Local Government No. II. 

Manufacturers and Labor. 

Mental Health. 

Military and Veterans' Affairs. 

Natural and Economic Resources. 

Pensions and Retirement (Refer to G.S. 120-1 11.1). 

Public Utilities. 

Rules and Operation of the House. 

Small Business. 

State Government. 

State Personnel. 

State Properties. 



448 North Carolina Manual 



Transportation. 

University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 

Water and Air Resources. 

Wildlife Resources. 

Redistricting Committee. — In the session next after the federal decennial census, 
the Speaker shall appoint a standing committee or committees on redistricting. 

RULE 28. Committee Meetings. — (a) Standing committees and subcommittees of 
standing committees shall be furnished with suitable meeting places pursuant to a 
schedule adopted by the Committee on Rules and Operation of the House. Select 
committees shall be furnished with suitable meeting places as their needs require by the 
Chairman of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the House. 

(b) Subject to the provisions of the subsection (c) of this Rule, committees and 
subcommittees thereof shall permit other members of the General Assembly, the press, 
and the general public to attend all sessions of said committees or subcommittees. 

(c) The Chairman or other presiding officer shall have general direction of the meet- 
ing place of the committee or subcommittee and. in case of any disturbance or disor- 
derly conduct therein, or if the peace, good order, and proper conduct of the legislative 
business is hindered by any person or persons, the Chairman or presiding officer shall 
have power to exclude from the session any individual or individuals so hindering the 
legislative business or, if necessary, to order the meeting place cleared of all persons 
not members of the committee or subcommittee. 

(d) Procedure in the committees shall be governed by the rules of the House, so far 
as the same may be applicable to such procedure. Before a question is put, any 
member may call for the ayes and noes. If the call is sustained by one-fifth ( I 5) of the 
members present, the question shall be decided by the ayes and noes upon a roll call 
vote. All roll call votes shall be taken alphabetically. 

(e) No committee or subcommittee shall meet on any day when the House shall not 
convene except by permission of the Speaker or by approval of the House by resolu- 
tion adopted by a majority vote of the House. 

(f) No committee or subcommittee shall meet during any session of the House and 
all committee and subcommittee meetings shall adjourn no later than 15 minutes 
preceding a regular session of the House. 

(g) Any call or notice of a standing committee meeting between legislative sessions 
shall be mailed to each member of the committee by certified mail at least five days 
prior to such meeting. 

(h) During committee meetings the Chairman may exercise his right to vote, or he 
may reserve this right until there is a tie, in which event he may vote, but in no 
instance may the Chairman vote twice on the same question. 

RULE 29. Notice of Committee Meetings and Committee Hearings; Minutes. — 
Public notice of all standing committee meetings shall be given in the House. The 
Chairman of the committee shall notify or cause to be notified the sponsor of each bill 
which is set for hearing or consideration before the committee as to the date, time and 
place of that meeting. 

RULE 29.1. Public Hearings. — (a) Any member may request in writing a public 
hearing on a public bill. Refusal to grant a member's request may be appealed to the 
Speaker. Requests by other than members may be granted in the discretion of the 



The Legislative Branch 449 



Chairman. Notice shall be given not less than five calendar days prior to public hear- 
ings. These notices shall be issued as information for the press and information shall 
be posted in the places designated by the Principal Clerk. 

(b) Persons desiring to appear and be heard at a public hearing shall submit their 
request to the Chairman of the committee. The committee Chairman may designate 
one or more members to arrange the order of appearance of interested parties. A brief, 
written statement of testimony may be submitted to the committee without oral pres- 
entation and shall be incorporated in the minutes of the public hearing. 

(c) Committee Minutes to Legislative Library. The Chairman of a committee shall 
insure that written minutes are compiled for each of the committee's meetings. The 
minutes shall indicate the members present and the actions taken by the committee at 
the meeting. Not later than 20 days after the adjournment of each session of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, the Chairman shall deliver the minutes to the Legislative Library. The 
Speaker of the House may grant a reasonable extension of time for filing said minutes 
upon application of the committee Chairman. 

RULE 30. Committee of the Whole House. — (a) A Committee of the Whole House 
shall not be formed, except by suspension of the rules, if there be objection by any 
member. 

(b) After passage of a motion to form a Committee of the Whole House, the 
Speaker shall appoint a Chairman to preside in committee, and the Speaker shall leave 
the Chair. 

(c) The rules of procedure in the House shall be observed in the Committee of the 
Whole House, so far as they may be applicable, except the rule limiting the time of 
speaking and the previous question. 

(d) In the Committee of the Whole House a motion that the committee rise shall 
always be in order, except when a member is speaking, and shall be decided without 
debate. 

(e) When a bill is submitted to the Committee of the Whole House, it shall be read 
and debated by sections, leaving the preamble to be last considered. The body of the 
bill shall not be defaced or interlined, but all amendments, noting the page and line, 
shall be duly entered by the Clerk on a separate paper as the same shall be agreed to 
by the committee, and be so reported to the House. After report, the bill shall again be 
subject to be debated and amended by sections before a question on its passage be 
taken. 

VI. Handling of Bills 

RULE 31. Introduction of Bills and Resolutions. — (a) All bills and resolutions 
shall be introduced by submitting same to the Principal Clerk's office on the legislative 
day prior to the first reading and reference thereof according to the following schedule: 
by 8:30 o'clock p.m. each Monday, by 3:00 o'clock p.m. each Tuesday, Wednesday, 
Thursday, and Friday. 

(b) Bills shall not become resolutions provided the Senate has a similar rule. Resolu- 
tions shall not become bills. Resolutions are not law but may be used when a law is 
not necessary for the purpose contained therein. Resolutions shall not be used to 
appropriate funds for any purpose, but, for example, may be used to express opinions 
of the House, to create study commissions or committees or establish investigative 



450 North Carolina Manual 



committees, to honor persons, to commend, to memorialize, and to adopt House rules 
and internal affairs. Resolutions cannot amend, repeal, or modify a statute; nor do 
they have life beyond the term of the Session during which they are adopted. 

(c) Every bill or resolution shall be read in regular order of business, except upon 
permission of the Speaker or on the report of a committee. 

(d) All bills and resolutions shall show in their captions a brief descriptive statement 
of the true substance of same, which captions may thereafter be amended; provided 
that third reading shall not be had on any bill or resolution on the same day that such 
caption is amended. 

(e) A Substitute Bill shall be covered with the same color jacket as the original bill 
and shall be prefaced as follows: 

"House Substitute for" or "House Committee Substitute for " 

(f) House Resolutions need not be read more than twice. 

(g) Celebration, Commendation and Commemoration Resolutions. All celebration, 
commendation, and commemoration resolutions, except those honoring the memory 
of deceased persons, shall be excluded from introduction in the House if the Senate 
has a substantially similar rule on these resolutions. 

RULE 31.1. Deadline on Introduction of Certain Bills. — All local bills or bills 
prepared to be introduced for departments, agencies, or institutions of the State must 
be introduced not later than April 1 of the session year. 

RULE 32. Reference to Commilee. — Each bill, joint resolution, or House resolu- 
tion not introduced on the report of a committee shall immediately upon its first read- 
ing be referred by the Speaker to such committee as he deems appropriate. 

RULE 33. Papers Addressed to the House. — Petitions, memorials and other papers 
addressed to the House shall be presented by the Speaker. A brief statement of the 
contents thereof may be orally made by the introducer before reference to a commit- 
tee, but such papers shall not be debated or decided on the day of their first being read 
unless the House shall direct otherwise. 

RULE 34. Introduction of Resolutions and Bills, Copies Required. — (a) Whenever 
any resolution or bill is introduced, a duplicate copy thereof shall be attached thereto, 
and the Principal Clerk shall cause said duplicate copy to be numbered as the original 
resolution or bill is numbered, and shall cause the same to be available at all times to 
the member introducing the same. 

(b) Numbering of House Bills shall be designated as "H.B "(No. following). A 

Joint Resolution shall be designated as "H.J.R. " (No. following). A House 

Resolution shall be designated as "H.R "(No. following). 

(c) Whenever any resolution or bill is filed for introduction, it shall be in such form 
and have such copies accompanying same as designated by the Speaker, and any reso- 
lution or bill introduced without the required number of copies shall be immediately 
returned to the introducer. The Clerk shall stamp the copies with the number stamped 
upon the original bill. 

RULE 35. Duplicating of Bills. — (a) The Legislative Services Officer shall cause 
such bills as are introduced to be duplicated in such numbers as may be specified by 
the Speaker. The Legislative Services Officer shall cause one copy of each resolution 
and public bill for each legislator to be delivered to his clerk or secretary who shall 
place it in the appropriate notebook on the legislator's desk. If a legislator so requests, 



The Legislative Branch 451 



a second copy shall be delivered to his clerk or secretary who shall place it in the 
legislator's office. The remaining copies shall be placed in the Printed Bills Room and 
made available to the committees to which the bill is referred, to individual legislators 
on request, and to the general public. 

(b) Availability of Copies of Bills. A public bill is a bill affecting 15 or more coun- 
ties. A local bill is one affecting fewer than 15 counties. No public bill and, upon 
objection by a member, no local bill may be considered unless copies of the bill have 
been made available to the entire membership of the House. 

RULE 36. Report by Committee. — All House bills and resolutions shall be 
reported from the committee to which referred, with such recommendations as the 
committee may desire to make except in the case where the principal introducer 
requests in writing to the Chairman of the committee that the bill not be considered. 
The Chairmen of the full Appropriations Committees may refer a bill or resolution to 
another appropriations committee specifically charged with the subject matter of the 
bill or resolution; the committee to which the bill or resolution is referred shall report 
the bill or resolution back to the full Appropriations Committees. 

(a) Favorable Report. When a committee reports a bill with the recommendation 
that it be passed, the bill shall be placed on the favorable calendar for the next suc- 
ceeding legislative day; except that Committee Substitutes for bills shall be placed on 
the favorable calendar for the second next succeeding legislative day after being reported. 

(b) Report Without Prejudice. When a committee reports a bill without prejudice, 
the bill shall be placed on the favorable calendar. 

(c) Postponed Indefinitely. When a committee reports a bill with the recommenda- 
tion that it be postponed indefinitely, and no minority report accompanies it, the bill 
shall be placed on the unfavorable calendar. 

(d) Unfavorable Report. When a committee reports a bill with the recommendation 
that it be not passed, and no minority report accompanies it, the bill shall be placed on 
the unfavorable calendar. 

(e) Minority Report. When a bill is reported by a committee with a recommendation 
that it be not passed or that it be postponed indefinitely, but it is accompanied by a 
minority report signed by at least one-fourth (1/4) of the members of the committee 
who were present and voting when the bill was considered in committee, the question 
before the House shall be: "The adoption of the minority report." If the minority 
report is adopted by majority vote, the bill shall be placed on the favorable calendar 
for consideration. If the minority report fails of adoption by a majority vote, the bill 
shall be placed on the unfavorable calendar. 

RULE 37. Removing Bill from Unfavorable Calendar. — A bill may be removed 
from the unfavorable calendar upon motion carried by a two-thirds (2 3) vote. A 
motion to remove a bill from the unfavorable calendar is debatable. 

RULE 38. Reports on Appropriation and Revenue Bills. — (a) All committees, 
other than the Committees on Appropriations, when favorably reporting any bill 
which carries an appropriation from the State, shall indicate same in the report, and 
said bill shall be referred to the Committees on Appropriations for a further report 
before being acted upon by the House. All committees, other than the Committee on 
Finance, when favorably reporting any bill which in any way or manner raises revenue, 
reduces revenue, levies a tax, or authorizes the issue of bonds or notes, whether public. 



452 North Carolina Manual 



public-local, or private, shall indicate same in the report, and said bill shall be referred 
to the Committee on Finance for a further report before being acted upon by the 
House. 

