(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "North Carolina manual [serial]"

NORTH C/ 



STOKES 




OLINA 




THE LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 

AT CHAPEL HILL 




THE COLLECTION OF 
NORTH CAROLINIANA 



C917.05 
N87m 
1985 
C.5 



UNIVERSITY OF N C AT CHAPEL HILL 



000 



7482966 



This book is due on the last date stamped 
below unless recalled sooner. It may be 
renewed only once and must be brought to 
the North Carolina Collection for renewal. 





Form No. A-369 



NORTH CAROLINA 
MANUAL 



1985-1986 




Issued by 

THAD EURE 

Secretary of State 



Edited by 

John L. Cheney, Jr. 

Director, Publications Division 
Raleigh 



STATEMENT OF PUBLICATION COST 

Four thousand five hundred (4,500) copies of the 1985-86 North CaroUna Manual 
were printed - four thousand (4,000) casebound and five hundred (500) perfect bound 
-at a cost to the State of $53,715.00 (estimated), or $1 1.94 per volume. 



11 



/985 

C.5 



TO THE 

1985 MEMBERS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY 
OF NORTH CAROLINA 

TO THE 
STATE, COUNTY, CITY AND TOWN OFFICIALS 

AND TO THE 

PEOPLE OF THE OLD NORTH STATE 

AT HOME AND ABROAD 

THIS MANUAL IS RESPECTFULLY 
DEDICATED 




Secretary of State 



OS 
1-0 



111 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Dedication by Thad Eure, Secretary of State iii 

PARTI 
HISTORICAL MISCELLANEA 

A Brief History of the State 3 

The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina 9 

The North CaroHna State Capitol 17 

Description of the Capitol, by Architect David Patton 21 

"The Capitol," by Edwin Gill 22 

The Legislative Building 25 

The Executive Residences of North Carolina 27 

The State Flag 35 

The Mecklenburg Declaration of 20th May, 1775 39 

The Halifax Resolution 40 

The Declaration of Independence 41 

The American Flag, Its Origin 45 

The Proper Display 47 

The Pledge of Allegiance 51 

The State Bird, Flower, and Insect 53 

The State Tree and Mammal 55 

Name and Nicknames of the State 55 

The State Shell and Salt Water Fish 57 

The State Motto 57 

The State Colors 57 

The State Precious Stone 58 

The State Reptile 59 

The State Rock 60 

The State Song 61 

The State Toast 62 

Public Holidays 63 



PART II 

CENSUS 

Population of the State of North Carolina, 20th Census: 1980 67 

State Population Statistics - Census Statistices and Projections 68 

County Population Statistics 69 

Population of Incorporated Places of 10,000 or More 71 

Population of Incorporated Places of 2,500-9,999 72 

Population of Incorporated Places of 1,000-2,499 74 

Population of Incorporated Places of Less than 1,000 77 



PART III 
CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF NORTH CAROLINA 

Chapter One, A Brief History of the Constitutions 

of North Carolina, by John L. Sanders 87 

Chapter Two, The Constitution of North Carolina 

Preamble iOl 

Article 1, Declaration of Rights 101 

Article II, Legislature 104 

Article 111, Executive 108 

Article IV, Judicial 1 1 1 

Article V, Finance 1 16 

Article VI, Suffrage and Eligibility to Office 121 

Article VII, Local Government 122 

Article VIII, Corporations 123 

Article IX, Education 123 

Article X, Homesteads and Exemptions 125 

Article XI, Punishments, Corrections, and Charities 126 

Article XII, Military Forces 127 

Article XIII, Conventions, Constitutional Amendments and Revision 127 

Article XIV, Miscellaneous 128 

Chapter Three, Voting Results on Constitutional Issues since 1970 

Introduction '-^' 

Constitutional Issues Voted on in the General Elections held November 3, 1970 133 

Abstract of Votes Cast FOR and AGAINST Constitutional Amendments 134 

Constitutional Issues Voted on in the General Elections held November 7, 1972 141 

Abstract of Votes Cast FOR and AGAINST Constitutional Amendments 142 

Constitutional Issues Voted on in the General Elections held November 5, 1974 147 

Abstract of Votes Cast FOR and AGAINST Constitutional Amendments 148 

Constitutional Issues Voted on in the Primary Elections held March 23, 1976 151 

Abstract of Votes Cast FOR and AGAINST Constitutional Amendments 152 

Constitutional Issues Voted on in the General Elections held November 8, 1977 155 

Abstract of Votes Cast FOR and AGAINST Constitutional Amendments 157 

Constitutional Issues Voted on in the General Elections held November 4, 1980 163 

Abstract of Votes Cast FOR and AGAINST Constitutional Amendments 164 

Constitutional Issues Voted on in the Primary Elections held June 29, 1982 165 

Abstract of Votes Cast FOR and AGAINST Constitutional Amendments 166 

Constitutional Issues Voted on in the General Elections held November 2, 1982 171 

Abstract of Votes Cast FOR and AGAINST Constitutional Amendments 172 

Constitutional Issues Voted on in the Primary Elections held May 8, 1984 174 

Abstract of Votes Cast FOR and AGAINST Constitutional Amendments 1 75 

Constitutional Issues Votes on in the General Elections held November 6, 1984 176 

Abstract of Votes Cast FOR and AGAINST Constitutional Amendments 177 

Chapter Four, The Constitution of the United States 

Preamble ' '"^ 

Article 1 (Legislative) '^^ 

Article II (Executive) '8-^ 

Article III (Judicial) '^5 

Article IV (Rights of Citizens and States) '86 

vi 



Article V (Amending the Constitution) 187 

Article VI (Miscellaneous) 187 

Article Vll (Ratification ot the Constitutions) 187 

Amendments to the Constitution 189 

The Ten Original Amendments (The Bill of Rights) 189 

Subsequent Amendments 190 



PART IV 
THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES 

Chapter One, The Executive Branch 

President of the United States (biographical sketch) 199 

Presidents of the United States 2U1 

Presidental Cabinet and Major Appointments 203 

Secretary, United States Department of Transportation (biographical sketch) 205 

Chapter Two, The United States Congress 

The Capitol at Washington 207 

The Senate: 

Officers and Standing Committees 209 

Senators from North Carolina (biographical sketches) 21 1 

The House of Representatives: 

Officers and Standing Committees 215 

Representatives from North Carolina (biographical sketches) 217 

Chapter Three, The United States Judiciary 

The United States Supreme Court 239 

The United States Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals 239 

,The United States District Courts - North Carolina 239 

United States Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals (biographical sketches) 241 

United States District Court (biographical sketches) 243 

PART V 
NORTH CAROLINA STATE GOVERNMENT 

Chapter One, The Legislative Branch 

Historical Introduction 261 

North Carolina Senate: 

Seating Diagram 264 

Officers 265 

Senators 265 

Speakers of the Senate (Historical List) 267 

Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate (Historical List) 268 

President, Pro Tempore of the Senate 271 

Senate Majority Leader 273 

Senate Minority Leader 275 

Senators (biographical sketches) 276 

Principal Clerk of the Senate 325 

Occupations of Senators 327 

Senate Committee Assignments 329 

Rules of the Senate 335 

vii 



How An Idea Becomes A Law 355 

North Carolina House of Representatives: 

Seating Diagram 356 

Officers 357 

Representatives 357 

Speakers of the House of Representatives (Historical List) 360 

Speaker of the House of Representatives 365 

Speaker Pro Tempore of the House of Respresentatives 367 

Minority Leader 369 

Representatives - Biographical Sketches 370 

Principal Clerk of the House of Representatives 487 

Occupations 489 

Committee Assignments 492 

Rules of the House of Representatives 508 

Legislative Services Officer 527 

Chapter Two, The Executive Branch 

Introduction 529 

Council of State 53 1 

Office of the Governor: 

Governor f. 535 

Organizational Chart 536 

The Office of the Governor 537 

Boards and Commissions within the Office of the Governor 541 

Governors of North Carolina (Historical List) 543 

Office of the Lieutenant Governor: 

Lieutenant Governor 553 

Organizational Chart 554 

The Office of the Lieutenant Governor 555 

Boards within the Office of the Lieutenant Governor 557 

Lieutenant Governors of North Carolina (Historical List) 559 

Department of the Secretary of State: 

Secretary of State 561 

Organizational Chart 562 

The Department of the Secretary of State 563 

Secretaries of North Carolina (Historical List) 566 

Department of the State Auditor: 

State Auditor 571 

Organizational Chart 572 

The Department of the State Auditor 573 

Boards within the Department of the State Auditor 575 

Auditors of Public Accounts & State Auditors (Historical List) 576 

Department of the State Treasurer: 

State Treasurer 579 

Organizational Chart 580 

The Department of the State Treasurer 58 1 

Boards within the Department of the State Treasurer 587 

Treasurers of North Carolina (Historical List) 589 

Department of Public Education: 

Superintendent of Public Instruction 593 

Organizational Chart. 594 

The Department of Public Education 595 

Boards within the Department of Public Education 599 

Superintendents of Common Schools and Public Instruction (Historical List) 603 

viii 



Department of Justice; 

Attorney General 605 

Organizational Chart 606 

The Department of Justice 607 

Boards within the Department of Justice 613 

Attorney General of North Carolina (Historical List) 614 

Department of Agriculture: 

Commissioner of Agriculture 619 

The Department of Agriculture 62 1 

Organizational Chart 622 

Boards within the Department of Agriculture 633 

Commissioners of Agriculture (Historical List) 637 

Department of Labor: 

Commissioner of Labor 639 

The Department of Labor 641 

Organizational Chart 642 

Boards within the Department of Labor 646 

Commissioners of Labor (Historical List) 647 

Department of Insurance: 

Commissioner of Insurance 649 

Organizational Chart 650 

The Department of Insurance 651 

Boards within the Department of Insurance 652 

Commissioners of Insurance (Historical List) 656 

Department of Administration: 

Secretary of Administration 659 

Organizational Chart 660 

The Department of Administration 661 

Boards within the Department of Administration 666 

Secretaries, Department of Administration (Historical List) 681 

Department of Commerce: 

Secretary of Commerce 683 

Organizational Chart 684 

The Department of Commerce 685 

Boards within the Department of Commerce 688 

Secretaries, Department of Commerce (Historical List) 697 

Department of Correction: 

Secretary of Correction 699 

Organizational Chart 700 

The Department of Corrections 701 

Boards within the Department of Corrections 707 

Secretaries, Department of Correction (Historical List) 709 

Department of Crime Control and Public Safety: 

Secretary of Crime Control and Public Safety 71 1 

Organizational Chart 712 

The Department of Crime Control and Public Saftey 713 

Adjutant General (Historical List) 716 

Boards within the Department of Crime Control 

and Public Safety 717 

Secretaries, Department of Crime Control 
and Public Safety (Historical List) 721 

Department of Cultural Resources: 

Secretary of Cultural Resources 723 

ix 



Organizational Chart 724 

The Department of Cultural Resources 725 

Boards within the Department of Cultural Resources 733 

Secretaries, Department of Cultural Resources (Historical List) 743 

Department of Human Resources: 

Secretary of Human Resources 745 

The Department of Human Resources 747 

Organizational Chart 748 

Boards within the Department of Human Resources 757 

Secretaries, Department of Human Resources (Historical List) 773 

Department of Natural Resources and Community Development: 

Secretary of Natural Resources and Community Development 775 

Organizational Chart 776 

The Department of Natural Resources 

and Community Development 777 

Boards within the Department of Natural Resources 

and Community Development 783 

Secretaries, Department of NRCD (Historical List) 791 

Department of Revenue: 

Secretary of Revenue 793 

Organizational Chart 794 

The Department of Revenue 795 

Secretaries, Department of Revenue (Historical List) 803 

Department of Transportation: 

Secretary of Transportation 805 

Organizational Chart 806 

The Department of Transportation 807 

Boards within the Department of Transportation 814 

Secretaries, Department of Transportation (Historical List) 817 

State Board of Elections 819 

Chapter Three, The Judicial Branch 

Introduction 823 

The Appellate Court Division 829 

North Carolina Supreme Court (biographical sketches) 829 

Chief Justices of the Supreme Court of North Carolina (historical list) 846 

North Carolina Court of Appeals (biographical ketches) 849 

Director, Administrative Office of the Courts 873 

Judges of the Superior Court 874 

District Court Judges 876 

District Attorneys of North Carolina 879 

Public Defenders 879 

Chapter Four, Miscellaneous Boards and Commissions 

Independent Boards 881 

Licensing Boards 892 

PART VI 
HIGHER EDUCATION IN NORTH CAROLINA 

Chapter One, The University of North Carolina System 

Organizational Chart 906 

Historical Development 907 

X 



Members of the Board of Governors 91 1 

General Administration '^13 

Chancellors of the Constituent Institutions 913 

President, University of North Carolina System 915 

Appalachian State University 917 

East Carolina University 923 

Elizabeth City State Uni\ersity 929 

Fayetteville State University 935 

North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University 941 

North Carolina Central University 947 

North Carolina School of the Arts 955 

North Carolina State University 961 

Pembroke State Uni\ersity 969 

University of North Carolina- Asheville 975 

University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill 981 

University of North Carolina-Charlotte 989 

University of North Carolina-Greensboro 995 

University of North Carolina-Wilmmgton 1001 

Western Carolina University 1007 

Winston-Salem State University 1013 

Chapter Two, Private Higher Education 

Historical Development 1019 

Presidents of the Colleges and Universities 1021 

Chapter Three, The North Carolina Community College System 

Organizational Chart 1022 

The Community College System 1023 

The State Board of Community Colleges and Technical Institutions 1026 

Membership 1027 

The Department of Community Colleges 1028 

Presidents of the Community Colleges and Technical Institutes 1028 

Past Presidents, North Carolina Community College System (Historical List) 1029 

President, North Carolina Community College System 1031 

Anson Technical College 1032 

Asheville-Buncombe Technical College 1034 

Beaufort County Community College 1036 

Bladen Technical College 1038 

Blue Ridge Technical College 1040 

Brunswick lechnical College 1042 

Caldwell Community College 1044 

Cape Fear Technical College 1046 

Carteret Technical College 1048 

Catawba Valley Technical College 1050 

Central Carolina Technical College 1052 

Central Piedmont Community College 1054 

Cleveland Technical College 1056 

Coastal Carolina Community College 1058 

College of the Albemarle 1060 

Craven Community College 1062 

Davidson County Community College 1064 

Durham Technical Institute 1066 

Edgecombe Technical College 1068 

xi 



Fayetteville Technical Institute 1070 

Forsyth Technical College 1072 

Gaston College 1074 

Guilford Technical College 1076 

Halifax Community College 1078 

Haywood Technical College 1080 

Isothermal Community College 1082 

James Sprunt Technical College 1084 

Johnston Technical College 1086 

Lenoir Community College 1088 

Martin Community College 1090 

Mayland Technical College 1092 

McDowell Technical College 1094 

Mitchell Community College 1096 

Montgomery Technical college 1097 

Nash Technical College 1099 

Pamlico Technical College 1101 

Piedmont Technical College 1 103 

Pitt Community College 1 106 

Randolph Technical College 1 108 

Richmond Technical College 1 1 10 

Roanoke-Chowan Technical College 1 1 12 

Robeson Technical College 1 1 14 

Rockingham Community College 1116 

Rowan Technical College 1118 

Sampson Technical College 1 120 

Sandhills Community College 1 122 

Southeastern Community College 1 124 

Southwestern Community College 1 127 

Stanly Technical College 1 129 

Surry Community College 1 131 

Technical College of Alamance 1 133 

Tri-County Community College 1 135 

Vance-Granville Community College 1 137 

Wake Technical College 1 139 

Wayne Community College 1 142 

Western Piedmont Community College 1 144 

Wilkes Community College 1 146 

Wilson County Technical Institute 1 148 

PART VII 
POLITICAL PARTIES 

Chapter One, The Democratic Party 

North Carolina Democratic Party Platform 1 153 

Plan of Organization 1 165 

Democratic Party Executive Council 1 '91 

Democratic Party County Chairmen 1 191 

Chapter Two, The Republican Party 

North Carolina Republican Party Platforms 1 195 

Plan of Organization 1203 

State Executive Committee 1223 

Republican Party County Chairmen 1223 

xii 



PART VIII 
ELECTION RETURNS AND VOTER REGISTRATION STATISTICS 

Chapter One, Voter Registration Statistics 

Introduction 1229 

Voter Registration Statistics for the Primary Elections, May 8, 1984 1230 

Voter Registration Statistics for the General Elections, November 6, 1984 1232 

Voter Registration Statistics for the Primary Elections, June 29, 1982 1234 

Voter Registration Statistics for the General Elections, November 2, 1982 1236 

Voter Registration Statistics for the Primary Elections. May 6, 1980 1238 

Voter Registration Statistics for the General Elections, November 4, 1980 1240 

Chapter Two, North Carolina Election Districts 

Congressional Districts 1243 

Apportionment of Senators by Districts 1245 

Apportionment of Members of the House of Representatives by Districts 1247 

Judicial and Prosecutorial Districts 1249 

Chapter Three, President of the United States 

Introduction 1251 

The Democratic Presidential Preference Primary, May 8, 1984 1252 

The Democratic Presidential Preference Primary, May 6, 1980 1254 

The Republican Presidential Preference Primary, May 6. 1980 1256 

Votes Cast for President, General Election, November 6, 1984 1258 

Votes Cast for President, General Election, November 4, 1980 1260 

Votes Cast for President, General Election, November 2, 1976 1262 

Popular Votes for President, 1960-1972 (County) 1264 

Chapter Four, The United States Congress 

Introduction '267 

Votes Cast for United States Senator, Primary Election, May 8. 1984 1268 

Votes Cast for United States Senator. General Election, November 6. 1984 1270 

Votes Cast for United States Senator, General Election, November 4, 1980 1272 

Votes Cast for United States Senator, General Election. November 7, 1978 1274 

Tabulation of Votes for United States Senator in Primary Elections 1276 

Votes Cast for Members of Congress, Primary Election, May 8, 1984 1277 

Votes Cast for Members of Congress, General Election, November 6, 1984 1280 

Votes Cast for Members of Congress. General Election, November 2, 1982 1284 

Votes Cast for Members of Congress, General Elections, 1978-1980 1288 

Votes Cast for Members of Congress, General Elections, 1972-1976 1292 

Chapter Five, State Officers 

introduction 1297 

Votes Cast for Governor in the Democratic Primary Elections, May 8, 1984 1298 

Votes Cast for Governor in the Republican Primary Elections, May 8, 1984 1300 

Votes Cast for Governor in the Second Democratic Primary Election, June 5, 1984 1301 

Votes Cast for Governor in the General Election, November 6, 1984 1302 

Votes Cast for Governor in the Primary Election, May 6, 1980 1304 

Votes Cast for Governor in the General Elections Since i960 1306 

Votes Cast for Lieutenant Governor, Primary Election, May 8, 1984 1310 

Votes Cast for Lieutenant Governor, 

Republican Second Primary Election, June 5, 1984 1312 

Votes Cast for Lieutenant Governor, Primary Election, May 6, 1980 1313 

xiii 



Votes Cast for State Officers, Democratic Primary Election, May 8, 1984 1314 

Votes Cast for Commissioner of Labor, Second Democratic Primary, June 5, 1984 1317 

Votes Cast for State Officers, General Election, November 6, 1984 1318 

Votes Cast for Lieutenant Governor, General elections, 1976 & 1980 1326 

Tabulation of Votes for State Officers, Primary Elections, since 1964 1328 

Tabulation of Votes for State Officers, General Elections, since 1964 1336 

PART IX 
NORTH CAROLINA COUNTY GOVERNMENT 

Chapter One, A Brief History of County Government in North Carolina 1345 

Chapter Two, Brief Histories of the Counties of North Carolina 

Alamance 1357 

Alexander 1357 

Alleghany 1358 

Anson 1358 

Ashe 1358 

Avery 1359 

Beaufort 1359 

Bertie 1359 

Bladen 1359 

Brunswick 1360 

Buncombe 1360 

Burke 1360 

Cabarrus 1361 

Caldwell 1361 

Camden 1361 

Carteret 1361 

Caswell 1362 

Catawba 1362 

Chatham 1363 

Cherokee 1363 

Chowan 1363 

Cleveland 1364 

Columbus 1364 

Craven 1364 

Cumberland 1365 

Currituck 1365 

Clay 1365 

Dare 1365 

Davidson 1366 

Davie 1366 

Duplin 1366 

Durham 1366 

Edgecombe 1367 

Forsyth 1367 

Franklin 1367 

Gaston 1368 

Gates 1368 

Graham 1368 

Granville 1369 

Greene 1369 

xiv 



Guilford 1369 

Halifax 1370 

Harnett 1370 

Haywood 1370 

Henderson 1371 

Hertford 1371 

Hoke 1371 

Hyde 1372 

Iredell 1372 

Jackson 1372 

Johnston 1373 

Jones 1373 

Lee 1373 

Lenoir 1373 

Lincoln 1374 

Macon 1374 

Madison 1374 

Martin 1375 

McDowell 1375 

Mecklenburg 1375 

Mitchell 1376 

Montgomery 1377 

Moore 1378 

Nash 1378 

New Hanover 1378 

Northampton 1379 

Onslow 1379 

Orange 1379 

Pamlico 1380 

Pasquotank 1380 

Pender 1380 

Perquimans 1381 

Person 1381 

Pitt 1381 

Polk 1382 

Randolph 1382 

Richmond 1382 

Robeson 1383 

Rockingham 1383 

Rowan 1383 

Rutherford 1384 

Sampson 1384 

Scotland 1385 

Stanly 1385 

Stokes 1385 

Surry 1386 

Swain 1386 

Transylvania 1387 

Tyrrell 1387 

Union 1387 

Vance 1388 

Wake 1388 

Warren 1388 

XV 



Washington 1388 

Watauga 1389 

Wayne 1389 

Wilkes 1390 

Wilson 1390 

Yadkin 1391 

Yancey 1391 

TABLE OF DIAGRAMS AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTS 

Organization Chart, The Legislative Branch 260 

Seating Diagram, North Carolina Senate 264 

How An Idea Becomes A Law 355 

Seating Diagram, North Carolina House of Representative 356 

Organization Chart, North Carolina State Government 528 

Organizational Chart, Office of the Governor 536 

Organizational Chart, Office of the Lieutenant Governor 554 

Organizational Chart, Department of the Secretary of State 562 

Organizational Chart, Department of the State Auditor 572 

Organizational Chart, Department of the State Treasurer 580 

Organizational Chart, Department of Public Education 594 

Organizational Chart, Department of Public Instruction 596 

Organizational Chart, Controller's Office 598 

Organizational Chart, Department of Justice 606 

Organizational Chart, Department of Agriculture 622 

Organizational Chart, Department of Labor 642 

Organizational Chart, Department of Insurance 650 

Organizational Chart, Department of Administration 660 

Organizational Chart, Department of Commerce 688 

Organizational Chart, Department of Correction 700 

Organizational Chart, Department of Crime Control and Public Safety 712 

Organizational Chart, Department of Cultural Resources 724 

Organizational Chart, Department of Human Resources 748 

Organizational Chart, Department of Natural Resources and Community Development 776 

Organizational Chart, Department of Revenue 794 

Organizational Chart, Department of Transportation 806 

Organizational Chart, The Judicial Branch 822 

Organizational Chart, The University of North Carolina System 906 

Organizational Chart, Department of Community Colleges 1022 

TABLE OF MAPS 

White Map, 1585 2 

Oghby Map, 1672 4 

Mouzon Map, 1755 6 

North Carolina Congressional Districts, 1982- 1242 

North Carolina State Senate Districts, 1982- 1244 

North Carolina State House of Representatives, 1982- 1246 

North Carolina Counties 1342 



XVI 



TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND PHOTOGRAPHS 

Seal of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina 9 

Seal of the Government of Albemale, 1665-1730 10 

Seal of the Province of North Carohna, 1730-1767 10 

Seal of the Province of North Carolina, 1767-1776 1 1 

Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1779-1794 12 

Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1794-1836 13 

Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1836-1893 14 

Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1893-1971 15 

Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1971-1983 16 

Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1983- 16 

The Capitol Building 18 

The Legislative Building 24 

Tryon Palace 28 

The Governor's Executive Mansion 30 

The State Flag 36 

The American Flag 44 

The State Bird, Flower and Insect 52 

The State Tree and Mammal 54 

The State Shell and Salt Water Fish 56 

The State Precious Stone 58 

The State Reptile 59 

The State Rock 60 

The White House, Washington, D.C 200 

The United States Capitol Building 206 

The United States Supreme Court Building 238 

Symbol of the Democratic Party 1 152 

Symbol of the Republican Party 1 194 



XVU 



PARTI 
HISTORICAL MISCELLANEA 



North Carolina Manual 




O; 



Historical Miscellanea 



A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE STATE 

The first known European exploration of North Carolina occurred during the sum- 
mer of 1524. A Florentine navigator named Giovanni da Verrazzano, in the service of 
France, explored the coastal area of North Carolina between the Cape Fear and Kitty 
Hawk. A report of his findings was sent to Francis I, and published in Richard Hak- 
luyt's Divers Voyages touching the Discoverie of America; however, no attempt was made 
to colonize the area. 

Between 1540 and 1570 several Spanish explorers from the Florida Gulf region ex- 
plored portions of North Carolina, but no permanent settlements were established. 

Coastal North Carolina was the scene of the first attempt to colonize America by 
English-speaking people. Under a charter granted by Queen Elizabeth to Sir Walter 
Raleigh, two colonies were begun in the 1580's. The first, in 1585 under the leadership 
of Ralph Lane, ended in failure. 

A second expedition under the leadership of John White began in the spring of 1587 
when 110 settlers including seventeen women and nine children set sail for the new 
world. The White colony arrived off Hatteras in June, 1587 and went on to Roanoke 
Island, where they found the houses built by the previous expedition still standing. 
Shortly after the arrival of the colony two significant events occurred — the baptism of 
two "friendly" Indians and the birth of Virginia Dare, the first child of English- 
speaking parents born in the new colony. As supplies ran short problems beset the colo- 
nists and White, under pressure from the colonists was forced to return to England for 
provisions. Once in England White was unable to immediately return to Roanoke due 
to an impending attack by the Spanish Armada. When he was able to return in 1590 he 
found only the remnants of what was once a settlement. There were no signs of life. 
Carved on a nearby tree he found the word "CROATOAN". Many have speculated as 
to the fate of the "Lost Colony" but none have ever explained it. 

The first permanent English settlers to North Carolina came from the tidewater area 
of Virginia around 1650. These overflow immigrants moved into the Albemarle area of 
northeast North Carolina. 

In 1663 Charles II granted to eight Lords Proprietors a charter for the territory lying 
"within six and thirty degrees of the northern latitude, and tc the west as far as the 
south seas, and so southerly as far as the River St. Mattias, which bordereth upon the 
coast of Florida, and within one and thirty degrees of northern latitude, and so west in a 
direct line as far as the south seas aforesaid; . . ." and the colony was called Carolina. In 
1665 another charter was granted in order to clarify territorial questions not answered 
in the first charter. This charter extended the limits of Carolina so that the northern line 
was 36 degrees and 30 minutes north latitude, and the southern line was 29 degrees 
north latitude, and both of these lines extended westward to the South Seas. 

Between 1663 and 1729 North Carolina was under the control of the Lords Proprie- 
tors and their decendents who commissioned colonial officials and authorized the gov- 
ernor and his council to grant lands in the name of the Lords Proprietors. In 1669 John 
Locke wrote the Fundamental Constitutions as a model for the government of Caro- 
lina. Albemarle County was divided into local governmental units called precincts. Ini- 
tially there were three precincts — Berkeley, Carteret and Shaftesbury — but as the col- 
ony expanded to the south and west new precincts were created. By 1729, there were a 



North Carolina Manual 




Historical Miscellanea 



total of eleven precincts — six in Albemarle County and five in Bath County which had 
been created in 1696. Although the Albemarle Region was the first permanent settle- 
ment in the Carolina Area, another region was developed around present-day Charles- 
ton, South Carolina. Because of the natural harbor and easier access to trade with the 
West Indies, more attention was given to developing the Charleston area than her 
northern counterparts. For a twenty-year period, 1692-1712, the two colonies of North 
and South Carolina existed as one unit of government. Although North Carolina still 
had her own assembly and council, the governor of Carolina resided in Charleston and, 
a deputy governor was appointed by him for the northern colony. On December 7, 1710 
Carolina was divided into two distinct colonies; however, it was not until May, 1712 
that a governor was appointed for North Carolina. 

In 1729 seven of the Lords Proprietors sold their interest in North Carolina to the 
Crown and North Carolina became a royal colony. The eighth proprietor Lord Gran- 
ville, retained economic interest and continued granting land in the northern half of 
North Carolina. All political functions were under the supervision of the crown until 
1775. 

Colonial government in North Carolina was essentially the same during both the pro- 
prietary and royal periods. The major difference being who appointed colonial officials. 
Government was conducted by two distinct groups — the governor and his council, on 
the one hand, and the popularly-elected colonial general assembly on the other. There 
were colonial courts, but unlike today, they were rarely involved in the formulation of 
governmental policy. All colonial officials were appointed by either the Lords Proprie- 
tors prior to 1729, or the crown afterwards. Members of the colonial assembly were 
elected from the various precincts and from certain towns which had been granted rep- 
resentation. The term "precinct" as a geological unit ceased to exist after 1735 and these 
areas became known by the term "county" as they are today. About this same time 
"Albemarle County" and "Bath County" ceased to exist as governmental units. 

The governor was an appointed official — as were the colonial secretary, attorney gen- 
eral, surveyor general, and receiver general. All served at the pleasure of either the 
Lords Proprietors or the crown. The council during the proprietary period was com- 
prised of persons appointed as agents by the proprietors to look after their interest in 
the new world. Many council members were also colonial officials. The council during 
both the proprietary and royal periods served as an advisory group to the governor, and 
one of its members was chosen president. The council also served as the upper house of 
the legislature when the assembly was in session. The governor was authorized to carry 
out all mandates of the proprietors, or crown, and could, when vacancies occurred in 
colonial offices or on the council, make a temporary appointment until the vacancy was 
filled by proprietary or royal commission. When a governor, or deputy governor, was 
unable to carry on as chief executive either by illness, death, resignation or absence from 
the colony, the president of the council became the chief executive and exercised all the 
powers of the governor until such time as the governor returned, or a new governor 
commissioned. 

The colonial assembly was made up of men elected from each precinct and town 
where representation had been granted. Not all counties were entitled to the same num- 
ber of representatives. Many of the older counties had five representatives each while 



North Carolina Manual 






'vf 



m ^r 






♦ ■ v:-^i 1 



'Jb 



— 



-/' 



>*. 





> ..,<b-- 



>;v. 



:i:/^' 



fi.ej ' , 



/• 



'v<-. 



■/ 



v: "1-- 



,^, 



n'-rS 



--VV 



1 



'\?«^i. 



/' ,,!< 



M 



WfQ^ 



jsTrn- 



i'r a:: 



') ')'^'y 



i*^'. .^ 



rj. >,, 



K' 



i i-^^ 



A'' 






>''/4 ^ 












.•|N ^- 



n^ 1 



;/ 



/?>• 






' / \ 

' / -NX 



= i : 4- s ; * ; t ^ 5 r ^ il; ji 

-r ■ ^ / 4i ^ ■ a ^ 1 ■ I ..' HK 

5 2:1' 



•:^^>^ 






l^f' ''■ V- 



« 



■A 






r- * i J 



It^ii: 



'^^ 






/ 



7-/ 



^/"' 



7 



"^; 



y-' 



I aS-L i, _ 



;Xi 



I 



Historical Miscellanea 



the new ones — those formed after 1696 — were allowed only two each. Each town grant- 
ed representation was allowed one representative. The presiding officer of the colonial 
assembly was called the speaker and was elected from the entire membership of the 
house. When a vacancy occurred a new election was ordered by the speaker to fill it. On 
the final day of each session the bills passed by the legislature were signed by both the 
speaker and the president of the council. 

The colonial assembly could not meet arbitrarily, but rather convened only when 
called into session by the governor. Since the legislature was the only body authorized 
to grant a salary to the governor and was also responsible for spending tax monies, they 
met on a regular basis until just before the Revolutionary War. However, there was a 
constant battle for authority between the governor and his council on the one hand and 
the general assembly on the other. Two of the most explosive issues were the power of 
the purse and the electing of the treasurer, both privileges of the assembly. Another is- 
sue which raised itself was who had the authority to create new counties. On more than 
one occasion elected representatives from counties created by the governor and council, 
without consultation and proper legislative action by the lower house, were refused 
seats until the matter was resolved. These conflicts between the executive and legislative 
bodies were to have a profound effect on the organization of state government after 
Independence. 

North Carolina, on April 12, 1776, authorized her delegates in the Continental Con- 
gress to vote for independence, and on December 18, 1776, adopted a constitution. 
Richard Caswell became the first governor under this constitution. On November 21, 
1789, the state adopted the United States Constitution, being the twelfth state to enter 
the Federal Union. North Carolina, in 1788, had rejected the Consitution on the 
grounds that certain amendments were vital and necessary to a free people. 

A Constitutional convention was held in 1835 and among several changes made in the 
Constitution was the method of electing the governor. After this change the governor 
was elected by the people for a term of two years instead of being elected by the Legisla- 
ture for a term of one year. Edward Bishop Dudley was the first governor elected by the 
people. 

In 1868 a second constitution was adopted which drastically altered government in 
North Carolina. For the first time all major state officers were elected by the people. 
The governor and other executive officers were elected to four-year terms; while the jus- 
tices of the supreme court and judges of the superior court were elected to eight-year 
terms. The members of the general assembly continued to be elected for two year terms. 
Between 1868 and 1970 numerous amendments were incorporated into the 1868 consti- 
tution, so that in 1970, the people voted to adopt a completely new constitution. Since 
then several amendments have been ratified, but one in particular is a break from the 
past. In 1977 the people voted to allow the governor and lieutenant governor to run for 
reelection successively for one additional term. 

North Carolina has had two permanent capitals — New Bern and Raleigh — and there 
have been three capitol buildings. Tryon's Palace in New Bern was constructed in the 
period, 1767-1770, and the main building was destroyed by fire February 27, 1798. The 
first capitol in Raleigh was completed in 1794 and was destroyed by fire on June 21, 
1831. The present capitol was completed in 1840. 

In 1790 North Carolina ceded her western lands, which was composed of Washing- 



8 North Carolina Manual 



ton, Davidson, Hawkins, Greene, Sullivan, Sumner, and Tennessee counties, to the 
Federal government. Between 1790 and 1796 the territory was known as Tennessee Ter- 
ritory, but in 1796 it became the fifteenth state in the Union. 

When North Carolina adopted the Federal Constitution on November 21, 1789, she 
was authorized to send two senators and five representatives to the Congress of the 
United States according to the constitutional apportionment. In 1792, when the first 
federal census had been completed and tabulated, it was found that North Carolina was 
entitled to ten representatives. It was then that the General Assembly divided the state 
into ten congressional districts. In 1812, the state had grown and increased in popula- 
tion until it was entitled to thirteen representatives in Congress. Between 1812 and 1865, 
however, the population decreased so much in proportion to the population of other 
states of the Union that North Carolina was entitled to only seven representatives. After 
1865 the population of the state showed a steady increase so that beginning in 1943 
North Carolina was entitled to twelve representatives in Congress. The 1970 census 
showed that the state had more than a half million more people than in 1960, but this in- 
crease was not nearly as much in proportion to that of other states. North Carolina is 
now entitled to only eleven representatives in Congress. 



Historical Miscellanea 



THE GREAT SEAL OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

The use of a seal for attesting to important documents began before the implementa- 
tion of government in North Carolina. In the colonial period North Carolina used suc- 
cessively four different seals. Since the colony became a state, five distinct seals have 
been used. 

Shortly after they were issued their charter in 1663, the Lords Proprietors thought it 
proper to adopt for their newly acquired domains in America, a seal of which no official 
description has been found, but which is to be seen in the British Public Record Office 
in London. The Seal — pictured below — had two sides. The size of this seal was three 
and three-eights inches in diameter, and it was made by placing together two wax cakes 
with tape between before being impressed. The impression after being made was about 
one-fourth inch thick. This seal was used on all official papers of the Lords Proprietors 
of Carolina, embracing both North Carolina and South Carolina. 





Seal of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina 

About 1665 the Government of Albemarle was organized and it adopted for a seal the 
reverse side of the seal of the Lords Proprietors. Between the coats-of-arms the word 
A-L-BE-M-A-R-L-E was fixed in capitals, beginning with the letter "A" between the 
arms of Clarendon and Albemarle, "L" between Albemarle and Craven, "BE" between 
the Craven arms and those of Lord John Berekeley, et cetera.. 

This was a small seal — one and seven-sixteenths inches in diameter, with one face 
only — and is now frequently to be found attached to colonial papers. It is generally im- 
pressed on red wax, but is occasionally seen impressed on a wafer which is stuck to the 
instrument with soft wax. It was first used for the government of the county of Albe- 
marle, and then became the seal of the Province of North Carolina, being used until just 
after the purchase by the crown. During the troublous times of the Cary Rebellion the 
Albemarle seal was not used. In 1708 Cary used his family arms on a large seal to his of- 
ficial papers. A fine specimen of this seal showing the Cary arms is preserved in the pa- 
pers of the secretary of state located in the North Carolina Archives. During William 
Glover's presidency (1710) he used his private seal. 



10 



North Carolina Manual 




Seal of Government of Albemarle and Province of North Carolina, 1665-1730 

When North CaroHna was purchased by the Crown in 1729, the old "Albemarle" seal 
was no longer applicable. On February 3, 1729/30, the Board of Trade recommended to 
the king that he order a public seal for the Province of North Carolina. 

On February 21, 1729/30, his Majesty in council was pleased to approve the recom- 
mendations and ordered ". . .that a Publick Seal be prepared and given to the Governor 
of the said Province of North Carolina, And that the said Lords Commissioners for 
Trade and Plantations do cause a Draft of such Seal, to be prepared and laid before His 
Majesty at the Board, for his Royall Approbation." 

On March 25, 1730, The Board of Trade laid before his Majesty for his royal appro- 
bation a draft of a proposed seal for the Province of North Carolina. On the 10th day of 
April, 1730, the king approved the recommendations, except that it appears "Georgius 
Secundus" was to be substituted for the original "Geo. II.," and his chief engraver of 
seals was ordered to "engrave a silver Seal according to said draught. ..." A certain 
Rollos, his Majesty's engraver was 'ordered to prepare a draft of the seal. 





Obverse Reverse 

Seal of the Province of North Carolina, 1730-1767 



Historical Miscellanea 



11 



There was some delay in receiving the new seal, for at a council held at Edenton, 
March 30, 1 73 1 , it was "Ordered that the old seal of the Colony be used till the new seal 
arrives." The latter part of April the seal came, and "The Messenger that went to Cape 
Fear to fetch the Publick Seal of this Province" was paid the sum often pounds for his 
journey. This seal was made by placing two cakes or layers of wax together, between 
which was the ribbon or tape with which the instrument was interlaced and by which the 
seal was appended. It was customary to put a piece of paper on the outside of three 
cakes before they were impressed. The complete seal was four and three-eighths inches 
in diameter and from one-half to five-eighths inches thick and weighed about five and 
one-half ounces. 

At a council held at New Bern, December 14, 1767, Governor Tryon produced to the 
Board a new Great Seal for the province with his Majesty's Royal Warrant bearing date 
at the Court of St. James the 9th day of July, 1767. The old seal was sent to New York 
by Captain [John Abraham] Collet, commander of Fort Johnston, to be returned to his 
Majesty's Council office at Whitehall. Accompanying his Majesty's warrant was a de- 
scription of the new seal. This seal was to be used in sealing all patents and grants of 
lands and all public instruments passed in the king's name for service within the prov- 
ince. It was four inches in diameter, one-half to five-eighths inches thick, and weighed 
four and one-half ounces. 





Obverse 



Reverse 



Seal of the Province of North Carolina, 1767-1776 



It appears that sometimes a smaller seal than the Great Seal was used, as commis- 
sions and grants with a small heart-shaped seal about one inch wide and a quarter of an 
inch thick which was impressed with a crown have been used. Also a seal was occasion- 
ally used about three inches long and two inches wide and half an inch thick, in the 
shape of an ellipse. These impressions were evidently made by putting the wax far 
enough under the edge of the Great Seal to take the irnpression of the crown. The royal 
governors also sometimes used their private seals on commissions and grants. 



12 



North Carolina Manual 



Lord Granville, on the grants issued by him, used his private seal. The last reference 
found to the colonial seal is in a letter from Governor Martin to the Earl of Hills- 
borough in November, 1771, in which he said "that the Province Seal was broke," but 
that he had had it repaired and that it had been "awkwardly mended but in such man- 
ner as to answer all purposes." 

When the government of the State of North Carolina was organized, the constitution 
adopted at Halifax, December 18, 1776, provided in Section XVII, "That there shall be 
a Seal of this State, which shall be kept by the Governor, and used by him as occasion 
may require; and shall be called the Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, and be 
affixed to all grants and commissions." The Constitutional Convention of 1835 brought 
this section forward unchanged. 

The convention of 1868 adopted a new constitution, and the convention of 1875 
brought the section referring to the seal forward as adopted in 1868. Article III, Section 
16 of the constitution reads: "There shall be a seal of the State, which shall be kept by 
the Governor, and used by him, as occasion may require, and shall be called 'The Great 
Seal of the State of North Carolina' All grants and commissions shall be issued in the 
name and by the authority of the State of North Carolina, sealed with 'The Great Seal 
of the State,' signed by the Governor and countersigned by the Secretary of State." 

On December 22, 1776, an ordinance was passed by the Provincial Congress at Hali- 
fax appointing William Hooper, Joseph Hewes and Thomas Burke commissioners to 
procure a Great Seal for the State of North Carolina, but no record of a report being 
made by this commission could be found. The ordinance provided that the governor 
should use his "private seal at arms" until the Great Seal for the state was procured. On 
April 29, 1778, a bill which directed the procurement of a Great Seal for the state and 
which became law on May 2, was introduced in the lower house of the general assembly 





Obverse Reverse 

Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1779-1794 



Historical Miscellanea 



13 



held in New Bern. It provided that "William Tisdale, Esq., be and he is hereby appoint- 
ed to cut and engrave a Seal, under the Direction of his Excellency the Governor, for the 
use of the State; . . . ." On Sunday, November 7, 1779 the senate concurred in the resolu- 
tion passed by the house of commons allowing William Tisdale, Esq., the sum of one 
hundred and fifty pounds for making the Great Seal of the State. Under this act a seal 
was procured which was used until 1794. The actual size of the seal was three inches in 
diameter and one-fourth inch thick. It was made by putting two cakes of wax together 
with paper wafers on the outside and pressing them between the dies, thus forming the 
obverse and reverse sides of the seal. The seal press must have been very large and un- 
wieldy, for Governor Richard Dobbs Spaight in writing to Colonel Abisha Thomas in 
February, 1793 said: "Let the screws by which the impression is to be made be as port- 
able as possible so as it may be adapted to our present itinerant government. The one 
now in use by which the Great Seal is a present made is so large and unwieldy as to be 
carried only in a cart or wagon and of course has become stationary at the Secretary's 
office which makes it very convenient." Governor Spaight in January, 1793 in writing of 
the Tisdale Seal then in use says, "This old seal is not only nearly worn out but in my 
opinion has always been a reproach to the genius of the State." An official description 
of this seal cannot be found, but many of the seals are still in existence in an almost per- 
fect state of preservation. 

In January, 1792 the general assembly in session at New Bern passed an act author- 
izing and requiring the governor to procure for the state a seal, and provided that it 
should "be prepared with only one side, and calculated to make the impression on the 

face of such grant, commission, record or other public acts " Governor Alexander 

Martin commissioned Colonel Abisha Thomas, the agent of North Carolina in Phila- 




The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1794-1836 



14 



North Carolina Manual 



delphia for the settlement of the State's Revolutionary claims against the Federal Gov- 
ernment, to have one made and, at the same time sent him a design therefor. After cor- 
respondence between Governor Martin and Colonel Thomas concerning the seal, in 
which suggestions were made by Dr. Hugh Williamson and Senator Samuel Johnston, 
they concluded that the sketch submitted by Governor Martin would not do and Colo- 
nel Thomas submitted a sketch by an artist. This sketch, with some modification, was fi- 
nally accepted by Governor Spaight, and Colonel Thomas had the seal made accord- 
ingly. The seal was cut some time during the summer of 1793, and Colonel Thomas 
brought it home with him in time for the meeting of the legislature in November, 1793, 
at which session it was "approbated." The screw to the seal would not work, so in 1795 
the general assembly passed an act authorizing the use of the old seal of 1778 until the 
new one could be put in order. The new seal was two and one half inches in diameter 
and was used until around 1835. 

In the winter of 1834-35 the legislature passed an act authorizing the governor to pro- 
cure a new seal. The preamble to the act states that the old seal had been in use since the 
first day of March, 1793. The seal adopted in 1835, which was not changed until 1839, 
was very similar to its predecessor. It was two and one-fourth inches in diameter. In 
1868 the legislature authorized the governor to procure a Great Seal and required him 
to provide a new seal whenever the old one was lost or so worn or defaced as to render it 
unfit for use. 

In 1883 Colonel S. MCD. Tate introduced a bill in the legislature which became law. 
This act did not provide that a new seal be procured but it described in more detail what 
the seal should be like. In 1893 Jacob Battle introduced a bill which became law. This 
made no change in the seal except to add at the foot of the coat-of-arms of the state as 
part thereof the motto Esse Quam Videri and to provide the words "May 20, 1775," be 
incribed at the top of the coat-of-arms. 




The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1836-1893 



Historical Miscellanea 



15 



At this time the ship that appeared in the offing in the seals of George II and George 
III and in our seal from 1835-1893 seems to have disappeared, and the designer of the 
seal shows mountains in the background instead of both mountains and the sea as for- 
merly. 




The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1893-1971 

The preceding history illustrates the great variety in seals and the liberty that was 
taken in the design in the official State seal from time to time. The 1971 General As- 
sembly, in an effort to "provide a standard for the Great Seal of the State of North 
Carolina," passed the following Act amending the General Statutes provision relative 
to the State Seal: 



The Governor shall procure for the State a Seal, which shall be called the 
great seal of the State of North Carolina, and shall be two and one-quarter 
inches in diameter, and its design shall be a representation of the figures of 
Liberty and Plenty, looking toward each other, but not more than half- 
fronting each other and otherwise disposed as follows: Liberty, the first figure, 
standing, her pole with cap on it in her left hand and a scroll with the word 
"Constitution" inscribed thereon in her right hand. Plenty, the second figure, 
sitting down, her right arm half extended toward Liberty, three heads of grain 
in her right hand, and in her left, the small end of her horn, the mouth of 
which is resting at her feet, and the contents of the horn rolling out. 

The background on the seal shall contain a depiction of mountains running 
from left to right to the middle of the seal. A side view of a three-masted ship 
shall be located on the ocean and to the right of Plenty. The date "May 20, 
1775" shall appear within the seal and across the top of the seal and the words 
"esse quam videri" shall appear at the bottom around the perimeter. No other 
words, figures or other embellishments shall appear on the seal. 

It shall be the duty of the Governor to file in the office of the Secretary of 
State an impression of the great seal, certified to under his hand and attested 
to by the Secretary of State, which impression so certified the Secretary of 
State shall carefully preserve among the records of this Office. 



16 



North Carolina Manual 




The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 
1971-1984 

The late Jullian R. AUsbrook who served in the North Carohna Senate for many 
years, feh that the adoption date of the HaHfax Resolves ought to be commemorated on 
the State seal as it was already on the State flag. This to "serve as a constant reminder of 
the people of this state's committment to liberty." Legislation adding the date "April 
12, 1776" to the Great Seal of the State of North Carolina was ratified May 2, 1983, 
with an effective date of January 1, 1984. Chapter 257 of the Session Laws of North 
Carolina for 1983 included provisions that would not invalidate any Great Seal of the 
State of North Carolina in use or on display. Instead replacement could occur as the 
need arose. 




The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina, 1984— 



Historical Miscellanea 17 



THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE CAPITOL 

The North Carolina State Capitol is one of the finest and best preserved examples of 
a major civic building in the Greek Revival Style of architecture. 

Prior to 1792, North Carolina legislators met in various towns throughout the 
state — Halifax, Hillsboro, and New Bern were the most frequent locations. Meetings 
were held in local plantation houses, court houses, and even churches — whatever was 
available; however, when the City of Raleigh was established as the permanent seat of 
the Government of North Carolina in 1792, a simple, two-story brick State House was 
built on Union Square. The State House was completed in 1796. 

The State House was enlarged in 1820-24 by the architect William Nichols. A third 
fioor and eastern and western wings were added to the building, and a domed rotunda 
was constructed at its center to house Antonio Canova's statue of President George 
Washington, acquired by the State in 1821. When the State House burned down on 
June 21, 1831, the statue of Washington was damaged beyond repair. 

The General Assembly of 1832-33 ordered that a new Capitol (as the present building 
has always been called) be built as an enlarged version of the old State House — that is, a 
cross-shaped building with a central, domed rotunda. The sum of $50,000 was appropri- 
ated, and a commission appointed to initiate the plan. The Commissioners for Rebuild- 
ing the Capitol first employed William Nichols, Jr., to help them prepare plans for the 
building. In August of 1833, Nichols was replaced by the distinguished New York archi- 
tectural firm of Ithiel Town and Alexander Jackson Davis. They modified and greatly 
improved the earlier design, giving the Capitol essentially its present appearance and 
plan. David Paton (1802-82), and Edinburgh-born architect who had worked for John 
Seoane, the noted English architect, was hired in September, 1834, to superintend the 
construction of the Capitol. Paton replaced Town and Davis as the Commissioners' ar- 
chitect early in 1835. The Capitol was built under Paton's supervision except for the ex- 
terior stone walls, which were largely in place when he got to Raleigh. Paton made sev- 
eral modifications in the Town and Davis plans for the interior. He is responsible for 
the cantilevered or overhanging gallery at the second floor level of the rotunda, the 
groined masonry vaulting of the first fioor office and corridor ceilings, and the interior 
arrangement of the east and west wings. After clearing away the rubbish of the old State 
House, excavations were made and a new foundation laid. On July 4, 1833, the corner 
stone was set in place. Following this, work progressed more slowly, and the orignal ap- 
propriation soon exhausted. At the next session of the Legislature, an additional appro- 
priation of $75,0(X) was necessary so that work could begin on the stone and finer work. 
Many skilled artisans were brought over from Scotland and other countries to carry out 
this phase of construction. 

Most of the architectural details — columns, mouldings, ornamental plasterwork, and 
the honeysuckle crown atop the dome, for example — were carefully patterned after fea- 
tures of particular ancient Greek temples: The exterior columns are Doric in style and 
modeled after those of the Parthenon, the House of Representatives Chamber follows 
the semicircular plan of a Greek theater and its architectural ornament is in the Corin- 
thian style of the Tower of the Winds, and the Senate Chamber is decorated in the Ionic 
style of the Erechtheum. The only non-classical parts of the building are two large 
rooms on the third floor which were finished in the Gothic Style, then just beginning to 
rise to popularity in America. 



Historical Miscellanea 19 



The ornamental ironwork, chandeliers, hardware, and marble mantels of the Capitol 
came from Philadelphia, as did the man who executed all of the ornamental plaster- 
work. The desks and chairs in the House and Senate Chambers were made by a Raleigh 
Cabinetmaker, William Thompson. 

The Capitol was completed in 1840 at a total cost (including furnishings) of 
$532,682.34, or more than three times the yearly general income of the State at that 
time. 

In plan, the Capitol is a cross-shaped building, centering on a domed rotunda where 
the wings join. It is 160 feet from north to south, 140 feet from east to west (including 
the porticoes), and stands 97 Vi feet from the base of the rotunda to the crown atop the 
dome. The exterior walls are built of gneiss (a form of granite). This stone was quarried 
in southeastern Raleigh and hauled to the site on the horse-drawn Experimental Rail 
Road, the first railway in North Carolina. The interior walls are of stone and brick. The 
massive, original wooden truss system still carries the roof. 

The first floor contains eight offices in the north and south wings and smaller rooms 
in the east and west wings. (These offices originally housed all of the executive branch of 
state government — a total of six full-time officials in 1840.) The rotunda contains a 
duplicate original of Canova's statue of Washington, acquired in 1970. In niches around 
the rotunda are busts of three Governors and a United States Senator. Stairways in the 
east and west wings give access to the second floor, where the Senate and House 
Chambers and related offices are located. Rooms in the east and west wings, built as 
legislative committee rooms, have been converted to other uses. On the third fioor are 
the galleries of the Senate and House Chambers, and in the east and west wings are the 
original State Supreme Court Chamber and State Library Room, both decorated in the 
Gothic Style. The domed, top-lit vestibules of those two rooms are especially note- 
worthy. 

The Capitol housed all of the state government until the 1880's. The Supreme Court 
moved to its own building in 1888. The General Assembly moved to the State Legisla- 
tive Building (the State's first building erected exclusively for legislative use) in 1963. 
Today the only official occupants of the Capitol are some of the personnel of the Gover- 
nor and the Secretary of State. 

The Capitol probably has been less changed in appearance, inside and out, than any 
major American civic building of its era. The stonework, the ornamental plaster and 
ironwork, the furniture of the legislative chambers, and all but one of the marble man- 
tels that the visitor sees today are original, not restorations or reproductions. Yet con- 
tinuous and heavy use since 1840 has left its marks on the building, and to cope with 
them the Capitol currently is undergoing a careful rehabilitation. This work was begun 
in 1971 and is intended to preserve and enhance the architectural splendor and decora- 
tive beauty of the Capitol for future generations. Work done to date includes replacing 
the leaky copper roof, cleaning and sealing the exterior stone, and repainting the ro- 
tunda in colors similar to those originally used. More recently completed phases include 
repairing plaster-work damaged by roof leaks, replacing obsolete wiring and plumbing, 
reworking the heating and cooling systems in the upper floors to make them less con- 
spicuous, replacing worn carpets and draperies, and repainting the rest of the interior 
according to the original color scheme. 



20 North Carolina Manual 



1976 was an eventful year not only for our nation, but for our State Capitol building 
as well. After several years of work, the old senate and house chambers and the execu- 
tive offices on the first floor were completed. Shortly after being elected to his first term, 
Governor James B. Hunt, Jr. announced his intention of moving some of the Office of 
the Governor back into the Capitol. Governor Hunt and Secretary of State Thad Eure 
are working residents in this symbol of government in North Carolina. 

In an effort to make the newly renovated Capitol more accessible to the people of 
North Carolina, the building has been opened to the public on weekends with guided 
tours available for all visitors. 



Historical Miscellanea 21 



Description of the Capitol 

by 
Architect David Paton 

The State Capitol is 160 feet in length from north to south by 140 feet from east to 
west. The whole height is 97 Vi feet in the center. The apex of pediment is 64 feet in 
height. The stylobate is 18 feet in height. The columns of the east and west porticoes are 
5 feet 2 \'i inches in diameter. An entablature, including blocking course, is continued 
around the building 12 feet high. 

The columns and entablature are Grecian Doric, and copied from the Temple of 
Minerva, commonly called the Parthenon, which was erected in Athens about 500 years 
before Christ. An octagon tower surrounds the rotunda, which is ornamented with Gre- 
cian cornices, etc., and its dome is decorated at top with a similar ornament to that of 
the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, commonly called the Lanthorn of Demosthenes. 

The interior of the Capitol is divided into three stories: First, the lower story, consist- 
ing often rooms, eight of which are appropriated as offices to the Governor, Secretary, 
Treasurer, and Comptroller, each having two rooms of the same size — the one contain- 
ing an area of 649 square feet, the other 528 square feet — the two committee rooms, 
each containing 200 square feet and four closets: also the rotunda, corridors, vestibules, 
and piazzas, contain an area of 4,370 square feet. The vestibules are decorated with 
columns and antae, similar to those of the Ionic Temple on the Ilissus, near the Acrop- 
olis of Athens. The remainder is groined with stone and brick, springing from columns 
and pilasters of the Roman Doric. 

The second story consists of Senatorial and Representatives' chambers, the former 
containing an area of 2,545 and the latter 2,849 square feet. Four apartments enter from 
Senate Chamber, two of which contain each an area of 169 square feet, and the other 
two contain each an area of 154 square feet; also, two rooms enter from Representa- 
tives' chamber, each containing an area of 170 square feet; of two committee rooms, 
each containing an area of 23 1 square feet; of four presses and the passages, stairs, lob- 
bies, and colonnades, containing an area of 3,204 square feet. 

The lobbies and Hall of Representatives have their columns and antae of the Octagon 
Tower of Andronicus Cyrrhestes and the plan of the hall is of the formation of the 
Greek theatre and the columns and antae in the Senatorial chamber and rotunda are of 
the Temple of Erectheus, Minerva, Polias, and Pandrosus, in the Acropolis of Athens, 
near the above named Parthenon. 

Third, or attic story, consists of rooms appropriated to the Supreme Court and Li- 
brary, each containing an area of 693 square feet. Galleries of both houses have an area 
of 1,300 square feet; also two apartments entering from Senate gallery, each 169 square 
feet; of four presses and the lobbies" stairs, 988 square feet. These lobbies as well as ro- 
tunda, are lit with cupolas, and it is proposed to finish the court and library in the florid 
Gothic style. 



22 North Carolina Manual 



THE CAPITOL 

by 
Edwin Gill* 

I am the Capitol; upon my copper dome, I wear a crown. If it were gilded, it would 
flash a signal to the sun. This crown is more than decoration. It is a symbol of sover- 
eignty. 

When the sun is bright and the arch of heaven is clear, the greenish-blue of my dome 
is bold against the sky. But sometimes, when the sun is veiled, the grey of my dome ap- 
pears to blend with infinity. 

Between 1933 and 1840, I was constructed of stone quarried nearby, which time has 
mellowed. These stones were precision cut and, nicely balanced. The traffic of human 
feet has worn some stones, and, occasionally, I have been roughly used. The edges of 
steps have been broken. But I am hale and hearty and will, of course, endure. 

The Court, the Legislature and the Auditor have left me for more modern homes. It is 
rumored that others may go. However, I am assured I shall become a shrine. Now what 
is a shrine? No one seems to know, except they say it has something to do with memory 
and Glory. 

I am complimented that many people are concerned about my condition. Questions 
have been raised. Let me assure one and all that I am solid and sound of body. My 
problems are mostly superficial. 

My roof has leaked a bit, and inquiries should be made into the soundness of the tim- 
bers that undergird it. Also, at appropriate intervals, my electrical wiring should be 
carefully examined. 

In fairness to the past, a sprinkler system was installed beneath my roof in 1939, and 
my exterior was cleaned effectively in 1952. 

But it is well to have the Governor, the Council of State and others concerned about 
my future. It is good to know there are those who care — to have a flutter of interest in 
my behalf. Even the pigeons and squirrels are concerned! 

Some time before the year is out, I am informed, we will dedicate, in an appropriate 
ceremony, the receipt from Italy of the figure of Washington carved in marble. It is meet 
and proper in anticipation of this event that I be cleaned, refurnished and made in every 
way presentable. Incidentally, my architect told me that in the original plans I was to 
have this statue. So, in a sense, I am unfinished until it is in place. 

There are those who think I should be restored to my former splendor. The doctors of 
history suggest I should be arrayed in the mode of 1840. This, I suppose has something 
to do with my ultimate status as a shrine. 

I favor this restoration. But I doubt that such a project can be completely achieved. 
After all, in recent times, I have become a creature of modern conveniences, such as cen- 
tral heating, inside plumbing and electricity — all unavailable in 1840. Whatever is done, 
my comfort should be considered. Especially, I would like to have hot, as well as cold, 
running water! 



•Mr. Gill was State Treasurer of North Carolina from 1953-1977. The above was ordered spread upon the 
minutes of the Council of State on June 17, 1970. 



Historical Miscellanea 23 



In my bosom laws were made. Through the decades, I have heard the thunders of elo- 
quence. I have been amused at the wit and tall tales of statesmen. 

Today my halls are silent. People come and go and look at me, and marvel at the 
stories of the past. They say I am a symbol of all that has been achieved within the borders 
of our State. So be it. I am a symbol. 



Historical Miscellanea 25 



THE LEGISLATIVE BUILDING 

The need for larger quarters for legislators and their respective staffs, and the growth 
of services provided by the legislative branch of government led the General Assembly 
of 1959 to appropriate funds for the formation of a Building Commission for the con- 
struction of a new building for the Legislature. A statute creating such a commission 
was ratified on June 12, 1959. It was to "consist of two persons who have served in the 
State Senate, appointed by the President of the Senate; two persons who have served in 
the House of Representatives, appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives; and three persons appointed by the Governor." 

Lieutenant Governor Luther E. Earnhardt, President of the Senate, appointed Archie 
K. Davis and Robert F. Morgan, who was elected Vice-chairman of the Commission; 
Speaker of the House Addison Hewlett appointed B. L Satterfield and Thomas J. 
White, who was elected Chairman of the Commission; and Governor Hodges appoint- 
ed A. E. Finley, Edwin Gill, and Oliver R. Rowe. In addition to these members, Paul A. 
Johnston, Director of the Department of Administration, was elected Executive Secre- 
tary. The Commission elected Frank B.Turner, State Property Officer as Executive 
Secretary upon the resignation of Mr. Johnson. 

The Commission selected Edward Durell Stone of New York with John S. Holloway 
and Ralph B. Reeves, Jr., Associated as the architectural consultants. 

After a thorough study by the Commission, a site for construction was selected — a 
5'/2 acre area one block North of the Capitol. This site, encompassing two blocks, is 
bounded by Jones, Salisbury, Lane and Wilmington Streets. A section of Halifax Street 
between Jones and Lane was closed and made a part of the new site. 

Bids on the new building were received in December, 1960 and constrution began 
early the following year. The 1961 General Assembly appropriated an additional $1 mil- 
lion for furnishings and equipment. This brought the total appropriation to $5 Vi mil- 
lion or $1.24 for each citizen of North Carolina. (This figure based on the 1960 census.) 

One of the consulting architects wrote the following description of the new building: 

The State Legislative Building, though not an imitation of historic classical 
styles, is classical in character. Rising from a 340 foot wide podium of North 
Carolina granite, the building proper is 242 feet square. The walls and the 
columns are of Vermont marble, the latter forming a colonnade encompassing 
the building and reaching 24 feet from the podium to the roof of the second 
fioor. 

Inset in the south podium floor, at the main entrance, is a 28 foot diameter 
terrazzo mosaid of the Great Seal of the State. From the first fioor main en- 
trance (at Jones Street) the carpeted 22 foot wide main stair extends directly to 
the third floor and the public galleries of the Senate and House, the audi- 
torium, the display area, and the roof gardens. 

The four garden courts are located at the corners of the building. These 
courts contain tropical plants, and three have pools, fountains, and hanging 
planters. The main fioor areas of the courts are located in the first fioor, and 
messanines overlook the courts from the second fioor. The skylights which 
provide natural lighting are located within the roof gardens overhead. The 
courts provide access to committee rooms in the first fioor, the legislative 
chambers in the second fioor, and to members' offices in both fioors. 



26 North Carolina Manual 



The Senate and House chambers, each 5,180 square feet in area, occupy the 
east and west wings of the second floor. Following the traditional relationship 
of the two chambers in the Capitol, the two spaces are divided by the rotunda; 
and when the main brass doors are open, the two presiding officers face one 
another. Each pair of brass doors weigh 1,500 pounds. 

The five pyramidal roofs covering the Senate and House chambers, the au- 
ditorium, the main stair, and the rotunda are sheathed with copper, as is the 
Capitol. The pyramidal shape of the roofs is visible in the pointed ceilings in- 
side. The structural ribs form a coffered ceiling; and inside the coffered pat- 
terns, concentric patterns are outlined in gold. In each chamber, the distance 
from the floor to the peak of the ceiling is 45 feet. 

Chandeliers in the chambers and main stair are 8 feet in diameter and weigh 
625 pounds each. The 12 foot diameter chandelier of the rotunda, like the 
others, is of brass, but its weight is 750 pounds. 

Because of the interior environment, the garden courts and rotunda have 
tropical plants and trees. Outside, however, the shrubs and trees are of an in- 
digenous type. Among the trees in the gounds, on the roof areas are sugar 
maples, dogwoods, crabapples, magnolias, crepe myrtles, and pines. 

Throughout the building, the same color scheme is maintained: Walnut, 
white, gold and red, with green foliage. In general, all wood is American wal- 
nut, metal is brass or other gold colored material, carpets are red, and uphol- 
stery is gold or black. 

The enclosed area consists of 206,000 square feet of floor area with a volume 
of 3,210,000 cubic feet. Heating equipment provides over 7,000,000 B.T.U. per 
hour; and the cooling equipment has a capaciy of 620 tones. For lighting, 
motors, and other electircal equipment, the building has a connected service 
load of over 2,000,000 watts. 



Historical Miscellanea 27 



THE EXECUTIVE RESIDENCES OF NORTH CAROLINA 

North Carolina has not always provided an official home for its governors and their 
families. Prior to 1770, the chief executive lived wherever he chose at his own expense. It 
was not until 1776 that the general assembly authorized the construction of the first 
such residence; in 1770 the magnificent Governor's Palace in New Bern was occupied by 
Royal Governor William Tryon. "Tryon's Palace," as the building came to be known, 
was destined to serve as the formal residence of governors for only a short time. It was 
exposed to the threats of enemy forces during the American Revolution, and the palace 
was virtually abandoned. In 1798 a fire destroyed all but the west wing. 

North Carolina's first legislators were traveling men. With no "fixed seat of govern- 
ment," early members of the general assembly traveled from plantation to plantation, 
town to town, until 1792, when a capital "city" was planned and laid out in the "hills of 
Wake" on Joel Lane's plantation. It was named in honor of the Elizabethan patron of 
early colonization. Sir Walter Raleigh. Shortly thereafter an act was passed by the legis- 
lature requiring the governor to reside at the permanent seat of government. Samuel 
Ashe of New Hanover was the first governor to come under this edict. He expressed his 
reaction emphatically: ". . . it was never supposed that a Man annually elected to the 
Chief Magistracy would commit such folly as to attempt the building of a House at the 
seat of Government in which he might for a time reside. 

The committee of the general assembly to whom Ashe's letter was referred hastened 
to inform him that the law was enacted before he was elected governor and could be 
considered "as a condition under the incumbrance of which he accepted the appoint- 
ment." 

Despite the remonstrance to Ashe, the general assembly took steps to provide a 
dwelling for the chief executive. The State Treasurer was instructed to purchase or lease 
a suitable house and, in 1797, a plain, two-story frame building, painted white, and an 
office for the governor were provided on lot 131, the southwest corner of Fayetteville 
and Hargett streets. 

This house proved helplessly inadequate. To remedy this situation, the general assem- 
bly, in 1813, appointed a committee to provide better facilities, and plans were made for 
the erection of a more suitable dwelling. A site was selected at the foot of Fayetteville 
Street facing the capitol. In 1816 the elaborate brick structure with white columned 
porticoes was completed and Governor William Miller became the first occupant of the 
"Governor's Palace." 

In traditional ante-bellum fashion, the twenty succeeding governors resided in the 
Palace, as it was officially termed, and much of the history of the state centered there. 
General Lafayette was a visitor in 1825. Some sessions of the general assembly were 
held in the Palace following the burning of the Capitol in 1831. The last governor to oc- 
cupy the Palace was Zebulon Baird Vance. Sherman and later federal occupants of the 
governor's palace, while they may have injured the pride of local citizens, did no serious 
damage to the building. But years of neglect and the structural inadequacy of the house 
from the very beginning made it unattractive to those governors coming into office in 
the years following the war. During the Reconstruction days, and until the present man- 
sion was built, the chief executives resided in Raleigh living in rented houses, hotels 
or — during two administrations — in their own homes. From 1871 to 1891 the 
Yarborough House, a noted Raleigh hotel, served as the unofficial residence for several 
North Carolina governors. 



Historical Miscellanea 29 



Governor Vance, the last occupant of the Palace, was again in office in 1879. In that 
year he presented the report of a commission appointed two years previously by the 
legislature to investigate the possibiliites of providing a suitable residence for the gover- 
nor. The commission was also charged with the task of selling unused State land in and 
adjacent to the city of Raleigh. Proceeds from these sales were earmarked for the con- 
struction of a house and outbuildings suitable for the governor. 

Meanwhile the matter of hiring an architect was investigated and David Paton natur- 
ally came to mind. Paton had established his reputation in North Carolina as the archi- 
tect of the State Capitol. He was an associate of Ithiel Town of New York, the architect 
originally consulted in rebuilding the Capitol. By the 1880's, however, Paton was in his 
middle seventies and age and poor health made it necessary for him to decline the invi- 
tation to visit Raleigh to help select a location and plan a house for the governor. 

The decision to build the present governor's mansion was made by the general assem- 
bly at the perseverance of Governor Thomas Jarvis. Under the governor's prompting 
the legislature approached the problem of providing adequate housing for the chief 
executive. A bill ratified in February, 1883, authorized construction of a house on 
Burke Square, provided for major furnishings, and required (upon its completion) the 
governor to occupy it. The governor and Council of State were directed to use convict 
labor and such materials as were "manufactured or prepared, either in whole or in 
part," at the penitentiary, when such a procedure seemed feasible. To finance the proj- 
ect, the governor was authorized to use money realized from the sale of State lands 
(1877) and was instructed to sell the old Palace and grounds. Expenditures were not to 
exceed the sum realized and an accurate accounting was demanded; a record of the 
money spent by the governor and council was to be entered on a journal and the auditor 
was instructed to check and file itemized accounts before issuing warrants for payment. 

Two months after passage of the bill, the Council of State met with the governor. 
Jarvis was then instructed to advertise the Palace and grounds for immediate sale and to 
employ an architect to make sketches and specifications for the Council's consideration. 
Governor Jarvis accordingly wrote W. J. Hicks, architect and warden of the prison, sug- 
gesting a plan which called for construction of the house under exclusive direction of the 
penitentiary authorities and payment of a definite sum to that institution. The law pro- 
vided that the council and the governor might call on the penitentiary for all the labor 
and material it could furnish "in whole or in part." Jarvis felt there might be some dif- 
ferences of opinion as to the meaning of the statement. He reasoned that with construc- 
tion work then being done at the penitentiary, by using the same material and labor in 
building the mansion, a saving could be realized in buying in larger quantities. From a 
practical standpoint Jarvis thought the State would profit by having both projects under 
the same management, and experienced businessmen advised such a plan might save the 
State as much as twenty thousand dollars. 

Samuel Sloan of Philadelphia and his assistant, Gustavus Adolphus Bauer, were 
chosen as architects. Sloan arrived in Raleigh on April 28, 1883, with his designs for the 
residence. These were declared "very artistic, representing an ornate bulding, in modern 
style, three stories in height, with the ample porches, hallways, and windows which 
every house built in this climate should have." On May 7 came the news that the designs 
submitted by Sloan had been accepted, with some modifications suggested by "able 
builders" of the city. 



Historical Miscellanea 31 



Officers at the penitentiary board making a report (1882-1884) declared the building 
handsome in design, constructed of the best material by the best workers, using pressed 
brick made at the prison and trimmed with North Carolina sandstone which, they felt, 
gave "a very happy relief to the external appearance." They also expressed satisfaction 
with the artistry and convenience of the house's interior and wished to enhance it 
further by using an "elaborate North Carolina hard-wood finish." 

In another progress report, a year later, Jarvis gave the additional information that 
the stone was quarried in Anson County and most of the work in finishing it had been 
done by the convicts. He also favored an interior of North Carolina hardwood, includ- 
ing the ceiling, wainscotting, and woodwork of the halls and rooms of the first fioor. 

Dreams of a beautiful mansion for the governor were in danger of being lost as 1889 
dawned. Money for its construction had run out. A meeting of the Council of State and 
the governor was called to discuss the question of beginning work on the house again 
and pushing it to completion. As a result of their discussion, the governor was given au- 
thority "to cause the sale of the property in Raleigh belonging to the fund, the sale of 
which was provided for by the recent legislature, and to appropriate the proceeds to the 
work of completing the mansion." 

By the end of December, 1890, the house was nearly finished but Governor Daniel 
Fowle did not move in until after the new year. He was particularly anxious to occupy 
the house in view of the earlier attempts to abandon it as a residence for the governor. 

As soon as the mansion was reported "erected," the Council of State announced the 
Board of Public Buildings and Grounds would have charge of its supervision. The 
board was to take over in December. But in November, before it was occupied, repair 
and preservation work had already begun with "certain exterior and interior painting" 
of the woodwork. Most of the accounts emphasize the deplorable condition of the 
"completed house. The plumbing was cheap and dirt was laid between the floor to 
deaden sound. 

The third floor and basement were left unfinished. On the lot were stables for "horses 
driven to the governor's carriage" and other outhouses. A pump provided drinking 
water for the mansion and a little gas engine pumped water from the two cisterns in the 
basement to a tank on the top floor. 

The earliest laws providing for the construction of a governor's residence, as well as 
most of the later planning, called for the purchase of furnishings. As the cost of con- 
struction mounted, only a small portion of money remained for furniture. Some pur- 
chases were made, however, before the house was furnished and an appropriation of 
$1500 in 1891 made further purchases possible. Other furnishings were bought by the 
individual occupants during their stay in the mansion. 

On moving in. Governor Fowle brought his own furniture to make up the deficit in 
the mansion, setting a precedent followed for many years before the house was ade- 
quately furnished. He filed a list of furnishings in the treasurer's office to avoid any con- 
fusion in the future as to who owned what. 

Elias Carr was the first governor to live at the mansion for a full term (1893-1897) of 
four years. Like his predecessors he soon found the house in need of furnishings and re- 
pairs. Funds were allocated by the legislature in February for necessary furniture and 
for "completion and repairing the mansion." Two years later another appropriation 
was made for work on the grounds. Some time previously the attorney general had 



32 North Carolina Manual 



ruled that the mansion and grounds, as public property, were under the care of the 
Board of Public Buildings and Grounds and directly under the supervision of the keeper 
of the capitol. 

As frequently seemed the case with new governors. Governor Bickett's residency be- 
gan with an inspection of the mansion and recommendations in keeping with the needs 
found there. The superintendent of buildings and grounds made a detailed report in ad- 
dition to the recommendations for improving the interior made by Architect James A. 
Salter and Mrs. Bickett. The repairs and improvements recommended for the exterior 
and surrounding grounds were extensive, amounting to nearly ten thousand dollars. 

Shortly after Governor Daniel Russell came into office in 1897, the legislature ap- 
pointed a committee to examine the mansion and see whether it needed any alterations. 
The committee reported that repairs were needed and a resolution was promptly intro- 
duced to provide the necessary money. 

Mrs. Bickett wrote a letter to the joint committee on public buildings and grounds of 
the legislature and attached estimates given by Salter. Her plea received sufficient atten- 
tion to merit the introduction of a bill for the requested repairs and renovations with the 
provision that these be made up to an expenditure of $65,000 out of any funds in the 
hands of the State Treasurer not otherwise appropriated." This optimistic bill, however, 
failed to pass and a substitute law was enacted in March, 1917, allowing $4,000 "to ren- 
ovate, equip, and properly furnish the Governor's Mansion and improve the surround- 
ing grounds." The succeeding legislature passed another act, allowing an expenditure of 
$2,000 annually for the years 1919 and 1920. 

As preparations were made for Governor Angus W. McLean's residence in the man- 
sion, previous renovations were considered inadequate by the incoming governor and 
citizens alike. Sentiment for abandoning the house was aroused once more; it was so ob- 
solete and so uncomfortable, public opinion in Raleigh favored scrapping the building 
and providing the governor with a new house in one of the city's residential sections. 
Burke Square could then be used as a public partk. 

Secretary of State W. N. Everett halted the movement. Rather than do away with the 
mansion, he thought it should be repaired and furnished in such a way as to provide a 
comfortable dwelling. Thus, he and Governor McLean must be credited not only with 
saving the mansion but also making it, for the first time, a house in keeping with the dig- 
nity of the governor and his office. 

McLean's plans for renovating and refurnishing were based on information beyond 
that gained through casual observation and the complaints of his predecessors. Some- 
time earlier the legislature had passed a law requiring the State Board of Health to in- 
spect all state institutions for sanitation, and the mansion, coming under this category, 
was inspected in February, 1925, shortly after McLean's inauguration. 

The report from the Board of Health was startling. Inspection was made and ratings 
given on the basis used in inspecting hotels: the mansion received "the very low rating of 
71." The report added that the management of a hotel receiving such a rating would be 
subject to indictment. A further charge was made that the principal deductions in scor- 
ing were for uncleanliness. 

Dr. W. S. Rankin, State Health Officer, after accompanying the sanitary engineer on 
his tour of inspection of the mansion, was so impressed with the necessity of making 
these improvements, he felt it his duty to bring the matter before the general assembly. 



Historical Miscellanea 33 



Secretary of State Everett had made his own examination and reported major repairs 
were needed for the sake of preservation. He suggested a sum not exceeding $50,000 for 
these repairs and new furnishings. Although this action was taken without McLean's 
knowledge, upon learning of it, he soon became active in seeking authority to begin the 
much-needed repairs. 

When money became available a firm of architects, Atwood and Nash, were em- 
ployed to carry out the renovations. H. Pier-Giavina, a "decorative artist" of Wilming- 
ton helped in the interior decorating. Renovation included painting throughout and 
modernizing of plumbing and electrical facilities. 

In working out a scheme of decoration and deciding on furniture purchases, the serv- 
ices of Elizabeth Thompson, local interior decorator, and the experience of Mrs. 
McLean were employed. The first lady, whose efforts were bent toward the simple and 
substantial, was eminently fitted for the task by her own "excellent taste and wide ob- 
servation." Cloak rooms and servants quarters were added to the basement and the pre- 
viously unfinished third floor. 

It was not until McLean's administration, in 1925, that the legislature made a specific 
appropriation for maintaining the governor's mansion. Previously, expenditures were 
made, as needed, out of the general fund. 

The renovation undertaken by Governor McLean was not actually completed while 
he was in residence. This was particularly true of the furnishings. Governor-elect Gard- 
ner felt the home of the governor should preserve a uniform appearance regardless of 
the temporary occupant. He asked the Board of Public Buildings and Grounds to 
confer with the McLeans to determine what was needed and to make provisions for 
these needs before he came into office. McLean brought the matter to the attention of 
the board and a "Special Furniture and Equipment Account Available for Incoming 
Governor" was set up for this purpose. 

The Gardners had not been in the mansion long before the legislature passed an act 
authorizing the State Highway Commission to build and maintain walkways and drives 
"within the Mansion Square. . .". Included in this project was a plan for a general 
landscaping of the mansion grounds. 

For advice in landscaping, Thomas W. Sears, landscape architect of Philadelphia, 
was contacted. Blueprints were drawn and plans submitted. Mrs. Gardner's concern for 
landscaping the gounds led to further interest in the exterior appearance of the house 
and at their suggestion the outside woodwork was painted brown to blend with the 
sandstone and brick. 

The master plan drawn by Elizabeth Thompson in 1925, at Governor McLean's re- 
quest, provided a guide for succeeding residents and allowed some consistency in fur- 
nishings and decoration. Governors of the past few decades — Ehringhaus, Hoey, 
Broughton, Cherry, Scott, Umstead, Hodges, Sanford, Moore, and Scott— have wit- 
nessed further changes and improvements. 

The feasibility of continuing to use the Mansion as both an official residence and as 
the domicile of the governor and his family during his term of office has come to the 
forefront in recent years. The massive structure for all its beauty and heritage has been 
questioned from a practical aspect. The 1971 General Assembly created "The Executive 
Residence Building Commission" to study the current needs of the Executive family 
and to make recommendations regarding the future use of the Mansion. The commis- 



34 North Carolina Manual 



sion was composed of seven members, two appointed by Lieutenant Governor Pat 
Taylor — Mr. John Church and Mr. J. J. Harrington — from the membership of the Sen- 
ate, two appointed by Speaker of the House Phil Godwin — Mr. Kenneth Royall and 
Mr. Dwight Quinn — from the membership of the House, and three appointed by Gov- 
ernor Bob Scott — Mr. Wayne Corpening, Mrs. Gladys Bullard, and Mr. Charles Brad- 
shaw. An advisory committee was also authorized to aid the Residence Commission on 
technical aspects. 

The work of the Commission covered nearly two years of study, including periodic 
meetings as well as visits to other states to view Mansions and residences "which they 
deemed most appropriate in design and suited to the needs of the Governor of North 
Carolina." Following these visits, and after hearing presentations from six architectural 
firms, recommendations were made to the Capital Building Authority, and the firm of 
Dodge and Beckwith was commissioned to draw up the plans and to make cost esti- 
mates for a new Executive Residence. The plans were accepted on October 5, 1972 and 
the cost estimate given to the governor and Advisory Budget Commission on October 
30, for inclusion in the 1973-1975 budget proposals to the general assembly. 

Included in the report made to the 1973 General Assembly was an Addendum con- 
taining suggestions, made at the request of the commission, from Mr. Carroll Mann, 
then State Property Officer, regarding the renovation of the Mansion and the cost of 
such an undertaking. Also included in the Addendum were suggestions by the commis- 
sion members for "modernizing and restoring the Executive Mansion," if it was kept as 
the Executive Residence. As a result of the Study Commission's report, the 1973 Gener- 
al Assembly appropriated $575,000 for renovation and alterations of the Executive 
Mansion. Work began during the summer, 1973, and was completed in late 1974. The 
plans for the constructing of a new executive mansion have been dropped. 

Since these initial renovations in 1973 and 1974, additional renovation and moderni- 
zation work has been done to the Mansion to improve its energy efficiency and live- 
ability. 



Historical Miscellanea 35 



THE STATE FLAG 

The flag is an emblem of antiquity and has commanded respect and reverence from 
practically all nations from the earliest times. History traces it to divine origin, the early 
peoples of the earth attributing to it strange, mysterious, and supernatural powers. In- 
deed, our first recorded references to the standard and the banner, of which our present 
flag is but a modified form, are from sacred rather than from secular sources. We are 
told that it was around the banner that the prophets of old rallied their armies and 
under which the hosts of Israel were led to war, believing, as they did, that it carried 
with it divine favor and protection. 

Since that time all nations and all peoples have had their flags and emblems, though 
the ancient superstition regarding their divine merits and supernatural powers has dis- 
appeared from among civilized peoples. The flag now, the world over, posseses the same 
meaning and has a uniform significance to all nations wherever found. It stands as the 
symbol of strength and unity, representing the national spirit and patriotism of the peo- 
ple over whom it floats. In both lord and subject, the ruler and the ruled, it commands 
respect, inspires patriotism, and instills loyalty both in peace and war. 

In this country we have a national flag which stands as the emblem of our strength 
and unity as a nation, a living representation of our national spirit and honor. In addi- 
tion to our national flag, each of the states in the Union has a "state flag" symbolic of 
its own individuality and domestic ideals, which is expressive of some particular trait, or 
commemorative of some historical event, of the people over whom it floats. The flags of 
most of the states, however, consist of the coat of arms of that state upon a suitably 
colored field. It is said that the first state flag of North Carolina was built on this model, 
but so far as we can learn from the records the first legislation on this subject of estab- 
lishing and recognizing a "state flag" was in the year 1861. 

The constitutional convention of 1861, which passed the ordinance of secession, 
adopted what is termed a state flag. On May 20, 1861, the day the secession resolution 
was adopted, Col. John D. Whitford, a member of the convention from Craven County, 
introduced the following ordinance, which was referred to a select committee of seven. 

Be it ordained. That the flag of this State shall be blue field with a white V thereon, 
and a star, incircling which shall be the words "'Surgit astrum. May 20th, 1775." 

Colonel Whitford was made chairman of the committee to which this ordinance was 
referred. The committee secured the aid and advice of William Jarl Browne, an artist of 
Raleigh. Browne prepared and submitted a model to this committee. And this model 
was adopted by the convention of June 22, 1861. It will be observed that the Browne 
model, to be hereafter explained, was vastly different from the one originally proposed 
by Colonel Whitford. Here is the ordinance as it appears in the ordinance and resolu- 
tions passed by the convention: 



AN ORDINANCE IN RELATION TO A STATE FLAG 

Be it ordained by this Convention, and it is hereby ordained by the authority oj the same. 
That the Flag of North Carolina shall consist of a red field with a white star in the cen- 
tre, and with the inscription, above the star, in a semi-circular form, of "May 20th, 
1775," and below the star, in a semicircular form, of "May 20th, 1861." That there shall 
be two bars of equal width, and the length of the field shall be equal to the bar, the width 



Historical Miscellanea 37 



of the field being equal to both bars: the first bar shall be blue, and second shall be 
white; and the length of the flag shall be one-third more than its width. [Ralijied the 22nd 
day of June, 1S6I.] 

This state flag, adopted in 1861, is said to have been issued to North Carolina regi- 
ments of state troops during the summer of that year and was borne by them through- 
out the war, being the only flag, except the national and Confederate colors, used by the 
North Carolina troops during the Civil War. This flag existed until 1885, when the Leg- 
islature adopted a new model. 

As stated above the Legislature of 1885 adopted a new state flag. The bill, which was 
introduced by General Johnstone Jones on February 5, 1885, passed its final reading 
one month later after little or no debate. This act reads as follows: 

AN ACT TO ESTABLISH A STATE FLAG 

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

SECTION 1. That the flag of North Carolina shall consist of a blue union, contain- 
ing in the centre thereof a white star with the letter N. in gilt on the left and the letter C. 
in gilt on the right of said star, the circle containing the same to be one-third the width of 
the union. 

SEC. 2. That the fly of the flag shall consist of two equally proportioned bars; the up- 
per bar to be red, the lower bar to bewhite; that the length of the bars horizontally shall 
be equal to the perpendicular length of the union, and the total length of the flag shall be 
one-third more than its width. 

SEC. 3. That above the star in the centre of the union there shall be a gilt scroll in 
semi-circular form, containing in black letters this inscription "May 20th, 1775," and 
that below the star there shall be a similar scroll containing in black letters the inscrip- 
tion: "April 12th, 1776." 

SEC. 4. That this act shall take effect from and after its ratification. 
In the General Asembly read three times and ratified this 9th day of March, A.D. 1885. 

Perhaps, it may be of interest to make a passing reference to the significance of the 
dates found on each flag. The first date, "May 20th, 1775," refers to the Mecklenburg 
Declaration of Independence, the authenticity of which we shall not here stop either to 
doubt or to defend. The second date appearing on the state flag of 1861 is that of "May 
20th, 1861." This date commemorated the secession of the State from the Union; but as 
the cause of secession was defeated this date no longer represented anything after the 
Civil War. So when a new flag was adopted in 1885, this date was removed, and an- 
other, "April 12th, 1776," took its place. This date commemorates the Halifax 
Resolves — a document that places the Old North State in the very front rank, both in 
point of time and in spirit, among those that demanded unconditional freedom and ab- 
solute independence from any foreign poer. This document stands out as one of the 
great landmarks in the annals of North Carolina history. 

Since 1885 there has been no change in our state flag. For the most part, it has re- 
mained unknown and a stranger to the good people of our State. However, as we be- 
came more intelligent, and therefore, more patriotic and public spirited, the emblem of 
the Old North State assumed a station of greater prominence among our people. One 
hopeful sign of this increased interest was the act passed by the Legislature of 1907, re- 
quiring the state flag to be floated from all state institutions, public buildings, and 
courthouses. In addition to this, many public and private schools, fraternal orders, and 



38 North Carolina Manual 



other organizations now float the state flag. The people of the State should become 
acquainted with the emblem of that government to which they owe allegiance and from 
which they secure protection. 

AN ACT TO PROMOTE LOYALTY AND GREATER RESPECT 
FOR THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE STATE 

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: 

SECTION 1. That for the purpose of promoting greater loyalty and respect to the 
state and inasmuch as a special act of the Legislature has adopted an emblem of our gov- 
ernment known as the North Carolina State flag, that it is meet and proper that it shall 
be given greater prominence. 

SEC. 2. That the board of trustees or managers of the several state insitutions and 
public buildings shall provide a North Carolina flag, of such dimensions and materials 
as they may deem best, and the same shall be displayed from a staff upon the top of each 
and every such building at all times except during inclement weather, and upon the 
death of any state officer or any prominent citizen the flag shall be put at half-mast until 
the burial of such person shall have taken place. 

SEC. 3. That the Board of County Commissioners of the several counties in this state 
shall likewise authorize the procuring of a North Carolina flag, to be displayed either on 
a staff upon the top, or draped behind the judge's stand, in each and every courthouse in 
the state, and that the state flag shall be displayed at each and every term of court held, 
and on such other public occasions as the Commissioners may deem proper. 

SEC. 4. That no state flag shall be allowed in or over any building here mentioned 
that does not conform to section five thousand three hundred and twenty-one of the 
Revisal of one thousand nine hundred and five. 

SEC. 5. That this act shall be in force from and after its ratification. 

In the General Assembly read three times, and ratified this the 9th day of March, 
A.D. 1907. 

The "first flag of 1861 had the date "May 20, 1861" as well as that of May 20, 1775. 
The date of May 20, 1861 represented the date North Carolina seceded from the union; 
however, since the secession cause no longer existed after 1865, the date "April 12, 
1776" was substituted in 1885. This date is known to most North Carolinians as the 
date of the Halifax Resolves, a document which was one of the first calls by the colonies 
for unconditional independence from Great Britain. The latter date, May 20, 1775, is 
the date of the alledged signing of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence. His- 
torians have for many years debated the authenticity of the document since no original 
document exists. The only documentation is a reproduction from memory many years 
later by one of the delegates attending the convention. The main argument of historians 
against the authenticity of the document — other than its non-existence in original docu- 
mentation — is that the Mecklenburg Resolves adopted just eleven days after the al- 
ledged adoption of the Declaration are comparatively weak in tone, almost to the point 
of complete opposites. It is difficult for historians to believe that the irreconcilable tone 
of the Declaration could have been the work of the same people who produced the re- 
solves. Efforts have been made to have the date taken off both the flag and the seal, but 
as yet, these have proved fruitless. Removal from the seal would be simple enough, for 
the date of the Halifax Resolves could be substituted easily without changing the basic 
intention of the date. The flag is another matter, for there is no other date of signifi- 
cance which could be easily substituted. 



Historical Miscellanea 



39 



THE MECKLENBURG DECLARATION OF20TH MAY, 1775* 

OFFICERS 

Abraham Alexander, Chairman 
John McKnitt Alexander, Clerk 



Col. Thomas Polk 
Ephriam Brevard 
Hezekiah J. Balch 
John Phifer 
James Harris 
William Kennon 
John Ford 
Richard Barry 
Henry Downs 



DELEGATES 

Ezra Alexander 
William Graham 
John Quary 
Abraham Alexander 
John McKnitt Alexander 
Hezekiah Alexander 
Adam Alexander 
Charles Alexander 
Zacheus Wilson, Sen. 



Waightsill Avery 
Benjamin Patton 
Mathew McClure 
Neil Morrison 
Robert Irwin 
John Flenniken 
David Reese 
Richard Harris, Sen. 



The following resolutions were presented: 

1. Resolved. That whosoever directly or indirectly abetted or in any way form or 
manner contenanced the unchartered and dangerous invasion of our rights as claimed 
by Great Britain is an enemy to this country, to America, and to the inherent and in- 
alienable rights of man. 

2. Resolved. That we the citizens of Mecklenburg County, do hereby dissolve the 
political bonds which have connected us to the mother country and hereby absolve our- 
selves from all allegiance to the British Crown and abjure all political connections con- 
tract or association with that nation who have wantonly trampled on our rights and lib- 
erties and inhumanly shed the blood of American patriots at Lexington. 

3. Resolved. That we do hereby declare ourselves a free and independent people, are, 
and of right ought to be a sovereign and self-governing association under the control of 
no power other than that of our God and the General Government of the Congress to 
the maintenance of which independence we solemnly pledge to each other our mutual 
cooperation, our lives, our fortunes, and our most sacred honor. 

4. Resolved, That as we now acknowledge the existence and control of no law or legal 
officer, civil or military within this County, we do hereby ordain and adopt as a rule of 
life all, each and every of our former laws — wherein nevertheless the Crown of Great 
Britain never can be considered as holding rights, privileges, immunities, or authority 
therein. 

5. Resolved, That it is further decreed that all, each and every Military Officer in this 
County is hereby reinstated in his former command and authority, he acting conform- 
ably to these regulations. And that every member present of this delegation shall hence- 
forth be a civil officer, viz., a justice of the peace, in the character of a "committee man" 
to issue process, hear and determine all matters of controversy according to said adopt- 
ed laws and to preserve peace, union and harmony in said county, and to use every exer- 
tion to spread the love of Country and fire of freedom throughout America, until a 
more general and organized government be established in this Province. 

*This document is found in Vol. IX, pages 1263-65 of the Colonial Records oj North Carolina: however, the 
authenticity of the declaration has become a source of controversy among historians. The controversy arises be- 
cause the text of the Resolves was recalled from memory by the clerk some twenty years after the Mecklenburg 
meeting. The original notes had been lost in a fire. 



40 North Carolina Manual 



THE HALIFAX RESOLUTION* 

"The Select Committee taking into Consideration the usurpations and violences at- 
tempted and committed by the King and Parliament of Britain against America, and the 
further Measures to be taken for frustrating the same, and for the better defence of this 
province reported as follows, to wit, 

"It appears to your Committee that pursuant to the Plan concerted by the British 
Ministry for subjugating America, the King and Parliament of Great Britain have 
usurped a Power over the Persons and Properties of the People unlimited and uncon- 
trouled; and disregarding their humble Petitions for Peace, Liberty and safety, have 
made divers Legislative Acts, denouncing War Famine and every Species of Calamity 
against the Continent in General. That British Fleets and Armies have been and still are 
daily employed in destroying the People and committing the most horrid devastations 
on the Country. That Governors in different Colonies have declared Protection to 
Slaves who should imbrue their Hands in the Blood of their Masters. That the Ships be- 
longing to America are declared prizes of War and many of them have been violently 
seized and confiscated in consequence of which multitudes of the people have been de- 
stroyed or from easy Circumstances reduced to the most Lamentable distress. 

"And whereas the moderation hitherto manifested by the United Colonies and their 
sincere desire to be reconciled to the mother Country on Constitutional Principles, have 
procured no mitigation of the aforesaid Wrongs and usurpations and no hopes remain 
of obtaining redress by those Means alone which have been hitherto tried. Your Com- 
mittee are of Opinion that the house should enter into the following Resolve, to wit 

"Resolved that the delegates for this Colony in the Continental Congress be im- 
powered to concur with the delegates of the other Colonies in declaring Independency, 
and forming foreign Alliances, resolving to this Colony the Sole, and Exclusive right of 
forming a Constitution and Laws for this Colony, and of appointing delegates from 
time to time (under the direction of a general Representation thereoO to meet the dele- 
gates of the other Colonies for such purposes as shall be hereafter pointed out." 



*The Halifax Resolves were unanimously adopted on April 12, 1776 by the 83 delegates present at the Fourth 
Provincial Congress assembled in Halifax. This was the first official action calling for independence taken by a 
state. It is important not only for this reason, but also because it was not a unilateral recommendation, but rather 
one directed to all the colonies and their delegates assembled at the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. Vir- 
ginia followed soon after and on July 4 the final draft of the Declaration of Independence was signed. 



Historical Miscellanea 41 

THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 

(Unanimously Adopted in Congress, July 4, 1776, at Philadelphia) 

When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve 
the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the 
powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of 
Nature's God entitles them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that 
they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. 

We hold these truths to be self-evident: That all men are created equal; that they are 
endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable Rights; that among these are Life, 
Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That, to secure these rights. Governments are in- 
stituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; That, 
whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of 
the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its founda- 
tions on such principles, and organizing its powers in such forms, as to them shall seem 
most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that 
Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; 
and, accordingly, all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, 
while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they 
are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably 
the same Object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their 
right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for 
their future security. Such has been the patient sufference of these Colonies, and such is 
now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. 
The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and 
usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over 
these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world. 

He has refused his assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public 
good. 

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, 
unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and, when so sus- 
pended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them. 

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, 
unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature — a 
right inestimable to them, and formidable to tyrants only. 

He has called together legislative bodies at placed unusual, uncomfortable and dis- 
tant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them 
into compliance with his measures. 

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firm- 
ness his invasions on the rights of the people. 

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; 
whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People 
at large for their exercise; the State remaining, in the meantime, exposed to all the dan- 
gers of invasion from without, and convulsions within. 

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States for that purpose ob- 
structing the Laws of Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage 



42 North Carolina Manual 



their migration hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands. 

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his assent to laws for es- 
tablishing Judiciary Powers. 

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and 
the amount and payment of their salaries. 

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to har- 
ass our people, and eat out their substance. 

He has kept among us, in times of peace. Standing Armies without the Consent of 
Our Legislature. 

He has affected to render the Military independent of, and superior to, the Civil 
power. 

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitu- 
tion, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Leg- 
islation. For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: 

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they 
should commit on the inhabitants of these States: 

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world: 

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: 

For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by jury: 

For transporting us beyond Seas, to be tried for pretended offenses; 

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighboring Province, estab- 
lishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries, so as to render it 
at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these 
Colonies: 

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fun- 
damentally, the Forms of our Governments: 

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power 
to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. 

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging 
War against us. 

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the 
lives of our people. 

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign mercenaries to complete the 
works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty 
and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the 
Head of a civilized nation. 

He has constrained our fellow-Citizens, taken captive on the high Seas, to bear Arms 
against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to 
fall themselves by their Hands. 

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on 
the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of war- 
fare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions. 

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most hum- 
ble terms; Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, 
whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be 
the ruler of a free people. 



Historical Miscellanea 



43 



Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have warned them 
from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdic- 
tion over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settle- 
ment here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have con- 
jured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpation, which in- 
evitably interrupt our connections with correspondence. They, too, have been deaf to 
the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, 
which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind — 
Enemies in War, in Peace Friends. 

We, Therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in General 
Congress Assembled; appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of 
our intentions, do, in the Name and by authority of the good People of these Colonies, 
solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be 
free and independent States; that they are Absolved from All Allegiance to the British 
Crown, and that all political connections between them and the State of Great Britain 
is, and ought to be, totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they 
have full power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, 
and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for 
the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Provi- 
dence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred 
Honor. 



Button Gwinnett 

Lyman Hall 

Geo[rge] Walton 

W[illia]m Hooper 

Joseph Hewes 

John Penn 

Tho[ma]s Stone 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton 

James Wilson 

Geo[rge] Ross 

Caesar Rodney 

Geo[rge] Reed 

Tho. M. Kean 

W[iilia]m Floyd 

Phil [lip] Livingston 

Fran[ci]s Lewis 

Lewis Morris 

Rich[ar]d Stockton 

J[onatha]n Witherspoon 

Fras. Hopkinson 

John Hart 

Abra Clark 

George Wythe 

Richard Henry Lee 

Th[omas] Jefferson 

Benja[min] Harrison 

Tho[ma]s Nelson, Jr. 

Francis Lightfoot Lee 



John Hancock 

Edward Rutledge 
Thomas Heyward, Junr. 
Thomas Lynch, Junr. 
Arthur Middleton 
Samuel Chase 
W[illia] Paca 
Carter Braxton 
Rob[er]t Morris 
Benjamin Rush 
Benja[min] Franklin 
John Morton 
Geo[rge] Clymer 
Ja[me]s Smith 
Geo[rge] Taylor 
Josiah Bartlett 
W[illia]m Hippie 
Sam[ue]l Adams 
John Adams 
Rob[er]t Treat Payne 
Eldridge Gerry 
Step[hen] Hopkins 
William Ellery 
Roger Sherman 
Samuel Huntington 
W[illia]m Williams 
Oliver Woolcott 
Matthew Thornton 



Historical Miscellanea 45 



THE AMERICAN FLAG 

A flag is more than just a piece of brightly colored cloth fluttering in the breeze. It is a 
symbol that represents a cause, an idea, or a purpose. Every country in the world has a 
flag — a national symbol with a special meaning. A symbol that can stir people to joy 
and sadness, to courage and sacrifice. A flag's gentle ripple as it is caught by a soft 
breeze, or its violent twisting when caught by a sudden gust of wind is a sight to behold. 
Even the most depressed of people feel their spirits lifted when their eyes fall upon the 
flag of their country. Hearts beat with a sense of pride and feelings are transformed into 
happiness and gratitude. 

Origins of the American Flag 

In 1775, the Philadelphia Troop of Light Horse Harry Lee carried a standard with 
thirteen alternating blue and silver stripes in the upper left-hand corner. At Cambridge 
on January 2, 1776, Washington, without authorization of the Continental Congress 
raised a flag consisting of thirteen alternate white and red stripes with the crosses of St. 
George and St. Andrew in a blue field on the upper left-hand corner. It was called the 
"Union Flag," "Grand Union Flag," and the "Continental Flag," and was employed 
until displaced by the Stars and Stripes adopted by the Continental Congress. 

Historians are unsure of who designed the first fiag. Francis Hopkinson, one of the 
signers of the Declaration of Independence, claims to have been the designer of the 
Stars and Stripes. A native of Philadelphia, born September 21, 1737, Hopkinson was a 
graduate of the University of Pennsylvania. He was a lawyer and later served as a judge 
in both New Jersey and Philadelphia. He is also credited with designing the first Great 
Seal of the United States. He died in Philadelphia May 9, 1791. 

The traditional story that Betsy Ross, as early as June 1776, made a stars and stripes 
flag from a pencil sketch supplied by Washington, but changed the points of the stars 
from six to five, is repudiated by most historians. Noted historian Theodore D. Gottlieb 
states that while Betsy Ross did make fiags, she did not make the first stars and stripes 
flag. He writes: 

The Department of State, the War and Navy departments, the Historical Sites Com- 
mission of Philadelphia and other official bodies repudiate the legend. The book and 
pamphlet material available is overwhelmingly against the legend. 

The story arose for the first time on March 14, 1870, when William J. Canby read a 
paper before the Pennsylvania Historical Society in which he states that in 1836, when 
his grandmother, Betsy Ross, was 84 years old and he was 1 1, she told him the story. He 
apparently thought little of it because nothing was done until 1857, when at the sugges- 
tion of his Aunt Clarissa, oldest daughter of Betsy, he wrote out the notes as he remem- 
bered the conversation. 

Nothing further was done until 1870 when he wrote his paper. The Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania thought so little of the paper it neither catalogued nor kept a copy of it. 
Even George Canby, younger brother of William, disputed several points in the paper. 

The legend grew to strength from 1888 to 1893 when promotors secured an option on 
the so-called Flag House. 

Modern historical researchers are giving much thought to Francis Hopkinson of New 
Jersey as the possible designer and the Fillmore or Bennington flag as the first flag. 



46 North Carolina Manual 



Modern historical researchers are giving much thought to Francis Hopkinson of New 
Jersey as the possible designer and the Fillmore or Bennington flag as the first flag. 

Half a dozen localities claim to have been the place where the Stars and Stripes was 
first used. Within New York State such contention has been for Fort Ann on July 8, 
Fort Stanwix on August 3, Bennington on August 13, and Saratoga on September 19, 
1777. The flag with thirteen stripes and thirteen stars, authorized on June 14, 1777, con- 
tinued to be used as the national emblem until Congress passed the following act, which 
President Washington signed: 

"That from and after May 1, 1795, the flag of the United States be fifteen stripes, al- 
ternate red and white; and that the union be fifteen stars, white in a blue field." 

This action was necessitated by the admission of the States of Vermont and Kentucky 
to the Union. 

The flag of 1 795 had the stars arranged in three rows of five each instead of in a circle, 
and served for 23 years. 

With the admission of more new states, however, it became apparent that the 1795 
would have to be further modified; hence in 1818 a law was passed by Congress provid- 
ing: 

"That from and after the fourth day of July next, the fiag of the United States be 
thirteen horizontal stripes, alternate red and white; that the union have twenty stars, 
white in a blue field. 

"That on the admission of every new state into the Union, one star be added to the 
union of the fiag; and that such addition shall take effect on the Fourth of July next suc- 
ceeding such admission." 

Since 1818 additional stars have been added until today they are 50 on the flag. No 
law has been passed to designate how the stars shall be arranged. At one time they 
formed a design of a larger star. Now they form five rows of six stars each and four rows 
of five stars each. 

Each flag's colors and designs have specific meanings. Our Flag, "Old Glory" as it is 
often referred to and which parallels the origin of our country stands for the hard work 
and sacrifice of millions of Americans. Its seven red and six white stripes represent the 
thirteen original colonies. Its white stars on a blue field represent the union of the states. 
The flag makers left no records to tell us why they chose red, white and blue for the 
colors of the Flag. In 1 782, the colors of the Flag were made part of the newly designed 
Great Seal of the United States, and the Department of State said the colors have these 
meanings: 

RED — hardiness and courage 

WHITE — the symbol of purity and innocence 

BLUE — vigilance, perseverance and justice 

There is a legend that George Washington said: 

"We take the stars and blue union from 
Heaven, the red from our mother country, 
separating it by white stripes, thus 
showing we have separated from her, and 
the white stripes shall go down to 
posterity representing liberty." 

The "Stars and Stripes," proportions and shape was first made official by President 

William Howard Taft in 1912, although he withdrew his order six months later. Presi- 



Historical Miscellanea 47 



dent Woodrow Wilson, in 1916, put the order back into effect and it remains in effect 
today. The horizontal length is 1 9/10 times its vertical width. The union is as wide, 
vertically, as seven of the thirteen stripes. The horizontal length of the union is 76/100 
the vertical width of the Flag. 

The Proper Display 

SEC. 1. That the following codification of existing rules and customs pertaining to 
the display and use of the flag of the United States of America be, and is hereby, estab- 
lished for the use of such civilians or civilian groups or organizations as may not be re- 
quired to conform with regulations promulgated by one or more executive departments 
of the Government of the United States. The flag of the United States for the purpose of 
this chapter shall be defined according to title 4, United States Code, Chapter 1, section 
1 and section 2 and Executive Order 10834 issued pursuant thereto. 

SEC. 2(a) It is the universal custom to display the flag only from sunrise to sunset on 
buildings and on stationary flagstaffs in the open. However, when a patriotic effect is 
desired, the flag may be displayed twenty-four hours a day if properly illuminated dur- 
ing the hours of darkness. 

(b) The flag should be hoisted briskly and lowered ceremoniously. 

(c) The flag should not be displayed on days when the weather is inclement, 
except when an all weather flag is displayed. 

(d) The flag should be displayed on all days, especially on New Year's Day, 
January 1; Inauguration Day, January 20; Lincoln's Birthday, February 12; Washing- 
ton's Birthday, third Monday in February; Easter Sunday (variable); Mother's Day, 
second Sunday in May; Armed Forces Day, third Saturday in May; Memorial Day 
(half-staff until noon), the last Monday in May; Flag Day, June 14; Independence Day, 
July 4; Labor Day, first Monday in September; Constitution Day, September 17; Col- 
umbus Day, second Monday in October; Navy Day, October 27; Veterans Day, No- 
vember 1 1; Thanksgiving Day, fourth Thursday in November; Christmas Day, Decem- 
ber 25; and such other days as may be proclaimed by the President of the United States: 
The birthdays of States (date of admission); and on State holidays. 

(e) The flag should be displayed daily on or near the main administration 
building of every public institution. 

(0 The flag should be displayed in or near every polling place on election 
days. 

(g) The flag should be displayed during school days in or near every school- 
house. 

SEC. 3 That the flag, when carried in a procession with another flag or flags, should 
be either on the marching right; that is, the flag's own right, or, if there is a line of other 
flags, in front of the center of that line. 

(a) The flag should not be displayed on a float in a parade except from a staff, 
or as provided in subsection (i). 

(b) The flag should not be draped over the hood, top, sides, or back of a vehi- 
cle or of a railroad train or a boat. When the flag is displayed on a motor car, the staff 
should be fix ed firmly to the chassis or clamped to the right fender. 

* Public Law 94-344 (94th Congress, S.J. Resolution 49, July 7, 1976.) 



48 North Carolina Manual 



(c) No other flag or pennant should be placed above or, if on the same level, 
to the right of the flag of the United States of America, except during church services 
conducted by naval chaplains at sea, when the church pennant may be flown above the 
flag during church services for the personnel of the Navy. 

(d) The flag of the United States of America, when it is displayed with an- 
other flag against a wall from crossed staffs, should be on the right, and its staff should 
be in front of the staff of the other flag. 

(e) The flag of the United States of America should be at the center and at the 
highest point of the group when a number of flags of States or localities or pennants of 
societies are grouped and displayed from staffs. 

(f) When flags of states, cities, or localities, or pennants of societies are flown 
on the same halyard with the flag of the United States, the latter should always be at the 
peak. When the flags are flown from adjacent staffs, the flag of the United States should 
be hoisted first and lowered last. No such flag or pennant may be placed above the flag 
of the United States or to the United States Flag's right. 

(g) When flags of two or more nations are displayed, they are to be flown 
from separate staffs of the same height. The flags should be of approximately equal size. 
International usage forbids the display of the flag of one nation above that of another 
nation in time of peace. 

(h) When the flag of the United States is displayed from a staff projecting 
horizontally or at an angle from the window sill, balcony, or front of a building, the 
union of the flag should be placed at the peak of the staff unless the flag is at half staff. 
When the flag is suspended over a sidewalk from a rope extending from a house to a 
pole at the edge of the sidewalk, the flag should be hoisted out, union first, from the 
building. 

(i) When displayed either horizontally or vertically against a wall, the union 
should be uppermost and to the flag's own right, that is, to the observer's left. When dis- 
played in a window, the flag should be displayed in the same way, with the union or blue 
field to the left of the observer in the street. 

(j) When the flag is displayed over the middle of the street, it should be sus- 
pended vertically with the union to the north in an east and west street or to the east in a 
north and south street. 

(k) When used on a speaker's platform, the flag, if displayed flat should be 
displayed above and behind the speaker. When displayed from a staff in a church or 
pubHc auditorium, the flag of the United States of America should hold the position of 
superior prominence, in advance of the audience, and in the position of honor at the 
clergyman's or speaker's right as he faces the audience. Any other flag so displayed 
should be placed on the left of the clergyman or speaker or to the right of the audience. 

(1) The flag should form a distinctive feature of the ceremony of unveiling a 
statue or monument, but it should never be used as the covering for the statue or monu- 
ment. 

(m) The flag, when flown at half-staff, should be first hoisted to the peak for 
an instant and then lowered to the half-staff position. The flag should be again raised to 
the peak before it is lowered for the day. On Memorial Day the flag should be displayed 
at half-staff until noon only, then raised to the top of the staff. By order of the Presi- 
dent, the flag shall be flown at half-staff upon the death of principal figures of the 



Historical Miscellanea 49 



United States Government and the Governor of a State, territory, or possession, as a 
mark of respect to their memory. In the event of the death of other officials or foreign 
dignitaries, the flag is to be displayed at half-staff according to Presidential instructions 
or orders, or in accordance with recognized customs or practices not inconsistent with 
law. In the event of the death of a present or former official of the government of any 
State, territory, or possession of the United States, the Governor of that State, territory, 
or possession may proclaim that the National flag shall be flown at half-staff. The flag 
shall be flown at half-staff thirty days from the death of the President or a former Presi- 
dent; ten days from the day of death of the Vice president, the Chief Justice or a retired 
Chief Justice of the United States, or the Speaker of the House of Representatives; from 
the day of death until interment of an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, a Secre- 
tary of an executive or military department, a former Vice President, or the Governor of 
a State, territory, or possession; and on the day of death and the following day for a 
Member of Congress. As used in this subsection — 

(1) the term 'half-staff means the position of the flag when it is one-half 
the distance between the top and bottom of the staff; 

(2) the term 'executive or military department' means any agency listed 
under sections 101 and 102 of title 5, United States Code; and 

(3) the term 'Member of Congress' means a Senator, a Representative, a 
Delegate, or the Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico. 

(n) When the flag is used to cover a casket, it should be so placed that the 
union is at the head and over the left shoulder. The flag should not be lowered into the 
grave or allowed to touch the ground. 

(o) When the flag is suspended across a corridor or lobby in a building with 
only one main entrance, it should be suspended vertically with the union of the flag to 
the observer's left upon entering. If the building has more than one main entrance, the 
flag should be suspended vertically near the center of the corridor or lobby with the 
union to the north, when entrances are to the east and west or to the east when en- 
trances are to the north and south. If there are entrances in more than two directions, 
the union should be to the east. 

SEC. 4 That no disrespect should be shown to the flag of the United States of Ameri- 
ca; the flag should not be dipped to any person or thing. Regimental colors. State flags, 
and organization or institutional flags are to be dipped as a mark of honor. 

(a) The flag should never be displayed with the union down, except as a signal 
of dire distress in instances of extreme danger to life or property. 

(b) The flag should never touch anything beneath it, such as the ground, the 
floor, water, or merchandise. 

(c) The flag should never be carried flat or horizontally, but always aloft and 
free. 

(d) The flag should never be used as wearing apparel, bedding, or drapery. It 
should never be festooned, drawn back, nor up, in folds, but always allowed to fall free. 
Bunting of blue, white, and red, always arranged with the blue above, the white in the 
middle, and red below, should be used for covering a speaker's desk, draping the front 
of the platform, and for decoration in general. 

(e) The flag should never be fastened, displayed, used, or stored in such a 
manner as to permit it to be easily torn, soiled, or damaged in any way. 



50 North Carolina Manual 



(f) The flag should never be used as a covering for a ceiling. 

(g) The flag should never have placed upon it, nor on any part of it, nor at- 
tached to it any mark, insignia, letter, word, figure, design, picture, or drawing of any 
nature. 

(h) The flag should never be used as a receptacle for receiving, holding, carry- 
ing or delivering anything. 

(i) The flag should never be used for advertising purposes in any manner 
whatsoever. It should not be embroidered on such articles as cushions or handkerchiefs 
and the like, printed or otherwise impressed on paper napkins or boxes or anything that 
is designed for temporary use and discard. Advertising signs should not be fastened to a 
staff or halyard from which the flag is flown. 

(j) No part of the flag should ever be used as a costume or athletic uniform. 
However, a flag patch may be affixed to the uniform of military personnel, firemen, 
policemen, and members of patriotic organizations. The flag represents a living country 
and is itself considered a living thing. Therefore, the lapel flag pin being a replica, 
should be worn on the left lapel near the heart. 

(k) The flag, when it is in such condition that it is no longer a fitting emblem 
for display, should be destroyed in a dignified way, preferably by burning. 

SEC. 5 During the ceremony of hoisting or lowering the fiag or when the flag is pass- 
ing in a parade or in review, all persons present except those in uniform should face the 
fiag and stand at attention with the right hand over the heart. Those present in uniform 
should render the military salute. When not in uniform, men should remove their head- 
dress with their right hand and hold it at the left shoulder, the hand being over the heart. 
Aliens should stand at attention. The salute to the fiag in a moving column should be 
rendered at the moment the flag passes. 

SEC. 6 During rendition of the national anthem when the fiag is displayed, all pres- 
ent except those in uniform should stand at attention facing the fiag with the right hand 
over the heart. Men not in uniform should remove their headdress with their right hand 
and hold it at the left shoulder, the hand being over the heart. Persons in uniform 
should render the military salute at the first note of the anthem and retain this position 
until the last note. When the flag is not displayed, those present should face toward the 
music and act in the same manner they would if the flag were displayed there. 

SEC. 7 The Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag, 'I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the 
United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands, one Nation under 
God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all', should be rendered by standing at at- 
tention facing the fiag with the right hand over the heart. When not in uniform men 
should remove their headdress with their right hand and hold it at the left shoulder, the 
hand being over the heart. Persons in uniform should remain silent, face the fiag and 
render the military salute. 

SEC. 8 Any rule or custom pertaining to the display of the fiag of the United States 
of America, set forth herein, may be altered, modified, or repealed, or additional rules 
with respect thereto may be prescribed, by the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed 
Forces of the United States, whenever he deems it to be appropriate or desirable; and 
any such alteration or additional rule shall be set forth in a proclamation. 



Historical Miscellanea 51 



The Pledge 



The Pledge to the Flag, according to a report of the Historical Committee of the 
United States Flag Association (May 18, 1939), was written by Francis Bellamy (August 
1892), a member of the editorial staff of The Youth's Companion, in Boston, Massachu- 
setts. It was first repeated at the exercises in connection with the celebration of Colum- 
bus Day (October 12, 1892, Old Style). The idea of this national celebration on Colum- 
bus Day was largely that of James B. Upham, one of the junior proprietors of The 
Youth's Companion. 

Francis Hopkinson, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, was the designer of 
the Stars and Stripes— not Betsy Ross of Philadelphia, who made flags. He also de- 
signed the first Great Seal of the United States, a number of coins and several items of 
paper currency in the early days of the Republic. 

Hopkinson, born in Philadelphia (September 21, 1737), and a graduate of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, was the first native American composer of a secular song, "My 
Days Have Been So Wondrous Free." He was a lawyer and later a judge in New Jersey 
and then in Pennsylvania. He died in Philadelphia (May 9, 1791). His portrait, painted 
by himself, hangs in the rooms of the Pennsylvania Historical Society, Philadelphia. He 
played the organ and harpsichord. 

"I pledge allegiance to the flag 

of the United States of America, 

And to the Republic for which it stands. 

One Nation under God, indivisible. 

With liberty and justice for all." 



Historical Miscellanea 53 



THE STATE BIRD 

By popular choice the Cardinal was selected for adoption as our State Bird as of 
March 4, 1943. {Session Laws, 1943 c. 595; G. S. 145-2.) 

This bird is sometimes called the Winter Redbird because it is most conspicuous in 
winter and is the only "redbird" present at that season. It is an all year round resident 
and one of the commonest birds in our gardens and thickets. It is about the size of a 
Catbird with a longer tail, red all over, except that the throat and region around the bill 
is black; the head is conspicuously crested and the large stout bill is red; the female is 
much duller — the red being mostly confined to the crest, wings and tail. There are no 
seasonal changes in the plumage. 

The Cardinal is a fine singer, and what is unusual among birds the female is said to 
sing as well as the male, which latter sex usually has a monopoly of that art in the 
feathered throngs. 

The nest is rather an untidy affiar built of weed stems, grass and similar materials in a 
low shrub, small tree or bunch of briars, usually not over four feet above the ground. 
The usual number of eggs to a set is three in this State, usually four further North. Pos- 
sibly the Cardinal raises an extra brood down here to make up the difference, or pos- 
sibly he can keep up his normal population more easily here through not having to face 
inclement winters of the colder North. A conspicuous bird faces more hazards. 

The Cardinal is by nature a seed eater, but he does not dislike small fruits and insects. 

THE STATE FLOWER 

The General Assembly of 1941 designated the dogwood as the State flower. {Public 
Laws, 1941, c. 289; G.S. 145-1.) 

The Dogwood is one of the most prevalent trees in our State and can be found in all 
parts of the State from the mountains to the coast. Its blossoms which appear in early 
spring and continue on into summer, are most often found in white, although shades of 
pink are not uncommon. 

THE STATE INSECT 

The General Assembly of 1973 designated the Honey Bee as the official State Insect. 
{Session Laws, 1973, c. 55) 

This industrious creature is responsible for the production of more than $2 million 
worth of honey in the state each year. However, its greatest value results from the pol- 
Hnation of North Carolina crops which is estimated to be worth nearly $50 million an- 
nually. 



Historical Miscellanea 55 



THE STATE TREE 

The pine was officially designated as the State tree by the General Assembly of 1963. 
{Session Laws, 1963, c. 41). 

This choice was not unexpected as the pine is the most common of the trees found in 
North Carolina, as well as the most important one in the history of our State. During 
the Colonial and early Statehood periods, the pine was a vital part of the economy of 
North Carolina. From it came many of the "naval stores" — resin, turpentine, and tim- 
ber — which was needed by merchants and the navy for their ships. It has continued to 
provide North Carolina with a supply of products. 



THE STATE MAMMAL 

The General Assembly of 1969 designated the Gray Squirrel as the official State 
Mammal. {Session Laws, 1969 c. 1207; G. S. 145-5.) 

The gray squirrel is a common inhabitant of most areas of North Carolina from "the 
swamps of eastern North Carolina to the upland hardwood forests of the piedmont and 
western counfies." He feels more at home in an "untouched wilderness" environment, 
although a large portion of their population inhabit our city parks and suburbs. During 
the fall and winter months the gray squirrel survives on a diet of hardwoods, with 
acorns providing carbohydrates and other nuts protein. In the spring and summer their 
diet consists of "new growth and fruits" supplemented by early corn, peanuts and in- 
sects. 

NAME OF STATE AND NICKNAMES 

In 1629 King Charles the First of England "erected into a province," all the land 
from Albemarle Sound on the north to the St. John's River on the south, which he di- 
rected should be called Carolina. The word Carolina is from the word Carolus, the 
Latin form of Charles. 

When Carolina was divided in 1710, the southern part was called South Carolina and 
the northern or older settlement was called North Carolina, or the "Old North State." 
Historians had recorded the fact that the principal products of this State were "tar, 
pitch and turpentine." It was during one of the fiercest battles of the War Between the 
States, so the story goes, that the column supporting the North Carolina troops was 
driven from the field. After the battle the North Carolinians, who had successfully 
fought it out alone, were greeted from the passing derelict regiment with the question: 
"Any more tar down in the Old North State, boys?" Quick as a flash came the answer: 
"No; not a bit; old Jeffs bought it all up." "Is that so; what is he going to do with it?" 
was asked. "He is going to put it on you-uns heels to make you stick better in the next 
fight." Creecy relates that General Lee, hearing of the incident, said: "God bless the Tar 
Heel boys," and from that they took the name. (—Adapted from Grandfather Tales oj 
North Carolina by R. B. Creecy and Histories of North Carolina Regiments, Vol. Ill, by 
Walter Clark). 



Historical Miscellanea 57 



THE STATE SHELL 

The General Assembly of 1965 designated the Scotch Bonnet (pronounced bonay) as 
the State Shell. {Session Laws, 1965, c. 681.) 

A colorful and beautifully shaped shell, the Scotch Bonnet is abundant in North 
Carolina coastal waters between 500 and 200 feet deep. The best source of live speci- 
mens is from offshore commercial fisherman. 



THE STATE SALT WATER FISH 

The General Assembly of 1971 designated the Channel Bass (Red Drum) as the offi- 
cial State Salt Water Fish. (Session Laws, 1971, c. 274; G. S. 145-6) 

Channel Bass usually occur in great supply along the Tar Heel coastal waters and 
have been found to weigh up to 75 pounds although most large ones average between 30 
and 40 pounds. 



THE STATE MOTTO 

The General Assembly of 1893 (chapter 145) adopted the words "Esse Quam Videri" 
as the State's motto and directed that these words with the date "20 May, 1775," should 
be placed with our Coat of Arms upon the Great Seal of the State. 

The words "Esse Quam Videri" mean "to be rather than to seem." Nearly every State 
has adopted a motto, generally in Latin. The reason for their mottoes being in Latin is 
that the Latin tongue is far more condensed and terse than the English. The three 
words, "Esse Quam Videri," require at least six English words to express the same idea. 

Curiosity has been aroused to learn the origin of our State motto. It is found in 
Cicero in his essay on Friendship (Cicero de Amnicitia, Chap. 26) 

It is a little singular that until the act of 1893 the soverign State of North Carolina had 
no motto since its declaration of independence. It was one of the very few states which 
did not have a motto and the only one of the original thirteen without one. (Rev., s 
5320; 1893, c. 145; G. S. 144-2.) 

THE STATE COLORS 

The General Assembly of 1945 declared Red and Blue of shades appearing in the 
North Carolina State Flag and the American Flag as the official State Colors. {Session 
Laws, 1945, c. 878.) 



58 



North Carolina Manual 




THE STATE PRECIOUS STONE 

The General Assembly of 1973 designated the emerald as the official State precious 
stone. {Session Laws, 1973, c. 136.) 

A greater variety of minerals, more than 300, have been found in North Carolina 
than any other state. 

These include some of the most valuable and unique gems in the world. The largest 
Emerald in North Carolina is a 1,438-carat specimen found at Hiddenite, near States- 
ville. Also, the "Carolina Emerald," now owned by Tiffany & Company of New York 
was found at Hiddenite in 1970. When cut to 13.14 carats, the stone was valued at 
$100,000 and became the largest and finest cut emerald on this continent. 



Historical Miscellanea 



59 




THE STATE REPTILE 

The General Assembly of 1979 designated the turtle — specifically the Eastern Box 
Turtle — as the official State Reptile for the State of North Carolina. {Session Laws, 
1979, c. 154) 

The turtle is one of nature's most useful creatures. Through its dietary habits it serves 
to assist in the control of harmful and pestiferous insects and as a clean-up crew, helping 
to preserve the purity and beauty of our waters. At a superficial glance, the turtle ap- 
pears to be a mundane and uninteresting creature; however, closer examination reveals 
that it to be a most fascinating creature, ranging from species well adapted to modern 
conditions to species which have existed virtually unchanged since prehistoric times. 
Derided by many, the turtle is really a cuUinary delight, providing the gourmet food 
enthusiast with numerous tasty dishes from soups to entries. 

The turtle watches undisturbed as countless generations of faster "hares" run by to 
quick oblivion, and is thus a model of patience for mankind, and a symbol of our State's 
unrelenting pursuit of great and lofty goals. 



60 



North Carolina Manual 




THE STATE ROCK 

The General Assembly of 1979 designated Granite as the official Rock for the State 
of North Carolina. {Session Laws, 1979, C. 906) 

The State of North Carolina has been blessed with an abundant source of "the noble 
rock" granite. Just outside Mount Airy in Surry County is the largest open face granite 
quarry in the world measuring one mile long and 1,800 feet in width. The granite from 
this quarry is unblemished, gleaming and without interfering seams to mar its splendor 
and the high quality of this granite allows its widespread use as a building material, in 
both industrial applications and in laboratory applications where super smooth surfaces 
are a prerequisite. 

North Carolina granite has been used for many magnificent edifices of government 
throughout the United States such as the Wright Brothers Memorial at Kitty Hawk, the 
gold depository at Fort Knox, the Arlington Memorial Bridge and numerous court- 
houses throughout the land. Granite is a symbol of strength and steadfastness, qualities 
characteristic of North Carolinians. It is fitting and just that the State of North Caro^ 
Una recognize the contribution of granite in providing employment to its citizens and 
enhancing the beauty of its public buildings. 



Historical Miscellanea 



61 



THE STATE SONG 

The song known as "The Old North State" was adopted as the official song of the 
State of North Carolina by the General Assembly of 1927. (Public Laws, 1927, c. 26; G. 
S. 149-1). 



THE OLD NORTH STATE 



(Traditional air as Mung in 1926) 



WaXIAM GlSTOH 

With spirit 



COLUECTKO AHS UBAHOIO 
BT Msa. E. B. BiMDOLTB 




^^ 



5^ 



t: 



i 



3Crz:S 



1. Car - o - li - na! Car 

2. Tho' she en - vies not 

3. Then let all those who 



li - nal heav-en's bless-ings at - tend her, 
oth • ers, their mer - it - ed glo - ry, 
love us, love the land that we live in, 




While we live we will cher • ish, pro tect and 

Say whose name stands the fore - most, in lib • er 

As hap • py a re ■ gion as on this side 




de • fend her, Tho' the 
ty'ssto • ry, Tho' too 
of heav-eo, Where 



t 



^ 



eES; 






■0T-X^- 






scorn - er nay sneer at and wit - lings de - fame her. Sti!! our hearts swell with 
true to her - self e er to crouch to op -pres-sion. Who can yield to just 
plen - ty and peace, love and joy smile be - fore us, Raise a>loud, rais; to- 



eS^ 



=^ 



• ■ r r 'I 



T — r 




« — -^ 



lJ=t* 



CaoRCB 



W- 



glad - ness when ev - er we name her. 

rule a more loy • a! sub - mis - sion. Hur • rahl 

geth - er the heart thrill - ing chorus. 



Hur - rahl 



the 




-* «' 

Old North State for - ev 



Igl 



It: 



er, Hur - rahl 

-* • I-S" — 



Hur - rahl the good Old North State. 



^ul: 



\^ <J 



:^3t 



7^-— a>- 



1 



62 North Carolina Manual 



THE STATE TOAST* 

Officially adopted as the toast of North Carolina by the General Assembly of 1957. 
{Session Laws, 1957, c. 777.) 

Here's to the land of the long leaf pine, 

The summer land where the sun doth shine. 

Where the weak grow strong and the strong grow great. 

Here's to "Down Home," the Old North State! 

Here's to the land of the cotton bloom white, 
Where the scuppernong perfumes the breeze at night. 
Where the soft southern moss and jessamine mate, 
'Neath the murmuring pines of the Old North State! 

Here's to the land where the galax grows. 
Where the rhododendron's rosette glows. 
Where soars Mount Mitchell's summit great, 
In the "Land of the Sky," in the Old North State! 

Here's to the land where maidens are fair, 
Where friends are true and cold hearts rare, 
The near land, the dear land whatever fate. 
The blest land, the best land, the Old North State! 



'Composed in 1904 by Leonora Martin and Mary Burke Kerr. 



Historical Miscellanea 63 



Dates of Public Holidays 

(a) The following are declared to be legal public holidays: 

(1) New Year's Day, January 1. 

(2) Robert E. Lee's Birthday, January 19. 

(3) Washington's Birthday, the third Monday in February. 
(3a) Greek Independence Day, March 25. 

(4) Anniversary of signing of Halifax Resolves, April 12. 

(5) Confederate Memorial Day, May 10. 

(6) Anniversary of Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, May 20. 

(7) Memorial Day, the last Monday in May. 

(8) Easter Monday. 

(9) Independence Day, July 4. 

(10) Labor Day, the first Monday in September. 

(11) Columbus Day, the second Monday in October. 
(11a) Yom Kippur. 

(12) Veterans Day, November 11. 

(13) Tuesday after the first Monday in November in years in which a general elec- 
tion is to be held. 

(14) Thanksgiving Day, the fourth Thursday in November. 

(15) Christmas Day, December 25. 

Provided that Easter Monday and Memorial Day, the last Monday in May, shall be a 
holiday for all State and national banks only. 

(b) Whenever any public holiday shall fall upon Sunday, the Monday following shall 
be a public holiday. (1881, c. 294; Code, s. 3784; 1891, c. 58; 1899, c. 410; 1901, c. 25; 
Rev., s. 2838; 1907, c. 996; 1909, c. 888; 1919, c. 287; C.S., s. 2959; 1935, c. 212; 1959, c. 
1011; 1969, c. 521; 1973, c. 53; 1979, c. 84; 1981, c. 135.) 



PART II 

CENSUS 



Census 67 



POPULATION OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

Twentieth Census of the United States — 1980 

The 1980 Census, the Twentieth Census of the United States, was one of the most 
accurate ever taken. There have been numerous challenges to the figures released by 
the Bureau of the Census; however, most of these challenges are the result of growth 
rates being lower than anticipated by local governmental officials. The lower figures 
are due to the figures of the 1970 Census which were found to be higher in many cases 
than they actually were. This created a faulty base on which to make initial projections 
during the decade of the seventies. 

In North Carolina there were 42 incorporated places of 10,000 or more in 1980. 
Three of these reached this size since 1970 — Boone, Havelock, and Laurinburg. Of 
the incorporated places over 10,000, Charlotte is the largest with 314,447 people, fol- 
lowed by Greensboro with 155,642 and Raleigh with 149,771. Winston-Salem, the 
third largest in 1970, experienced a drop from 132,913 in 1970 to 131,885 in 1980. 
During the 1970's several of the incorporated urban areas annexed military bases 
which were adjacent to them. This in part accounts for the dramatic increases in the 
population of certain incorporated areas. 

According to the final figures of the 1980 Census, 97 of the counties gained in popu- 
lation. This is quite a change from the previous census which showed only 62 counties 
with gains while 38 had declines. Currituck County showed the greatest percentage 
gain with an increase of 91.2%. Dare County was a distant second with a 59.0% 
increase. Brunswick County was third at 47.7%. 

The first census of North Carolina was taken in 1790, returning a population of 
393,751. The population has shown an increase in every census since that time. The 
population passed 1,000,000 between 1860 and 1870; 2,000,000 between 1900 and 1910; 
3,000,000 between 1920 and 1930; 4,000,000 between 1940 and 1950; and 5,000,000 
between 1960 and 1970. The recent census reveals that the present population of North 
Carolina is 5,874,429. This represents a growth rate of 15.5%, or more than three 
quarters of a million people, during the last decade as opposed to a rate of approxi- 
mately 12%, or half a million people, during the 1960's. Almost half (47.7%) of the 
1970-1980 change in population was due to net migration. This is in contrast to the 
previous decade where all the growth was due to natural increase (or an excess of 
births over deaths). In fact, natural increase during the 1960's was greater than total 
growth, due to a net out-migration of 70,319 persons during that decade. If the same 
high rate of natural increase in the 1960's had continued during the 1970's the state 
would have had around 271,000 more residents than reflected in the 1980 figure. As it 
was, a tremendous increase in net migration much more than offset the decrease in 
birth rates. 

North Carolina has a total area of 52,712 square miles of which 48,798 is land area 
and 3,914 is water. Based on the population figures of 1980, North Carolina has a 
density of 1 1 1.4 inhabitants per square mile — an increase of 15 o\:pr the 1970 density 
figure of 96.4 inhabitants. 

The tables that follow give various population figures based on tabulations made 
during the 1980 census and corrections of initial reporting errors and any changes that 
have occurred since April 1, 1980. 



68 



North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 1. STATE POPULATION STATISTICS — 

CENSUS STATISTICS & PROJECTIONS 



1-A. Components of Population Change. 

Percent 

1960-1970 Change 1970-1980 

Growth 528.256 12.0 790,018 

Births 1,011,061 22.0 861,157 

Deaths 412,486 9.0 464,508 

Natural Increase 598,575 13.0 396,649 

Net Migration -70,319 -2.0 393.369 

1-B. Regional Components of Growth. 

Percent 

1960-1970 Change 1970-1980 
Growth: 

Coastal Plain 72,788 4.47 230,888 

Piedmont 366,352 17.05 410,636 

Mountains 89,116 11.43 148,494 

Births; 

Coastal Plain 379,266 23.30 328,207 

Piedmont 471,843 21.96 397,598 

Mountains 159,964 20.52 135,368 

Deaths: 

Coastal Plain 146,280 8.99 157,489 

Piedmont 192,378 8.95 222,830 

Mountains 73,838 9.47 84,197 

Natural Increase: 

Coastal Plain 232.986 14.31 170,718 

Piedmont 279,465 13.01 174,768 

Mountains 86,126 11.05 51,171 

Net Migration: 

Coastal Plain -160,198 -9.84 60,170 

Piedmont 86,887 4.04 235,868 

Mountains 2,990 0.38 97,323 

1-C. Statewide Census Figures. 



Date of Data Population 

April 1, 1960 4,556,155 

April 1, 1970 5,084,411 

April 1, 1980 5,874,429 

July 1, 1985* 6,241,000 

April 1, 1990* 6,601,000 



Change from 
Last Census 

494,226 
528,256 
790,018 

787,227 



Percent 




Change 


Change 




In Rates 


15.5 




3.5 


17.0 




-5.0 


9.0 




0.0 


8.0 




-5.0 


7.0 




9.0 


Percent 




Change 


Change 




in Rates 


13.58 




9.11 


16.33 




-0.72 


17.10 




5.67 


19.30 




-4.00 


15.81 




-6.15 


15.58 




-4.94 


9.26 




0.27 


8.86 




-0.09 


9.69 




0.22 


10.04 




-4.27 


6.95 




-6.06 


5.89 




-5.16 


3.50 




13.38 


9.38 




5.34 


11.20 




10.82 




Percent 




Changi 


t 




12.2 






11.6 






15.5 





13.5 



Projected Data 



Census 



69 



TABLE 2. COUNTY POPULATION STATISTICS, 1980 CENSUS 



County 



Land Area 

in Square 

Miles 



1970 Census 
Total 
Population 



Density 



1980 Census 
Total 
Population 



Density 



Percent 

Change 

19701980 



Alamance ... 
Alexander ... 
Alleghany ... 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick .. 

Buncombe .. 

Burke 

Cabarrus .... 

Caldwell 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham .... 
Cherokee .... 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland ... 
Columbus ... 
Craven 

Cumberland 
Currituck .... 

Dare 

Davidson .... 
Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe . 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville .... 
Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood .... 
Henderson .. 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 



428 


96,502 


225.1 


99,319 


232.1 


2.9 


259 


19,466 


75.2 


24,999 


96.5 


28.4 


225 


8,134 


36,2 


9,587 


42.6 


17.9 


533 


23,488 


44.1 


25,649 


48.1 


8.9 


426 


19.571 


45.9 


22,325 


52.4 


14.1 


245 


12,655 


51.7 


14,409 


58.8 


13.9 


826 


35,980 


43.6 


40,355 


48.9 


12.2 


698 


20,528 


29.4 


21,024 


30.1 


2.4 


883 


26,477 


30.0 


30,491 


34.5 


15.1 


856 


24,223 


28.3 


35,777 


41.8 


47.7 


657 


145,056 


220.8 


160,934 


245.0 


10.9 


511 


60,364 


118. 1 


72,504 


141.9 


20.1 


363 


74,629 


205.6 


85,895 


326.6 


15.1 


469 


56,699 


120.9 


67,746 


144.4 


19.5 


239 


5,453 


22.8 


5,829 


24.4 


6.9 


536 


3 1 ,603 


59.0 


41,092 


76.7 


30.0 


428 


19,055 


44.5 


20,705 


48.4 


8.7 


394 


90,873 


230.6 


105,208 


267.0 


15.8 


709 


29,554 


41.7 


33,415 


47.1 


13. 1 


452 


16,330 


36.1 


18,933 


40.4 


15.9 


173 


10,764 


62.2 


12,558 


72.6 


16.7 


209 


5,180 


24.8 


6,619 


31.7 


27.8 


468 


72,556 


155.0 


83,435 


177.6 


15.0 


945 


46,937 


49.7 


51,037 


54.0 


8.7 


699 


62,554 


89.5 


71,043 


101.6 


13.6 


654 


212,042 


324.2 


247,160 


377.9 


16.6 


246 


6,976 


28.4 


11,089 


45.1 


59.0 


391 


6,995 


17.9 


13,377 


34.2 


91.2 


549 


95,627 


174.2 


113,162 


206.1 


18.3 


265 


18,855 


71.2 


24,599 


92.8 


30.5 


815 


38,015 


46.6 


40,952 


50.2 


7.7 


295 


132,681 


449.8 


152,785 


517.9 


15.2 


510 


52,341 


102.6 


55,988 


109.8 


7.0 


419 


215,118 


513.4 


243,704 


581.6 


13.3 


491 


26,820 


54.6 


30,055 


61.2 


12.1 


356 


148,415 


416.9 


162,568 


456.7 


9.5 


337 


8,524 


25.3 


8,875 


26.3 


4.1 


292 


6,562 


22.5 


7,217 


24.7 


10.0 


537 


32.762 


61.0 


34,043 


63.4 


3.9 


267 


14,967 


56.1 


16,117 


60.4 


7.7 


655 


288,645 


440.6 


317,154 


484.2 


9.9 


734 


53,884 


73.4 


55,076 


75.0 


2.3 


603 


49,667 


82.4 


59,570 


98.8 


19.9 


551 


41,710 


75.7 


46,495 


84.4 


11.5 


378 


42,804 


113.2 


58,580 


155.0 


36.9 


353 


24,439 


66.7 


23,368 


66.2 


-4.4 


389 


16,436 


42.3 


20,383 


52.6 


24.0 


613 


5,571 


9.1 


5,873 


9.6 


5.4 


572 


72,197 


126.2 


82,538 


144.3 


14.3 


491 


21,593 


44.0 


25,811 


52.6 


19.5 



70 



North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 2. COUNTY POPULATION STATISTICS, 
1980 CENSUS (Continued) 



County 



Land Area 

in Square 

Miles 



1970 Census 
Total 
Population 



Density 



1980 Census 
Total 
Population 



Density 



Percent 

Change 

1970-1980 



Johnston 797 

Jones 467 

Lee 256 

Lenoir 400 

Lincoln 297 

McDowell 436 

Macon 513 

Madison 450 

Martin 455 

Mecklenburg 530 

Mitchell 215 

Montgomery 488 

Moore 704 

Nash 544 

New Hanover 185 

Northampton 536 

Onslow 765 

Orange 400 

Pamlico 338 

Pasquotank 228 

Pender 871 

Perquimans 246 

Person 401 

Pitt 655 

Polk 239 

Randolph 798 

Richmond 475 

Robeson 949 

Rockingham 569 

Rowan 523 

Rutherford 563 

Sampson 945 

Scotland 319 

Stanly 398 

Stokes 457 

Surry 536 

Swain 524 

Transylvania 382 

Tyrrell 390 

Union 639 

Vance 249 

Wake 858 

Warren 424 

Washington 343 

Watauga 317 

Wayne 557 

Wilkes 757 

Wilson 375 

Yadkin 336 

Yancey 312 



61,737 


77.5 


9,779 


20.9 


30,467 


119.0 


55,204 


138.0 


32,682 


110.0 


30,648 


70.3 


15,788 


30.8 


16,003 


35.6 


24,730 


54.4 


354,656 


669.2 


13,447 


62.5 


19,267 


39.5 


39,048 


55.5 


59,122 


108.7 


82,996 


448.6 


23,099 


43.1 


103,126 


134.8 


57,567 


143.9 


9,467 


28.0 


26,824 


117.6 


18,149 


20.8 


8,351 


33.9 


25,914 


64.6 


73,900 


112.8 


11,735 


49.1 


76,358 


95.7 


39,889 


84.0 


84,842 


89.4 


72,402 


127.2 


90.035 


172.2 


47,337 


84.1 


44,954 


47.6 


26,929 


84.4 


42,822 


107.6 


23,782 


52.0 


51,415 


95.9 


8,835 


16.9 


19,713 


51.6 


3,806 


9.8 


54,714 


85.6 


32,691 


131.3 


229,006 


266.9 


15,810 


37.3 


14,038 


40.9 


23,404 


73.8 


85,408 


153.3 


49,524 


65.4 


57,486 


153.3 


24,599 


73.2 


12,629 


40.5 



70,599 


88.6 


14.4 


9,705 


20.8 


-0.8 


36,718 


143.4 


20.5 


59,819 


149.5 


8.4 


42,372 


142.7 


29.6 


35,135 


80.6 


14.6 


20,178 


39.3 


27.8 


16,827 


37.4 


5.1 


25,948 


120.7 


4.9 


404,270 


762.8 


14.0 


14,428 


67.1 


7.3 


22.469 


46.0 


16.6 


50,505 


71.7 


29.3 


67,153 


123.4 


13.6 


103,471 


559.3 


24.7 


22,195 


42.1 


-2.2 


112,784 


147.4 


9.4 


77,055 


192,6 


33.9 


10,398 


30.8 


9.8 


28,462 


124.8 


6.1 


22,262 


25.5 


22.5 


9,486 


38.6 


13.6 


29,164 


72.7 


12.5 


90,146 


137.6 


22.0 


12,984 


54.3 


10.6 


91,728 


114.9 


20.1 


45,481 


95.7 


14.0 


101,610 


107.0 


19.8 


83,426 


146.6 


15.2 


99,186 


189.6 


10.2 


53,787 


95.5 


13.6 


49,687 


52.6 


10.5 


32,273 


101.2 


19.8 


48,517 


121.9 


13.3 


33,086 


72.4 


39.1 


59,449 


110.9 


15.6 


10,283 


19.6 


16.4 


23,417 


61.3 


18.8 


3,975 


10.2 


4.4 


70,436 


110.1 


28.6 


36,748 


147.6 


12.4 


301,429 


351.3 


31.6 


16,232 


38.3 


2.7 


14,801 


43.2 


5.4 


31,666 


99.8 


35.3 


97,054 


174.2 


13.6 


58,657 


77.5 


18.4 


63,132 


168.4 


9.8 


28,439 


84.6 


15.6 


14,934 


47.9 


18.3 



Census 



71 



TABLE 3. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
10,000 OR MORE 



City or Town 



County 



1970 
Census 



1980 
Census 



Percent 
Change 



Albemarle Stanly 

Asheboro Randolph . 

Asheville Buncombe 

Boone Watauga ... 

Burlington Alamance . 



Cary Wake 

Chapel Hill Durham, Orange 

Charlotte Mecklenburg 

Concord Cabarrus 

Durham Durham 



11,126 
10,797 
57,820 
8,754 
35,930 

7,640 

26,199 

241,420 

18,464 

95.438 



15,110 
15,252 
54,022 
10,191 
37,266 

21,763 
32,421 

314,447 
16,942 

100,538 



35.8 
41.3 
-7.3 
16.4 
3.7 

184.9 

23.7 

30.2 

-8.2 

5.7 



Eden Rockingham 

Elizabeth City Pasquotank, Camden 

Fayetteville Cumberland 

Gastonia Gaston 

Goldsboro Wayne 



15,871 
14,381 
53,510 
47,322 
26,960 



15,672 
14,004 
59,507 
47,333 
31,871 



-1.3 

-2.6 

11.2 

0.0 

18.2 



Greensboro Guilford 

Greenville Pitt 

Havelock Craven 

Henderson Vance 

Hickory Burke, Catawba 



High Point Randolph, Guilford 

Jacksonville Onslow 

Kannapolis Cabarrus, Rowan -.. 

Kinston Lenoir 

Laurinburg Scotland 



144.076 

29,063 

3,012 

13,896 

20,569 

63,229 
16,289 

23,020 
8,859 



155,642 
35,740 
17,718 
13,522 
20,757 

63,479 
18,237 
30,303 
25,234 
11.480 



8.0 

23.0 

488.2 

-2.7 

0.9 

0.2 
8.0 

9.6 

29.6 



Lenoir Caldwell . 

Lexington Davidson 

Lumberton Robeson . 

Monroe Union 

Morganton Burke 



New Bern Craven 

Raleigh Wake 

Reidsville Rockingham 

Roanoke Rapids Halifax 

Rocky Mount Edgecombe, Nash. 

Salisbury Rowan 

Sanford Lee 

Shelby Cleveland 

Statesville Iredell 

Thomasville Davidson 



14,705 
17,205 
16,961 
11,282 
13,625 

14,660 
122,830 
13,636 
13,508 
34,284 

22,515 
11,716 
16,328 
20,007 
15.230 



13,748 
15,711 
18,340 
14,555 
13,763 

14,557 
150,255 
12,492 
14.702 
41.526 

22,677 
14,773 
15,310 

18.622 
14.144 



-6.5 
-8.7 

8.1 
25.0 

1.0 

-0.7 

22.3 

-8.4 

8.8 

20. 4 

0.7 
26.1 
-6.2 
-6.9 

-7.1 



Wilmington New Hanover 

Wilson Wilson 

Winston-Salem Forsyth 



46,169 

29,347 

133.683 



44,000 

34,424 

131,885 



-4.7 
17.3 
-1.3 



72 North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 4. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
2,500-9,999 INHABITANTS 

1970 1980 Percent 

City or Town County Census Census Change 

Ahoskie Hertford 

Apex Wake 

Archdale Randolph, Guilford 

Beaufort Carteret 

Belmont Gaston 



Benson Johnston 

Bessemer City Gaston 

Black Mountain Buncombe ... 

Brevard Transylvania 

Canton Haywood 



Carrboro Orange 

Cherryville Gaston , 

Clayton Johnston 

Clinton Sampson 

Conover Catawba , 

Dallas Gaston 

Davidson Mecklenburg, Iredell 

Dunn Harnett 

Edenton Chowan 

Elizabethtown Bladen 



Elkin Surry, Wilkes 

Elon College Town Alamance 

Enfield Halifax 

Erwin Harnett 

Fairmont Robeson 



Farmville Pitt 

Forest City Rutherford 

Franklin Macon 

Fuquay-Varina Wake 

Gamewell Caldwell ... 



Garner Wake 

Gibsonville Guilford, Alamance 

Graham Alamance 

Granite Falls Caldwell 

Hamlet Richmond 



Hendersonville Henderson .. 

Hillsborough Orange 

Hope Mills Cumberland 

Hudson Caldwell 

Kernersville Forsvth 



Kings Mountain Cleveland, Gaston 

Kings Stokes 

La Grange Lenoir 

Lincolnton Lincoln 

Longview Burke, Catawba ... 

Louisburg Franklin 



5,105 


4,887 


-4.3 


2,234 


2,847 


27.4 


4,874 


5,326 


17.9 


3,368 


3,826 


13.6 


5,054 


4,607 


-8.8 


2,267 


2,792 


23.2 


4,991 


4,787 


-4.1 


3,204 


4,083 


27.4 


5,412 


5,323 


1.5 


5,158 


4,631 


10.2 


5,058 


7,517 


48.6 


5,258 


4,844 


-7.9 


3,103 


4,091 


31.8 


7,157 


7,552 


5.5 


3,355 


4,245 


26.5 


4,059 


3,340 


-17.7 


2,931 


3,241 


10.6 


8,302 


8,962 


7.9 


4,956 


5,264 


6.2 


1,418 


3,551 


150.4 


2,899 


2,858 


-1.4 


2,150 


2,873 


33.6 


3,272 


2,995 


-8.5 


2,852 


2,828 


-0.8 


2,827 


2,658 


-6.0 


4,424 


4,707 


6.4 


7,179 


7,688 


7.1 


2,336 


2,640 


13.0 


3,576 


3,110 


-13.0 


— 


2,910 


— 


4,923 


9,556 


94.1 


2,019 


2,865 


41.9 


8,172 


8,674 


6.1 


2,388 


2,580 


8.0 


4,627 


4,720 


2.0 


6,443 


6,862 


6.5 


1,444 


3,019 


109.1 


1,866 


5,412 


190.0 


2,820 


2,888 


2.4 


4,815 


6,802 


41.3 


8,465 


9,080 


7.3 


— 


3,811 


— 


2,679 


3,147 


17.5 


5,293 


4,879 


-7.8 


3,360 


3,587 


6.8 


2,941 


3,238 


10.1 



Census 73 



TABLE 4. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
2,500-9,999 INHABITANTS (Continued) 

1970 19B0 Percent 

City or Town County Census Census Change 

Lowell Gaston 

Madison Rockingham 

Maiden Catawba, Lincoln 

Marion McDowell 

Maxton Robeson, Scotland 



Mayodan Rockingham 

Mebane Alamance, Orange 

Mint Hill Mecklenburg 

Mocksville Davie 

Mooresville Iredell 



Morehead City Carteret 

Mount Airy Surry 

Mount Holly Gaston 

Mount Olive Duplin, Wayne 

Murfreesboro Hertford 



Nashville Nash 

Newton Catawba 

North Wilkesboro Wilkes 

Oxford Granville 

Pembroke Robeson 

Plymouth Washington 

Raeford Hoke 

Red Springs Robeson 

Rockingham Richmond ... 

Roxboro Person 



Rutherfordton Rutherford 

Scotland Neck Halifax 

Selma Johnston ... 

Siler City Chatham ... 

Smithfield Johnston ... 



Southern Pines Moore 

Southport Brunswick .... 

Spencer Rowan 

Spindale Rutherford .. 

Spring Lake Cumberland . 

Tabor City Columbus .... 

Tarboro Edgecombe .. 

Troy Montgomery 

Valdese Burke 

Wadesboro Anson 



Wake Forest Wake 

Wallace Duphn, Pender 

Warsaw Duplin 

Washington Beaufort 

Waynesville Haywood 



Whiteville Columbus 

Williamston Martin 

Wingate Union 

Woodfin Buncombe 

Wrightsville Beach New Hanover 



3,307 


2,917 


-11.8 


2,018 


2,806 


39.0 


2,416 


2,574 


6.5 


3,335 


3.684 


10.5 


1,885 


2,711 


43.8 


2,875 


2,627 


-8.6 


2,573 


2,782 
7,915 


8.1 


2,529 


2,637 


4.3 


8,808 


8,575 


-2.6 


5,233 


4,359 


-16.7 


7,325 


6,862 


-6.3 


5,107 


4,530 


-11.3 


4,914 


4,876 


-0.8 


4,418 


3,007 


-31.0 


1,670 


3,033 


80.0 


7,857 


7,624 


-3.0 


3,357 


3,260 


-2.9 


7,178 


7,603 


5.7 


1,982 


2,698 


36.1 


4,774 


4,571 


-4.3 


3,180 


3,630 


14.2 


3,383 


3,607 


6.6 


5,852 


8,300 


41.8 


5,370 


7,532 


40.3 


3,245 


3,434 


5.8 


2,869 


2,834 


-1.2 


4,356 


4,762 


9.3 


4,689 


4,446 


-5.2 


6,677 


7,288 


9.2 


5,937 


8,620 


45.2 


2,220 


2,824 


27.2 


3,075 


2,938 


-4.5 


3,848 


4,246 


10.3 


3,968 


6,273 


58.1 


2,400 


2,710 


12.9 


9,425 


8,741 


-8.4 


2,429 


2,702 


11.2 


3,182 


3,364 


5.7 


3,977 


4,119 


3.6 


3,148 


3,780 


20.1 


2,905 


2,903 


-0.1 


2,701 


2,910 


7.7 


8,961 


8,418 


-6.1 


6,488 


6,765 


4.3 


4,195 


5,565 


32.7 


6,570 


6,159 


-6.3 


2,569 


2,615 
3 260 


1.8 


1,701 


2,910 


71.3 



74 North Carouna Manual 



TABLE 5. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
1,000-2,499 

i970 1980" 

City or Town County Census Census 

Aberdeen Moore 

Andrews Cherokee 

Angier Harnett 

Aulander Bertie 

Banner Elk Avery 



Belhaven Beaufort ... 

Bethel Pitt 

Beaulaville Duplin 

Biltmore Forest Buncombe 



Bladenboro Bladen 

Blowing Rock Caldwell, Watauga 

Boiling Springs Cleveland 

Boonville Yadkin 

Bryson City Swain 



Burgaw Pender 

Burnsville Yancey 

Cajah Mountain Caldwell 

Carolina Beach New Hanover 

Chadbourn Rowan 



China Grove Rowan 

Coats Harnett 

Cornelius Mecklenburg 

Clyde Haywood 

Cramerton Gaston 



Creedmore Granville . 

Dobbins Heights Richmond 

Dobson Surry 

Drexel Burke 

East Spencer Rowan 



Ellerbe Richmond 

Elm City Wilson 

Fair Bluff Columbus . 

Four Oaks Johnston .. 

Franklinton Franklin ... 



Fremont Wayne 

Garysburg Northampton 

Granite Quarry Northampton 

Grifton Lenoir, Pitt ... 

Harrisburg Cabarrus 



Haw River Alamance 

Hazelwood Haywood 

Hertford Perquimans .. 

Huntersville Mecklenburg 

Jamestown Guilford 



1,592 


1,945 


1,383 


1,621 


1,431 


1.709 


947 


1.214 


754 


1.087 


2,259 


2,430 


1,514 


1.825 


1,156 


1,060 


1,298 


1.499 


783 


1,385 


801 


1,337 


2,284 


2,381 


687 


1,028 


1,290 


1,556 


1,744 


1,738 


1,348 


1,452 


— 


1.884 


1,663 


2.000 


2,213 


1.195 


1,788 


2,081 


1,051 


1,385 


1,296 


1.460 


814 


1,008 


2,142 


1.869 


1,405 


1.641 


— 


1.237 


933 


1.222 


1.431 


1,392 


2,217 


2,150 


913 


1,415 


1,201 


1,561 


1,039 


1,095 


1.057 


1,049 


1,459 


1,394 


1,596 


1,736 


231 


1,434 


1 ,344 


1,294 


1,860 


2,179 


— 


1,433 





2,117 


2.057 


1,811 


2.023 


1,941 


1.538 


1,294 


1.297 


2,148 



Census 75 



TABLE 5. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
1,000-2,499 (Continued) 

~ 1970 f980" 

City or Town County Census Census 



Jefferson Ashe 

Jonesville Yadkin 

Kenly Johnston, Wilson 

Kill Devil Hills Dare 

Lake Waccamaw Columbus 



Landis Rowan 

Liberty Randolph 

Lillington Harnett 

Locust Stanly 

Long Beach Brunswick .... 

Lucama Wilson 

Mars Hill Madison 

Marshville Union 

Matthews Mecklenburg 

Mount Gilead Montgomery 

Mount Pleasant Cabarrus 

Murphy Cherokee 

Nags Head Dare 

Newport Carteret 

Norwood Stanly 



Pilot Mountain Surry 

Pinetops Edgecombe ... 

Pineville Mecklenburg 

Pittsboro Chatham 

Princeton Johnston 



Princeville Edgecombe .... 

Ramseur Randolph 

Randleman Randolph 

Ranio Gaston 

Rich Square Northampton 

Robbins Moore 

Robbinsville Graham 

Robersonville Martin 

Rockwell Rowan 

Roseboro Sampson 



Rose Hill Duplin 

Rowland robeson ... 

Rural Hall Forsyth ... 

Rutherford College Burke 

St. Pauls Robeson .. 

Snow Hill Greene 

Sparta Alleghany 

Spring Hope Nash 

Spruce Pine Mitchell ... 

Stallings Union 



943 


1,086 


1,659 


1,752 


1,370 


1 ,433 


357 


1,671 


924 


1,133 


2,297 


2,092 


2,167 


1,997 


1,155 


1,948 


— 


1,590 


493 


1,834 


610 


1,070 


1,623 


2,126 


1,405 


2,011 


783 


1,648 


1,286 


1,423 


LI74 


1,210 


2,082 


2,070 


414 


1,020 


1,735 


1,883 


1,896 


1,818 


1,309 


1,090 


1,379 


1,465 


1,948 


1,525 


1,447 


1,332 


1,044 


1,034 


654 


1,508 


1,328 


1,162 


2,312 


2,156 


2,092 


1,774 


1,254 


1,057 


1,059 


1,256 


777 


1,370 


1,910 


1,981 


999 


1,339 


1,235 


1,227 


1,448 


1,508 


1,358 


1,841 


— 


1,336 


— 


1,108 


2,011 


1,639 


1,359 


1,374 


1,304 


1,687 


1,334 


1,254 


2,333 


2,282 


— 


1,826 



76 North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 5. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
1,000-2,499 (Continued) 



1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 

Stanley Gaston 

Stoneville Rockingham 

Swansboro Onslow 

Sylva Jackson 

Taylorsville Alexander 



Trentwoods Craven 

Troutman Iredell 

Tryon Polk 

Walkertown Forsyth .... 

Walnut Cove Stokes 

Waxhaw Union 

Weaverville Buncombe 

Weldon Halifax 

Wendell Wake 

Whispering Pines Moore 



Wilkesboro Wilkes , 

Windsor Bertie .. 

Wmterville Pitt 

Yadkinville Yadkin 

Zebulon Wake ... 



2,336 


2,341 


1,030 


1,054 


1,207 


976 


1.561 


1,699 


1,231 


1,103 


719 


1,177 


797 


1,360 


1,951 


1,796 


— 


1,321 


1,213 


1,147 


1,248 


1,208 


1,280 


1,495 


2,304 


1,844 


1,929 


2.222 


362 


1,160 


2,038 


2,335 


2,199 


2,126 


1,437 


2,052 


2,232 


2,216 


1,839 


2,055 



Census 



77 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
LESS THAN 1,000 



City or Town 



County 



1970 
Census 



1980 
Census 



Alexander Mills Rutherford 

Alamance Alamance .. 

Alliance Pamlico 

Ansonville Anson 

Arapahoe Pamlico 



Arlington Yadkin ... 

Ashwville Bertie 

Atkinson Pender .... 

Aurora Beaufort . 

Autryville Sampson 



Ayden Pitt 

Bailey Nash 

Bakersville Mitchell 

Bath Beaufort 

Battleboro Edgecombe, Nash 



Hayboro Pamlico 

Beargrass Martin 

Beech Mountain Avery, Watauga 

Seville Brunswick 

Belwood Cleveland 



Black Creek Wilson 

Boiling Spring Lakes Brunswick . 

Bolvia Brunswick . 

Bolton Columbus .. 

Bostic Rutherford 



Bridgeton Craven .... 

Broadway Lee 

Brookford Catawba .. 

Brunswick Columbus 

Bunn Franklin .. 



Calabash Brunswick .... 

Calypso Duplin 

Cameron Moore 

Candor Montgomery 

Cape Carteret Carteret 



Carthage Moore 

Casar Cleveland . 

Cashiers Jackson .... 

Castalia Nash 

Caswell Beach Brunswick 



Catawba Catawba .. 

Centerville Franklin .. 

Cerro Gordo Columbus 

Chadwick Acres Onslow .... 

Chocowinity Beaufort .. 



988 


643 


— 


320 


577 


616 


694 


794 


474 


467 


711 


872 


247 


227 


325 


298 


620 


698 


213 


228 


3.450 


184 


724 


685 


409 


373 


231 


207 


562 


632 


821 


759 


99 


82 


— 


190 


59 


102 


— 


613 


449 


523 


245 


998 


185 


252 


534 


563 


289 


476 


520 


461 


694 


908 


590 


467 


206 


223 


284 


505 


128 


_ 


462 


639 


204 


225 


561 


868 


616 


944 


1,034 


925 


339 


346 


230 


553 


265 


358 


— 


110 


565 


509 


123 


135 


322 


295 


12 


15 


566 


644 



78 North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
LESS THAN 1,000 (Continued) 



1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 

Claremont Catawba 

Clarkton Bladen 

Cleveland Rowan 

Cofield Hertford 

Colerain Bertie 



Columbia Tyrrell 

Columbus Polk 

Como Hertford 

Conetoe Edgecombe .... 

Conway Northampton 

Cover City Craven 

Creswell Washington ... 

Crossnore Avery 

Danbury Stokes 

Dellview Gaston 



Denton Davidson 

Dillsboro Jackson .. 

Dover Craven ... 

Dortches Nash 

Dublin Bladen .... 



East Arcadia Bladen 

Earl Cleveland 

East Bend Yadkin .... 

East Laurinburg Scotland .. 

Elk Park Avery 



Ellenboro Rutherford 

Emerald Isle Carteret 

Eureka Wayne 

Everetts martin 

Faison Rowan 



Faith Cleveland 

Fallstone Cleveland 

Falcon Cumberland, Sampson 

Falkland Pitt 

Fountain Pitt 



Foxfire Moore 

Franklinville Randolph 

Garland Sampson 

Gaston Northampton 

Gatesville Gates 



Gibson Scotland 

Glen Alpine Burke 

Godwin Cumberland 

Goldston Chatham 

Greenevers Duplm 



788 


880 


662 


664 


614 


595 


318 


465 


373 


284 


902 


758 


731 


727 


211 


89 


160 


215 


694 


678 


485 


500 


633 


426 


264 


297 


152 


140 


— 


7 


.017 


949 


215 


179 


585 


600 


— 


885 


283 


477 


_ 


461 


— 


206 


485 


602 


487 


536 


503 


535 


465 


560 


122 


865 


263 


303 


198 


213 


598 


636 


506 


552 


301 


614 


357 


339 


130 


118 


434 


424 





153 


794 


607 


656 


885 


,105 


883 


338 


363 


502 


533 


797 


645 


129 


340 


364 


353 


424 


477 



Census 



79 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
LESS THAN 1,000 (Continued) 



City or Town 



County 



1970 
Census 



1980 
Census 



Grimesland Pitt 

Grover Cleveland 

Halifax Halifax ... 

Hamilton Martin 

Harmony Iredell 



Harrells Duplin, Sampson 

Harrellsville Hertford 

Hassell Martin 

Hayesville Clay 

High Shoals Gaston, Lincoln .. 

Highlands Macon 

Hildebran Burke 

Hobgood Halifax 

Hoffman Richmond 

Holden Beach Brunswick 



Holly Ridge Onslow 

Holly Springs Wake 

Hollyville Pamlico 

Hookerton Greene 

Hot Springs Madison 

Indian Beach Carteret 

Indian Trail Union 

Jackson Northampton 

Jamesville Martin 

Kellford Bertie 



Kenansville Duplin 

Kittrell Vance 

Knightdale Wake 

Kure Beach New Hanover 

Lake Lure Rutherford .... 



Lansing Ashe 

Lasker Northampton 

Lattimore Cleveland 

Laurel Park Henderson 

Lawndale Cleveland 



Leggett Edgecombe .. 

Lewiston Bertie 

Lilesville Anson 

Linden Cumberland 

Linville Avery 



Littleton Halifax 

Love Valley Iredell 

Lumber Bridge Robeson .... 

Macclesfield Edgecombe 

McAdenville Gaston 



394 


453 


555 


597 


335 


253 


579 


638 


377 


470 


249 


255 


165 


151 


160 


109 


428 


376 


— 


586 


583 


653 


481 


628 


530 


483 


434 


389 


136 


232 


415 


465 


697 


688 


— 


100 


441 


460 


653 


678 





54 


405 


811 


762 


720 


533 


604 


295 


254 


762 


931 


427 


225 


815 


985 


394 


611 


456 


488 


283 


194 


114 


96 


257 


237 


581 


764 


544 


469 


120 


99 


327 


459 


641 


588 


205 


365 


— 


244 


903 


820 


40 


55 


117 


171 


536 


504 


950 


947 



80 North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
LESS THAN 1,000 (Continued) 



1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 

McDonald Robeson 

McFariand Anson 

Macon Warren 

Maggie Valley Haywood 

Magnolia Duplin 



Manteo Dare 

Marshall Madison . 

Mayesville Jones 

Mesic Pamlico .. 

Micro Johnston 



Middleburg Vance 

Middlesex Nash 

Milton Caswell 

Minesott Beach Pamlico 

Montreat Buncombe 

Morrisville Wake 

Moreven Anson 

Mooresville Cleveland . 

Navassa Brunswick 

Newland Avery 



New London Stanly 

Newton Grove Sampson . 

Norlina Warren 

Norman Richmond 

Oakboro Stanly 



Oak City Martin 

Ocean Isle Beach Brunswick 

Old Fort McDowell 

Oriental Pamlico ... 

Orrum Robeson .. 



Pantego Beaufort .. 

Parkton Robeson .. 

Parmele Martin 

Patterson Springs C leveland 

Peachland Anson 



Pikesville Wayne .... 

Pinebluff Moore .... 

Pine Level Johnston 

Pink Hill Lenoir .... 

Pine Knoll Shores Carteret .. 



Polkton Anson 

Polkville Cleveland 

Pollocksville Jones 

Powellsville Bertie 

Proctorville Robeson ., 



80 


117 


140 


133 


179 


153 


— 


202 


614 


592 


547 


902 


982 


809 


912 


877 


— 


390 


300 


438 


149 


185 


729 


837 


235 


235 


— 


171 


581 


741 


209 


251 


562 


765 


— 


405 


— 


439 


524 


722 


285 


454 


546 


564 


696 


901 


157 


252 


568 


587 


559 


475 


78 


143 


676 


752 


445 


536 


162 


167 


218 


185 


550 


564 


373 


484 


— 


731 


556 


506 


260 


662 


570 


935 


983 


953 


522 


644 


— 


646 


845 


762 


494 


528 


456 


318 


247 


320 


157 


205 



Census 



81 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
LESS THAN 1,000 (Continued) 



City or Town 



County 



1970 
Census 



1980 
Census 



Raynham Robeson 

Red Oak Nash 

Rennert Robeson 

Rhodhiss Burke, Caldv\t 

Richfield Stanly 



Richlands Onslow 

Robbinsville Graham 

Rolesville Wake , 

Ronda Wilkes 

Roper Washington ., 

Rosman Transylvania 

Roxobel Bertie 

Ruth Rutherford ... 

Salemburg Sampson 

Saluda Polk 



Saratoga Wilson 

Seaboard Northampton .... 

Seagrove Randolph 

Seven Devils Watauga, Avery 

Seven Springs Wayne 



Severn Northampton 

Shady Forest Brunswick 

Shallotte Brunswick 

Sharpsburg Edgecombe, Nash, Wilson 

Simpson Ritt 



Sims Wilson 

Southern Shores Dare 

Speed Edgecombe 

Spencer Mountain Gaston 

Staley Randolph .. 



Stanfield Stanly 

Stantonburg Wilson 

Star Montgomery 

Stedman Cumberland . 

Stem Gran\ille 



Stonewall Pamlico .... 

Stovall Gran\ille .. 

Sunset Beach Brunswick 

Surf City Pender 

Swansboro Onslow 



Tarheel Bladen .... 

Teachey Duplin .... 

Topsail Beach Pender .... 

Trenton Jones 

Turkey Sampson 



— 


83 


359 


314 


— 


178 


784 


727 


306 


373 


935 


825 


— 


814 


533 


381 


465 


457 


649 


795 


407 


512 


347 


278 


360 


381 


669 


742 


546 


607 


391 


381 


611 


687 


354 


294 


— 


21 


188 


166 


356 


309 


— 


43 


597 


680 


789 


997 


— 


407 


205 


192 


— 


520 


142 


95 


300 


169 


239 


204 


458 


463 


869 


920 


892 


816 


505 


723 


242 


222 


335 


360 


405 


417 


108 


304 


166 


421 


1,207 


976 


87 


118 


219 


373 


108 


264 


539 


407 


329 


417 



82 North Carolina Manual 



TABLE 6. POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES OF 
LESS THAN 1,000 (Continued) 



1970 1980 

City or Town County Census Census 

Vanceboro Craven 

Vandermere Pamlico 

Vass Moore 

Waco Cleveland 

Wade Cumberland 



Wagram Scotland 

Watstonburg Greene ... 

Warrenton Warren .. 

Washington Park Beaufort 

Watha Pender ... 



Webster Jackson 

Weddington Union 

West Jefferson Ashe 

Whitakers Edgecombe/ Nash 

White Lake Vance 



Williamsboro Vance 

Winfall Perquimans ... 

Winton Hertford 

Woodland Northampton 

Woodville Bertie 



Yaupon Beach Brunswick 

Youngsville Franklin ... 



758 


833 


379 


335 


885 


828 


245 


322 


315 


474 


718 


617 


176 


181 


1,035 


908 


517 


514 


181 


196 


189 


200 


— 


848 


889 


822 


926 


924 


232 


968 


_ 


59 


581 


634 


917 


825 


744 


861 


253 


212 


334 


569 


555 


486 



PART III 

CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT 

OF NORTH CAROLINA 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina 87 

Chapter One 

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE 
CONSTITUTIONS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



by 
John L. Sanders* 

North Carolina has had three Constitutions in her history as a State: the Constitution 
of 1776, the Constitution of 1868, and the Constitution of 1971. 

Constitution of 1776 

Drafted and promulgated by the Fifth Provincial Congress in December, 1776, with- 
out submission to the people, the Constitution of 1776 and its separate but accompany- 
ing Declaration of Rights sketched the main outlines of the new state government and 
secured the rights of the citizen from governmental interference. While the principle of 
separation of powers was explicitly affirmed and the familiar three branches of govern- 
ment were provided for, the true center of power lay in the General Assembly. That 
body not only exercised full legislative power; it also chose all the state executive and ju- 
dicial officers, the former for short terms and the judges for life. 

Profound distrust of the executive power is evident throughout the document. The 
Governor was chosen by the legislature for a one-year term and was eligible for only 
three terms in six years. The little power granted him was hedged about in many in- 
stances by requiring for its exercise the concurrence of a seven-member Council of State 
chosen by the legislature. 

Judicial offices were established, but the court system itself was left to legislative de- 
sign. No system of local government was prescribed by the Constitution, although the 
offices of justice of the peace, sheriff, coroner, and constable were created. 

The system of legislative representation was based on units of local government. The 
voters of each county elected one Senator and two members of the House of Commons, 
while six (later seven) towns each elected one member of the House. It was distinctly a 
property owner's government, for only landowners could vote for Senators until 1857, 
and progressive property qualifications were required of members of the House, Sena- 
tors, and the Governor until 1868. Legislators were the only state officers who were 
elected by the people until 1836. 

Dissatisfaction with the legislative representation system, which gave no direct recog- 
nition to population, resulted in the Convention of 1835. Extensive constitutional 
amendments adopted by that Convention were ratified by vote of the people, 26,771 to 
21,606, on November 9, 1835. The Amendments of 1835 fixed the membership of the 
Senate and House at their present levels, 50 and 120. The House apportionment formu- 

* Director of the Institute of Government of The University of North CaroHna at Chapel Hill. 



88 North Carolina Manual 



la then devised gave one seat to each county and distributed the remainder of the 
seats — nearly half of them at that time — according to a mathematical formula favoring 
the more populous counties. From 1836 until 1868, Senators were elected from districts 
laid out according to the amount of taxes paid to the State from the respective counties, 
thus effecting senatorial representation in proportion to property values. 

The Amendments of 1835 also made the Governor popularly elective for a two-year 
term, greatly strengthening that office; relaxed the religious qualifications for office 
holding; abolished free Negro suffrage; equalized the capitation tax on slaves and free 
white males; prohibited the General Assembly from granting divorces, legitimating per- 
sons, or changing personal names by private act; specified procedures for the impeach- 
ment of state officers and the removal of judges for disability; made legislative sessions 
biennial instead of annual; and provided methods of amending the Constitution. Fol- 
lowing the precedent established in amending the United States Constitution, the 1835 
amendments were appended to the Constitution of 1776, not incorporated in it as is the 
modern practice. 

The Convention of 1861-62, called by act of the General Assembly, took the State out 
of the Union and into the Confederacy and adopted a dozen constitutional amend- 
ments. These were promulgated by the Convention without the necessity of voter ap- 
proval, a procedure that was permitted by the Constitution until 1971. 

The Convention of 1 865-66, called by the Provisional Governor on orders of the Pres- 
ident, nullified secession and abolished slavery, with voter approval, in 1865. It also 
drafted a revised Consitution in 1866. That document was largely a restatement of the 
Constitution of 1776 and the 1835 amendments, plus several new features. It was reject- 
ed by a vote of 21,770 to 19,880 on August 2, 1866. 

Constitution of 1868 

The Convention of 1868, called upon the initiative of Congress but with a popular 
vote of approval, wrote a new Constitution which the people ratified in April of 1868 by 
a vote of 93,086 to 74,016. Drafted and put through the Convention by a combination 
of native Republicans and a few Carpetbaggers, the Constitution was highly unpopular 
with the more conservative elements of the State. For its time it was a progressive and 
democratic instrument of government. In this respect it differed markedly from the pro- 
posed Constitution of 1866. The Constitution of 1868 was an amalgam of provisions 
copied or adapted from the Declaration of Rights of 1 776, the Constitution of 1 776 and 
its amendments, the proposed Constitution of 1866, and the constitutions of other 
states, together with some new and original provisions. Although often amended, a ma- 
jority of the provisions of that document remained intact until 1971, and the Constitu- 
tion of 1971 brought forward much of the 1868 language with little or no change. 

The Constitution of 1868 incorporated the 1776 Declaration of Rights into the Con- 
stitution as Article I and added several important guarantees. To the people was given 
the power to elect all significant state executive officers, all judges, and all county offi- 
cials, as well as legislators. All property qualifications for voting and office holding were 
abolished. The plan of representation in the Senate was changed from a property to a 
popular basis, and the 1835 House apportionment plan was retained. Annual legislative 
sessions were restored. 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina 89 



The executive branch of government was strengthened by popular election for four- 
year terms of office and the Governor's powers were increased significantly. 

A simple and uniform court system was established with the jurisdiction of each court 
fixed in the Constitution. The distinctions between actions at law and suits in equity 
were abolished. 

For the first time, detailed constitutional provision was made for a system of taxa- 
tion, and the powers of the General Assembly to levy taxes and to borrow money were 
limited. Homestead and personal property exemptions were granted. Free public 
schools were called for and the maintenance of penal and charitable institutions by the 
State was commanded. A uniform scheme of county and township government was pre- 
scribed. 

The declared objective of the Conservative Party (under whose banner the older na- 
tive political leaders grouped themselves) was to repeal the Constitution of 1868 at the 
earliest opportunity. When the Conservative Party gained control of the General As- 
sembly in 1870, a proposal to call a convention of the people to revise the constitution 
was submitted by the General Assembly to the voters and rejected in 1871 by a vote of 
95,252 to 86,007. 

The General Assembly thereupon resorted to the legislative initiative for amending 
the Constitution. That procedure then called for legislative approval of each proposed 
amendment at two successive sessions, followed by a vote of the people on the amend- 
ment. The 1871-72 legislative session adopted an act calling for about three dozen 
amendments to the Constitution which had the general purpose of restoring to the Gen- 
eral Assembly the bulk of the power over local government, the courts, and the public 
schools and the University that had been taken from it by the Constitution of 1868. The 
1872-73 session of the General Assembly approved for the second time and submitted to 
the people only eight of those amendments, all of which were approved by the voters in 
1873 by wide margins. These amendments restored biennial sessions of the General As- 
sembly, transferred control of the University of North Carolina from the State Board of 
Education to the General Assembly, abolished various new state offices, altered the 
double office-holding prohibition, and repealed the prohibition against repudiation of 
the state debt. 

In 1875, the General Assembly called a convention of the people to consider constitu- 
tional revision. No confirmation of that action by popular referendum was had, and 
none was then constitutionally required. The Convention of 1875 (the most recent in the 
State's history) sat for five weeks in the fall of that year. It was a limited convention, cer- 
tain actions — for example, the reinstatement of property qualifications for office- 
holding or voting — being forbidden to it. 

The Convention of 1875 adopted and the voters on November 7, 1876, approved by a 
vote of 120,159 to 106,554 a set of 30 amendments affecting 36 sections of the Constitu- 
tion. These amendments (which took effect on January 1, 1877) prohibited secret politi- 
cal societies, moved the legislative convening date from November of even numbered 
years to January of odd-numbered years, fixed in the Constitution for the first time the 
rate of legislative compensation, called for legislation establishing a State Department 
of Agriculture, abandoned the simplicity and uniformity of the 1868 court system by 
giving the General Assembly power to determine the jurisdiction of all courts below the 
Supreme Court and to establish such courts inferior to the Supreme Court as it might 



90 North Carolina Manual 



see fit, reduced the Supreme Court from five to three members, required Superior Court 
judges to rotate among all judicial districts of the State, disqualified for voting persons 
guilty of certain crimes, established a one-year residency requirement for voting, re- 
quired non-discriminatory racial segregation in the public schools, gave the General As- 
sembly full power to revise or abolish the form and powers of county and township gov- 
ernments, and simplified the procedure for constitutional amendment by providing that 
the General Assembly might by act adopted by three-fifths of each house at one legisla- 
tive session submit an amendment to the voters of the State (thus eliminating the former 
requirement of enactment by two successive sessions of the General Assembly). The 
principal effect of the amendments of 1873 and 1875 was to restore in considerable 
measure the former power of the General Assembly, particularly as to the courts and 
local government. 

The amendments framed by the Convention of 1875 seem to have satisfied most of 
the need for constitutional change for a generation, for only four amendments were sub- 
mitted by the General Assembly to the voters throughout the remainder of the nine- 
teenth century. Three of them were ratified; one failed. 

In 1900 the suffrage article was revised to add the literacy test and poll tax require- 
ment for voting (the latter provision was repealed in 1920). A slate often amendments 
prepared by a constitutional commission and proposed by the General Assembly in 
1913 was rejected by the voters in 1914. With the passage of time and amendments, the 
attitude towards the Constitution of 1868 had changed from resentment to a reverence 
so great that until the second third of the twentieth century, amendments were very dif- 
ficult to obtain. Between 1900 and 1933, the voters ratified 15 and rejected 20 amend- 
ments. During the first third of this century, nevertheless, amendments were adopted 
lengthening the school term from four to six months, prohibiting legislative charters to 
private corporations, authorizing special Superior Court judges, further limiting the 
General Assembly's powers to levy taxes and incur debt, and abolishing the poll tax re- 
quirement for voting and reducing the residence qualification for voters. Amendments 
designed to restrict the legislature's power to enact local, private, and special legislation 
were made partly ineffective by judicial interpretation. 

A significant effort at general revision of the Constitution was made in 1931-33. A 
Constitutional Commission created by the General Assembly of 1931 drafted and the 
General Assembly of 1933 approved a revised Constitution. Blocked by a technicality 
raised in an advisory opinion of the State Supreme Court, the proposed Constitution of 
1933 never reached the voters for approval. It would have granted the Governor the 
veto power; given to a Judicial Council composed of all the judges of the Supreme and 
Superior Courts power to make all rules of practice and procedure in the courts inferior 
to the Supreme Court; required the creation of inferior courts by general laws only; re- 
moved most of the limitations on the taxing powers of the General Assembly; required 
the General Assembly to provide for the organization and powers of local governments 
by general law only; established an appointive State Board of Education with general 
supervision over the public school system; and set forth an enlightened policy of state 
responsibility for the maintenance of educaUonal, charitable, and reformatory institu- 
tions and programs. 

Several provisions of the proposed Constitution of 1933 were later incorporated into 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina 91 



the Constitution by individual amendments, and to a limited extent it served as a model 
for the work of the 1957-59 Constitutional Commission. 

Between the mid-1930's and the late 1950's, greater receptiveness to constitutional 
change resulted in amendments authorizing the classification of property for taxation; 
strengthening the limitations upon public debt; authorizing the General Assembly to 
enlarge the Supreme Court, divide the State into judicial divisions, increase the number 
of Superior Court judges, and create a Department of Justice under the Attorney Gen- 
eral; enlarging the Council of State by three members; creating a new, appointive State 
Board of Education with general supervision of the schools; permitting women to serve 
as jurors; transferring the Governor's power to assign judges to the Chief Justice and his 
parole power to a Board of Paroles; permitting the waiver of indictment in non-capital 
cases; raising the compensation of the General Assembly and authorizing legislative ex- 
pense allowances; increasing the general purpose property tax levy limitation and the 
maximum income tax rate, and authorizing the closing of public schools on a local op- 
tion basis and the payment of educational expense grants in certain cases. 

The increased legislative and public willingness to accept constitutional change be- 
tween 1934 and 1960 resulted in 32 constitutional amendments being ratified by the 
voters while only six were rejected. 

At the request of Governor Luther H. Hodges, the General Assembly of 1957 author- 
ized the Governor to appoint a fifteen-member Constitutional Commission to study the 
need for changes in the Constitution and to make recommendations to the Governor 
and the 1959 General Assembly. 

That Commission recommended rewriting the whole Constitution and submitting it 
to the voters for approval or disapproval as a unit, the changes suggested being too nu- 
merous to be effected by individual amendments. The proposed Constitution drafted by 
the Commission represented in large part a careful job of editorial pruning, rearrange- 
ment, clarification, and modernization, but it also included several significant substan- 
tive changes. The Senate would have been increased from 50 to 60 members and the ini- 
tiative (but not the sole authority) for decennial redistricting of the Senate would have 
been shifted from the General Assembly to an ex-officio committee of three legislative 
officers. Decennial reapportionment of the House of Representatives would have been 
made a duty of the Speaker of the House, rather than of the General Assembly as a 
whole. Problems of succession to constitutional State executive offices and of determi- 
nation of issues of officers' disability would have been either resolved in the Constitu- 
tion or their resolution assigned to the General Assembly. The authority to classify 
property for taxation and to exempt property from taxation would have been required 
to be exercised only by the General Assembly and only on a uniform, statewide basis. 
The requirement that the public schools constitute a "general and uniform system" 
would have been eliminated, and the constitutional authority of the State Board of Edu- 
cation reduced. Fairly extensive changes were recommended in the judicial article of the 
Constitution, including the establishment of a General Court of Justice with an Appel- 
late Division, a Superior Court Division, and a Local Trial Court Divsion. A uniform 
system of District Courts and Trial Commissioners would have replaced the existing 
multitude of inferior courts and justices of the peace, the creation of an intermediate 
Court of Appeals would have been provided for, and uniformity of jurisdiction of the 



92 North Carolina Manual 



courts within each division would have been required. Otherwise, the General Assembly 
would have retained essentially its then-existing power over the courts, their jurisdic- 
tion, and their procedures. 

The General Assembly of 1959 also had before it a recommendation for a constitu- 
tional amendment with respect to the court system that had originated with a Court 
Study Committee of the North Carolina Bar Association. In general, the recommenda- 
tions of that Committee called for more fundamental changes in the courts than those 
of the Constitutional Commission. The principal difference between the two sets of rec- 
ommendations lay in the extent of the proposed authority of the General Assembly over 
the courts. The Constitutional Commission generally favored legislative authority over 
the courts and proposed only moderate curtailment of it; the Court Study Committee 
accepted more literally the concept of an independent judiciary and its proposals would 
have minimized the authority of the General Assembly over the courts of the State, 
though structurally, its system would have been much like that of the Constitutional 
Commission. 

The proposed Constitution received extended attention from the General Assembly 
of 1959. The Senate modified and passed the bill to submit the proposed Constitution to 
the voters, but it failed to pass the House, due chiefly to the inability of the supporters 
of the two divergent approaches to court revision to reach agreement. 

As had been true of the proposed Constitution of 1933, the proposed Constitution of 
1959, though not adopted as a whole, subsequently provided the material for several 
amendment proposals that were submitted individually to the voters and approved by 
them during the next decade. 

In the General Assembly of 1961, the proponents of court reform were successful in 
obtaining enactment of a constitutional amendment, approved by the voters in 1962, 
creating a unified and uniform General Court of Justice for the State. Other amend- 
ments submitted by the same session and approved by the voters provided for the auto- 
matic decennial reapportionment of the State House of Representatives, clarified the 
provisions for succession to elective State executive offices and disability determination, 
authorized a reduction in the residence period for voters for President, allowed in- 
creases in the compensation of elected state executive officers during their terms, and re- 
quired that the power of the General Assembly to classify and exempt property for taxa- 
tion be exercised by it alone and only on a uniform, statewide basis. 

The session of 1963 submitted two amendments: One to enlarge the rights of married 
women to deal with their own property was approved by the voters; one to enlarge the 
Senate from fifty to seventy members and allocate one Representative to each county 
was rejected by the voters. The General Assembly of 1965 submitted and the voters ap- 
proved an amendment authorizing the legislative creation of a Court of Appeals. 

The 1967 General Assembly proposed and the voters approved amendments author- 
izing the General Assembly to fix its own compensation and revising the legislative ap- 
portionment scheme to conform to the judicially-established requirement of representa- 
tion in proportion to population in both houses. 

Constitution of 1971 

From 1869 through 1968, there were submitted to the voters of North Carolina a to- 
tal of 97 propositions for amending the Constitution of the State. All but one of these 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina 93 



proposals originated in the General Assembly. Of those 97 amendment proposals, 69 
were ratified by the voters and 28 were rejected by them. The changing attitude of the 
voters toward constitutional amendments is well illustrated by the fact that from 1869 
to 1933, 21 of the 48 amendment propositions were rejected by the voters, a failure rate 
of three out of seven. Between 1933 and 1968, only seven of 49 proposed amendments 
were rejected by the voters, a failure rate of one out of seven. 

After the amendments of the early 1960's, the pressure for constitutional change 
seemed at the time to have abated. Yet while an increasingly frequently used amend- 
ment process had relieved many of the pressures that otherwise would have strength- 
ened the case for constitutional reform, it had not kept the Constitution current in all 
respects. Constitutional amendments usually were drafted in response to particular 
problems experienced or anticipated and generally they were limited in scope so as to 
achieve the essential goal, while arousing minimum unnecessary opposition. Thus 
amendments sometimes were not as comprehensive as they should have been to avoid 
inconsistency in result. Obsolete and invalid provisions had been allowed to remain in 
the Constitution to mislead the unwary reader. Moreover, in the absence of a compre- 
hensive reappraisal, there had been no recent occasion to reconsider constitutional pro- 
visions that might be obsolescent but might not have proved so frustrating or unpopular 
in their effect as to provoke curative amendments. 

It was perhaps for these reasons that when Governor Dan K. Moore recommended 
to the North Carolina State Bar in the fall of 1967 that it take the lead in making a study 
of the need for revision of the State Constitution, the response was prompt and affirm- 
ative. The North Carolina State Bar and the North Carolina Bar Association joined to 
create the North Carolina State Constitution Study Commission as a joint agency of the 
two organizations. The 25 members of that commission (fifteen attorneys and ten lay- 
men) were chosen by a steering committee representative of the sponsoring organiza- 
tions. The Chairman of the Commission was former state Chief Justice Emery B. 
Denny. 

The State Constitution Study Commission worked throughout most of 1968. It be- 
came clear early in the course of its proceedings that the amendments the Commission 
wished to propose were too numerous to be submitted to the voters as independent 
propositions. On the other hand, the Commission did not wish to embody all of its pro- 
posed changes in a single document, to be approved or disapproved by the voters on a 
single vote. The compromise procedure developed by the Commission and approved by 
the General Assembly was a blend of the two approaches. The Commission combined 
in a revised text of the Constitution all of the extensive editorial changes that it thought 
should be made in the Constitution, together with such substantive changes as the Com- 
mission deemed not to be controversial or fundamental in nature. These were embodied 
in the document that came to be known as the Constitution of 1971. Those proposals 
for change that were deemed to be sufficiently fundamental or potentially controversial 
in character as to justify it, the Commission set out as independent amendment proposi- 
tions, to be considered by the General Assembly and by the voters of the State on their 
independent merits. Thus the opposition to the latter proposals would not be cumu- 
lated. The separate proposals framed by the Commission were ten in number, including 
one extensive revision of the finance article of the Constitution which was largely the 
work of the Local Government Study Commission, a legislatively-established group 



94 North Carolina Manual 



then at work on the revision of constitutional and statutory provisions with respect to 
local government. The amendments were so drafted that any number or combination of 
them might be ratified by the voters and yet produce a consistent result. 

The General Assembly of 1969, to which the recommendations of the State Constitu- 
tion Study Commission were submitted, received a total of 28 proposals for constitu- 
tional amendments. Constitutional revision was an active subject of interest throughout 
the session. The proposed Constitution of 1971, in the course of seven roll-call votes 
(four in the House and three in the Senate), received only one negative vote. The inde- 
pendent amendments fared variously; ultimately six were approved by the General As- 
sembly and submitted to the voters. These were the executive reorganization amend- 
ment, the finance amendment, an amendment to the income tax provision of the Consti- 
tution, a reassignment of the benefits of the escheats, authorization for calling extra leg- 
islative sessions on the petition of members of the General Assembly, and abolition of 
the literacy test for voting. All but the last two of these amendments had been recom- 
mended by the State Constitution Study Commission. At the election held on Novem- 
ber 3, 1970, the proposed Constitution of 1971 was approved by a vote of 393,759 to 
251,132. Five of the six separate amendments were approved by the voters; the literacy 
test repeal was rejected. 

The Constitution of 1971 took effect under its own terms on July 1, 1971 (hence its 
designation as the "Constitution of 1971"). So did the executive reorganization amend- 
ment, the income tax amendment, the escheats amendment, and the amendment with 
respect to extra legislative sessions, all of which amended the Constitution of 1971 at the 
instant it took effect. The finance amendment, which made extensive revisions in the 
Constitution of 1971 with respect to debt and local taxation, took effect on July 1, 1973. 
The two-year delay in its effective date was occasioned by the necessity to conform state 
statutes with respect to local government finance to the terms of the agreement. 

The Constitution of 1971, the State Constitution Study Commission stated in its re- 
port recommending its adoption, 

effects a general editorial revision of the constitution .... The deletions, reorganizations, and im- 
provements in the clarity and consistency of language will be found in the proposed constitution. Some 
of the changes are substantive, but none is calculated to impair any present right of the individual citi- 
zen or to bring about any fundamental change in the power of state and local government or the dis- 
tribution of that power. 

In the new Constitution, the old fourteen-article organization of the Constitution was 
retained, but the contents of several articles — notably Articles I, II, III, V, IX, and X — 
were rearranged in more logical sequence. Sections were shifted from one article to an- 
other to make a more logical subject-matter arrangement. Clearly obsolete and consti- 
tutionally invalid matter was omitted, as were provisions essentially legislative in char- 
acter. Uniformity of expression was sought where uniformity of meaning was impor- 
tant. Directness and currency of language were also sought, together with standardiza- 
tion in spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and other essentially editorial matters. 
Greater brevity of the Constitution as a whole was a by-product of the revision, though 
not itself a primary objective. 

The Declaration of Rights (Article I), which dates from 1776 with some 1868 addi- 
tions, was retained with a few additions. The organization of the article was improved 
and the frequently used subjunctive mood was replaced by the imperative in order to 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina 95 



make clear that the provisions of that article are commands and not mere admonitions. 
(For example, "All elections ought to be free" became "All elections shall be free.") To 
the article were added a guarantee of freedom of speech, a guarantee of equal protection 
of the laws, and a prohibition against exclusion from jury service or other discrimina- 
tion by the State on the basis of race or religion. Since all of the rights newly expressed 
in the Constitution of 1971 were already guaranteed by the United States Constitution, 
their inclusion simply constituted an explicit recognition by the State of their impor- 
tance. 

In the course of reorganizing and abbreviating Article III (the Executive), the Gover- 
nor's role as chief executive was brought into clear focus. The scattered statements of 
the Governor's duties were collected in one section, to which was added a brief state- 
ment of his budget powers, formerly merely statutory in origin. No change was made in 
the Governor's eligibility or term, or in the list of state executives previously elected by 
the people. To the Council of State (formerly seven elected executives with the Gover- 
nor as presiding officer) were added the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, and Attorney 
General as ex-officio members. 

Having been entirely rewritten in 1962, the judicial article (Article IV) was the subject 
of little editorial alteration and of no substantive change. 

The editorial amendments to Article V, dealing with finance and taxation, were ex- 
tensive. Provisions concerning finance were transferred to it from four other articles. 
The former finance provisions were expanded in some instances to make clearer the 
meaning of excessively condensed provisions. The only substantive change of note gave 
a wife who is the primary wage-earner in her family the same constitutionally guaran- 
teed income tax exemption now granted a husband who is the chief wage-earner; she al- 
ready had that benefit under statute. 

The revision of Article VI (voting and elections) added out-of-state and federal fel- 
onies to felonies committed against the State of North Carolina as grounds for denial of 
voting and office-holding rights in this State. The General Assembly was directed to en- 
act general laws governing voter registration. 

The provision that has been interpreted to mean that only voters can hold office was 
modified to limit its application to popularly elective offices only; thus it is left to the 
legislature to determine whether one must be a voter in order to hold an appointive of- 
fice. 

The Constitution of 1971 prohibits the concurrent holding of two or more elective 
state offices or of a federal office and an elective state office. It expressly prohibits the 
concurrent holding of any two or more appointive offices or places of trust or profit, or 
of any combination of elective and appointive offices or places of trust or profit, except 
as the General Assembly may allow by general law. 

The power to provide for local government remains in the legislature, confining the 
constitutional provisions on the subject to a general description of the General Assem- 
bly's plenary authority over local government, a declaration that any unit formed by the 
merger of a city and a county should be deemed both a city and a county for constitu- 
tional purposes, and a section retaining the sheriff as an elective county officer. 

The education article (Article IX) was rearranged to improve upon the former hodge- 
podge treatment of public schools and higher education, obsolete provisions (especially 



96 North Carolina Manual 



those pertaining to racial matters) were eliminated, and other changes were made to re- 
flect current practice in the administration and financing of schools. 

The constitutionally-mandated school term was extended from six months (set in 
1918) to a minimum of nine months (where it was fixed by statute many years earlier). 
The possibly restrictive age limits on tuition-free public schooling were removed. Units 
of local government to which the General Assembly assigns a share of responsibility for 
financing public education were authorized to finance from local revenues education 
programs, including both public schools and technical institutes and community col- 
leges, without a popular vote of approval. It was made mandatory (it was formerly per- 
missive) that the General Assembly require school attendance. 

The Superintendent of Public Instruction was eliminated as a voting member of the 
State Board of Education but retained as the Board's secretary. He was replaced with an 
additional at-large appointee. A potential conflict of authority between the Superin- 
tendent and the Board (both of which previously had constitutional authority to admin- 
ister the public schools) was eliminated by making the Superintendent the chief admin- 
istrative officer of the Board, which is to supervise and administer the schools. 

The provisions with respect to the state and county school funds were retained with 
only minor editorial modifications. Fines, penalties, and forfeitures continue to be ear- 
marked for the county school fund. 

The former provisions dealing with The University of North Carolina were broad- 
ened into a statement of the General Assembly's duty to maintain a system of higher 
education. 

The General Assembly was authorized by the changes made in Article X (Home- 
steads and Exemptions) to set the amounts of the personal property exemption and the 
homestead exemption (constitutionally fixed at $500 and $1,000 respectively since 1868) 
at what it considers to be reasonable levels, with the constitutional figures being treated 
as minimums. The provision protecting the rights of married women to deal with their 
own property was left untouched. The protection given life insurance taken out for the 
benefit of the wife and children of the insured was broadened. 

The provisions prescribing the permissible punishments for crime and limiting the 
crimes punishable by death (Article XI) were left essentially intact. 

The procedures for constitutional revision (Article XIII) were made more explicit. 

The five constitutional amendments ratified at the same time as the Constitution of 
1971 deserve particular mention. 

By the end of the 1960's, North Carolina state government consisted ofover 200 state 
administrative agencies. The State Constitution Study Commission concluded on the 
advice of witnesses who had tried it that no governor could effectively oversee an ad- 
ministrative apparatus of such disjointed complexity. The Commission's solution was 
an amendment, patterned after the Model State Constitution and the constitutions of a 
few other states, requiring the General Assembly to reduce the number of administra- 
tive departments to not more than 25 by 1975, and to give the Governor authority to ef- 
fect agency reorganizations and consolidations, subject to disapproval by action of 
either house of the legislature if the changes affected existing statutes. 

The second separate constitutional amendment ratified in 1970 supplemented the ex- 
isting authority of the Governor to call extra sessions of the General Assembly with the 
advice of the Council of State. The amendment provides that on written request of 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina 97 



three-fifths of all the members of each house, the President of the Senate and the 
Speaker of the House of Representatives shall convene an extra session of the General 
Assembly. Thus the legislative branch is now able to convene itself, notwithstanding the 
contrary wishes of the Governor. 

The most significant of the separate amendments and in some ways the most impor- 
tant of the constitutional changes ratified in 1970 was the finance amendment. The 
changes it effected are especially important in the financing of local government. The 
amendment became effective on July 1, 1973. Its principal provisions are as follows: 

(1) All forms of capitation or poll tax were prohibited. 

(2) The General Assembly was authorized to enact laws empowering counties, cities, 
and towns to establish special taxing districts less extensive in area than the entire 
county or city in order to finance the provision within those special districts of a 
higher level of governmental service than is available in the unit at large, either by 
supplementing existing services or providing services not otherwise available. 
That provision eliminated the previous necessity of creating a new, independent 
governmental unit to accomplish the same result. 

(3) For a century, the Constitution required that the levying of taxes and the borrow- 
ing of money by local government be approved by a vote of the people of the unit, 
unless the money were to be used for a "necessary expense." The court, not the 
General Assembly, was the final arbiter of what was a "necessary expense," and 
the State Supreme Court took a rather restrictive view of the embrace of that con- 
cept. The determination of what types of public expenditures should require voter 
approval and what types should be made by a governing board on its own author- 
ity was found by the General Assembly to be a legislative and not a judicial mat- 
ter. In that conviction, the finance amendment provided that the General Assem- 
bly, acting on a uniform, statewide basis, should make the final determination of 
whether voter approval must be had for the levy of property taxes or the borrow- 
ing of money to finance particular activities of local government. 

(4) To facilitate governmental and private cooperative endeavors, the state and local 
governmental units were authorized by the amendment to enter into contracts 
with and appropriate money to private entitites "for the accomplishment of pub- 
lic purposes only." 

(5) The various forms of public financial obligations were more precisely defined 
than in the previous constitution, with the general effect of requiring voter ap- 
proval only for the issuance of general obligation bonds and notes or for govern- 
mental guarantees of the debts of private persons or organizations. The General 
Assembly was directed to regulate by general law (permitting classified but not lo- 
cal acts) the contracting of debt by local governments. 

(6) The amendments retained the existing limitation that the state and local govern- 
ments may not, without voter approval, borrow more than the equivalent of two- 
thirds of the amount by which the unit's indebtedness was reduced during the last 
fiscal period, except for purposes listed in the Constitution. This list was length- 
ened to include "emergencies immediately threatening public health or safety." 

(7) No change was made in the provisions with respect to the classification and ex- 
emption of property for purposes of property taxation. The limitation of 200 on 



98 North Carolina Manual 



the $100 valuation previously imposed on the general county property tax was 
omitted. 

The fourth independent amendment also dealt with taxation. It struck out a schedule 
of specified minimum exemptions from the constitutional provision on t-he state income 
tax, leaving those exemptions to be fixed by the General Assembly. This change enabled 
the legislature to provide for the filing of joint tax returns by husbands and wives and to 
adopt a "piggy-back" state income tax to be computed as a percentage of the federal in- 
come tax, thus relieving the taxpayer of two sets of computations. The amendment re- 
tains the maximum tax rate at ten per cent. 

The final amendment ratified in 1970 assigned the benefits of property escheating to 
the State for want of an heir or other lawful claimant to a special fund, to be available to 
help needy North Carolina students attending public institutions of higher education in 
the State. Property escheating prior to July 1, 1971, continues to be held by The Univer- 
sity of North Carolina. 

The one amendment defeated by the voters in 1970 would have repealed the state con- 
stitutional requirement that in order to register as a voter, one must be able to read and 
write the English language. That requirement was already ineffective by virtue of federal 
legislation and therefore the failure of repeal had no practical effect. 

The General Assembly of 1971 submitted to the voters five state constitutional 
amendments, all of which were ratified by the voters on November 7, 1972. Those 
amendments set the constitutionally-specified voting age at 18 years, required the Gen- 
eral Assembly to set maximum age limits for service as justices and judges of the state 
courts, authorized the General Assembly to prescribe procedures for the censure and re- 
moval of state judges and justices, added to the Constitution a statement of policy with 
regard to the conservation and the protection of natural resources, and limited the au- 
thority of the General Assembly to incorporate cities and towns within close proximity 
to existing municipalities. 

The General Assembly at its 1973 session submitted and the voters in 1974 approved 
an amendment changing the title of the Solicitor to that of District Attorney. The 1974 
legislative session submitted an amendment authorizing the issuance by state or county 
governments of revenue bonds to finance industrial facilities, which the voters rejected. 

In 1975, the General Assembly submitted two amendments authorizing legislation to 
permit the issuance of revenue bonds (1) by state and local governments to finance 
health care facilities and (2) by counties to finance industrial facilities. Both received 
voter approval on March 23, 1976. 

The constitutional amendments of 1835 had permitted the voters to elect a Governor 
for two successive two-year terms. The Constitution of 1868 extended the Governor's 
term to four years but prohibited the Governor and Lieutenant Governor from serving 
successive four-year terms of the same office. The 1971 Constitution retained this limi- 
tation. An amendment to empower the voters to elect both the Governor and Lieu- 
tenant Governor to two successive terms of the same office was submitted by the 1977 
General Assembly and ratified by the voters on November 8, 1977. Four other amend- 
ments were approved by the voters at the same time. They required that the State oper- 
ate on a balanced budget at all times, extended to widowers (as well as to widows) the 
benefit of the homestead exemption, allowed a woman (as well as a man) to insure her 
life for the benefit of her spouse or children free from all claims of the insured's credit- 
ors or of her (or his) estate, and authorized municipalities owning or operating electric 



A Brief History of the Constitutions of North Carolina 99 



power facilities to do so jointly with other public or private power organizations and to 
issue electric system revenue bonds to finance such facilities. 

Only one amendment was proposed by the General Assembly of 1979. Approved by 
the voters in 1980, it required that all justices and judges of the State courts be licensed 
lawyers as a condition of election or appointment to the bench. 

The 1981 session of the General Assembly sent five amendments to the voters for de- 
cision on June 29, 1982. The two ratified amendments ratified by the voters authorized 
the General Assembly (1) to provide for the recall of retired State Supreme Court Jus- 
tices and Court of Appeals Judges to temporary duty on either court and (2) to em- 
power the Supreme Court to review direct appeals from the Utilities Commission. The 
voters rejected amendments (1) extending the terms of all members of the General As- 
sembly from two to four years; (2) authorizing the General Assembly to empower pub- 
lic agencies to develop new and existing seaports and airports, and to finance and re- 
finance seaport, airport, and related commercial and industrial facilities for public and 
private parties; and (3) authorizing the General Assembly to empower a State agency to 
issue bonds to finance facilities for private institutions of higher education. 

At its 1982 session, the General Assembly submitted two amendments. On November 
2, 1982, the electorate ratified an amendment shifting the begining of legislative terms 
from the date of election to January 1 next after the election, and rejected an amend- 
ment permitting the issuance of tax-increment bonds without voter approval. 

On May 8, 1984, the voters rejected an amendment submitted by the General As- 
sembly of 1983 to authorize the General Assembly to create an agency to issue revenue 
bonds to finance agricultural facilities. And on November 6, 1984, the voters approved 
an amendment requiring that the Attorney General and all District Attorneys be li- 
censed lawyers as a condition of election or appointment. 

Conclusion 

The people of North Carolina have treated their constitution with conservatism and 
respect. The fact that we have adopted only three constitutions in two centuries of exist- 
ence as a state is the chief evidence of that attitude. (Some states have adopted as many 
as five or ten constitutions in a like period.) The relative fewness of amendments, even 
in recent years, is another point of contrast to many states. It reflects the fact that North 
Carolina has been less disposed than have many states to write into its state constitution 
detailed provisions with respect to transitory matters better left to legislation. The Con- 
stitution has allowed the General Assembly wide latitude for decision on public affairs, 
and legislators have been willing to accept responsibility for and act on matters within 
their authority instead of passing the responsibility for difficult decisions on to the 
voters in the form of constitutional amendments. 

Constitutional draftsmen have not been so convinced of their own exclusive hold on 
wisdom or so doubtful of the reliability of later generations of legislators that they 
found it necessary to write into the Constitution the large amount of regulatory detail 
often found in state constitutions. Delegates to constitutional conventions and members 
of the General Assembly have acted consistently with the advice of the late John J. 
Parker, Chief Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit 
(1925-58), who observed: 



100 



North Carolina Manual 



I he purpose ola stalcconstuulion is two-lold; { I ) to protect the rights ol the indi\idual I rom encroachment by the Stale; and (2) to 
pro\idc a Iramework ol government tor the Stale and its subdivisions. It is not the lunction ol a constitution to deal VMth temporary 
conditions, but to lay down general principles ol government v\hich must be observed amid changing conditions. It rollo\\s,then. that a 
constitution should not contain elaborate legislative provisions, but should lay do«n brielly and clearly lundamcntal principles upon 
vshich the government shall proceed, leaving it to the people's representatives to apply these principles through legislation to conditions 
as Ihey arise 

NORTH CAROLINA CONSTITUTIONAL PROPOSITIONS 
VOTED ON BY THE PEOPLE SINCE 1868 



Year 






of Vote 


Ratified 


Rejected 


1868 


1 





1873 


8 





1876 


1 





1880 


2 





1888 


1 





1892 





1 


1900 


1 





1914 





10 


1916 


4 





1918 


2 





1920 


2 





1922 





1 


1924 


3 


1 


1926 


1 





1928 


1 


2 


1930 





3 


1932 


1 


3 


1936 


5 





1938 


2 





1942 


2 





1944 


5 





1946 


1 


1 


1948 


1 


3 


1950 


5 





1952 


3 





1954 


4 


1 


1956 


4 





1958 





1 


1962 


6 





1964 


1 


1 


1966 


1 





1968 


2 





1970 


6 


1 


1972 


5 





1974 


1 


1 


1976 


2 





1977 


5 





1980 


1 





1982 


3 


4 


1984 


2 





Totals 


95 


34 



In the above table, each issue on which the people have voted is counted as one, whether it involved only a 
single section (as was often the case), a whole article (as in the case of the 1900 suffrage amendment and the 
1962 court amendment, or a revision of the entire Constitution (as in 1868 and 1970). 



The Constitution of North Carolina 101 



Chapter Two 

CONSTITUTION 

of 

NORTH CAROLINA 



PREAMBLE 

We, the people of the State of North Carolina, grateful to Almighty God, the Sovereign 
Ruler of Nations, for the preservation of the American Union and the existence of our civil, 
political and religious liberties, and acknowledging our dependence upon Him Jor the con- 
tinuance of those blessings to us and our posterity, do, for the more certain security thereoj 
and for the better government of this State, ordain and establish this Constitution. 

ARTICLE I 
DECLARATION OF RIGHTS 

That the great, general, and essential principles of liberty and free government may be 
recognized and established, and that the relations of this State to the Union and govern- 
ment of the United States and those of the people of this State to the rest of the Ameri- 
can people may be defined and affirmed, we do declare that: 

Section 1. The equality and rights of persons. We hold it to be self-evident that all per- 
sons are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable 
rights; that among these are life, liberty, the enjoyment of the fruits of their own labor, 
and the pursuit of happiness. 

Sec. 2. Sovereignty of the people. All political power is vested in and derived from the 
people; all government of right originates from the people, is founded upon their will 
only, and is instituted solely for the good of the whole. 

Sec. 3. Internal government of the State. The people of this State have the inherent, 
sole, and exclusive right of regulating the internal government and police thereof, and of 
altering or abolishing their Constitution and form of government whenever it may be 
necessary to their safety and happiness; but every such right shall be exercised in pur- 
suance of law and consistently with the Constitution of the United States. 

Sec. 4. Secession prohibited. This State shall ever remain a member of the American 
Union; the people thereof are part of the American nation; there is no right on the part 
of this State to secede; and all attempts, from whatever source or upon whatever pre- 
text, to dissolve this Union or to sever this Nation, shall be resisted with the whole 
power of the State. 



102 North Carolina Manual 

Sec. 5. Allegiance to the United States. Every citizen of this State owes paramount 
allegiance to the Constitution and government of the United States, and no law or ordi- 
nance of the State in contravention or subversion thereof can have any binding force. 

Sec. 6. Separation of powers. The legislative, executive, and supreme judicial powers 
of the State government shall be forever separate and distinct from each other. 

Sec. 7. Suspending laws. All power of suspending laws or the execution of laws by any 
authority, without the consent of the representatives of the people, is injurious to their 
rights and shall not be exercised. 

Sec. 8. Representation and taxation. The people of this State shall not be taxed or 
made subject to the payment of any impost or duty without the consent of themselves or 
their representatives in the General Assembly, freely given. 

Sec. 9. Frequent elections. For redress of grievances and for amending and strengthen- 
ing the laws, elections shall be often held. 

Sec. 10. Free elections. All elections shall be free. 

Sec. 1 1 . Properly qualifications. As political rights and privileges are not dependent 
upon or modified by property, no property qualification shall affect the right to vote or 
hold office. 

Sec. 12. Right of assembly and petition. The people have a right to assemble together 
to consult for their common good, to instruct their representatives, and to apply to the 
General Assembly for redress of grievances; but secret political societies are dangerous 
to the liberties of a free people and shall not be tolerated. 

Sec. 13. Religious liberty. All persons have a natural and inalienable right to worship 
Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences, and no human au- 
thority shall, in any case whatever, control or interfere with the rights of conscience. 

Sec. 14. Freedom of speech and press. Freedom of speech and of the press are two of 
the great bulwarks of liberty and therefore shall never be restrained, but every person 
shall be held responsible for their abuse. 

Sec. 15. Education. The people have a right to the privilege of education, and it is the 
duty of the State to guard and maintain that right. 

Sec. 16. Ex post facto laws. Retrospective laws, punishing acts committed before the 
existence of such laws and by them only declared criminal, are oppressive, unjust, and 
incompatible with liberty, and therefore no ex post facto law shall be enacted. No law 
taxing retrospectively sales, purchases, or other acts previously done shall be enacted. 

Sec. 17. Slavery and involuntary servitude. Slavery is forever prohibited. Involuntary 
servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the parties have been adjudged 
guilty, is forever prohibited. 

Sec. 18. Courts shall be open. All courts shall be open; every person for an injury done 
him in his lands, goods, person, or reputation shall have remedy by due course of law; 
and right and justice shall be administered without favor, denial, or delay. 

Sec. 19. Law of the land: equal protection of the laws. No person shall be taken, impris- 
oned, or disseized of his freehold, liberties, or privileges, or outlawed, or exiled, or in 



The Constitution of North Carolina 103 

any manner deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by the law of the land. No per- 
son shall be denied the equal protection of the laws; nor shall any person be subjected to 
discrimination by the State because of race, color, religion, or national origin. 

Sec. 20. General warrants. General warrants, whereby any officer or other person may 
be commanded to search suspected places without evidence of the act committed, or to 
seize any person or persons not named, whose offense is not particularly described and 
supported by evidence, are dangerous to liberty and shall not be granted. 

Sec. 21. Inquiry into restraints on liberty. Every person restrained of his liberty is en- 
titled to a remedy to inquire into the lawfulness thereof, and to remove the restraint if 
unlawful, and that remedy shall not be denied or delayed. The privilege of the writ of 
habeas corpus shall not be suspended. 

Sec. 22. Modes of prosecution. Except in misdemeanor cases initiated in the District 
Court Division, no person shall be put to answer any criminal charge but by indictment, 
presentment, or impeachment. But any person, when represented by counsel, may, un- 
der such regulations as the General Assembly shall prescribe, waive indictment in non- 
capital cases. 

Sec. 23. Rights of accused. In all criminal prosecutions, every person charged with 
crime has the right to be informed of the accusation and to confront the accusers and 
witnesses with other testimony, and to have counsel for defense, and not be compelled 
to give self-incriminating evidence, or to pay costs, jail fees, or necessary witness fees of 
the defense, unless found guilty. 

Sec. 24. Right of jury trial in criminal cases. No person shall be convicted of any crime 
but by the unanimous verdict of a jury in open court. The General Assembly may, how- 
ever, provide for other means of trial for misdemeanors, with the right of appeal for 
trial de novo. 

Sec. 25. Right of jury trial in civil cases. In all controversies at law respecting property, 
the ancient mode of trial by jury is one of the best securities of the rights of the people, 
and shall remain sacred and inviolable. 

Sec. 26. Jury service. No person shall be excluded from jury service on account of sex, 
race, color, religion, or national origin. 

Sec. 27. Bail, fines, and punishments. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive 
fines imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishments inflicted. 

Sec. 28. Imprisonment for debt. There shall be no imprisonment for debt in this State, 
except in cases of fraud. 

Sec. 29. Treason against the State. Treason against the State shall consist only of levy- 
ing war against it or adhering to its enemies by giving them aid and comfort. No person 
shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt 
act, or on confession in open court. No conviction of treason or attainder shall work 
corruption of blood or forfeiture. 

Sec. 30. Militia and the right to bear arms. A well regulated militia being necessary to 
the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be in- 
fringed; and, as standing armies in time of peace are dangerous to liberty, they shall not 



104 North Carolina Manual 



be maintained, and the military shall be kept under strict subordination to, and 
governed by, the civil power. Nothing herein shall justify the practice of carrying con- 
cealed weapons, or prevent the General Assembly from enacting penal statutes against 
that practice. 

Sec. 31. Quartering of soldiers. No soldier shall in time of peace be quartered in any 
house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner prescribed 
by law. 

Sec. 32. Exclusive emoluments. No person or set of persons is entitled to exclusive or 
separate emoluments or privileges from the community but in consideration of public 
services. 

Sec. 33. Hereditary emoluments and honors . No hereditary emoluments, privileges, or 
honors shall be granted or conferred in this State. 

Sec. 34. Perpetuities and monopolies. Perpetuities and monopolies are contrary to the 
genius of a free state and shall not be allowed. 

Sec. 35. Recurrence to fundamental principals. A frequent recurrence to fundamental 
principles is absolutely necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty. 

Sec. 36. Other rights of the people. The enumeration of rights in this Article shall not 
be construed to impair or deny others retained by the people. 

ARTICLE II 

LEGISLATIVE 

Section 1. Legislative power. The legislative power of the State shall be vested in the 
General Assembly, which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives. 

Sec. 2. Number of Senators. The Senate shall be composed of 50 Senators, biennially 
chosen by ballot. 

Sec. 3. Senate districts; apportionment of Senators. The Senators shall be elected from 
districts. The General Assembly, at the first regular session convening after the return of 
every decennial census of population taken by order of Congress, shall revise the senate 
districts and the apportionment of Senators among those districts, subject to the follow- 
ing requirements: 

(1) Each Senator shall represent, as nearly as may be, an equal number of inhabitants, 
the number of inhabitants that each Senator represents being determined for this pur- 
pose by dividing the population of the district that he represents by the number of Sena- 
tors apportioned to that district; 

(2) Each senate district shall at all times consist of contiguous territory; 

(3) No county shall be divided in the formation of a senate district; 

(4) When established, the senate districts and the apportionment of Senators shall re- 
main unaltered until the return of another decennial census of population taken by or- 
der of Congress. 

Sec. 4. Number of Representatives. The House of Representatives shall be composed 
of 120 Representatives, biennially chosen by ballot. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 105 

Sec. 5. Representative districts; apportionment of Representatives. The Representatives 
shall be elected from districts. The General Assembly, at the first regular session con- 
vening after the return of every decennial census of population taken by order of 
Congress, shall revise the representative districts and the apportionment of Representa- 
tives among those districts, subject to the following requirements: 

(1) Each Representative shall represent, as nearly as may be, an equal number of in- 
habitants, the number of inhabitants that each Representative represents being 
determined for this purpose by dividing the population of the district that he represents 
by the number of Representatives apportioned to that district; 

(2) Each representative district shall at all times consist of contiguous territory; 

(3) No county shall be divided in the formation of a representative district; 

(4) When established, the representative districts and the apportionment of Repre- 
sentatives shall remain unaltered until the return of another decennial census of popula- 
tion taken by order of Congress. 

Sec. 6. Qualifications for Senator. Each Senator, at the time of his election, shall be 
not less than 25 years of age, shall be a qualified voter of the State, and shall have re- 
sided in the State as a citizen for two years and in the district for which he is chosen for 
one year immediately preceding his election. 

Sec. 7. Qualifications for Representative. Each Representative, at the time of his 
election, shall be a qualified voter of the State, and shall have resided in the district for 
which he is chosen for one year immediately preceding his election. 

Sec. 8. Elections. The election for members of the General Assembly shall be held for 
the respective districts in 1972 and every two years thereafter, at the places and on the 
day prescribed by law. 

Sec. 9. Term of office. The term of office of Senators and Representatives shall com- 
mence on the first day of January next after their election. 

Sec. 10. Vacancies. Every vacancy occurring in the membership of the General As- 
sembly by reason of death, resignation, or other cause shall be filled in the manner pre- 
scribed by law. 

Sec. 1 1 . Sessions. 

(1) Regular Sessions. The General Assembly shall meet in regular session in 1973 and 
every two years thereafter on the day prescribed by law. Neither house shall proceeed 
upon public business unless a majority of all of its members are actually present. 

(2) Extra sessions on legislative call. The President of the Senate and the Speaker of 
the House of Representatives shall convene the General Assembly in extra session by 
their joint proclamation upon receipt by the President of the Senate of written requests 
therefor signed by three-fifths of all the members of the Senate and upon receipt by the 
Speaker of the House of Representatives of written requests therefor signed by three- 
fifths of all the members of the House of Representatives. 

Sec. 12. Oath of members. Each member of the General Assembly, before taking his 



106 North Carolina Manual 

seat, shall take an oath or affirmation that he will support the Constitution and laws of 
the United States and the Constitution of the State of North Carolina, and will faith- 
fully discharge his duty as a member of the Senate or House of Representatives. 

Sec. 13. President of the Senate. The Lieutenant Governor shall be President of the 
Senate and shall preside over the Senate, but shall have no vote unless the Senate is 
equally divided. 

Sec. 14. Other officers of the Senate. 

(1) President Pro Tempore - succession to presidency. The Senate shall elect from its 
membership a President Pro Tempore, who shall become President of the Senate upon 
the failure of the Lieutenant Governor-elect to qualify, or upon succession by the Lieu- 
tenant Governor to the office of Governor, or upon the death, resignation, or removal 
from office of the President of the Senate, and who shall serve until the expiration of his 
term of office as Senator. 

(2) President Pro Tempore - temporary succession. During the physical or mental in- 
capacity of the President of the Senate to perform the duties of his office, or during the 
absence of the President of the Senate, the President Pro Tempore shall preside over the 
Senate. 

(3) Other Officers. The Senate shall elect its other officers. 

Sec. 15. Officers of the House of Representatives. The House of Representatives shall 
elect its Speaker and other officers. 

Sec. 16. Compensation and allowances. The members and officers of the General As- 
sembly shall receive for their services the compensation and allowances prescribed by 
law. An increase in the compensation or allowances of members shall become effective 
at the beginning of the next regular session of the General Assembly following the ses- 
sion at which it was enacted. 

Sec. 17. Journals. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, which shall be 
printed and made public immediately after the adjournment of the General Assembly. 

Sec. 18. Protests. Any member of either house may dissent from and protest against 
any act or resolve which he may think injurious to the public or to any individual, and 
have the reasons of his dissent entered on the journal. 

Sec. 19. Record votes. Upon motion made in either house and seconded by one fifth of 
the members present, the yeas and nays upon any question shall be taken and entered 
upon the journal. 

Sec. 20. Powers of the General Assembly. Each house shall be judge of the qualifica- 
tions and elections of its own members, shall sit upon its own adjournment from day to 
day, and shall prepare bills to be enacted into laws. The two houses may jointly adjourn 
to any future day or other place. Either house may, of its own motion, adjourn for a 
period not in excess of three days. 

Sec. 21. Style of the acts. The style of the acts shall be: "The General Assembly of 
North Carolina enacts:". 

Sec. 22. Action on bills. All bills and resolutions of a legislative nature shall be read 



The Constitution of North Carolina 107 

three times in each house before they become laws, and shall be signed by the presiding 
officers of both houses. 

Sec. 23. Revenue hills. No laws shall be enacted to raise money on the credit of the 
State, or to pledge the faith of the State directly or indirectly for the payment of any 
debt, or to impose any tax upon the people of the State, or to allow the counties, cities, 
or towns to do so, unless the bill for the purpose shall have been read three several times 
in each house of the General Assembly and passed three several readings, which read- 
ings shall have been on three different days, and shall have been agreed to by each house 
respectively, and unless the yeas and nays on the second and third readings of the bill 
shall have been entered on the journal. 

Sec. 24. Limitations on local, private, and special legislation. 

(1) Prohibited subjects. The General Assembly shall not enact any local, private, or 
special act or resolution: 

(a) Relating to health, sanitation, and the abatement of nuisances; 

(b) Changing the names of cities, towns, and townships; 

(c) Authorizing the laying out, opening, altering, maintaining, or discontinuing of 
highways, streets, or alleys; 

(d) Relating to ferries or bridges; 

(e) Relating to non-navigable streams; 
( f ) Relating to cemeteries; 

(g) Relating to the pay of jurors; 

(h ) Erecting new townships, or changing township lines, or establishing or changing 
the lines of school districts; 

( i ) Remitting fines, penalties, and forfeitures, or refunding moneys legally paid into 
the public treasury; 

(j ) Regulating labor, trade, mining, or manufacturing; 

(k ) Extending the time for the levy or collection of taxes or otherwise relieving any 
collector of taxes from the due performance of his official duties or his sureties 
from liability; 

( 1 ) Giving effect to informal wills and deeds; 

(m) Granting a divorce or securing alimony in any individual case; 

(n) Altering the name of any person, or legitimating any person not born in lawful 
wedlock, or restoring to the rights of citizenship any person convicted of a fel- 
ony. 

(2) Repeals. Nor shall the General Assembly enact any such local, private, or special 
act by partial repeal of a general law; but the General Assembly may at any time repeal 
local, private, or special laws enacted by it. 

(3) Prohibited acts void. Any local, private, or special act or resolution enacted in vio- 
lation of the provisions of this Section shall be void. 

(4) General laws. The General Assembly may enact general laws regulating the mat- 
ters set out in this Section. 



108 North Carolina Manual 

ARTICLE III 

EXECUTIVE 

Section 1. Executive power. The executive power of the State shall be vested in the 
Governor. 

Sec. 2. Governor and Lieutenant Governor: election, term, and qualijications. 

(1) Election and term. The Governor and Lieutenant Governor shall be elected by the 
qualified voters of the State in 1972 and every four years thereafter, at the same time 
and places as members of the General Assembly are elected. Their term of office shall be 
four years and shall commence on the first day of January next after their election and 
continue until their successors are elected and qualified. 

(2) Qualifications. No person shall be eligible for election to the office of Governor or 
Lieutenant Governor unless, at the time of his election, he shall have attained the age of 
30 years and shall have been a citizen of the United States for five years and a resident of 
this State for two years immediately preceding his election. No person elected to the of- 
fice of Governor or Lieutenant Governor shall be eligible for election to more than two 
consecutive terms of the same office. 

Sec. 3. Succession to office of Governor. 

(1) Succession as Governor. The Lieutenant Governor-elect shall become Governor 
upon the failure of the Governor-elect to qualify. The Lieutenant Governor shall be- 
come Governor upon the death, resignation, or removal from office of the Governor. 
The further order of succession to the office of Governor shall be prescribed by law. A 
successor shall serve for the remainder of the term of the Governor whom he succeeds 
and until a new Governor is elected and qualified. 

(2) Succession as Acting Governor. During the absence of the Governor from the 
State, or during the physical or mental incapacity of the Governor to perform the duties 
of his office, the Lieutenant Governor shall be Acting Governor. The further order of 
succession as Acting Governor shall be prescribed by law. 

(3) Physical incapacity. The Governor may, by a written statement filed with the At- 
torney General, declare that he is physically incapable of performing the duties of his 
office, and may thereafter in the same manner declare that he is physically capable of 
performing the duties of his office. 

(4) Mental incapacity. The mental incapacity of the Governor to perform the duties of 
his office shall be determined only by joint resolution adopted by a vote of two-thirds of 
all the members of each house of the General Assembly. Thereafter, the mental capacity 
of the Governor to perform the duties of his office shall be determined only by joint res- 
olution adopted by a vote of a majority of all the members of each house of the General 
Assembly. In all cases, the General Assembly shall give the Governor such notice as it 
may deem proper and shall allow him an opportunity to be heard before a joint session 
of the General Assembly before it takes final action. When the General Assembly is not 
in session, the Council of State, a majority of its members concurring, may convene it in 
extra session for the purpose of proceeding under this paragraph. 

Sec. 4. Oath of office for Governor. The Governor, before entering upon the duties of 



The Constitution of North Carolina 109 



his office, shall, before any Justice of the Supreme Court, take an oath or affirmation 
that he will support the Constitution and laws of the United States and of the State of 
North Carolina, and that he will faithfully perform the duties pertaining to the office of 
Governor. 

Sec. 5. Duties of Governor. 

(1) Residence. The Governor shall reside at the seat of government of this State. 

(2) Information to General Assembly. The Governor shall from time to time give the 
General Assembly information of the affairs of the State and recommend to their con- 
sideration such measures as he shall deem expedient. 

(3) Budget. The Governor shall prepare and recommend to the General Assembly a 
comprehensive budget of the anticipated revenue and proposed expenditures of the 
State for the ensuing fiscal period. The budget as enacted by the General Assembly shall 
be administered by the Governor. 

The total expenditures of the State for the fiscal period covered by the budget shall 
not exceed the total of receipts during that fiscal period and the surplus remaining in the 
State Treasury at the beginning of the period. To insure that the State does not incur a 
deficit for any fiscal period, the Governor shall continually survey the collection of the 
revenue and shall effect the necessary economies in State expenditures, after first mak- 
ing adequate provision for the prompt payment of the principal of and interest on 
bonds and notes of the State according to their terms, whenever he determines that re- 
ceipts during the fiscal period, when added to any surplus remaining in the State 
Treasury at the beginning of the period, will not be sufficient to meet budgeted expendi- 
tures. This section shall not be construed to impair the power of the State to issue its 
bonds and notes within the limitations imposed in Article V of this Constitution, nor to 
impair the obligation of bonds and notes of the State now outstanding or issued here- 
after. 

(4) Execution of laws. The Governor shall take care that the laws be faithfully exe- 
cuted. 

(5) Commander in Chief. The Governor shall be Commander in Chief of the military 
forces of the State except when they shall be called into the service of the United States. 

(6) Clemency. The Governor may grant reprieves, commutations, and pardons, after 
conviction, for all offenses (except in cases of impeachment), upon such conditions as he 
may think proper, subject to regulations prescribed by law relative to the manner of ap- 
plying for pardons. The terms reprieves, commutations, and pardons shall not include 
paroles. 

(7) Extra sessions. The Governor may, on extraordinary occasions, by and with the 
advice of the Council of State, convene the General Assembly in extra session by his 
proclamation, stating therein the purpose or purposes for which they are thus convened. 

(8) Appointments. The Governor shall nominate and by and with the advice and con- 
sent of a majority of the Senators appoint all officers whose appointments are not other- 
wise provided for. 

(9) Information. The Governor may at any time require information in writing from 



110 North Carolina Manual 



the head of any administrative department or agency upon any subject relating to the 
duties of his office. 

(10) Administrative reorganization. The General Assembly shall prescribe the func- 
tions, powers, and duties of the administrative departments and agencies of the State 
and may alter them from time to time, but the Governor may make such changes in the 
allocation of offices and agencies and in the allocation of those functions, powers, and 
duties as he considers necessary for efficient administration. If those changes affect ex- 
isting law, they shall be set forth in executive orders, which shall be submitted to the 
General Assembly not later than the sixtieth calendar day of its session, and shall be- 
come effective and shall have the force of law upon adjournment sine die of the session, 
unless specifically disapproved by resolution of either house of the General Assembly or 
specifically modified by joint resolution of both houses of the General Assembly. 

Sec. 6. Duties of the Lieutenant Governor. The Lieutenant Governor shall be President 
of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless the Senate is equally divided. He shall per- 
form such additional duties as the General Assembly or the Governor may assign to 
him. He shall receive the compensation and allowances prescribed by law. 

Sec. 7. Other elective officers. 

(1) Officers. A Secretary of State, an Auditor, a Treasurer, a Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, an Attorney General, a Commissioner of Agriculture, a Commissioner of 
Labor, and a Commissioner of Insurance shall be elected by the qualified voters of the 
State in 1972 and every four years thereafter, at the same time and places as members of 
the General Assembly are elected. Their term of office shall be four years and shall com- 
mence on the first day of January next after their election and continue until their suc- 
cessors are elected and qualified. 

(2) Duties. Their respective duties shall be prescribed by law. 

(3) Vacancies. If the office of any of these officers is vacated by death, resignation, or 
otherwise, it shall be the duty of the Governor to appoint another to serve until his suc- 
cessor is elected and qualified. Every such vacancy shall be filled by election at the first 
election for members of the General Assembly that occurs more than 30 days after the 
vacancy has taken place, and the person chosen shall hold the office for the remainder 
of the unexpired term fixed in this Section. When a vacancy occurs in the office of any 
of the officers named in this Section and the term expires on the first day of January suc- 
ceeding the next election for members of the General Assembly, the Governor shall ap- 
point to fill the vacancy for the unexpired term of the office. 

(4) Interim officers. Upon the occurrence of a vacancy in the office of any one of these 
officers for any of the causes stated in the preceding paragraph, the Governor may ap- 
point an interim officer to perform the duties of that office until a person is appointed 
or elected pursuant to this Section to fill the vacancy and is qualified. 

(5) Acting officers. During the physical or mental incapacity of any one of these of- 
ficers to perform the duties of his office, as determined pursuant to this Section, the 
duties of his office shall be performed by an acting officer who shall be appointed by the 
Governor. 

(6) Determination of incapacity. The General Assembly shall by law prescribe with re- 



The Constitution of North Carolina 111 

spect to those officers, other than the Governor, whose offices are created by this 
Article, procedures for determining the physical or mental incapacity of any officer to 
perform the duties of his office, and for determining whether an officer who has been 
temporarily incapacitated has sufficiently recovered his physical or mental capacity to 
perform the duties of his office. Removal of those officers from office for any other 
cause shall be by impeachment. 

(7) Special Qualifications for Attorney General. Only persons duly authorized to prac- 
tice law in the courts of this State shall be eligible for appointment or election as At- 
torney General. 

Sec. 8. Council of State. The Council of State shall consist of the officers whose offices 
are established by this Article. 

Sec. 9. Compensation and allowances. The officers whose offices are established by this 
Article shall at stated periods receive the compensation and allowances prescribed by 
law, which shall not be diminished during the time for which they have been chosen. 