(b) Action on Amendment Before Re-Referral. If any committee recommends adop- 
tion of an amendment or committee substitute of a bill which, under the rules of the 
House must be referred to the Committees on Appropriations or Committee on 
Finance, the amendment or committee substitute shall be considered and, if adopted, 
the amendment or substitute engrossed before the bill is re-referred. 

RULE 39. Recall of Bill from Committee. — When a House bill has been intro- 
duced and referred to a committee, if after 10 legislative days the committee has failed 
to report thereon, then the introducer of the bill or some member designated by him 
may, after three legislative days' public notice given in the House and delivered in 
writing to the Chairman of the committee, on motion supported by a majority vote of 
the members present and voting, recall the same from the committee to the floor of the 
House for consideration and such action thereon as a majority of the members present 
may direct. This rule shall not be temporarily suspended without one day's notice on 
the motion given in the House and delivered in writing to the Chairman of the com- 
mittee, and to sustain that motion two-thirds (2/3) of the members present and voting 
shall be required. 

RULE 39.1. Recall of Bill by the Senate. — Upon a request by the Senate that a 
measure in the possession of the House be recalled and returned to the Senate, the 
question will be put "Shall the measure be returned?" This rule will be effective only if 
the Senate has a substantially similar rule. 

RULE 40. Calendars and Schedules of Business. — The Clerk of the House shall 
prepare a daily schedule of business, including the Calendar of Bills and Resolutions 
for consideration and debate that day, in accordance with the Order of Business of the 
Day (Rule 5). The Clerk shall number all bills and resolutions in the order in which 
they are introduced. All bills and resolutions shall be taken up as they appear in each 
category (Rule 5(8)) in the order they were reported by committee; but the Committee 
on Rules and Operation of the House may at any time arrange the order of precedence 
in which bills may be considered. 

RULE 41. Reading of Bills. — (a) Every bill shall receive three readings in the 
House prior to its passage. The first reading and reference to committee of a House 
bill shall occur on the next legislative day following its introduction. The first reading 
and reference to committee of a Senate bill shall occur on the next legislative day 
following its receipt on m.essages from the Senate. The Speaker shall give notice at 
each subsequent reading whether it be the second or third reading. 

(b) No bill shall be read more than once on the same day without the concurrence of 
two-thirds (2 3) of the members present and voting; provided, no bill governed by 
Article O, Section 23 of the North CaroHna Constitution or described in Rule 20 (a)(2) 
herein shall be read twice on one day under any circumstance. 

RULE 42. Effect of a Defeated Bill. — (a) Subject to the provisions of subsection 
(b) of this rule, after a bill has 

(1) been tabled, 

(2) been postponed indefinitely, 

(3) failed to pass on any of its readings, or 

(4) been placed on the unfavorable calendar. 



The Legislative Branch 453 



the contents of that bill or the principal provisions of its subject matter shall not be 
considered in any other measure originating in the Senate or originating thereafter in 
the House. Upon the point of order being raised and sustained by the Chair, that 
measure shall be laid upon the table, and shall not be taken therefrom except by a 
two-thirds (2/3) vote of the members present and voting. 

(b) No local bill shall be held by the Chair to embody the contents of or the princi- 
pal provisions of the subject matter of any statewide measure which has been laid on 
the table, has failed to pass on any of its readings, or has been placed on the unfavora- 
ble calendar. 

RULE 43. Amendments and Riders. — No amendment or rider to a bill before the 
House shall be in order unless such rider or amendment is germane to the bill under 
consideration. 

Only one principal (first degree) amendment shall be pending at any one time. If a 
subsequent or substitute principal amendment shall be offered, the Speaker shall rule it 
out of order. However, any member desiring to offer a subsequent or substitute princi- 
pal amendment in opposition to the pending amendment may inform the House by 
way of argument against the pending amendment that if it is defeated he proposes to 
offer another principal amendment, and he may then read and explain such proposed 
amendment. 

Perfecting (or second degree) amendments may be offered and considered without 
limitation as to number, and in the event of multiple perfecting amendments, they shall 
be voted upon in inverse order. 

RULE 43.1. Engrossment. — Bills and resolutions, except those making appropria- 
tions, which originate in the House and which are amended, shall be engrossed before 
being sent to the Senate. 

RULE 43.2. House Concurrence in Senate Amendments to House Bills. — The 
House shall not concur in a Senate amendment to a bill originating in the House until 
the next legislative day after the day on which the House receives the Senate 
amendment. 

RULE 43.3. Committee Substitutes Adopted by the Senate to Bills Originating in 
the House. — (a) Whenever the Senate has adopted a committee substitute for a bill 
originating in the House, and has returned the bill to the House for concurrence in 
that committee substitute, the House may not concur in that committee substitute until 
the next legislative day following the day on which the House receives that committee 
substitute. 

(b) The Speaker may, and upon motion supported by a majority of the House pres- 
ent and voting shall, refer the bill to an appropriate committee for consideration of the 
committee substitute. 

(c) The Speaker shall, in placing the bill on the calendar, rule whether the committee 
substitute is a material amendment under Article U, Section 23, of the State's Consti- 
tution. If the committee substitute was referred to committee, the committee shall: 

i. report the bill with the recommendation either that the House concur or that the 

House do not concur; and 
ii. advise the Speaker as to whether or not that committee substitute is a material 

amendment under Article II, Section 23, of the State's Constitution. 

(d) If the committee substitute for a bill is not a material amendment, the question 
before the House shall be concurrence. 



454 North Carolina Manual 



(e) If the committee substitute for a bill is a material amendment, the receiving of 
that bill on messages shall constitute first reading and the question before the House 
shall be concurrence on second reading. If the motion is passed, the question then shall 
be concurrence on third reading on the next legislative day. 

(f) No committee substitute adopted by the Senate to a bill originating in the House 
may be amended by the House. 

RULE 44. Conference Committees. — (a) Whenever the House shall decline or 
refuse to concur in amendments put by the Senate to a bill originating in the House, or 
shall refuse to concur in a substitute adopted by the Senate for a bill originating in the 
House or whenever the Senate shall decline or refuse to concur in amendments put by 
the House to a bill originating in the Senate, or shall refuse to concur in a substitute 
adopted by the House for a bill originating in the Senate, a conference committee may 
be appointed by the Speaker upon his own motion or shall be appointed upon request 
by the principal sponsor of the original bill, the Chairman of the House Committee 
which reported the bill, or by the sponsor of the amendment in which the Senate 
refused to concur; and the bill under consideration shall thereupon go to and be consi- 
dered by the joint conferees on the part of the House and Senate. In appointing 
members to conference committees the Speaker shall appoint no less than a majority 
of members who generally supported the House position as determined by the 
Speaker. 

(b) Only such matters as are in difference between the two houses shall be consi- 
dered by the conferees, and the conference report shall deal only with such matters. 
The conference report may be made by a majority of the House members of such 
conference committee and shall not be amended. 

(c) If the conferees fail to agree, new conferees may be appointed. However, if either 
house refuses to adopt the report of its conferees, no new conferees may be appointed. 

VII. Legislative Officers and Employees 

RULE 45. Elected Officers. — (a) The House shall elect one of its members Speaker. 

(b) The House shall elect one of its members Speaker Pro Tempore who shall per- 
form such duties as the Speaker may assign and shall preside over the House in the 
absence or incapacity of the Speaker and shall perform all of the duties of the Speaker 
until such time the Speaker may assume the Chair. 

(c) The House shall elect a Principal Clerk, a Reading Clerk and a Sergeant-at- 
Arms, each of whom shall have and perform such duties and responsibilities not 
inconsistent with these Rules as the Speaker may assign. The Principal Clerk shall 
continue in office until another is elected. 

RULE 46. Assistants to Principal Clerk and Sergeant-at-Arms. — The Principal 
Clerk and the Sergeant-at-Arms may appoint, with the approval of the Speaker, such 
assistants as may be necessary to the efficient discharge of the duties of their respective 
offices. 

RULE 47. Speaker's Clerk, Chaplain, and Pages. — (a) The Speaker may appoint 
one or more clerks to the Speaker, a Chaplain of the House, and pages to wait upon 
the sessions of the House. 

(b) When the House is not in session, the pages shall be under the supervision of the 
Supervisor of Pages. 



The Legislative Branch 455 



(c) No member may have more than 10 persons designated as honorary pages. 

RULE 48. Committee Clerks and Secretaries. — (a) Each committee shall have a 
clerk. The clerk to a committee shall serve as secretary to the chairman of that 
committee. 

(b) Each member shall be assigned a secretary, unless he has a committee clerk to 
serve as his secretary. 

(c) The selection and retention of clerks and secretaries shall be the sole prerogative 
of the individual member or members. Such clerks and secretaries shall file initial 
applications for employment with the Legislative Services Office and shall receive 
compensation as prescribed by the Legislative Services Commission. The employment 
period of clerks and secretaries shall commence not earlier than the convening date of 
the General Assembly and shall terminate not later than the final adjournment or 
recess of the General Assembly unless employment for an extended period is approved 
by the Speaker. The clerks and secretaries shall adhere to such uniform rules and 
regulations not inconsistent with these Rules regarding hours and other conditions of 
employment as the Legislative Services Commission shall fix by appropriate 
regulations. 

RULE 49. Compensation of Clerks and Secretaries. — No clerk, laborer, or other 
person employed or appointed under Rules 47, 48, and 49 hereof shall receive during 
such employment, appointment, or service, any compensation from any department of 
the State government, and there shall not be voted, paid or awarded any additional 
pay, bonus or gratuity to any of them, but they shall receive only the pay now pro- 
vided by law for such duties and services. 

VIII. Privileges of the Hall 

RULE 50. Admittance to Floor. — No person except members, officers and 
employees of the General Assembly and former members of the General Assembly 
who are not registered under the provisions of Article 9 of Chapter 120 of the General 
Statutes of North Carolina shall be allowed on the floor of the House during its ses- 
sion, unless permitted by the Speaker or otherwise provided by law. 

RULE 51. Admittance of Press. — Reporters wishing to take down debates may be 
admitted by the Speaker, who shall assign such places to them on the floor or else- 
where, to effect this object, as shall not interfere with the convenience of the House. 

RULE 52. Extending Courtesies. — Courtesies of the floor, galleries or lobby shall 
only be extended at the discretion of the Speaker. 

RULE 53. Order in Galleries and Lobby. — In case of any disturbance or disorderly 
conduct in the galleries or lobby, the Speaker or other presiding officer is empowered 
to order the same to be cleared. 

IX. General Rules 

RULE 54. Attendance of Members. — No member or officer of the House shall 
absent himself from the service of the House without leave, unless from sickness or 
disability. 

RULE 55. Documents to be Signed by the Speaker. —All acts, addresses, and reso- 
lutions and all warrants and subpoenas issued by order of the House shall be signed by 
the Speaker or other presiding officer. 



456 North Carolina Manual 

RULE 56. Printing or Reproducing Materials. —There shall be no printing or 
reproducing of paper(s) that are not legislative in essence except upon approval of the 
Speaker. 

RULE 57. Placement or Circulation of Materials. —Persons other than members of 
the General Assembly, officers or staff thereof shall not place or cause to be placed any 
materials on members' desks in the House Chamber without obtaining approval of the 
Speaker. Any material so placed, or circulated to House members anywhere in the 
Legislative Building, shall bear the name of the originator. 

RULE 58. Rules, Rescission and Alteration. — (a) These rules shall not be perman- 
ently rescinded or altered except by House simple resolution passed by a two-thirds 
(2/3) vote of the members present and voting. The introducer of the resolution must 
on the floor of the House give notice of his intent to introduce the resolution on the 
legislative day preceding its introduction. 

(b) Except as otherwise provided herein, the House upon two-thirds (2/3) vote of 
the members present and voting may temporarily suspend any rule. 