Sec. 10. Seal of State. There shall be a seal of the State, which shall be kept by the 
Governor and used by him as occasion may require, and shall be called "The Great Seal 
of the State of North Carolina." All grants or commissions shall be issued in the name 
and by the authority of the State of North Carolina, sealed with "The Great Seal of the 
State of North Carolina," and signed by the Governor. 

Sec. 11. Administrative departments. Not later than July 1, 1975, all administrative 
departments, agencies, and offices of the State and their respective functions, powers, 
and duties shall be allocated by law among and within not more than 25 principal ad- 
ministrative departments so as to group them as far as practicable according to major 
purposes. Regulatory, quasi-judicial, and temporary agencies may, but need not, be 
allocated within a principal department. 

ARTICLE IV 

JUDICIAL 

Section 1. Judicial power. The judicial power of the State shall, except as provided in 
Section 3 of this Article, be vested in a Court for the Trial of Impeachments and in a 
General Court of Justice. The General Assembly shall have no power to deprive the 
judicial department of any power or jurisdiction that rightfully pertains to it as a co- 
ordinate department of the government, nor shall it establish or authorize any courts 
other than as permitted by this Article. 

Sec. 2. General Court of Justice. The General Court of Justice shall constitute a uni- 
fied judicial system for purposes of jurisdiction, operation, and administration, and 
shall consist of an Appellate Division, a Superior Court Division, and a District Court 
Division. 

Sec. 3. Judicial powers of administrative agencies. The General Assembly may vest in 
administrative agencies established pursuant to law such judicial powers as may be 
reasonably necessary as an incident to the accomplishment of the purposes for which 
the agencies were created. Appeals from administrative agencies shall be to the General 
Court of Justice. 



112 North Carolina Manual 

Sec. 4. Court for the Trial of Impeachments. The House of Representatives solely shall 
have the power of impeaching. The Court for the Trial of Impeachments shall be the 
Senate. When the Governor or Lieutenant Governor is impeached, the Chief Justice 
shall preside over the Court. A majority of the members shall be necessary to a quorum, 
and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the Senators 
present. Judgment upon conviction shall not extend beyond removal from and disquali- 
fication to hold office in this State, but the party shall be liable to indictment and pun- 
ishment according to law. 

Sec. 5. Appellate division. The Appellate Division of the General Court of Justice shall 
consist of the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals. 

Sec. 6. Supreme Court. 

(1) Membership. The Supreme Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and six Associate 
Justices, but the General Assembly may increase the number of Associate Justices to 
not more than eight. In the event the Chief Justice is unable, on account of absence or 
temporary incapacity, to perform any of the duties placed upon him, the senior Asso- 
ciate Justice available may discharge those duties. 

(2) Sessions of the Supreme Court. The sessions of the Supreme Court shall be held in 
the City of Raleigh unless otherwise provided by the General Assembly. 

Sec. 7. Court of Appeals. The structure, organization, and composition of the Court 
of Appeals shall be determined by the General Assembly. The Court shall have not less 
than five members, and may be authorized to sit in divisions, or other than en banc. Ses- 
sions of the Court shall be held at such times and places as the General Assembly may 
prescribe. 

Sec. 8. Retirement of Justices and Judges. The General Assembly shall provide by 
general law for the retirement of Justices and Judges of the General Court of Justice, 
and may provide for the temporary recall of any retired Justice or Judge to serve on the 
court from which he was retired. The General Assembly shall also prescribe maximum 
age limits service as a Justice or Judge. 

Sec. 9. Superior Courts. 

(1) Superior Court districts. The General Assembly shall, from time to time, divide the 
State into a convenient number of Superior Court judicial districts and shall provide for 
the election of one or more Superior Court Judges for each district. Each regular 
Superior Court Judge shall reside in the district for which he is elected. The General As- 
sembly may provide by general law for the selection or appointment of special or 
emergency Superior Court Judges not selected for a particular judicial district. 

(2) Open at all times; sessions for trial of cases. The Superior Courts shall be open at 
all times for the transaction of all business except the trial of issues of fact requiring a 
jury. Regular trial sessions of the Superior Court shall be held at times fixed pursuant to 
a calendar of courts promulgated by the Supreme Court. At least two sessions for the 
trial of jury cases shall be held annually in each county. 

(3) Clerks. A Clerk of the Superior Court for each county shall be elected for a term 
of four years by the qualified voters thereof, at the same time and places as members of 



The Constitution of North Carolina 113 



the General Assembly are elected. If the office of Clerk of the Superior Court becomes 
vacant otherwise than by the expiration of the term, or if the people fail to elect, the 
senior regular resident Judge of the Superior Court serving the county shall appoint to 
fill the vacancy until an election can be regularly held. 

Sec. 10. District Courts. The General Assembly shall, from time to time, divide the 
State into a convenient number of local court districts and shall prescribe where the Dis- 
trict Courts shall sit, but a District Court must sit in at least one place in each county. 
District judges shall be elected for each district for a term of four years, in a manner 
prescribed by law. When more than one District Judge is authorized and elected for a 
district, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court shall designate one of the judges as 
Chief District Judge. Every District Judge shall reside in the district for which he is 
elected. For each county, the senior regular resident Judge of the Superior Court serving 
the county shall appoint for a term of two years, from nominations submitted by the 
Clerk of the Superior Court of the county, one or more Magistrates who shall be of- 
ficers of the District Court. The number of District Judges and Magistrates shall, from 
time to time, be determined by the General Assembly. Vacancies in the office of District 
Judge shall be filled for the unexpired term in a manner prescribed by law. Vacancies in 
the office of Magistrate shall be filled for the unexpired term in the manner provided for 
original appointment to the office. 

Sec. 1 1. Assignment of Judges. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, acting in ac- 
cordance with rules of the Supreme Court, shall make assignments of Judges of the 
Superior Court and may transfer District Judges from one district to another for tem- 
porary or specialized duty. The principle of rotating Superior Court Judges among the 
various districts of a division is a salutary one and shall be observed. For this purpose 
the General Assembly may divide the State into a number of judicial divisions. Subject 
to the general supervision of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, assignment of Dis- 
trict Judges within each local court district shall be made by the Chief District Judge. 

Sec. 12. Jurisdiction oj the General Court of Justice. 

(1) Supreme Court. The Supreme Court shall have jurisdiction to review upon appeal 
any decision of the courts below, upon any matter of law or legal inference. The juris- 
diction of the Supreme Court over "issues of fact" and "questions of fact" shall be the 
same exercised by it prior to the adoption of this Article, and the Court may issue any 
remedial writs necessary to give it general supervision and control over the proceedings 
of the other courts. The Supreme Court also has jurisdiction to review, when authorized 
by law, direct appeals from a final order or decision of the North Carolina Utilities 
Commission. 

(2) Court of Appeals. The Court of Appeals shall have such appellate jurisdiction as 
the General Assembly may prescribe. 

(3) Superior Court. Except as otherwise provided by the General Assembly, the 
Superior Court shall have original general jurisdiction throughout the State. The Clerks 
of the Superior Court shall have such jurisdiction and powers as the General Assembly 
shall prescribe by general law uniformly applicable in every county of the State. 

(4) District Courts: Magistrates. The General Assembly shall, by general law uni- 



114 North Carolina Manual 



formly applicable in every local court district of the State, prescribe the jurisdiction and 
powers of the District Courts and Magistrates. 

(5) Waiver. The General Assembly may by general law provide that the jurisdictional 
limits may be waived in civil cases. 

(6) Appeals. The General Assembly shall by general law provide a proper system of 
appeals. Appeals from Magistrates shall be heard de novo, with the right of trial by jury 
as defined in this Constitution and the laws of this State. 

Sec. 13. Forms of action; rules of procedure. 

(1) Forms of Action. There shall be in this State but one form of action for the enforce- 
ment or protection of private rights or the redress of private wrongs, which shall be de- 
nominated a civil action, and in which there shall be a right to have issues of fact tried 
before a jury. Every action prosecuted by the people of the State as a party against a 
person charged with a public offense, for the punishment thereof, shall be termed a 
criminal action. 

(2) Rules of procedure. The Supreme Court shall have exclusive authority to make 
rules of procedure and practice for the Appellate Division. The General Assembly may 
make rules of procedure and practice for the Superior Court and District Court Divi- 
sions, and the General Assembly may delegate this authority to the Supreme Court. No 
rule of procedure or practice shall abridge substantive rights or abrogate or limit the 
right of trial by jury. If the General Assembly should delegate to the Supreme Court the 
rule-making power, the General Assembly may, nevertheless, alter, amend, or repeal 
any rule of procedure or practice adopted by the Supreme Court for the Superior Court 
or District Court Divisions. 

Sec. 14 Waiver of jury trial. In all issues of fact joined in any court, the parties in any 
civil case may waive the right to have the issues determined by a jury, in which case the 
finding of the judge upon the facts shall have the force and effect of a verdict by a jury. 

Sec. 15. Administration. The General Assembly shall provide for an administrative of- 
fice of the courts to carry out the provisions of this Article. 

Sec. 16. Terms of office and election of Justices oj the Supreme Court. Judges of the 
Court of Appeals, and Judges of the Superior Court. Justices of the Supreme Court, 
Judges of the Court of Appeals, and regular Judges of the Superior Court shall be elect- 
ed by the qualified voters and shall hold office for terms of eight years and until their 
successors are elected and qualified. Justices of the Supreme Court and Judges of the 
Court of Appeals shall be elected by the qualified voters of the State. Regular Judges of 
the Superior Court may be elected by the qualified voters of the State or by the voters of 
their respective districts, as the General Assembly may prescribe. 

Sec. 17. Removal of Judges, Magistrates and Clerks. 

(1) Removal of Judges by the General Assembly. Any Justice or Judge of the General 
Court of Justice may be removed from office for mental or physical incapacity by joint 
resolution of two-thirds of all the members of each house of the General Assembly. Any 
Justice or Judge against whom the General Assembly may be about to proceed shall re- 
ceive notice thereof, accompanied by a copy of the causes alleged for his removal, at 
least 20 days before the day on which either house of the General Assembly shall act 



The Constitution of North Carolina 115 



thereon. Removal from office by the General Assembly for any other cause shall be by 
impeachment. 

(2) Additional method of removal of Judges. The General Assembly shall prescribe a 
procedure, in addition to impeachment and address set forth in this Section, for the re- 
moval of a Justice or Judge of the General Court of Justice for mental or physical in- 
capacity interfering with the performance of his duties which is, or is likely to become, 
permanent, and for the censure and removal of a Justice or Judge of the General Court 
of Justice for willful misconduct in office, willful and persistent failure to perform his 
duties, habitual intemperance, conviction of a crime involving moral turpitude, or con- 
duct prejudicial to the administration of justice that brings the judicial office into disr- 
epute. 

(3) Removal of Magistrates. The General Assembly shall provide by general law for 
the removal of Magistrates for misconduct or mental or physical incapacity. 

(4) Removal of Clerks. Any Clerk of the Superior Court may be removed from office 
for misconduct or mental or physical incapacity by the senior regular resident Superior 
Court Judge serving the county. Any Clerk against whom proceedings are instituted 
shall receive written notice of the charges against him at least ten days before the hear- 
ing upon the charges. Any Clerk so removed from office shall be entitled to an appeal as 
provided by law. 

Sec. 18. District Attorney and Prosecutorial Districts. 

(1) District Attorneys. The General Assembly shall, from time to time, divide the 
State into a convenient number of prosecutorial districts, for each of which a District 
Attorney shall be chosen for a term of four years by the qualified voters thereof, at the 
same time and places as members of the General Assembly are elected. Only persons 
duly authorized to practice law in the courts of this State shall be eligible for election or 
appointment as a District Attorney. The District Attorney shall advise the officers of 
justice in his district, be responsible for the prosecution on behalf of the State of all 
criminal actions in the Superior Courts of his district, perform such duties related to ap- 
peals therefrom as the Attorney General may require, and perform such other duties as 
the General Assembly may prescribe. 

(2) Prosecution in District Court Division. Criminal actions in the District Court Divi- 
sion shall be prosecuted in such manner as the General Assembly may prescribe by 
general law uniformly applicable in every local court district of the State. 

Sec. 19. Vacancies. Unless otherwise provided in this Article, all vacancies occurring 
in the offices provided for by this Article shall be filled by appointment of the Gov- 
ernor, and the appointees shall hold their places until the next election for members of 
the General Assembly that is held more than 30 days after the vacancy occurs, when 
elections shall be held to fill the offices. When the unexpired term of any of the offices 
named in this Article of the Constitution in which a vacancy has occurred, and in which 
it is herein provided that the Governor shall fill the vacancy, expires on the first day of 
January succeeding the next election for members of the General Assembly, the Gover- 
nor shall appoint to fill that vacancy for the unexpired term of the office. If any person 
elected or appointed to any of these offices shall fail to qualify, the office shall be ap- 



116 North Carolina Manual 



pointed to, held, and filled as provided in case of vacancies occurring therein. All in- 
cumbents of these offices shall hold until their successors are qualified. 

Sec. 20. Revenues and expenses of the judicial department. The General Assembly shall 
provide for the establishment of a schedule of court fees and costs which shall be uni- 
form throughout the State within each division of the General Court of Justice. The 
operating expenses of the judicial department, other than compensation to process 
servers and other locally paid non-judicial officers, shall be paid from State funds. 

Sec. 21. Fees, salaries, and emoluments. The General Assembly shall prescribe and 
regulate the fees, salaries, and emoluments of all officers provided for in this Article, but 
the salaries of Judges shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. In no 
case shall the compensation of any Judge or Magistrate be dependent upon his decision 
or upon the collection of costs. 

Sec. 22. Qualification of Justices and Judges. Only persons duly authorized to practice 
law in the courts of this State shall be eligible for election or appointment as a Justice of 
the Supreme Court, Judge of the Court of Appeals, Judge of the Superior Court, or 
Judge of District Court. This section shall not apply to persons elected to or serving in 
such capacities on or before January 1, 1981. 

ARTICLE V 
FINANCE 

Section 1. No capitation tax to be levied. No poll or capitation tax shall be levied by 
the General Assembly or by any county, city or town, or other taxing unit. 

Sec. 2. State and local taxation. 

(1) Power of taxation. The power of taxation shall be exercised in a just and equitable 
manner, for public purposes only, and shall never be surrendered, suspended, or 
contracted away. 

(2) Classification. Only the General Assembly shall have the power to classify prop- 
erty for taxation, which power shall be exercised only on a State-wide basis and shall 
not be delegated. No class of property shall be taxed except by uniform rule, and every 
classification shall be made by general law uniformly applicable in every county, city 
and town, and other unit of local government. 

(3) Exemptions. Property belonging to the State, counties, and municipal corpora- 
tions shall be exempt from taxation. The General Assembly may exempt cemeteries and 
property held for educational, scientific, literary, cultural, charitable, or religious pur- 
poses, and, to a value not exceeding $300, any personal property. The General As- 
sembly may exempt from taxation not exceeding $1,000 in value of property held and 
used as the place of residence of the owner. Every exemption shall be on a State-wide 
basis and shall be made by general law uniformly applicable in every county, city and 
town, and other unit of local government. No taxing authority other than the General 
Assembly may grant exemptions, and the General Assembly shall not delegate the 
powers accorded to it by this subsection. 

(4) Special tax areas. Subject to the limitations imposed by Section 4, the General As- 



The Constitution of North Carolina 117 



sembly may enact general laws authorizing the governing body of any county, city or 
town to define territorial areas and to levy taxes within those areas, in addition to those 
levied throughout the county, city, or town, in order to finance, provide, or maintain 
services, facilities, and functions in addition to or to a greater extent than those 
financed, provided, or maintained for the entire county, city, or town. 

(5) Purposes of property tax. The General Assembly shall not authorize any county, 
city or town, special district, or other unit of local government to levy taxes or property, 
except for purposes authorized by general law uniformly applicable throughout the 
State, unless the tax is approved by a majority of the qualified voters of the unit who 
vote thereon. 

(6) Income tax. The rate of tax on incomes shall not in any case exceed ten per cent, 
and there shall be allowed personal exemptions and deductions so that only net incomes 
are taxed. 

(7) Contracts. The General Assembly may enact laws whereby the State, any county, 
city or town, and any other public corporation may contract with and appropriate 
money to any person, association, or corporation for the accomplishment of public pur- 
poses only. 

Sec. 3. Limitations upon the increase of State debt. 

(1) Authorized purposes: two-thirds limitation. The General Assembly shall have no 
power to contract debts secured by a pledge of the faith and credit of the State, unless 
approved by a majority of the qualified voters of the State who vote thereon, except for 
the following purposes: 

(a) To fund or refund a valid existing debt; 

(b) to supply an unforeseen deficiency in the revenue; 

(c) to borrow in anticipation of the collection of taxes due and payable within the 
current fiscal year to an amount not exceeding 50 per cent of such taxes; 

(d) to suppress riots or insurrections, or to repel invasions; 

(e) to meet emergencies immediately threatening the public health or safety, as con- 
clusively determined in writing by the Governor; 

(f) for any other lawful purpose, to the extent of two-thirds of the amount by which 
the State's outstanding indebtedness shall have been reduced during the next pre- 
ceding biennium. 

(2) Gift or loan of credit regulated. The General Assembly shall have no power to give 
or lend the credit of the State in aid of any person, association, or corporation, except a 
corporation in which the State has a controlling interest, unless the subject is submitted 
to a direct vote of the people of the State, and is approved by a majority of the qualified 
voters who vote thereon. 

(3) Definitions. A debt is incurred within the meaning of this Section when the State 
borrows money. A pledge of the faith and credit within the meaning of this Section is a 
pledge of the taxing power. A loan of credit within the meaning of this Section occurs 
when the State exchanges its obligations with or in any way guarantees the debts of an 
individual, association or private corporation. 



118 North Carolina Manual 

(4) Certain debts barred. The General Assembly shall never assume or pay any debt or 
obligation, express or implied, incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the 
United States. Neither shall the General Assembly assume or pay any debt or bond in- 
curred or issued by authority of the Convention of 1868, the special session of the 
General Assembly of 1868, or the General Assemblies of 1868-69 and 1869-70, unless 
the subject is submitted to the people of the State and is approved by a majority of all 
the qualified voters at a referendum held for that sole purpose. 

(5) Outstanding debt. Except as provided in subsection (4), nothing in this Section 
shall be construed to invalidate or impair the obligation of any bond, note, or other evi- 
dence of indebtedness outstanding or authorized for issue as of July 1, 1973. 

Sec. 4. Limitations upon the increase of local government debt. 

(1) Regulation of borrowing and debt. The General Assembly shall enact general laws 
relating to the borrowing of money secured by a pledge of the faith and credit and the 
contracting of other debts by counties, cities and towns, special districts, and other 
units, authorities, and agencies of local government. 

(2) Authorized purposes: two-thirds limitation. The General Assembly shall have no 
power to authorize any county, city or town, special district, or other unit of local 
government to contract debts secured by a pledge of its faith and credit unless approved 
by a majority of the qualified voters of the unit who vote thereon, except for the follow- 
ing purposes: 

(a) to fund or refund a valid existing debt; 

(b) to supply an unforseen deficiency in the revenue; 

(c) to borrow in anticipation of the collection of taxes due and payable within the 
current fiscal year to an amount not exceeding 50 per cent of such taxes; 

(d) to suppress riots or insurrections; 

(e) to meet emergencies immediately threatening the public health or safety, as con- 
conclusively determined in writing by the Governor; 

(f) for purposes authorized by general laws uniformly applicable throughout the 
State, to the extent of two-thirds of the amount by which the unit's outstanding 
indebtedness shall have been reduced during the next preceding fiscal year. 

(3) Gift or loan of credit regulated. No county, city or town, special district, or other 
unit of local government shall give or lend its credit in aid of any person, association, or 
corporation, except for public purposes as authorized by general law, and unless ap- 
proved by a majority of the qualified voters of the unit who vote thereon. 

(4) Certain debts barred. No county, city or town, or other unit of local government 
shall assume or pay any debt or the interest thereon contracted directly or indirectly in 
aid or support of rebellion or insurrection against the United States. 

(5) Definitions. A debt is incurred within the meaning of this Section when a county, 
city or town, special district, or other unit, authority, or agency of local government 
borrows money. A pledge of faith and credit within the meaning of this Section is a 
pledge of the taxing power. A loan of credit within the meaning of this Section occurs 
when a county, city or town, special district, or other unit, authority, or agency of local 



The Constitution of North Carolina 119 

government exchanges its obligations with or in any way guarantees the debts of an 
individual, association, or private corporation. 

(6) Outstanding debt. Except as provided in subsection (4), nothing in this Section 
shall be construed to invalidate or impair the obligation of any bond, note, or other evi- 
dence of indebtedness outstanding or authorized for issue as of July 1, 1973. 

Sec. 5. Acts levying taxes to state objects. Every act of the General Assembly levying a 
tax shall state the special object to which it is to be applied, and it shall be applied to no 
other purpose. 

Sec. 6. Inviolability oj sinking funds and retirement junds. 

(1) Sinking funds. The General Assembly shall not use or authorize to be used any 
part of the amount of any sinking fund for any purpose other than the retirement of the 
bonds for which the sinking fund has been created, except that these funds may be in- 
vested as authorized by law. 

(2) Retirement funds. Neither the General Assembly nor any public officer, employee, 
or agency shall use or authorize to be used any part of the funds of the Teachers' and 
State Employees' Retirement System or the Local Governmental Employees' Retire- 
ment System for any purpose other than retirement system benefits and purposes, ad- 
ministrative expenses, and refunds; except that retirement system funds may be invested 
as authorized by law, subject to the investment limitation that the funds of the Teachers' 
and State Employees' Retirement System and the Local Governmental Employees' Re- 
tirement System shall not be applied, diverted, loaned to, or used by the State, any State 
agency. State officer, public officer, or public employee. 

Sec. 7. Drawing public money. 

(1) State treasury. No money shall be drawn from the State Treasury but in conse- 
quence of appropriations made by law, and an accurate account of the receipts and 
expenditures of State funds shall be published annually. 

(2) Local treasury. No money shall be drawn from the treasury of any county, city or 
town, or other unit of local government except by authority of law. 

Sec. 8. Health care facilities. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this Constitu- 
tion, the General Assembly may enact general laws to authorize the State, counties, 
cities or towns, and other State and local governmental entities to issue revenue bonds 
to finance or refinance for any such governmental entity or any nonprofit private cor- 
poration, regardless of any church or religious relationship, the cost of acquiring, con- 
structing, and financing health care facility projects to be operated to serve and benefit 
the public; provided, no cost incurred earlier than two years prior to the effective date of 
this section shall be refinanced. Such bonds shall be payable from the revenues, gross or 
net, of any such projects and any other health care facilities of any such governmental 
entity or nonprofit private corporation pledged therefor; shall not be secured by a 
pledge of the full faith and credit, or deemed to create an indebtedness requiring voter 
approval of any governmental entity; and may be secured by an agreement which may 
provide for the conveyance of title of, with or without consideration, any such project 
or facilities to the governmental entity or nonprofit private corporation. The power of 
eminent domain shall not be used pursuant hereto for nonprofit private corporations. 



120 North Carolina Manual 



Sec. 9. Capital projects for industry. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Con- 
stitution, the General Assembly may enact general laws to authorize counties to create 
authorities to issue revenue bonds to finance, but not to refinance, the cost of capital 
projects consisting of industrial, manufacturing and pollution control facilities for in- 
dustry and pollution control facilities for public utilities, and to refund such bonds. 

In no event shall such revenue bonds be secured by or payable from any public 
moneys whatsoever, but such revenue bonds shall be secured by and payable only from 
revenues or property derived from private parties. All such capital projects and all 
transactions therefor shall be subject to taxation to the extent such projects and trans- 
actions would be subject to taxation if no public body were involved therewith; pro- 
vided, however, that the General Assembly may provide that the interest on such reve- 
nue bonds shall be exempt from income taxes within the State. 

The power of eminent domain shall not be exercised to provide any property for any 
such capital project. 

Sec. 10. Joint ownership of generation and transmission facilities. In addition to other 
powers conferred upon them by law, municipalities owning or operating facilities for 
the generation, transmission or distribution of electric power and energy and joint 
agencies formed by such municipalities for the purpose of owning or operating facilities 
for the generation and transmission of electric power and energy (each, respectively, "a 
unit of municipal government") may jointly or severally own, operate and maintain 
works, plants and facilities, within or without the State, for the generation and trans- 
mission of electric power and energy, or both, with any person, firm, association or cor- 
poration, public or private, engaged in the generation, transmission or distribution of 
electric power and energy for resale (each, respectively, "a co-owner") within this State 
or any state contiguous to this State, and may enter into and carry out agreements with 
respect to such jointly owned facilities. For the purpose of financing its share of the cost 
of any such jointly owned electric generation or transmission facilities, a unit of munici- 
pal government may issue its revenue bonds in the manner prescribed by the General 
Assembly, payable as to both principal and interest solely from and secured by a lien 
and charge on all or any part of the revenue derived, or to be derived, by such unit of 
municipal government from the ownership and operation of its electric facilities; pro- 
vided, however, that no unit of municipal government shall be liable, either jointly or 
severally, for any acts, omissions or obligations of any co-owner, nor shall any money 
or property of any unit of municipal government be credited or otherwise applied to the 
account of any co-owner or be charged with any debt, lien or mortgage as a result of any 
debt or obligation of any co-owner. 

Sec. 11. Capital projects for agriculture. Notwithstanding any other provision of the 
Constitution the General Assembly may enact general laws to authorize the creation of 
an agency to issue revenue bonds to finance the cost of capital projects consisting of 
agricultural facilities, and to refund such bonds. 

In no event shall such revenue bonds be secured by or payable from any public 
moneys whatsoever, but such revenue bonds shall be secured by and payable only from 
revenues or property derived from private parties. All such capital projects and all 
transactions therefor shall be subject to taxation if no public body were involved there- 
with; provided, however, that the General Assembly may provide that the interest on 



The Constitution of North Carolina 121 

such revenue bonds shall be exempt from income taxes within the State. 

The power of eminent domain shall not be exercised to provide any property for any 
such capital project. 

ARTICLE VI 

SUFFRAGE AND ELIGIBILITY TO OFFICE 

Section 1. Who may vote. Every person born in the United States and every person 
who has been naturalized, 18 years of age, and possessing the qualifications set out in 
this Article, shall be entitled to vote at any election by the people of the State, except as 
herein otherwise provided. 

Sec. 2. Qualifications of voter. 

(1) Residence period for State elections. Any person who has resided in the State of 
North Carolina for one year and in the precinct, ward, or other election district for 30 
days next preceding an election, and possesses the other qualifications set out in this 
Article, shall be entitled to vote at any election held in this State. Removal from one 
precinct, ward, or other election district to another in this State shall not operate to de- 
prive any person of the right to vote in the precinct, ward, or other election district from 
which that person has removed until 30 days after the removal. 

(2) Residence period for presidential elections. The General Assembly may reduce the 
time of residence for persons voting in presidential elections. A person made eligible by 
reason of a reduction in time of residence shall possess the other qualifications set out in 
this Article, shall only be entitled to vote for President and Vice President of the United 
States or for electors for President and Vice President, and shall not thereby become 
eligible to hold office in this State. 

(3) Disqualification of felon. No person adjudged guilty of a felony against this State 
or the United States, or adjudged guilty of a felony in another state that also would be a 
felony if it had been committed in this State, shall be permitted to vote unless that per- 
son shall be first restored to the rights of citizenship in the manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 3. Registration. Every person offering to vote shall be at the time legally regis- 
tered as a voter as herein prescribed and in the manner provided by law. The General 
Assembly shall enact general laws governing the registration of voters. 

Sec. 4. Qualification for registration. Every person presenting himself for registration 
shall be able to read and write any section of the Constitution in the English language. 

Sec. 5. Elections by people and General Assembly. All elections by the people shall be 
by ballot, and all elections by the General Assembly shall be viva voce. A contested elec- 
tion for any office established by Article III of this Constitution shall be determined by 
joint ballot of both houses of the General Assembly in the manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 6. Eligibility to elective office. Every qualified voter in North Carolina who is 21 
years of age, except as in this Constitution disqualified, shall be eligible for election by 
the people to office. 

Sec. 7. Oath. Before entering upon the duties of an office, a person elected or ap- 
pointed to the office shall take and subscribe the following oath: 



122 North Carolina Manual 



"I, , do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and 

maintain the Constitution and laws of the United States, and the Constitution and laws 
of North Carolina not inconsistent therewith, and that I will faithfully discharge the 
duties of my office as so help me God." 

Sec. 8. Disqualifications for office. The following persons shall be disqualified for of- 
fice: 

First, any person who shall deny the being of Almighty God. 

Second, with respect to any office that is filled by election by the people, any person 
who is not qualified to vote in an election for that office. 

Third, any person who has been adjudged guilty of treason or any other felony 
against this State or the United States, or any person who had been adjudged guilty of a 
felony in another state that also would be a felony if it had been committed in this State, 
or any person who has been adjudged guilty of corruption or malpractice in any office, 
or any person who has been removed by impeachment from any office, and who has not 
been restored to the rights of citizenship in the manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 9. Dual office holding. 

(1) Prohibitions. It is salutary that the responsibilities of self-government be widely 
shared among the citizens of the State and that the potential abuse of authority inherent 
in the holding of multiple offices by an individual be avoided. Therefore, no person who 
holds any office or place of trust or profit under the United States or any department 
thereof, or under any other state or government, shall be eligible to hold any office in 
this State that is filled by election by the people. No person shall hold concurrently any 
two offices in this State that are filled by election of the people. No person shall hold 
concurrently any two or more appointive offices or places of trust or profit, or any com- 
bination of elective and appointive offices or places of trust or profit, except as the 
General Assembly shall provide by general law. 

(2) Exceptions. The provisions of this Section shall not prohibit any officer of the 
military forces of the State or of the United States not on active duty for an extensive 
period of time, any notary public, or any delegate to a Convention of the People from 
holding concurrently another office or place of trust or profit under this State or the 
United States or any department thereof. 

Sec. 10. Continuation in office. In the absence of any contrary provision, all officers in 
this State, whether appointed or elected, shall hold their positions until other appoint- 
ments are made or, if the offices are elective, until their successors are chosen and quali- 
fied. 

ARTICLE VII 

LOCAL GOVERNMENT 

Section 1. General Assembly to provide for local government. The General Assembly 
shall provide for the organization and government and the fixing of boundaries of coun- 
ties, cities and towns, and other governmental subdivisions, and, except as otherwise 
prohibited by this Constitution, may give such powers and duties to counties, cities and 
towns, and other governmental subdivisions as it may deem advisable. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 123 



The General Assembly shall not incorporate as a city or town, nor shall it authorize 
to be incorporated as a city or town, any territory lying within one mile of the corporate 
limits of any other city or town having a population of 5,000 or more according to the 
most recent decennial census of population taken by order of Congress, or lying within 
three miles of the corporate limits of any other city or town having a population of 
10,000 or more according to the most recent decennial census of population taken by 
order of Congress, or lying within four miles of the corporate limits of any other city or 
town having a population of 25,000 or more according to the most recent decennial cen- 
sus of population taken by order of Congress, or lying within five miles of the corporate 
limits of any other city or town having a population of 50,000 or more according to the 
most recent decennial census of population taken by order of Congress. Notwithstand- 
ing the foregoing limitations, the General Assembly may incorporate a city or town by 
an act adopted by vote of three-fifths of all the members of each house. 

Sec. 2. Sheriffs. In each county a Sheriff shall be elected by the qualified voters there- 
of at the same time and places as members of the General Assembly are elected and 
shall hold his office for a period of four years, subject to removal for cause as provided 
by law. 

Sec. 3. Merged or consolidated counties. Any unit of local government formed by the 
merger or consolidation of a county or counties and the cities and tow ns therein shall be 
deemed both a county and a city for the purposes of this Constitution, and may exercise 
any authority conferred by law on counties, or on cities and towns, or both, as the Gen- 
eral Assembly may provide. 

ARTICLE VIII 

CORPORATIONS 

Section 1. Corporate charters. No corporation shall be created, nor shall its charter 
be extended, altered, or amended by special act, except corporations for charitable, edu- 
cational, penal, or reformatory purposes that are to be and remain under the patronage 
and control of the State; but the General Assembly shall provide by general laws for the 
chartering, organization, and powers of all corporations, and for the amending, extend- 
ing, and forfeiture of all charters, except those above permitted by special act. All such 
general acts may be altered from time to time or repealed. The General Assembly may 
at any time by special act repeal the charter of any corporation. 

Sec. 2. Corporations defined. The term "corporation" as used in this Section shall be 
construed to include all associations and joint-stock companies having any of the 
powers and privileges of corporations not possessed by individuals or partnerships. All 
corporations shall have the right to sue and shall be subject to be sued in all courts, in 
like cases as natural persons. 

ARTICLE IX 

EDUCATION 

Section 1. Education encouraged. Religion, morality, and knowledge being necessary 
to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools, libraries, and the means of 
education shall forever be encouraged. 



124 North Carolina Manual 

Sec. 2. Uniform system of schools. 

(1) General and uniform system: term. The General Assembly shall provide by taxa- 
tion and otherwise for a general and uniform system of free public schools, which shall 
be maintained at least nine months in every year, and wherein equal opportunities shall 
be provided for all students. 

(2) Local responsibility. The General Assembly may assign to units of local govern- 
ment such responsibility for the financial support of the free public schools as it may 
deem appropriate. The governing boards of units of local government with financial re- 
sponsibility for public education may use local revenues to add to or supplement any 
public school or post-secondary school program. 

Sec. 3. School attendance. The General Assembly shall provide that every child of ap- 
propriate age and of sufficient mental and physical ability shall attend the public 
schools, unless educated by other means. 

Sec. 4. State Board of Education. 

(1) Board. The State Board of Education shall consist of the Lieutenant Governor, 
the Treasurer, and eleven members appointed by the Governor, subject to confirmation 
by the General Assembly in joint session. The General Assembly shall divide the State 
into eight educational districts. Of the appointive members of the Board, one shall be 
appointed from each of the eight educational districts and three shall be appointed from 
the State at large. Appointments shall be for overlapping terms of eight years. Appoint- 
ments to fill vacancies shall be made by the Governor for the unexpired terms and shall 
not be subject to confirmation. 

(2) Superintendent of Public Instruction. The Superintendent of Public Instructiuon 
shall be the secretary and chief administrative officer of the State Board of Education. 

Sec. 5. Powers and duties of Board. The State Board of Education shall supervise and 
administer the free public school system and the educational funds provided for its sup- 
port, except the funds mentioned in Section 7 of this Article, and shall make all needed 
rules and regulations in relation thereto, subject to laws enacted by the General As- 
sembly. 

Sec. 6. State school fund. The proceeds of all lands that have been or hereafter may be 
granted by the United States to this State, and not otherwise appropriated by this State 
or the United States; all moneys, stocks, bonds, and other property belonging to the 
State for purposes of public education; the net proceeds of all sales of the swamp lands 
belonging to the State; and all other grants, gifts, and devises that have been or hereafter 
may be made to the State, and not otherwise appropriated by the State or by the terms 
of the grant, gift, or devise, shall be paid into the State Treasury and, together with so 
much of the revenue of the State as may be set apart for that purpose, shall be faithfully 
appropriated and used exclusively for establishing and maintaining a uniform system of 
free public schools. 

Sec. 7. County school fund. All moneys, stocks, bonds, and other property belonging 
to a county school fund, and the clear proceeds of all penalties and forfeitures and of all 
fines collected in the several counties for any breach of the penal laws of the State, shall 
belong to and remain in the several counties, and shall be faithfully appropriated and 
used exclusively for maintaining free public schools. 



The Constitution of North Carolina 125 



Sec. 8. Higher education. The General Assembly shall maintain a public system of 
higher education, comprising The University of North Carolina and such other institu- 
tions of higher education as the General Assembly may deem wise. The General As- 
sembly shall provide for the selection of trustees of The University of North Carolina 
and of the other institutions of higher education, in whom shall be vested all the 
privileges, rights, franchises, and endowments heretofore granted to or conferred upon 
the trustees of these institutions. The General Assembly may enact laws necessary and 
expedient for the maintenance and management of The University of North Carolina 
and the other public institutions of higher education. 

Sec. 9. Benefits of public institutions of higher education. The General Assembly shall 
provide that the benefits of The University of North Carolina and other public institu- 
tions of higher education, as far as practicable, be extended to the people of the State 
free of expense. 

Sec. 10. Escheats. 

(1) Escheats prior to July I. 1971. All property that prior to July 1, 1971, accrued to 
the State from escheats, unclaimed dividends, or distributive shares of the estates of de- 
ceased persons shall be appropriated to the use of The University of North Carolina. 

(2) Escheats after June 30, 1971. All property that, after June 30, 1971, shall accrue to 
the State from escheats, unclaimed dividends or distributive shares of the estates of de- 
ceased persons shall be used to aid worthy and needy students who are residents of this 
State and are enrolled in public institutions of higher education in this State. The 
method, amount, and type of distribution shall be prescribed by law. 

ARTICLE X 

HOMESTEADS AND EXEMPTIONS 

Section 1. Personal property exemptions. The personal property of any resident of 
this State, to a value fixed by the General Assembly but not less than $500, to be 
selected by the resident, is exempted from sale under execution or other final process of 
any court, issued for the collection of any debt. 

Sec. 2. Homestead exemptions. 

(1) Exemption from sale: exceptions. Every homestead and the dwellings and build- 
ings used therewith, to a value fixed by the General Assembly but not less than SI, 000, 
to be selected by the owner thereof, or in lieu thereof, at the option of the owner, any lot 
in a city or town with the dwellings and buildings used thereon, and to the same value, 
owned and occupied by a resident of the State, shall be exempt from sale under execu- 
tion or other final process obtained on any debt. But no property shall be exempt from 
sale for taxes, or for payment of obligations contracted for its purchase. 

(2) Exemption for benefit of children. The homestead, after the death of the owner 
thereof, shall be exempt from the payment of any debt during the minority of the 
owner's children, or any of them. 

(3) Exemption for benefit of surviving spouse. If the owner of a homestead dies, leaving 
a surviving spouse but no minor children, the homestead shall be exempt from the debts 



126 North Carolina Manual 



of the owner, and the rents and profits thereof shall inure to the benefit of the surviving 
spouse until he or she remarries, unless the surviving spouse is the owner of a separate 
homestead. 

(4) Conveyance of homestead. Nothing contained in this Article shall operate to pre- 
vent the owner of a homestead from disposing of it by deed, but no deed made by a mar- 
ried owner of a homestead shall be valid without the signature and acknowledgement of 
his or her spouse. 

Sec. 3. Mechanics' and laborers' liens. The General Assembly shall provide by proper 
legislation for giving to mechanics and laborers an adequate lien on the subject-matter 
of their labor. The provisions of Sections 1 and 2 of this Article shall not be so con- 
strued as to prevent a laborer's lien for work done and performed for the person claim- 
ing the exemption or a mechanic's lien for work done on the premises. 

Sec. 4. Property of married women secured to them. The real and personal property of 
any female in this State acquired before marriage, and all property, real and personal, to 
which she may, after marriage, become in any manner entitled, shall be and remain the 
sole and separate estate and property of such female, and shall not be liable for any 
debts, obligations, or engagements of her husband, and may be devised and bequeathed 
and conveyed by her, subject to such regulations and limitations as the General As- 
sembly may prescribe. Every married woman may exercise powers of attorney conferred 
upon her by her husband, including the power to execute and acknowledge deeds to 
property owned by herself and her husband or by her husband. 

Sec. 5. Insurance. A person may insure his or her own life for the sole use and benefit 
of his or her spouse or children or both, and upon his or her death the proceeds from the 
insurance shall be paid to or for the benefit of the spouse or children or both, or to a 
guardian, free from all claims of the representatives or creditors of the insured or his or 
her estate. Any insurance policy which insures the life of a person for the sole use and 
benefit of that person's spouse or children or both shall not be subject to the claims of 
creditors of the insured during his or her lifetime, whether or not the policy reserves to 
the insured during his or her lifetime any or all rights provided for by the policy and 
whether or not the policy proceeds are payable to the estate of the insured in the event 
the beneficiary or beneficiaries predecease the insured. 

ARTICLE XI 

PUNISHMENTS, CORRECTIONS, AND CHARITIES 

Section 1. Punishments. The following punishments only shall be known to the laws 
of this State: death, imprisonment, fines, removal from office, and disqualification to 
hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under this State. 

Sec. 2. Death punishment. The object of punishments being not only to satisfy justice, 
but also to reform the offender and thus prevent crime, murder, arson, burglary, and 
rape, and these only, may be punishable with death, if the General Assembly shall so en- 
act. 

Sec. 3. Charitable and correctional institutions and agencies. Such charitable, benevo- 
lent, penal, and correctional institutions and agencies as the needs of humanity and the 



The Constitution of North Carolina 127 



public good may require shall be established and operated by the State under such or- 
ganization and in such manner as the General Assembly may prescribe. 

Sec. 4. Welfare policy; board of public welfare. Beneficent provision for the poor, the 
unfortunate, and the orphan is one of the first duties of a civilized and a Christian state. 
Therefore the General Assembly shall provide for and define the duties of a board of 
public welfare. 

ARTICLE XII 

MILITARY FORCES 

Section 1. Governor is Commander in Chief The Governor shall be Commander in 
Chief of the military forces of the State and may call out those forces to execute the law, 
suppress riots and insurrections, and repel invasion. 

ARTICLE XIII 

CONVENTIONS; CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT AND REVISION 

Section 1. Convention of the People. No Convention of the People of this State shall 
ever be called unless by the concurrence of two-thirds of all the members of each house 
of the General Assembly, and unless the proposition "Convention or No Convention" 
is first submitted to the qualified voters of the State at the time and in the manner pre- 
scribed by the General Assembly. If a majority of the votes cast upon the proposition 
are in favor of a Convention, it shall assemble on the day prescribed by the General As- 
sembly. The General Assembly shall, in the act of submitting the convention proposi- 
tion, propose limitations upon the authority of the Convention; and if a majority of the 
votes cast upon the proposition are in favor of a Convention, those limitations shall be- 
come binding upon the Convention. Delegates to the Convention shall be elected by the 
qualified voters at the time and in the manner prescribed in the act of submission. The 
Convention shall consist of a number of delegates equal to the membership of the 
House of Representatives of the General Assembly that submits the convention propo- 
sition and the delegates shall be apportioned as is the House of Representatives. A Con- 
vention shall adopt no ordinance not necessary to the purpose for which the Conven- 
tion has been called. 

Sec. 2. Power to revise or amend Constitution reserved to people. The people of this 
State reserve the power to amend this Constitution and to adopt a new or revised Con- 
stitution. This power may be exercised by either of the methods set out hereinafter in 
this Article, but in no other way. 

Sec. 3. Revision or amendment by Convention oj the People. A Convention of the 
People of this State may be called pursuant to Section 1 of this Article to propose a new 
or revised Constitution or to propose amendments to this Constitution. Every new or 
revised Constitution and every constitutional amendment adopted by a Convention 
shall be submitted to the qualified voters of the State at the time and in the manner 
prescribed by the Convention. If a majority of the votes cast thereon are in favor of rati- 
fication of the new or revised Constitution or the constitutional amendment or amend- 
ments, it or they shall become effective January first next after ratification by the quali- 
fied voters unless a different effective date is prescribed by the Convention. 



128 North Carolina Manual 

Sec. 4. Revision or amendment by legislative initiation. A proposal of a new or revised 
Constitution or an amendment or amendments to this Constitution may be initiated by 
the General Assembly, but only if three-fifths of all the members of each house shall 
adopt an act submitting the proposal to the qualified voters of the State for their ratifi- 
cation or rejection. The proposal shall be submitted at the time and in the manner 
prescribed by the General Assembly. If a majority of the votes cast thereon are in favor 
of the proposed new or revised Constitution or constitutional amendment or amend- 
ments, it or they shall become effective January first next after ratification by the voters 
unless a different effective date is prescribed in the act submitting the proposal or pro- 
posals to the qualified voters. 

ARTICLE XIV 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Section 1. Seat of government. The permanent seat of government of this State shall 
be at the City of Raleigh. 

Sec. 2. State boundaries. The limits and boundaries of the State shall be and remain 
as they now are. 

Sec. 3. General laws defined. Whenever the General Assembly is directed or au- 
thorized by this Constitution to enact general laws, or general laws uniformly applicable 
throughout the State, or general laws uniformly applicable in every county, city and 
town, and other unit of local government, or in every local court district, no special or 
local act shall be enacted concerning the subject matter directed or authorized to be ac- 
complished by general or uniformly applicable laws, and every amendment or repeal of 
any law relating to such subject matter shall also be general and uniform in its effect 
throughout the State. General laws may be enacted for classes defined by population or 
other criteria. General laws uniformly applicable throughout the State shall be made 
applicable without classification or exception in every unit of local government of like 
kind, such as every county, or every city and town, but need not be made applicable in 
every unit of local government in the State. General laws uniformly applicable in every 
county, city and town, and other unit of local government, or in every local court dis- 
trict, shall be made applicable without classification or exception in every unit of local 
governm government, or in every local court district, as the case may be. The Genera! 
Assembly may at any time repeal any special, local, or private act. 

Sec. 4. Continuity of laws; protection of office holders. The laws of North Carolina not 
in conflict with this Constitution shall continue in force until lawfully altered. Except as 
otherwise specifically provided, the adoption of this Consion shall not have the effect of 
vacating any office or term of office now filled or held by virtue of any election or ap- 
pointment made under the prior Constitution of North Carolina and the laws of the 
State enacted pursuant thereto." 

Sec. 5. Conservation of natural resources. It shall be the policy of this State to con- 
serve and protect its lands and waters for the benefit of all its citizenry, and to this end it 
shall be a proper function of the State of North Carolina and its political subdivisions to 
acquire and preserve park, recreational, and scenic areas, to control and limit the pollu- 
tion of our air and water, to control excessive noise, and in every other appropriate way 



The Constitution of North Carolina 129 



to preserve as a part of the common heritage of this State its forests, wetlands, estuaries, 
beaches, historical sites, openlands, and places of beauty. 

To accomplish the aforementioned public purposes, the State and its counties, cities 
and towns, and other units of local government may acquire by purchase or gift proper- 
ties or interests in properties which shall, upon their special dedication to and ac- 
ceptance by resolution adopted by a vote of three-fifths of the members of each hous-e of 
the General Assembly for those public purposes, constitute part of the "State Nature 
and Historic Preserve", and which shall not be used for other purposes except as au- 
thorized by law enacted by a vote of three-fifths of the members of each house of the 
General Assembly. The General Assembly shall prescribe by general law the conditions 
and procedures under which such properties or interests therein shall be dedicated for 
the aforementioned public purposes. 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 131 

Chapter Three 

VOTING RESULTS ON CONSTITUTIONAL 
ISSUES SINCE 1970 



INTRODUCTION 

Provisions for amending and revising the Constitution are found in Article XIII of 
the Constitution of North Carohna. The two methods outlined in this article are: ( 1 ) by 
convention of the people and (2) by legislative initiation. In both instances all con- 
stitutional issues proposed must be submitted for approval by the qualified voters of the 
State. 

The convention method for amending the constitution has not been used during this 
century. The last convention called to amend a constitution of North Carolina was held 
in 1875. The preferred method since that time has been by legislative initiation. Section 
4 of Article XIII states: 

A proposal of a new or revised Constitution or an amendment or amendments to this 
Constitution may be initiated by the General Assembly, but only if three-fifths of all the 
members of each house shall adopt an act submitting the proposal to the qualified voters 
of the State for their ratification or rejection. The proposal shall be submitted at the time 
and in the manner prescribed by the General Assembly. 
North Carolina is currently under its third Constitution. The present one became ef- 
fective on July 1, 1971, having been adopted on November 3, 1970, by the voters of 
North Carolina. The Constitution of 1971 was the result of recommendations made by 
the State Constitutional Study Commission to the General Assembly of 1969. From 
these recommendations came seven proposals regarding changes to the Constitution 
— one being the adoption of a new constitution. 

Since 1970 other constitutional issues have been presented to the voters of our State. 
The county by county tabulations of those issues are found in this chapter. In order to 
present the material in a uniform format, a description of the ballot issues as they were 
presented to the voters is given on a separate page preceeding the actual tabulation of 
votes. A number has been assigned each ballot issue for each election date on which the 
issue or issues were presented. In the tabulations each number identifies a particular 
ballot issue described on the previous page. The votes "FOR" or "AGAINST" each is- 
sue are given by county. The counties are listed in alphabetical order and a statewide 
total appears at the end of each issue. 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 133 

CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN THE GENERAL 
ELECTIONS HELD NOVEMBER 3, 1970 

Ballot Tabulations of Votes 

Number Description ol Constitutional Issue |Cltation| For Against 

1 Constitutional amendment for the revision and amend- 
ment of the Constitution of North Carolina. 393,759 251,132 
(Chapter 1258, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1969) 

2 Constitutional amendment to require the General 
Assembly to reduce number of state administrative 
departments to 25 and to authorize the Governor to 
reorganize administrative departments, subject to legis- 
lative approval. 400,892 248,759 
(Chapter 932, Session Laws of North CaroUna, 1969) 

3 Constitutional amendment permitting 3/ 5 of the mem- 
bers of the General Assembly to convene extra sessions 

of the General Assembly. 332,981 285,587 

(Chapter 1270, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1969) 

4 Constitutional amendment revising those portions of 
the present or proposed state constitution concerning 

state and local finance. 323, 131 28 1 ,087 

(Chapter 1200, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1969) 

5 Constitutional amendment authorizing General Assem- 
bly to fix personal exemptions for income tax purposes. 336,660 282,697 
(Chapter 872, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1969) 

6 Constitutional amendment providing that after June 
30, 1971, the escheats shall be used to aid North Carol- 
ina residents enrolled in any public institution of higher 

education in this state. 362,097 248,451 

(Chapter 827, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1969) 

7 Constitutional amendment abolishing literacy require- 
ment for voting. 279,132 355,347 
(Chapter 1004, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1969) 



134 



North Carolina Manual 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD NOVEMBER 3, 1970 





1 


2 


County 


For 


Against 


For 


Against 


Alamance 


6,948 
2,772 
922 
2,054 
2,445 

984 
2,359 

605 
1,211 
2,163 

10,006 
6,920 
7,231 
6,683 

328 

4,286 
1,104 
10,097 
2,062 
2,501 

728 

793 

6,294 

1,999 

2,829 

6,604 

439 

597 

11,064 

2,070 

2,674 
8,429 
2,061 
18,022 
1.194 

13,457 

392 

1,424 

878 

751 

22.095 
1,228 
2,583 
5,008 
4,120 

882 

926 

406 

7,306 

2,839 


4,076 

2,698 

843 

934 

1.375 

430 
1,092 

432 
1,070 

2.333 

4.903 
5,432 
5,257 
4,500 

227 

1,578 
1,112 
7,156 
2,048 
1 .430 

235 

433 

3,833 

1.714 

1,770 

3.720 

318 

249 

8,336 

1,728 

2,299 
4,411 
1,409 
9,185 
2,211 

6,856 
181 
681 
929 

843 

9,891 

1,724 
3.293 
3.117 
2,962 

372 

513 

273 

4.034 

1,472 


7,532 
3.143 
1,027 
2,006 

2,843 

1,014 

2,417 

672 

1.218 

2,009 

9,520 

6,283 

6.960 

6.935 

286 

4,643 
1,181 
9,211 
2.149 

2,273 

670 

729 

6,362 

1.989 

3,047 

6.913 

391 

587 

12,290 

2,319 

2,785 
9.479 
2,046 
19.109 
1,193 

12,698 

335 

1,081 

867 

773 

22,219 
1,283 
2.779 
4.463 
3,733 

790 

891 

454 

8.360 

2.683 


3 758 


Alexander 


2 516 


Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 


724 
906 

1,175 

369 

1,073 

■<68 


Bladen 


957 


Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 


2,333 

5,872 
5,907 
5.594 
4,271 
221 

1 414 


Cabarrus 

Caldwell 

Camden 


Caswell 

Chatham 


975 
8,801 
1 984 


Cherokee 

Chowan 


1 ,354 
261 


Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 


406 
3,649 
1,602 
1 701 


Cumberland 

Currituck 


3,553 
342 


Dare 

Davidson 


242 
7.572 


Da\'ic ... 


1,424 




2,119 


Durham 

Edgecombe 

Forsyth 

Franklin . . 


4.247 
1,391 
8,087 
2,075 


Gaston 

Gates 


7,635 
224 


Graham 

Granville 

Greene 


1.113 
943 
810 


Guilford 


9,738 




1,702 


Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 


2.896 
3,432 
3,511 

358 

567 

220 

3.271 


Jackson 


1,433 







Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



135 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD NOVEMBER 3, 1970 



County 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 

Pender 

Perquimans 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania 

Tyrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 

Totals 



For 



Against 



For 



Against 



.1,120 
908 
1 ,030 
4,176 
4,815 

1,989 
1,121 
2,048 
2,951 
30,682 

1.016 

2,202 
3,995 
2,365 
5,374 

1.706 
3,473 
6,139 
697 
1,206 

1,169 

498 

1,457 

6,216 

945 

4,857 
1 ,654 
6,533 
5,028 
9,479 

4,925 
4,489 
1,232 
5,009 
2,748 

5,782 
1,199 
3,429 
282 
4,398 

1,214 
17,202 
1,016 
1,043 
2,978 

2,549 

4,023 
3,673 
2,011 

1,875 



393,759 



4,057 

862 

978 

4,395 

3,326 

1,270 

365 

857 

2,817 

8,999 

516 
1,919 
3,139 
2,629 
3,468 

526 
2,150 
2,350 

561 

722 

966 

268 
1,108 
2,812 

369 

4,078 

864 

4,199 

3,509 

7,221 

3,583 

3,866 

639 

4,528 
2,529 

3,372 
593 

2,202 
159 

1,788 

1,626 

10,844 

1,442 

653 

1,181 

4,168 
2,541 
3,290 
2,121 
889 



251,132 



3,024 

858 

1,116 

3,908 

4,676 

1 ,895 
1,089 
2,272 
2,864 
32,820 

1,102 

2,308 
4,257 
2,320 
5,379 

802 
3,573 
5,581 

883 
1,117 

1,117 

456 

1 ,399 

6,626 

982 

5,882 
1,748 
6,062 
5,164 
9,675 

5,069 
4,578 
1 ,300 
5,164 
2,890 

5,954 
992 

3,252 
299 

4,764 

1.172 
17,635 
1.048 
l.lll 
2,912 

3,154 

4,274 
3,623 
2,246 
1,860 



400,893 



3,894 
845 
1,084 
4,586 
3,641 

1,255 

408 

761 

2,790 

8,949 

507 
1,801 
2,768 
2,645 
3,309 

841 

2,023 

2,964 

514 

818 

875 
284 
934 
2,557 
412 

3,448 

819 

3,929 

3,094 

7,352 

3,362 
3,504 
1,595 
4,650 

2,227 

3,293 
876 

2,100 
143 

1,552 

1,594 
12,266 

1 ,325 

602 

1 ,32 1 

3,831 
2,311 
3,352 
1,873 
816 



248,795 



136 



North Carolina Manual 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 3rd DAY OF 

NOVEMBER A.D. 1970 — Continued 



County 

Alamance 

Alexander 

Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe 

A\ery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 

Cumberland 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 



For 



Against 



For 



Against 



6,092 
2.230 
671 
1,581 
1,986 

716 
2.03 1 

537 
1.010 
1.858 

10.053 

5,217 

5.420 

4.952 

264 

3,907 
953 
8,085 
1,769 
2,111 

636 

672 

4,810 

1,727 

2,514 

5,846 

386 

550 

9,966 

1,499 

2,237 

8,294 

1.835 

16.450 

967 

10.516 

314 

1,250 

808 

652 

18,948 
1,207 
2.299 
4,327 
3,833 

747 

800 

335 

5,343 

2,682 



4,625 
3,145 
916 
1,218 
1.383 

558 
1 .230 

421 
1.137 
2.304 

5.085 
6,503 
6,784 
5.710 

228 

1.755 
1.112 
8.797 
2.183 
1.514 

290 

449 

4.950 

1.801 

1.844 

4.316 

340 

247 

9.128 

1.866 

2,382 
4,714 
1 .423 
9,627 
2,198 

8,940 
188 
663 
930 

882 

11,648 
1.724 
3.301 
3,343 
3,089 

331 

583 

272 

5,471 

1,387 



6,070 

2.375 

688 

1.612 

1.944 

738 
1 .905 

515 
1 .039 
1.866 

9,308 
5,627 
5,431 

4,845 
232 

3.836 
944 
7.946 
1.741 
2.169 

622 
680 

4,773 
1.728 
2.275 

5,116 
356 
489 

9.847 
1.685 

2.274 

7.601 

1.736 

14,497 

945 

9,870 
320 

1 .308 
748 
652 

19.201 
1.092 
2.235 
4.139 
3.481 

682 

600 

312 

5.636 

2.683 



4.480 
2.922 
880 
1,078 
1,349 

498 

1,272 

422 

1.059 

2.197 

5,185 
6.005 
6.538 
5.561 
230 

1.708 
1.008 
8.552 
2.039 
1,302 

288 

419 

4,581 

1.713 

1.940 

5.016 

345 

285 

8.454 

1.766 

2.240 
4,882 
1.448 
10,799 
2,103 

9,138 
163 
690 
931 
853 

10.823 
1.794 
3,208 
3,322 
3,272 

400 
790 
252 

4.797 
1 .354 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



137 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 3rd DAY OF 

NOVEMBER A.D. 1970 — Continued 



County 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 

Pender 

Perquimans 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania 

Tyrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 

Totals 



For 



Against 



For 



Against 



2,397 

772 

943 

3,744 

3,646 

1,706 
1,016 
1,831 
2,349 
25,215 

776 
1,765 
3,466 
2,032 
5,072 

632 
3,104 
5,473 

580 
1,111 

1,027 

442 

1,170 

5,297 

854 

4,110 
1,426 
5,480 
4,101 
7,784 

3,921 
3,590 
1,046 

3,837 
2,328 

5,139 
996 

3,048 

242 

3,283 

1,070 

15,344 

846 

905 

2,195 

2,434 
3,169 
2,927 
1,652 
1,796 



4,016 
845 
1,056 
4,464 
4,194 

1,413 

397 

982 

3,097 

14,619 

626 
2,171 
3,333 
2,636 
3,460 

891 

2,334 

2,758 

620 

710 

947 

294 

1,143 

3,296 

486 

4,516 
956 
4,374 
3,748 
8,631 

4,367 
3,989 
722 
5,114 
2,485 

3,484 
672 

2,283 
163 

2,627 

1,618 

12,243 

1,409 

709 

1,651 

4,268 
3,007 
3,766 
2,194 
818 



2,249 

770 

898 

3,582 

3,690 

1,722 
1.009 
1,561 
2,299 
23,855 

750 
1,768 
3,378 
1,915 
4,386 

565 
3,049 
5,357 

659 
1,006 

982 

423 

1,199 

4,921 

824 

4,237 
1 ,344 
5,506 
4,110 
7,697 

3,884 
3,621 
1,123 
4,132 
2,304 

4,953 
1,034 
3,073 
220 
3,399 

936 

14,761 

801 

878 

2,382 

2,106 
3,263 
2,638 
1,701 
1,797 



3,959 
812 
1,081 
4,473 
4,005 

1,278 

376 

1,110 

2,932 

15,121 

561 
2.040 
3,115 
2,696 
3,942 

928 

2,235 

2,545 

557 

781 

938 
286 
910 
3,330 
489 

4,206 
971 
4,142 
3,423 
8,270 

4,106 
3,793 
662 
4,859 
2,383 

3,555 
573 

2,223 
154 

2,254 

1,704 

13,199 

1,384 

679 

1,554 

4,478 
2,792 
3,924 
2,150 
798 



332,981 



285,587 



323, 1 3 1 



281,087 



138 



North Carolina Manual 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 3rd DAY OF 

NOVEMBER A.D. 1970 - Continued 



County 

Alamance 

Alexander 

Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 

Cumberland 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 



For 



Against 



For 



Against 



6,061 
2.354 
692 
1,708 
2,099 

81« 
2,013 

533 
1,127 
1,820 
9,561 
5,772 
6,270 
5,110 

282 

3,760 
1,039 
8,372 
1,796 
2,084 

659 

689 

5,124 

1,730 

2,473 

5,745 

374 

525 

9.419 

1,626 

2,249 
8,121 
1,857 
14,119 
1.109 

10,223 

330 

1,289 

790 

671 

19,558 
1,188 
2,428 
3,994 
3,556 

776 

835 

335 

6,315 

2,603 



4,767 
3,003 
937 
1.092 
1.268 

501 
1.247 

433 
1.025 
2.398 
5.578 
5.985 
5.913 
5,553 

206 

1,892 
1 ,037 
8,396 
2,104 
1 ,436 

268 

448 
4,436 
1,805 
1.951 

4.419 

341 

275 

9.753 

1.918 

2.256 
4.865 
1,409 
11.792 
2.072 

9.304 
167 
706 
938 
837 

11,166 
1.710 
3.141 
3.646 
3.492 

387 

577 

264 

4.603 

1.471 



6.614 
2.63 1 

782 
1,775 
2.182 

867 
2.218 

584 
1,227 
2.030 
10.164 
6.477 
6.722 
6,023 

284 

4.068 
1.042 
9.565 
1.805 
2.273 

702 

750 

5.546 

1.839 

2.754 

6,225 

406 

566 

10.190 

1.852 

2.486 
7.811 

2. 1 34 

15.105 

1.135 

12.229 

311 

1.404 

826 

768 

19,955 
1,400 
2,593 
4.624 
4.025 

787 

860 

344 

6.33 I 

2.760 



4,058 
2,648 

786 

958 

1.147 

391 
1.035 

381 

922 
2.078 
4,668 
5,107 
5,279 
4.490 

197 

1.481 
994 
7.124 
1.992 
1,274 

209 

370 

3,941 

1,656 

1,655 

3,792 

295 

205 

8,511 

1,650 

2,072 
4,839 
1.178 
10,363 
1,968 

6,793 
175 
615 
872 
780 

10,285 
1,518 
3,030 
2,828 
2,837 

359 

516 

246 

4,252 

1,259 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



139 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 3rd DAY OF 

NOVEMBER A.D. 1970 - Continued 



County 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 

Pender 

Perquimans 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania 

Tyrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 

Totals 



For 



Against 



For 



Against 



2,449 
751 
1,027 
3,544 
3,881 

1,649 
1,013 
1,775 
2,393 
27,662 

791 
1,798 
3,346 
2,064 
4,293 

628 
2,897 
5,443 

635 
1,088 

1,009 

444 

1,292 

5,152 

839 

4,246 
1,379 
5,434 
4,090 
8,073 

4,057 
3,685 
1,071 
4,252 
2,149 

4,809 
996 

2,871 
248 

3,572 

1,128 

15,863 

888 

863 

2,657 

2,483 
3,363 
3,301 
1,597 
1,741 



3,975 
853 
1,001 
4,707 
3,950 

1,488 

402 

960 

3,048 

12,397 

587 
2,125 
3,321 
2,631 
4,251 

912 

2,546 

2,698 

615 

742 

984 
291 
989 
3,370 
480 

4,499 
1,048 
4,377 
3,789 
8,266 

4,115 
3,897 
738 
4,881 
2,619 

3,873 
654 

2,522 
159 

2,319 

1,554 

11,788 

1,339 

726 

1,415 

4,220 
2,823 
3,432 
2,262 
863 



2,494 
837 
1,037 
4,000 
4,314 

1,909 
1,061 
1,880 
2,898 
28,475 

856 
1,920 
3,626 
2,401 
5,048 

1,596 
3,296 
4,913 

779 
1,134 

1,079 

451 

1,244 

5,441 

905 

4,407 
1,510 
5,882 
4,219 
8,806 

4,556 
3,918 
1,138 
4,482 
2,345 

5,276 
1,085 
3,224 
255 
3,846 

1,135 

16,678 

1,059 

1,024 

2,557 

2,674 
3,461 
3,421 
1,736 
1,758 



3,813 

743 

959 

4,187 

3,395 

1,159 

331 

827 

2,417 

11,201 

475 
1,957 
2,995 
2,281 
3,459 

518 
2,086 
3,190 

469 

674 

865 
272 
887 
2,949 
420 

4,091 

873 
3,794 
3,400 
7,220 

3,512 
3,518 
648 
4,527 
2,331 

3,223 
514 

2,151 
129 

1,853 

1,499 

10,743 

1,289 

564 

1,339 

4,025 
2,505 
3,240 
2,018 
837 



140 



North Carolina Manual 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 3rd DAY OF 

NOVEMBER A.D. 1970 - Continued 



County 

Alamance 

Alexander 

Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 

Cumberland ... 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 

Totals 



For 



Against 



County 



For 



Against 



4,XI0 
2,361 
665 
1 .302 
2,660 

854 

1,413 

411 

856 

1,605 

7,866 
5,607 
4,744 
5,243 
177 

3,043 
834 
7,759 
1,511 
2,063 

483 

724 
4,191 
1,456 
1,804 

4,097 

244 

405 

7,953 

1,505 

1,800 

6,073 

1,350 

1 1 ,409 

822 

9,508 

241 

1,249 

579 
470 

15,978 

949 

1,840 

3,950 

3,265 

599 

682 

209 

4,338 

2,431 



6,150 
2,824 
1 ,003 
1,565 
1,296 

570 
1,973 

681 
1,343 
2,734 

7,510 
6,362 
7.559 
5,665 
317 

2,800 
1,290 
9,291 
2,461 

1,525 

457 

473 

5,470 

2,095 

2,762 

6.096 

496 

444 

11.096 

1,964 

2,922 
7,058 
1.956 

15.433 
2,231 

10,214 

280 

655 

1.151 

1,058 

15,758 
2,016 
3,761 
3,857 
3,856 

655 

729 

439 

6,845 

1,638 



Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir ... 
Lmcoln .. 



Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg . 

Mitchell 

Montgomery . 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank ... 

Pender 

Perquimans ... 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 



Randolph .... 
Richmond ... 

Robeson 

Rockingham 
Rowan 



Rutherford 
Sampson ... 
Scotland .... 

Stanly 

Stokes 



Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania 

Tyrell' 

Union 



Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington 
Watauga 



Wayne 
Wilkes , 
Wilson 
Yadkin 
Yancey 



1.956 

628 

727 

2,519 

3,879 

1,519 
1,065 
1,394 
2,581 
18,861 

837 
1,694 
2,678 
1,413 
3,606 

1,429 

2,176 

4,470 

486 

832 

795 
331 
1,050 
3,326 
886 
3,728 
1,072 
4,450 
3,421 
6,190 

3,742 
3,123 
821 
3,465 
2,173 

4,436 
1,049 
2,774 
180 
2,694 

830 

12,569 

932 

671 

2,758 

1,658 
3,397 
2,009 
1,535 
1,839 



4,626 
966 
1,341 
5,894 
3,978 

1.656 

422 

1,460 

2.995 

22,523 

657 
2,33 1 
4,201 
3,426 
5,544 

957 

3,343 

3.840 

783 

1,087 

1,219 

412 

1,277 

5,424 

536 

5,307 

1,431 

5,445 

4,681 

10.357 

4,504 
4,560 
1,034 
5,730 

2,742 

4,305 
689 

2,713 
261 

3,398 

1 ,893 

16.315 

1.605 

990 

1,528 

5,199 
2,916 
4,797 
2,382 
863 



279,132 



355,340 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 141 

CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN THE GENERAL 
ELECTIONS HELD NOVEMBER 7, 1972 



Ballot Tabulations of Votes 

Number Description ol Constitutional Issue (Citation) For Against 



Constitutional amendment reducing the voting age to 
18 years and providing that only persons 21 years of 
age or older shall be eligible for elective office. 762,651 425,708 

(Chapter 201, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1971) 

Constitutional amendment to require the General 
Assembly to prescribe maximum age limits for service 
as a Justice or a Judge. 8 1 1 ,440 304,489 

(Chapter 451, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1971) 

Constitutional amendment authorizing the General 
Assembly to prescribe procedures for the censure and 
removal of Justices and Judges of the General Court of 
Justice. 807,960 272,470 

(Chapter 560, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1971) 

Constitutional amendment to conserve and protect 
North Carolina's natural resources. 976,581 146,895 

(Chapter 630, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1971) 

Constitutional amendment limiting incorporation of 
cities and towns. 694,921 374,184 

(Chapter 857, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1971) 



142 



North Carolina Manual 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 7th DAY OF 

NOVEMBER A.D. 1973 





1 


1 


County 


For 


Against 


For 


Against 


Alamance 


14,818 


7,724 


6,353 


5,274 


Alexander 


4,008 


2.935 


4,110 


2,491 


Alleghany 


1,588 


1,023 


1,320 


996 


Anson 


3,538 


1,845 


3,600 


1,142 


Ashe 


4,000 


2,108 


3,384 


2,024 


Avery 


2,161 


932 


2,172 


779 


Beaufort 


5,593 


2,899 


5,886 


1,727 


Bertie 


1,413 


568 


1,454 


348 


Bladen 


4,080 


1,83 


3,974 


1,492 


Brunswick 


4,814 


2,372 


4,413 


1,929 


Buncombe 


15,891 


7,841 


18,972 


4,174 


Burke 


11,770 


6,896 


11,855 


5,293 


Cabarrus 


13,824 


7,793 


15,155 


5,559 


Caldwell 


9,736 


5,829 


9,930 


4,689 


Camden 


897 


474 


925 


238 


Carteret 


7,137 


3,137 


7,568 


2,089 


Caswell 


3,010 


1.253 


2,794 


974 


Catawba 


17,578 


10.917 


19,510 


7,497 


Chatham 


5,438 


2,858 


5,091 


2,600 


Cherokee 


3,379 


1,304 


3,009 


1,180 


Chowan 


1,721 


803 


1,882 


438 


Clay 


1,257 


387 


1,162 


291 


Cleveland 


10,752 


5,702 


11,719 


3,927 


Columbus 


5,485 


2,489 


5,256 


2,025 




5,861 


3,007 


6,354 


2,021 


Cumberland 


21,659 


10,242 


22,192 


8,008 


Currituck 


1,394 


626 


1,446 


379 


Dare 


1,556 


599 


1,619 


321 




18,946 


10,523 


19,501 


8,276 


Davie 


4,244 


1,926 


3.927 


1,644 




5,650 


3,113 


5.981 


2,066 


Durham 


15,593 

7,248 


15,734 
3,208 


17.472 
7.614 


12,714 




1,987 


Forsyth 


31,264 


16.549 


31,401 


14,684 




4,479 
21,319 


2.425 
11,596 


4,565 
22,719 


1,620 


Gaston 


8,699 


Gates 


1,373 


619 


1,426 


279 


Graham 


1,346 


719 


1,285 


636 


Granville 


4,952 


2,466 


5,037 


1.663 


Greene 


2,308 
41.630 


960 

26,453 


2,418 
45.444 


652 


Guilford 


19,339 


Halifax 


7,991 


3,991 


8,508 


2,650 


Harnett 


7,645 


4,749 


7,373 


3,836 




8,299 


4.216 


8,818 


2,984 


Henderson 


7,584 


3,402 


8,402 


2.153 


Hertford 


1,882 


562 


1.913 


1,412 


Hoke 


2,301 


855 


1,811 


1,117 


Hyde 


891 


443 


874 


256 


Iredell 


13,405 


7,086 


14,468 


5,103 


Jackson 


4,223 


2,330 


4,357 


1,677 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



143 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 7th DAY OF 

NOVEMBER A.D. 1972 — Continued 



County 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 

Pender 

Perquimans 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania 

Tyrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 

Totals 



For 



Against 



For 



Against 



7,040 
1,744 
2,761 
9.073 
7,046 

3,479 

1,085 

2,310 

4,756 

44,515 

2,549 

3,382 

7,716 

10,381 

13,289 

2,210 
7,956 
12,522 
1,588 
2,982 

2,696 

1,286 

4,569 

11,083 

1,724 

11,034 
4,242 
12,035 
11,145 
17,071 

7,823 
7,766 
2,653 
9,388 
5,370 

5,758 
1,383 
4,939 
671 
8,362 

5,489 
38,882 
2,483 
2,381 
4,289 

6,723 
8,190 
9,505 
4,216 
2,181 



762.651 



4,230 
684 

1,262 
4,485 
4,181 

1,450 

648 

1,138 

2,769 

27,217 

1,279 
2.086 
4.152 
5.382 
7,683 

836 

3,685 

10,307 

758 
1,375 
1.401 

482 
2.428 
6.441 

961 

5,604 
3,161 
5,476 
6,234 
9,052 

4,642 
4,048 
1,287 
5.641 
2.660 

2,612 

448 

2,264 

253 

4,461 

3.187 

24.487 

1.340 

1.434 

2.947 

3.088 
4,673 
5,134 
2,499 
1.455 



425.708 



7.068 

1.712 

2,986 

10,013 

7,268 

3,487 
1,041 
2.213 
5.007 
57.017 

2,499 

3,448 

8.087 

11.309 

13,651 

2,227 
8,413 

14,320 
1,594 
3,355 
2,697 
1,314 
4,42 i 

12,472 
1,943 

11,020 
4,629 
11,365 
11,161 
18,179 

8,124 

7,354 
2,872 
9,783 
4,752 

5,746 
1,417 
4,982 
633 
9,178 
5,341 
45,190 
2,375 
2,645 
4.594 

7,249 
7,939 
10,532 
3,920 
2,115 



811,440 



3,236 

512 

925 

2,782 

3.358 

1,012 

521 

680 

2.097 

13.770 

908 

1,636 

2,935 

3,267 

6,087 

560 

2,683 

6,583 

495 

804 

978 

301 

1,736 

3,984 

727 

4,426 
2,092 
4,148 
4,719 
6,807 

3,755 
3,121 
837 
4,238 
2,447 

2,211 
299 

1,808 
178 

2,844 

2,550 

15,483 

967 

803 

2,073 

2,231 
4,327 
3,115 
2,079 

743 



304,489 



144 



North Carolina Manual 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 7th DAY OF 

NOVEMBER A.D. 1972 — Continued 



County 

Alamance 

Alexander 

Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 

Cumberland 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 



For 



Against 



For 



Against 



16,033 
4,079 
1,294 
3,405 
3,341 

2,118 
6,139 
1,434 
3,956 
4,245 

18,811 
12,461 
15,720 
10,182 
911 

7,787 
2,679 
19,569 
4,925 
2,934 

1,849 
1,118 
11,879 
4,934 
6,378 

23,470 
1,424 
1,570 

19,097 
3,958 
5,735 

17,128 
7,529 

32,680 
4,394 

23,438 
1,393 
1,228 
5,008 
2,431 

43,852 
8,509 
7,610 
8,770 
7,849 

1,921 

1,979 

863 

14,638 

4,360 



4,622 


19,998 


2,400 


4,579 


918 


1,485 


1,052 


4,190 


1,815 


4,367 


655 


2,559 


1,419 


7,163 


282 


1,717 


1,268 


4,761 


1,810 


5,399 


3,643 


21,617 


4,578 


14,653 


4,847 


17,101 


4,060 


12,420 


203 


972 


1,616 


9,009 


860 


3,376 


6,406 


22,405 


2,477 


6,436 


1,105 


3,590 


361 


2,198 


263 


1,342 


3,233 


12,896 


1,995 


6,235 


1,709 


7,516 


6,227 


27,825 


309 


1,652 


261 


1,732 


7,754 


24,751 


1,400 


4,841 


1,757 


7,024 


12,380 


23,340 


1,866 


8,920 


12,275 


41,337 


1,424 


5,496 


6,748 


27,380 


236 


1,691 


628 


1,400 


1,468 


6,058 


541 


2,811 


19,236 


59,598 


2,287 


9,978 


3,478 


9,275 


2.614 


10,384 


2,163 


9,067 


335 


2,270 


970 


2,746 


191 


823 


4,372 


16,994 


1,469 


5,194 



1,887 

1,978 

638 

546 

1,225 

373 
784 
131 
701 
1,051 

1,861 
2,994 
3,486 
2,452 
229 

839 

390 

4,269 

1,232 

824 

140 
156 

2,344 

1,088 

989 

2,885 
213 
273 

3,498 
786 

1,090 

6,183 
708 

5,319 
749 

4,026 

83 

530 

668 

278 

6,197 
1,060 
2,091 
1,401 
1,130 

115 
268 
144 
2,688 
951 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



145 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 7th DAY OF 

NOVEMBER A.D. 1972 — Continued 



County 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 

Pender 

Perquimans 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania 

Tyrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 

Totals 



For 



Against 



For 



Against 



7,043 
1,670 
3,072 

10,228 
7,126 
3,413 
1,001 
2,492 
4,734 

56,997 

2,393 

3,301 

8,131 

11,057 

13,807 

2,196 

8,776 

15,278 

1.580 

3,322 

2,507 
1,274 
4,139 
12,634 
1,905 

10,595 
4,557 
11,383 
10,803 
18,573 

8,114 
7,055 
2,965 
9,445 
4,502 

5,651 
1,395 
5,007 
595 
8,998 

5,168 
43,038 
2,278 
2,610 
4,612 

7,290 
7,636 
10,694 
3,937 
1,698 



2,903 
470 
739 

2,166 

3,037 
937 
508 
604 

1,738 
12,456 

812 
1,600 
2,475 
2.910 
5,250 

458 

2.074 

5,684 

421 

706 

839 

276 

1,488 

3,296 

735 

4,226 
1,884 
3,622 
4,478 
5,512 

3,300 
2,832 
592 
3,880 
2,219 

2,169 
265 

1,573 
146 

2,267 

2,422 

15,879 

908 

592 

1,839 

1,983 
4,179 
2,582 
1,855 
689 



8,569 
1,984 
3,468 

11,419 
8,376 
4,074 
1,261 
2.879 
5.851 

60.369 

3.013 

3.841 

9.980 

13.403 

16.969 

2.474 

10.362 

20.516 

1.880 

3.879 

3.302 
1.513 
5.256 
15,130 
2,115 

13,927 

5,546 

13,726 

14,149 

21,854 

10,040 
8,438 
3,437 

11.379 
6.187 

6,916 
1,512 
5,978 

727 
10,827 

6,737 
53,510 
2,892 
3.015 
5.541 

8.377 
9.277 
12.620 
5.234 
2,151 



1,780 
237 
439 

1,325 

2,038 
497 
332 
362 

1,135 
10,341 

463 
1,225 
1,221 
1,181 
2,995 

238 
958 
1,099 
263 
321 

394 
131 
743 
1,722 
492 

1,882 
1,182 
1,720 
1,937 
3,229 

1,832 
1,926 

224 
2,587 
1,141 

1,176 

255 

999 

72 

1,268 

1,154 

7,444 

444 

344 

1.538 

1,197 
2,916 
1.110 
1,057 
358 



807,960 



272.470 



976,581 



146,895 



146 



North Carolina Manual 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 7th DAY OF 

NOVEMBER A.D. 1972 — Continued 



County 

Alamance 

Alexander 

Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 

Cumberland .. 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe .... 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson .... 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 

Totals 



For 



14,109 
3,331 
1,147 
2,910 
3,009 

2,027 
5,131 
1,144 
1,344 
3,744 

15,370 

10,569 

10,755 

8,702 

813 

6,738 
2,252 
16,304 
4,433 
2,609 

1,649 
938 
9,395 
4,370 
5,396 

18,893 
1,198 
1,294 

17,537 
3,240 

5,241 
15,443 

6,375 
31,669 

3,887 

18,499 
1,229 
1,133 
4,445 
2,071 

45,942 
6,990 
6,731 
7,635 
7,137 

1,695 

2,121 

730 

11,015 

3,721 



Against 



6,675 
3,059 
950 
1,575 
2,134 

1,028 

2,147 

595 

1,866 

2,400 

7,007 
6,410 
9,449 
5,684 
231 

2,720 
1,264 
9,947 

2,876 
1,434 

564 

429 

5,846 

2,599 

2,779 

10,182 

547 

553 

9,635 

2,031 

2,470 
13,253 

2,611 
13,688 

1,901 

11,626 

400 

695 

1,834 

844 

16,390 
3,702 
4,389 
3,690 
3,083 

517 

800 

320 

7,268 

2,103 



County 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank .. 

Pender 

Perquimans .. 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond .... 

Robeson 

Rockingham 
Rowan 

Rutherford ... 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania 

Tyrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington . 
Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 



For 



6,017 
1.446 

2,474 
8,281 
5,756 

2,928 

958 

2,109 

3,837 

44,394 

2,096 
2,886 
6,926 
9,540 
12,133 

1,828 
7,130 
14,536 
1,280 
2,864 

2,272 
1,101 
3,756 
10,703 
1,805 

9,555 
3,788 
9,853 
9,831 

14,577 

7,001 
6,224 
2,412 
7,634 
4,092 

5,394 
1,211 

4,734 

517 

7,149 

4,604 
37,786 
1,979 
2,187 
4,027 

6,194 
6,905 
8,804 
3,543 
1,705 



Against 



694,921 



3,615 
657 
1,224 
3,891 
4,314 

1 ,342 

537 

931 

2,884 

24,328 

1,127 
1.910 
3,565 
4,298 
6,859 

684 

3,627 

5,763 

713 

1,184 

1,163 

471 

1,871 

4,874 

831 

5,179 
2,615 
5,062 
5,341 
9,196 

4,236 
3,479 
1 ,083 
5,494 
2,593 

2,505 
454 

2,151 
216 

4,176 

2,971 

18,812 

1,151 

1,142 

2,297 

2,948 
4,913 
4,137 
2,246 
654 



374,184 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 147 

CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN THE GENERAL 
ELECTIONS HELD NOVEMBER 5, 1974 

Billot Tabulitlont of VoUt 

Number Description of Conitltutional Issue For Against 

1 Constitutional amendment changing the title of the 
constitutional office of "solicitor" to "District Attor- 
ney". 474,199 249,452 
(Chapter 394, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1973) 

2 Constitutional amendment to create jobs and employ- 
ment opportunities and to protect the environment by 
authorizing the issuance of revenue bonds to finance 
industrial and pollution control facilities among others 
for industry and the ratification, vahdation, confirma- 
tion, and approval of Chapter 633 of the 1971 Session 
Laws as amended by Chapter 476 of the 1973 Session 

Laws of the General Assembly. 3 1 7,285 376,269 

(Chapter 1222, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1973 
Regular Session, 1974) 



148 



North Carolina Manual 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 5th DAY OF 

NOVEMBER 5, 1974 





1 


2 


County 


For 


Against 


For 


Against 


Alamance 


7.106 


2,889 


3,873 


6.020 


Alexander 


3,540 


3,291 


2,842 


3,326 


Alleghany 


790 


1,054 


911 


954 


Anson 


2,043 


932 


1,830 


1,069 


Ashe 


3,113 


2,635 


2,440 


2,730 


Avery 


1,178 


871 


1,048 


854 


Beaufort 


3,024 


1,650 


1,985 


2,341 


Bertie 


465 


157 


359 


322 


Bladen 


2,091 


1.082 


1,509 


1,430 


Brunswick 


3,809 


2.267 


2,797 


2,512 


Buncombe 


10,183 


4,453 


5.113 


10,350 


Burke 


8,683 


5,928 


7.171 


6,703 


Cabarrus 


9,899 


6,023 


6,641 


7,682 


Caldwell 


8,137 


5,082 


6,741 


6,185 


Camden 


407 


198 


293 


226 


Carteret 


4.205 


1,932 


2,874 


2,876 


Caswell 


1,701 


1,144 


1,430 


1,271 


Catawba 


12,902 


7,115 


9,812 


9,536 


Chatham 


3,228 


2,621 


2,343 


3,033 


Cherokee 


2,521 


2,517 


2,073 


2.504 


Chowan 


604 


164 


462 


292 


Clay 


1,499 


580 


1,328 


504 


Cleveland 


6,363 


3,612 


4,712 


4.839 


Columbus 


2,853 


1,757 


2.177 


1.937 


Craven 


2,745 


1,459 


1.452 


2.899 


Cumberland 


11,093 


3.930 


8,012 


7,055 


Currituck 


760 


458 


491 


610 


Dare 


1,235 


399 


894 


576 


Davidson 


12,841 


9.405 


9,452 


12,274 


Davie 


2,718 


2,091 


1,988 


2.536 


Duplin 


2,542 


1,731 


2,002 


1.993 


Durham 


6,974 


2,189 


2,885 


6,245 


Edgecombe 


3,296 


1,456 


2.327 


1,987 


Forsyth 


20,075 


8,278 


10.353 


16,109 


Franklin 


1,976 


1,662 


1.381 


2,018 


Gaston 


14,793 


7,460 


10.875 


10,957 


Gates 


695 


221 


543 


282 


Graham 


1,115 


782 


890 


747 




2.033 


1,314 


1.472 


1,644 


Greene 


1,229 


682 


967 


773 


Guilford 


27,731 


10,317 


14.018 


24,008 


Halifax 


3.240 


1,703 


2.603 


1,977 


Harnett 


4.374 


3,647 


2,874 


4,439 


Haywood 


5,012 


3,317 


3,563 


4.261 


Henderson 


5.086 


2.672 


3,251 


4.569 


Hertford 


733 


171 


479 


431 


Hoke 


1.516 


688 


1,122 


1,016 


Hyde 


490 


260 


390 


368 


Iredell 


8,952 


5.887 


6.377 


7,876 


Jackson 


2,140 


1,518 


1.722 


1,909 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



149 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 5th DAY OF 

NOVEMBER 5. 1974 — Continued 



County 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 

Pender 

Perquimans 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania 

Tyrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 

Totals 



For 



Against 



For 



Against 



3,728 
910 

1 ,365 
4,493 
6,328 

3,019 

1,466 

979 

3,998 

30,958 

1,627 
2,544 
5,323 
4,268 
8,716 

963 
4,878 
8,141 

922 
2,039 

1,844 
565 
1,330 
6,843 
1,134 

6,197 
1,721 
6,968 
6,381 
11,317 

6,631 
5,305 
1,057 
6,997 
4,487 

2,588 
1,101 
2,428 
292 
5,099 

2,770 
22,175 
1,468 
1,195 
3.694 

2,884 
6,866 
4,666 
3,510 
2,283 



474.199 



2,640 

602 

470 

3,202 

4.732 

1,725 

576 

365 

2,542 

6.739 

1.028 
2,220 
3,056 
2,435 
4,454 

316 

2,222 
2,410 
508 
770 
803 
260 
577 
2,751 
464 

4,279 
760 
3,131 
4,272 
7.594 

3,953 
4,322 
402 
4,577 
3,599 

1,089 
844 

1,483 
147 

2,363 

1,938 

7,101 

873 

636 

2,328 

1,086 
5,376 
2.012 
2.583 
1.185 



249.452 



2,163 

738 

667 

3,073 

5.056 

2,679 

1,287 

660 

3,008 

18,102 

1,392 
1,879 
3,858 
2,827 
4,181 

783 
3,775 
4,673 

608 
1.381 
1,508 

421 

959 
4,294 

466 

4,281 
985 
5.514 
4.465 
7.041 

5.342 
4,147 
689 
5,496 
3.900 

1.847 
731 

1.736 
228 

3,721 

1.854 
9,226 
1,242 
788 
3,225 

2.220 
5,152 
3,121 
2,730 
2,019 



317,285 



3,778 

554 

1,110 

4,395 

5.347 

1,863 

720 

680 

2,909 

18,885 

1,162 
2,398 
4,161 
3,566 
9,109 

477 
2,944 
5,999 

661 
1,311 
1,073 

346 
1,046 
4,626 
1,128 
5,871 
1,498 
3,555 
5,511 
10,879 

4,616 
4,245 
760 
5,255 
3,584 

1,773 
1,221 
2,200 
176 
3,433 

2,436 

20,942 

866 

768 

2,564 

1,862 
5,884 
3,184 
2.808 
1.095 



376,269 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 151 

CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN THE PRIMARY 
ELECTIONS HELD MARCH 23, 1976 

Ballot Tabulations of Vote* 
Number Description o( Conttltutlonal Issue For Against 

1 Constitutional amendment to permit the General 
Assembly to enact general laws to authorize the state, 
counties, cities or towns, and other state and local 
governmental entities to issue revenue bonds to finance 

or refinance health care facilities. 382,093 311,300 

(Chapter 641, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1975) 

2 Constitutional amendment to permit the General 
Assembly to enact general laws to authorize counties to 
create authorities to issue revenue bonds to finance, but 
not to refinance, the cost of capital projects consisting 
of industrial, manufacturing and pollution control facil- 
ities for industry and pollution control facilities for 

public utilities. 373,033 304,938 

(Chapter 826, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1975) 



152 



North Carolina Manual 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST 

THE CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE SPECIAL 

ELECTION HELD ON MARCH 23, 1976 





1 


2 


County 


For 


Against 


For 


Against 


Alamance 


5,637 


5,829 


5,395 


5,547 


Alexander 


1,335 


2,072 


1,428 


1,979 


Alleghany 


700 


721 


719 


702 


Anson 


2,101 


1,191 


2,012 


1,191 


Ashe 


1,845 


1,650 


1,935 


1,486 


Avery 


1,652 


1,592 


1,600 


1,576 


Beaufort 


2,380 


2,513 


2,467 


2,409 


Bertie 


592 


510 


630 


453 


Bladen 


2,061 
2,349 


1,351 
2,602 


2,025 
2,193 


1,247 


Brunswick 


2,556 


Buncombe 


12,609 


6,875 


12,651 


6,946 


Burke 


5,247 


5,202 


5,239 


5,096 


Cabarrus 


5,112 


5,498 


5,025 


5,478 


Caldwell 


3,898 


4,339 


4,198 


3,987 


Camden 


403 


326 


386 


330 


Carteret 


2,463 


3,231 


2,310 


3,295 


Caswell 


1,123 


1,338 


1,106 


1,274 


Catawba 


7,519 


7,439 


7,536 


7,199 


Chatham 


2,436 


2,342 


2,353 


2,327 


Cherokee 


1,615 


722 


1,619 


633 


Chowan 


545 


282 


521 


271 


Clay 


598 


345 


592 


344 


Cleveland 


4,361 


4,458 


4,320 


4,395 


Columbus 


2,895 


2,719 


2.864 


2,695 


Craven 


2,934 


2,483 


2,774 


2,460 




12,700 


7,219 


11,164 


8,131 


Currituck 


437 


562 


419 


572 


Dare 


786 


637 


751 


634 


Davidson 


6,365 


7,473 


6,377 


7,401 


Davie 


1,403 


1,820 


1,398 


1,752 


Duplin 


2,552 


2,625 


2,505 


2,582 


Durham 


11,741 


6,683 


11,347 


6,429 


Edgecombe 


3,435 


2,773 


3,299 


2,693 


Forsyth 


13,805 


12,925 


13,273 


13,309 


Franklin 


1,536 


2,433 


1,520 


2,424 


Gaston 


8,811 


7,715 


8,855 


7,447 


Gates 


695 


344 


658 


345 


Graham 


626 


456 


567 


424 


Granville 


2,269 


1,803 


2,270 


1,741 


Greene 


1,150 


900 


1,186 


843 


Guilford 


21.492 


15,762 


19,786 


16,372 


Halifax 


3,349 


2,894 


3,299 


2,733 


Harnett 


2,814 


4,291 


2,862 


4,238 


Haywood 


3,879 


4,020 


3,961 


3.727 


Henderson 


4,788 


2,415 


4,840 


2,272 


Hertford 


903 


557 


833 


586 


Hoke 


1,212 


838 


1,089 


863 


Hyde 


424 


498 


380 


507 


Iredell 


6,102 


4,889 


6,293 


4,674 




2,449 


1,495 


2,439 


1,515 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



153 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST 

THE CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE SPECIAL 

ELECTION HELD ON MARCH 23, 1976 



County 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 

Pender 

Perquimans 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania 

Tyrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 

Totals 



For 



Against 



For 



Against 



3,223 
796 
1,724 
3,892 
3,229 

2,016 

906 

1,204 

2,047 

31,946 

996 
1,281 
4,002 
4,475 
6.185 

1,413 
3,645 
9,726 
891 
1,545 

1,708 
660 
1,250 
5,669 
1,180 

4,161 
3,227 
5,519 
5,184 
6,766 

3,235 
2,479 
1,358 
4,070 
1,794 

2,934 
734 

1,973 
407 

3,945 

1,896 

26,153 

1,485 

1,203 

2,473 

4,713 
3,827 
3,997 
1,736 
1,082 



382,093 



3,728 
1,015 
1,547 
4,249 
2,963 

1,567 

575 

952 

1 ,933 

16,400 

1.175 
1 ,938 
3,491 
4,090 
5,006 

957 
3,171 
4,664 

776 
1,230 

1.204 
402 
975 

4.646 
627 

5.305 
2.391 
4,196 
4,097 
7,348 



780 
715 
987 
,573 
514 

,277 
398 

,497 
192 

,221 



2,322 

14,841 

936 

818 

1,989 

2,954 
4,622 
3,113 
2.364 
912 



3.062 
856 
1,677 
4,174 
3.362 

1,880 

928 

1,102 

2.052 

31,335 

958 
1,348 
3,956 
4,306 
6,380 

1,248 
4,067 
9,054 
831 
1,487 

1,743 
644 
1,197 
5,647 
1,096 

4,065 
3,274 
5,269 
5,069 
7,007 

3,235 
2.507 
1,370 
3,934 
1,727 

2,768 
715 

2,026 
354 

3,906 

1,938 

23,870 

1,455 

995 

2,455 

5,046 
3,802 
3,859 
1,705 
1,023 



3,627 
912 
1,561 
3,942 
2,793 

1,660 
504 
843 

1,866 
16,264 

1,140 
1,831 
3,465 
4,035 
4,587 

886 
2,720 
5.048 

764 
1.163 

1,143 
373 
932 

4,493 
671 

4,991 
2,219 
4,128 
3,983 
7,007 

3,756 
3,564 
927 
3,393 
2,512 

2,168 
339 

1,350 
213 

3,108 

2,218 

14,818 

855 

683 

2,041 

2,484 
4,611 
3,035 
2,312 
910 



311,300 



373,033 



304,938 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 155 



CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN THE GENERAL 
ELECTIONS HELD NOVEMBER 8, 1977 

Ballot Tabulations ol Votes 

Number Description o( Constitutional Issue For Against 

1 Constitutional amendment extending to a married 
man (as a married woman now has) the right to receive 
the homestead exemption, so that the homestead ex- 
emption is available to the surviving spouse of the 
owner of a homestead, if the owner dies leaving no 
minor children and the surviving spouse does not own a 

separate homestead. 517,366 59,714 

(Chapter 80, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1977) 

2 Constitutional amendment allowing every person the 
right to insure his or her life for the benefit of his or her 
spouse or children or both, free from all claims of the 
representatives or creditors of the insured or his or her 

estate. 513,526 57,835 

(Chapter 115, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1977) 

3 Constitutional amendment empowering the qualified 
voters of the State to elect the Governor and Lieutenant 
Governor to a second successive term of the same 

office. 307,754 278,013 

(Chapter 363, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1977) 

4 Constitutional amendment to permit municipalities 
owning or operating electric generation, transmission or 
distribution facilities and joint agencies composed of 
such municipalities to own, operate and maintain gen- 
eration and transmission facilities with any person, 
firm, association or corporation, public or private, 
engaged in the generation, transmission or distribution 
of electric power and energy for resale (each, respec- 
tively, "a co-owner") within this State or any state con- 
tiguous to this State, and to issue electric revenue bonds 
to finance the cost of the ownership share of such 
municipalities or joint agencies, such bonds to be secured 
by and payable only from the electric revenues of such 
municipalities or joint agencies and providing that no 
money or property of such municipalities or joint agen- 
cies shall be credited or applied to the account of any 

such co-owner. 349,935 180,624 

(Chapter 528, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1977) 



156 North Carolina Manual 



Constitutional amendment requiring that the total 
expenditures of the State for the fiscal period covered 
by the State budget shall not exceed the total of 
revenues raised during that fiscal period and any sur- 
plus remaining the State Treasury at the beginning of 
the period, and requiring the Governor to effect the 
necessary economies in State expenditures whenever he 
determines that a deficit is threatened. 443,453 104,935 

(Chapter 690 Session Laws of North Carolina, 1977) 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



157 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST 

THE CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE SPECIAL 

ELECTION HELD ON 8th DAY OF NOVEMBER A.D. 1977 



County 

Alamance 

Alexander 

Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 

Cumberland 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 



For 



Against 



For 



Against 



8,727 
2,087 
863 
1,948 
1,789 

1,151 
3,534 
1,478 
2,474 
4,614 

12,667 

5,286 

6,186 

4,301 

628 

4,616 
1,283 
9,200 
3,431 
1,094 

1,277 
408 
5,873 
4,249 
4,839 

14,435 

858 

1,561 

9,702 

2,106 

3,826 
15,641 

4,716 
27,141 

2,820 

12,181 

755 

544 

2,923 

1,116 

25,468 
6,231 
4,548 
3,571 
3,809 

1,413 
1,395 
638 
7,292 
2,707 



885 
595 
159 
140 
389 

268 
407 
181 
380 

677 

1,732 

743 

619 

509 

80 

548 
251 
869 
471 
134 

124 
91 
694 
674 
641 

1,163 
129 
115 

1,432 
312 

580 
1,481 

419 
2,198 

506 

1,139 

67 

115 

414 

120 



,518 
808 
786 
460 

257 

145 
142 
52 
515 
917 



8,680 
1,978 
805 
1,925 
1,736 

1,106 
3,564 
1,429 
2,431 
4,656 

12,498 

5,228 

6,153 

4,190 

545 

4,660 
1,238 
9,016 
3,291 
1,071 

1,279 
391 

5,787 
4,220 
4,994 

14,534 

843 

1,532 

9,666 

2,048 

3,843 
15,483 

4,761 
26,930 

2,831 

12,182 

755 

542 

2,898 

1,124 

25,307 
6,210 
4,502 
3,575 
3,741 

1,380 
1,396 
626 
7,126 
2,688 



910 
674 
201 

148 
377 

275 
348 
167 
343 
565 

1,709 
752 
600 
531 

74 

500 
285 
895 
533 
173 

114 

97 

672 

669 

587 

930 

135 
118 

1,437 
329 
527 

1,609 
337 

2,017 
466 

1,074 

64 

106 

386 

108 

1,585 
714 
796 
432 
309 

131 
136 
54 
593 
919 



158 



North Carolina Manual 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 8th DAY OF 

NOVEMBER A.D. 1977 — Continued 





1 


2 


Counly 


For 


Against 


For 


Against 


Johnston 

Jones 


5,727 
8X6 
3.228 
4,155 
4,050 

2.038 
1.020 
2,159 
1 ,805 
46,354 

926 
2,189 
5,902 
5.115 
8.830 

1,972 
4.655 
10.950 
1.419 
1 .863 

3.036 
1.421 
1.270 
8.691 
1.359 

6.713 

2.513 

11.282 

6,928 

8,946 

5,448 
3,723 
1.213 
4,590 
1.587 

3.281 

589 

2,315 

371 

7.138 

3.330 

37,628 

1.729 

1.685 

2.294 

5.268 
7.695 
5.640 
2,130 
910 


917 
178 
528 
399 

532 

220 
168 
302 
217 
4,115 

225 
377 
706 
577 
837 

256 
471 
575 
126 
215 

518 
170 
200 
704 
266 

940 

387 
1,334 
1,152 
1,006 

931 
890 

235 
740 
467 

511 

106 

242 

41 

1,087 

388 

2,968 

215 

171 

372 

779 
1,780 
523 
427 
152 


5,675 
904 
3,188 
4,162 
3,900 

2,005 

943 

2.147 

1.781 

46,584 

933 
2,168 
5,819 
5,014 

8,829 

1.840 
4.692 
10.737 
1 .395 
1,846 

3,078 
1.440 
1.296 
8.609 
1 .397 

6.543 
2.621 
11.226 
6,735 
8,878 

5,279 
3,729 
1,254 
4,468 
1.539 

3.234 

595 

2,309 

355 

7,093 

3,302 

37,335 

1,714 

1,688 

2,286 

5,318 
7,688 
5,595 
2,054 
912 


902 
15"! 


Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 


557 
377 
570 

228 


Madison 


183 


Martin 


272 


McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 


210 

3.647 

193 


Montgomery 

Moore 


391 

723 


Nash 

New Hanover . . 


632 

775 


Northampton 


240 


Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 


406 

672 
133 
174 


Pender 

Perquimans 


432 
144 


Person 


178 


Pitt 


674 


Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham 


223 

1,013 

315 

1,099 

LII9 


Rowan 


968 


Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 


978 
832 
210 
859 
490 

495 
104 


Transylvania 


232 


Tyrell 

Union 


36 
1 016 


Vance 

Wake 

Warren 


373 

2,991 

203 


Washington 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 


147 

348 

707 
1.615 


Wilson 

Yadkin 


476 
469 


Yancey 


140 


Totals 


517,366 


59,714 


513.526 


57,835 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



159 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 8th DAY OF 

NOVEMBER A.D. 1977 — Continued 





. 1 

3 


4 


County 


For 


Against 


For 


Against 


Alamance 


5,094 


4,705 


5,481 


3,441 


Alexander 


879 


1,812 


1,142 


1,394 


Alleghany 


478 


574 


536 


381 


Anson 


1,294 


822 


1,361 


545 


Ashe 


1,214 


78 


1,252 


728 


Avery 


613 


809 


622 


601 


Beaufort 


2,300 


1,689 


2,624 


1,022 


Bertie 


1,053 


640 


1,172 


328 


Bladen 


1,474 


1,373 


1,781 


938 


Brunswick 


3,180 


2,078 


3,216 


1,745 


Buncombe 


7,556 


7,212 


8,337 


4,817 


Burke 


2,646 


3,458 


3,746 


2,026 


Cabarrus 


3,542 


3,326 


4,428 


2,012 


Caldwell 


2,534 


2,342 


2,657 


1,712 


Camden 


391 


334 


449 


180 


Carteret 


2,453 


2,549 


3,057 


1,775 


Caswell 


684 


860 


700 


729 




5,488 


4,706 


5,998 


3,330 


Chatham 


1,720 


2,232 


2,053 


1,492 


Cherokee 


695 


588 


767 


405 


Chowan 


904 


519 


1,084 


268 


Clay 


242 


267 


266 


192 


Cleveland 


3,335 


3,290 


3,999 


2,038 


Columbus 


2,741 


2,232 


2,905 


1,646 


Craven 


3,247 


2,404 


3,859 


1,566 


Cumberland 


9,400 


6,183 


11,278 


3,546 


Currituck 


513 


470 


546 


357 


Dare 


1,119 


548 


1,111 


367 


Davidson 


5,467 


5,781 


6,509 


4,252 


Davie 


1,156 


1,258 


1,285 


941 


Duplin 


2,132 


2 327 


2 574 


1,481 
4,812 


Durham 


10,084 


7,447 


11,078 


Edgecombe 


2,950 


2,262 


3,695 


1,110 


Forsyth 


16,868 


13,389 


16,425 


8,605 


Franklin 


1,540 


1,820 


1,869 


1,180 


Gaston 


7,558 


5,948 


7,778 


4,382 


Gates 


448 


337 


545 


199 


Graham 


390 


293 


371 


224 


Granville 


1,563 


1,807 


1.854 


1,099 


Greene 


622 
14,213 


624 
13.482 


836 
15,164 


325 


Guilford 


10,002 


Halifax 


3,127 


3,948 


4,538 


2,042 


Harnett 


2,333 


3,063 


3,008 


1,953 


Haywood 


2,041 


2,024 


2,469 


1,312 


Henderson 


2,267 


1,803 


2,616 


1,200 


Hertford 


945 


619 


962 


416 


Hoke 


937 


595 


999 


447 


Hyde 


408 


286 


423 


189 


Iredell 


2,941 


4,952 


5.326 


2,039 


Jackson 


1,914 


1,746 


1,953 


1,509 



160 



North Carolina Manual 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 8th DAY OF 

NOVEMBER A.D. 1977 — Continued 



County 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 

Pender 

Perquimans 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania 

Tyrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 

Totals 



For 



Against 



For 



Against 



3,117 
578 
1,477 
2,113 
2,549 

1,203 

681 

1,42! 

1,147 

29,706 

522 
1,285 
3,149 
2,468 
5,142 

1,298 
2,807 
7,261 
907 
1,286 

1,796 
1 ,023 
687 
5,108 
1,049 

3,164 
1,543 
8,007 
3,369 

5,557 

3,167 
2,209 
1,101 
2,649 
791 

1,881 
434 

1,576 
250 

4.516 

1,820 
20,441 
1 ,063 
1,162 
1,496 

3,160 
4.252 
4.004 
1,031 
598 



307,754 



3,731 
482 
2,494 
2,395 
2.183 

1.046 
534 

1,037 

891 

21.783 

635 
1 .283 
3.568 
3,344 
4,735 

866 
2,359 
4,400 

651 

828 

1,728 
572 
842 

4,318 
589 

4,676 
1,316 

4.457 
4.704 
4.570 

3.232 
2,463 
397 
2,751 
1,292 

2,004 
275 
984 
155 

3.634 

1 .938 

21,336 

935 

690 

1,159 

3,109 
5.408 
2,335 
1,598 
490 



278,013 



3,943 
602 
2,115 
2,991 
2,962 

1,470 

806 

1.490 

1.301 

33,518 

634 
1,368 
3,561 
3,706 
5,440 

1.442 
3.192 
7.143 
967 
1.537 

1.773 
1 .003 
811 
6.733 
1.053 

4,074 
1,700 
7.912 
3,597 
6,089 

3.276 
2.427 
1.129 
3,147 
855 

2,359 
455 

1.539 
244 

4,162 

2,213 
25,354 
1,102 
1.219 
1.603 

3,812 
4,885 
4,503 
1.293 
716 



349,935 



2.139 
374 
1.308 
1,262 
1 .367 

634 
308 
642 
558 
12,518 

416 
948 

2,475 
1,617 
3,317 

509 
1,686 

3,278 
399 
412 

1,483 
439 
535 

2,039 
486 

2,993 

968 

3,336 

3,508 

3,276 

2,584 

1,840 

302 

1,894 

984 

1,182 
203 

851 
99 

3,282 

1,199 

11,174 

640 

477 
837 

1,815 
4,109 
1,286 
1,046 
290 



180,624 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



161 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 8th DAY OF 

NOVEMBER A.D. 1977 - Continued 







5 




5 




County 


For 


Against 


County 


For 


Against 


Alamance 


7,713 
1,609 
694 
1,692 
1,493 

841 
3,097 
1,271 
2,179 
4,047 

10,550 

4,605 

5,453 

3,634 

589 

3,812 

871 

7,928 

2,847 

963 

1,146 

338 

5,150 

3.617 

4,548 

12,811 

686 

1,315 

8,210 

1,723 

3,208 

13,162 

4,216 

23,474 
2.381 

10,602 
652 

472 

2,453 

986 

22,320 
5,380 
3,845 
3,077 
3,528 

1,188 

1,216 

542 

6,506 

2,322 


1,585 
996 

280 
289 
462 

458 
691 
253 
591 
1,041 

2,740 

1,323 

1,142 

901 

150 

1,067 
609 

1,606 
863 
250 

198 

138 

1.128 

1,072 

977 

2.180 

247 

237 

2,621 

574 

1,068 
3,040 

708 
4,302 

791 

2,025 
126 
155 
702 

217 

3,644 

1,394 

1,273 

798 

469 

236 

278 

117 

1.064 

1,207 


Johnston 


4,876 
752 
2,735 
3,669 
3,582 

1,771 

884 

1,756 

1,601 

41,135 

763 
1,818 
5,076 
4,536 
7,721 

1.692 
4,021 
7,885 
1,198 
1,636 

2,462 
1,170 
I.IOO 

7.650 
1.278 

5.558 
2.197 
9.478 
5.405 
7.671 

4,496 
3,167 
950 
3,894 
1,200 

2,819 
541 

2,034 
309 

5,739 

2,941 

32,117 
1,478 
1,464 
1,947 

4,585 
6,189 
5,142 
1,694 
789 


1,349 




Jones 


263 


Alleghany 


Lee 

Lenoir 


727 
699 


Ashe 


Lincoln 


853 


Avery 

Beaufort 


Macon 


393 


Madison 


268 


Bertie 

Bladen 


Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 


434 
332 


Brunswick 

Buncombe 


6,162 
312 


Burke 


Montgomery 

Moore 


587 


Cabarrus 


1,270 


Caldwell 

Camden 

Carteret 


Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 


947 
1,509 

335 


Caswell 


932 


Catawba 

Chatham 


Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 

Pender 

Perquimans 


2,985 
258 


Cherokee 


346 


Chowan 


905 


Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 


302 


Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 


328 

1.291 

304 


Cumberland 

Currituck . . 


1,674 
534 


Dare 


2.056 




Rockingham 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 


1,965 


Davie 

Duplin . . 


1,894 
1,600 


Durham 


1,255 


Edgecombe 

Forsyth 

Franklin 


492 
1.189 

773 


Gaston 

Gates 


761 
140 


Graham 


Transylvania 


440 


Granville 

Greene 


Tyrell 

Union 


59 
2,024 


Guilford 

Halifax . 


Vance 

Wake 

Warren 


628 

5,952 


Harnett 


355 


Haywood 


Washington 


291 


Henderson 

Hertford 

Hoke 


Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 


594 

1,074 
2.999 


Hyde 


Wilson 


764 


Iredell 


Yadkin 


725 


Jackson 


Yancey 


223 






Totals 




443,453 


104,935 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 163 



CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN THE GENERAL 
ELECTIONS HELD NOVEMBER 4, 1980 

Billot Tabulitlont ol Votes 
Number Descrlpllon ol Contlltutloml Issue For Agslnsl 

1 Constitutional amendment requiring Justices and 

Judges of the Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, Super- 
ior Court and District Court to be duly authorized to 
practice law prior to election or appointment. 888,634 352,714 

(Chapter 638, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1979) 



164 



North Carolina Manual 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST THE 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS AT THE GENERAL 

ELECTION HELD ON THE 4th DAY OF 

NOVEMBER A.D. 1980 



County 

Alamance 

Alexander 

Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 

Cumberland ... 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 



For 



11.141 
6,417 
2,594 
4,839 
5,628 

3,139 
8,676 
1,314 
2,629 
6,176 

22,566 
13,909 
12,464 
13,113 
1,386 

7,229 
3,866 
22,441 
8,649 
3,426 

845 

2,089 

11,943 

7,243 

5,562 

30,834 
2,549 
3,923 

21,197 
6,283 

7,428 
15,046 

7,234 

43,477 

5,690 

15,968 

2,342 

2,238 

6,337 

64 

49,410 
10,003 
3,385 
12,667 
12,005 

2,200 
3,269 
1,422 

15.575 
4,037 



Against 



5,097 
3,671 
993 
1,807 
2,433 

1,305 

3,378 

563 

1,444 

3,873 

4,361 
9.268 
6,510 
7,182 
476 

2,705 
1,266 
11,992 
3,513 
1,389 

219 

847 
4,776 
4,691 
2.908 

10.523 

886 

1,158 

9,282 

2,712 

4,495 

3,893 

2,186 

12,929 

2,573 

5,536 
627 
699 

2,052 
24 

16,601 

3,673 
1,552 
3,644 
3,758 

878 
1,105 

460 
6,369 

961 



County 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell .... 
Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank .. 

Pender 

Perquimans .. 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond .... 

Robeson 

Rockingham 
Rowan 

Rutherford .... 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania . 

Tyrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington .. 
Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancev 

Totals 



For 



8,717 
2,168 
2,990 
9,712 
10,407 

6,321 

1,425 

2,067 

4,790 

45.692 

3.921 

4.554 

12,912 

11,913 

12,214 

2,238 
8,573 
20,354 
2,227 
2,426 

4,704 
1,795 
1,473 

17,321 
1,723 

11,541 
5,948 
14,635 
14,031 
14,292 

8,185 
10,950 
1,651 
7,356 
5,797 

6.086 

1 ,394 

5,262 

965 

12,570 

5,023 
44.078 
3,845 
3,580 
4,595 

4,825 
7,594 
5,895 
7,016 
5.016 



Against 



888,634 



4.481 
1,242 
980 
7,044 
5,221 

1,880 

545 

523 

1,417 

14,787 

1,433 
2.538 
4,601 
4,148 
5,033 

697 
3,120 
6.541 
1,168 

850 

2.180 
563 
573 

7,060 
454 

4,622 
2.901 
6.450 
5.361 
8,336 

3,171 
4,360 
733 
4,180 
2,932 

2,746 

277 

1.319 

238 
5.522 

1 .963 
14.077 
1.021 
1.094 
2,105 

5,441 

3,282 
1,944 
3,235 
1,082 



352,714 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 165 

CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN THE PRIMARY 
ELECTIONS HELD JUNE 29, 1982 

Billot Tabulations ot Votes 

Number Description of Constitutional Issue jCltitlon) For Against 

1 Constitutional amendment making the term of mem- 
bers of the General Assembly four years, beginning 
with members elected in 1982; and conforming amend- 
ments concerning the election of other officers and the 

fining of vacancies. 163,058 522,181 

(Chapter 504, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1981) 

2 Constitutional amendment authorizing General Assem- 
bly to provide for temporary recall of retired Supreme 
Court Justices or Court of Appeals Judges to serve 

temporarily on either appellate court. 356,895 295,638 

(Chapter 513, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1981) 

3 Constitutional amendment giving the Supreme Court 
authority to review, when authorized by law, direct 

appeals from the N.C. Utilities Commission. 392,886 253,629 

(Chapter 803, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1981) 

4 Constitutional amendment to permit the General 
Assembly to grant to appropriate public bodies addi- 
tional powers to develop new and existing seaports and 
airports, including powers to finance and refinance for 
public and private parties seaport and airport and 
related commercial, industrial, manufacturing, process- 
ing, mining, transportation, distribution, storage, 
marine, aviation and environmental facilities and im- 
provements. 292,031 342,567 
(Chapter 808, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1981) 

5 Constitutional amendment to permit the General 
Assembly to enact general laws to authorize the State, 
or any state entity to issue revenue bonds to finance or 
refinance the cost of acquiring, constructing and financ- 
ing higher education facilities for any nonprofit private 
corporation, regardless of any church or religious rela- 
tionship, such bonds to be payable from any revenues 
or assets of any such nonprofit private corporation 

pledged therefor. 303,292 338,650 

(Chapter 887, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1981) 



166 



North Carolina Manual 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST 

THE CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS IN THE FIRST 

ELECTION HELD ON JUNE 29, 1982 





1 


2 


County 


For 


Against 


For 


Agiintt 


Alamance 


1,472 


9,443 


5,215 


5,086 


Alexander 


468 


2,108 


1,053 


1,351 


Alleghany 


636 


1,561 


943 


1,041 


Anson 


1,431 


2,659 


1,965 


1,923 


Ashe 


1,320 


3,253 


2,114 


2,087 


Avery 


922 


1,849 


1,213 


1,423 


Beaufort 


1,184 


5,015 


3,455 


2,479 


Bertie 


547 


1,519 


1,036 


824 


Bladen 


643 


2,398 


1,197 


1,703 


Brunswick 


2,114 


5,327 


3,533 


3,547 


Buncombe 


1,595 


12,954 


4,561 


9,649 


Burke 


1,099 


4,862 


3,039 


2,883 


Cabarrus 


i.715 


7,610 


4,407 


4,525 


Caldwell 


1,995 


6,177 


3,397 


4,448 


Camden 


746 


738 


788 


610 




1,303 


3,852 


2,853 


2,115 


Caswell 


1,724 


3,176 


1,926 


2,675 


Catawba 


907 


4,813 


3,181 


2,298 


Chatham 


905 


3,925 


2,226 


2,173 


Cherokee 


659 


1,397 


668 


1,297 


Chowan 


342 


891 


693 


490 


Clay 


621 


1,057 


640 


933 


Cleveland 


4,307 


9,420 


7,203 


5,931 


Columbus 


2,353 


7,607 


3,906 


5,636 


Craven 


1,244 


5,011 


3,272 


2,722 


Cumberland 


6,355 


15,028 


12,554 


8,136 


Currituck 


1,268 


1,173 


1,394 


1,003 


Dare 


1,426 


1,736 


1,953 


1,181 


Davidson 


1,796 


7,435 


4,737 


4,237 


Davie 


1,156 


3,067 


1,945 


2,063 




1,988 
4,436 
3,613 


5,243 

19,945 

6,569 


3,684 
10,906 

5,872 


3,334 


Durham 


12,874 


Edgecombe 


3,778 


Forsyth 


5,000 


16,954 


13,619 


7,246 




1,245 
3,900 


3.901 
8,139 


2,569 

6,822 


2,284 


Gaston 


4,855 


Gates 


1,035 


1,141 


1,062 


1,013 


Graham 


365 


1,214 


641 


984 


Granville 


2,680 


4,765 


3,789 


2,989 


Greene 


1,255 


2,533 


1,905 


1,708 


Guilford 


4,895 


27,021 


21,220 


9,310 


Halifax 


2,576 


7,901 


5,316 


4,936 


Harnett 


1,613 


5,269 


3,575 


2,960 


Haywood 


1,519 


7,113 


2,966 


5,257 


Henderson 


389 


3,207 


1,834 


1,688 


Hertford 


390 


2,464 


1,178 


1,389 


Hoke 


1,477 


2,916 


1,943 


2,258 


Hyde 


493 


1,129 


822 


671 


Iredell 


821 


4,452 


3,200 


1,888 


Jackson 


528 


2,003 


734 


1,480 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



167 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS IN THE PRIMARY 

ELECTION HELD ON JUNE 29, 1982 — Continued 



County 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 

Pender 

Perquimans 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

.Rockingham 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania 

Tyrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 

Totals 



For 



Against 



For 



Against 



1,022 

654 

606 

1,892 

1,521 

862 

417 

344 

1.366 

4,890 

939 
1,190 
1,659 
2,491 
2,961 

809 
2,349 
2,769 

841 
1,112 

1,217 
741 
681 

2,645 

272 

843 
1,798 
7,327 
3,607 
1,309 

2,229 
2.573 
675 
1,415 
1,645 

848 
298 
391 
339 
2,046 

1,603 

4,872 

1,695 

793 

807 

1,194 

1,234 

1,366 

703 

727 



4,455 
1,587 
4,389 
5,496 
3,614 

2,364 
1,590 
1,452 
3,415 
15,757 

2,580 
3,013 

6,772 
8,705 
8,317 

2,519 
6,239 
9,790 
1,993 
1,556 

2,559 
L197 
2,010 

8,257 
1,776 

6,687 
4,765 
11,432 
8,664 
6,447 

6,102 
5,106 
1,649 

4,852 
4,171 

3,581 
1,080 
1,784 
531 
5,261 

3,836 
32,816 
3,193 
2,071 
3,211 

7,559 
4.847 
4.670 
3,005 
2,519 



2,907 
889 
2,460 
3,483 
2,454 

1,365 

844 

926 

2,145 

12,344 

1 .304 
1,813 
5,010 
6,290 
7,066 

2,026 
4.466 
7.922 
1.266 

1.573 

1.926 

966 

1.444 

5,637 

943 

3,497 
3,273 
10,351 
6,216 
4,098 

4,257 
4,076 
1,321 
2,940 

2,467 

2,308 
341 
901 
449 

4.397 

2,963 
23,876 
2,162 
1,359 
1,972 

4,633 
2,764 
3,344 
1.524 
1,213 



2.233 
1,245 
2,141 
3,485 
2,440 

1,690 

975 

715 

2,461 

6,955 

2.082 
2,111 
3,029 

4,236 
3,785 

1,033 
3,851 
4,349 
1,365 
963 

1,686 
852 
919 

4,917 
999 

3,420 
2,922 
7,704 
5,475 
3,372 

3,852 
3,231 
894 
3,066 
3,074 

1,665 
959 

1 224 
348 

2,620 

2,257 
11,300 
2,423 
1,578 
1,815 

3,490 
3,006 
2,186 
1,979 
1,890 



163,058 



522,181 



356,895 



295,638 



168 



North Carolina Manual 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST 

THE CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS IN THE FIRST 

ELECTION HELD ON JUNE 29, 1982 - Continued 



County 

Alamance 

Alexander 

Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 

Cumberland 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 



For 



Against 



For 



Against 



5,610 

1.126 

918 

2,244 
2,338 

1,391 
3,946 
1,189 
1,438 
3,928 

4,622 
2,786 
4,772 
4,568 
1,039 

3,070 
2,483 
3,477 
2,797 
794 

715 

722 

8,369 

4,77! 

3,513 

14,291 
1,629 
2,148 
5,147 
2,263 

4,049 
10,939 

6,909 
14,878 

2,982 

7,424 
1,292 
827 
4,460 
2,230 

22,075 
6,176 
4,151 
3,607 
1,182 

1,311 
2,886 

981 
2,460 

885 



4,553 
1,361 
910 
1 ,603 
1,812 

1,215 
1,968 
629 
1,407 
3,123 

9,437 
3,065 

4,024 

3,245 

454 

1,835 
2,076 
1,994 
1,590 
1,168 

463 

834 
4,756 
4,682 
2.448 

6,169 

762 

873 

3.835 

1,733 

2,807 
12,114 
2,698 
6,022 
1 ,843 

4,089 

806 

851 

2,176 

1,328 

8,124 
4.014 
2,368 
4,624 

2.307 

1,210 
1,444 

537 
2,611 
1,337 



4,806 

782 

718 

1,659 

1,606 

824 
2,961 

933 
1,018 
3,089 

3,388 
1,741 
2,778 
2.620 
710 

2,488 
1,701 
2,557 
1,739 
605 

609 

513 

5,586 

3,329 

2,612 

10,671 
1,236 
1.824 
3,626 
1.676 

3.103 
11.934 

5,198 
11,895 

1.933 

5.220 

993 

591 

3.022 

1,627 

14,680 
4,474 
2,777 
2,411 
1,374 

998 
1,708 

773 
2,687 

581 



5,262 
1,684 
1.188 
2.141 

2.482 

1,700 

2.888 

846 

1,808 

4,004 

10.392 

4.041 

5,567 

5,131 

620 

2,378 
2,769 
2,871 
2,516 
1.343 

545 
1.004 
7,267 
5,672 
3,263 

9,659 
1,104 
1.167 
5,128 
2,294 

3,701 

10,957 

4.263 

8.013 

2,752 

6,253 

994 

975 

3,587 

1,895 

14.759 
5.675 
3.696 
5,690 
2.131 

1,482 
2,457 
709 
2,354 
1,621 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



169 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS IN THE PRIMARY 

ELECTION HELD ON JUNE 29, 1982 - Continued 



County 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee , 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 

Pender 

Perquimans 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania 

Tyrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 

Totals 



For 



Against 



For 



Against 



3,177 
1.143 
2.651 
4,154 
2,761 

1,619 

782 
1,001 

2,282 
13,871 

1,507 
2,121 
5,353 
6.780 
7,616 

2,144 
4,904 
8,063 
1,475 
1,698 

2,353 
1,183 
1,539 
6,340 
725 

3,791 
3,778 
11,541 
6,920 
4,581 

4,323 
4,697 
1,415 
3,429 
2,888 

2,298 
461 
878 
541 

4,456 

3,301 
25,520 
2,762 
1,472 
2,090 

4,920 
3,024 
3,603 
1,777 
1,370 



1,936 
966 
1,896 
2,821 
2,102 

1,444 

930 

607 

2,364 

5,025 

1,912 
1,810 
2,640 
3,636 
3,189 

900 
3,407 
3,766 
1,140 

803 

1,266 

637 

793 

4,114 

1,192 

3,107 
2,397 
6,311 
4,236 

2,885 

3,787 
2,436 

774 
2,552 
2,653 

1,660 
847 

1,238 
241 

2,430 

1,920 
9,527 
1,770 
1,245 
1,688 

3,140 
2,747 
1,865 
L756 

1,787 



2,140 
835 
1,999 
3,054 
1,996 

917 

520 

854 

1,316 

12,455 

969 

1,587 
3,974 
4,868 
6,300 

1,797 
3,692 
5,301 
1,152 
1,388 

1,723 

886 

1,161 

4,678 

624 

2,735 
2,721 
8,495 
4,636 
3,325 

2,799 

3,562 
1.175 
2,440 
2,115 

1,989 
385 
661 
392 

3,234 

2,432 
19,097 

1,856 
1,167 
1 .473 

3,672 
2,196 
2,674 
1,228 
1,002 



2,918 
1,248 
2,452 
3,771 
2.794 

2.054 
1.290 
650 
3.112 
6,480 

2,280 
2,248 
3,984 
5,401 
4.183 

1.163 
4,431 
6,255 
1,454 
1,065 

1,821 
890 
1,122 
5.497 
1,256 

4,012 
3,380 
9,274 
6,700 
3,939 

5,058 
3,433 
969 
3,419 
3,312 

1,956 

895 

1,461 

143 

3,575 

2,599 
15,044 
2,575 
1,551 
2,261 

4,142 
3,363 
2,676 
2,230 
2,083 



392,886 



253.629 



292,031 



342,567 



170 



North Carolina Manual 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST 

THE CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS IN THE FIRST 

ELECTION HELD ON JUNE 29, 1982 - Continued 







5 




5 


County 


For 


Against 


County 


For 


Against 


Alamance 


5,317 

949 

853 

1,793 

1,854 

1,129 
2,930 
1,555 
1,045 

2,918 

4,091 
2,004 
3,133 
3,495 

677 

2,431 
1,921 
2,855 
1,817 
651 

591 

593 

5,793 

3,257 
2,464 

10,109 
1,199 
1,650 
3,932 
1,805 

3,197 
13,173 

4,995 
12,204 

2,013 

5,489 

956 

620 

3,204 

1,816 

14,715 
4,365 
3,256 
3,285 
1,408 

1,061 

1,755 

788 

3,034 

552 


4,984 
1,548 
1,109 
2,039 
2,266 

1,478 
2,951 
865 
1,824 
4,134 

10,054 

3,817 

5,293 

4,364 

653 

2,399 
2,625 
2,643 
2,483 
1,320 

593 

944 

7,201 

5,672 

3,464 

10,364 
1,139 
1.341 

4,852 
2,144 

3,682 
9,383 
4,552 
8,448 
2,643 

6,068 

1,062 

963 

3,432 
1,753 

15,172 
5,795 
3,364 
4,824 
2,119 

1,475 
2,329 
724 
2,094 
1,678 


Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 


2,203 

821 

2,095 

2,975 
2,212 

1,092 
536 
886 

1,551 
11,716 

1,071 
2,062 
3,970 
5,003 
5,708 

1,862 
3,321 
5,290 
1,064 
1,323 

1,632 

850 

1,154 

4,657 
704 

2,857 
2,807 
8,729 
5,384 
3,783 

3,207 
3,403 
1,082 
2,849 
2,479 

2,131 
369 
807 
409 

3,727 

2,309 

18,527 
1,864 
1,555 
1,544 

3,832 
2,242 
2,817 
1,399 
1,125 


2,853 


Alexander 

Alleghany 

Anson 


1,279 
2,353 
3,931 


Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 


Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 


2,624 

1,897 

1,275 

706 


Bladen 

Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell 

Camden 


McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 


2,885 
7,851 

2,194 
1,943 

4,084 
5,367 
4,792 


Carteret 


Northampton 


1,218 


Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 


Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 


4,826 
6,542 
1,558 
1,143 


Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 

Cumberland 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 


Pender 

Perquimans 


1,931 
923 


Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham 


1,175 
5,556 
1,238 

3,905 
3,305 
8,987 
6,087 


Davie 


Rowan 


3,624 


Duplin 

Durham 


Rutherford 

Sampson 


4,678 
3,612 


Edgecombe 

Forsyth 

Frankhn 

Gaston 

Gates 


Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 


1,118 
3,052 
3,139 

1,681 
916 




Transylvania 


1,299 


Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 


Tyrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 


380 
3,284 

2,774 

16,279 

2,603 


Haywood 

Henderson 

Hertford 

Hoke 


Washington 


1,209 


Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 


2,214 

4,121 
3,369 


Hyde 

Iredell 


Wilson 

Yadkin 


2,697 
2,082 


Jackson 


Yancey 


1,978 




Totals 


303,292 


338,650 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 171 

CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN THE GENERAL 
ELECTIONS HELD NOVEMBER 2, 1982 



Billot Tabulations of Votes 

Number Description ol Constitutional Issue For Against 



Constitutional amendment to provide that terms of 
legislators begin on January 1st following their election. 690,218 276,432 
(Chapter 1241, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1981, 
1982 Session) 

Constitutional amendment to permit the issuance of 
tax increment bonds without voter approval. 182,147 810,565 

(Chapter 1247, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1981, 
1982 Session) 



172 



North Carolina Manual 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST 

THE CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS IN THE FIRST 

ELECTION HELD ON NOVEMBER 2, 1982 - Continued 





1 


2 


County 


For 


Against 


For 


Against 


Alamance 


10,280 
5,879 


3,754 
2,937 


1,907 
1,830 


12 147 


Alexander 


6,950 


Alleghany 


2,268 


1.36? 


584 


3.057 


Anson 


3,250 
493 


994 
162 


841 

77 


3,010 


Ashe 


584 


Avery 


2,282 


1,121 


440 


2,872 


Beaufort 


5,436 


2,387 


1,174 


6,405 


Bertie 


802 


229 


153 


874 


Bladen 


2,076 


1,228 


762 


2,883 


Brunswick 


6,500 


3,312 


1,295 


8,498 


Buncombe 


14,213 


14,274 


5,743 


23,625 


Burke 


10,680 


5,714 


2.157 


14,039 


Cabarrus 


9.691 


3,121 


1,458 


11,724 


Caldwell 


9.250 


3,962 


1.352 


12,100 


Camden 


679 


199 


183 


643 


Carteret 


5.958 


2,585 


1.166 


7,199 


Caswell 


2,680 


1.263 


778 


3,079 


Catawba 


16,272 


4.122 


2,736 


17,863 


Chatham 


5,202 


3.187 


1,236 


6,724 


Cherokee 


2,147 


1.823 


442 


3,549 




473 
2,022 


135 

1,357 


96 
50! 


503 


Clay 


2,754 


Cleveland 


9,892 


1,885 


1,986 


9,555 


Columbus 


4,379 


2,115 


1,000 


5.546 


Craven 


4,069 


1,588 


694 


5,001 


Cumberland 


21,968 


7,245 


3,665 


25,800 


Currituck 


1,890 


499 


378 


1,963 


Dare 


2,099 


596 


405 


2,259 


Davidson 


16,688 


4,943 


2,826 


18,426 


Davie 


4,587 


2,212 


969 


5,334 


Duplin 


5,456 


2,583 


1.162 


6,565 


Durham 


12,840 


10,164 


2,996 


20,457 


Edgecombe 


7,106 


2,059 


1,595 


7,688 


Forsyth 


26,255 


11.614 


8,771 


29.817 




3,983 
18,008 


1.752 
3.688 


796 
2,719 


4.631 


Gaston 


19.300 


Gates 


1.978 


531 


530 


1.733 


Graham 


1,547 


1.162 


403 


2.209 


Granville 


4.097 
1.887 


1 ,805 
805 


919 
419 


4.690 


Greene 


2,108 


Guilford 


41,931 


8,938 


9,916 


41,845 


Halifax 


6,557 


2,462 


1,664 


7,556 


Harnett 


7,461 
7,714 


3,014 
3,333 


1,554 
1.350 


8,919 


Haywood 


9,687 


Henderson 


9.143 


4,053 


2.427 


11,027 


Hertford 


1,191 


398 


250 


1,288 


Hoke 


2,803 


1,009 


619 


2,929 


Hyde 


779 


375 


176 


908 


Iredell 


12,022 


2,662 


1,864 


13,198 


Jackson 


1,817 


1,624 


933 


2,961 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



173 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS IN THE PRIMARY 

ELECTION HELD ON NOVEMBER 2, 1982 - Continued 



County 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 

Pender 

Perquimans 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania 

Tyrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 

Totals 



For 



Against 



For 



Against 



8,978 
1,461 
2,244 
6,912 

8,874 

4,858 
1,566 
1,263 
3,783 
50,335 

1,884 

3,705 

10,231 

10,203 

10,400 

1,441 
6,500 
13,612 
1,448 
1,289 

3,762 
1,182 
1,131 

8,473 
1,285 

9,600 

6,729 

10,405 

11,366 

13,019 

9,117 
10,583 
1,014 
5.421 
5,095 

3,753 
468 

4,641 
476 

7,496 

3,206 
30,421 
2,965 
2,228 
4,651 

3,799 
6,608 
4.963 
4,173 
2,531 



690,218 



3,039 

748 

940 

3,080 

3,636 

2,271 

924 

499 

2,688 

9,720 

1,370 
2,118 
2,701 
3.257 
7,401 

550 

1,708 

3,629 

686 

529 

1,953 

342 

453 

4,215 

1 .254 

5.229 
1.995 
4.678 
3.004 
2.968 

2,851 
4.593 
648 
2.054 
3,134 

1,933 
469 

2,205 
153 

1.747 

1,556 
15,163 
1,109 
1,194 
1,871 

5,133 
2.717 
1.600 
2.239 
2.135 



276.432 



1.573 

388 

415 

1.235 

2,234 

820 
357 
297 
680 
13,677 

402 

883 
1,961 
1.823 
3.161 

410 
796 
30,891 
376 
350 

816 
299 

204 

1.802 

474 

1,831 
1,224 

2,483 
2,067 
2,316 

1,280 

2,675 

293 

992 

1,264 

1.091 
215 
975 
334 

1.381 

713 
7.214 
890 
506 
967 

792 
1.243 
1.140 

987 
1.273 



182.167 



10.195 
1,695 
2.750 
8,478 
9,997 

6,221 
2,163 
1,428 
5.782 
46,564 

2,851 

4.532 
11,210 
11,592 
15,165 

1,542 
7,554 
14,088 
1 ,633 
1 ,432 

4,599 
1,155 
1,376 
10,485 
2,066 

12,968 
7.366 
12.195 
12.168 
13.740 

10.704 

11.518 

1,431 

6,556 

6,696 

4,562 
717 

5.966 
435 

7,920 

4,059 

38.570 
2.971 
2.711 
5.541 

8.201 
8.229 
5.311 

5.121 
3.824 



810.565 



174 North Carolina Manual 



CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN THE PRIMARY 
ELECTIONS HELD MAY 8, 1984 

Billot Tabulitlont of Votu 
Number Deicrlptlon of Conilltutlonil Issue For Agilnit 

1 Constitutional amendment to permit the General 

Assembly to enact general laws to authorize the crea- 
tion of an agency to issue revenue bonds to finance the 
cost of capital projects consisting of agricultural facili- 
ties, and to refund such bonds, such bonds to be 
secured by and payable only from revenues or property 
derived from private parties and in no event to be 
secured by or payable from any public moneys what- 
soever. 420,405 360,009 
(Chapter 765, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1983) 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



175 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST 

THE CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT IN THE PRIMARY 

ELECTION HELD ON MAY 8, 1984 



County 

Alamance 

Alexander 

Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 

Cumberland .. 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe .... 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 



For 



Against 



County 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell .... 
Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank .. 

Pender 

Perquimans .. 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond .... 

Robeson 

Rockingham 
Rowan 

Rutherford ... 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania 

Tyrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington . 
Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 

Totals 



For 



Against 



2,992 
1,396 
1,134 
3,361 
1,735 

1,533 
4,178 

1,804 
1,275 
3,329 

7,157 
5,566 
6,033 
3,810 
870 

3,082 
3,500 
8,239 

5,427 
708 

332 

528 

6,831 

4,183 

1,830 

14,120 
1,284 
1,464 
5,818 
2,396 

4,207 
8,094 
8,806 
14,821 
3,701 

9,351 
1,744 
651 
4,603 
2,698 

21,010 
6,573 
5,793 
4,680 
5,415 

1,371 
2,250 
822 
8,945 
1,386 



4.716 
1,686 
975 
2,787 
1,574 

1.875 

4,122 

503 

1,210 

4,878 

4.105 
6.303 
4,741 
4,476 
780 

2,814 
2.297 
6,868 
5,069 
742 

184 
411 

6,987 
3,813 
2,254 

15.048 
1.260 
1 ,343 
4,832 
2,437 

3,818 
3,330 
5,638 
8,418 
3,262 

9,514 
1.111 
605 
3,406 
1,569 

17,163 
6,343 
4,701 
3,204 
3,627 

776 
1.622 

718 
6,331 

668 



7,044 
1,354 
1,232 
6,008 
3,907 

2,500 

882 

1,167 

1,609 

24,604 

1,507 

2,187 
4,647 
8,406 

2,787 

2,029 

4,426 
9,328 
1,262 
1,503 

2,219 
1,344 

959 
9,470 

740 

3,211 
3,884 
9,265 
6,687 
5,617 

2,851 
5,101 
2,021 
2,519 
2,360 

1,259 
263 

1,981 
586 

5,584 

3,637 
17,067 
2,875 
2,292 
2,478 

2,478 
2,727 
2,812 
2,583 
2,310 



5,046 
1,496 

783 
6,574 
4,180 

1,798 
301 

549 

1,225 

24,636 

1,439 
2,166 
4,429 
6,876 
5,398 

1,066 
5,393 
8,371 
1,783 
1,095 

3,000 
798 
490 

7,812 
476 

2,397 
3,511 
9,126 
5,751 
3,882 

2,910 
4,272 
1,926 

2.794 
2,480 

682 

97 

1,489 

458 
4,778 

2,894 
10,578 
2,017 
1.642 
1,997 

1,767 
2,419 
1.949 
2.206 
1.893 



420,405 



360,009 



176 North Carolina Manual 



CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES VOTED ON IN THE GENERAL 
ELECTIONS HELD NOVEMBER 6, 1984 

Ballot Tabulations of Votes 

Number Description of Constitutional Issue For Against 

1 Constitutional amendment requiring Attorney Gen- 

eral and District Attorneys to be duly authorized to 
practice law prior to election or appointment. 1,159,460 357,791 

(Chapter 298, Session Laws of North Carolina, 1983) 



Voting Results on Constitutional Issues Since 1970 



177 



ABSTRACT OF VOTES CAST FOR AND AGAINST 

THE CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT IN THE PRIMARY 

ELECTION HELD ON THE5.th DAY OF NOVEMBER, 1984 



County 

Alamance 

Alexander 

Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 

Cumberland .. 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe .... 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 



For 



Against 



County 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank .. 

Pender 

Perquimans .. 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond .... 

Robeson 

Rockingham 
Rowan 

Rutherford ... 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania 

Tyrell 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington . 
Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 

Totals 



For 



Against 



14.320 

7,525 
2,815 
5,758 
6,832 

3,666 

10,670 

1 ,543 

2,777 

10,861 

29,389 
18,925 
15,773 
11,438 
1,604 

8,896 

5,175 

20,367 

10,656 

3,232 

1,091 

2,301 
14,495 

7,574 
5,874 

40,762 
3,056 
4,040 

21,875 
7.439 

8,814 
21.766 
14,475 
56,533 

7,159 

33,303 
2,751 
2,376 
6,186 
3,904 

61,568 
12,873 
12,721 
13,476 
19,865 

2,217 
4,082 
1,456 
22,256 
1,037 



9,873 
3,518 
990 
2,614 
2,248 

1,463 
3,460 
538 
1,065 
3,994 

5,473 
8,329 
4,944 
3,98 1 
496 

2,270 
2,297 
5,439 
3,940 
1,565 

254 

852 

5,002 

2,499 

2,507 

10,524 

953 

1,171 

6,674 

2,639 

4,277 
4,591 
4,071 
10,848 
2.636 

11.274 

715 

936 

1.772 

1.605 

13,097 
4,404 
4,306 
4,023 
4,782 

580 
1,297 

583 
7,994 
2,807 



16,616 

2,391 

3,518 

13,612 

11,900 

7,064 
2,215 
1,726 
6,653 
77,188 

2,094 

5,586 

12,760 

18,196 

15,367 

2,603 

11,851 

26,648 

3,017 

3,126 

6,468 
2,441 
2,315 
23,645 
2,396 

13,481 
9,462 
20,380 
19,300 
15,983 

9,471 
7,943 
1,596 
7,019 
9,354 

6,079 
1,053 
7,452 
1,082 
16,620 

5.279 
61,211 
3,992 
4,467 
6,697 

6,990 
10,480 
8,954 
7,549 
4,713 



1,159,560 



5,086 

1,342 

801 

7,101 

5,287 

2,346 

668 

363 

2,428 

23,236 

592 
2,567 
3,698 
5,210 
3,897 

648 
3,302 
6,509 
1,289 

628 

2,220 
642 
716 

6,277 
608 

3,829 
3,390 
6,318 
6,903 
4,528 

3,222 
3,044 
429 
3,166 
3,563 

1,580 
564 

2,674 
283 

6,515 

1,538 
13,173 
1,200 
1,038 
1,566 

3,947 
2,637 
2,317 
2,998 

1,738 



157,791 



The Constitution of the United States 1 79 



Chapter Four 
THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES 



Preamble 

We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish 
justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the gen- 
eral welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain 
and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. 

ARTICLE I 

Section 1 — All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the 
United States, which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives. 

Sec. 2 — 1 . The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every 
second year by the people of the several States, and the electors in each State shall have 
the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legis- 
lature. 

2. No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of 
twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, 
when elected, be an inhabitant of the State in which he shall be chosen. 

3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States 
which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which 
shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those 
bound to service for a term of years and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all 
other persons. The actual enumejation shall be made within three years after the first 
meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term often 
years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall 
not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Repre- 
sentative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire- shall 
be entitled to choose 3; Massachusetts, 8; Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, 1; 
Connecticut, 5; New York, 6; New Jersey, 4; Pennsylvania, 8; Delaware, I; Maryland, 
6; Virginia, 10; North Carolina, 5; South Carolina, 5; and Georgia, 3.* 



*See Article XIV, Amendments, 



180 North Carolina Manual 



4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State the Executive Au- 
thority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies. 

5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers, and 
shall have the sole power of impeachment. 

Sec. 3 — 1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from 
each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof for six years; and each Senator shall have 
one vote.t 

2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they 
shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the 
first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year; of the second class at the 
expiration of the fourth year; and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so 
that one-third may be chosen every second year, and if vacancies happen by resignation, 
or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof 
may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which 
shall then fill such vacancies.! 

3. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, 
and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be 
an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen. 

4. The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall 
have no vote, unless they be equally divided. 

5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore, in 
the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of the President of 
the United States. 

6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for 
that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United 
States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without 
the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present. 

7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from 
office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under 
the United States; but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to in- 
dictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law. 

Sec.4 — 1. The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and Repre- 
sentatives shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof, but the Congress 
may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choos- 
ing Senators. 

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be 
on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day. 

Sec. 5 — 1. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications 
of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; 
but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel 



tSee Article XVII, Amendments. 



The Constitution of the United States 181 

the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as each 
House may provide. 

2. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for 
disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member. 

3. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish 
the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas 
and nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth 
of those present, be entered on the journal. 

4. Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the 
other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the 
two Houses shall be sitting. 

Sec. 6 — 1. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their 
services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. 
They shall in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged 
from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in go- 
ing to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House they 
shall not be questioned in any other place. 

2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be 
appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States which shall have 
been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; 
and no person holding any office under the United States shall be a member of either 
House during his continuance in office. 

Sec. 7 — 1 . All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; 
but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills. 

2. Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate 
shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he 
approves, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that House 
in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, 
and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration two-thirds of that House shall 
agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent together with the objectives, to the other House, by 
which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that House, it 
shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined 
by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be 
entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the 
President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, 
the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their 
adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law. 

3. Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House 
of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be pre- 
sented to the President of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall 
be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the 
Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed 
in the case of a bill. 



182 North Carolina Manual 

Sec. 8. The Congress shall have power: 

1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide 
for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts 
and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States; 

2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States; 

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and 
with the Indian tribes; 

4. To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of 
bankruptcies throughout the United States; 

5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the stand- 
ards of weights and measures; 

6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of 
the United States; 

7. To establish postoffices and postroads; 

8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for limited times, 
to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries; 

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court; 

10. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and of- 
fenses against the law of nations; 

1 1. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning 
captures on land and water; 

12. To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be 
for a longer term than two years; 

13. To provide and maintain a navy; 

14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces; 

15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress 
insurrections, and repel invasions; 

16. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for governing 
such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to 
the State respectively the appointment of the officers and the authority of training the 
militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress; 

17. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever over such district (not ex- 
ceeding ten miles square) as may be cession of particular States and the acceptance of 
Congress, become the seat of Government of the United States, and to exercise like au- 
thority over all places purchased by the consent of the Legislature of the State, in which 
the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other 
needful buildings; — and 

18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution 



The Constitution of the United States 183 



the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the Govern- 
ment of the United States, or any department or officer thereof. 

Sec. 9 — 1 . The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States now ex- 
isting shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the 
year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such 
importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person. 

2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in 
cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it. 

3. No bill of attainer or ex post facto law shall be passed. 

4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or 
enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken.* 

5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State. 

6. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the 
ports of one State over those of another; nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one State 
be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another. 

7. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in consequence of appropriations 
made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all 
public money shall be published from time to time. 

8. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; and no person holding 
any office or profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, ac- 
cept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, 
prince, or foreign state. 

Sec. 10 — 1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant let- 
ters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything but gold 
and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainer; ex post facto law, 
or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. 

2. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on 
imports or exports except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection 
laws; and the net produce of all duties and imports, laid by any State on imports or ex- 
ports, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be 
subject to the revision and control of the Congress. 

3. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep 
troops, or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with an- 
other State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in 
such imminent danger as will not admit delay. 

ARTICLE II 

Section 1 — 1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States 



*See Article XVI, Amendments. 



184 North Carolina Manual 



of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and, together with the 
Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows: 

2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof may direct, a 
number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to 
which the State may be entitled in the Congress; but no Senator or Representative or 
person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States shall be appointed an 
elector. 

3. The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for two per- 
sons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves. 
And they shall make a hst of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for 
each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of 
the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives open all the 
certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number 
of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of 
electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an 
equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by 
ballot one of them for President; and if no person have a majority, then from the five 
highest on the list the said House shall in like manner choose the President. But in 
choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each 
State having one vote; a quorum, for this purpose, shall consist of a member or mem- 
bers from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a 
choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the greatest 
number of votes of the electors shall be the Vice-President. But if there shall remain two 
or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice 
President.* 

4. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors and the day on 
which they shall give their votes, which day shall be the same throughout the United 
States. 

5. No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States, at the 
time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; 
neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age 
of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States. 

6. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation or 
inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on 
the Vice President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, 
resignation, or inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what officer 
shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly until the disability be 
removed, or a President shall be elected. 

7. The President shall, at stated fimes, receive for his services a compensation which 
shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been 



'This clause is superseded by Article XII, Amendments. 



The Constitution of the United States 185 



elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the 
United States, or any of them. 

8. Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or 
affirmation: 

"I do solemly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of 
the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the 
Constitution of the United States." 

Sec. 2 — 1 . The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the 
United States, and of the militia of the several States, when called into the actual service 
of the United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in 
each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their re- 
spective offices; and he shall have power to grant reprieves, and pardons for offenses 
against the United States, except in cases of impeachment. 

2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make 
treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate and, 
by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other 
public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the 
United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which 
shall be established by law; but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such 
inferior officers as they think proper in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in 
the heads of departments. 

3. The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the 
recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next 
session. 

Sec. 3 — He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the State of 
the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge nec- 
essary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both Houses, or 
either of them, and in case of disagreement between them with respect to the time of ad- 
journment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive 
ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully ex- 
ecuted, and shall commission all the officers of the United States. 

Sec. 4 — The President, Vice President, and all civil officers of the United States, shall 
be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or 
other high crimes and misdemeanors. 



ARTICLE III 

Section 1 — The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme 
Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and es- 
tablish. The judges, both of the Supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices dur- 
ing good behavior, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation 
which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. 



186 North Carolina Manual 



Sec. 2 — 1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under 
this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be 
made, under their authority; — to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers 
and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; — to controversies to 
which the United States shall be a party; — to controversies between two or more 
States; — between citizens of the same State, claiming lands under grants of different 
States, and between a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign States, citizens, or sub- 
jects. 

2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those 
in which a State shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. In 
all the other cases before mentioned the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdic- 
tion, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as the 
Congress shall make. 

3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury, and such 
trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes shall have been committed; but 
when not committed within any State the trial shall be at such place or places as the 
Congress may by law have directed. 

Sec. 3 — 1. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against 
them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be 
convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or 
on confession in open court. 

2. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason; but no at- 
tainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture except during the life of 
the person attained. 

ARTICLE IV 

Section 1— Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public acts, records, 
and judicial proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general laws 
prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and proceedings shall be proved, and 
the effect thereof. 

Sec. 2 — 1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities 
of citizens in the several States. 

2. A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee 
from justice and be found in another State, shall, on demand of the Executive authority 
of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having juris- 
diction of the crime. 

3. No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof, escaping 
into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from 
such service or labor, but shall be delivered upon claim of the party to whom such serv- 
ice or labor may be due. 

Sec. 3—1. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new 
State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State 



The Constitution of the United States 187 



be formed by the junction of two or more States, on parts of States, without the consent 
of the Legislatures of the States concerned, as well as of the Congress. 

2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regu- 
lations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States; and 
nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the 
United States or of any particular State. 

Sec. 4 — The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a republican 
form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion, and, on applica- 
tion of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened), 
against domestic violence. 

ARTICLE V 

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall pro- 
pose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the Legislatures of two- 
thirds of the several States, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in 
either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when 
ratified by the Legislatures of three-fourths of the several States, or by conventions in 
three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by 
the Congress; provided that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one 
thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses 
in the Ninth Section of the First Article; and that no State, without its consent, shall be 
deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate. 

ARTICLE VI 

1. All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adoption of this 
Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as 
under the Confederation. 

2. This Constitution and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pur- 
suance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the 
United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every State shall 
be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary not- 
withstanding. 

3. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the sev- 
eral State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States 
and of the several States, shall be bound by oath or affirmation to support this Consti- 
tution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or pub- 
lic trust under the United States. 



ARTICLE VII 

The ratification of the Convention of nine States shall be sufficient for the establish- 
ment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the same. 



188 



North Carouna Manual 



Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth 
Day of September, in the Year of Our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty- 
seven, and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth. In witness 
whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names.* 



GEO[RGE] WASHINGTON, 

President and deputy from Virginia 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

John Langdon 
Nicholas Gilman 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Nathaniel Gorham 
Rufus King, 

CONNECTICUT 

W[illiai]m Sam[ue]l Johnson 
Roger Sherman 
Geo[rge]Clymer 
Jared Ingersoll 
Gouv. Morris 

DELAWARE 

Geo[rge] Read 
John Dickinson 
Jaco[b] Broom 
Gunning Bedford, Jr. 
Richard Bassett 

MARYLAND 

James McHenry 
Dan[ie]l Carroll 
Dan[iel] of St. Thos. Jenifer 

VIRGINIA 

John Blair 



NEW YORK 

Alexander Hamilton 

NEW JERSEY 

Wil[liam] Livingston 
David Brearley 
W[illia]m Patterson 
Jona[than] Dayton 

PENNSYLVANIA 

B[enjamin] Franklin 
Rob[er]t Morris 
Tho[ma]s Fitzsimmons 
James Wilson 
Thomas Mifflin 
Ja[me]s Madison, Jr. 

NORTH CAROLINA 

W[illia]m Blount 
Hu[gh] Williamson 
Rich[ar]d Dobbs Spaight 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

J[ames] Rutledge 

Charles Pinckney 

Charles Cotesworth Pinckney 

Pierce Butler 

GEORGIA 

William Few 
Abr[aham] Baldwin 



ATTEST: 

William Jackson, Secretary 



*The Constitution was declared in effect on the first Wednesday in March, 1789. 



The Constitution of the United States 189 



AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION 
OF THE UNITED STATES 

THE TEN ORIGINAL AMENDMENTS* 

The following amendments to the Constitution, Article I to X, inclusive, were pro- 
posed at the First Session of the First Congress, begun and held at the City of New 
York, on Wednesday, March 4, 1789, and were adopted by the necessary number of 
States. The original proposal of the ten amendments was preceded by this preamble and 
resolution: 

"The conventions of a number of the States having, at the time of their 
adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruc- 
tion or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses 
should be added, and as extending the ground of public confidence in the Gov- 
ernment will best insure the beneficient ends of its institution: 

"RESOLVED, By the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America, in Congress assembled, two-thirds of both Houses con- 
curring that the following articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the sev- 
eral States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States; all or any 
of which articles, when ratified by three-fourths of the said Legislatures, to be 
valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution, namely"; 

ARTICLE I 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting 
the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press; or the right 
of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of 
grievances. 



ARTICLE II 

A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the 
people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. 



ARTICLE III 

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of 
the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner to be prescribed by law. 



ARTICLE IV 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects 
against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall 
issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly de- 
scribing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. 



*These amendments known as The Bill of Rights, were declared in force December 15, 1791. North Carolina 
ratified these ten amendments on December 22, 1789 (Ch. 19, Laws of 17S9). 



190 North Carouna Manual 



ARTICLE V 

No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless 
on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or na- 
val forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor 
shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or 
limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against him, nor be de- 
prived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property 
be taken for public use, without just compensation. 

ARTICLE VI 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy, and public 
trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been 
committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and be in- 
formed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses 
against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to 
have the assistance of counsel for his defense. 

ARTICLE VII 

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, 
the right of tiral by jury shall be preserved and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise 
re-examined in any court of the United States than according to the rules of the com- 
mon law. 

ARTICLE VIII 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unu- 
sual punishments inflicted. 

ARTICLE IX 

The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny 
or disparage others retained by the people. 

ARTICLE X 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by 
it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. 

SUBSEQUENT AMENDMENTS 

ARTICLE XI 

The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in 
law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States, by citizens of 
another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign State. 

(Proposed to the Legislatures of the several States by the Third Congress on the 5th of March, 1794, and de- 
clared to have been ratified by Executive Proclamation, January 8, 1798. It was ratified by North Carolina on 
February 7, 1795.) 



I 



The Constitution of the United States 191 



ARTICLE XII 

The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for President and 
Vice President, one of whom at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with 
themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in dis- 
tinct ballots the persons voted for as Vice President; and they shall make distinct lists of 
all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice President, and of 
the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit, 
sealed, to the seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of 
the Senate; the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of 
Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted; the person 
having the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, if such number 
be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such 
majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three on the 
list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immedi- 
ately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by 
States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose 
shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of 
all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall 
not choose a President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the 
fourth day of March next following, then the Vice President shall act as President, as in 
the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person hav- 
ing the greatest number of votes as Vice President shall be the Vice President, if such 
number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have 
a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the 
Vice President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole num- 
ber of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But 
no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of 
Vice President of the United States. 

[Proposed by the Eighth Congress on the 12 of December, 1803, declared ratified by the Secretary of State, 
September 25, 1804. It was ratified by North Carolina on December 21, 1803. It was ratified by all the States ex- 
cept Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire.] 

ARTICLE XIII 

1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime 
whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or 
any place subject to their jurisdiction. 

2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

[Proposed by the Thirty-eighth Congress on the 1st of February, 1865, declared ratified by the Secretary of 
State, December 18, 1865. It was ratified by North Carolina on December 4, 1865 (Resolution, Public Laws of 
1865. It was rejected by Delaware and Kentucky; was conditionally ratified by Alabama and Mississippi; and 
Texas took no action, ) 

ARTICLE XIV 

1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction 
thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State 



192 North Carolina Manual 



shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges of immunities of citi- 
zens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or prop- 
erty, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal 
protection of the laws. 

2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their 
respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding In- 
dians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for 
President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the 
executive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is 
denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and 
citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebel- 
lion or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the propor- 
tion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citi- 
zens twenty-one years of age in such State. 

3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of Presi- 
dent and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or 
under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as 
an officer of the United Sttaes, or as a member of any State Legislature, or as an execu- 
tive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, 
shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort 
to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each house, re- 
move such disability. 

4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law including 
debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insur- 
rection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State 
shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion 
against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all 
such debts, obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void. 

5. The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate legislation the provisions 
of this article. 

[The Reconstruction Amendment, by the Thirty-ninth Congress on the 16th day of June, 1866, was declared 
ratified by the Secretary of State, July 28, 1868. The amendment got the support of 23 Northern States; it was re- 
jected by Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and 10 Southern States. California took no action. Later it was rati- 
fied by the 10 Southern States. North Carolina ratified it on July 4, 1868 (Resolution 2. Public Laws of 1868).] 

ARTICLE XV 

1. The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or 
abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous 
condition of servitude. 

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

[Proposed by the Fortieth Congress the 27th of February, 1869, and was declared ratified by the Secretary of 
State, March 30, 1870. It was not acted on by Tennessee; it was rejected by California, Delaware, Kentucky, 
Maryland and Oregon; ratified by the remaining 30 States. North Carolina ratified it on March 5, 1869 (Public 
Laws of 1868-69). New York rescinded its ratification January 5, 1870. New Jersey rejected it in 1870, but ratified 
it in 1871.)] 



The Constitution of the United States 193 



ARTICLE XVI 

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever 
source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to 
any census or enumeration. 

[Proposed by the Sixty-first Congress, July 12, 1909, and declared ratified February 25, 1913. The income tax 
amendment was ratified by all the States, except Connecticut, Florida, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Utah, and 
Virginia. North Carolina ratified it on February 11, 1911 (Resolution 11, Public Laws of 1911).] 

ARTICLE XVII 

1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each 
State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. 
The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most 
numerous branch of the State Legislatures. 

2. When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the execu- 
tive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies; Provided, 
That the Legislature of any State may empower the Executive thereof to make tempor- 
ary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by elections as the Legislature may 
direct. 

3. This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any 
Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution. 

[Proposed by the Sixty-second Congress on the 16th day of May, 1912, and declared ratified May 31, 1913. 
Adopted by all the States except Alabama, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Missis- 
sippi, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Utah and Virginia. North Carolina ratified it on January 25, 1913 (Resolu- 
tion 10, Public Laws of 1913).] 

ARTICLE XVIII 

1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or trans- 
portation of intoxicating liquours within, the importation thereof into, or the exporta- 
tion thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof 
for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. 

2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this 
article by appropriate legislation. 

3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment 
to the Constitution by the Legislatures of the several States as provided in the Constitu- 
tion, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Con- 
gress. 

[Proposed by the Sixty-fifth Congress, December 18, 1917, and ratified by 36 States; was declared in effect on 
January 16, 1920. It was ratified by North Carolina on January 16, 1919 (Resolution 8, Public Laws of 1919).] 

ARTICLE XIX 

1 . The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by 
the United States or by any State on account of sex. 

2. Congress shall have power, by appropriate legislation, to enforce the provisions of 
this article. 



194 North Carouna Manual 



[Proposed by the Sixty-nfth Congress. On August 26, 1920, it was proclaimed in effect, having been ratified by 
three-quarters of the States. It was ratified by North Carolina on May 6, 1971 (Ch. 327, Session Laws of 1971). 
The Tennessee House, August 31st, rescinded its ratification, 47 to 24.] 

ARTICLE XX 

1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of 
January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3rd day of Janu- 
ary of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been rati- 
fied; and the terms of their successors shall then begin. 

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be- 
gin at noon on the 3rd day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day. 

3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President 
elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall 
not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the Presi- 
dent elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President 
until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case 
wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declar- 
ing who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be se- 
lected, and such person shall act accordingly, until a President or Vice President shall 
have qualified. 

4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons 
from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of 
choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the per- 
sons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President when the right of choice shall 
have devolved upon them. 

5. Section 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratifica- 
tion of this article. 

6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment 
to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven 
years from the date of its submission. 

[Proposed by the 72nd Congress, First Session. On February 6, 1933, it was proclaimed in effect, having been 
ratified by thirty-nine states. It was ratified by North Carolina on January 5, 1933 (Resolution 4, Public Laws of 
1935).] 

ARTICLE XXI 

1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is 
hereby repealed. 

2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the 
United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws 
thereof, is hereby prohibited. 

3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment 
to the Constitution by convention in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, 
within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress. 



The Constitution of the United States 195 



(Proposed by the 72nd Congress, Second Session. Proclaimed in effect on December 5, 1933, having been rati- 
fied by thirty-six States. North Carolina did not ratify this Amendment. By proclamation of the same date, the 
President proclaimed that the eighteenth amendment to the Constitution was repealed on December 5, 1933.) 



ARTICLE XXII 

1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no 
person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two 
years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the 
office of the President more than once. But this article shall not apply to any person 
holding the office of President when this article was proposed by the Congress, and shall 
not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as Presi- 
dent, during the term within which this article becomes operative from holding the of- 
fice of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term. 

2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment 
to the constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven 
years from the date of its submission to the States by the congress. 

[Proposed by the 80th Congress in 1947 and became effective on Feb. 26, 1951, having been ratified by thirty- 
six states. It was ratified by North Carolina on January 28, 1951 (Ch. 136, Session laws of 1951).] 



ARTICLE XXIII 

1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall ap- 
point in such manner as the Congress may direct: 

A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of 
Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it 
were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addi- 
tion to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purpose of 
the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and 
they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article 
of amendment. 

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

[Proposed by the 86th Congress in June of 1960 and ratified by the 38th State, March 29, 1961 and proclaimed 
a part of the Constitution, April 3, 1961. North Carolina did not ratify it.] 



ARTICLE XXIV 

1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election 
for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Sena- 
tor or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States 
or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax. 

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

[Proposed by the 87th Congress, August 27, 1962 and ratified by the 38th State, January 23, 1964. It was not 
ratified by North Carolina.] 



196 North Carolina Manual 



ARTICLE XXV 

1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, 
the Vice President shall become President. 

2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall 
nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote 
of both Houses of Congress. 

3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and 
the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to 
discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written 
declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice Pres- 
ident as Acting President. 

4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the 
executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit 
to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and 
duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties 
of the office as Acting President. 

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate 
and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no in- 
ability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice Presi- 
dent and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of 
such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the Presi- 
dent pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their 
written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his 
office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours 
for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt 
of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days 
after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses 
that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice 
President shall continue to discharge the same as Acfing President; otherwise, the Presi- 
dent shall resume the powers and duties of his office. 

[Submitted to the Legislatures of the fifty States July 6, 1965. Ratified by the 38th State (Nevada) February 10, 
1967. It was ratified by North Carolina on March 22, 1967 (Ch. 77, Session Laws of 1967).] 



ARTICLE XXVI 

1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to 
vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State on account of age. 

2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legisla- 
tion. 

[Proposed to the States by Congress on March 23, 1971 and ratification completed June 30, 1971. It was rati- 
fied by North Carolina on July 1, 1971 (Ch. 725, Session Laws of 1971).] 



PART IV 

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE 

UNITED STATES 



y 



198 



North Carolina Manual 




The Executive Branch 199 

Chapter One 
THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH 



RONALD WILSON REAGAN 
PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 

Early Years: Born in Tampico, Illinois, on February 6, 1911, to John Edward and 
Nelle Wilson Reagan. 

Education: Graduated Dixon (Illinois) High School, 1932; Eureka College (lUi- 
nois)1932, B.A. (Economics and Sociology). 

Professional Background: Rancher; spokesman for conservation cause (radio broad- 
casts and syndicated news column), 1975-1980; motion picture actor (50 feature- 
length films), 1937-1966; television series host and sometimes actor ("General Elec- 
tric Theater" and "Death Valley Days"), 1962-1966; sportscaster (WOC in 
Davenport, Iowa; WHO in DesMoines, Iowa), 1932-1937. 

Organizations: Member, Screen Actors Guild (President, 1947-1952 and 1959); Tau 
Kappa Epsilon; Friars Club. 

Boards and Commissions: Member, Presidential Commission Investigating the CIA, 
1974-1975; Committee on the Present Danger (Board of Directors), 1977-1978; 
founded Citizens for the Republic. 

Political Activities: President of the United States of America, 1981-(Elected 1980; 
re-elected, 1984); Governor of California 1967-1975; Chairman, Republican Gover- 
nors Association, 1969; active campaigner for Republican candidates and spokes- 
man for conservative political views. 

Military Service: Served in U.S. Army Reserves, Captain (1942-1945). 

Literary Works: Author, Creative Society (New York, 1968); Where's the Rest of Me? 
(New York, 1965). 

Honors: National Humanitarian Award, National Conference of Christians and Jews; 
City of Hope "Touch of Life" Award for Humanitarian Service; Horatio Alger 
Award; American Newspaper Guild Award; Freedoms Foundation Awards; Dis- 
tinguished American Award, National Football Foundation Hall of Fame; Ameri- 
can Patriots Hall of Fame; and Medal of Valor of the State of Israel. 

Religious Activities: Attends Hollywood Beverly Christian Church (California). 

Family: Married Nancy Davis, March 4, 1952; Children: Patricia and Ronald; Mau- 
reen (by previous marriage to Jane Wyman); and Michael (adopted.) 



200 



North Carolina Manual 





^ 




The Executive Branch 201 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES 

No. Name Native State Born Inau. 

1. George Washington (F) Va 1732 1789 

2. John Adams (F) Mass 1735 1797 

3. Thomas Jefferson (D-R) Va 1743 1801 

4. James Madison (D-R) Va 1751 1809 

5. James Monroe (D-R) Va 1758 1817 

6. John Quincy Adams (N-R) Mass 1767 1825 

7. Andrew Jackson (D) N. C 1767 1829 

8. Martin Van Buren (WHIG) N. Y 1782 1837 

9. William H. Harrison' (A) Va 1773 1841 

10. John Tyler (W) Va 1790 1841 

11. James Knox Polk (D) N. C 1795 1845 

12. Zachary TaylorMWHIG) Va 1784 1849 

13. Millard Fillmore (WHIG) N. Y 1800 1850 

14. Franklin Pierce (D) N. H 1804 1853 

15. James Buchanan (D) Pa 1791 1857 

16. Abraham LincolnMR) Ky 1809 1861 

17. Andrew Johnson^ (-) N. C 1808 1865 

18. Ulysses S. Grant (R) Ohio 1822 1869 

19. Rutherford B. Hayes (R) Ohio 1822 1877 

20. James A. Garfield^ (R) Ohio 1831 1881 

21. Chester A. Arthur (R) Vt 1830 1881 

22. Grover ClevelandMD) N.J 1837 1885 

23. Benjamin Harrison (R) Ohio 1833 1889 

24. Grover ClevelandMD) N.J 1837 1893 

25. William McKinleyMR) Ohio 1843 1897 

26. Theodore Roosevelt (R) N. Y 1858 1901 

27. William H. Taft (R) Ohio 1857 1909 

28. Woodrow Wilson (D) Va 1856 1913 

29. Warren G. Harding^R) Ohio 1865 1921 

30. Calvin Coolidge(R) Vt 1872 1923 

31. Herbert C. Hoover (R) Iowa 1874 1929 

32. Franklin D. Roosevelt'o (D) N. Y 1882 1933 



'Harrison died on April 4. 1841. 

-Taylor died on July 9, 1«50. 

^Lincoln was shot April 14, 1865, and died the following day. 

"Andrew Johnson — a Democrat, nominated vice president by Republicans and elected with Lincoln on 
National Union ticket. 

'Garfield was shot July 2. 1881. and died September 19. 

''According to a ruling of the State Dept., Grover Cleveland is counted twice, as the 22nd and the 24ih 
President, because his two terms were not consecutive. Only 39 individuals have been President. 

'See footnote 6. 

"MelCinley was shot September 6, 1901, and died September 14. 

'Harding died on August 2, 1923. 

"'Roosevelt died on April 12, 1945. 



202 North Carolina Manual 



No. Name Native State Born Inau. 

33. Harry S. Truman (D) Missouri 1884 1945 

34. Dwight D. Eisenhower (R) Texas 1890 1953 

35. John F. Kennedy" (D) Massachusetts... 1917 1961 

36. Lyndon B. Johnson (D) Texas 1908 1963 

37. Richard M. Nixoni2(R) California 1913 1969 

38. Gerald R. Ford (R) Michigan 1913 1974 

39. James Earl Carter (D) Georgia 1924 1977 

40. Ronald Wilson Reagan (R) Illinois 1911 1981 



"Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963. 

'^Nixon resigned August 9, 1974 following several months of pressure over the "Watergate" coverup and 
related issues. 



The Executive Branch 203 



PRESIDENTIAL CABINET 

Vice President George Bush 

Secretary of Agriculture John R. Block 

Secretary of Commerce Malcolm Balridge 

Secretary of Defense Casper W. Weinberger 

Secretary of Education William J. Bennett 

Secretary of Energy Donald Hodell 

Secretary of Health and Human Services Vacancy 

Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Samuel R. Pierce, Jr. 

Secretary of the Interior William Clark 

Secretary of Labor Raymond J. Donovan 

Secretary of State George P. Schultz 

Secretary of Transportation* Elizabeth Hanford Dole 

Secretary of the Treasury James A. Baker, III 

Attorney General Edwin Meese 

Ambassador to the United Nations Jeane J. Kirkpatrick 



MAJOR APPOINTMENTS 

White House Chief of Staff Donald T. Regan 

National Security Adviser Robert C. McFarlane 

Press Secretary Laurence M. Speakes 

Director, Central Intelligence Agency William J. Casey 

Chairman, Council on Wage and Price Stability Alfred E. Kahn 

Chairman, Federal Reserve Board Paul A. Volcker 

Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. John W. Vessey, Jr. 

Director, Office of Management and Budget 

Postmaster General William F. Bolger 



"Native of North Carolina 



204 



North Carolina Manual 




The Executive Branch 205 



ELIZABETH HANFORD DOLE 

Secretary, United States Department of Transportation 



Early Years: Born in Salisbury, Rowan County, NC, July 29, 1937, to John Van and 
Mary (Cathey) Hanford. 

Education: Duke University, B.A. (Political Science); Harvard University, M.S. (Edu- 
cation and Government); Harvard University School of Law, J.D. 

Professional Background: Secretary, US Department of Transportation; former As- 
sistant to the President for Public Liaison, 1981-83; Federal Trade Commission, 
1973-1979 (temporary leave of absence, 1976); Deputy Director, Office of Consu- 
mer Affairs, 1971-73; Executive Director, President's Committee on Consumer 
Interests, 1969-71; former Staff Assistant to Assistant Secretary of Health, Educa- 
tion and Welfare. 

Boards & Commissions: Board of Trustees, Duke University; Board of Advisors, Duke 
University Business School; Overseers Committee, John F. Kennedy School of 
Government, Harvard University; Director, National Council of the Aging; Direc- 
tor, Wolf Trap Foundation for the Performing Arts; Director, Washington Opera 
Board; Board of Directors, American Council on Young Political Leaders. 

Political Activities: Secretary, US Department of Transportation, 1983- (nominated by 
President Reagan, January 25, 1983; confirmed by the US Senate, February 1, 
1983; sworn in, February 7, 1983); Chairman, Voters for Reagan-3ush, 1980; 
Reagan-Bush Truth Squad, 1980; Director, Human Services Group for the Office 
of Executive Branch Management, Office of the President-elect; National Advisory 
Council of the National Federation of Republican Women. 

Honors: "Faces of the Future," TIME MAGAZINE, 1974; Arthur S. Fleming Award 
for Outstanding Government Service, 1972; Phi Beta Kappa, Duke University; 
President, Duke University Student Body. 

Family: Married Robert J. Dole, Senior US Senator from Kansas, December 6, 1975. 



The United States Congress 207 

Chapter Two 
THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS 



THE CAPITOL AT WASHINGTON 



The Capitol building in Washington, D. C, is situated on a plateau 88 feet above 
the level of the Potomac River and covers an area of 153, 112 square feet, or approxi- 
mately three and one-half acres. Its length, from north to south, is 751 feet, four 
inches; its width, including approaches, is 350 feet; and its location is described as 
being in latitude 38°53'20.4" N. and longitude 70°00'35.7" W. from Greenwich. Its 
height above the base line on the east front to the top of the Statue of Freedom is 287 
feet, five and one-half inches. The dome is built of iron, and the aggregate weight of 
material used in its construction is 8,909,200 pounds. 

The Statue of Freedom surmounting the dome is of bronze and weighs 14,985 
pounds. It was modeled by Thomas Crawford, father of Francis Marion Crawford, the 
novelist, in Rome, and the plaster model shipped to this country. It was cast in bronze 
at the shops of Clark Mills, on the Bladensburg Road, near Washington. The cost of 
the casting and the expenses in connection were $20,796.82, and the sculptor was paid 
$3,000 for the plaster model. It was erected and placed in its present position 
December 2, 1863. 

The grounds have had an area of 58.8 acres, at one time a part of Cern Abby 
Manor, and at an early date was occupied by a subtribe of the Algonquin Indians 
known as the Powhatans, whose council house was then located at the foot of the hill. 
By subsequent purchase of ground at the North of the Capitol and at the west of the 
new House Office building the area of the grounds has been increased to 139'/2 acres. 

The Rotunda is 97 feet 6 inches in diameter, and its height from the floor to the top 
of the canopy is 180 feet, 3 inches. 

The Senate Chamber is 1 13 feet, 3 inches, in length by 80 feet, 3 inches, in width and 
36 feet in height. The galleries will accommodate 682 persons. 

The Representatives' Hall is 139 feet in length by 93 feet in width and 36 feet in 
height. 

The room, until 1935 the meeting place of the Supreme Court, was, until 1859, 
occupied as the Senate Chamber. Previous to that time the court occupied the room 
immediately beneath, now used as a law library. 

The Capitol has a floor area of 14 a(?res, and 430 rooms are devoted to office, 
committee, and storage purposes. There are 14,518 square feet of skylights, 679 win- 
dows, and 550 doorways. 

The dome receives light through 108 windows, and from the architect's office to the 
dome there are 365 steps, one for each day of the year. 

The southeast cornerstone of the original building was laid September 18, 1793, by 
President Washington, with Masonic ceremonies. It is constructed of sandstone from 



208 North Carouna Manual 



quarries on Aquia Creek, Va. The original designs were prepared by Dr. William 
Thornton, and the work was done under the direction of Stephen H. Hallet, James 
Hoban, George Hadfield, and B. H. Latrobe, architects. 

The north wing was finished in 1800 and the south wing in 1811. A wooden pas- 
sageway connected them. On August 24, 1814, the interior of both wings was des- 
troyed by fire, set by the British. The damage to the building was immediately 
repaired. 

In 1818 the central portion of the building was commenced under the architectural 
superintendence of Charles Bullfinch. The original building was finally completed in 
1827. Its cost, including the grading of the grounds, alterations, and repairs, up to 
1827, was $2,433,844.13. 

The cornerstone of the extensions was laid on the Fourth of July, 1851, by President 
Fillmore, Daniel Webster officiating as orator. The work was prosecuted under the 
architectual direction of Thomas U. Walter until 1865. when he resigned, and it was 
completed under the supervision of Edward Clark. The material used in the walls is 
white marble from the quarries of Lee, Massachusetts, and that in the columns from 
the quarries from Cockeysville, Maryland. The House extension was first occupied for 
legislative purposes December 16, 1857, and the Senate January 4, 1859. 

The House office building was begun in 1905 and occupied on January 10. 1908; 
later a story on top was added. The Senate office building was started in 1906 and 
occupied on March 5, 1909. The House building cost, with site, $4,860,155; the Senate 
structure, $5,019,251. 

Among the paintings in the Capitol are: 

In Rotunda: Signing of the Declaration of Independence, Surrender of General Bur- 
goyne. Surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown. Va., George Washington Resigning 
His Commission as Commander in Chief of the Army, all by John Trumbull. 

Baptism of Pocahontas, by John G. Chapman; Landing of Columbus, by John 
Vanderlyn; Discovery of the Mississippi River by DeSoto. by William H. Powell; 
Embarkation of the Pilgrims, by Robert W. Weir. 

In House Wing: Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way, by Emanuel 
Leutze; First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation, by Francis Bicknell 
Carpenter. 

In Senate Wing: Battle of Lake Erie, by William H. Powell; Battle of Chapultepec, 
by James Walker. 



The United States Congress 



209 



NINETY-NINTH CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES 

THE SENATE 

President of the Senate 

George Bush (Texas) 

President Pro-Tempore of the Senate 

J. Strom Thurmond (South CaroHna) 

Secretary of the Senate 

Jo Ann Coe 



Majority Leader 

Robert Dole (Kansas) 

Majority Whip 

Alan K. Simpson (Wyoming) 



Minority Leader 

Robert C. Byrd (West Virginia) 

Minority Whip 

Alan Cranston (California) 



SENATORS FROM NORTH CAROLINA 

Jesse Helms 
John P. East 



STANDING COMMITTEES 



Agriculture, Nutrition & Forestry 

Appropriations 

Armed Services 

Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs 

Budget 

Commerce, Science & Transportation 

Energy and Natural Resources 

Environment & Public Works 



Finance 

Foreign Relations 

Government Affairs 

Judiciary 

Labor and Human Resources 

Rules and Administration 

Small Business 

Veteran's Affairs 



Ethics 



SELECT COMMITTEES 

Indian Affairs Intelligence 



SPECIAL COMMITTEES 

Aging 



Economy 



JOINT COMMITTEES 

Library Printing 



Taxation 



The United States Congress 211 

JESSE HELMS 

(Republican) 



Early Years: Born in Monroe, Union County, October 18, 1921, to Jesse A. and Ethel 
Mae Helms. 

Education: Monroe High School; Wingate College; Wake Forest University. 

Professional Background: Former Executive Vice President, Vice Chairman of the 
Board and Assistant Chief Executive Officer, Capitol Broadcasting Company, 
Raleigh; editorialist, WRAL television, 80 radio stations in NC and 200 newspapers 
nationwide; former editor. The Raleigh Times. 

Organizations: President and Vice President, Raleigh Rotary Club; President, Raleigh 
Exchange Club; former Trustee, Campbell College, Wingate College, Meredith Col- 
lege Trustee, John F. Kennedy College, Douglas MacArthur Freedom Academy, 
Delaware Law School and Camp Willow Run; NC Tobacco Council; Director, 
United Fund of Raleigh; State Advisor, Young Americans for Freedom; Director, 
Raleigh Chamber of Commerce; Mason, Raleigh Lodge No. 500; Grand Orator, 
Grand Lodge of NC, 1966. 

Political Activities: Member, US Congress (elected to the US Senate, November, 1972, 
1978, 1984- now serving his 3rd term); Raleigh City Council, 1957-1961; Adminis- 
trative Assistant, US Senator Willis Smith; Administrative Assistant, US Senator 
Alton Lennon; director, radio-television campaign, Richard B. Russell of Georgia, 
Democratic presidential candidate, 1952. 

Honors: Honorary degrees. Grove City College and Bob Jones University; Honorary 
Director, NC Cerebral Palsy Hospital; Freedom Foundation Award (best television 
editorial); Taxpayers' Best Friend Award, National Taxpayer's Union, 1981, 1982. 
1983, 1984; Watchdog of the Treasury Award, National Associated Businessmen, 
1973-84; Outstanding Senator Award, Christian Action Council, 1983; Most Ad- 
mired Conservative in Congress, Conservative Digest, 1980, 1981; NC Public Ser- 
vice Award, 1980; National Man of the Year in Politics, Christian Voice, 1980; 
Legislator of the Year, Christians for a Better America, 1980. 

Religious Activities: Member, Hayes Barton Baptist Church, Raleigh. 

Family: Married, Dorothy Jane Coble, October 31, 1942. Children: Jane (Helms) 
Knox, Nancy (Helms) Stuart and Charles. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Committee. 

Foreign Relations Committee. 
(Chairman, Subcommittee on Western Hemisphere Affairs.) 

Rules Committee. 

Ethics Committee. 



m 



^^A 

^^p 



1 




The United States Congress 213 

JOHN PORTER EAST 

(Republican) 

Early Years: Born in Springfield, Illinois, May 5, 1931. 

Education: Earlham College; University of Illinois Law School, 1959, J.D.; University 
of Florida, 1964, M.A. and Ph.D. (Political Science). 

Professional Background: Professor of Political Science, East Carolina University. 

Organizations: Phi Beta Kappa; Florida Bar Association. 

Political Activities: Member, US Congress (elected to the US Senate, November 1980- 
now serving his 2nd term); National Committeeman, 1976, 1980; Platform Commit- 
teeman, 1976. 

Military Service: Served, US Marine Corps, 1953-55 (Lieutenant). 

Literary Works: Author: Council- Manager Government and various articles in Mod- 
ern Age, Political Science Review, Human Events, The Wall Street Journal and 
Western Political Quarterly; Editorial Board, Modern Age and Political Science 
Review, weekly participant, "Crossfire" (television debate program). 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Greenville. 

Family: Married, Priscilla Sherk, September, 1953. Children: Kathryn and Martha. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Committee on Armed Services. 

(Subcommittee on Military Construction.) 

(Subcommittee on Manpower and Personnel Preparedness.) 

Committee on the Judiciary. 

(Chairman, Subcommittee on Courts.) 

(Subcommittee on Security and Terrorism.) 

(Subcommittee on Administrative Practice and Procedure.) 



The United States Congress 



215 



THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Speaker of the House 

Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr., (Massachusetts) 

Clerk of the House 

Edmund L. Henshaw, Jr. 



Majority Leader 

Jim Wright (Texas) 

Majority Whip 

Thomas S. Foley (Washington) 



Minority Leader 

Robert H. Michel (Illinois) 

Minority Whip 

Trent Lott (Mississippi) 



REPRESENTATIVES FROM NORTH CAROLINA 

Walter B. Jones (First District) 

I. T. Valentine, Jr. (Second District) 

Charles O. Whitley (Third District) 

William W. Cobey, Jr. (Fourth District) 

Stephen L. Neal (Fifth District) 

J. Howard Coble (Sixth District) 

Charles G. Rose (Seventh District) 

W. G. Hefner (Eighth District) 

J. Alex McMillan (Nineth District) 

James T. Broyhill (Tenth District) 

William M. Hendon (Eleventh District) 

STANDING COMMITTEES 



Agriculture 

Appropriations 

Armed Services 

Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs 

Budget 

District of Columbia 

Education and Labor 

Energy and Commerce 

Foreign Affairs 

Government Operations 

House Administration 



Interior and Insular Affairs 

Judiciary 

Merchant Marine and Fisheries 

Post Office and Civil Service 

Public Works and Transportation 

Rules 

Science and Technology 

Small Business 

Standards of Official Conduct 

Veterans' Affairs 

Ways and Means 



Aging 



Economy 



SELECT COMMITTEES 

Intelligence Narcotics Abuse and Control 

SPECIAL COMMITTEES 

Aging 

JOINT COMMITTEES 

Library Printing Taxation 



The United States Congress 217 

WALTER BEAMAN JONES 

(Democrat — First Congressional District) 

(Beaufort, Bertie, Camden, Carteret, Chowan, Craven, Currituck. Dare, 
Gates, Greene, Hertford, Hyde, Lenoir, Martin, Northampton, Pamlico, 
Pasquotank, Perquimans, F^itt, lyrrell, and Washington Counties — 
population 529,635.) 



Early Years: Born in Fayetteville, Cumberland County, August 19, 1913, to Walter G. 
and Fannie M. (Anderson) Jones. 

Education: Elise Academy, 1926-1930; NC State College, 1934, B.S. (Education). 

Professional Background: Office equipment dealer. 

Organizations: Masonic Lodge; Scottish Rite; Rotary Club (President, 1949); Loyal 
Order of Moose; Junior Order; Elks Lodge. 

Boards & Commissions: Director, Farmville Savings & Loan Association. 

Political Activities: Member, US Congress (elected to US House of Representatives, 
1966 in a special election to finish the unexpired term of Herbert C. Bonner, who 
had died; elected to full term, November, 1966; reelected in each subsequent general 
election — now serving his 10th term); member, NC Senate, 1965-66; member, NC 
House of Representatives, 1955-1959; Mayor, Town of Farmville 1949-53; Judge, 
Farmville Recorder's Court, 1949-53; Commissioner, Town of Farmville, 1947-49 
(Mayor Pro Tem. 1947-49). 

Religious Activities: Baptist; Deacon, 1945-. 

Family: Married, Elizabeth Fischer, November 7, 1984. Children; Dot Dee (Jones) 
Moye and Walter B., II. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman, Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee. 

Agriculture Committee. 
(Ranking Member, Subcommittee on Peanuts and Tobacco.) 



-.j^0ffH^Z''!i!^US^; 




The United States Congress 219 



ITIMOUS THADDEUS VALENTINE, JR. 

(Democrat — Second Congressional District) 

(Caswell, Durham, Edgecombe, Granville, Halifax, Johnston (part), 
Nash, Person, Vance, Warren, and Wilson Counties — population 
541,009.) 



Early Years: Born in Nashville, Nash County, March 15, 1926, to Itimous T. and 
Hazel Valentine. 

Education: The Citadel, 1948, A.B. (Political Science); UNC-Chapel Hill, School of 
Law, 1952, LL.B. 

Professional Background: Attorney (senior member, firm of Valentine, Adams & 
Lamar). 

Organizations: Nash-Edgecombe, Seventh Judicial, NC and American Bar Associa- 
tions (former President, Nash-Edgecombe Bar); NC Academy of Trial Lawyers; 
former Master, Morning Star Lodge No. 85, A.F.&A.M.; former President: Nash- 
ville Lions Club, Nashville Jaycees and Nashville Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: NC Courts Commission; former Trustee, Nash General 
Hospital. 

Political Activities: Member, US Congress (elected to US House of Representatives, 
November, 1982; reelected, 1984 — now serving his 2nd term); member, NC House 
of Representatives, 1955-56, 1957, 1959; Chairman, NC Democratic Executive 
Committee, 1966-68; Legislative Counsel, Governor Dan K. Moore, 1967; Legal 
Advisor, Governor Dan K. Moore, 1965. 

Military Service: Served, US Army Air Corps, 1944-46. 

Religious Activities: Member, Nashville Baptist Church; former Chairman, Board of 

Deacons. 
Family: Married, Elizabeth Salyer Carr of Rocky Mount. Children: Stephen M., Mark 

L., Philip C. and Anna E. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Public Works and Transportation Committee. 

(Subcommittee on Surface Transportation.) 

(Subcommittee on Aviation). 

Science and Technology Committee. 
(Subcommittee on Natural Resources, Agriculture, Research and Environment.) 

(Subcommittee on Aviation.) 
(Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology.) 



The United States Congress 221 



CHARLES ORVILLE WHITLEY 

(Democrat — Third Congressional District) 

(Bladen, Duplin, Harnett, Johnston (part), Jones, Lee, Moore (part), 
Onslow, Pender, Sampson, and Wayne Counties - population 529,732.) 

Early Years: Born in Siler City, Chatham County, January 3, 1927, to John and 
Mamie (Goodwin) Whitley. 

Education: Siler City Public Schools; Wake Forest University, 1948, B.A.; Wake 
Forest University, School of Law, 1950, LL.B.; George Washington University, 
1974, M.A. (Legislative Affairs). 

Professional Background: Attorney; Attorney, Town of Mount Olive, 1952-58. 

Organizations: Wayne County and NC Bar Associations; Masonic Order; WOW; 
American Legion; Rotary Club; former Jaycee. 

Political Activities: Member, US Congress (elected to US House of Representatives, 
November, 1976; reelected in each subsequent general election — now serving his 
5th term); Administrative Assistant, Congressman David N. Henderson, 1961-1976. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1944-46; Reserves, 1946-50 (Lieutenant). 
Religious Activities: Member, Baptist Church; Deacon; Sunday School teacher, 1952-. 
Family: Married, Audrey Kornegay, June 1 1, 1949. Children: Charles, Jr., Martha and 
Sara. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Agriculture Committee. 

(Chairman, Subcommittee on Forests, Family Farms and Energy.) 

(Subcommittee on Tobacco and Peanuts.) 

(Subcommittee on Cotton, Rice and Sugar.) 

(Subcommittee on Wheat, Soybeans, and Feed Grain.) 



The United States Congress 223 

WILLIAM WILFRED COBEY, JR. 

(Republican — Fourth Congressional District) 

(Chatham, Frankhn, Orange, Randolph and Wake Counties — popula- 
tion 530,673.) 

Early Years: Born in Washington, D.C., May 13, 1939. 

Education: Emory University, 1962, B.A. (Chemistry); University of Pennsylavania, 
1964, M.B.A. (Marketing); University of Pittsburgh, 1968, M.Ed. (Health and 
Physical Education). 

Professional Background: President, Cobey & Associates, Inc. Formerly, Chairman, 
Taxpayers Educational Coalition; Director of Athletics, UNC-Chapel Hill; Assist- 
ant Athletic Director, UNC-Chapel Hill; Assistant Athletic Business Manager, 
UNC-Chapel Hill; Academic Counselor for football team, UNC-Chapel Hill. 

Organizations: President, Chapel Hill-Carrboro YMCA, 1975-76, 1981. 

Boards & Commissions: Director, Happenings, Inc.; Honorary Trustee, Shaw Univer- 
sity Divinity School. 

Political Activities: Member, US Congress (elected to US House of Representatives, 
November, 1984). 

Religious Activities: Member, Chapel Hill Bible Church. 

Family: Married, Nancy Lee Sullivan. Children: Cathy and Billy. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Science and Technology Committee. 

(Subcommittee on Energy Development and Application.) 

(Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology.) 

Small Business Committee. 
(Subcommittee on Export Opportunities and Special Small Business Problems.) 
(Subcommittee on Energy, Environment and Safety Issues Effecting Small 

Business.) 



The United States Congress 225 

STEPHEN LYBROOK NEAL 

(Democrat — Fifth Congressional District) 

(Alexander, Alleghany, Ashe, Forsyth, Rockingham, Stokes, Surry and 
Wilkes Counties — Population 535,212.) 

Early Years: Born in Winston-Salem, Forsyth County, November 7, 1934, to Charles 
Herbert and Mary Martha (Lybrook) Neal. 

Education: University of California at Santa Barbara; University of Hawaii, 1959, 
A.B. (Pscyhology). 

Professional Background: Former mortgage banker and newspaper publisher (Presi- 
dent and publisher. Community Press, Inc.) 

Boards and Commissions: Trustee, Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation; Board of Advi- 
sors, Babcock Graduate School of Management; President, Sunbelt Research Coa- 
lition; National Board of Advisors, Straight, Inc.; Washington Policy Council, 
International Management Development Institute. 

Political Activities: Member, US Congress (elected to the US House of Representa- 
tives, November, 1974; reelected in each subsequent general election — now serving 
his 6th term); Chairman, Congressional Sunbelt Council; Congressional Rural 
Caucus; Congressional Textile Caucus; Export Task Force; Agricultural Exports 
Task Force; Democratic Trade Task Force; Conservative Democratic Forum; 
Travel and Tourism Caucus; Congressional Advisory Committee of the Tax Lim- 
itation Committee; Military Reform Caucus; Environmental and Energy Study 
Conference; Congressional Arts Caucus; Congress for Peace through Law; United 
Democrats of Congress; Congressional Alcohol Fuels Caucus; Congressional Clear- 
inghouse on the Future; Democratic Study Group. 

Significant Achievements: Authored successful bills and amendments to: prevent the 
damming of the New River; create Solar Energy Bank; avail Urban Development 
Action grants to "pockets of poverty", including Winston-Salem and other 5th Dis- 
trict cities; save the furniture industry $19.5 billion in meeting flammability stand- 
ards; postpone the building of 21 MX missiles, 1984-85. As a fiscal conservative, 
introduced bills to freeze federal spending and require a balanced budget. 

Religious Activities: Presbyterian. 

Family: Married, Rachel Landis Miller, June 6, 1963. Children: Mary Piper and Ste- 
phen L., Jr. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs Committee. 

(Chairman, Subcommittee on International Finance, 

Trade and Monetary Policy.) 

(Subcommittee on Domestic Monetary Policy.) 

(Subcommittee on Consumer Affairs and Coinage.) 

(Subcommittee on Government Information, Justice and Agriculture.) 

(Subcommittee on Legislation and National Security.) 



The United States Congress 227 

JOHN HOWARD COBLE 

(Republican — Sixth Congressional District) 

(Alamance, Davidson, and Guilford Counties ^Population 537,682.) 



Early Years: Born in Greensboro, Guilford County, March 19, 1931, to Joe Howard 
and Johnnie E. (Holt) Coble. 

Education: Alamance High School, 1949; Appalachian State University, 1950; Guil- 
ford College, 1958, A.B. (History); UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1962, J.D. 

Professional Background: Attorney (member, firm of Turner, Enochs & Sparrow, 
1979-83). 

Organizations: Greensboro, NC and NC State Bar Associations; American Legion; 
Lions Club; Veterans of Foreign Wars of the US. 

Political Activities: Member, US Congress (elected to US House of Representatives, 
November, 1984); member, NC House of Representatives, 1969, 1979-80, 1981-82, 
1983-84; Secretary, NC Department of Revenue, 1973-76; Assistant US Attorney, 
US Middle District, 1969-73. 

Military Service: Served, US Coast Guard and US Coast Guard Reserves, 1952-; 
Commanding Officer, Wilmington unit. 

Religious Activities: Member, Alamance Presbyterian Church. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Judiciary Committee. 
Small Business Committee. 



The United States Congress 229 

CHARLES GRANDISON ROSE, III 

(Democrat — Seventh Congressional District) 

(Brunswick, Columbus, Cumberland, New Hanover and Robeson Coun- 
ties — Population 539,012.) 



Early Years: Born in Fayetteville, August 10, 1939, to Charles G. and Frances (Duck- 
worth) Rose. 

Education: Fayetteville High School, 1957; Davidson College, 1969, B.A.; UNC- 
Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1964, LL.B. 

Professional Background: Attorney. 

Organizations: Cumberland County and NC State Bar Associations. 

Political Activities: Member, US Congress (elected to US House of Representatives, 
November, 1972; reelected in each subsequent general election — now serving his 
7th term); Chief District Court Prosecutor, 1 2th Judicial District, 1967-70. 

Literary Works: Editor, Davidson College Yearbook. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Fayetteville; Sunday School 
teacher. 

Family: Married Sara Richardson, June 30, 1962. Children: Charles G., IV and Sara 
Louise. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Agriculture Committee. 

(Chairman, Subcommittee on Tobacco and Peanuts.) 

(Subcommittee on Livestock, Dairy and Poultry.) 

(Subcommittee on Cotton, Rice and Sugar.) 

(Subcommittee on Wheat, Soybeans and Feed Grains.) 

House Administration Committee. 

(Subcommittee on Elections.) 

(Chairman, Subcommittee on Office Systems.) 

Chairman, Speaker's Advisory Committee on Broadcasting. 



The United States Congress 231 

W. G. (BILL) HEFNER 

(Democrat — Eighth Congressional District) 

(Anson, Cabarrus, Davie, Hoke, Montgomery, Moore (part), Richmond, 
Rowan, Scotland, Stanly, Union and Yadkin (part) Counties — popula- 
tion 538,184.) 

Early Years: Born in Elora, Tennessee, April 1 1, 1930. 

Professional Background: President, WRKB Radio, Kannapolis; Harvesters Quartet; 
television performer. 

Organizations: Concord Noon Optimist Club; Publicity Committee, Cabarrus County 
United Appeal; President, Odell School PTA; Director, County Chapter, American 
Cancer Society; Director, Cabarrus County Boys Club; Director, Cabarrus County 
Humane Society. 

Political Activities: Member, US Congress (elected to US House of Representatives, 
November, 1974; reelected in each subsequent general election — now serving his 
6th term); Congressional Textile Caucus; Congressional Travel and Tourism Cau- 
cus; Conservative Democratic Forum. 

Religious Activities: Member, North Kannapolis Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Nancy Hill of Gadsden, Alabama. Children: Stacye and Shelly. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Appropriations Committee. 

(Subcommittee on Defense.) 

(Subcommittee on Military Construction.) 

Budget Committee. 

Leadership Assignments Committee. 

Democratic Caucus Committee on Party Effectiveness. 



^*zr*v 



.'i*iV 




The United States Congress 233 

J. ALEX MCMILLAN, III 

(Republican — Ninth Congressional District) 

(Iredell, Lincoln, Mecklenburg and Yadkin (part) Counties — population 
529,180.) 



Early Years: Born in Charlotte, May 9, 1932, to J. Alex (deceased) and Mildred Eliza- 
beth (Shepherd) McMillan. 

Education: Woodberry Forest School, 1950; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1954, B.A. (History); 
UVA, 1958, M.B.A. 

Professional Background: President and Chief Executive Officer, Ruddick Corpora- 
tion Officer and Liason, Harris-Teeter Super Markets, Inc.; Secretary, Vice Presi- 
dent, Vice President for Finance and Treasurer, Ruddick Corporation, 1968-83; 
Secretary and Vice President, R.S. Dickson & Company, 1963-70; sales, family 
business in Charlotte; sales and control, Carolina Paper Board Corporation, 
1958-60. 

Organizations: Director, Charlotte City Club, 198 1-; Trustee, Union Theological 
Seminary, 1978-; Trustee, Woodberry Forest School, 1978-; Alumni Board (Presi- 
dent, 1979-81) and Trustee, Darden School of Business, UVA, 1977-; Board of 
Visitors, Davidson College, 1983-84; Spirit Square Board, 1975-84 (first president); 
United Community Service Board, 1973-84; Director, Inroads, Inc., 1982-83; WTVI 
Public Television, 1978-83 (first Chairman, Charlotte-Mecklenburg Public Broad- 
casting Authority); Director, Greater Charlotte Chamber of Commerce, 1980-82; 
Committee Vice Chairman, Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, 1978-79; 
Director, Charlotte-Mecklenburg Arts and Science Council, 1974-79; Director, 
Mecklenburg County Board of Social Services, 1974-77 (Chairman, 1975-77); 
Director, Charlotte Speech and Hearing Center, 1974-77. 

Political Activities: Member, US Congress (elected to US House of Representatives, 
November, 1984); Commissioner, Mecklenburg County, 1972-74. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1954-56; Counter-intelligence Corps. 

Religious Activities: Member, Myers Park Presbyterian Church, Charlotte; Elder. 

Mecklenburg Presbyterian Task Force on Hunger, 1975-76. 
Family: Married, Caroline Houston of Greenville, South Carolina, November 21, 

1959. Children: Elizabeth H. and John A., IV. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs Committee. 
Small Business Committee. 



The United States Congress 235 

JAMES THOMAS BROYHILL 

(Republican — Tenth Congressional District) 

(Avery (part), Burke, Caldwell, Catawba, Cleveland, Gaston, and 
Watauga Counties — population 537,548.) 



Early Years: Born in Lenoir, August 19, 1927, to James Edgar and Satie Leona (Hunt) 
Broyhill. 

Education: Lenoir Public Schools, 1933-46; Lenoir High School, 1946; UNC-Chapel 
Hill, 1950. B.S. (Commerce). 

Professional Background: Furniture manufacturer. 

Organizations: Southern Furniture Manufacturers Association; NC Forestry Associa- 
tion; Industrial Planning Committee of the Northwest; NC Development Associa- 
tion; Hibriten Lodge No. 262, A.F. & A.M.; Oasis Temple of the Shrine. Lenoir 
Chamber of Commerce (former President and Director). 

Boards and Commissions: Lenoir Planning and Zoning Commissions; Development 
Board, Lenoir-Rhyne College. Former member: City of Lenoir Recreation Com- 
mission; Board of Advisors, Lees-McRae College; Board of Visitors, Lenoir-Rhyne 
College; Board of Trustees, Wake Forest University. 

Political Activities: Member, US Congress (elected to US House of Representatives, 
November, 1962; reelected in each subsequent general election — now serving his 
12th term); Vice Chairman, Congressional Textile Caucus; Dean, NC Congres- 
sional Delegation; Republican Committee on Committees; Republican Research 
Committee; Task Force on Regulatory Reform; Republican Study Committee; 
Congressional Sunbelt Council; Congressional Rural Caucus. 

Honors: Distinguished Service Award, UNC-Chapel Hill, 1981; Honorary Doctor of 
Law, Catawba College, 1966; Young Man of the Year, Lenoir and Caldwell Coun- 
ties, 1957. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Lenoir. 

Family: Married, Louise Horton Robbins, June 2, 1951. Children: Marilyn Louise 
(Broyhill) Beach, James Edgar, 11 and Phillip Robbins. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Energy and Commerce Committee. 

(Ranking Minority Leader and E.x Officio Member, all Subcommittees.) 

(Ranking Minority Leader, Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations.) 



The United States Congress 237 

WILLIAM M. HENDON 

(Republican — Eleventh Congressional District) 

(Avery (part). Buncombe, Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Haywood, Hender- 
son, Jackson, McDowell, Macon, Madison, Mitchell, Polk, Rutherford, 
Swain, Transylvania and Yancey Counties — population 526,562.) 



Early Years: Born in Buncombe County, November 9, 1944, to J. William and Mary 
Adams (Ward) Hendon. 

Education: Grace Elementary School; David Millard Junior High School; Lee Edwards 
High School; University of Tennessee, 1966, B.A.; University of Tennessee, 1971, 
M.A. 

Organizations: Sigma Alpha Epsilon; Asheville Boys Club (founder and first Presi- 
dent). 

Boards & Commissions: Director, Memorial Mission Hospital; Trustee, Asheville 
Orthopedic Hospital. 

Political Activities: Member, US Congress (elected to the US House of Representa- 
tives, November, 1980; reelected, 1984 — now serving his 2nd term). 

Literary Works: Author, Transportation Journal article. 

Religious Activities: Member, Trinity Episcopal Church; Vestry, 1972-75 (Secretary, 
1972); Chairman, Every Member Canvas, 1974. 

Family: Married, Robbie Peters. Children: Carrie and Jennie. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Interior and Insular Affairs Committee. 

(Subcommittee on National Parks and Recreation.) 

(Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment.) 

Veterans' Affairs Committee. 

(Subcommittee on Hospitalization and Health.) 

(Subcommittee on Education, Training and Employment.) 



The Judicial System 239 

Chapter Three 
THE UNITED STATES JUDICIARY 



THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES 

Warren E. Burger Chief Justice Minnesota 

William H. Rehnquist Associate Justice Arizona 

Byron R. White Associate Justice Colorado 

Thurgood Marshall Associate Justice New York 

William J. Brennan, Jr Associate Justice New Jersey 

Lewis F. Powell, Jr Associate Justice Virginia 

Harry A. Blackmun Associate Justice Minnesota 

Sandra Day O'Connor Associate Justice Arizona 

UNITED STATES FOURTH CIRCUIT COURT OF APPEALS 

James Dickson Phillips, Jr Judge Chapel Hill 

Sam J. Ervin, Hi Judge Morganton 

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 

Eastern District for North Carolina 

Franklin T. Dupree, Jr Chiet Judge Raleigh 

W. Earl Britt Judge Fayetteville 

James C. Fox Judge Wilmington 

John D. Larkins, Jr Senior Judge Trenton 

Samuel T. Currin U.S. Attorney Raleigh 

J. Rich Leonard Court Clerk Raleigh 

Middle District for North Carolina 

Eugene A. Gordon Chief Judge Burlington 

Hiram H. Ward Judge Denton 

Richard C. Erwin Judge Winston-Salem 

Frank W. Bullock, Jr Judge Durham 

Kenneth W. McAllister U.S. Attorney Greensboro 

J. P. Creekmore Court Clerk Greensboro 

Western District for North Carolina 

Woodrow W. Jones Chief Judge Asheville 

James B. McMillan Judge Charlotte 

Robert D. Potter Judge Charlotte 

Charles R. Brewer U.S. Attorney Asheville 

J. Toliver Davis Court Clerk Asheville 



The Judicial System 241 



UNITED STATES FOURTH CIRCUIT 
COURT OF APPEALS 

JAMES DICKSON PHILLIPS, JR. 

JUDGE 

Early Years: Born in Scotland County, September 23, 1922, to James Dickson 
(deceased) and Helen (Shepherd) Phillips. 

Education: Davidson College, 1943, B.S., cum laude; UNC-Chapel Hill, School of 
Law. 1945-48, J.D. with honors. 

Professional Background: Judge, US Court of Appeals, 4th Circuit. 

Organizations: NC Bar Association; Director, NC Nature Conservancy; Kappa Sigma. 

Political Activities: Member, Democratic Party. 

Military Services: Served, US Army, 1944-46 (1st Lieutenant); parachute infantry. 

Honors: John J. Parkker Memorial Award; Thomas Jefferson Award; Distinguished 
Alumni Professor Award. 

Religious Activities: Member, Presbyterian Church; former Elder and Deacon. Mem- 
ber, University Presbyterian Church, Chapel Hill, 1970-76 (Chairman, 1971-74). 
Permanent Judicial Commission, Presbyterian Churches in the US. 

Family: Married, Jean Duff Nanalee, July 16, 1960. Children: Evelyn (Phillips) Perry, 
James Dickson, 111, Elizabeth Duff and Ida Willis. 



SAMUEL JAMES ERVIN, III 

JUDGE 

Early Years: Born in Morganton, Burke County, March 2, 1926, to Samuel James and 
Margaret Bruce (Bell) Ervin, Jr. 

Education: Morganton Public Schools; Morganton High School, 1943; Davidson Col- 
lege, 1948, B.S.; Harvard Lau School, 1951, LL.B. 

Professional Background: Judge, US Court of Appeals, 4th Circuit; Judge, NC Super- 
ior Court, 25th District, 1967-80; legal practice, 1952-67; Solicitor, Burke County 
Criminal Court, 1954-56. 

Organizations: Burke County and NC Bar Associations; Mason. 
Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1965-67. 
Military Service: Served, US Army, 1944-46, 1951-52 (Colonel); infanty; Judge Advo- 
cate General's Corps. Served, NC Army National Guard, 1955-59. 

Honors: Young Man of the Year and Distinguished Service Award, Morganton 
Chamber of Commerce, 1954. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church; Elder; Deacon; Sunday 
School teacher; advisor. Senior High Youth. 

Family: Married, Elizabeth Crawford, October 25, 1952. Children: Samuel James, IV, 
Elizabeth Fore, Robert Crawford and Margaret Bell. 



The Judicial System 243 

FRANKLIN TAYLOR DUPREE, JR. 
CHIEF JUDGE — EASTERN DISTRICT 

Early Years: Born in Angler, Harnett County, October 18, 1913, to Franklin T. and 
Elizabeth Mason (Wells) Dupree. 

Education: Angier High School, 1925-28; Campbell College High School, 1928-29; 
UNC-Chapel Hill, 1933, A.B.; UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1936, LL.B. 

Professional Background: Judge, US District Court, 1970-. 

Organizations: Wake County, NC and American Bar Association; American Judica- 
ture Society; Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. 

Political Activities: Member, Republican Party. 

Military Service: Served, US Navy, 1943-46 (Lieutenant). 

Religious Activities: Member, Hayes Barton Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Rosalyn Dupree, December 30, 1939. Children: Elizabeth (Dupree) 
Dement and Nancy (Dupree) Miller. 



The Judicial System 245 

W. EARL BRITT 

JUDGE — EASTERN DISTRICT 

Early Years: Born in McDonald, Robeson County, December 7, 1932, to Dudley H. 
and Martha Mae (Hall) Britt. 

Education: Rowland High School, 1950; Campbell College, 1950-52; Wake Forest 

University, 1956, B.S.; Wake Forest University, School of Law, 1958, LL.B. 
Organizations: NC and American Bar Associations. 
Professional Background: Judge, US District Court, Eastern District. 
Political Activities: Member, Democratic Party. 
Military Service: Served, US Army, 1953-55 (Corporal). 
Honors: "Tar Heel of the Week," The News and Observer, 1981. 
Religious Activities: Member, McDonald Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Judith Moore, April 17, 1976. Children: Clifford Paul, Mark Earl 
and Elizabeth Carol. 



JAMES CARROLL FOX 

JUDGE — EASTERN DISTRICT 

Early Years: Born in Atchison, Kansas, November 6, 1928, to Jared Copeland and 
Ethel (Carroll) Fox. 

Education: Woodberry Forest School, 1946; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1950, B.S. (Business 
Administration); UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1957, LL.B. with honors. 

Professional Background: Judge, US District Court, Eastern District, 1982-; New 
Hanover County Attorney, 1967-81; partner, firm of Murchison, Fox & Nev.'ton, 
1960- (associate, 1958-59). 

Organizations: NC, NC State and American Bar Associations; NC Academy of Trial 
Lawyers; Wilmington Civitan; legal advisor, NC Jazz Fetival, Inc.; Director, New 
Hanover Workshop; Director, First Union Bank, 1974- (Chairman, 1982-83). 

Military Service: Served, US Army Reserves, 1951-59 (Corporal); honorable discharge. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. James Episcopal Church, Wilmington; Senior Warde, 
1979-82; Vestryman, 1974-75. 

Family: Married, Katharine deRosset Rhett of Wilmington, December 30, 1950. 
Children: James C, Jr., Jane Haskell (Fox) Brown and Ruth Rhett (Fox) Jordan. 



The Judicial System 247 

JOHN DAVIS LARKINS, JR. 

SENIOR JUDGE — EASTERN DISTRICT 

Early Years: Born in Morristown, Tennessee, June 8, 1909 to Charles H. and Mamie 
(Dorsett) Larkins; foster son of John Davis and Emma Cooper Larkins. 

Education: Wake Forest University, 1929, B.A.; Wake Forest University, School of 
Law, 1929-30. 

Professional Background: Senior US District Judge, Eastern District. 

Organizations: NC, American and Federal Bar Associations. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1941; President Pro 
Tem, 1943, 1949, 1951. 1953; Chairman and Secretary, State Democratic Executive 
Committee, 1952, 1954, 1956, 1958; National Committeeman, 1958, 1960. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1945 (Private). 

Honors: Distinguished Service Award, American Cancer Society; Distinguished 
Alumni Award, Wake Forest University. 

Religious Activities: Baptist; former Chairman, Board of Deacons. 

Family: Married, Pauline A. Murrell, March 13, 1930. Children: Emma Sue (Larkins) 
Loften and Paulene (Larkins) Bearden. 



The Judicial System 249 

EUGENE ANDREW GORDON 

CHIEF JUDGE — MIDDLE DISTRICT 

Early Years: Born in Brown Summitt, July 10, 1917, to Charles Robert and Carrie 

(Scott) Gordon. 
Education: Elon College, 1939, A.B.; Duke University. School of Law. 1941, LL.B. 
Professional Background: Chief Judge, US District Court. Middle District. 1964-. 

Organizations: NC, American and Federal Bar Associations; American Judicature 
Society; Phi Delta Phi. 

Political Activities: Member. Democratic Party. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1942-46 (Captain); field artillery. 

Religious Activities: Member, Starmount Presbyterian Church. 

Family: Married, Virginia Stoner, January 1, 1943. Children: Eugene Andrew and 
Rosemary Ann. 




I 





The Judicial System 251 

HIRAM HAMILTON WARD 

JUDGE — MIDDLE DISTRICT 

Early Years: Born in Thomasville, Davidson County, April 29, 1923, to O. L. Ward 
and Margaret A. (Lowdermilk) Ward. 

Education: Denton High School; Wake Forest University; Wake Forest University, 
School of Law, 1950, J. D. 

Professional Background: Judge, US District Court, Middle District, 1972-. 

Organizations: American and NC Bar Associations; American Judicature Society; 
Mason; [*hi Alpha Delta; Trustee, Wingate College. 

Political Activities: Member, Democratic Party; NC State Board of Elections, 1964-72; 
Chairman, Federal Land Condemnation Commission, 1964-65. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1940-45 (Lieutenant Colonel); pilot; Civil Air 
Patrol. 

Religious Activities: Member Baptist Church; Deacon, Sunday School teacher. Liberty 
Baptist Association. 

Family: Married, Evelyn McDaniel, June 1, 1947. Children: William M. and James 
Randolph. 



RICHARD CANNON ERWIN 
JUDGE — MIDDLE DISTRICT 

Early Years: Born in Marion, August 23, 1923, to John Adams and Flora (Cannon) 
Erwin. 

Education: McDowell County Public Schools; Johnson C. Smith University, 1947, 
B.A.; Howard University, School of Law, 1951, LL.B. 

Professional Background: Judge, US District Court, Middle District; attorney, firm of 
Erwin and Beaty. 

Organizations: Forsyth County (former President) and NC State Bar Associations; Bar 
of the US Supreme Court; Kappa Alpha Psi. 

Political Activities: Judge, NC Court of Appeals, 1977-80; member, NC House of 
Representatives, 1975-77. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1945-46 (1st Sergeant). 

Honors: Silver Cup, Citizens Coalition of Forsyth County, 1974. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. PauPs United Methodist Church; National Metho- 
dist Layman. 

Family: Married, Demerice Whitley, August 25, 1946. Children: Arelia Whitley and 
Richard Cannon, Jr. 



The Judicial System 253 

FRANK WILLIAM BULLOCK, JR. 

JUDGE — MIDDLE DISTRICT 

Early Years: Born in Oxford, Granville County, November 3, 1938. 

Education: Duke University; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1961, B.S. (Business Administration); 
LINC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1963, LL.B. 

Professional Background: Judge, US District Court, Middle District 1982-; attorney 
(partner, firm of Douglas, Ravenel, Hardy, Crihfield & Bullock); Assistant Direc- 
tor, Administrative Office of the Courts, State of NC, 1968-73; partner, firm of 
Maupin, Taylor & Ellis, 1964-68; law clerk. Chief Judge Algernon L. Butler, US 
District Court, Eastern District, State of NC, 1963-64. 

Organizations: Former member: Greensboro, Wake County, NC, NC State, American, 
10th and 18th Judicial Districts Bar Associations. 

Literary Works: NC Business Practice Handbook, Wake Forest University, School of 
Law, 1981; NC Labor Relations Practice, NC Bar Association Foundation, Inc., 
1979; "Tenth Annual Survey of NC Case Law on Municipal Corporations and 
Public Utilities," NC Law Review, 1963; "Insane Persons-Guardianship," NC Law 
Review, 1962; "Criminal Law-Split Sentence." NC Law Review, 1962; contributor, 
annual committee reports. Labor and Employment Relations Law Section, Ameri- 
can Bar Association. 

Honors: NC Conference of Superior Court Judges Award; Scholarship Key, Delta 
Theta Phi; Board of Editors, NC Law Review. 

Family: Married, Frances Dockery Haywood. Children: Frank W. Bullock, ill. 



The Judicial System 255 

WOODROW WILSON JONES 

CHIEF JUDGE — WESTERN DISTRICT 

Early Years: Born in Rutherford County, January 26, 1914, to Bernard B. and Karl 
Jane (Nanney) Jones. 

Education: Rutherford County Public Schools, 1920-32; Mars Hill Colelge, 1934, 
A.S.; Wake Forest University, School of Law, 1937, LL.B. 

Professional Background: Judge, US District Court, Western District, 1967-. 

Organizations: Rutherford County (President, 1946), NC and American Bar Associa- 
tions; Trustee, Gardner-Webb College; Rutherfordton Chamber of Commerce 
(former Director); former President, Rutherfordton Kiwanis Club. 

Political Activities: NC Democratic Executive Committee, 1938-60; member, NC 

House of Representatives, 1947-49; Solicitor, Recorder's Court, Rutherford County, 

1941-43. 
Honors: Outstanding Service Citation, Gardner-Webb College, 1965; Outstanding 

Serxice Award. Rutherfordton Lions Club, 1950. 
Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Rutherfordton; teacher; Deacon. 
Family: Married, Rachel Phelps, November 22, 1936. Children: W. Wilson, Jr. and 

Michael A. 



The Judicial System 257 

JAMES BRYAN McMILLAN 

JUDGE — WESTERN DISTRICT 

Early Years: Born in Goldsboro, December 19, 1916. to Robert Hunter and Sarah 

(Outlaw) McMillan. 
Education: Lumberton Public Schools; Presbyterian Junior College (now St. Andrews), 

1932-34, A. A.; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1937, m'.A.; Harvard Law School, 1940, J. D. 

Professional Background: Judge, US District Court, Western District. 

Organizations: Mecklenburg County (President, 1957-58), NC, NC State and Ameri- 
can Bar Associations; American Judicature Society; Omicron Delta Kappa; Order 
of the Golden Fleece. 

Military Service: Served, US Navy, 1942-45. 

Literary Works: Author of numerous case opinions and orders. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church; Ruling Elder, 1963-71, 
I975-; former Treasurer and Deacon. 

Family: Married, Margaret Blair Miles, February 27, 1944. Children: James Bryan, Jr. 
and Marjorie Miles (McMillan) Rodell. 



ROBERT D. POTTER 

FUDGE — WESTERN DISTRICT 



Early Years: Born in Wilmington. April 4, 1924. 

Education: New Hanover High School, 1938-40; Duke University, 1940-43, 1947, A.B. 
(Chemistry); Duke University, 1947-50, LL.B. 

Professional Background: Chief Judge, US District Court, Western District, 1984-; 
Judge, US District Court, Western District, 1981-84; legal practice, 1951-81. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1945-46 (2nd Lieutenant); infantry. 

Family: Married, Kathleen Neilson, February 13, 1954. Children: Robert D., Jr., Mary 
Louise and Catherine Ann. 



259 



PART V 

NORTH CAROLINA STATE 

GOVERNMENT 



260 



North Carolina Manual 



r 



L 





r- 








"1 


1 


UJ 

> 




















1- 






5 

LU 




1 




h- -^ 








z ^ 










CO 




LU OC 






o 




UJ 




^ ^ 


n 




QC 




UJ 




LJJ CO 


UJ 








K 




tr 5 


^ 








1- 


1 


Q. LU 


< 




cr 




2 


1 


S^2 


OJ 
Q. 




^ 




5 




o§ 


CO 




< 

UJ 
0- 




u 
o 










w 








w 












3 












O 


1 










X 








-1- 












1 



r- 





I 




O 


1- 


7 


a. 


< 


T 


GC 


o 


m 


_l 


UJ 


< 

z 


> 


o 


h- 


l- 


< 


< 


_j 


N 


CO 


< 


o 


CO 


LU 


CC 


_l 


O 


tu 




X 



I 

h 



z 










o 




CO 


CO 
CO 




UJ 
UJ 

K 


P5 




i 


< O 




O 

o 








>- 




Q 


< 




D 


UJ 




H 


CO 




CO 


UJ 













H 



I 



1 . 


1 


1 


(0 






1 "^ 


UJ 






1 


UJ 






1 


' CD 
UJ 


o 
ir 

Q. 




CO 

UJ 
UJ 


1 


5 








1 o 
1 m 


z 




5 














UJ 




S 




< 


a 

CO 




O 

o 


1 


z 


UJ 








UJ 


Q. 








CO 




1 




1 




1 i 



z 
o 

CO 

<i 

U) I 

Z O 
UJ DC 
O < 

UJ 
CO 
UJ 

tr 








UJ 

-J 









I 






T 



UJ — 




1- cr 




< O 




z z 




UJ a: 

CO lij 






UJ > 




I O 




t- o 








O? 




t < 




z z 




UJ S 


" "■■" ■ 


Q (- 




CO => 




UJ UJ 




OC _] 




Q. — 






_l 



J 



> 




1- 


> 


tr 


1^ 


O 


DC 


I 


o 


K 


T 


_) 


H 


< 


-) 


(- 


< 


z 


H 


UJ 


7 


> 


UJ 


1- 


> 


z 


1- 


o 


z 


Q. 


n 


a 


n 


< 


a 


K 


< 


o 


1- 


UJ 


7 


(T 






O 


U 


-5 



The Legislative Branch 261 

Chapter One 

THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 



The general assembly is the oldest governmental body in North Carolina. According 
to tradition a "legislative assembly of free holders" met sometime in 1666; however, 
there is no extant proof that such a meeting took place. Actual provisions for a repre- 
sentative assembly did not exist prior to the adoption of the Concessions and Agree- 
ments of 1665. Then an unicameral body composed of the governor, his council, and 
"twelve men . . . chosen annually" sat as a legislature. This system of representation pre- 
vailed until 1670 when Albemarle County was divided in three "precincts" — Berkely, 
Carteret and Shaftsbury. At that time each precinct was apparently allowed five repre- 
sentatives. Around 1682, four new precincts were created from the original three as 
population and western expansion increased. The number of representatives allowed 
new precincts was usually two, although some had more. Beginning with the Assembly 
of 1723, some of the larger, more important towns were allowed representatives. Eden- 
ton was the first, followed by Bath, New Bern, Wilmington, Brunswick, Halifax, 
Cambellton (now Fayetteville), Salisbury, Hillsborough and Tarborough (now Tar- 
boro). By the middle of the eighteenth century, the term "precinct" had been replaced 
by "county" in reference to the geographical subdivisions. 

The unicameral form of the legislature continued until around 1697 when a bicameral 
form was adopted. The "upper house" was composed of the governor, or chief execu- 
tive at the time, and his council; the elected "precinct" representative sat as the "lower 
house" or "House of Burgesses." The lower house could adopt its own rules of pro- 
cedure and elect its own speaker and other officers; however, it could meet only when 
the governor called it into session and only at a location designated by him. This did not 
prove a disadvantage since the lower house had "the power of the purse." As a result, 
the governor usually called them into session at least once during a biennium, and 
usually more often, in order that he might be paid his salary. Throughout the colonial 
period, this "power of the purse" was a source of constant controversy between the 
governor and the lower house, and the house used it effectively to increase its influence 
and prestige. 

In 1776, when our first State Constitution was adopted, the effects of the executive- 
legislative conflicts of the colonial period were reflected in its provisions. The legislature 
was the primary organ of state government with control over all phases of government. 
Its most important power was its power to elect all officials in the executive and judicial 
branches. This was done by joint ballot of the members of the two houses. This con- 



262 North Carolina Manual 



tinued until 1835 when the governor became a popularly elected official; however, it was 
not until 1868 that the remaining executive officials and the judiciary were popularly 
elected. 

The Constitution of 1776 provided for a bicameral legislature, both elected by the 
people. The senate was composed of one representative from each county, and the 
house of commons was composed of two representatives from each county, one from 
each town listed in the Constitution. This arrangement continued until 1835 when 
several amendments were adopted affecting the general assembly. The membership of 
the senate was set at fifty and the state was divided into districts with representation 
based on the population of the district. The membership of the house of commons was 
set at 120 with representation based on the population of the county in accordance with 
provisions set forth in the amendment; however, each county was entitled to at least one 
representative. Provisions were made so that future representation would be based on 
the federal census taken every ten years. 

In 1868, a new constitution was adopted which changed the name of the "house of 
commons" to the "house of representatives" and eliminated the previously unfair 
"property qualifications" for holding office. Also the current organizational structure 
with the lieutenant governor as president of the senate and provisions for the election of 
a president pro tempore came into existance. 

In 1966, the house of representatives adopted a district setup similar to that used by 
the senate. Today, the general assembly is the legislative branch of state government. It 
is equal with, but independent of, the executive and judicial branches. The legislative 
body is composed of two chambers, the senate and the house of representatives, which 
convene in odd-year biennial sessions on the first Wednesday after the second Monday 
in January. (By parliamentary means, the general assembly may divide the biennal ses- 
sion into annual segments.) (The senate has fifty members and the house has 120 mem- 
bers, all of whom are elected biennially from districts containing approximately equal 
populations.) However, one of the distinct disadvantages of the district system, par- 
ticularly as it relates to the house of representatives, is that an increasingly large number 
of counties are without a "resident" legislator. 

In 1982, a constitutional amendment was approved by the voters of North Carolina 
setting January 1, following the November general election as the date legislator, offi- 
cially took office. 

As the legislative branch of government, the general assembly has three major func- 
tions: to enact general and local laws governing the affairs of the state, to provide and 
allocate funds for operating the government by enacting tax and appropriation laws, 
and to conduct investigations into such operations of the state as it deems necessary for 
regulation and funding. The main work of the general assembly is the enactment of sub- 
stantive legislation. 

Much of the legislaUve work of the general assembly is done in committees composed 
of members of the respective houses. Senate committees are appointed by the lieutenant 
governor, who serves as presiding officer of the senate (president of the senate); house 
committees are appointed by the speaker of the house, who is elected from among the 
membership of the house of representatives. 

Administrative authority for the general assembly is vested in the Legislative Serv- 
ices Commission. The president pro tempore of the senate and the speaker of the 



The Legislative Branch 263 



house are ex officio chairmen of the Legislative Services Commission; each appoints 
six members from his respective house to serve on the commission. The Legislative 
Services Commission employs a legislative services officer as chief staff officer, a di- 
rector of fiscal research to deal with money matters, and a director of research to 
handle all other informational needs. The Legislative Research Commission is 
separated from the Legislative Services Commission, and its authority is limited to re- 
search projects. Again, the president pro tempore and the speaker are ex ojjicio chair- 
men of the Legislative Research Commission; each appoints five members to sit on 
this commission. 

The staff and elective officers of the general assembly assist the membership in ac- 
complishing legislative tasks. The Legislative Services Commission is responsible for 
general and fiscal research, disbursing supplies and materials, production and storage 
of legislative documents, personnel management, supervision and maintenance of the 
legislative building, contracting for services, and payment of accounts. The commis- 
sion employs a staff, directed by the legislative services officer, to carry out these func- 
tions. The Legislative Research Commission produces extensive study documents and 
drafts legislation for consideration by the general assembly. Special study commissions 
are set up to investigate difficult or technical subjects for later reports to the legisla- 
ture. In addition, standing committees of the general assembly have been authorized 
to meet during interim periods to carry on committee business and to conduct related 
studies. The Legislative Services Commission provides, or arranges, for staff assistance 
to the Legislative Research Commission and standing committees and coordinates 
staff work with the special commissions. 



264 



North Carolina Manual 






PRESIDE^ 




The Legislative Branch 265 

1985 NORTH CAROLINA SENATE 

Officers 

President Robert B. Jordan, III 

President Pro Tern J. J. Harrington 

Majority Leader Kenneth C. Royall, Jr. 

Minority Leader William W. Redman, Jr. 

Principal Clerk Sylvia M. Fink 

Reading Clerk LeRoy Clark, Jr. 

Sergeant-at-Arms Gerda Pleasants 

Senators 

Name County Dist. Address Seat 

Ballenger, T. Cass (R) Catawba 26th Hickory 37 

Barnes, Henson P Wayne 8th Goldsboro 4 

Basnight, Marc Dare 1st Manteo 28 

Cobb, Laurence A. (R) Mecklenburg 35th Charlotte 38 

Conder, J. Richard Richmond 17th Rockingham 15 

Ezzell, James E., Jr Nash 10th Rocky Mount 45 

Goldston, W. D., Jr Rockingham 24th Eden 31 

Guy, A. D Onslow 4th Jacksonville 26 

Hardison, Harold W Lenoir 5th Deep Run 8 

Harrington, J. J Bertie 2nd Lewiston-Woodville 25 

Harris, OUie Cleveland 25th Kings Mountain 2 

Hipps, Charles W Haywood 29th Waynesville 13 

Hunt, Ralph A Durham 13th Durham 30 

Hunt, Wanda H Moore 16th Pinehurst 16 

Johnson, James C, Jr. (R) Cabarrus 22nd Concord 34 

Johnson, Joseph E Wake 14th Raleigh 18 

Jordan, John M.' Alamance 21st Saxapahaw 11 

Kaplan, Ted Forsyth 20th Winston-Salem 22 

Kincaid, Donald R. (R) Caldwell 27th Lenoir 39 

Martin, R. L Pitt 6th Bethel 29 

Martin, William N Guilford 31st Greensboro 10 

Marvin, Helen Rhyne Gaston 25th Gastonia 23 

McDuffie, James D. (R) Mecklenburg 34th Charlotte 36 

Parnell, David R Robeson 30th Parkton 27 

Plyler, Aaron W Union 17th Monroe 21 

Price, Weldon R Rockingham 24th Reidsville 14 

Rand, Anthony E. Cumberland 12th Fayetteville 7 

Rauch, Marshall A Gaston 25th Gastonia 1 

Redman, Wm. W., Jr. (R) Iredell 26th Statesville 42 

Royall, Kenneth C, Jr Durham 13th Durham 46 

Sawyer, Wendell H. (R) Guilford 32nd Greensboro 35 

Shaw, Robert G. (R) Guilford 19th Greensboro 43 

Simpson, Daniel R. (R) Burke 27th Morganton 40 

Smith, Paul S. (R) Rowan 23rd Salisbury 44 

Soles, R. C, Jr Columbus 18th Tabor City 5 

Somers, Robert V. (R) Rowan 23rd Salisbury 33 

Speed, James D Franklin 11th Louisburg 9 

Staton, William W Lee 14th Sanford 20 

Swain, Robert S Buncombe 28th Asheville 24 

Taft, Thomas F Pitt 9th Greenville 47 

Tally, Lura S Cumberland 12th Fayetteville 49 

Thomas, Joseph E Craven 3rd Vanceboro 17 



266 North Carolina Manual 



Name County Dist. Address Seat 

Thomas, Joseph E Craven 3rd Vanceboro 17 

Thomas, R. P Henderson 29th Hendersonville 32 

Walker, Russell G Randolph 16th Asheboro 6 

Ward, Marvin Forsyth 20th Winston-Salem 50 

Warren, Robert D Johnston 15th Benson 3 

Watt, Melvin L Mecklenburg 33rd Charlotte 48 

Winner, Dennis J Buncombe 28th Asheville 12 

Woodard, Wilma C Wake 14th Garner 19 

Wright, J. A. (R)2 New Hanover 7th Wilmington 41 

Williams, Frank E. (Rp New Hanover 7th Wilmington 41 

McDowell, Timothy H."* Alamance 21st Mebane 1 1 



'Jordan resigned effective August 15, 1985. 

-Wright resigned effective June 1, 1985. 

'Williams was appointed June 4, 1985, by Governor Martin to replace Wright. 

■•McDowell was appointed September 20, 1985, by Governor Martin to replace Jordan. 



The Legislative Branch 267 



SPEAKERS OF THE SENATE 

Assembly Senator Residence 

1777 Samuel Ashe New Hanover 

1778 Whitmel Hill Martin 

Allen Jones Northampton 

1779 Allen Jones Northampton 

Abner Nash Jones 

1780 Abner Nash Jones 

Alexander Martin Guilford 

1781 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1782 Alexander Martin Guilford 

Richard Caswell Dobbs 

1783 Richard Caswell Dobbs 

1784 (April) Richard Caswell Dobbs 

1784 (October) Richard Caswell Dobbs 

1785 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1786-87 James Coor Craven 

1787 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1788 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1789 Richard Caswell Dobbs 

Charles Johnston Chowan 

1790 William Lenoir Wilkes 

1791-92 William Lenoir Wilkes 

1792-93 William Lenoir Wilkes 

1793-94 William Lenoir Wilkes 

1794-95 William Lenoir Wilkes 

1795 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

1796 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

1797 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

1798 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

1799 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

1800 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1801 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1802 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1803 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1804 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1805 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1806 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1807 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1808 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1809 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1810 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1811 Joseph Riddick Gates 

1812 George Outlaw Bertie 

1813 George Outlaw Bertie 

1814 George Outlaw Bertie 

1815 John Branch Halifax 

1816 John Branch Halifax 

1817 John Branch Halifax 

Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1818 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1819 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1820 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1821 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1822 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 



268 North Carolina Manual 



Assembly Senator Residence 

1823-24 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1824-25 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1825-26 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1826-27 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1827-28 Bartlett Yancey Caswell 

1828-29 Jesse Speight Greene 

1829-30 Bedford Brown Caswell 

David F. Caldwell Rowan 

1830-31 David F. Caldwell Rowan 

1831-32 David F. Caldwell Rowan 

1832-33 William D. Mosely Lenoir 

1833-34 William D. Mosely Lenoir 

1834-35 William D. Mosely Lenoir 

1835 William D. Mosely Lenoir 

1836-37 Hugh Waddell Orange 

1838-39 Andrew Joyner Halifax 

1840-41 Andrew Joyner Halifax 

1842-43 Lewis D. Wilson Edgecombe 

1844-45 Burgess S. Gaither Burke 

1846-47 Andrew Joyner Halifax 

1848-49 Calvin Graves Caswell 

1850-51 Weldon N. Edwards Warren 

1852 Weldon N. Edwards Warren 

1854-55 Warren Winslow Cumberland 

1856-57 William W.Avery Burke 

1858-59 Henry T. Clark Edgecombe 

1860-61 Henry T. Clark Edgecombe 

1862-64 Giles Mebane Alamance 

1864-65 Giles Mebane Alamance 

1865-66 Thomas Settle Rockingham 

1866-67 Matthias E. Manly Craven 

Joseph H. Wilson Mecklenburg 



PRESIDENTS PRO TEMPORE OF THE SENATE* 

Assembly Senator Residence 

1870-72 Edward J. Warren Beaufort 

1872-74 James T. Morehead Guilford 

1874-75 

1876-77 James L. Robinson Macon 

1879-80 William A. Graham Lincoln 

1881 William T. Dorch Buncombe 

1883 

1885 E. T. Boykin Sampson 

1887 



•With the adoption of a new constitution in 1868, the office of "Speaker of the Senate" ceased to exist. A provision in the 
constitution created the office of "lieutenant governor" whose duties and functions were similar to those previously carried out by 
the speaker. The lieutenant governor presides over the senate and is called "The President of the Senate" when serving in this 
capacity. The senators also elected one of their own to serve as "President Pro Tempore" during periods when the lieutenant can 
not preside. 