RULE 59. Limitation on Cosponsorship of Bills and Resolutions. — Any member 
wishing to cosponsor a bill or resolution which has been introduced may do so by 
appearing in the office of the Principal Clerk for such purpose within one-half hour 
following the adjournment of the session during which such bill or resolution was first 
read and referred. 

RULE 60. Correcting of Typographical Errors. — The Legislative Services Officer 
may correct typographical errors appearing in House bills or resolutions provided that 
such corrections are made before ratification and do not conflict with any actions or 
rules of the Senate and provided further that such correction be approved by the 
Chairman of the Rules Committee, the Speaker or other presiding officer. 

RULE 61. Changing of Seats Prohibited. — After initial assignment of seats, a 
member shall continue to occupy the seat to which initially assigned for the entire 
biennial session. In event of vacancy that member's successor will occupy the seat of 
the member he replaces for the remainder of the biennial session, but such successor 
shall not be considered as one who has served in the immediate preceding session for 
the purposes of seat assignment in the subsequent biennial session. 

RULE 62. Matters not Covered in These Rules. —Except as herein set out the rules 
of the House of Representatives of Congress shall govern the operation of the House. 

Sec. 2. This resolution is effective upon adoption. 



The Legislative Branch 



457 




GEORGE RUBIN HALL, JR. 

Legislative Services Officer 

George Rubin Hall. Jr., was born in Raleigh, N.C., April 14. 1939. Son of George 
Rubin Hall. Sr. (deceased) and Ludie Jane Conner. Attended Hugh Morson High 
School, 1953-55; Graduated Needham B. Broughton High School, 1955-57: Campbell 
College, Bachelor of Science, 1964; Post-graduate work NC State University in Public 
Personnel Administration; Government Executives Institute, UNC-Chapel Hill. 1982. 
Career state employee: 14 \ears. NC Division of Vocational Rehabilitation: 4 years as 
Administrative Officer with NC General Assembly: and Licensed Building Contractor 
and Licensed Real Estate Broker. Member, Fiscal Affairs and Government Opera- 
tions, Southern Legislative Conference: Legislative Organization and Management 
Committee, National Conference of State Legislators; Life Member, National Re- 
habilitation Association: Member, NC Rehabilitation Association. Past Member, 
Wake County School Board Advisory Council; Manpower Area Planning Council, 
Region J, 1972-73. Served in North Carolina Army National Guard, Staff Sgt., active, 
1959-60, reserves, 1960-65. Member, Longview Baptist Church, Raleigh, NC. Mar- 
ried, Carolyn Marie Young of Raleigh, June 26, 1960. Three children: George Rubin, 
II L W. Gregory, and Carolyn Elizabeth. 



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The Executive Branch 459 

Chapter Two 
THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH 



INTRODUCTION 

Under provisions in the Constitution of North Carolina, the three major branches of 
state government — legislative, executive and judicial — are "distinct and separate from 
each other" (Article I, Section 6). This separation of powers has been a primary princi- 
pal of government since our independence. In the nearly two hundred years since the 
forming of the State of North Carolina, many changes have occurred in her govern- 
mental organization. North Carolina state and local government has grown from a 
small, ill-funded endeavor of a few hundred "employees" in 1 776, to a multi-billion dol- 
lar enterprise of thousands of public servants and programs. Along with this growth has 
come problems. In 1970 there were over 200 independent state agencies making up our 
Executive Branch. Recognizing this problem the General Assembly took steps toward 
reorganizing state government, particularly the executive branch began to be formu- 
lated. 

State Government Reorganization 

In a speech on October 27, 1967, Governor Dan K. Moore urged the North Carolina 
State Bar to take the lead in sponsoring a study to determine the need for revising or re- 
writing the Constitution of North Carolina. The Council of the North CaroHna State 
Bar and the North Carolina Bar Association joined in appointing a steering committee 
which selected twenty-five persons to constitute the North Carolina State Constitution 
Study Commission. The report of the commission, submitted on December 16, 1968, 
contained a proposed amendment which would require the General Assembly to reduce 
the administrative departments of state government to 25 and authorize the governor to 
reorganize the administrative departments subject to legislative approval. 

The 1969 General Assembly submitted the proposed constitutional amendment to a 
vote of the people and also authorized the governor to begin a study of consolidation of 
state agencies and to prepare recommendations for the General Assembly. Governor 
Robert W. Scott established the State Government Reorganization Study in October of 
1969. Later, in May 1970, a fifty member citizens Committee on State Government 
Reorganization was appointed by the governor to review the study and make specific 
recommendations. 

The constitutional amendment requiring the reduction of the number of state admin- 
istrative departments to not more than 25 by 1975 was adopted in the General Election 
on November 3, 1970, and the Committee on State Government Reorganization sub- 
mitted its recommendations to the governor on February 4, 1971. 



460 North Carolina Manual 



The committee recommended implementation of the amendment in two phases: 
Phase I would begin with general legislation in 1971 grouping agencies together in a 
limited number of functional departments; Phase II would consist of the period between 
1971 and 1973 when the agencies would work together. Bills to revise the existing 
statutes would be drafted on the basis of the agencies' experience and presented to the 
1973 General Assembly. 

With strong support from Governor Scott, the Executive Organization Act of 1971 
was ratified July 14, 1971. It created 19 principal offices and departments consisting of 
ten offices and departments headed by elected officials and nine other departments 
formed by the grouping of agencies along functional lines. The Act provided for two 
types of transfers to accomplish the first phase of reorganization. Under the Act a Type 
I transfer meant the transferring of all or part of an agency, including its statutory au- 
thority, powers and duties, to a principal department. A Type II transfer meant the 
transferring intact of an existing agency to a principal department with the transferring 
agency retaining its statutory authority and functions, except for management func- 
tions, which would be performed under the direction and supervision of the head of the 
principal department. 

All offices and departments called for by the Executive Organization Act of 1971 
were created by executive order of Governor Scott prior to the July 1 , 1 972, deadline set 
by the Act. The principal offices and departments created were: Office of the Governor, 
Office of the Lieutenant Governor, Department of the Secretary of State, Department 
of the State Auditor, Department of State Treasurer, Department of Public Education, 
Department of Justice, Department of Agriculture, Department of Labor, Department 
of Insurance, Department of Administration, Department of Transportation and High- 
way Safety, Department of Natural and Economic Resources, Department of Human 
Resources, Department of Social Rehabilitation and Control (now Department of Cor- 
rection), Department of Commerce, Department of Revenue, Department of Art, Cul- 
ture and History (now Department of Cultural Resources), and Department of Military 
and Veterans' Affairs. By executive order issued June 26, 1972, an Executive Cabinet 
was formed consisting of the heads of these offices and departments. Meetings of the 
Cabinet have been a major tool in solving the problems of Phase II of reorganization. 

Between 1972 and 1977 some additional alterations were made which further imple- 
mented reorganization of state government in North Carolina. In 1973, the Legislature 
passed the Executive Organizations Act of 1973 which affected four of the newly created 
departments — Cultural Resources, Human Resources, Military and Veterans Affairs 
and Revenue. Broadly speaking, the 1973 law vested final administrative and manageri- 
al powers for the Executive Branch in the hands of the governor and gave him powers to 
appoint a secretary for each of the departments named. The law also set forth the 
powers of the secretaries, but left intact specifically designed areas and decisions already 
vested in various commissions — these cannot be countermanded by either the governor 
or departmental secretary. 

Specifically, the 1973 act changed the name of the Department of Art, Culture and 
History to the Department of Cultural Resources. Various Boards, Commissions, 
Councils, and Societies which relate to a cultural orientation were brought under the 
umbrella of the Department of Cultural Resources. 



The Executive Branch 461 



Two previously created Departments, Human Resources and Revenue, were re- 
created making some technical changes not found in the original law. Specifically, in the 
Department of Human Resources, a Board of Human Resources was created to serve as 
an Advisory Board to the Secretary on any matter which might be referred to it by the 
Secretary. 

In the 1973 Act, the Department of Military and Veterans Affairs was specifically 
charged with providing National Guard troops trained to Federal Standards; being re- 
sponsible for military and civil preparedness; and assisting veterans and their families 
and dependents. A new Veterans' Affairs Commission was created to assist the Secre- 
tary with veterans services programs. 

Reorganization was to have been completed by the end of 1975, and, as provided for 
in the 1971 and 1973 Laws, it was. However, the present administration sponsored sev- 
eral legislative proposals aimed at further reorganizational changes — most of which 
affect four state departments — Commerce, Military and Veterans Affairs, Natural and 
Economic Resources, and Transportation. 

The 1977 General Assembly enacted several laws implementing the new proposals. 
The old Department of Military and Veteran's Affairs has been replaced by a new 
Department of Crime Control and Public Safety. The Veterans Affairs Commission 
formerly in MVA is now under the Department of Administration. All of the other divi- 
sions — except the Energy Division formerly in MVA have been transferred by a Type I 
Transfer to the Department of Crime Control and Public Safety. Also the State High- 
way Patrol, formerly in the Division of Motor Vehicles, Department of Transportation, 
has been transferred by a Type I Transfer to the new department. A newly created Gov- 
ernor's Crime Commission is also part of the new department. 

In reorganizing the old Department of Military and Veterans Affairs, the Energy 
Division and the Energy Policy Council were transferred to the Department of Com- 
merce. Also transferred to the Department of Commerce are three agencies previously 
under the Department of Transportation — the State Ports Authority, and two commis- 
sions on Navigation and Pilotage. Other legislative changes were enacted to further 
reorganize the Department of Commerce by transferring to it the Economic Develop- 
ment Division of the Department of Natural and Economic Development and to create 
a new council — the Labor Force Development Council — to coordinate the needs of In- 
dustry with the programs offered in our educational institutions. There was some oppo- 
sition to moving Economic Development from NER because the current setup allows 
new prospective industry to deal with only one department in finding out economic op- 
portunities within the State and what environmental requirement and restrictions there 
might be. 



The Executive Branch 463 



OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR 

JAMES B. HUNT, JR. 
Governor 

Early Years: Born in Greensboro, Guilford County, May 16, 1937, to James B. and Elsie 
(Brame) Hunt. 

Education: Graduated Rock Ridge High School, Wilson County; NC State University, 
1959, B.S. (Agricultural Education); 1962, M.S. (Agricultural Economics); Univer- 
sity of North Carolina School of Law, 1964, J.D. 

Professional Background: Governor; Served two years. Economic Advisor to His Ma- 
jesty's Government in Nepal, 1964-1966; Partner, law firm of Kirby, Webb and Hunt, 
in Wilson, 1966-1972. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Education Committee of the States; Chairman, 
National Task Force on Education for Economic Growth; Chairman, National 
Governor's Association Task Force on Technological Innovation; Chairman, NGA 
Committee on Human Resources' Subcommittee on Education; Member, NGA Ex- 
ecutive Committee; Past Chairman, National Governor's Association Committee on 
Human Resources; Past Chairman, Democratic Governors' Conference; Southern 
Growth Policies Board, Southern Regional Education Board, National Governor's 
Association Committee on Criminal Justice and Public Protection, National Gover- 
nor's Association Subcommittee on Small Cities and Rural Development; Past State 
Co-Chairman, Coastal Plains Regional Commission and Appalachian Regional 
Commission. 

Political Activities: Governor, 1977 - (elected, 1976; reelected, 1980); Lieutenant 
Governor, 1973-1977; Past Chairman, Democratic National Committee's Commis- 
sion on Presidential Nomination; National College Director for Democratic 
National Committee, 1 962- 1 963; Elected President, Wilson Young Democratic Club, 
1967; President, NCYDC in 1968; Delegate to 1968 National Democratic Conven- 
tion; Appointed Assistant State Party Chairman, 1969; in charge of reorganizing the 
party to allow greater participation by women, minorities and young people. 

Honors: While at NCSU served two terms as Student Government President, was chosen 
"Outstanding Senior" in 1959. 