The Legislative Branch 269 



Assembly Senator Residence 

1889 [Edwin W. Kerr] Sampson 

1891 William D. Turner Iredell 

1893 John L. King Guilford 

1895 E. L. Franck, Jr Onslow 

1897 

1899-1900 R. L. Smith Stanly 

F. A. Whitaker Wake 

1901 Henry A. London Chatham 

1903 Henry A. London Chatham 

1905 Charles A. Webb Buncombe 

1907-1908 Charles A. Webb Buncombe 

1909 Whitehead Klutz Rowan 

1911 Henry N. Pharr Mecklenburg 

1913 Henry N. Pharr Mecklenburg 

1915 Oliver Max Gardner Cleveland 

1917 FordyceC. Harding Pitt 

1919-20 Lindsey C. Warren Washington 

1921 William L. Long Halifax 

1923-24 William L. Long Halifax 

1925 William S. H. Burgwyn Northampton 

1927 William L. Long Halifax 

1929 Thomas L. Johnson Robeson 

1931 Rivers D. Johnson DupHn 

1933 William G. Clark Edgecombe 

1935 Paul D. Grady Johnston 

1937-38 Andrew H. Johnston Buncombe 

James A. Bell Mecklenburg 

1939 Whitman E. Smith Stanly 

1941 John D. Larkins, Jr Jones 

1943 John H. Price Rockingham 

1945 Archie C. Gay Northampton 

1947 Joseph L. Blythe Mecklenburg 

1949 James C. Pittman Lee 

1951 Rufus G. Rankin Gaston 

1953 Edwin Pate Scotland 

1955-56 Paul E. Jones Pitt 

1957 Claude Currie Durham 

1959 : Robert F. Morgan Cleveland 

1961 William L. Crew Halifax 

1963 Ralph H. Scott Alamance 

1965-66 Robert B. Morgan Harnett 

1967 Herman A. Moore Mecklenburg 

1969 Neill H. McGeachy Cumberland 

1971 Frank N. Patterson, Jr Stanly 

Gordon P. Allen Person 

1973-74 Gordon P. Allen Person 

1975-76 JohnT. Henley Cumberland 

1977-78 JohnT. Henley Cumberland 

1979-80 W. Craig Lawing Mecklenburg 

1981-82 W. Craig Lawing Mecklenburg 

1983-84 W. Craig Lawing Mecklenburg 

1985-86 J. J. Harrington Bertie 



The Legislative Branch 271 



JOSEPH JULIAN HARRINGTON 

PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE OF THE SENATE 

(Democrat — Bertie County) 

Second Senatorial District — Bertie (part), Edgecombe (part), Gates (part), Halifax (part), Hert- 
ford, Martin (part), Northampton, and Warren (part) Counties — One Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Lewiston, Bertie County, February 18, 1919, to Julian Picott and 
Ethel Mae (Barnes) Harrington. 

Education: Lewiston-Woodville High School. 

Profession: Retired. 

Organizations: Farm Bureau; David Lodge No. 39; 32nd Degree Scottish Rite; 
Shriner, Sudan Temple. 

Boards & Commissions: Trustee, Chowan College; Director, School of Veterinary 
Medicine, NCSU; former Trustee, Elizabeth City State University. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1963, 1965, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975- 
76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; Executive Committee, Southern 
Legislative Conference; Legislative Organization and Management Committee, 
National Conference of State Legislatures. 

Military Service: Served, World War II, 1942-45 (Technical Sergeant). 

Honors: "Tarheel of the Week", The News and Observer, Honorary Attorney, State of 
NC and NC Senate. 

Religious Activities: Member, Lewiston Baptist Church; Deacon. 

Family: Married, Dianne P. Harrington. Children: Robert E., Julian Picott, II and 
Victoria. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Rules and Operation of the Senate. 

Vice Chairman: Ways and Means. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations-Human Resources; Base Budget; 
Children and Youth; Commerce; Finance; Human Resources; Pensions and 
Retirement; Transportation. 



The Legislative Branch 273 

KENNETH CLAIBORNE ROYALL, JR. 

MAJORITY LEADER — SENATE 

(Democrat — Durham County) 

Thirteenth Senatorial District — Durham, Granville, Orange (part) and Person Counties — Two 
Senators. 

Early Years: Born in Warsaw, Duplin County, September 2, 1918, to Kenneth Clai- 
borne and Margaret Pierce (Best) Royall, Sr. 

Education: Goldsboro High School, 1932-34; Episcopal High School, 1936; UNC- 
Chapel Hill, 1940, A.B.; UVA, School of Law, 1940-41; Wake Forest University, 
School of Law, 1941-42. 

Profession: Furniture retailer (owner. Style Craft Interiors). 

Organizations: Director, American Red Cross; Director, YMCA; Director, NC Mer- 
chant's Association, 1975-76; Rotary Club; Elks Club; Delta Kappa Epsilon; Direc- 
tor, Training for Hearing Impaired Children, 1971-76; Vice President, NC Commit- 
tee for the Prevention of Blindness, 1973-76; Durham Chamber of Commerce, 
1962-72 (Director and Vice President, 1972). 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Council of State Governments, 1981-82; Chair- 
man, Southern Leadership Conference, 1977-83; Legislative Building Commission, 
1971-72; Board of Higher Education, 1971-72; Executive Residence Building Com- 
mission, 1972; Chairman, Mental Health Study Commission, 1972-83; Governmen- 
tal Operations Study Commission, 1974-1984; Director, Eckerd Wilderness Educa- 
tional System of NC, 1978-1981; Durham Advisory Board, Duke Hospital, 1975- 
1983; Director, Triangle Service Center, Inc., 1974-83; Executive Committee, 
NCSL, 1976-78, 1980-81, 1984-; NCSL Legislative Leaders, 1985-86. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 
1983-84, and 1985-; Senate Majority Leader, 1973-74; 1977-78; Legislative Services 
Commission, 1973-; NC House of Representatives, 1967, 1969, 1971; Chairman, 
Advisory Budget Commission, 198 1-. 

Military Service: Served, US Marine Corps, 1942-45 (Major); Platoon Leader, South 
Pacific, World War II; Bronze Star with Combat V. 

Honors: Certificate of Appreciation and Recognition, NC Psychology Association, 
1983; Honorary LL.D., NCCU, 1982; Legislator of the Year, NCSEA, 1980; Out- 
standing State Legislator, NCSGEA, 1980 and Assembly of Governmental Em- 
ployees, 1980; Most Influential Member of NC Senate, 1979-80, 1981-82; Distin- 
guished Service Award for Outstanding Legislative Service, NC Mental Health 
Center Association, 1978; Civic Honor Award, Durham Chamber of Commerce, 
1977; Valand Award (outstanding service to mental health), 1976; Distinguished 
Service Award, NC Public Health Association, 1975; Certificate of Commendation, 
National Association of Mental Health, 1974; Distinguished Service Medal, UNC 
Alumni, 1985. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Phillip's Episcopal Church, Durham; Senior Warden, 
1964; Junior Warden, 1959, Vestry, three terms. 

Family: Married, Julia Bryan Zollicoffer, February 10, 1945. Children: Kenneth C, 
III, Jere Zollicoffer and Julia Bryan. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Ways and Means. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations; Rules and Operations of the Senate. 

Member: Base Budget; Children and Youth; Commerce; Finance; Higher Educa- 
tion; Human Resources; Judiciary IV; Pensions and Retirement; State Govern- 
ment. 



The Legislative Branch 275 

WILLIAM WALTER REDMAN, JR. 

MINORITY LEADER — SENATE 

(Republican — Iredell County) 

Twenty-sixth Senatorial District — Alexander, Catawba, Iredell, and Yadkin Counties — Two 
Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Statesville, Iredell County, October 15, 1933, to William Walter 
and Mildred (Huie) Redman. 

Education: Statesville Senior High, 1952; University of Southern California, 1966; 
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 1972, B.S.; Command and General Staff 
College (PHII), 1974; Reahors Institute, UNC-Chapel Hill, 1978, GRI; Bank Mar- 
keting Institute, University of Maryland, 1975. 

Profession: Real Estate Broker; retired military officer. 

Organizations: Retired Officers Association; Civitan; Statesville Lodge No. 1823, 
BPOE; Legion Post No. 65; Veterans of Foreign Wars; Disabled Veterans; former 
member. Advisory Board, Salvation Army. 

Boards and Commissions: Trustee, Gardner-Webb College; Governor's Council on 
Physical Fitness and Health; ex officio member. Mental Health Study Commission; 
New Health Licensing Laws Study Commission; State Regional Offices Study 
Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1954-1974 (Lt. Col.); Master Aviator and Com- 
mercial Pilot, (helicopters and fixed wing aircraft); Distinguished Flying Crosses 
(2); Bronze Stars (3); Air Medal (16); Meritorious Service, Commendation Medal 
(2). NC Army National Guard, 1953-54; NC Air National Guard, 1952-53. 

Honors: "Hall of Fame", Infantry Officers Candidate School. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Statesville; Deacon, 1976-79, 
1982-84, 1985; Sunday School Teacher, 1974-78. 

Family: Married, Elizabeth Wilhelm, December 28, 1956. Children: Lisa Dawn (Red- 
man) Flanigan, Kathryn Marlene and Adreinne Ann. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Human Resources 

Member: Agriculture; Children and Youth; Commerce; Finance; Natural and 
Economic Resources and Wildlife; Rules and Operation of the Senate; State 
Government. 

Member: Joint Legislative Ethics Committee. 



276 



North Carouna Manual 




THOMAS CASS BALLENGER 

(Republican — Catawba County) 

Twenty-Sixth Senatorial District — Alexander, Catawba, Iredell, and 
Yadkin Counties - Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Hickory, Catawba County, December 6, 1926, to Richard E. and 
Dorothy (Collins) Ballenger. 

Education: Episcopal High School, 1944; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1944-45; Amherst Col- 
lege, 1948, B.A. 

Profession: Manufacturing executive (President, Hickory Paper Box Co. and Presi- 
dent, Plastic Packaging). 

Political Activities: Served in N.C. Senate, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; 
Catawba County Board of County Commissioners 1966-1974 (Chairman, 1970- 
1974). 

Military Service: Served, US Naval Air Corps, 1944-45. 

Religious Activities: Member, Episcopal Church; Senior Warden; Junior Warden; Lay 

Leader. 
Family: Married, Donna Davis, June 14, 1952. Children: Lucinda Garrison, Mellissa 

Jane (Ballenger) Jordan, and Dorothy Davis. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Children and Youth. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations — Human Resources; Base Budget; 

Commerce; Human Resources; Insurance; Judiciary IV; Manufacturing and 

Labor; Ways and Means. 




The Legislative Branch 277 

HENSON PERRYMOORE BARNES 

(Democrat — Wayne County) 

Eighth Senatorial District — Greene and Wayne Counties — One 
Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Bladen County, November 18, 1934, to Reverend Lalon L. and 
Mable (Cumbee) Barnes. 

Education: Garland High School, 1953; Wilmington College, 1958, A.A.; UNC-Chapel 
Hill, 1959, A.B.; UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1961, J. D. 

Profession: Attorney; farm owner. 

Organizations: Wayne County, NC and American Bar Associations; American Trial 
Lawyers Association; Masonic Order; Shrine; Elks; American Legion; Moose 
Lodge; Civitan Club. 

Boards & Commissions: Energy Policy Council; Courts Commission; Criminal Code 
Commission; Emergency Medical Services Advisory Council; Law Enforcement 
Officers' Benefit and Retirement Fund. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; 
NG House of Representatives, 1975-76; Chairman, Wayne County Democratic 
Party; former President, Wayne County Young Democrats. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1953-56; Paratrooper. 

Honors: Outstanding American Family, 1985; Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters, 
William Carter College, 1979; Robert H. Futrelle Good Government Award, 1975; 
Outstanding Young Man, Goldsboro, 1963. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Goldsboro; Deacon; Sunday 
School Teacher; Budget and Finance Board. 

Family: Married, Kitty Allen Barnes, August 27, 1961. Children: Rebecca and Amy. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary L 

Vice Chairman: Rules and Operations of the Senate. 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations; Appropriations — Natural and Economic 
Resources; Base Budget; Children and Youth; Senior Citizens; Transpor- 
tation. 



i 



278 



North Carolina Manual 




MARC BASNIGHT 

(Democrat — Dare County) 

First Senatorial District — Beaufort (part), Bertie (part) Camden, 
Chowan, Currituck, Dare, Gates (part), Hyde, Pasquotank, Perquimans, 
Tyrrell, and Washington Counties — One Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Manteo, Dare County, May 13, 1947. to St. Clair and Cora Mae 

(Daniels) Basnight. 
Education: Manteo High School, 1966. 
Profession: Construction. 

Political Activities: Member, N.C. Senate, 1985. 
Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church. 
Family: Married Sandy Tillett, March 23, 1968. Children: Vicki and Caroline. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Transportation. 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations; Appropriations — Natural and Economic 

Resources; Base Budget; Education; Local Government and Regional Affairs; 

Manufacturing and Labor; Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife. 




The Legislative Branch 279 

LAURENCE ARTHUR COBB 

(Republican — Mecklenburg County) 

Thirty-fifth Senatorial District — Mecklenburg County (part) — One 
Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Teaneck. New Jersey, May 20, 1933, to Gardinier and Georgette 
(Robedee) Cobb. 

Education: Freeport High School, 1951; Rutgers University, 1951-52; UNC-Chapel 
Hill, 1955 (Business Administration, Banking); Washburn University, School of 
Law, 1955-57; UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1958, J.D. with honors. 

Profession: Attorney (partner in firm of Hamrick, Monteith and Cobb). 

Organizations: Mecklenburg County, NC State, NC and American Bar Associations 
(Chairman, Public Relations Committee, NC Bar); Commercial Law League of 
America (member. Fellows); NC Association of Trial Lawyers; President and 
Director, Lawyers of NC, Inc.; Director, Alpha Sigma of Chi Psi, Inc., 1964; Char- 
lotte Chamber of Commerce; NC Citizens Association; Director, NC Chapter 
American Cancer Society (member. Rehabilitation and Services Committee); Mec- 
klenburg Chapter, American Cancer Society (Vice President, Director, Executive 
Board, former Crusade Chairman); Kidney Foundation of Mecklenburg County 
(first President, former Director); former Director, NC Epilepsy Association and 
UNC Law School Association. 

Boards & Commissions: Board of Governors, Consolidated University of NC; Audi- 
torium-Coliseum-Civic Center Authority, City of Charlotte. Former member: Char- 
lotte Review Commission; Committee of 100, Charlotte; UNC-Charlotte Athletic 
Foundation (President and Director). 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-; NC House of Representatives, 1971, 
1973-74, 1975-76, 1979-80, 1981-82; former House Minority Leader. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1959-62; Reserves, 1962-present; (1st Lieuten- 
ant); Judge Advocate General Corps. 

Religious Activities: Member, Christ Episcopal Church. 

Family: Married, Edna Fa ye Pugh of Asheboro, January 30, 1960. Children: Laura, 
Georgette (Cobb) Creason and Glenn Laurence. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Higher Education. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations-Justice and Public Safety; Base Bud- 
get; Commerce; Election Laws; Judiciary IV; State Government. 

Member: Joint Legislative Ethics Committee. 



280 North Carolina Manual 




JAMES RICHARD CONDER 

(Democrat — Richmond County) 

Seventeenth Senatorial District ~ Anson, Montgomery, Richmond, 
Scotland, Stanly and Union Counties — Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Hamlet, Richmond County, July 20, 1930, to Parks Holms and 
Ona Lee (Crow) Conder. 

Education: Hamlet High School, 1949; ECU, 1958, B.S. (Business); LSU, Graduate 
School of Banking, 1968; UNC-Chapel Hill, NC Bankers Association School. 

Profession: Vice President, First Union National Bank. 

Organizations: Hamlet Rotary Club (President, 1963); Rockingham Rotary Club 
(President, 1970). 

Boards & Commissions: Former chairman, Richmond County Industrial Development 
Commission, 1970-82. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-; Commissioner, Richmond County, 
1962-84 (Chairman, 1964-1984); President, National Association of Counties, 1981- 
82; President, NC Association of County Commissioners, 1972-1973. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1951-55; Reserves, 1955-59. 

Honors: Outstanding Alumnus, ECU, 1982; "Tar Heel of the Week," The News and 
Observer, 1982; NC Distinguished Citizens Award, 1982; President Reagan's Pri- 
vate Sector Initiative, 1981-82. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Rockingham; Elder, 1965- 

1974, 1983-. 
Family: Married, Barbara Ann Speight of Roanoke Rapids, June 16, 1956. Children: 

Rebecca Anne, Mary Elizabeth and James Richard, Jr. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: State Government. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations — General Government; Base Budget; 
Children and Youth; Education; Higher Education; Local Government and 
Regional Affairs; Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife; Senior 
Citizens. 



The Legislative Branch 



281 




JAMES EARL EZZELL, JR. 

(Democrat — Nash County) 

Tenth Senatorial District ~ Edgecombe (part), Halifax (part), Nash, 
Warren (part) and Wilson (part) Counties — One Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Rocky Mount, Edgecombe County, September 6, 1936, to James 
Earl and Edith (Batchelor) Ezzell, Sr. 

Education: Rocky Mount Senior High School, 1956; Wake Forest University, 1960, 
B.A.: Wake Forest University, School of Law, 1963, LL.D. 

Profession: Attorney. 

Organizations: NC Bar Association; Masonic Order; Shrine. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-; NC House of Representatives, 1977- 
78, 1979-80; District Court Judge, 1980-83; Solicitor, Recorders Court, 1964-68. 

Religious Activities: Member, Englewood Baptist Church; Board of Deacons (former 
Chairman); Chairman, Finance Committee. 

Family: Married. Patsy Wall, February 5, 1966. Children: Mark, James E., Ill and 
Stanton. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Local Government and Regional Affairs. 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations; Appropriations-General Government; 
Base Budget; Election Laws; Judiciary U; Senior Citizens. 



282 North Carolina Manual 




WILLIAM DAVID GOLDSTON, JR. 

(Democrat — Rockingham Coumy) 

Twenty-fourth Senatorial District — Alleghany, Ashe, Rockingham, 
Stokes, Surry and Watauga Counties — Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, December 26, 1925. to William 
D. and Rose (Hinson) Goldston. 

Education: Leaksville Public Schools; Oak Ridge Military Institute, 1942-44; UNC- 
Chapel Hill, 1945; High Point College, 1947, B.S.; (Business); UNC-Chapel Hill, 
1966-67 (Executive Program).. 

Profession: Retired business executive (President, Eden Impressions, Inc., 1984; Presi- 
dent, Southern Printwear, Inc., 1984; President, Goldston, Inc., 1952-83; Marshall 
Field & Co., 1948-52; Goldston Transfer, 1947-48). 

Organizations: American Trucking Association (Former Director); NC Motor Carriers 
Association (President, 1972-73); Eden Chamber of Commerce; Masonic Order; 
Shrine; UNC Chancellor's Club. Former member: Jaycees; Rotary (President); Tri 
City Chamber of Commerce (Chairman, New Industry Committee). 

Boards & Commissions: Rockingham Community College Foundation; Morehead 
Scholarship Selection Committee; UNC Educational Foundation; Board of Vis- 
itors, High Point College; Local Board, NCNB; former Chairman, Leaksville 
School Board. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1944-45; pilot training. Served, NC National 
Guard, 1947-50; (2nd Lieutenant). 

Honors: NC Boss of the Year, 1971; Boss of the Year, Eden Jaycees, 1970; Eden Man 
of the Year, 1967. 

Religious Activities: Member, Leaksville Methodist Church, Eden; Administrative 
Board; Chairman, Foundation Committee. 

Family: Married, Beverly M. Burton, August 25, 1946. Children: William D., III. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 
Vice Chairman: Manufacturing and Labor. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations — Education; Base Budget; Commerce; 
Higher Education; Judiciary IV; Transportation. 




The Legislative Branch 283 

ALEXANDER DUKE GUY 

(Democrat — Onslow County) 
Fourth Senatorial District — Onslow County — One Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Calypso, Duplin County, November 20, 1918, to Alexander Buck 
and Elizabeth (Faust) Guy. 

Eduation: Calypso high School, 1935; NCSU, NYA Program, 1936-37; Institute of 
Government, UNC-Chapel Hill, 1958-59. 

Profession: Insurance and real estate executive. 

Organizations: Independent Insurance Agents of NC, Inc.; NC Association of Real- 
tors; Professional Producers Council; Continental National American Insurance 
Companies, 1975-77; Loyal Order of the Moose; charter President, Onslow County 
Chapter, American Cancer Society; charter member, Jacksonville Toast Masters, 
1955. 

Boards and Commissions: National Association of Real Estate Boards; Jacksonville 
Board of Realtors; Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission; Jacksonville 
Hospital Authority, 1977-79; Onslow Memorial Hospital Authority, 1977-78; Di- 
rector, NC League of Municipalities, 1962-65. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1983-84, 1985-; NC House of Representa- 
tives, 1979-80, 1981-82; Commissioner. Onslow County, 1969-70; Jacksonville City 
Council, six years (Mayor, two years; Mayor Pro Tem, two years); NC Mayors 
Co-operating Committee, 1964. 

Religious Activities: Member, Trinity United Methodist Church; Board of Trustees, 
1976-81; Administrative Board, 1968-78; Campaign Chairman, Christian Higher 
Education Fund, 1959. 

Family: Married, Margaret Holmes, January 31, 1975. Children: Alexander Duke, II, 
Bundage Humphrey and Douglas Bryan. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: State Government. 

Vice Chairman: Commerce. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations-Natural and Economic Resources; 
Base Budget; Finance; Manufacturing and Labor; Natural and Economic 
Resources and Wildlife; Senior Citizens; Ways and Means. 



284 North Carolina Manual 




HAROLD WOODROW HARDISON 

(Democrat — Lenoir County) 

Fifth Senatorial District — Duplin, Jones, Lenoir and Pender (part) 
Counties — One Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Deep Run, Lenoir County, September 8, 1923, to Rutha and 
Annie (Stroud) Hardison. 

Education: Deep Run High School; Atlantic Christian College. 

Profession: President, Eastern United Tires, Inc. 

Organizations: Charter member. Deep Run Ruritan Club; former Master, Pleasant 
Hill Masonic Lodge No. 304; Shriner; Sudan Temple (former Lt. Commander, 
Legion of Honor); former Chairman, Lenoir County United Fund; honorary 
member, Kenansville Jaycees. 

Boards & Commissions: Selective Service Board No. 55, Lenoir County; Neuse River 
Economic Development Commission; Kinston-Lenoir County Industrial and Agri- 
cultural Development Commission; Chairman, Deep Run School Board; Chair- 
man, South Lenoir School Board; Board of Directors and Executive Board, Mount 
Olive College; Director, NCNB, Kinston; Director, First Financial Savings & Loan, 
Kinston; former and first President, Deep Run Water Corporation. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 
1983-84, 1985-; NC House of Representatives, 1971. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1942-46. 

Religious Activities: Member, Deep Run Free Will Baptist Church; Sunday school 
teacher; former Chairman, Finance Committee. 

Family: Married, Arlene Humphrey, June 14, 1944. Children: Pamela (Hardison) 
Braxton. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Commerce. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations; Pensions and Retirement. 
Member: Finance; Human Resources; Insurance; Rules and Operation of the 
Senate; State Government; Ways and Means. 




The Legislative Branch 285 

J. OLLE HARRIS 

(Democrat — Cleveland County) 

Twenty-fifth Senatorial District — Cleveland, Gaston, Lincoln, and 
Rutherford Counties — Three Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Anderson, South Carolina, September 2, 1913, to J. Frank and 
Jessie (Hambright) Harris. 

Education: Shelby High School, 1931; Gupton-Jones College of Embalming, 1935. 

Profession: Funeral director and embalmer (President and Treasurer, Harris Funeral 
Home, Inc.). 

Organizations: NC Funeral Directors Association (former President); National Fun- 
eral Directors Association; National Selected Morticians; former President, NC 
Coroners Association; Mason; Shriner. 

Boards & Commissions: NC Funeral Directors and Embalming Board (former Presi- 
dent); former Trustee, Gardner- Webb College; NC Mental Health Study Commis- 
sion, 1977-78, 1979-80. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1971-72, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 
1983-84, 1985-; Coroner, Cleveland County, 1946-70. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1943-46; 85th Field Hospital; European theatre; 

Bronze Star. 
Honors: Award of Appreciation and Recognition, NC Psychological Association, 

1985; Better Life Award, NC Health Care Facilities, 1979; Valand Award, NC 

Mental Health Association, 1979; Legislator of the Year, NC Health Department 

Association, 1979. 

Religious Activities: Member, Baptist Church; Board member. Baptist State 
Convention. 

Family: Married, Abbie Jane Wall, May 4, 1934. Children: John, Jr. and Becky (Har- 
ris) Hambright. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Human Resources. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Human Resources. 

Member: Appropriations; Base Budget; Commerce; Children and Youth; 
Finance; Judiciary HI; Manufacturing and Labor; State Government; Ways 
and Means. 



286 North Carolina Manual 




CHARLES WILLIAM HIPPS 

(Democrat — Haywood County) 

Twenty-ninth Senatorial District — Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Haywood, 
Henderson, Jackson, Macon, Polk, Swain, and Transylvania Counties 

— Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Waynesville, Haywood County, October 18, 1943, to John 
Gudger and Hazel (Rinehart) Hipps. 

Education: Waynesville High Shcool, 1961; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1965, A.B. (Political 
Science); Emory University, School of Law, 1966; UNC-Chapel Hill, School of 
Law, 1968. 

Profession: Attorney (senior partner in firm of Hipps and Jordan, P. A.). 

Organizations: Former President, Haywood County Bar Association, 30th Judicial 
District; former President, Waynesville Merchants Association; Waynesville Rotary 
Club; Director, Haywood County Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards & Commissions: Executive Director: Southwestern Criminal Justice Planning 
Agency, French Broad Criminal Justice Planning Agency; Trustee Emeritus, West- 
ern University, 1980-82. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1983-84, 1985-; attorney, Towns of Waynes- 
ville and Maggie Valley; Chairman, Haywood County Democratic Party; Mayor 
Pro Tem, Waynesville, 1979-82; Assistant District Attorney, 1970-73. 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church of Waynesville; Secre- 
tary, Board of Trustees. 

Family: Married, Jane Bates of Charlotte, June 1, 1968. Children: Elizabeth, Will and 
John. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Children and Youth. 

Vice Chairman: Agriculture; Judiciary I. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations-Justice and Public Safety; Base 
Budget; Education; Rules; Ways and Means. 




The Legislative Branch 287 

RALPH ALEXANDER HUNT 

(Democrat — Durham County) 

Thirteenth Senatorial District Durham, Granville, Orange (part), and 
Person Counties — Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Oxford, Granville County, April 10, 1932, to Johnnie and 
Amanda (Harris) Hunt. 

Education: Mary Potter High School, 1950; Orange Street Elementary School, 1945; 

Johnson C. Smith University, 1956, B.A.; NCCU, 1964, M. A. 
Profession: Independent retail merchant (convenience stores). 
Organizations: Kappa Alpha Psi. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-; Mayor Pro Tem, City of Durham, 

1981-84; Durham City Council, 1973-74. 
Military Service: Served, US Army, 1953-55 (Corporal). 
Religious Activities: Member, White Rock Baptist Church; Trustee. 

Family: Married, Elvira Rebecca Cooke, June 17. 1961. Children: Ralph A., Jr., 
Reginald C. and Regina C 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Senior Citizens. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations-General Government; Base Budget; 
Education; Higher Education; Local Government and Regional Affairs; Pen- 
sions and Retirement. 



288 North Carold«ja Manual 




WANDA H. HUNT 

(Democrat — Moore County) 

Sixteenth Senatorial District Chatham, Moore, Orange (part), and 
Randolph Counties — Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Bakersville, Mitchell County, March 22, 1944, to Farrall and Jane 
(Ledford) Holder. 

Education: Southwest High School; Appalachian State University. 

Profession: Legislator; account executive. Resorts of Pinehurst, Inc.; former state 
government and public school employee; former corporate secretary, private 
industry (small computer business). 

Organizations: NC State Government Employees Association; NC School Board 
Association; NC Social Services Board Association (former chairman); Women in 
State Government; NC Status of Women; NC Heart Fund Association; certified 
judge, "Junior Miss" and "Miss" Pageants; former President, Cystic Fibrosis; 
former Vice President, Southern Pines Jaycettes; former Chairman, Moore County 
Bicentennial Ball; former Education Chairman, Southern Pines Junior Women's 
Club; former Chairman, Moore County Heart Fund Ball. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1983-84, 1985-; Pensions Committee, 
National Conference of State Legislators, 1985; NC General Assembly Women's 
Caucus; Legislative Committee, Travel Council of NC, Inc.; Southern Legislative 
Conference; State Legislators' Network, Women's Network; Precinct Chairman, 
Moore County Democratic Women; Moore County Democratic Executive Com- 
mittee; YDC, Appalachian State University; NC Assembly on Women and the 
Economy; American Council of Young Political Leaders (former delegate. El Sal- 
vador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Panama); delegate, various state, district, local con- 
ventions; delegate, Miami Conference on the Carribean; Moore County Board of 
Education, 1976-83. 

Honors:Volunteer Service Award, National Cystic Fibrosis; Certificate of Apprecia- 
tion and Founders Award, Heart Fund; Golden Mountaineer Award, Appalachian 
State University; Distinguished Service Award, Moore County Board of Education; 
Social Services Award, 1978-81. 

Religious Activities: Member, Pinehurst Community Church; Youth Coordinator. 

Family: Married, Robert Frank Hunt of Pinehurst, March 24, 1962. Children: Donna 
Lynn. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 
Chairman: Senior Citizens. 

Member: Education; Finance; Human Resources; Judiciary II; Natural and 
Economic Resources and Wildlife; Pensions and Retirement. 




The Legislative Branch 289 

JAMES CALVIN JOHNSON, JR. 

(Republican — Cabarrus County) 

Twenty-second Senatorial District — Cabarrus and Mecklenburg (part) 
Counties One Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Greensboro, Guilford County, June 5, 1935, to James Calvin and 
Juanita (Hill) Johnson, Sr. 

Education: Spartanburg High School, 1954; Spartanburg Junior College, 1956; East 
Tennessee State University, 1958, B.S.; Wake Forest University, School of Law, 
1962; LL.B. 

Profession: Attorney; owner. Fort Johnson Military Museum, Inc. 

Organizations: Cabarrus County and NC State Bar Associations; NC Academy of 
Trial Lawyers; American Judicature Society; NC Juvenile Court Judges Associa- 
tion (former President); Concord Jaycees (former NC Vice President and National 
Regional Director); Phi Delta Phi. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-; NC House of Representatives, 1967, 
1969, 1971; Attorney, Cabarrus County, 1966-70; Judge; Domestic Relations and 
Juvenile Court, 1963-66; Attorney, US District Court, NC, 1962-63. 

Military Service: Served, US National Guard, Active Reserves, 1953-62; Distinguished 
Serviceman, 1965. 

Honors: Who's Who in American Politics, 1967-68; Outstanding Personalities of the 
South, 1967; Outstanding Young Men of America, 1967; Outstanding Young Men 
of NC, 1966. 

Literary Works: Editor, The Guardian, 1964-65 (selected as the most outstanding pub- 
lication of its kind in the US by the National Council of Juvenile Court Judges). 

Religious Activities: Member, Central Methodist Church; Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Married, Angie Morgan of Landis. Children: James Calvin, HI, Kay Lynn 
and Jen Cherise. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations-General Government; Base Budget; 
Children and Youth; Judiciary I; Senior Citizens; Transportation. 



290 North Carolina Manual 




JOSEPH EDWARD JOHNSON 

(Democrat — Wake County) 

Fourteenth Senatorial District Harnett, Lee, and Wake (part) Counties 
— Three Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Raleigh, Wake County, October 17, 1941, to Ira Edward and 
Grace (Ivey) Johnson. 

Education: Raleigh Public Schools, 1946-59; NCSU, 1959-61; Wake Forest University, 

1964, B.A.; Wake Forest University, School of Law, 1966, J.D. 
Profession: Attorney. 

Organizations: Wake County, NC and American Bar Associations; Alpha Kappa Psi; 
Phi Delta Phi. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; NC House of 
Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1967-69 (1st Lt.); Military Police Corps; Army 
Commendation Medal. 

Religious Activities: Member, Edenton Street United Methodist Church, Raleigh; 
Administrative Board; Assistant Superintendent, Sunday School; Sunday School 
teacher. 

Family: Married, Jane Francum, January 31, 1964. Children: Jane Elizabeth, Kathryn 
Ivey and Susan Briles. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Insurance. 

Vice Chairman: Judiciary III. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations-Justice and Public Safety; Base Bud- 
get; Commerce; Election Laws; Manufacturing and Labor. 



The Legislative Branch 



291 




JOHN M. JORDAN* 

(Democrat — Alamance County) 



Twenty-first Senatorial District 
One Senator. 



Alamance and Caswell Counties — 



Early Years: Born, February 16, 1936, to B. Everett and Katherine (McLean) Jordan. 

Education: Saxaphaw Elementary School; Woodberry Forest; Walter Williams High 
School; Duke University, 1958, B.S.; Technical College of Alamance, NCSU and 
Clemson, additional studies. 

Profession: Agriculture, land and water developer. 

Organizations: NC Farm Bureau; founder and President, NC Chianina & Charolais 
Association; NC Cattlemen's Association; Mason; Shrine; Moose; Exchange; 
Ruritan; founder and advisor. Explorer Post No. 65; Executive Board, Cherokee 
Council, Boy Scouts of America; Alamance Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: Alamance County Planning Board. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-; NC House of Representatives, 1975- 
76, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84; former President and Treasurer, Alamance YDC. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Manufacturing and Labor. 

Member: Agriculture; Education; Election Laws; Finance; Senior Citizens; 
Transportation. 



*Jordan resigned his seat effective August 15, 1985, (Jordan to Martin, August 15, 1985, copy on file. Publi- 
cations Division, Secretary ol State, Raleigh, NC). 



292 North Carouna Manual 




IAN THEODORE KAPLAN 

(Democrat — Forsyth County) 

Twentieth Senatorial District — Forsyth County (part) — Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Greensboro, Guilford County, December 26, 1946, to Leon and j 
Renee (Myers) Kaplan. ' 

Education: Riverside Military Academy, 1962-1964; R. J. Reynolds High School, 

1965; Guilford College. 
Profession: President, Kaplan Press. 
Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-; NC House of Representatives, 1977- 

78, 1979-80, 1981-82. 
Military Service: Served, US Navy, 1969-1971; Reserves, 1968-69 (E-3). 
Religious Activities: Member, Temple Emanuel, Winston-Salem. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 
Chairman: Election Laws. 
Member: Finance; Judiciary II; Pension and Retirement; Transportation. 







The Legislative Branch 293 

DONALD R. KINCAID 

(Republican — Caldwell County) 

Twenty-seventh Senatorial District — Avery, Burke, Caldwell, Mitchell, 
and Wilkes Counties Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Caldwell County, June 2, 1936, to Hugh T. and Myrtle (McCall) 
Kincaid. 

Education: Gamewell High School, 1954; Appalachian State Teachers College, 1959, 
B.S.; Clevenger's Business College, 1955. 

Profession: School teacher; owner, Kincaid Insurance Agency. 

Organizations: Lenoir Lions Club (Lion Tamer, former Secretary); Lenoir Rotary 
Club; NC Cattlemen's Association; Carolina Association of Mutual Insurance 
Agents; Caldwell County Chamber of Commerce. Former member: NCAE, Game- 
well Ruritan Club. 

Boards & Commissions: Legislative Advisory Board, CAPIA: Board of Trustees, 
Gardner-Webb College; Director, Carolina Association of Professional Insurance 
Agents. Former member: NC Board of Agriculture. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 
1983-84, 1985-; Senate Minority Leader, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84; NC 
House of Representatives, 1967, 1969, 1971. 

Military Service: Served, NC National Guard, nine years (5-E). 

Religious Activities: Member, Grandview Park Baptist Church, Lenoir. 

Family: Married, Syretha Weatherford, June 30, 1956; four children. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Insurance. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations — Natural and Economic Resources; 
Base Budget; Judiciary ill; Manufacturing and Labor; Natural and Eco- 
nomic Resources and Wildlife; Rules and Operation of the Senate. 



294 North Carolina Manual 




ROBERT LAFAYETTE MARTIN 

(Democrat — Pitt County) 

Sixth Senatorial District — Edgecombe (part). Martin (part), Pitt (part), 
and Wilson (part) Counties — One Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Bethel, Pitt County. November 8, 1918, to John Wesley and Lena 
(Sessums) Martin. 

Education: Oxford Orphanage High School; School of Electrictiy, Oxford Orphanage. 
Profession: President. Farmers Mutual Fire Insurance Association; farmer. 
Organizations: Shriner; 32nd Degree Mason. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate. 1985-; Commissioner, Pitt County. 1956- 
1984; Mayor, Town of Bethel. 1951-1956; Commissioner, Town of Bethel, 1941. 

Religious Activities: Member, Bethel Missionary Baptist Church; Chairman, Board of 

Deacons; Superintendent, Sunday School; Sunday School teacher. 
Family: Married, Sue Cooper. June 29, 1940. Children: Lynda and Bobbie Sue. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations — Natural and Economic Resources. 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations; Base Budget; Commerce; Education; 

Local Government and Regional Affairs; Natural and Economic Resources 

and Wildlife; Transportation. 




The Legislative Branch 295 

WILLIAM NELSON MARTIN 

(Democrat — Guilford County) 
Thirty-first Senatorial District — Guilford County (part) — One Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Eden, Rockingham County, May 25, 1945, to Thomas William 
and Carolyn (Henderson) Martin. 

Education: Douglas High School, 1962; NC A&T State University, 1966, B.S. (Eco- 
nomics); George Washington University, School of Law, 1973, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney. 

Organizations: NC and DC Bar Associations; One Step Further, Inc., 1982 (co- 
founder and first President); National Black Child Development Institute, 1976- 
(Chairman, Public Policy Committee; Board member, 1979-82); Phi Beta Sigma 
(President, local chapter, 1978-80; Vice President, local chapter, 1976-78). Former 
member: Social Concerns Committee (Co-Chairman); Council of Churches; Greens- 
boro Citizens Forum, 1979-84; Congress of Racial Equality (special assistant. 
Northwestern Regional Director, 1969-73). 

Boards and Commissions: Director and co-founder, Charlotte Hawkins Brown His- 
torical Foundation; Guilford County Finance Study Commission, 1982-; Greens- 
boro Housing Commission, 1979-; Director, Triad Sickle Cell Anemia Foundation, 
1978-; 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-; delegate, Guilford County, 1981 White 
House Conference on Children; NC Task Force 1980 White House Conference on 
Families. 

Religious Activities: Member, Providence Baptist Church, Greensboro. 

Family: Children: Thomas William and William Nelson, Jr. (twins). 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Higher Education. 

Vice Chairman: Judiciary II. 

Member: Appropriations: Appropriations-Education; Base Budget; Children 
and Youth; Education; Human Resources. 



296 North Carolina Manual 




HELEN RHYNE MARVIN 

(Democrat — Gaston County) 

Twenty-fifth Senatorial District — Cleveland, Gaston, Lincoln, and 
Rutherford Counties - Three Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Gastonia, Gaston County, November 30, 1917, to Dane S. and 
Tessie (Hastings) Rhyne. 

Education: Gastonia High School, 1934; Furman University, 1938, B.A. magna cum 
laude (History; Political Science); LSU, 1939, M.A. (Government); post graduate 
studies, Winthrop College, UNC-Chapel Hill, UNC-Charlotte, University of Colo- 
rado, University of Vermont, University of Oslo. 

Profession: Realtor (President, Marvin Rhyne Realty Co.); college instructor (Gaston 
College). 

Organizations: Southern and NC Political Science Associations (former President); 
Rho Chapter of Delta Kappa Gamma; NCCCSSA (former Chairman, Advisory 
Committee); Gaston College Unit, NCAE (former President); Community College 
Division, NC Association of Educators; Faculty Senate, Gaston College; Altrusa 
Club; Director, Gaston County United Way; Director, Gaston County Mental 
Health Association. 

Boards and Commissions: Director, Holy Angels Nursery, Gaston County Family 
Planning Council; Gaston County Council for Children with Special Needs; Gover- 
nor's Advocacy Council on Children and Youth; NC Apprenticeship Council; 
Trustee, Vagabond School of Drama and Flat Rock Playhouse; NC Commission 
on the Year 2000; NCSL Arts and State Committee. Former member: Southern 
Piedmont Health Services Agency (Secretary); NC State Health Coordinating 
Council. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; 
NCSL Committee on Arts, Tourism and Cultural Resources; Gaston County 
Democratic Women (former President); Gaston County Democrats Century Club; 
former member, Gaston County and NC State Democratic Executive Committees; 
NC Democratic Unity Party Committee, 1980; delegate. National Democratic Con- 
vention, 1972. 

Honors: Valand Award (outstanding legislator in mental health field), 1980; Woman 
of the Year, Gastonia Civitan Club, 1978; Outstanding Educator, Gaston College, 
1975; Valedictorian, college graduating class. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Gastonia; Chairman, Prim- 
ary Department; Circle; Bible Moderator; Deacon; Former Sunday School teacher. 

Family: Married, Ned L Marvin, November 21, 1941. Children: Kathryn Andrea 
(Marvin) Nisbet, Richard Morris and David Rhyne. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 
Chairman: Pensions and Retirement. 
Vice Chairman: Children and Youth. 
Member: Appropriations; Appropriations-Human Resources; Base Budget; 

Education, Human Resources; Judiciary H; Local Government and Regional 

Affairs. 



The Legislative Branch 



297 




JAMES DOYLE McDLFFIE 

(Republican — Mecklenburg County) 

Mecklenburg County (part) 



Thirty-fourth Senatorial District 
Senator. 



One 



Early Years: Born in Kannapolis, Cabarrus County, November 17, 1929, to James 
Dewey and Viola (Cress) McDuffie. 

Education: Cannon High School, 1946; Pfeiffer Junior College, 1948, A. A.; Catawba 
College, 1950, B.A.; University of Denver, 1955, M.A. 

Profession: General agent and broker. State Farm Insurance Company; Merit Agent; 

Millionaire Agent. 
Organizations: Life Underwriters Association; American Legion; Honor President, 

East Mecklenburg Optimist Club. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1981-82, 1985-; Charlotte 
City Council, 1972-1974. 

Religious Activities: Member, Pritchard Baptist Church, Charlotte. 
Family: Married, M. Darlene Sears, April 10, 1953. Children: David, Mark, Tricia and 
John. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Education; Finance; Pensions and Retirement; Trans- 
portation. 



298 North Carolina Manual 




DAVID RUSSELL PARNELL 

(Democrat — Robeson County) 

Thirtieth Senatorial District — Hoke and Robeson Counties — One 
Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Parkton, Robeson County, November 16, 1925, to John Quincy 
and Clelia (Britt) Parnell. 

Education: Parkton Public Schools, 1931-41; Oak Ridge Military Institute, 1941-44; 
Wake Forest University, 1949, B.S. 

Profession: Merchant and farmer. 

Organizations: NC Merchants Association; NC Oil Jobbers Association; Director. NC 
Plant Food Association; NC State Humanities Foundation, 1975-1979. 

Boards and Commissions: Robeson County Industrial Development Commission, 
1963-; Trustee, Meredith Colelge, 1977; NC State Highway Commission. 1969-72. 

Political Activities; Member, NC Senate, 1983-84, 1985-; NC House of Representa- 
tives, 1975-76. 1977-78, 1979-80; 1981-82; Mayor, Town of Parkton, 1964-69. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1945-46 (Corporal). 

Religious Activities: Member, Parkton Baptist Church; Sunday School teacher, I950-; 

Board of Deacons, 1972-73, 1974-75, 1968-69; Treasurer, 1950-72. 
Family: Married, Barbara Johnson, June 11, 1948. Children: David R. Jr., Anne J. 

and Timothy Scott. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations-Justice and Public Safety. 
Vice Chairman: Insurance; Manufacturing and Labor. 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations; Base Budget; Commerce; Election; Laws; 
Judiciary IV; State Government; Ways and Means. 




The Legislative Branch 299 

AARON W. PLYLER 

(Democrat — Union County) 

Seventeenth Senatorial District — Anson, Montgomery, Richmond, 
Scotland, Stanly, and Union Counties — Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Union County, October 1, 1926; to Isom F. and Ida (Foard) 

Plyler. 

Education: Benton Heights School; Florida Military Academy. 

Profession: Independent businessman (President and owner, Plyler Grading and Pav- 
ing, Inc.; President, Hill Top Enterprises); farming and real estate interests. 

Organizations: Associated General Contractors of Ameria; National Federation of 
Independent Businessmen; NC Restaurant Association (Director); NC Citizens 
Association; Moore-Union County Chamber of Commerce (former President); 
Director, Mecklenburg-Union County United Way; Wingate College Patron Club 
(former President); Rolling Hills Country Club. 

Boards and Commissions: Director: United Carolina Bank; Yadkin-Pee Dee River 
Basin. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1983-84, 1985-; NC House of Representa- 
tives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82; former Chairman, Union County Demo- 
cratic Party; Precinct Chairman, 10 years. 

Honors: Andrew Jackson Award, 1980; Union County Leadership Award, 1973; 
Patron Club Award, Wingate College, 1971; Man of the Year, Union County, 1971; 
Leadership Award, Monroe-Union County, 1970. 

Religious Activities: Member, Benton Heights Presbyterian Church; Ruling Elder; 
former Chairman, Board of Deacons. 

Family: Married, Dorothy Moser, May 22, 1948. Children: Barbara (Plyler) Faulk, 
Diane (Plyler) Hough, Aaron W., Jr., Alan and Alton. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 
Chairman: Appropriations. 
Vice Chairman: Ways and Means. 

Member: Agriculture; Base Budget; Commerce; Election Laws; Finance; Manu- 
facturing and Labor; Pensions and Retirement; Rules and Operation of the 
Senate. 



300 



North Carolina Manual 




WELDON ROBERT PRICE 

(Democrat — Rockingham Coumy) 



Twenty-fourth Senatorial District — 
Stokes, Surry, and Watauga Counties 



Alleghany, Ashe, Rockingham, 
- Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Rockingham County, January 18, 1928, to Robert and Bessie 
(Turner) Price. 

Education: Reidsville High School, 1945; Elon College, 1957, A.B. (Business Ad- 
ministration). 

Profession: Superintendent, American Tobacco Company. 

Organizations: Veterans of Foreign Wars, Post 8297; American Legion; BPO Elks. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Health, Rockingham County; Trustee, Rock- 
ingham Community College. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-; Board of County Commissioners, 
Rockingham County, 1972-1984 (Vice-Chairman); Reidsville City Council, 1966- 
1972; former Mayor and Mayor Pro Tem, City of Reidsville. 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church, Reidsville; Vice- 
Chairman, Official Board; Trustee. 

Military Service: Served, U S Army, 1950-1952 (Staff Sergeant); Parachute Badge. 

Family: Married, Barbara Pritchett of Williamsburg, June 27, 1953. Children: Jeffrey, 
Bradford and Teresa. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Local Government and Regional Affairs. 

Member: Agriculture; Election Laws; Finance; Judiciary I; Manufacturing and 
Labor; Pensions and Retirement. 




The Legislative Branch 301 

ANTHONY EDEN RAND 

(Democrat — Cumberland County) 

Twelfth Senatorial District — Cumberland County (part) — Two 
Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Garner, Wake County, September 1, 1939, to Walter and Geneva 
(Yeargan) Rand, Jr. 

Education: Garner High School, 1957; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1961; UNC-Chapel Hill, 
School of Law, 1964. 

Profession: Attorney (partner in firm of Rose, Rand, Ray, Winfrey & Gregory, P. A.) 

Organizations: NC, Cumberland County, DC and American Bar Associations; Ameri- 
can Judicature Society; Association of Trial Lawyers of America; NC Academy of 
Trial Lawyers; Fayetteville Home Builders Association (Director, 1974-80); Associ- 
ation of the US Army; Fayetteville Area Chamber of Commerce; Kiwanis Club. 

Commissions: Cumberland County Auditorium Commission (Chairman, 1983-84; Vice 
Chairman, 1982; Secretary, 1980-81); ABLE Program, Compensatory Education 
Board; Special Activities Committee, Fort Bragg; Governmental Operations Com- 
mission; NC Courts Commission; Fayetteville Family Life Center board; Medical 
Cost Containment Commission, 1982-85. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; Joint Committee on 
Hospital and Medical Benefits for Teachers and State Employees, 1985; Committee 
on Law and Justice, National Conference of State Legislatures, State-Federal 
Assembly; Executive Committee, NC State Democratic Party, 1975-1981; Chair- 
man, Cumberland County Democratic Executive Committee, 1977-1981; Legisla- 
tive Services Commission, 1982. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. John's Episcopal Church, Fayetteville; Lay Reader. 

Family: Married, Karen L. Skarda of Chicago, Illinois, May 30, 1981. Children: 
Ripley Eagles and Craven McLean. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Base Budget. 

Vice Chairman: Judiciary IV. 

Member: Appropriations; Finance; Insurance; Rules and Operations of the 
Senate; State Government; Transportation; Ways and Means. 




302 North Carolina Manual 



MARSHALL ARTHUR RAUCH 

(Democrat — Gaston County) 

Twenty-fifth Senatorial District — Cleveland, Gaston, Lincoln, and 
^^ Rutherford Counties — Three Senators. 

^^^^ ^ ^^^H Early Years: Born in New York, New York, February 2, 1923, to 
^^^ ' ^^^ Nathan A. and Tillie P. (Wohl) Rauch. 

Education: Woodmere High School, 1950; Duke University. 

Profession: Corporate executive (Chairman and President, Rauch Industries, Inc.; 
Director and Treasurer, E.P. Press, Inc.; Director and President, Magic, Ltd.; 
Director and President, P.D.R. Trucking, Inc.; Director, Majestic Insurance Financ- 
ing Corporation). 

Organizations: Director, Holy Angels Nursery, 1960-73; Director, Gastonia YMCA, 
1959-62, 1967-72 (Vice President, 1970; President, 1971); Salvation Army Boys 
Club, 1963-71; Gastonia Boys Club, 1947-71 (Senior Advisor, 1943-63; Director, 
1964-71); Gastonia Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: Former Commission member: Wildlife Tax Study (Chair- 
man, 1979-80); Legislative Services, 1977-1980; Governmental Evaluation (Vice 
Chairman, 1977-80); Legislative Tax Study (Chairman, 1977-1980); Sports Facility, 
1977-80; Governmental Incentive (Vice Chairman, 1977-79); Intangibles Tax Study, 
1978. Trustee, NC Land Conservance, 1978-80; Board of Advisors, Gardner-Webb 
College, 1969-77; Trustee, UNC-Chapel Hill, 1969-73; NC Citizens for Dental 
Health, 1968-73; Advisory Committee, NC Vocational Textile School, 1970-71. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1967, 1969, 1971. 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 
1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; Advisory Budget Commission, 1973-74, 1977-80; 
Gastonia City Council, 1953-54, 1961-65 (Mayor Pro Tem, 1952-1954, 1961-1963). 

Military Service: Served, US Army, World War II, Combat Infantry Award. 

Honors: Who's Who in World Jewry; Who's Who in the South and Southwest; Who's 
Who in Israel; Who 's Who in American Politics; Leading Men in the United States; 
The National Register of Prominent Americans; Human Services Award, NC Asso- 
ciation of Jewish Men and State of NC; Man of the Year, (Gastonia Red Shield 
Club, 1970; NC Health Department; Gaston County Omega Psi Phi, 1966; Gasto- 
nia Junior Women's Club, 1964; Gastonia Junior Chamber of Commerce, 1957); 
National Council of Christians and Jews Award, 1969; National Recreation Associ- 
ation Citation, 1965. 

Religious Activities: Member, Temple Emanuel, Gastonia (former President and Sun- 
day School Teacher) and Temple Israel, Charlotte. Chairman, Gaston Jewish Wel- 
fare Fund; Vice President, NC Association of Jewish Men; President, Frank Gold- 
berg Lodge, B'Nai B'Rith; Governor. NC Jewish Home Board; Cabinet member, 
NC United Jewish Appeal. 

Family: Married, Jeanne Girard, May 18, 1946. Children: John, Ingrid, Marc, Peter 
and Stephanie. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Joint Legislative Ethics Committee. 
Co-Chairman: Finance. 

Member: Commerce; Election Laws; Higher Education; Manufacturing and 
Labor; Rules and Operation of the Senate; Ways and Means. 



The Legislative Branch 



303 




WENDELL HACKER SAWYER 

(Republican — Guilford County) 



Thirty-second Senatorial District 
Senator. 



Guilford County (part) — One 



Early Years: Born in Durham, Durham County, February 8, 1951, to Thomas B. and 
Dorothy Marie (Siler) Sawyer. 

Education: High Point College, 1976, B.A. cum laude; University of Arkansas, School 

of Law, 1980, J. D. 
Profession: Attorney. 
Organizations: NC and NC State Bar Associations. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-; Executive Committee, Guilford County 
Republican Party; former Treasurer, Guilford County Republican Forum; former 
Chairman, Greensboro Chapter, Young Americans for Freedom. 

Military Service: Served, NC National Guard, 1971-77 (Specialist 4th Class). 
Religious Activities: Member, Saint Benedict's Catholic Church, Greensboro. 
Family: Married, Deborah Ann Adolfi of Greensboro, January 8, 1978. Children: 
Mary Ann. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Education; Finance; Higher Education; Judiciary 1; State Government. 



304 



North Carouna Manual 



^"^SuS" 




Nineteenth Senatorial District 
Counties — One Senator. 



ROBERT G. SHAW 

(Republican — Guilford County) 

Forsyth (part) and Guilford (part) 



Early Years: Born in Erwin, Harnett County, November 22, 1924, to R.G.B. and 
Annie (Byrd) Shaw. 

Education: Campbell College; UNC-Chapel Hill. 

Profession: Restaurateur. 

Boards & Commissions: Chairman, NC Council on Community and Economic 
Development, 1975-77; Director, Natural and Economic Resources, 1975-77. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-; NC Republican Party Chairman, 
1975-77; Republican National Committee, 1975-77; County Commissioner, Guil- 
ford County, 1968-76 (former Chairman). 

Military Service: Served, US Army Air Corps, 1943-46. 

Religious Activities: Member, Presbyterian Church, Greensboro; Deacon. 

Family: Married, Linda Owens of High Point, 1981. Children: Ann (Shaw) Hewett 
and Barbara (Shaw) Twining. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Finance; Local Government and Regional Affairs; 
Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife; Senior Citizens. 




The Legislative Branch 305 

DANIEL REID SIMPSON 

(Republican — Burke County) 

Twenty-seventh Senatorial District — Avery, Burke, Caldwell, Mitchell, 
and Wilkes Counties — Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Morganton, Burke County, February 20, 1927, to James Reid 
and Ethel Margaret (Newton) Simpson. 

Education: Glen Alpine Public Schools, 1932-43; University of Mississippi; Auburn 
University; Lenoir Rhyne College; Wake Forest University, 1949, B.S.; Wake 
Forest University, School of Law, 1951, LL.B. 

Profession: Attorney (President and senior member in firm of Simpson, Aycock, 
Beyer, and Simpson, P. A.); former Attorney: Town of Glen Alpine, Burke County 
and Burke County Schools. 

Organizations: Burke County, NC, NC State, and American Bar Associations; Ca- 
tawba Valley Lodge No. 217 (former Grand Master); Free and Accepted Masons. 
Former member: Lions Club; Junior Chamber of Commerce; Sigma Chi; Phi Delta 
Phi. 

Boards & Commissions: Director: Western Steer — Mom 'n' Pops, Inc.; Whitehall 
Galleries, Ltd. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-; NC House of Representatives, 1957, 
1961, 1963; Chairman, Joint Caucus; former Chairman, Burke County Republican 
Executive Committee; former President and Vice President, Burke County Young 
Republicans Club; former Mayor and Councilman, Town of Glen Alpine. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1945-46 (T/5); South Pacific theater. 

Honors: Who's Who in American Law. 

Religious Activities; Member, Glen Alpine Methodist Church; Sunday School teacher. 

Family: Married, Mary Alice Leonard of Glen Alpine, September 16, 1951. Children: 
Mary Alma (Simpson) Beyer, James Reid, II and Ethel Barie (Simpson) Todd. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations — Education; Base Budget; Educa- 
tion; Judiciary II; Local Government and Regional Affairs; State Government. 



306 North Carouna Manual 




PAUL SANDERS SMITH 

(Republican — Rowan County) 

Twenty-third Senatorial District — Davidson, Davie and Rowan 
Counties — Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Salisbury, Rowan County, March 16, 1927, to Karl F. and Mary 
1. (Sanders) Smith. 

Education: Boyden High School, 1948; Catawba College, 1948-1949; Management 
Institute, UNC-Chapel Hill, 1966-1970. 

Profession: Executive Vice President, Marketing and Operations, Holding Brothers, 
inc. 

Organizations: Salisbury Sales and Marketing Executives (President, 1975-76); 
Salisbury-Rowan Merchants Association (President, 1975); Lexington Retail Mer- 
chants Association; Rowan Oil Dealers Association (President, 1966-1976); NC 
Merchants Association, Advisory Board, 1982-; Boy Scouts of America (Scoutmas- 
ter; Advisory Board, Central NC Council, 1983-); Coach (Little League Baseball 
and YMCA Basketball); Salisbury Chamber of Commerce (President, 1976); Lex- 
ington Chamber of Commerce; Salisbury Rotary (Director, 1970-71); Salvation 
Army Advisory Board, 1979-; Davidson County Art Guild; Catawba College 
Alumni Association; Friends of the College; Association for Retarded Citizens. 
Former member: NC Oil Jobbers Governmental Affairs Board; North State Foot- 
ball Officials Association; Tri-County Mental Health board; United Way (Budget 
Chairman, 1976). 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1981-82; 1985-; Rowan County Republican 
Party (Chairman, 1983-84); GOP Presidential Elector, 8th District, 1984; Chair- 
man, Rules and Resolutions, GOP 8th District, 1984; State Executive Committee, 
1981-1984. 

Military: Served, US Navy, 1943-45 (Seaman 1st Class). 

Honors: Friends of the Library, 1983; Oil Industry Award, NC Oil Jobbers; Order of 

the arrow; Scouter's Key; Man of the Year, 1976; Citizen of the Year, 1975; Boss of 

the Year, 1971; Friends of the Boy, 1965. 
Religious Activities: Member, St. John's Lutheran Church, Salisbury; Church Council; 

Pulpit Committee; Men of the Church; Vice President, J. L. Fisher Bible Class; 

Chairman, Education Committee. 
Family: Married, Alda Olivia Clark of Salisbury, September 4, 1950. Children: Paula 

S., Thomas, Charles Sanders and Amy Clark. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Election Laws. 

Member: Commerce; Finance; Higher Education; Insurance; Manufacturing and 
Labor, State Government. 



The Legislative Branch 



307 




ROBERT CHARLES SOLES, JR. 

(Democrat — CoJumbus County) 

Eighteenth Senatorial District Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus, and 
Cumberland (part) Counties — One Senator. 



^'"*-<(*^ 



k 



Early Years: Born in Tabor City, December 17, 1934, to Robert C. and Myrtle 
(Norris) Soles. 

Education: Tabor City High School; Wake Forest University, 1956, B.S.; UNC-Chapel 
Hill, School of Law, 1959, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney. 

Organizations: American and NC Bar Associations; American Trial Lawyers Associa- 
tion; NC Association of County Attorneys; Phi Alpha Delta; Rotary Club (former 
President). 

Boards and Commissions: President, Southeastern Community College Foundation; 
Southern Growth Policies Board; Trustee, UNC-Wilmington; former Trustee, 
UNC-Chapel Hill. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1977-78, 1978-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; 
NC House of Representatives, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1957-67 (Captain). 

Religious Activities: Member, Tabor City Baptist Church. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary IV. 

Vice Chairman: State Government. 

Member: Agriculture; Commerce; Finance; insurance. 



308 North Carolina Manual 




ROBERT VANCE SOMERS 

(Republican — Rowan County) 

Twenty tWird Senatorial District — Davidson, Davie, and Rowan 
Counties — Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Statesville, Iredell County, November 21, 1937, to Walker Vance 
and Ethel (Owens) Somers. 

Education: liast Tennessee State University, 1960, B.S.; UNC-Chapel Hill, School of 
Law, 1963, J. D. 

Profession: Attorney. 

Organizations: NC Association of Trial Lawyers; NC Bar Association. 

Political Activities: Member. NC Senate, 1973-74, 1977-78, 1985-; Prosecutor, Rowan 
County, 1964, 1967-68; Judge, Randolph County Court, 1965-66; Republican can- 
didate, US Senate, 1968. 

Religious Activities: Member, Cleveland Methodist Church. 

Family: Married, Denise Lingelbach of Asheville, Decembers, 1984. Children: Jordan 
(Somers) Christian. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Finance; Judiciary 111, Local Government and Regional Affairs; 
Senior Citizens. 



The Legislative Branch 



309 




JAMES DAVIS SPEED 

(Democrat — Franklin County) 



Ele\enth Senatorial District 
ties — One Senator. 



Franklin, Vance, and Wake (part) Coun- 



«rr^ 



Early Years: Born in Louisburg, Franklin County, January 30, 1915 to Henry 
Piummer and Addie (Jeffreys) Speed. 

Education: Gold Sand High School; NCSU. 

Profession: Farmer; tobacco warehousenian. 

Organizations: Farm Bureau; Mason; Shriner; Louisburg Masonic Lodge (former 
Master). 

Boards and Commissions: NC Agri-Business Council; NC Emergency Medical Advi- 
sory Board; NC Tobacco Foundation (former President). Former member: State 
Board of Directors, NC Farm Bureau Federation; NC Board of Agriculture. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1977-78, 1979-80. 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; 
NC House of Representatives 1961, 1963, 1965, 1967, 1969, 1971. 

Religious Activities: Member, Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Martha Matthews, November 29, 1947. Children: Claudia, Tommy 
end James M. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Agriculture. 

Vice Chairman: Senior Citizens. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations-General Government; Base Budget; 
Children and Youth; Education; Pensions and Retirement; Transportation. 



310 North Carolina Manual 




WILLIAM WAYNE STATON 

(Democrat — Lee County) 

Fourteenth Senatorial District — Harnett, Lee, and Wake (part) Counties 
— Three Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Olive Branch, Union County, October 11, 1917, to Oscar M. and 
Mae (Young) Staton. 

Education: Mt. Ulla High School; Wake Forest University, 1938, B.S.; Wake Forest 
University, School of Law, 1941, LL.B. and J.D. 

Profession: Attorney (senior member in firm of Staton, Perkinson, West and Doster). 
Former Attorney: Sanford Board of Education, 1956-1972; Central Carolina Tech- 
nical College, 1960-1972; Town of Carrboro, 1971-1972. 

Organizations: Eleventh Judicial District Bar Association (President); American Bar 
Association; BPO Elks; Royal Order of Moose; Veterans of Foreign Wars; Ameri- 
can Legion; Disabled American Veterans; Woodmen of the World. Former mem- 
ber: Sanford Chamber of Commerce (President); United Fund of Lee County (Presi- 
dent); Sanford Cotillion Club (President); Lee District Boy Scouts (Chairman); 
Occoneechee Council, BSA (Vice President); Cape Fear Basin Development Asso- 
ciation (President, 1948-1950); Sanford Executive Club (President). 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Directors: Mid-South Bank & Trust Company, 
1974-; Golden Corral Corporation,, 1974-; Investors Management Corporation, 
1974-. Former member, NC Commission for Improved Courts. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1983-84, 1985-; 
NC House of Representatives, 1967; Democratic National Committee, 1960-1964; 
NC Democratic Executive Committee, 1951-1952, 1960-1964; President, Young 
Democrats of NC, 1951-1952; Lee County Democratic Executive Committee, 
1948-1949. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1942-1946, Reserves, 1948-68 (Colonel); Judge 
Advocate Corps; Battle Stars (3) European Theatre; Purple Heart, Battle of the 
Bulge; Bronze Star Metal for Valor, Ordennes Campaign of 1945. 

Honors: NC Legion of Merit; Sanford Community Service Award, 1982. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Sanford Board of Deacons; 

Chairman, Board of Trustees; teacher. Men's Bible Class, 27 years. 
Family: Married, Ellen Boone of Jackson, June 28, 1947. Children: William Wayne, 

Jr. and Allyn Moore. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary II. 
Vice Chairman: Finance. 

Member: Commerce; Higher Education; Insurance; Manufacturing and Labor; 
Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife. 




The Legislative Branch 311 

ROBERT STRINGFIELD SWAIN 

(Democrat — Buncombe County) 

j-.^ 1 wenty-eiuhih Senatorial District Buncombi-, McDowell, Madison, 

\ r and Yancey L ounties — Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Ashcville, July 25, 1921, to John Edward and Mozelle Brewster 
(Stringfield) Swain. 

Education: Lee H. Edwards High School, 1939; Mars Hill College (Wake Forest- 
Meredith summer school), 1939; UNC-Chapel Hill 1939-40; Biltmore College, 1940; 
University of New Mexico, 1941-42; UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1946-49, 
LL.B. 

Profession: Attorney. 

Organizations: Buncombe County and NC Bar Associations; NC Trial Lawyers Asso- 
ciation; Moose International; Phi Alpha Delta; York Rite Mason; Shrine. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Criminal Justice Commission of SLC; Gover- 
nor's Crime Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; 
Solicitor, I9th District, Buncombe and Madison Counties, 1955-67. 

Military Service: Served, US Army Air Corps, 1943-1946 (1st Lieutenant). 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church; Board of Stewards; Sunday School 
teacher. 

Family: Children: Jennifer Ellen, Barbara Giffen, Patricia Ann, Robert Edwards and 
Katherine Anne. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary HI. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Justice and Public Safety. 

Member: Appropriations; Base Budget; Election Laws; Pensions and Retire- 
ment; Rules and Operation of the Senate; Senior Citizens; Ways and Means. 



312 North Carolina Manual 




^ 



THOMAS FLEMING TAFT 

(Democrat - Pitt County) 

Ninth Senatorial District — Beaufort (part), Martin (part), and Pitt 
(part) Counties — One Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Greenville, Pitt County, December 29, 1945, to Edmund Hoover 
and Helen Irene (Fleming) Taft, Jr. 

Education: J. H. Rose High School, 1964; Duke University, 1968, A.B.; Unidersidadi- 
bero-Americana, Mexico City, summer, 1965; UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 
J.D.; Hague Academy of International Law, 1970; City of London, 1970, Certifi- 
cate of International Law. 

Profession: Attorney (managing partner, firm of Taft, Taft, and Haigler); President, 
Eastern Lumber and Supply Company; President, Hardware Suppliers of America, 
Inc.; President, Mercer Glass Company; President, Bowser Construction Company, 
Inc.; President, Lake Placid Development Company, Inc.; President, University 
Medical Park, Inc. 

Organizations: Pitt County, NC and American Bar Associations; NC Academy of 
Trial Lawyers; American Trial Lawyers Association; NC Home Builders Associa- 
tion; Pitt-Greenville Chamber of Commerce; NC Business and Industry Associa- 
tion; University City Kiwanis Club; Master Mason; Pitt County Farm Bureau. 

Boards and Commissions: ECU Medical Foundation; NC State Ports Authority 
(Chairman, 1977-78); Southern Growth Policies Board, 1978-79. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-; legal counsel to James B. Hunt, Lt. 
Governor, 1972-74. 

Honors: Jaycee Distinguished Service Award; President's Cup, Pitt County United 

Way; Outstanding Young Men of America. 
Military Service: Served, US Army Reserves, 1968-74 (Specialist 4th Class), Field 

Artillery and Forward Air Defense. 

Religious Activities: Member, Jarvis Memorial United Methodist Church; Official 
Board 1980-83 (Co-Chairman, 1981); Stewardship Campaign. 

Family: Married, Kathy Arnold, January 30, 1982. Children: Jessica, Paige and 
Thomas. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Agriculture. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations-Justice and Public Safety; Base Bud- 
get; Education; Human Resources; Insurance; Judiciary III; State Govern- 
ment. 




The Legislative Branch 313 

LURA SELF TALLY 

(Democrat — Cumberland County) 

Twelfth Senatorial District — Cumberland (part) County — Two 
Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Statesville, December 9, 1921, to R.O. and Sara Sherrill (Cowles) 
Self. 

Education: Raleigh Public Schools and Needham Broughton High School, 1938; 
Peace College; Duke University, A.B., 1942; NCSU School of Education, 1970 
MA. 

Profession: Teacher and guidance counselor, Fayetteville City Schools; teacher. Adult 
Education, Fayetteville Technical Institute. 

Organizations: NEA; NC Association of Educators; NC Personnel and Guidance 
Association; American Association of University Women; Business and Profes- 
sional Women's Club; NC Federation of Women's Clubs; NC Society for Preserva- 
tion of Antiquities (former President); Fayetteville Women's Club (former Presi- 
dent); President, Cumberland County Mental Health Association; Coordinator of 
Volunteers, Cumberland County Mental Health Center; Kappa Delta. 

Boards and Commissions: Fayetteville Recreation Commission; NCSU Foundation 
Board; Fayetteville Technical Institute Board, 1983; Juvenile Code Revision Com- 
mission, 1977-79. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1983-84, 1985-; NC House of Representa- 
tives, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82. 

Honors: Business and Professional Woman of the Year, Fayetteville, 1978. 

Religious Activities: Member, Hay Street Methodist Church, Fayetteville. 

Family: Children: Robert Taylor and John Cowles. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife. 

Vice Chairman: Higher Education. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations-Education; Base Budget; Children 
and Youth; Education; Judiciary I; Local Government and Regional Affairs. 



314 North Carolina Manual 




JOSEPH EUGENE THOMAS 

(Democrat — Craven County) 

Third Senatorial District — Carteret, Craven, and Pamlico Counties 
One Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Askins, Craven County, July 18, 1941, to Edison E. and Elsie 
(Cowan) Thomas. 

Education: Ernul Elementary School, 1947-54; Farm Life School, 1955-59; NCSU 
1963, B.S. (Forestry). 

Profession: Corporate executive (Senior Vice President, Westmister Company); farmer; 
realtor; licensed contractor; registered forester. 

Organizations: East Carolina Engineers; Society of American Foresters; National 
Association of Home Builders; NC Society of Engineers; Chairman, Vanceboro 
Medical Center, Inc.; Director, NC Agriculture Foundation, Inc.; Vanceboro 
Rotary (former President); New Bern BPOE; Vanceboro Fire Deaprtment; Ducks 
Unlimited; NCSU Alumni Club. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Vanceboro Planning Board; Wildlife Resources 
Commission; NC Board of Transportation, 1977-79 (Commissioner, 2nd Division); 
Craven County Advisory Council for Vocational Education, 1978; Advisory Board, 
NCNA, 1972-76; Chairman, Water Resources Management and Development 
Committee; Environmental Management Commission, 1972-75; NC Board of Water 
and Air Resources 1969-75. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1979-80 (appointed January 5, 1979 to fill the 
seat vacated by death of Senator D. Livingstone Stallings), 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-. 

Honors: Various merit awards, Weyerhaeuser Company. 

Religious Activities: Member, Kitt Swamp Christian Church; Deacon, 1963; has held 
all offices. 

Family: Married, Linda Morris, October 5, 1963. Children: Scott Eugene, Allen Mor- 
ris, Joel Brynn and Emma Jo-Lin. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations-Natural and Economic Resources. 

Vice Chairman: Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife. 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations; Base Budget; Finance; Local Govern- 
ment and Regional Affairs; Rules and Operation of the Senate; Transporta- 
tion; Ways and Means. 



The Legislative Branch 



315 




ROYCE PHELPS THOMAS 

(Democrat — Henderson County) 

Twenty-ninth Senatorial District — Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Haywood, 
Henderson, Jackson, Macon, Polk, Swain, and Transylvania Counties 
— Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Avon Park, Florida, January 3, 1932, to J.R. and Eunice M. 
(Phelps) Thomas. 

Education: Blue Ridge School for Boys, 1946-48; Duke University, 1948-51; US Army 
Advanced Infantry Officers School, 1957-58. 

Profession: Fruit and vegetable distributor. 

Organizations: BPO Elks Lodge No.# 1616; Lions Club. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; Chairman, 
11th Congressional District, Democratic Party of NC, 1980-81, 1982-83. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1951-60 (Captain); Infantry; Hall of Fame, 
Infantry OCS 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Hendersonville; Deacon, 
1979-81. 

Family: Married, Margaret C. Stonecipher, May 19, 1951. Children: James Royce, 
Mary Cecille (Thomas) Vierira and Richard Latt. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Co-Chairman: Finance. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations — General Government. 

Member: Appropriations; Base Budget; Human Resources; Judiciary III; Manu- 
facturing and Labor; Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife. 



316 



North Carolenja Manual 




RUSSELL GRADY WALKER 

(Democrat — Randolph County) 

Sixteenth Senatorial District — Chatham, Moore, Orange (part), and 
Randolph Counties — Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Conetoe, Edgecombe County, August 26, 1918, to Ashley and 
Alleen (Bryant) Walker. 

Education: High Point High School; US Army Air Corps Pilot Training School. 

Profession: Retired chain supermarket operator (former President, Food Line Super 
Markets, Inc.) 

Organizations: Masonic Order, Balfour Lodge; Asheboro Kiwanis Club (former Presi- 
dent; former Lt. Governor, Carolinas District); former President, NC Food Dealers 
Association. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Commission on Children with Special Needs; 
ex-officio member. Mental Health Study Commission; Asheboro Airport Authority 
(former Chairman); Co-Chairman, Social Services Study Commission; Co- 
Chairman, Legislative Research Commission on Waste Disposal, Planning and 
Management; Governor's Task Force on Waste Management; Legislative Research 
Commission on Revenue Sharing with Counties and Municipalities; NC Energy 
Policy Council, 1975-78. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 
1985-; Chairman, NC Democratic Party, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-; Asheboro City 
Council, 1961-65. 

Military Service: Served, US Army Air Corps, 1941-46; Reserves, 1947-55 (Captain). 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Asheboro; Deacon, 1968-1971. 

Family: Married, Ruth Brunt, July 13, 1941. Children: Russell G., Jr., Susan (Walker) 
Smith and Stephen Allen. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations-Human Resources. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations; Human Resources; Local Government and 

Regional Affairs. 
Member: Base Budget; Children and Youth; Finance; Judiciary HI; Rules and 

Operation of the Senate; State Government. 

Member: Joint Legislative Ethics Committee. 




The Legis lati ve Bran ch 317 

MARVIN MARTIN WARD 

(Democrat — Forsyth County) 
Twentieth Senatorial District — Forsyth County (part) — Two Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Morrison, Virginia, February 10, 1914, to Charles Tilden and 
Nora Belle (Martin) Ward. 

Education: East Bend High School, 1930; Appalachian State University, 1934, B.S.; 
UNC-Chapel Hill, 1940, M.A. 

Profession: Retired educator (former Superintendent of Winston-Salem/ Forsyth 
County Schools). 

Organizations: American Association of School Administrators; NC Division of 
Superintendents; Mid-URBAN Superintendents (former President and Director) 
life member, PTA; life member, National Education Association; Lions Club 
Ardmore Community Club (former President); Winston-Salem Automobile Club 
Director, Southern Regional Education Board. 

Boards and Commissions: Forsyth County Mental Health Association; ex-officio 
member, Mental Health Study Commission; NC Commission on Education for 
Economic Growth; NC Block Grant Committee on Education; Chairman, Mental 
Health Ad-Hoc Committee for Chemical Dependency; Study Commissions; Cafete- 
ria Benefits for Teachers, Children with Special Needs, Day Care Issues, Aging. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-. 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Cetenary Church, Winston-Salem; Adminis- 
trative Board; Budget and Finance Committee; Sunday School teacher; Chairman, 
Staff Parish Committee, 1974-77; Sunday School Superintendent, 1958-61. 

Family: Married, Mary June Darden, August 23, 1941. Children: Elizabeth (Ward) 
Cone and Marvin Thomas. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations-Education. 

Vice Chairman: Education; Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife. 

Member: Appropriations; Base Budget; Children and Youth; Finance; Human 
Resources; Rules and Operation of the Senate; Transportation. 



318 



North Carouna Manual 




ROBERT DAVIS WARREN 

(Democrat — Johnston County) 

Fifteenth Senatorial District — Johnston and Sampson Counties 
Senator. 



One 



Early Years: Born in Sampson County, July 22, 1928, to Opheus and Neta (Jackson) 

Warren. 
Education: NCSU, 1950, B.S.; NCSU, 1968, M.Ed.; graduate studies, ECU. 
Profession: Realtor; auctioneer; retired educator. 

Organization: Masonic Order; Scottish Rite Shrine, Sudan Temple; NC Farm Bureau; 
Johnston County Arts Society; NC Wildlife Federation; Mental Health Association 
of Johnston County; Coats Hunting & Fishing Club; Benson Chamber of Com- 
merce. 

Boards and Commissions: Benson Recreation Commission; Council on Developmental 
Disabilities; Capital City Planning Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; Sampson County 
Democratic Men's Club; Governor's Advisory Committee on Vocational Educa- 
tion, 1969-73. 

Honors: Boss of the Year, Johnston County, Honorary Farmer Degree, FFA (chapter 
and state); Outstanding Mason, Relief Lodge No. 431, 1981; Citizen of The Year, 
Benson, 1980. 

Religious Activities: Member, Benson Baptist Church; Deacon, 1950-; Sunday School 
Superintendent; Sunday School Teacher, Married Couples' Class, 1966. 

Family: Married, Ann Sparks, January 20, 1951; Children: Robert Davis, Jr. and Gary 
Burrell. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 
Chairman: Transportation. 

Vice Chairman: Agriculture; Appropriations; Education. 

Member: Base Budget; Finance; Human Resources; Judiciary I; Rules and 
Operation of the Senate. 




The Legislative Branch 319 

MELVIN LUTHER WATT 

(Democrat — Mecklenburg) 

Thirty-third Senatorial District — Mecklenburg County (part) — One 
Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, August 26, 1945, to Graham E. 
and Evelyn (Mauney) Watt. 

Education: Plato Prince School; York Road High School, 1963; UNC-Chapel Hill, 
1967, B.S. (Business Administration); Yale University, School of Law, 1970, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney (Secretary-Treasurer, firm of Ferguson, Watt and Adkins, P. A.). 

Organizations: NC and NC State Bar Associations; Executive Committee, 26th Judi- 
cial District Bar Association; NC Association of Black Lawyers; NC Academy of 
Trial Lawyers; Charlotte Chamber of Commerce; Inroads, Inc.; United Way; Tra- 
velers Aid Society; UNC Alumni Association. 

Boards and Commissions: General Statutes Commission of NC; Sports Action Coun- 
cil (former Vice President); Auditorium-Coliseum-Civic Center Authority; Mint 
Museum Board. Former member: Mecklenburg Court Volunteers; Dillworth Com- 
munity Development Association; Legal Aid of the Southern Piedmont; Family 
Housing Services. 

Politicial Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985-; Black Political Caucus; campaign 
manager, Harvey Gant for Mayor. 

Honors: Phi Beta Kappa; Phi Eta Sigma; President, Beta Gamma Sigma. 

Religious Activities: Member, Mount Olive United Presbyterian Church, Charlotte. 

Family: Married, Eulada Paysour of Lowell, November 25, 1967. Children: Brian and 
Jason. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Election Laws. 

Member: Appropriations; Appropriations-Human Resources; Base Budget; Com- 
merce; Human Resources; Judiciary I; State Government. 



320 



North Carolina Manual 




DENNIS JAY WINNER 

(Democrat — Buncombe County) 

Twenty-eighth Senatorial District — Buncombe, McDowell, Madison, 
and Yancey Counties — Two Senators. 



I 



Early Years: Born in Canton, Buncombe County, March 29, 1942, to Harry and 
Julienne (Marder) Winner. 

Education: Lee H. Edwards High School, 1960; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1963, A.B.; UNC- 
Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1966, J.D. with honors. 

Profession: Attorney (firm of Erwin and Winner, P. A.). 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Directors: Asheville Chamber Music Association; 
UNC Law Alumni Association, 1982-; UNC Board of Visitors, 1976-; Asheville Art 
Museum. Former member: NC Judicial Council, 1973-74; NC Courts Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1983-84, 1985-; Superior Court Judge, 1972- 
75; District Court Judge, 1970-72; President, Buncombe County Young Democrats 
Club, 1968. 

Military Service: Served, NC Air National Guard, 1966-1972 (Sergeant). 

Religious Activities: Member, Congregation Beth Ha Tephila, Asheville. 

Family: Married, Jane Linda Cogdill of Asheville, August 21, 1965. Children: Leanne 
and Lauren. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Education. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Education; Finance. 

Member: Appropriations; Base Budget; Judiciary IV; Rules and Operation of 
the Senate; State Government; Ways and Means. 

Member: Joint Legislative Ethics Committee. 




The Legislative Branch 321 

WILMA CUMMINGS WOODARD 

(Democrat — Wake County) 

Fourteenth Senatorial District — Harnett, Lee and Wake (part) Counties 
— Three Senators. 



Early Years: Born in Angler, Harnett County, November 18, 
1934, to C. Claud and Lutheria (Searcy) Cummings. 

Education: Beaufort High School; UNC-Chapel Hill; NCSU, 1969, B.A. magna cum 
laude (History); graduate studies. Public Affairs, NCSU. 

Profession: Legislator; homemaker. 

Organizations: American Association of University Women; Garner Chamber of 
Commerce; Womens Forum of NC (Director, 1980); chapter member, Raleigh- 
Wake Urban League; Honorary Chairman, Wake County Cancer Society, 1983; 
NCSU Alumni Association (Director, 1978-81); Medical Parents Club, UNC- 
Chapel Hill, 1979; Vice President, Wake County PTA Council, 1977. 

Boards and Commissions: NC Capital Planning Commission; Legislative Services 
Commission; Governor's Blue Ribbon Committee to Assess the Needs of NC Train- 
ing Schools; NC Conference for Social Services; Task Force on Aging; Outer Loop 
Committee of Wake County; Advisory Council, Wake Technical Institute Nursing 
Program; Legislative Council and Board of Directors, NC Retail Merchants Asso- 
ciation; 1981-83 Needs of Women Study Commission; Garner Planning Board 
1977-83 (Chairman, 1977); NC State Museum of Natural History, Advisory Com- 
mission, 1977; Wake Land Use Code Committee, 1977; Advisory Board, Wake 
County CETA, 1977. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1983-84, 1985-; NC House of Representa- 
tives, 1978 (appointed to fill vacancy created by resignation of Robert L. Farmer), 
1979-80, 1981-82; Advisory Budget Commission (first woman); Co-Chairman, Joint 
Legislative Pay Equity Advisory Committee; Wake County Democratic Women; 
charter member and Secretary, Wake County Women's Political Caucus; Wake 
County Democratic Party (Treasurer, 1977); delegate. White House Conference on 
Aging, 1981; delegate to county, district and state conventions, 1976. 

Honors: Legislator of the Year, NC Home Economics Association, 1983; Woman of 
the Year, Wake County ABWA, 1984; Government Award, Academy of Women, 
1984; Women in the Economy, NC Women Attorneys, 1984; NC Citizen of the 
Year, National Association of Social Workers, 1985; Special Citizen's Award, NC 
Association for Counseling and Development, 1985, Outstanding Women in Govern- 
ment, Garner Jaycettes, 1985; Thad Eure Award, Wake County YDC, 1985; Wake 
County YMCA Academy of Women for Outstanding Contributions in Govern- 
ment, 1984; B. F. Brown Award, Outstanding Liberal Arts Student, 1969; Phi 
Kappa Phi. 

Religious Activities: Member, United Methodist Church, Garner. 

Family: Married, Dr. Warden Lewis Woodard, Jr., March 17, 1952; Children: Mary 
Ellen (Woodard) Nixon, Warden Lewis, HI, Albert Searcy and Richard Allen. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations-General Government. 

Member: Appropriations; Base Budget; Children and Youth; Commerce; Higher 

Education; Judiciary I; Pensions and Retirement; Rules and Operation of the 

Senate; State Government. 



322 



North Carolina Manual 




JULIUS ARNETTE WRIGHT* 

(Republican — New Hanover County) 

Seventh Senatorial District — New Hanover and Pender (part) Counties 
— One Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Waycross, Georgia, October 10, 1951, to Julius A. and Shirley 
Gordon Wright, Jr. 

Education: Roswell High School, 1967-69; Valdosta State College, 1974, B.S. magna 
cum laude (Chemistry); Georgia State University, 1978, M.B.A. magna cum laude 
(Finance and Economics). 

Profession: Senior project engineer. Corning Glassworks. 

Organizations: American Chemical Society; American Association of MBA's; Sigma 
Alpha Epsilon Alumni Association (Vice President); Jaycees. 

Boards and Commissions: Director, American Cancer Society; New Hanover County 
Railroad Museum; American Legislative Exchange Council. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; Executive and Steer- 
ing Committees, NC Republican Party; Joint Caucus Leader, NC Legislature, 1985. 

Honors: "Outstanding Freshman Republican Senator," 1981; Alpha Chi Honor 

Society. 
Religious Activities: Member, Myrtle Grove Presbyterian Church, Wilmington. 
Family: Married, Phyllis Ann Powell, June 14, 1975. Children: Rebekah. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Pension and Retirement. 

Member: Education; Finance; Judiciary II; Local Government and Regional 
Affairs; Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife. 



*Resigned, effective June 1, 1985, following his appointment as a Public Utility Commissioner. 
(Letter from Wright to Governor James G. Martin. May 30, 1985; copy on file. Publications 
Division, Department of the Secretary of State, Raleigh, NC) 




The Legislative Branch 323 

FRANKLIN ERVIN WILLIAMS* 

(Republican — New Hanover County) 

Seventh Senatorial District — New Hanover and Pender (part) Counties 
— One Senator. 



Early Years: Born in Beulaville, Duplin County, July 31, 1931, to Joseph Frank and 
Leanna (Brinson) Williams. 

Education: Wallace High School, 1949, University of Georgia, 1958, P.D. (Pharmacy 
Chemistry). 

Profession: Business executive (President and major stockholder, ASCO Wilmington, 
Inc.) and former pharmacist (owner, Williams Pharmacy, 1962-79.) 

Organizations: Candidate Fellow, American Academy of Consulting Pharmacists; 
Chairman NC Academy of Consulting Pharmacists; NC Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion; YMCA; Wilmington Executives Club. Former member: Wilmington Sertoma 
Club, 1974; New Hanover County Drug Abuse Program, 1972. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate, 1985- (appointed June 4, 1985 by Governor 
James G. Martin to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of Senator Chip 
Wright); Chairman, New Hanover County Republican Party; New Hanover County 
Executive Committee; Precinct Chairman, 3 terms; Board of Human Resources, 
1974-76. 

Military: Served, US Army, 1951-53; Reserves, 1949-61 (Master Sergeant). 

Religious Activities: Member, Winter Park Presbyterian Church, Wilmington; Record- 
ing Treasurer; Disbursing Treasurer; Chairman, Board of Deacons; Ruling Elder; 
Sunday School teacher; Choir. 

Family: Married Marilyn Williams of Wallace, November 26, 1954. Children: Kathe 
(Williams) Richardson; and Frank, Jr. 

SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Education; Finance; Judiciary II; Local Government and Regional 
Affairs; Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife; Pensions and 
Retirement. 

*Appointcd June 4. 1985, by Ciovernor Martin to replace Wright. 



324 North Carolina Manual 



TIMOTHY HILL McDOWELL* 

(Democrat - Alamance County) 

tfgg, ^Ji (Twenty-first Senatorial District - Alamance and Caswell Counties - One 

Senator.) 




Early Years: Born in Burlington, Alamance County, January 16, 1946, to Charles 
Lamar and Golda Marjorie (Perry) McDowell. 

Education: Technical College of Alamance, 1970, A.A.S.; Elon College, 1976, B.A.S. 

Profession: Director, Community Relations, Elon College; former editor, Mebane 
Enterprise Journal, 1970-74. 

Organizations: Burlington Rotary Club; College News Association of the Carolinas. 

Boards and Commissions: President, Elon Home for Children; Director, Alamance 
Arts Council; Council for Advancement and Support of Education; Director, 
Volunteers for People; Mebane Board of Adjustments, 1973-74. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate 1985- (appointed September 20, 1985 to 
replace John Jordan); Member, NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 1979-80, 
1981-82, 1983-84, 1985. 

Military Service: Served, US Naval Reserves, 1966-71 (Third Class Petty Officer). 

Honors: Outstanding Young Men in America, 1980; second place, best editorial, NC 
Press Association, 1973; Outstanding Contribution to Conservation, Orange 
County Soil and Water Conservation District, 1972. 

Religious Activities: Member, Hawfields Presbyterian Church. 

Family: Married, Zorado Kernodle, February 25, 1967. Children: Chris Michelle and 
Joshua Truth. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Natural and Economic Resources. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on Education; Appropriations- 
Expansion Budget Committee on Education; Higher Education. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Constitu- 
tional Amendments; Corrections; Judiciary I; Mental Health; Rules and Operation 
of the House. 

(Note: Presumably McDowell will be appointed to fill vacancies on the same commit- 
tees on which Jordan served; however, this decision lies with the Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor.) 



♦Appointed September 20, 1985, to replace Jordan. 



The Legislative Branch 



325 




SYLVIA MORRIS FINK 

Principal Clerk 
North Carolina Senate 



Early Years: Born in Charlotte, August 8, 1936, to Warren Reid (deceased) and Effie 
(Howard) Morris. 

Education: Mount Holly High School, 1954; Pfeiffer College, 1955-56. 

Profession: Principal Clerk, NC Senate, 1976- (first woman); General Assembly staff, 
1967, 1973-76; Deputy Clerk, NC Court of Appeals, 1967-68; formerly employed by 
Duke Power Company, Cannon Mills Company and Charlotte Chamber of Com- 
merce. 

Organizations: American Society of Legislative Clerks and Secretaries; Wake Demo- 
cratic Women; Executive Committee, Pfeiffer College (former Program Chairman). 

Political Activities: Principal Clerk, NC Senate, 1976, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983- 
84, 1985-; Journal Clerk, NC Senate, 1975-76; Assistant Journal Clerk, NC Senate, 
1973-74; Committee Clerk, NC Senate, 1967. 

Religious Activities: Member, Benson Memorial United Methodist Church; life mem- 
ber. Women's Society of Christian Service (former President and Vice President). 
Former MYF counselor, Sunday School teacher, organist, choir member. 

Family: Children: Paige Elizabeth. 



I 



The Legislative Branch 



327 



OCCUPATIONS OF SENATORS 



Account Executive 

Wanda H. Hunt 

Attorney 

Barnes, Henson P. 
Cobb, Laurence A. 
Ezzell, James E., Jr. 
Hipps, Charles W. 
Johnson, James C, Jr. 
Johnson, Joseph E. 
Martin, WilHam N. 
Rand, Anthony E. 
Sawyer, Wendell H. 
Simpson, Daniel R. 
Soles, Robert C, Jr. 
Somers, Robert V. 
Staton, William W. 
Swain, Robert S. 
Taft, Thomas F. 
Watt, Melvin L. 
Winner, Dennis J. 

Auctioneer 

Warren, Robert D. 

Banker 

Conder, J. Richard 

Business Executive 

Ballenger, T. Cass 
Goldston, W. D., Jr. (retired) 
Hardison, Harold W. 
Harrington, J. J. (retired) 
Kaplan, Ted 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Price, Weldon R. 
Rauch, Marshall A. 
Smith, Paul S. 
Taft, Thomas F. 
Thomas, Joseph E. 
Walker, Russell G. (retired) 
Williams, Frank E. 

Contractor 

Basnight, Marc 
Thomas, Joseph E. 

Developer 

Jordan, John M. 



Educator 

Kincaid, Donald R. 
Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
Tally, Lura S. 
Ward, Marvin (retired) 
Warren, Robert D. (retired) 

Engineer 

Wright, J. A. 

Farmer 

Barnes, Henson P. 
Martin, R. L. 
Parnell, David R. 
Speed, James D. 
Thomas, Joseph E. 

Forester 

Thomas, Joseph E. 

Funeral Home Owner 

Harris, OUie 

Homemaker 

Woodard, Wilma C. 

Insurance Executive 

Guy, A. D. 
Kincaid, Donald R. 
Martin, R. L. 
McDuffie, James D. 

Legislator 

Hunt, Wanda H. 
Woodard, Wilma C. 

Merchant 

Hunt, Ralph A. 
Parnell, David R. 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 

Military Officer 

Redman, William W., Jr. (retired) 

Museum Owner 

Johnson, James C, Jr. 

Produce Distributor 

Thomas, R. P. 



328 North Carolina Manual 



Real Estate Executive 

Guy, A. D. 
Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Redman, William W., Jr. 
Thomas, Joseph E. 
Warren, Robert D. 

Restaurateur 

Shaw, Robert G. 

Tobacco Warehouseman 

Speed, James D. 






The Legislative Branch 



329 



1985 SENATE COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

AGRICULTURE 

Chairman: Speed, James D. 

Vice Chairman: Hipps, Charles W. 

Vice Chairman: Taft, Thomas F. 

Vice Chairman: Warren, Robert D. 



Barnes, Henson P. 
Jordan, John M. 
Parnell, David R. 
Redman, WilHam W., Jr. 
Thomas, Joseph E. 



Ballenger, T. Cass 
Cobb, Laurence A. 
Goldston,W. D.,Jr. 
Harris, Oliie 
Johnson, James C, Jr. 
Martin, R. L. 
Parnell, David R. 
Speed, James D. 
Tally, Lura S. 
Ward, Marvin 
Woodard,WilmaC. 



Basnight, Marc 
McDuffie, James D. 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Shaw, Robert G. 



Ezzell, James E., Jr. 
Martin, R. L. 
Price, Weldon R. 
Soles, R.C., Jr. 



APPROPRIATIONS 

Chairman: Plyler, Aaron W. 

Vice Chairman: Hardison, Harold W. 

Vice Chairman: Royall, Kenneth G. 

Vice Chairman: Walker, Russell G. 

Vice Chairman: Warren, Robert D. 



Barnes, Henson P. 
Conder, J. Richard 
Guy,A.D. 
Hipps, Charles W. 
Johnson, Joseph E. 
Martin, William N. 
Rand, Anthony E. 
Swain, Robert S. 
Thomas, Joseph E. 
Watt, Melvin L. 



Basnight, Marc 
Ezzell, James E., Jr. 
Harrington, J. J. 
Hunt, Ralph A. 
Kincaid, Donald R. 
Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
Simpson, Daniel R. 
Taft, Thomas F. 
Thomas, R. P. 
Winner, Dennis J. 



Goldston,W.D.,Jr. 
Tally, Lura S. 



APPROPRIATIONS — EDUCATION 

Chairman: Ward, Marvin 
Vice Chairman: Winner, Dennis J. 

Martin, William N. Simpson, Daniel R. 



APPROPRIATIONS — GENERAL GOVERNMENT 



Conder, J. Richard 
Johnson, James C, Jr. 



Chairman: Woodard, Wilma C. 
Vice Chairman: Thomas, R. P. 

Ezzell, James E., Jr. 
Speed, James D. 



Hunt, Ralph A. 



APPROPRIATIONS — HUMAN RESOURCES 

Chairman: Walker, Russell G. 
Vice Chairman: Harris, Ollie 



Ballenger, T. Cass 
Watt, Melvin L. 



Harrington, J. J. 



Marvin, Helen Rhyne 



APPROPRIATIONS — JUSTICE AND PUBLIC SAFETY 

Chairman: Parnell, David R. 
Vice Chairman: Swain, Robert S. 
Cobb, Laurence A. Hipps, Charles W. Johnson, Joseph E. 

Taft, Thomas F. 



330 



North Carolina Manual 



APPROPRIATIONS — NATURAL AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES 



Barnes, Henson P. 
Kincaid, Donald R. 



Chairman: Thomas, Joseph E. 
Vice Chairman: Martin, R. L. 

Basnight, Marc 



Guy,A.D. 



BASE BUDGET 

Chairman: Rand, Anthony E. 
(All members of the APPROPRIATIONS COMMITTEE) 

CHILDREN AND YOUTH 

Chairman: Hipps, Charles W. 

Vice Chairman: Ballenger, T. Cass 

Vice Chairman: Marvin, Helen Rhyne 



Barnes, Henson P. 
Harris, Ollie 

Redman, William W., Jr. 
Tally, Lura S. 
Woodard, Wilma C. 



Conder, J. Richard 
Johnson, James C, Jr. 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
Walker, Russell G. 



Harrington, J. J. 
Martin, William N. 
Speed, James D. 
Ward, Marvin 



Ballenger, T. Cass 
Harrington, J. J. 
Martin, R. L. 
Rauch, Marshall A. 
Smith, Paul S. 
Watt, Melvin L. 



Basnight, Marc 
Hunt, Ralph A. 
McDuffie, James D. 
Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
Speed, James D. 
Williams, Frank E. 



COMMERCE 

Chairman: Hardison, Harold W. 
Vice Chairman: Guy, A. D. 

Cobb, Laurence A. 
Harris, Ollie 
Parnell, David R. 
Redman, William W., Jr. 
Soles, R. C, Jr. 
Woodard, Wilma C. 

EDUCATION 

Chairman: Winner, Dennis J. 

Vice Chairman: Ward, Marvin 

Vice Chairman: Warren, Robert D. 

Conder, J. Richard 
Hunt, Wanda H. 
Martin, R. L. 
Sawyer, Wendell H. 
Taft, Thomas F. 



Goldston,W. D.,Jr. 
Johnson, Joseph E. 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
Staton, William W. 



Hipps, Charles W. 
Jordan, John M. 
Martin, William N. 
Simpson, Daniel R. 
Tally, LuraS. 



Cobb, Laurence A. 
Jordan, John M. 
Price, Weldon R. 



ELECTION LAWS 

Chairman: Kaplan, Ted 

Vice Chairman: Smith, Paul S. 

Vice Chairman: Watt, Melvin L. 

Ezzell, James E., Jr. 
Parnell, David R. 
Rauch, Marshall A. 



Johnson, Joseph E. 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Swain, Roberts. 



The Legislative Branch 



331 



Guy, A. D. 

Harris, Ollie 
Kaplan, Ted 
Price, Weldon R. 
Royal!, Kenneth C. 
Smith, Paul S. 
Thomas, Joseph E. 
Warren, Robert D. 



Jr. 



FINANCE 

Co-Chairmen: Rauch, Marshall A. 

Thomas, R. P. 
Vice Chairman: Staton, William W. 
Vice Chairman: Winner, Dennis J. 



Hardison, Harold W. 
Hunt, Wanda H. 
McDuffie, James D. 
Rand, Anthony E. 
Sawyer, Wendell H. 
Soles, R. C, Jr. 
Walker, Russell G. 
Williams, Frank E. 



Harrington, J. J. 
Jordan, John M. 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Redman, William W. 
Shaw, Robert G. 
Somers, Robert V. 
Ward, Marvin 



Jr. 



Conder, Jr. Richard 
Rauch, Marshall A. 
Smith, Paul S. 



HIGHER EDUCATION 

Chairman: Martin, William N. 

Vice Chairman: Cobb, Laurence A. 

Vice Chairman: Tally, Lura S. 



Goldston, W. D.,Jr. 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
Staton, William W. 

HUMAN RESOURCES 



Hunt, Ralph A. 
Sawyer, Wendell H. 
Woodard, Wilma C. 



Chairman: Harris, Ollie 

Vice Chairman: Redman, William W., Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Walker, Russell G. 



Ballenger, T. Cass 
Hunt, Wanda H. 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
Ward, Marvin 



Ballenger, T. Cass 
Smith, Pauls. 
Taft, Thomas F. 



Johnson, James C, Jr. 
Tally, Lura S. 
Woodard, Wilma C. 



Ezzell, James E., Jr. 
Marvin, Helen Rhyne 



Hardison, Harold W. 
Martin, William N. 
Taft, Thomas F. 
Warren, Robert D. 



Harrington, J. J. 

Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
Thomas, R. P. 
Watt, Melvin L. 



INSURANCE 

Chairman: Johnson, Joseph E. 

Vice Chairman: Kincaid, Donald R. 

Vice Chairman: Parneli, David R. 



Hardison, Harold W. 
Soles, R. C, Jr. 



Rand, Anthony E. 
Staton, William W. 



JUDICIARY I 

Chairman: Barnes, Henson P. 
Vice Chairman: Hipps, Charles W. 

Price, Weldon R. 
Warren, Robert D. 



Sawyer, Wendell H. 
Watt, Melvin L. 



JUDICIARY II 

Chairman: Staton, William W. 
Vice Chairman: Martin, William N. 



Hunt. Wanda H. 
Simpson, Daniel R. 



Kaplan, Ted 
Williams, Frank E. 



332 



North Carolina Manual 



JUDICIARY III 

Chairman: Swain, Robert S. 
Vice Chairman: Johnson, Joseph E. 



Harris, Ollie 
Taft, Thomas F. 



Kincaid, Donald R. 
Thomas, R. P. 



Somers, Robert V. 
Walker, Russell G. 



JUDICIARY IV 

Chairman: Soles, R. C, Jr. 
Vice Chairman: Rand, Anthony E. 



Ballenger, T. Cass 
Parnell, David R. 



Cobb, Laurence A. 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 



Goldston, W. D.,Jr. 
Winner, Dennis Jr. 



LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND REGIONAL AFFAIRS 

Chairman: Ezzell, James E., Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Price, Weldon R. 

Vice Chairman: Walker, Russell G. 



Basnight, Marc 
Martin, R. L. 
Simpson, Daniel R. 
Thomas, Joseph E. 



Conder, J. Richard 
Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
Somers, Robert V. 
Williams, Frank E. 



Hunt, Ralph A. 
Shaw, Robert G. 
Tally, Lura S. 



MANUFACTURING AND LABOR 

Chairman: Jordan, John M. 

Vice Chairman: Goldston, W. D., Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Parnell, David R. 



Ballenger, T. Cass 
Harris, Ollie 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Smith, Paul S. 



Basnight, Marc 
Johnson, Joseph E. 
Price, Weldon R. 
Staton, William W. 



Guy, AD. 
Kincaid, Donald R. 
Rauch, Marshall A. 
Thomas, R. P. 



NATURAL AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES AND WILDLIFE 

Chairman: Tally, Lura S. 

Vice Chairman: Thomas, Joseph E. 

Vice Chairman: Ward, Marvin 



Basnight, Marc 
Hunt, Wanda H. 
Redman, William W., Jr. 
Thomas, R. P. 



Conder, J. Richard 
Kincaid, Donald R. 
Shaw, Robert G. 
Williams, Frank E. 



Guy, AD. 
Martin, R. L. 
Staton, William W. 



PENSIONS AND RETIREMENT 

Chairman: Marvin, Helen Rhyne 
Vice Chairman: Hardison, Harold W. 



Harrington, J. J. 
Kaplan, Ted 
Price, Weldon R. 
Swain, Robert S. 



Hunt, Ralph A. 
McDuffie, James D. 
Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
Williams, Frank E. 



Hunt, Wanda H. 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Speed, James D. 
Woodard, Wilma C. 



The Legislative Branch 



333 



RULES AND OPERATION OF THE SENATE 

Chairman: Harrington, J. J. 

Vice Chairman: Barnes, Henson P. 

Vice Chairman: Royal!, Kenneth C, Jr. 



Hardison, Harold W. 
Plyler, Aaron W. 
Redman, William W., Jr. 
Walker, Russell G. 
Winner, Dennis J. 



Barnes, Henson P. 
Guy, A. D. 
Shaw, Robert G. 



Cobb, Laurence A. 
Parnell, David R. 
Redman, William W., Jr. 
Smith, Paul S. 
Watt, Melvin L. 



Barnes, Henson P. 
Johnson, James C, Jr. 
McDuffie, James D. 
Redman, William W., Jr. 
Ward, Marvin 



Ballenger, T. Cass 
Harris, OUie 
Rand, Anthony E. 
Thomas, Joseph E. 



Hipps, Charles W. 
Rand, Anthony E. 
Swain, Robert S. 
Ward, Marvin 
Woodard, Wilma C. 

SENIOR CITIZENS 

Chairman: Hunt, Wanda H. 
Vice Chairman: Hunt, Ralph A. 
Vice Chairman: Speed, James D. 



Kincaid, Donald R. 
Rauch, Marshall A. 
Thomas, Joseph E. 
Warren, Robert D. 



Conder, J. Richard 
Johnson, James C, Jr. 
Somers, Robert V. 

STATE GOVERNMENT 



Ezzell, James E., Jr. 
Jordan, John M. 
Swain, Robert S. 



Chairman: Guy, A. D. 

Vice Chairman: Conder, J. Richard 

Vice Chairman: Soles, R. C, Jr. 



Hardison, Harold W. 
Rand, Anthony E. 
Sawyer, Wendell H. 
Taft, Thomas F. 
Winner, Dennis J. 

TRANSPORTATION 

Chairman: Warren, Robert D. 
Vice Chairman: Basnight, Marc 



Harris, Ollie 
Royall, Kenneth C, 
Simpson, Daniel R. 
Walker, Russell G. 
Woodard, Wilma C. 



Jr. 



Goldston, W. D., Jr. 
Jordan, John M. 
Martin, R. L. 
Speed, James D. 



Harrington, J. J. 
Kaplan, Ted 
Rand, Anthony E. 
Thomas, Joseph E. 



WAYS AND MEANS 

Chairman: Royall, Kenneth C, Jr. 
Vice Chairman: Harrington, J. J. 
Vice Chairman: Plyler, Aaron W. 

Guy, A.D. 
Hipps, Charles W. 
Rauch, Marshall A. 
Winner, Dennis J. 



Hardison, Harold W. 
Parnell, David R. 
Swain, Robert S. 



334 North Carolina Manual 



1985 JOINT LEGISLATIVE ETHICS COMMITTEE 

Chairman: Rauch, Marshall A. 

Senate Members House of Representatives Members 

Cobb, Laurence A. Allran, Austin M. 

Redman, William W., Jr. Hunter, Robert C. 

Walker, Russell G. Keesee-Forrester, Margaret P. 

Winner, Dennis J. Kennedy, Annie B. 



The Legislative Branch 335 



PERMANENT RULES OF THE 1985 SENATE 
GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF NORTH CAROLINA 

I. Order of Business, Rules 1-7 

II. Conduct of Debate, Rules 8- 17 

III. Motions, Rules 18-24 

IV. Voting, Rules 25-30 

V. Committees, Rules 31-37 
VI. Handling Bills, Rules 38-59 
VII. Legislative Officers and Employees, 

Rules 60-65 
VIII. General Rules, Rules 66-77 

I. Order of Business 

RULE 1. Rules controlling the Senate of North Carolina and its Committees. — The 
following rules shall govern and control all actions and procedures of the Senate and its 
committees. 

RULE 2. Convening hour. — The President shall take the Chair at the hour fixed by 
the Senate upon adjournment on the preceding legislative day, and shall call the mem- 
bers to order. In case the Senate adjourned on the preceding legislative day without hav- 
ing fixed the hour of reconvening, the Senate shall reconvene on the next legislative day 
at 1:30 p.m. 

RULE 3. Opening the session. — The President shall, upon order being obtained, 
have the sessions of the Senate opened with prayer. 

RULE 4. Convening in absence of President. — In the absence of the President, the 
President Pro Tempore shall reconvene the Senate and preside, and during such time 
shall be vested with all powers of the President except that of casting a vote in case of tie 
when he has already voted on the question as a Senator. In the event of the absence of 
the President and President Pro Tempore at any time fixed for the reconvening of the 
Senate, the Principal Clerk of the Senate, or in his absence also, some member of the 
Senate Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate, shall call the Senate to order 
and designate some member to act as President. 

RULE 5. Quorum. — (a) A quorum consists of a majority of all the qualified mem- 
bers of the Senate. 

(b) When a lesser number than a quorum convene, the Senators present may send the 
doorkeeper or any person, for any or all absent Senators, as a majority of the Senators 
present determine. 

RULE 6. Approval of Journal. — After the prayer, and upon appearance of a quo- 
rum, the President shall cause the Journal of the preceding day to be read and approved, 
unless the Chairman of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate or some 
member of the Senate by motion sustained by a majority of the members present, has 
the reading thereof dispensed with and the same approved as written. 



336 NdTH Carolina Manual 



RULE 7. Order of Business. — After approval of the journal, the order of business 
shall be as follows: 

(1) Reports of standing committees. 

(2) Reports of select committees. 

(3) Introduction of bills, petitions, and resolutions. 

(4) Messages from the House of Representatives. 

(5) Unfinished business of preceding day. 

(6) Special orders. 

(7) General Orders: 

(a) Local bills in numerical order, Senate bills first 
(i) Third reading roll call and electronic 

voting system votes 
(ii) Second reading roll call and electronic 

voting system votes 
(iii) Second reading viva voce 
(iv) Third reading viva voce 

(b) Public bills in numerical order. Senate bills first 
(i) Third reading roll call and electronic 

voting system votes 
(ii) Second reading roll call and electronic 

voting system votes 
(iii) Second reading viva voce 
(iv) Third reading viva voce 

\\. Conduct of Debate 

RULE 8. President to maintain order. — The President shall have general direction of 
the Hall of the Senate and shall be authorized to take such action as is necessary to 
maintain order, and in case of any disturbance or disorderly conduct in the galleries or 
lobbies, he shall have the power to order those areas cleared. 

RULE 9. Substitution for President. — The President shall have the right to call on 
any member to perform the duties of the Chair, but substitution shall not extend be- 
yond one day. 

RULE 10. Points of order. — (a) The President shall preserve order and decorum and 
proceed with the business of the Senate according to the rules adopted. He shall decide 
all questions of order, subject to an appeal to the Senate by any member, on which ap- 
peal no member shall speak more than once unless by leave of the Senate. A two-thirds 
vote of the membership of the Senate is necessary to sustain any appeal from the ruling 
of the Chair. 

(b) In the event the Senate Rules do not provide for, or cover any point of order 
raised by any Senator, the rules of the United States House of Representatives shall 
govern. 

(c) When a Senator is called to order he shall take his seat until the President de- 
termines whether he was in order or not; if decided to be out of order, he shall not pro- 
ceed without the permission of the Senate; and every question of order shall be decided 



The Legislative Branch 337 



by the President, subject to an appeal to the Senate by any Senator; and if a Senator is 
called to order for words spoken, the words excepted to shall be immediately taken 
down in writing, that the President or Senate may be better able to judge the matter. 

RULE 1 1 . Debating and voting by Lieutenant Governor. — The Lieutenant Governor, 
as President of the Senate, being a Constitutional Officer shall not have the right to de- 
bate any question or to address the Senate upon any proposition unless by permission 
of the majority of members present, and shall have the right to vote only when there is a 
tie vote upon any question or election. 

RULE 12. Obtaining recognition. — (a) When any Senator is about to speak in debate 
or deliver any matter to the Senate, he shall rise from his seat and respectfully address 
the President. No member shall speak further until recognized by the President, and 
when two or more members rise at the same time, the President shall name the member 
to speak. 

(b) A Senator who has the floor may yield the floor to another Senator only for the 
purpose of allowing another Senator to state a question. Only the Chair may award the 
floor to any Senator for the purposes of allowing that Senator to engage in general de- 
bate. 

(c) A senator who has obtained the floor may be interrupted only for the following 
reasons: 

1. a request that the member speaking yield for a question, 

2. a point of order, or 

3. a parliamentary inquiry. 

RULE 13. Recognition for extending courtesies. — (a) Courtesies of the floor and 
galleries shall be extended only by the President on his own motion or upon the written 
request of a member of the Senate to former members of the General Assembly or to 
distinguished visitors. 

(b) Members may designate Honorary Pages by a statement delivered to the Principal 
Clerk who will have a certificate issued therefor. 

(c) The President may upon written request at intervals between various orders of 
business extend courtesies to schools or other special large groups visiting in the gal- 
leries while they are present, and the President shall, at such times as he deems ap- 
propriate, express to those visitors in the galleries the pleasure of the Senate for their 
presence. 

RULE 14. Limitations on individual debate. — (a) No Senator shall speak on the same 
day more than twice on the main question, nor longer than thirty minutes for the first 
speech and fifteen minutes for the second speech. No senator shall speak on the same 
day more than once on an amendment or a motion to reconsider, commit, appeal or 
postpone, and then no longer than ten minutes. 

(b) By permission of the President any member of the Senate may address the Senate 
from the well of the senate for the purpose of explaining a bill or of giving an invoca- 
tion. 

RULE 15. Priority of business. — All questions relating to priority of business shall 
be decided without debate. 



338 North Carolina Manual 



RULE 16. Reading of papers. — When the reading of a paper, other than a petition, is 
called for, and any Senator objects to the reading, the question shall be determined by 
the Senate without debate. 

RULE 17. General decorum. — (a) Male Senators and male visitors shall uncover 
their heads upon entering the Senate Chamber while the Senate is in session and shall 
continue uncovered during their continuance in the Chamber, unless one's religion re- 
quires his head to be covered. 

(b) No remark reflecting personally upon the action of any Senator shall be in order 
upon the floor of the Senate unless preceded by a motion or resolution of censure. 

(c) When the President is putting a question, or a division by counting is in progress, 
no Senator shall walk out of or across the Chamber, nor when a Senator is speaking, 
pass between him and the President. 

(d) When a motion to adjourn or for recess is affirmatively determined, no member 
or officer shall leave his place until adjournment or recess is declared by the President. 

(e) Smoking shall not be allowed in the galleries of the Senate during sessions. 

(f) No remark soliciting the donation of funds for the support of any person or or- 
ganization shall be in order upon the fioor of the Senate, unless the remark has some 
relevance to a bill or resolution before the body. No article of any kind soliciting busi- 
ness or donations may be placed by any person anywhere in the Senate Chamber or in 
any Senate office. 

(g) Food or beverage shall not be permitted in the Senate Chamber, either on the 
fioor or in the galleries: however, after the Senate has remained in session for a period of 
two hours, food and beverage shall be allowed upon the floor of the Senate. 

(h) Reading of newspapers, magazines, periodicals or books shall not be acceptable 
while the Senate is in session. 

in. Motions 

RULE 18. Motions generally. — All motions shall be reduced to writing, if desired by 
the President or a Senator, delivered at the table, and read by the President or Reading 
Clerk before the same are debated; but any motion may be withdrawn by the introducer 
at any time before decision or amendment. No motion relating to a bill shall be in order 
which does not identify the bill by its number and short title. Except as otherwise speci- 
ficially provided in these rules, no second is required. 

RULE 19. Motions; order of precedence. — When a question is before the Senate no 
motion shall be received except those herein specified, which motions shall have prece- 
dence as follows: 

(1) To adjourn. 

(2) To lay on the table. 

(3) For the previous question. 

(4) To postpone indefinitely. 

(5) To postpone to a certain day. 

(6) To commit to a standing committee. 

(7) To commit to a select committee. 

(8) To amend. 

(9) To substitute. 



The Legislative Branch 339 



RULE 20. Motions requiring a second. — The motions to adjourn, to lay on the table, 
and to call for the previous question, shall be seconded and decided without debate, 
and the motion to adjourn shall always be in order when made by a Senator entitled to 
the floor. 

RULE 21. Motions to postpone to certain day and to commit. — The respective 
motions to postpone to a certain day, or to commit to a standing or select committee, 
shall preclude debate on the main question. 