Literary Works: "Acreage Controls and Poundage Controls: Their Effects on Most 
Profitable Production Practices for Flue Aired Tobacco," (Master's Thesis chosen 
in 1963 as one of the three best in U.S. and Canada by American Farm Economic 
Association); "Rally Around the Precinct" (Precinct Manual for NC Democratic 
Party); Edited "Agriculturalist" -- student publication of the School of Agriculture 
and Life Sciences. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church of Wilson; Member, elder and 
former deacon. 

Family: Married Carolyn Leonard of Mingo, Iowa; Children; Rebecca Hunt Hawley, 
Baxter, Rachel and Elizabeth. 



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The Executive Branch 465 



THE OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR 

The office of the governor is the oldest governmental office in North Carolina. The 
first governor was Ralph Lane, who served as governor of Sir Walter Raleigh's first col- 
ony on Roanoke Island (1585). The first permanent governor was William Drummond, 
appointed by William Berkely, Governor of Virginia and one of the Lords Proprietors, 
at the request of his colleagues. During the colonial period governors were appointed by 
the Lords Proprietors prior to 1729, and the Crown afterward 1730. These people 
served at the pleasure of their appointors, usually until a governor died or resigned, al- 
though there were several instances where other factors were involved. When a regularly 
appointed governor, for whatever reason, could no longer perform his functions as chief 
executive, either the president of the council, or the deputy, or lieutenant governor, took 
over until a new governor was appointed and qualified. Following our independence in 
1776, and the adoption of our first State Constitufion, the governor was elected by the 
two houses of the general assembly. He was elected to serve a one-year term and could 
serve no more than three years in any six. 

In 1835 with the clamors for a more democratic form of government being felt in 
Raleigh, a constitutional convention was called to amend certain sections of the consti- 
tution. One of the amendments provided for the popular election of the governor every 
two years; however, little was done to increase his authority in any area other than that 
of appointments. In 1868 a second constitution was adopted by the State of North 
Carolina which reflected the principals resulting from the Civil War. Under provisions 
in this new constitution, the governor's term of office was expanded from two to four 
years, and his duties and powers were greatly increased. 

Today North Carolina is governed by her third consUtution and while several 
changes were made in its content, the Article dealing with the executive branch, and the 
governor in particular, remains basically in tact. In recent years there has been a grow- 
ing concern over two basic omissions in the powers of the governor as found in our 
Constitution. One of these is veto power over legislation passed by the General Assem- 
bly — North Carolina is the only state that does not allow its governor veto power. The 
second is the right of a governor to succeed himself in office. The citizens of North 
Carolina addressed the issue of gubernatorial succession in 1977 and voted to allow the 
governor and lieutenant governor to run for re-election. Governor Jim Hunt is the first 
North Carolina governor since 1866 to be elected to two consecutive terms in office. 

In 1972, the Office of the Governor was created as one of the 19 major departments in 
the Executive Branch of state government. Under his immediate jurisdiction are such 
assistants and personnel as he may need to carry out the functions as chief executive of 
the State. In North Carolina, the governor is not only the state's chief exective, but he is 
also the director of the budget, with responsibilities for all phases of budgeting from the 
initial preparation to final execution; he is commander-in-chief of the state military; and 
he is chairman of the Council of State, which he may convene at any time for advice on 
allotments from the Contingency and Emergency Fund and for the disposition of state 
property. He also has the authority to convene the general assembly into extra session 
should affairs of the State dictate such a move. The governor is directed by the North 
Carolina Constitution to "take care" that all state laws are faithfully executed. He has 
the power to grant pardons and communications; issue extradition warrants and re- 



466 North Carolina Manual 



quests; join interstate compacts; and reorganize and consolidate state agencies. The 
governor has final authority over all expenditures of the state, and he is also responsible 
for the administration of all funds and loans from the federal government. At the start 
of each regular session of the general assembly, the governor delivers legislative and 
budgetary messages to the legislators. To help him carry out his administrative duties 
and run his office the governor has several assistants. 

Executive Assistant 

The Executive Assistant to the Governor serves as the Governor's primary link to the 
Cabinet. He serves as a liaison between the Council of State and Cabinet and the Gov- 
ernor. He is also responsible for advising the Governor on various matters of state, and 
sometimes serves as the Governor's representative at special events which the Governor 
himself cannot attend. 

Since January 1978, the Executive Assistant has been the State Budget Officer, pro- 
viding a close link between the Governor, as Director of the Budget, and the Office of 
State Budget and Management. 

Senior Assistant 

The Senior Assistant serves as the chief of staff for all personnel in the Governor's 
Office. It is his responsibility to see that the office functions smoothly and that the right 
decisions are made to maintain its smooth operation. In addition, the Senior Assistant 
meets with people that the Governor is unable to see himself. 

Appointments Office 

As North Carolina's chief executive, the Governor has the responsibility for making 
appointments to more than 400 statutory bodies and to approximately 45 non-statutory 
advisory groups created or required by federal legislation, executive orders, or the by- 
laws of private organizations. He is likewise responsible for filling vacancies in some 
elective offices. To assist him in performing these duties, the Governor's special as- 
sistant for appointments to boards and commissions receives recommendations, re- 
searches qualifications and requirements, maintains records, and provides liaison with 
associations, agencies, and interested individuals and groups. Through these functions, 
the appointments office provides information and advice to the Governor on matters 
relating to his powers of appointment. 

Special Assistant for Minority Affairs 

The Special Assistant for Minority Affairs serves as a liaison between the Governor's 
Office and the statewide minority population. He keeps the Governor informed about 
important issues of minority interest, concerns and problems. He also is responsible for 
studying and making recommendations concerning current policies relating to minority 
affairs. The Special Assistant maintains constant contact with minority citizens and 
serves as the Governor's representative at meetings of local minority organizations and 
community action groups. He also assists in carrying out the state's Affirmative Action 
Program. 



The Executive Branch 467 



Legal Counsel to the Governor 

The Legal Counsel to the Governor is appointed by the Governor to assist and advise 
him on legal matters and obligations relating to the Office of the Governor. Specifically, 
he is delegated the responsibility of investigating the merits of requests for pardons, 
commutations, reprieves, extradition, rewards, and payment of legal fees charged the 
state, and reporting to the Governor those findings for his consideration. He is available 
to the public to assist them with problems relating to state government in areas where 
the Governor has jurisdiction. The Legal Counsel researches the legality and contents of 
executive orders, participates in structuring the Governor's legislative program and 
budget, is involved with inter-departmental program coordination, and advises the 
Governor on general policy issues. 

Press Office 

The News Secretary serves as the head of the Governor's information center — the 
press office — as well as his designated spokesman on matters when the Governor can- 
not be reached personally. He serves as a liaison between the Governor and the working 
press — keeping them informed on matters of interest and importance which affect the 
state. 

Office of Citizen Affairs 

Governor Jim Hunt created the Office of Citizen Affairs in 1977 to promote greater 
citizen awareness of and personal involvement in state and local government programs, 
services and activities. The office also serves to facilitate citizen communication with the 
Governor and state government and to promote and encourage the growth of voluntar- 
ism across North Carolina. 

The Governor's Office of Citizen Affairs receives and responds to thousands of re- 
quests for assistance from citizens each month. The office cuts through red tape, gets 
answers to complicated questions, acts as a go-between for citizens and government 
agencies when the need arises. The office is the people's advocate in Raleigh. In addi- 
tion, the office maintains WASTELINE (toll-free, 800-662-7952), designed to receive 
ideas from the public on ways to increase productivity in state government and reduce 
waste. 

Special Assistant for Federal-State Relations 

The Special Assistant for Federal-State Relations is the Governor's liaison on matters 
involving other states, key federal officials and various national and regional associa- 
tions of states. He is responsible for obtaining a timely state response to congressional 
legislation, federal agency program directives and national policy positions. He coordi- 
nates the working relationship between the Governor's Office, the Division of Policy 
Development and the North Carolina Washington Office on state-federal matters and 
for structuring the state's impact in this area. He advises the Governor on state-federal 
and multi-state policy issues. 



468 North Carolina Manual 



Office of State Budget and Management 

In September, 1979 Governor Jim Hunt, by executive order, moved the Office of 
State Budget and Management from the Department of Administration to the Office of 
the Governor. The office helps state departments and institutions develop biennial bud- 
gets for submission to the Governor, the Advisory Budget Commission and the General 
Assembly. As the primary fiscal administrator for state government, the office also 
supervises and manages budget appropriations by the General Assembly. 

Office of Non-Public Education 

Governor Jim Hunt established the Office of Non-Public Education in October 1979 
to provide a liaison between the state and the private, independent and church-related 
schools. The office monitors health and safety factors, required testing programs and 
other such areas in the state's non-public schools. 



The Executive Branch 469 



BOARDS WITHIN THE OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR 

LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADVOCACY COUNCIL 
(G.S. 143-506.14) 

Purpose: To advocate on behalf of local government and to advise the Governor and his 
cabinet on the development and implementation of policies and programs which 
directly affect local government. 

To function as liaison for State and local relations and communications 
To identify problem areas and recommend policies of State, regional and local rela- 
tions. 

To review, monitor and evaluate current and proposed State program policies, 
practices, procedures, guidelines and regulations and their effect on local goverment. 
Composition: 19 members — 3 at large appointed by the Governor; 2 Senators appointed 
by the President of the Senate; 2 Representatives appointed by the Speaker of the 
House; 6 representing county government (5 who are members of the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Association of County Commissioners and 1 who is the Executive Direc- 
tor); 6 representing municipal government (5 who are members of the Executive 
Committee of the League of Municipalities and 1 who is the Executive Director). 

Term: Representatives for the Association of County Commissioners and League of 
Municipalities serve terms consistent with their terms as Executive Committee mem- 
bers. At-large members serve at the pleasure of the Governor and legislative members 
serve terms consistent with their legislative terms. At-large and legislative members 
may serve no more than 2 consecutive terms. 

Officers: Chairman — President of the Association of County Commissioners. Vice- 
Chairman — President of the League of Municipalities. Office rotates between the 
League and Association annually. 



470 North Carouna Manual 

JUDICIAL NOMINATING COMMITTEE FOR SUPERIOR 

COURT JUDGES 

(Executive Order #30) 

Purpose: To identify and nominate for appointment those persons most highly qualified 
personally and professionally to be Superior Court Judges without regard to any par- 
tisan political considerations. 

Composition: 35 members — 13 citizens who are not licensed to practice law in the State 
appointed by the Governor (no less than 3 and no more than 4 residents of the same 
judicial division); 13 attorneys licensed to practice law in the State by the Chief Justice 
of the North Carolina Supreme Court (no less than 3 and no more than 4 residents of 
the same judicial division); 3 by the President Pro Tem of the Senate (2 citizens not 
licensed to practice law in the State; 3 by the Speaker of the House (3 citizens not 
licensed to practice law in the State and 1 attorney licensed to practice law in the 
State); 1 jointly by the President Pro Tem of the Senate and Speaker of the House (an 
attorney licensed to practice law in the State); 2 members of the North Carolina 
Supreme Court appointed by that court. 

Term:First term was from July 28, 1977 to December 31, 1980 with members to serve un- 
til successors are confirmed. 

Officers: Chairman and Chairman Pro Tem are the two members of the Supreme Court. 