RULE 22. (Reserved for future use) 

RULE 23. Motion for previous question. — The previous question shall be as follows: 
"Shall the main question be now put?" and until it is decided shall preclude all amend- 
ments and debate. If this question is decided in the affirmative, the "main question" 
shall be on the passage of the bill, resolution, or other matter under consideration; but 
when amendments are pending, the question shall be taken upon such amendments in 
their inverse order, without further debate or amendment: Provided, that no one shall 
move the previous question except the chairman of the committee submitting the report 
on the bill or other matter under consideration, or the member introducing the bill or 
other matter under consideration or the member in charge of the measure, who shall be 
designated by the chairman of the committee reporting the same to the Senate at the 
time the bill or other matter under consideration is reported to the Senate or taken up 
for consideration. 

RULE 24. Motion to reconsider. — When a question has been once put and decided, 
any Senator who voted in the majority may move to reconsideration thereof; but no 
motion for the reconsideration of any vote shall be in order after the bill, resolution, 
message, report, amendment, or motion upon which the vote was taken has gone out of 
the possession of the Senate; nor shall any motion for reconsideration be in order unless 
made on the same day or in the next following legislative day on which the vote pro- 
posed to be reconsidered took place, unless the motion is made by the Committee on 
Rules and Operation of the Senate for verbal or grammatical errors in the bills, when 
the motion may be made at any time: Provided, that when the next legislative day has by 
motion of the Senate, been restricted as to matters which may be considered, a motion 
to reconsider shall be in order on the next succeeding day upon which regular business is 
conducted. No question shall be reconsidered more than once. 

IV. Voting 

RULE 25. Use of electronic voting system. — (a) Votes on the following questions 
shall be taken on the electronic voting system, and the ayes and noes shall be recorded 
on the Journal: 

(1) All questions on which the Constitution of North Carolina requires that the ayes 
and noes be taken and recorded on the Journal. 

(2) All questions on which a call for the ayes and noes under Rule 26(b) has been sus- 
tained. 

(3) Both second and third readings of bills proposing amendment of the Constitution 
of North Carolina. 



340 North Carouna Manual 



(b) Votes on the following questions shall be taken on the electronic voting system, 
and a copy of the machine print-out of the votes shall be filed in the Legislative Library 
where it shall be open to public inspection: 

( 1 ) Second reading of all public bills, all amendments to public bills offered after sec- 
ond reading, third reading if a public bill was amended after second reading, and 
all conference reports on public bills. 

(2) Any other question upon direction of the Chair or upon motion of any Senator 
supported by one-fifth of the Senators present. 

(c) When the electronic voting system is used, the Chair shall fix and announce the 
time, not to exceed one minute, which shall be allowed for voting on the question before 
the Senate. The system shall be set to lock automatically and to record the vote when 
that time has expired. Once the system has locked and recorded a vote, the vote shall be 
printed by the system. 

(d) The voting station at each Senator's desk in the Chamber shall be used only by 
the Senator to which the station is assigned. Under no circumstances shall any other 
person vote at a Senator's station. It is a breach of the ethical obligation of a Senator 
either to request that another vote at the requesting Senator's station, or to vote at an- 
other Senator's station. The Chair shall enforce this rule without exception. 

(e) When the electronic voting system is used, the Chair shall state the question and 
shall then state substantially the following: "All in favor vote 'aye'; all opposed vote 

'no'; seconds will be allowed for voting on this question; the Clerk will unlock the 

machine." After the machine locks and records the vote, the Chair shall announce the 
vote and declare the result. 

(0 One copy of the machine print-out of the vote record shall be filed in the office of 
the Principal Clerk, and one copy shall be filed in the Legislative Library where it shall 
be open to public inspection. 

(g) When the Chair ascertains that the electronic voting system is inoperative before 
a vote is taken or while a vote is being taken on the electronic system, he shall announce 
that fact to the Senate and any partial electronic system voting record shall be voided. 
In such a case, if the Constitution of North Carolina or the Rules of the Senate require a 
call of the ayes and noes, the Clerk shall call the roll of the Senate, and the ayes and noes 
shall be taken manually and shall be recorded on the Journal. All other votes shall be 
taken by voice vote as prescribed in Senate Rule 26(a). If, after a vote is taken on the 
electronic system, it is discovered that a malfunction caused an error in the electronic 
system print-out, the Chair shall direct the Reading Clerk and the Principal Clerk to 
verify and correct the print-out record and so advise the Senate. 

(h) For the purpose of identifying motions on which the vote is taken on the elec- 
tronic system (the identification codes having no relation to the order of precedence of 
motions), the motions are coded as follows: 

1. To lay on the table. 

2. For the previous question. 

3. To postpone indefinitely. 

4. To postpone to a day certain. 

5. To refer to a committee. 

6. To reconsider. 



The Legislative Branch 341 



7. To adopt. 

8. To concur. 

9. To take from the table. 
10. Miscellaneous. 

RULE 26. Voice votes; call for ayes and noes. — (a) When the electronic voting system 
is not used, all votes on which a call of the roll of the Senate is not required shall be 
taken by voice vote. The question shall be put as follows: "Those in favor say 'aye'," 
and, after the affirmative vote is expressed, "Opposed 'no"\ after which the Chair shall 
announce the result. If a division on any vote is desired, it must be called for im- 
mediately before the result of the voting is announced on any question, and upon such 
call, the Chair shall require the members to stand and be counted for and against the 
proposition under consideration. 

(b) The ayes and the noes may be called for on any question before the vote is taken. 
If a Senator desires the ayes and noes recorded on the Journal on a question, he shall 
address the Chair and obtain recognition and say, "Upon that question I call for the 
ayes and noes." Whereupon the Chair shall say, "Is the call sustained?" If one-fifth of 
the Senators present then stand, the vote shall be taken on the electronic voting sytem if 
it is operative, and the ayes and noes shall be recorded on the Journal. If the electronic 
voting system is inoperative, the roll of the Senate shall be called and the ayes and noes 
taken manually and recorded on the Journal. If fewer than one-fifth of the Senators 
present stand to sustain the call, the Chair shall announce, "an insufficient number up" 
and a vote by electronic voting or by voice, whichever is appropriate under the Rules of 
the Senate, shall be taken. 

RULE 27. Pairs. — If a Senator is paired with another Senator on a question, the 
Senator shall announce the pair as follows: "Mr. President, I desire to announce a pair. 
If Senator were present, he would vote ; I would vote (the oppo- 
site)." The Senator shall send forward at that time a written statement of the pair on a 
form provided by the Principal Clerk and neither member of the pair shall vote on the 
question. A pair shall be announced before the vote is taken viva voce, or if the electronic 
voting system is used, before the machine is unlocked. The Clerk shall record the pair 
on the Journal when the Constitution or Rules of the Senate require a call of the roll 
and shall record on the electronic system print-out all pairs announced. 

RULE 28. Dividing question. — If any question contains several distinct propositions, 
it shall be divided by the President, at the request of any Senator, provided each subdivi- 
sion, if left to itself, forms a substantive proposition. 

RULE 29. Duty to vote; excuses. — (a) Every Senator who is within the bar of the 
Senate when the question is stated by the Chair shall vote thereon unless he is excused 
by the Senate. The bar of the Senate shall include the entire Senate Chamber. 

(b) Any Senator may request to be excused from voting, either immediately before or 
after the vote has been called for and before a viva voce vote result has been announced 
or before the electronic voting system has been unlocked. The Senator may make a brief 
statement of the reasons for making such request, and shall send forward to the Princi- 
pal Clerk, on a form provided by the Clerk, a concise statement of the reason for the re- 
quest, and the Clerk shall include this statement in the Journal. The question on grant- 
ing of the request shall be taken without debate. 



342 North Carolina Manual 



RULE 30. Explanation of vote. — Any Senator may explain his vote on any bill pend- 
ing by obtaining permission of the President after the final vote is taken: Provided, that 
not more than three minutes shall be consumed in such explanation. 

RULE 30.1. Questions of personal privilege. — Upon recognition by the President for 
that purpose, any Senator may speak to a question of personal privilege for a time not 
exceeding three minutes. Personal privilege may not be used to explain a vote or debate 
a bill. The President shall determine if the question raised is one of privilege and shall, 
without the point of order being raised, enforce this rule. 

V. Committees 

RULE 31. Appointment of Committees. — (a) The President of the Senate, unless he 
has by law disqualified himself from that office, shall have the exclusive right and au- 
thority to appoint all Committees, regular or select, and to appoint Committee Chair- 
men and Vice-Chairmen, but he may delegate said authority in any instance, as he may 
choose. Upon the recommendation of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the 
Senate, the Senate may authorize, by majority vote of the Senators present and voting, a 
change in the number of standing committees. 

(b) The President of the Senate shall appoint all standing committees at the begin- 
ning of the session. 

RULE 32. List of Standing Committees. — The standing committees shall be: 

Agriculture 
Appropriations 

Appropriations Committee on Education 

Appropriations Committee on General Government 

Appropriations Committee on Human Resources 

Appropriations Committee on Justice and Public Safety 

Appropriations Committee on Natural 
and Economic Resources 
Base Budget 
Children and Youth 
Commerce 
Education 
Election Laws 
Finance 

Higher Education 
Human Resources 
Insurance 
Judiciary I 
Judiciary II 
Judiciary III 
Judiciary IV 

Local Government and Regional Affairs 
Manufacturing and Labor 
Natural and Economic Resources and Wildlife 
Pensions and Retirement 



The Legislative Branch 343 



Rules and Operation of the Senate 

Senior Citizens 

State Government 

Transportation 

Ways and Means 

RULE 33. Notice of committee meetings. — (a) Public notice of all committee meet- 
ings shall be given in the Senate. The required notice may be waived as to any meeting 
by the attendance at that meeting of all of the members of the committee, or by personal 
waiver. 

(b) The chairman of the committee shall notify or cause to be notified the sponsor of 
each bill which is set for hearing or consideration before the committee as to the date, 
time and place of that meeting. 

RULE 34. Membership of committees: quorum. — Membership on standing com- 
mittees shall consist of not more than 22 or less than 5 Senators, including the Chair- 
man and/or co-chairmen and vice-chairman who shall be designated by the President; 
provided, the committee membership on the Appropriations Committee, Base Budget 
Committee, Finance Committee, State Government Committee and Ways and Means 
Committee shall not be limited as to membership but shall be left to the discretion of the 
President. No Senator shall hold membership on more than 12 standing committees 
with the exception of the President's coordinator of committees, unless the Rules and 
Operation of the Senate Committee provides otherwise. A quorum of the Appropria- 
tions, Base Budget, Finance, State Government or Ways and Means Committees shall 
consist of a majority of the committee. A quorum of any other committee shall consist 
of either the chairman and five members or a majority of the committee, whichever is 
fewer. 

RULE 35. Roll Call Vote in Committee. — No roll call vote may be taken in any 
committee. 

RULE 36. Committee meetings. — No committee or subcommittee shall hold a 
secret meeting, and all meetings of committees and subcommittees shall be open to the 
public: Provided, that any committee or subcommittee has the inherent right to hold an 
executive session when it determines that it is absolutely necessary to have such a ses- 
sion in order to prevent personal embarrassment, or when it is in the best interest of the 
State; and in no event shall final action be taken by any committee or subcommittee ex- 
cept in open session. 

RULE 36.1. Committee minutes to Legislative Library. — The chairman of a com- 
mittee shall insure that written minutes are compiled for each of the committee's meet- 
ings. The minutes shall indicate the number of members present and the actions taken 
by the committee at the meeting. Not later than 20 days after the adjournment of each 
session of the General Assembly, the chairman, except the chairman of the Appropria- 
tions, Finance, or Ways and Means Committee, shall deliver the minutes to the Legisla- 
tive Library. The President Pro Tempore of the Senate may grant a reasonable ex- 
tension of time for filing said minutes upon application of the committee chairman. 

RULE 37. (Reserved for interim operations rule.) 



344 North Carouna Manual 



VI. Handling Bills 

RULE 38. Construction of rules. — With the exception of speaking from the well of 
the Senate, all provisions of these rules applying to bills shall apply also to resolutions, 
memorials and petitions. 

RULE 39. Form and copies of bills. — (a) Unless variation is authorized by the Com- 
mittee on Rules and Operation of the Senate, bills submitted for introduction shall be in 
a computer-typed form prepared by the Legislative Services Office. When a bill which is 
introduced is not in the prescribed form, the Principal Clerk shall cause the bill to be re- 
typed in the prescribed form, and the retyped copy shall become the official copy of the 
bill for all purposes. The original bill shall then be returned to the introducer of the bill 
and shall not become a part of the records or documents of the Senate. 

(b) Whenever a bill is introduced, 20 copies shall be submitted to the Principal Clerk. 
Any bill submitted without the required number of copies shall be immediately returned 
to the introducer. 

RULE 39. 1 . Public and local bills; availability of copies of bills. — A public bill is a bill 
affecting 15 or more counties. A local bill is one affecting fewer than 15 counties. No 
public bill and, upon objection by a member, no local bill may be considered unless 
copies of the bill have been made available to the entire membership of the Senate. 

RULE 40. Introduction of bills. — (a) Every bill filed for introduction shall contain on 
the outside cover the title of the document and the name of the Senator or Senators pre- 
senting it. Bills shall be delivered by the primary sponsor of the document or with the 
prescribed authorization form signed by the primary sponsor to the office of the Senate 
Principal Clerk who shall receive them during regular session according to the following 
schedule: 

Monday until 8:30 o'clock P.M.; 

Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday until 4:00 o'clock 
P.M.; 

Friday until 3:00 o'clock P.M. 
All bills shall be numbered by the Office of the Principal Clerk when filed and shall be 
considered introduced when presented to the Senate on the next following legislative 
day for the first reading and reference to committee. 

(b) Filing of bills during the interim shall be under the direction of the Rules and 
Operation of the Senate Committee as approved by the Senate. 

(c) All memorializing celebration, commendation, and commemoration resolutions, 
except those honoring the memory of deceased persons, shall be excluded from intro- 
duction in the Senate. 

RULE 41. Deadline on filing for introduction of bills and resolutions. — All bills pre- 
pared to be introduced by departments, agencies or institutions of the State must be in- 
troduced in the Senate not later than April 15 of the session. All local bills must be in- 
troduced not later than April 15 of the session. All resolutions, except those honoring 
the memory of deceased persons, must be introduced not later than April 15 of the ses- 
sion. A two-thirds (2/3) vote of the membership of the Senate shall be required to file 
for introduction any bill or resolution after May 15 of the session. This rule shall not ap- 
ply to a bill or resolution, proposing adjournment or a budget, proposing or ratifying a 
constitutional amendment, or calling for a constitutional convention. 



The Legislative Branch 345 



RULE 41.1. Relationship between Ways and Means Committee and other committees 
dealing with money matters: relationship between these other committees dealing with 
money matters. — The Committee on Ways and Means shall have responsibility for 
final consideration of bills dealing with money matters before the bills are considered on 
the floor of the Senate. All bills referred by the President to the Committee on Appro- 
priations, the Committee on Finance, and the Committee on Economy shall be referred 
by the chairman of the respective committee to the Committee on Ways and Means for 
consideration before the bills go to the floor of the Senate, except that bills referred to 
the Appropriations or Finance Committees may be reported directly back to the floor 
with the agreement of the Chairmen of the Ways and Means, Appropriations, and Fi- 
nance Committees. Bills referred to the Committee on Appropriations by the President 
may be referred by the Chairman of the Committee on Appropriations to the Appropri- 
ations Committee on Human Resources, Appropriations Committee on Education, 
Appropriations Committee on General Government, Appropriations Committee on 
Justice and Public Safety, Appropriations Committee on Natural and Economic Re- 
sources and Wildlife, or the Committee on Base Budget for a report back to the Com- 
mittee on Appropriations. 

RULE 42. References of appropriations and finance bills. — All bills introduced in the 
Senate providing for appropriations from the State, or any subdivision thereof, shall, 
before being considered by the Senate, be referred to the Committee on Appropriations, 
and bills referred to other committees carrying any such provisions shall be reported to 
the Senate as being bills to be referred to the Appropriations Committee before proper 
action may be taken by the Senate. All bills introduced in the Senate providing for bond 
issues, levying taxes, or in any manner affecting the taxing power of the State or any 
subdivision thereof, shall, before being considered by the Senate, be referred to the 
Committee on Finance, and bills referred to other committees carrying any such pro- 
visions shall be reported to the Senate as being bills to be referred to the Finance Com- 
mittee before proper action may be taken by the Senate. 

RULE 42. 1 . Fiscal notes. — (a) The Chairman or Vice-Chairman of the Appropria- 
tions Committee, of the Finance Committee or of the Rules Committee, or of the Ways 
and Means Committee, upon the floor of the Senate, may request that a fiscal analysis 
be made of a bill, resolution or an amendment to a bill or resolution which is in the pos- 
session of the Senate and that a fiscal note be attached to the measure, when in the opin- 
ion of that Chairman or Vice-Chairman the fiscal effects of that measure are not ap- 
parent from the language of the measure. 

(b) The fiscal note shall be filed and attached to the bill or amendment within two leg- 
islative days of the request. If it is impossible to prepare a fiscal note within two legisla- 
tive days, the Director of Fiscal Research shall, in writing, so advise the Presiding Of- 
ficer, the Principal Clerk, and the member introducing or proposing the measure and 
shall indicate the time when the fiscal note will be ready. 

(c) The fiscal note shall be prepared by the Fiscal Research Division on a form ap- 
proved by the Rules Committee as to content and form and signed by the staff member 

RULE 42. References of appropriations and finance bills. — All bills introduced in the 
Senate providing for appropriations from the State, or any subdivision thereof, shall, 
before being considered by the Senate, be referred to the Commiittee on Appropriations, 



346 North Carouna Manual 



and bills referred to other committees carrying any such provisions shall be reported to 
the Senate as being bills to be referred to the Appropriations Committee before proper 
action may be taken by the Senate. All bills introduced in the Senate providing for bond 
issues, levying taxes, or in any manner affecting the taxing power of the State or any 
subdivision thereof, shall, before being considered by the Senate, be referred to the 
Committee on Finance, and bills referred to other committees carrying any such pro- 
visions shall be reported to the Senate as being bills to be referred to the Finance Com- 
mittee before proper action may be taken by the Senate. 

RULE 42. 1 . Fiscal notes. — (a) The chairman or co-chairman or vice-chairman of the 
Appropriations Committee, of the Finance Committee or of the Rules Committee, or of 
the Ways and Means Committee, upon the floor of the Senate, may request that a fiscal 
analysis be made of a bill, resolution or an amendment to a bill or resolution which is in 
the possession of the Senate and that a fiscal note be attached to the measure, when in 
the opinion of that Chairman or Vice-Chairman the fiscal effects of that measure are 
not apparent from the language of the measure. 

(b) The fiscal note shall be filed and attached to the bill or amendment within two 
legislative days of the request. If it is impossible to prepare a fiscal note within two legis- 
lative days, the Director of Fiscal Research shall, in writing, so advise the Presiding Of- 
ficer, the Principal Clerk, and the member introducing or proposing the measure and 
shall indicate the time when the fiscal note will be ready. 

(c) The fiscal note shall be prepared by the Fiscal Research Division on a form ap- 
proved by the Rules Committee as to content and form and signed by the staff member 
or members preparing it. If no estimate in dollars is possible, the fiscal note shall indi- 
cate the reasons that no estimate is provided. The fiscal note shall not comment on the 
merit but may identify technical problems. The Fiscal Research Division shall make the 
fiscal note available to the membership of the Senate. 

(d) A sponsor of a bill or amendment may deliver a copy of his bill or amendment to 
the Fiscal Research Division for the preparation of a fiscal note. Prior to the filing of 
the bill or proposing of the amendment, the Fiscal Research Division, except to the 
sponsor, shall keep in confidence the identity of the sponsor. The sponsor shall attach 
the fiscal note to the bill when he files the bill or to the amendment when he moves its 
adoption. 

(e) The sponsor of a bill or amendment to which a fiscal note is attached who objects 
to the estimates and information provided may reduce to writing his objections. These 
objections shall be appended to the fiscal note attached to the bill or amendment and to 
the copies of the fiscal note available to the membership. 

(0 Subsection (a) of this rule shall not apply to the current operations appropriations 
bill or the capital improvements appropriations bill. This rule shall not apply to a bill or 
amendment requiring an actuarial note under these rules. 

RULE 42.2. Actuarial notes. — (a) Every bill or resolution proposing any change in 
the law relative to any State-administered retirement or pension system shall have at- 
tached to it at the time of its consideration by any committee a brief explanatory state- 
ment or note which shall include a reliable estimate of the financial and actuarial effect 
of the proposed change to that retirement or pension system. The actuarial note shall be 
attached to the jacket of each proposed bill or resolution which is reported favorably by 



The Legislative Branch 347 



any committee, shall be separate therefrom, and shall be clearly designated as an 
actuarial note. 

(b) The sponsor of the bill or resolution shall present a copy of the measure, with his 
request for an actuarial note, to the Fiscal Research Division which shall prepare the 
actuarial note as promptly as possible but not later than two weeks after the request is 
made. Actuarial notes shall be prepared in the order of receipt of request and shall be 
transmitted to the sponsor of the measure. The actuarial note of the Fiscal Research 
Division shall be prepared and signed by an actuary. 

(c) The sponsor of the bill or resolution shall also present a copy of the measure to 
the chief administrative officer of the retirement or pension system affected by the 
measure. The chief administrative officer shall have an actuarial note prepared by the 
system's actuary on the measure and shall transmit the note to the sponsor of the 
measure not later than two weeks after the request is received. The actuarial note shall 
be attached to the jacket of the measure. 

(d) The note shall be factual and shall, if possible, provide a reliable estimate of both 
the immediate effect and, if determinable, the long range fiscal and actuarial effect of 
the measure. If, after careful investigation, it is determined that no dollar estimate is 
possible, the note shall contain a statement to that effect, setting forth the reasons why 
no dollar estimate can be given. No comment or opinion shall be included in the 
actuarial note with regard to the merits of the measure for which the note is prepared. 
Technical and mechanical defects in the measure may be noted. 

(e) When any committee reports a measure to which an actuarial note is attached at 
the time of committee consideration, with any amendment of such nature as would sub- 
stantially affect the cost to or the revenues of any retirement or pension system, the 
chairman of the committee reporting the measure shall obtain from the Fiscal Research 
Division an actuarial note of the fiscal and actuarial effect of the proposed amendment. 
The actuarial note shall be attached to the jacket of the measure. An amendment to any 
bill or resolution shall not be in order if the amendment affects the costs to or the reve- 
nues of a State-administered retirement or pension system, unless the amendment is ac- 
companied by an actuarial note, prepared by the Fiscal Research Division, as to the 
actuarial effect of the amendment. 

(f) The Fiscal Research Division shall make all relevant actuarial notes available to 
the membership of the Senate. 

RULE 42.3 Assessment reports. — Every legislative proposal introduced in the Senate 
proposing the establishment of an occupational or professional licensing board or a 
study for the need to establish such a board shall have attached to the jacket of the 
original bill at the time of its consideration on second or third readings by the Senate or 
by any committee of the Senate prior to a favorable report, an assessment report from 
the Legislative Committee on New Occupational and Professional Licensing Boards, 
pursuant to Article 18 of Chapter 120 of the General Statutes. The assessment report 
shall not constitute any part of the expression of legislative intent proposed by the for- 
mation of a licensing board. Upon receipt of the request the Legislative Committe on 
New Occupational and Professional Licensing Boards shall prepare and return the as- 
sessment report as soon as possible but not later than 60 days, reserving the right to ex- 
tend this time to 90 days. A supplementary report shall be prepared and submitted to 
the requesting Senator not later than 30 days after the receipt of the request. 



348 North Carolina Manual 



RULE 43. First reading: reference to committee. — All bills filed, upon presentation 
to the Senate, shall be read in regular order of business by their number and title which 
shall constitute the first reading of the bill and unless otherwise disposed of, the Presi- 
dent or Presiding Officer shall announce the referral of the document. The title and re- 
ferral shall be entered on the Journal. 

RULE 44. Bills to receive three readings. — Every bill shall receive three readings 
previous to being passed, and the President shall give notice at each whether it be the 
first, second, or third. After the first reading, unless a motion is made by some Senator, 
the President shall refer the bill to an appropriate committee. No bill shall be amended 
upon the floor of the Senate until it has been twice read. Senate simple resolutions shall 
not require three readings. 

RULE 44. 1 Vote required on public bills or resolutions jiled ajter May 15. — No public 
bill or resolution filed in either house, after May 15, shall pass either its second or third 
readings unless voted on affirmatively by two-thirds (2/3) of the membership of the 
Senate. This sub-section shall not apply to a bill or resolution proposing adjournment, 
an emergency appropriation, continuance and/or expansion of the State budget, or 
changes in State revenues; proposing or ratifying a constitutional amendment; or calling 
for a constitutional convention. 

RULE 45. Reports of committees. — Every Senator presenting a report of a com- 
mittee shall endorse the report with the name of the committee and, in case of a 
minority report, with the names of the members making the report. The report of the 
committee shall show that a majority of the committee were present and voted. Every 
report of the committee upon a bill or resolution shall stand upon the general orders 
with the bill or resolution. No committee shall report a bill or resolution without preju- 
dice. 

RULE 45.1. Action on amendment before re-referral. — If any committee recom- 
mends adoption of an amendment or committee substitute of a bill which, under the 
rules of the Senate must be referred to the Committee on Appropriations or Committee 
on Finance, the amendment or committee substitute shall be considered and, if 
adopted, the amendment or substitute engrossed before the bill is re-referred. 

RULE 46. Unfavorable report by committee. — (a) All bills reported unfavorably by 
the committee to which they were referred, and having no minority report, shall lie 
upon the table, but may be taken from the table, and placed upon the calendar by a two- 
thirds vote of the membership of the Senate. 

(b) When a bill is reported by a committee with an unfavorable report, but accom- 
panied by a minority report, signed by at least three members of the committee who 
were present and who voted on the bill when the bill was considered in committee, then 
the minority report shall be placed on the calendar and considered the following day, 
and the question before the Senate shall be "The adoption of the Minority Report". If 
the minority report is adopted by a majority vote, the bill shall be placed upon the 
calendar; if the minority report is not adopted, the bill shall lie upon the table. 

RULE 47. Recall of bill from committee. — When a bill has been introduced and re- 
ferred to a committee, if after 10 days the committee has failed to report thereon, then 
the author of the bill may, after three days' public notice given in the Senate and de- 



The Legislative Branch 349 



livered in writing to the chairman of the committee, on motion supported by a vote of 
two-thirds of the membership of the Senate, recall the bill from the committee to the 
floor of the Senate for consideration and such action thereon as a majority of the Sena- 
tors present may direct. This rule shall not be temporarily suspended without one day's 
notice on the motion given in the Senate and delivered in writing to the chairman of the 
committee and to sustain that motion two-thirds of the membership of the Senate shall 
be required. 

RULE 48. Calendar; order to be followed. — The President and the Principal Clerk of 
the Senate shall see that all bills are acted upon by the Senate in the order in which they 
stand upon the calendar, unless otherwise ordered as hereinafter provided. The publish- 
ed calendar shall include all bills reported favorably from committees, or reported with 
a minority report attached, or placed on the calendar on motion: Provided, that the pub- 
lished local calendar may carry the number of each bill, the county or counties referred 
to, and an abbreviated statement of the title of the bill. 

RULE 49. Considering bills out of regular order. — Except as provided in Rule 50, any 
bill or other matter may be taken up out of order upon order of the President or upon 
motion sustained by a majority of the membership of the Senate. 

RULE 50. Third reading requirements. — No bill on its third reading shall be acted 
upon out of the regular order in which it stands on the calendar, and no bill shall be act- 
ed upon on its third reading the same day on which it passed its second reading, unless 
so ordered by two-thirds of the membership of the Senate. 

RULE 5 1 . Special orders. — Any bill or other matter may be made a special order for 
a particular day or hour by a vote of the majority of the Senators voting, and if action 
on the bill is not completed on that day, it shall be returned to its place on the calendar, 
unless it is made a special order for another day: and when a special order is under con- 
sideration it shall take precedence over any special order or subsequent order for the 
day, but such subsequent order may be taken up immediately after the previous special 
order has been disposed of. 

RULE 52. Procedure when necessary number of Senators not present. — If, on taking 
the question on a bill, it appears that a constitutional quorum is not present, or if the 
bill requires a vote of a certain proportion of all the Senators to pass it, and it appears 
that such number is not present, the bill shall be again read and the question taken 
thereon; if the bill fails a second time for the want of the necessary number being present 
and voting, the bill shall not be finally lost, but shall be returned to the calendar in its 
proper order. 

RULE 53. Effect of defeated bill. — (a) After a bill has been tabled, has failed to pass 
on any of its readings, or has been placed on the unfavorable calendar, the contents of 
such bill or the principal provisions of its subject matter shall not be embodied in any 
other measure. Upon the point of order being raised and sustained by the Chair, such 
measure shall be laid upon the table, and shall not be taken therefrom except by a vote 
of two-thirds of the qualified membership of the Senate: Provided, no local bill shall be 
held by the Chair as embodying the provisions, or being identical with any statewide 
measure which has been laid upon the table or failed to pass any of its readings. 



350 North Carolina Manual 

(b) When a bill has been postponed indefinitely by the Senate, the bill shall lie upon 
the table, and shall not be taken therefrom except by a vote of two-thirds of the mem- 
bership of the Senate. 

RULE 54. Taking bill from table. — No bill which has been laid upon the table shall 
be taken therefrom except by a vote of two-thirds of the Senators present. 

RULE 54.1. Bill title. — The title of each bill shall adequately and fairly reflect its 
subject matter. 

RULE 55. Amending titles of bills. — When a bill is materially modified or the scope 
of its application extended or decreased, or if the county, or counties, to which it applies 
is changed, the title of the bill shall be changed by the Senator introducing the bill or by 
the committee having it in charge, or by the Principal Clerk, so as to indicate the full 
purport of the bill as amended and the county or counties to which it applies. 

RULE 56. Corrections of typographical errors in bills. — The Enrolling Clerk is au- 
thorized to make corrections of typographical errors in the text of bills at any time prior 
to ratification. Before the correction is made, the Enrolling Clerk shall have the approv- 
al of the Chairman of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate. 

RULE 57. Conference committees. — Whenever the Senate declines or refuses to con- 
cur in amendments put by the House to a bill originating in the Senate, or refuses to 
adopt a substitute adopted by the House for a bill originating in the Senate, a confer- 
ence committee shall be appointed upon motion and the bill under consideration shall 
thereupon go to and be considered by the joint conferees on the part of the Senate and 
House. In considering matters in difference between the Senate and House committed 
to the conferees, only such matters as are in difference between the two houses shall be 
considered by the conferees, and the conference report shall deal only with such mat- 
ters. The conference report shall not be amended. Except as herein set out, the rules of 
the United States House of Representatives shall govern the appointment, conduct, and 
reports of the conferees. 

RULE 57. 1 . Amendments and committee substitutes adopted by the House to bills origi- 
nating in the Senate. — (a) Whenever the House has adopted an amendment or a com- 
mittee substitute for a bill originating in the Senate, and has returned the bill to the Sen- 
ate for concurrence in that amendment or committee substitute, the Senate may not 
concur in that amendment or committee substitute until the next legislative day follow- 
ing the day on which the Senate receives that measure. 

(b) The Presiding Officer may, and upon motion supported by a majority of the Sen- 
ate present and voting, shall refer the bill to an appropriate committee for consideration 
of the amendment or committee substitute. 

(c) The Presiding Officer shall, in placing the bill on the calendar, rule whether the 
amendment or committee substitute is a material amendment under Article II, Section 
23, of the State's Constitution. If the measure was referred to committee, the committee 
shall: 

(i.) report the bill with the recommendation either that the Senate concur or that 
the Senate do not concur: and 

(ii.) advise the presiding officer as to whether or not the amendment or commit- 
tee substitute is a material amendment under Article II, Section 23, of the 
State's Constitution. 



The Legislative Branch 351 



(d) If the amendment or committee substitute for a bill is not a material amendment, 
the question before the Senate shall be concurrence. 

(e) If the amendment or committee substitute for a bill is a material amendment, the 
receiving of that bill on messages shall constitute first reading and the question before 
the house shall be concurrence on second reading. If the motion is passed, the question 
then shall be concurrence on third reading on the next legislative day. 

(0 No committee substitute adopted by the House to a bill originating in the Senate 
may be amended by the Senate. 

RULE 58. Certification of passage of bills. — The Principal Clerk shall certify the pas- 
sage of bills by the Senate, with the date thereof, together with the fact whether passed 
by vote of three-fifths or two-thirds of the Senate, whenever such vote may be required 
by the Constitution or laws of the State. 

RULE 59. Transmittal of bills to House. — No bill shall be sent from the Senate on 
the day of its passage except on the last day of the session, unless otherwise ordered by a 
vote of two-thirds of the membership of the Senate. 

RULE 59.1. Engrossment. — Bills and resolutions, except those making appropria- 
tions, which originate in the Senate and which are amended shall be engrossed before 
being sent to the House. 

VII. Legislative Officers and Employees 

RULE 60. Pages. — The President of the Senate shall appoint pages. The President, 
or such person as he may designate, shall supervise the pages and assign to them their 
duties. Each page shall be at least 14 years of age. 

RULE 61. Sergeants-at-Arms. — (a) There shall be 14 positions of Assistant 
Sergeants-at-Arms to be appointed by the Sergeant-at-Arms who are to work under his 
supervision and to be assigned such duties and powers as he shall direct. 

(b) The Sergeant-at-Arms shall be responsible for the safety of the members and em- 
ployees of the Senate while in the Senate Chamber, or any place in which the Senate or 
its committees are in session. 

(c) The Sergeant-at-Arms shall serve all warrants and subpoenas issued by orders of 
the Senate and signed by the President of the Senate, and said warrants and subpoenas 
shall be returnable to the Principal Clerk of the Senate. 

RULE 62. Principal Clerk's staff. — The Principal Clerk of the Senate shall employ 
all necessary employees and clerks required to carry out the duties of his office. The 
Principal Clerk shall have supervision and control, and shall assign such duties and 
powers as he shall direct to his employees and clerks. 

RULE 63. Committee Clerks and Secretaries. — (a) Each committee shall have a 
clerk. The clerk to a committee shall serve as secretary to the chairman of that com- 
mittee. 

(b) Each member shall be assigned a secretary, unless he has a committee clerk to 
serve as his secretary. 

(c) The selection of said clerk and/or secretary shall be the prerogative of the indi- 



352 North Carouna Manual 



vidual member. Such clerks and secretaries shall file initial applications for employment 
with the Supervisor of Clerks and shall receive compensation as prescribed by the Legis- 
lative Services Commission. The employment period of clerks and secretaries shall 
comply with the period as established by the Legislative Services Commission unless 
employment for an extended period is approved by the President Pro Tempore. The 
clerks and secretaries shall adhere to such uniform regulations and other conditions of 
employment (including retention) under the direction of the Supervisor of Clerks as the 
Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate shall adopt. 

(d) The Supervisor of Clerks and any assistants shall be appointed by the President of 
the Senate. 

RULE 64. Senate Journal. — The Principal Clerk shall prepare and be responsible for 
the Journal. The Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate shall examine the 
Journal to determine if the proceedings of the previous day have been correctly re- 
corded. 

RULE 65. (Reserved for future addition to rules.) 

VIIL General Rules 

RULE 66. President to sign papers. — All acts, addresses and resolutions, and all war- 
rants and subpoenas issued by order of the Senate shall be signed by the President or by 
the President Pro Tempore presiding in his absence. 

RULE 67. Admission to the floor of the Senate. — No person except members of the 
Senate, members of the House of Representatives, staff of the General Assembly; 
Judges of the Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, and Superior Courts; the Governor 
and members of the Council of State; former members of the General Assembly; and 
persons particularly invited and extended the privileges of the floor by the President 
shall be admitted to the floor of the Senate during its session. No registered lobbyist 
shall be admitted to the floor of the Senate or Senate Chamber while the Senate is in ses- 
sion. 

RULE 68. Privileges of the floor. — Any group or individual other than members of 
the Senate who desires to make remarks upon the floor of the Senate will first obtain ap- 
proval of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the Senate. 

RULE 69. News media. — The President is authorized to assign area and equipment 
on the floor of the Senate for the use of the representatives of news media; and the Presi- 
dent shall provide regulations for the operation of the representatives of the news media 
on the floor of the Senate. 

RULE 70. Absence without leave. — No Senator or officer of the Senate shall depart 
the service of the Senate without leave, or receive pay as a Senator or officer for the time 
he is absent without leave. 

RULE 71. Placing material on Senators' desks. — Any person other than a member of 
the Senate desiring to place articles of any kind on or about desks in the Senate 
Chamber or in the offices of the members of the Senate shall make written application 
to, and obtain written approval from the Principal Clerk. 

RULE 72. Assignment of seats; offices. — (a) The President Pro Tempore of the Sen- 



The Legislative Branch 353 



ate shall assign seats in the Senate Chamber to the members elected. In making such as- 
signments, each member elected to the immediate preceding session of the Senate shall 
be entitled to the seat occupied by him or to his selection of any other seat vacated. The 
President Pro Tempore, when assigning seats, shall give preferential consideration to 
the respective members according to the length of service which each member has 
rendered in the Senate. No incumbent appointed to fill an unexpired term in the im- 
mediate preceding session shall retain the seat if requested by a Senator elected to said 
Session. 

(b) Not later than two days after initial committee assignments become final, the 
President Pro Tempore of the Senate is authorized to make assignments of committee 
rooms and offices to designated committees, chairmen, and members of the Senate. The 
office adjacent to any committee room assigned to a principal committee by the Presi- 
dent Pro Tempore shall be automatically assigned to the chairman of the principal com- 
mittee. In making such assignments of individual offices, the President Pro Tempore 
shall give preferential consideration to the respective members according to the length 
of service which each member has rendered in the Senate. 

RULE 73. Administrative rules and regulations involving Senate employees. — All ad- 
ministrative rules, regulations and orders involving all individuals employed to perform 
duties for the Senate, other than those appointed by the Principal Clerk and the 
Sergeant-at-Arms, shall be first approved by the Committee on Rules and Operation of 
the Senate. 

RULE 74. Notice of public hearings. — Notice shall be given not less than five 
calendar days prior to public hearings. Such notices shall be issued as information for 
the press and the information shall be posted in the places designated by the Principal 
Clerk. 

RULE 75. Public hearings, filing of written statements. — Persons desiring to appear 
and be heard at a public hearing are encouraged to file with the chairman of the com- 
mittee a brief or a written statement of the remarks to be made at least 24 hours before 
the time of the hearing. 

RULE 76. Voting in joint sessions. — When any Senate Committee sits jointly with 
the House Committee, the Senate Committee reserves the right to vote separately from 
the House Committee. 

RULE 77. Alterations, suspension or rescission of rules. — (a) These rules may not be 
permanently rescinded or altered except by Senate simple resolution passed by a two- 
thirds vote of the membership of the Senate. The introducer of the resolution must, on 
the fioor of the Senate, give notice of his intent to introduce the resolution on the legis- 
lative day preceding its introduction. 

(b) Except as otherwise provided herein, the Senate, upon two-thirds (2/3) vote of 
the membership of the Senate, may temporarily suspend any of these rules. 



The Legislative Branch 



355 




— Ij 
E V 















0; 




w 


€ <b 




h- 








< 


^S 






1/1 


0- I 








■^ 






= 

> 

< 

c 


a, 




O 














■yi 





356 



North Carolina Manual 





119 




lis 


117 




116 


115 












108 


107 




106 


105 




104 


103 












96 


95 




94 


93 




92 91 












84 


83 




82 


81 




80 


79 












72 


71 




70 


69 

1_. _ . 




68 


67 












60 


59 




58 


57 




56 


55 












48 


47 




46 


45 




44 


43 












36 


35 




34 


33 




32 


31 












24 


23 




22 


21 




20 


19 












12 


II 


1 
! 
1 


10 


9 




8 


7 



114 


113 




112 


III 




110 


109 












102 


101 




100 


99 




98 


97 












90 


89 




88 


87 




86 


85 












78 


77 




76 


75 




74 


73 












66 


65 




64 


63 




62 


61 












54 


53 




52 


51 




50 


49 












42 


41 




40 


39 




38 


37 












30 


29 




28 


27 




26 


25 












i '8 


17 




16 


15 




14 


13 












6 


5 




4 


3 




2 


1 



CLERKS 



SPEAKER 



CLERKS 



The Legislative Branch 357 

1985 NORTH CAROLINA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Officers 

Speaker Liston B. Ramsey 

Speaker Pro Tern John J. Hunt 

Minority Leader Betsy L. Cochrane 

Principal Clerk Grace A. CoUins 

Reading Clerk Sam J. Burrow, Jr. 

Sergeant-at-Arms Larry P. Eagles 

Representatives 

Name County Oist. Address Seat 

AUran, Austin M. (R) Catawba 45th Hickory 97 

Anderson, Gerald L Craven 3rd New Bern 19 

Ballance, Frank W., Jr Warren 7th Warrenlon 45 

Barbee, Allen C Nash 72nd Spring Hope 20 

Barker, Chris S., Jr Craven 3rd New Bern 1 

Barnes, Anne C Orange 24th Chapel Hill 70 

Barnhill, Howard C Mecklenburg 60th Charlotte 55 

Beall, Charles W Haywood 52nd Clyde 18 

Beard, R. D Cumberland 18th Fayetteville 30 

Blue, Daniel T., Jr Wake 21st Raleigh 80 

Bowman, J. Fred Alamance 25th Burlington 53 

Boyd, William T. (R) Randolph 30th Asheboro 1 14 

Brannan, George W Johnston 20th Smithfield 58 

Brawley, C. Robert (R) Iredell 43rd Mooresville 100 

Brinkley, L. M Hertford 6th Ahoskie 67 

Brown, John Waher(R) Wilkes 41st Elkin Ill 

Brubaker, Harold J. (R) Randolph 38th Asheboro 1 17 

Buchanan, Charles F. (R) Mitchell 46th Green Mountain 89 

Bumgardner, David W., Jr Gaston 44th Belmont 47 

Chalk, Richard E. (R) Guilford 28th High Point 77 

Chapin, Howard B Beaufort 2nd Washington 50 

Church, John T Vance 22nd Henderson 9 

Clark, William E Cumberland 18th Fayetteville 44 

Cochrane, Betsy L. (R) Davie 37th Advance 104 

Cole, James M. (R) Watauga 40th Boone 1 10 

Colton, Marie W Buncombe 51st Asheville 51 

Craven, James M. (R) Moore 31st Pinebluff 86 

Crawford, James W., Jr Granville 22nd Oxford 36 

Crawford, Narvel J., Jr Buncombe 51st Asheville 63 

Creecy, C. Melvin Northampton 5th Rich Square 68 

Cromer, Charles L. (R) Davidson 37th Thomasville 106 

Dawkins, Donald M Richmond 32nd Rockingham 84 

Decker, Michael (R) Forsyth 29th Walkertown 76 

DeVane, Daniel H Hoke 16th Raeford 28 

Diamont, David Hunter Surry 40th Pilot Mountain 42 

Duncan, Ann Q. (R) Forsyth 39th Pfafftown 92 

Easterling, Ruth M Mecklenburg 58th Charlotte 5 

Edwards, C. R Cumberland 17th Fayetteville 29 

Enloe, Jeff H., Jr Macon 53rd Franklin 61 

Esposito, Theresa H. (R) Forsyth 39th Winston-Salem 91 

Etheridge. Bobby R Harnett 19th Lillington 35 

Etheridge, Larry E. (R) Wilson 71st Wilson 32 

Ethridge, Bruce Onslow 4th Swansboro 34 



•Democrat unless indicated otherwise 



358 North Carolina Manual 



Name* County Dist. Address Seat 

Evans, Charles D Dare 1st Nags Head 37 

Fitch, Milton F., Jr Wilson 70th Wilson 31 

Fletcher, Ray C Burke 47th Valdese 59 

Foster, Jo Graham Mecklenburg 56th Charlotte 6 

Fussell, Aaron E Wake 65th Raleigh 10 

Gardner, Charlotte A. (R) Rowan 35th Salisbury 101 

Gist, Herman C Guilford 26th Greensboro 74 

Greenwood, Gordon H Buncombe 51st Black Mountain 64 

Hackney, Joe Orange 24th Chapel Hill 69 

Hall, A. M New Hanover 13th Wilmington 73 

Hall, Marshall (R) Stokes 40th King 98 

Hasty, John Calvin Robeson 16th Maxton 15 

Hauser, C. B Forsyth 67th Winston-Salem 33 

Hcge, Joe H., Jr. (R) Davidson 37th Lexington 105 

Hightower, Foyle R., Jr Anson 33rd Wadesboro 46 

Holmes, George M. (R) Yadkin 41st Hamptonville 1 19 

Holroyd, Casper Wake 61st Raleigh 81 

Holt, Bertha M Alamance 25th Burlington 66 

Hudson, Joe R Union 34th Waxhaw 60 

Huffman, Doris R. (R) Catawba 45th Newton 1 15 

Hughes, James F. (R) Avery 46th Linville 1 13 

Hunt, John J Cleveland 48th Lattimore 23 

Hunter, Robert C McDowell 49th Marion 62 

Hurst, Gerald B. (R) Onslow 4th Jacksonville 118 

James, Vernon G Pasquotank 1st Elizabeth City 24 

Jeralds, Luther R Cumberland 17th Fayetteville 41 

Jones, Walter B., Jr Pitt 9th Farmville 3 

Justus, Larry T. (R) Henderson 50th Hendersonville 108 

Keesee-Forrester, 

Margaret P. (R) Guilford 27th Greensboro 109 

Kennedy, Annie Brown Forsyth 66th Winston-Salem 21 

Lancaster, H. Martin Wayne J 1th Goldsboro 26 

Ligon, Bradford V. (R) Rowan 35th Salisbury 102 

Lilley, Daniel T Lenoir 3rd Kinston 2 

Lineberry, Albert S Guilford 27th Greensboro 75 

Locks, Sidney A Robeson 16th Lumberton 16 

Lutz, Edith Ledford Cleveland 48th Lawndale 12 

Mavretic, Josephus L Edgecombe 8th Tarboro 49 

McAlister, Robert L Rockingham 25th Ruffin 65 

McDowell, Timothy HJ Alamance 25th Mebane 54 

McLaughlin, John B Mecklenburg 54th Newell 39 

Michaux, H. M., Jr Durham 23rd Durham 57 

Miller, George W., Jr Durham 69th Durham 43 

Mothershead, C. Ivan (R) Mecklenburg 55th Charlotte 88 

Murphy, Wendell H Duplin 10th Rose Hill 72 

Nesbitt, Martin L Buncombe 51st Asheville 52 

Noles, David J. (R) Lincoln 44th Lincolnton 95 

Nye. Edd Bladen 12th Elizabethtown 14 

Owens, Charles Rutherford 48th Forest City 1 1 

Payne, Harry E., Jr New Hanover 13th Wilmington 85 

Pool, Murray P Sampson 12th Clinton 40 

Privette, Coy C. (R) Cabarrus 34th Kannapolis 1 12 

Pulley, W. Paul Durham 68th Durham 38 

Quinn, Dwight W Cabarrus 34th Kannapolis 7 

Ramsey, Liston B Madison 52nd Marshall ** 



The Legislative Branch 359 



Name* County Dist. Address Seat 

Redwine, E. David Brunswick 14th Shallotte 13 

Rhodes, Frank E. (R) Forsyth 39th Winston-Salem 107 

Rhyne, Johnathan L., Jr. (R) Lincoln 44th Lincolnton 96 

Richardson, James F Mecklenburg 59th Charlotte 56 

Robinson, George S. (R) Caldwell 46th Lenoir 99 

Sizemore, Frank J., ill (R) Guilford 27th Greensboro 1 16 

Sparrow, J. Ray Wake 62nd Cary 82 

Spoon, L. P. (R) Mecklenburg 57th Charlotte 103 

Stamey, Margaret Wake 63rd Raleigh 79 

Tallent, Timothy N. (R) Cabarrus 34th Concord 90 

Tyndall, J. Paul Onslow 4th Jackson\ille 71 

Tyson, Henry M Cumberland 18th Fayetteville 17 

Walker, Lois S. (R) Iredell 42nd Statesville 93 

Warren, Edward N Pitt 9th Greenville 4 

Warren, Raymond (R) Mecklenburg 36th Charlotte 87 

Watkins, William T Granville 22nd Oxford 48 

Wicker, Dennis A Lee 19th Sanford 22 

Wmdley, Walter H. (R) Gaston 44th Gastonia 94 

Wiser, Betty H Wake 64th Raleigh 83 

Wood, Stephen W. (R) Guilford 28th High Point 78 

Woodard, Barney Paul Johnston 20th Princeton 8 

Woodard, Charles D Wayne 1 1th Goldsboro 27 

Wright, Richard Columbus 15th Tabor City 25 

Hunt, R. Samual, ill- Alamance 25th Burlington 54 



'McDouL'll resigned September 25. 1985, lollowing his uppointmenl to the N.C. Senate. 
-Hunt was appointed No\ember 7. 1985. b\ Cioxernor Martin to replace McDouell. 



360 North Carolina Manual 

SPEAKERS OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 
Lower House of the Colonial Assembly 

Assembly Representative Residence 

1666 George Catchmaid Albemarle 

1672 Valentine Bird [Pasquotank] 

1673 [Valentine Bird] [Pasquotank] 

1675 Thomas Eastchurch 

1677 Thomas Cullen [Chowan] 

1679 George Durant [Currituck] 

1689 John Nixon [Chowan] 

1697/98 John Porter [Bath] 

[1703] William Wilkison [Chowan] 

1707 Thomas Boyd 

1708 Edward Mosely [Chowan] 

1709 Richard Sanderson [Currituck] 

1711 William Swann [Currituck] 

1711/ 12 Thomas Snoden [Perquimans] 

1715/ 16 Edward Moseley [Chowan] 

1720 [Edward Moseley] [Chowan] 

1722 Edward Moseley [Chowan] 

1723 Edward Moseley [Chowan] 

1725-26 Maurice Moore [Perquimans] 

John Baptista Ashe Beaufort 

1727 [John Baptista Ashe] [Beaufort] 

1729 Thomas Swann [Pasquotank] 

1731 Edward Moseley Chowan 

1733 Edward Moseley Chowan 

1734 Edward Moseley Chowan 

1735 William Downing Tyrrell 

1736-37 William Downing Tyrrell 

1738-39 William Downing Tyrrell 

1739/40-1740 John Hodgson Chowan 

1741 John Hodgson Chowan 

1742/43-1744 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1744-45 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1746 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1746/47-1752 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1753-54 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1754-60 John Campbell Bertie 

Samuel Swann Onslow 

1760 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1761 Samuel Swann Onslow 

1762 Samuel Swann Onslow 

John Ashe New Hanover 

1764-65 John Ashe New Hanover 

1766-68 John Harvey Perquimans 

1769 John Harvey Perquimans 

1770-71 Richard Caswell Craven 

1773 John Harvey Perquimans 

1773-74 John Harvey Perquimans 

1775 John Harvey Perquimans 



The Legislative Branch 361 

House of Commons 

Assembly Representative Residence 

1777 Abner Nash Craven 

1778 John Williams Granville 

Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1779 Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1780 Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1781 Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1782 Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1783 Edward Starkey Onslow 

1784 (April) Thomas Benbury Chowan 

1784 (October) William Blount Craven 

1785 Richard Dobbs Spaight Craven 

1786-87 John B. Ashe Halifax 

1787 John Sitgreaves Craven 

1788 John Sitgreaves Craven 

1789 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1790 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1791-92 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1792-93 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1793-94 John Leigh Edgecombe 

1794-95 Timothy Blood worth New Hanover 

1795 John Leigh Edgecombe 

1796 John Leigh Edgecombe 

1797 Musendine Matthews Iredell 

1798 Musendine Matthews Iredell 

1799 Musendine Matthews Iredell 

1800 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1801 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1802 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1803 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1804 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1805 Stephen Cabarrus Chowan 

1806 John Moore Lincoln 

1807 Joshua Grainger Wright New Hanover 

1808 Joshua Grainger Wright New Hanover 

William Gaston Craven 

1809 Thomas Davis Cumberland 

1810 William Hawkins Granville 

1811 William Hawkins Granville 

1812 William Miller Warren 

1813 William Miller Warren 

1814 William Miller Warren 

1815 John Craig Orange 

1816 Thomas Ruffins Orange 

James Iredell Chowan 

1817 James Iredell, Jr Chowan 

1818 James Iredell, Jr Chowan 

1819 Romulus M. Saunders Caswell 

1820 Romulus M. Saunders Caswell 

1821 James Mebane Orange 

1822 John D. Jones New Hanover 

1823-24 Alfred Moore Brunswick 

1824-25 Alfred Moore Brunswick 

1825-26 John Stanly Craven 

1826-27 John Stanly Craven 

1827-28 James Iredell, Jr Chowan 



362 North Carolina Manual 



Assembly Representative Residence 

1828-29 Thomas Settle Rockingham 

1829-30 WiUiam J. Alexander Mecklenburg 

1830-31 Charles Fisher Rowan 

1831-32 Charles Fisher Rowan 

1832-33 Louis D. Henry Cumberland 

1833-34 William J. Alexander Mecklenburg 

1834-35 William J. Alexander Mecklenburg 

1835 William D. Haywood, Jr Wake 

1836-37 William H. Haywood, Jr Wake 

1838-39 William A. Graham Orange 

1840-41 William A. Graham Orange 

Robert B. Gilliam Granville 

1842-43 Clavin Graves Caswell 

1844-45 Edward Stanly Beauford 

1846-47 Edward Stanly Beauford 

Robert B. Gilliam Granville 

1848-49 Robert B. Gilliam Granville 

1850-51 James C. Dobbs Cumberland 

1852 John Baxter Henderson 

1854-55 Samuel P. Hill Caswell 

1856-57 Jesse G. Shepherd Cumberland 

1858-59 Thomas Settle, Jr Rockingham 

1860-61 William T. Dortch Wayne 

Nathan N. Fleming Rowan 

1862-64 Robert B. GiHiam Granville 

Richard S. Donnel! Beaufort 

Marmaduke S. Robbins Randolph 

1864-65 Richard S. Donnel Beaufort 

1865-66 Samuel F. Phillips Orange 

1866-67 Rufus Y. McAden Alamance 



House of Representatives* 

1868 Joseph W. Holden Wake 

1869-70 Joseph W. Holden Wake 

1870 Thomas J. Jarvis Tyrrell 

1872 James L. Robinson Macon 

1874-75 James L. Robinson Macon 

1876-77 Charles Price Davie 

1879 John M. Moring Chatham 

1881 Charles M. Cooke Franklin 

1883 George M. Rose Cumberland 

1885 Thomas M. Holt Alamance 

1887 John R. Webster Rockingham 

1889 Augustus Leazar Iredell 

1891 Rufus A. Doughton Alleghany 

1893 Lee S. Overman Rowan 

1895 Zeb V. Walser Davidson 



*With the adoption of a new State Constitution in 1868, the name "House of Commons" was 
changed to "House of Representatives." 



The Legislative Branch 363 



Assembly Representative Residence 

1897 A. F. Hileman Cabarrus 

1899-1900 Henry G. Connor Wilson 

1901 Walter E. Moore Jackson 

1903 S. M. Gattis Orange 

1905 Owen H. Guion Craven 

1907 E. J. Justice Guilford 

1909 A. W. Graham Granville 

1911 W. C. Dowd Mecklenburg 

1913 George Connor Wilson 

1915 Emmett R. Wooten Lenoir 

1917 Walter Murphy Rowan 

1919 Dennis G. Brummitt Granville 

1921 Harry P. Grier Iredell 

1923-24 John G. Dawson Lenoir 

1925 Edgar W. Pharr Mecklenburg 

1927 Richard T. Fountain Edgecombe 

1929 A. H. Graham Orange 

1931 Wilhs Smith Wake 

1933 R. L. Harris Person 

1935-36 Robert Johnson Pender 

1937 R. Gregg Cherry.. Gaston 

1939 D. L. Ward Craven 

1941 0. M. Mull Cleveland 

1943 John Kerr, Jr Warren 

1945 Oscar L. Richardson Union 

1947 Thomas J. Pearsall Nash 

1949 Kerr Craig Ramsay Rowan 

1951 W. Frank Taylor Wayne 

1953 Eugene T. Bost, Jr Cabarrus 

1955-56 Larry I. Moore, Jr Wilson 

1957 James K. Doughton Alleghany 

1959 Addison Hewlett New Hanover 

1961 Joseph M. Hunt, Jr Guilford 

1963 H. Clifton Blue Moore 

1965-66 H. Patrick Taylor, Jr Anson 

1967 David M. Britt Robeson 

1969 Earl W. Vaughn Rockingham 

1971 Phihp P. Godwin Gates 

1973-74 James E. Ramsey Person 

1975-76 James C. Green Bladen 

1977-78 Carl J. Stewart, Jr Gaston 

1979-80 Carl J. Stewart, Jr Gaston 

1981-82 Liston B. Ramsey Madison 

1983-84 Liston B. Ramsey Madison 

1985-86 Liston B. Ramsey Madison 





^^^^H ^m ''^'''*' '■" ■ 






\ 




.^^^^ 


^^^^^^^^^^^.^^^^K 








The Legislative Branch 365 

LISTON BRYAN RAMSEY 
SPEAKER 

(Democrat - Madison County) 

(Fifty-second Representative District - Graham (part), Haywood, Jack- 
son, Madison and Swain Counties - Two Representatives.) 

Early Years: Born in Marshall, Madison County, February 26, 1919, to John Morgan 
and Delia Lee (Bryan) Ramsey. 

Education: Mars Hill College, 1938. 

Profession: Retired merchant. 

Organizations: Elk; Mason; American Legion (former Commander); Veterans of For- 
eign Wars. 

Boards and Commissions: Co-Chairman, Governmental Operations Commission, 1981-82, 
1983-84, 1985- (member, 1973-74, 1975-76); Co-Chairman, Legislative Services 
Commission, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; Co-Chairman, Legis- 
lative Research Commission, 1975-76, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; Co-Chairman, Joint 
Committee on Separation of Powers, 1982; Advisory Budget Commission, 1973-74, 
1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80,; Blue Ribbon Study Commission on Transportation, 
1979-80. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1961, 1963, 1967, 1969, 
1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; Speaker of the 
House, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; Executive Committee, Southern Legislative Con- 
ference, 1981-82, 1983-84; Chairman, 1 1th Congressional District Democratic Executive 
Committee, 1972, 1974, 1976, 1980; delegate. Democratic National Convention, 
1968; County Chairman, Democratic Executive Committee, 1958-60, 1962; Board 
of Alderman, Town of Marshall, 1949-61. 

Military Service: Served, Army Air Corps, 1944-46 (Sergeant). 

Honors: NC Public Service Award, 1985; Friend of Education, NCAE, 1985; honorary 
member, NC AFL-CIO, 1985; Roy A. Taylor Service Award, 1978. 

Religious Activities: Baptist. 

Family: Married, Florence McDevitt. Children: Martha (Ramsey) Geouge. 



The Legislative Branch 367 



JOHN JACKSON "JACK " HUNT 
SPEAKER PRO TEM 

(Democratic - Cleveland County) 

(Forty-eighth Representative District - Cleveland, Polk and Rutherford 
Counties - Three Representatives.) 

Early Years: Born in Lattimore, Cleveland County, November 27, 1922, to Robert Lee 
and Alma (Harrill) Hunt. 

Education: Wake Forest University, 1943, B.S.; Emory Universtiy, 1946, D.D.S. 

Profession: Dentist, merchant and farmer. 

Organization: ADA; NCDS; Isothermal Dental Society; Mason; Shriner. 

Boards and Commissions: Legislative Research Committee; National Conference of 
State Legislative; Governmental Operations. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1979-80, 
1981-84, 1985-; Speaker Pro Tem, NC House of Representatives, 1985-; Chairman, 
Rules and Operation of House, 1981-82; Chairman, Military and Veterans' Affairs 
Commission, 1979-80; Alderman, City of Lattimore, 1958-64. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1943-48, 1950-52 (Major). 

Honors: Honorary member, NC National Guard; USS NC Battleship Award, AMVETS. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Ruby Cowder, June 22, 1946. Children: Judy (Hunt) Kohler, Penny 
(Hunt) Corn, Libby (Hunt) Sarazen, Sally Hunt and Cindy (Hunt) Martin. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on Justice and Public 
Safety; Appropriations-Expansion Budget on Justice and Public Safety; 
Energy; Rules and Operation of the House. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Judi- 
ciary 1; Law Enforcement; Military and Veterans' Affairs; Small Business; 
Transportation; Water and Air Resources. 




I 



The Legislative Branch 369 

BETSY LANE COCHRANE 
MINORITY LEADER 

(Republican - Davie County) 

(Thirty-seventh Representative District - Davidson, Davie and Iredell 
Counties - Three Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Asheboro, Randolph County, to William Jennings and Brodus 

Inez (Campell) Lane. 
Education: Asheboro Grammar Schools and High School; Meredith College, B.A. 

with honors (Elementary Education). 

Profession: Teacher and housewife. 

Organization: Kappa Nu Sigma; Vice President, Mocksville Women's Club; Director, 
Neighborhood Property Owners Association; NC Symphony; NC Museum Associ- 
ation; NC Museum of Art. 

Boards and Commissions: Piedmont Health Systems Agency; NC Advisory Council 
on Teacher Education; Republican Education Commission for the 80's. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-. 
Minority Leader, 1985-; Vice Chairman, Davie County Republican Party; Execu- 
tive Committee, NC Republican Party; NC delegate. National Convention, 1976. 

Honors: Outstanding Women in Government, NC Jaycees, 1985; Outstanding Fresh- 
man Representative (GOP), 1981; Who's Who for American Women; Who's Who 
in American Colleges and Universities; yearbook editor, college and high school. 

Religious Activities: Member, Knollwood Baptist Church; President, Women's WMU; 
Nominating Committee; Sunday School Teacher, 1960-77. 

Family: Married, Joe Kenneth Cochrane. Children: Lisa Lane and Craig Campell. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Natural and Economic Resources; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; 
Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and Economic 
Resources; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Children and Youth; Higher Edu- 
cation; Judiciary \; Natural and Economic Resources; Rules and Operation 
of the House; University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 



370 



North Carouna Manual 




AUSTIN MURPHY ALLRAN 

(Republican - Catawba County) 



(Forty-fifth Representative District 
Counties - Two Representatives.) 



Burke (part) and Catawba (part) 



Early Years: Born in Hickory, Catawba County, December 13, 1951, to Albert M. and 

Mary Ethel (Houser) Allran. 
Education: Hickory High School, 1967-70; Duke University, 1974, B.A.; Southern 

Methodist University, School of Law, 1978, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney. 

Organizations: NC, NC State and Catawba County Bar Associations; Catawba 
County Chamber of Commerce; Hickory Museum of Art; Catawba County Histor- 
ical Association; Hickory Jaycees; Duke University Alumni Association. 

Political Acitivities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; 
Joint Legislative Ethics Committee, 1985-; Legislative Assistant, Governor James 
Holshouser, 1974; Congressional Intern, Congressman James T. Broyhill, 1973; 
Catawba County YRC. 

Literary Works: Author, John Godfrey Arends: A Biographical Sketch. 

Religious Activities: Member, Corinth Reforme United Church of Christ, Hickory. 

Family: Married, Judy Mosbash, September 27, 1980. Children: Elizabeth Austin. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Children and Youth; Corporations; Courts and Administration of Jus- 
tice; Election Laws; Judiciary II; Local Government 1; Manufacturers and 
Labor. 




The Legislative Branch 371 

GERALD L. ANDERSON 

(Democrat - Craven County) 

(Third Representative District - Craven, Lenoir, and Pamlico Counties 
-Three Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Craven County, June 29, 1939, to Noah L. and Hazel (Rowe) 
Anderson. 

Education: New Bern High School, 1958; Deaver Realty Institute, 1974; Realtors Insti- 
tute, Chapel Hill. 

Profession: Businessman (Forestry, logging and real estate interests). 

Boards and Commissions: Director, Craven County Committee of 100; Director, Kin- 

ston Board of Realtors; New Bern-Craven County Chamber of Commerce; New 

Bern Board of Realtors. 
Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1980, 1981-82, 1983-84, 

1985-; Commissioner, Craven County, 1978-80. 
Religious Activities: Member, Pleasant Acres Free Will Baptist Church. 
Family: Married, Marie Stilley, January 25, 1959. Children: Teresa, Tina, Jerry, Lisa 

and Josh. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safe- 
ty- 
Vice Chairman: Agriculture; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations- 
Expansion Budget; Natural and Economic Resources. 

Member: Appropriations-Expansion Budget on Justice and Public Safety; Banks 
and Thrift Institutions; Insurance; Marine Fisheries; Rules and Operation of 
the House; State Government. 



372 North Carolina Manual 




FRANK W. BALLANCE, JR. 

(Democrat - Warren County) 

(Seventh Representative District - Halifax (part), Martin (part), and 
Warren (part) Counties - One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Windsor, Bertie County, February 15, 1942. 

Education: W.S. Etheridge High School, 1959; NC Central University, 1963, B.A.; NC 
Central University, School of Law, 1965, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney. 

Organizations: Board of Governors, National Bar Association; Director, Region Four 
National Bar Association; President, Ninth Judicial Bar Association; Charles Willi- 
amson and Warren County Bar Associations; Board of Governors, President and 
Parliamentarian, NC Association of Black Lawyers; NC Association of Trial Law- 
yers; President, NC Central University Law School Alumni Association; Trustee, 
Elizabeth City State University; Vice Chairman, Board of Trustees, NC Central 
University (Chancellor and Law School Dean Search Committee); life member, 
NAACP; Omega Psi Phi. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-; Chairman 
Warren County Board of Elections; Vice Chairman, Warren County Political 
Action Council; Chairman, Second Congressional District Black Caucus. 

Military Service: Served, NC National Guard. 

Religious Activities: Member, Greenwood Baptist Church; Board of Trustees. 

Family: Married, Bernadine Smallwood, July, 1969. Children: Garey, Angela and 
Valerie. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 
Chairman: Housing 

Vice Chairman: Commissions and Schools for the Blind and Deaf; Judiciary IV. 
Member: Children and Youth; Courts and Administration of Justice; Finance; 

Insurance; State Government; University Board of Governors Nominating 

Committee. 




The Legislative Branch 373 

ALLEN CROMWELL BARBEL 

(Democrat - Nash County) 

(Seventy-second Representative District - Edgecombe (part) and Nash 
(part) Counties - One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Spring Hope, Nash County, December 18, 1912, to John Lucian 
and Deborah Lena (Vester) Barbee. 

Education: Spring Hope High School; UNC-Chapel Hill. 

Profession: Farmer; broker; developer; hotel operator. 

Organizations: Elk; Mason; Shriner. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1961, 1963, 1965, 1967, 
1969, 1971, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; Mayor, Spring 
Hope, 1952-60; Town Commissioner, Spring Hope, 1951-52. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1942-46 (Captain); European theater; Allied 
Airborne Invasion Medal. 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church; Official Board, 1946- (Chairman, 
1947-57). 

Family: Married, Mabel McClellan Dixon, March 7, 1942. Children: Rebecca and 
Allen Cromwell, II. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Transportation. 

Vice Chairman: Finance; Small Business. 

Member: Agriculture; Commissions and Schools for the Blind and Deaf; Local 
Government I; Rules and Operation of the House; State Government. 



374 North Carolina Manual 




CHRISTOPHER SYLVANUS BARKER, JR. 

(Democrat - Craven County) 

(Third Representative District - Craven, Lenoir, and Pamlico Counties 
-Three Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Trenton, Jones County, September 7, 1911, to Dr. Christopher 
Sylvanus and Ruth Jane (Henderson) Barker (both deceased). 

Education: New Bern High School, 1928; US Naval Academy, 1933, B.S. 

Profession: Retired (registered securities representative, 1965-75; naval officer 1928-59; 
Professor of Naval Science, University of South Carolina, 1954-57; Associate Pro- 
fessor of Naval Science, Princeton University, 1945-48). 

Organizations: New Bern Civitan Club (President, 1964-64); Craven County Chapter 
for Retarded Citizens (President, 1965-66); 32nd Mason; Shriner (Sojourner); Elk; 
Moose; American Legion; Veterans of Foreign Wars; New York and East Carolina 
Yacht Clubs; Vice President, New Bern USO, 1971-73; Treasurer, Coastal Carolina 
Council, US Navy League, 1966-73. 

Boards and Commissions: Mental Health Study Commission, 1973-; Legislative Re- 
search Commission, 1977-82; Commission on Mental Health and Mental Retarda- 
tion, 1977-82; Chairman, NC Drug Authority, 1971-75; Vice Chairman, Commer- 
cial and Sports Fisheries Advisory Board, 1969-74; Chairman, Study Commission 
on the Use of Illegal and Harmful Drugs in the State of NC, 1970. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975- 
76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-. 

Military Service: Served, US Navy, 1928-59 (Rear Admiral); Legion of Merit and 
Bronze Star, World War II. 

Honors: Outstanding Legislator, Mental Health Area Boards Association, 1980; 
Valand Award (outstanding service in mental health), 1980; Citizen of the Year, 
New Bern, 1975. 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church; Administrative Board, 1972-75, 
1978-81; Official Board, 1963-66. 

Family: Married, Jean Kouwenhoven, December 30. 1949. Children: Christopher Syl- 
vanus, III, Marie Anne (Barker) Faulkenberry and Gary Cornelius. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Mental Health. 
Vice Chairman: Finance; Public Utilities. 

Member: Education; Election Laws; Governmental Ethics; Military and Vete- 
rans' Affairs; Wildlife Resources. 




The Legislative Branch 375 

ANNE CRAIG BARNES 

(Democrat - Orange County) 

(Twenty-fourth Representative District - Chatham (part) and Orange 
Counties - Two Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Gaston County, March 29, 1932, to George Hoyle Craig and 
Jessie Tarlton. 

Education: Mount Holly High School, 1950. 

Profession: Legislator, homemaker, former ballet instructor. 

Organizations: NC Recreation and Parks Society; Director, NC Merchants Associa- 
tion (Board of Directors); Women's Forum of NC; former member. Chapel Hill 
Service League. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Juvenile Law Study Commission; Director, 
Orange Cardiovascular Foundation, Region J Employment Training Advisory 
Council; Mental Health Study Commission; NC Public Education Policy Council; 
NC Child Enforcement Council; Administrative Rules Review Committee, 1982-83; 
Orange County Board of Social Services, 1978-81; NC Association of County 
Commissioners, 1978-81; National Association of Counties, 1978-81 Orange County 
Council on Aging, 1978-80; Chapel Hill charter Commission, 1973-74; Chapel Hill 
Recreation and Parks Commission, 1969-72 (Chairman, 1970-82). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; 
Orange County Democratic Party (Executive Committee, 1969-76; Chairman, 1974- 
76; Vice Chairman, 1972-74); delegate to county, district and state conventions, 
1969-82; Commissioner, Orange County, 1978-81; Carter-Mondale campaign staff, 
1980; Executive Committee, NC Democratic Party, 1974-78; delegate. National 
Convention, 1974. 

Honors: Orange County "Distinguished Democrat", 1976. 

Religious Activities: Sunday School Teacher ; youth adviser; recreation leader; Dea- 
con, 1977-80. 

Family: Married, Billy Ebert Barnes, July 19, 1952; Children: Billy, Jr. and Betsy. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Corrections 

Vice Chairman: Manufacturers and Labor; Mental Health. 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Bud- 
get Committee on Education; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Ap- 
propriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Education; Election Laws; 
Health; Judiciary IH; Local Government ; Judiciary III; Local Government 1; 
State Personnel. 



376 North Carolina Manual 




HOWARD CLINTON BARNHILL 

(Democrat - Mecklenburg County) 

(Sixtieth Representative District - Mecklenburg (part) County - One 
Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Greenville, Pitt County, February 7, 1916, 
to Lonnie C. and Josephine (Staton) Barnhill. 

Education: Epps High School, 1934; NC A&T State University, 1938, B.S.; NC Cen- 
tral University, 1948, M.S (Public Health); UNC- Chapel Hill, School of Public 
Health, graduate studies. 

Profession: Retired educator (former Clinical Professor, School of Public Health, 
UNC-Chapel Hill); public health educator, Mecklenburg County Health Depart- 
ment; Director, Health Education Centers Program, School of Public Health, 
UNC-Chapel Hill. 

Organizations: Charlotte-Mecklenburg Community Relations Committee, 1983-; Char- 
lotte Club, 1983-; Marketing Task Force, Charlotte Drug Education Center, 1984-; 
Charlotte Medical Society, 1957-; Dimensions for Charlotte-Mecklenburg Commit- 
tee, 1973-74; Citizens Advisory Committee on Urban Renewal and Community 
Improvement, Charlotte, 1965-72. 

Boards and Commissions: Director, Charlotte Area Fund, Inc., 1984-; Charlotte- 
Mecklenburg School Health Advisory Council, 1984-; Mecklenburg County Health 
and Hospital Council Board, 1973-76; Board of Governors, UNC System of Higher 
Education, 1972-73; Trustee, NC A&T State University, 1969-72; Trustee, Florence 
Crittenton Services, 1965-71. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-; Governor's Task 
Force on Organization for the Delivery of Primary Health Services, 1969-70. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1942-46 (Staff Sergeant); American theatre 
Service Medal; Pacific Service Medal; Good Conduct Medal; World War II Victory 
Medal. 

Honors: Laurel Wreath, Kappa Alpha Psi; Distinguished Service to Higher Education, 
NC A&T State University, 1980; Merit Award, 1976 and Twenty -five Years Service 
Award, 1977, NC Public Health Association; Excellence Award, 1973 and Twelve 
Years Service Award, 1965, NC A&T State University Alumni Association; Reli- 
gious and Civic Service Award, St. Paul's Baptist Church, 1965; Outstanding Ser- 
vice in the Field of Health Education, Scorpian Club, 1965; Meritorious Commun- 
ity Service Award, Opportunity Foundation, Inc., 1965. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist-West Church, Charlotte; Sunday School 
Teacher, 1972-; Board of Directors, 1967-76. 

Family: Married, Lois Clay of Roxboro, March 27, 1948. Children: Howard C, Jr. 
and Angela C. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Aging; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Com- 
mittee on General Government: Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropria- 
tions-Expansion Budget Committee on General Government; Constitutional 
Amendments; Education; Health; Housing; Human Resources; Mental 
Health; University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 




The Legislative Branch 377 

CHARLES MILLWEE BEALL 

(Democrat - Haywood County) 

(Fifty-second Representative District - Graham (part), Haywood, Jack- 
son, Madison and Swain Counties - Two Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Asheville, Buncombe County, October 20, 1920, to Charles M. 
and Nina P. (Morgan) Beall. 

Education: Bethel High School, 1936; Brevard College, 1937-38. 

Profession: Inventory controller, Champion Paper. 

Organizations: Pigeon River Lodge No. 386, Mason (former Master); Asheville Con- 
sistory Scottish Rite, 32nd Degree; Vaner-Rhinehart Post, American Legion; Can- 
ton Chapter, York Rite Masons (former High Priest). 

Boards and Commissions: Commission on the Future of NC; Commission on Manu- 
factured Housing; Governor's Task Force on Financing of Public School Facilities, 
1982; Revenue Laws Committee, 1981; Judicial Nominating Committee, 1981; 
Chairman, Haywood County Board of Elections, eight years. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; 
Chairman, Haywood County Democratic Executive Committee, six years; delegate. 
National Democratic Convention, 1980; Chairman, Vance-Aycock Banquet, 1980; 
Board of Alderman, Town of Canton, two terms. 

Military Service: Served, USAAF (Captain); Air Transport Command; World War II; 
Good Conduct Medal; American Theatre Operations Medal. 

Religious Activities: Member, Central United Methodist Church; Sunday School 
Teacher; Chairman, Administrative Board, 1978-; former Finance Chairman and 
Treasurer. 

Family: Married, Margaret Jewell Rhidehart, January 19, 1954. Children: Anna K. 
(Beall) Cathey, Cynthia H. (Beall) Hyatt and Margaret F. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Election Laws. 

Vice Chairman: State Government; Transportation. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on General Government; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations- 
Expansion Budget Committee on General Government; Higher Education; 
Insurance; Manufacturers and Labor; Rules and Operation of the House; 
State Properties. 



378 North Carolina Manual 




RAYFORD DONALD BEARD 

(Democrat - Cumberland County) 

(Eighteenth Representative District - Cumberland (part) County - Three 
Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Beard, Cumberland County, March 24, 1923, to William A. and 
Lola (Maxwell) Beard. 

Education: Central High School, 1942; various insurance courses. 

Profession: Insurance. 

Organizations: Professional Insurance Agents Association; NC Independent Agents 
Association; NC Association of Premium Service Companies; Lions Club; Masonic 
Order; Shriner; Scottish Rite. 

Boards and Commissions: Mental Health Study Commission; New Occupational and 
Professional Licensing Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 
1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-. 

Religious Activities: Member, Snyder Memorial Baptist Church; Sunday School 
Teacher; Deacon 1950-; former Chairman, Deacon, Church Moderator, 1960. 

Family: Married, Katherine Smith, July 30, 1944. Children: Linda B. Kay, Kathy B. 
Allen and Don, Jr. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on General Government. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Bud- 
get; Appropriations-Expansion Budget on General Government; Insurance; 
Mental Health. 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Constitu- 
tional Amendments; Governmental Ethics; Judiciary IV. 




The Legislative Branch 379 

DANIEL TERRY BLUE, JR. 

(Democrat - Wake County) 

(Twenty-first Representative District - Wake County - One Represen- 
tative.) 



Early Years: Born in Lumberton, Robeson County, April 18, 1949, to Daniel Terry 
and Allene (Morris) Blue, Sr. 

Education: Oak Ridge High School, 1956-66; NCCU, 1970, B.S. (Mathematics); Duke 
University, School of Law, 1973, J.D.; certificate. National Institute for Trial 
Advocacy, 1977. 

Profession: Attorney (managing partner, firm of Thigpen, Blue, Stephens & Fellers, 
1976-; associate, firm of Sanford, Adams, McCuUough & Beard, 1973-76); faculty, 
National Institute for Trial Advocacy, 1983. 

Organizations: American, NC and Wake County (former member. Executive Commit- 
tee) Bar Associations; American Associations of Trial Lawyers; Board of Gover- 
nors, NC Academy of Trial Lawyers; NC Association of Black Lawyers; Duke Law 
Alumni Council; Raleigh-Wake Citizens Association; Kiwanis; Alpha Phi Alpha; 
former President, Triangle Chapter, American Red Cross. 

Boards and Commissions: East Raleigh Citizens Advisory Council; Director, East 
Central Community Legal Services; Wake County Council on Aging; Director, NC 
Center for Public Policy Research; NC Courts Commission; NC Criminal Code 
Commission (Chairman, Study Committee); Board of Visitors, Duke University 
Law School. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; 
Wake YDC; NC Democratic Black Leadership Caucus; Chairman, NC Legislative 
Black Caucus; former member. State Democratic Executive Committee; former 
Committeeman, Raleigh Precinct 39; former Chairman, Raleigh Precinct 28; per- 
manent Chairman, Wake County Democratic Convention, 1979; Chairman, Wake 
County Democratic Campaign, 1978; active in Democratic politics on all levels. 

Honors: Distinguished Service Award, Garner Road YMCA, 1984; "Powers That Will 
Be," Carolina Life Style Magzine, 1983; Third Annual Heritage Award and Distin- 
guished Service Award, Shaw University, 1981; Citizen of the Year, Kappa Alpha 
Psi, 1981; Man of the Year, Omega Psi Phi, 1981; Man of Year Award, Prince Hall 
Masons, 1980; Humanitarian Award, Sigma Gamma Rho, 1977. 

Religious Activities: Member, Davie St. Presbyterian Church; Board of Trustees. 

Family: Married, Edna Earle Smith, January 26, 1972. Children: Daniel Terry, III, 
Kanika and Dhamian. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on Human Resources. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Bud- 
get; Judiciary 111; Manufacturers and Labor. 

Member: Appropriation-Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources; 
Education; Election Laws; Health; Insurance; Rules and Operation of the 
House; State Properties. 



I 



380 North Carolina Manual 




JAMES FRED BOWMAN 

( Democrat - Alamance County) 

(Twenty-fifth Representative District - Alamance, Rockingham, and 
Stokes (part) Counties - Four Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Kimesville, Guilford County, February 13, 1927, to William 
Daniel and Nannie (Neese) Bowman. 

Education: Nathaniel Green High School, 1944; Elon College, 1951, A.B. (Business, 
Math, Physics); Duke University, M.S.E.E. (Engineering); UNC-Greensboro, 1975, 
M.S. (Business Management). 

Profession: NC licensed professional engineer and land surveyor; engineer, AT&T 
Technologies (formerly Western Electric Company), 1946-; farm manager, 1944-46. 

Organizations: Burlington-Graham Engineers Club (President, 1981; Vice President, 
1981-82); Alamance Executive Club (President and Vice President, 1981-82); NC 
Educational Foundation for Commerce and Industry (President, 1974-76); Alam- 
ance Art Council; Private College Committee; Director, Burlington Civitan Club, 
1979, 1983; President and Vice President, Burlington City Schools PTA, 1975-76; 
NC Society of Engineers, 1970-74. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-; Democratic State 
Executive Committee, 1972-; Alamance County Democratic Party (Chairman, 
1978-82; Treasurer, 1975-77); Supervisor, Alamance Conservation Soil and Water, 
1982-84; County Chairman, Candidates for President, Governor and Attorney 
General. 

Honors: Valedictorian, Nathaniel Green High School, 1944. 

Literary Works: "Analysis of the HE-NE Gas Lasers for Use in Ultra-Precision and 
Surface Quality Measuring Techniques for Production Processes", M.S.E.E. The- 
sis, Duke University. 

Religious Activities: Member, Beverly Hills United Church of Christ, Burlington; Dea- 
con; Board of Christian Education; Finance Chairman, Building Committee, 1966- 
84; Sunday School Teacher, 1955-84; former Sunday School Superintendent. 

Family: Married, Dr. Betty Lynch of Mebane, June 30, 1946. Children: J. Thomas, 
Zeulon L., Nan (Bowman) Wooten and Fred J. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Aging; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Education; Employment Secur- 
ity; Finance; Manufacturers and Labor; Mental Health; Small Business. 





The Legislative Branch 381 

WILLIAM THOMAS BOYD 

(Republican - Randolph County) 

_^- ''■P (Thirtieth Representative District - Chatham (part) and Randolph (part) 

!"''» } Counties - One Representative.) 

Early Years: Born in Asheboro, Randolph County, November 14, 1941, to Fred L. and 

Mary (Hinshaw) Boyd. 
Education: Grays Chapel High School, 1961; Appalachian State College. 
Profession: President: Piedmont Construction of Asheboro, inc.; Boyd Realty and 

Builders, Inc.; Integrity Group, Inc.; Joshua Corporation. 

Organizations: Asheboro-Randolph Home Builders Association (President, 1969-70); 
Asheboro-Randolph Realtors (President, 1972); NC Home Builders Assocation 
(President, 1976); Asheboro Kiwanis Club; Director, YMCA; Director, Randolph 
Mental Health; Director, Asheboro-Randolph Chamber of Commerce; Director, 
Randolph County Hospital. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-; former Commis- 
sioner, Randolph County (Chairman, 1982); Chairman, Randolph County Bill 
Cobey Campaign, 1982; Co-Chairman, 4th District Bill Cobey Campaign, 1984. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Assembly of God, Asheboro; certified Lay Speaker; 
Laywitness Coordinator; Full Gospel Businessmen Fellowship International. Dis- 
trict Lay Leader, United Methodist Church, 1976-81. 

Family: Married, Shirley Carter of Asheboro, June 9, 1983. Children: Angela E. and 
William T., Jr. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Finance; Highway Safety; Judiciary III; Law Enforcement; Local 
Government II; Natural and Economic Resources; State Properties; Water 
and Air Resources. 



382 North Carolina Manual 




GEORGE WYATT BRANNAN 

(Democrat - Johnston County) 

(Twentieth Representative District - Franklin and Johnston Counties 
Two Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Erwin, Harnett County, March 3, 1932, to Wade Melbry and 
Hannah (Hollomon) Brannan. 

Education: Dunn High School; NC State University, 1954, B.S. (Mechanical En- 
gineering). 

Profession: Nurseryman. 

Organizations: Chairman, Horticulture Advisory Committee, NC Community Col- 
leges; former President, NC Association of Nurserymen and NC Association of 
Landscape Contractors; charter member, Smithfield Jaycees; former Chairman, 
Johnston County Airport Authority. 

Boards and Commissions: Energy Policy Council; Governor's Advisory Committee on 
Agriculture, Forestry and Seafood. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1983-84, I985-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1955-57; Reserves, 1957-65 (Captain). 

Family: Married, Mary Jane Warrick, June 27, 1954. Children: Beth (Brannan) Mayer 
and George Wyatt, Jr. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Law Enforcement. 
Vice Chairman: Education; Housing. 

Member: Banks and Thrift Institutions, Election Laws; Energy; Finance; Local 
Government I. 



The Legislative Branch 



383 




CLYDE ROBERT BRAWLEY, JR. 

(Republican - Iredell County) 

(Forty-third Representative District - Alexander (part), Catawba (part), 
and Iredell (part) Counties - One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Mooresville, Iredell County, April 10, 1944, to Clyde R. and 
Sarah (Goodnight) Brawley. 

Education: Mooresville Senior High, 1959-62; NC State University, 1968, B.S. (Engi- 
neering Operations). 

Profession: Insurance agent. 

Organizations: National Association of Life Underwriters; Rotary Club. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army National Guard, 1967-(Major). 

Religious Activities: Member, Triplet! Methodist Church; President, Men's Club; 
Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Married, Mary Kipka, March 31, 1972. Children: Woody, Shelly, Edward, 
Sarah and Susan. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Finance; Housing; Insur- 
ance; Mental Health; Small Business; State Properties. 



384 



North Carouna Manual 




LEDIE MUSTAIN BRINKLEY, SR. 

(Democrat - Hertford County) 



(Sixth Representative District 
(part), and Pitt (part) Counties 



- Bertie (part), Hertford (part). 
One Representative.) 



Martin 



Early Years: Born in Ahoskie, Hertford County, December 30, 1920, to Ledie Alphus 
and Lou (Overton) Brinkley. 

Education: Ahoskie High School, 1926. 

Profession: Senior partner, L.M. Brinkley & Sons; partner, Ramada Inn Motel. 

Organizations: Ahoskie Lions Club. 

Boards and Commissions: Codes and Qualifications Board of NC, 1982-85; Northeast- 
ern NC Tommorrow, 1981-85; Personal Finance Chairman, Mid East Board, 1970- 
85; Chowan College Board of Trustees, 1968-85 (Executive Committee, 1980-85). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-; Commissioner, 
Hertford County, 1973-85; Ahoskie Town Council, 1964-72. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Ahoskie; Sunday School Teacher; 

Finance Officer; Deacon; 1955-84. 
Family: Married, Eva Brown of Lancaster, South Carolina, May 30, 1941. Children; 

L.M., Jr. and Arthur Leroy. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Bud- 
get Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Appropriations-Expansion 
Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and Public 
Safety; Health; Housing; Local Government L Public Utilities; Small Busi- 
ness; State Properties; Wildlife Resources. 



The Legislative Branch 



385 




JOHN WALTER BROWN 

(Republican - Wilkes County) 

(Forty-first Representative District - Alexander (part), Wilkes, and Yad- 
kin Counties - Two Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Traphill, Wilkes County, September 12, 1918, to James Walter 
and Nora Blackburn Brown. 

Education: Virginia Trade School, 1940; Appalachian State University, 1937. 

Profession: Farmer (beefcattle, poultry and tobacco). 

Organizations: NC Cattlemen's Association; Woodmen of the World; Farm Bureau. 

Political Activites: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1971, 1973-74, 1979-80, 
1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1944-46 (Private); Engineer Corps; World War II. 

Religious Activities: Member, Charity United Methodist Church; Chairman, Official 

Board; Trustee; Church School Superintendent; Teacher, Young Adult Class; 

Church Lay Speaker. 

Family: Married, Ruth Hanks, September 14, 1941. Children: Betty Ruth (Brown) 
Morenstein and Johnsie Charles. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Aging; Agriculture; Finance; Governmental Ethics; Military and Vete- 
ran's Affairs; State Government; Transportation; Wildlife Resources. 



386 North Carolina Manual 




HAROLD JAMES BRUBAKER 

(Republican - Randolph County) 

(Thirty-eighth Representative District - Randolph (part) County - One 
Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Mount Joy, Pennsylvania, November 11, 1946, to Paul N. and 
Verna Mae (Miller) Brubaker. 

Education: Pennsylvania State University, 1969, B.S. (Agricultural Economics); 
NC State University, 1971, Masters (Economics). 

Profession: President, Harold J. Brubaker & Associates (real estate appraisals, eco- 
nomic feasibility studies, investment anaylsis). 

Organizations: Randolph County Farm Bureau; Grange; NC Holstein Association; 
4-H Club leader (former President, NC Development Fund); Director, Salvation 
Army; former Director, Westside Volunteer Fire Department; former Director, 
Randolph Technical College Foundation; former Director, National Conference on 
Citizenship; former Vice President, National FFA. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 
1983-84, 1985-; House of Minority Leader, 1981-82, 1983-84; Joint Caucus Leader, 
Republican Members of the NC General Assembly, 1979-80; Executive and Central 
Committees, NC Republican Party (former Assistant Secretary); Executive Com- 
mittee, Randolph County Republican Party; Executive Committee, National Asso- 
ciation for Republican Legislators; former Executive Committee member, 4th Dis- 
trict Republican Party; Co-Chairman, NC Reagan-Bush Committee, 1980; delegate 
at large. National Republican Convention, 1980; Chairman, Randolph County 
Young Republicans, 1971. 

Honors: Outstanding Young Men in NC, 1981; Outstanding 4-H Alumni of NC, 1981; 
Distinguished Service Award, 1981. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. John's Lutheran Church; Congregation Chairman; 
Vice Chairman, Deacon Board. 

Family: Married, Geraldine Baldwin, November, 1972. Children: Jonathon Nissley 
and Justin Andrew. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Banks and Thrift Institutions. 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Bud- 
get Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Appropriations-Expansion 
Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and Public 
Safety; Health; Housing; Manufacturers and Labor; Rules and Operations of 
the House; Transportation; University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 




3 



The Legislative Branch 387 

CHARLES FRANKLIN BUCHANAN 

(Republican - Mitchell County) 

(Forty-sixth Representative District - Alexander (part), Avery, Burke 
(part), Caldwell. Mitchell and Watauga (part) Counties- Three Representa- 
tives.) 



Early Years: Born in Poplar, Mitchell County, October 5, 1936, to Robert and Hattie 
Mae (Garland) Buchanan. 

Education: Poplar School, 1942-49; North Side School, 1949-51; US Air Force High 
School; Southern College of Optometry, B.S., 1960; Doctor of Optometry. 

Organizations: Bakersville Lions Club (President, 1983); Spruce Pine Mountaineer 
Shrine Club; Scottish Rite and York Rite, Asheville; OASIS Temple, Charlotte; 
Master of Bakersville Masonic Lodge #357. 

Boards and Commissions: Former Director: Northwestern Housing Authority; Mit- 
chell County Finance Committee; Region D Council of Governments; WAMY 
Community Action; Mitchell County EDC; Region D SBA; NC Labor Training 
Action; Mitchell County Social Services; NC Council on Aging; Personnel Com- 
mittee, Mitchell County; Mitchell County Transportation Authority (former Chair- 
man); Association of Social Services; Tennessee Valley Authority, 1978-82; NC 
Association of County Commissioners, 1978-82. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-; former Commis- 
sioner, Mitchell County (Chairman, two years); White House Conference on Aging, 
1980. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1958-62; Reserves, 1962-64 (A/ Ic). 

Religious Activities: Member, Poplar Free Will Baptsit Church. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Aging; Agriculture; Finance; Local Government 1; Military and Vete- 
rans' Affairs; State Personnel; Transportation; Wildlfe Resources. 



388 North Carouna Manual 



/^^■' 



DAVID WEBSTER BUMGARDNER, JR. 

(Democrat - Gaston County) 

(Forty-fourth Representative District - Gaston and Lincoln Counties 
Four Representatives.) 




Early Years: Born in Belmont, Gaston County, November 2, 1921, to David Webster 
and Winnifred (Ballard) Bumgardner. 

Education: Belmont Public Schools, 1927-38; Belmont Abbey College, 1938^0; Gupton- 
Jones College of Mortuary Science, 1942. 

Profession: Mortician (President and Treasurer, Bumgardner, Inc.; President, McLean- 
Bumgardner, Inc.). 

Organizations: NC Funeral Directors Association; National Funeral Directors Associ- 
ation; Mason, Belmont Lodge No. 627; Gastonia York Rite Masonic Order; 
Shriner, Oasis Temple. Former President: Belmont Kiwanis Club, Belmont United 
Fund, Inc., Belmont Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: Director, Belmont Savings & Loan; Director, Lakeside 
Cable TV, Inc.; Planning and Zoning Board of Belmont (Original Board); Board of 
Transportation, 1977-82; Governmental Evaluation Commission, 1977-81; NC Com- 
mission for the Study of Local and Ad Valorum Tax Structure, 1970. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 
1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1942-45; Reserves, 1949-55; European-African 
theatre; NC National Guard, 1955-1974 (Lieutenant Colonel). 

Honors: Community Service Award, American Legion, 1983; Man of the Year, Bel- 
mont Chamber of Commerce , 1967; Distinguished Service Award, Gupton-Jones 
College of Mortuary Science, 1954. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Belmont. Former: Deacon, Parli- 
amentarian, Sunday School Superintendant, Finance Committee Chairman, Build- 
ing Committee member. 

Family: Married, Sara Margaret Jones, August 14, 1948. Children: Sharon (Bum- 
gardner) Hill and Sandra (Bumgardner) Branch. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Public Utilities 

Vice Chairman: Highway Safety; Transportation. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Natural and Economic Resources; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; 
Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and Economic Re- 
sources; Judiciary III; Law Enforcement; Local Government II; State Govern- 
ment. 



)P^ ^f 



The Legislative Branch 389 

RICHARD EUGENE CHALK, JR. 

(Republican - Guilford County) 

(Twenty-eighth Representative District - Guilford (part) County - Two 
Representatives.) 



£ 



Early Years: Born in Columbia, South Carolina, June 3, 1952, to Richard E. and 
Louise (Craps) Chalk, Sr. 

Education: Airport High School, 1970; The Citadel, 1974, B.A. (Political Science); 

New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary, 1979, M.A. (Church Music). 
Profession: Owner, Specialty Wood Products. 

Organizations: Boy Scouts of America (Chairman, District Membership Retention); 
High Point Chamber of Commerce. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-. 

Honors: Eagle Scout; Outstanding Young Men of America; Vigil member. Order of 
the Arrow. 

Religious: Member, Reavis Memorial Baptist Church, High Point; Minister of Music. 

Family: Married, Maelda Miranda of New Orleans, Louisiana, December 22, 1979. 
Children: Cristina and Richard E., III. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Natural and Economic Resources; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; 
Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and Economic Re- 
sources; Courts and Administration of Justice; Education; Human Resour- 
ces; Judiciary III; Local Government I; Small Business; Water and Air 
Resources. 



i 



390 North Carouna Manual 




HOWARD B. CHAPIN 

(Democrat - Beaufort County) 

(Second Representative District - Beaulort, Hyde and Washington (part) 
Counties - One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Ahoskie, Hertford County, December 9, 1921, to Henry B. and 
Lavenia (Howard) Chapin (both deceased). 

Education: Public Schools of Weldon and Aurora; Kinston High School; Atlantic 
Christian College, 1947, A.B.; Civic Institute of Government, UNC-Chapel Hill; 
ECU, additional studies in political science. 

Profession: Retired educator. 

Organizations: Member, Belhaven Lions Club (past president); Washington Kiwanis 
Club (past president; Golden K Club; VFW). 

Boards and Commissions: Former member, Washington Planning Board. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 
1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army Air Force, 1943-45 (Sergeant); 8th Air Force. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Christian Church, Washington. 

Family: Married, Mary Alice Beasley, January 29, 1948. Children: J.Michael and 
Kenneth E. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Marine Fisheries. 
Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on Education; Ap- 
propriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Education; Corrections. 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropri- 
ations-Expansion Budget; Education; Cultural Resources; Higher Education; 
Natural and Economic Resources. 




The Legislative Branch 391 

JOHN TRAMMELL CHURCH 

(Democrat - Vance County) 

(Twenty-second Representative District - Caswell, Granville, Halifax 
(part), Person, Vance and Warren - Three Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Raleigh, Wake County, September 22, 
1917, to Charles R. and Lela (Johnson) Church. 

Education: Boyden High School, 1935; Catawba College, 1936-37; UNC-Chapel Hill, 
1942, B.S. (Pharmacy). 

Profession: Chairman Emeritus of the Board, Roses Stores, Inc. 

Organizations: Executive Committee and Director: NC Merchants Association, NC 
Citizens Association, NC Agri-Business Council. Director: National Retail Mer- 
chants Association, UNC-Chapel Hill Business Foundation, Association of General 
Merchandise Concerns (Secretary). Henderson-Vance Chamber of Commerce; Hen- 
derson- 1 Vance United Fund (former Trustee and Executive Committee, Carolinas 
United); Rotary; Henderson Country Club; Mason; Shriner; Elk; American Legion; 
Newcomers Society of NC; Vanwarco and North District Occoneechee Council, 
BSA; Kappa Alpha of Chi Beta Phi; Tarheel Lung Association; National Society to 
Prevent Blindness. 

Boards and Commissions: Director, People's Bank (former Chairman, Advisory 
Board); Advisory Boards: SE Regional Council, BSA and Salvation Army. Trus- 
tee: Louisburg College (Chairman) and Vance-Granville Community College (Secre- 
tary). Board of Visitors, UNC-Chapel Hill. Director: NC Ports Authority and NC 
Railroads. Committees: State Revenue Sharing, Morehead Scholarship Selection, 
NC-VA Water Management. Commissions: Kerr Lake, UNC Utilities Study (Chair- 
man), Executive Residence Building, NC Tax Study, NC Legislative Services, NC 
Research, State Art Museum Building, NC Agency for Telecommunications. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1967, 1969, 1977-78, 1979- 
80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; NC Senate, 1971; delegate. National Democratic Con- 
vention, 1972; Democratic National Committee, 1972; Chairman, NC Democratic 
Executive Committee, 1972; Chairman, Democratic Executive Committee, Vance 
County, 1966, 1976; Henderson City Council, 1966-67. 

Military Service: Served, US Marine Corp Reserves, 1942-45 (Captain); naval 
aviation. 

Honors: Man of the Year, Henderson-Vance Chamber of Commerce; Businessman in 
the News, NC Citizens Association; "Tar Heel of the Week," The News and 
Observer; Silver Beaver and Distinguished Citizen Awards, BSA; Dintinguished 
Alumnus, Catawba College, 1973. 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church, Henderson; Chairman 
of the Board (former President): Trustee; former Chairman, Finance Committee. 

Family: Married, Emma Thomas Rose of Henderson, December 31, 1943. Children: 
John Trammel, Jr. and Elizabeth (Church) Bacon. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Higher Education 

Vice Chairman: Finance; UNC Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 

Member:Agriculture; Local Government H; Natural and Economic Resources; 
Rules and Operation of the House; Transportation. 



392 



North Carolina Manual 




WILLIAM EDWIN CLARK 

(Democrat - Cumberland County) 

(Eighteenth Representative District - Cumberland (part) County - Three 
Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Fayetteville, Cumberland County, January 12, 1943, to Franklin 
S. and Mary Pride (Cruikshank) Clark. 

Education: Davidson College, 1965, B.A.; UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1965-68, 
J.D. 

Profession: Land developer and manufacturing interests; Attorney, City of Fayette- 
ville, 1974-76. 

Organizations: Cumberland County and NC Bar Associations; Kiwanis Club. 
Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983- 

84, 1985-. 
Military Service: Served, US Army, 1970 (Captain) 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Alcoholic Beverage Control. 
Vice-Chairman: Corporations; Judiciary 1. 

Member: Banks and Thrift Institutions; Courts and Administration of Justice; 
Employment Security; Finance; Manufacturers and Labor; Water and Air 
Resources. 




The Legislative Branch 393 

JAMES MONROE COLE* 

(Republican - Watauga County) 

(Fortieth Representative District - Alleghany, Ashe, Stokes (part), Surry 
and Watauga (part) Counties - Three Representatives.) 



^^ ^ 



Early Years: Born in Itta Bena, Mississippi, April 2, 1922, to Richard Monroe and 
Ruby Mae (Knott) Cole. 

Education: Itta Bena High School, 1939; University of Cincinnati, 1948, B.S.; Cincin- 
nati Conservatory of Music, 1948; University of Cincinnati, 1952, M.Ed.; UNCand 
Nova University, additional studies. 

Profession: Professor of Education, Appalachian State University; former Assistant 
Vice Chancellor, Appalachian State University. 

Organizations: NC Association of Educators (President, Higher Education Division); 
Governor, Boone Moose Lodge; Senior Vice Commander, Boone V.F.W.; Direc- 
tor, NC Elks. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1940-45 (1st Lieutenant); Aircraft Com- 
mander; Air Medal with Three Oak Leaf Cluster; Distinguished Flying Cross. 

Religious Activities: Member, Deerfield Methodist Church, Boone; choir director, 
1975-80, 1982-83. 

Family: Married, Kathleen B. Carter of Graham, February 22, 1985. Children: 
Richard M., Susan H., Jennifer A., James K., Michael C, Thomas S. and Kathe- 
rine E. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member:: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Education; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations-Expansion 
Budget Committee on Education; Corrections; Cultural Resources; Educa- 
tion; Higher Education; State Government: State Personnel; Transportation. 



*i 



"Seat declared vacant on November 4, 1985, following his registering to vote in his new county 
of residence ~ Alamance County. 



394 



North Carolina Manual 




MARIE (WAITERS) COLTON 

(Democrat - Buncombe County) 

(Fifty-first Representative District - Buncombe, Henderson (part) and 
Transylvania Counties - Four Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, October 20, 1922, to John Piper 
and Sarah Thomas Watters. 

Education: Chapel High School, 1939; St. Mary's Junior College; UNC-Chapel Hill, 
1943, B.A. (Spanish); Mars Hill College and UNC-Asheville, post graduate studies. 

Profession: Legislator. 

Organizations: Business and Professional Women; League of Women Voters; Ameri- 
can Association of University Women; Sir Walter Cabinet; Children's Welfare 
League. 

Boards and Commissions: Director, Vagabond School of Drama; National Board of 
Advisors, Brevard Music Center; NC Public Radio Advisory Committee; Board of 
Visitors, UNC-Chapel Hill. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 
1985-. 

Family: Married, Henry E. Colton. Children: Elizabeth, Marie (Colton) Pelzer; Sarah 
(Colton) Villeminot and Walter. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on Natural and Economic 
Resources. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Bud- 
get; Cultural Resources; Human Resources. 

Member: Aging; Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and 
Economic Resources; Children and Youth; Governmental Ethics; Judiciary 
HI; Local Government U; Water and Air Resources. 




The Legislative Branch 395 

JAMES M. CRAVEN 

(Republican - Moore County) 

(Thirty-first Representative District - Moore County - One Representa- 
tive.) 



Early Years: Born in Pine Bluff, Moore County, July 17, 1930. 

Education: Ellerbe High School, 1948. 

Profession: Chairman of the Board, New South Industries, (a division of Erico 
Corporation). 

Organizations: Southern Pines Rotary; Roman Eagle Lodge No. 550; Aberdeen A&A; 
Scottish Rite. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1985-; Commis- 
sioner, Moore County, 1980-82; former Chairman, Moore County Republican 
Party 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1948-69 (M/ Sergeant); Airborn Infantry. 

Religious Activities: Member, Pine Bluff Methodist Church; Administrative Board. 

Family: Married, Kathleen Freeman of Eagle Springs, September 8, 1950. Children: 
Richard, Donna, Steve and Jennifer. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Alcoholic Beverage Control; Constitutional Amendments; 
Finance; Law Enforcement; Pensions and Retirement; Water and Air Re- 
sources; Wildlife Resources. 



396 North Carouna Manual 




JAMES WALKER CRAWFORD, JR. 

(Democrat - Granville County) 

(Twenty-second Representative District - Caswell, Granville, Halifax 
(part). Person, Vance and Warren Counties - One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Durham, Durham County, October 4, 1937, to James Walker 

and Julia Brent (Hicks) Crawford. 
Education: Oxford High School, 1952-56; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1980, B.S. (Industrial 

Relations). 

Profession: Retail merchant (The Fabric Shop); Coble Boulevard Investments; Vice 
President, Skateeum, Inc. 

Organizations: NC Merchants Association; Jaycees; Director, Oxford Jaycees Presi- 
dent, Rucker Recreation Association; Director, Vance Academy, Inc., 1965-82. 

Boards and Commissions: Local Board, Central Carolina Bank, 1972-82. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-; Oxford 

City Council, 1964-68. 
Military Service: Served, US Navy, 1960-62 (Lieutenant). 
Honors: Distinguished Service Award, Jaycees. 

Religious Activities: Member, Oxford United Methodist Church; Chairman, Board of 

Trustees, 1980-81; Treasurer, 1972. 
Family: Married, Harriet C. Cannon, February 11, 1961. Children: James W., Ill, 

Julia Brent and Harriet Cannon. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on Human Resources; 
Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Human Reosurces; Public 
Utilities; State Government. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; 
Banks and Thrift Institutions; Higher Education; Judiciary 1; Local Govern- 
ment I; Mental Health; Rules and Operation of the House. 




The Legislative Branch 397 

NARVEL JAMES CRAWFORD, JR. 

(Democrat - Buncombe County) 

(Fifty-first Representative District - Buncombe, Henderson (part) and 
Transylvania Counties - Four Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Asheville, Buncombe County, November 9, 1929, to Narvel J. 
and Tymah (Phillips) Crawford. 

Education: Lee Edwards High School, 1946-48; Duke University, A.B., 1952; UNC- 
Chapel Hill, 1959-60, graduate studies in history. 

Profession: Property management. 

Organizations: V.F.W. Post 789; Asheville Civitan Club; Legislative Task Force, 
Industrial Relations and Economic Development Committees, Asheville Chamber 
of Commerce; director, American Lung Association of NC (western region); Direc- 
tor, NC Hemophilia Foundation; Director, Epilepsy Association of NC; Director, 
American Foundation for the Deaf. 

Boards and Commissions: Director, NC State Theater at Flat Rock; Director, Thomas 
Rehabilitation Hospital; Director, Buncombe County Social Services; State Parks 
Study Commission (co-chairman). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; 
Democratic State Executive Committee, third term; Secretary, Buncombe County 
Executive Committee, 1978-79; Chairman, Asheville Precinct No. 3, 1972-78; Presi- 
dent, Democratic Forum of Bumcombe County, 1972-78; campaign manager, 
Asheville City Council, 1977; representative. Eleventh Congressional District, State 
Democratic Platform Committee, 1976. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1954-56; Counter-intelligence Corps. 

Honors: Phi Beta Kappa. 

Religious Activities: Member, All Souls Episcopal Church, Asheville; Chalice Admin- 
istrator; lector; National Council, American Church Union. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on General Govern- 
ment; Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on General Govern- 
ment; State Properties. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Con- 
stitutional Amendments; Election Laws, Rules and Operation of the House. 



398 



North Carolina Manual 




CHARLES MELVIN CREECY 

(Democrat - Northampton) 

(Fifth Representative District - Bertie (part). Gates (part), Hertford (part) 
and Northampton Counties - One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Rich Square, Northampton County, December 2, 1920, to Wil- 
ham Spencer and Susie M. (Griffin) Creecy. 

Education: Rich Square Institute, 1927-36; W.S. Creecy School, 1936-38; Shaw Uni- 
versity, 1938-1942, B.A.; Shaw University, School of Religion, 1942-45, M. Div.; 
Shaw University, D.D.; Andover-Newton, B.D.; Theological School, 1976; NCCU, 
courses in social studies. 

Profession: Minister (Nebo Baptist Church, Zoar Baptist Church, Indian Woods 

Church and New Bethany Church); farmer. 
Organizations: Phi Beta Sigma, 32nd Degree Mason. 

Boards and Commissions: Trustee, Director and Executive Board, Shaw University 
(Chairman, Committee on Student Affairs); Executive Committee and Board, Lett 
Carey Foreign Mission Convention. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-. 

Honors: D.D. and M.Div., Shaw University. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptsit Church, Rich Square; Executive Commit- 
tee and Board, General Baptist State Convention. 

Family: Married, Clementine Savage, January 28, 1948. Children: Charles M., Jr., 
Bryant Dewitt, Norma Rose (Creecy) Jones and Elizabeth Ann. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Energy 

Vice-Chairman: Agriculture; Corrections. 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Finance; Highway Safety; Mental Health; 
Transportation; Wildlife Resources. 




The Legislative Branch 399 

CHARLES LEMUEL CROMER 

(Republican - Davidson County) 

(Thirty-seventh District - Davidson, Davie and Iredell (part) Counties 
-Three Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in High Point, Guilford County, January 27, 1939, to Charles Nor- 
man and Wilma (Duggins) Cromer. 

Education: High Point High School, 1957; Sandhills Community College, 1972, A. A. 
with honors; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1972, B.A. with honors; Wake Forest University, 
School of Law, 1975, J. D., cum laude. 

Profession: Attorney, 1977-; law teacher, Davidson Community College, 1975-82; 
associate, firm of Morgan, Post Herring & Morgan, 1975-77; insurance adjustor, 
1967-71. 

Organizations: NC and 18th Judicial Bar Associations; NC Academy of Trial Lawyers; 
Director and charter member. Parent to Parent; Director, Association for Retarded 
Citizens (liason with High Point City Schools); Director, High Point Rescue 
Squad; Director, High Point Kindergarten for the Handicapped. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1962-65 (Sp-4). 

Honors: American Jurisprudence awards and Law Review invitation. School of Law , 

Wake Forest University. 
Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church, High Point; Chairman, 

Estate Committee; Finance Committee; class president, 1980. 

Family: Married, Sheila Sue Whitlow of High Point. Children: Tonja Dawn and Ash- 
ley Nicole. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Aging; Agriculture; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base 
Budget Committee on Human Resources; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; 
Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources; Com- 
missions and Schools for the Blind and Deaf; Health; Human Resources; 
Judiciary IV; Local Government 1; Mental Health. 



400 North Carolina Manual 




DONALD MARTIN DAWKINS 

(Democrat - Richmond County) 

(Thirty-second Representative District - Richmond and Scotland (part) 
Counties - One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Rockingham, Richmond County, June 28, 1938, to Eugene 
Dennis and Myrtle Eunice (Blake) Dawkins. 

Education: Rockingham High School, 1956; NCSU, 1960, B.S. (Mechanical and 
Aeronautical Engineering); University of Southern California, 1970, Masters (Man- 
agement); St. Mary's University, School of Law, 1973, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney; lay pastor. 

Organizations: Richmond County, NC, NC State, American, Texas and Florida Bar 
Associations; American Trial Lawyers Association; NC Academy of Trial Lawyers. 
Political Activites: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1960-71 (Major); helicopter pilot; Signal Corps; 
Distinguished Flying Crosses (2); Meritorious Service Medal; Bronze Star for 
Achievement; Bronze Star for Valour; Army Commendation Medal; Air Medals 
(17); Air Medal with "V"; various campaign medals. 

Religious Acitivities: Member, Tabernacle United Methodist Church, Hamlet; lay pas- 
tor, 1978-; Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Married, Patricia Ellen Settle of Rockingham, September 1 1, 1960. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Aging; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Courts and Administration of 
Justice; Finance; Higher Education; Judiciary H; Veterans' Affairs; Water 
and Air Resources. 



l/" 



The Legislative Branch 401 

MICHAEL DECKER 

(Republican - Forsyth County) 

l«.^.. iS (Twenty-ninth Representative District - Forsyth (part) and Guilford 
■ "^ (part) Counties - One Representative.) 



t 




Early Years: Born in Red Bud, Illinois, December 18, 1944, to Harvey and Margaret 
(Parvin) Decker. 

Education: Piedmont Bible College, 1969-74; Winston-Salem State University, 1976, 
B.S. (Education). 

Profession: Teacher (Gospel Light Christian School, 1976-). 

Organizations: Little League Baseball (Director, 1981-84, Secretary, 1982-83, coach, 
1979-81). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-; Forsyth County 
Republican Party (Vice Chairman, 1981-83); Chairman, Belews Creek Precinct, 
1979-84. 

Military Service: Served, US Navy, 1962-68 (E-5); submarine services. 

Religious Activities: Member, Gospel Light Baptist Church, Walkertown; Sunday 
School Teacher. 

Family: Married, Marlene Allen of Creston, June 4, 1966. Children: Michael, Jr., 
Mark and Michelle. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Aging; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Com- 
mittee on Justice and Public Safety; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; 
Appropriations-Expansion Budget on Justice and Public Safety; Banks and 
Thrift Institutions; Children and Youth; Education; Human Resources; Insu- 
rance; Public Utilities. 



402 



North Carolina Manual 




DANIEL HOWARD DEVANE 

(Democrat - Hoke County) 

(Sixteenth Representative District - Hoke, Robeson and Scotland (part) 
Counties - Three Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Elizabethtown, Bladen County, June 4, 1945, to Junie Franklin 
and Duel (Strickland) DeVane. 

Education: White Oak High School, 1964; Missouri Auction School, 1975. 

Profession: Real estate executive and auctioneer (owner, DeVane Realty & Auction); 
owner, DeVane's Men's Clothing, 1972-82; Raeford Department Store, 1969-72; 
Fayetteville Police Department, 1966-69. 

Organizations: Former member: Raeford Kiwanis Club; Hoke County Rescue Squad 
(Commander, 1972-75); Hillcrest Volunteer Fire Department; Jaycees. 

Boards and Commissions: Trustee, Flora Macdonald Academy (Chairman, 1981-82). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-; Council of 
Government, Region N, 1976-82 (Chairman, 1980); Hoke County Commissioner, 
1976-82. 

Military Service: Served, NC National Guard, 1965 (6 months); Reserves, 5 1/2 years. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church; Deacon. 

Family: Married, Alice Smith, July 6, 1968. Children: Daniel Howard, II. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on General Govern- 
ment; Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on General Govern- 
ment; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Health. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Judiciary 
11; Law Enforcement; Pensions and Retirement; Public Utilities; Rules and 
Operation of the House; State Government; University Board of Governors 
Nominating Committee. 



The Legislative Branch 



403 




DAVID HUNTER DIAMONT 

(Democrat - Surry County) 

(Fortieth Representative District - Alleghany, Ashe, Stokes (part), Surry 
and Watauga (part) Counties - Three Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Greensboro, Guilford County, February 9, 1946, to David Elijah 
and Hyacinth Cleo (Hunter) Diamont (both deceased). 

Education: East Surry High School, 1961-63; Frank L. Ashley High School, 1963-64; 
Wake Forest University, 1968, B.A.; Appalachian State University, 1972, M.A. 

Profession: History teacher and head varsity football coach. East Surry High School, 
1977- (varsity coaching record: 57 wins and 29 losses; state play offs, 1979, 1981, 
1982, 1983); history teacher and assistant football coach. Mount Airy Senior High 
School, 1968-77. 

Organization: NRA; NCAE; NC Coaches Association; Lambda Chi Alpha; National 
Historical Society; Sierra Club; Surry County Historical Society; Deacon Club, 
Wake Forest University; former member. Pilot Mountain Jaycees. 

Boards and Commissions: Governor's Council on Physical Fitness and Health, 1979-; 
Director, Pilot Mountain Foundation, Inc. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 
1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-. 

Honors: Assistant coach, East-West All Star Football Game, 1985; Coach of the Year, 
Northwest 3-A Conference, 1979, 1983. 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church, Pilot Mountain; Board 
of Trustees. 

Family: Married, Debby Severs of Greensboro. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Bud- 
get; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Education. 

Member:Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on Human Resources; Health; 
Human Resources; Local Government 11; Rules and Operation of the House; 
University Board of Governors Nominating Committee; Water and Air 
Resources. 