The Executive Branch 471 



GOVERNORS OF NORTH CAROLINA 

GOVERNORS OF "VIRGINIA " 

Name Qualified Term 

Ralph Lane' [April 9], 1585 1585-1586 

JohnWhite2 [April 26], 1587 1587 



PROPRIETARY CHIEF EXECUTIVES* 

Name Qualified Term 

(Samuel Stephens)^ [1622-1664] 

William Drummond'' February 23, 1665 1665-[1667] 

Samuel Stephens' , 1667 [1667-1670] 

Peter Carteret* March 10, 1670 1670-1671 

Peter Carteret^ , 1671 1671-1672 

John Jenkins^ [May_], 1672 1672-1675 

Thomas Eastchurch' October _, 1675 1675-1676 

[Speaker-Assembly]'" [Spring, 1676] 1676 

John Jenkins" March _ , 1676 1676-1677 

Thomas Eastchurch'^ 

Thomas Miller'3 July_,1677 1677 

[Rebel Council]'^ December _, 1677 1677-1679 

Seth Sothel'5 

John Harvey'6 July_, 1679 1679 

John Jenkins'^ December _, 1679 1679-1681 

Henry Wilkinson'* 

Seth Sothel'9 [1682] [1682]-1689 

John Archdale^o December — , 1683 1683-1686 

John Gibbs^' November _, 1689 1689-1690 

Phillip LudwelP2 May_, 1690 1690-1691 

Thomas Jarvis^^ July _ , 1690 1690-1694 

PhilHp LudwelP" November — , 1693 1693-1695 

Thomas Harvey25 July _ , 1694 1694-1699 

John Archdale26 June _ , 1695 1695 

John Archdale27 January — , 1697 1697 

Henderson Walker28 July — , 1699 1699-1703 

Robert DanieP July — , 1703 1703-1705 

Thomas Cary^o March 21, 1705 1705-1706 

William Glover^' July 13, 1706 1706-1707 

Thomas Gary" August — , 1707 1707 

William Glover33 October 28, 1707 1707-1708 

Thomas Gary^^ July 24, 1708 1708-171 1 

[William Glover]" [1709-1710] 

Edward Hyde36 January 22, 171 1 1711-1712 

Edward Hyde" May 9, 1712 1712 

Thomas Pollock38 September 12, 1712 1712-1714 



*The names which are indented first are those who served as chief executive, but were appointed either 
deputy or lieutenant governor. Those indented second served while president of the council. 



472 North Caorlina Manual 



Name Qualified Term 

Charles Eden^' May 28, 1714 1714-1722 

Thomas PolloclCo March 30, 1722 1722 

William Reed"' September 7, 1722 1722-1724 

George Burrington''^ January 15, 1724 1724-1725 

Edward Moseley^^ October 31, 1724 1724 

Sir Richard Everard^^ July 17, 1725 1725-1731 



ROYAL CHIEF EXECUTIVES'*' 

Name Qualified Term 

George Burrington^^ February 25, 1731 1731-1734 

Nathaniel Rice^^ April 17, 1734 1734 

Gabriel Johnston^s November 2, 1734 1734-1752 

Nathaniel Rice''^ July 17, 1752 1752-1753 

Matthew Rowan'o February 1, 1753 1753-1754 

Arthur Dobbs^' November 1, 1754 1754-1765 

James Hasell52 October 15, 1763 1763 

William Tryon^^ April 3, 1765 1765 

William Tryon54 December 20, 1765 1765-1771 

James HaselPs July 1, 1771 1771 

Josiah Martin56 August 12, 1771 1771-1775 

James HaselP^ October 8, 1774 1774 



GOVERNORS ELECTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY'* 

Name Residence Qualified Term 

Richard CaswelP^ Dobbs December 21, 1776 1776-1777 

Richard Caswell Dobbs April 18, 1777 1777-1778 

Richard Caswell Dobbs April 20, 1778 1778-1779 

Richard Caswell Dobbs May 4, 1779 1779-1780 

Abner Nash^o Craven April 21, 1780 1780-1781 

Thomas Burke^i Orange June 26, 1781 1781-1782 

Alexander Martin" Guilford October 5, 1781 1781-1782 

Alexander Martin Guilford April 22, 1782 1782-1783 

Alexander Martin Guilford April 30, 1783 1783-1784 

Alexander Martin Guilford May 3, 1784 1784-1785 

Richard Caswell Dobbs December 12, 1785 1785-1786 

Richard Caswell Dobbs December 23, 1786 1786-1787 

Samuel Johnston Chowan December 20, 1787 1787-1788 

Samuel Johnston Chowan November 18, 1788 1788-1789 

Samuel Johnston" Chowan November 18, 1789 1789 

Alexander Martin^^ Guilford December 17, 1789 1789-1790 

Alexander Martin Guilford December 9, 1790 1790-1792 

Alexander Martin Guilford January 2, 1792 1792 

Richard Dobbs Spaight Craven December 14, 1792 1792-1793 

Richard Dobbs Spaight Craven December 26, 1793 1793-1795 

Richard Dobbs Spaight Craven January 6, 1795 1795 



The Executive Branch 



473 



Name Residence Qualified 

Samuel Ashe New Hanover November 19, 

Samuel Ashe New Hanover December 19 

Samuel Ashe New Hanover December 5, 

William R. Davie" Halifax December 7, 

Benjamin Williams Moore November 23 

Benjamin Williams Moore November 29 

Benjamin Williams Moore November 28 

John Baptiste Ashe^* Halifax 



James Turner*^ Warren December 6, 

James Turner Warren December 6, 

James Turner** Warren November 29 

Nathaniel Alexander Mecklenburg December 10 

Nathaniel Alexander Mecklenburg December 1, 

Benjamin Williams Moore December 1, 

David Stone Bertie December 12 

David Stone Bertie December 13 

Benjamin Smith Brunswick Decembers, 

William Hawkins Warren December 9, 

William Hawkins Warren December 8, 

William Hawkins Warren December 7, 

William Miller Warren December 7, 

William Miller Warren December 7, 



William Miller 
John Branch .. 
John Branch .. 
John Branch .. 
Jesse Franklin 



Warren December 7, 

Halifax December 6, 

Halifax Decembers, 

Halifax December 7, 

Surry December 7, 

Gabriel Holmes Sampson December 7, 

Gabriel Holmes Sampson December 7, 

Gabriel Holmes Sampson December 6, 

Hutchings G. Burton Halifax December 7, 

Hutchings G. Burton Halifax December 6, 

Hutchings G. Burton Halifax December 29 

James Iredell, Jr.''' Chowan December 8, 

John Owen Bladen December 12 

John Owen Bladen December 10 

Montford Stokes^" Wilkes December 18 

Montford Stokes Wilkes December 13 

David L. Swain Buncombe December 6, 

David L. Swain Buncombe December 9, 

David L. Swain Buncombe December 10 

Richard Dobbs Spaight, Jr. ... Craven December 10 



Term 

1795 1795-1796 

1796 1796-1797 

797 1797-1798 

798 1798-1799 

1799 I799-I800 

1800 1800-1801 

1801 1801-1802 

802 1802-1803 

803 1803-1804 

1804 1804-180S 

1805 1805-1806 

806 1806-1807 

807 1807-1808 

1808 1808-1809 

1809 1809-1810 

810 1810-1811 

811 1811-1812 

812 1812-1813 

813 1813-1814 

814 1814-1815 

815 1815-1816 

816 1816-1817 

817 1817-1818 

818 1818-1819 

819 1819-1820 

820 1820-1821 

821 1821-1822 

822 1822-1823 

823 1823-1824 

824 1824-1825 

825 1825-1826 

1826 1826-1827 

827 1827-1828 

1828 1828-1829 

1829 1829-1830 

1830 1830-1831 

1831 1831-1832 

832 1832-1833 

833 1833-1834 

1834 1834-1835 

1835 1835-1836 



GOVERNORS ELECTED BY THE PEOPLE^' - TWO-YEAR TERM 

Name Residence Qualified Term 

Edward B. Dudley New Hanover December 31, 1836 1836-1838 

Edward B. Dudley New Hanover December 29, 1838 1838-1841 

John M. Morehead Guilford January 1, 1841 1841-1842 

John M. Morehead Guilford December 31, 1842 1842-1845 



474 North Carolina Manual 



Name Residence Qualified Term 

William A. Graham Orange January 1, 1845 1845-1847 

William A. Graham Orange January 1, 1847 1847-1849 

Charles Manly Wake January 1, 1849 1849-1851 

David S. Reid" Rockingham January 1, 1851 1851-1852 

David S. Reid" Rockingham December 22, 1852 1852-1854 

Warren Winslow^" Cumberland December 6, 1854 1854-1855 

Thomas Bragg Northampton January 1, 1855 1855-1857 

Thomas Bragg Northampton January 1, 1857 1857-1859 

John W. Ellis Rowan January 1, 1859 1859-1861 

John W. Ellis" Rowan January 1, 1861 1861 

Henry T. Clark76 Edgecombe July 7, 1861 1861-1862 

Zebulon B. Vance Buncombe September 8, 1862 1862-1864 

Zebulon B. Vance Buncombe December 22, 1864 1864-1865 

William W. Holden" Wake May 29, 1865 1865 

Jonathan Worth Randolph December 15, 1865 1865-1866 

Jonathan Worth Randolph December 22, 1866 1866-1868 



ELECTED BY THE PEOPLE — FOUR- YEAR TERM'* 

Name Residence Qualified Term 

William W. Holden^^ Wake July 1, 1868 1868-1870 

Tod R. Caldwell8o Burke December 15, 1870 1870-1873 

Tod R. CaldwelP' Burke January 1, 1873 1873-1874 

Curtis H. Brogden Wayne July 14, 1874 1874-1877 

Zebulon B. Vance^^ Buncombe January 1, 1877 1877-1879 

Thomas J. Jarvis" Pitt February 5, 1879 1879-1881 

Thomas J. Jarvis Pitt January 18, 1881 1881-1885 

James L. Robinson^'* Macon September 1, 1883 1883 

Alfred M. Scales Rockingham January 21, 1885 1885-1889 

Daniel G. Fowle«5 Wake January 17, 1889 1889-1891 

Thomas M. Holt Alamance April 8, 1891 1891-1893 

Elias Carr Edgecombe January 18, 1893 1893-1897 

Daniel L. Russell Brunswick January 12, 1897 1897-1901 

Charles B. Aycock Wayne January 15, 1901 1901-1905 

Robert B. Glenn Forsyth January II, 1905 1905-1909 

William W. Kitchin Person January 12, 1909 1909-1913 

Locke Craig Buncombe January 15, 1913 1913-1917 

Thomas W. Bickett Franklin January 11, 1917 1917-1921 

Cameron Morrison Mecklenburg January 12, 1921 1921-1925 

Angus W. McLean Robeson January 14, 1925 1925-1929 

Oliver Max Gardner Cleveland January 11, 1929 1929-1933 

John C. B. Ehringhaus Pasquotank January 5, 1933 1933-1937 

Clyde R. Hoey Cleveland January 7, 1937 1937-1941 

John Melville Broughton Wake January 9, 1941 1941-1945 

Robert Gregg Cherry Gaston January 4, 1945 1945-1949 

William Kerr Scott Alamance January 6, 1949 1949-1953 

William B. Umstead^^ Durham January 8, 1953 1953-1954 

Luther H. Hodges Rockingham November 7, 1954 1954-1957 

Luther H. Hodges Rockingham February 7, 1957 1957-1961 



The Executive Branch 475 



Name Residence Qualified Term 

Terry Sanford Cumberland Januarys, 1961 1961-1965 

Daniel K. Moore Jackson January 8, 1965 1965-1969 

Robert W. Scott Alamance January 3, 1969 1969-1973 

James E. Holshouser, Jr.^^ .... Watauga January 5, 1973 1973-1977 

James B. Hunt, Jr Wilson January 8, 1977 1977-1981 

James B. Hunt, Jr.^^ Wilson January 10, 1981 1981- 



Governors of "Virginia" 

'Lane was appointed by Sir Walter Raleigh and left Plymouth, England on April 9, 1585. His expedition 
reached the New World in July: however a colony was not established until August. 