404 North Carolina Manual 




ANN QUARTERMAN DUNCAN 

(Republican - Forsyth County) 

(Thirty-ninth Representative District - Forsyth (part) County - Three 
Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Waycross, Georgia, April 15, 1938, to John H. (deceased) and 
Jessie Elizabeth (Smith) Quarterman. 

Education: Waycross High School, 1956; University of Georgia, 1956-59; Jacksonville 

University, B.S. (Education); UNC-Greensboro graduate studies. 
Profession: Social worker; former school teacher. 

Organizations: National Teachers Association; Florida Education Association; Amos 
Cottage Guild; Navy Officers' Wives Club (Treasurer, 1974-75). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-; Forsyth County 
Republican Women's Club; National Federation of Republican Women. 

Honors: Educator of the Year; Elks Leadership Award; senior superlative; state tennis 
champion, three years. 

Religious Activities: Member, Centenary Methodist Church, Winston-Salem; Circle; 
Active Youth Fellowship. 

Family: Married, Donald Eric Duncan of Oil City, Pennsylvania, June 24, 1972. 
Children: Stephanie Ann (Duncan) Spence. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS | 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Human Resources; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations- 
Expansion Budget on Human Resources; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Cul- 
tural Resources; Education; Higher Education; Military and Veterans' Af- 
fairs; University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 




The Legislative Branch 405 

RUTH M. EASTERLING 

(Democrat - Mecklenburg County) 

(Fifty-eighth Representative District - Mecklenburg (part) County - One 
Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Gaffney, South Carolina, December 26, 1910, to Benjamin Harri- 
son and Lillie Mae (Crawley) Moss. 

Education: Centralized High School, 1929; Limestone College, 1932 (English, Math, 
History); Queens College, post graduate studies in Business Law, Personnel Admin- 
istration, Business Administration. 

Profession: Executive Assistant to the President, Radiator Specialty Co., 1947-85. 

Organizations: Legislative Committee, International and Professional Women, 198 1-; 
Women's Equity Action League; Women Executives of Charlotte; Women's Forum 
of NC; Professional Secretaries International (Chairman, Public and World Affairs, 
1975-76); Business and Professional Women's Club (national President, 1970-71); 
League of Women Voters; American Association of University Women; Trustee, 
Wildacres Retreat. 

Boards and Commissions: Governors Advocacy Council for Persons with Disability; 
Advisory Council on OSHA; Legislative Study Committee on Physicians' Assist- 
ants; Research and Education Committee, National Business and Professional 
Women's Foundation, 1978-1981. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 
1983-84, 1985-; House Chairman, Study Committee on the Economic, Social and 
Legal Problems and Needs of Women; NC Women's Political Caucus (NC Presi- 
dent, 1974); Charlotte City Council, 1972-73; Governor's Commission on the Status 
of Women, 1964. 

Honors: Personalities of the South; Certificate of Achievement, NC Association of 
Women Attorneys, 1982; Outstanding Career Woman, NC Federation of Business 
and Professional Women, 1980; Charlotte's Outstanding Career Woman, 1971; 
Woman of the Year, WBT Radio, 1964. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Charlotte;Associate Superintend- 
ent of Training; Associate Superintendent, Sunday School Intermediate Depart- 
ment; Library, Financial Planning and Personnel Committees. President, Baptist 
Business Women, First Baptist Church and Mecklenburg Baptist Associations. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Children and Youth. 

Vice Chairman: Cultural Resources; Governmental Ethics. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Human Resources; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations- 
Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources; Energy; Judiciary 1; 
Local Government II; Manufacturers and Labor. 



406 North Carolina Manual 




CHANCY RUDOLPH EDWARDS 

(Democrat - Cumberland County) 

(Seventeenth Representative District - Cumberland (part) County - Two 
Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Nash County, February 28, 1925, to B.H. and Lucy (Kearney) 
Edwards (both deceased). 

Education: Nash County Training Schools; Shaw University, 1946, B.A.; Shaw Uni- 
versity Divinity School, 1949, M.Div.; Union Theological Seminary and Southeast- 
ern Theological Seminary, additional studies. 

Profession: Pastor (First Baptist Church, Fayetteville, 1953-; Spring Garden Baptist 
Church, Washington, 1948-53). 

Organizations: Chairman, Cumberland County Community Action Program; Chair- 
man, OIC Organization. 

Boards and Commissions: State Board of Education; Trustee, Shaw University; 

Chairman, Fayetteville City Board of Education; National Sunday School Board; 

Mayor's Council for Human Relations. 
Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-; Precinct 

Chairman; delegate. National Democratic Convention. 
Honors: Distinguished Public Service Award, Shaw University, 1982; Distinguished 

Citizens Award, Occoneechee Council, BSA, 1980; Human Relations Award, 

Cumberland County, 1971; Award of Honor, City of Fayetteville, 1967. 

Religious Activities: Pastor, First Baptist Church, Fayetteville, 1953-. President, Gen- 
eral Baptist State Convention of NC, Inc.; President, Lott Carey Baptist Foreign 
Mission Convention; Executive Committee, Baptist World Alliance; National 
Sunday School Board. 

Family: Married, Luella Dickens, August 30, 1947. Child: Jewyl Anita (Edwards) 
Dunn. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Children and Youth; Higher Education; Local Government L 
Member: Aging; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget on 
Education; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Bud- 
get; Committee on Education; Corrections; Education; Housing; Human 
Resources; Mental Health; Rules and Operation of the House. 




The Legislative Branch 407 

JEFF HAILEN ENLOE, JR. 

(Democrat - Macon County) 

(Fifty-third Representative District - Cherokee, Clay, Graham (part) and 
Macon Counties - One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Franklin, Macon County, September 2, 1914, to Jeff H. and 
Jessie (Hester) Enloe, Sr. 

Education: Franklin Public Schools; Franklin High School, 1932; NC State College, 
1938, B.S. (Agriculture Education). 

Profession: Retired government employee (US Department of Agriculture, 34 years). 
Boards and Commissions: State Health Coordinating Council. 

Political Activities : Member, NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979- 
80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; Advisory Budget Committee. 

Military Service: Served, US Navy, 1943-46 (Petty Officer, 2nd Class). 
Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church. 

Family: Married, Ruth Drummond, July 20, 1946. Children: William A., Jeff H., HI, 
James R. and Gregory M. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Employment Security. 

Vice Chairman: Agriculture; Health. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on General Government; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations- 
Expansion Budget Committee on General Government; Corporations; Elec- 
tion Laws; Military and Veterans' Affairs; State Personnel; Transportation. 



408 



North Carouna Manual 





Hl^ ' 




h 




1 


^^^ 


a 



THERESA HARLOW ESPOSITO 

(Republican - Forsyth County) 



(Thirty-ninth Representative District 
Representatives.) 



Forsyth (part) County - Three 



Early Years: Born in Washington, DC, November 17. 1930, to Herman Richard and 
Marie Theresa (Burke) Harlow (both deceased). 

Education: Saint Cecelia's Academy, 1948; National Institute of Practical Nursing, 
1957, L.P.N.; Prince George Community College and Salem College, additional 
studies. 

Profession: Retired federal government employee. 

Organizations: Friends of SECCA; Associates of NC School of the Arts; Audubon 
Garden Club; Officers' Wives Club; Winston-Salem Tennis, Inc. (Director, 1981- 
82); Chairman and Coordinator, US Tennis/ Winston-Salem Tennis, Inc.; Beautifi- 
cation Committee, Winston-Salem Garden Council; Volunteers for New Born 
Nursery, Forsyth Hospital (former Chairman). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-; alternate delegate, 
Forsyth County and NC State Conventions, 1984; alternate delegate at large. 
Republican National Convention, 1984; NC Federation of Republican Women 
(Protocol Officer, 1983-84; Program Chairman, 1984); Forsyth County Republican 
Party (Recruitment Committee, 1983; Executive Board, 1982-83); Forsyth County 
Republican Women (President, 1982-83); Women's National Republican Club; 
National Federation of Republican women. 

Honors: Various outstanding performance awards as a federal government employee. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Leo's Catholic Church, Winston-Salem. 

Family: Married, Brigadier General Alfred L. Esposito, November 18, 1972. Children: 
Sharon Marie, Carolyn (Esposito) Stephens and Carol Anne (Esposito) Seals. 



COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Aging; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget 
Committee on Natural and Economic Resources; Appropriations-Expansion 
Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Budget on Natural and Economic 
Resources; Commissions and Schools for the Blind and Deaf; Cultural 
Resources; Energy; Health; Law Enforcement; Marine Fisheries; Military 
and Veterans' Affairs. 



The Legislative Branch 



409 




BOBBY R. ETHERIDGE 

(Democrat - Harnett County) 

(Nineteenth Representative District - Harnett and Lee Conuties 
Representatives.) 



Two 



Early Years: Born in Sampson County, August 7, 1941, to John P. and Beatrice 
(Coats) Etheridge. 

Education: Cleveland School, 1947-59; Campell University, 1965, B.S. (Business 
Administration); NCSU, 1967, additional studies in economics. 

Profession: Vice-President, Sorensen-Christian Industries; Layton Supply Co.; Presi- 
dent, WLLN Radio; Director, NCNB, Lillington; farmer. 

Organizations: Director, Harnett County Farm Bureau; Industrial Management Club 
(former President); Lillington Lions Club; American Legion; Lillington Masonic 
Lodge; Shriners; Chairman, Cape Fear District Boy Scouts; Harnett County Arts 
Council; former Chairman, Harnett Cystic Fibrosis Campaign; Chairman, Harnett 
Sheltered Workshop, 1978; President, Lillington Chamber of Commerce, 1977. 

Boards and Commissions: Director, Campell University Alumni Board; Joint Legisla- 
tive Commission on Governmental Operations; Courts Commission, 1982-85; NC 
Land Use Advisory Council, 1976; Harnett Mental Health Board, 1975-76; NC Law 
and Order Commission, 1975-76; former Chairman, Harnett Youth Advisory 
Council. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 
1985-; Co-Chairman, Legislative Study Commission on Pension Plans for Rescue 
Squads, 1979-80; Committee on Government Operations, National Conference of 
State Legislatures; Harnett County Commissioner, 1973-76; (Chairman, 1974-76). 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1965-67. 

Honors: Outstanding Men in America; Distinguished Citizen Award, BSA, 1985; Dis- 
tinguished Alumnus, Campbell University, 1976; Lillington Community Service 
Award, 1976; Distinguished Service Award, Lillington Jaycees, 1975. 

Religious Activities: mernber, Leaflet Presbyterian Church; Sunday School Teacher; 
Deacon, 1978; Sunday School Superintendent, 1967-76. President, NC Presbyterian 
Synod of Men, 1977-78; President, Fayetteville Presbytery Men, 1975-76. 

Family: Married, Faye Cameron, November 25, 1965. Children: Brian Cameron, 
Catherine Anne and David Blair. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget. 

Vice Chairman: Pensions and Retirement; Small Business. 

Member: Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Children and Youth; Education; 
Military and Veterans' Affairs; Public Utilities; Transportation. 



410 



North Carolina Manual 




LARRY EUGENE ETHERIDGE 

(Republican - Wilson County) 

Nash (part) and Wilson (part) 



(Seventy-first Representative District 
Counties - One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Wilson, Wilson County, May 9, 1959, to Andrew J. and Evelyn 
(Bunch) Etheridge, Jr. 

Education: Ralph L. Fike High School, 1977; Wilson County Technical Institute, 
1980. 

Profession: Partner: Subs and Spuds, C&E Enterprises, Inc., owner, Branigan's; Man- 
ager, Eckerd Drugs, 1982-83. 

Organizations: Wilson County Chamber of Commerce; Wilson Jaycees; Moose Lodge. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-; (youngest member 
in the 1985 General Assembly). 

Religious Activities: Member, Five Points Missionary Baptist Church, High Point. 

Family: Married, Beverly Vick of Wilson, June 29, 1985. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Human Resources; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations- 
Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources; Corrections; Insurance; 
Natural and Economic Resources; Small business; State Government; State 
Properties; University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 




The Legislative Branch 411 

WILBUR BRUCE ETHRIDGE 

(Democrat - Onslow County) 

(Fourth Representative District - Carteret and Onslow Counties - Three 
Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Rocky Mount, Nash County. April 17, 1938, to Wilbur Henry 
and Virginia (Sellers) Ethridge. 

Education: Rocky Mount High School, 1956; NCSU; Fayetteville Technical Institute. 

Profession: Engineer, Carolina Telephone & Telegraph Company. 

Organizations: NCSU Alumni; Jacksonville Rotary Club; NC Society of Engineers. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1978, 1979-80, 1981-82, 
1983-84, 1985. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church; former Deacon; Sunday School 
Teacher; staff committee. 

Family: Married, Katie Tyner, August 9, 1958. Children: Kitty Dare and Mark Bruce. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and Eco- 
nomic Resources. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Bud- 
get; Natural and Economic Resources; Water and Air Resources. 

Member: Aging; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on Natural and Eco- 
nomic Resources; Commissions and Schools for the Blind and Deaf; Educa- 
tion; Human Resources; Marine Fisheries. 



412 North Carolina Manual 




CHARLES DOUGLAS EVANS 

(Democrat - Dare County) 

(First Representative District - Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Dare, 
Gates (part), Pasquotank, Perquimans, Tyrrell and Washington (part) 
Counties - Two Repesentatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Manteo, Dare County, October 8, 1944, to 
Charles R. And Evelyn (Mann) Evans. 

Education: Manteo High School, 1963; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1967, B.A. (Economics); 
UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1972, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney. 

Organizations: Dare County, NC and American Bar Associations; Rotary Club; 
Albemarle Law and Order Association (former Officer); Albemarle Area Develop- 
ment Association; Director, Outer Banks Chamber of Commerce, 1974-77. 

Boards and Commissions: Albemarle Regional Planning and Development Commiss- 
sion; Governor's Special Task Force on Alcohol and Drug Abuse Among Teen- 
agers and Youth; Juvenile Law Study Commission; Governor's Special Task Force 
on Drinking Drivers, 1982-83; Chairman and Executive Committee, Natural Re- 
sources Panel, 1981-83; Legislative Services Commission; NC Boundary Commis- 
sion, 1977; NC Coastal Resources Advisory Council, 1974-77; NC Coastal Resour- 
ces Commission, 1977-82; NC Seafood Industrial Park Authority, 1977-82; local 
Director, First Union National Bank (Chairman, 1979-82); Commission on the 
Future of NC. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 
1985-; Committee on Commerce, Banking and Economic Development, National 
Conference of State Legislatures; delegate. Democratic National Conventions, 
1981, 1984; Mayor, (1975-78) and Commissioner, (1973-78), Town of Nags Head. 

Honors: NC Environmental Management Commission Award, 1985; Outstanding 
Young Men of America, 1976, 1980; Distinguished Service Award, Dare County 
Jaycees, 1978; attended SALT II briefings, 1979; NC Most Outstanding Young 
Man, 1962. 4-H Club honors: NC Honor Club, 1964; delegate, Tennessee State 
Round Up, 1964; delegate. National Congress, 1963; state winner (citizenship, 1963; 
public speaking, 1960). 

Literary Works: Author, "Workman's Compensation at Sea," Vanderbilt Law Journal. 

Religious Activities: Member, Mount Olivet United Methodist Church; former mem- 
ber. Administrative Board. 

Family: Married, Rebecca Aydlett, June 27, 1976. Children: Charles Kramer, Win- 
borne Harrell and Douglas Aydlett. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Banks and Thrift Institutions. 

Vice Chairman: Rules and Operation of the House; Judiciary IV. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Justice and Public Safety; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropria- 
tions-Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Courts and 
Administration of Justice; Insurance; Marine Fisheries; Natural and Eco- 
nomic Resources; Water and Air Resources. 



The Legislative Branch 



413 




MILTON FREDERICK FITCH, JR. 

(Democrat - Wilson County) 

(Seventieth Representative District - Edgecombe (part), Nash (part), and 
Wilson (part) Counties - One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Wilson, Wilson County, October 20, 1946, to Milton Frederick 
and Cora (Whitted) Fitch. 

Education: C.H. Darden High School, 1964; NC Central University, 1968, B.S.; NC 
Central University, School of Law, 1972, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-. 

Religious Activities: Member, Jackson Chapel Baptist Church, Wilson. 

Family: Married, Judy K. Bradley, October 20, 1979. Child: Melonie Ann. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Employment Security; Finance; Housing; Human Resources; Insur- 
ance; Judiciary III; Manufacturers and Labor; Water and Air Resources. 



414 North Carolina Manual 




RAY CHARLES FLETCHER 

(Democrat - Burke County) 

(Forty-seventh Representative District - Burke (part) County - One 
Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Forest City, Rutherford County, May 4, 1931, to Troy L. and 
Geneva (Beddingfield) Fletcher, Sr. 

Education: Drexel High School; UNC-Chapel Hill. 

Profession: Secretary-Treasurer, City Motor Company of Valdese, Inc. 

Organizations: President, Rotary Club; Burke County Chamber of Commerce; Val- 
dese Merchants Association (former President); Lovelady United Fund (former 
President); Valdese Jaycees (former President); former Chairman, Valdese Parks 
and Recreation. 

Boards and Commissions: Chairman of the Board, NC School for Deaf. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-; Mayor, 
Town of Valdese; Burke County Democratic Party; former President and Chair- 
man, Burke County Young Democrats Club. 

Military Service: Served, US Navy, 1951-54. 

Honors: Rotarian of the Year, 1965; Young Man of the Year, Valdese Jaycees, 1961. 

Religious Acdtivities: Member, Waldensian Presbyterian Church; former Deacon. 

Family: Married, Mary Beth Goodman, November 29, 1980. Children: Raye Lynn, r 
Randy, Ruthie, and Christie (Fletcher) Taylor. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS I 

Chairman: Commissions and Schools for the Blind and Deaf. 
Vice Chairman: State Government; State Personnel. 

Member: Election Laws; Finance; Local Government I; Mental Health; Small j 
Business; Transportation; Water And Air Resources. ' 




The Legislative Branch 415 

JO GRAHAM FOSTER 

(Democrat - Mecklenburg County) 

(Fifty-sixth Representative District - Mecklenburg (part) County - One 
Representative.) 



Early Years: Born May 22, 1915, to Reverend Joseph Alexander and Queen (McDo- 
nald) Graham. 

Education: McBee High School, 1927-28; Spring Hill Central High School, 1928-31; 
Columbia College, 1935. 

Profession: Retired (former Administrative Assistant to the Superintendent, Charlotte- 
Mecklenburg Schools.) 

Organizations: National Education Association; NC Association of Educators (former 
President); PACE; PENC; Charlotte-Mecklenburg Educators; National Associa- 
tion, Secondary School Principals; Delta Kappa Gamma; Gamma Sigma; Sigma 
Tau Delta; International Platform Association. 

Boards and Commissions: Education Commission of the States; Board of Visitors, 
Johnson C. Smith University; Board of Visitors, Boys Town; Board of Relatives, 
Mental Health Board and Total Care Board, Bethlehem Center; National Task 
Force on Sex Equity in Education; National Committee for Citizenship and Social 
Studies, State-Federal Assembly. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 
1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; Precint Committee. 

Honors: Who's Who of American Platform; Legislator Psychologist Award; Outstand- 
ing Educator, Elementary School Principals; World Gideon Bible, 1979; National 
Legislator of the Year, American School Counselors, 1979; Legislator of the Year, 
NC School Counselors, 1979; nominee. Salute to Working Women, 1968. 

Religious Activities: Member, Dilworth Methodist Church, Charlotte; Board of Ste- 
wards; Adult Sunday School Teacher; Lay Speaker; Committee on Education and 
various other committees. 

Family: Married, James Benjamin Foster, June 4, 1937. Children: Mary Jo (Foster) 
McClure. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Education. 

Vice Chairman: Aging; Military and Veterans' Affairs. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Education; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations-Expansion 
Budget Committee on Education; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Health; Pen- 
sions and Retirements; State Goverment; University Board of Governors 
Nominating Committee. 



416 North Carolina Manual 




AARON ELEAZAR FUSSELL 

(Democrat - Wake County) 
(Sixty-fifth Representative District - Wake (part) County - One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Rose Hill, Duplin County, July 5, 1923, to C.T. and Myra Blake 
(Cavenaugh) Fussell. 

Education: Rose Hill High School 1940; Atlantic Christian College, 1946, A.B., cum 

laude; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1952, M.Ed.; Duke University and NCSU, post graduate 

studies. 
Profession: Retired educator (Superintendent, Wake County Public Schools, 35 years). 
Organizations: Educational Chamber; Educational Fraternity; Mason; Scottish Rite; 

North Raleigh Lions Club, 30 years (former President); various civil and political 

organizations. 
Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Capital Area Visitor Services Committee; Local 

Government Advocacy Council. 
Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 

1985-. 
Military Service: Served, US Army, 1943-45, 5 major campaign decorations. 
Honors: Author, "Teacher Evaluation Legal Residence." 
Religious Activities: Member, Millbrook United Methodist Church; Past Chairman of 

the Board; President, Men's Club; Lay Leader; teacher; Trustee. 
Family: Married, Polly Batts, August 14, 1949; four children. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Highway Safety. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on Education; Education. 

Member: Aging; Agriculture; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations Ex- 
pansion Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Educa- 
tion; Commissions and Schools for the Blind and Deaf; Higher Edcation; 
Rules and Operation of the House. 



The Legislative Branch 



417 




CHARLOTTE ANCHER GARDNER 

(Republican - Rowan County) 

Rowan County- Two Representa 



(Thirty-fifth Representative District 

tives.) 



Early Years: Born in Baltimore, Maryland, November 14, 1931, to Marcel and Char- 
lotte (Knapp) Ancher. 

Education: St. Anne's, 1943; St. Anthony's, 1945; Rockwell High School, 1949; 
Catawba College, 1952, A.B. 

Profession: Former high school teacher. 

Organizations: Leader, Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts of America; NC Right to Life; 
Rowan County Humane Society; MADD (Director, 1984-85; Vice President, 1982- 
84); Secretary, Rowan County Conservation Group, 1980-82; Choral Society, 1974. 

Boards and Commissions: Director, Community Life Council, 1980-81. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-; NC Republican 
Women (District Representative, 1983-84); Salisbury-Rowan Republican Women 
(Vice President, 1982-84); Central Committee, Rowan Republican Party (Vice 
Chairman, 1981-83); Women's Task Force, 8th District, 1983-84. 

Religious Activities: Member, Sacred Heart Catholic Church, Salisbury; youth leader; 
choir; Sacred Heart PTA; Treasurer, Church Women United, 1982-84; Grand 
Regeant Catholic Daughter, 1975. 

Family: Married, Lester Gardner of Bellwood, Pennsylvania, June 7, 1952. Children: 
Jeanne Dianne, Terrence Lee, Leslie Eugenia, Timothy Andrew, Thomas Alan and 
Ted Alexander. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Corrections; Education; Employment Security; Finance; Higher Edu- 
cation; Highway Safety; Human Resources; Mental Health. 



418 North Carolina Manual 




HERMAN COLRIDGE GIST 

(Democrat - Guilford County) 

(Twenty-sixth Representative District - Guilford (part) and Randolph 
(part) Counties - One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Spartanburg, South Carolina, December 12, 1923, to Arthur and 
Louie (Casey) Gist. 

Education: Highland Grade School, 1929-36; Carver High School, 1936-40; NC A&T 
State University, 1964, B.S. (Biology). 

Profession: Coffee, herbs and tea distributor. 

Organizations: Chairman, Political Awareness; Greensboro Citizens Forum, 1979-; 
Omega Psi Phi, 1942-. 

Boards and Commissions: Alcoholic Beverage Control Board, 1980-. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army (Corporal); Quartermaster Corps; Good Conduct 
Medal. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Matthews Church. 

Family: Married, Grace Grant, November, 1968; three children. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Higher Education; University 
Board of Govenors Nominating Committee. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Justice and Public Safety; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appro- 
priations-Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Banks 
and Thrift Institutions; Election Laws; Insurance; Small Business; State 
Government. 




The Legislative Branch 419 

GORDON HICKS GREENWOOD 

(Democrat - Buncombe County) 

(Fifthy-first Representative District - Buncombe, Henderson (part) and 
Transylvania Counties - Four Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Black Mountain, Buncombe County, July 3, 1909, to James 
Hicks and Louella (Ray) Greenwood. 

Education: University of Illinois, 1941, B.S. (Journalism); University of London, 1945. 

Profession: College administrator and former professor (Assistant to the President, 
Montreat-Anderson College; Director of Admissions, Montreat-Anderson College, 
1973-76; Assistant Professor of Journalism, Boston University, 1951-52; manager. 
New England Press Association). 

Organizations: Black Mountain Lodge No. 663, A.F.&A.M., Asheville Chapter No. 
25; Black Mountain Lions Club; Chamber of Commerce; V.F.W.; American 
Legion; D.A.V.; Sons of the American Revolution; Sons of Confederate Veterans; 
Western NC Development Association (original organizer). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1959, 1961, 1963, 1965-66, 
1967, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; Town Board, Black Mountain, 
1973-76; Commissioner, Buncombe County, 1968-72. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1943-45; psychologist. 

Honors: Outstanding Alumnus, UNC-Asheville, 1981; NC Commissioner of the Year, 
1971. 

Religious Activities: Member, Black Mountain United Methodist Church; Official 
Board. 

Family: Married, Garnet Elizabeth Carder, March 8, 1941, Children: G. Gordon and 
Ricky Eugene. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Education. 
Vice Chairman: Aging; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion 
Budget; Health. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on Education; Banks and 
Thrift Institutions; Manufacturers and Labor; Military and Veterans' Affairs; 
State Properties; Water and Air Resources; Wildlife Resources. 



420 



North Carolina Manual 




JOE HACKNEY 

(Democrat - Orange County) 

(Twenty-fourth Representative District - Chatham (part) and Orange 
Counties - Two Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Siler City, Chatham County, September 23, 1945, to Herbert 
Harold and Ida Lillian (Dorsett) Hackney. 

Education: Slik Hope High School, 1963; NC State University, 1963-64; UNC-Chapel 
Hill, 1967, A.B. with honors (Political Science); UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 
1970, J. D. 

Profession: Attorney (partner, firm of Epting & Hackney); Assistant District Attorney, 
15th District, 1971-74; research assistant, J. Frank Huskins, Associate Justice, NC 
Supreme Court, 1970-71. 

Organizations: Orange County (former President), NC and American Bar Associa- 
tions; NC Academy of Trial Lawyers; Committee on Legislature and Law Reform, 
NC Bar; former President, 15th District Bar; former President, Orange-Chatham 
Legal Services. 

Boards and Commissions: Joint Orange-Chatham Community Action, Inc.; Conserva- 
tion Foundation and Council of NC; Citizens Commission on Alternatives to 
Incarceration; Governor's Crime Commission; Appalachian Trial Conference. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-. 

Religious Activities: Member, Hickory Mountain Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Betsy Strandberg, September 15, 1979. Child: Daniel Howard. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Water and Air Resources. 

Vice Chairman: Corrections; Judiciary I. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Natural and Economic Resources; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; 
Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and Economic 
Resources; Courts and Administration of Justice; Energy; Higher Education; 
Natural and Economic Resources. 



The Legislative Branch 



421 




ALEXANDER MORTON HALL 

(Democrat - New Hanover County) 

New Hanover (part) County 



(Thirteenth Representative District 
Representatives.) 



Two 



Early Years: Born in Wilmington, New Hanover County, July 20, 1948, to James M. 
ber of Commerce, I981-; Wilmington Industrial Development, Inc.; Trustee, Wil- 
mington Kiwanis Club, 1978-82; NC Jaycees, 1969-73. 

Boards and Commissions: New Hanover Transportation Efficiency Council; Mayor's 
Transportation Task Force. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-; Precinct Chairman, 
New Hanover County Democratic Party. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Andrew's Covenant Presbyterian Church, Wilming- 
ton; Deacon. 

Family: Married, Maria Clontz of Wilmington, August 15, 1971. Children: Sarah 
Elizabeth. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Courts and Administration of Justice; Education; Employment Secur- 
ity; Finance; Judiciary II; Local Government 1; Marine Fisheries; Small Busi- 
ness; University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 



422 



North Carolina Manual 




I 



1. 



JAMES MARSHALL HALL 

(Republican - Stokes County) 

(Fortieth Representative District - Alleghany, Ashe, Stokes (part), Surry, 
and Watauga Counties - Three Representatives.) 






Early Years: Born in King, Stokes County, August 6, 1922, to Raleigh F. and Hattie 

(Fowler) Hall. 
Education: King High School, 1940. 
Profession: Farmer and insurance executive. 

Organizations: American Legion; President, NC Little League Baseball Association, 
198 1-; Southern Region Tournament Advisory Board, Little League Baseball, 
1980-; District Administrator, Little League Baseball, Inc., 1974-; King Lions Club 
(Treasurer, 1968-72). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-; Stokes County 
Republican Party (State Executive Committee, 1973-; Chairman, 1979-81). 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1942-45 (Sergeant). 
Religious Activities: Member, Mount Olive Baptist Church, King. 
Family: Married, Melba Covington of King, January 24, 1946. Children: Barry, Bruce 
and Emily. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Election Laws; Energy; 
Finance; Insurance; Local Government II; Mental Health. 



J 




The Legislative Branch 423 

JOHN CALVIN HASTY 

(Democrat - Robeson County) 

(Sixteenth Representative District - Hoke, Robeson and Scotland (part) 
Counties - Three Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Maxton, Robeson County, March 9, 1930, to William Howard 
and Flora (Belle) Currie Hasty. 

Education: Maxton Public Schools; Maxton High School, 1948; Presbyterian Junior 
College, 1950, A.S.; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1953, B.S. 

Profession: Insurance and real estate agent (President, Hasty Insurance Agency, Inc.; 
President, Pace-Henderson Finance Co., Inc.; President, Future Agency of Laurin- 
burg. Inc.; partner. Hasty Realty). 

Organizations: Independent Insurance Agents Association; NC Association of Pre- 
mium Finance Companies (Secretary, 1981-82; Director, 1978-82); Mormax Club 
(President, 1971); Director, Cape Fear Area Council, Boy Scouts of America, 1967- 
(President, 1973-75); Laurinburg-Scotland Area Chamber of Commerce (Director, 
1976); former President, Maxton Historical Society; former President, Maxton 
Junior Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: Laurinburg-Maxton Airport Commission (Chairman, 1980- 
82); Trustee and Executive Committee, Scotland Memorial Hospital; local Direc- 
tor, Southern National Bank; Maxton Planning Commission; Maxton Zoning 
Board. 

Political Activites: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-; Mayor and 
City Council, Town of Maxton. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1953-55 (Sergeant); 101st Airborne Division. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Paul's United Methodist Church; Chairman, Admin- 
istrative Board, 1976-77; Chairman, Building Committee, 1972; Chairman, Finance; 
national conference delegate. 

Family: Married, Betty Anne Upchurch, October 22, 1955. Children: John Calvin, Jr., 
Flora Anne (Hasty) McCook and Elizabeth Upchurch. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on Natural and Eco- 
nomic Resources; Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Natural 
and Economic Resources; Local Government II; Manufacturers and Labor. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; 
Banks and Thrift Institutions; Insurance; Judiciary III; Law Enforcement; 
Public Utilities; University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 




424 North Carolina Manual 

CHARLIE BRADY HAUSER 

(Democrat - Forsyth County) 

^ T ■"wT^'^UJ^ (Sixty-seventh Representative District - Forsyth (part) County - One 

, Representative.) 

^^^m. /^QH^^^ Early Years: Born in Yadkinville. October 13, 1917, to Daniel M. 

^^^^ x^^^B gj^jj Callie V. Hauser (both deceased). 

Education: Dunbar High School, 1932-36; Winston-Salem University, 1940, B.S.; Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, 1947, M.S.; University of Pennsylvania, 1956, M.S.; Texas 
Southern University, 1968. 

Profession: Professor (Winston-Salem State University, 1956-77; Allen University, 
1955-56); Former principal and teacher. 

Organizations: NBA (life member); National Retired Teachers Association; Chairman, 
Life Membership Committee, NAACP (life member); Omega Psi Phi (life member); 
Century Club, YMCA; Advisory Committee, DEEP, Winston-Salem/ Forsyth 
County Schools, 1974-; Phi Delta Kappa; Urban League Guild; Emancipation 
Association; Winston-Salem Improvement Association; American Lung Associa- 
tion; Forsyth County Mental Health Association; International Municipal Cooper- 
ation Committee of Winston-Salem; Director, Winston Lake Family YMCA 
(former Chairman); Trustee, Forsyth Technical Institute; Director, Winston- 
Salem/ Forsyth County YMCA; Winston-Salem/ Forsyth County Council, IRA, 
1973-74; UNC Board of Governors. Former member: ATE, NCAE, NCARE and 
Citizens for Improvement of Reading, American Educational Research Associa- 
tion. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-; former 
Judge, Precinct Chairman and Registrar, Paisley Precinct; Executive Committee 
(county and state); delegate to county, district and state conventions; campaign 
chairman; first Black elected to a county office in Forsyth County since Recon- 
struction, 1960. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1942-45 (Staff Sergeant); ETO Ribbon with Five 
Battle Stars; Good Conduct Medal. 

Honors: Sports Hall of Fame, Winston-Salem State University and CIAA; Omega 
Man of the Year, 1966, 1984; honors from various charitable, civic, educational, 
fraternal and religious organizations. 

Religious Activities: Member, Mt. Zion Baptist Church; Assistant Superintendent, 
Sunday School; Trustee, Oraculum Staff; former member. Pulpit Search Committee. 

Family: Married, Lois Elizabeth Brown, April 4, 1943. Children: Fay E. and Lois H. 
(Hauser) Golding. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on Natural and Eco- 
nomic Resources; Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Natural 
and Economic Resources; Higher Education; Pensions and Retirement. 

Member: Aging; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Bud- 
get; Education; Human Resources; Mental Health; Small Business 







The Legislative Branch 425 

JOEH. HEGE, JR. 

(Republican - Davidson County) 

(Thirty-seventh Representative District - Davidson, Davie and Iredell 
(part) Counties - Three Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Lexington, Davidson County, January 28, 1926, to Joe H. and 
Ellen J. (Hilliard) Hege, Sr. 

Education: Pilot High School, 1943; Institute of Government, UNC-Chapel Hill, 1969, 
Certificate of Police Administration; Oklahoma University, 1975. 

Profession: Broker and counselor. National Realty, Inc.; Assistant Director, Services 
for the Blind, State of NC, 1973-77; Veterans Service Officer, Davidson County, 
1948-50. 

Organizations: Lexington Board of Realtors; Amvets; Veterans of Foreign Wars; Air- 
craft Owners and Pilots Association; Kiwanis; Lions International; American 
Legion. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 
1985-; Minority Whip, 1969, 1971; Secretary, Joint House-Senate GOP Caucus, 
1973; State Republican Executive Committee; Treasurer, 5th District Republican 
Executive Committee, 1979-80; Sheriff, Davidson County, 1969-70. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1944-46 (Sergeant); European theatre; European- 
African-Middle East Service Medal with Two Bronze Stars; Good Conduct Medal; 
World War II Victory Medal; Army Occupation Medal. 

Honors: Republican of the Year, Davidson County, 1984. 

Religious Activities: Member, Pilgrim Reformed United Church of Christ, Lexington; 
Audit Committee (former President, Treasurer, Chairman); Elder; Deacon of Con- 
sistory; Chairman, Cemetary Committee; Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Married, Jane Owen of Davidson County, November 27, 1948. Children: Joe 
H., Ill, Karen L. (Hege) Watford and Edwin Lamar. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Education; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations-Expansion 
Budget Committee on Education; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Commis- 
sions and Schools for the Blind and Deaf; Election Laws; Judiciary II; Public 
Utilities; Rules and Operation of the House; State Government. 



426 



North Carolina Manual 




FOYLE ROBERT HIGHTOWER, JR. 

(Democrat - Anson County) 

(Thirty-third Representative District - Anson and Montgomery Counties 
- One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Wadesboro, Anson County, January 21, 1941, to Foyle Robert 
and Mildred (Brigman) Hightower, Sr. 

Education: Wadesboro Public Schools; Wadesboro High School, 1959; Elon College; 
UNC-Chapel Hill; Wingate College, B.G.S. 

Profession: Corporate executive (Vice President, Hightower Ice & Fuel Company, 
inc.). 

Organizations: Kilwinning Lodge No. 64, Wadesboro Ancient, Free and Accepted 
Masons; 32nd Degree Mason; Shriner; Woodmen of the World; Jaycees; Wades- 
boro Civitan Club (former Director); former Chairman, Anson Blood Program; 
American Red Cross; Merit Badge Committee and Board of Review, Boy Scouts of 
America; former Area Chairman, Cancer Drive; Master Counselor. Wadesboro 
Order of DeMolay. 

Boards and Commissions: Legislative Services Commission; former member, NC 
Wildlife Resources Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 
1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army Reserves, 1963-69 (Corporal). 

Honors: Man of the Year, Anson County, 1975. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Wadesboro; Sunday School 
teacher; Chairman, Board of Deacons, 1981; Men of the Church (President, 1973, 
1977, 1978; Secretary-Treasurer, 1971). 

Family: Married, Pauline McElveen of Lake City. South Carolina. Children: Victoria 
Joan and Caroline Ruth. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: State Government. 
Vice Chairman: Finance; Insurance. 

Member: Agriculture; Children and Youth; Education; Election Laws; Water 
and Air Resources; Wildlife Resources. 




The Legislative Branch 427 

GEORGE MILTON HOLMES 

(Republican - Yadkin County) 

(Forty-first Representative District - Alexander (part), Wilkes and Yad- 
kin Counties - Two Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Mount Airy, Surry County, June 20, 1929, to John William and 
Thelma Elizabeth (Dobie) Holmes. 

Education: Mount Airy High School, 1944; Western High School, 1945-48; Appalach- 
ian State University, 1954; Travelers Multiple Line Insurance School, 1959. 

Profession: Insurance executive (President, W.N. Ireland Insurance Agency, Inc.). 

Organizations: NC Association of Independent Insurance Agents; National Associa- 
tion of Life Underwriters; Yadkin Lodge 162, F.&A.M.; Winston-Salem Consis- 
tory, Scottish Rite of Free Masonry; Shriner; Oasis Temple. 

Boards and Commissions: Governor's Crime Study Commission, 1976; Fire and Casu- 
alty Rate Study Commission, 1976; Board of Directors, Carolina Epilepsy Research 
Foundation; Board of Directors, Northwestern Bank, Yadkinville. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1979-80, 1981-82, 
1983-84, I985-; Minority Whip, 1981-82; Advisory Budget Commission; Minority 
Party Joint Caucus Leader, 1983-84; Yadkin County Republican Executive Com- 
mittee; Eighth District Republican Executive Committee; State Republican Execu- 
tive Committee, 1975-76, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84; State Republican Central 
Committee, 1983-84. 

Religious Activities: Member, Flat Rock Baptist Church; Deacon, 1956-70; Trustee, 
1970-; Superintendent, 1968-72; Former Secretary and Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Married, Barbara Ann Ireland, June 30, 1956. Children: Jennifer (Holmes) 
Crawley. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Insurance 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on General Government; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations- 
Expansion Budget Committee on General Government; Banks and Thrift 
Institutions; Courts and Administration of Justice; Judiciary IV; Local 
Government II; Manufacturers and Labor; Rules and Operation of the 
House. 



428 



North Carolina Manual 




WILLIAM CASPER HOLROYD, JR. 

(Democrat - Wake County) 

Wake (part) County - One Repre- 



(Sixty-first Representative District 
sentative.) 



Early Years: Born in Rose Hill, South Carolina, September 16, 1927, to William 

Casper and Lucile (Dacus) Holroyd. 
Education: Greenwood High School, 1944; Duke University, 1948, A.B. (Economics). 

Profession: Salesman, Pennsylvania Life Insurance Company, 1954; production plan- 
ning, Burlington Industries, 1948-54. 

Organizations: Million Dollar Roundtable (life member); Raleigh Association of Life 
Underwriters (former Preseident); Chartered Life Underwriters (CLU); Raleigh 
Lions Club; Raleigh Swim Association (former President); former Director, Wake 
Up for Children and Wake County Women's Center. 

Boards and Commissions: Advisory Board, Methodist Home for Children; Advisory 
Board, Duke Comprehensive Cancer Center; Advisory Board, Duke Medical Cen- 
ter; NC Secondary Committee, Southern Association of Colleges and Schools; 
Selection Committee, Governor's (Public) School Programs of Excellence. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1985-; 
Wake County Democratic Men; Wake County Democratic Senior Citizens; Wake 
County YDC; Raleigh Board of Education, 12 years (Chairman, 7 years). 

Religious Activities: Member, Hayes Barton United Methodist Church, Raleigh; 
Board of Stewards; Vice President, Men's Fellowship; lead teacher. Youth Depart- 
ment, 1951-. 

Family: Married, Dr. Mary Mayesky of Detroit, Michigan, November 25, 1981. Child- 
ren: Ann (Holroyd) Youngblood, Jane (Holroyd) Holding, Kaye (Holroyd) Mul- 
keen and Claire M. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Cultural Resources. 

Vice Chairman: Education; Children and Youth. 

Member: Aging; Finance; Insurance; Public Utilities; Water and Air Resources. 




The Legislative Branch 429 

BERTHA MERRILL HOLT 

(Democrat - Alamance County) 

(Twenty-fifth Representative District - Alamance, Rockingham and 
Stokes (part) Counties - Four Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Eufaula, Alabama, August 16, 1916, to William H. and Bertha H. 
(Moore) Merrill. 

Education: Eufaula High School; Agnes Scott College, 1938, B.A.; UNC-Chapel Hill, 
School of Law, 1939-40; University of Alabama, School of Law, 1941, LL.B.; 
George Washington University, 1942, graduate studies. 

Profession: Legislator and attorney; former attorney, US Treasury and Department of 
the Interior. 

Organizations: NC Bar Association; Pi Beta Phi; English Speaking Union; Les Amis 
du Vin; NC Historical Society. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Directors, Director, Hospice; Joint Commission 
on Governmental Operations; Advisory Committee, Archaeology, 1979-84; Board 
of Directors, Alumni Association, UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law 1978-80; 
Board of Directors, State Council on Social Legislation, 1978-80; Social Services 
Board, 1973-74. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 
1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; former President, Alamance County Democratic Women 
(Chairman, Headquarters Committee, 1962-64); Democratic Executive Committee, 
1964-75; Vice Chairman, Alamance County Democratic Executive Committee, 
1964-66. 

Honors: Outstanding Alumnus (1978) and Community Service Award, Agnes Scott 
College; Who's Who of American Women. 

Religious Activities: Member, Episcopal Church of Holy Comforter, Burlington; 
teacher. High School Sunday School Class; Diocesan Council, 1972-74, 1984-; 
Chairman, Diocese Grant Committee, 1972-80; Standing Committee of Diocese, 
1975-77; Senior Warden, Vestry, 1974; Chairman, Finance Committee, Diocese of 
NC 1973-74; former President, Episcopal Church Women. 

Family: Married, Winfield Clary Holt, March 14, 1942. Children: Harriet (Holt) Whi- 
tley, William Merrill and Winfield Jefferson. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and Public 
Safety. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Bud- 
get; Constitutional Amendments; Judiciary HI. 

Member: Aging; Alcoholic Beverage Control; Appropriations-Base Budget Com- 
mittee on Justice and Public Safety; Children and Youth; Cultural Resources; 
Human Resources; Water and Air Resources. 



430 North Carolina Manual 




JOSEPH RICHARDSON HUDSON 

(Democrat - Union County) 

(Thirty-fourth Representative District - Cabarrus, Stanly, and Union 
Counties - Four Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Waxhaw, Union County, October 29, 1931, to Richard Alex- 
ander and Hilda (Loftin) Hudson. 

Education: Waxhaw High School, 1949; Wingate Jr. College, 1951; Queens College 
1961, A. B. (Economics). 

Profession: Corporate executive (President, RCS, Inc. - complete sewer services). 

Political Activities: member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-; Commis- 
sioner, Union County, 1974, 1978-82 (Chairman, 1978-82); Chariman, Centralina 
Council of Governments, 1977-79. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1951-55. 

Religious Activities: Member, Providence Presbyterian Church; Superintendent; Dea- 
con; Elder, 1981-84. 

Family: Married, Edith Bradley Sise, January 22, 1955. Children: Jamie Susan, Cathe- 
rine Sise, Joseph R. Jr. and Barbara Hilda. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Agriculture; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on Justice 
and Public Safety; Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Justice 
and Public Safety; Children and Youth. 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropria- 
tions Expansion Budget; Judiciary III; Local Government 1; Rules and Oper- 
ation of the House; Transportation; Water and Air Resources. 



■^ 




The Legislative Branch 431 

DORIS ROGERS HUFFMAN 

(Reublican - Catawba County) 

(Forty-fifth Representative District - Burke (part) and Catawba (part) 
Counties - Two Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Burke County, August 3, 1935, to Bradus K. and Myrtle (Deal) 

Rogers. 
Education: Hickory City Schools, 1953; Catawba Valley Technical College, 1973 

(Accounting and Tax). 

Profession: Corporate executive (Secretary, Huffman Home Builders, Inc.). 

Organizations: Hickory-Catawba Valley Home Builders Association; charter member, 
HBA Auxiliary (membership award, 1979); Red Cross Blood Mobile; Salvation 
Army. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-; Catawba County 
Republican Women's Club; Executive Committee, NC GOP; Catawba Valley 
Republican Party (Secretary, 1980; Vice Chairman, 1981; Chairman, 1982). 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Newton; Community Chairman, 
Long-Range Planning; leader, Bible Drill Team. 

Family: Married, L. Wilburn Huffman of Hickory, January 3, 1953. Children: Sandra 
(Huffman) Medlin. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on General Government; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations- 
Expansion Budget Committee on General Government; Commissions and 
Schools for the Blind and Deaf; Courts and Administration of Justice; Edu- 
cation; Election Laws; Housing; Judiciary 11; Local Government I. 



432 



North Carolina Manual 




JAMES FRANK HUGHES 

(Republican - Avery County) 

(Forty-sixth Representative District - Alexander (part), Avery, Burke 
(part), Caldwell, Mitchell and Watauga (part) Counties - Three Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Linville, Avery County, June 20, 1925, to Columbus Henry and 
Bertha (Boone) Hughes. 

Education: Newland Elementary and Newland High School, 1930-42. 

Profession: Owner and operator. Pixie Motor Inn. 

Organizations: Linville Masonic Lodge #489; Oasis Shrine Temple; Newland Moose 
Lodge #489; life member, Pat Ray Post VFW; National Rifle Association; High- 
land Shrine Club; Optimist Club of Avery County. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1957, 1981-82, 1983-84, 
1985-; NC Senate, 1973-74. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1944-46. 

Religious Activities: Member, Linville Methodist Church. 

Family: Married, Marietta Pittman, March 25, 1947. Children: Kaye (Hughes) Greene, 
Sharon (Hughes) Peters and James F., Jr. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Energy; Finance; Insurance; Judiciary I; 
Pensions and Retirement; Public Utilities; Transportation. 



The Legislative Branch 



433 




ROBERT CARL HUNTER 

(Democrat - McDowell County) 

(Forty-ninth Representative District - McDowell and Yancy Counties- 
One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Marion, McDowell County, January 14, 1944, to L. Penn and 
Lucy (Turner) Hunter. 

Education: Glenwood School; Marion City Schools; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1966, B.A.; 
UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1969, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney; former Assistant District Attorney, 29th Judicial District. 

Organizations: McDowell County (former President), NC, American and 29th Judicial 
District (former President) Bar Associations; NC Academy of Trial Lawyers; 
Marion Rotary Club (former President); Marion Jaycees (former Secretary); Sigma 
Phi Epsilon; Delta Theta Phi; former Director, McDowell County United Fund; 
former Director, McDowell County Chamber of Commerce; former President, NC 
County Attorneys Association; former Director, UNC Law Alumni Association. 

Boards and Commissions: NC Courts Commission; Executive Committee, Southern 
Legislative Conference; NC Advisory Council on the Eastern Band of the Chero- 
kee; Chairman, Criminal Justice Committee, Southern Legislative Conference of 
the Council of State Governments; former member, NC Judicial Council. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; 
Joint Legislative Ethics Committee, 1985-. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Marion; Trustee. 

Family: Married, Nancy Hinson, August 22, 1970. Children: Megan Allen and Claire 

Alise. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on General Govern- 
ment. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Bud- 
get; Courts and Administration of Justice; Judiciary IV. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on General Government; 
Corporations; Election Laws; Higher Education; Pensions and Retirement; 
Rules and Operation of the House; State Personnel; Transportation. 



434 North Carolina Manual 




GERALD BARRY HURST 

(Republican - Onslow County) 

(Fourth Representative District - Carteret and Onslow Counties - Three 
Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Wilimington, New Hanover County, July 24, 1933, to William 
Barry (deceased) and Sybil (Covil) Hurst. 

Education: Jacksonville High School, 1951; NCSU, 1956, B.S. (Mechanical Engineer- 
ing); US Air Force: (Pilot Training School, Air Command and Staff College, Air 
War College). 

Profession: President and owner, Barry-Hurst, Inc.; retired Colonel, US Air Force. 

Organizations: Jacksonville-Onslow Home Builders Association; Jacksonville 
Chamber of Commerce; Order of Daedalians, US Air Force; American Legion; 
Disabled American Veterans; Noble of the Mystic Shrine, Sudan Temple; 32nd 
Degree Mason; Bergstrom-Austin Community Council, 1978-82; Austin Energy 
Conservation Council, 1978-82. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-; first Republican 
elected to NC House of Representatives from Onslow County. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1956-82 (Colonel); Distinguished Flying 
Cross; Bronze Star Medal; Meretorious Service Medal; Air Medals (11); Air Force 
Commendation Medals (2); Purple Heart; Humanitarian Service Medal; Outstand- 
ing Engineer, Tactical Air Command, 1980; Top Fighter Pilot, Pacific, 1963. 

Literary Works: "di," published in two USAF flying safety magazines (di is the factor 
of decision irreversibility); owner, copyright of republished work. Buck Barry, 
Texas Ranger and Frontiersman. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Jacksonville. 

Family: Married, Amelia Zahary of Plainville, Connecticut, December 28, 1957. 
Children: Leighton and Barrie. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Education; Finance; Higher Education; Marine Fisheries; Mental 
Health; Military and Veterans' Affairs; Pensions and Retirement; University 
Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 



The Legislative Branch 435 

VERNON GRANT JAMES 

(Democrat - Pasquotank County) 

^^ 3^ _^ (First Representative District - Camden, Ciiowan, Currituck, Dare, 

^'Sf'i'i J' Gates (part), Pasquotank, Perquimans, Tyrell and Washington (part) 



% 



\ 



A 



Counties - Two Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Pasquotank County, July 1 1, 1910, to John Calvin and Fannie 
(Coopersmith) James (both deceased). 

Education: Weeksville High School, 1930; NC State University, 1930-31. 
Profession: Produce supply business (President and manager, James Brothers, Inc.); 
farmer. 

Organizations: NC and National Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Growers Association; 
National Potato Steering Committee, 1966-; Chairman, Potato Board, 1977-78; 
former Director, Elizabeth City Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: Trustee, College of the Albemarle, I960-. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1945, 1947, 1973-74, 1977- 
78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-. 

Honors: Dinstinguished Service to Agriculture, NC Farm Bureau, 1983; Outstanding 
Service Award, NC County Commissioners, 1983; Outstanding Service Award, NC 
School Board Association, 1983; Outstanding Contribution Award, NC Soybean 
Association, 1983; Governor's Award for Air Conservation, NC Wildlife Federa- 
tion, 1981; Commissioner of Agriculture's Award (for promotion of fresh fruit and 
vegetables), 1971; "Tar Heel of the Week," The News and Observer, 1965; Alumni 
Recognition Award, 4-H Club, 1954. 

Religious Activities: Member, Salem Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Thelma L. Luton, April 1, 1978. Children: John Thomas and Vernon 
Grant, Jr. (both deceased). 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Agriculture. 

Vice Chairman: Marine Fisheries; Transportation. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Committee on 
Natural and Economic Resources; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Ap- 
propriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and Economic Re- 
sources; Constitutional Amendments; Public Utilities; Rules and Operation 
of the House; State Properties. 



436 North Carolina Manual 




LUTHER REGINALD JERALDS 

(Democrat - Cumberland County) 

(Seventeenth Representative District - Cumberland (part) County - Two 
Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Orrum, Robeson County, August 20, 1938, to Winnie B. and 
Amy Lee (McMillan) Jeralds. 

Education: Newbold Elementary School, 1943-51; St. Emma Military Academy, 1952- 
54; E.E. Smith Senior High School, 1955-56; NC State College, 1961, B.S. 
(Accounting). 

Profession: Realtor and small businessman. 

Organizations: Fayetteville Business and Professional League; NC Association of 

Minority Businesses; Knights of Columbus. 
Boards and Commissions: Board of Directors, YMCA 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-; Advisory 
Budget Commission. 

Religious Activities:: Member, St. Ann's Catholic Church. 

Family: Married, Jo Ann Fuller, May 7, 1958. Children: Adonis, Dominic and 
Minikki. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Military and Veterans' Affairs. 
Vice Chairman: Health; Small Business. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Human Resources; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations- 
Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources; Banks and Thrift Insti- 
tutions; Election Laws; Human Resources; Rules and Operation of the 
House. 



The Legislative Branch 



437 




WALTER BEAMAN JONES, JR. 

(Democrat - Pitt County) 

(Ninth Representative District - Greene and Pitt (part) Counties - Two 
Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Farmville, Pitt County, February 10, 1943, to Walter B. and 
Doris (Long) Jones. 

Education: Farmville Public Schools; Hargrave Military Academy; NCSU; Atlantic 
Christian College, 1967, A.B. (History). 

Profession: Business consultant. 

Organizations: Farmville Chamber of Commerce; Farmville Rotary Club; Pitt- 
Greenville Chamber of Commerce; Director, 1985 Flue-Cured Tobacco Festival, 
Inc. 

Boards and Commissions: Mid-East Commission; Farmville Housing Authority; Advi- 
sory Council, Rural Education Institute, ECU; Director, Pitt County Mental 
Health Association; Foundation Board, Eastern Carolina Vocational Center; East- 
ern Carolina Health Education Center Development Corporation (Education-for- 
Health Center); Director, Pitt County Family Violence Program (member. Task 
Force on Family Violence). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-. 

Family: Married, Joe Anne Whitehurst, June 26, 1966. Children: Ashley. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Children; Election Laws; Human Resources. 
Member: Education; Finance; Highway Safety; Local Government II; State Per- 
sonnel; University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 



438 North Carouna Manual 




LARRY T.JUSTUS 

(Republican - Henderson County) 

(Fiftieth Representative District - Henderson (part) County - One 
Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Hendersonville, Henderson County, April 30, 1932, to Brownlow 
and Helen (Stepp) Justus (deceased). 

Education: Dana High School, 1950; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1954; US Air Force: (Naviga- 
tion Flight School, Commercial Flight Training School, Squadron Officers 
School). 

Profession: Real estate broker; retired Lieutenant Colonel, US Air Force. Formerly: 
owner and operator, Justus Sand and Stone (1957-78); apple orchardist; owner, 
outdoor advertising company; US Census technical officer. 

Organizations: Veterans of Foreign Wars; former President, W.N.C. Waste Water 
Treatment Association Scouts (Cub Pack); former Director, NC Apple Orchard 
Beauty Pageant. 

Boards and Commissions: Henderson County Board of Elections; Henderson County 
Energy Council. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-; State Executive 
Committee; State Central Committee; Governor's Committee on Better Roads; 
Chairman, Henderson County Republican Party; former Chairman, Finance officer 
Campaign Officer, llth Congressional District; former District Director, Lt. Gov- 
ernor campaign; former manager, county GOP gubernatorial campaign; former city 
campaign manager; former Chairman, North Blue Ridge Precinct; delegate. Repub- 
lican National Convention, 1980. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1954-57, 1961-62; Reserves, 1957-61, 1962-82 
(Lieutenant Colonel); Squadron Commander; Military Aviator; Korean conflict; 
Vietnam Executive Officer; Diaster Preparedness Officer; Information and Public 
Relations Officer; Protocol Officer; Vietnam Service Ribbon; Combat Readiness 
Ribbon; Presidential Unit Citation; Commendation Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster; 
National Defence Reserve Medal. 

Religious Activities: Member, Refuge Baptist Church, Hendersonville. 

Family: Married, Carolyn King of Hendersonville, June 15, 1978. Children: Scott, 
Ronnie, Chris and Seth. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Justice and Public Safety; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropria- 
tions-Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Comissions 
and Schools for the Blind and Deaf; Constitutional Amendments; Human 
Resources; Military and Veterans' Affairs; Small Business; Transportation. 



The Legislative Branch 



439 




MARGARET POLLARD KEESEE-FORRESTER 

(Republican - Guilford County) 

(Twenty-seventh Representative District - Guilford (part) County - Three 

Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Greensboro, Guilford County, January 6, 1945, to Charles Rog- 
ers and Margaret Lena (Kersey) Keesee 

Education: Guilford College, 1967, B.A.; Radford, 1967, graduate studies in Early 
Childhood Education. 

Profession: Homemaker; former classroom teacher. 

Organizations: Greensboro Branch, American Association of University Women, 
1973-; Women's Professional Forum; Mental Health Association of Greensboro; 
Women's Forum of NC; League of Women Voters. 

Boards and Commissions: Director, Sue Lynn Residential Services, Inc.; NC State 
Advisory Committee, US Commission on Civil Rights, 1974-84; State Day Care 
Study Commission, 1981, 1983. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 1979-80, 1980-81, 
1983-84, 1985-; Joint Legislative Ethics Committee, 1985-; Greater Greensboro 
Republican Women. 

Honors: Teacher of the Year, David Jones School, Greensboro, 1976, 1977. 

Religious Activities: Member, Christ United Methodist Church. 

Family: Married, Charles R. Forrester. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Election Laws. 

Member: Children and Youth; Education; Finance; Governmental Ethics; High- 
way Safety; Local Government II; Water and Air Resources. 



440 North Carouna Manual 




ANNIE BROWN KENNEDY 

(Democrat - Forsyth County) 
(Sixty-sixth Representative District - Forsyth (part) County - One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Atlanta, Georgia, October 13. 1924, to Mancy (deceased) and 
Mary Louise (Sheats) Brown. 

Education: David T. Howard Elementary and Junior High Schools, 1930-38; Booker 
T. Washington High School, 1983-41; Spelman College, 1945, A.B. (Economics); 
Howard University School of Law, 1951, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney (firm of Kennedy, Kennedy, Kennedy & Kennedy). 

Organizations: Forsyth County (former Secretary), NC and National Bar Associations; 
Forsyth County Association of Women Attorneys; NC Academy of Trial Lawyers; 
NC Association of Black Attorneys; Altrusa Club of Winston-Salem (President, 
1979-80); YWCA (former Director); NAACP; Women's Forum of NC; former 
member. League of Women Voters; United Way of Forsyth County, 1972-77, 
1979-83. 

Boards and Commissions: County Morehead Scholarship Selection Committee; Clini- 
cal Research Practices Committee, Bowman Gray School of Medicine; National 
Council of Negro Women; Director, Winston-Salem State University Foundation, 
Inc.; Board of Visitors, UNC-Chapel Hill; local Director, Southern National Bank; 
Advisory Board, Amercian Federal Savings & Loan Association of Greensboro; 
NC Criminal Code Commission. Former member, Winston-Salem Bicentennial 
Commission; former Director: Winston-Salem Housing Foundation, Legal Aid 
Society of Forsyth County and Forsyth Tuberculosis Association. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, 1983-84, 1985-; 
Joint Legislative Ethics Committee; Democratic Women of Forsyth County, 1964- 
(President, 1970-71); NC Executive Committee; delegate. Democratic National 
Convention, 1984 (alternate delegate, 1972); presidential and vice presidential 
Democratic elector, 1976; NC Commission on the Status of Women, 1964. 

Honors: Distinguished Alumni Leadership, National Association for Equal Opportun- 
ity in Higher Education, 1984; Outstanding Business Woman of the Year, Iota Phi 
Phi, 1981; Citizen of the Year, Omega Psi Phi, 1979. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church; Board of Trustees, 1974-. 

Family: Married, Harold L. Kennedy, Jr., December 23, 1950. Children: Harold L., 
Ill, Harvey L. and Michael D. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Governmental Ethics. 

Vice Chairman: Local Government II; Natural and Economic Resources. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on General Government; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations- 
Expansion Budget Committee on General Government; Courts and Adminis- 
tration of Justice; Judiciary I; University Board of Governors Nominating 
Committee; Water and Air Resources. 




The Legislative Branch 441 

H. MARTIN LANCASTER 

(Democrat - Wayne County) 
(Eleventh Representative District - Wayne County - Two Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Wayne County, March 24, 1943, to Harold W. and Eva Madena 
(Pate) Lancaster. 

Education: Pikeville High Schol, 1948-61; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1965, A.B.; UNC-Chapel 
Hill, Law School, 1967, J. D. 

Profession: Attorney. 

Organizations: Wayne County, 8th Judicial District, NC and American Bar Associa- 
tions; Mason; Shriner; Elk; Goldsboro Kiwanis; NC Society for Historic Preservation. 

Boards and Commissions: Advisory Board, Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation, 1984; 
Board of Governors, NC Bar Association, 1984; Chairman, NC Arts Council, 1977- 
81; Chairman, Wayne County Public Library, 1979-80; Chairman, Wayne County 
Chapter, American Red Cross, 1978-79; Chairman, Goldsboro-Wayne County 
Bicentennial Commission, 1975-76; President, Goldsboro Community Arts Council, 
1973-74; President, Wayne Community Concert Association, 1972-73. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 

1985-. 
Military Service: Served, LIS Navy, 1967-1970 (Lieutenant); Air Force Reserves, 1971- 

1982 (Major); Naval Reserves, 1982- (Commander). 

Honors: Valand Award, NC Mental Health Association. 1985; NC Crime and Justice 
Award, Governor's Crime Commission, 1984; Outstanding Legislator Award, NC 
Association of School Counselors, 1983; Outstanding Legislator Award, NC Academy 
of Trial Lawyers, 1981; Distinguished Service Award, Goldsboro Jaycees, 1977. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church; Elder, 1980-; Deacon, 1972-75. 

Family: Married, Alice Matheny, May 31, 1975. Children: Ashley Elizabeth and Mary 
Martin. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary 111. 

Vice Chairman: Highway Safety; University Board of Governors Nominating 
Committee. 

Member: Education; Finance; Housing; Governmental Ethics; Mental Health; 
Military and Veterans' Affairs; Rules and Operation of the House. 



442 North Carolina Manual 




BRADFORD VERDIZE LIGON 

(Republican - Rowan County) 
(Thirty-fifth Representative District - Rowan County - Two Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Buffalo, South Carolina, January 17, 1922, to William H. Ligon 
and Lola (Collins) Ligon. 

Education: Union High School, 1940; Medical University of South Carolina, College 
of Pharmacy, 1950, B.S. (Pharmacy). 

Profession: Pharmacist, (Manager, Kroger Sav-on). 

Organizations: NC Pharmacy Association; Piedmont Pharmacy Association; Andrew 
Jackson Masonic Lodge; American Legion, Harold B. Jarrett Post; Veterans of 
Foreign Wars. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; 
Rowan County Commissioner, 1979-80. 

Military Service: Served, US Marine Corp, 1942-45 (Corporal). 

Religious Activities: Member, New Hope Baptist Church; Sunday School Teacher, 
Adult Class; former Deacon. 

Family: Married, Jemelle Huckabee, January 20, 1945. Children: Bradford Gene and 
Michael Dennis. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Aging; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Com- 
mittee General Government; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropri- 
ations-Expansion Budget Committee on General Government; Corporations; 
Employment Security; Health; Human Resources; Pensions and Retirement; 
Small Business; Water and Air Resources. 



rt! 



The Legislative Branch 443 

DANIEL T. LILLEY 

(Democrat - Lenoir County) 

(Third Representative District - Craven, Lenoir and Pamlico Counties 
-Three Representatives.) 



m.A 



Early Years: Born in Martin County, August 15, 1920, to Alfred Tom and Ethel Grace 
(Gurkin) Lilley (both deceased). 

Education: Farm Life High School; Spartan School of Aeronautics; School of Flight 
(airline maintenance course); College of Life Underwriters, 1967, C.L.U. 

Profession: Life insurance salesman (Penn Mutual Life Insurance Company); minister. 

Organizations: Lenoir County Life Underwriters Association; American Society of 
Chartered Life Underwriters; Kinston Rotary Club; former President, Kinston Jun- 
ior Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: Southern Growth Policies Board; Greene Lamp, Inc.; 
Chairman, State Government Issues and Organizations Committee, Assembly on 
the Legislature; Chairman, State Aeronautics Council. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives. 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975- 
76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; Reappointment Committee, National 
Conference of State Legislators; Commissioner, Lenoir County, 1964-68. 

Military service: Served, US Air Force, 6 years (Colonel); World War II; US Air Force 
Reserve; Meritorious Service Award, 1980. NC Civil Air Patrol (Lieutenant Colonel). 

Honors: National Quality Award, National Association of Life Underwriters, 1980; 
Governor's Award (Conservation Legislator of the Year), NC Wildlife Federation, 
1975; National Sales Achievement Award, National Association of Life Underwri- 
ters, 1974; Citizen of the Year, Kinston Chamber of Commerce, 1963; Distin- 
guished Service Award, Kinston Junior Chamber of Commerce. 

Religious Activities: Member, Northwest Christian Church, Kinston; Elder. 

Family: Married, Jean Hites of McPherson, Kansas, July 7, 1944. Children: Eileen and 
Dan, Jr. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Rules and Operation of the House. 
Vice Chairman: Finance; Wildlife Resources. 

Member: Agriculture; Alcoholic Beverage Control; Banks and Thrift Institu- 
tions; Local Government 1; Transportation. 



444 North Carold^a Manual 



^\ 



ALBERT S. LINEBERRY, SR. 

(Democrat - Guilford County) 

(Twenty-seventh House District - Guilford (part) County - Three 
Representatives.) 




Early Years: Born in Memphis, Tennessee, April 13, 1918. 
5,^^ Education: Cumberland University, Army Air Corps School; 



Gupton-Jones College of Mortuary Law and Science; Na- 
tional Foundation School of Management. 

Profession: Chairman of the Board, Hanes-Lineberry Funeral Service, 1968-; Presi- 
dent, Westminister Gardens, 1968-; President, Gaines Corporation, 1964-; partner, 
J.A.S.E. Properties, 1976-; associate, Thanatology Department, Columbia University. 

Organizations: Wake forest Deacons Club; Greensboro Sports Council; Director 
Greensboro YMCA; President, Greensboro Symphony; Corinthian Lodge 542 
AMFM; PP Turner Lodge 746; Eastern Star; White Shrine; Shrine Oasis Temple; 
Scottish Rite Bodies; Independent Order of Odd Fellows; Greensboro Country 
Club; Roaring Gap Club; Scottish Rite Mason (32nd, KCCH degree); Rhododen- 
dron Royal Brigade of Guards; Director, Greensboro Opera; Director, Greensboro 
City Club. Life member: YMCA; PTA; NC Congress of Parents and Teachers; 
Greensboro Chamber of Commerce. BSA: National Advisory Board; Executive 
Committee, General Greene Council; Director, SE Region. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Visitors, Maryfield Nursing Home and Guilford 
College; Trustee, Greensboro College; Director, Greater Greensboro Foundation; 
Chairman, Greensboro War Memorial Foundation. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army Air Corps; World War II; pilot. 

Honors: Greensboro Business Leaders Hall of Fame, 1984; Lineberry- Adams Award, 
SE Seminary, 1982; Uncle Joe Cannon and Distinguished Citizen Awards, Greens- 
boro Chamber of Commerce; Silver Beaver and Silver Fox, BSA; Good Shepherd 
Award, Baptists for Scouting; Outstanding Citizen, Greensboro Inter Club Council, 
1977; Boss of the Year, Dolly Madison Chapter, American Business Women, 1974; 
Outstanding Citizen, National Conference of Christians and Jews, 1972; Book of 
Golden Deed, Exchange Club, 1969; Man of the Year, Asheville, 1949. 

Literary Works: "Dying Patient and Death and Funeral Service to Medical Society," 
NSM. 1977; "Justification," NSM. 1974; What You Should Know About Pre- 
planning Funeral Service, 1973; Over or Under Sensitized; About the Funeral. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church, Greensboro; Deacon; depart- 
mental Superintendent; Finance Committee. Chairman and charter member. Develop- 
mental Council, SE Seminary; President's Cabinet, Pan American Union of Baptist 
Men; Director, Bill Glass Evangelistic Association. 

Family: Married, Helen Howerton; five children. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Justice and Public Safety; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropria- 
tions-Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Banks and 
Thrift Institutions; Education; Governmental Ethics; Local Government I; 
Public Utilities; Rules and Operation of the House; Small Business. 



I 




The Legislative Branch 445 

SIDNEY ALVIN LOCKS 

(Democrat - Robeson County) 

(Sixteenth Representative District - Hoke, Robeson and Scotland (part) 
Counties - Three Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Lafayette, Louisiana, February 5, 1949, to Sidney A. and Gloria 
Jean (Harris) Locks. 

Education: J.C. Clark High School (Opelousas, Louisiana); Wiley College, 1972, B.A.; 
Morehouse School of Religion, 1975, Master of Divinity. 

Profession: Minister; day care administrator. 

Organizations: Operation Sickle Cell, Robeson Democratic Party; Alpha Phi Alpha; 
Golden Leaf Lodge #124; Carpenters Consistory 164; NAACP of Robeson County; 
former Chairman, Alpha Phi Omega; Robeson County Church and Community 
Center. 

Boards and Commissions: Director, Four County Community Action; NC Energy Pol- 
icy Council; former Chairman, Lumberton Human Relations Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-; Lumber- 
ton Board of Education. 

Honors: Outstanding Young Men of America, 198L 

Religious Activities: Minister, Sandy Grove Baptist Church; Progressive National Bap- 
tist Convention, Inc. 

Family: Married, Carol Ann Freeman, June 2, 1973. Children: Sidney Alvin Edward, 
Frederick Douglas Maynard and Odetta Tandawi Carol. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Aging. 

Vice Chairman: Governmental Ethics; Human Resources. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Human Resources; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations- 
Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources; Corrections; Health; 
Mental Health; Rules and Operation of the House. 



446 



North Carolina Manual 




EDITH LEDFORD LUTZ 

(Democrat - Cleveland County) 

Cleveland, Polk, and Rutherford 



(Forty-eighth Representative District 
Counties - Three Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Lawndale, Cleveland County, October 20, 1914, to Thomas Cur- 
tis and Annie (Hoyle) Ledford. 

Education: Belwood High School. 

Occupation: Farmer and fruit grower. 

Organizations: Director, Cleveland County Farm Bureau; Director, Upper Cleveland 
County Chamber of Commerce; NC Apple Growers' Association; Sheltered Work- 
shops of Rutherford County; American Association of Business Women. 

Boards and Commissions: Southern Legislative Conference; Mental Health Study 
Commission; Agriculture, Forestry and Seafood Awareness Study Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1976, 1977-78, 1979-80, 
1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-. 

Honors: Who's Who of American Women; "Farm Woman of the Year," Southwestern 
District. 

Religious Activities: Member, Kadish Methodist Church; Sunday School Teacher; 
Treasurer, Women's Organization; counselor. Youth Fellowship. 

Family: Married, M. Everett Lutz, October 25, 1933. Children: E.Jacob. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Local Government II. 

Vice Chairman: Agriculture; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on Human 

Resources; Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources. 
Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Children and Youth; Human Resources; 

Insurance; Law Enforcement; Mental Health; State Personnel. 




The Legislative Branch 447 

JOSEPHUS LYMAN MAVRETIC 

(Democrat - Edgecombe County) 

(Eighth Representative District - Edgecombe (part) and Nash (part) 
Counties - One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Powells Point, Currituck County, July 29, 1934, to Joseph M. 
(deceased) and Virginia (Bateman) Mavretic. 

Education: New Bern High School; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1956, A.B. (English); George 
Washington University, 1972, M.S. (Political Science, International Affairs); Naval 
War College, distinguished graduate, 1972. 

Profession: Retired military officer. 

Organizations: Rotary Club of Tarboro; Retired Officers Association; American 
Legion Post 58; Marine Corps Aviation Association; Director, Edgecombe County 
chapter, American Red Cross; Phi Gamma Delta; Loyal Order of the Moose; coor- 
dinator. Cub Scout Pack 96; Director, American Cancer Society (NC division); 
Director, Edgecombe County Historic Preservation Fund; Director, NC Museum 
of History Associates. 

Boards and Commissions: Director, NC Council on Alcoholism; Steering Committee, 
NC Educational Policy Seminars; former Chairman, Laurel Bay School Board; 
former Director, First Carolina Bank. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1980 (appointed to fill 
vacancy created by resignation of James Ezzell), 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-. 

Military Service: Served, US Marine Corps, 1956-77 (Lieutenant Colonel); 300 combat 
missions in Vietnam; 3000 flight hours in fighter aircraft; Bronze Star with Combat 
"V". 

Religious Activities: Member, St. James United Methodist Church; President, Metho- 
dist Men's Club, 1981; Administrative Board, 1981; Finance Committee, 1980. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Pensions and Retirement. 
Vice Chairman: Education; Finance. 

Member: Agriculture; Constitutional Amendments; Natural and Economic Resources; 
Public Utilities; Rules and Operation of the House; Transportation; Water 
and Air Resources. 



448 North Carolina Manual 




ROBERT LEE McALISTER 

(Democrat - Rockingham County) 

(Twenty-fifth Representative District - Alamance, Rockingham and 
Stokes (part) Counties - Four Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Reidsville, Rockingham County, February 6, 1923, to James 
Denny and Maggie Ehzabeth (Meador) McAhster. 

Education: Ruffin High School, 1942. 

Profession: Farming and agri-business interests. 

Organizations: NC Farm Bureau (member. Tobacco Committee); Rockingham County 
Development Association; Vice Chairman, Rockingham County Farm Bureau 
(member. Tobacco and Legislative Committee); Director, Northern Piedmont Area 
Development Association. 

Boards and Commissions: Director, NC Agriculture Foundation, NCSU; Director, 
NC Tobacco Foundation, NCSU; Rockingham County Draft Board; Chairman, 
Advisory Board, Rockingham County Extension; NC Agri-Business Council; Chair- 
man, Advisory Board, Rockingham County FCX Service. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1977-78 (appointed to fill 
vacancy created by resignation of Conrad R. Duncan, Jr.), 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983- 
84, 1985-; Secondary Roads Council, 7th Division, 1977; District Executive Com- 
mittee, NC House, 1975. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1943-47, 1950-51 (Sergeant First Class); Anti- 
Aircraft Artillery. 

Honors: Progressive Community Leadership Award, Northern Piedmont Area Devel- 
opment Association; Contributions Award, NC Irrigation Society; Leadership 
Award, NC Agriculture Foundation, NCSU. 

Religious Activities: Member, Mt. Carmel United Methodist Church; Trustee, 1970- 
74; Administrative Board, 1967-76; Finance Secretary, 1969-75. 

Family: Married, Doris Elizabeth Cox, February 1, 1944. Children: Dennis Lee and 
Sidney Robert. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Local Government I. 

Vice Chairman: State Properties; Water and Air Resources. 

Member: Agriculture; Election Laws; Finance; Health; Military and Veterans' 
Affairs; Transportation. 



V -^w 



The Legislative Branch 449 

TIMOTHY HILL McDOWELL 

(Democrat - Alamance County) 

(Twenty-fifth Representative District - Alamance. Rockingham and Stokes 
(part) Counties - Four Representatives.) 




Early Years: Born in Burlington, Alamance County, January 16, 1946, to Charles 

Lamar and Golda Marjorie (Perry) McDowell. 
Education: Technical College of Alamance, 1970, A.A.S.; Elon College, 1976, B.A.S. 
Profession: Director, Community Relations, Elon College; former editor, Mebane 

Enterprise Journal, 1970-74. 

Organizations: Burlington Rotary Club; College News Association of the Carolinas. 

Boards and Commissions: President, Elon Home for Children; Director, Alamance 
Arts Council; Council for Advancement and Support of Education; Director, 
Volunteers for People; Mebane Board of Adjustments, 1973-74. 

Political Activities: Member, NC Senate 1985- (appointed September 20, 1985 to 
replace John Jordan); Member. NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 1979-80, 
1981-82, 1983-84, 1985. 

Military Service: Served, US Naval Reserves, 1966-71 (Third Class Petty Officer). 

Honors: Outstanding Young Men in America, 1980; second place, best editorial, NC 
Press Association, 1973; Outstanding Contribution to Conservation, Orange County 
Soil and Water Conservation District, 1972. 

Religious Activities: Member, Hawfields Presbyterian Church. 

Family: Married, Zorado Kernodle, February 25, 1967. Children: Chris Michelle and 
Joshua Truth. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Natural and Economic Resources. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on Education; Ap- 
propriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Education; Higher Education. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Con- 
stitutional Amendments; Corrections; Judiciary I; Mental Health; Rules and 
Operation of the House. 



* Resigned effective September 25, 1985, following appointment to the N.C. Senate. 



450 North Carolina Manual 




JOHN BELL MCLAUGHLIN 

(Democrat - Mecklenburg County) 

(Fifty-fourth Representative District - Mecklenburg (part) County- One 
Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Mecklenburg County, September I, 1925, to John and Maude 
(Utley) McLaughlin. 

Education: Newell Public Schools. 

Profession: Retired (former postmaster, farmer, merchant and businessman). 

Organizations: American Legion Post 287; Newell - UNC-Charlotte Lions Club. 

Boards and Commissions: Former member, Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Educa- 
tion, (10 years). 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1950-52 (Corporal). 

Religious Activities: Member, Back Creek Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church; 
Elder. 

Family: Married, Margaret Alexander of Mecklenburg County, June 20, 1954. Three 
children. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Education; Election Laws; Finance; Higher Education; Insurance; Law 
Enforcement; Local Government II; Mental Health; State Government. 




The Legislative Branch 451 



HENRY MCKINLEY MICHAUX, JR. 

(Democrat - Durham County) 

(Twenty-third Representative District - Durham (part) County - One 
Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Durham, Durham County, September 4, 1930, to Henry McKin- 

ley and Isadore (Coats) Michaux, Sr. 
Education: Palmer Memorial Institute, 1948; NC Central University, 1952, B.S.; NC 

Central University, School of Law, 1964, J.D.; Rutgers University and NC Central 

University, graduate studies. 
Profession: Attorney and business executive (Executive Vice President and Director: 

Union Insurance and Realty Company; Glenview Memorial Park, Inc.; Washington 

Terrace Apartments, Inc.; Terrace Insurance and Realty Company). 

Organizations: NC, NC State and National Bar Associations; NC Association of Black 
Lawyers; George H. White Bar Association; National Association of Real Estate 
Brokers (General Counsel, 1966-77). 

Boards and Commissions: Trustee, NC Central University; Chairman, Public Affairs 
Committee, National Association of Real Estate Brokers. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977, 
1985-; speaker, Democratic Convention, 1984; Chief Assistant District Attorney, 
14th Judicial District, 1977-81; delegate, Democratic Convention, 1976; District 
Solicitor, 1969. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1952-54; Reserves, 1954-60 (Sergeant). 
Honors: Honorary Doctor of Law, NC Central University and Durham College. 
Religious Activities: Member, St. Joseph's AME Church, Durham; Steward Board. 
Family: Children: Jocelyn (Michaux) Winston. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Constitutional Amendments. 

Vice Chairman: Courts and Administration of Justice; Judiciary II. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Education; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations-Expansion 
Budget Committee on Education; Election Laws; Higher Education; Rules 
and Operation of the House; University Board of Governors Noiuinating 
Committee. 



452 North Carolina Manual 




GEORGE W. MILLER, JR. 

(Democrat - Durham County) 

(Sixty-ninth Representative District - Durham (part) County - One 
Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Spencer, Rowan County, May 14, 1930, to George W. and 
Blanche M. (Iddings) Miller. 

Education: Spencer Elementary and High School, 1936-48; UNC-Chapel Hill, B.S. 
(Business Administration); UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1954-57, LL.B. 

Profession: Attorney (firm of Haywood, Denny & Miller). 

Organizations: Durham County, NC and American Bar Associations; International 
Association of Insurance Counsels; Phi Alpha Delta; Sertoma Club. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Visitors, NC Central University School of Law; 
Utility Review Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 
1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; NC Young Democrats Club (President, 
1964-65). 

Military Service: Served, US Marine Corps, 1951-53 (Sergeant). 

Religious Activities: Member, Duke Memorial Methodist Church, Durham; former 
Chairman, Duke Memorial Week Day School Committee; former member, Official 
Board. 

Family: Married, Eula Hux, June 21, 1958. Children: Elizabeth Ann, Blanche Rose 
and George, III. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary I. 

Vice Chairman: Insurance; Public Utilities. 

Member: Corporations; Finance; Governmental Ethics; Rules and Operation of 
the House; University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 




The Legislative Branch 453 

CHARLES IVAN MOTHERSHEAD, III 

(Republican - Mecklenburg County) 

(Fifty-fifth Representative District - Mecklenburg (part) County - One 
Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Norfolk, Virginia, June 24, 1948, to Charles Ivan and Johnnie 
(Lynbrook) Mothershead, Jr. 

Education: Page Senior High School, 1966; NC State University, 1970, B.A. (Econom- 
ics); NC State University, 1972, M.A. (Economics). 

Profession: President: University Marketing, Inc.; UMI Publications, Inc.; Total 
Sports Publications. 

Organizations: NC Citizens for Business and Industry; ACC Sportswriter Association; 
US Basketball Writers Association; Bureau of Independent Publishers and Distributors. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-; Executive Board, 
Mecklenburg Republican Party, 1980-83; Chairman, Special Events Board, Mec- 
klenburg Republican Party, 1980-83. 

Literary Works: Editor: ACC Basketball Handbook. 1974-; NCSU National Cham- 
pionship, 1983; ESPN Sports Almanac, 1983; UNC National Championship, 1982, 
ACC Basketball Trivia Trip. 

Religious Activities: Member, Christ Episcopal Church, Charlotte. 

Family: Married, Dorothy Tull of Charlotte, October 8, 1983. Children: Charles Ivan, 
IV. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Corpora- 
tions; Finance; Insurance; Manufacturers and Labor; Public Utilities; Rules 
and Operation of the House. 



454 



North Carolina Manual 




WENDELL HOLMES MURPHY 

(Democrat - Duplin County) 



(Tenth Representative District 
Representative.) 



Duplin and Jones Counties - One 



Early Years: Born in Rose Hill, September 23, 1938, to Holmes and Lois (King) 
Murphy. 

Education: Rose Hill High School, 1956; NC State University, B.S. (Agricultural 
Education). 

Profession: Farming and agri-business interests (President, Murphy Farms, Inc.). 

Organizations: Former Vice-President and Director, NC Pork Producers Association. 

Boards and Commissions: Director, First Union National Bank; Director, NC State 
University Student Aid Association. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-. 

Honors: NC Outstanding Pork Producer, 1980; Pork All American, 1975. 

Religious Activities: Member, Rose Hilt Baptist Church. 

Family: Married, Linda Godwin, June, 1979. Children: Wendell H., Jr., Wendy 
Deanne, Cindy Hairr and Wesley Hairr. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 
Chairman: Health. 
Vice Chairman: Banks and Thrift Institutions, Corrections. 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Bud- 
get Committee on Natural and Economic Resources; Appropriations-Ex- 
pansion Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Natural 
and Economic Resources; Election Laws; Higher Education; Insurance; Judi- 
ciary II; Rules and Operation of the House; University Board of Governors 
Nominating Committee. 




The Legislative Branch 455 

MARTIN L. NESBITT, JR. 

(Democrat - Buncombe County) 

(Fifty-tirst Representative District - Buncombe, Henderson (part) and 
Transylvania Counties - Four Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Asheville, Buncombe County, September 25, 1946, to Martin L. 
and Mary (Cordell) Nesbitt, Sr. 

Education: Reynolds High School, 1964; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1970, B.A.; UNC-Chapel 
Hill, School of Law, 1973, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney. 

Organizations: Buncombe County and NC State Bar Associations. 

Boards and Commissions: NC Capital Planning Commission; Joint Legislative Com- 
mission on Governmental Operations; former member, NC 2000 Commission; 
Director, The Mediation Center; Director, Buncombe Alternatives. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, (appointed to fill 
unexpired term created by the death of Mary C. Nesbitt), 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; 
State Federal Assembly Committee on Government Operations and Regulations, 
National Conference of State Legislatures; Director, Buncombe County Demo- 
cratic Men's Club. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Luke's Episcopal Church. 

Family: Married, Deanne Sellers, September 28, 1979. Children: William Martin and 
Chad Sellers. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Insurance. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on Education; Appropria- 
tions-Expansion Budget Committee on Education; Courts and Administra- 
tion of Justice. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expansion Budgt; Judi- 
ciary I; Local Government II; Pensions and Retirement; Rules and Operation 
of the House; Small Business; Water and Air Resources. 



. 



456 North Carolina Manual 



n 




DAVID JAMES NOLES 

(Republican - Lincoln County) 

(Forty-fourth Representative District - Gaston and Lincoln Counties 
Four Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Lincolnton, Lincoln County, September 17, 1938, to Pervey 
James and Edith (Lemmond) Noles. 

Education: Asbury Elementary School; Lincoln Senior High School. 

Profession: Farmer. 

Organizations: Vice Chairman, Regional State Farmers Market; Lincoln Band Boos- 
ters; scoutmaster, BSA. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-; State Organization 
Chairman of the Year; Precinct Chairman, Lincoln County; Campaign Chairman, 
Bill Hiatt. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1957-60; Reserves, 1960-63 (PFC). 
Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church, Lincoln. 
Family: Married, Brenda Leatherman, December 30, 1963. Children: Jeffrey David, 
Sherry Lynn, Michael David and Amy Katherine. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget 
Committee on General Government; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Ap- 
propriations-Expansion Budget Committee on General Government; High- 
way Safety; Law Enforcement; Local Government I; Mental Health; Military 
and Veterans' Affairs; Pensions and Retirement. 



The Legislative Branch 



457 




(Twelfth Representative District 
Counties - Two Representatives.) 



EDD NYE 

(Democrat - Bladen County) 

Bladen, Pender (part) and Sampson 



Early Years: Born in Gulf. Chatham County, to Joseph Burke and Vera (Johnson) 

Nye. 

Education: Clarkton High School; Southeastern Community College; NCSU. 

Profession: Insurance executive. 

Organizations: Elizabethtown Chamber of Commerce; Bladen Masonic Lodge; former 
member, Jaycees and Lions Club. 

Boards and Commissions: Former Trustee, Bladen Technical College. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 
1985-; NC Senate, 1975-76. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1952-56. 

Religious Activities: Member, Elizabethtown Baptist Church; Board of Deacons. 
Former member: Bladen Baptist Association (Moderator) and NC Baptist State 
Convention. 

Family: Married, Peggy McKee of Clarkton, January 9, 1955. Children: Shannon, 
Edward and Allison. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Wildlife Resources. 

Vice Chairman: Local Government 1; Pensions and Retirement. 

Member: Aging; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on Natural and Eco- 
nomic Resources; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations-Expansion 
budget Committee on Natural and Economic Resources; Courts and Admin- 
istration of Justice; Education; Public Utilities; Transportation. 



458 



North Carolina Manual 




CHARLES DONALD OWENS 

(Democrat - Rutherford County) 

(Forty-eighth Representative District -Cleveland, Polk, and Rutherford 
Counties - Three Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Forest City, Rutherford County, June 6, 1925, to Charles Lee 
and Essie (Green) Owens. 

Education: Appalachian State University, 1949, B.S. 

Profession: Business executive (real estate, land development and auctions). 

Organizations: Kiwanis Club (former President) 

Boards and Commissions: Trustee, Appalachian State University, 1979-82. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-; Mayor 
and City Council, Town of Forest City; Chairman, County Democrats, 1972-76. 

Military Service: Served, US Marine Corps, 1943-45 (PFC). 

Religious Activities: Member, First United Methodist Church; Director, Building 
Fund; lay leader; Methodist Church, International Development. 

Family: Married, Edna Ogle, May 20, 1950. Child: Charles D., Jr. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Corporations. 

Vice Chairman: Local Government I; Water and Air Resources. 

Member: Education; Finance; Human Resources; Natural and Economic Re- 
sources; State Properties. 




The Legislative Branch 459 

HARRY EUGENE PAYNE, JR. 

(Democrat - New Hanover County) 

(Thirteenth Representative District - New Hanover (part) County - Two 
Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Wilmington, New Hanover County, September 11, 1952, to 
Harry Eugene and Margaret (Tucker) Payne. 

Education: New Hanover High School, 1967-70; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1970-74, A.B. 
(Political Science, Psychology); Wake Forest University, School of Law, 1974-77. 
J.D. 

Profession: Attorney (private practice). 

Organizations: New Hanover County, NC, NC State and American Bar Associations; 
NC Academy of Trial Lawyers. 

Boards and Commissions: Offender Aid and Restoration Child Advocacy Commis- 
sion. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-. 

Religious Activities: Member, Grace United Methodist Church. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Manufacturers and Labor. 

Vice Chairman: Law Enforcement; Water and Air Resources. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Justice and Public Safety; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropria- 
tions-Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Banks and 
Thrift Institutions; Courts and Administration of Justice; Insurance; Judi- 
ciary IV. 



460 North Carolina Manual 




MURRAY POWELL POOL 

(Democrat - Sampson County) 

(Twelfth Representative District - Bladen, Pender (part) and Sampson 
Counties - Two Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Raleigh, Wake Vounty, January 24, 1947, to Rufus Aldolphus 
and Pauline Pool, II. 

Education: Clinton High School; UNC-Chaepl Hill, 1969, B.A. (History); UNC- 
Chapel Hill, graduate studies; Radcliff College, publishing procedures course. 

Profession: Stockbroker. 

Organizations: NC Oil Jobbers Association; Director, NC Association of Convenience 
Stores; Rotary Club. 

Boards and Commissions: Director, Sampson Technical College, 1981-; Director, Clin- 
ton Chamber of Commerce, 1982-; Morehead Scholarship Selection Committee, 
Sampson County; President, Duplin Group Homes, Inc., 1979-82; Clinton ABC 
Board, 1978-81. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-; Chairman, 
3rd Congressional District Democratic Party, 1982-; Chairman, Sampson County 
Democratic Party, 1979-81. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Baptist Church. 

Family: Children: Murray Powell, Jr. and Jennifer Margery. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Law Enforcement: Local Government II; Small Business. 
Member: Agriculture; Alcoholic Beverage Control; Finance; Insurance; Mental 
Health; Water and Air Resources. 



« 




The Legislative Branch 461 

COY CLARENCE PRIVETTE 

(Republican - Cabarrus County) 

(Thirty-fourth Representative District - Cabarrus, Stanly and Union 
Counties - Four Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Statesville, Iredell County, January 31, 1933, to Clarence and 
Carrie (Harmon) Privette. 

Education: Wake Forest University, 1955, B.A.; Southeastern Baptist Theological 
Seminary, 1958, M.Div.; School of Pastoral Care, Bowman Gray School of Medi- 
cine; Walter Reed Army Medical Center, clinical pastoral studies; US Army Com- 
mand and Staff College. 

Profession: Executive Director, Christian Action League of NC, Inc. 

Associations: Kannapolis Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: American Council on Alcoholic Problems, Inc.; Board of 
Ministers, Gardner-Webb College; Committee of Ministers, Campbell University; 
National Leadership Team, National Consultation on Poronography; Trustee, 
Wingate College, 1963-66, 1973-76, 1977-81. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army Reserves, 1953-. 

Honors: Alumnus of the Year, Men's Residence Council, Wake Forest University, 
1977; Man of the Year, NC Baptist Men, 1974; Kannapolis Young Man of the 
Year, 1966; Student Body President, Wake Forest University, 1954-55; Omnicron 
Delta Kappa. 

Literary Works: Editor, Tomorrow, a monthly journal concerning moral and ethical 
issues. 

Religious Activities: Member, North Kannapolis Baptist Church, Kannapolis, pastor, 
1962-76. Christian Life Commission, Southern Baptist Convention; Baptist State 
Convention (President, 1975-77; First Vice President, 1973-75); Moderator, Cabar- 
rus Baptist Association, 1968; President, Kannapolis Ministerial Association, 1965. 

Family: Married, Betty Frances Shoaf of Kannapolis, June 21, 1958. Children: Denise 
Elaine, Lori Elizabeth, Amy Lynn and Melanie Ann. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Alocoholic Beverage Control; Corrections; Employment Security; 
Finance; Governmental Ethics; Human Resources; Judiciary I; Military and 
Veterans' Affairs. 



462 



North Carolina Manual 




WILLIAM PAUL PULLEY, JR. 

(Democrat - Durham County) 

Durham (part) County 



(Sixty-eighth Representative District 
Representative.) 



One 



Early Years: Born in Durham, Durham County, August 30, 1936, to WiUiam Paul and 
Josie (Bullard) Pulley. 

Education: UNC-Chapel Hill, 1958, A.B.; UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1961, 
LL.B. 

Profession: Attorney. 

Organizations: NC, 14th Judicial District (former member. Executive Committee) and 
American Bar Associations; NC Academy of Trial Lawyers; Director, UNC Law 
Alumni Association and Foundation; founder and former President, Hollow Rock 
Raquet and Swim Club. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 
1985-. 

Religious Activities: Member, Braggtown Baptist Church. 

Family: Children: William Paul, HI, Bradley Larkin, Debra Ann Nelson, Margaret 
Dees Nelson and Hugh Reavis Nelson, 111. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary IV. 

Vice Chairman: Banks and Thrift Institutions; Water and Air Resources. 

Member: Energy; Finance; Natural and Economic Resources; Public Utilities; 
Rules and Operation of the House. 



The Legislative Branch 463 



DWIGHT WILSON QUINN 

(Democrat - Cabarrus County) 

1 "S^ ^^ (Thirty-fourth Representative District - Cabarrus, Stanly, and Union 

• "* Counties - Four Representatives.) 



^^^\ 



it 






Early Years: Born in York, South Carolina, to William Lytle (deceased) and Lucy 
(Wilson) Quinn. 

Education: Cabarrus County Schools; UNC Extension Schools. 

Profession: Corporate executive (Cannon Mills Company). 

Organizations: American Legion, Post 1 15 (Vice Commander, Posts 40 and 8); Rotar- 
ian; Cannon Memorial Lodge 626, AF&AM; Scottish Rite Bodies; Shriner, Oasis 
Temple; Director, Cannon Memorial YMCA; Director, Cabarrus County Boys 
Club. 

Boards and Commissions: Director, Southern Region Education Board; former Chair- 
man, Board of Trustees and Executive Committee, Appalachian State University; 
Chairman, Governor's Commission on Reorganization of State Government, 1961- 
62; Executive Committee, Governor's Committee on Juvenile Delinquency and 
Youth Crime; Criminal Code Revision Committee; Governor's Study Commission, 
Architectural Barriers for the Benefit of the Handicapped. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1951, 1953, 1955-56, 1957, 
1959, 1961, 1963, 1965-66, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 
1981-82, 1983-84, 1 985-; delegate. National Democratic Convention, 1960 and 1968. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1944-45. 

Honors: Honorary Doctor of Law, Appalachian State University, 1978; National Dis- 
tinguished Service Award, AMVETS, 1953; Man of the Year, Kannapolis Jaycees, 
1948. 

Religious Activities: Member, Kimball Memorial Lutheran Church; former member. 
Church Council. 

Family: Married, Marian Elizabeth Isenhour. Children: Linda Jo (Quinn) Dodge. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Finance. 

Vice Chairman: Employment Security; Rules and Operation of the House. 

Member: Corporations; Health; Judiciary II; Manufacturers and Labor; Water 
and Air Resources. 



464 North Carolina Manual 




EDWARD DAVID REDWINE 

(Democrat - Brunswick County) 

(Fourteenth Representative District - Brunswick, New Hanover (part) 
and Pender (part) Counties - One Representative.) 



i'«^ 



Early Years: Born in Wilmington, New Hanover County, September 12, 1947, to 
Edward Henry and Doris (Frink) Redwine. 

Education: Shallottee High School, 1965; ECU, 1970, A.B. (Political Science, His- 
tory). 

Profession: Vice President and owner. Coastal Insurance and Realty, Inc. 

Organizations: Independent Insurance Agents of NC; Carolina Association of Profes- 
sional Insurance Agents; South Brunswick Chamber of Commerce (President and 
Director, 1976-82); Shallotte Lions Club; Board of Advisors, Cape Fear Council, 
BSA; Mason, 1976; Shrine Sudane Temple, 1976. 

Boards and Commissions: NC Student Legislative Advisory Council; Board of Advi- 
sors, Cape Fear Substance Abuse; Vice Chairman, Brunswick County Parks and 
Recreation; NC Battleship Memorial Commission, 1982-83; Trustee, Brunswick 
Technical College, 1982. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985; Executive Board, 
7th Congressional District; Brunswick County Democratic Party (Chairman, 1979- 
82; Treasurer, 1976; Young Democrats of Brunswick County (President, 1978). 

Honors: Young Agent of the Year, 1984; Mr. Chairman Award, IIANC, 1982; Who's 
Who in American Politics, 1982; Outstanding Young Man of the Year, 1982. 

Religious Activities: Member, Shallotte Presbyterian Church. 

Family: Married, Margaret Penelope Taylor of Monroe, September 23, 1972. Child- 
ren: Erin Elizabeth and Amanda Fletcher. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Marine Fisheries. 

Member: Agriculture; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget 
Committee on General Government; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; 
Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on General Government; Banks 
and Thrift Institutions; Children and Youth; Courts and Administration of 
Justice; Higher Education; Military and Veterans' Affairs; Public Utilities. 



The Legislative Branch 



465 




FRANK EDWIN RHODES 

(Republican - Forsyth County) 

Forsyth (part) County - Three 



(Thirty-ninth Representative District 
Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Worcester, Massachusetts, August 2, 1914, to Frank and Alberta 

(Stoddard) Rhodes. 
Education: Columbia University (Advertising and Management); Rutgers University 

(Sales Management). 
Profession: Retired real estate executive (former President, Frank E. Rhodes, Inc.). 
Organizations: Winston-Salem Board of Realtors; NC Association of Realtors; 

National Association of Realtors; Winston-Salem Kiwanis Club; Salem Masonic 

Lodge 289; Oasis Shrine Temple; Winston-Salem Shrine. 
Boards and Commissions: Forsyth Zoning Board of Adjustment, 1969-75 (Chairman, 

1972-75). 
Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1985-. 
Military Service: Served, US Army, 1944-45; OCS; Infantry; Expert Infantryman; 

Expert Sharpshooter; Good Conduct Medal. 

Honors: Realtor of the Year, 1968. 

Religious Activities: Member, Centenary United Methodist Church, Winston-Salem; 

Administrative Board. 
Family: Married, Fernande Gagne of Quebec City, Canada, July I, 1960. Children: 

Ruthann, Frank, III, Tina and Nelson. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Justice and Public Safety; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropria- 
tions-Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety; Correc- 
tions; Education; Higher Education; Highway Safety; Mental Health; Natu- 
ral and Economic Resources; Small Business. 



466 



North Carolina Manual 




JOHNATHAN LABAN RHYNE, JR. 

(Republican - Lincoln County) 

(Forty-fourth Representative District - Gaston and Lincoln Counties 
Four Representatives.) 



'LJnM 



Early Years: Born in Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, June 6, 1955, to Johnathan L. 
and Marian Lavinia (Stowe) Rhyne, Sr. 

Education: Lincolnton High School, 1973; Davidson College, 1977, B.A. (Sociology); 
Campbell University, School of Law, 1981, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney (partner, firm of Jonas, Jonas and Rhyne); Secretary, Lincoln 
Bank of NC. 

Organizations: Lincoln County, NC, NC State and American Bar Associations; 

Secretary-Treasurer, Judicial District 27B, 1984; Director, Lincoln Apple Festival 

Committee. 

Boards and Commissions: Former Director, Lincoln Arts Council. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1 985-; Lincoln County 
Republican Party (Secretary, 1984). 

Honors: 1. Beverly Lake Constitutional Law Scholar, Campbell University. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Lincolnton; Board of Dea- 
cons, 1971-73, 1982-84 (Chairman, 1984). 

Family: Married, Martha Jane Cameron of Dunn, August 2, 1980. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Banks and Thrift Institutions; Corporations; Courts and Administra- 
tion of Justice; Cultural Resources; Finance; Governmental Ethics; Higher 
Education; Judiciary IV. 



The Legislative Branch 



467 




JAMES FRANKLIN RICHARDSON 

(Democrat - Mecklenburg County) 

(Fitty-ninth Representative District - Mecklenburg (part) County - One 
Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, May 20, 1926, to Sam and 
Addle (Pickens) Richardson. 

Education: Isabella Wyche Elementary School, 1937; Second Ward High School, 
1943; Johnson C. Smith University, 1949, B.S. 

Profession: Retired (former postmaster). 

Organizations: Masons; NAACP; Omega Psi Phi. 

Boards and Commissions: Director, WTVl Public Television; Director, Charlotte 
Mint Museum; former Director, Charlotte Housing Authority; former Chairman, 
NC Social Services Commission and Mecklenburg Social Services Department. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-. 

Military Service: Served, US Navy, 1944-46 (Aviation Metal Smith 1st Class). 

Religious Activities: Member, Memorial Presbyterian Church, Charlotte; Deacon; 
Social Action Committee. 

Family: Married, Mary E. Nixon of Columbia, South Carolina, April 16, 1964. Child- 
ren: Gregory and James Franklin, Jr. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Banks and TTirift Institutions; Corrections; Education; Finance; Employment 
Security; Health; Human Resources; Mental Health. 



468 North Carolina Manual 




GEORGE S. ROBINSON 

(Republican - Caldwell County) 

(Forty-sixth Representative District - Alexander (part), Avery, Burke 
(part), Caldwell, Mitchell and Watauga (part) Counties - Three Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Lenoir, Caldwell County, November 15, 1945, to Charles M. and 
Lorraine M. Robinson. 

Education: Oak Ridge Military Institute, 1963-64; University of Tennessee, 1964-68, 
1972-73. 

Profession: Lumber executive (President: Robinson Lumber Company, Inc.; Sou- 
theastern Lumber Company; Robinson Frugie Lumber Company). 

Organization: Lenoir Rotary Club; Alpha Tau Omega; President, Lenoir Little League; 
District Commissioner, BSA. 

Boards and Commissions: Lenoir Housing Authority. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1968-72 (Sergeant). 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Lenoir. 

Family: Married, Ann P. Robinson, April 14, 1974. Children: Ricky. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Human Resources; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations- 
Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources; Courts and Administra- 
tion of Justice; Insurance; Judiciary 1; Manufacturers and Labor; Marine 
Fisheries; Public Utilities; Water and Air Resources. 




The Legislative Branch 469 

FRANK JULIAN SIZEMORE, III 

(Republican - Guilford County) 

(Twenty-seventh Representative District - Guilford (part) County - Three 
Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in High Point, Guilford County, July 25, 1946, to Frank Julian and 
Jane (Cameron) Sizemore, Jr. 

Education: Ferndale Junior High School, 1958-61; Central High School, 1964; Duke 
University, 1968, B.A.; Duke University, 1971, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney (partner, firm of Smith, Moore, Smith, Schell and Hunter). 

Organizations: Greensboro, NC, DC and American Bar Associations (Litigation Sec- 
tion, Enviromental Law Subsection, Forum Committee on Health Law, and Natu- 
ral Resources Section of American Bar Association); Association of Trial Lawyers 
of America; Christian Legal Society; Chamber of Commerce. 

Boards and Commissions: Council of Community Development. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-; Special Assistant, 
Assistant Administrator for Enforcement and General Counsel, US Enviromental 
Protection Agency. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Greensboro; Board of Dea- 
cons, 1984-85. 

Family: Married, Laura C. Frazier of Greensboro, May 26, 1979. Children: Sara Fraz- 
ier and Anna Laura. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Natural and Economic Resources; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; 
Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and Economic 
Resources; Education; Higher Education; Human Resources; Judiciary III; 
Local Government II; Natural and Economic Resources; Rules and Opera- 
tion of the House. 



470 



North Carolina Manual 




JULIAN RAYMOND SPARROW 

(Democrat - Wake county) 

(Sixty-second Representative District - Wake (part) County 
Representative.) 



One 



Early Years: Born in Norfolk, Virginia, April 29, 1933, to Julian Franklin and Lelly 
Hall (Poole) Sparrow. 

Education: Maury High School; Durham High School; NCSU. 

Profession: President, Sparrow Construction Company, Inc.; Vice President, Sparrow 
Residential, Inc.; retired Major, NC National Guard. 

Organizations: NC Homebuilders Association (former President); Raleigh-Wake 
County Home Builders Association (former Director, President, Vice President). 

Boards and Commissions: Trustee and Director, Historic Goodwin House; NC Sav- 
ings And Loan Commission (former Chairman); NC Building Code Council. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84 (Appointed July 
1, 1983, to replace Ruth Cook). 1985-; Wake County coordinator, Jim Hunt cam- 
paign, 1976, 1980. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Raleigh. 

Family: Married, Melba Truelove of Apex, June 16, 1973. Children: Ray, Jr., Michele 
(Sparrow) Yates and Melanie R. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Law Enforcement. 

Member: Banks and Thrift Institutions; Corrections; Constitutional Amend- 
ments; Finance; Housing; Judiciary IV; Small Business; Transportation. 




The Legislative Branch 471 

LEROY PAGE SPOON, JR. 

(Republican - Mecklenburg County) 

(Fifty-seventh Representative District - Mercklenburg (part) County - 
One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Athens, Georgia, October 19, 1924, to LeRoy Page and Kathryn 
(Warren) Spoon, Sr. 

Education: Central High School; Clemson College; Boston University, University of 
Georgia. 

Profession: Manufacturer (switching and electrical equipment); engraver. 

Organizations: Masons; Lions Club; Toastmaster Club; Barium Springs Home for 
Children. 

Boards and Commissions: Board of Regents and Director, Mecklenburg Mental 
Health Association; Department of Social Services Commission; Chairman, Lans- 
downe School Committee; former Trustee, Erskine College. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 1975-76, 1977-78, 
1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, I985-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1942-46, 1950-52; combat infantryman, European 
theatre, 1942-46; engineer, Korean theatre, 1950-52. Served, NC National Guard, 
1975-1983 (Captain CE); 105th Combat Engineer Battalion, 30th Infantry Division. 

Religious Activities: Member, Sardis Presbyterian Church, Charlotte; Elder; Chair- 
man, Christian Education Committee; Director, Presbyterian Family Life Center. 

Family: Married, Ruth Elizabeth Atwell, September 11, 1948. Children: Carolyn 
Christina Fincher, LeRoy P., ill and Wilfred. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Alcoholic Beverage Control. 

Member: Finance; Health; Highway Safety; Local Government 1; Military and 
Veterans' Affairs; Rules and Operation of the House; Water and Air Resources. 



472 



North Carolina Manual 




MARGARET "PEGGY" ANN STAMEY 

(Democrat - Wake County) 
(Sixty-third Representative District - Wake (part) County - One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Asheville, Buncombe County, March 17, 1932, to Chester Frank- 
lin and Sudie (Aiken) Mcintosh. 

Education: Plonk School of Creative Arts, 1948-51; Brevard College, 1951-52; Univer- 
sity of Maryland, 1958-59 (Political Science); Fridan School of Data Systems, 
1959-60. 

Profession: Fishery consultant (South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Chair- 
man, 1980). 

Organizations: Triangle International Trade Association; Triangle Kidney Foundation; 
NC Museum of History Associates; Cary Chamber of Commerce; Women in State 
Government. 

Boards and Commissions: National Coalition for Conservation of Marine Resources, 
1979-; US Advisor, International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic 
Tuna, 1980-; Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission; charter member, NC 
Child Advocacy Council; Chairman, SAF, 1980. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-; National 
Association of Women Legislators; Women's Forum; Chairman, Democratic 
Women of Wake County, YDC, 1977-79; Wake County Democratic Party (Chair- 
man, 1977; Vice Chairman, 1972-76); national committeewomen, YDC, 1968; 
former committeewoman. National Democratic Committee. 

Honors: Citation, Wake County SPCA, 1984; Thad Eure Award, 1978; NC Demo- 
cratic Party Appreciation Award, 1977; Citation, Kidney Foundation, 1977; Jim 
Hunt Campaign Award, 1976; Outstanding Young Democrat, NC Young Demo- 
crats Club, 1968. 

Religious Activities: Member, White Plains Methodist Church. 

Family: Married, James H. Stamey, January 3, 1953. Children: Dianna Dee Stamey- 
Fulmer, James Franklin, Susan Alice and Melissa Jane (Stamey) Lennon. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: State Personnel. 

Vice Chairman: Marine Fisheries; Rules and Operation of the House. 

Member: Aging; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Education; Finance; Highway 
Safety; Judiciary II. 



The Legislative Branch 



473 




TIMOTHY NORTON TALLENT 

(Republican - Cabarrus County) 

Cabarrus, Stanly and Union 



(Thirty-fourth Representative District 
Counties - Four Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Concord, Cabarrus County, November 9, 1949, to Johnny and 
Margaret (Weaver) Tallent. 

Education: Concord High School; University of South Carolina. 
Profession: Secretary, Zion Music Service, Inc. 

Organizations: Fellowship of Christian Athletes; Gideons (former President); Presi- 
dent, Christian Businessmen. 
Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-. 
Honors: Outstanding Lay Person of Cabarrus County. 
Religious Activities: Member, Concord Bible Church, Concord. 
Family: Married, Dianne Cox of Concord, August 3, 1974. Children: Angela. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Education; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations-Expansion 
Budget Committee on Education; Banks and Thrift Institutions; Children 
and Youth; Corporations; Public Utilities; Small Business; State Properties; 
Wildlife Resources. 



474 North Carolina Manual 




JAMES PAUL TYNDALL 

(Democrat - Onslow County) 

(Fourth Representative District - Carteret and Onslow Counties - Three 
Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Arapahoe, Pamlico County, March 28, 1914, to James A. and 
Fannie P. Tyndall. 

Education: Arapahoe High School, 1929; Washington Collegiate Institute, 1930; 
Rutherford Junior College, 1932; Atlantic Christian College, 1936, A.B.; ECU, 
1958, M.A. 

Profession: Retired educator (former teacher, coach, principal, assistant superinten- 
dent, superintendent and Board of Education member). 

Organizations: NCAE; NEA; AASA; life member, NC Division of Principals; life 
member, NC Division of Superintendents; Kiwanis Club, 1962-72. 

Boards and Commission: Legislative Committee, State School Boards Association; 
State Chairman, Legislative Committee, NC Retired School Personnel; Legislative 
Committee, NC Retired Government Employees; Onslow County Board of Health, 
1963-72. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-; Onslow 

County Board of Education, three terms. 
Honors: Community Man Award, Jacksonville Jaycees, 1971; Today's Outstanding 

NC Citizen, WNCT-TV, 1969; American Educator Award, Freedom Foundation of 

Valley Forge, 1969. 

Religious Activities: Member, Trinity United Methodist; Sunday School teacher, 8 

years. 
Family: Married, Eunice Wilson, June 23, 1979; four children. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Vice Chairman: Education; Mental Health; Wildlife Resources. 
Member: Aging; Finance; Marine Fisheries; Military and Veterans' Affairs; Pen- 
sions and Retirement; Public Utilities. 




The Legislative Branch 475 

HENRY MCMILLAN TYSON 

(Democrat - Cumberland County) 

(Eighteenth Representative District - Cumerland (part) County - Three 
Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Cumberland County, October 31, 1914, to Henry Grady and 
Tommie (Marsh) Tyson. 

Education: Gray's Creek High School. 

Profession: Farmer; farm supply dealer; sales supervisor, Fayetteville Tobacco Market, 
9 Years. 

Organizations: NC Farm Bureau; Cumberland County Livestock Association; Gray's 
Creek Ruritan Club (former President); John Huske Anderson Masonic Lodge 731; 
(former President); PTA; Fayetteville Eastern Star 334. 

Boards and Commissions: Charter member, Cumberland County Soil Conservation 
Commission; Cumberland County Agriculture Advisory Council; Chairman, Agri- 
Business Commission, Fayetteville Chamber of Commerce. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1973-74, 1977-78, 1979-80, 
1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; former Commissioner, Cumberland County 12 years 
(Chairman, 7 years). 

Religious Activities: Member, First Presbyterian Church, Fayetteville; former Deacon 
and Elder; Sunday School Teacher. 

Family: Married, Addie Amelia Williams, June 21, 1940. Children: Carrie Eula, Henry 
McMillan, II and John Marsh. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: State Properties. 

Vice Chairman: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Law Enforcement. 

Member: Agriculture; Finance; Manufacturers and Labor; Water and Air Resources. 



4 



476 North Carolina Manual 



LOIS SIMMONS WALKER 

(Republican - Iredell County) 



0k 

^^P^^^^IM (Forty-second Representative District - Iredell (part) County - One 
■■ ^ 4S^V Representative.) 

I 



^i^-M. 



Early Years: Born in Mount Airy, Surry County, August 8. 1930, to John Alexander 
and Flossie (Burge) Simmons. 

Education: Pilot Mountain High School, 1947; Appalachian State University, 1951, 
B.S.; Duke University, graduate studies, 1956; Appalachian State Univeristy, 1978, 

M.A. 

Profession: Teacher, athletic director and counselor, Statesville Senior High School. 
Organizations: NCAE; NAE; American Association of Physical Education, Health 

and Recreation; NC Personnel and Guidance Association; NC School Counselors 

Association; Statesville Tennis Team, 1978-84. 

Boards and Commissions: County Chairman, Western Statesville Recreation Commis- 
sion, 1958-72; former Secretary and Vice President, Statesville Recreation Commission. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church, States- 
ville; President, Sunday School; Vice President, choir. 

Family: Married, William L. Walker of Statesville, June 28, 1951. Children: Bo and 
Enid. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Education; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations-Expansion 
Budget Committee on Education; Education; Election Laws; Governmental 
Ethics; Higher Education; Marine Fisheries; Mental Health; State Personnel. 




The Legislative Branch 477 

EDWARD NELSON WARREN 

(Democrat - Pitt County) 

(Ninth Representative District - Greene and Pitt (part) Counties -Two 
Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Stokes, Pitt County, November 29, 1926, to Elmer Edward and 
Daisy (Cox) Warren. 

Education: Campbell University, 1950, A. A.; Atlantic Christian College, 1951, A.B.; 
ECU, 1953, M.A.; Duke University, 1960-61, doctoral program. 

Profession: Tobacco farmer and warehouseman; investment and real estate interests. 

Organizations: Greenville Rotary Club; Trustee, Salvation Army; Pitt County Heart 

Association (former Chairman); Greenville Chamber of Commerce; United Fund; 

Greenville Golf and Country Club. 
Boards and Commissions: Chairman, Pitt County Health Board; Pitt County Airport 

Authority; former Chairman, Board of Trustees, Pitt Memorial Hospital. 
Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; 

Chairman, Pitt County Board of Commissioners, 1973-79. 

Military Service: Served, US Air Force, 1945-48. 

Honors: "Tar Heel of the Week," The News and Observer, Outstanding Personalities 
of the South. 

Religious Activities: Member, First Christian Church; Deacon. 

Family: Married, Joan Braswell, 1953. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on Education. 
Vice Chairman: Agriculture; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Expan- 
sion Budget; Banks and Thrift Institutions. 

Member: Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Education; Correc- 
tions; Higher Education; Natural and Economic Resources; Pensions and 
Retirement; Public Utilities. 



478 North Carolina Manual 




RAYMOND ALLAN WARREN 

(Republican - Mecklenburg County) 

(Thiry-sixth Representative District - Mecklenburg (part) County - One 
Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Fort Benning, Georgia, June 7, 1957, to Charles Allen and Edith 
Ann (Thomas) Warren. 

Education: Independence High School, 1975; UNC-Wilmington, 1979, B.A., cum 
laude (History); UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1983, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney, real estate executive. 

Organizations: Mecklenburg County and NC Bar Associations; charter member and 
former Director, Mint Hill Civitan Club; Director, Mint Hill Business Association. 
Former member: Christian Legal Society; Unversity Theatre, UNC-Wilmington; 
UNC-Wilmington College Republicans (President, 1975-79). 

Politcal Activties: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-. 

Honors: Who's Who Among University and College Students, 1977-79; Big Man on 
Campus, Alpha Phi Omega, 1979. 