-White was appointed by Sir Walter Raleigh and departed from Portsmouth, England on April 26, 1587; 
however, the expedition made stops at Isle of Wight and Plymouth before setting sail for "Virginia" on May 5. 
They reached the area to be settled on July 22, but Governor White wanted to make some preliminary explora- 
tions before allowing the remainder of his party to go ashore. Three days later the colonists left the ships. Food 
shortages and the absence of other needed supplies forced White to leave for England on August 27, 1587. 
Delayed in England because of war with Spain, White did not return to North Carolina until 1590. Leaving 
England on March 20, he arrived in August, but found no evidence of life. On a nearby tree he found the 
letters C.R.O. and on another CROATAN. White never did find his missing colony and the mystery of the 
"Lost Colony" is still unsolved. 

Proprietory Chief Executives 

^Stephens was appointed "commander of the southern plantations" by the council in Virginia. The geo- 
graphical location of the "southern plantations" is that area in northeastern North Carolina where "overflow" 
settlers from Virginia lived. William S. Powell suggests that his "presence in Carolina removed any urgency for 
a prompt appointment" of a governor for Carolina when Berkeley was instructed to do so by the Lords 
Proprietors and explains why Drummond was not appointed until 1664. 

■•Drummond was appointed by William Berkeley, governor of Virginia and one of the Lords Proprietors, at 
the request of the Lords Proprietors in England. He began serving prior to the delivery of his commission by 
Peter Carteret in February, 1665. Since other commissions issued to Carteret bear the date December, 3, 1664, 
it is possible that Drummond's commission was also issued on that date. Records show that he was still 
governor in December, 1666, and that a successor was not appointed until October, 1667. He supposedly 
moved to Virginia sometime during 1667. 

^Stephens was appointed by the Lords Proprietors to replace Drummond and began serving prior to the 
delivery of his commission in April, 1668. He died while still in office sometime before March 7, 1670. 

''Carteret had been commissioned Lieutenant Governor by the Lords Proprietors on December 3, 1664 and 
was chosen President by the North Carolina Council upon the death of Stephens and was later appointed 
governor by the Lords Proprietors. He left the colony for England sometime after May 10, 1672. 

'See footnote 6. 

*Jenkins was commissioned by Carteret to act as deputy governor when he left the colony. The authority of 
Carteret to make this appointment rested in commissions issued by the Lords Proprietors in October, 1670, but 
which expired "at the end of four years" according to provisions in the Fundamental Constitutions, Carteret 
had not returned to the colony when his commission to Jenkins officially expired; however, Jenkins continued 
to serve. When the general assembly met, following elections in September, 1675, opposition had formed 
against Jenkins and he was imprisoned on charges of "several misdemeanors". 

'Eastchurch was elected speaker of the assembly and assumed the role of governor following the imprison- 
ment of Jenkins. He seems to have remained in this position until the spring of 1676 when the departed the 
colony for England. 

'"Eastchurch "apparently left someone else as speaker, for the assembly remained in session". However, 
Jenkins was forceably released from prison by friends "at some date before late March, 1676." He exercised 
enough control to hold a court and for a period prior to the departure of Eastchurch for England, both he and 
Jenkins exercised control over the province. In October, 1976, Jenkins, backed by an armed force, dissolved 
the assembly and resumed the role of governor. 



476 North Carolina Manual 



"See footnote 10. 

'-Eastchurch was commissioned governor by the Lords Proprietors. On his return to the colony he stopped 
at Nevis in the West Indies and sought the attention of a wealthy lady. Deciding to remain in Nevis for a while, 
he appointed Thomas Miller deputy governor until his return. (Eastchurch never returned to North Carolina 
—he died in Virginia while on his way back to the colony). Because he had not offically qualified as governor 
in Albemarle, Eastchurch had no legal authority to appoint Miller; however, when Miller reached Albemarle 
he was able to secure his position with little initial trouble. The policies used by Miller to quiet opposition and 
his general handling of the government soon put him in conflict with the populace. This conflict erupted into a 
political upheaval which became known as "Culpeper's Rebellion." 

'^See footnote 12. 

'••Tradition is that John Culpepper was elected governor by the Assembly when they rebelled against Miller; 
however, there is no documentary evidence to substantiate the claim that he held any post other than that of 
customs collector. Dr. Lindley Butler suggests that it is possible that John Jenkins, the last de jure executive of 
the colony, acted as de facto government and evidence exists that a "rebel" council meeting was held in early 
1678 at his home. 

"Sothel was appointed governor in 1678, but was captured "by the Turkes and carried into Argier . . ."and 
did not take office. "Afidavitt of John Taylor" and Lords Proprietors to the "Governor and Councell of the 
County of Albemarle in the Province of Carolina". 

''•Harvey's commission instructed him to act as "President of the Council and execute the authority of the 
government until the arrival of Mr. Sothell". Other details are not known. He died whie still in office. 

'^Jenkins was elected president of the council following the death of Harvey and died on December 17, 1681 
while still in office. 

'"Wilkinson was appointed by the Lords Proprietors but never left England — "he was arrested and impris- 
oned in London while preparing to sail". 

"Sothel, following his purchase of the "Earl of Clarendon's share of Carolina", became governor under a 
provision of the Fundamental Constitution which "provided that the eldest proprietor that shall be in Carolina 
shall be Governor . . . ." The date of Sothel's assumption of Governorship is not known. Extant records tell 
nothing about the government of Albemarle in the year following Jenkins' death. It is possible that Sothel 
reached the colony and took office before Jenkins died or soon afterwards; it is possible that for a time there 
was an acting governor, chosen by the council; or there may have been a period of chaos. Nothing is known 
except that Sothel arrived in Albemarle at some time prior to March 10, 1682, when he held court at Edward 
Smithwick's house in Chowan Precinct. Sothel actions and policies soon became intolerable to the people of 
Albemarle and at the meeting of the assembly in 1689, thirteen charges of misconduct and irregularties were 
brought against him. He was banished from the colony for 12 months and was prohibited from ever again 
holding public office in Albemarle. On December 5, 1689, the Lords Proprietors offically suspended Sothel as 
governor because he abused the authority granted him as a proprietor. 

-"Archdale was in the colony by December, 1683, to collect quitrents and remained in Albemarle until 1686. 
While Governor Sothel was absent from the county, Archdale served on many occasions as acting governor. 

-'The Fundamental Constitutions provided that the eldest proprietor living in the colony would be governor 
and that if there were none, then the eldest cacique was to act. "Gibbs, a relative of the Duke of Albemarle, 
had been made a cacique of Carolina in October, 1682, and had been granted a manor in the southern Carolina 
colony a few months later. Gibbs came to Albemarle at some date before November, 1689, by which time he 
was known as 'governor'. His claim to the governorship seems to have been recognized in the colony for a time; 
an assembly appears to have been held while he was governor'. It is probable that Albemarle inhabitants 
recognized his claim until word arrived of Ludwell's appointment, which was made in December, 1689." Even 
after Ludwell arrived in Albemarle Gibbs continued to claim his right to the office. In July, 1690 both were 
advised by the Virginia governor to carry their dispute to the proprietors in England, which was apparently 
done. On November 8, 1691 a proclamation was issued by the proprietors to the inhabitants of Albemarle 
reaffirming Sothel's suspension and repudiating the claim of Gibbs. They also suspended the Fundamental 
Constitutions which stripped Gibbs of any further legal basis for his actions. (The actions of the Proprietors on 
November 8, 1691 did in fact suspend the Fundamental Constitutions even though formal announcement of 
their suspension was not made until May 1 1, 1693.) 

"Ludwell was originally commissioned governor by the Lords Proprietors on December 5, 1689 following 
the suspension of Sothel, but his dispute with Gibbs led to the issuance of a second commission on November 
8, 1691. He served as governor until his appointment as governor of all Carolina. 

--'Jarvis acted as deputy governor while Ludwell was in Virginia and England. He was officially appointed 
deputy governor upon Ludwell's acceptance of the governorship of Carolina and served until his death in 1694. 

'■•Ludwell served as acting governor, possibly by appointment of Thomas Smith governor of Carolina; how- 
ever, the authority under which he acted is not known. In October, 1694 it is apparent that the Proprietors did 
not know of his position as the proprietors refer to him as "our late Governor of North Carolina." He issued a 
proclamation on November 28, 1693 and land grant records indicate that he acted as chief executive intermit- 
tantly throughout 1694 and as late as May of 1695. Records show that he was residing in Virginia by April and 
had been elected to represent James City County in the Virginia Assembly. 



The Executive Branch 477 



2^Harvey became president of the council upon the death of Jarvis in 1694. He was presiding over the council 
on July 12. 1694 and signed several survey warrants the same day. He continued serving until his death on July 
3, 1699. 

-''Archdale stopped in North Carolina a few weeks and acted as chief executive on his way to Charleston to 
assume office as Governor of Carolina. He was in Virginia enroute to Charleston on June 11, 12, and 13, 1695 
and was in Charleston by August 17, 1695, the date on which he took the oath of office at Charleston. 

"Archdale's authority to act as governor rested with his previous commission which was still valid. The 
problem of gubenatorial succession at this time is due to the death of Lord Craven and the confusion over the 
tenure of Lord Bath. Since no one other than the Lord Palatine could commission a new governor, there had 
been no "regular" governor appointed for Carolina. 

-"Walker, as president of the council, assumed the role of chief executive shortly after the death of Harvey 
and relinquished it upon the arrival of Robert Daniel (sometime between June 20, 1703 and July 29, 1703). 

2'Daniel was appointed deputy governor of Carolina by Sir Nathaniel Johnson, Governor of Carolina, and 
was acting in this capacity by July 29, 1703. Conflicts with minority religious groups, primarily the Quakers, 
led to his supension in March 1705. 

^"Cary was appointed by Sir Nathaniel Johnson, Governor of Carolina, to replace Daniel, and arrived in 
North Carolina on March 21, 1705. Dissenters were pleased initially with the appointment, because Cary was 
related by marriage to John Archdale, the Quaker proprietor; however, this initial feeling soon changed. When 
he arrived in North Carolina, Cary found Anglicans in most places of power and therefore, cast his lot with 
them. Although the law requiring oaths of allegiance was still on the statutes books, dissenters had assumed 
that Cary would not enforce it. However, when the General Court met on March 27, the oath act was read and 
put into execution. At the General Assembly meeting in November, 1705, Quaker members were again 
required to take oaths; they refused and were excluded. Then Cary and his allies passed a law which voided the 
election of anyone found guilty of promoting his own candidacy. This loosely defined bill gave the majority 
faction in the lower house the power to exclude any undesirable member and was designed to be used against 
troublesome non-Quakers (who had no convictions against oath swearing.) 

The dissenters and some disgruntled Anglicans now decided to send an agent to England to plead for relief. 
In October, 1706, their chosen representative, John Porter, left Albemarle for London — it is almost certain 
that Porter was not a Quaker and, in fact, may have been an Anglican. Although he did not take the oaths of 
office with his fellow justices at the October-November 1705 session of the General Court, he had taken them 
in March, 1705. In England, Porter received the support of John Archdale, who persuaded the Lords Proprie- 
tors to issue orders to Porter, suspending Sir Nathaniel Johnson's authority over North Carolina, removing 
Cary as deputy governor, naming five new councillors, and authorizing the council to elect a chief executive. 

Returning to Albemarle in October, 1707, Porter found William Glover and the council presiding over the 
government because Cary had left for a visit to South Carolina. This arrangement appeared satisfactory to 
Porter, who called the new lords deputies together and nominated Glover as president of the council. Glover 
was elected, but the vote was illegal since Porter's instructions required that Cary and the former councillors be 
present for the voting. Porter knew exactly what he was doing, however, and later used the illegality of the 
election to force Glover out of office. 

On November 3, 1707, Glover convened the general assembly at John Hecklefield's house at Little River. 
Joining him in the upper house as lords deputies were Porter, Foster, Newby, Hawkins, and Thomas Cary, 
recently returned from South Carolina. After requesting that the lower house send its list of members to him, 
the president proposed dissolution of the assembly without further business. Cary objected, but the following 
day Glover and the rest of the council dissolved the General Assembly. Although he had been required to 
convene the assembly in compliance with the biennial act which specified that a legislative session be held every 
two years. Glover apparently did not want Cary to use the gathering a a forum. 