Literary Works: Co-founder and editor. The Carolina Free Press, UNC-Chapel Hill, 
1982-83; columnist, Seahawk, UNC-Wilmington, 1975-79. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. John Neuman Catholic Church, Charlotte. 

Family: Married, Catherine Elizabeth Baily of Raleigh, March 3, 1979. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Constitutional Amendments; Courts and Administration of Justice; 
Finance; Human Resources; Judiciary IV; Law Enforcement; Local Govern- 
ment II. 




The Legislative Branch 479 

WILLIAM THOMAS WATKINS 

(Democrat - Granville County) 

(Twenty-second Representative District - Caswell, Granville, Halifax 
(part). Person, Vance and Warren Counties - Three Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Granville County, July 1, 1921, to John Stradley and Belle (Nor- 
wood) Watkins. 

Education: Oak Hill High School, 1927-39; Mars Hill Junior College, 1942; Wake 
Forest College, 1939-41, 1946-48, 1949, B.S.; Wake Forest Law School, 1949-52, 
LL.B. 

Profession: Attorney. (Attorney, Granville County; Attorney, City of Creedmore, 1955-68). 

Organizations: : Granville County, 9th Judicial District and NC Bar Associations; Pi 
Kappa Alpha. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1969, 1971, 1973-74, 1975- 
76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army, 1942-46 (Staff Sergeant). 

Religious Activities: Member, Oxford Baptist Church, Oxford; former Sunday School 
teacher. 

Family: Married, Louise Marie Best, November 18, 1944. Children: Alma Marie 
(Watkins) Nesbitt and Annabell (Watkins) Barker. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Appropriations-Expansion Budget. 
Vice Chairman: Election Laws. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Constitutional Amendments; Corpora- 
tions; Courts and Administration of Justice; Health; Judiciary IV; Rules and 
Operation of the House; Small Business. 



480 North Carolina Manual 




DENNIS ALVIN WICKER 

(Democrat - Lee County) 

(Nineteenth Representative District - Harnett and Lee Counties - Two 
Representatives.) 



J 1 



Early Years: Born in Sanford, Lee County, June 14, 1952, to J. Shelton and Clarice 
(Burns) Wicker. 

Education: UNC-Chapel Hill, 1974, B.A.; Wake Forest University, 1978, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney (firm of Love and Wicker, P. A.). 

Organizations: NC, NC State and American Bar Associations; Academy of Trail Law- 
yers; Modern Woodsmen of the World. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-. 

Religious Activities: Member, St. Luke Methodist Church, Sanford; Administrative 
Board. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Courts and Administration of Justice. 
Vice Chairman: Finance; Insurance. 

Member: Judiciary L Local Government H; Public Utilities; State Government; 
Transportation. 




The Legislative Branch 481 

WALTER HAROLD WINDLEY, III 

(Republican - Gaston Conty) 

(Forty-fourth Representative District - Gaston and Lincoln Counties - 
Four Representatives.) 



iVfi 



Early Years: Born in Columbia, South Carolina, December 15, 1955, to Walter Harold 
and Betty Lou (Elmore) Windley, Jr. 

Education: Ashbrook High School, 1974; Appalachian State University, 1978, B.S. 

(Business Administration, Economics); Appalachian State University, 1979, M.B.A. 
Profession: Vice President, W.J. Barlowe Tank Services, Inc. 
Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-. 
Family: Married, Debra Lynn Ramsey of Morganton, June 2, 1979. Children: Walter 

Harold, IV and Amanda Michelle. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Constitutional Amendments; Finance; Judiciary II; Local Government 
II; Mental Health; Rules and Operation of the House; State Governnment. 



482 North Carolina Manual 




BETTY HUTCHINSON WISER 

(Democrat - Wake County) 

(Sixty-fourth Representative District - Wake (part) County - One Representative. 



Early Years: Born in Shelby, Ohio, May 12, 1931, to Roscoe 
David and Mary Louise (Stine) Hutchinson. 

Education: Mexico City College, 1952; Ohio State University, 1954, B.S. (Home Eco- 
nomics); Ohio State University. 1958. M.S. (Home Economics); NCSU, 1961, M.S. 
(Sociology); Andrus Gerontology Center, University of Southern California, 1979- 
81; NCSU, 1982, Ed.D. (Aduh Education). 

Profession: President, Retirement Planning Associates, Inc.; Executive Director, Wake 
County Council on Aging, Inc., 1975-81; Director and founder. Retired Senior 
Volunteer Program of Raleigh- Wake County, 1973-74; director. Volunteer Training 
and Volunteer Services projects, NC State University; Instructor, Department of 
Sociology, NC State University, 1961-69; former high school and nursery school 
teacher; home economist. International Voluntary Services, Iraq, 1955-57. 

Organizations: American Business Women; American Association of University 
Women; Older Women's League; NC Adult Education Association; NC Associa- 
tion of Aging; Membership Chairman, Zonta Club of Raleigh (former President); 
Vice President, Delta Kappa Gamma International. 

Boards and Commissions: Director, NC center for Public Policy Research; NC Coun- 
cil on the Status of Women; NC Conference for Social Services (Director, 1980-83); 
NC Council of Women's Organizations (President, 1977-79); Convenor, Women's 
Forum of NC; National Council on Aging. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1985-; Democratic Women 
of Wake County, Wake County Unity Campaign Committee, 1982. 

Literary Works: Retirement Planning Manual: Personal Management of Change; 
Resources for Developing Volunteer Programs: An Annotated Bibliography; Guide- 
lines Volunteer Coordinator; An Analysis of the Role of the Director of the Aging 
Service Provider Agency in North Carolina; Factors Associated with Family Patt- 
erns Among Farm Families in a Lx)w Income Rural Area; An Exploratory Study of 
the Problems Encountered by the Western Home Economist in Foreign Service; 
Handbook of Wake County. 

Religious Activities: Member, Unitarian church. Raleigh; former Secretary and Pro- 
gram Chairman. 

Family: Married, Edward H. Wiser of Raleigh, December 21, 1957. Children: Carla 
Blanche and Conrad John. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Aging; Commissions and Schools for the Deaf and Blind; Cultural 
Resources; Employment Security; Finance; Human Resources; Local Govern- 
ment II; Pensions and Retirement State Personnel. 




The Legislative Branch 483 

STEPHEN WRAY WOOD 

(Republican - Guilford County) 

(Twenty-eighth Representative District - Guilford (part) County - Two 
Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Winston-Salem, Forsyth County, October 6, 1948, to Dock Wel- 
ley Richard Thomas Edmund and Annie Lee (Harris) Wood. 

Education: Old Richmond Elementary School, 1962; North Forsyth High School, 
1966; John Wesley College, 1970, Bachelor of Theology; Asbury College, 1973, 
B.A.; UNC-Greensboro, 1980, M.A.; Luther Rice Seminary, 1982, Doctor of Min- 
istry; Princeton Seminary, UNC-Greensboro and Earlham School of Religion, 
Appalachian State University, additional studies. 

Profession: Pastor; gospel singer, songwriter and recording artist; business executive 
(President, Remnant Associates, Real Estate Consultants and Management, 1977-); 
former professor and Assistant Academic Dean, John Wesley College. 

Organizations: American Historical Association; Society of American Church History 
Southern Historical Association; High Point Jaycees (chaplain, 1982). 

Boards and Commissions: Steering Committee, Friends Center, Guilford College; 
Trustee, John Wesley College; Director and President, Triad Christian Counseling 
Center. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1 985-; Vice Chairman. 
Guilford County Republican party, 1983-. 

Military Service: Served, US Army (E-3). 

Literary Works: Album composer and recording artist: Love and Devotion, Travelin 
Troubadour, Titus Overature; 4th album in progress. Author, book on contempor- 
ary Quaker thought; (to be named at NC yearly Meeting of Friends). 

Religious Activities: Member, NC Friends, High Point; pastor, Union-Pilot Mountain 
Friends, 1984-; associate pastor, Glenwood Friends; pastor. Deep River Friends, 
1981-84; pastor, NC Yearly Meeting of Friends, 1980. 

Family: Married, Starr Smith, June 18, 1978. Children: Allison Wray and Joshua 
Fleming Harris. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Member: Finance; Governmental Ethics; Higher Education;Housing; Insurance; 
Local Government I; Rules and Operation of the House; Small Business. 



484 North Carolina Manual 




BARNEY PAUL WOODARD 

(Democrat - Johnston County) 

(Twentieth Representative District - Franklin and Johnston Counties 
Two Representatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Princeton, November 23, 1914, to John Richard and Elizabeth 

(wall) Woodard. 
Education: Princeton High School; UNC — Chapel Hill, 1938, Pharmacy degree. 
Profession: Pharmacist; (owner, Woodard Pharmacy). 

Organizations: National Association of Retail Druggists; Princeton Lions Club (former 
President); Johnston County Shrine Club; Johnston County Mental Health Associ- 
ation; Johnston County Drug Club; keep Johnston County Beautiful; NC Pharma- 
ceutical Association, 1978; Fund Chairman, Mental Helath Association, 1971-72; 
Chairman, Princeton School Advisory Committee, 1969-71. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1967, 1973-74, 1975-76, 
1977-78, 1979-80, 1983-84, 1985-. 

Honors: Bowl of Hygea Award for outstanding Community Service in Pharmacy, 

1978. 
Religious Activities: Member, United Methodist Church; Trustee, Administrative 

Board; teacher, 1969-71. 
Family: Married, Annie Louise Sugg, September 6, 1941. Children: Barney Paul, Jr., 

Dianne Louise (Woodard) Taylor, Michael /Sugg and Joy (woodard) McLeod. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Human Resources. 

Vice Chairman: Appropriations-Base Budget Committee on Human Resources; 
Appropriations-Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources; State 
Personnel. 

Member: Aging; Agriculture; Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations- 
Expansion Budget; Health; Highway Safety; Judiciary II. 




The Legislative Branch 485 

CHARLES DALMER WOODARD 

(Democrat - Wayne County) 

(Eleventh Representative District - Wayne County - Two Represen- 
tatives.) 



Early Years: Born in Goldsboro, Wayne County, May 5. 1948. to Dalmer Vernon and 
Bertha (Capps) Woodard. 

Education: Goldsboro High School; Mt. Olive College; Brooks Army Medical Train- 
ing School. 

Profession: President, Woodard Care, Inc.; President, Woodard Retirement Village; 
owner, Woodard's Raditor & Muffler Service; owner, Woodard Rentals. 

Organizations: Chairman, Goldsboro Jaycees (President, 1981; External Vice Presi- 
dent, 1979); Mental Health Committee, Goldsboro Exchange Club. 

Boards and Commissions: Director, Governor Charles B. Aycock Commission; Direc- 
tor, W.A.G.E.S. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1983-84, 1985-; Wayne 
County Democratic Party; Wayne County YDC, 1981. 

Military Service: Served, NC National Guard, 1967; Reserves, 1968-80 (E-6; Staff 
Sergeant). 

Honors: Outstanding Young Man of Wayne County; Outstanding Local President, 
NC Jaycees. 

Religious Activities: Member, Oak Heights Baptist Church; former Sunday School 
class President and Secretary. 

Family: Married, Phyllis Grice, October 27, 1968. Children: Brian and Kevin. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Small Business. 

Vice Chairman: Aging; Military and Veterans' Affairs. 

Member: Appropriations-Base Budget; Appropriations-Base Budget Committee 
on Human Resources; Appropriations-Expansion Budget; Appropriations- 
Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources; Highway Safety; 
Human Resources; Judiciary II; Law Enforcement; Mental Health. 



486 



North Carolina Manual 




RICHARD WRIGHT 

(Democrat - Columbus County) 

(Fifteenth Representative District - Columbus County - One Representative.) 



Early Years: Born in Loris, South Carolina, October 8, 1944, to Ottis R. and Olive 
(Battle) Wright. 

Education: Tabor City High School, 1963; UNC-Chapel Hill, 1967, A.B. (Political 
Science); UNC-Chapel Hill, School of Law, 1971, J.D. 

Profession: Attorney (firm of McGougan, Wright and Worley); farmer; rental proper- 
ties owner. 

Organizations: Columbus County, 13th Judicial District (Director) and NC Bar Asso- 
ciations; Columbus County Farm Bureau; Director, Columbus County Mental 
Health Association; Director, Southeastern Oratorio Society; Columbus County 
Young Farmers Association; President, Columbus County UNC Alumni Associa- 
tion; Civitan Club; Director, Sampson and Columbus Historical Societies; SC 
Genealogy Society; Columbus Cotillion. 

Boards and Commissions: Columbus Committee of 100; Board of Visitors, UNC- 
Chapel Hill, 1983-; Director, Columbus County Arts Council; Director, STRIKE 
AT THE WIND, 1979-; Trustee, NC Art Museum, 1980-82; NC Commission on 
Criminal Justice Training and Education Standards, 1979-82; NC Criminal Justice 
Education and Training Systems Council, 1977-79; State Archaeology Commission, 
1975-77; former President, Columbus County Morehead Scholarship Selection 
Committee. 

Political Activities: Member, NC House of Representatives, 1975-76, 1977-78, 1979-80, 
1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; State Democratic Executive Committee, 1977; presidential 
elector, 1976. 

Honors: Phi Beta Kappa; Order of the Old Well; Society of Janus. 

Literary Works: Articles, Columbus County History, 1980 and Sampson County His- 
tory, 1984. 

Religious Activities: Member, Methodist Church; Council on Ministries and Adminis- 
trative Board; youth coordinator and UMYF counselor. 

Family: Married, Jenny McKinnon. Children: Elizabeth Armstrong and Sarah McKinnon. 

COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 

Chairman: Judiciary II. 

Vice Chairman: Alcoholic Beverage Control; Local Government I. 

Member: Children and Youth; Courts and Administration of Justice; Finance; 
Highway Safety; Public Utilities; Rules and Operation of the House. 



The Legislative Branch 487 




GRACE AVERETTE COLLINS 

Principal Clerk 
North Carolina House of Representatives 

Early Years: Born in Fuquay-Varina, Wake County, to Alonzo Deams and Minnie 
Lee (Helms) Averette. 

Education: Fuquay-Varina High School, 1949; Kings Business College, 1951; addi- 
tional studies, Raleigh School of Commerce and Hardbarger Business College. 

Profession: Principal Clerk, NC House of Representatives, 1 974-; General Assembly 
staff. 1969-73. 

Organizations: Executive Committee, National Conference of State Legislators; Exec- 
utive Nominating Committte, NCSL; Legislative Management Committee, NCSL 
Assembly on the Legislature; Chairman, all standing committees, American Society 
of Legislative Clerks and Secretaries (President, 1981-82; Vice President, 1980-8l'; 
Secretary-Treasurer, 1979-80). 

Political Acitivities: Principal Clerk, NC House of Representatives, 1974, 1975-76, 
1977-78, 1979-80. 1981-82, 1983-84, 1985-; Chairman, Middle Creek-Fuquay Pre- 
cinct, 1971-73; First Vice Chairman. Middle Creek-Fuquay Precinct, 1969-71. 

Honors: Who's Who in State Government, 1976; Outstanding Leadership Award, 
American Society of Legislative Clerks and Secretaries, 1975 and 1976. 

Religious Activities: Member, Fuquay-Varina Methodist Church; Board of Mission; 
Chancel Choir; former Sunday School teacher. 

Family: Married. John Nolan Collins, October 4. 1952. Children: John N., Jr., Joseph 
A., James D. and Laurie E. 



The Legislative Branch 



489 



OCCUPATIONS LIST 
1985 HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



Agri-Business 

Etheridge, Bobby R. 
James, Vernon G. 
McAlister, Robert L. 
Murphy, Wendell H. 
Tyson, Henry M. 

Attorney 

Allran, Austin M. 
Ballance, Frank W., Jr. 
Blue, Daniel T., Jr. 
Cromer, Charles M. 
Dawkins, Donald M. 
Evans, Charles D. 
Fitch, Milton F., Jr. 
Hackney, Joe 
Hall, A.M. 
Holt, Bertha M. 
Hunter, Robert C. 
Kennedy, Annie Brown 
Lancaster, H. Martin 
Michaux, H.M., Jr. 
Miller, George W., Jr. 
Nesbitt, Martin L., Jr. 
Payne, Harry E., Jr. 
Pulley, William P., Jr. 
Rhyne, Johnathan L. 
Sizemore, Frank J., HI 
Warren, Raymond A. 
Watkins, William T. 
Wicker, Dennis A. 
Wright, Richard 

Auctioneer 

DeVane, Daniel H. 
Owens, Charles D. 

Broker 

Barbee, Allen C. 

Barker, Chris S., Jr. (retired) 

Pool, Murray P. 

Businessperson 

Anderson, Gerald L. 
Brinkley, L.M., Sr. 
Chalk, Richard E. (wood products) 
Gist, Herman C. (coffee, herbs, and 
tea) 



Hall, A.M. (drug store) 
Jeralds, Luther R. 
McLaughlin, John B. 
Warren, Edward N. (investments. 

Real Estate) 
Windley, W. H., HI (tank services) 
Wiser, Betty H. (retirement 

planning) 
Woodard, Barney Paul (pharmacy) 
Wright, Richard (rental properties) 

Coach 

Diamont, David Hunter 

Communications Director 

McDowell, Timothy H. 

Composer / Entertainer 

Wood, Stephen W. 

Consultant 

Brubaker, Harold J. (investments) 
Jones, Walter B., Jr. (business) 
Stamey, Peggy (fisheries) 

Corporate Executive 

Beall, Charles M. 
Boyd, William T. 
Church, John T. 
Craven, James M. 
Crawford, James W., Jr. 

(investments) 
Easterling, Ruth M. 
Etheridge, Larry E. 
Fletcher, Ray C. (automotive) 
Hightower, Foyle R. 

(fuel dealerships) 
Hudson, Joseph R. (sewer services) 
Huffman, Doris R. (building 

supplies) 
Hurst, Gerald B. 

Mothershead, C. Ivan (publisher) 
Quinn, Dwight W. (textiles) 
Tallent, Timothy N. 
Woodard, Charles D. (automotive, 

rental properties) 



490 



North Carouna Manual 



Day Care Administrator 

Locks, Sidney A. 

Dentist 

Hunt, John J. 

Educator 

Barker, Chris S., Jr. 
BarnhiU, Howard C. (retired) 
Chapin, Howard B. 
Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Cole, James M. 
Decker, Michael 
Diamont, David Hunter 
Duncan, Ann Q. 
Foster, Jo Graham (retired 
Administrator) 

Fussell, Aaron E. (retired) 

Gardner, Charlotte A. (former) 

Greenwood, Gordon H. 

Hauser, C. B. (retired) 

Keesee-Forrester, Margaret (former) 

Lineberry, Albert S. 
Tyndall, James P. (retired) 
Walker, Lois S. 
Wiser, Betty H. (former) 
Wood, Stephen W. (former) 

Engineer 

Bowman, J. Fred 
Ethridge, Bruce 

Engraver 

Spoon, L. P., Jr- 

Executive Director, 
Non Profit Organization 

Privette, Coy C. 

Farmer 

Barbee, Allen C. 
Brown, John W. 
Creecy, C. Melvin 
Etheridge, Bobby R. 
Hall, Marshall 
Hunt, John J., Jr. 
James, Vernon G. 
Lutz, Edith L. 
McAlister, Robert L. 
McLaughhn, John B. 



Murphy, Wendell H. 
Noles, David J. 
Tyson, Henry M. 
Warren, Edward N. 
Wright, Richard 

Funeral Business 

Bumgardner, David W., Jr. 
Lineberry, Albert S. 

General Contractor 

Sparrow, J. Ray 
Boyd, William T. 

Guidance Counselor 

Walker, Lois S. 

Homemaker 

Barnes, Ann C. 
Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Keesee-Forrester, Margaret 

Hotel/ Motel Owner 

Barbee, Allen C. 
Brinkley, L. M., Jr. 
Hughes, James F. 

Insurance Executive 

Beard, RD. 
Brawley, C. Robert Jr. 
Hall, Marshall 
Hasty, John Calvin 
Holroyd, Casper 
Holmes, George M. 
Lilley, Daniel T. 
Michaux, H. M., Jr. 
Nye, Edd 
Redwine, David E. 

Land Developer 

Barbee, Allen C. 
Clark, WiUiam E. 
Owens, Charles D. 

Land Surveyor 

Bowman, J. Fred 

Legislator 

Barnes, Ann C. 
Buchanan, Charles F. 



The Legislative Branch 



491 



Colton, Marie W. 
Holt, Bertha M. 

Logging/ Lumber Industry 

Anderson, Gerald L. 
Robinson, George S. 

Livestock Producer 

Brown, John Walker 

Manufacturer 

Clark, William E. 
Spoon, L. M., Jr. 

Merchant 

Crawford, J. W., Jr. 
Hunt, John J. 
McLaughlin, John B. 
Ramsey, Liston B. (retired) 

Nurseryman 

George W. Brannan 

Pastor 

Creecy, C. Melvin 
Dawkins, Donald M. 
Edwards, C. R. 
Lilly, Daniel T. 
Locks, Sidney A. 
Wood, Stephen A. 

Pharmacist 

Ligon, Bradford V. 
Woodard, Barney Paul 

Property Manager 

Crawford, N. J., Jr. 

Publisher 

Mothershead, C. Ivan 



Radio-TV Station Executive 

Bobby R. Etheridge 

Real Estate Executive 

Anderson, Gerald L. 

Boyd, William T. 

DeVane, Daniel R. (brokerage) 

Hasty, John Calvin (brokerage) 

Hege, Joe H., Jr. (broker and 

counselor) 
Jeralds, Luther R. 
Justus, Larry T. 

Lineberry, Albert S. (management) 
Michaux, H. M. Jr. (management) 
Owens, Charles D. 
Redwine, David E. 
Rhodes, Frank E. (retired) 
Warren, Edward N. 
Warren, Raymond A. 
Wood, Stephen W. (management) 

Retired Government Employee 

Enloe, Jeff H., Jr. 
Esposito, Theresa H. 
McLaughlin, John B. 

(retired postmaster) 
Richardson, James F. 

(retired postmaster) 

Retired Military Officer 

Barker, Chris S., Jr. 
Hurst, Gerald B. 
Justus, Larry T. 
Mavretic, Josephus T. 
Sparrow, J. Ray 

Social Worker 

Duncan, Ann Q. 

Warehouseman 

Warren, Edward N. 



492 



North Carolina Manual 



1985 HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 
COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS 



Barnhill, Howard C. 
Buchanan, Charles F. 
Dawkins, Donald M. 
Esposito, Theresa H. 
Hauser.C. B. 
Ligon, Bradford V. 
Tyndall.J.Paul 



AGING 

Chairman: Locks, Sidney A. 

Vice Chairman: Foster, Jo Graham 

Vice Chairman: Greenwood, Gordon H. 

Vice Chairman: Woodard, Charles D. 



Bowman, J. Fred 
Colton, Marie W. 
Decker, Michael 
Ethridge, Bruce 
Holroyd, Casper 
Nye, Edd 
Wiser, Betty H. 



Brown, John Walter 
Cromer, Charles L. 
Edwards, C. R. 
Fussell, Aaron E. 
Holt, Bertha M. 
Stanley, Peggy 
Woodard, Barney Paul 



Barbee, Allen C. 
Brawley, C. Robert 
Buchanan, Charles F. 
Cromer, Charles L. 
Hightower, Foyle R., Jr. 
Mavretic, Josephus L. 
Pool, Murray P. 
Woodard, Barney Paul 



AGRICULTURE 

Chairman: James, Vernon G. 

Vice Chairman: Anderson, Gerald L. 

Vice Chairman: Creecy, C. Melvin 

Vice Chairman: Enloe, Jeff H., Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Hudson, Joe R. 

Vice Chairman: Lutz, Edith Ledford 

Vice Chairman: Warren, Edward N. 



Barnes, AnneC. 
Brown, John Walter 
Church. John T. 
Fussell, Aaron E. 
Lilley, Daniel T. 
Murphy, Wendell H. 
Redwine, E. David 



Brinkley, L.M. 
Brubaker, Harold J. 
Craven, James M. 
Hall, Marshall 
McAlister, Robert L. 
Noles, David J. 
Tyson, Henry M. 



ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE CONTROL 

Chairman: Clark, William E. 
Vice Chairman: Gist, Herman C. 
Vice Chairman: Tyson, Henry M. 
Vice Chairman: Wright, Richard 

Vice Chairman: Spoon, L. P. 



Beard, R.D. 

Creecy, C. Melvin 
Hughes, James F. 
Mothershead, C. Ivan 



Chapin, Howard B. 
Holt. Bertha M. 
Justus, Larry T. 
Pool, Murray P. 



Craven, James M. 
Hudson, Joe R. 
Lilley, Daniel T. 
Privette, Coy C. 



The Legislative Branch 



493 



APPROPRIATIONS BASE BUDGET 

Chairman: Elheridge, Bobby R. 
Vice Chairman: Anderson, Gerald L. 

Vice Chairman: Beard, R. D. 

Vice Chairman: Blue, Daniel T., Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Colton, Marie W. 

Vice Chairman: Diamont, David Hunter 

Vice Chairman: Ethridge, Bruce 

Vice Chairman: Greenwood, Gordon H. 

Vice Chairman: Holt, Bertha M. 

Vice Chairman: Hunter, Robert C. 

Vice Chairman: Warren, Edward N. 



Barnes, Anne C. 
Brinkley, L.M. 
Chalk, Richard E. 
Cole, James M. 
Cromer, Charles L. 
Duncan, Ann Q. 
Enloe,JeffH.,Jr. 
Evans, Charles D. 
Gist, Herman C. 
Hauser, C.B. 
Hudson, Joe R. 
James, Vernon G. 
Kennedy, Annie Brown 
Locks, Sidney A. 
Michaux, H.M., Jr. 
Noles, David J. 
Redwine, E. David 
Sizemore, Frank J., Ill 
Watkins, William T. 



Barnhill, Howard C. 
Brubaker, Harold J. 
Chapin, Howard B. 
Craw ford, James W. 
Decker, Michael 
Easterling, Ruth M. 
Esposito, Theresa H. 
Foster, Jo Graham 
Hackney, Joe 
Hege, Joe H., Jr. 
Huffman, Doris R. 
Jeralds, Luther R. 
Ligon, Bradford V. 
Lutz, Edith Ledford 
Murphy, Wendell H. 
Nye, Edd 
Rhodes, Frank E. 
Tallent, Timothy N. 
Woodard, Barney Paul 



Beale, Charles M. 
Bumgardner, David W. 
Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Jr. Crawford, Narvel J., Jr. 

DeVane, Daniel H. 
Edwards, C. R. 
Etheridge, Larry E. 
Fussell, Aaron E. 
Hasty, John Calvin 
Holmes, George M. 
Hunt, John J. 
Justus, Larry T. 
Lineberry, Albert S. 
McDowell, Timothy H. 
Nesbitt, Martin L. 
Payne, Harry E., Jr. 
Robinson, George S. 
Walker, Lois S. ^ 
Woodard, Charles D. 



APPROPRIATIONS BASE BUDGET COMMITTEE 

ON EDUCATION 

Chairman: Warren, Edward N. 

Vice Chairman: Chapin, Howard B. 

Vice Chairman: Fussell, Aaron E. 

Vice Chairman: McDowell, Timothy H. 

Vice Chairman: Nesbitt, Martin L. 



Barnes, AnneC. 
Foster, Jo Graham 
Michaux, H.M., Jr. 



Cole, James M. 
Greenwood, Gordon H. 
Tallent, Timothy N. 



Edwards, C.R. 
Hege, Joe H., Jr. 
Walker, LoisS. 



494 North Carolina Manual 



APPROPRIATIONS BASE BUDGET COMMITTEE 
ON GENERAL GOVERNMENT 

Chairman: Beard, R.D. 

Vice Chairman: Crawford, Narvel J., Jr. 

Vice Chairman: DeVane, Daniel H. 

Beali. Charles M. Barnhill, Howard C. tnloe. JeffH., Jr. 

Holmes, George M. Huffman, Doris R. Hunter, Robert C. 

Kennedy, Annie Brown Ligon, Bradford V. Noles. David J. 
Redwine, E. David 

APPROPRIATIONS BASE BUDGET COMMITTEE ON 
HUMAN RESOURCES 

Chairman: Blue, Daniel T.. Jr. 
Vice Chairman: Crawford, James W., Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Lutz. Edith Ledford 
Vice Chairman: Woodard, Barney Paul 

Cromer, Charles L. Diamont, David Hunter Duncan, Ann Q. 

Easterling, Ruth M. Etheridge, Larry E. Jeralds, Luther R. 

Locks, Sidney A. Robinson, George S. Woodard. Charle.« D. 

APPROPRIATIONS BASE BUDGET COMMITTEE 
ON JUSTICE AND PUBLIC SAFETY 

Chairman: Anderson. Gerald L. 

Vice Chairman: Hudson, Joe R. 

Vice Chairman: Hunt, John J. 

Brinkley, L.M. Brubaker, Harold J. Decker, Michael 

Evans, Charles D. Gist, Herman C. Holt, Bertha M. 

Justus, Larry T. Lineberry, Albert S. Payne, Harry E., Jr. 
Rhodes, Frank E. 

APPROPRIATIONS BASE BUDGET COMMITTEE 

ON NATURAL AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES 

Chairman: Colton, Marie W. 

Vice Chairman: Hasty, John Calvin 

Vice Chairman: Hauser, C.B. 

Bumgardner, David W. Chalk, Richard E. Cochrane, Betsy L. 

Esposito, Theresa H. Ethridge, Bruce Hackney, Joe 

James, Vernon G. Murphy, Wendell H. Nye, Edd 
Sizemore, Frank J., Ill 



The Legislative Branch 



495 



APPROPRIATIONS — EXPANSION BUDGET 

Chairman: Watkins, William T. 
Vice Chairman: Anderson, Gerald L. 

Vice Chairman: Beard, R.D. 

Vice Chairman: Blue, Daniel T., Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Colton, Marie W. 

Vice Chairman: Diamonl, David Hunter 

Vice Chairman, Ethridge, Bruce 

Vice Chairman: Greenwood, Gordon H. 

Vice Chairman: Holt, Bertha M. 

Vice Chairman: Hunter, Robert C. 

Vice Chairman: Warren, Edward N. 



Barnes, Anne C. 
Brinkley, L.M. 
Chalk, Richard E. 
Cole, James M. 
Cromer, Charles L. 
Duncan, Ann Q. 
Enloe,JeffH.,Jr. 
Etheridge, Larry E. 
Fussell, Aaron E. 
Hasty, John Calvin 
Holmes, George M. 
Hunt, John J. 
Justus, Larry T. 
Lineberry, Albert S. 
McDowell, Timothy H. 
Nesbitt, Martin L. 
Payne, Harry E., Jr. 
Robinson, George S. 
Walker, Lois S. 



Barnhill, Howard C. 
Brubaker, Harold J. 
Chapin, Howard B. 
Crawford, James W., Jr. 
Decker, Michael 
Easterling, Ruth M. 
Esposito, Theresa H. 
Evans, Charles D. 
Gist, Herman C. 
Hauser, C.B. 
Huffman, Doris R. 
James, Vernon G. 
Kennedy, Annie Brown 
Locks, Sidney A. 
Michaux, H.M., Jr. 
Noles, David J. 
Redwine, E. David 
Sizemore, Frank J., HI 
Woodard, Barney Paul 



Beall, Charles M. 
Bumgardner, David W. 
Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Crawford, Narvel J., Jr. 
DeVane, Daniel H. 
Edwards, C.R. 
Etheridge, Bobby R. 
Foster, Jo Graham 
Hackney, Joe 
Hege, Joe H., Jr. 
Hudson, Joe R. 
Jeralds, Luther R. 
Ligon, Bradford V. 
Lutz, Edith Ledford 
Murphy, Wendell H. 
Nye, Edd 
Rhodes, Frank E. 
Tallent, Timothy N. 
Woodard, Charles D. 



APPROPRIATIONS EXPANSION BUDGET COMMITTEE 

ON EDUCATION 

Chairman: Greenwood, Gordon H. 

Vice Chairman: Chapin, Howard B. 

Vice Chairman: Fussell, Aaron E. 

Vice Chairman: McDowell, Timothy H. 

Vice Chairman: Nesbitt, Martin L. 



Barnes, Anne C. 
Foster, Jo Graham 
Tallent, Timothy N. 



Cole, James M. 
Hege, Joe H., Jr. 
Walker, Lois S. 



Edwards, C.R. 
Michaux, H.M., Jr. 
Warren, Edward N. 



APPROPRIATIONS EXPANSION BUDGET COMMITTEE 
ON GENERAL GOVERNMENT 

Chairman: Hunter, Robert C. 

Vice Chairman: Crawford, Narvel J., Jr. 

Vice Chairman: DeVane, Daniel H. 



Beall, Charles M. 
Enloe,JeffH.,Jr. 
Kennedy, Annie Brown 
Redwine, E. David 



Barnhill, Howard C. 
Holmes, George M. 
Ligon, Bradford V. 



Beard, R.D. 
Huffman, Doris R. 
Noles, David J. 



496 



North Carolina Manual 



APPROPRIATIONS EXPANSION BUDGET COMMITTEE 
ON HUMAN RESOURCES 

Chairman: Diamont, David Hunter 
Vice Chairman: Crawford, James W., Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Lutz, Edith Ledford 
Vice Chairman: Woodard, Barney Paul 

Cromer, Charles L. Duncan, Ann Q. 

Etheridge, Larry E. Jeralds, Luther R. 

Robinson, George S. Woodard, Charles D. 



Blue, Daniel T., Jr. 
Easterling, Ruth M. 
Locks, Sidney A. 



APPROPRIATIONS EXPANSION BUDGET COMMITTEE 
ON JUSTICE AND PUBLIC SAFETY 

Chairman: Holt, Bertha M. 

Vice Chairman: Hudson, Joe R. 

Vice Chairman: Hunt, John J. 



Anderson, Gerald L. 
Decker, Michael 
Justus, Larry T. 
Rhodes, Frank E. 



Brinkley, L.M. 
Evans, Charles D. 
Lineberry, Albert S. 



Brubaker, Harold J. 
Gist, Herman C. 
Payne, Harry E., Jr. 



APPROPRIATIONS EXPANSION BUDGET COMMITTEE 
ON NATURAL AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES 

Chairman: Ethridge, Bruce 

Vice Chairman: Hasty, John Calvin 

Vice Chairman: Hauser, C.B. 



Bumgardner, David W. 
Colton, Marie W. 
James, Vernon G. 
Sizemore, Frank J., Ill 



Chalk, Richard E. 
Esposito, Theresa H. 
Murphy, Wendell H. 



Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Hackney, Joe 
Nye, Edd 



BANKS AND THRIFT INSTITUTIONS 

Chairman: Evans, Charles D. 

Vice Chairman: Brubaker, Harold J. 

Vice Chairman: DeVane, Daniel H. 

Vice Chairman: Diamont, David Hunter 

Vice Chairman: Murphy, Wendell H. 

Vice Chairman: Pulley, W. Paul 
Vice Chairman: Warren, Edward N. 



Anderson, Gerald L. 
Brannan, George W. 
Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Decker, Michael 
Gist, Herman C. 
Hasty, John Calvin 
Jeralds, Luther R. 
Mothershead, C. Ivan 
Rhyne, Johnathan L., Jr. 
Stanley, Peggy 



Beard. R.D. 
Brawley. C. Robert 
Crawford, James W., Jr. 
Duncan, Ann Q. 
Greenwood, Gordon H. 
Hege, Joe H., Jr. 
Lilley, Daniel T. 
Payne, Harry E., Jr. 
Redwine, E. David 



Bowman, J. Fred 
Clark, William E. 
Dawkins, Donald M. 
Foster, Jo Graham 
Hall, Marshall 
Holmes, George M. 
Lineberry, Albert S. 
Rhyne, Johnathan L., Jr. 
Sparrow, J. Ray 
Tallent, Timothy N. 



The Legislative Branch 



497 



CHILDREN AND YOUTH 



Allran, Austin M. 
Colton, Marie W. 
Hightower, Foyle R.. Jr. 
Lutz. Edith Ledford 
Wright, Richard 



Chairman: Easterling, Ruth M. 

Vice Chairman: Edwards, C.R. 

Vice Chairman: Holroyd, Casper 

Vice Chairman: Hudson, Joe R. 

Vice Chairman: Jones. Walter B., Jr. 



Ballance, Frank W. 
Decker, Michael 
Holt, Bertha M. 
Redwine, E. David 



Jr. 



Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Etheridge, Bobby R. 
Keesee-Forrester. Margaret P. 
Tallenl, Timothy N. 



COMMISSIONS AND SCHOOLS FOR THE DEAF AND BLIND 



Barbee, Allen C. 
Ethridge, Bruce 
Huffman, Doris R. 



Chairman: Fletcher, Ray C. 
Vice Chairman: Ballance, Frank W. 

Cromer, Charles L. 
Fussell, Aaron E. 
Justus, Larry T. 



, Jr. 

Esposito, Theresa H. 
Hege, Joe H., Jr. 
Wiser, Betty H. 



CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS 



Barnhili, Howard C. 
Crawford, Narvel J., Jr. 
McDowell, Timothy H. 
Warren, Raymond 



Chairman: Michaux, H.M., Jr. 
Vice Chairman: Holt, Bertha M. 

Beard, R.D. 
James, Vernon G. 
Mavretic, Josephus L. 
Watkins, William T. 



Craven, James M. 
Justus, Larry T. 
Sparrow, J. Ray 
Windley, Walter H. 



Allran. Austin M. 
Ligon, Bradford V. 
Quinn, Dwight W. 



CORPORATIONS 

Chairman: Owens, Charles 
Vice Chairman: Clark, William E. 

Enloe,JeffH., Jr. 
Miller, George W., Jr. 
Rhyne, Johnathan L., Jr. 



Hunter, Robert C. 
Mothershead, C. Ivan 
Tallent, Timothv N. 



Allran, Austin M. 
Etheridge, Larry E. 
McDowell, Timothy H. 
Richardson. James F. 



CORRECTIONS 

Chairman: Barnes, Anne C. 

Vice Chairman: Chapin, Howard B. 

Vice Chairman: Creecy, C. Melvin 

Vice Chairman: Hackney, Joe 

Vice Chairman: Murphy, Wendell H. 



Cole, James M. 
Gardner, Charlotte A. 
Privette, Coy C. 
Sparrow, J. Ray 



Edwards, C.R. 
Locks, Sidney A. 
Rhodes, Frank E. 
Warren, Edward N. 



498 



North Carolina Manual 



COURTS AND ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE 

Chairman: Wicker, Dennis A. 
Vice Chairman: Hunter, Robert C. 
Vice Chairman: Michaux, H.M., Jr. 
Vice Chairman: Nesbitt, Martin L. 



Allran, Austin M. 
Clark, William E. 
Hackney, Joe 
Huffman, Doris R. 
Payne. Harry E., Jr. 
Robinson, George S. 
Wright, Richard 



Ballance, Frank W.. Jr. 
Dawkins, Donald M. 
Hail, A.M. 

Kennedy, Annie Brown 
Redvvine, E. David 
Warren. Raymond 



Chalk. Richard E. 
Evans, Charles D. 
Holmes. George M. 
Nye, Edd 

Rhyne, Johnathan L. 
Watkins, William T. 



Jr. 



Chapin, Howard B. 
Esposito, Theresa H. 
Wiser, Betty H. 



CULTURAL RESOURCES 

Chairman: Holroyd, Casper 

Vice Chairman: Colton, Marie W. 

Vice Chairman: Easterling, Ruth M. 



Cole, James M. 
Holt. Bertha M. 



Duncan. Anne Q. 
Rhvne. Johnathan L. 



Jr. 



Barker, Chris S., Jr. 
Bowman, J. Fred 
Cole, James M. 
Edwards, C.R. 
Gardner, Charlotte A. 
Hightower, Foyle R.. Jr. 
Jones, Walter B.. Jr. 
Lineberry, Albert S. 
Owens, Charles 
Sizemore, Frank J., Ill 



EDUCATION 

Chairman: Foster, Jo Graham 

Vice Chairman: Brannan, George W. 

Vice Chairman: Diamont, David Hunter 

Vice Chairman: Fussell, Aaron E. 

Vice Chairman: Holroyd, Casper 

Vice Chairman: Mavretic, Josephus L. 

Vice Chairman: Tvndall, J. Paul 



Barnhill, Howard C. 
Chalk. Richard E. 
Decker. Michael 
Etheridge. Bobby R. 
Hall, A^M. 
Huffman, Doris R. 
Keessee-Forrester, Margaret P. 
McLaughlin, John B. 
Rhodes, Frank E. 
Stamey, Peggy 



Blue, Daniel T.. Jr. 
Chapin, Howard B. 
Duncan. Ann Q. 
Ethridge, Bruce 
Hauser. C.B. 
Hurst, Gerald B. 
Lancaster. H. Martin 
Nye, Edd 

Richardson, James F. 
Walker, Lois S. 



Allran, Austin M. 
Blue, Daniel T., Jr. 
Enloe,JeffH..Jr. 
Hall, Marshall 
Huffman, Doris R. 
McAlister, Robert L. 
Murphy, Wendell H. 



ELECTIONS LAWS 

Chairman: Beall. Charles M. 

Vice Chairman: Jones, Walter B.. Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Watkins, William T. 

Vice Chairman: Keesee-Forrester, Margaret P. 



Barker, Chris S., Jr. 
Brannan. George W. 
Fletcher. Ray C. 
Hege. Joe H., Jr. 
Hunter. Robert C. 
McLaughlin, John B. 
Walker, Lois S. 



Barnes. .Anne C. 
Crawford. Narvel J.. 
Gist. Herman C. 
Hightower, Foyle R. 
Jeralds. Luther R. 
Michaux. H.M.. Jr. 



Jr. 



Jr. 



The Legislative Branch 



499 



Bowman, J. Fred 
Gardner, Charlotte A. 
Privette, Coy C. 



Brannan, George W. 
Hackney, Joe 
Pulley, W. Paul 



EMPLOYMENT SECURITY 



Chairman: Enloe, Jeff H., Jr. 
Vice Chairman: Quinn, Dwight W 

Clark, William E. 
Hall, A.M. 
Richardson, James F. 

ENERGY 

Chairman: Creecy, C. Melvin 
Vice Chairman: Hunt, John J. 



Easteriing, Ruth M. 
Hall. Marshall 



Fitch, Milton F., Jr. 
Ligon, Bradford V. 
Wiser, Betty H. 



Esposito, Theresa H. 
Hughes, James F. 



FINANCE 

Chairman: Quinn, Dwight W. 

Vice Chairman: Barker, Chris S., Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Barbee, Allen C. 

Vice Chairman: Church, John T. 

Vice Chairman: Hightower, Foyle R.. Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Lilley, Daniel T. 

Vice Chairman: Mavretic, Josephus L. 

Vice Chairman: Wicker, Dennis A. 



Allran. Austin M. 

Boyd, William T. 

Brown, John Walter 

Craven, James M. 

Fitch, Milton F., Jr. 

Hall, A.M. 

Hughes, James F. 

Keesee-Forrester, Margaret P. 

McLaughlin, John B. 

Owens, Charles 

Pulley, W. Paul 

Sparrow, J. Ray 

Tyndall, J. Paul 

Windley, Walter H. 

Wright, Richard 



Ballance, Frank W., Jr. 
Brannan, George W. 
Buchanan, Charles F. 
Creecy, C. Melvin 
Fletcher, Ray C. 
Hall, Marshall 
Hurst, Gerald B. 
Lancaster, H. Martin 
Miller, George W., Jr. 
Pool, Murray P. 
Rhyne, Johnathan L., Jr. 
Spoon, L.P. 
Tyson, Henry M. 
Wiser, Betty H. 



Bowman, J. Fred 
Brawley, C. Robert 
Clark, William E. 
Dawkins, Donald M. 
Gardner, Charlotte A. 
Holroyd, Casper 
Jones, Walter B., Jr. 
McAlister, Robert L. 
Mothershead, C. Ivan 
Privette, Coy C. 
Richardson, James F. 
Stamey, Peggy 
Warren, Raymond 
Wood, Stephen W. 



Barker. Chris S., Jr. 
Colton, Marie W. 
Lineberry, Albert S. 
Rhyne, Johnathan L., Jr. 



GOVERNMENTAL ETHICS 

Chairman: Kennedy, Annie Brown 

Vice Chairman: Easteriing, Ruth M. 

Vice Chairman: Locks, Sidnev A. 



Beard, R.D. 

Keesee-Forrester, Margaret P. 
Miller, George W., Jr. 
Walker, Lois S. 



Brown, John Walter 
Lancaster, H. Martin 
Privette, Coy C. 
Wood, Stephen W. 



500 



North Carolina Manual 



HEALTH 

Chairman: Murphy, Wendell H. 

Vice Chairman: DeVane, Daniel H. 

Vice Chairman: Enloe, Jeff H., Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Greenwood, Gordon H. 

Vice Chairman: Jeralds, Luther R. 



I 



Barnhill, Howard C. 

Brinkley, L.M. 
Diamont, David Hunter 
Ligon, Bradford V. 
Quinn, Dwight W. 
Watkins. William T. 



Barnes, Anne C. 
Brubaker, Harold J. 
Esposito, Theresa H. 
Locks, Sidney A. 
Richardson, James F. 
Woodard, Barnev Paul 



Blue, Daniel T., Jr. 
Cromer, Charles L. 
Foster, Jo Graham 
McAlister, Robert L. 
Spoon, L.P. 



Beall, Charles M. 
Cole, James M. 
Duncan, Ann Q. 
Hackney, Joe 
McLaughlin, John B. 
Redwine, E. David 
Sizemore, Frank J., HI 
Wood, Stephen W. 



HIGHER EDUCATION 

Chairman: Church. John T. 

Vice Chairman: Edwards. C.R. 

Vice Chairman: Gist, Herman C. 

Vice Chairman: Hauser, C.B. 

Vice Chairman: McDowell, Timothy H. 



Chapin, Howard B. 
Crawford, James W. 
Fussell, Aaron E. 
Hunter, Robert C. 
Michaux, H.M., Jr. 
Rhodes, Frank E. 
Walker, Lois S. 



Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Jr. Dawkins, Donald M. 

Gardner, Charlotte A. 
Hurst, Gerald B. 
Murphy, Wendell H. 
Rhyne, Johnathan L., Jr. 
Warren, Edward N. 



Anderson, Gerald L. 
Evans, Charles D. 
Robinson, George S. 



MARINE FISHERIES 

Chairman: Chapin, Howard B. 
Vice Chairman: James, Vernon G. 
Vice Chairman: Redwine, E. David 

Vice Chairman: Stamey, Peggy 



Esposito, Theresa H. 
Hall, A.M. 
Tyndall,J.Paul 



Ethridge, Bruce 
Hurst, Gerald B. 
Walker, Lois S. 



Barnhill, Howard C. 
Crawford, James W., Jr. 
Edwards, C.R. 
Hall, Marshall 
Lancaster, H. Martin 
McDowell, Timothy H. 
Pool, Murray P. 
Walker, Lois S. 



MENTAL HEALTH 

Chairman: Barker, Chris S., Jr. 
Vice Chairman: Barnes, Anne C. 

Vice Chairman: Beard, R.D. 
Vice Chairman: Tyndall, J. Paul 

Bowman, J. Fred 
Creecy, C. Melvin 
Fletcher, Ray C. 
Hauser, C.B. 
Locks, Sidney A. 
McLaughlin, John B. 
Rhodes, Frank E. 
Windley, Walter H. 



Brawley, C. Robert 
Cromer, Charles L. 
Gardner, Charlotte A. 
Hurst, Gerald B. 
Lutz, Edith Ledford 
Noles, David J. 
Richardson, James F. 
Woodard, Charles D. 



The Legislative Branch 



501 



MILITARY AND VETERANS' AFFAIRS 



Chairman: Jeralds, Luther R. 

Vice Chairman: Foster. Jo Graham 

Vice Chairman: Woodard. Charles D. 



Barker, Chris S., Jr. 
Dawicins, Donald M. 
Esposito, Theresa H. 
Hunt, John J. 
Lancaster, H. Martin 
Privette, Coy C. 
Tyndall,J. Paul 



Brown, John Walter 
Duncan, Ann Q. 
Etheridge, Bobby R. 
Hurst, Gerald B. 
McAlister, Robert L. 
Redwine, E. David 



Buchanan, Charles F. 
Enloe,JeffH.,Jr. 
Greenwood, Gordon H. 
Justus, Larry T. 
Noles, David J. 
Spoon, L.P. 



NATURAL AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES 

Chairman: McDowell, Timothy H. 

Vice Chairman: Anderson, Gerald L. 

Vice Chairman: Ethridge, Bruce 

Vice Chairman: Kennedy, Annie Brown 



Boyd, William T. 
Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Hackney, Joe 
Pulley, W. Paul 
Warren, Edward N. 



Boyd. William T. 
DeVane, Daniel H. 
Hunt, John J. 
Noles, David J. 



Chapin, Howard B. 
Etheridge, Larry E. 
Mavretic, Josephus L. 
Rhodes, Frank E. 



Church, John T. 
Evans, Charles D. 
Owens, Charles 
Sizemore, Frank J. 



HI 



LAW ENFORCEMENT 

Chairman: Brannan, George W. 

Vice Chairman: Payne, Harry E.. Jr. 

Vice Chairman, Pool, Murray P. 

Vice Chairman: Sparrow, J. Ray 

Vice Chairman: Tyson, Henry M. 



Bumgardner. David W. 
Esposito, Theresa H. 
Lutz. Edith Ledford 
Warren, Raymond 



Craven, James M. 
Hasty, John Calvin 
McLaughlin, John B. 
Woodard, Charles D. 



AUran, Austin M. 
Brannan, George W. 
Chalk, Richard E. 
Fletcher, Ray C. 
Huffman, Doris R. 
Noles, David J. 



LOCAL GOVERNMENT I 

Chairman: McAlister, Robert L. 
Vice Chairman: Edwards, C.R. 

Vice Chairman: Nye, Edd 
Vice Chairman: Owens, Charles 
Vice Chairman: Wright, Richard 

Barbee, Allen C. 
Brinkley, L.M. 
Cromer, Charles L. 
Hall, A.M. 
Lilley, Daniel T. 
Spoon, L.P. 



Barnes, AnneC. 
Buchanan, Charles F. 
Crawford, James W., Jr. 
Hudson, Joe R. 
Lineberry, Albert S. 



1 



502 



North Carouna Manual 



LOCAL GOVERNMENT II 

Chairman: Lutz, Edith Ledford 

Vice Chairman: Hasty, John Calvin 

Vice Chairman: Kennedy, Annie Brown 

Vice Chairman: Pool, Murray P. 



Boyd.WilHamT. 
Colton, Marie W. 
Hall, Marshall 

Keesee-Forrester, Margaret P. 
Sizemore, Frank J., Ill 
Windley, Walter H. 



Bumgardner, David W. 
Diamont, David Hunter 
Holmes, George M. 
McLaughlin, John B. 
Warren, Raymond 
Wiser, BettvH. 



Church. John T. 
Easterling, Ruth M. 
Jones, Walter B., Jr. 
Nesbitt, Martin L. 
Wicker, Dennis A. 



MANUFACTURERS AND LABOR 

Chairman: Payne, Harry E., Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Barnes, Anne C. 

Vice Chairman: Blue, Daniel T., Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Hasty, John Calvin 



Allran, Austin M. 
Brubaker, Harold J. 
Fitch, Milton F., Jr. 
Mothershead, C. Ivan 
Tyson, Henry M. 



Beall, Charles M. 
Clark, William E. 
Greenwood, Gordon H. 
Quinn, Dwight W. 



Bowman, J. Fred 
Easterling, Ruth M. 
Holmes, George M. 
Robinson, George S. 



Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Hughes, James F. 
McDowell, Timothy H. 
Robinson, George S. 



JUDICIARY I 

Chairman: Miller, George W., Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Clark, William E. 

Vice Chairman: Hackney, Joe 

Crawford, James W., Jr. 
Hunt, John J. 
Nesbitt, Martin L. 
Wicker, Dennis A. 



Easterling, Ruth M. 
Kennedy, Annie Brown 
Privette, Coy C. 



Allran, Austin M. 
Hall, A.M. 
Murphy, Wendell H. 
Windley, Walter H. 



JUDICIARY II 

Chairman: Wright, Richard 
Vice Chairman: Michaux, H.M., Jr. 



Dawkins, Donald M. 
Hege, Joe H., Jr. 
Quinn, Dwight W. 
Woodard, Barney Paul 



DeVane, Daniel H. 
Huffman. Doris R. 
Stamey, Peggy 
Woodard, Charles D. 



Barnes, Anne C. 

Chalk, Richard E. 
Hasty, John Calvin 



JUDICIARY III 

Chairman: Lancaster, H. Martin 

Vice Chairman: Blue, Daniel T., Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Holt, Bertha M. 



Boyd, William T. 
Colton, Marie W. 
Hudson, Joe R. 



Bumgardner, David W. 
Fitch. Milton F., Jr. 
Sizemore, Frank J., Ill 



The Legislative Branch 



503 



Beard, R.D. 
Payne, Harry E., Jr. 
Warren, Raymond 



JUDICIARY IV 

Chairman: Pulley, W. Paul 

Vice Chairman: Ballance, Frank W., Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Evans. Charles D. 

Vice Chairman: Hunter, Robert C. 



Cromer, Charles L. 
Rhyne, Johnathan L. 
Watkins, William T. 



Jr. 



Holmes, George M. 
Sparrow, J. Ray 



Boyd, William T. 
Jones, Walter B., Jr. 
Rhodes, Frank E. 
Woodard, Barney Paul 



HIGHWAY SAFETY 

Chairman: Fussell, Aaron E. 

Vice Chairman: Bumgardner, David W. 

Vice Chairman: Lancaster, H. Martin 



Creecy, C. Melvin 
Keesee-Forrester, Margaret P. 
Spoon, L.P. 
Woodard, Charles D. 



Gardner, Charlotte A. 
Noles, David J. 
Stamey, Peggy 
Wright, Richard 



Barnhill, Howard C. 
Brubaker, Harold J. 
Huffman, Doris R. 
Wood, Stephen W. 



HOUSING 

Chairman: Ballance, Frank W., Jr. 
Vice Chairman: Brannan, George W. 



Brawley, C. Robert 
Edwards, C.R. 
Lancaster, H. Martin 



Brinkley, L.M. 
Fitch, Milton F., Jr. 
Sparrow, J. Ray 



Barnhill, Howard C. 
Decker, Michael 
Ethridge, Bruce 
Hauser,C.B. 
Justus, Larry T. 
Owens, Charles 
Sizemore, Frank J., Ill 
Woodard, Charles D. 



HUMAN RESOURCES 

Chairman: Woodard, Barney Paul 

Vice Chairman: Colton, Marie W. 

Vice Chairman: Jones, Walter B., Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Locks, Sidney A. 



Chalk, Richard E. 
Diamont, David Hunter 
Fitch, Milton F., Jr. 
Holt, Bertha M. 
Ligon, Bradford V. 
Privette, Coy C. 
Warren, Raymond 



Cromer, Charles L. 
Edwards, C.R. 
Gardner, Charlotte A. 
Jeralds, Luther R. 
Lutz, Edith Ledford 
Richardson, James F. 
Wiser, Betty H. 



504 



North Carouna Manual 



INSURANCE 



Anderson, Gerald L. 
Blue, Daniel T., Jr. 
Etheridge, Larry E. 
Gist, Herman C. 
Holroyd, Casper 
McLaughlin, John B. 
Payne, Harry E., Jr. 
Wood, Stephen W. 



Chairman: Nesbitt, Martin L. 

Vice Chairman: Beard, R.D. 

Vice Chairman: Hightower, Foyle R., Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Miller, George W., Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Wicker, Dennis A. 

Vice Chairman: Holmes, George M. 



Ballance, Frank W., Jr. 
Brawley, C. Robert 
Evans, Charles D. 
Hall, Marshall 
Hughes, James P. 
Mothershead, C. Ivan 
Pool, Murray P. 



Beall, Charles M. 
Decker, Michael 
Fitch, Milton F., Jr. 
Hasty, John Calvin 
Lutz, Edith Ledt'ord 
Murphy, Wendell H. 
Robinson, George S. 



Craven, James M. 
Hughes, James F. 
Ligon, Bradford V. 
Tyndall, J. Paul 



PENSIONS AND RETIREMENT 

Chairman: Mavretic, Josephus L. 

Vice Chairman: Ethridge, Bobby R. 

Vice Chairman: Hauser, C.B. 

Vice Chairman: Nye, Edd 



DeVane, Daniel H. 
Hunter, Robert C. 
Nesbitt, Martin L. 
Warren, Edward N. 



Foster, Jo Graham 
Hurst, Gerald B. 
Noles, David J. 
Wiser, Betty H. 



Brinkley, L.M. 
Etheridge, Bobby R. 
Holroyd, Casper 
Lineberry, Albert S. 
Nye, Edd 

Robinson, George S. 
Warren, Edward N. 
Wright, Richard 



PUBLIC UTILITIES 

Chairman: Bumgardner, David W. 

Vice Chairman: Barker, Chris S., Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Crawford, James W., Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Miller, George W., Jr. 



Decker, Michael 
Hasty, John Calvin 
Hughes, James F. 
Mavretic, Josephus L. 
Pulley, W. Paul 
Tallent, Timothy N. 
Warren, Raymond 



DeVane, Daniel H. 
Hege, JoeH., Jr. 
James, Vernon G. 
Mothershead, C. Ivan 
Redwine, E. David 
Tyndall, J. Paul 
Wicker, Dennis A. 



The Legislative Branch 



505 



RULES AND OPERATION OF THE HOUSE 

Chairman: Lilley, Daniel T. 
Vice Chairman: Evans, Charles D. 

Vice Chairman: Hunt, John J. 
Vice Chairman: Quinn, Dwight W. 

Vice Chairman: Stamey, Peggy 



Anderson, Gerald L. 
Blue, Daniel T., Jr. 
Cochrane, Betsy L. 
DeVane, Daniel H. 
Fussell, Aaron E. 
Hudson, Joe R. 
Jeralds, Luther R. 
Locks, Sidney A. 
Michaux, H.M., Jr. 
Murphy, Wendell H. 
Sizemore, Frank J., Ill 
Windley, Walter H. 



Bowman, J. Fred 
Chalk, Richard E. 
Gist, Herman C. 
Hunt, John J. 
Lineberry, Albert S. 
Sparrow, J. Ray 
Wood, Stephen W. 



Barbee, Allen C. 
Brubaker, Harold J. 
Crawford, Narvel J., Jr. 
Diamont, David Hunter 
Hege, Joe H., Jr. 
Hunter, Robert C. 
Lancaster, H. Martin 
McDowell, Timothy H. 
Miller, George W., Jr. 
Nesbitt, Martin L. 
Spoon, L.P. 
Wood, Stephen W. 

SMALL BUSINESS 



Beall, Charles M. 
Church, John T. 
Crawford, James W., Jr. 
Edwards, C.R. 
Holmes, George M. 
James, Vernon G. 
Lineberry, Albert S. 
Mavretic, Josephus L. 
Mothershead, C. Ivan 
Pulley. W. Paul 
Watkins, William T. 
Wright, Richard 



Chairman: Woodard, Charles D. 

Vice Chairman: Barbee, Allen C. 

Vice Chairman: Etheridge, Bobby R. 

Vice Chairman: Jeralds, Luther R. 

Vice Chairman: Pool, Murray P. 



Brawley, C. Robert 
Etheridge, Larry E. 
Hall, A.M. 
Justus, Larry T. 
Nesbitt, Martin L. 
Tallent, Timothy N. 



Brinkley, L.M. 
Fletcher, Ray C. 
Hauser, C.B. 
Ligon, Bradford V. 
Rhodes, Frank E. 
Watkins, William T. 



Anderson, Gerald L. 
Brown, John Walter 
DeVane, Daniel H. 
Gist, Herman C. 
Wicker, Dennis A. 



STATE GOVERNMENT 

Chairman: Hightower, Foyle R., Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Beall, Charles M. 

Vice Chairman: Crawford, James W., Sr. 

Vice Chairman: Fletcher, Ray C. 



Ballance, Frank W., Jr. 
Bumgardner, David W. 
Etheridge, Larry E. 
Hege, Joe H., Jr. 
Windley, Walter H. 



Barbee, Allen C. 
Cole, James M. 
Foster, Jo Graham 
McLaughlin, John B. 



Barnes, AnneC. 
Enloe,JeffH.,Jr. 
Lutz, Edith Ledford 



STATE PERSONNEL 

Chairman: Stamey, Peggy 

Vice Chairman: Woodard, Barney Paul 

Vice Chairman: Fletcher, Ray C. 



Buchanan, Charles F. 
Hunter, Robert C. 
Walker, Lois S. 



Cole, James M. 
Jones, Walter B., Jr. 
Wiser, Betty H. 



506 



North Carolina Manual 



STATE PROPERTIES 



Beall, Charles M. 
Brawley, C. Robert 
Greenwood, Gordon H. 
Tallent, Timothy N. 



Chairman: Tyson, Henry M. 

Vice Chairman: McAlister, Robert L. 

Vice Chairman: Crawford, Narvel J., Jr. 



Blue, Daniel T., Jr. 
Brinkley.L.M. 
James, Vernon G. 



Boyd, William T. 
Etheridge, Larry E. 
Owens, Charles 



Brown, John Walter 
Church, John T. 
Enloe,JeffH.,Jr. 
Hudson, Joe R. 
Justus, Larry T. 
Mavretic, Josephus L. 
Wicker, Dennis A. 



TRANSPORTATION 

Chairman: Barbee, Allen C. 

Vice Chairman: Beall, Charles M. 

Vice Chairman: Bumgardner, David W. 

Vice Chairman: James, Vernon G. 



Brubaker, Harold J. 
Cole, James M. 
Etheridge, Bobby R. 
Hughes, James F. 
Liiley, Daniel T. 
Nve, Edd 



Buchanan, Charles P. 
Creecy, C. Melvin 
Fletcher, Ray C. 
Hunt, John J. 
McAlister, Robert L. 
Sparrow, J. Ray 



UNVIERSITY BOARD OF GOVERNORS 
NOMINATING COMMITTEE 

Chairman: Crawford, Narvel J., Jr. 

Vice Chairman: Church, John T. 

Vice Chairman: Gist, Herman C. 

Vice Chairman: Lancaster, H. Martin 



Ballance, Frank W., Sr. 
Cochrane, Betsy L. 
Duncan, Ann Q. 
Hall, A.M. 
Jones, Walter B., Jr. 
Miller, George W., Jr. 



Barnhill, Howard C. 
DeVane, Daniel H. 
Etheridge, Larry E. 
Hasty, John Calvin 
Kennedy, Annie Brown 
Murphy, Wendell H. 



Brubaker, Harold J. 
Diamont, David Hunter 
Foster, Jo Graham 
Hurst, Gerald B. 
Michaux, H.M., Jr. 



WATER AND AIR RESOURCES 

Chairman: Hackney, Joe 
Vice Chairman: Ethridge, Bruce 

Vice Chairman: McAlister, Robert L. 
Vice Chairman. Owens, Charles 

Vice Chairman: Payne, Harry E., Jr. 
Vice Chairman: Pulley, W. Paul 



Boyd, William T. 
Colton, Marie W. 
Diamont, David Hunter 
Fletcher, Ray C. 
Holroyd, Casper 
Hunt, John J. 
Ligon, Bradford V. 
Pool, Murray P. 
Spoon, L.P. 



Chalk, Richard E. 
Craven, James M. 
Evans, Charles D. 
Greenwood, Gordon H. 
Holt, Bertha M. 
Keesee-Forrester, Margaret P. 
Mavretic, Josephus L. 
Quinn, Dwight W. 
Tyson, Henry M. 



Clark, William E. 
Dawkins, Donald M. 
Fitch, Milton F., Jr. 
Hightower, Foyle R., Jr. 
Hudson, Joe R. 
Kennedy, Annie Brown 
Nesbitt, Martin L. 
Robinson, George S. 



The Legislative Branch 507 



WILDLIFE RESOURCES 

Chairman; Nye, Edd 
Vice Chairman: Lilley, Daniel T. 
Vice Chairman: Tyndaii, J. Paul 

Barker, Chris S., Jr. Brinkley, L.M. Brown, John Walter 

Buchanan, Charles F. Craven, James M. Creecy, C. Melvin 

Greenwood, Gordon H. Hightower, Foyle R., Jr. Tallent, Timothy N. 



508 North Carolina Manual 



RULES OF THE 

1985 HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF NORTH CAROLINA 

(HOUSE RESOLUTION 5) 

I. Order of Business 

RULE 1 . Convening Hour. — The House shall convene each legislative day at the hour 
fixed by the House. In the event the House adjourns on the preceding legislative day 
without having fixed an hour for reconvening, the House shall convene on the next 
legislative day at 1:30 p.m. 

RULE 2. Opening the Session. — At the convening hour on each legislative day the 
Speaker shall call the members to order and shall have the session opened with prayer. 

RULE 3. Quorum. — (a) A quorum consists of a majority of the qualified members of 
the House. 

(b) Should the point of a quorum be raised, the doors shall be closed and the Clerk shall 
call the roll of the House, after which the names of those not responding shall again be 
called. In the absence of a quorum, fifteen members are authorized to compel the 
attendance of absent members and may order that absentees for whom no sufficient 
excuses are made be taken into custody wherever they may be found by special messenger 
appointed for that purpose. 

RULE 4. Approval of Journal. — (a) The Committee on Rules and Operation of the 
House shall cause the Journal of the House to be examined daily before the hour of 
convening to determine if the proceedings of the previous day have been correctly 
recorded. 

(b) Immediately following the opening prayer and upon appearance of a quorum, the 
Speaker shall call for the Journal report by the Chairman of the Committee on Rules and 
Operation of the House or by a Representative designated by the Chairman as to whether 
the proceedings of the previous day have been correctly recorded. Without objection, the 
Speaker shall cause the Journal to stand approved. 

RULE 5. Order of Business of the Day. — After the approval of the Journal of the 
preceding day, the House shall proceed to business in the following order: 

(1) The receiving of petitions, memorials and papers addressed to the General Assem- 
bly or to the House; 

(2) Reports of standing committees; 

(3) Reports of select committees; 

(4) First reading and reference to committee of bills and resolutions; 

(5) Messages from the Senate; 

(6) Concurrence with Senate amendments or Senate committee substitutes; 

(7) The unfinished business of the preceding day; 

(8) Calendar (each category in accordance with Rule 40): 

(a) Local bills (roll call) third reading 

(b) Local bills (roll call) second reading 

(c) Local bills third reading 

(d) Local bills second reading 

(e) Public bills (roll call) third reading 



The Legislative Branch 509 



(f) Public bills (roil call) second reading 

(g) Public bills and resolutions, third reading 
(h) Public bills and resolutions, second reading; 

(9) Reading of Notices and Announcements; but messages and motions to elect officers 
shall always be in order. 

II. Conduct of Debate 

RULE 6. Duties and Powers of the Speaker. — The Speaker shall have general 
direction of the Hall. He may name any member to perform the duties of the Chair, but 
substitution shall not extend beyond one day, except in the case of sickness or by leave of 
the House. 

RULE 7. Obtaining Floor. — (a) When any member desires recognition for any 
purpose, he shall rise from his seat and respectfully address the Speaker. No member shall 
proceed until recognized by the Speaker. 

(b) When a member desires to interrupt a member having the floor, he shall first obtain 
recognition by the Speaker and permission of the member occupying the floor, and when 
such recognition and permission have been obtained, he may propound a question to the 
member occupying the floor; but he shall not otherwise interrupt the member having the 
floor, except as provided in subsection (c) of this rule; and the Speaker shall, without the 
point of order being raised, enforce this rule. 

(c) A member who has obtained the floor may be interrupted only for the following 
reasons: 

(1) a request that the member speaking yield for a question, 

(2) a point of order, 

(3) a parliamentary inquiry, or 

(4) a question of privilege. 

RULE 8. Questions of Privilege. — Upon recognition by the Speakerfor that purpose, 
any member may speak to a question of privilege for a time not to exceed three (3) 
minutes. Questions of privilege shall be first, those affecting the rights of the House 
collectively, its safety, dignity, and the integrity of its proceedings; second, the rights, 
reputation, and conduct of members, individually, in their representative capacity only; 
and shall have precedence of all other questions, except motions to adjourn. Privilege m.ay 
not be used to explain a vote or debate a bill. The Speaker shall determine if the question is 
one of privilege and shall, without the point of order being raised, enforce this rule. 

RULE 9. Points of Order. — (a) The Speaker shall decide questions of order and may 
speak to points of order in preference to other members arising from their seats for that 
purpose. Any member may appeal from the ruling of the Chair on questions of order; on 
such appeal no member may speak more than once, unless by leave of the House. A 
two-thirds (2/ 3) vote of the members present shall be necessary to sustain any appeal from 
the ruling of the Chair. 

(b) When the Speaker calls a member to order, the member shall take his seat except 
that a member called to order may clear a matter of fact, or explain, but shall not proceed 
in debate so long as the decision stands. If the member appeals from the ruling of the Chair 
and the decision by a two-thirds (2/3) vote of the members present be in favor of the 
member called to order, he may proceed; if otherwise, he shall not; and if the case, in the 
judgment of the House, requires it, he shall be liable to censure by the House. 



510 North Carolina Manual 



RULE 10. Limitations on Debate. — (a) No member shall speak on, debate, or solicit 
cosponsors for, a bill or resolution at its first reading. 

(b) No member shall speak more than twice on the main question, nor longer than 30 
minutes for the first speech and 15 minutes for the second speech; nor shall he speak more 
than twice upon an amendment or motion to reconsider, commit, appeal or postpone, and 
then not longer than 10 minutes, for the first speech and five minutes for the second 
speech. 

(c) A member may speak only once and for not more than 20 minutes on the question of 
the adoption of a minority report. 

(d) The House, by consent of a majority of the members present, may suspend the 
operation of subsections (b) and (c) of this rule during any debate on any particular 
question before the House. 

RULE 11. Reading of Papers. — When there is a call for the reading of the text of a 
paper which has been presented to the House, and there is objection to such reading, the 
question shall be determined by a majority vote of the members of the House present. 
Except for protests permitted by the Constitution, no member may have material printed 
in the Journal until said material has been presented to the House and the printing 
approved by the House, and said material shall not exceed 1,000 words. 

RULE 12. General Decorum. — (a) The Speaker shall preserve order and decorum. 

(b) Decency of speech shall be observed and disrespect to personalities carefully 
avoided. 

(c) When the Speaker is putting any question, or addressing the House, no person shall 
speak, stand up, walk out of or cross the House, nor when a member is speaking, engage in 
disruptive discourse or pass between the member and the Chair. 

(d) Food or beverages shall not be permitted on the floor of the House. 

(e) The reading of newspapers shall not be permitted on the floor of the House while the 
House is in session. 

(0 Smoking or the consumption of food or beverages shall not be permitted in the 
galleries at any time. 

(g) Special recitals, performances by musicians or other groups shall not be permitted 
on the floor of the House and special guests of members of the House shall not be 
permitted on the floor of the House. 

(h) Members shall observe appropriate attire, coat and tie for male members and 
dignified dress for female members. 

in. Motions 

RULE 13. Motions Generally. — (a) Every motion shall be reduced to writing, if the 
Speaker or any two members request it. 

(b) When a motion is made, it shall be stated by the Speaker, or, if written, it shall be 
handed to the Chair and read aloud by the Speaker or Clerk before debate. 

(c) After a motion has been stated by the Speaker or read by the Speaker or Clerk, it 
shall be in the possession of the House; but it may be withdrawn before a decision or 
amendment, except in case of a motion to reconsider, which motion, when made by a 
member, shall be in possession of the House and shall not be withdrawn without leave of 
the House. 



The Legislative Branch 511 



RULE 14. Motions, Order of Precedence. — When there are motions before the House, 
the order of precedence is as follows: 

To adjourn 

To lay on the table 

To postpone indefinitely 

Previous question 

To postpone to a day certain 

To commit 

To amend an amendment 

To amend 

To substitute 

To pass the bill 

No motion to lay on the table, to postpone indefinitely, to postpone to a day certain, to 
commit or to make a particular amendment, being decided, shall be again allowed at the 
same stage of the bill or proposition. 

RU LE 1 5. Motion to Adjourn. — (a) A motion to adjourn shall be seconded before the 
motion is put to the vote of the House. 

(b) A motion to adjourn shall be decided without debate, and shall always be in order, 
except when the House is voting or some member is speaking; but a motion to adjourn 
shall not follow a motion to adjourn until debate or some other business of the House has 
intervened. 

RULE 16. Motion to Table. — (a) A motion to table shall be seconded before the 
motion is put to the vote of the House and is in order except when a motion to adjourn is 
before the House. 

(b) A motion to table shall be decided without debate. 

(c) A motion to table a bill shall constitute a motion to table the bill and all amend- 
ments thereto. 

(d) When the question before the House is the adoption of an amendment to a bill 
or resolution, a motion to table the bill is not in order, and a motion to table an 
amendment applies to the amendment only, and the motion may not expressly or by 
implication or construction be expanded to include a motion to table the bill also. 

(e) When a question has been tabled, it shall not thereafter be considered except on 
motion to reconsider under Rule 18, or to remove from the table approved by a two- 
thirds (2/3) vote. 

RULE 17. Motion to Postpone Indefinitely. — A motion to postpone indefinitely is 
in order except when a motion to adjourn or to lay on the table is before the House. 
However, after one motion to postpone indefinitely has been decided, another motion 
to postpone indefinitely shall not be allowed at the same stage of the bill or proposi- 
tion. When a question has been postponed indefinitely, it shall not thereafter be consi- 
dered except on motion to reconsider under Rule 18, or to place on the favorable 
calendar approved by a two-thirds (2/3) vote. 

RULE 18. Motion to Reconsider. — (a) When a question has been decided, it is in 
order for any member to move for the reconsideration thereof, on the same or the 
succeeding legislative day; provided that if the vote by which the motion was originally 
decided was taken by a recorded vote, only a member of the majority may move for 
reconsideration. 



512 North Carolina Manual 



(b) A motion to reconsider shall be determined by a majority vote, except a motion 
to reconsider a vote upon a motion to table, a motion to postpone indefinitely, a 
motion to remove a bill from the unfavorable calendar, a motion that a bill be read 
twice on the same day, or a motion to remove from the table, which shall require a 
two-thirds (2/3) vote. 

RULE 19. Previous Question. — (a) The previous question may be called only by 
the member submitting the report on the bill or other matter under consideration, by 
the member introducing the bill or other matter under consideration, or by the 
member in charge of the measure, who shall be designated by the Chairman of the 
committee reporting the same to the House at the time the bill or other matter under 
consideration is reported to the House or taken up for consideration. 

(b) The previous question shall be as follows: "Shall the main question now be put?" 
When the call for the previous question has been decided in the affirmative by a major- 
ity vote of the House, the "main question" is on the passage of the bill, resolution or 
other matter under consideration. 

(c) The call for the previous question shall preclude all motions, amendments and 
debate, except the motion to adjourn or motion to table or motion to postpone indefi- 
nitely made prior to the determination of the previous question. 

(d) If the previous question is decided in the negative, the main question remains 
under debate. 

IV. Voting 

RULE 20. Use of Electronic Voting System. — (a) Votes on the following questions 
shall be taken on the electronic voting system, and the ayes and noes shall be recorded 
on the Journal: 

(1) All questions on which the Constitution of North Carolina requires that the ayes 
and noes be taken and recorded on the Journal. 

(2) All measures affecting a fee imposed by the State or any subdivision thereof. 

(3) All questions on which a call for the ayes and noes under Rule 24(a) has been 
sustained. 

(4) Both second and third readings of bills proposing amendment of the Constitu- 
tion of North Carolina or ratifying resolutions amending the Constitution of the 
United States. 

(b) Votes on the following questions shall be taken on the electronic voting system: 

(1) Second reading of all public bills, all amendments to public bills offered after 
second reading, third reading if a public bill was amended after second reading 
or if the reading occurs on a day or days following the second reading, all con- 
ference reports on public bills, all motions to lay public bills on the table, and all 
motions to postpone public bills indefinitely. 

(2) Upon a call for division. 

(3) Any other question upon direction of the Speaker or upon motion of any 
member supported by one-fifth (1/5) of the members present. 

(c) When the electronic voting system is used, twenty seconds shall be allowed for 
voting on the question before the House unless the Chair shall direct otherwise. The 
system shall be set to close automatically when that time has expired. After the system 



I 



The Legislative Branch 513 



is closed, the Speaker may allow any member to vote until he orders the system 
locked. Once the system is locked, the vote shall be recorded and printed. 

(d) The voting station at each member's desk in the Chamber shall be used only by 
the member to which the station is assigned. Under no circumstances shall any other 
person vote at a member's station. It is a breach of the ethical obligation of a member 
either to request that another person vote at the requesting member's station, or to 
vote at another member's station. The Speaker shall enforce this rule without 
exception. 

(e) When the electronic voting system is used, the Speaker shall state the question 
and shall then state substantially the following; "All in favor vote 'aye'; all opposed 
vote 'no'; the Clerk will open the vote." After the allotted time for voting has elapsed, 
the Speaker shall say: "The Clerk will now lock the machine and record the vote." 
After the machine is locked and the vote recorded, the Speaker shall announce the 
vote and declare the result. 

(0 One copy of the machine printout of the vote record of all votes taken on the 
electronic system shall be filed in the office of the Principal Clerk, and one copy shall 
be filed in the Legislative Library where it shall be open to public inspection. 

(g) When the Speaker ascertains that the electronic voting system is inoperative 
before a vote is taken or while a vote is being taken on the electronic system, he shall 
announce that fact to the House and any partial electronic system voting record shall 
be voided. In such a case, if the Constitution of North Carolina or the Rules of the 
House require a call of the ayes and noes, the Clerk shall call the roll of the House, 
and the ayes and noes shall be taken manually and shall be recorded on the Journal. 
All roll call votes shall be taken alphabetically. All other votes shall be taken by voice 
vote. If, after a vote is taken on the electronic system, it is discovered that a malfunc- 
tion caused an error in the electronic system printout, the Speaker shall direct the 
Reading Clerk and the Principal Clerk to verify and correct the printout record and so 
advise the House. 

(h) For the purpose of identifying motions on which the vote is taken on the elec- 
tronic system, the motions are coded as follows: 

(1) To adjourn 

(2) To lay on the table 

(3) To postpone indefinitely 

(4) Previous question 

(5) To postpone to a day certain 

(6) To commit 

(7) To amend an amendment 

(8) To amend 

(9) To substitute 

(10) To reconsider 

(11) To concur or not concur 

(12) Miscellaneous 

RULE 21. Voice Votes; Stating Questions. — (a) When the electronic voting system 
is not used, the Speaker shall rise and put a question. 

(b) The question shall be put in this form, namely, "Those in favor (as the question 
may be) will say 'Aye'," and after the affirmation voice has been expressed, "Those 
opposed will say 'No' ". 



514 North Carolina Manual 



RULE 22. Determining Questions. — (a) Unless otherwise provided by the Consti- 
tution of North CaroHna or by these rules, all questions shall be determined by a 
simple majority of the members present and voting. 

(b) No member may vote unless he is in the Chamber when the question is put. This 
subsection of this rule cannot be suspended. 

RULE 23. Voting by Division. — Any member may call for a division of the 
members upon the question before the result of the vote has been announced. Upon a 
call for a division, the Speaker shall cause the number voting in the affirmative and in 
the negative to be determined. Upon a division and count of the House on any ques- 
tion, no member away from his seat shall be counted. 

RULE 24. Roll Call Vote. — (a) Before a question is put, any member may call for 
the ayes and noes. If the call is sustained by one-fifth ( 1 / 5) of the members present, the 
question shall be decided by the ayes and noes upon a roll call vote. 

(b) Every member who is in the Hall of the House when the question is put shall 
vote upon a call of the ayes and noes, unless excused pursuant to Rule 24. 1 A. 

RULE 24.1 A. Excuse From Deliberations and Voting on a Bill. — (a) Any member 
shall upon request be excused from the deliberations and voting on a particular bill, 
but to do so must make that request after the second reading of the bill and before any 
motion or vote on the bill or any amendment thereto. If the reason for the request 
arises at some point later in the proceedings, the request may be made at that time. 

(b) The member may make a brief statement of the reasons for making that request. 
The member may send forward to the Principal Clerk, on a form provided by the 
Clerk, a concise statement of the reason for the request, and the Clerk shall include 
this statement in the Journal. 

(c) The member so excused shall not debate the bill or any amendment to the bill, 
vote on the bill, offer or vote on any amendment to the bill, or offer or vote on any 
motion concerning the bill at that reading, any subsequent reading, or any subsequent 
consideration of the bill. 

(d) A member may request that his excuse from deliberations on a particular bill be 
withdrawn. 

RULE 24. IB. Separation of Propositions. — Any member may call for a question 
to be divided into two or more propositions to be voted on separately, and the Speaker 
shall determine whether the question admits of such a division. 

RULE 25. Voting by Speaker. — In all elections the Speaker may vote. In all other 
instances he may exercise his right to vote, or he may reserve this right until there is a 
tie in which event he may vote, but in no instance may he vote twice on the same 
question. 

V. Committees 

RULE 26. Committees Generally. — (a) All standing and select committees shall be 
appointed by the Speaker. The Speaker shall appoint all standing committees at the 
beginning of the session. 

(b) Ten legislative days after the Speaker makes his initial appointments to a stand- 
ing or select committee, he shall not increase the membership of that committee, but 
may fill any vacancies which occur on that committee. 

(c) The first member announced on each committee shall be Chairman, and where 
the Speaker so desires he may designate a cochairman and one or more vice chairmen. 



The Legislative Branch 515 



(d) Either the Chairman or the Acting Chairman, designated by the Chairman or by 
the Speaker, and five other members of the committee, or a majority of the committee, 
whichever is fewer, shall constitute a quorum of that committee. 

(e) In any joint meeting of the Senate and House Committees, the House Committee 
reserves the right to vote separately. 

RULE 27. List of Standing Committees. — The standing committees are: 

Aging. 

Agriculture. 

Alcoholic Beverage Control. 

Appropriations Base Budget. 

Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Education. 

Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety. 

Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Human Resources. 

Appropriations Base Budget Committee on General Government. 

Appropriations Base Budget Committee on Natural and Economic Resources. 

Appropriations Expansion Budget. 

Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Education. 

Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Justice and Public Safety. 

Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Human Resources. 

Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on General Government. 

Appropriations Expansion Budget Committee on Natural and Economic Resources. 

Banks and Thrift Institutions. 

Commercial Fishing 

Commissions and Schools for the Blind and Deaf. 

Congressional Redistricting. 

Constitutional Amendments. 

Corporations. 

Corrections. 

Courts and Administration of Justice. 

Cultural Resources. 

Economy. 

Education. 

Election Laws. 

Employment Security. 

Energy. 

Finance. 

Governmental Ethics. 

Health. 

Higher Education. 

Highway Safety. 

Human Resources. 

Insurance. 

Judiciary No. I. 

Judiciary No. II. 

Judiciary No. III. 

Judiciary No. IV. 

Law Enforcement. 



516 North Carolina Manual 



Legislative Redistricting. 

Local Government No. L 

Local Government No. IL 

Manufacturers and Labor. 

Mental Health. 

Military and Veterans' Affairs. 

Natural and Economic Resources. 

Pensions and Retirement (Refer to G.S. 120-111.1). 

Public Utilities. 

Rules and Operation of the House. 

Small Business. 

State Government. 

State Personnel. 

State Properties. 

Transportation. 

University Board of Governors Nominating Committee. 

Water and Air Resources. 

Wildlife Resources. 

Redistricting Committee. — In the session next after the federal decennial census, 
the Speaker shall appoint a standing committee or committees on redistricting. 

RULE 28. Committee Meetings. — (a) Standing committees and subcommittees of 
standing committees shall be furnished with suitable meeting places pursuant to a 
schedule adopted by the Committee on Rules and Operation of the House. Select 
committees shall be furnished with suitable meeting places as their needs require by the 
Chairman of the Committee on Rules and Operation of the House. 

(b) Subject to the provisions of the subsection (c) of this Rule, committees and 
subcommittees thereof shall permit other members of the General Assembly, the press, 
and the general public to attend all sessions of said committees or subcommittees. 

(c) The Chairman or other presiding officer shall have general direction of the meet- 
ing place of the committee or subcommittee and, in case of any disturbance or disor- 
derly conduct therein, or if the peace, good order, and proper conduct of the legislative 
business is hindered by any person or persons, the Chairman or presiding officer shall 
have power to exclude from the session any individual or individuals so hindering the 
legislative business or, if necessary, to order the meeting place cleared of all persons 
not members of the committee or subcommittee. 

(d) Procedure in the committees shall be governed by the rules of the House, so far 
as the same may be applicable to such procedure. Before a question is put, any 
member may call for the ayes and noes. If the call is sustained by one-fifth (1/5) of the 
members present, the question shall be decided by the ayes and noes upon a roll call 
vote. All roll call votes shall be taken alphabetically. 

(e) No committee or subcommittee shall meet on any day when the House shall not 
convene except by permission of the Speaker or by approval of the House by resolu- 
tion adopted by a majority vote of the House. 

(f) No committee or subcommittee shall meet during any session of the House and 
all committee and subcommittee meetings shall adjourn no later than 15 minutes 
preceding a regular session of the House. 



The Legislative Branch 517 



(g) Any call or notice of a standing committee meeting between legislative sessions 
shall be mailed to each member of the committee by certified mail at least five days 
prior to such meeting. 

(h) During committee meetings the Chairman may exercise his right to vote, or he 
may reserve this right until there is a tie, in which event he may vote, but in no 
instance may the Chairman vote twice on the same question. 

RULE 29. Notice of Committee Meetings and Committee Hearings; Minutes. — 
Public notice of all standing committee meetings shall be given in the House. The 
Chairman of the committee shall notify or cause to be notified the sponsor of each bill 
which is set for hearing or consideration before the committee as to the date, time and 
place of that meeting. 

RULE 29.1. Public Hearings. — (a) Any member may request in writing a public 
hearing on a public bill. Refusal to grant a member's request may be appealed to the 
Speaker. Requests by other than members may be granted in the discretion of the 
Chairman. Notice shall be given not less than five calendar days prior to public hear- 
ings. These notices shall be issued as information for the press and information shall 
be posted in the places designated by the Principal Clerk. 

(b) Persons desiring to appear and be heard at a public hearing shall submit their 
request to the Chairman of the committee. The committee Chairman may designate 
one or more members to arrange the order of appearance of interested parties. A brief, 
written statement of testimony may be submitted to the committee without oral pres- 
entation and shall be incorporated in the minutes of the public hearing. 

Rule 29.2. Committee Minutes to Legislative Library. The Chairman of a committee 
shall insure that written minutes are compiled for each of the committee's meetings. 
The minutes shall indicate the members present and the actions taken by the commit- 
tee at the meeting. Not later than 20 days after the adjournment of each session of the 
General Assembly, the Chairman shall deliver the minutes to the Legislative Library. 
The Speaker of the House may grant a reasonable extension of time for filing said 
minutes upon application of the committee Chairman. 

RULE 30. Committee of the Whole House. — (a) A Committee of the Whole House 
shall not be formed, except by suspension of the rules, if there be objection by any 
member. 

(b) After passage of a motion to form a Committee of the Whole House, the 
Speaker shall appoint a Chairman to preside in committee, and the Speaker shall leave 
the Chair. 

(c) The rules of procedure in the House shall be observed in the Committee of the 
Whole House, so far as they may be applicable, except the rule limiting the time of 
speaking and the previous question. 

(d) In the Committee of the Whole House a motion that the committee rise shall 
always be in order, except when a member is speaking, and shall be decided without 
debate. 

(e) When a bill is submitted to the Committee of the Whole House, it shall be read 
and debated by sections, leaving the preamble to be last considered. The body of the 
bill shall not be defaced or interlined, but all amendments, noting the page and line, 
shall be duly entered by the Clerk on a separate paper as the same shall be agreed to 
by the committee, and be so reported to the House. After report, the bill shall again be 
subject to be debated and amended by sections before a question on its passage be 
taken. 



518 North Carolina Manual 



VI. Handling of Bills 

RULE 31. Introduction of Bills and Resolutions. — (a) All bills and resolutions 
shall be introduced by submitting same to the Principal Clerk's office on the legislative 
day prior to the first reading and reference thereof according to the following schedule: 
by 8:30 o'clock p.m. each Monday, by 3:00 o'clock p.m. each Tuesday, Wednesday, 
Thursday, and Friday. 

(b) Bills shall not become resolutions provided the Senate has a similar rule. Resolu- 
tions shall not become bills. Resolutions are not law but may be used when a law is 
not necessary for the purpose contained therein. Resolutions shall not be used to 
appropriate funds for any purpose, but, for example, may be used to express opinions 
of the House, to create study commissions or committees or establish investigative 
committees, to honor persons, to commend, to memorialize, and to adopt House rules 
and internal affairs. Resolutions cannot amend, repeal, or modify a statute; nor do 
they have life beyond the term of the Session during which they are adopted. 

(c) Every bill or resolution shall be read in regular order of business, except upon 
permission of the Speaker or on the report of a committee. 

(d) All bills and resolutions shall show in their captions a brief descriptive statement 
of the true substance of same, which captions may thereafter be amended; provided 
that third reading shall not be had on any bill or resolution on the same day that such 
caption is amended. 

(e) A Substitute Bill shall be covered with the same color jacket as the original bill 
and shall be prefaced as follows: 

"House Substitute for" or "House Committee Substitute for " 

(f) House Resolutions need not be read more than twice. 

(g) Celebration, Commendation and Commemoration Resolutions. All celebration, 
commendation, and commemoration resolutions, except those honoring the memory 
of deceased persons, shall be excluded from introduction in the House if the Senate 
has a substantially similar rule on these resolutions. 

RULE 31.1. Deadline on Introduction of Certain Bills. — All local bills or bills 
prepared to be introduced for departments, agencies, or institutions of the State must 
be introduced not later than April 1 of the session year. 

RULE 32. Reference to Commitee. — Each bill, joint resolution, or House resolu- 
tion not introduced on the report of a committee shall immediately upon its first read- 
ing be referred by the Speaker to such committee as he deems appropriate. 

RULE 33. Papers Addressed to the House. — Petitions, memorials and other papers 
addressed to the House shall be presented by the Speaker. A brief statement of the 
contents thereof may be orally made by the introducer before reference to a commit- 
tee, but such papers shall not be debated or decided on the day of their first being read 
unless the House shall direct otherwise. 

RULE 34. Introduction of Resolutions and Bills, Copies Required. — (a) Whenever 
any resolution or bill is introduced, a duplicate copy thereof shall be attached thereto, 
and the Principal Clerk shall cause said duplicate copy to be numbered as the original 
resolution or bill is numbered, and shall cause the same to be available at all times to 
the member introducing the same. 

(b) Numbering of House Bills shall be designated as "H.B " (No. following). A 

Joint Resolution shall be designated as "H.J.R. " (No. following). A House 

Resolution shall be designated as "H.R. " (No. following). 



The Legislative Branch 519 



(c) Whenever any resolution or bill is filed for introduction, it shall be in such form 
and have such copies accompanying same as designated by the Speaker, and any reso- 
lution or bill introduced without the required number of copies shall be immediately 
returned to the introducer. The Clerk shall stamp the copies with the number stamped 
upon the original bill. 

RULE 35. Duplicating of Bills. — (a) The Legislative Services Officer shall cause 
such bills as are introduced to be duplicated in such numbers as may be specified by 
the Speaker. The Legislative Services Officer shall cause one copy of each resolution 
and public bill for each legislator to be delivered to his clerk or secretary who shall 
place it in the appropriate notebook on the legislator's desk. If a legislator so requests, 
a second copy shall be delivered to his clerk or secretary who shall place it in the 
legislator's office. The remaining copies shall be placed in the Printed Bills Room and 
made available to the committees to which the bill is referred, to individual legislators 
on request, and to the general public. 

(b) Availability of Copies of Bills. A public bill is a bill affecting 15 or more coun- 
ties. A local bill is one affecting fewer than 15 counties. No public bill and, upon 
objection by a member, no local bill may be considered unless copies of the bill have 
been made available to the entire membership of the House. 

RULE 35.1. Assessment reports. — Every bill or resolution proposing the estab- 
lishment of an occupational or professional licensing board or a study for the need to 
establish such a board shall have attached to the jacket of the original bill or resolution 
at the time of its consideration on second and third readings by the House or by any 
committee of the House, an assessment report from the Legislative Committee on New 
Occupational and Professional Licensing Boards pursuant to Article 18 of Chapter 120 
of the General Statutes. The assessment report shall not constitute any part of the 
expression of legislative intent proposed by the formation of a licensing board. Upon 
receipt of the request the Legislative Committee on New Occupational and Profes- 
sional Licensing Boards shall prepare and return the assessment report as soon as 
possible but not later than 60 days, reserving the right to extend this time to 90 days. 

RULE 36. Report by Committee. — All House bills and resolutions shall be 
reported from the committee to which referred, with such recommendations as the 
committee may desire to make except in the case where the principal introducer 
requests in writing to the Chairman of the committee that the bill not be considered. 
The Chairmen of the full Appropriations Committees may refer a bill or resolution to 
another appropriations committee specifically charged with the subject matter of the 
bill or resolution; the committee to which the bill or resolution is referred shall report 
the bill or resolution back to the full Appropriations Committees. 

(a) Favorable Report. When a committee reports a bill with the recommendation 
that it be passed, the bill shall be placed on the favorable calendar for the next suc- 
ceeding legislative day; except that committee substitutes for bills shall be placed on 
the favorable calendar for the second next succeeding legislative day after being 
reported. When a committee substitute is adopted and receives a favorable report by 
the committee, the committee chairman shall submit to the committee the question of 
an unfavorable report on the original bill. The comittee's action, if any, on the original 
bill shall be reported at the same time the committee substitute is reported. 

(b) Report Without Prejudice. When a committee reports a bill without prejudice, 
the bill shall be placed on the favorable calendar. 



520 North Carolina Manual 



(c) Postponed Indefinitely. When a committee reports a bill with the recommenda- 
tion that it be postponed indefinitely, and no minority report accompanies it, the bill 
shall be placed on the unfavorable calendar. 

(d) Unfavorable Report. When a committee reports a bill with the recommendation 
that it be not passed, and no minority report accompanies it, the bill shall be placed on 
the unfavorable calendar. 

(e) Minority Report. When a bill is reported by a committee with a recommendation 
that it be not passed or that it be postponed indefinitely, but it is accompanied by a 
minority report signed by at least one-fourth (14) of the members of the committee 
who were present and voting when the bill was considered in committee, the question 
before the House shall be: "The adoption of the minority report." If the minority 
report is adopted by majority vote, the bill shall be placed on the favorable calendar 
for consideration. If the minority report fails of adoption by a majority vote, the bill 
shall be placed on the unfavorable calendar. 

RULE 37. Removing Bill from Unfavorable Calendar. — A bill may be removed 
from the unfavorable calendar upon motion carried by a two-thirds (2/3) vote. A 
motion to remove a bill from the unfavorable calendar is debatable. 

RULE 38. Reports on Appropriation and Revenue Bills. — (a) All committees, 
other than the Committees on Appropriations, when favorably reporting any bill or 
resolution which: 

1. carries an appropriation from the State; or 

2. requires or will require in the future substantial additional State monies from the 
General Fund or Highway Fund to implement its provisiosn, 

shall indicate same in the report, and said bill or resolution shall be referred to the 
Committees on Appropriations for a further report before being acted upon by the 
House. 

(b) All committees, other than the Committee on Finance, when favorably reporting 
any bill which in any way or manner raises revenue, reduces revenue, levies a tax, 
authorizes the levying of a tax or a fee, or authorizes the issue of bonds or notes, 
whether public, public-local, or private, shall indicate same in the report, and said bill 
shall be referred to the Committee on Finance for a further report before being acted 
upon by the House. 

(c) Action on Amendment Before Re-Referral. If any committe recommends adop- 
tion of an amendment or committee substitute of a bill which, under the rules of the 
House must be referred to the Committees on Appropriations or Committee on 
Finance, the amendment or committee substitute shall be considered and. if adopted, 
the amendment or substitute engrossed before the bill is re-referred. 

RULE 39. Recall of Bill from Committee. — When a House bill has been intro- 
duced and referred to a committee, if after 10 legislative days the committee has failed 
to report thereon, then the introducer of the bill or some member designated by him 
may, after three legislative days' public notice given in the House and delivered in 
writing to the Chairman of the committee, on motion supported by a majority vote ot 
the members present and voting, recall the same from the committee to the floor of the 
House for consideration and such action thereon as a majority of the members present 
may direct. This rule shall not be temporarily suspended without one day's notice on 
the motion given in the House and delivered in writing to the Chairman of the com- 



The Legislative Branch 521 



mittee, and to sustain that motion two-thirds (2/3) of the members present and voting 
shall be required. 

RULE 39.1. Recall of Bill by the Senate. — Upon a request by the Senate that a 
measure in the possession of the House be recalled and returned to the Senate, the 
question will be put "Shall the measure be returned?" This rule will be effective only if 
the Senate has a substantially similar rule. 

RULE 40. Calendars and Schedules of Business. — The Clerk of the House shall 
prepare a daily schedule of business, including the Calendar of Bills and Resolutions 
for consideration and debate that day, in accordance with the Order of Business of the 
Day (Rule 5). The Clerk shall number all bills and resolutions in the order in which 
they are introduced. All bills and resolutions shall be taken up as they appear in each 
category (Rule 5(8)) in the order they were reported by committee; but the Committee 
on Rules and Operation of the House may at any time arrange the order of precedence 
in which bills may be considered. 

RULE 41. Reading of Bills. — (a) Every bill shall receive three readings in the 
House prior to its passage. The first reading and reference to committee of a House 
bill shall occur on the next legislative day following its introduction. The first reading 
and reference to committee of a Senate bill shall occur on the next legislative day 
following its receipt on messages from the Senate. The Speaker shall give notice at 
each subsequent reading whether it be the second or third reading. 

(b) No bill shall be read more than once on the same day without the concurrence of 
two-thirds (2/3) of the members present and voting; provided, no bill governed by 
Article M, Section 23 of the North Carolina Constitution or described in Rule 20 (a)(2) 
herein shall be read twice on one day under any circumstance. 

(c) No public bill or resolution filed in either house, after May 15, shall pass either 
its second or third readings unless voted on affirmatively by two-thirds (2/3) of the 
members present and voting. This subsection shall not apply to a bill or resolution 
proposing adjournment, an emergency appropriation, continuance and/ or expansion 
of the State budget, or changing State revenues; proposing or ratifying a constitutional 
amendment; or calling for a constitutional convention. 

RULE 42. Effect of a Defeated Bill. — (a) Subject to the provisions of subsection 
(b) of this rule, after a bill has 

(1) been tabled, 

(2) been postponed indefinitely, 

(3) failed to pass on any of its readings, or 

(4) been placed on the unfavorable calendar, 

the contents of that bill or the principal provisions of its subject matter shall not be 
considered in any other measure originating in the Senate or originating thereafter in 
the House. Upon the point of order being raised and sustained by the Chair, that 
measure shall be laid upon the table, and shall not be taken therefrom except by a 
two-thirds (2/3) vote of the members present and voting. 

(b) No local bill shall be held by the Chair to embody the contents of or the princi- 
pal provisions of the subject matter of any statewide measure which has been laid on 
the table, has failed to pass on any of its readings, or has been placed on the unfavora- 
ble calendar. 

RULE 43. Amendments and Riders. — No amendment or rider to a bill before the 



522 North Carolina Manual 



House shall be in order unless such rider or amendment is germane to the bill under 
consideration. 

Only one principal (first degree) amendment shall be pending at any one time. If a 
subsequent or substitute principal amendment shall be offered, the Speaker shall rule it 
out of order. However, any member desiring to offer a subsequent or substitute princi- 
pal amendment in opposition to the pending amendment may inform the House by 
way of argument against the pending amendment that if it is defeated he proposes to 
offer another principal amendment, and he may then read and explain such proposed 
amendment. 

Perfecting (or second degree) amendments may be offered and considered without 
limitation as to number, and in the event of multiple perfecting amendments, they shall 
be voted upon in inverse order. 

RULE 43.1. Engrossment. — Bills and resolutions, except those making appropria- 
tions, which originate in the House and which are amended, shall be engrossed before 
being sent to the Senate. 

RULE 43.2. House Concurrence in Senate Amendments to House Bills. — The 
House shall not concur in a Senate amendment to a bill originating in the House until 
the next legislative day after the day on which the House receives the Senate 
amendment. 

RULE 43.3. Committee Substitutes Adopted by the Senate to Bills Originating in 
the House. — (a) Whenever the Senate has adopted a committee substitute for a bill 
originating in the House, and has returned the bill to the House for concurrence in 
that committee substitute, the House may not concur in that committee substitute until 
the next legislative day following the day on which the House receives that committee 
substitute. 

(b) The Speaker may, and upon motion supported by a majority of the House pres- 
ent and voting shall, refer the bill to an appropriate committee for consideration of the 
committee substitute. 

(c) The Speaker shall, in placing the bill on the calendar, rule whether the committee 
substitute is a material amendment under Article H, Section 23, of the State's Consti- 
tution which reads: 

"Revenue bills. — No law shall be enacted to raise money on the credit of the State, 
or to pledge the faith of the State directly or indirectly for the payment of any debt, 
or to impose any tax upon the people of the State, or to allow the counties, cities, 
or towns to do so, unless the bill for the purpose shall have been read three several 
times in each house of the General Assembly and passed three several readings, 
which readings shall have been on three different days, and shall have been agreed 
to by each house respectively, and unless the yeas and nays on the second and third 
readings of the bill shall have been entered on the journal." 

If the committee substitute was referred to committee, the committee shall: 
i. report the bill with the recommendation either that the House concur or that the 

House do not concur; and 
ii. advise the Speaker as to whether or not that committee substitute is a material 
amendment under Article II, Section 23, of the State's Constitution. 

(d) If the committee substitute for a bill is not a material amendment, the question 
before the House shall be concurrence. 



The Legislative Branch 523 



(e) If the committee substitute for a bill is a material amendment, the receiving of 
that bill on messages shall constitute first reading and the question before the House 
shall be concurrence on second reading. If the motion is passed, the question then shall 
be concurrence on third reading on the next legislative day. 

(0 No committee substitute adopted by the Senate to a bill originating in the House 
may be amended by the House. 

RULE 44. Conference Committees. — (a) Whenever the House shall decline or 
refuse to concur in amendments put by the Senate to a bill originating in the House, or 
shall refuse to concur in a substitute adopted by the Senate for a bill originating in the 
House or whenever the Senate shall decline or refuse to concur in amendments put by 
the House to a bill originating in the Senate, or shall refuse to concur in a substitute 
adopted by the House for a bill originating in the Senate, a conference committee may 
be appointed by the Speaker upon his own motion or shall be appointed upon request 
by the principal sponsor of the original bill, the Chairman of the House Committee 
which reported the bill, or by the sponsor of the amendment in which the Senate 
refused to concur; and the bill under consideration shall thereupon go to and be consi- 
dered by the joint conferees on the part of the House and Senate. In appointing 
members to conference committees the Speaker shall appoint no less than a majority 
of members who generally supported the House position as determined by the 
Speaker. 

(b) Only such matters as are in difference between the two houses shall be consi- 
dered by the conferees, and the conference report shall deal only with such matters. 
The conference report may be made by a majority of the House members of such 
conference committee and shall not be amended. 

(c) If the conferees fail to agree, new conferees may be appointed. However, if either 
house refuses to adopt the report of its conferees, no new conferees may be appointed. 

RULE 44.1. Transmittal of bills to Senate. — Unless ordered by the Speaker or 
two-thirds (2/3) vote of the members present and voting, no bill shall be sent from the 
House on the day of its passage, except on the last day of session. 

VII. Legislative Officers and Employees 

RULE 45. Elected Officers. — (a) The House shall elect one of its members Speaker. 

(b) The House shall elect one of its members Speaker Pro Tempore who shall per- 
form such duties as the Speaker may assign and shall preside over the House in the 
absence or incapacity of the Speaker and shall perform all of the duties of the Speaker 
until such time the Speaker may assume the Chair. 

(c) The House shall elect a Principal Clerk, a Reading Clerk and a Sergeant-at- 
Arms, each of whom shall have and perform such duties and responsibilities not 
inconsistent with these Rules as the Speaker may assign. The Principal Clerk shall 
continue in office until another is elected. 

RULE 46. Assistants to Principal Clerk and Sergeant-at-Arms. — The Principal 
Clerk and the Sergeant-at-Arms may appoint, with the approval of the Speaker, such 
assistants as may be necessary to the efficient discharge of the duties of their respective 
offices. 

RULE 47. Speaker's Clerk, Chaplain, and Pages. — (a) The Speaker may appoint 
one or more clerks to the Speaker, a Chaplain of the House, and pages to wait upon 
the sessions of the House. 



524 North Carolina Manual 



(b) When the House is not in session, the pages shall be under the supervision of the 
Supervisor of Pages. 

(c) No member may have more than 10 persons designated as honorary pages. 
RULE 48. Committee Clerks and Secretaries. — (a) Each committee shall have a 

clerk. The clerk to a committee shall serve as secretary to the chairman of that 
committee. 

(b) Each member shall be assigned a secretary, unless he has a committee clerk to 
serve as his secretary. 

(c) The selection and retention of clerks and secretaries shall be the sole prerogative 
of the individual member or members. Such clerks and secretaries shall file initial 
applications for employment with the Legislative Services Office and shall receive 
compensation as prescribed by the Legislative Services Commission. The employment 
period of clerks and secretaries shall commence not earlier than the convening date of 
the General Assembly and shall terminate not later than the final adjournment or 
recess of the General Assembly unless employment for an extended period is approved 
by the Speaker. The clerks and secretaries shall adhere to such uniform rules and 
regulations not inconsistent with these Rules regarding hours and other conditions of 
employment as the Legislative Services Commission shall fix by appropriate 
regulations. 

RULE 49. Compensation of Clerks and Secretaries. — No clerk, laborer, or other 
person employed or appointed under Rules 47, 48, and 49 hereof shall receive during 
such employment, appointment, or service, any compensation from any department of 
the State government, and there shall not be voted, paid or awarded any additional 
pay, bonus or gratuity to any of them, but they shall receive only the pay now pro- 
vided by law for such duties and services. 

Vin. Privileges of the Hall 

RULE 50. Admittance to Floor. — No person except members, officers and 
employees of the General Assembly and former members of the General Assembly 
who are not registered under the provisions of Article 9 of Chapter 120 of the General 
Statutes of North Carolina shall be allowed on the floor of the House during its ses- 
sion, unless permitted by the Speaker or otherwise provided by law. 

RULE 51. Admittance of Press. — Reporters wishing to take down debates may be 
admitted by the Speaker, who shall assign such places to them on the floor or else- 
where, to effect this object, as shall not interfere with the convenience of the House. 
Reporters admitted to the floor of the House shall observe the same requirements of 
attire for members contained in Rule 12(h). 

RULE 52. Extending Courtesies. — Courtesies of the floor, galleries or lobby shall 
be extended at the discretion of the Speaker and only by the Speaker. Requests by 
members to extend these courtesies shall be typewritten and delivered to the Speaker. 
No member shall orally ask the Speaker to extend these courtesies during the daily 
session. 

RULE 53. Order in Galleries and Lobby. — In case of any disturbance or disorderly 
conduct in the galleries or lobby, the Speaker or other presiding officer is empowered 
to order the same to be cleared. 



The Legislative Branch 525 



IX. General Rules 

RULE 54. Attendance of Members. — No member or officer of the House shall 
absent himself from the service of the House without leave, unless from sickness or 
disability. 

RULE 55. Documents to be Signed by the Speaker. — All acts, addresses, and reso- 
lutions and all warrants and subpoenas issued by order of the House shall be signed by 
the Speaker or other presiding officer. 

RULE 56. Printing or Reproducing Materials. — There shall be no printing or 
reproducing of paper(s) that are not legislative in essence except upon approval of the 
Speaker. 

RULE 57. Placement or Circulation of Materials. — Persons other than members of 
the General Assembly, officers or staff thereof shall not place or cause to be placed any 
materials on members' desks in the House Chamber without obtaining approval of the 
Speaker. Any material so placed, or circulated to House members anywhere in the 
Legislative Building, shall bear the name of the originator. 

RULE 58. Rules, Rescission and Alteration. — (a) These rules shall not be perman- 
ently rescinded or altered except by House simple resolution passed by a two-thirds 
(2/3) vote of the members present and voting. The introducer of the resolution must 
on the floor of the House give notice of his intent to introduce the resolution on the 
legislative day preceding its introduction. 

(b) Except as otherwise provided herein, the House upon two-thirds (2/3) vote of 
the members present and voting may temporarily suspend any rule. 

RULE 59. Limitation on Cosponsorship of Bills and Resolutions. — Any member 
wishing to cosponsor a bill or resolution which has been introduced may do so by 
appearing in the office of the Principal Clerk for such purpose within one-half hour 
following the adjournment of the session during which such bill or resolution was first 
read and referred. 

RULE 60. Correcting of Typographical Errors. — The Legislative Services Officer 
may correct typographical errors appearing in House bills or resolutions provided that 
such corrections are made before ratification and do not conflict with any actions or 
rules of the Senate and provided further that such correction be approved by the 
Chairman of the Rules Committee, the Speaker or other presiding officer. 

RULE 61. Changing of Seats Prohibited. — After initial assignment of seats, a 
member shall continue to occupy the seat to which initially assigned for the entire 
biennial session. In event of vacancy that member's successor will occupy the seat of 
the member he replaces for the remainder of the biennial session, but such successor 
shall not be considered as one who has served in the immediate preceding session for 
the purposes of seat assignment in the subsequent biennial session. 

RULE 62. Matters not Covered in These Rules. — Except as herein set out the rules 
of the House of Representatives of Congress shall govern the operation of the House. 

Sec. 2. This resolution is effective upon adoption. 



The Legislative Branch 527 

GEORGE RUBIN HALL, JR. 

Legislative Service Officer 



Early Years: Born in Raleigh, NC, April 14, 1939. to George Rubin, Sr. (deceased) and 
Ludie Jane (Conner) Hall. 

Education: Hugh Morson High School, 1953-55; Needham Broughton High School, 
1955-57; Campbell College, 1964, B.S.; Post-graduate work NC State University in 
Public Personnel Administration; Government Executives Institute, UNC — Chapel 
Hill, 1982. 

Professional Background: Legislative Services Officer, 1979-; 14 years, NC Division of 
Vocational Rehabilitation; former Administrative Officer with NC General Assem- 
bly; Licensed Building Contractor; Licensed Real Estate Broker. 

Organizations: National Rehabilitation Association; NC Rehabilitation Association. 

Boards and Commissions: Fiscal Affairs and Government Operations, Southern Legis- 
lative Conference; Legislative Organization and Management Committee, National 
Conference of State Legislators; former member. Wake County School Board 
Advisory Council; Manpower Area Planning Council, Region J, 1972-73. 

Military Services: Served, NC Army National Guard, Staff Sgt., 1959-60, (active), 
1960-65, (reserves). 

Religious Activities: Member, Longview Baptist Church, Raleigh, NC. 

Family: Married, Carolyn Marie Young of Raleigh, June 26, 1960. Children: George 
Rubin, 111, W. Gregory, and Carolyn Elizabeth. 



lltlllllllltllllllllllllE 



I- 
< 



< 
z 
o 

I- 
< 

N 



z 

UJ 



m 

> 
o 

<D 

HI 

H 
< 
I- 
O) 



CO 

o 



III 

DC 
3 
Ui 

Q 
< 



< J 

So 

o cc 

< 

o 



QC 
O 




^111 % I 



z 
o 

z 
< 

(C 

m 


< 

s 
>■ ' 

CO I 

< 


n 

< 


> 
< 

1 

a 


(0 

i 

o 
o 




lU 

> 

< 
-1 
0) 

O 
UI 






lU 


li 

so 


a. 
O 

i 


o 






d 





^tn 1111 = 



>2 

PS 

<o 



E £ e 



< < m < 



DIDI 






The Executive Branch 529 

Chapter Two 
THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH 



INTRODUCTION 

Under provisions in the Constitution of North CaroHna, the three major branches of 
state government — legislative, executive and judicial — are "distinct and separate from 
each other" (Article I, Section 6). This separation of powers has been a primary princi- 
pal of government since our independence. In the nearly two hundred years since the 
forming of the State of North Carolina, many changes have occurred in her govern- 
mental organization. North Carolina state and local government has grown from a 
small, ill-funded endeavor of a few hundred "employees" in 1776, to a multi-billion dol- 
lar enterprise of thousands of public servants and programs. Along with this growth has 
come problems. In 1970 there were over 200 independent state agencies making up our 
Executive Branch. Recognizing this problem the General Assembly took steps toward 
reorganizing state government, particularly the executive branch began to be formu- 
lated. 

State Government Reorganization 

In a speech on October 27, 1967, Governor Dan K. Moore urged the North Carolina 
State Bar to take the lead in sponsoring a study to determine the need for revising or re- 
writing the Constitution of North Carolina. The Council of the North Carolina State 
Bar and the North Carolina Bar Association joined in appointing a steering committee 
which selected twenty-five persons to constitute the North Carolina State Constitution 
Study Commission. The report of the commission, submitted on December 16, 1968, 
contained a proposed amendment which would require the General Assembly to reduce 
the administrative departments of state government to 25 and authorize the governor to 
reorganize the administrative departments subject to legislative approval. 

The 1969 General Assembly submitted the proposed constitutional amendment to a 
vote of the people and also authorized the governor to begin a study of consolidation of 
state agencies and to prepare recommendations for the General Assembly. Governor 
Robert W. Scott established the State Government Reorganization Study in October of 
1969. Later, in May 1970, a fifty member citizens Committee on State Government 
Reorganization was appointed by the governor to review the study and make specific 
recommendations. 

The constitutional amendment requiring the reduction of the number of state admin- 
istrative departments to not more than 25 by 1975 was adopted in the General Election 
on November 3, 1970, and the Committee on State Government Reorganization sub- 
mitted its recommendations to the governor on February 4, 1971. 



530 North Carolina Manual 



The committee recommended implementation of the amendment in two phases: 
Phase I would begin with general legislation in 1971 grouping agencies together in a 
limited number of functional departments; Phase II would consist of the period between 
1971 and 1973 when the agencies would work together. Bills to revise the existing 
statutes would be drafted on the basis of the agencies' experience and presented to the 
1973 General Assembly. 

With strong support from Governor Scott, the Executive Organization Act of 1971 
was ratified July 14, 1971. It created 19 principal offices and departments consisting of 
ten offices and departments headed by elected officials and nine other departments 
formed by the grouping of agencies along functional lines. The Act provided for two 
types of transfers to accomplish the first phase of reorganization. Under the Act a Type 
I transfer meant the transferring of all or part of an agency, including its statutory au- 
thority, powers and duties, to a principal department. A Type II transfer meant the 
transferring intact of an existing agency to a principal department with the transferring 
agency retaining its statutory authority and functions, except for management func- 
tions, which would be performed under the direction and supervision of the head of the 
principal department. 

All offices and departments called for by the Executive Organization Act of 1971 
were created by executive order of Governor Scott prior to the July 1, 1972, deadline set 
by the Act. The principal offices and departments created were: Office of the Governor, 
Office of the Lieutenant Governor, Department of the Secretary of State, Department 
of the State Auditor, Department of State Treasurer, Department of Public Education, 
Department of Justice, Department of Agriculture, Department of Labor, Department 
of Insurance, Department of Administration, Department of Transportation and High- 
way Safety, Department of Natural and Economic Resources, Department of Human 
Resources, Department of Social Rehabilitation and Control (now Department of Cor- 
rection), Department of Commerce, Department of Revenue, Department of Art, Cul- 
ture and History (now Department of Cultural Resources), and Department of Military 
and Veterans' Affairs. By executive order issued June 26, 1972, an Executive Cabinet 
was formed consisting of the heads of these offices and departments. Meetings of the 
Cabinet have been a major tool in solving the problems of Phase II of reorganization. 

Between 1972 and 1977 some additional alterations were made which further imple- 
mented reorganization of state government in North Carolina. In 1973, the Legislature 
passed the Executive Organizations Act of 1973 which affected four of the newly c