At some point between the close of the assembly in November, 1707, and the summer of 1708, Glover turned 
on the dissenters. Apparently, he decided to revive the oath of office and force the Quaker councillors to take 
it. Seeing the turn of events, Cary moved to join Porter and the dissenters in the hope of regaining the chief 
executive's office. After receiving assurances of toleration from Cary, Porter moved decisively. Late in the 
summer of 1708, he called together both Gary's old councillors and the new ones, as he was originally supposed 
to have done in October, 1707, and announced that Glover's election as president had been illegal. Glover, 
joined by Thomas Pollock, protested vigorously and armed violence broke out between the two factions. Soon 
though, both sides agreed to let the General Assembly determine the validity of their rival claims. Cary and 
Glover each issued separate writs of election to every precinct which then proceeded to elect two sets of 
burgesses — one pledged to Cary and one to Glover. Cary men predominated in Bath County and Pasquotank 
and Perquimans precincts; Glover men controlled Currituck precinct, and Chowan was almost evenly divided. 
In the critical maneuvering for control of the assembly which met October 11, 1708, Cary forces scored an 
early, ultimately decisive victory. Edward Moseley, an Anglican vestryman, was chosen speaker of the house. 
Despite his religious affiliation, he was a Cary supporter. Through Moseley's careful management, Cary dele- 
gates were seated from every precinct except Currituck. When news of the Cary victory in the lower house 
reached Glover, he departed for Virginia. (There is evidence that Glover continued to act in the capacity of 
president of a council during 1709 and 1710 — land grant records indicate several grants throughout each year 



478 North Carolina Manual 



bear his name and the names of his councillors. The general assembly nullified the test oaths, and the council 
officially elected Cary presdient. 

The Lords Proprietors were slow to intervene in the situation in North Carolina. In December, 1708, they 
appointed Edward Tynte to be governor of Carolina and instructed him to make Edward Hyde deputy gover- 
nor of North Carolina. Arriving in the colony early in 1711, Hyde had no legal claim on the deputy governor- 
ship because Tynte had died before commissioning him. However, he was warmly received in Albemarle, and 
his position as a distant kinsman of the queen was so impressive that the council elected Hyde to the presi- 
dency. He called a general assembly for March, 1711, where he recommended harsh legislation against dissen- 
ters and the arrest of Cary and Porter. From his home in Bath, Cary rallied his supporters to resist, and the 
armed conflict known as the Cary Rebellion began. 

^'See footnote 30. 

'-See footnote 30. 

"See footnote 30. 

'•♦See footnote 30. 

"See footnote 30. 

''Edward Hyde served first as president of the council and later as governor by commission from the Lords 
Proprietors. When Cary challenged his authority, armed conflict erupted between the two. The event, known as 
Cary's Rebellion, ended with the arrest of Cary — he was later released for lack of evidence. Hyde continued as 
governor until his death on September 8, 1712. 

"See footnote 36. 

''Pollock, as president of the council, became governor following the death of Hyde and served in that 
capacity until the arrival of Charles Eden. 

"Eden was commissioned by the Lords Proprietors and served until his death on March 22, 1722. 

'"'Pollock, as president of the council, became chief executive after Eden's death, and served until his own 
death in September, 1722. 

^'Reed was elected president of the council, to replace Pollock and as such served until the arrival of George 
Burrington. 

■•-Burrington was commissioned governor of North Carolina by the Lords Proprietors and served until he was 
removed from office. Why he was removed is not officially known. 

•"Moseley.as president of the council, was sworn in as acting governor when Burrington left the colony to travel 
to South Carolina. By November 7, 1724 Burrington had returned to North Carolina. 

■"Everard was commissioned by the Lords Proprietors following the removal of Burrington, who continued 
to create problems for Everard after he had taken office. Everard remained governor during the period of 
transition when North Carolina became a royal colony. 

Royal Chief Executives 

■•Mn 1729, the Lords Proprietors gave up ownership of North Carolina and with it the right to appoint governors 
and other officials. 

■"■Burrington was the first governor commissioned by the crown, and the only man to be appointed by both 
the Lords Proprietors and the crown. He qualified before the council in 1731. His political enemies succeeded in 
securing his removal from office in 1734. 

■"Rice served as chief executive while Burrington was out of the colony. 

••* Johnston was commissioned by the crown and served as governor until his death on July 17, 1752. 

■"Rice, as president of the council, became Chief executive following the death of Johnston; however, he too 
was advanced in age and soon died. 

'"Rowan was elected president following the death of Rice and served as chief executive until the arrival of 
Dobbs. 

5'Dobbs was commissioned by the crown and arrived in North Carolina in late October, 1754. He qualified 
before the chief justice and three members of the council who had met him in Bath. He continued serving until 
his death in March, 1765. 

'-Hassel served as chief executive during the absence of Dobbs from the colony. Dobbs had returned by 
December 19, 1763. 

"Tryon, who had been commissioned lieutenant governor under Dobbs, served as chief executive, first under 
his commission as lieutenant governor, and then under a new commission as governor. He served in this 
capacity until 1771 when he was appointed governor to New York. 

'■•See footnote 53. 

"James Hasell, as president of the council, acted as interim governor until the arrival of Josiah Martin. 

"Josiah Martin was appointed by the crown and served as the last royal governor of North Carolina. The 
date of his actual relinquishing of authority has been one of controversy among historians. Some cite the day he 
left North Carolina soil in July, 1775 as the termination date, others accept July 4, 1776. Martin considered 
himself to be governor throughout the Revolution since his commission had not been rescinded. 

'^Hasell, as president of the council, acted as temporary governor during the absence of Martin who had left 
the colony for New York for reasons of health. 



The Executive Branch 479 



Governors Elected by the General Assembly 

5*The Constitution of 1776 provided that the general assembly "elect a govenor for one year, who shall not be 
eligible to that office longer than three years, in six successive years." 

5'Caswell was appointed by the Provincial Congress to act "until [the] next General Assembly." He was later 
elected by the general assembly to regular term and to two additional terms. 

""The House and Senate Journals for 1780 are missing; however, loose papers found in the North Carolina 
Archives provided the necessary information. Nash requested that his name be withdrawn from nomination in 
1781. 

'■'On September 12, 1781, Burke and several other state officials and continental officers were captured by the 
British. Burke was sent to Sullivan's Island near Charleston, South Carolina and later transferred to James Island. 
After several attempts, he was able to obtain a parole to return to North Carolina in late January, 1782. General 
Alexander Leslie who issued the parole, later changed his mind and wrote General Nathaniel Greene requesting the 
immediate return of Burke. Feeling that it was more important for him to remain in North Carolina, Burke refused 
to comply with the request despite urgings from several men of importance who questioned the legality, as well as 
the prudency of his actions. The adversity which developed, prompted Burke to have his name withdrawn from the 
list of nominees for governor in 1782. He retired from public life to his home near Hillsborough where he died the 
following year. 

*■- Martin, as speaker of the senate, was qualified as acting governor upon receiving news of Burke's capture. He 
served in this capacity until Burke returned to North Carolina in late January, 1782. 

"^On November 26, 1789 Johnston was elected as United States Senator after having already qualified as 
governor. A new election was held on December 5, and Alexander Martin was elected to replace him. 

"See footnote 63. 

"Davie served only one term as governor due to his appointment in 1799 by President Adams to a special 
diplomatic mission to France. Crabtree, North Carolina Governors, 57. 

""Ashe died before he could qualify, and Turner was elected to replace him. 

"See footnote 66. 

"^Turner was elected to the United States Senate on November 21, 1805 to fill a vacancy created by the 
resignation of Montford Stokes. 

"'Iredell resigned on December 1, 1828 following his election to the United States Senate to fill the seat 
vacated by the resignation of Nathaniel Macon. 

'"Stokes was appointed by President Jackson in 1832 as "chairman of the Federal Indian Commission to 
supervise the settlement of southern Indians west of the Mississippi." 

Governors Elected by the People — Two-Year Term 

■"The Constitutional Convention of 1835 approved an amendment to the constitution which provided for the 
popular election of governor. The Terms of office for governor was lengthen to two years; however, he could only 
serve two terms in a six year period. 

'-Manly was defeated for re-election by Reid in 1850. 

'^On November 24, 1854, Reid was elected by the general assembly to complete the unexpired term of Willie P. 
Mangum in the United States Senate. He resigned as governor following the resignation of Reid. 

'■•Winslow, as speaker of the house, qualified as governor following the resignation of Reid. 

''Ellisdied on July 7, 1861. 

'"Clark, as speaker of the senate, became governor following the death of Ellis. 

"Holden was appointed provisional governor on May 9, 1865 by the occupation commander. He was defeated 
by Worth in the popular election of 1865. 

'"The North Carolina Constitution of 1868 was extended the term of office for governor from two years to four 
years, but prohibited him from seeking re-election for the following term. 

Governors Elected by the People — Four- Year Term 

"The efforts of the conservatives in keeping blacks away from the polls during the election of 1870 resulted in a 
substantial majority of the seats in the general assembly being won by conservative candidates. On December 9, 
1870, a resolution of impeachment against Holden was introduced in the House of Representatives by Frederick N. 
Strudwick of Orange. In all, eight charges were brought against Governor Holden. The trial lasted from February 
2, 1871 to March 23, 1871, and Holden was found guilty on six of the eight charges. He was immediately removed 
from office. 

'"Caldwell became governor following the removal of Holden from office and was elected governor in the general 
elections of 1872. He died in office July 1 1, 1874. 

"'See footnote 80. 

*Wance was elected governor in 1876. On January 21, 1879 he was elected to the United States Senate by the 
general assembly and resigned as governor effective February 5, 1879. 



480 North Carolina Manual 



"'Jarvis became governor following the resignation of Vance, and was elected governor in the general elections of 
1880. 

^■'Robinson was sworn in as governor on September 1 . 1883 to act while Jarvis was out of the state. He served 
from September I through September 28. 

sspowiedied April 7, 1891. 

'^Umstead died on November 7, 1854. 

*'Holshouser was the first Republican, elected Governor since 1896 when Daniel Russell was elected. 

"^Hunt became the first governor elected to a four year term to be elected to another term. A constitutional 
amendment adopted in 1977 permitted the governor and lieutenant governor to run for re-election. 



The Executive Branch 483 

OFFICE OF THE LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR 

JAMES COLLINS GREEN 
Lieutenant Governor 

Early Years: Born in Halifax County, Virginia, February 24, 1921, to John Collins and 
Frances Sue (Oliver) Green. 

Education: Graduated Volens High School, Nathalie, Virginia; Attended Washington 
and Lee University, Lexington, Virginia. 

Professional Background: Farmer and businessman; (Ov^'ner and operator of tobacco 
warehouses in Chadbourn and Clarkton, N.C., Brookneal, VA., and Greeneville 
and Newport, Tennessee). 

Organizations: Past President, Clarkton Rotary Club; Director, Clarkton Community 
Corp. and Clarkton Merchants Association; President, Brown Marsh Development 
Corporation, Clarkton; Member, French Lodge No. 270 A.F. and A.M.; Thirty- 
second Degree Scottish Rite Mason; Shriner; Sudan Temple; Clarkton Woodmen 
of the World Camp; Member, American Legion; Veterans of Foreign Wars; AM- 
VETS; Life Member, U.S. Marine Corps League. 

Boards and Commissions: Member: Council of State; Executive Cabinet; Committee on 
Inaugural Services; NC Internship Council; State Board of Education; State Board 
of Community Colleges; Capital Planning Commission; NC Board of Economic 
Development. Co-Chairman: Governmental Operations Committee. Former Mem- 
ber: Trustee of Southeastern Community College in Columbus County (Chairman, 
Building Committee); Board of Trustees, Consolidated University of NC; Board of 
Trustees, University of NC at Greensboro; Board of Transportation. 

Political Activities: Lieutenant Governor, 1977 — (elected, 1976; reelected, 1980); Ser- 
ved in NC House of Representatives, 1961, 1963, 1965-66, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, and 
1975-76, (Speaker, 1975-76); Served in NC Senate, 1967; Member, Bladen County 
Board of Education, 1955-1961; Bladen County Democratic Executive Committee; 
Precinct Chairman or Vice-Chairman for ten years. 

Military Service: Served as Corporal in U.S. Marine Corps, 1944-1946; Participated in 
invasion of Iwo Jima as a machine gunner with Third Marine Division. 

Religious Activities: Member, Clarkton Presbyterian Church; Deacon; past Super- 
intendent Sunday School. 

Family: Married Alice McAulay Clark, October 7, 1943; Children: Sarah Frances, 
Susan Clark, and James Collins, Jr. 





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The Executive Branch 485 



THE OFFICE OF THE LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR 

In North Carolina, the Lieutenant Governor is a constitutional officer elected to a 
four-year term by the citizens. 

A quick look at the history books reveals that the origin of the office of the Lieu- 
tenant Governor probably goes back to 16th century England, when the English Crown 
established the office of the Lord Lieutenant, a county official who represented the 
King in the management of local affairs. 

Although several early American colonial charters referred to "Deputy Governor," 
the phrase "Lieutenant Governor" was used for the first time in the Massachusetts 
Charter of 1691. That charter also made it clear that the Lieutenant Governor would 
succeed to the Governorship in the event of a vacancy. The office of the Lieutenant 
Governor in colonial times seems to have been established expressly to cope with the 
problem of gubernatorial absence. 

The concept of the Lieutenant Governor presiding over the upper house of the state 
legislature may have had its roots in the colonial practice of making the Lieutenant 
Governor the chief member of the Governor's council. 

The North Carolina State Constitution adopted in 1776 made no provision for a 
Lieutenant Governor. However, the constitufional convention of 1868, brought to- 
gether to frame a constitution to grant suffrage to blacks, also called for the elective of- 
fice of the Lieutenant Governor. Hugh Lefler, in his book. North Carolina, the History 
of a Southern State, called that Constitution of 1868 ". . . so modern and democratic 
that with some changes it has remained effective to this date." 

Under that Constitution, and the one adopted in 1970, under which we operate to- 
day, the Lieutenant Governor is named President of the Senate, a member of the Coun- 
cil of State, and of the State Board of Education, and he ". . . shall perform such addi- 
tional duties as the General Assembly or the Governor may assign him." 

Between 1868 and 1970, the Lieutenant Governor was a parttime official with very 
limited authority. He served only when the General Assembly was in session or in the 
absence of the Governor. His primary responsibility was that of presiding officer of the 
Senate, and in that capacity, he appointed Senators to committees, and oversaw legisla- 
tion as it passed through the Senate. 

There seems to be a trend throughout the nafion toward making the office of the Lieu- 
tenant Governor a more significant and important one. Forty-two of the states have 
Lieutenant Governors, and almost that many, including North Carolina, have made it a 
full-time office. 

Part of the reason for that trend is to more fully prepare the Lieutenant Governor for 
the role of Governor if he should have to take over quickly. Another part of the reason 
for that trend is that the number two position in the big business of state government 
puts a heavy work-load on the person who occupies that position. 

A 1970 constitutional amendment made the Lieutenant Governor a full-time officer 
of the state, and the State Reorganizafion Act of 1971 established an office with a sig- 
nificant budget and staff support, effective January 1973. 

Some of the commissions on which the Lieutenant Governor presently serves include 
the Executive Cabinet, the Council of State, the State Board of Education, the Com- 
mittee on Inaugural Ceremonies, The N.C. Internship Council, the Board of Economic 



486 North Carouna Manual 



Development, the State Board of Community Colleges and the North Carolina Capital 
Planning Commission. The Lieutenant Governor is also the chairman of the Govern- 
mental Operations Committee, which has the authority to scrutinize the expenditure of 
tax dollars by State Government agencies. 

The Lieutenant Governor's primary responsibility is still that of presiding officer of 
the Senate. In this capacity he not only appoints committees and their respective chair- 
men and vice-chairmen, he also appoints and supervises pages, supervises certain activi- 
ties of the sergeant-at-arms, and appoints clerks to committees. 

Today, the Lieutenant Governor enjoys the right to seek reelection to an additional 
four-year-term thanks to the ratification in 1977 of a constitutional amendment to allow 
the Governor and Lieutenant Governor to succeed themselves. 



The Executive Branch 



487 



LIEUTENANT GOVERNORS OF NORTH CAROLINA' 



Name Residence 

Tod R. CaldwelP Burke .. 

Curtis H. Brogden^ Wayne . 

Thomas J. Jarvis'* Pitt 

James L. Robinson* Macon . 



Qualified 

July 1, 1868 

January 1, 

January 1, 

January 18 

Charles M. Stedman New Hanover January 21 

Thomas M. Holt* Alamance January 17 

Rufus A. Doughton Alleghany January 18 

Charles A. Reynolds Forsyth January 12 

Wilfred D. Turner Iredell January 15 

Francis D. Winston Bertie January 11 

William C. Newland Caldwell January 12 

Elijah L. Daughtridge Edgecombe January 15 

Oliver Max Gardner Cleveland January 11 

William B. Cooper New Hanover January 12 

Jacob E. Long Durham January 14 

Richard T. Fountain Edgecombe January 11 

Alexander H. Graham Orange January 5, 

Wilkins P. Horton Chatham January 7, 

Reginald L. Harris Person January 9, 

Lynton Y. Ballentine Wake January 4, 

Hoyt Patrick Taylor Anson January 6, 

Luther H. Hodges^ Rockingham January 8, 

Luther E. Barnhardt Cabarrus February 7 

Harvey Cloyd Philpott^ Davidson January 5, 

Robert W. Scott Alamance January 8, 

Hoyt Patrick Taylor, Jr Anson January 3, 

James B. Hunt, Jr Pitt January 5, 

James C. Green Bladen January 8, 

James C. Green Bladen January 10 



Term 

1868-1870 

873 1873-1874 

877 1877-1879 

1881 1881-1885 

1885 1885-1889 

1889 1889-1891 

1893 1893-1897 

1897 1897-1901 

1901 1901-1905 

1905 1905-1909 

1909 1909-1913 

1913 1913-1917 

1917 1917-1921 

1921 1921-1925 

1925 1925-1929 

1929 1929-1933 

933 1933-1937 

937 1937-1941 

941 1941-1945 

945 1945-1949 

949 1949-1953 

953 1953-1954 

1957 1957-1961 

961 1961 

965 1965-1969 

969 1969-1973 

973 1973-1977 

977 1977-1981 

1981 1981- 



'TTie office of Lieutenant Governor was created by the North Carohna Constitution of 1868. 
^Caldwell became governor following the removal of Holden from office in 1870. 
^Brogden became governor following the death of Caldwell. 
■•Jarvis became governor following the resignation of Vance. 
'Robinson resigned from office on October 13, 1884. 
^Holt became governor following the death of Fowle. 
'Hodges became governor following the death of Umstead. 
sPhilpott died on August 18, 1961. 



The Executive Branch 489 



DEPARTMENT OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

THAD EURE 
Secretary of State 

Early N'ears: Born in Gates County, on November 15, 1899, to Tazewell A. and Ar- 
mecia (Langstun) Eure. 

Education: Attended Gatesville High School, 1913-1917; University of North Carolina, 
1917-1919; University of North Carolina Law School, 1921-1922. 

Professional Background: Lawyer (Past County Attorney for Hertford County, 1923- 
1931.) 

Organizations: President, Ahoskie Kiwanis Club, 1927; Theta Chi Fraternity; Junior 
Order; B.P.O. Elks and a Grand Lodge Chair Office, 1956; T.P.A.; American 
Legion, Forty and Eight; President, National Association of Secretaries of State, 
1942, and became Dean. 1961. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Council of State; Local Government Commission; 
Chairman, Board of Trustees. Elon College. 

Political Activities: Secretary of State, 1936 — (Elected Secretary of State on November 
3, 1936, and assumed duties of the office December 21, 1936, by virtue of executive 
appointment, ten days prior to the commencement of constitutional term, due to a 
vacancy that then occurred; re-elected Secretary of State in the general elections of 
1940, 1944, 1948. 1952. 1956, I960, 1964, 1968, 1972. 1976, and 1980); Principal 
Clerk, House of Representatives, Sessions of 1931, 1933, 1935 and Extra Session, 
1936; Served in NC House of Representatives, 1929 (representing Hertford County); 
Mayor of Winton, 1923-1928; Presidential Elector, First District of N.C., 1932; Es- 
cheats Agent, University of NC, 1933-1936; Keynote Speaker, Democratic State 
Convention, 1950, and Permanent Chairman, 1962; 1978 and 1982 Votes in Winton, 
Hertford County. 

Military Service: Private, World War I. 

Honors: "1983 Citation for Distinguished Public Service," by N.C. Citizens for Business 
and Industry, March 16, 1983; "Award of Merit" by N.C. State University, 1965; 
Distinguished Service American Legion and 40 & 8; N.C. State Elks Assn. Dis- 
tinguished Service Award 1971; Elon College Citizens Service Award, 1980; Theta 
Chi Fraternity Alumni Award; Kentucky Colonel; King of the Ramps; "Boss of the 
Year," Cary Jaycees. 1978; Doctor of Laws (honorary), Elon College, 1958. 

Religious Activities: Member, United Church of Christ. 

Family: Married Minta Banks of Winton, NC, November 15. 1924; Children; Mrs. 
Norman Black. Jr. and Thad Eure. Jr.; Seven grandchildren and one great 
grandchild. 






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The Executive Branch 491 



THE DEPARTMENT OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

The office of secretary is the second oldest governmental office in North Carolina. 
Shortly after the Lords Proprietors were granted their charter, the first secretary was ap- 
pointed to maintain the records of the colony. The office continued to function follow- 
ing the purchase of North Carolina by the Crown in 1728. Following independence, the 
office of secretary of state, was created in a special resolution and was later in- 
corporated into the Constitution of 1776; and, except for expansion as new responsibili- 
ties were assigned it, the office has remained one of the primary constitutional offices of 
State government. 

Today, the Secretary of State is a constitutional officer elected to a four-year term by 
the general citizenry. He heads the Department of the Secretary of State which was 
created by the Executive Organization Act of 1971. The Secretary of State is a member 
of the Council of State which must approve acquisitions and conveyances of state lands 
and allotments from the Contingency and Emergency Fund. He is ex officio member of 
the Local Government Commission and Capital Planning Commission. He is required 
by law to attend every session of the general assembly to receive bills which have be- 
come laws and to perform other duties prescribed by resolution of either or both 
Houses. He assigns seats to members of both houses by Resolution of the 1939 General 
Assembly, and convenes the house of representatives, presiding until a speaker is 
elected. The original Journals of each house are delivered to him for preservation. He is 
empowered by law to administer oaths to any public official of whom an oath is re- 
quired, and he is frequently called upon to administer oaths to officers of the Highway 
Patrol and similar agencies. 

The purpose and objective of the Department of the Secretary of State is to faithfully 
perform the duties assigned to the secretary of state by the Constitution and laws of the 
State of North Carolina. The Department of the Secretary of State is charged with the 
duty of maintaining certain records pertaining to state and local government actions 
and the commercial activity of private business. This duty is imposed by widely scat- 
tered sections of the General Statutes of North Carolina and involves varying degrees of 
responsibility to review the documents for conformity to statutory requirements prior 
to filing. The Department has responsibility under approximately fifty separate statutes 
which may be divided into categories dealing with custodianship of the Constitution 
and laws of the State, administrative commercial law, the elective process, the general